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Applied education in the central province of Kenya : a survey of the adequacy of facilities and teacher.. Mukora, James Ngugi 1989

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APPLIED EDUCATION IN THE CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA: A Survey o f t h e Adequacy o f F a c i l i t i e s and T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t By JAMES NGUGI MUKORA B. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Centre f o r t h e Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1989 •James Ngugi Mukora, 1989  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  partial  University of  British Columbia,  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  this  his  or  fulfilment  her  of  the  I agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  C^g-IUcuuuM  Artb  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  OcTOMgeH  3 ° ,  that  I further agree  permission.  Department of  requirements  INSTRUCTION  that  the  advanced  Library shall make it  by the  understood be  an  permission for extensive  granted  is  for  allowed  that without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT This  survey  availability of  study  of resources  identified related  the  were  schools  collected  complimentary  teacher  o f Kenya. and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o m p l e t e d by one a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n e a c h s c h o o l and t h e h e a d t e a c h e r Factors materials, offered The of  s t u d i e d were teacher  results  considerably  offered  headteacher teacher  from  of that school.  physical f a c i l i t i e s ,  characteristics,  showed  unsatisfactory.  subject  Data  instructional  and p e d a g o g i c a l  areas  among t h e s c h o o l s .  the available  whether  the  subjects offered i n  i n the C e n t r a l Province  through  of  t o t h e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g  seven out of f o u r t e e n a p p l i e d education  125 s e c o n d a r y  extent  the schools  one s c h o o l i n question  Similarly,  among t h e s e  Eight  resources  Furthermore,  from  areas.  t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y  accessibility  to  the l e v e l  say  the  o f adequacy  to the other,  least, varied  irrespective  of  o f f e r e d t h e same o r d i f f e r e n t  the d i v e r s i t y  s c h o o l s was  recommendations  were,  o f most  of subject  areas  limited.  were  made  f o r improving  t o adequate a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n  resources.  student  T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Page ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES  i i i v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . .  X  CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM ANALYSIS  1  1.1.0 1.2.0  1.3.0 1.4.0 1.5.0 1.6.0  Introduction Rationale f o r Introducing Applied Education . 1.2.1 R e l e v a n c e 1.2.2 A c c e s s i b i l i t y to Educational Resources General Problem Research Questions S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  CHAPTER TWO: 2.1.0 2.2.0  2.3.0 2.4.0  LITERATURE REVIEW  3.1.0 3.2.0 3.3.0 3.4.0  DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY  Introduction Population of Schools Instrumentation 3.3.1 Development o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 3.3.2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s P i l o t Study 3.4.1 Sample S e l e c t i o n  5 9 9 10 11 13  Introduction Section A: C o n s t r a i n t s i n Implementing Vocationally-Oriented Education 2.2.1 T e a c h e r Inadequacy , . . . 2.2.2 T o o l s and Equipment 2.2.3 Instructional Materials 2.2.4 A t t i t u d e s , P e r c e p t i o n s , B e l i e f s . . . 2.2.5 Physical F a c i l i t i e s Relevance of the Preceding L i t e r a t u r e t o the C u r r e n t Study Section B: History of Applied Education i n Kenya 2.4.1 Pre-Independence 2.4.2 P o s t - I n d e p e n d e n c e  CHAPTER THREE:  1 1 3  13 13 15 18 19 20 20 21 21 22 24 28  . . . .  28 28 30 30 31 33 35  iv 3.5.0 3.6.0 3.7.0 3.8.0  Data C o l l e c t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n o f O b t a i n e d Sample Data E n t r y S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 3.8.1 Preliminary Analysis 3.8.1 Main A n a l y s i s  CHAPTER FOUR: 4.1.0  4.2.0  R E S U L T S FOR P H Y S I C A L INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS  F A C I L I T I E S AND  Introduction  Section A:  Working Space i n S p e c i a l Rooms . . . . C l a s s r o o m Space C l a s s r o o m Desks Work B e n c h e s / C o u n t e r s Hand ( M a n u a l ) A n d Power T o o l s o r Equipment 4.2.6 S t o r a g e Space 4.2.7 A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Water 4.2.8 Amount o f B l a c k b o a r d Space 4.2.9 O v e r a l l Quality of Applied Education Building 4.2.10 Use o f Working Space 4.2.11 S u i t a b i l i t y of Demonstration & P l a n n i n g Spaces 4.2.12 A n t i c i p a t e d C o m p l e t i o n D a t e s f o r S p e c i a l Rooms  Section B: 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4  CHAPTER FIVE: 5.1.0  5.2.0  44 44  Physical F a c i l i t i e s  4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5  4.3.0  37 38 38 39 39 43  Instructional Materials  46 46 48 49 51 52 55 59 60 61 62 63 65  66  Availability of Suitable Class Textbooks 66 Adequacy o f R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s . . . 67 A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Teaching Aids . . . . 69 Adequacy and A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Consumable M a t e r i a l s 70  TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS AND PEDAGOGICAL AREAS OFFERED 75  Introduction  Section A: T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 5.2.1  5.3.0  Age And Sex o f A p p l i e d Education Teachers Academic, T e c h n i c a l , and P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f Teachers 5.3.1 Academic a n d P r o f e s s i o n a l Qualifications 5.3.2 I n s t i t u t i o n Attended f o r P r e - s e r v i c e (Technical) Training 5.3.3 In-Service Training 5.3.4 Teaching Experience  75 75 75 77 77 79 80 82  V  5.4.0  5.5.0 5.6.0 5.7.0 5.9.0  5.10.0  CHAPTER SIX: 6.1.0 6.2.0  6.3.0 6.4.0  6.5.0  Demands o f A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n on T e a c h e r s . . 84 5.4.1 Class Size 84 5.4.2 P e r c e i v e d Time Inadequacy 85 5.4.3 Weekly T e a c h i n g Load 87 P e r c e i v e d T e a c h e r s ' A b i l i t y t o Cope w i t h Demands o f I m p l e m e n t i n g Applied Education 88 Teacher Interest i n Teaching Applied Education 89 L e v e l s o f Schooling that Teachers P r e f e r r e d to Teach A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n 91 T e a c h e r B e l i e f s i n The P u r p o s e s o f A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n i n Kenya H i g h S c h o o l s 92 Section B: P e d a g o g i c a l A r e a s O f f e r e d . . . . 94 5.10.1 S t u d e n t E n r o l m e n t P e r S u b j e c t A r e a . . 94 5.10.2 C u r r i c u l u m S t a k e h o l d e r s Who A c t u a l l y Chose t h e S u b j e c t s O f f e r e d i n The Schools 96 5.10.3 M a i n R e a s o n s F o r C h o o s i n g Applied Education Subjects Offered i n Schools 98 5.10.4 A n t i c i p a t e d S u b j e c t Changes 100 5.10.5 C r i t e r i a Schools Used t o A s s i g n Applied Education Subjects to I n d i v i d u a l Form One S t u d e n t s . . . 102 CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 105 Introduction 105 C o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e Study 105 6.2.1 Physical F a c i l i t i e s 106 6.2.2 Instructional Materials 108 6.2.3 Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 109 6.2.4 A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n S u b j e c t s O f f e r e d . . 110 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Conclusions 112 Discussion of Results 113 6.4.1 C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s t o Inadequacy o f Physical F a c i l i t i e s / Instructional Materials 113 6.4.2 Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , O r i e n t a t i o n s , and P e r c e i v e d E f f e c t i v e n e s s . . . . 117 6.4.3 Time Inadequacy 119 Recommendations 122  BIBLIOGRAPHY  129  APPENDICIES  Appendix A: Appendix B:  TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE  . . . . . . .  HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE  133 143  vi  Appendix  C:  Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix  D: E: F: G: H:  Appendix  J:  COVERING LETTER TO TEACHER AND HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRES . . . RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT ENDORSEMENT LETTER FOLLOW-UP LETTER DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATES LIST OF SCHOOLS WHICH RESPONDED TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES LIST OF SCHOOLS WHICH DID NOT RESPOND TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES  149 151 153 155 157 159 162  vii  LIST OF TABLES Page SOME CONSTRAINTS EDUCATION  IN  IMPLEMENTING VOCATIONALLY-ORIENTED 15  DISTRIBUTION AND CATEGORIES OF SECONDARY DISTRICT  SCHOOLS BY 29  FACTORS AND NUMBER OF APPLIED EDUCATION ASPECTS ENQUIRED INTO  33  SAMPLE SIZE AND RESPONSE RATE PER DISTRICT FREQUENCY  OF  SUBJECTS  S E L E C T E D BY  37 TEACHERS  AND  HEADTEACHERS  40  DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED SUBJECTS BY DISTRICT  42  WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT  47  CLASSROOM SPACE BY SUBJECT  48  CLASSROOM DESKS BY SUBJECT  50  WORK BENCHES/COUNTERS BY SUBJECT  51  NUMBER OF HAND (MANUAL) TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT.  .  .  53  PROJECTS STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT  56  CONSUMABLE MATERIAL STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT  57  STORAGE SPACE FOR TOOLS & EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT  58  AVAILABILITY OF WATER BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA  59  AMOUNTS OF BLACKBOARD SPACE BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA QUALITY OF BUILDING  . . . . .  USED FOR TEACHING APPLIED EDUCATION  BY SUBJECT  61  USE OF WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT SUITABILITY  60  OF DEMONSTRATION AND PLANNING  63 SPACES  BY  SUBJECT  64  COMPLETION DATES FOR SPECIAL ROOMS BY SUBJECT AVAILABILITY OF SUITABLE CLASS TEXTBOOKS BY SUBJECT.  65 . . .  67  viii ADEQUACY OF R E F E R E N C E M A T E R I A L S BY S U B J E C T  68  AVAILABILITY  69  OF T E A C H I N G A I D S BY S U B J E C T  ADEQUACY OF CONSUMABLE M A T E R I A L S BY S U B J E C T  70  AVAILABILITY  71  OF CONSUMABLE M A T E R I A L S BY S U B J E C T  ANNUAL COST E S T I M A T E OF CONSUMABLE M A T E R I A L S PER D I S T R I B U T I O N OF T E A C H E R S ' A G E AND SEX A C A D E M I C AND P R O F E S S I O N A L BY S U B J E C T D I S T R I B U T I O N OF A P P L I E D A T T E N D E D AND L E V E L DISTRIBUTION  OF  .  BY S U B J E C T  QUALIFICATION  76  78  ACCORDING  TO  INSTITUTION 79  NUMBER  OF  YEARS  THEY TAUGHT CLASS  SIZE  73  OF T E A C H E R S  E D U C A T I O N T E A C H E R S BY STUDIED  TEACHERS  STUDENT  83  BY S U B J E C T CATEGORY  84  L E V E L OF ADEQUACY OF O F F I C I A L L Y - A L L O C A T E D T I M E BY A P P L I E D EDUCATION CLASS S I Z E NUMBER OF T O T A L AND A P P L I E D E D U C A T I O N L E S S O N S TAUGHT PER WEEK  87  T E A C H E R S ' A B I L I T Y TO C O P E A P P L I E D EDUCATION  89  TEACHER INTEREST CATEGORY LEVEL  IN  WITH  DEMANDS  TEACHING A P P L I E D  OF  OF  BELIEF STUDENT  SUBJECT 90  APPLIED IN  IMPLEMENTING  E D U C A T I O N BY  OF SCHOOLING THAT TEACHERS PREFERRED H I G H E S T L E V E L OF Q U A L I F I C A T I O N A T T A I N E D  PURPOSES  86  EDUCATION  BY  STRENGTH  TO  TEACH  BY 91  OF  TEACHERS  EACH PURPOSE  93  ENROLMENT BY S U B J E C T AREAS  95  D I S T R I B U T I O N O F C U R R I C U L U M S T A K E H O L D E R S WHO A C T U A L L Y CHOSE T H E S U B J E C T S O F F E R E D IN T H E SCHOOLS S T U D I E D . .  97  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF HEADTEACHERS ACCORDING TO T H E MAIN REASON FOR C H O O S I N G A P P L I E D E D U C A T I O N S U B J E C T T A U G H T A T T H E I R SCHOOL  99  ANTICIPATED  SUBJECT  CHANGES BY T I M E  101  ix  C R I T E R I A FOR ASSIGNING A P P L I E D EDUCATION INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS IN FORM ONE  SUBJECTS  TO 103  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o a l l t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who h e l p e d me i n o n e way o r a n o t h e r during the preparation of t h i s thesis. I w o u l d p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e t o thank my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . Gaalan E r i c k s o n f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , guidance and encouragement throughout t h i s p r o j e c t . I a l s o thank t h e members o f my t h e s i s a d v i s o r y committee, D r . Todd R o g e r s , Mr. B i l l Logan, and D r . D o u g l a s W i l l m s , f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t a d v i c e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . The Kenya Government t h r o u g h i t s Department o f P e r s o n n e l Management a n d t h e C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency generously f u n d e d my s t u d i e s w h i l e t h e T e a c h e r s S e r v i c e Commission g r a n t e d me s t u d y l e a v e t o f u r t h e r my e d u c a t i o n . I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I a c k n o w l e d g e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n g i v e n t o me by t h e many t e a c h e r s a n d h e a d t e a c h e r s who v o l u n t a r i l y p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a used i n t h i s study. S i m i l a r l y , I t h a n k t h e t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p i l o t study a t t h e Kenya T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e and t h e Kenya I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n d e s p i t e t h e i r b u s y s c h e d u l e w i t h book w r i t i n g w o r k s h o p s . Their v a l u a b l e comments o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful. I h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by the s t a f f a t Data E n t r y S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r e n t e r i n g t h e d a t a i n t h e computer; by P a t D o b i e , S h e l l e y MacDonald, and D e i r d r e M c G r o a r t y f o r t y p i n g t h e manuscripts; and t h e v a r i o u s people i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Computing C e n t r e who gave me a d v i c e on d a t a a n a l y s i s whenever I needed i t . F i n a l l y , I owe s p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e , N j a m b i , f o r h e r p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t , a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t ; a n d my c h i l d r e n W a n j i r u , W a n j i k u , and K i n y a n j u i , f o r p a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g f o r me t o c o m p l e t e my programme and r e t u r n home t o be w i t h them.  1  BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM ANALYSIS  CHAPTER ONE: 1.1.0  Introduction This  applied  chapter  education  relevance on  the  explains  for  identified  as  general  research questions  a r e a l s o s t a t e d a t t h e end  1.2.0  R a t i o n a l e for Up  to  the  emphasized  end  and  (Report  of  [Unemployment], of  education  among to  other  and  access  to  its  and  area  comparable  five  for  factors  this  study.  