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Applied education in the central province of Kenya : a survey of the adequacy of facilities and teacher.. 1989

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APPLIED EDUCATION IN THE CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA: A Survey of the Adequacy of F a c i l i t i e s and Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t By JAMES NGUGI MUKORA B. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Ce n t r e f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as confo r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1989 •James Ngugi Mukora, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C ^ g - I U c u u u M Artb INSTRUCTION The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date O c T O M g e H 3 ° , DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s s u r v e y s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of resources r e l a t e d to the teaching and l e a r n i n g of seven out of fourteen a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n 125 secondary schools i n the Ce n t r a l Province of Kenya. Data were c o l l e c t e d through complimentary teacher and headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed by one a p p l i e d education teacher from each school and the headteacher of that s c h o o l . F a c t o r s s t u d i e d were p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p e d a g o g i c a l a r e a s o f f e r e d among the schools. The r e s u l t s showed that the qu a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of most o f t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s were, t o s a y t h e l e a s t , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Furthermore, the l e v e l of adequacy v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from one s c h o o l to the o t h e r , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f whether the schools i n question o f f e r e d the same or d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t a r e a s . S i m i l a r l y , the d i v e r s i t y o f s u b j e c t a r e a s o f f e r e d among these schools was l i m i t e d . E i g h t recommendations were made f o r improving s t u d e n t a c c e s s i b i l i t y to adequate a p p l i e d education resources. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . X CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM ANALYSIS 1 1.1.0 In t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2.0 Rat i o n a l e f o r Introducing A p p l i e d Education . 1 1.2.1 Relevance 3 1.2.2 A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o E d u c a t i o n a l Resources 5 1.3.0 General Problem 9 1.4.0 Research Questions 9 1.5.0 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 10 1.6.0 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 11 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 13 2.1.0 In t r o d u c t i o n 13 2.2.0 Section A: C o n s t r a i n t s i n Implementing V o c a t i o n a l l y - O r i e n t e d Education 13 2.2.1 Teacher Inadequacy , . . . 15 2.2.2 Tools and Equipment 18 2.2.3 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 19 2.2.4 A t t i t u d e s , Perceptions, B e l i e f s . . . 20 2.2.5 P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s 20 2.3.0 Relevance of the Preceding L i t e r a t u r e to the Current Study 21 2.4.0 Section B: H i s t o r y of Ap p l i e d Education i n Kenya 21 2.4.1 Pre-Independence 22 2.4.2 Post-Independence 24 CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 28 3.1.0 In t r o d u c t i o n 28 3.2.0 Population of Schools 28 3.3.0 Instrumentation 30 3.3.1 Development of the Questionnaires . . 30 3.3.2 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Questionnaires . . 31 3.4.0 P i l o t Study 33 3.4.1 Sample S e l e c t i o n 35 i v 3.5.0 Data C o l l e c t i o n 37 3.6.0 D e s c r i p t i o n of Obtained Sample 38 3.7.0 Data Entry 38 3.8.0 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 39 3.8.1 Pr e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s 39 3.8.1 Main A n a l y s i s 43 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS FOR PHYSICAL F A C I L I T I E S AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS 44 4.1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 44 4.2.0 Section A: P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s 46 4.2.1 Working Space i n S p e c i a l Rooms . . . . 46 4.2.2 Classroom Space 48 4.2.3 Classroom Desks 49 4.2.4 Work Benches/Counters 51 4.2.5 Hand (Manual) And Power T o o l s o r Equipment 52 4.2.6 Storage Space 55 4.2.7 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Water 59 4.2.8 Amount of Blackboard Space 60 4.2.9 O v e r a l l Q u a l i t y of Ap p l i e d Education B u i l d i n g 61 4.2.10 Use of Working Space 62 4.2.11 S u i t a b i l i t y o f D e m o n s t r a t i o n & Planning Spaces 63 4.2.12 A n t i c i p a t e d C o m p l e t i o n D a t e s f o r S p e c i a l Rooms 65 4.3.0 Section B: I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 66 4.3.1 A v a i l a b i l i t y o f S u i t a b l e C l a s s Textbooks 66 4.3.2 Adequacy of Reference M a t e r i a l s . . . 67 4.3.3 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Teaching Aids . . . . 69 4.3.4 A d e q u a c y a n d A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Consumable M a t e r i a l s 70 CHAPTER FIVE: TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND PEDAGOGICAL AREAS OFFERED 75 5.1.0 In t r o d u c t i o n 75 5.2.0 Section A: Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 75 5.2.1 Age And Sex of A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n Teachers 75 5.3.0 A c a d e m i c , T e c h n i c a l , and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Teachers 77 5.3.1 A c a d e m i c a n d P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 77 5.3.2 I n s t i t u t i o n Attended f o r P r e - s e r v i c e (Technical) T r a i n i n g 79 5.3.3 In-Service T r a i n i n g 80 5.3.4 Teaching Experience 82 V 5.4.0 Demands of Applied Education on Teachers . . 84 5.4.1 C l a s s S i z e 84 5.4.2 Perceived Time Inadequacy 85 5.4.3 Weekly Teaching Load 87 5.5.0 P e r c e i v e d T e a c h e r s ' A b i l i t y t o Cope w i t h D emands o f I m p l e m e n t i n g A p p l i e d Education 88 5.6.0 T e a c h e r I n t e r e s t i n T e a c h i n g A p p l i e d Education 89 5.7.0 L e v e l s of Schooling that Teachers P r e f e r r e d to Teach Applied Education 91 5.9.0 Teacher B e l i e f s i n The Purposes of A p p l i e d Education i n Kenya High Schools 92 5.10.0 Section B: Pedagogical Areas O f f e r e d . . . . 94 5.10.1 Student Enrolment Per Subject Area . . 94 5.10.2 Cu r r i c u l u m Stakeholders Who A c t u a l l y Chose the Subjects O f f e r e d i n The Schools 96 5.10.3 Main Reasons For C h o o s i n g A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s O f f e r e d i n Schools 98 5.10.4 A n t i c i p a t e d Subject Changes 100 5.10.5 C r i t e r i a S c h o o l s Used t o A s s i g n A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s t o I n d i v i d u a l Form One Students . . . 102 CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 105 6.1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 105 6.2.0 Conclusions of the Study 105 6.2.1 P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s 106 6.2.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 108 6.2.3 Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 109 6.2.4 A p p l i e d Education Subjects O f f e r e d . . 110 6.3.0 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Conclusions 112 6.4.0 D i s c u s s i o n of Results 113 6.4.1 C o n t r i b u t i n g Factors to Inadequacy of P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s / I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 113 6.4.2 Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , O r i e n t a t i o n s , and Perceived E f f e c t i v e n e s s . . . . 117 6.4.3 Time Inadequacy 119 6.5.0 Recommendations 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 APPENDICIES Appendix A: TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . . . . 133 Appendix B: HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 143 v i Appendix C: COVERING LETTER TO TEACHER AND HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRES . . . 149 Appendix D: RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT 151 Appendix E: ENDORSEMENT LETTER 153 Appendix F: FOLLOW-UP LETTER 155 Appendix G: DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATES 157 Appendix H: LIST OF SCHOOLS WHICH RESPONDED TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES 159 Appendix J: LIST OF SCHOOLS WHICH DID NOT RESPOND TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES 162 v i i LIST OF TABLES Page SOME CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTING VOCATIONALLY-ORIENTED EDUCATION 15 DISTRIBUTION AND CATEGORIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY DISTRICT 29 FACTORS AND NUMBER OF APPLIED EDUCATION ASPECTS ENQUIRED INTO 33 SAMPLE SIZE AND RESPONSE RATE PER DISTRICT 37 FREQUENCY OF SUBJECTS S E L E C T E D BY TEACHERS AND HEADTEACHERS 40 DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED SUBJECTS BY DISTRICT 42 WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT 47 CLASSROOM SPACE BY SUBJECT 48 CLASSROOM DESKS BY SUBJECT 50 WORK BENCHES/COUNTERS BY SUBJECT 51 NUMBER OF HAND (MANUAL) TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT. . . 53 PROJECTS STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT 56 CONSUMABLE MATERIAL STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT 57 STORAGE SPACE FOR TOOLS & EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT 58 AVAILABILITY OF WATER BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA 59 AMOUNTS OF BLACKBOARD SPACE BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA . . . . . 60 QUALITY OF BUILDING USED FOR TEACHING APPLIED EDUCATION BY SUBJECT 61 USE OF WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT 63 SUITABILITY OF DEMONSTRATION AND PLANNING SPACES BY SUBJECT 64 COMPLETION DATES FOR SPECIAL ROOMS BY SUBJECT 65 AVAILABILITY OF SUITABLE CLASS TEXTBOOKS BY SUBJECT. . . . 67 v i i i ADEQUACY OF R E F E R E N C E MATERIALS BY S U B J E C T 68 A V A I L A B I L I T Y OF TEACHING AIDS BY S U B J E C T 69 ADEQUACY OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS BY S U B J E C T 70 A V A I L A B I L I T Y OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS BY S U B J E C T 71 ANNUAL COST E S T I M A T E OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS PER STUDENT . 73 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T E A C H E R S ' AGE AND SEX BY S U B J E C T 76 ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL Q U A L I F I C A T I O N OF TEACHERS BY S U B J E C T 78 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF A P P L I E D EDUCATION TEACHERS BY I N S T I T U T I O N ATTENDED AND L E V E L STUDIED 79 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T E A C H E R S ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF Y E A R S THEY TAUGHT 83 C L A S S S I Z E BY S U B J E C T CATEGORY 84 L E V E L OF ADEQUACY OF O F F I C I A L L Y - A L L O C A T E D TIME BY A P P L I E D EDUCATION C L A S S S I Z E 86 NUMBER OF T O T A L AND A P P L I E D EDUCATION LESSONS TAUGHT PER WEEK 87 T E A C H E R S ' A B I L I T Y TO COPE WITH DEMANDS OF I M P L E M E N T I N G A P P L I E D EDUCATION 89 TEACHER I N T E R E S T IN TEACHING A P P L I E D EDUCATION BY S U B J E C T CATEGORY 90 L E V E L OF SCHOOLING THAT TEACHERS P R E F E R R E D TO T E A C H BY HIGHEST L E V E L OF Q U A L I F I C A T I O N A T T A I N E D 91 P U R P O S E S OF A P P L I E D E D U C A T I O N BY STRENGTH OF T E A C H E R S B E L I E F IN EACH PURPOSE 93 STUDENT ENROLMENT BY SUBJECT AREAS 95 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF C U R R I C U L U M S T A K E H O L D E R S WHO A C T U A L L Y CHOSE THE S U B J E C T S OFFERED IN THE SCHOOLS STUDIED . . 97 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF HEADTEACHERS ACCORDING TO THE MAIN REASON FOR CHOOSING A P P L I E D E D U C A T I O N S U B J E C T TAUGHT A T T H E I R SCHOOL 99 A N T I C I P A T E D S U B J E C T CHANGES BY TIME 101 i x CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNING APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECTS TO INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS IN FORM ONE 103 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am deeply indebted to a l l those i n d i v i d u a l s who helped me i n one way or an o t h e r d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I would p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to thank my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. G a a l a n E r i c k s o n f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , g u i d a n c e and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o j e c t . I a l s o thank the members of my t h e s i s advisory committee, Dr. Todd Rogers, Mr. B i l l Logan, and Dr. Douglas Willms, f o r t h e i r constant a d v i c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . The Kenya Government through i t s Department of Personnel Management and the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency g e n e r o u s l y funded my s t u d i e s w h i l e the T e a c h e r s S e r v i c e Commission granted me study leave to f u r t h e r my education. I am very g r a t e f u l to these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I acknowledge the c o o p e r a t i o n g i v e n to me by the many teacher s and headteachers who v o l u n t a r i l y p r o v i d e d the data used i n t h i s s tudy. S i m i l a r l y , I thank the t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y a t t h e Kenya T e c h n i c a l Teachers C o l l e g e and the Kenya I n s t i t u t e of Education d e s p i t e t h e i r busy s c h e d u l e w i t h book w r i t i n g workshops. T h e i r v a l u a b l e comments on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l . I h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t e the e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the s t a f f at Data E n t r y S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r e n t e r i n g the data i n the computer; by Pat Dobie, S h e l l e y MacDonald, and D e i r d r e M c G r o a r t y f o r t y p i n g the m a n u s c r i p t s ; and the v a r i o u s p e o p l e i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre who gave me advice on data a n a l y s i s whenever I needed i t . F i n a l l y , I owe s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e to my wife, Njambi, f o r her p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t , and encouragement; and my c h i l d r e n Wanjiru, Wanjiku, and K i n y a n j u i , f o r p a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g f o r me to complete my programme and return home to be with them. 1 CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM ANALYSIS 1.1.0 Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r e x p l a i n s the r a t i o n a l e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n t o the Kenya Secondary Schools and i t s relevance to the secondary school l e a v e r s . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on the need f o r a l l s t u d e n t s to have a c c e s s to comparable a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i s g i v e n and f i v e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d as the g e n e r a l p r o b l e m a r e a f o r t h i s s t u d y . S p e c i f i c research questions and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s study are a l s o s t a t e d at the end of the chapter. 1.2.0 Rationale for Introducing Applied Education Up to the end of 1984, Kenya's system of education over- emphasized i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s at the expense of the needed economic and c u l t u r a l t a l e n t s , and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p ( R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t i a l Committee on Unemployment [Unemployment], 1982/83). Since the e a r l y 1970s, t h i s system of education was blamed for r a i s i n g unemployment of the youth among other problems. Consequently, i t was reformed i n 1986 to i n c l u d e p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s that school l e a v e r s could use f o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e . At a Conference of Commonwealth Education M i n i s t e r s , h e l d i n N a i r o b i i n 1987, the e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y i n d e x f o r secondary and u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya was r e p o r t e d as 35% and 15% r e s p e c t i v e l y (Commonwealth S e c r e t a r i a t , 1987). That i s , a v a i l a b l e secondary schools were expected to p r o v i d e 2 spaces for 35% of those s tudents who e n r o l e d i n Standard One wh i l e the u n i v e r s i t i e s w i l l absorb 15% of the same enro lment . One of the important o b j e c t i v e s of the S:^:^1 e d u c a t i o n re form was to p r e p a r e t h o s e s t u d e n t s who were not a b l e to a t t e n d secondary or p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g f o r the l i f e they are l i k e l y to l e a d a f t e r t h e i r f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g i s o v e r . To a c h i e v e t h a t o b j e c t i v e , the new sys tem r e q u i r e d p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s to be t a u g h t to the e n t i r e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n pr imary and secondary s c h o o l s . The secondary s c h o o l component o f p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s was c a l l e d a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . I t s s h o r t - t e r m o b j e c t i v e was to teach s tudents s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , knowledge, and a t t i t u d e s which would enab le them to earn t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d by making or p r o v i d i n g marketable goods or s e r v i c e s . Because of i t s emphasis on s k i l l development , the i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d adequate e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , f o r e x a m p l e , p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l . C u r r i c u l u m d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n was j u s t i f i e d on a p e r c e i v e d need to improve the " q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n " to make i t more r e s p o n s i v e to the needs o f the i n d i v i d u a l and the c o u n t r y ( R e p o r t o f the P r e s i d e n t i a l Working P a r t y on E d u c a t i o n and Manpower T r a i n i n g f o r the Next Decade and Beyond [Working P a r t y ] , 1988, p . 2 ) . T h e r e i s no s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n f o r x K e n y a ' s p r e s e n t sys tem of e d u c a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g e i g h t years o f pr imary e d u c a t i o n , four years of secondary e d u c a t i o n , and four years of minimum u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . 3 " q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n " but most educators agree on some of i t s dimensions (Gibson, 1970; B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Education [BCRCE], 1988, Pt. 5). The set of c r i t e r i a used by BCRCE (1988) to a s s e s s the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l programs were r e l e v a n c e , e q u i t y of a c c e s s , response to d i v e r s i t y , a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s , e t h i c s , p o l i t i c a l i n v olvement of p u b l i c , and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . R e l e v a n c e and e q u i t a b l e access to e d u c a t i o n a l resources are d i s c u s s e d next because they are the two c r i t e r i a that are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the implementation of a p p l i e d education i n Kenya. 1.2.1 Relevance According to Ross (1988, p. 1), e d u c a t i o n a l relevance of a program i s commonly j u s t i f i e d i n terms of i t s i n s t r u m e n t a l value or the p s y c h o l o g i c a l importance such a program holds f o r t h e l e a r n e r . One a s p e c t of t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l view was d e s c r i b e d as: . . . the e x t e n t to which s c h o o l programs p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r the world of work, and a i d i n the development of marketable s k i l l s and t a l e n t s which w i l l b e n e f i t the i n d i v i d u a l and the s o c i e t y (p. 3). T h i s p a r t i c u l a r instrumental value s t r i k e s at the heart of the a p p l i e d education o b j e c t i v e . The major d r i v i n g f o r c e behind the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n was r i s i n g unemployment of the youth. However, i t i s important to note that a p p l i e d education was taught w i t h i n a broad academic c u r r i c u l u m (KNEC, 1987). Therefore, what Coombs (1988, p. 5) 4 c a l l s " p l u r a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n p u r p o s e s " o f r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p , p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the economy and c u l t u r e , i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s , and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s were not compromised. Indeed, the 8:4:4 reform h i g h l i g h t e d the c i t i z e n s h i p purpose by making s o c i a l education and e t h i c s , and h i s t o r y and government s e p a r a t e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s (KNEC, 1987). While the short-term aim of the program was to p r o v i d e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e a v e r s w i t h p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s f o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e , the long-term o b j e c t i v e was to encourage them to u t i l i z e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the r u r a l a r e a s . R e a l i z a t i o n of e i t h e r the short-term or the long-term goal was e x p e c t e d to b r i n g economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s to both the i n d i v i d u a l and the s o c i e t y . Besides reducing unemployment, working i n the r u r a l areas was expected to help check rural-urban m i g r a t i o n and promote more e f f i c i e n t use of l o c a l human and m a t e r i a l resources. In the p r o c e s s of s o l v i n g t e c h n i c a l problems unique to r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s , i n d i g e n o u s t e c h n o l o g i e s were e x p e c t e d t o be developed to support hoped f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . However, the e x p e c t e d b e n e f i t s were based on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n program would be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented. A v a i l a b i l i t y of adequate educational resources i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r the attainment of a p p l i e d education o b j e c t i v e s because i t i s a s k i l l development program and these s k i l l s can o n l y be acquired through p r a c t i c e . The Working Party (1988, 5 p. 4) r e i t e r a t e d t h a t "the p r o c e s s of b r i n g i n g e q u i t y i n s o c i a l and economic development through e d u c a t i o n was [and s t i l l i s ] an important o b j e c t i v e of education and t r a i n i n g " . T h e r e f o r e , the i s s u e o f e q u i t a b l e a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s ( t h o u g h by no means the o n l y i s s u e ) must be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d . 1.2.2 A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o E d u c a t i o n a l Resources B e f o r e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was made p a r t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , secondary s c h o o l s i n Kenya were c a t e g o r i z e d 2 ( i n order of government funding p r i o r i t y ) as N a t i o n a l , Maintained, A s s i s t e d , Harambee, and P r i v a t e . Each c a t e g o r y r e c e i v e d v a r y i n g amounts of government a i d a c c o r d i n g to a f u n d i n g f o r m u l a which gave N a t i o n a l s c h o o l s the most and P r i v a t e s c h o o l s the l e a s t a s s i s t a n c e r e s p e c t i v e l y . Other s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d a i d commensurate with t h e i r a s s i g n e d s t a t u s . The a s s i s t a n c e was i n the form of cash, personnel, i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . A lmost a l l o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l requirements by N a t i o n a l Schools were f i n a n c e d by the p u b l i c while the P r i v a t e Schools r e c e i v e d minimal funding u s u a l l y i n the form of p o l i c y documents and s u p e r v i s o r y and a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s when educa t i o n a l r e l a t e d problems arose i n 2As the parents assumed more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , the mode of s e l e c t i o n and a d m i s s i o n o f s t u d e n t s became a more common c r i t e r i a than f i n a n c i n g as a method f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g secondary s c h o o l s . ( W o r k i n g P a r t y ( 1 9 8 8 ) , Chap. V I ; Information Handbook, Ministry of Education (1987), p. 35-37). 6 i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . The f i n a n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the i n d i v i d u a l school requirements and the government a i d was met i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s of s u c c e s s t h r o u g h a r r a n g m e n t s l i k e Harambee 3 and v a r i o u s k i n d s of s c h o o l f e e s l i k e t u i t i o n , b u i l d i n g , and r e c r e a t i o n a l . Consequently, d i f f e r e n t s c h ools a c q u i r e d e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s o f v a r y i n g q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . For example, a l l the former i n d u s t r i a l education schools had t h e i r a p p l i e d education programs f u l l y equipped by Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A u t h o r i t y (SIDA) long before a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was mandated f o r a l l s c h o o l s . They were s u p p l i e d w i t h hand t o o l s , machines, equipment, and s p e c i a l rooms (Lauglo, 1985, p. 134). When a p p l i e d education was made part of general education i n 1986, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g the i n n o v a t i o n ' s r e s o u r c e s was shared among the government, p a r e n t s , and the community s e r v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , p a r e n t a l and community involvement i n e d u c a t i o n f u n d i n g was m a i n l y through v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s to f i n a n c e Harambee s c h o o l s or s u b s i d i z e government funding f o r other c a t e g o r i e s of s c h o o l s . By 1988, i t seemed a matter of time before that 3 L i t e r a l l y means ' p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r ' . I t r e f e r r e d to a mode of f i n a n c i n g the cost of a p p l i e d education with v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( c a s h and k i n d ) from p a r e n t s , communities, sponsors, i n d i v i d u a l s , and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to supplement government e f f o r t . 7 form of involvement was f o r m a l i z e d i n a Cost-Sharing P o l i c y . 4 The f o l l o w i n g excerpt from the Working Party (1988) supported such a p o l i c y : The v o c a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n under the 8:4:4 system of education has c r e a t e d a g r e a t demand f o r t h e s u p p l y o f e d u c a t i o n a l [ p h y s i c a l ] f a c i l i t i e s , t o o l s , a n d e q u i p m e n t and h e n c e i n c r e a s i n g expenditure on f a c i l i t i e s and equipment. In t h e l i g h t o f government f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t , i t i s the view of the Working P a r t y t h a t t h e C o s t - S h a r i n g s t r a t e g y a p p l i c a b l e to the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a n d some e q u i p m e n t by communities and parents i n primary schools should be extended to secondary s c h o o l s . The government should, however, c o n t i n u e to provide s p e c i a l i z e d equipment i n order t o m a i n t a i n q u a l i t y and r e l e v a n c e o f t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s such as s c i e n c e s and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . P a r e n t s s h o u l d s u p p l y t e x t b o o k s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y readers, s t a t i o n e r y , and consumable items f o r p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s [ a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n ] . (p. 119) Thus, the C o s t - S h a r i n g P o l i c y would h o l d p a r e n t s and communities f o r m a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g s u b s t a n t i a l a m o u n t s o f s c h o o l i n p u t s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l implementation of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . In December 1984, the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n e s t i m a t e d t h e f i n a n c i a l c o s t f o r p r o v i d i n g b u i l d i n g s , hand t o o l s , and equipment f o r A g r i c u l t u r e and T y p i n g and O f f i c e P r a c t i c e a t KSh 210,000 and KSh 4 T h i s government p o l i c y ( c u r r e n t l y under formulation) i s expected to review and f o r m a l i z e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r funding p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n -- i n c l u d i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . S c h o o l t r u s t e e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y parents) would be r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , t e x t b o o k s , r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , s t a t i o n e r y , and consumable items f o r a p p l i e d education. 