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s  study  chapter.  Kenya's s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n  p u r s u i t s at talents,  blamed  include practical  Schools  A brief discussion  given  problem  Presidential  problems.  have  is  o f the  1982/83).  was  to  and  o f 1984,  cultural the  Secondary  introducing  Introducing A p p l i e d Education  intellectual  economic  for  school leavers.  resources  the  rationale  Kenya  a l l students  education  Specific  the  t o the secondary  need  applied  into  the  Since  the  and  responsible  Committee the  for raising  early  that  on  needed  citizenship  1970s, t h i s  i t was  school  the  Unemployment  unemployment  Consequently, skills  expense o f  over-  of  system  the  reformed  leavers could  youth  in  1986  use  for  self-reliance. At a C o n f e r e n c e in  Nairobi  secondary 35% That  and  in  and 15%  o f Commonwealth E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r s , h e l d  1987,  the  university respectively  i s , available  education education  opportunity i n Kenya  (Commonwealth  secondary  was  index reported  Secretariat,  s c h o o l s were e x p e c t e d  to  for as  1987). provide  2 spaces while  for the  One o f was  35% o f  universities  the  to  secondary  or  to  achieve  students  will  those  that  subjects  to  after  taught  new  the  of  practical  subjects  short-term objective skills, earn or  knowledge,  their  physical  qualified  personnel.  Curriculum  to  (Report  the  Manpower Party],  the  called teach  of  the  applied  students  adequate  "quality  needs  of  p.  for 2).  the  are  over.  To  practical  population  specific  them  marketable  educational  Its  practical  which would e n a b l e  on s k i l l  in  component  education.  to  goods  development,  resources,  for  instructional materials,  and  justified  on a  of  education"  to  the  individual  and  Working  Next  There  attend  they  required  student  emphasis  Presidential  Training 1988,  its  facilities,  the  is  reform  to  life  schooling  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n was  improve  responsive  of  required  example,  to  for  able  The s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l  and a t t i t u d e s  Because  innovation  need  to  enrolment.  education  not  system  S t a n d a r d One  same  l i v e l i h o o d by making or p r o v i d i n g  services.  the  was  was  were  entire  p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s .  the 1  formal  the to  who  in  S:^:^  the  schooling  their  objective, be  of  students  post-secondary  lead  who e n r o l e d  a b s o r b 15% o f  important objectives  prepare  likely  those  is  Party  Decade no  and  single  on  perceived  make the  it  country  Education  Beyond  more  and  [Working  definition  for  K e n y a ' s present system of e d u c a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g e i g h t years of primary e d u c a t i o n , four years of secondary e d u c a t i o n , and f o u r y e a r s o f minimum u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . x  3 "quality  education"  dimensions  (Gibson,  Education BCRCE  [BCRCE],  (1988)  were  relevance,  academic  equitable because  of  they  assess  the  quality  of  access,  of  students,  to the  The  of  Commission  educational  response  to  that are  used  by  programs  political  Relevance  are  on  diversity,  ethics,  resources  criteria  some o f i t s  set of c r i t e r i a  accountability.  educational two  on  and  discussed  related  to  1), e d u c a t i o n a l relevance  of  of a p p l i e d education  closely  next  i n Kenya.  Relevance  program  v a l u e or the  and  agree  Columbia R o y a l  5).  public,  are  British Pt.  equity  access  According a  1970;  educators  1988,  implementation  1.2.1  most  achievement  involvement  the  to  but  t o Ross  i s commonly  (1988, p. justified  i n terms  of  t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p o r t a n c e such  learner.  described  One  aspect  of  this  i t s instrumental  a program h o l d s  instrumental  view  for was  as: . . . the e x t e n t to which s c h o o l programs p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e w o r l d o f work, and a i d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l s and t a l e n t s which w i l l b e n e f i t t h e i n d i v i d u a l and the s o c i e t y (p. 3 ) .  This of  the  behind rising note  particular  instrumental  a p p l i e d education the  objective.  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  t h a t a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was (KNEC, 1987).  The  strikes major  applied education  unemployment o f the y o u t h .  curriculum  value  at  the  heart  driving  force  innovation  However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t  taught  Therefore,  w i t h i n a broad what Coombs  was to  academic  (1988, p.  5)  4 calls  "plurality  citizenship, culture, not  of  education  productive  intellectual  compromised.  purposes"  contribution  pursuits,  Indeed,  the  and  government  to  cultural  8:4:4  reform  separate  responsible  the  and  c i t i z e n s h i p p u r p o s e by making s o c i a l history  of  economy  and  traditions  were  h i g h l i g h t e d the  e d u c a t i o n and educational  ethics,  goals  and  (KNEC,  1987). While  the  short-term  secondary  school  reliance,  the  utilize  job  leavers  long-term  to  was  the  the  applied  important because only  be  social  them  rural  b e n e f i t s to  selfto  areas. goal  was  both  the  society.  of  rural-urban migration  local  human and  technical  indigenous support  i n the  check  solving  hoped  for  program  and  problems were  unique  be  areas  promote  on  the  to  expected  industrialization.  based  would  rural  material resources.  technologies  b e n e f i t s were  education  Availability  and  provide  for  the s h o r t - t e r m or t h e l o n g - t e r m  economic  help  use  of  expected  skills  the  to  to  to  in  r e d u c i n g unemployment, w o r k i n g  environments, developed  practical  was  opportunities available  bring  expected  process  program  encourage  more e f f i c i e n t the  with  the  to  i n d i v i d u a l and Besides  of  o b j e c t i v e was  R e a l i z a t i o n of e i t h e r expected  aim  rural to  be  However,  assumption  successfully  In  that  implemented.  of adequate e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  for  the  attainment  i t is a skill acquired  of  applied education o b j e c t i v e s  development program and  through  practice.  The  these  Working  skills  Party  can  (1988,  5 p.  4)  reiterated  social still  and  economic  i s ] an  Therefore,  satisfactorily  order  of  education schools  o f government f u n d i n g Harambee,  amounts  formula  which  schools  the  received  assistance  of  and  [and  educational  issue)  must  be  commensurate  was  i n the  form  educational  requirements  p u b l i c while i n the  physical  the form  Resources was  part  of  by  their cash,  policy  and  Private  Other  schools  Almost  status.  and  The  instructional a l l of  were f i n a n c e d  received minimal  documents  s e r v i c e s when e d u c a t i o n a l  received funding  personnel,  Schools  (in  a  assigned  facilities. National  to  most  respectively.  2  Maintained,  category  the  general  categorized  according  schools  with of  Each  aid  P r i v a t e Schools of  made  Private.  assistance  and  advisory  in  training".  p r i o r i t y ) as N a t i o n a l ,  National  materials,  usually  only  was  and to  i n Kenya were  government  gave  least  aid  access  the  to Educational  applied  varying  the  means  equity  education  education  equitable  no  bringing  resolved.  secondary  Assisted,  of  through  o b j e c t i v e of  by  Accessibility Before  process  development  issue  (though  education,  "the  important the  resources  1.2.2  that  by  funding  supervisory  r e l a t e d problems  the  arose  and in  As t h e p a r e n t s assumed more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h e mode o f s e l e c t i o n and admission o f s t u d e n t s became a more common c r i t e r i a than f i n a n c i n g as a method f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g s e c o n d a r y schools. (Working Party ( 1 9 8 8 ) , C h a p . V I ; Information Handbook, Ministry of Education (1987), p. 35-37). 2  6 individual  schools.  individual in  school  varying  Harambee  of  various  building,  and  acquired  educational  quantity.  financial  requirements  degrees  and  3  The  recreational.  of  through school  fees  of  a l l the former  supplied  with  was  hand  rooms ( L a u g l o ,  different  mandated  tools,  1986,  (SIDA) l o n g  parental mainly schools of  responsibility  was  community  shared  served and  schools.  among  by  community  through or  before  They  equipment,  and  by  were  special  1985, p. 1 3 4 ) .  the  resources  and  equipped  When a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n was made p a r t o f g e n e r a l in  schools  education  for a l l schools.  machines,  like  quality  a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n programs f u l l y  education  met  tuition,  industrial  Swedish I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A u t h o r i t y applied  like  varying  the  a i d was  arrangments  Consequently,  resources  F o r example,  s c h o o l s had t h e i r  and t h e government  success kinds  d i f f e r e n c e between  for providing the government,  individual involvement  voluntary  1988,  innovation's  parents, Until  i n education  i t seemed  funding  f o r other  a matter  o f time  and  the  recently, funding  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to f i n a n c e  s u b s i d i z e government By  schools.  the  education  was  Harambee  categories before  that  L i t e r a l l y means ' p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r ' . I t r e f e r r e d to a mode o f f i n a n c i n g t h e c o s t o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n w i t h v o l u n t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( c a s h and k i n d ) from p a r e n t s , c o m m u n i t i e s , s p o n s o r s , i n d i v i d u a l s , and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o s u p p l e m e n t government e f f o r t . 3  7 form The such  of  involvement  was  f o l l o w i n g excerpt a  formalized i n a Cost-Sharing  from  the Working  Party  (1988)  Policy.  4  supported  policy: The v o c a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n u n d e r t h e 8:4:4 s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n has c r e a t e d a great demand f o r the supply of educational [physical] f a c i l i t i e s , tools, and equipment and hence increasing e x p e n d i t u r e on f a c i l i t i e s and e q u i p m e n t . In the l i g h t of government financial c o n s t r a i n t , i t i s t h e view o f t h e W o r k i n g P a r t y t h a t the C o s t - S h a r i n g s t r a t e g y a p p l i c a b l e to the p r o v i s i o n of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and some e q u i p m e n t by communities and p a r e n t s i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The government s h o u l d , however, c o n t i n u e to p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d equipment i n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n q u a l i t y and r e l e v a n c e of t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s s u c h as s c i e n c e s a n d vocational education. Parents should supply text books and supplementary r e a d e r s , s t a t i o n e r y , and consumable i t e m s for p r a c t i c a l subjects [applied education]. (p. 119)  Thus,  the  communities amounts  Cost-Sharing  formally  of  of  inputs  applied education.  of  providing  b u i l d i n g s , hand t o o l s , and  Typing  Education  and  Office  estimated  Practice  the  hold  providing  required  Ministry  and  would  responsible for  school  implementation  Policy  In  for  parents  and  substantial successful  December  1984,  the  financial  cost  for  equipment f o r A g r i c u l t u r e at  KSh  210,000  and  KSh  T h i s government p o l i c y ( c u r r e n t l y under f o r m u l a t i o n ) i s e x p e c t e d t o r e v i e w and f o r m a l i z e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u n d i n g p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n -- i n c l u d i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . School t r u s t e e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r e n t s ) would be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e physical facilities, text books, r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , s t a t i o n e r y , and consumable i t e m s f o r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n . 4  8  1,100,000 other  respectively  twelve  because  20  intention before  clear  experience  to  Depending their  economic/social  was  an  for  the  expensive  government  program  that the  previous  some  of  parents,  of  inputs  sponsors,  could  Financially  were more l i k e l y  rich  and  through  officials  who  schools and  of  allocate  aid  from  quality  neighbouring  school  donations,  the  Governors,  in securing educational personal  would  educational  among  influential  such  schools  q u a n t i t y and  g r e a t l y even  years  Under  individual  vary  to succeed  schools  the  class  two  classification),  etc.),  a  made i t s  about  necessary  history  program,  on  implementation.  securing on  cost  were b a s e d  the  the  The  s t a t u s of s c h o o l t r u s t e e s (Board  individual  lobbying  two  inevitable in  G).  cost estimates  date  i t was  (including  their  s u b j e c t s were between t h e s e  introduce  problems  resources.  for  the  Furthermore,  expected  conditions,  schools.  the  students.  the  school  of  Thus, a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n  particularly of  Appendix  applied education  estimates.  size  (see  trustees resources  Harambee,  and  government  and  p r i v a t e donors to s c h o o l s . The that  high  financial  applied  education  raised  hopes  students, the  and  parents,  program  that  proponents  was  and  massive  given  during  expectations communities, appealed  s t a k e h o l d e r s were t h e its  cost  for  and  the  promised  to  those  who  to  stages  innovation  sponsors.  and  publicity  its initial  the  most  improved s o c i a l  positive  The  these  among  aspects  of  curriculum  economic s t a t u s t h a t  learned  the  skills  that  9  it  offered.  provided  Consequently,  the  material  program i n t h e i r to  an  social  awarded  the  training  or  function  teaching order  for  are  as  education.  of  the  and  identify  determinants  the  for  start  the  available  applied  who  would  resources.  education  strengths  of  and  and  be  is a  It  quantity  schools  for  determined  weaknesses  be  further  achievement  secondary  and  educational  employment,  quality  individual  the  to  resources  turn, educational  that  l e a r n i n g of  afford  because  available educational  imperative  stakeholders  translate into material  individual  major  In  a v a i l a b l e to  to  could  educational  would  that  used  they  curriculum  available opportunities  therefore, resources  The  student  benefits  achievements  support  schools.  individual  these  was, of the in  of  the  of  the  innovation. 1.3.0  General This  Problem  survey  availability of  applied  Province  1.4.0  resources  education  of  facilities, and  of  Kenya.  in The  instructional  identified  the  r e l a t e d t o the 125  extent  teaching  secondary  and  schools  learning  in  Central  factors considered  were:  materials,  characteristics,  s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d among the  teacher  physical  schools.  Research Questions Answers t o the  1.  study  How  adequate  physical  following questions (quantity  facilities  and  and  were s o u g h t :  q u a l i t y ) are  instructional  the  available  materials  for  the  10 teaching  and l e a r n i n g o f each o f t h e 14 a p p l i e d  subjects? for  What  new o r expanded  and, i f s o , when would t h e y  facilities  What a r e t h e t e a c h e r s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ?  3.  Which  schools  and  decisions  education on  what  about  individual  Form  subjects  basis  were  subjects  One  students?  planned  offered  d i d school  which  were  be a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e ?  2.  applied  education  their  trustees  school  What  i n the  was  make  offered to the  student  e n r o l m e n t p e r s u b j e c t and a n t i c i p a t e d c h a n g e s , i f a n y , i n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by 1991? 1-5.0  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study It  was hoped t h a t f i n d i n g s from t h e s t u d y  would be u s e f u l  to  i n d i v i d u a l s and p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s  in  s u c c e s s f u l implementation of a p p l i e d  1.  Findings  on  physical  materials could for 2.  applied  use  students for 3.  Findings useful  facilities,  and  instructional to raise  funds  education. Section  information  had a c c e s s  applied  education.  i n f l u e n c e Harambee e f f o r t s  The I n s p e c t o r a t e could  interested  of the Ministry  of  Education  obtained  to ensure  that a l l  t o comparable  educational  resources  education.  regarding i n improving  teacher  characteristics  the recruitment,  deployment o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n  teachers.  would  training  be and  11 4.  Information diversity  obtained  would  of practical  help  skills  predict the quality expected  among  and  secondary  school-leavers. 5.  A provincial school the  6.  overview  of applied education  t r u s t e e s and s t a f f  adequacy o f t h e i r  Findings applied  would  with comparative  school's  provide  would  i n f o r m a t i o n on  educational  direction  provide  resources.  f o r further research i n  education.  1.6.0 Definition of Terms Practical  Subjects:  (Primary  and  specific  practical  equipment,  A  Secondary)  tools,  component  intended  skills  p r a c t i c a l following Textiles  a n d m a t e r i a l s t o make  Education:  subjects. individual  and Food  Electricity,  Physical rooms special  Mechanics, and  and O f f i c e  Facilities:  (workshops, equipment,  home  marketable  school  collective Home  phase  term  of  f o r the  Science,  [Clothing &  A r t and Design,  Agriculture,  Design, Practice,  Educational  benches,  the use o f  or provide  Woodwork,  science  with  clientele.  a  subjects:  education  students  through  secondary  I t was  Drawing  Economics, Typing  The  & Nutrition],  Power  construction,  to provide  and knowledge  goods o r s e r v i c e s t o customers o r Applied  of general  Metalwork,  Accounting, and  Commerce,  Music.  resources  laboratories,  furniture,  Building  storage  like  special  classrooms,  spaces,  etc.),  12 necessary  for effective  teaching  and  learning  of  applied  education. Instructional  Material;  resources  like  textbooks,  materials,  and t e a c h i n g  Adequacy: available  How  society  who  secondary  direct  resources,  a  learning concerned.  Those indirect  individuals right  quality  of  and  or groups i n  t o be  These  students,  involved i n  include  primary  teachers,  school  education  trustees  including taxpayers,  Refers  change  into  to  a  i n teaching  or d i f f e r e n t  innovation  and  as  well  as  politicians,  others.  Implementation: an  as  parents,  Innovation: requires  or  stakeholders  e m p l o y e r s , and  consumable  resources are.  such  administrators,  educational  materials,  the quantity  decision-making.  stakeholders  to  aids.  Stakeholders:  have  educational  reference  sufficient  educational  Curriculum  Referred  project  programme  methodologies,  use  of  that new  use of o l d r e s o u r c e s .  Implementation actual  activities  or  used  use. by  i s the process  I t comprise the  teacher  of putting  the teaching and  the  and  students  13  LITERATURE REVIEW  CHAPTER TWO'.  2.1.0  Introduction This  areas.  chapter  comprises  The f i r s t  area  vocationally-oriented international of  applied  section  i n Kenya.  respect  study.  previous  Home S c i e n c e ,  into Applied  Education.  2.2.0  history  of the f i r s t  countries  considered  the context  within  Education  A r t and D e s i g n ,  i n this which  subjects,  and M u s i c  evolved  Section A: Constraints in Implementing VocationallyOriented Education -- A Review of Experiences in Some Developing Countries Within the Commonwealth The  Schools in  factors  and Business  Agriculture,  consists of a  i n some d e v e l o p i n g  section provides  Industrial  f o c u s on t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t a t u s o f  t o the implementation  The l a t t e r  area  The p u r p o s e  comparative education  i n two  c o n s t r a i n t s i n implementing  t h e second  education  vocationally-oriented with  examines  of l i t e r a t u r e  education with a p a r t i c u l a r  context;  i s to provide  a review  i n t r o d u c t i o n of applied education was p a r t  a practical  within  of a policy  Justification  for this  knowledge  current  and f u t u r e r e a l - l i f e face.  should  policy relate  curricula  i n developing  countries  Secretariat,  was b a s e d  1987).  on t h e v i e w  as d i r e c t l y  situations  Secondary  school  (Commonwealth  school  most l i k e l y  of d i v e r s i f y i n g  or v o c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n  t h e Commonwealth  i n Kenyan  that  as p o s s i b l e t o  t h a t t h e l e a r n e r would  14 Due  to high  countries, in  youth  unemployment  t h e r e was an e x p e c t a t i o n  the school  curriculum  self-employment. premise  would  according  vary  solve labour  in  Ministers  countries  Papers  addressed  issues  programs  leavers  reality  of  to another. critics  of  that  Conference  an  that  However, curriculum  schools  cannot  of  from  at  related  as they  i n their  was t h e most  Commonwealth  S e c r e t a r i a t , 1987] was  implementation,  cooperation  implementation  plans,  or  the p o i n t  [Commonwealth  of provision,  education  component  problems.  Kenya.  international  discussed  many  emphasized  developing  e i t h e r through s a l a r i e d or  one c o u n t r y  (1985)  school  least  on v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n  paper  patterns  give  o f hope  1987, t h e T e n t h  Nairobi,  Each  have  market  July,  Education  from  to Lauglo  diversification  In  The d e g r e e  many  that a p r a c t i c a l  could  advantage i n o b t a i n i n g a l i v e l i h o o d  among  relevant  twenty-three were  presented.  to the objectives, new  pertained  country.  held  initiatives,  and  t o the v o c a t i o n a l  Among  for this  these study.  issues, Factors  under t h e t o p i c o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were a c h i e v e m e n t s , constraints,  effectiveness. frequencies  of  Table  curriculum,  and  cost  1 shows s e l e c t e d c o n s t r a i n t s and  their  occurrence.  staffing,  15 Table 1 SOME CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTING VOCATIONALLY-ORIENTED EDUCATION  CONSTRAINT  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  PERCENT  Teacher Inadequacy T o o l s & Equipment Instructional Materials Attitudes, Perceptions, Physical Facilities  Beliefs  Each of the c o n s t r a i n t s d e t a i l below. 2.2.1 T e a c h e r  problems  unrealistic  and  academically,  physical  and poor  referred  trainers.  Lack  training opportunities  or  to r i s i n g  teachers student  f o r example,  t r a i n i n g t o o l s and e q u i p m e n t ,  of applicants  f o r the a v a i l a b l e  and d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n  progress  i n quantity  trained  capacity,  also  worsened  shortage.  Insufficient  low a c a d e m i c ,  to the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of  training  appropriate  around the  planning.  I t was a t t r i b u t e d  and i n a d e q u a t e  to unsatisfactory  5  i n more  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; vague  t e c h n i c a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  facilities,  teacher  teacher due  shortage  clustered  incompetence;  professional  individual countries.  population  1 are discussed  problems  attrition;  program g o a l s ;  Teacher  and  teacher-related  of shortage;  technical,  i n Table  Inadequacy  Reported  in  74 69 65 61 26  5  and q u a l i t y .  of trainees the  teacher  16 Unattractive a  high  terms and c o n d i t i o n s  attrition  rate.  of service  resulted i n  qualified  teachers,  The w e l l  especially  those  with  industrial/commercial  reportedly  lured  into  the p r i v a t e  and  social  benefits.  promotion prospects teachers  quit  frustration. high  the  lack  teachers' p.  increased  role  6)  found  by c l e a r  administration [e.g. person  commitment  School  Inspectors],  conventional  etc.). wisdom  that  Considering  education  I n a s t u d y on  was  involvement  et  a l .  greatly of  school  and a d v i s o r y  staff  i n t h e use o f p r o v e n  credible  p r a c t i c e , and  o f equipment, i n s t r u c t i o n a l  findings  teacher  down t h e  Crandall  commitment  the  ( F i g . 2.1),  t r a i n i n g / i n s e r v i c e by a  Those  on,  was t h e  f o r slowing  supervisory  s u p p o r t and a v a i l a b i l i t y  materials,  job.  improvement,  and d i r e c t p o s i t i v e  [Headmaster],  to stay  incompetence  blamed  teacher  and  i t difficult for  was n o t a s u r p r i s e .  that  [e.g. a colleague]  continued  to their  i n school  Consequently,  incentives.  o f teacher  commitment  that  employment  f o r teachers  of vocationally-oriented  o f teacher  material  f o r upward m o b i l i t y was  p r o g r a m s made  of the c o n s t r a i n t s  implementation  (1983  incentives  of the i n d i c a t o r s  implications  the  t o under  t o take advantage o f such  of teacher  lack  due  staff-development  teachers One  jobs  was p o o r .  Even where t h e p r o s p e c t s were  by b e t t e r  were  t o t h i s p r o b l e m was a c l a i m  f o r good t e a c h e r s  their  and t h e r e  inadequate  Related  sector  experience,  a r e complementary  commitment  c a n be  to  developed  17 by  i n v o l v i n g them i n the development o f the  new  and  curriculum,  i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , teaching methodologies, T e a c h e r s were r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g  and  formal  professional qualifications. resultant  emphasis further such  on  training  education  tasks  rising  decrease  because  student  recruitment technical, The  and  and  to  Teachers  were  teacher  employ  for  Furthermore,  shortage  teachers  in  beside  inadequate  work e x p e r i e n c e .  