8 1,100,000 r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Appendix G). The c o s t of the other twelve a p p l i e d education subjects were between these two estimates. Thus, a p p l i e d education was an expensive program, p a r t i c u l a r l y because the cost estimates were based on a c l a s s s i z e of 20 s t u d e n t s . Furthermore, the government made i t s i n t e n t i o n c l e a r t o i n t r o d u c e the program about two y e a r s b e f o r e the e x p e c t e d d a t e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Under such c o n d i t i o n s , i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t some s c h o o l s would e x p e r i e n c e problems i n s e c u r i n g the n e c e s s a r y e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . Depending on the h i s t o r y of i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e i r p r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) , and t h e economic/social s t a t u s of school t r u s t e e s (Board of Governors, i n d i v i d u a l parents, sponsors, e t c . ) , the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of s c h o o l i n p u t s c o u l d vary g r e a t l y even among neighbouring s c h o o l s . F i n a n c i a l l y r i c h and i n f l u e n t i a l s c h o o l t r u s t e e s were more l i k e l y to succeed i n securing e d u c a t i o n a l resources f o r t h e i r s c h o o l s through p e r s o n a l donations, Harambee, and l o b b y i n g o f f i c i a l s who a l l o c a t e a i d from government and p r i v a t e donors to schools. The high f i n a n c i a l c ost and massive p o s i t i v e p u b l i c i t y t h a t a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was g i v e n d u r i n g i t s i n i t i a l s t a g e s r a i s e d hopes and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i n n o v a t i o n among students, parents, communities, and sponsors. The aspects of t h e p r o g r a m t h a t a p p e a l e d the most t o t h e s e c u r r i c u l u m stakeholders were the improved s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s that i t s proponents promised to those who learned the s k i l l s that 9 i t o f f e r e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e c u r r i c u l u m s t a k e h o l d e r s p r o v i d e d the m a t e r i a l support they could a f f o r d to s t a r t the program i n t h e i r schools. The e d u c a t i o n a l resources a v a i l a b l e to an i n d i v i d u a l student would t r a n s l a t e i n t o m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s f o r t h a t i n d i v i d u a l because e d u c a t i o n a l achievements are used as major determinants of who would be awarded the a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment, f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or education. In turn, e d u c a t i o n a l achievement i s a f u n c t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l secondary s c h o o l s f o r the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n be determined i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y the s t r e n g t h s and w eaknesses o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n . 1.3.0 General Problem T h i s s u r v e y s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of resources r e l a t e d to the teaching and l e a r n i n g of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n 125 secondary s c h o o l s i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e of Kenya. The f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d were: p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d among the schools. 1.4.0 Research Questions Answers to the f o l l o w i n g questions were sought: 1. How adequate ( q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y ) are the a v a i l a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r the 10 teaching and l e a r n i n g of each of the 14 a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s ? What new or expanded f a c i l i t i e s were planned f o r and, i f so, when would they be a v a i l a b l e f o r use? 2. What are the teachers' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? 3. Which a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s were o f f e r e d i n the s c h o o l s and on what b a s i s d i d s c h o o l t r u s t e e s make d e c i s i o n s about which s u b j e c t s t h e i r s c h o o l o f f e r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l Form One s t u d e n t s ? What was the s t u d e n t enrolment per subject and a n t i c i p a t e d changes, i f any, i n sub j e c t s o f f e r e d by 1991? 1-5.0 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study I t was hoped that f i n d i n g s from the study would be u s e f u l to i n d i v i d u a l s and p r i v a t e or p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n s u c c e s s f u l implementation of a p p l i e d education. 1. F i n d i n g s on p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s could i n f l u e n c e Harambee e f f o r t s to r a i s e funds fo r a p p l i e d education. 2. The I n s p e c t o r a t e S e c t i o n of the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n c o u l d use i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l students had access to comparable e d u c a t i o n a l resources fo r a p p l i e d education. 3. F i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would be u s e f u l i n i m p r o v i n g the r e c r u i t m e n t , t r a i n i n g and deployment of a p p l i e d education teachers. 11 4 . I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d w o u l d h e l p p r e d i c t t h e q u a l i t y a n d d i v e r s i t y o f p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s e x p e c t e d among s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l - l e a v e r s . 5 . A p r o v i n c i a l o v e r v i e w o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e s c h o o l t r u s t e e s and s t a f f w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e i r s c h o o l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . 6. F i n d i n g s w o u l d p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . 1 .6.0 Definition of Terms P r a c t i c a l S u b j e c t s : A c o m p o n e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ( P r i m a r y a n d S e c o n d a r y ) i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s a n d k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f e q u i p m e n t , t o o l s , and m a t e r i a l s t o make o r p r o v i d e m a r k e t a b l e g oods o r s e r v i c e s t o c u s t o m e r s o r c l i e n t e l e . A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n : T h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p h a s e o f p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s . I t was a c o l l e c t i v e t e r m f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s : Home S c i e n c e , [ C l o t h i n g & T e x t i l e s a n d F o o d & N u t r i t i o n ] , A r t and D e s i g n , A g r i c u l t u r e , E l e c t r i c i t y , Power M e c h a n i c s , Woodwork, M e t a l w o r k , B u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , D r a w i n g a n d D e s i g n , A c c o u n t i n g , C o m m e r c e , E c o n o m i c s , T y p i n g and O f f i c e P r a c t i c e , and M u s i c . P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s : E d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s l i k e s p e c i a l r o o m s ( w o r k s h o p s , home s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r i e s , c l a s s r o o m s , s p e c i a l e q u i p m e n t , b e n c h e s , f u r n i t u r e , s t o r a g e s p a c e s , e t c . ) , 12 n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l ; R e f e r r e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s l i k e t e x t b o o k s , r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , c o n s u m a b l e m a t e r i a l s , and t e a c h i n g a i d s . A d e q u a c y : How s u f f i c i e n t t h e q u a n t i t y a n d q u a l i t y o f a v a i l a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a r e . C u r r i c u l u m S t a k e h o l d e r s : Those i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y who h a v e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t r i g h t t o be i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h e s e i n c l u d e p r i m a r y s t a k e h o l d e r s s u c h a s s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s , e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p a r e n t s , a n d s c h o o l t r u s t e e s a s w e l l a s s e c o n d a r y s t a k e h o l d e r s i n c l u d i n g t a x p a y e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , e m p l o y e r s , and o t h e r s . I n n o v a t i o n : R e f e r s t o a p r o j e c t o r p r o g r a m m e t h a t r e q u i r e s a c h a n g e i n t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s , u s e o f new r e s o u r c e s , o r d i f f e r e n t u se o f o l d r e s o u r c e s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s o f p u t t i n g an i n n o v a t i o n i n t o actual u s e . I t c o m p r i s e t h e t e a c h i n g a nd l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s u s e d by t h e t e a c h e r a n d t h e s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n e d . 13 CHAPTER TWO'. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.0 Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r comprises a review of l i t e r a t u r e i n two are a s . The f i r s t area examines c o n s t r a i n t s i n implementing v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d education with a p a r t i c u l a r focus on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l context; the second area c o n s i s t s of a h i s t o r y of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya. The purpose of the f i r s t s e c t i o n i s to provide comparative information on the s t a t u s of v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n i n some developing c o u n t r i e s with respect to the implementation f a c t o r s considered i n t h i s study. The l a t t e r s e c t i o n provides the context w i t h i n which p r e v i o u s I n d u s t r i a l and B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s , A g r i c u l t u r e , Home Science, A r t and Design, and Music evolved i n t o A p p l i e d Education. 2.2.0 Section A: Constraints in Implementing Vocationally- Oriented Education -- A Review of Experiences in Some Developing Countries Within the Commonwealth The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p p l i e d education i n Kenyan Secondary Schools was part of a p o l i c y of d i v e r s i f y i n g s chool c u r r i c u l a i n a p r a c t i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n i n developing c o u n t r i e s w i t h i n the Commonwealth (Commonwealth S e c r e t a r i a t , 1987). J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s p o l i c y was based on the view t h a t s c h o o l knowledge s h o u l d r e l a t e as d i r e c t l y as p o s s i b l e t o curre n t and f u t u r e r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s that the l e a r n e r would most l i k e l y f a c e . 14 Due t o h i g h youth unemployment among many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , there was an expectation that a p r a c t i c a l component i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d g i v e s c h o o l l e a v e r s an advantage i n o b t a i n i n g a l i v e l i h o o d e i t h e r through s a l a r i e d or s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t . The degree of hope or r e a l i t y o f t h a t premise would va r y from one c o u n t r y to a n o t h e r . However, a c c o r d i n g t o L a u g l o (1985) many c r i t i c s o f c u r r i c u l u m d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n have emphasized the point that schools cannot s o l v e labour market problems. In J u l y , 1987, the Tenth C o n f e r e n c e of Commonwealth Education M i n i s t e r s [Commonwealth S e c r e t a r i a t , 1987] was h e l d i n N a i r o b i , Kenya. P a p e r s from a t l e a s t t w e n t y - t h r e e c o u n t r i e s on v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d education were presented. E a c h p a p e r a d d r e s s e d i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s , p a t t e r n s of p r o v i s i o n , implementation, new i n i t i a t i v e s , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l cooperation as they p e r t a i n e d to the v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h e i r c o u n t r y . Among th e s e i s s u e s , implementation was the most relevant f o r t h i s study. F a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d under the t o p i c of implementation were achievements, p l a n s , c o n s t r a i n t s , c u r r i c u l u m , s t a f f i n g , a n d c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Table 1 shows s e l e c t e d c o n s t r a i n t s and t h e i r f r e q u e n c i e s of occurrence. 15 Table 1 SOME CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTING VOCATIONALLY-ORIENTED EDUCATION CONSTRAINT PERCENT 1. Teacher Inadequacy 5 74 2. T o o l s & Equipment 69 3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 65 4. A t t i t u d e s , P e r c e p t i o n s , B e l i e f s 61 5. P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s 26 Each of the c o n s t r a i n t s i n T a b l e 1 are d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l below. 2.2.1 Teacher Inadequacy Reported t e a c h e r - r e l a t e d problems c l u s t e r e d around the problems of shortage; a t t r i t i o n ; incompetence; low academic, t e c h n i c a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; v a g ue o r u n r e a l i s t i c program goals; and poor planning. T e a c h e r s h o r t a g e r e f e r r e d t o t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f academically, t e c h n i c a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d teachers i n i n d i v i d u a l c o u n t r i e s . I t was a t t r i b u t e d to r i s i n g student p o p u l a t i o n and inadequate t r a i n i n g c a p a c i t y , f o r example, p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , a ppropriate t r a i n i n g t o o l s and equipment, and teacher t r a i n e r s . Lack of a p p l i c a n t s f o r the a v a i l a b l e teacher t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of t r a i n e e s due t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s a l s o worsened the t e a c h e r shortage. 5 I n s u f f i c i e n t i n qu a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . 16 U n a t t r a c t i v e terms and c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h a t t r i t i o n r a t e . The w e l l q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those with i n d u s t r i a l / c o m m e r c i a l experience, were r e p o r t e d l y l u r e d i n t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r by b e t t e r m a t e r i a l and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . Related to t h i s problem was a c l a i m that promotion prospects f o r good teachers was poor. Consequently, t e a c h e r s q u i t t h e i r j o b s due t o under employment and f r u s t r a t i o n . Even where the prospects f o r upward m o b i l i t y was h i g h and t h e r e were i n c e n t i v e s f o r t e a c h e r s to s t a y on, inadequate staff-development programs made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the teachers to take advantage of such i n c e n t i v e s . One of the i n d i c a t o r s of teacher incompetence was the l a c k of t e a c h e r commitment to t h e i r j o b . C o n s i d e r i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c o n s t r a i n t s blamed f o r slowing down the implementation of v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d education ( F i g . 2.1), lack of teacher commitment was not a s u r p r i s e . In a study on the t e a c h e r s ' r o l e i n s c h o o l improvement, C r a n d a l l e t a l . (1983 p. 6) f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r commitment was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d by c l e a r and d i r e c t p o s i t i v e involvement of school a d m i n i s t r a t i o n [Headmaster], s u p e r v i s o r y and a d v i s o r y s t a f f [ e . g . S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r s ] , t r a i n i n g / i n s e r v i c e by a c r e d i b l e person [e.g. a colleague] i n the use of proven p r a c t i c e , and continued support and a v a i l a b i l i t y of equipment, i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , e t c . ) . Those f i n d i n g s a r e complementary t o c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom that teacher commitment can be developed 17 by i n v o l v i n g them i n the development of the formal c u r r i c u l u m , new i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , teaching methodologies, e t c . Teachers were reported as having low academic, t e c h n i c a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Rapid increase i n p o p u l a t i o n and r e s u l t a n t d e c r e a s e i n job o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n emphasis on t r a i n i n g f o r s a l a r i e d or self-employment b e s i d e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g . Teachers were inadequate f o r such tasks because they lacked work experience. Furthermore, r i s i n g student p o p u l a t i o n and teacher shortage f o r c e d teacher r e c r u i t m e n t a g e n c i e s to employ teachers with low academic, t e c h n i c a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The f i f t h f a c t o r a t t r i b u t e d to teacher inadequacy was poor pl a n n i n g . Programs were mandated before adequate support c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r s i n form of s u f f i c i e n t l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s ( e . g . books, consumable m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , e t c . ) and a d v i s o r y s t a f f . O t h e r more g e n e r a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l planning concerned the imbalance between manpower demands and supply f o r d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s of the economy. L i k e w i s e , i n e f f i c i e n t m o n i t o r i n g mechanisms f o r r e s p o n d i n g q u i c k l y to changing demands i n e d u c a t i o n and underfunding due to f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t were a t t r i b u t e d t o p o o r p l a n n i n g o f v o c a t i o n a 1 l y - o r i e n t e d education. The depth, scope and purpose of v o c a t i o n a l competence t h a t the s c h o o l system s t r o v e to a c h i e v e were u n c l e a r or u n r e a l i s t i c . O b j e c t i v e s i n school s y l l a b u s e s were broad and 18 v e r y g e n e r a l w h i l e t h e c o n t e n t was made u p o f s p e c i f i c k n o w l e d g e , a t t i t u d e s , and s k i l l s . F o r s u c h b r o a d a n d g e n e r a l g o a l s t o be a c h i e v e d , t e a c h e r t r a i n e e s r e q u i r e d a d e q u a t e t i m e f o r s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t and work e x p e r i e n c e . Time a l l o c a t e d f o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a n d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o o l s d i d n o t a l l o w f o r s u c h a n i n d u s t r i a l / c o m m e r c i a l a t t a c h m e n t f o r s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , w h e n s t u d e n t s g o t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g o r e d u c a t i o n , t h e i r p a s t k n o w l e d g e o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t g i v e t h e m a n y a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e i r c o m p e t i t o r s who d i d n o t h a v e s u c h k n o w l e d g e . 2.2.2 Tools and Equipment M o s t c o u n t r i e s i m p o r t e d t h e t o o l s a n d e q u i p m e n t t h e y r e q u i r e d o r t h e raw m a t e r i a l s needed t o m a n u f a c t u r e them. I n t h a t r e s p e c t , e d u c a t i o n c o m p e t e d w i t h b u s i n e s s f o r t h e a v a i l a b l e f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e . When t h e c h o i c e was b e t w e e n k e e p i n g j o b c r e a t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g b u s i n e s s e s i n o p e r a t i o n o r a " n o n - p r o f i t a b l e " s o c i a l s e r v i c e l i k e e d u c a t i o n , b u s i n e s s won. I t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l s a n d e q u i p m e n t was r e p o r t e d t o b e i n s h o r t s u p p l y . I n a d d i t i o n , v a l u a b l e t i m e f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g was l o s t i n t h e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g p r o c e s s o f i m p o r t a t i o n . O b s o l e t e t o o l s and e q u i p m e n t was w i d e l y r e p o r t e d . T h e i r c o n t i n u e d u s e f a c i l i t a t e d t h e t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g o f i n e f f i c i e n t a n d o b s o l e t e t e c h n o l o g i e s . However, some p a p e r s 19 argued that an a l t e r n a t i v e to using modern equipment can be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the development of l o c a l t e c h n o l o g i e s , i n n o v a t i v e r e p a i r s , maintenance, and new designs. 2.2.3 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s To s u c c e s s f u l l y implement a v o c a t i o n a l program, t e x t and r e f e r e n c e books, consumable m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h i n g a i d s , and s t a t i o n e r y are e s s e n t i a l i n p u t s . Each of these e d u c a t i o n a l i n p u t s were r e p o r t e d s c a r c e . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , t e x t b o o k s , r e f e r e n c e books, and consumable m a t e r i a l s are d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l below. T e c h n i c a l books were more d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n t h a n academic books. When a v a i l a b l e , they were more expensive and not a d a p t e d t o s y l l a b u s e s o f the i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s . Inadequacy of t e c h n i c a l books was a t t r i b u t e d to lack of l o c a l a u t h o r s and c a p i t a l to i n v e s t i n p u b l i s h i n g f o r a s m a l l market. Consumable m a t e r i a l s were r e p o r t e d l y obtained f r e e from the environment or bought (Mwamba, 1983, p. 36). " F r e e l y " o b t a i n e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d waste and s c r a p from commercial e n t e r p r i s e s , and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n s ' j u r i s d i c t i o n . E f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f s u c h m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d i m a g i n a t i v e t e a c h e r s with p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s about un c o n v e n t i o n a l sources of schools' consumable m a t e r i a l s . At best, most teacher t r a i n i n g programs d i d not prepare teachers 20 to use such m a t e r i a l s . Most programs r e l i e d on purchased m a t e r i a l s as the only source of t h e i r consumable m a t e r i a l s . 2.2.4 A t t i t u d e s , Perceptions, B e l i e f s Most v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h manual s k i l l s . I n d i v i d u a l s who earned t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d from manual s k i l l s were r e g a r d e d as i n c a p a b l e o f p u r s u i n g a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s l i k e l i b e r a l a r t s and s c i e n c e s . Academic education was p e r c e i v e d by parents, students, and the p u b l i c to p r o v i d e a route to b e t t e r jobs, p r e s t i g e and incomes than v o c a t i o n a l education. That pe r c e p t i o n was r e i n f o r c e d by d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l rewards given to i n d i v i d u a l s s e r v i n g i n jobs that r e q u i r e d high academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Parents and students f e l t that rather than p r o v i d i n g manual s k i l l s w i t h i n an academic core c u r r i c u l u m , s k i l l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be done through f u l l - t i m e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g . 2.2.5 P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s S u r p r i s i n g l y , only 26% of the c o u n t r i e s reported having problems i n p r o v i d i n g adequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t was s u r p r i s i n g because most c o u n t r i e s were i n the p r o c e s s of expanding t h e i r t e c h n i c a l education programs or d i v e r s i f y i n g t h e i r s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a to i n c l u d e p r a c t i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l component. In general, the f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of e i t h e r o p t i o n l e a d s one t o s u s p e c t t h a t p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s was a wider problem. The degree of s e r i o u s n e s s of the p r o b l e m would, however, vary from c o u n t r y to c o u n t r y 21 depending on many f a c t o r s , f o r example, the amount and q u a l i t y of a v a i l a b l e resources, degree of commitment to the problem, and perceptions about the need for such a program. 2.3.0 Relevance of the Preceding L i t e r a t u r e to the Current Study The preceding l i t e r a t u r e review show that most c o u n t r i e s which implemented v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d education experienced problems i n o b t a i n i n g adequate supply of one or more of the f i v e r e s o u r c e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study. The c u r r e n t study sought to i d e n t i f y the extent to which the a v a i l a b i l i t y of each of those resources a f f e c t e d the implementation of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e of Kenya i n g e n e r a l and the schools s t u d i e d i n p a r t i c u l a r . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n on l i t e r a t u r e review o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y of a p p l i e d education i n Kenya. 2.4.0 Section B: History of Applied Education in Kenya Kenya has always had a c e n t r a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n system. D e s p i t e the D i s t r i c t Focus f o r R u r a l Development P o l i c y 6 , c e n t r a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , f o r example, c u r r i c u l u m ; examinations; personnel recruitment, t r a i n i n g , and deployment c o n t i n u e t o e x e r t a p o w e r f u l c e n t r a l i z i n g e f f e c t on t h e e d u c a t i o n system. T h e r e f o r e , to u n d e r s t a n d some o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t have i n f l u e n c e d the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of a p p l i e d 6 T h i s p o l i c y a l l o w s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s l i m i t e d p o w e r s t o d e t e r m i n e and i m p l e m e n t t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t p r i o r i t i e s . 22 e d u c a t i o n i n the 125 s c h o o l s s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e p o r t , i t i s u s e f u l to t r a c e the h i s t o r y of t h i s education component at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . " A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n " as a c o l l e c t i v e name f o r f o u r t e e n p e d a g o g i c a l areas was f i r s t used du r i n g the f o r m a t i v e years when the 8-4-4 7 system of e d u c a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d . The h i s t o r y of a p p l i e d education i s the h i s t o r y of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s u b j e c t s e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y or as former s u b j e c t c l u s t e r s l i k e i n d u s t r i a l education and business education. F u r t h e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate the h i s t o r y of a p p l i e d education from t h a t o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e f o r m e r i s an ex p a n s i o n of the l a t t e r . A c c o r d i n g to the Working P a r t y , (1988) a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i s now c o n s i d e r e d s c h o o l - b a s e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The h i s t o r y of v o c a t i o n a l education i n Kenya i s des c r i b e d below. 2.4.1 Pre-Independence During p r e - c o l o n i a l e r a, a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was a major component of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s education and t r a i n i n g . I t was taught and l e a r n t through a p p r e n t i c e s h i p but i t s content and pedagogy evolved over time i n response to the p e r c e i v e d needs of d i f f e r e n t times. A p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n preceded academic education i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l e r a . U n t i l e a r l y 1909, A f r i c a n 7 E i g h t y e a r s o f p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , f o u r y e a r s o f secondary education and four years of minimum education. 23 e d u c a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by m i s s i o n a r i e s . T h r e e m a j o r government r e p o r t s c a l l e d f o r relevance i n education f o r the A f r i c a n , h i s / h e r environment, and occupation p r e p a r a t i o n . The Fraser Report (1909) recommended t e c h n i c a l [ a p p l i e d ] education because the s k i l l s i t was to p r o v i d e were needed by Kenya's economy at that time. The Phelps-Strokes Report (1924) c a l l e d f o r cooperation between the government and the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n adopting education to the needs of the community, preserve the b e s t of t r a d i t i o n s , and p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r the world of work. In i t s 1925 education p o l i c y on A f r i c a n education, the government of the day s t r e s s e d the need f o r more government a s s i s t e d t e c h n i c a l education. During the same year, the f i r s t t e c h n i c a l school was b u i l t . The Beecher Report of 1949 c a l l e d f o r f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n with emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r e because i t was the main stay of the country's economy. I t a l s o recommended that v o c a t i o n a l education be used to i n s t i l l the d i g n i t y of manual labour. The arguments used to support a p p l i e d education were not very d i f f e r e n t from those given i n the above c o l o n i a l r e p o r t s . However, the c o l o n i a l recommendations were r e j e c t e d by the A f r i c a n b e c a u s e of the low economic and s o c i a l rewards attached to manual s k i l l s at that time. Despite the r e j e c t i o n and p r o t e s t s from the A f r i c a n s , the recommendations were implemented (S i f u n a , 1976). 