attributed  teaching  tools,  to  forced  with  teacher  etc.)  related  and  manpower  economy.  mechanisms  for  responding  (e.g.  advisory  low  teacher  academic,  demands and  quickly due  to  poor  planning  of  scope  and  inadequacy adequate  form  of  books, staff.  planning  Likewise,  underfunding to  in  to e d u c a t i o n a l  the  and  teachers  materials  of  attributed  resulted  self-employment  Programs were mandated b e f o r e  between  education  or  technical,  increase in population  opportunities  salaried  lacked  factor  issues  imbalance sectors  they  academic,  professional qualifications.  and  materials, general  job  made a v a i l a b l e t o  learning  Rapid  training.  agencies  fifth  be  for  population  poor p l a n n i n g . could  or  in  low  etc.  supply  consumable Other  more  concerned for  changing  financial  support  sufficient  inefficient to  was  the  different monitoring  demands  restraint  in  were  vocationa1ly-oriented  education. The that  the  depth, school  unrealistic.  system  Objectives  purpose  strove  to  i n school  of  vocational  achieve  were  competence unclear  s y l l a b u s e s were  broad  or and  18 very  general  knowledge, goals for  the content  was  and s k i l l s .  For such  attitudes,  t o be a c h i e v e d ,  skill  teacher  made  education  allow  student  and resources  f o r such  an  teachers.  of  broad  specific  and  general time  Time a l l o c a t e d f o r  available  to schools d i d  industrial/commercial attachment f o r Furthermore,  opportunities  for further training  knowledge  of  vocational education  advantage  over  their  up  t r a i n e e s required adequate  d e v e l o p m e n t and work e x p e r i e n c e .  vocational not  while  when  students  or education,  competitors  their  d i d not give who  got past  them  any  d i d not have  such  and  they  knowledge. 2.2.2  T o o l s and Most  required that  countries  available  a  imported  education  foreign  competed  exchange.  and  with  equipment  was  valuable  f o r teaching  time-consuming process Obsolete  continued inefficient  tools  use  t o be  was  between  i n operation or  education,  business  i n short  tools  supply.  In  a n d l e a r n i n g was l o s t  i n  of importation.  and equipment  facilitated  and o b s o l e t e  In  f o r the  therefore, that educational  reported time  them.  business  the choice  service like  I t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g ,  addition, the  When  equipment  t o manufacture  j o b c r e a t i n g and s u s t a i n i n g businesses  "non-profitable" social  won.  the tools  o r t h e raw m a t e r i a l s needed  respect,  keeping  Equipment  was w i d e l y  the teaching  technologies.  reported. and  However,  Their  learning of some  papers  19 argued  that  achieved  through  innovative 2.2.3  an a l t e r n a t i v e t o u s i n g the development  equipment  of local  r e p a i r s , m a i n t e n a n c e , and new  c a n be  technologies,  designs.  Instructional Materials To  s u c c e s s f u l l y implement  reference  books,  stationery inputs  were  reference  reported  scarce.  o f these  Because  and consumable  books  books.  adapted  authors  Each  teaching  t e x t and  a i d s , and educational  of their  process,  materials  great  textbooks,  are discussed i n  below.  Technical  Inadequacy  materials,  i n the teaching-learning books,  more d e t a i l  academic  consumable  a v o c a t i o n a l program,  are essential inputs.  importance  not  modern  were  more  difficult  When a v a i l a b l e , they  to syllabuses  to obtain  than  were more e x p e n s i v e and  of the importing  countries.  o f t e c h n i c a l books was a t t r i b u t e d t o l a c k o f l o c a l  and c a p i t a l  to invest  in publishing  for a  small  market. Consumable the  environment  obtained  jurisdiction.  best,  included  and n a t u r a l Efficient  imaginative  unconventional most  were  o r bought  materials  enterprises,  required  materials  sources  teacher  reportedly  (Mwamba, waste  of schools'  training  and s c r a p within  utilization with  free  1983, p. 3 6 ) .  resources  teachers  obtained  from  from  "Freely" commercial  institutions'  of such  materials  positive attitudes  about  consumable m a t e r i a l s .  programs d i d n o t p r e p a r e  At  teachers  20 to  use  such  materials 2.2.4  as  the  only  Most  vocational  skills.  were  subjects was  perceived route  to  who as  liberal  arts  by  parents,  better  That p e r c e p t i o n  social  material  jobs  and  that  students an  required felt  that  academic  core  and  was  Physical  expanding their  their  component. option  facilities the  only  In  was  problem  26%  to  skill  of  adequate  most  education to  than  provide  vocational  disproportionate  i n d i v i d u a l s serving Parents  manual s k i l l s  t r a i n i n g should  in and  within be  done  training.  technical  general, one  to  a wider would,  the  education  the  countries  physical  countries  c u r r i c u l a to  leads  r e i n f o r c e d by  manual  Facilities  because  school  public  incomes  than p r o v i d i n g  curriculum,  in providing  surprising  the  manual  academic  Academic  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  rather  Surprisingly, problems  and  from  pursuing  sciences.  given  through f u l l - t i m e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p 2.2.5  of  and  with  livelihood  incapable  rewards  high  purchased  materials.  associated  their  prestige  education.  on  consumable  were  students,  jobs,  relied  Beliefs  earned  regarded  like  their  subjects  Individuals  skills  programs  source of  Attitudes, Perceptions, Most  a  materials.  include  were  suspect problem.  however,  that The vary  facilities. in  programs practical  financial  reported  the  was of  or d i v e r s i f y i n g or  provision  from  It  process  vocational  implications  degree of  having  of  of  either  physical  seriousness  country  to  of  country  21 d e p e n d i n g on many f a c t o r s , of  available  and  resources,  f o r example, t h e amount and  degree  of  commitment  p e r c e p t i o n s about the need f o r such  2.3.0  R e l e v a n c e of Study The  which  preceding  problems  to  education  to  show t h a t most  considered the  resources  in Central  supply  in this  extent  to  affected Province  of  one  study. which  the of  problem,  the  v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d education  identify  each of those  the  a program.  Literature  review  i n o b t a i n i n g adequate  resources  sought  Preceding  literature  implemented  five  the  to  quality  the  more o f  current  the  study  availability  implementation Kenya  countries  experienced  or  The  Current  of  of a p p l i e d  in general  and  the  schools studied i n p a r t i c u l a r . The history  2.4.0  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n on of a p p l i e d education  Section Kenya  Despite  has  the  centralized examinations; continue  to  education factors  B:  History always  District  of Applied had  Focus  a  Education  centralized for  Rural  practices,  personnel  recruitment,  exert  have  a  review  outlines  the  i n Kenya.  educational  system.  that  literature  powerful Therefore,  for  in Kenya  education  Development example,  training,  centralizing to  i n f l u e n c e d the  understand  current  system. Policy , 6  curriculum;  and  deployment  effect  on  the  some  of  the  status  of  applied  This policy allows administrative d i s t r i c t s limited p o w e r s t o d e t e r m i n e and implement their development priorities. 6  22 education useful  i n t h e 125 s c h o o l s  to t r a c e the h i s t o r y of t h i s  national  pedagogical  is  areas 7  was  first  system  either  industrial  difficult  that  of  i ti s  for fourteen  the formative  was  years  established.  The  of i t s constituent  or as former  subject  education.  clusters  Further, i t  the h i s t o r y of a p p l i e d education  education  because  According  education  training.  name  i s the h i s t o r y  e d u c a t i o n and b u s i n e s s  of the l a t t e r .  vocational  during  of education  to separate  applied  used  individually  vocational  expansion (1988)  report,  e d u c a t i o n component a t t h e  as a c o l l e c t i v e  of applied education  subjects like  Education"  t h e 8-4-4  history  in this  level.  "Applied  when  studied  i s now  The h i s t o r y  from  the former  i s an  t o the Working  Party,  considered  school-based  of vocational education i n  Kenya i s d e s c r i b e d below. 2.4.1 P r e - I n d e p e n d e n c e During component taught  era, applied education  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and l e a r n t  pedagogy  evolved  of d i f f e r e n t Applied schools  pre-colonial  through  over  time  education  a  and t r a i n i n g .  major I t was  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p but i t s c o n t e n t i n response  t o the p e r c e i v e d  and  needs  times. education  during  preceded  the c o l o n i a l  academic  era.  Until  education early  Eight years of primary education, s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and f o u r y e a r s o f minimum 7  was  in public  1909, A f r i c a n  four years education.  of  23 education  was  government  reports called  African,  the  skills  best  traditions,  of  work.  In  assisted  The  of  and  prepare  education  [applied]  the  day  s c h o o l was  i t was  the  recommended  the d i g n i t y The  stressed  built.  However,  main  Report  The  education  by  Kenya's  (1924)  The  colonial of  called  f o r more  of  emphasis  the  country's be  of the  government the  o f 1949 on  the  world  education,  Beecher R e p o r t with  the  t h e same y e a r ,  first called  agriculture economy.  used  It  to i n s t i l l  given  the  t o manual s k i l l s the  applied education  i n t h e above c o l o n i a l  recommendations  attached  from  for  African  need  During  stay  from t h o s e  because  implemented  on  the  to support  African  protests  the  labour.  arguments used  the  for  the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n  that vocational education  o f manual  different  needed  students  policy  future-oriented education  because  major  preparation.  were  Phelps-Strokes  technical education.  technical  and  i n education  occupation  to provide  Three  t o the needs o f the community, p r e s e r v e  i t s 1925  government  very  relevance  c o o p e r a t i o n between t h e government and education  also  for  i t was  adopting  for  missionaries.  (1909) recommended t e c h n i c a l  economy a t t h a t t i m e . for  by  h i s / h e r e n v i r o n m e n t , and  F r a s e r Report because  provided  low  economic  at that time. A f r i c a n s , the  ( S i f u n a , 1976).  were and  were  reports.  r e j e c t e d by social  Despite  the  not  the  rewards rejection  recommendations  were  24 2.4.2  Post-Independence The  attainment  opportunities There  was  urgent in  upsurge  in  the  it  seen  the  curriculum By  fill  private for  of  education.  the An  1972)  reported  could  not  reliance  be nor  the  employable  skills.  education objectives  with  program.  8  The  dropped  plan  as  In  There  from  rate  school  i t s 1970  by  stated  one  the  of of  the  high  secondary  in  neither  (ILO, Kenya self  Development  providing  expanding of  school  Study  - 74  to  jobs.  1985).  leavers had  an  prepare  (Lauglo  Organization  skills  was  because  to  a result  itself  departing  prestigious  because they  committed  practical  of  by  education  many  economy.  education  completion  majority  employed  school-leavers  of  Labour  gainfully  government  sectors.  rose  high  International the  vacant  secondary schools  1960s and  that  left  was  opened  expanding  socially  education  i n a few  1963  academic  kind and  in  fast  public  general  financially  except  the  jobs  and  right  applied  of  e a r l y 1970s, unemployment  enrolment  Plan,  to  the  for  Consequently,  need  demand as  individuals  independence  in a l l sectors  foreigners  was  of  the  more  applied  program's  as ... to i n s t i l l in the learner an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r s k i l l e d manual work, and p r o v i d e some o f the b a s i c s k i l l s required i n a b r o a d range o f o c c u p a t i o n s . (p. 460)  I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n was secondary s c h o o l . 8  35  introduced  or  strengthened  in  25 The  theme  more p r a c t i c a l  of o r i e n t i n g direction  (1976) which recommended  the school  was c o n t i n u e d  curriculum  towards a  i n the Gachathi  Report  that  ... t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m be v o c a t i o n a l i z e d i n o r d e r t o remove t h e d e m a r c a t i o n between s e c o n d a r y a c a d e m i c and S e c o n d a r y t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d make s e c o n d a r y education i n c r e a s i n g l y s c i e n t i f i c , p r e v o c a t i o n a l and c r a f t - o r i e n t e d , ( p . 65) The  demarcation  been  minimized  both  (Kenya  schools  technical  of Education  time,  an a p p l i e d  t h e r e f o r e , the demarcation According  Unemployment rise.  [Unemployment,  T h e 1979-83  education stated  t o the Report  (they  school  [KCE]) c o n s i s t i n g o f  education  continued  Development  i n those  a s a means o f f i g h t i n g  this  at that  schools.  Committee on  unemployment  Plan  secondary  program  of the P r e s i d e n t i a l 9  time  certificate  Most a c a d e m i c  1982/83] ,  a r e now  For the f i r s t  offered a full  Certificate  d i d n o t have  schools  institutes).  a c a d e m i c and a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n .  schools  to  technical  technical  program  t o i n t h e above q u o t a t i o n had a l r e a d y  i n t h e former  post-secondary (1972)  referred  focused  continued on a p p l i e d  problem.  The  plan  that It i s a matter of high p r i o r i t y to i n s t i t u t e c u r r i c u l u m changes that w i l l prepare students r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r the employment s i t u a t i o n t h a t f a c e s them on  T h i s r e p o r t c l a i m e d open unemployment i n Kenya t o be 7.1 p e r c e n t i n 1976, 10.5 p e r c e n t i n 1981, and 10.8 p e r c e n t i n 1982. Yambo (1986) e s t i m a t e d i t a t 11.5 p e r c e n t i n 1986. 9  26 l e a v i n g s c h o o l ... t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e o f t r a i n e d K e n y a n s i n many t e c h n i c a l and vocational areas. The c u r r i c u l u m must, therefore, i n c r e a s e i t s emphasis on science, technical subjects, agriculture, and t r a i n i n g t h a t l e a d s to v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s (p. 4 7 ) . The  Report  of  the  Presidential  Working  Second U n i v e r s i t y (Second U n i v e r s i t y , 1981) impetus  that  position the  provided  propelled applied education  into  occupied  on  the  c u r r i c u l u m from  structural  changes  of  the  whole  called  emphasizing  for  technical  diversification f o c u s on The  of  on  Unemployment  curriculum It  for  unemployment  methodologies,  or  by  recommended  was  to  shift  focused  evaluation  It observed  the  centred.  (1982/83) blamed i t on an e d u c a t i o n  towards a c a d e m i c e d u c a t i o n .  Beside  content  also  examination  final  system,  for evaluation i n order  from b e i n g  education  teaching  in  the  prominent  1986.  education  education.  criteria  education  blame  content,  improvement  on  the  the  i t has  report  the  Party  on  procedures.  system  biased  that:  S u b j e c t s t a u g h t a t P r i m a r y and S e c o n d a r y levels are heavily biased towards i n t e 1 1 e c t u a l i z a t i o n and v e r y l i t t l e i s b e i n g done t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s t h a t can l e a d to s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t f o r the m a j o r i t y of s c h o o l l e a v e r s (p. 4 9 ) . Thus  the  need  educating (during  the  the  for  offering  learner  1970s)  to  to  applied  education  appreciate  training  s e l f - r e l i a n c e once t h e s t u d e n t s  them left  in  skilled  shifted  from  manual  work  specific  school.  skills  According  to  for the  27 Working  Party  school  (1988),  curriculum  needed  t o be  the  was  v o c a t i o n a l - o r i e n t a t i o n of  [satisfactory]  strengthened  in  late  primary  1980s  i n the S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l  but  i t  Curriculum:  I t s [Primary School Curriculum] v o c a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l a p p r o a c h a r e meant t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s f o r s e l f - r e l i a n c e . . . The W o r k i n g P a r t y would l i k e t o s e e a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f s k i l l s at t h i s [Secondary school] l e v e l .... and a l s o to strengthen career o r i e n t a t i o n (p. 23; p. 3 1 ) .  From t h e p r e c e d i n g unemployment education changes the  greatly  went  majority  absorbing found  the  education,  opportunities  school  heavy  of  assess  The  1970s and and got  or to  of  those  find  The  during  materials,  teacher  chapter  The  as  The  long  As  i t  for  ways  solution  study  in physical  of was  rapid  1980s and  inevitable  This  as  those  resultant  early  its that  sought  to  facilities,  characteristics,  and  the  among s c h o o l s .  discusses  m e t h o d o l o g y used f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  applied  1980s.  alternative  o f t h e s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d w i t h i n and following  that  opportunities  perceived  the  arise.  problems  the  training.  i m p l i c a t i o n s made would  that  moderate  general education.  problems  extent  instructional variety  pressure  i t i s evident  changes  leavers  l e a v e r s mounted.  financial  the  the  employment  applied education  implementation  the  gradual  school  dwindled,  in a diversified  expansion  during  relatively  of  account,  influenced  through  remained  further  historical  in this  the  design  study.  and  28  CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1.0  Introduction This  of  chapter  schools  and  from  begins which  the instruments  followed  i n sample  with  the schools  used  f o r data  selection,  are then d e s c r i b e d i n t u r n . of  the data  are presented  p e d a g o g i c a l a r e a s from 3.2.0  P o p u l a t i o n of The  schools  population  districts i n 1988.  data  under  of the p o p u l a t i o n  study  were  collection. collection,  selected  Procedures and  analysis  Results of a preliminary analysis as a  further  rationale  for excluding  some  analysis.  Schools of schools  i n Central Province  classification  a description  comprised  o f Kenya.  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  a l l 535  Table  secondary  2 shows  their  across the f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  o f Kiambu, Muranga, N y e r i , Nyandarua,  and K i r i n y a g a  Table 2 DISTRIBUTION AND CATEGORIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS BY DISTRICT CATEGORIES (ROW  PERCENT) ROW TOTAL  DISTRICT National/ Maintained  Harambee/ Assisted  Private (N)  Muranga Kiambu Nyeri Nyandarua Kirinyaga  ALL DISTRICTS  Note:  (N)  public  through  contrast, policy  2 5.0  68.0  documents  addition  in  1.3 10.3 7.8 13.6 4.1  153 145 129 59 49  7.0  5 35  are or  the  of  of  to  schools  of  through of  by  the  authorities. the  that  government  In with  offer.  receive varying  m a t e r i a l , or  through  Harambee.  educational  they  private schools  individual  public i s raised  quantity  by  education  personnel,  expenses  donations  local  assisted  assistance given  form  g e n e r a l l y funded  syllabuses, regulations, advice  Harambee/Assisted  from  and  are  quality  between  assistance and  government  like  the  the  the  difference  quality  of  to  government, aid  the  schools  p r i v a t e schools  supervision  fees  74.5 62.1 68.2 69.5 63.3  A d a p t e d f r o m Teachers Service Commission Teacher Payroll (1988) and Education in Kenya ( p . 122) by M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1984, N a i r o b i : Jomo K e n y a t t a Foundation. National/Maintained  of  24.2 21.9 24.0 16.9 32.7  by  and  various kinds  Consequently,  resources  vary  In the  amounts  cash.  schools  and  from  The the of the one  30 category within  of schools  these  No  t o the other  and from  school  to school  categories.  information  was  a v a i l a b l e on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  individual  applied  education  presumably  because  this  subjects  program  of  among t h e p o p u l a t i o n ,  was r e l a t i v e l y  new  (mandated  i n 1986. Some i n d i v i d u a l years  ( f o r example, A l l i a n c e  celebrated Beginning one  s c h o o l s had been i n e x i s t e n c e  their  i n 1986, each  applied  applied  school  programs  varied  rural  Furthermore,  from  s e t t i n g s with  3.3.0  Ngethu  had o n - g o i n g  (e.g.,  Endarasha  applied  education  Secondary).  a c c e s s i b l e urban  difficult  at least  Their  centres  to  means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . sex-segregated  and m i x e d  enrolments.  Instrumentation Complementary t e a c h e r  used  Secondary).  their  the p o p u l a t i o n comprised  schools o f varying student  (Kabonge  15 y e a r s  implemented  easily  had n o t y e t  A few s c h o o l s  f o r over  50  others  was r e q u i r e d t o o f f e r  subject.  yet others  while  anniversary  i n May, 1988 ( f o r example,  locations remote  education  education  Secondary), program  second  Boys),  f o r over  to collect  the data.  how t h e i n s t r u m e n t s  3.3.1  were  and h e a d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  were  The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f developed.  Development of the Questionnaires A  set of questions  chairman  was f o r m u l a t e d  of the researcher's  thesis  and d i s c u s s e d advisory  with the  committee.  31 Suggested  changes  questionnaire. inventory with  and  the  aspects Table  the  made  to  were  added  set of  chairman.  The  were  each to  questions  process  generated identified  the  the  previous again  repeated  until  enquire  for  in  discussed  was  to  item  this  into a l l study  (see  3). first  draft  draft  of  the  complete  questionnaire  was  t o a l l members o f t h e t h e s i s a d v i s o r y committee f o r  comment.  Their  suggestions  were  incorporated  o f e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was  committee continued  members until  for  no  more  further  then  a  second  recirculated  comments.  improvements  into  This  f o r the  to  the  process  questionnaires  suggested.  3.3.2  D e s c r i p t i o n of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Both  the  teacher  complementary collect subjects  data  and on  studied  level  of  and  the  headteacher  self-administered.  any  one  (see  or  more o f  Table  adequacy  characteristics, of  resultant  applied education  circulated  the  then  questions  questions  of  The  were  New  thesis  sufficient  were  5).  of  the  Each 14  was  designed  applied  Collectively,  physical  instructional  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  education  they  facilities,  m a t e r i a l s , and  to  various  measured teacher aspects  subjects offered. All  blank. best  questions The  had  respondent  corresponded  either was  asked  alternative to t i c k  t o h i s / h e r answer  to  responses,  the a l t e r n a t i v e the  question  or  a  that  asked  or  32 to f i l l  i n the b l a n k  responses  f o r most  instructional excellent,  educational For  equipment this  "Not  a  "Do  who  d i d not  A)  physical  fair,  a and  apply  lg  did  on  not  Have"  they  data  collection,  scale:  these  to a l l pedagogical  number  apply  of  to  required a  power  Art  and  Because  about  alternative  felt  point  poor.  Applicable" alternative Not  Alternative  facilities  five  some q u e s t i o n s  number  (Appendix  addition,  access  item  a  about  comprised  generic,  resources  reason  teachers  questions  satisfactory,  was  example,  the a p p r o p r i a t e answer.  materials  good,  questionnaire  with  the  three areas.  tools  & Design.  or For  was  included.  was  provided  for  d i d not  have  resource  but  In  to i t .  To  ease  organized  into  Instructional Applied  the  different  teacher  following sections:  M a t e r i a l s , Teacher  Education  Information.  the  The  Subjects,  Physical  Background  questionnaire  &  did  Teaching General not  s e c t i o n s but  a l l the q u e s t i o n s  i n i t enquired  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  applied education  at  for  example,  variety  of  staffing,  subjects offered  Table  3 shows t h e  into  in  provided  student  each  factors  factor.  i n Appendix  A.  an  and  enrolment,  criteria the  Copies  the  number  of  each  for of  was  Facilities,  Qualifications,  and  headteacher  questionnaire  school  have about level,  financing,  and  decision-making. aspects  enquired  questionnaire  are  33 Table  3  FACTORS AND NUMBER OF ASPECTS OF APPLIED EDUCATION ENQUIRED INTO QUESTIONNAIRE ROW TOTAL  FACTOR TEACHER (n)  2  25  Materials  10  1  11  Characteristics  113  0  113  66  66  69  215  Facilities  Instructional  Subjects  Offered  COLUMN TOTAL  The about  0  (N)  146  first  page  to  each  confidentiality Specific  an  question, for  in  the on  individual  invitation  education  instrument general and  an  respondent how  to  provided  instructions assurance and  for additional  to  Both  on  of  the  respond  questions.  information how  to  strict  institution. each  item  instruments  comments a b o u t  the  s u b j e c t f o r which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  were ended  applied  completed.  P i l o t Study During  was  each  instructions  contained  3.4.0  on  the purpose of the study,  respond  with  (N)  23  Physical  Teacher  HEAD TEACHER (n)  pilot  lecturers,  t h e month of A p r i l t e s t e d with curriculum  These educators  70  1988,  the t e a c h e r  applied education  developers,  and  questionnaire  teachers,  school  college  inspectors.  were a t t e n d i n g book w r i t i n g workshops a t  Kenya  34 Technical  Teachers  Education  composed  a  i n each o f  subject  pedagogical  areas  Commerce,  KIE  and  Agriculture,  Typing  Design  not  were  far  not  was  &  KTTC:  panels  Design.  or  their  participant  asked One  to assess  week  week,  the  was  was  allowed  researcher  Power  panels  time  the was  question,  set  of  items  r e p o r t e d by a  response  numeric box  the  for Art  &  because  the  pilot too  provided  purposes  of  asked  to  teaching  rate  this  intent  work.  of  During  with  i n s t r u c t i o n s on  Question  between to  of the  teacher  each  o f i t s members.  respondents  number  a  separately  the  in  T h e s e n u m e r i c numbers were i n t e n d e d were  given  for  met  clear,  given  Building  either  the  its clarity  i t s i n t e n t was  respondents  Economics,  w o r k i n g venues were l o c a t e d  Although  a  following  f o r Music,  testing,  responses  beside  subjects  and  Subject  for p i l o t  to d i s c u s s the  that  of  reached.  one  A p p e n d i x A)  the  Accounts,  w r i t i n g sessions at  workshop  to  for  Electricity,  subject panel  respond  Institute  & O f f i c e P r a c t i c e , Home S c i e n c e , and  contacted  question. next  Kenya  panels  subject  Drawing  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  the  hosted  conducted,  Each  each  and  applied education  Subject  Woodwork,  holding  away t o be  14  were l o c a t e d a t  Mechanics,  were  the  panel.  Metalwork,  Construction.  study  [KTTC]  [KIE].  Specialists  they  College  the  Number  how  14  (see  t o be  unclear.  1  6 was  and  right  of  belief  each  applied education  i n each  In  given item.  t o be a s c a l e on w h i c h  their  to  of  i n Kenya  the six high  35 schools.  Some  teachers  sequential  numbers  education.  