24 2.4.2 Post-Independence The a t t a i n m e n t of i n d e p e n d e n c e i n 1963 opened many o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a l l s e c t o r s of the f a s t expanding economy. There was urgent need to f i l l jobs l e f t vacant by d e p a r t i n g f o r e i g n e r s i n the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s . There was an upsurge i n the demand for general academic education because i t was seen as the r i g h t k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n t o p r e p a r e i n d i v i d u a l s f o r f i n a n c i a l l y and s o c i a l l y p r e s t i g i o u s j o b s . Consequently, a p p l i e d education was dropped from the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m except i n a few secondary schools (Lauglo 1985). By e a r l y 1970s, unemployment rose as a r e s u l t of the high enrolment of the 1960s and high completion rate of secondary e d u c a t i o n . An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n Study (ILO, 1972) r e p o r t e d that the m a j o r i t y of s c h o o l l e a v e r s i n Kenya could not be g a i n f u l l y employed because they had n e i t h e r s e l f r e l i a n c e nor employable s k i l l s . In i t s 1970 - 74 Development P l a n , t h e government committed i t s e l f to p r o v i d i n g more s c h o o l - l e a v e r s w i t h p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s by expanding a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n program. 8 The p l a n s t a t e d one of the program's o b j e c t i v e s as ... t o i n s t i l l i n t h e l e a r n e r an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r s k i l l e d manual work, and provide some of the b a s i c s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n a broad range of occupations. (p. 460) 8 I n d u s t r i a l Education was introduced or strengthened i n 35 secondary s c h o o l . 25 The theme of o r i e n t i n g the sch o o l c u r r i c u l u m towards a more p r a c t i c a l d i r e c t i o n was continued i n the Gachathi Report (1976) which recommended that ... the education system be v o c a t i o n a l i z e d i n order to remove the demarcation between secondary academic and Secondary t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n and make sec o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g l y s c i e n t i f i c , p r e v o c a t i o n a l and c r a f t - o r i e n t e d , (p. 65) The demarcation r e f e r r e d to i n the above qu o t a t i o n had a l r e a d y been minimized i n the former t e c h n i c a l schools (they are now p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s ) . For the f i r s t time (1972) t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s o f f e r e d a f u l l s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e program (Kenya C e r t i f i c a t e of Education [KCE]) c o n s i s t i n g of both academic and a p p l i e d education. Most academic secondary s c h o o l s d i d not have an a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n program at t h a t time, t h e r e f o r e , the demarcation continued i n those s c h o o l s . According to the Report of the P r e s i d e n t i a l Committee on Unemployment [Unemployment, 1982/83] 9, unemployment continued to r i s e . The 1979-83 Development P l a n f o c u s e d on a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n as a means of f i g h t i n g t h i s problem. The p l a n s t a t e d that I t i s a m a t t e r o f h i g h p r i o r i t y t o i n s t i t u t e c u r r i c u l u m changes t h a t w i l l p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r the employment s i t u a t i o n t h a t f a c e s them on 9 T h i s report claimed open unemployment i n Kenya to be 7.1 p e r c e n t i n 1976, 10.5 percent i n 1981, and 10.8 p e r c e n t i n 1982. Yambo (1986) estimated i t at 11.5 percent i n 1986. 26 l e a v i n g school ... there i s a shortage of t r a i n e d Kenyans i n many t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l a r e a s . The c u r r i c u l u m must, t h e r e f o r e , i n c r e a s e i t s e m p h a s i s on s c i e n c e , t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s , a g r i c u l t u r e , and t r a i n i n g t h a t l e a d s to v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s (p. 47). The R e p o r t o f the P r e s i d e n t i a l Working P a r t y on the Second U n i v e r s i t y (Second U n i v e r s i t y , 1981) provided the f i n a l impetus t h a t p r o p e l l e d a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n t o the prominent p o s i t i o n i t has occupied on the c u r r i c u l u m from 1986. Beside the s t r u c t u r a l changes of the whole e d u c a t i o n system, the r e p o r t c a l l e d f o r improvement i n c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t by e m p h a s i z i n g t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t a l s o recommended d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n i n order to s h i f t the focus on education from being examination c e n t r e d . The blame on e d u c a t i o n f o r unemployment was f o c u s e d on c o n t e n t , t e a c h i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s , or e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Unemployment (1982/83) blamed i t on an education system b i a s e d towards academic education. It observed t h a t : Subjects taught at Primary and Secondary l e v e l s a r e h e a v i l y b i a s e d t o w a r d s i n t e 1 1 e c t u a l i z a t i o n and very l i t t l e i s being done to develop s k i l l s that can l e a d to s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t f o r the m a j o r i t y of school l e a v e r s (p. 49). Thus the need f o r o f f e r i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s h i f t e d from e d u c a t i n g the l e a r n e r to a p p r e c i a t e s k i l l e d manual work ( d u r i n g the 1970s) to t r a i n i n g them i n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s f o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e once the students l e f t s c h o o l . According to the 27 Working P a r t y (1988), the v o c a t i o n a l - o r i e n t a t i o n of primary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m was [ s a t i s f a c t o r y ] i n l a t e 1980s but i t needed to be strengthened i n the Secondary School Curriculum: I t s [Primary School Curriculum] v o c a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l approach a r e meant to develop s k i l l s f o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e . . . The Working Party would l i k e t o see adequate p r e p a r a t i o n and development of s k i l l s at t h i s [Secondary s c h o o l ] l e v e l .... a n d a l s o t o s t r e n g t h e n c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n (p. 23; p. 31). From the preceding h i s t o r i c a l account, i t i s evident that unemployment g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the changes t h a t a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n went through d u r i n g the 1970s and the 1980s. The changes remained r e l a t i v e l y g radual and moderate as long as the m a j o r i t y of the s c h o o l l e a v e r s got o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , employment o r t r a i n i n g . As t h o s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s dwindled, pressure to f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e ways of absorbing school l e a v e r s mounted. The p e r c e i v e d s o l u t i o n was found i n a d i v e r s i f i e d general education. The r e s u l t a n t r a p i d expansion of a p p l i e d education during the e a r l y 1980s and i t s h e a v y f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s made i t i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n problems would a r i s e . T h i s study sought to assess the extent of those problems i n p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the v a r i e t y of the subjects o f f e r e d w i t h i n and among s c h o o l s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e d e s i g n and methodology used for data c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s study. 28 CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1.0 Introduction T h i s chapter begins with a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o o l s from which the sc h o o l s under study were s e l e c t e d and the i n s t r u m e n t s used f o r data c o l l e c t i o n . P r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d i n sample s e l e c t i o n , data c o l l e c t i o n , and a n a l y s i s are then d e s c r i b e d i n turn. Results of a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the data are presented as a r a t i o n a l e f o r ex c l u d i n g some pedagogical areas from f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . 3.2.0 Population of Schools The p o p u l a t i o n of s c h o o l s comprised a l l 535 secondary s c h o o l s i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e of Kenya. Table 2 shows t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n across the f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s of Kiambu, Muranga, N y e r i , Nyandarua, and K i r i n y a g a i n 1988. Table 2 DISTRIBUTION AND CATEGORIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY DISTRICT CATEGORIES (ROW PERCENT) DISTRICT National/ Harambee/ Private Maintained Assisted Muranga 24.2 74.5 1.3 153 Kiambu 21.9 62.1 10.3 145 N y e r i 24.0 68.2 7.8 129 Nyandarua 16.9 69.5 13.6 59 K i r i n y a g a 32.7 63.3 4.1 49 ALL DISTRICTS (N) 2 5.0 68.0 7.0 5 35 Note: Adapted from Teachers Service Commission Teacher Payroll (1988) and Education in Kenya (p. 122) by M i n i s t r y of Education, 1984, N a i r o b i : Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. N a t i o n a l / M a i n t a i n e d s c h o o l s are g e n e r a l l y funded by the p u b l i c t h r o u g h the government or l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . In c o n t r a s t , p r i v a t e schools are a s s i s t e d by the government with p o l i c y documents l i k e s y l l a b u s e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , a d v i c e and s u p e r v i s i o n of the q u a l i t y of education that they o f f e r . In a d d i t i o n t o the a s s i s t a n c e given to p r i v a t e s c h o o l s by the government, Harambee/Assisted schools r e c e i v e v a r y i n g amounts of a i d i n the form of p e r s o n n e l , m a t e r i a l , or c a s h . The d i f f e r e n c e between expenses of i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s and the a s s i s t a n c e from the p u b l i c i s r a i s e d through v a r i o u s kinds of f e e s and d o n a t i o n s t h r o u g h Harambee. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s vary from one ROW TOTAL (N) 30 c a t e g o r y of s c h o o l s t o the other and from s c h o o l to s c h o o l w i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s . No i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s among the p o p u l a t i o n , presumably because t h i s program was r e l a t i v e l y new (mandated i n 1986. Some i n d i v i d u a l schools had been i n ex i s t e n c e f o r over 50 years ( f o r example, A l l i a n c e Boys), while others had not yet c e l e b r a t e d t h e i r second a n n i v e r s a r y (Kabonge S e c o n d a r y ) . Beginning i n 1986, each school was required to o f f e r at l e a s t one a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t . A few s c h o o l s had on-going a p p l i e d education programs f o r over 15 years (e.g., Endarasha S e c o n d a r y ) , y e t o t h e r s implemented t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n program i n May, 1988 (f o r example, Ngethu Secondary). T h e i r l o c a t i o n s v a r i e d from e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e urban c e n t r e s t o remote r u r a l s e t t i n g s with d i f f i c u l t means of communications. Furthermore, the pop u l a t i o n comprised sex-segregated and mixed schools of varying student enrolments. 3.3.0 Instrumentation Complementary teacher and headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used to c o l l e c t the data. The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of how the instruments were developed. 3.3.1 Development of the Questionnaires A set of questions was formulated and di s c u s s e d with the c h a i r m a n o f the r e s e a r c h e r ' s t h e s i s a d v i s o r y committee. 31 S u g g e s t e d c h a n g e s were t h e n made t o e a c h i t e m i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . New q u e s t i o n s were added to the p r e v i o u s i n v e n t o r y and the r e s u l t a n t set of questions d i s c u s s e d again w i t h the t h e s i s chairman. The p r o c e s s was r e p e a t e d u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t q u e s t i o n s were g e n e r a t e d to e n q u i r e i n t o a l l a s p e c t s of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s study (see Table 3). The f i r s t d r a f t of t h e c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c i r c u l a t e d to a l l members of the t h e s i s advisory committee f o r comment. T h e i r suggestions were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a second d r a f t of each q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was then r e c i r c u l a t e d to the c o m m i t t e e members f o r f u r t h e r comments. T h i s p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l no more improvements f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were suggested. 3.3.2 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Questionnaires Both the teacher and the headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were complementary and s e l f - a d m i n i s t e r e d . Each was designed to c o l l e c t data on any one or more of the 14 a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d (see Table 5). C o l l e c t i v e l y , they measured t h e l e v e l o f a d e q u a c y o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and v a r i o u s aspects of s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d . A l l q u e s t i o n s had e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e r e s p o n s e s , or a blank. The respondent was asked to t i c k the a l t e r n a t i v e that best corresponded to his/her answer to the q u e s t i o n asked or 32 to f i l l i n the blank with the appropriate answer. A l t e r n a t i v e r esponses f o r most q u e s t i o n s about p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c o m p r i s e d a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e : e x c e l l e n t , good, s a t i s f a c t o r y , f a i r , and poor. Because the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g e n e r i c , some q u e s t i o n s about these three e d u c a t i o n a l resources d i d not apply to a l l pedagogical a r e a s . For example, i t e m number l g on number o f power t o o l s or equipment (Appendix A) d i d not apply to A r t & Design. For t h i s reason a "Not A p p l i c a b l e " a l t e r n a t i v e was i n c l u d e d . In a d d i t i o n , a "Do Not Have" a l t e r n a t i v e was p r o v i d e d f o r t e a c h e r s who f e l t they r e q u i r e d a resource but d i d not have access to i t . To ease data c o l l e c t i o n , the teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e was o r g a n i z e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s , I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s , Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , T e a c h i n g A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s , and B a c k g r o u n d & G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n . The h e a d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not have d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s but a l l the questions i n i t enquired about the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a p p l i e d education at the school l e v e l , f o r example, s t a f f i n g , s t u d e n t e n r o l m e n t , f i n a n c i n g , and v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d an c r i t e r i a f o r decision-making. Table 3 shows the f a c t o r s and the number of aspects enquired i n t o i n each f a c t o r . C o p i e s of each q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e provided i n Appendix A. 33 Table 3 FACTORS AND NUMBER OF ASPECTS OF APPLIED EDUCATION ENQUIRED INTO QUESTIONNAIRE FACTOR ROW TEACHER HEAD TEACHER TOTAL (n) (n) (N) P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s 23 2 25 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 10 1 11 Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 113 0 113 S u b j e c t s O f f e r e d 0 66 66 COLUMN TOTAL (N) 146 69 215 The f i r s t page on each instrument p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the purpose of the study, general i n s t r u c t i o n s on how to r e s p o n d t o e a c h q u e s t i o n , and an a s s u r a n c e o f s t r i c t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y f o r the respondent and the i n s t i t u t i o n . S p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s on how to respond to each item were c o n t a i n e d i n i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s . Both instruments ended with an i n v i t a t i o n f o r a d d i t i o n a l comments about the a p p l i e d education subject f o r which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed. 3.4.0 P i l o t Study During the month of A p r i l 1988, the teacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t t e s t e d with 70 a p p l i e d education teachers, c o l l e g e l e c t u r e r s , c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , and s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r s . These educators were attending book w r i t i n g workshops at Kenya 34 T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e [KTTC] and Kenya I n s t i t u t e of Education [KIE]. S p e c i a l i s t s i n each of the 14 a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s composed a s u b j e c t p a n e l . Subject panels f o r the f o l l o w i n g pedagogical areas were l o c a t e d at KTTC: Accounts, Economics, Commerce, Metalwork, Woodwork, E l e c t r i c i t y , and B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n . KIE hosted s u b j e c t p a n e l s f o r Music, Power M e c h a n i c s , and D r a w i n g & D e s i g n . S u b j e c t p a n e l s f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , Typing & O f f i c e P r a c t i c e , Home Science, and A r t & Design were not c o n t a c t e d f o r p i l o t t e s t i n g , e i t h e r because they were not holding w r i t i n g sessions at the time the p i l o t study was conducted, or t h e i r working venues were l o c a t e d too f a r away to be reached. E a c h w o r k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t was g i v e n a t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e and asked to assess i t s c l a r i t y of the i n t e n t of each q u e s t i o n . One week was allowed f o r t h i s work. During the next one week, the researcher met s e p a r a t e l y with each sub j e c t panel to d i s c u s s the responses of i t s members. Although i t s i n t e n t was c l e a r , the i n s t r u c t i o n s on how to r e s p o n d t o t h e s e t of i t e m s i n Q u e s t i o n Number 14 ( s e e Appendix A) was reported by the respondents to be u n c l e a r . In t h a t q u e s t i o n , a numeric number between 1 and 6 was g i v e n b e s i d e a response box p r o v i d e d to the r i g h t of each item. These numeric numbers were intended to be a s c a l e on which the respondents were asked to r a t e t h e i r b e l i e f i n each of s i x g i v e n purposes of t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya h i g h 35 s c h o o l s . Some t e a c h e r s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e s c a l e t o mean s e q u e n t i a l numbers f o r each g i v e n p u r p o s e o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they responded t o each i t e m by w r i t i n g a numeric number between 1 and 6 i n s t e a d of a l e t t e r between a and f i n each response box. No change t o the wording of the q u e s t i o n was found n e c e s s a r y because the responses were i n t e r p r e t e d c o r r e c t l y without any problems. Furthermore, the teachers were s a t i s f i e d with the range of the asp e c t s of a p p l i e d education that the q u e s t i o n n a i r e enquired i n t o . T h i s f i n d i n g was used to i n t e r p r e t responses to that q u e s t i o n i n the main study. The headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t t e s t e d with four headteachers of neighbouring Harambee/Assisted s c h o o l s . They were g i v e n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and asked t o s t u d y , f o r two weeks, the c l a r i t y of the i n t e n t of each q u e s t i o n and the e x t e n t to which i t c o v e r e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f a p p l i e d education at the school l e v e l . A f t e r two weeks, the researcher met s e p a r a t e l y with each headteacher to d i s c u s s h i s r e s p o n s e s . The f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the as p e c t s of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e that they were asked to a s s e s s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , no c h a n g e s were made t o t h e h e a d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 3 . 4 . 1 Sample S e l e c t i o n A l i s t o f a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n each of the f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s i n C e n t r a l Province was obtained from 36 the Teachers' S e r v i c e Commission [TSC]. A coding number was then assigned to each school and a random t a b l e used to s e l e c t a p r o p o r t i o n a l random sample of 197 (36.8%) schools s t r a t i f i e d by d i s t r i c t . S c h o o l c a t e g o r y was n o t i n c l u d e d as a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e . The sample s i z e s given on Table 4 were o b t a i n e d . (Table 4 a l s o c o n t a i n s the responses before and a f t e r c o l l a p s i n g pedagogical areas. These responses w i l l be r e f e r r e d to when d e s c r i b i n g the obtained sample on p. 38.) For a sample of 197 schools s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n of 535 s c h o o l s , the e r r o r of e s t i m a t i o n was l e s s than 6 percent ( S h e a f f e r , Mendenhall, and O t t , 1986, e q u a t i o n 4.17 1 0). In o t h e r words, estimates of p r o p o r t i o n s based on a sample of t h i s s i z e i s expected to be w i t h i n 6 percent of the " t r u e " p o p u l a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n s 19 times out of 20. The s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r s who f i l l e d out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the p e d a g o g i c a l a r e a f o r which they c o m p l e t e d t h o s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e l e c t e d by the s c h o o l s t a f f . The headteacher f o r each randomly s e l e c t e d s c h o o l a u t o m a t i c a l l y became the respondent f o r the headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e . V n-1 \ N I Where B = bound e r r o r of e s t i m a t i o n S = sample percentage n = sample s i z e N = p o p u l a t i o n s i z e 10 37 Table 4 SAMPLE SIZE AND RESPONSE RATE PER DISTRICT RESPONSES DISTRICT NO. OF NO. OF BEFORE AFTER SCHOOLS PER SCHOOLS COLLAPSING COLLAPSING DISTRICT SELECTED N % N % N % N % Muranga 153 28.6 57 28.9 37 27.8 36 28 .8 Kiambu 145 27.1 54 27.4 35 26.3 32 25.6 Nyer i 129 24.1 46 23.4 32 24.1 30 24.0 Nyandarua 59 11.0 22 11.2 18 13.5 18 14.4 Kirinyaga 49 9.2 18 9.1 11 8.3 9 7.2 Column (N) Total 535 197 133 125 3 . 5 . 0 Data C o l l e c t i o n One t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d one h e a d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e were mailed to each of the sampled schools i n e a r l y May, 1988. Both instruments c o l l e c t e d data on the same pedagogical area which the teacher and the school headteacher s e l e c t e d . To improve the response r a t e , the f o l l o w i n g were mailed t o each s c h o o l a l o n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g the purpose of the study (Appendix C ) ; p h o t o s t a t c o p i e s of the rese a r c h c l e a r a n c e permit i s s u e d by the Kenya Government (Appendix D); an endorsement l e t t e r from 38 the Permanent S e c r e t a r y , M i n i s t r y of Education (Appendix E ) ; and a s e l f - a d d r e s s e d and stamped envelope. A follow-up l e t t e r (Appendix F) was sent out to schools whose responses had not been r e c e i v e d a f t e r four weeks. By the end of August, 1988, a t o t a l of 134 responses had been r e c e i v e d . 3 . 6 . 0 D e s c r i p t i o n of Obtained Sample The 134 responses r e c e i v e d represented a 68.0% response r a t e . One response (KBU 126) was r e t u r n e d u n f i l l e d because the respondents f e l t the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n program i n t h e i r s c h o o l was too new to o f f e r c r e d i b l e data ( i t was s t a r t e d during the May-July 1988 academic term). As shown on Table 4, the remaining 133 responses were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s . However, i n the f i n a l sample t h a t was analyzed (responses a f t e r c o l l a p s i n g — see p. 38 to 40), Nyandarua was s l i g h t l y overrepresented while Kiambu and K i r i n y a g a were s l i g h t l y underrepresented. 3 . 7 . 0 Data Entry The data were coded and entered on F o r t r a n Coding Forms [FCF]. A f t e r completing each record, one of the e i g h t column numbers on that record was randomly s e l e c t e d and a l l e n t r i e s between that number and the end of the record were v e r i f i e d a g a i n s t the corresponding q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The data on FCF were then entered, with 100% v e r i f i c a t i o n , i n t o a computer f i l e by the d a t a e n t r y s e r v i c e s s t a f f at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 39 Columbia. Data e n t r i e s f o r t h i r t y - t h r e e randomly s e l e c t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 25% of t o t a l respondents) were v e r i f i e d 100% a g a i n s t data i n corres p o n d i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Sixty-seven e r r o r s (0.68% e r r o r rate) were detected. 3.8.0 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s SPSS:X program was used f o r the p r e l i m i n a r y and the main a n a l y s i s on t h e M i c h i g a n T e r m i n a l System (MTS) a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3.8.1 P r e l i m i n a r y A n a l y s i s A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s was conducted t o determine the frequency with which each s u b j e c t area was s e l e c t e d by both the teacher and the headteacher. Results of t h i s a n a l y s i s are shown on Table 5. 40 Table 5 FREQUENCY OF SUBJECTS SELECTED BY TEACHERS AND HEADTEACHERS FREQUENCY PEDAGOGICAL AREA N % Agr iculture 49 36. .8 Commerce 32 24. .1 Home Science 25 18. .8 Woodwork 8 6. .0 Economics 7 5. .3 Drawing & Design 4 3. .0 Accounts 2 1. .5 Building Construction 2 1. .5 Art & Design 2 1. .5 E l e c t r i c i t y 1 0. .8 Typing & Office Practice 1 0, .8 Metalwork 0 0. .0 Music 0 0. .0 Power Mechanics 0 0. .0 COLUMN TOTAL (N) 133 A g r i c u l t u r e , Commerce, and Home Science were the most commonly s e l e c t e d p e d a g o g i c a l a r e a s by t e a c h e r s a n d headteachers who responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Drawing & D e s i g n , A r t & D e s i g n , E l e c t r i c i t y , and T y p i n g & O f f i c e P r a c t i c e c o m b i n e d were s e l e c t e d by o n l y 6.1% o f t h e respondents. No respondent chose to give data on metalwork, music, or power mechanics. To m i n i m i z e d a t a l o s s and improve t h e v a l i d i t y o f r e s u l t s , p e d a g o g i c a l areas s e l e c t e d by 10% or l e s s o f the respondents were e i t h e r combined with a s i m i l a r s u b j e c t or dropped from f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The d e c i s i o n t o combine 41 d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was based on two c r i t e r i a . F i r s t , both p e d a g o g i c a l a r e a s r e q u i r e d s i m i l a r r e s o u r c e s t o implement. By t h i s c r i t e r i o n , Woodwork and B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n r e q u i r e d s i m i l a r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , t o o l s , equipment, i n s t r u c t i o n a l , and consumable m a t e r i a l s . L i k e w i s e , A c c o u n t i n g and Economics r e q u i r e d a l l the above i n p u t s e x c e p t t o o l s . O b v i o u s l y , t h e t y p e o f r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d by the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y are d i f f e r e n t from those r e q u i r e d by the former c a t e g o r y , f o r example, d e s i g n o f working spaces and consumable m a t e r i a l s . The second c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e d that the r e s u l t a n t category be s e l e c t e d by at l e a s t 5% of the t o t a l respondents. T h i s requirement minimized the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the number of responses i n the r e s u l t a n t c a t e g o r y were obtained by chance. Both Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n and Economics & Accounts c a t e g o r i e s s a t i s f i e d the two c r i t e r i a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , A r t & D e s i g n , E l e c t r i c i t y , Drawing & Design, and Typing & O f f i c e P r a c t i c e were dropped from f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n a d d i t i o n to Metalwork, Music, and Power Mechanics. T a b l e 6 compares the f r e q u e n c y of s e l e c t i o n o f each pedagogical area across d i s t r i c t s and subject areas. 4 2 TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED SUBJECTS BY DISTRICT DISTRICT (COLUMN PERCENTAGES) ALL SUBJECT Muranga Kiambu Nyer i Nyandarua Kirinyaga DISTRICTS (N) Agriculture 38.9 43.8 30.0 38.9 55.6 39.2 Commerce 27.8 12 .5 36.7 38.9 - 25.6 Home Science 27 .8 28.1 10.0 5.6 22.2 20.0 Woodwork & Bldg. Const. - 3.1 20.0 11.1 11.1 8.0 Econ. & Accounts 5.6 12.5 3.3 5.6 11.1 7.2 Column Total (N) 36 32 30 18 9 125 Respondents from three out of the f i v e d i s t r i c t s chose A g r i c u l t u r e more f r e q u e n t l y than any other pedagogical area. P r o p o r t i o n s of these respondents were almost the same i n the three d i s t r i c t s . In Nyandarua, A g r i c u l t u r e and Commerce were t h e most f r e q u e n t l y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s w h i l e i n N y e r i A g r i c u l t u r e occupied a second place behind Commerce. S u r p r i s i n g l y , no respondent from K i r i n y a g a provided data on Commerce. I t was s u r p r i s i n g because o v e r a l l , Commerce was the s e cond most s e l e c t e d p e d a g o g i c a l a r e a . L i k e w i s e , no respondent s e l e c t e d Woodwork or B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n from Muranga d e s p i t e the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of respondents from t h a t d i s t r i c t . Kiambu had the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n s o f 43 s e l e c t i o n of Home Science and Economics & Accounts. Beside these two exceptions, responses i n each pedagogical area were w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d among a l l d i s t r i c t s . 3.8.2 Hain Analysis CROSSTABULATION and FREQUENCIES i n the SPSS:X program were used f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . The f o l l o w i n g chapter p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s of responses to questions about p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . 44 CHAPTER FOUR: R E S U L T S FOR P H Y S I C A L F A C I L I T I E S AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS 4 .1 .0 Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items which assessed the l e v e l o f adequacy of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r each of the a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s . T h i s was the f i r s t r esearch q u e s t i o n being addressed by t h i s study. Beside showing the l e v e l of adequacy of the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y or i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l under a n a l y s i s , the r e s u l t s obtained from responses to each q u e s t i o n n a i r e item reveal the v a r i a t i o n of the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l resource under a n a l y s i s w i t h i n s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g the same subj e c t . The r e s u l t s a l s o p r o v i d e comparative information on the l e v e l of adequacy of the same resource among schools o f f e r i n g d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . R e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s w i t h s u p p l e m e n t a r y t e x t s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s on t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d a re presented i n Chapter F i v e . But b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s , t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of "Not A p p l i c a b l e " responses i n most t a b l e s i n C h a p t e r Four need t o be i n t e r p r e t e d . T h e s e responses suggest one of three i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . F i r s t , they c o u l d mean t h a t most t e a c h e r s might have misunderstood most of the questions on p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . While t h e r e may have been some 45 t e a c h e r s who d i d not u n d e r s t a n d some q u e s t i o n s , s u c h a w i d e s p r e a d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the q u e s t i o n s i s u n l i k e l y because both the teacher and the headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p i l o t - t e s t e d f o r c l a r i t y o f i n t e n t w i t h 70 s e n i o r t e a c h e r s and headteachers among other educators (see Chapter Three). The r e s u l t s of that p i l o t study showed a l l q u e s t i o n s about p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s (see Appendix A) were c l e a r and t h e i r i n t e n t worthwhile. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , u n l i k e l y that the same q u e s t i o n s c o u l d have been misunderstood by so many teachers as suggested by r e s u l t s on most t a b l e s i n Chapter Four. Second, the responses could mean the questions were not r e l e v a n t t o t h e s u b j e c t a r e a s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Commerce, Economics, and Accounts) f o r which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed. Except i n the question on work benches/counters, t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , too, i s untenable. The S y l l a b u s e s Content (KNEC, 1987) f o r Commerce, Economics, and Accounts r e q u i r e students who are studying these subjects to l e a r n how to use, r e p a i r , and m a i n t a i n o f f i c e equipment l i k e t y p e w r i t e r s and a d d i n g machines. T h i s r e q u i r e m e n t e n t a i l s the p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s e n q u i r e d i n t o i n C h a p t e r F o u r . T h e r e f o r e , l i k e t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n A g r i c u l t u r e , Home S c i e n c e , Woodwork, a n d B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n , teachers i n Commerce, Economics, and Accounts c o u l d not have meant q u e s t i o n s about working and s t o r a g e 46 spaces, t o o l s , equipment, consumable m a t e r i a l s , or t e a c h i n g a i d s d i d not apply to t h e i r s u b j e c t s . The t h i r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e "Not A p p l i c a b l e " responses i n Chapter Four i s that the teachers who gave those responses d i d not have the resource i n qu e s t i o n . A study of the number of "Not A p p l i c a b l e " responses i n i n d i v i d u a l t a b l e s i n Chapter Four shows most of these responses are i n answer to q u e s t i o n s about working or s t o r a g e s p a c e s , and t o o l s o r equipment. Working or storage spaces can onl y be a v a i l a b l e a f t e r s p e c i a l rooms are b u i l t but r e s u l t s i n Table 20 i n d i c a t e the m a j o r i t y (79.2%) of the teache r s d i d not have a s p e c i a l room. S i m i l a r l y , most t o o l s or equipment f o r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e a s p e c i a l room. I t i s u n l i k e l y that such t o o l s or equipment were procured before f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d to s t o r e and use these t o o l s or equipment were made a v a i l a b l e to teachers. The argument being made here i s that the teachers u n d e r s t o o d the q u e s t i o n s they were asked and t h e i r "Not A p p l i c a b l e " responses to those q u e s t i o n s meant the te a c h e r s d i d not have the e d u c a t i o n a l resource i n q u e s t i o n . T h i s i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n used f o r the purpose of t h i s study. 4.2.0 Section A: Physical Facilities 4 . 2 . 1 Working Space i n S p e c i a l Rooms T e a c h e r s were asked i n Q u e s t i o n l a how adequate the working space i n t h e i r s p e c i a l rooms were. T h e i r responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d with the sub j e c t that each respondent taught. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 7. 47 Table 7 WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY Poor F a i r Sat i s f a c t o r y Good E x c e l l e n t AGRIC- ULTURE COMMERCE HOME SCIENCE WOODW & BLDG CONS ECON & ACCOUNT ROW TOTAL (%) 5.4 5.4 4.5 7.1 1.8 Do not have 33 6 9 3 1 46.4 Not A p p l i c a b l e 6 19 1 - 7 29.5 COLUMN TOTAL 38.4 26.8 17.9 8.9 8.0 100.0 N = 112 The most n o t a b l e c a t e g o r y of r e s p o n d e n t s a r e the 33 (76.7%) A g r i c u l t u r e t e a c h e r s who s a i d they had no working space. In c o n t r a s t , only 1 (2.3%) of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s had s a t i s f a c t o r y working space. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s are found i n Home Science, and Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n . A l l the f i v e subject c a t e g o r i e s r e q u i r e a working space, t h e r e f o r e , i n c h o o s i n g "Not A p p l i c a b l e " or "Do Not Have" a l t e r n a t i v e s , 85 (75.9%) respondents i n d i c a t e d they d i d not have t h i s resource, while an a d d i t i o n a l 12 (10.8%) rated t h e i r working space as f a i r at best. Consequently, only 15 (13.3%) 48 of the t o t a l respondents had s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r working space. 4 . 2 .2 Classroom Space Te a c h e r s were asked i n Question l i how adequate t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s p a c e was. T a b l e 8 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g the teachers' responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject they taught. Table 8 CLASSROOM SPACE BY SUBJECT S U B J E C T L E V E L O F ADEQUACY Poor Fai r Sat i s f a c t o r y Good Excellent A G R I C - U L T U R E 12 12 14 5 COMMERCE HOME S C I E N C E 2 3 17 6 1 5 4 10 4 WOODW & B L D G CONS E C O N & ACCOUNT ROW T O T A L (%) 0.9 19.5 20.4 40.7 15.0 Do not have 2 - - 1 - 2.7 Not Applicable - 1 - - - 0.9 COLUMN T O T A L 39.6 25.7 21.2 6.2 7.1 100.0 N = 113 We can see from T a b l e 8 t h a t a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the respondents i n each subject category (at l e a s t 80%) rated the s u i t a b i l i t y of t h e i r classroom space to be s a t i s f a c t o r y or 49 b e t t e r . The only subject area which appeared to be a p o s s i b l e exception to t h i s trend was A g r i c u l t u r e where about 30% of the r e s p o n d e n t s r a t e d t h e i r c l a s s r o o m space as o n l y f a i r o r i n d i c a t e d they d i d not have i t . 4.2.3 Classroom Desks When a s k e d i n Q u e s t i o n l c how a d e q u a t e t h e d e s k s a v a i l a b l e f o r use i n t h e i r a p p l i e d education c l a s s were, 111 teachers responded. T h e i r responses were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d with the s u b j e c t taught by each t e a c h e r . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are shown i n Table 9. 50 Table 9 CLASSROOM DESKS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OP ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WCODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (JUL Poor 1 1 - 1 - 2.7 F a i r 8 4 5 1 3 18.9 S a t i s f a c t o r y 16 5 6 2 2 27.9 Good 15 12 8 1 2 34.2 E x c e l l e n t 2 5 1 1 1 9.0 Do not have 2 - 3 1 - 5.4 Not A p p l i c a b l e - 2 - - - 1.8 COLUMN TOTAL 39.6 26.1 20.7 6.3 7.2 100.0 N = 111 O v e r a l l , the classroom desks a v a i l a b l e to 71.1% of the r e s p o n d e n t s were of s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y and an a d d i t i o n a l 18.9% respondents rated t h e i r desks as f a i r l y adequate. It seems, t h e r e f o r e , that the problem of classroom desks was not very s e r i o u s . However, the remaining 10.0% of respondents who had poor or no desks are a source of concern. 51 4.2.4 Work Benches/Counters T e a c h e r s were asked i n Question Id how adequate t h e i r work benches/counters were. R e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g the obtained responses and the subject each respondent taught are shown on Table 10. Table 10 WORK BENCHES/COUNTERS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT : (%) Poor 3 - - 2 - 4.4 F a i r 1 - 5 2 - 7.0 Satisfactory 1 - 3 2 - 5.3 Good - - 3 1 - 3.5 Excellent - - 1 - - 0.9 Do not have 26 24 2 3 2 38.6 Not Applicable 13 6 7 - 7 40.4 COLUMN TOTAL 38.6 26.3 18.4 8.8 7.9 100.0 N = 114 There was a c l e a r s p l i t among A g r i c u l t u r e teachers over whether they required work benches to teach t h e i r s u b j e c t or n o t . In c h o o s i n g t h e "Not A p p l i c a b l e " a l t e r n a t i v e , 13 52 respondents i n t h i s subject implied they d i d not r e q u i r e work benches to teach A g r i c u l t u r e . I n c h o o s i n g "Do Not H a v e " or "Not A p p l i c a b l e " a l t e r n a t i v e s , 51 (68.0%) respondents i n A g r i c u l t u r e , Home Sc i e n c e , and Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n suggested they d i d not have work benches. An a d d i t i o n a l 13 (17.3%) i n d i c a t e d the work benches they had were, at best, f a i r l y adequate. In c o n t r a s t , o n l y 11 (14.7%) t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g work benches of s a t i s f a c t o r y or be t t e r q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . 4.2.5 Hand (Manual) And Power Tools or Equipment T a b l e 11 shows r e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o Question l e about the number of hand (manual) t o o l s o r e q u i p m e n t t h a t e a c h r e s p o n d e n t had and t h e pedagogical area that they taught. 53 T a b l e 11 NUMBER OF HAND (MANUAL) TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Poor 12 1 2 2 14.8 Fa i r 8 - 5 3 - 13.9 Satisfactory 1 - 2 2 - 4.3 Good 1 - 3 1 - 4.3 Excellent - - 1 - 0.9 Do not have 19 5 5 2 2 28.7 Not Applicable 4 23 4 - 7 33.0 COLUMN TOTAL 39.1 25.2 19.1 8.7 7.8 100.0 N = 115 Hand t o o l s or equipment are more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with t e d i o u s manual s k i l l s i n A g r i c u l t u r e , Woodwork, B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n , and Home Science than i n Commerce, Economics, or Accounts. T h i s p e r c e p t i o n among many people probably e x p l a i n s why almost 80% of the respondents i n the l a t e r group of s u b j e c t s s a i d i n Table 11 that hand t o o l s or equipment d i d not apply to t h e i r s u b j e c t s d e s p i t e the requirement of the s e s u b j e c t s ' s y l l a b u s e s t h a t s t u d e n t s l e a r n how t o use, r e p a i r , and 54 maintain o f f i c e equipment l i k e t y pewriters and adding machines (KNEC, 1987). O n l y 12 out o f the 117 r e s p o n d e n t s t o Q u e s t i o n l e suggested the number of hand t o o l s or equipment that they had was s u f f i c i e n t while an a d d i t i o n a l 34 teachers i n d i c a t e d they had some hand t o o l s or equipment but they were i n s u f f i c i e n t i n number. Responses to Question I f which enquired about the q u a l i t y o f hand t o o l s were v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n T a b l e 11, t h e r e f o r e , they are not reproduced here. R e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o Question l g which enquired about the a v a i l a b l e number of power t o o l s or equipment showed that only 12 out of 117 teachers (8 i n Home S c i e n c e , 3 i n A g r i c u l t u r e , and 1 i n Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n ) had any power t o o l s or equipment. Ei g h t of these twelve teachers rated the number of t h e i r power t o o l s or equipment as f a i r at best. The vast m a j o r i t y (89.8%) e i t h e r s a i d the q u e s t i o n d i d not apply to t h e i r s u b j e c t or they d i d not have any power t o o l s or equipment. T h i s f i n d i n g was c o n s i s t e n t with the philosophy of a p p l i e d education that wherever p o s s i b l e , i t should be taught using b a s i c hand t o o l s or equipment so t h a t the knowledge or s k i l l s l e a r n e d can be t r a n s f e r r e d to r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s where b a s i c hand t o o l s and equipment are e a s i e r to ob t a i n than powered ones. Resul t s of a n a l y s i s of responses to Questions l e , If, and l g s t a t e d above i n d i c a t e d the number and q u a l i t y of hand 55 (manual) and power t o o l s or e q u i p m e n t s was c o n s i d e r e d inadequate by the vast m a j o r i t y of the teachers. Widespread i n s u f f i c i e n c y of such e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s r a i s e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d education. 4.2.6 Storage Space T e a c h e r s were asked i n Q u e s t i o n s Ik, 11, and lm how a d e q u a t e t h e i r s t o r a g e s p a c e s f o r consumable m a t e r i a l s , s t u d e n t s ' p r o j e c t s , and t o o l s & equipment r e s p e c t i v e l y were. The q u e s t i o n a b o u t s t o r a g e s p a c e on t o o l s & e q u i p m e n t ( Q u e s t i o n lm) was d i r e c t e d a t a l l r e s p o n d e n t s but t h e q u e s t i o n s on s t o r a g e s p a c e s f o r s t u d e n t s ' p r o j e c t s and c o n s u m a b l e m a t e r i a l s w ere i n t e n d e d f o r t e a c h e r s i n A g r i c u l t u r e , Home S c i e n c e , and Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n . P r a c t i c a l s k i l l s that students i n these three s u b j e c t c a t e g o r i e s were r e q u i r e d to l e a r n e n t a i l e d p h y s i c a l p r o j e c t s and bulky consumable m a t e r i a l s which would presumably r e q u i r e storage spaces. Tables 12, 13 and 14 show r e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g the t e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e t h r e e questions r e s p e c t i v e l y and the subject each respondent taught. 56 Table 12 PROJECTS STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT Poor 8 - 3 2 11.6 Fai r 5 - 3 2 1 9.8 Satisfactory 2 1 3 1 - 6.3 Good 1 - 2 1 - 3.6 Excellent 1 - - - 0.9 Do not have 18 5 8 4 1 32.1 Not Applicable 8 23 2 - 7 35.7 COLUMN TOTAL 38.4 25.9 18.8 8.9 8.0 100.0 N = 112 57 Table 13 CONSUMABLE MATERIAL STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Poor 14 1 3 3 - 18.1 F a i r 7 - 5 2 1 12.9 S a t i s f a c t o r y 2 - 3 - - 4.3 Good 1 - 3 2 - 5.3 E x c e l l e n t 1 - 1 - - 1 . 7 Do not have 14 5 6 2 1 24.1 Not A p p l i c a b l e 7 23 1 1 7 33.6 COLUMN TOTAL 39.7 25.0 19.0 8.6 7.8 100.0 N = 116 58 Table 14 STORAGE SPACE FOR TOOLS & EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY Poor Fai r Sat i s f a c t o r y Good Excellent AGRIC- ULTURE 13 6 2 1 1 COMMERCE HOME SCIENCE WOODW & BLDG CONS ECON & ACCOUNT ROW TOTAL <*> 15.9 13 .3 6.2 5.3 2.7 Do not have 16 4 6 2 1 25.7 Not Applicable 5 19 3 1 7 31.0 COLUMN TOTAL 38.9 25.7 18.6 8.8 8.0 100.0 N = 112 R e s u l t s i n T a b l e s 12, 13, and 14 show o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of a l l respondents p e r c e i v e d of the three types of s t o r a g e spaces as s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r . Even i n Home S c i e n c e where t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d the most adequate s t o r a g e s p a c e s , o n l y 7 (31.8%) of them i n d i c a t e d s t o r a g e space f o r consumable m a t e r i a l s was s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r w h i l e 5 (23.8%) of them gave the same l e v e l of adequacy f o r t h e i r storage spaces f o r students' p r o j e c t s and t o o l s & equipment. 59 4.2.7 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Water Tea c h e r s were asked i n Question In how adequate t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l y was. T a b l e 15 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g the teachers' responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject they taught. Table 15 AVAILABILITY OF WATER BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Poor 4 1 2 1 - 8.3 F a i r 3 - 3 - 1 7.3 S a t i s f a c t o r y 4 - 1 1 - 6.3 Good 2 - 3 - - 5.2 E x c e l l e n t 1 - - - - 1.0 Do not have 20 7 10 7 1 46.9 Not A p p l i c a b l e 7 9 3 - 5 25.0 COLUMN TOTAL 42.7 17.7 22.9 9.4 7.3 100.0 N = 96 T h i s q u e s t i o n was d i r e c t e d at t e a c h e r s i n A g r i c u l t u r e , Home S c i e n c e , and Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n because water i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t e a c h i n g those s u b j e c t s . T a b l e 15 60 shows o n l y 12 (16.7%) of the 72 respondents i n these t h r e e sub j e c t c a t e g o r i e s reported having at l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y water supply. 4.2.8 Amount of Blackboard Space T e a c h e r s were asked i n Question l p how adequate t h e i r b l a c k b o a r d s p a c e was. T a b l e 16 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g the responses to t h i s q uestion and the s u b j e c t the teachers taught. Data i n Table 16 revealed no s e r i o u s Table 16 AMOUNTS OF BLACKBOARD SPACE BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY AGRIC— COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT ROW TOTAL (%) Poor Fai r 4 Satisfactory 9 Good 20 Excellent 8 1 1 1 4 6 17 12 5 4 0.9 6.1 20.0 48 .7 18.3 Do not have 3 1 - - - 4.3 Not Applicable 1 1 - - - 1.7 COLUMN TOTAL 39.1 25.2 20.9 8.7 6.1 100.0 N = 115 61 problem w i t h the adequacy of blackboard space a v a i l a b l e t o teachers i n each subject category. 4.2.9 O v e r a l l Q u a l i t y of A p p l i e d Education B u i l d i n g Teachers were asked i n Question 2 "How do you r a t e the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n b u i l d i n g f o r your s u b j e c t ? " T e a c h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h the s u b j e c t the respondents t a u g h t as shown on Table 17. Table 17 QUALITY OF BUILDING USED FOR TEACHING APPLIED EDUCATION BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRICU COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL —LTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Poor 24 2 7 3 1 31.6 F a i r 10 5 7 3 2 23.1 Satisfactory 5 8 3 3 1 17.1 Good 2 9 6 1 3 17.9 Excellent - 3 1 - 2 5.1 No building 4 2 - - 5.1 COLUMN TOTAL 38.5 24.8 20.5 8.5 7.7 100.0 N = 117 62 We can see from Table 17 that a l though a l a r g e m a j o r i t y (94.9%) o f t eachers r e p o r t e d having a c c e s s 1 1 to b u i l d i n g s i n which to teach t h e i r a p p l i e d educat ion s u b j e c t , the q u a l i t y o f t h o s e b u i l d i n g s v a r i e d w i t h i n s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g the same or d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . For example, 2 Commerce t eachers s a i d the b u i l d i n g i n w h i c h they t a u g h t t h e i r s u b j e c t was o f p o o r q u a l i t y w h i l e 3 o f t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n d i c a t e d the b u i l d i n g they used was of e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y . In a r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n ( Qu es t ion 3) t e a c h e r s were asked whether the b u i l d i n g i n w h i c h they t a u g h t t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t was permanent or temporary. 73.1% s a i d they taught t h e i r a p p l i e d educat ion subjec t i n a permanent b u i l d i n g w h i l e 17.6% of them used temporary b u i l d i n g s . In c o n t r a s t , the remaining 9.2% i n d i c a t e d they had no b u i l d i n g s i n which to teach t h e i r a p p l i e d educat ion s u b j e c t . The p r e c e e d i n g r e s u l t s o f Q u e s t i o n s 2 and 3 suggest that the b u i l d i n g s used by the m a j o r i t y o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a r e o f p e r m a n e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n but needed r e p a i r and maintenance. 4.2.10 Use of Working Space T e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d i n Q u e s t i o n 42> t o r a t e how a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e i r working space was u t i l i z e d , f o r example, whether i t was used for s t o r i n g broken desks . The responses L 1 P r o j e c t e d dates that headteachers expected most a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l rooms to be completed ( T a b l e 20) sugges t most b u i l d i n g s c u r r e n t l y u s e d f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n are i m p r o v i s e d . 63 o b t a i n e d were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s t a u g h t by i n d i v i d u a l respondents. The r e s u l t s a r e shown on Tab l e 18. R e s u l t s i n Table 18 suggests t h a t b e s i d e t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n , t h e w o r k i n g s p a c e a v a i l a b l e t o 43.8% o f a l l respondents was used f o r oth e r purposes, f o r example, s t o r i n g of broken desks. The s e r i o u s n e s s of t h i s problem v a r i e d from one s c h o o l t o the oth e r but i t was most p r e v a l e n t among Table 18 DSE OF WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (Al Poor 11 4 2 2 - 18.1 F a i r 13 3 5 4 2 25.7 Sat i s f a c t o r y 6 5 7 4 1 21.9 Good 9 8 8 - 3 26 .7 E x c e l l e n t - 5 1 - 2 7.6 COLUMN TOTAL 37.1 23.8 21.9 9.5 7.6 100.0 N = 105 s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g A g r i c u l t u r e , and Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n . 64 4.2.11 S u i t a b i l i t y of Demonstration & Planning Spaces T e a c h e r s were a s k e d i n Q u e s t i o n 1 j t o r a t e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y of t h e i r demonstration and planning spaces. Table 19 shows r e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g the responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject taught by each respondent. Table 19 SUITABILITY OF DEMONSTRATION AND PLANNING SPACES BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Poor 14 2 6 - - 20.2 F a i r 13 11 6 4 2 33.0 Satisfactory 5 3 6 3 - 15.6 Good 3 5 3 - 10.1 Excellent 1 1 1 2.8 Do not have 8 1 - - 1 10.1 Not Applicable 3 3 1 1 2 8.3 COLUMN TOTAL 43.1 22.9 21.1 8.3 4.6 100.0 N = 109 With o n l y 28.8% of the respondents i n d i c a t i n g they had s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g s p a c e s , a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h e s e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s seemed to be a 65 problem f o r most t e a c h e r s . Even i n Home Science where 22 (95.7%) respondents reported having demonstration and plann i n g s p a c e s , o n l y 43.5% o f them s a i d t h e s e r e s o u r c e s were s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r . 4 . 2 . 1 2 A n t i c i p a t e d Completion Dates f o r S p e c i a l Rooms Headteachers were asked i n Question v i i i "What was / w i l l be the date f o r the completion of a p p l i e d education f a c i l i t y needed to teach the subject f o r which you are f i l l i n g - o u t t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e ? " R e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w e r e c r o s s t a b u l a t e d with the s u b j e c t f o r which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f i l l e d out. Results are shown on Table 20. Table 20 COMPLETION DATES FOR SPECIAL ROOMS BY SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY SUBJECT ROW TOTAL (%) AGRIC- ULTURE COMMERCE HOME SCIENCE WOODW & BLDG CONS ECON & ACCOUNT Before 1987 1 1 1 3 - 5.7 Between 1987 - 1988 5 2 7 2 - 15.1 Between 1989 - 1990 20 12 10 2 2 43.4 After 1990 18 9 5 2 4 35.8 COLUMN TOTAL 41.5 22.6 21.7 8.5 5.7 100.0 N = 106 66 R e s u l t s i n Table 20 suggest t h a t o n l y 6 (5.7%) schools which responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e had s p e c i a l rooms f o r t h e i r a p p l i e d education subjects by the end of the f i r s t year that the program was implemented. This p r o p o r t i o n rose to 22 s c h o o l s (20.8%) by the end of the t h i r d year (1988). I f p r o j e c t i o n s by headteachers were c o r r e c t , an a d d i t i o n a l 46 (53.4%) s c h o o l s w i l l have s p e c i a l rooms by the end of 1990 while the remaining 38 (35.8%) schools were expected to have t h i s p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t y a f t e r that year. 4.3.0 Section B: Instructional Materials 4.3.1 A v a i l a b i l i t y of S u i t a b l e C l a s s Textbooks T e a c h e r s were a s k e d i n Q u e s t i o n 5d t o r a t e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u i t a b l e c l a s s textbooks f o r t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t . T a b l e 21 shows t h e r e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g the obtained responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject each respondent taught. 67 Table 21 AVAILABILITY OF SUITABLE CLASS TEXTBOOKS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT L U L _ Poor 17 7 5 4 3 30.5 Fai r 15 11 9 3 3 34.7 Satisfactory 7 4 4 - 1 13.6 Good 4 7 5 1 - 14.4 Excellent 1 - - - - 0.8 Do not have 3 - 1 1 1 5.1 Not Applicable - 1 - - 0.8 COLUMN TOTAL 39.8 25.4 20.3 7.6 6.8 100.0 N = 118 A v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u i t a b l e c l a s s t e x t b o o k s w e re r a t e d a s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y by t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n e a c h s u b j e c t a r e a . 4.3.2 Adequacy of Reference M a t e r i a l s One h u n d r e d and t w e n t y t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d e d t o Q u e s t i o n 5e a b o u t t h e a d e q u a c y o f r e f e r e n c e b o o k s a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e 68 m a t e r i a l s . The r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t e a c h r e s p o n d e n t t a u g h t a s shown on T a b l e 2 2 . Table 22 ADEQUACY OF REFERENCE MATERIALS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT L*J_ Poor 19 8 6 5 2 33.3 F a i r 14 11 10 2 4 34.2 S a t i s f a c t o r y 6 5 5 - - 13.3 Good 5 5 1 2 1 11.7 E x c e l l e n t - 1 2 - 2.5 Do not have 3 - - 1 1 4.2 Not A p p l i c a b l e - 1 - - - 0.8 COLUMN TOTAL 39.2 25.8 20.0 8.3 6.7 100.0 N = 120 A l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n e a c h s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y i n d i c a t e d t h e y h a d c l a s s t e x t b o o k s , b u t b e t w e e n 61.3% a n d 75 .0% o f t h e m i n d i c a t e d t h e l e v e l o f a d e q u a c y f o r t h e i r r e f e r e n c e b o o k s a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s w a s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 69 4.3.3 A v a i l a b i l i t y of Teaching Aids Q u e s t i o n 5c a s k e d t e a c h e r s to r a t e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g a i d s f o r t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t , f o r example, models, c h a r t s , overhead p r o j e c t o r s , e t c . Table 23 shows r e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g t e a c h e r s responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject each respondent taught. Table 23 AVAILABILITY OF TEACHING AIDS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT L * J _ Poor 18 9 4 2 1 30.4 Fai r 6 5 5 2 1 17.0 Satisfactory 2 2 2 1 - 6.3 Good 1 3 1 - - 4.5 Excellent - - 2 - - 1.8 Do not have 19 6 9 5 2 36.6 Not Applicable 1 1 1 - 1 3.6 COLUMN TOTAL 42.0 23.2 21.4 8.9 4.5 100.0 N = 112 A v a i l a b i l i t y of teaching a i d s f o r a p p l i e d education was r a t e d as s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r by 12.6% (14 out of 112) of the r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s apparent problem seemed t o be most acute i n Economics & Accounts and A g r i c u l t u r e . But even i n Home S c i e n c e where a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g a i d s was r e p o r t e d l y l e a s t acute, only 20.8% of the respondents i n that s u b j e c t category rated i t as s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r . 