Consequently,  writing  a numeric and f  f o r each  number  a  wording  of the question were  Furthermore, aspects into.  question The  they  interpreted  purpose  responded  box.  found  finding  education that was u s e d  No  headteacher  given  of a  letter to the  because any  by  the  problems.  w i t h t h e range  of the  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e enquired  to interpret  responses  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t  tested  of neighbouring Harambee/Assisted t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and asked  weeks,  the c l a r i t y  extent  t o which  applied  education a t the school l e v e l .  to that  of the intent  i t covered  responses.  The f o u r  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e that  Consequently,  no  changes  schools.  o f each  After  were  were they  four They  f o r two  q u e s t i o n and t h e  the administrative  respondents  with  to study,  r e s e a r c h e r met s e p a r a t e l y w i t h each h e a d t e a c h e r  aspects  item  change  without  t h e t e a c h e r s were s a t i s f i e d  applied  t o each  necessary  correctly  t o mean  of  1 and 6 i n s t e a d  response was  the scale  i n t h e main s t u d y .  headteachers were  i n each  of applied This  given  between  between  responses  interpreted  aspects of  two weeks, t h e to discuss h i s  satisfied  were a s k e d  with the to assess.  made  to the  headteacher  schools  i n each  of the  five  i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e was o b t a i n e d  from  questionnaire. 3.4.1  Sample A  list  Selection of a l l secondary  administrative  districts  36 the  Teachers'  Service  then assigned  Commission  t o each s c h o o l  and  [TSC].  district.  School  stratification were and be  (Table  also  obtained. after  4  was  sample  not  contains  c o l l a p s i n g pedagogical  the  areas.  535  a sample o f 197  schools,  (Sheaffer, other this  the  population  proportions  The  specific  the  pedagogical  to 19  were  headteacher  each  Ott,  within  based  Where B S n N  = = = =  \ N  a  Table  4  before  p.  will 38.)  filled  out  for  which  they  the  selected  f o r the h e a d t e a c h e r  I  bound e r r o r o f e s t i m a t i o n sample p e r c e n t a g e sample s i z e population size  the  6  of  sample the  school  of  "true"  questionnaires  completed  school  In  1 0  a  of  percent  4.17 ).  on  6 percent  who  by  than  equation  10  V n-1  on  as  responses  less  20.  randomly  stratified  sample on  of  selected  respondent  1986,  t i m e s out  area  was  proportions be  teachers  questionnaires for  of  select  responses  These  was  s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n  estimation  and  estimates  i s expected  became the  of  Mendenhall,  words, size  error  schools  to  included  s i z e s given  r e f e r r e d t o when d e s c r i b i n g the o b t a i n e d For  and  The  number  (36.8%) s c h o o l s  category  variable.  coding  a random t a b l e u s e d  a p r o p o r t i o n a l random sample o f 197 by  A  staff.  those The  automatically  questionnaire.  37 4  Table  SAMPLE S I Z E AND  RESPONSE RATE PER  DISTRICT  RESPONSES  DISTRICT  NO. OF SCHOOLS PER DISTRICT N %  NO. OF SCHOOLS SELECTED N %  BEFORE COLLAPSING  Muranga  153  28.6  57  28.9  37  27.8  36  28 .8  Kiambu  145  27.1  54  27.4  35  26.3  32  25.6  Nyer i  129  24.1  46  23.4  32  24.1  30  24.0  Nyandarua  59  11.0  22  11.2  18  13.5  18  14.4  Kirinyaga  49  9.2  18  9.1  11  8.3  9  7.2  Column (N) Total  3.5.0  535  Data One  AFTER COLLAPSING  %  N  133  197  %  N  125  Collection teacher  questionnaire e a r l y May, pedagogical  questionnaire  were m a i l e d  t o each  and  one  headteacher  o f t h e sampled  schools i n  1988.  Both  instruments  collected  data  on t h e same  area  which  the teacher  and t h e s c h o o l  headteacher  selected. To to  improve  each  letter  school  along  with  rate,  copies  of the research  Kenya Government  t h e f o l l o w i n g were  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e :  e x p l a i n i n g the purpose  photostat the  the response  (Appendix  of  the study  a  mailed  covering  (Appendix  clearance permit  D); an endorsement  C);  i s s u e d by  letter  from  38 the  Permanent  and  a s e l f - a d d r e s s e d and A  whose the  Secretary, Ministry  follow-up responses  end  of  stamped  letter had  August,  of  been  1988,  a  (Appendix  E);  envelope.  (Appendix  not  Education  F)  was  sent  out  received after  total  of  134  four  to  schools  weeks.  responses  had  By been  received. 3.6.0  D e s c r i p t i o n of Obtained The  rate. the  134 One  response  respondents  school  was  during the  responses  too  new  among  the  final  sample  see p.  133  five  38  to  returned  applied education  offer  credible  data  academic t e r m ) .  responses  As  68.0%  response  unfilled program  because in  ( i t was  their  started  shown on T a b l e  4,  were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i s t r i b u t e d  administrative districts.  t h a t was  a  analyzed  (responses slightly  K i r i n y a g a were s l i g h t l y  However, after  in  the  collapsing—  overrepresented  while  underrepresented.  Data E n t r y The  data  were  coded  and  [FCF].  After  numbers  on  between  that  against  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  the  was  t o 4 0 ) , Nyandarua was  Kiambu and  then  126)  the  t h e M a y - J u l y 1988  remaining  3.7.0  received represented  (KBU  felt  Sample  that  entered, data  completing  with  entry  and  100%  on  each r e c o r d , one  r e c o r d was  number  entered  the  randomly end  of  the  verification, at  of  selected  questionnaire.  services staff  F o r t r a n Coding  the  the and  eight  d a t a on  i n t o a computer University  column  a l l entries  r e c o r d were The  Forms  of  verified FCF  were  file  by  British  39 Columbia.  Data  questionnaires verified  100%  Sixty-seven 3.8.0  entries  (representing against  errors  Statistical SPSS:X  program was  University  of B r i t i s h  teacher  detected.  Terminal  System  and t h e main (MTS)  at  the  to determine  the  Columbia.  analysis  which  5.  questionnaires.  f o r the p r e l i m i n a r y  each  was  conducted  subject  and t h e h e a d t e a c h e r .  shown on T a b l e  were  Analysis  A preliminary with  used  the Michigan  3.8.1 P r e l i m i n a r y  respondents)  i n corresponding r a t e ) were  selected  Analysis  on  the  data  25% o f t o t a l  (0.68% e r r o r  analysis  frequency  f o r t h i r t y - t h r e e randomly  area  Results  was  selected  of t h i s  by  both  analysis are  40  Table 5 FREQUENCY OF SUBJECTS SELECTED BY TEACHERS AND  PEDAGOGICAL AREA  FREQUENCY N %  Agr i c u l t u r e Commerce Home Science Woodwork Economics Drawing & Design Accounts Building Construction A r t & Design Electricity Typing & O f f i c e P r a c t i c e Metalwork Music Power Mechanics  49 32 25 8 7 4 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0  COLUMN TOTAL  (N)  Agriculture, commonly  headteachers Design,  respondents. music,  results,  Electricity,  were  data  pedagogical  from  areas  by  were  selected  teachers  chose  and  Drawing &  and Typing by  t h e most  &  Office  only  6.1% o f t h e  to give data  on m e t a l w o r k ,  mechanics.  minimize  respondents  Science  to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  No r e s p o n d e n t  o r power  To  dropped  who responded  combined  a n d Home  pedagogical  A r t & Design,  Practice  36..8 24..1 18..8 6..0 5..3 3..0 1..5 1..5 1..5 0..8 0,.8 0..0 0..0 0..0  133  Commerce,  selected  HEADTEACHERS  were  loss  areas  either  further  and improve selected  combined  analysis.  the v a l i d i t y  by 10% o r l e s s  with  a similar  The d e c i s i o n  of  of the  subject or t o combine  41 different  subjects for further  criteria.  First,  resources Building tools,  both  By  except by  the l a t t e r  category  required  by  the former  category,  required 5%  the r e s u l t a n t  of the t o t a l  probability category  that  were  respondents. t h e number  obtained  by c h a n c e .  C o n s t r u c t i o n and Economics & A c c o u n t s two  of  resources from  be s e l e c t e d  requirement  those  design  The s e c o n d  Both  and  materials.  f o r example,  of responses  similar  facilities,  are different  This  two  a l l t h e above  the type  category  on  Woodwork  physical  s p a c e s and consumable m a t e r i a l s . that  required  required  Obviously,  required  working  based  and consumable  and Economics  tools.  was  criterion,  similar  instructional,  Accounting  areas  this  Construction required  Likewise, inputs  pedagogical  t o implement.  equipment,  analysis  of  criterion  by a t l e a s t  minimized  i n the  Woodwork  the  resultant &  Building  categories s a t i s f i e d the  criteria. Consequently,  A r t & Design,  Electricity,  D e s i g n , and T y p i n g & O f f i c e P r a c t i c e were d r o p p e d analysis  i n addition  Table  t o Metalwork, Music,  6 compares  the frequency  pedagogical area across d i s t r i c t s  Drawing from  and Power  further  Mechanics.  of s e l e c t i o n  and s u b j e c t a r e a s .  &  of  each  42  TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED SUBJECTS BY DISTRICT DISTRICT (COLUMN PERCENTAGES)  ALL DISTRICTS  SUBJECT Muranga  Nyer i  Kiambu  Nyandarua  Kirinyaga (N)  Agriculture  38.9  43.8  30.0  38.9  Commerce  27.8  12 .5  36.7  38.9  Home Science  27 .8  28.1  10.0  5.6  22.2  20.0  Woodwork & Bldg. Const.  -  3.1  20.0  11.1  11.1  8.0  12.5  3.3  5.6  11.1  7.2  9  125  Econ. & Accounts  5.6  Column T o t a l (N)  32  36  Respondents  from  three  Agriculture  more f r e q u e n t l y  Proportions  o f these  three the  districts. most  Commerce.  the  second  respondent  out of the f i v e than  that  districts  chose  pedagogical  area.  almost  no r e s p o n d e n t  selected  from  t h e same  i n the  Kiambu  while  in  were Nyeri  Commerce.  Kirinyaga provided  because o v e r a l l ,  pedagogical  s e l e c t e d Woodwork  district.  subjects  a second p l a c e behind  Muranga d e s p i t e t h e r e l a t i v e l y from  were  selected  I t was s u r p r i s i n g most  any o t h e r  25.6  In Nyandarua, A g r i c u l t u r e and Commerce  A g r i c u l t u r e occupied  on  -  18  respondents  frequently  Surprisingly,  30  39.2  55.6  area.  data  Commerce  was  Likewise,  no  or B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n  from  large p r o p o r t i o n of respondents had t h e h i g h e s t  proportions  of  43 selection these well  o f Home S c i e n c e  two e x c e p t i o n s ,  and E c o n o m i c s  responses  & Accounts.  i n each p e d a g o g i c a l  Beside  area  were  d i s t r i b u t e d among a l l d i s t r i c t s .  3.8.2 Hain Analysis CROSSTABULATION were  used  results  for this analysis.  of analysis  facilities  a n d FREQUENCIES  The f o l l o w i n g  of responses  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  i n t h e SPSS:X chapter  to questions  materials.  about  program presents physical  44  CHAPTER FOUR: R E S U L T S FOR P H Y S I C A L INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS 4.1.0  chapter  questionnaire physical  level  items  which  being  schools  resource  characteristics  But relatively  large  under  showing t h e instructional  from  The r e s u l t s o f adequacy  different  Similar  responses  provide  o f t h e same  subjects. i n tables  results  education  also  within  subjects  on  with  teacher  offered are  Five.  presenting  the r e s u l t s  of a n a l y s i s , the  number o f "Not A p p l i c a b l e "  i n Chapter  research  analysis  are presented  and a p p l i e d  before  or  obtained  resource  offering  texts.  i n Chapter  Beside  facility  on t h e l e v e l  of analysis  supplementary  f o r each o f  the f i r s t  study.  t h e same s u b j e c t .  information  o f adequacy o f  materials was  of the  reveal the v a r i a t i o n o f the q u a l i t y  of educational  Results  tables  item  among s c h o o l s  presented  by t h i s  a n a l y s i s , the r e s u l t s  offering  comparative  the l e v e l  This  of the p h y s i c a l  each q u e s t i o n n a i r e quantity  of the a n a l y s i s  assessed  subjects.  addressed  under  results  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  education  o f adequacy  material  and  presents  facilities  applied  question  to  AND  Introduction This  the  FACILITIES  Four  need  t o be  responses  i n most  interpreted.  These  r e s p o n s e s s u g g e s t one o f t h r e e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . First,  they  could  mean  that  most  teachers  might  have  m i s u n d e r s t o o d most o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  on p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and  instructional  there  materials.  While  may  have  been  some  45  teachers  who  widespread because were  d i d not understand  misunderstanding  both  and h e a d t e a c h e r s  Three).  The r e s u l t s  physical  unlikely  misunderstood most  tables  this  Except  with  educators  study  intent  materials (see  could  mean  facilities Chapter  and  Four.  Agriculture,  areas  (particularly  f o r which  Construction, could  on  Commerce,  benches/counters,  The S y l l a b u s e s C o n t e n t and A c c o u n t s  equipment  requirement  Therefore,  meant  been  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  Economics,  instructional  teachers  n o t have  office  This  Home  have  i s ,  t h e q u e s t i o n s were n o t  too, i s untenable.  machines.  It  by r e s u l t s  s t u d e n t s who a r e s t u d y i n g t h e s e s u b j e c t s t o l e a r n  adding  senior  (see Chapter  worthwhile.  i n t h e q u e s t i o n on work  and m a i n t a i n  70  showed a l l q u e s t i o n s  t e a c h e r s as suggested  1987) f o r Commerce,  repair,  a  i s unlikely  t h e same q u e s t i o n s c o u l d  the subject  proposition,  (KNEC,  such  Four.  and A c c o u n t s )  completed.  