4.3.4 Adequacy and A v a i l a b i l i t y of Consumable M a t e r i a l s Teachers were asked i n Question 5a to rate the adequacy and a v a i l a b i l i t y of consumable m a t e r i a l s needed to teach t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t . Responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h the s u b j e c t each r e s p o n d e n t t a u g h t . R e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are shown on Table 24. Table 24 ADEQUACY OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ROW ADEQUACY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & BOON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Poor 18 8 4 2 1 28.0 Fair 8 4 4 - 1 14.4 Satisfactory 4 1 5 3 - 11.0 Good 2 5 5 2 - 11.9 Excellent 3 1 1 2 5.9 Do not have 8 3 4 2 1 15.3 Not Applicable 4 8 - - 4 13.6 COLUMN TOTAL 39.8 24.6 19.5 8.5 7.6 100.0 N = 118 71 Except i n Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n , the m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n each s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y were a p p a r e n t l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the adequacy of consumable m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t . Even i n Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n , 4 (40%) of the respondents e i t h e r rated the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of t h e i r consumable m a t e r i a l s as poor or impli e d they d i d not have t h i s resource. In another r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n (Question 6) t e a c h e r s were asked, "Apart from minor changes, how o f t e n have you had to adapt your teaching plans t h i s year because of d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g the necessary consumable m a t e r i a l s ? " Table 25 shows r e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subje c t each respondent taught. Table 25 AVAILABILITY OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS BY SUBJECT S U B J E C T F R E Q U E N C Y ROW O F PROBLEMS AGRIC— COMMERCE HOME WOODW & E C O N & T O T A L U L T U R E S C I E N C E BLDG CONS ACCOUNT L i l _ None 8 6 4 2 1 24.7 1 to 3 times 18 8 4 2 1 38.8 4 to 5 times 8 4 5 - 1 21.2 At l e a s t 6 4 1 5 3 - 15.3 t imes COLUMN T O T A L 44.7 22.4 21.2 8.2 3.5 100.0 N = 85 72 The frequency of d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n o b t a i n i n g necessary consumable m a t e r i a l s f o r teaching a p p l i e d education v a r i e d from one s c h o o l t o the o t h e r . For example, e i g h t (21.1%) headteachers of schools o f f e r i n g A g r i c u l t u r e i n d i c a t e d they had no problem o b t a i n i n g such r e s o u r c e s . In c o n t r a s t , four (10.5%) of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n d i c a t e d they encountered such d i f f i c u l t i e s at l e a s t s i x times w i t h i n the same p e r i o d of time. A t h i r d q u e s t i o n on consumable m a t e r i a l s (Question v i i ) asked h e a d t e a c h e r s , "In your s c h o o l , what i s the e s t i m a t e d cost of consumable m a t e r i a l s f o r one student per year i n Kenya S h i l l i n g s ? " An accompanying note to the quest i o n emphasized that the requested cost estimate was f o r the SPECIFIC s u b j e c t f o r which the TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE was completed. Table 26 shows r e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject c a t e g o r i e s of each respondent. 73 Table 26 ANNUAL COST ESTIMATE OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS PER STUDENT COST IN KENYA SHILLINGS (KSh.) SUBJECT ROW TOTAL (%) AGRIC- ULTURE COMMERCE HOME SCIENCE WOODW & BLDG CONS ECON & ACCOUNT Up to 100 15 4 2 1 1 25.6 101 to 200 9 7 3 1 - 22 .2 201 to 300 6 7 7 2 - 24.4 301 to 400 - - 2 1 1 4.4 401 to 500 3 1 2 1 - 4.4 Over 600 5 - 3 1 2 12 .2 COLUMN TOTAL 42 .2 21.1 23.3 8.9 4.4 100.0 N = 90 T a b l e 26 i n d i c a t e s t h e e s t i m a t e d a n n u a l c o s t o f consumable m a t e r i a l s per student f o r the same subject category v a r i e d from one s c h o o l to the o t h e r . S i m i l a r l y , v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of headteachers of s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g A g r i c u l t u r e (78.9%), Commerce (94.6%), and Home Science (57.1%) estimated the a n n u a l c o s t of consumable m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d by one student i n those subjects to be KSh. 300 or l e s s . E s t imated c o s t of consumable m a t e r i a l s seemed to a f f e c t the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of the l e v e l o f adequacy of those 74 m a t e r i a l s o b t a i n e d f o r each s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y . For example, 94.6%, 78.9%, and 57.1% of headteachers of s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g Commerce, A g r i c u l t u r e , and Home Science r e s p e c t i v e l y estimated the annual c o s t of consumable m a t e r i a l s per student as KSh. 300. Corresponding p r o p o r t i o n s of the same headteachers who i n d i c a t e d the adequacy of the consumable m a t e r i a l s t h e y o b t a i n e d f o r t h e i r s c h o o l s was s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r was 20.6%, 19.2%, and 47.7% r e s p e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e s t i m a t e d c o s t d i d not seem to minimize problems encountered while o b t a i n i n g those m a t e r i a l s (see Table 25). 75 CHAPTER FIVE: TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND PEDAGOGICAL AREAS OFFERED 5.1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter comprise r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s of responses t o q u e s t i o n s concerning teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the s u b j e c t o f f e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . T h e s e c t i o n on t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s addresses research question number two i n t h i s s t u d y . I t p r e s e n t s d a t a on t e a c h e r s ' a g e , s e x , q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , b e l i e f i n s i x purposes of a p p l i e d education i n Kenya high schools, and t h e i r (teachers') i n t e r e s t and demands of teaching a p p l i e d education. Research que s t i o n number three i s answered i n the s e c t i o n on subjects o f f e r e d i n the s c h o o l s . T h i s s e c t i o n c o m p r i s e d a t a on s t u d e n t enrolment, s u b j e c t d i v e r s i t y , b a s i s and c r i t e r i a f o r s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n , and a n t i c i p a t e d subject changes. 5.2.0 Section A: Teacher Characteristics 5.2.1 Age And Sex of A p p l i e d Education Teachers In Q u e s t i o n s 18 and 20, t e a c h e r s were asked t o s t a t e t h e i r age and sex. Table 27 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of teachers by subject category. 76 Table 27 DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS' AGE AND SEX BY SUBJECT CATEGORY SUBJECT AGE AND SEX ROW AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT .IM- AGE Under 25 years 6 3 8 1 1 15.7 25 to 29 years 27 16 10 7 6 54.5 30 to 34 years 6 7 1 1 1 13.2 35 to 39 years 3 3 4 - 1 9.1 40 to 44 years 4 2 - 1 - 5.8 Over 44 years 1 1 - - 1.7 Male 41 28 2 9 7 70.7 SEX Female 7 4 22 1 2 29.3 Except i n Home Science, the vast m a j o r i t y of teachers i n each subject category were males. Because teachers a l s o serve as r o l e models to t h e i r s t u d e n t s , t e a c h i n g of one or more s u b j e c t s by a l a r g e number of t e a c h e r s of the same sex i s l i k e l y t o b i a s s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e i n those s u b j e c t s . But, student enrolment shown i n Table 38 suggests t h i s i s not a s e r i o u s problem i n a p p l i e d education. Most teachers were remarkably young i n age. Over 70% of them were under, 30 years of age and an a d d i t i o n a l 13.2% o f 77 them were b e t w e e n 30 and 34 y e a r s o l d . R e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g teachers age and sex showed age was s i m i l a r l y d i s t r i b u t e d among males and females. 5.3.0 Academic, T e c h n i c a l , and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f Teachers 5.3.1 Academic and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Q u e s t i o n 15 asked t e a c h e r s to s t a t e the names of the h i g h e s t c e r t i f i c a t e they h e l d i n t h e i r major academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l areas. Table 28 shows r e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the s u b j e c t taught by each respondent. A n o t a b l e t h i n g on Table 28 i s the high number (63) of u n t r a i n e d teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y the 40 (32.8%) teachers with A-Level (Advanced High School Level) C e r t i f i c a t e . 78 Table 28 ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION OF TEACHERS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF HOW QUALIFICATION AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT : (%) Trained Graduate/ n , c . . J rn 1. 9 -> 5 - - 15.6 Approved Teacher Untrained 2 3 - 4.2 Graduate Diplomate or SI 14 12 6 5 3 32.7 f T t r a i ? S d 17 11 7 - 5 32.8 A-Level " n t ^ i n 6 d 4 1 5 5 1 13.1 Craftsman Untrained Others 1 - 1 - - 1.6 COLUMN TOTAL 38.5 26.5 19.7 8.2 7.4 100.0 _____ C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s of the i n s t i t u t i o n s where teach e r s s t u d i e d the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t they taught (Question 22) and t h e t e a c h e r s ' a c a d e m i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n ( Q u e s t i o n 12) showed those 40 (32.8%) u n t r a i n e d A - L e v e l t e a c h e r s a t t e n d e d academic h i g h s c h o o l s . In a d d i t i o n t o t r a i n i n g them i n p e d a g o g i c a l s k i l l s , t h e s e t e a c h e r s ' competence i n p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s i n t h e i r subject areas should, t h e r e f o r e , be monitored to ensure they (the t e a c h e r s ) are e f f e c t i v e i n teaching the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d by the s y l l a b u s of t h e i r s u b j e c t . For the same reason, teacher education should be extended to the other 23 (18.9%) untrained teachers shown on Table 28. 5.3.2 I n s t i t u t i o n A t t e n d e d f o r P r e - s e r v i c e ( T e c h n i c a l ) T r a i n i n g In Question 22, teachers were asked, "Where d i d you study the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t you are t e a c h i n g ? " T a b l e 29 shows d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e a c h e r s by i n s t i t u t i o n a t t e n d e d and academic l e v e l s t u d i e d . Table 29 DISTRIBUTION OF APPLIED EDUCATION TEACHERS BY INSTITUTION ATTENDED AND LEVEL STUDIED INSTITUTION ATTENDED LEVEL STUDIED Major Minor ROW TOTAL % Harambee Institute of Science and Technology Technical School _ Academic High School Craft Training Centre Government Diploma College National Polytechnic Univers i t y 17 2 28 1 24 2 17 3 23 1 2 2 3 13.6 4.0 40.8 1.6 20.8 3.3 16.0 COLUMN TOTAL (%) 72.8 27.2 100 . 0 Not only d i d 51 (40.8%) of the 125 teachers i n Table 29 study t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t a t an academic h i g h s c h o o l , but 23 out of these 51 teachers s t u d i e d i t as a minor s u b j e c t . R e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject c a t e g o r i e s revealed 37 of them were 80 e i t h e r i n A g r i c u l t u r e or Commerce. S u r p r i s i n g l y , only 4.0% of a l l the 125 t e a c h e r s attended t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l s . One would have expected a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of untrained teachers to have been r e c r u i t e d from t e c h n i c a l school l e a v e r s because they a r e presumed t o have more t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s than t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s from academic high s c h o o l s . 5.3.3 I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g In Question 14, teachers were given a l i s t of f i v e forms of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and a f i v e - p o i n t o r d i n a l s c a l e beside each form of t r a i n i n g . They were then asked to i n d i c a t e , on that l i s t , the forms of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g they had attended and rate the l e v e l of usefulness f o r each of those f i v e forms of t r a i n i n g on the s c a l e provided. The r e s u l t s are shown on Table 30. 81 Table 30 DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER ATTENDANCE AND PERCEIVED LEVEL OF USEFULNESS OF FIVE FORMS OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING FORM OF NUMBER OF IN-SERVICE TEACHERS LEVEL OF USEFULNESS TRAINING WHO ATTENDED MOST USEFUL LEAST USEFUL (N) 5 4 3 2 1 Informal meetings with other applied education teachers 59 25 16 10 6 13 Workshops presented by other applied education teachers 5 14 17 2 2 3 Workshops presented by Ministry of Education off i c i a l s 32 16 9 10 6 6 Formal courses in subject content 10 26 15 11 4 2 Formal courses in method- ologies of teaching applied education 8 30 14 8 - 2 R e s u l t s i n T a b l e 30 show a m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s who r a t e d t h e l e v e l o f u s e f u l n e s s o f e a c h f o r m o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d t h e y c o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m a t t e n d i n g any one o f t h e f i v e f o r m s o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . When t h e number o f t e a c h e r s who r a t e d t h e l e v e l o f u s e f u l n e s s o f e a c h f o r m o n i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a s 4 a n d 5 a r e a d d e d t o g e t h e r , i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r m e e t i n g s , f o r m a l s u b j e c t c o n t e n t , a n d f o r m a l c o u r s e s i n 82 t e a c h i n g methodologies were p e r c e i v e d by the m a j o r i t y of respondents as the most useful form of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . Workshops by Minis try of Education O f f i c i a l s appeared to be the most common formal ly organized form of i n - s e r v i c i n g app l i ed e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s but r e l a t i v e l y fewer of the t eachers i n d i c a t e d they benefited or would benefit from that form of i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , few t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e d workshops presented by the ir colleagues as a he lpfu l form of in - serv ice t r a i n i n g . Given the large number of untrained teachers with an A-Leve l C e r t i f i c a t e (see Table 28), the apparently inadequate i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g for teachers i s a ser ious concern for implementat ion of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , l ack of i n t e r e s t i n i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g indicated by the r e l a t i v e l y poor attendance and few responses about perce ived l e v e l of use fu lness of each form i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s a s e r i o u s concern. 5.3.4 Teaching Experience In Question 13, teachers were asked, "Including th i s year ( 1988), for how long have you taught?" D i s t r i b u t i o n of the teachers according to the number of years taught i s shown in Table 31. 83 Table 31 DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF YEARS TAUGHT NUMBER OF YEARS TAUGHT SUBJECT ROW TOTAL (%) AGRIC- ULTURE COMMERCE HOME SCIENCE WOODW & BLDG CONS ECON & ACCOUNT 2 or l e s s 29 11 15 6 4 52 .8 3 to 5 9 13 4 2 3 25.2 6 to 8 4 2 - - 1 5.7 9 to 11 1 3 - 1 1 4.9 12 to 14 2 1 3 - - 4.9 Over 14 3 2 2 1 - 6.5 COLUMN TOTAL 39.0 26 .0 19.5 8.1 7.3 100.0 N = 123 About 53% of the t e a c h e r s had taught f o r two years or l e s s . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n r e f l e c t e d the l a r g e number of new t e a c h e r s r e c r u i t e d t o teach a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n when i t was s t a r t e d i n a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n 1986 . I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t a v a s t m a j o r i t y (78%) of the t e a c h e r s had taught f o r 5 years or l e s s . These r e l a t i v e l y few years of teaching experience were c o n s i s t e n t with the young age of the m a j o r i t y of teachers reported i n Table 27. 84 5.4.0 Demands of A p p l i e d Education on Teachers 5.4.1 C l a s s S i z e Teachers were asked i n Question 20, "How many students a r e i n your l a r g e s t a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n c l a s s t h i s t e r m ? " R e s u l t s of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n and the subject each respondent taught are shown i n Table 32. Table 32 CLASS SIZE BY SUBJECT CATEGORY SUBJECT NUMBER OF ROW STUDENTS AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT L i l _ 20 or less 15 8 2 1 1 22.1 21 to 24 1 2 1 3 1 6.6 25 to 28 3 4 - 1 2 8.2 29 to 32 5 4 4 1 2 13.1 33 to 36 5 4 - 2 - 9.0 Over 36 18 10 17 2 3 41.0 COLUMN TOTAL 38.5 26.2 19.7 8.2 7.1 100.0 N = 122 T a b l e 32 shows t h a t c l a s s s i z e s i n the same s u b j e c t category v a r i e d from one school to the other. For example, 15 Home S c i e n c e teachers i n d i c a t e d t h e i r c l a s s e s had up to 20 s t u d e n t s w h i l e 18 of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n other s c h o o l s had over 36 s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . D i f f e r e n t c l a s s s i z e s 85 imply v a r y i n g amounts of work l o a d f o r the t e a c h e r s . The h e a v i e r the l o a d , the h i g h e r the chances t h a t the teacher would be l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n teaching. Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g to note i n Table 32 i s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s t u d e n t s i n A g r i c u l t u r e and Commerce i n t o s m a l l (20 s t u d e n t s or l e s s ) and l a r g e (over 36 s t u d e n t s ) c l a s s e s . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n was more l i k e l y to compound the p r o b l e m of e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d the same q u a l i t y of education. In t h e p a s t , c l a s s s i z e i n most a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s was u s u a l l y 20 students or l e s s . T h i s r e l a t i v e l y small c l a s s s i z e enabled the teacher to monitor the s a f e t y of p e o p l e , m a t e r i a l s , equipment and s k i l l development of the students during a p p l i e d education c l a s s s e s s i o n s . The e f f e c t , i f any, of l a r g e c l a s s s i z e s (e.g., over 36 students) on these two aspects of a p p l i e d education should be s t u d i e d . 5.4.2 P e r c e i v e d Time Inadequacy When asked whether they had enough time to cover " t h i s year's part of a p p l i e d education s y l l a b u s f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t , " ( Q u e s t i o n 2 1 ) , 80 out o f 121 r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t i me was " d e f i n i t e l y not enough". An a d d i t i o n a l 39 i n d i c a t e d the o f f i c i a l l y a l l o c a t e d t i m e was " j u s t enough" w h i l e t h e remaining 2 respondents ( i n Commerce) s a i d time was "more than enough". 86 Responses to Q u e s t i o n 21 were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h the t e a c h e r s r e s p o n s e s t o the q u e s t i o n about t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n c l a s s s i z e ( Q u e s t i o n 20). R e s u l t s a r e shown i n Table 33. Table 33 LEVEL OF ADEQUACY OF OFFICIALLY-ALLOCATED TIME BY APPLIED EDUCATION CLASS SIZE T I M E ADEQUACY NUMBER OF STUDENTS P E R C L A S S ROW T O T A L (%) 20 OR L E S S 21 TO 28 29 T O 36 OVER 36 More Than Enough 1 1 - — 1.6 Just Enough 9 6 9 18 32 .8 Def i n i t e l y Not Enough 16 13 18 38 65.9 COLUMN T O T A L 20 .2 15.6 20.9 43.4 100.0 N = 129 The i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g to note i n Table 33 i s that 16 out of 26 (61.5%) teachers with small c l a s s e s agreed with 38 out of t h e i r 56 (67.9%) colleagues who had c l a s s s i z e s of over 36 s t u d e n t s t h a t o f f i c i a l l y a l l o c a t e d time was d e f i n i t e l y not enough. T h i s agreement suggests that the s y l l a b u s content was more than what most (65.9%) teachers could e f f e c t i v e l y teach w i t h i n the time a l l o c a t e d . Furthermore, the m a j o r i t y of 87 teachers i n each c l a s s s i z e category s a i d o f f i c i a l l y a l l o c a t e d time was d e f i n i t e l y not enough. 5.4.3 Weekly Teaching Load Teachers were asked i n Question 18 and 19 to s t a t e how many 40 minute p e r i o d s they taught per week and how many of those weekly lessons were on a p p l i e d education. A n a l y s i s of responses to these two questions are shown i n Table 34. Table 34 NUMBER OF TOTAL AND APPLIED EDUCATION LESSONS TAUGHT PER WEEK _„__ __ NUMBER OF LESSONS PER WEEK TYPE OF WEEKLY ROW LOAD 0 7 14 21 28 35 TOTAL to to to to to to Over 6 13 20 27 34 41 41 Total 10 8 29 59 14 1 6 127 Load Applied Education 42 39 21 12 4 5 4 127 We see i n Table 34 that at l e a s t 83.5% of the teachers had l e s s than the recommended teacher load of 30 les s o n s per week. A l i g h t e r load probably helped them cope with the many demands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h implementing a new program but as noted i n s e c t i o n 5.7 that help was not good enough to o f f - s e t problems created by time inadequacy. I t should be noted that at the time t h i s study was conducted (1988) the schools d i d not have a Form Four (senior most high school) c l a s s because 88 of the change from the 7-4-2-3 1 2 t o the 8-4-4 s y s t e m of e d u c a t i o n . Normal e n r o l m e n t was e x p e c t e d t o resume i n J a n u a r y , 1989. B e g i n n i n g i n 1989, the t e a c h i n g l o a d o f t e a c h e r s must have r i s e n higher than the one shown i n Table 34. A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i n T a b l e 34 was t h a t while 88 (69.3%) of the teachers i n d i c a t e d t h e i r t o t a l weekly load was between 14 and 27 lessons per week, 81(63.8%) of them s a i d they taught up to 13 l e s s o n s of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n per week. These f i g u r e s suggest that a p p l i e d education teachers taught other s u b j e c t s as w e l l . 5.5.0 P e r c e i v e d T e a c h e r s ' A b i l i t y t o Cope w i t h Demands o f Implementing A p p l i e d Education Teachers were asked i n Question 8 how they f e l t about the demands made on them i n implementing the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s y l l a b u s f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t . T a b l e 35 shows r e s u l t s o f a n a l y s i s of responses to t h i s q u estion. 1 2 T h i s system of e d u c a t i o n c o m p r i s e d seven y e a r s of p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , f o u r y e a r s of secondary e d u c a t i o n , two y e a r s of h i g h e r s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , and t h r e e y e a r s o f minimum u n i v e r s i t y education. 89 Table 35 TEACHERS' ABILITY TO COPE APPLIED EDUCATION WITH DEMANDS OF IMPLEMENTING SUBJECT LEVEL OF TEACHERS' ROW ABILITY AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON _ TOTAL TO COPE ULTUHE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Cannot Cope 3 - - - - 2.5 Somet imes Too Demanding 31 17 17 2 6 60.8 Generally Can Cope 11 10 6 5 3 29.2 Demands Not A Problem 2 4 1 2 - 7.5 COLUMN TOTAL 39.2 25.8 20.0 7.5 7.5 100.0 N = 120 R e s u l t s i n T a b l e 35 i n d i c a t e t hat 90% of the t e a c h e r s f e l t they c o u l d , a l b e i t with d i f f i c u l t i e s , cope with demands of implementing t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s y l l a b u s . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n a l f e e l i n g s were expressed by 77.8% of the teachers i n Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n who e i t h e r s a i d they c o u l d g e n e r a l l y cope or that such demands posed no s p e c i a l problems to them. 5.6.0 Teacher I n t e r e s t i n Teaching A p p l i e d Education Question 7 asked t e a c h e r s , " I f you had a c h o i c e , would you avoid teaching a p p l i e d education a l t o g e t h e r ? " . Responses 90 to th i s question were crosstabulated with subject categories as shown in Table 36. Table 36 TEACHER INTEREST IN TEACHING APPLIED EDUCATION BY SUBJECT CATEGORY SUBJECT ROW TEACHER AGRIC- COMMERCE HOME WOODW & ECON & TOTAL INTEREST ULTURE SCIENCE BLDG CONS ACCOUNT (%) Would Avoid 10 8 2 1 2 18.9 Given Choice Undecided 5 4 2 1 1 10.7 Whether Would Avoid Would Not Avoid 33 19 20 8 6 70.5 Given Choice COLUMN TOTAL 39.3 25.4 19.7 8.1 7.4 100.0 N = 122 It was a welcome s u r p r i s e to note i n Table 36 t h a t , despite heavy demands of the syllabuses on the teachers (see Table 35), 70.5% of them said they would continue teaching appl ied education even i f they had other (presumably better) choices . Home Science, and Woodwork & Bui lding Construction had p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s (83.3% and 80.0% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) of teachers i n t e r e s t e d i n teaching a p p l i e d education. However, the 18.9% of the teachers who suggested they taught applied education because they lacked a l t ernat ive c h o i c e s s h o u l d be a s o u r c e o f c o n c e r n b e c a u s e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h any a s p e c t o f t h e i r s u b j e c t i s l i k e l y t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t e a c h i n g t h a t s u b j e c t . 5.7.0 L e v e l s o f S c h o o l i n g t h a t T e a c h e r s P r e f e r r e d t o T e a c h A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n Q u e s t i o n 9 a s k e d t e a c h e r s " I f you had a c h o i c e , a t w h i c h l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g w o u l d y o u p r e f e r t o t e a c h a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n ? " . R e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h r e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s t i o n 1 2 ( a ) w h i c h e n q u i r e d a b o u t t h e t e a c h e r ' s h i g h e s t l e v e l o f a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n . R e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e shown on T a b l e 37. T a b l e 37 LEVEL OF SCHOOLING THAT TEACHERS PREFERRED TO TEACH BY HIGHEST LEVEL OF ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION ATTAINED LEVEL OF SCHOOLING CERTIFICATE ROW TOTAL Graduate/ Approved Teacher Diploma/ SI Craft A-Level Primary 4 1 - 1 5. Form One 3 4 - 1 6 . Form Two 4 4 2 12 18 . Form Three 3 5 1 11 16. Form Four 7 11 4 11 28. Post Secondary 2 4 3 1 8 . Any Level - 12 4 3 16. N=118 92 The r e s u l t s i n Table 37 show an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n of t e a c h e r s ' choice of the l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g they p r e f e r r e d to teach. Contrary to what one might expect, almost h a l f of the graduated/approved teachers (11 out of 23) p r e f e r r e d to teach at p r i m a r y s c h o o l or j u n i o r secondary l e v e l (Forms One and Two) compared to the 2 graduate/approved t e a c h e r s who s a i d they would have l i k e d to teach at the post-secondary l e v e l . U n l i k e any other category of teachers, a l l graudate/approved t e a c h e r s had t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s about the l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g they l i k e d to teach. In c o n t r a s t , 26 (65%) untrained (see Table 27) teachers with A-Level c e r t i f i c a t e i n d i c a t e d they l i k e d to teach at the Senior Secondary (Forms Three and Four) l e v e l . S i m i l a r l y high p r o p o r t i o n s of t e a c h e r s with Diploma/Si (48.8%), and C r a f t ( 5 7 .1%) c e r t i f i c a t e s p r e f e r r e d t o t e a c h a t t h e s e n i o r secondary l e v e l . A p p a r e n t l y , t e a c h e r s w i t h h i g h academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s p r e f e r r e d to t e a c h a t the lower l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g and v i s e versa. The cause of t h i s apparent l a c k of a s p i r a t i o n by graduate/Approved t e a c h e r s to teach a t upper l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . 5.9.0 Teacher Be l i e f s i n The Purposes of Applied Education i n Kenya High Schools In Question 11(a) to ( f ) , teachers were asked to r a t e , on a s c a l e of 1 to 6, t h e i r b e l i e f i n each of s i x given purposes of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya high s c h o o l s . The data from 93 t h i s Question were combined i n order to c o l l a p s e the s t r e n g t h of a t e a c h e r ' s b e l i e f i n each purpose of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s . The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 38. Table 38 PURPOSES OF APPLIED EDUCATION BY STRENGTH OF TEACHERS BELIEF IN EACH PURPOSE LEVEL OF STRENGTH OF TEACHER'S BELIEF PURPOSE Most Important Least Important Important Provide technical knowledge and related occupational information to be used for le i s u r e or personal odd jobs Provide occupational exploration to aid students in selecting a career Develop manipulative s k i l l s necessary for securing s e l f - or salaried-employment Prepare for a vocational i n s t i t - ution, such as a Harambee Institute of Science and Technology, National Polytechnic, etc. Develop personal and s o c i a l t r a i t s e s s e n t i a l to hold a job Enrich general education 23 20 39 30 35 16 82 12 5 27 29 22 21 23 32 14 30 35 The most notable r e s u l t i n Table 38 was the high number of t e a c h e r s who i n d i c a t e d they b e l i e v e d the most important purpose f o r teaching a p p l i e d education i n Kenya high s c h o o l s 94 was t o e n a b l e t h e s t u d e n t s t o become s e l f - r e l i a n t a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l . As a r g u e d i n C h a p t e r One, t h i s was t h e m a i n p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was m a n d a t e d a s p a r t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n K e n y a . The a p p a r e n t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e o f f i c i a l a n d t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r s o n a l b e l i e f i n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p u r p o s e o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o e n h a n c e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n . R e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g r e s p o n s e s a b o u t e a c h p u r p o s e o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n and t h e s u b j e c t t a u g h t by e a c h r e s p o n d e n t showed t e a c h e r b e l i e f i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e as t h e most i m p o r t a n t p u r p o s e o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was r o u g h l y u n i f o r m l y s p r e a d among a l l s u b j e c t c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n e a c h s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y b e l i e v e s t u d e n t s c o u l d e a r n t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d f r o m t h e m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s t h e y ( t h e s t u d e n t s ) l e a r n i n a n y o f t h e s t u d i e d a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s . 5.10.0 Section B: Pedagogical Areas Offered 5.10.1 S t u d e n t E n r o l m e n t P e r S u b j e c t A r e a H e a d t e a c h e r s were a s k e d i n Q u e s t i o n i i ( a ) t o f i l l o u t t h e n umber o f b o y s a n d g i r l s e n r o l l e d i n F o r m T h r e e i n e a c h a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t o f f e r e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l . T a b l e 39 shows t h e sum o f e a c h s e x f o r t h e 125 s c h o o l s s t u d i e d . 95 Table 39 STUDENT ENROLMENT BY SUBJECT AREAS ENROLMENT ROW SUBJECT AREA BOYS GIRLS TOTAL Agr iculture 3803 2881 6684 Economics 2910 2401 5311 Home science 1185 1483 2668 Commerce 861 787 1648 Accounts 548 656 1204 Drawing and design 537 360 879 Mus ic 15 354 368 Typing and Office Practice 0 328 328 Woodwork 139 130 269 Art and Design 74 89 163 E l e c t r i c i ty 40 21 61 Building construction 45 0 45 Power mechanics 0 0 0 Metalwork 0 0 0 Compared with the average c l a s s s i z e of 33 to 36 students reported by teachers i n Table 30, the l a r g e enrolment i n Table 39 seems to i n c l u d e a l l the students enroled i n each s u b j e c t area rather than Form Threes only as the question had asked. N o n e t h e l e s s , these r e s u l t s show the s c h o o l s o f f e r e d a wide 96 v a r i e t y o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s (and p r e s u m a b l y p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ) . The number of students e n r o l e d i n each sub j e c t area v a r i e d from 0 i n Metalwork and Power Mechanics to 6684 i n A g r i c u l t u r e . Thus the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s by subject areas seemed unbalanced. Most subject areas with the l e a s t number of students, f o r example, Power Mechanics, Metalwork and E l e c t r i c i t y , would normally r e q u i r e s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s l i k e t o o l s and equipment, working space, e t c . In c o n t r a s t , the s u b j e c t s with t h e h i g h e s t e n r o l m e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , A g r i c u l t u r e and Economics, u s u a l l y r e q u i r e r e l a t i v e l y fewer or more e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s a l s o noteworthy that while a l l the students i n some s u b j e c t a r e a s were of t h e same s e x , t h e r e were l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of bot h boys and g i r l s i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y sex- segregated s u b j e c t s l i k e Home Science and Woodwork. 5.10.2 Curriculum Stakeholders Who A c t u a l l y Chose the Subjec t s O f f e r e d i n The Schools In Q u e s t i o n ( i i i ) , h e a d teachers were asked t o s e l e c t , among s i x gi v e n a l t e r n a t i v e s , the cu r r i c u l u m stakeholder who a c t u a l l y chose the a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t ( s ) o f f e r e d i n h i s or her s c h o o l . Results are shown i n Table 40. 97 Table 40 DISTRIBUTION OF CURRICULUM STAKEHOLDERS WHO ACTUALLY CHOSE THE SUBJECTS OFFERED IN THE SCHOOLS STUDIED ACTUAL CHOOSERS FREQUENCY OF SUBJECT OFFERED N School Staff 62 50.8 Parents/Teachers Association 25 20.5 Students 12 9.8 Ministry of Education 12 9.8 Board of Governors 10 8.3 Unknown to Headteacher 1 0.8 R e s u l t s i n Table 40 suggest the school s t a f f alone made about h a l f of the d e c i s i o n s about the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s s c h o o l s o f f e r e d and an a d d i t i o n a l 20.5% of those d e c i s i o n s were made by teachers and parents. Thus, while the t e a c h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n c h o o s i n g the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n a m a j o r i t y o f the s c h o o l s , p a r e n t a l involvement i n the same d e c i s i o n s was not commensurate with the heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p l a c e d on them by the Cost Sharing P o l i c y (see p. 7). C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of responses to Question ( i i i ) and ( i ) showed that i n a l l the four school c a t e g o r i e s , s c h o o l s t a f f chose the subjects o f f e r e d i n t h e i r school more o f t e n than any other group of c u r r i c u l u m s t a k e h o l d e r s . 98 5.10.3 Main Reason For Choosing A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s O f f e r e d i n Schools H e a d t e a c h e r s were a s k e d i n Q u e s t i o n ( i v ) what t h e y thought was the main reason f o r choosing the a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t o f f e r e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l . Instead of p r o v i d i n g one main r e a s o n as t h e i r r e s p o n s e , a m a j o r i t y ( 3 1 . 7 % ) o f headteachers gave a l t e r n a t i v e s (a), (c) and (d) i n Table 40 as t h e i r response. Consequently, these three a l t e r n a t i v e s were c o l l e c t i v e l y renamed "Any combination of a l t e r n a t i v e s ( a ) , ( c ) , and (d) during a n a l y s i s . " D i s t r i b u t i o n of headteachers a c c o r d i n g t o the main r e a s o n they gave f o r c h o o s i n g t h e a p p l i e d education subject taught at t h e i r school i s shown i n Table 41. 99 Table 41 DISTRIBUTION OF HEADTEACHERS ACCORDING TO THE MAIN REASON FOR CHOOSING APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECT TAUGHT AT THEIR SCHOOL MAIN REASON FREQUENCY N % a) Least expensive to run 24 20.5 b) S k i l l s taught are useful to the community served by the school 29 24.8 c) Physical f a c i l i t i e s required were readily available 13 11.1 d) Lack of q u a l i f i e d teachers in other applied education subjects of interest 12 10.3 e) To enrich academic subjects 2 1.7 f) Any combination of alternatives (a), (c) and (d) 37 31.7 The r e s u l t s i n Table 41 suggest that a m a j o r i t y of the c u r r i c u l u m stakeholders who made the a c t u a l choice about the a p p l i e d education subject taught at i n d i v i d u a l schools mainly c o n s i d e r e d the running cost of the s u b j e c t , a v a i l a b i l i t y of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . When t h e p r o p o r t i o n of the headteachers who i d e n t i f i e d each of these t h r e e f a c t o r s s e p a r a t e l y are added to those headteachers who i d e n t i f i e d the same f a c t o r s c o l l e c t i v e l y , the r e s u l t s show 73.6% of the headteachers i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d e c i s i o n about the a p p l i e d education subject t h e i r schools o f f e r e d was based on i t s p e r c e i v e d r u n n i n g c o s t , a v a i l a b i l i t y of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , o r a 100 combination of two or three of these f a c t o r s . In a d d i t i o n , almost o n e - q u a r t e r of the headteachers c i t e d the p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s k i l l s t a u g h t as the main r e a s o n f o r choosing the a p p l i e d education subject taught at t h e i r s c h o o l . 5.10.4 A n t i c i p a t e d Subject Changes On a l i s t of 14 a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s , headteachers were asked i n Q u e s t i o n (v) to i n d i c a t e the s u b j e c t s t h e i r s c h o o l intended to add or drop from t h e i r s chool c u r r i c u l u m and, i f a p p l i c a b l e , the year i n which they planned to e f f e c t those changes. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the changes that headteachers a n t i c i p a t e d are shown i n Table 42. 101 Table 42 ANTICIPATED SUBJECT CHANGES BY TIME 1988/89 1990/91 TO BE ADDED WHEN SUBJECT Add Drop Add Drop TEACHER AND FACILITIES BECOME AVAILABLE Home Science 10 3 15 - 9 Art & Design 1 - 1 - 6 Agriculture 3 - - 2 E l e c t r i c i t y - - - 1 Power Mechanics_ - - 1 - 1 Woodwork 3 - 9 8 Metalwork - 4 5 Building construction 2 - - - 3 Drawing & Design 2 - 1 - 3 Music 5 - 2 - 3 Accounts 2 1 8 - 3 Commerce 2 2 Economics 7 1 4 1 Typing & Office Practice 1 - - - 5 We see i n Table 42 that almost a l l a n t i c i p a t e d s u b j e c t changes a r e e x p e c t e d t o be a d d i t i o n s of s u b j e c t s t o t h e present c u r r i c u l u m . Some of these changes are expected to be e f f e c t e d by 1991 w h i l e o t h e r s w i l l depend on how soon the 102 necessary e d u c a t i o n a l resources become a v a i a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , 83 headteachers s a i d t h e i r s c h o o l s planned to add one or more a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s on t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m by 1991 and an a d d i t i o n a l 51 headteachers i n d i c a t e d t h e i r s c h o o l s w i l l do the same when a q u a l i f i e d teacher and f a c i l i t i e s become a v a i l a b l e . G i v i n g students a wider c h o i c e of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s was g i v e n by 23 out o f 45 (51.1%) he a d t e a c h e r s as the main reason why t h e i r s c h o o l s i n t e n d e d to add more s u b j e c t s to t h e i r present c u r r i c u l u m . T h i r t e e n (28.9%) more headteachers s a i d t h e i r schools intended to add more sub j e c t s because they had the f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d to t e a c h those s u b j e c t s and the s k i l l s the s t u d e n t s would l e a r n were expected to be more u s e f u l to the students. In c o n t r a s t , o n l y 5 h e a d t e a c h e r s s a i d t h e i r s c h o o l s intended to drop s u b j e c t s they taught. Lack of a q u a l i f i e d teacher (2 s c h o o l s ) , lack of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s (2 s c h o o l s ) , and high running cost (1 school) were c i t e d as the reasons why those f i v e schools intended to drop some s u b j e c t s . 5.10.5 C r i t e r i a S c h o o l s Used t o A s s i g n A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n Subjects to I n d i v i d u a l Form One Students Headteachers were asked i n Question ( i x ) to choose among seven given a l t e r n a t i v e s , the c r i t e r i o n t h e i r schools used to d e c i d e on which a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ( s ) i n d i v i d u a l students would study i n Form One. D i s t r i b u t i o n of f r e q u e n c i e s of responses to t h i s question are shown i n Table 43. 103 Table 43 C R I T E R I A FOR ASSIGNING APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECTS TO INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS IN FORM ONE CRITERIA FREQUENCY N % Subjects are randomly assigned to students by the school before students arrive at the school 25 21.7 Students make their subject choices after a short exposure to a l l applied education subjects offered by the school 7 6.1 Students are exposed to a l l applied education subjects offered by the school, then subjects assigned by the school on the basis of student performance in each applied education subject 31 27.0 Subjects are assigned to students on the basis of their KCPE performance 1 0.9 No s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n i s used 20 17.4 More than one c r i t e r i o n i s used 5 4.3 Students are assigned a l l applied education subjects offered by the school 26 22.6 An important p o i n t to note i n T a b l e 43 i s the v a r y i n g c r i t e r i a s c h ools used to a s s i g n a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s to i n d i v i d u a l students i n Form One. The c l u s t e r i n g of headteacher responses i n t o f o u r c r i t e r i a suggest s c h o o l s i n each group o p e r a t e d under c o n d i t i o n s which p r e d i s p o s e d them to use the same c r i t e r i o n . A m a j o r i t y (31) of the s c h o o l s c o n s i d e r e d t a l e n t s of i n d i v i d u a l students i n a s s i g n i n g them a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t 104 but o n l y 12 s c h o o l s gave t h e i r s t u d e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o choose the subjects they l i k e d . G i v i n g students an o p p o r t u n i t y to choose (when there are choices to be made) the sub j e c t that most i n t e r e s t them would enhance t h e i r performance i n t h a t s u b j e c t and f a i l u r e to do so i s l i k e l y to have the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t . 105 CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter begins with the c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s study which comprise a b r i e f review of the three research q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s study and t h e i r answers. Then important i s s u e s r a i s e d by the r e s u l t s of the study are d i s c u s s e d and the chapter ends with recommendations f o r improving the l e v e l of adequacy of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and teachers. 6.2.0 Conclusions of the Study The g e n e r a l purpose of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l resources a v a i l a b l e f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g each o f f o u r t e e n a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s i n the C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e of Kenya. Three s p e c i f i c problems were addressed i n t h i s study. F i r s t , an attempt was made to assess the l e v e l of adequacy of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Second, the study sought t o i d e n t i f y t e a c h e r s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while the t h i r d problem concerned subjects o f f e r e d among the schoo l s . These concerns i n c l u d e d student enrolment per subject, d i v e r s i t y of s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d , and the c r i t e r i a used by cu r r i c u l u m stakeholders f o r subje c t s e l e c t i o n . As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Three, a p r o p o r t i o n a l random sa m p l e o f 197 (36.8%) s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s s t r a t i f i e d by 106 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s was used i n c o l l e c t i n g the d a t a . Complementary t e a c h e r and headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were developed, p i l o t t e s t e d , and used to c o l l e c t data on any one of fourteen a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s . The s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t f o r which a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was completed and the teachers who f i l l e d out t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s e l e c t e d by the s c h o o l s t a f f . However, the respondent was r e q u i r e d t o have been t e a c h i n g the s u b j e c t f o r which he or she c o m p l e t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The h e a d t e a c h e r f o r each s e l e c t e d s c h o o l a u t o m a t i c a l l y became the r e s p o n d e n t f o r the h e a d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Data a n a l y s i s was done using c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s and f r e q u e n c i e s . In g e n e r a l , the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s suggest that the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f a v a i l a b l e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e inadequate f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the l e v e l of adequacy f o r t h e s e resources v a r i e d from one school to the other i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether those s c h o o l s o f f e r e d the same or d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t areas. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , these r e s u l t s l e d to the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s as e x p r e s s e d by the m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s o r headteachers as the case may be: 6.2.1 P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s 1. S p e c i a l l y b u i l t rooms or b u i l d i n g s were not a v a i l a b l e to most teachers and, according to headteacher p r o j e c t i o n s , 107 they w i l l be ready by 1990 or l a t e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n (35.8%) of te a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d no s e t date i n which they expect to have t h e i r s p e c i a l room b u i l t . However, most i n d i c a t e d that they have access to a b u i l d i n g t h a t they use f o r t e a c h i n g t h e i r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t but the l e v e l of adequacy o f t h e s e improvised b u i l d i n g s i s l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y . Most schools have neither s p e c i a l working spaces f o r the s t u d e n t s o r t h e t e a c h e r nor s t o r a g e s p a c e s f o r tools/equipment, students' c l a s s p r o j e c t s , and consumable m a t e r i a l s . The few working or storage spaces a v a i l a b l e a r e l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y i n q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , A g r i c u l t u r e had the poorest f a c i l i t i e s while Home Science had the best. Amount of classroom space a v a i l a b l e was s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the m a j o r i t y of teachers i n a l l subject areas. But one cannot conclude that new classrooms have been b u i l t f o r a p p l i e d education because, u n l i k e p r a c t i c a l work, theory can be taught i n e x i s t i n g classrooms. S i m i l a r l y , c l a s s desks were a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers and q u a l i t y i n a l l subject areas. The m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n Home S c i e n c e had enough counters but t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n Woodwork and B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n i n d i c a t e d the work benches they had were i n s u f f i c i e n t i n numbers and q u a l i t y . The m a j o r i t y or a l l 108 t e a c h e r s i n Commerce, A c c o u n t s , and E c o n o m i c s s u g g e s t e d t h e y d i d n o t have work b e n c h e s o r c o u n t e r s . 6. The m a j o r i t y o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e i t h e r had no h a n d t o o l s o r e q u i p m e n t ( 6 1 . 7 % ) o r t h e number a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e ones t h e y had was l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y ( 2 8 . 7 % ) . T e a c h e r s w i t h o u t e q u i p m e n t w e r e m a i n l y i n C o m m e r c e , A c c o u n t s , a n d E c o n o m i c s w h i l e t h e r e s t h a d power t o o l s o r e q u i p m e n t b u t t h e q u a l i t y a nd q u a n t i t y was l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e w e r e more t e a c h e r s w i t h hand t o o l s o r e q u i p m e n t t h a n power o p e r a t e d o n e s . 6.2.2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 1. C l a s s t e x t b o o k s and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s were a v a i l a b l e t o most t e a c h e r s b u t i n i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers a n d q u a l i t y . W h i l e t h e b o o k w r i t i n g w o r k s h o p s c o n d u c t e d b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1988 m i g h t e a s e t h e p r o b l e m o f numbers, t h e i r q u a l i t y i s y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d . 2. T e a c h i n g a i d s were e i t h e r u n a v a i l a b l e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t i n n u m b e r . T h i s p r o b l e m was m o s t a c u t e i n E c o n o m i c s , A c c o u n t s , and A g r i c u l t u r e . 3. A b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e c o n s u m a b l e m a t e r i a l s b u t , l i k e o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , t h e y a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t i n q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s h a v e p r o b l e m s p r o c u r i n g t h o s e 109 m a t e r i a l s although they cost KSh 300 or l e s s per student per year. 6.2.3 Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. About 55% of the teachers are between 25 and 29 years o l d and over 83% of them were below 35 years o l d . T h i s age span i s uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d i n a l l subject areas. 2. O v e r a l l , males make up about 70% of a l l a p p l i e d education teachers. Except i n Home Science, they are a m a j o r i t y i n a l l subject areas. 3. Most t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e more academic, t e c h n i c a l , and p e d a g o g i c a l t r a i n i n g to be f u l l y q u a l i f i e d f o r t e a c h i n g A p p l i e d education. About 50% of them have no pedagogical t r a i n i n g and a r e e i t h e r A - L e v e l g r a d u a t e s w i t h an a c a d e m i c b a c k g r o u n d ( 3 2 . 7 % ) , u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s , ( 4 . 2 % ) , or c r a f t s m e n (14.7%). Furthermore, they have taught f o r two years or l e s s . 4. Teaching a p p l i e d education appears to p l a c e great demands on the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s but they cope w i t h t h o s e demands a l b e i t with great d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s s p e c u l a t e d that f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to those demands i n c l u d e inadequate time to cover p r e s c r i b e d s y l l a b u s c o n t e n t ; i n a d e q u a t e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; poor academic, t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; l a r g e c l a s s s i z e s ; and too h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s from parents, communities, and the government. 110 5. The m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s have a l i g h t e r t e a c h i n g l o a d than the p r e s c r i b e d 30 lessons per week. Th e i r average weekly t e a c h i n g l o a d i s 23 l e s s o n s which i n c l u d e s 9 a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s . T h i s l o a d i s l i k e l y t o increase beginning i n January, 1989 when f u l l enrolments occur a f t e r the t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d (7-4-2-3) to the new (8-4-4) system of e d u c a t i o n i s completed a t the secondary school l e v e l . 6. Teacher i n t e r e s t i n continuing to teach a p p l i e d education i s high. While a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n (16.1%) of them have no p r e f e r e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g a t any p a r t i c u l a r academic l e v e l , the major i t y p r e f e r to teach forms th r e e , f o u r , or post-secondary. S u r p r i s i n g l y , graduate teachers tend t o p r e f e r t e a c h i n g at lower academic l e v e l s than other l e s s q u a l i f i e d teachers. 7. T e a c h e r b e l i e f s about the main p u r p o s e o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n are s i m i l a r to those on which the program was f o u n d e d : t h a t p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n c a n be u s e d by t h e s t u d e n t s f o r s e l f - employment, salaried-employment, or f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g . 6.2.4 A p p l i e d Education Subjects O f f e r e d 1. Twelve s u b j e c t areas are o f f e r e d among the s c h o o l s but t h r e e out of e v e r y f o u r s t u d e n t s e n r o l e d i n a p p l i e d education are studying e i t h e r A g r i c u l t u r e , Economics, or Home Scie n c e . A g r i c u l t u r e alone accounts f o r about 1/3 I l l of the t o t a l student enrolment. T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s t u d e n t s i n t o few a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t a r e a s i n d i c a t e the d i v e r s i t y of p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s t h a t the s c h o o l l e a v e r s are a c q u i r i n g at s c h o o l are l i m i t e d and t h e r e f o r e the school l e a v e r s w i l l be competing f o r the same a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f t e r they l e a v e s c h o o l . Almost the same number of boys as g i r l s were e n r o l e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e x - s e g r e g a t e d s u b j e c t a r e a s l i k e Home Science and Woodwork but sex-stereotypes seem to be s t i l l p r e v a l e n t i n M u s i c , T y p i n g & O f f i c e P r a c t i c e , and B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n . D e c i s i o n s about the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s t h a t s c h o o l s o f f e r are made by the h e a d t e a c h e r s and t h e i r s t a f f members. P a r e n t a l and community involvement i n making t h o s e d e c i s i o n s were m i n i m a l compared to the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e n t a i l e d i n such d e c i s i o n s which parents and communities are expected to meet. Although usefulness of the s k i l l s learned was c i t e d as an i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r c h o o s i n g the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t o f f e r e d by i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s , a v a i l a b i l i t y of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , and running c o s t were the main reasons c i t e d f o r the choices made. Thus, the choice of s u b j e c t areas to be o f f e r e d i s made on the b a s i s of a v a i l a b l e resources rather than program o b j e c t i v e s . 112 5. C r i t e r i a used i n the sch o o l s t o decide on the a p p l i e d education subject that each student i n Form One w i l l take i n c l u d e : s t u d e n t s exposure to a l l s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d followed by subject assignment to students by the sch o o l on the b a s i s of student performance, assignment of a l l s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n the school due to lack o f s u b j e c t c h o i c e , and random assignment. Kenya C e r t i f i c a t e of Primary Education (KCPE) r e s u l t s are not considered when a s s i g n i n g subjects to Form One students and only a smal l p r o p o r t i o n (6.1%) of the schools give these students the freedom to choose the subjects they l i k e . 6.3.0 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Conclusions As s t a t e d i n Chapter Three, p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s were randomly s e l e c t e d , and the c o l l a p s e d responses (see Table 4) were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s of Kiambu, K i r i n y a g a , Muranga, Nyandarua, and N y e r i . However, the freedom g i v e n t o s c h o o l s t a f f t o choose the s u b j e c t areas f o r which they responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s meant that pedagogical areas were not randomly s e l e c t e d . In a d d i t i o n , c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s o f some v a r i a b l e s y i e l d e d c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s w i t h some c e l l s h a v i n g l e s s than f i v e c ounts. The approximation of chi-square f o r such t a b l e s was t h e r e f o r e inadequate. Consequently, r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s and c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from these r e s u l t s are not g e n e r a l i z e d beyond p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools. 113 Moreover, the entire educational system i s going through major changes . The q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l mater ia l s , and teachers a v a i l a b l e for the teaching and learning of applied education i s probably changing too. This possible change of avai lable educational resources complicates the process of general iz ing the resu l t s and conclusions of this study. However, the r e l a t i v e l y h igh r e t u r n r a t e (68.0%), r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses across the f i v e adminis trat ive d i s t r i c t s covered in the study, and the high (94.0%) proport ion of students enroled in the subject areas s tudies ra i se serious questions about the qua l i ty of appl ied education offered in the schools. 6.4.0 Discussion Of Results The fol lowing discuss ion ar ises from interes t ing issues a r i s i n g from the results presented in chapters four and f i v e . 6.4.1 C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s to I n a d e q u a c y o f P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s / Instruct ional Materials Results in Chapter Four indicate that physical f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials are not a v a i l a b l e in s u f f i c i e n t quant i t ies and q u a l i t y . For example, headteacher project ions of the dates the ir schools were expected to complete t h e i r s p e c i a l rooms (Table 20) show that at l eas t 35.8% of the schools w i l l remain without a specia l room for an i n d e f i n i t e per iod of time into the 1990s. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e 114 suggests that three f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d and continue to c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s inadequacy of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . The f i r s t one i s a p u b l i c a t t i t u d e that p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s e n t a i l t e d i o u s manual l a b o u r o n l y f i t f o r p e o p l e who a r e i n c a p a b l e of p u r s u i n g academic s u b j e c t s l i k e l i b e r a l a r t s , s c i e n c e s , e t c . Emphasis by the program developers on the use of hand (manual) t o o l s or equipment, and l o c a l m a t e r i a l s might have g i v e n c r e d e n c e to t h i s a t t i t u d e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the r e l a t i v e l y high s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l rewards u s u a l l y given to people with high academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and s e r v i n g i n white c o l l a r j o b s , can only r e i n f o r c e such an a t t i t u d e among the p u b l i c . I f the parents and communities served by i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s p e r c e i v e a p p l i e d education as l e a d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t o c a r e e r s they c o n s i d e r to be of low s o c i a l or economic s t a t u s , they could c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously withhold t h e i r f i n a n c i a l and m a t e r i a l support f o r the program (see p. 7 ) . Doubt about the school l e a v e r s ' chances of becoming s e l f - r e l i a n t through p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s learned i n a p p l i e d education may be y e t a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o i n a d e q u a c y i n p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . A study on P r a c t i c a l Subjects i n Kenya Secondary Schools by Lauglo (1985) c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y about 20% of s c h o o l l e a v e r s with such s k i l l s s u c c e e d e d i n f i n d i n g s a l a r i e d - e m p l o y m e n t and a n e g l i g i b l e number of them became self-employed. A s i m i l a r s t u d y by Yambo (1986) on employment p a t t e r n s of l e a v e r s of 115 Youth P o l y t e c h n i c s (YPs) and Harambee I n s t i t u t e s of Technology (HITs) a l s o found that unemployment among graduates of these two i n s t i t u t i o n s has been i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e 1973 and worsened between 1980 and 1986. Through c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f e m p loyment p a t t e r n s among t h e s e l e a v e r s , p a r e n t s and c o m m u n i t i e s m i g h t have become aware about t h i s r i s i n g unemployment even among p e o p l e w i t h f a r more a d v a n c e d p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s than those learned through a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n may have c a u s e d d o u b t s a b o u t whether p r o f i c i e n c y i n t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s per se can guarantee school l e a v e r s employment to j u s t i f y the heavy f i n a n c i a l c o s t (see Appendix G) they are r e q u i r e d to meet by the Cost S h a r i n g P o l i c y (see p. 7). Huge c a p i t a l and r u n n i n g c o s t s might be the b i g g e s t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the widespread inadequacy of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Appendix G shows the most c o n s e r v a t i v e c o s t e s t i m a t e f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a b a s i c s p e c i a l room for 20 students or a classroom f o r 40 students i n 1984 was KSh 200,000. F u r n i t u r e and t e x t b o o k s f o r one classroom was expected to cost KSh 80,000 per year. While the c o s t of t o o l s and equipment v a r i e d from one s u b j e c t to the other, i t tends to be c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than that of r e g u l a r classrooms. But the cost of p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r teaching and l e a r n i n g each s u b j e c t a r e a i n t h i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y cheaper c l u s t e r of s u b j e c t s i s s t i l l high. The burden of meeting t h i s cost i s made heavier 116 by the f a c t that the same communities who are expected to pay f o r i t were, between 1983 and 1984, a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g s i m i l a r r e s o u r c e s f o r the p r i m a r y component of p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s . To h e l p e a s e t h i s c o s t b u r d e n on t h e p a r e n t s and communities, i n 1988 the government o r g a n i z e d book w r i t i n g workshops by s e l e c t e d subject s p e c i a l i s t s i n c l u d i n g t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r s , c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s , and c o l l e g e l e c t u r e r s . However, while these textbooks might be a f f o r d a b l e i n p r i c e and a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to ensure t h a t t h e i r c o n t e n t i s r e l e v a n t to the o b j e c t i v e s of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l s as w e l l as the a t t i t u d e s embedded i n that t e c h n i c a l c o n t e n t . T h i s i s because s t u d i e s on the use of textbooks (Cronbach, 1980) show the m a j o r i t y of teachers r e l y a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g and, t h e r e f o r e , i t becomes the s y l l a b u s . T h i s i s l i k e l y to be p a r t i c u l a r l y true f o r a p p l i e d education teachers who are inadequate i n academic, t e c h n i c a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g (see T a b l e s 28, 29 and 30). A d d i t i o n a l l y , these teach e r s lack s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s and q u a l i t y of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , t o o l s and equipment, teaching a i d s , and consumable m a t e r i a l s (see S e c t i o n A i n Chapter Four). Beside t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l s , the c o n t e n t i n a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t e x t b o o k s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a t t r i b u t e s l i k e i n g e n u i t y , entrepreneurship, honesty, s a f e t y awareness, and c o o p e r a t i o n , 117 s ince these values are central to success as a self-employed ind iv idua l in the informal sector. 6.4.2 Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , O r i e n t a t i o n s , and P e r c e i v e d Effectiveness R e s u l t s on academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (Table 28), forms of in-serv ice tra in ing attended by teachers ( T a b l e 3 0 ) , i n s t i t u t i o n s t e a c h e r s a t t e n d e d f o r t h e i r ( t e c h n i c a l ) p r e - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g (Table 29) , and t h e i r t each ing experience (Table 31) suggest most teachers may require further technical or pedagogical t r a i n i n g . C u r r e n t l y , a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s k i l l s are w ide ly and successful ly used by jua kali art isans in the r u r a l and urban areas to p r o v i d e a wide range of s a t i s f a c t o r y goods and s e r v i c e s at very competitive p r i c e s . It i s these a r t i s a n s that graduates of appl ied education are expected to compete with for s a l a r i e d - or self-employment. Sometimes the job of these a r i t i s a n s e n t a i l working under very d i f f i c u l t condit ions to p r o v i d e u n c o n v e n t i o n a l but f u n c t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s to t e c h n i c a l problems us ing whatever too l s or equipment are a v a i l a b l e to them. In a d d i t i o n , most jua kali businesses depend on i n d u s t r i a l waste and scraps for their raw mater ia l s . A l l these demands suggest that an e f f e c t i v e a p p l i e d education teacher would be required to teach t h e i r students not only theoret ica l knowledge and p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , but a lso r e a l i s t i c att i tudes towards the working condit ions , consumable m a t e r i a l s , tools and equipment that his or her students are 118 l i k e l y to work with a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l . As a l l u d e d to i n the previous s e c t i o n , teaching methodologies should a l s o focus on t r a i t s l i k e i n i t i a t i v e , c r e a t i v i t y , h o n e s t y , s a f e t y c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o o p e r a t i o n and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . Thus the depth and scope of change required of teachers by the a p p l i e d education program i s too complex f o r the m a j o r i t y of teachers to teach e f f e c t i v e l y without f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g . A c c o r d i n g to Werner (1988) t e a c h e r s ' b e l i e f s about the worth o f what they a r e t e a c h i n g g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I f t h i s c l a i m that t e a c h e r s o f t e n i n t e r p r e t and judge new programs from t h e i r b e l i e f s about those programs i s c o r r e c t , i t i s important to know the views that a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n teachers h o l d about t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s u b j e c t s areas. R e s u l t s i n Table 38 show the m a j o r i t y of teachers (82 out of 125) agreed w i t h the program i n i t i a t o r s views t h a t the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s learned i n a p p l i e d education can be used by s c h o o l l e a v e r s t o e a r n a l i v e l i h o o d . Thus, t h e r e i s an apparent congruence between the b e l i e f s held by the teachers about a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and the b e l i e f s on which the program o b j e c t i v e s were based. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t d e s p i t e widespread inadequacy of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s (see S e c t i o n A i n C h a p t e r F o u r ) , low academic, t e c h n i c a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s among the t e a c h e r s , the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s would not avoid teaching a p p l i e d education (Table 36). 119 Nonetheless, c u r r e n t emphasis on examinations which are meant to c e r t i f y a c a n d i d a t e ' s " f i t n e s s " to c o n t i n u e w i t h e d u c a t i o n , f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g , or employment i n the f o r m a l s e c t o r of the economy pose ser i o u s problems to a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e s of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . E x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s a r e assumed not o n l y to e v a l u a t e the a b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , but a r e a l s o used as s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r s o f a t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e and s c h o o l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o i t s f i n a n c i a l sponsors. Due to these e x t e r n a l pressures on the t e a c h e r , i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t s u b j e c t c o n t e n t seen by teachers as l i k e l y to come i n the f i n a l examinations w i l l be emphasized i n the classroom whether ( i n teacher's view) that content enhances a student's chances of becoming s e l f - r e l i a n t a f t e r school or not. 6.4.3 Time Inadequacy R e s u l t s i n Table 33 show the m a j o r i t y of teachers thought the amount of o f f i c i a l l y - a l l o c a t e d time f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t area was not enough. For the teacher, i n d i c a t o r s of o f f i c i a l time l i k e amount of time per c l a s s l e s s o n , number of lessons per week, academic term, y e a r , e t c . , p r o v i d e a benchmark f o r judging how much subject content should be covered by a given time to ensure the whole s y l l a b u s w i l l be covered by the end of a student's f o u r t h year i n high s c h o o l . Curriculum developers f o r a p p l i e d education made c e r t a i n assumptions when d e c i d i n g about the amount of s u b j e c t content 120 to be i n c l u d e d i n each s y l l a b u s . For example, they expected adequate p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , t e a c h e r s , and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s to be provided on time f o r the program to s t a r t i n every school i n 1986. However, r e s u l t s i n Chapters Four and F i v e suggest these assumptions were i n c o r r e c t . As a r e s u l t of the widespread u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of these e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s , most teac h e r s found the o f f i c i a l l y - a l l o c a t e d time f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t s inadequate as shown i n Table 33. The d i s c r e p a n c y between how much content t e a c h e r s are r e q u i r e d to cover (as i n d i c a t e d by the amount of content i n the s y l l a b u s ) and what they are a c t u a l l y able to cover i n e v i t a b l y c r e a t e s f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l teachers. There are v a r i o u s ways of coping with the e f f e c t s of f r u s t r a t i o n due to lack of s u f f i c i e n t time to cover s y l l a b u s content. F i r s t , a teacher can seek o u t - o f - c l a s s time. While t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e may not be a s e r i o u s problem f o r teachers because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t teaching l o a d 1 3 (see Table 34), i t i s d e f i n i t e l y a b i g problem f o r the students. At the end of t h e i r f o u r y e a r s of secondary s c h o o l i n g , the s t u d e n t s are examined i n ten or eleven subject areas (KNEC, 1987) and the r e s u l t s of these examinations c o l l e c t i v e l y determine whether a s t u d e n t would c o n t i n u e w i t h e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , or work. 1 3 A t the time t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d , Kenya h i g h s c h o o l s d i d not have Form Four c l a s s e s because they were i n the process of changing from the o l d (7-4-2-3) to the new (8- 4-4) system of e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s teaching l o a d i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e b e g i n n i n g January 1989 when s c h o o l s a t t a i n t h e i r f u l l enrolment. 121 T h i s i s a very heavy load f o r students. Besides, they cannot a f f o r d to spend more time on one subject area at the expense of another. Second, s e e k i n g e x t r a time i s o f t e n accompanied by m o d i f i c a t i o n s of a program to f i t b e t t e r with the c o n s t r a i n t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s c l a s s r o o m , p e r c e i v e d s t u d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r e n t s and community e x p e c t a t i o n s , a t e a c h e r ' s p r e f e r r e d t e a c h i n g s t y l e s , and b e l i e f s about the content being taught. Teachers p r i o r i t i z e s y l l a b u s t o p i c s and t h e i r teaching a c t i v i t i e s to help them s e l e c t the content to be taught i n the a v a i l a b l e time. In addressing the problem of time inadequacy, teachers who modify program content i n order to d e a l w i t h time inadequacy run the r i s k of c h a n g i n g a program's content beyond r e c o g n i t i o n . T h i r d , teachers can teach whatever content they can teach w i t h i n the o f f i c i a l l y - a l l o c a t e d time i n the hope t h a t i n " f u t u r e " more time w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to enable them cover the r e m a i n i n g c o n t e n t b e f o r e s t u d e n t s s i t f o r t h e i r Kenya C e r t i f i c a t e of Secondary Examination (KCSE). L a s t l y , t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n w i t h c o l l e a g u e s who have e x p e r i e n c e d problems w i t h time, i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s f e e l comforted i n knowing they are not the only ones who have found t h e i r s u b j e c t content too much f o r the o f f i c i a l l y - a l l o c a t e d t ime. T h i s may e x p l a i n why " i n f o r m a l meetings w i t h o t h e r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s " (Table 30) are found to be more 122 u s e f u l by the m a j o r i t y of the teachers i n the absence of other more h e l p f u l forms of i n - s e r v i c i n g . According to Werner (1988), when teachers are r e q u i r e d to c o v e r more s u b j e c t c o n t e n t t h a n t h e f i x e d - t i m e c a n r e a l i s t i c a l l y a l l o w , t e a c h ing i s d i r e c t e d by the amount of o f f i c i a l time a v a i l a b l e r a t h e r than the o b j e c t i v e s of the program. This i s a very important p o i n t to consider because unless a p p l i e d education can achieve i t s s t a t e d goal of making school l e a v e r s s e l f - r e l i a n t , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y the heavy cost i t i n v o l v e s (see Appendix G). 6.5.0 Recommendations Based upon the d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations f o r i m p r o v i n g s t u d e n t a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a d e q u a t e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a r e p r o p o s e d . S u g g e s t i o n s on how t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s can be put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n Kenya a r e c o n s t r u c t e d from i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e and t h e r e s e a r c h e r s knowledge o f the Kenyan context. 6.5.1 P o o l and share e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s by c r e a t i n g neighbourhood a p p l i e d education schools I n s t e a d of p a r e n t s and communities of e v e r y s c h o o l s t r u g g l i n g to provide t h e i r own classrooms and s p e c i a l rooms, t o o l s and equipment, i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s (and a t times t e a c h e r s and support s t a f f ) , they s h o u l d j o i n p a r e n t s and communities of neighbouring schools i n order to provide common 123 but adequate e d u c a t i o n a l resources at a convenient l o c a t i o n f o r the s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d . Such a p r o j e c t should take i n t o account ease of student access to these f a c i l i t i e s , schedule f o r use of the various resources, and the aims and o b j e c t i v e s of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n order to ensure t h a t the r e s o u r c e s provided to the students w i l l enable them to a c q u i r e t e c h n i c a l knowledge, s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s that w i l l help them r e a l i z e those o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t b u i l d i n g s , t o o l s , and equipment should be simple i n design, c o n s t r u c t i o n , and use l i k e those u s e d by most e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n t h e i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , f o r example, improved Jua Kali sheds. But an e d u c a t i o n a l resource to be p r o v i d e d f o r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n should be based on i t s appropriateness f o r achieving the program's o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r than s i m p l i c i t y per se. This c r i t e r i a provides a good chance of f o r e s t a l l i n g p o t e n t i a l s t a t u s problems f o r the program a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m anual t o o l s , e q u i p m e n t and s k i l l s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , use of appropriate resources i n t r a i n i n g f o r the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r would be of g r e a t e r b e n e f i t to those s c h o o l l e a v e r s ( f o r whom the program i s intended) who w i l l i n e v i t a b l y j o i n the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r e i t h e r as a matter of c h o i c e , or a f t e r t h e y f a i l t o g e t a p l a c e f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , or salaried-employment. 124 6.5.2 Improve the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t o o l s , e q u i p m e n t , a n d t e a c h i n g a i d s by b u i l d i n g n o n - p r o f i t m a k i n g p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s t o m a n u f a c t u r e and d i s t r i b u t e t h e s e r e s o u r c e s The mandate f o r s u c h a p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s h o u l d be t o supply s choo l s wi th adequate and a f f o r d a b l e t o o l s , equipment , and t each ing a i d s as w e l l as t h e i r spare p a r t s for r e p a i r and main tenance . Such a u n i t can be mode l l ed a long the S c i e n c e Equipment P r o d u c t i o n U n i t (SEPU) at the Kenya Sc ience Teachers C o l l e g e (KSTC) . Reduct ion of cos t and ease of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of i t s product s to the schoo l s should be major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s when d e t e r m i n i n g the l o c a t i o n o f such a p r o d u c t i o n u n i t . H o w e v e r , K e n y a T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , and Harambee I n s t i t u t e s o f S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t as a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n s . 6.5.3 I m p r o v e t h e r e l e v a n c e , q u a n t i t y , a n d q u a l i t y o f textbooks and re ference m a t e r i a l s The books w r i t i n g workshops conducted by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1988 was a good s t a r t i n p r o v i d i n g r e l e v a n t , a f f o r d a b l e , and adequate textbooks and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s f o r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n to s c h o o l s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d not be a c o m p i l a t i o n of content from o ther books based on r e s o u r c e s , t e c h n o l o g i e s , and ideas u n a v a i l a b l e or u n w o r k a b l e i n K e n y a ' s i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . R a t h e r , t h e i r c o n t e n t s h o u l d be based on the knowledge, t o o l s , equipment , m a t e r i a l s , and m a t e r i a l p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n i q u e s / p r o c e d u r e s p r o v e d to be s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o v i d i n g m a r k e t a b l e goods or s e r v i c e s i n t h i s i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . To produce such books f o r 125 v a r i o u s a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n a r e a s , i t i s sugge s t e d t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to a panel of s u b j e c t s p e c i a l i s t s , the team should a l s o i n c l u d e an a r t i f i c e r and a c o n s u l t a n t who should be a s u c c e s s f u l s e l f - e m p l o y e d person i n the r e s p e c t i v e a p p l i e d education area ( for example, metalwork, commerce, etc.) i n the in f o r m a l s e c t o r . The r o l e of the a r t i f i c e r would be to sketch and r e f i n e i n t o p r i n t a b l e form a c t u a l t o o l s , equipment, m a t e r i a l processing techniques and procedures, products, e t c . , u s e d or made i n the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r w h i l e t h a t o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t would be to p r o v i d e or h e l p the p a n e l o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t any a s p e c t o f h i s or h e r a r e a o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , f o r example i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o consumable m a t e r i a l s , m a r k e t i n g of t h e i r goods or s e r v i c e s , l a b o u r , business o r g a n i z a t i o n , e t c . 6.5.4 I n c r e a s e the number and q u a l i t y o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n teachers through s e l e c t i v e recruitment Teacher t r a i n e e s of a p p l i e d education should be r e c r u i t e d f r o m g r a d u a t e s of HITs, T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e s ( T I s ) , and p r a c t i t i o n e r s of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s k i l l s i n the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . In a d d i t i o n t o p e d a g o g i c a l t r a i n i n g , t r a i n e e s r e c r u i t e d from HITs and TIs should gain work experience i n the informal sector through work attachment to a re l e v a n t business i n t h a t s e c t o r . In order f o r students to b e n e f i t from the v a l u a b l e e x p e r t i s e of p r a c t i t i o n e r s of a p p l i e d education who may not possess the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d of high s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o w a i v e s u c h 126 q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s category of teachers (as a temporary measure) but have them teach only p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s and not theory or any other academic work. This category of teacher t r a i n e e s should be taught b a s i c teaching s k i l l s to help them t r a n s f e r t h e i r k n o w l e d g e t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h i s recommendation e n t a i l s e x tensive r e v i s i o n of c u r r e n t teacher t r a i n i n g programs to incorporate the a l l - i m p o r t a n t s k i l l s and knowledge widely used i n the informal s e c t o r . 6.5.5 Improve the q u a l i t y of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s who are a l r e a d y teaching T h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y those with only an A-Level q u a l i f i c a t i o n ) do not p o s s e s s s u f f i c i e n t academic, t e c h n i c a l , and p e d a g o g i c a l t r a i n i n g t o e n a b l e them t o t e a c h a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . I t i s suggested that t h e i r a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g needs be determined with teachers' f u l l involvement and that these needs be used as the focus f o r the teachers' i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs. The f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s would be c e n t r a l i n making such a program e f f e c t i v e : • S k i l l and knowledge s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s t h r o u g h workshops and seminars. • Attachment of teachers to a r e l e v a n t b u s i n e s s i n the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r t o l e a r n about t o o l s , equipment, m a t e r i a l s , t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and k n o w l e d g e f r o m p r a c t i t i o n e r s of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s k i l l s , and g a i n work experience. 127 • Teacher v i s i t s to e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l s u s i n g comparable (to t h e i r own) educa t i o n a l resources to l e a r n and l a t e r adapt or adopt the s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s of a c o l l e a g u e whom the teacher judges to be s u c c e s s f u l and e f f e c t i v e . • Formal or informal teacher meetings to l e a r n from each o t h e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s by s h a r i n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s and successes. • F o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n s on a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r teac h i n g and a s s e s s i n g theory and p r a c t i c e of a p p l i e d education. 6.5.6 I n c r e a s e o f f i c i a l l y a l l o c a t e d t i m e f o r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t o ensure e f f e c t i v e coverage of s y l l a b u s e s content In o r d e r f o r the c u r r e n t content i n a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t to be covered i n depth, the amount of time a l l o c a t e d at the moment should at l e a s t be doubled. The a d d i t i o n a l time can be obtained by reducing the number of examinable s u b j e c t s i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m ( t h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y 10 or 11 examinable s u b j e c t s ) . 6.5.7 D i v e r s i f y the number of su b j e c t s taught i n i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s t o ensure s c h o o l l e a v e r s as a whole a c q u i r e d i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s Headteacher p r o j e c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s u b j e c t changes t h a t they i n t e n d t o make i n t h e i r s c h o o l s i n d i c a t e most schools want to d i v e r s i f y t h e i r a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s but l a c k t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s o u r c e s . The s u g g e s t i o n s made i n recommendations 1 to 5 to improve the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , and t e a c h e r 128 e f f e c t i v e n e s s would a l s o enable schools to o f f e r a wider range of a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s . 6.5.8 Conduct more d e t a i l e d f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o a r e a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study as implementation problems f o r a p p l i e d education. The f o l l o w i n g suggestions are made to he l p make such a study e f f e c t i v e and comprehensive: f i r s t , rather than use a g e n e r i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e , l i k e the one used i n t h i s s t u d y , q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be a d a p t e d t o s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s . Second, sample s e l e c t i o n of both the schools and respondents should be random. T h i r d , methods of data c o l l e c t i o n should be d i v e r s i f i e d t o in c l u d e i n t e r v i e w s , and on s i t e i n s p e c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F o u r t h , r e s p o n d e n t s s h o u l d i n c l u d e p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , community l e a d e r s , s t u d e n t s , and education a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The study should i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s to the widespread inadequacy of a p p l i e d education resources and suggest f e a s i b l e ways of improving the a v a i l a b i l i t y of these resources to a l l students. 129 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barrow, R. (1984). C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Giving Teaching Back to Teachers. Sussex: Wheatsheaf Books. BCRCE (1988). Q u a l i t y of the Curriculum. Curriculum in the Schools of British Columbia - Commissioned Papers Volume 3. B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Education. 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The Three P e r s p e c t i v e s on Innovation: T e c h n i c a l , P o l i t i c a l , and C u l t u r a l . In R. Lehming & M. Kane (Eds.), Improving Schools: Using What We Know. pp. 17-41. Beverly H i l l s : Sage. Huberman, A.M. & M i l e s , M.B. (1984). Rethinking the Quest f o r S c h o o l Improvement: Some F i n d i n g s from the DESSI Study. Teachers College Record 86(1), pp. 35-55. (1984). What Have We L e a r n t ? Summary and I n t e g r a t i o n o f F i n d i n g s . Innovation Up Close: How School Improvement Works. New York: Plenum Press. I n s p e c t o r a t e . (1984). [ F i n a n c i a l ] Cost E s t i m a t e s f o r Pre- Investment Estimates for Industrial Education. Prepared by the I n s p e c t o r a t e , M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . N a i r o b i : Kenya. Karani, F.A. (1988). Problems of Curriculum Development f o r S e l f Employment i n Kenya. P r e s e n t e d a t the National Seminar on Transitional Education. 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Equal Educational O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Higher E d u c a t i o n . Advanced Education and Training: Access, Completion, and Transition to Work. Access Study Paper 3. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. McLaughlin, M.W. & Marsh, D.D. (1978). S t a f f Development and School Change. Teachers College Record 80(1), pp. 69-94. Ponder, G. & Doyle, W. (1978). The P r a c t i c a l i t y E t h i c i n Teacher Decision-Making. Interchange 8(3), pp. 1-12. Republic of Kenya. (1984). School C a t e g o r i e s . Education in Kenya. M i n i s t r y of Education. N a i r o b i : Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. (1984B). The 8-4-4 System of Education. Report on Technical and Vocational Education in Kenya. Prepared by the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . N a i r o b i : Government P r i n t e r . (1985). Technical Education Project (TEP): Training Programmes in the 8-4-4 System of Education (Fourth Draft Restricted Information). 