intent  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  the responses  to  Economics,  that  i n Chapter  pilot  and t h e i r  by so many  Second, relevant  of that  clear  of  among o t h e r  facilities  A) were  therefore,  of the questions  for clarity  teachers  Appendix  questions,  t h e t e a c h e r and t h e h e a d t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  pilot-tested  about  some  like  like  Science,  Woodwork,  i n Commerce, questions  the  into  in  colleagues in and  Economics,  about  physical  enquired  their  t o use,  t y p e w r i t e r s and  entails  materials  how  require  working  Building  and and  Accounts storage  46  spaces,  tools,  equipment,  a i d s d i d not apply The  third  to their  subjects.  interpretation  responses  i n Chapter  responses  d i d n o t have  the  consumable m a t e r i a l s , o r t e a c h i n g  Four  of  i s that  the teachers  the resource  Four shows most o f t h e s e  questions  about  equipment. after  Working  special  or storage  (79.2%)  Similarly,  education  of the teachers most  tools  require a special  t o o l s o r equipment were p r o c u r e d s t o r e and u s e t h e s e teachers.  tools  The argument  the questions  Applicable"  responses  facilities  made h e r e  they  to those  the educational  were  i s that  asked  special  that  such  required to  questions  meant  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n used f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s  Physical  resource  the teachers  and t h e i r  n o t have  A:  a  for applied  I t i s unlikely  did  4.2.0 Section  available  20 i n d i c a t e  d i d n o t have  before  or  o r equipment were made a v a i l a b l e t o  being  understood  be  i n Table  or equipment  room.  and t o o l s  can only  but r e s u l t s  tables  a r e i n answer t o  spaces,  spaces  those  A study o f  i n individual  responses  or storage  rooms a r e b u i l t  majority  room.  working  who gave  i n question.  number o f "Not A p p l i c a b l e " r e s p o n s e s  i n Chapter  the  t h e "Not A p p l i c a b l e "  "Not  the teachers  i n question.  This i s  study.  Facilities  4 . 2 . 1 W o r k i n g Space i n S p e c i a l Rooms Teachers working this  were  asked  space i n t h e i r  question  respondent  i n Question  special  rooms were.  were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d w i t h  taught.  l a how  adequate the  T h e i r responses  the subject  The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e  that  7.  to  each  47  Table 7 WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  (%)  Poor  5.4  Fair  5.4  Sat i s f a c t o r y  4.5  Good  7.1  Excellent  1.8  Do n o t have Not  Applicable  33  6  9  3  1  46.4  6  19  1  -  7  29.5  17.9  8.9  8.0  COLUMN TOTAL  38.4  26.8  100.0  N = 112  The  most  notable  (76.7%) A g r i c u l t u r e space.  In c o n t r a s t ,  satisfactory  working  category  t e a c h e r s who only  1  space.  the f i v e  therefore,  i n choosing  alternatives, have t h i s working  subject  85  (75.9%)  said  (2.3%) Similar  S c i e n c e , and Woodwork & B u i l d i n g All  of respondents  as f a i r  working  colleagues  r e s u l t s a r e found  had  i n Home  Construction.  categories  require  "Not A p p l i c a b l e " respondents  at best.  h a d no  of t h e i r  r e s o u r c e , w h i l e an a d d i t i o n a l  space  they  a r e t h e 33  a working or  indicated  "Do  space,  Not  they  Have"  d i d not  12 (10.8%) r a t e d  Consequently, only  15  their  (13.3%)  48 of  the t o t a l  respondents  had s a t i s f a c t o r y  or b e t t e r  working  space. 4.2.2  Classroom Teachers  classroom  Space  were  space  crosstabulating the  subject  asked  i n Question  was.  Table  8  l i how  shows  the teachers' responses  adequate  the  to t h i s  their  results  of  q u e s t i o n and  they taught.  Table 8 CLASSROOM SPACE BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL  ROW  OF  ADEQUACY  AGRIC-  COMMERCE  ULTURE  HOME  WOODW &  ECON &  SCIENCE  BLDG  ACCOUNT  CONS  TOTAL  (%) Poor  1  0.9  Fair  12  2  5  19.5  Sat i s f a c t o r y  12  3  4  20.4  Good  14  17  10  40.7  5  6  4  15.0  -  -  1  -  2.7  -  1  -  -  -  0.9  39.6  25.7  21.2  6.2  7.1  Excellent  Do not have  2  Not A p p l i c a b l e  COLUMN TOTAL  100.0  N = 113  We  can see from  respondents suitability  i n each of  Table  subject  their  8  that  category  classroom  a  large  m a j o r i t y of the  (at l e a s t  space  t o be  80%) r a t e d satisfactory  the or  49 better.  The  exception  to t h i s  respondents indicated  4.2.3  t r e n d was  rated  their  appeared  t o be a  A g r i c u l t u r e where about classroom  space  as  possible  30%  only  of  the  fair  or  t h e y d i d not have i t .  Classroom Desks When  available teachers the  o n l y s u b j e c t a r e a which  asked  in  f o r use  in their  responded.  subject  Question  taught  Their by  applied  how  adequate  the  education class  9.  teacher.  The  results  desks  were,  r e s p o n s e s were c r o s s t a b u l a t e d  each  a n a l y s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e  l c  of  111 with this  50  Table 9 CLASSROOM DESKS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OP ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WCODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  (JUL Poor  1  1  -  1  -  2.7  Fair  8  4  5  1  3  18.9  Satisfactory  16  5  6  2  2  27.9  Good  15  12  8  1  2  34.2  2  5  1  1  1  9.0  -  3  1  -  5.4  2  -  -  -  1.8  6.3  7.2  Excellent  Do Not  n o t have  2  Applicable  -  COLUMN TOTAL  N =  39.6  26.1  20.7  100.0  111  Overall, respondents quantity  the c l a s s r o o m desks were  adequate.  classroom  d e s k s was  of  concern.  satisfactory  and an a d d i t i o n a l  as f a i r l y  10.0%  of  available  18.9%  or  r e s p o n d e n t s who  better  serious.  had poor  that  of  quality  respondents rated  I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , not v e r y  t o 71.1%  their  the and  desks  the problem  of  However, t h e r e m a i n i n g  o r no d e s k s a r e a s o u r c e o f  51  4.2.4  Work Benches/Counters Teachers  work  were  asked  benches/counters  obtained  were.  r e s p o n s e s and  shown on T a b l e  i n Question Results  the s u b j e c t  I d how of  each  adequate  their  crosstabulating respondent  the  taught  are  10.  Table 10 WORK BENCHES/COUNTERS  BY SUBJECT SUBJECT  LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  :  (%)  Poor  3  -  -  Fair  1  -  4.4  -  7.0  Satisfactory  1  -  3  2  -  5.3  Good  -  -  3  1  -  3.5  Excellent  -  -  1  -  -  0.9  -  5  2  2  Do not have  26  24  2  3  2  38.6  Not A p p l i c a b l e  13  6  7  -  7  40.4  26.3  18.4  8.8  7.9  COLUMN TOTAL  38.6  100.0  N = 114  There whether not.  was  they In  a clear  required  choosing  split work  the  among A g r i c u l t u r e  benches  "Not  teachers over  to teach t h e i r  Applicable"  subject  alternative,  or 13  52 respondents  in this  benches t o t e a c h In  subject  Science,  and  51  "Do  Not  (68.0%)  Woodwork  n o t have work b e n c h e s .  the  work benches only  they 11  Have"  or  respondents  & Building  did  contrast,  they d i d not r e q u i r e  "Not  Construction  An a d d i t i o n a l 13  had were,  (14.7%)  at best,  teachers  Hand Table  (Manual) And Power T o o l s 11  shows  results  of  responses  to Question  l e about  tools  equipment  that  or  pedagogical area  that  they  Applicable"  in Agriculture,  (17.3%)  reported  having  In work  quantity.  o r Equipment  the  taught.  they  indicated  adequate.  crosstabulating  each  Home  suggested  fairly  b e n c h e s o f s a t i s f a c t o r y o r b e t t e r q u a l i t y and  4.2.5  work  Agriculture.  choosing  alternatives,  implied  number  of  hand  respondent  had  teachers' (manual) and  the  53  11  Table  NUMBER OF HAND (MANUAL) TOOLS OR EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL (%)  Poor  12  Fair  8  Satisfactory  1  -  Good  1  Excellent  Do not have  1  2  5  14.8  3  -  13.9  2  2  -  4.3  -  3  1  -  4.3  -  -  1  -  19  5  5  2  2  28.7  4  23  4  -  7  33.0  25.2  19.1  8.7  7.8  Not A p p l i c a b l e  -  2  0.9  COLUMN TOTAL  39.1  100.0  N = 115  Hand tedious  tools  o r equipment  manual  skills  a r e more c l o s e l y  i n Agriculture,  associated  Woodwork,  with  Building  C o n s t r u c t i o n , and Home S c i e n c e t h a n i n Commerce, E c o n o m i c s ,  or  Accounts. This almost said their  p e r c e p t i o n among  many p e o p l e  80% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  probably explains  i n the l a t e r  group  why  of subjects  i n T a b l e 11 t h a t hand t o o l s o r equipment d i d n o t a p p l y t o subjects despite  syllabuses  that  the requirement  students  learn  how  of these  subjects'  to use, repair,  and  54 maintain o f f i c e  equipment  like  typewriters  and a d d i n g  machines  (KNEC, 1987). Only  12  suggested was  out  of  the  117  t h e number o f hand  sufficient  while  had some hand  respondents  tools  o r equipment  an a d d i t i o n a l  t o o l s or equipment  to  34  teachers  Question that  le  they  indicated  had they  but t h e y were i n s u f f i c i e n t i n  number. Responses of  hand  t o Q u e s t i o n I f which e n q u i r e d a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y  tools  therefore,  were  very  similar  t h e y a r e not r e p r o d u c e d  Results  of  to  those  teachers'  Q u e s t i o n l g w h i c h e n q u i r e d about t h e a v a i l a b l e  in  Home  Science,  Building Eight  showed 3  that  only  had  any  of these twelve teachers rated at best.  either  d i d not  said  the q u e s t i o n  t h e y d i d n o t have was  consistent  wherever or  with  possible,  equipment  transferred equipment  stated  so  that  or  to t h e i r  or  using  s i t u a t i o n s where b a s i c  power  (89.8%)  subject This  hand  learned  that tools  can  be  tools  and  o f r e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s t i o n s l e , If,  and  to obtain  indicated  t h a n powered  the  number  and  hand  or  finding  education  basic  skills  &  equipment.  majority  of applied  taught  t h e knowledge  of a n a l y s i s above  be  (8  i n Woodwork  tools  The v a s t  the p h i l o s o p h y  to r e a l - l i f e  1  teachers  t h e number o f t h e i r  apply  to  number o f power  t o o l s o r equipment.  i t should  are easier  Results lg  any power  and  power  t o o l s o r equipment as f a i r  responses  12 o u t o f 117  in Agriculture,  Construction)  11,  here.  crosstabulation  t o o l s o r equipment  in Table  ones.  quality  of  hand  55 (manual)  and  inadequate  by  power the  insufficiency questions  tools  vast  of  equipments  majority  such  about  or  the  of  essential  the  was  considered  teachers.  resources  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  Widespread  raise  serious  teaching  applied  education.  4.2.6  Storage  Space  Teachers  were  asked  adequate  their  students'  p r o j e c t s , and  The  question  about  (Question  lm)  questions  on  consumable  storage  was  storage  spaces  materials  Practical  storage  questions  on  respectively tools  intended  to  for  Woodwork  that  required  &  students'  and  the  Tables  12,  students learn  teachers'  r e s p e c t i v e l y and  13  lm  and  responses  were.  equipment but  the  projects  and  teachers  in  &  Building  i n these  entailed  14  how  materials,  a l l respondents  for  skills  and  consumable m a t e r i a l s which would  spaces.  crosstabulating  were  at  11,  consumable  space  Science,  c a t e g o r i e s were bulky  for  Ik,  & equipment  directed  Construction.  require  spaces  storage  Home  p r o j e c t s and  Questions  tools  Agriculture,  subject  in  three  physical presumably  show r e s u l t s to  these  the s u b j e c t each respondent  of  three taught.  56 Table  12  PROJECTS STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  -  3  2  Poor  8  Fair  5  Satisfactory  2  1  Good  1  -  Excellent  1  -  18  5  8  Do not have Not A p p l i c a b l e  COLUMN TOTAL  N = 112  38.4  -  3  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  11.6  2  1  9.8  1  -  6.3  1  -  3.6  -  -  0.9  8  4  1  32.1  23  2  -  7  35.7  25.9  18.8  8.9  8.0  3 2  100.0  57 Table  13  CONSUMABLE MATERIAL STORAGE SPACE BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  (%) Poor  14  Fair  7  -  Satisfactory  2  -  Good  1  -  Excellent  1  Do  not  Not  Applicable  COLUMN TOTAL  N  =  have  116  3  -  18.1  5  2  1  12.9  3  -  -  4.3  3  2  -  5.3  -  1  -  14  5  6  2  1  24.1  7  23  1  1  7  33.6  25.0  19.0  8.6  7.8  39.7  1  3  -  1  .  7  100.0  58  Table  14  STORAGE SPACE FOR TOOLS & EQUIPMENT BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  <*> Poor  13  Fair  6  13 .3  Sat i s f a c t o r y  2  6.2  Good  1  5.3  Excellent  1  2.7  Do not have  15.9  16  4  6  2  1  25.7  5  19  3  1  7  31.0  25.7  18.6  8.8  8.0  Not A p p l i c a b l e  COLUMN TOTAL  38.9  100.0  N = 112  Results proportion  i n Tables  o f a l l respondents  storage  spaces  Science  where  spaces,  only  consumable (23.8%) storage  12,  as  o f them spaces  gave  was  show  or b e t t e r .  reported  (31.8%) o f them  materials  14  only  a  perceived of the three  satisfactory  teachers 7  13, a n d  t h e most indicated  satisfactory  t h e same  level  small  types of  Even  i n Home  adequate  storage  storage or b e t t e r  o f adequacy  f o r s t u d e n t s ' p r o j e c t s and t o o l s  space f o r while  5  for their  & equipment.  59 4.2.7  Availability Teachers  water  were  supply  asked  was.  crosstabulating the s u b j e c t  o f Water i n Question  Table  15  I n how a d e q u a t e  shows  the teachers' responses  their  the results  to this  of  q u e s t i o n and  they taught.  T a b l e 15 AVAILABILITY OF WATER BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  (%) Poor  4  Fair  3  -  Satisfactory  4  -  Good  2  -  Excellent  1  Do Not  n o t have Applicable  COLUMN TOTAL  1  -  8.3  3  -  1  7.3  1  1  -  6.3  3  -  -  5.2  -  -  -  -  1.0  20  7  10  7  1  46.9  7  9  3  -  5  25.0  9.4  7.3  42.7  1  2  17.7  22.9  100.0  N = 96  This Home water  q u e s t i o n was d i r e c t e d  S c i e n c e , a n d Woodwork i s necessary  at teachers i n Agriculture,  & Building  f o r teaching  those  Construction subjects.  