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N a i r o b i : Government P r i n t e r . Werner, W. (1987A). C u r r i c u l u m and S o c i a l i z a t i o n . In R. Ghosh and D. Ray (Eds.). Social Change and Education in Canada. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. (1987B). T r a i n i n g f o r Curriculum Implementation. Pacific Education 1(1), pp. 40-52. (1988A). Program Implementation and Experienced Time. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research 34(2), p. 90-108. (1988B). Implementation. Understanding School Programs. F i r s t D r a f t , pp. 1-21. Werner, W. & Case, R. (1988). Assessing School Improvement P r o j e c t s . Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Working Party (1988). Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond. Report of a Presidential Committee. N a i r o b i : Government P r i n t e r . Yambo, M. (1986). Patterns of Employment and Unemployment. Technical Training and Work-Experience in Kenya: A National Tracer Study of the Leavers of Harambee Institutes of Technology and Youth Polytechnics — Final Report. Prepared f o r Danish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency. N a i r o b i : U n i v e r s i t y of N a i r o b i . APPENDIX A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 134 SCHOOL CODE DO NOT IDENTIFY YOURSELF ANYWHERE IN THIS QUESTIONNAIRE S t r i c t C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y W i l l Be M a i n t a i n e d ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE The purpose o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o c o l l e c t d a t a t o be used i n a stu d y meant t o a s s e s s the p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e o f K e n y a . T he q u e s t i o n s c o v e r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by i n d i v i d u a l secondary s c h o o l s . I t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t some o f the q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s i n s t r u m e n t may not f i t t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t t h a t you t e a c h . Where t h e r e i s a l a c k o f " f i t " between t h e q u e s t i o n asked and y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t , p l e a s e s p e c i f y and comment. Use the l a s t page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments. In g e n e r a l , you are asked t o respond as f u l l y as you c a n . How t o Respond P l e a s e t i c k o r f i l l t h e b l a n k s w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e f o r each i t e m . F o r some i t e m s , more than one c h o i c e may be marked. Stems o f m u l t i p l e response items w i l l be f o l l o w e d by " ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y ) " . A l l o t h e r items a r e t o be responded t o o n l y once. Important Below a r e 14 a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n Kenya S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . P l e a s e t i c k ONE s u b j e c t you are t e a c h i n g t h i s term and res p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t h i s one s u b j e c t i n mind even though you may a l s o be t e a c h i n g o t h e r s u b j e c t s . Home S c i e n c e 1 A r t and De s i g n 2 A g r i c u l t u r e 3 E l e c t r i c i t y 4 Power Mechanics 5 Woodwork 6 Metalwork 7 B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n -- 8 Drawing and De s i g n 9 Music 10 Acounts 11 Commerce 12 Economics 13 T y p i n g and O f f i c e P r a c t i c e 14 135 PHYSICAL FACILITIES 1. How adequate a re the f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e a c h i n g y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ? ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y . ) LEVEL OF ADEQUACY EXC ELL ENT  GOO D SAT IS- FAC TOR Y FAI R POO R DO NOT  HAV E NOT  APP LIC ABL E a) working space b) c l a s s space c) c l a s s desks d) work benches or c o u n t e r s — e) number o f hand t o o l s o r equipment f) q u a l i t y o f hand t o o l s o r equipment g) number o f power t o o l s o r equipment h) c o n d i t i o n o f power t o o l s o r equipment i ) i n d i v u d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n space j ) s u i t a b i l i t y o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g a r e a s k) s t o r a g e spaces f o r : p r o j e c t s 1) consumable m a t e r i a l s m) t o o l s and equipment n) a v a i l a b i l i t y o f water o) s u i t a b i l i t y and use o f doors ( S a f e t y & S e c u r i t y ) - P) b l a c k b o a r d space 2. How do you r a t e t h e o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n b u i l d i n g f o r y o u r s u b j e c t ? a) e x c e l l e n t I b) good c) s a t i s f a c t o r y d) f a i r e) poor I 3. Is t h e b u i l d i n g i n which you t e a c h y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t permanent o r temporary? a) permanent b) temporary 136 4. P l e a s e r a t e each o f the f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y . ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y . ) LEVEL OF ADEQUACY E x c e l -l e n t Good S a t i s -f a c t o r y F a i r Poor a) s u i t a b i l i t y o f o v e r -a l l s p a ce, e.g., w e l l adopted t o a c t i v i t y , easy a c c e s s , e t c . b) u t i l i z a t i o n o f space, e.g. not used t o s t o r e broken desks, e t c . c) maintenance o f w a l l s , f l o o r , and c e i l i n g INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS 5. How do you r a t e the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y f o r each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e f o r y o u r c l a s s ? ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y . ) a) adequacy o f consumable m a t e r i a l s b) adequacy o f o v e r c o a t s / a p r o n s — c) A v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g a i d s , e.g., c h a r t s , models, overhead p r o j e c t o r s , e t c . d) a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u i t a b l e c l a s s t e x t books a v a i l a b l e f o r y o u r c l a s s e) adequacy o f r e f e r e n c e books and o t h e r r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s LEVEL OF ADEQUACY EXC EL- LEN T GOO D SAT IS- FAC TOR Y ec <C U_ POO R DO NOT  HAV E NOT  A P- PLI CAB LE 6. A p a r t f r o m minor changes, how o f t e n have you had t o adapt y o u r t e a c h i n g p l a n s t h i s y e a r because o f d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y consumable m a t e r i a l s ? a) never \~ b) 1 - 3 times c) 4 - 5 times d) 6 time s o r more 137 TEACHING APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECTS 7. I f you had a c h o i c e , would you a v o i d t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r ? a) y e s I b) undecided c) no | 8. How do you f e e l about the demands made on you i n implementing t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s y l l a b u s f o r y o u r s u b j e c t ? a) I c a n ' t cope w i t h i t I b) sometimes I f i n d i t t oo demanding c) g e n e r a l l y I can cope d) no problems i n t h i s a r e a j 9 . I f you had a c h o i c e , a t which l e v e l would you p r e f e r t o t e a c h a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n ? a) p r i m a r y I b) form one c) form two d) from t h r e e e) form f o u r f ) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 10. How o f t e n t h i s y e a r have you used each o f the f o l l o w i n g methods o f t e a c h i n g i n y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n c l a s s ? a) go on a f i e l d t r i p b) have guest speaker c) go t o a n o t h e r s c h o o l w i t h b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s - Est i m a t e d Number o f Times Never 1-2 3-4 More t h a n 5 d) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 138 11. On a s c a l e o f 1 - 6, r a t e your b e l i e f i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g purposes o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya h i g h s c h o o l s . a) p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l knowledge and r e l a t e d 1 o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o be used f o r l e i s u r e o r p e r s o n a l odd j o b s b) p r o v i d e o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n t o a i d 2 st u d e n t s i n s e l e c t i n g a c a r e e r c) d e v e l o p m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r s e c u r i n g s e l f - o r s a l a r i e d 3 employment d) p r e p a r e f o r a v o c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , such as a Harambee I n s t i t u t e o f 4 S c i e n c e and Technology, N a t i o n a l P o l y t e c h n i c , e t c . e) d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a i t s 5 e s s e n t i a l t o ho l d a j o b f ) e n r i c h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n 6 g) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS 12. What i s the name o f the h i g h e s t c e r t i f i c a t e t h a t you h o l d i n each o f th e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s ? a) academic: b) p r o f e s s i o n a l : 13. I n c l u d i n g t h i s y e a r , f o r how l o n g have you t a u g h t ? a) 2 y e a r s o r l e s s I - -_ b) 3 - 5 y e a r s c) 6 - 8 y e a r s d) 9 - 1 1 y e a r s e) 12 - 14 y e a r s f ) 15 y e a r s and over most i m p o r t a n t l e a s t i m p o r t a n t 139 14. Which of the f o l l o w i n g forms o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g have you had? P l e a s e r a t e the u s e f u l n e s s o f each o f t h e s e forms o f t r a i n i n g on t h e f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e p r o v i d e d . a) i n f o r m a l meetings w i t h o t h e r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s b) workshops p r e s e n t e d by o t h e r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s c) workshops p r e s e n t e d by M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s d) f o r m a l c o u r s e s i n s u b j e c t c o n t e n t e) f o r m a l c o u r s e s i n m e t h o d o l o g i e s o f t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n f ) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) A t t e n d e d L e v e l o f U s e f u l n e s s YES NO Most L e a s t U s e f u l U s e f u l 5 4 3 2 1 BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INFORMATION 15. Are you male o r female? a) male — b) female - 16. When d i d you j o i n y o u r p r e s e n t s c h o o l ? a) b e f o r e January 1988 b) January 1988 - A p r i l 1988 c) May 1988 d) June 1988 f ) a f t e r June 1988 17. How o l d are you? a) under 20 y e a r s b) 25 - 29 C) 30 - 34 d) 35 - 39 e ) 40 - 44 f ) 45 and over - 140 18. How many 40 minute p e r i o d s per week are you t i m e - t a b l e d t o t e a c h t h i s term? a) 0 - 6 -b) 7 - 13 c) 14 - 20 d) 21 - 27 e) 28 - 34 f) 35 - 41 g) 42 and 19. How many 40 minute p e r i o d s p er week do you t e a c h a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t h i s term? a) 0 - 6 -b) 7 - 13 c) 14 - 20 d) 21 - 27 e) 28 - 34 0 35 - 41 g) 42 and 20. How many s t u d e n t s a re i n your l a r g e s t a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n c l a s s t h i s term? a) 20 o r l e s s — f - . ~ b) 21 - 24 c) 25 - 28 d) 29 - 33 e) 33 - 36 f ) o v e r 36 LZ 21. Do you have enough time t o c o v e r t h i s y e a r ' s p a r t o f t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s y l l a b u s f o r y o u r s u b j e c t ? a) more than enough [ ~ b) j u s t enough c) d e f i n i t e l y not enough d) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 22. Where d i d you study t he a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t you a r e t e a c h i n g ? L e v e l S t u d i e d Major Minor a) harambee i n s t i t u t e of s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y — b) t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l c) academic high s c h o o l d) c r a f t t r a i n i n g c e n t r e e) government diploma c o l l e g e f ) n a t i o n a l p o l y t e c h n i c g) u n i v e r s i t y h) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 141 23. Which o f the f o l l o w i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s have you t a u g h t s i n c e 1986? ( T i c k A l l That Apply.) T h i s Year P r e v i o u s Two Y e a r s Form Form 1 2 3 1 2 a) home s c i e n c e b) a r t and d e s i g n c) a g r i c u l t u r e d) woodwork e) metalwork f ) b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n g) power mechanics h) e l e c t r i c i t y i ) drawing and d e s i g n j ) music k) a c c o u n t s 1) commerce m) economics n) t y p i n g and o f f i c e p r a c t i c e 142 COMMENTS P l e a s e use t h i s page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION APPENDIX B HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 144 SCHOOL CODE DO NOT IDENTIFY YOURSELF ANYWHERE IN THIS QUESTIONNAIRE S t r i c t C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y W i l l Be M a i n t a i n e d ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA A HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s one p a r t o f a l a r g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a t o be used i n a study meant t o a s s e s s t he p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e o f Kenya. The o t h e r p a r t i s t i t l e d "A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE". To g e t h e r , both i n s t r u m e n t s c o v e r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , s a f e t y , t e a c h e r s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s , and t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by i n d i v i d u a l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . I t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t some of the q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e may n o t f i t t h e a s p e c t s o f y o u r s c h o o l f o r which t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e i n t e n d e d . Where t h e r e i s a l a c k of " f i t " between the q u e s t i o n asked and y o u r s c h o o l , p l e a s e s p e c i f y and comment. Use the l a s t page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments. In g e n e r a l , you are asked t o respond as f u l l y as you ca n . How to Respond P l e a s e t i c k o r f i l l the b l a n k s w i t h t he a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e f o r each i t e m . F o r some i t e m s , more th a n one i n t e r e s t c h o i c e may be marked. Stems o f m u l t i p l e response items w i l l be f o l l o w e d by " ( T i c k A l l Tha t A p p l y ) " . A l l o t h e r items a re t o be responded t o o n l y once. 145 i ) What a c c r e d i t a t i o n and t y p e i s y o u r s c h o o l ? Type Boys Only G i r l s Only Mixed a) grade A b) grade B c) grade C d) grade D o r E i i ) F i l l o ut the number o f boys and g i r l s e n r o l l e d i n Form I I I i n each of t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n y o u r s c h o o l . Number o f Boys G i r l s a) Home S c i e n c e b) A r t and D e s i g n c) A g r i c u l t u r e d) E l e c t r i c i t y e) Power Mechanics f) Woodwork g) Metalwork h) B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n i ) Drawing and D e s i g n j ) Music k) A c c o u n t s D Commerce m) Economics n) T y p i n g and O f f i c e P r a c t i c e i i i ) Who, among t h e f o l l o w i n g , made the a c t u a l c h o i c e o f t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n your s c h o o l ? a) p a r e n t s / t e a c h e r s a s s o c i a t i o n b) board o f go v e r n o r s c) m i n i s t r y o f e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l — d) s t u d e n t s e) I do not know f ) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 146 What do you t h i n k was the main r e a s o n f o r the c h o i c e made? I f re a s o n s v a r i e d e i t h e r by s u b j e c t s o r o t h e r w i s e , p l e a s e s p e c i f y . a) l e a s t e x p e n s i v e t o run b) s k i l l s t a u g h t a re u s e f u l t o the community s e r v e d by the s c h o o l — c) p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d) l a c k o f q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i n o t h e r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f i n t e r e s t e) t o e n r i c h academic s u b j e c t s f ) I do not know g) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s does y o u r s c h o o l i n t e n d t o add t o o r drop from the s c h o o l t i m e t a b l e and when does i t i n t e n d t o do so? ( T i c k A l l That Apply.) a) No change o f s u b j e c t s i s a n t i c i p a t e d [ b) Home S c i e n c e c) A r t and D e s i g n d) A g r i c u l t u r e e) E l e c t r i c i t y f ) Power Mechanics g) Woodwork h) Metalwork i ) B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n j ) Drawing and Desi g n k) Music 1) Ac c o u n t s m) Commerce n) Economics o) T y p i n g and O f f i c e P r a c t i c e Add Intend To Year Y e a r I f y o u r s c h o o l p l a n s t o add t o o r dro p some a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s from t he sch o o l t i m e t a b l e , p l e a s e s t a t e r e a s o n s f o r t h e a n t i c i p a t e d change. 147 v i i ) In y o u r s c h o o l , what i s the e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f consumable m a t e r i a l s f o r one s t u d e n t per y e a r i n Kenya s h i l l i n g s (Ksh)? ( T h i s e s t i m a t e r e f e r s t o the SPECIFIC s u b j e c t f o r which the accompanying "A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE" i s f i l l e d o u t . Ksh. v i i i ) what w a s / w i l l be t h e d a t e f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y needed t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t r e f e r r e d t o i n q u e s t i o n v i i ) above? a) b e f o r e 1986 b) between 1987 - 1988 — c) between 1989 - 1990 — d) a f t e r 1990 L i x ) What c r i t e r i o n does y o u r s c h o o l use t o d e c i d e on what a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ( s ) Form One s t u d e n t s w i l l study i n Forms I and I I ? a) s u b j e c t s a r e randomly a s s i g n e d t o s t u d e n t s by the I s c h o o l b e f o r e s t u d e n t s a r r i v e a t the s c h o o l b) s t u d e n t s make t h e i r s u b j e c t c h o i c e s a f t e r a s h o r t exposure t o a l l a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l c) s t u d e n t s are exposed t o a l l a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l , then s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d by t h e s c h o o l on the b a s i s o f s t u d e n t performance i n each a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t d) s u b j e c t s are a s s i g n e d t o s t u d e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r KCPE performance e) no s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n i s used LZ f ) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) x) How were s t u d e n t s i n Form I I I t h i s y e a r s e l e c t e d t o t a k e t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ( s ) they are s t u d y i n g ? a) s t u d e n t s chose the s u b j e c t s themselves b) s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d by the s c h o o l on the b a s i s o f performance i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s c ) s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d on the recommendations o f t h e i r p a r e n t s d) s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d randomly e) no s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n was f o l l o w e d f ) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 148 i x ) Has y o u r s c h o o l had t h e f t c a s e s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n p r o p e r t y s i n c e 1_86? V e s No I f y e s , s t a t e t he y e a r , name and e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f t h e p r o p e r t y s t o l e n . ( P l e a s e use the Comments space.) COMMENTS P l e a s e use t h i s page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION 149 APPENDIX C COVERING L E T T E R TO TEACHER AND HEADTEACHER Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S 150 Kenya T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P.O. Box 44600 NAIROBI May 10, 1988 A l l H eadteachers S e l e c t e d Secondary S c h o o l s CENTRAL PROVINCE Dear Sir/Madam, RE: ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA: E n c l o s e d p l e a s e f i n d one copy o f each o f the f o l l o w i n g : (a) T e a c h e r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (b) Headteacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (c) S e l f a d d r e s s e d and stamped envelope (d) Research c l e a r a n c e p e r m i t No. 0.P./13/001/18 C 79. (e) An endorsement l e t t e r from t h e Permanent S e c r e t a r y , M i n i s t r y o f Ed u c a t i o n . Your s c h o o l has been randomly s e l e c t e d t o t a k e p a r t i n a study on t h e above s u b j e c t . A l t h o u g h t h i s e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h was o r i g i n a l l y proposed as an academic e x e r c i s e , Kenya I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n (K.I.E.) and t h e I n s p e c t o r a t e S e c t i o n of the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n has shown g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n i t s f i n d i n g s . T e a c h e r s S e r v i c e Commission ( T S C ) , Kenya N a t i o n a l E x a m i n a t i o n s C o u n c i l (KNEC), and the f i v e D i s t r i c t Development Committees (DDCs) i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e a r e a l s o e x p e c t e d t o f i n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study u s e f u l i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o improve t h e q u a l i t y o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e . The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w i l l be made p u b l i c t h r o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y (NCST); D i r e c t o r a t e o f P e r s o n n e l Management (DPM); I n s p e c t o r a t e , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ; and Ken y a I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n ( K . I . E . ) . You a r e r e q u e s t e d t o g i v e v i t a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s e x e r c i s e by e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e two e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e f i l l e d o ut and m a i l e d back t o t h e u n d e r s i g n e d by June 15, 1988. T h i s d e a d l i n e i s s u g g e s t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s s u r e o f ti m e w i t h i n w hich t h i s r e s e a r c h must be completed. Hoping f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n on t h i s e x e r c i s e , s i n c e r e l y , JAMES NGUGI MUKORA L e c t u r e r - Kenya T e c h n i c a l Teachers C o l l e g e / G r a duate S t u d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia APPENDIX D RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT APPENDIX E ENDORSEMENT LETTER APPENDIX F FOLLOW-UP LETTER 156 Kenya T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P.O. Box 44600 NAIROBI May 10, 1988 A l l H e adteachers S e l e c t e d Secondary S c h o o l s CENTRAL PROVINCE Dear Sir/Madam, RE: ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA: About f o u r weeks ago, a t e a c h e r and a headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e on the above s u b j e c t were m a i l e d t o y o u r s c h o o l . Both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a t o be used i n a stud y on the p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e . Y o u r i n s t i t u t i o n i s among a few s c h o o l s r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. Your response i s t h e r e f o r e v i t a l i n making v a l i d i n f e r e n c e s about the s t a t u s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n y o u r p r o v i n c e . To d a t e , I have not r e c e i v e d y o u r completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I f you have a l r e a d y m a i l e d them, i g n o r e t h i s f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r , but i f you have n o t , p l e a s e r e t u r n them as soon as p o s s i b l e i n the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d and stamped e n v e l o p e p r e v i o u s l y m a i l e d t o you. S i n c e r e l y , JAMES NGUGI MUKORA L e c t u r e r , Kenya T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e / G r a duate St u d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia APPENDIX G DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATES COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR SOME APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECTS AT 1984 PRICES IN K SHS. (l.OOOS) SUBJECT BUILDING COSTS FOR A 20 STUDENT SPECIAL ROOM A g r i c u l t u r e 160 Economics} A c c o u n t s } 200 Commerce } Home S c i e n c e 500 (Food & N u t r i t i o n ) Drawing & Desi g n 300 Ty p i n g & O f f i c e 400 P r a c t i c e Woodwork 300 E l e c t r i c i t y 350 B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n 300 Power Mechanics 400 Metalwork 350 Clas s r o o m 200 (40 s t u d e n t s ) HAND TOOLS & EQUIPMENT COSTS FOR 20 STUDENTS TOTAL COST 50 240 500 70 700 210 440 1,000 370 1,100 200 500 150 300 200 24 500 850 450 700 550 224 N o t e : A d a p t e d f r o m P r e - I n v e s t m e n t C o s t E s t i m a t e s f o r A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n by t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1984 N a i r o b i : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t e r APPENDIX H L I S T OF SCHOOLS THAT RESPONDED TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES 160 SCHOOLS WHICH RESPONDED TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES Kiambu D i s t r i c t 9. Mumbi Sec. 10. Marugua Sec. 1. St. Joseph's Sec. 11. Kibage Sec. 2. Komothai Sec. 12. Mununga Sec. 3. K i r a n g a r i Sec. 13. Githunguri Mixed 4. A l l i a n c e G i r l s 14. Dr. Kiano G i r l s 5. Munyu Mixed 15. Kahatia Sec. 6. Itu r u Sec. 16. Kaganda Sec. 7. K a r u r i High 17. Giachuki Sec. 8. G i t h i g a High 18. M a r i i r a Sec. 9. Karai Mixed 19. Kiaguthu Sec. 10. G a t h i r u i n i Sec. 20. Chomo Sec. 11. Kikuyu Day 21. Gatura Sec. 12. Gichuru Sec. 22. Tuthu Sec. 13. Ex-Senior Chief Koinange 23. Gathera Sec. 14. Gacharage Sec. 24. Punda M i l i a 15. I c a c i r a Sec. 25. Kiawambogo Sec. 16. Tingana Sec. 26. G i t i g e Sec. 17. M i r i t h u Sec. 27. M a r i g i Sec. 18. R u n g i r i Sec. 28. Gakurari Sec. 19. Kamahindu Sec. 29. Nguthuru Sec. 20. K i r i k o Sec. 30. Kiunyu Sec. 21. Kamburu Sec. 31. Gikindu Sec. 22. Muthurwa Sec. 32. Kangui Sec. 23. Musa Gitau Sec. 33. Maganjo Sec. 24. Murera Sec. 34. Nginda Boys Sec. 25. T h i r i r i k a Sec. 35. K a r i t i Sec. 26. Gikanga Kagece Sec. 36. Nguku Sec. Sch 27. J u j a Sec. • 37. Wamahiga Sec. Sch 28. Mbau-Ini Sec. 29. Muongoiya High Nye r i D i s t r i c t 30. Renguti Sec. 31. Manguo Sec. 1. Giakanja Sec. 32. Kiangunu Sec. 2. Kirimara Sec. 33. Ndundu Sec. 3. Ruthagati Sec. 34. Mbichi Sec. 4. Tumutumu Sec. 35. Karinga G i r l s Sec. 5. Endarasha Sec. 6. Kenyatta Mahiga Muranga D i s t r i c t 7. Kiandu Sec. 8. K a b i r u i n i Sec. 9. Kiangoma Sec. 1. Nginda G i r l s 10. Gatondo Har. 2. Mbugiti Day Sec. 11. Magutu Har. 3. Ki a n d e r i Sec. 12. Kianguthu Har. 4. G i t u r u Sec. 13. G i a k a b i i Sec. 5. Makuyu Day 14. General China Sec 6. Mugoiri Boys 15. Ngaini Sec. 7. K i r i a n i G i r l s 16. K a r i n d i Sec. 8. Mu t h i t h i Sec. 17. Ichuga Sec. 161 Ny e r i D i s t r i c t (cont'd) 17. Ndemi Sec. 18. Githunguchu Sec. 18. K a i r u t h i Sec. 19. Muhoini Sec. 20. Itundu Sec. 21. Ithekahumo Sec. 22. M i i r i Sec. 23. Kanyama Sec. 24. Muthuaini Sec. 25. Ngorano Sec. 26. C h a r i t y Sec. 27. Karuthi Sec. 28. Kaigonde Sec. 29. Kahiga Sec. 30. Muhoya High 31. Naromoru Boys 32. Munyu Sec. K i r i n y a g a D i s t r i c t 1. Mutige Sec. 2. Baricho Sec. 3. Njega Sec. 4. Tebere Sec. 5. Kiaragana Sec. 6. K i i n e Sec. 7 . Kutus Har. Sec. 8. K i b i r i g w i Sec. 9. Kiamwathi Sec. 10. Thumaita Sec. 11. Kabonge Sec. Nyandarua D i s t r i c t 1. Kangui Sec. 2. Pasenga Sec. 3. Wanjohi Mixed 4. Miharate Sec. 5. Ndururi Sec. 6. Leshau Day 7. Bongo Har. Sec. 8. M a t i n d i r i Sec. 9. Ragia G i r l s Sec. 10. K a r a t i Sec. 11. Gathanji Sec. 12. S a l i e n t Sec. 13. Murichu Sec. 14. Karago-ini Sec. 15. Kagondo Sec. 16. Mukoe Sec. 162 APPENDIX J LIST OF SCHOOLS WHICH DID NOT RESPOND TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES 163 SECONDARY SCHOOLS WHICH DID NOT RESPOND TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES Kiambu D i s t r i c t 1. S t . J o s e p h ' s 2. L a r i H i g h 3. K i h a r a S e c o n d a r y 4. K i a i r i a S e c o n d a r y 5. G a t i t u G i r l s 6. S t . J o s e p h The Worker S e c o n d a r y 7. K i n a l e S e c o n d a r y 8. Mununga S e c o n d a r y 9. Gakge H i g h 10. Wangunyu S e c o n d a r y 11. M a t a a r a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 12. Nyamweru H i g h 13. Mutuma S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 14. G i t a r e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 15. K i h a r a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 16. M b a r i Ya Ruga S e c o n d a r y 17. N g e t h u e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 18. M u t h i g a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 19. K a n j u k u S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l M uranga D i s t r i c t 1. I c h a g a k i S e c o n d a r y 2. K i r w a r a S e c o n d a r y 3. G i t h u n g u r i G i r l s 4. M i r i c h u S e c o n d a r y 5. K a m a c h a r i a S e c o n d a r y 6. K a i r i S e c o n d a r y 7. M i r i c h o S e c o n d a r y 8. N g u t u S e c o n d a r y 9. Watuha S e c o n d a r y 10. Mwarano S e c o n d a r y 11. G a t a n g a C.C.M. 12. Nyamangara S e c o n d a r y 13. G i t h e m b e S e c o n d a r y 14. G a c h a r a i g u S e c o n d a r y 15. R u n y e k i S e c o n d a r y 16. Manada S e c o n d a r y 17. Kamune S e c o n d a r y 18. Rarwaka S e c o n d a r y 19. Wangai S e c o n d a r y 20. G a c h a r a g e S e c o n d a r y N y e r i D i s t r i c t 1. N y e r i S e c o n d a r y 2. Kagumo S e c o n d a r y 3. K a n g u b i r i S e c o n d a r y 4. G a c h a t h a S e c o n d a r y 5. Naromoru G i r l s 6. M w a n g a t h i a H a r . 7. M u r u g u r u S e c o n d a r y 8. S t . P a u l s G i t h a k w a 9. H i r i g a S e c o n d a r y 10. M u r u g u r u M i x e d 11. Kihome S e c o n d a r y 12. Mwega H a r . S e c o n d a r y 13. R u r i n g o G i r l s 14. D r . Kamundia H i g h 15. Munyaka S e c o n d a r y K i r i n y a g a D i s t r i c t 1. K i a n y a g a S e c o n d a r y 2. K a b a r e G i r l s 3. K a r u m a n d i S e c o n d a r y 4. Mukangu S e c o n d a r y 5. K a g i o S e c o n d a r y 6. K i a r a g a n a G i r l s 7. N g u g u i n i S e c o n d a r y N y a n d a r u a D i s t r i c t 1. Magumu S e c o n d a r y 2. Malewa S e c o n d a r y 3. K i n a n g o p G i r l s S e c o n d a r y 4. G e t a S e c o n d a r y

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