because T a b l e 15  60 shows  only  subject  12  (16.7%) o f  categories  the  72  respondents  reported having at l e a s t  i n these  three  satisfactory  water  supply. 4.2.8  Amount o f B l a c k b o a r d Teachers  blackboard  were  space  crosstabulating  i n Question  was.  Table  16  l p how shows  adequate the  Data  i n T a b l e 16  revealed  their  results  the r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n and  the t e a c h e r s taught. Table  asked  Space  no  the  of  subject  serious  16  AMOUNTS OF  BLACKBOARD SPACE BY PEDAGOGICAL AREA  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRIC— ULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  (%) Poor  1  0.9  Fair  4  1  1  6.1  Satisfactory  9  4  6  20.0  20  17  12  48 .7  Excellent  8  5  4  18.3  Do not have  3  1  -  -  -  4.3  Not A p p l i c a b l e  1  1  -  -  -  1.7  20.9  8.7  6.1  Good  COLUMN TOTAL  N = 115  39.1  25.2  100.0  61 problem teachers 4.2.9  with  the  adequacy  i n each s u b j e c t  of  blackboard  space  available  to  category.  O v e r a l l Q u a l i t y of Applied Education B u i l d i n g Teachers  overall  were  quality  subject?"  of  the  shown on T a b l e  with  i n Question applied  Teachers'  crosstabulated  Table  asked  "How  do  you  rate  education building  responses  the  2  subject  to  the  this  for  question  respondents  the your were  taught  as  17.  17  QUALITY OF  BUILDING USED FOR  TEACHING APPLIED EDUCATION  BY  SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICU —LTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  (%) Poor  24  2  7  3  1  31.6  Fair  10  5  7  3  2  23.1  Satisfactory  5  8  3  3  1  17.1  Good  2  9  6  1  3  17.9  Excellent  -  3  1  -  2  5.1  No b u i l d i n g  4  2  -  -  5.1  38.5  24.8  8.5  7.7  COLUMN TOTAL N = 117  20.5  100.0  62 We can (94.9%)  of  which to those  see  from T a b l e 17  teachers  teach  subjects.  building  in  quality they  while  In  a  whether education taught while the  17.6%  of  them  their  majority  of  construction  or  the  building  they  subject  indicated  3)  teachers  the poor  taught  were  their  subject. that  the  they  building contrast,  i n which  to  The p r e c e e d i n g  results  buildings  by  teachers  r e p a i r and  said  i n a permanent In  asked  applied  73.1%  had no b u i l d i n g s  education  but needed  same  of  subject  temporary b u i l d i n g s .  3 suggest  applied  the  of  was  i n d i c a t e d they  2 and  the q u a l i t y  their  which  applied education  Questions  in  said  (Question  in  used  buildings  offering  was permanent o r t e m p o r a r y .  r e m a i n i n g 9.2%  teach  to  1 1  majority  quality.  applied education of  large  2 Commerce t e a c h e r s  colleagues  question  building  subject  their  their  a  subject,  schools  taught  excellent  related the  they  3 of  u s e d was o f  within  For example,  which  access  applied education  varied  different  although  reported having  their  buildings  that  are  used  the  of  permanent  to  rate  maintenance.  4.2.10 Use o f Working Space Teachers appropriately whether  it  was  were their used  asked  in  Question  w o r k i n g space for  storing  was  42>  utilized,  broken desks.  for The  how  example, responses  P r o j e c t e d d a t e s t h a t h e a d t e a c h e r s e x p e c t e d most a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l rooms t o be c o m p l e t e d ( T a b l e 20) suggest most b u i l d i n g s c u r r e n t l y used f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a p p l i e d education are improvised. L 1  63 obtained  were  crosstabulated  i n d i v i d u a l respondents.  with  t h e s u b j e c t s t a u g h t by  The r e s u l t s a r e shown o n T a b l e 1 8 .  R e s u l t s i n T a b l e 18 s u g g e s t s t h a t b e s i d e t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d education, respondents of broken one  t h e working was u s e d  desks.  space  available  f o r other purposes,  t o 43.8% o f  f o r example,  The s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h i s p r o b l e m  a l l  storing  varied  from  s c h o o l t o t h e o t h e r b u t i t was most p r e v a l e n t among  Table 18 DSE OF WORKING SPACE BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  (Al Poor  11  4  2  2  -  18.1  Fair  13  3  5  4  2  25.7  Sat i s f a c t o r y  6  5  7  4  1  21.9  Good  9  8  8  -  3  26 .7  Excellent  -  5  1  -  2  7.6  21.9  9.5  7.6  COLUMN TOTAL  37.1  23.8  100.0  N = 105  schools  offering  Construction.  Agriculture,  a n d Woodwork  &  Building  64 4.2.11 S u i t a b i l i t y o f D e m o n s t r a t i o n Teachers suitability 19  shows  of  their  results  q u e s t i o n and Table  were  of  asked  in  & Planning  Question  d e m o n s t r a t i o n and crosstabulating  the s u b j e c t  1j  to  rate  planning spaces. the  t a u g h t by each  Spaces  responses  the Table  to  this  respondent.  19  SUITABILITY OF DEMONSTRATION AND  PLANNING SPACES BY  SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  (%) Poor  14  2  6  -  -  20.2  Fair  13  11  6  4  2  33.0  Satisfactory  5  3  6  3  -  15.6  Good  3  5  3  -  10.1  Excellent  1  1  1  2.8  Do not have  8  1  -  -  1  10.1  Not A p p l i c a b l e  3  3  1  1  2  8.3  43.1  22.9  21.1  8.3  4.6  COLUMN TOTAL  100.0  N = 109  With  only  28.8%  of  satisfactory  or  better  availability  of  these  the  respondents  demonstration physical  indicating  and  facilities  planning seemed  they  had  spaces, to  be  a  65 problem  f o r most  teachers.  (95.7%) r e s p o n d e n t s spaces,  only  satisfactory  reported having  4 3 . 5 % o f them  Headteachers the date  i n Home  Science  demonstration  said  these  where  and p l a n n i n g  resources  were  asked  i n Question  f o r the completion  questionnaire?" crosstabulated filled  Table  were  D a t e s f o r S p e c i a l Rooms viii  "What  was/will  of applied education  facility  needed t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t f o r which you a r e f i l l i n g - o u t  was  22  or b e t t e r .  4 . 2 . 1 2 A n t i c i p a t e d Completion  be  Even  with  out.  Responses the subject  to  this  f o r which  question  this were  the questionnaire  R e s u l t s a r e shown on T a b l e 20.  20  COMPLETION DATES FOR SPECIAL ROOMS BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL (%)  Before 1987  1  1  1  3  -  5.7  Between 1987 - 1988  5  2  7  2  -  15.1  Between 1989 - 1990  20  12  10  2  2  43.4  A f t e r 1990  18  9  5  2  4  35.8  COLUMN TOTAL  41.5  21.7  8.5  5.7  N = 106  22.6  100.0  66 Results which their that  i n Table  responded  the  a p p l i e d education the  program was  schools  (20.8%)  projections (53.4%) while  to  20  by  schools  the  by  the  Section  B:  4.3.1  Availability  education  of  38  the  subject  of  by  the  the  asked  end  of  year  rooms  by  rose  for year  to  22 If  additional  46  end  of  1990  to  have  rate  the  Materials Textbooks 5d  suitable class  textbooks  for  Table  each respondent  first  were e x p e c t e d  Question  obtained  rooms  (1988).  the  in  the  the  schools  year.  of Suitable Class  were  (5.7%)  special  third  (35.8%) s c h o o l s that  had  6  c o r r e c t , an  special  after  only  This proportion  were  Instructional  subject.  crosstabulating  end  have  this physical f a c i l i t y  availability  subjects  implemented.  will  4.3.0  that  questionnaire  headteachers  remaining  Teachers  suggest  21  shows  responses taught.  to  to  their  applied  the  results  of  this  question  and  67 Table  21  AVAILABILITY OF  SUITABLE CLASS TEXTBOOKS BY  SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL LUL_  Poor  17  7  5  4  3  30.5  Fair  15  11  9  3  3  34.7  Satisfactory  7  4  4  -  1  13.6  Good  4  7  5  1  -  14.4  Excellent  1  -  -  -  -  0.8  Do not have  3  -  1  1  1  5.1  Not A p p l i c a b l e  -  1  -  -  39.8  25.4  20.3  7.6  0.8  COLUMN TOTAL  6.8  100.0  N = 118  Availability unsatisfactory  of suitable  by t h e m a j o r i t y  class  t e x t b o o k s were  of respondents  i n each  rated  as  subject  area. 4.3.2  Adequacy o f R e f e r e n c e One  about  hundred  and twenty  t h e adequacy  of  Materials t e a c h e r s responded  r e f e r e n c e books  and  to Question other  5e  resource  68  materials. with  the  The r e s p o n s e s  subject  each  to  this  respondent  question taught  were  as  shown  crosstabulated on T a b l e  22.  22  Table  ADEQUACY OF REFERENCE MATERIALS BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  L*J_ Poor  19  8  6  5  2  33.3  Fair  14  11  10  2  4  34.2  Satisfactory  6  5  5  -  -  13.3  Good  5  5  1  2  1  11.7  Excellent  -  1  2  -  Do  3  -  -  1  1  4.2  -  1  -  -  -  0.8  8.3  6.7  Not  n o t have Applicable  2.5  COLUMN TOTAL  39.2  25.8  20.0  100.0  N = 120  A  large  indicated 75.0%  of  majority  they them  r e f e r e n c e  had  class  indicated  books  unsatisfactory.  of  and  teachers  in  textbooks, the other  level  each but of  subject between  adequacy  resource  category 61.3% for  m a t e r i a l s  and  their was  69 4.3.3  Availability Question  5c  teaching  aids  example,  models,  shows  results  q u e s t i o n and Table  of Teaching Aids asked  for  of  teachers  their  charts,  applied overhead  each  rate  availability  education projectors,  crosstabulating  the s u b j e c t  to  subject, etc.  for  Table  teachers responses  respondent  of  to  23  this  taught.  23  AVAILABILITY OF TEACHING AIDS BY  SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ECON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  L*J_ Poor  18  9  4  2  1  30.4  Fair  6  5  5  2  1  17.0  Satisfactory  2  2  2  1  -  6.3  Good  1  3  1  -  -  4.5  Excellent  -  -  2  -  -  1.8  19  6  9  5  2  36.6  1  1  1  -  1  3.6  42.0  23.2  21.4  8.9  4.5  Do not have Not A p p l i c a b l e  COLUMN TOTAL  100.0  N = 112  Availability rated  as  of  satisfactory  teaching or  aids  better  by  for applied 12.6%  (14  education out  of  112)  was of  the  respondents.  This  acute  i n Economics  Home  Science  reportedly subject  4.3.4  & Accounts  where  least  apparent  applied  of  teaching  i n Question  education subject. with  aids  was  i n that  o f Consumable M a t e r i a l s 5a t o r a t e  o f consumable m a t e r i a l s needed  crosstabulated  B u t even i n  i t as s a t i s f a c t o r y or b e t t e r .  were a s k e d  and a v a i l a b i l i t y  t o be most  20.8% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  Adequacy and A v a i l a b i l i t y Teachers  seemed  and A g r i c u l t u r e .  availability  acute, only  category rated  problem  Responses  the subject  to this  each  t h e adequacy  t o teach  their  q u e s t i o n were  respondent  taught.  R e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e shown on T a b l e 24. T a b l e 24 ADEQUACY OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS BY SUBJECT SUBJECT LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  BOON & ACCOUNT  ROW TOTAL  (%) Poor  18  8  4  2  1  28.0  Fair  8  4  4  -  1  14.4  Satisfactory  4  1  3  -  11.0  Good  2  5  5  2  -  11.9  Excellent  3  1  1  2  5.9  Do not have  8  3  4  2  1  15.3  Not A p p l i c a b l e  4  8  -  -  4  13.6  8.5  7.6  COLUMN TOTAL  N = 118  39.8  24.6  5  19.5  100.0  71 Except of  i n Woodwork  respondents  dissatisfied their  & Building  i n each  with  subject.  subject  t h e adequacy  Even  of  their  category  consumable m a t e r i a l s  & Building  rated  a s poor  the m a j o r i t y  were  o f consumable  i n Woodwork  (40%) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s e i t h e r  Construction,  apparently  materials for  Construction,  4  t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y or implied  they d i d not  have t h i s r e s o u r c e . In asked, adapt  another "Apart  your  obtaining  related  from  teaching  question  minor  changes,  plans this  ( Q u e s t i o n 6) t e a c h e r s were how  year  often  because  have  of d i f f i c u l t y i n  t h e n e c e s s a r y consumable m a t e r i a l s ? "  results  of crosstabulating  subject  each respondent  responses t o t h i s  y o u had t o  T a b l e 25 shows q u e s t i o n and t h e  taught.  Table 25 AVAILABILITY OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT  FREQUENCY OF  ROW  PROBLEMS  AGRIC—  COMMERCE  ULTURE  HOME  WOODW &  ECON &  SCIENCE  BLDG CONS  ACCOUNT  TOTAL  Lil_ None  8  6  4  2  1  24.7  1  t o 3 times  18  8  4  2  1  38.8  4  t o 5 times  8  4  5  -  1  21.2  4  1  3  -  15.3  8.2  3.5  At  least  6  5  t imes  COLUMN TOTAL N  =  85  44.7  22.4  21.2  100.0  72 The  frequency  necessary varied  of d i f f i c u l t i e s  consumable m a t e r i a l s  from  one  school  encountered  i n obtaining  f o r teaching applied  to the other.  education  For example,  (21.1%) h e a d t e a c h e r s o f s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g A g r i c u l t u r e they  had no p r o b l e m  four  (10.5%) o f t h e i r  such d i f f i c u l t i e s  obtaining  such  resources.  colleagues indicated  at least  s i x times w i t h i n  eight  indicated  In c o n t r a s t ,  they  encountered  t h e same p e r i o d o f  time. A asked cost  third  headteachers,  that  An accompanying  the requested cost which  shows and  " I n your  school,  what  (Question v i i )  i s the estimated  o f consumable m a t e r i a l s f o r one s t u d e n t p e r y e a r  Shillings?"  for  q u e s t i o n on consumable m a t e r i a l s  note  t o the q u e s t i o n  results  the subject  emphasized  e s t i m a t e was f o r t h e SPECIFIC  t h e TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE was c o m p l e t e d . of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f each  responses  to this  respondent.  i n Kenya  subject Table  26  question  73  Table 26 ANNUAL COST ESTIMATE OF CONSUMABLE MATERIALS PER STUDENT  COST IN KENYA SHILLINGS (KSh.)  SUBJECT AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  (%) Up to 100  15  4  2  1  1  25.6  101 t o 200  9  7  3  1  -  22 .2  201 t o 300  6  7  7  2  -  24.4  301  t o 400  -  -  2  1  1  4.4  401 t o 500  3  1  2  1  -  4.4  Over 600  5  -  3  1  2  12 .2  42 .2  21.1  23.3  8.9  4.4  COLUMN TOTAL  100.0  N = 90  Table  26  indicates  the estimated  annual  cost  of  consumable m a t e r i a l s p e r s t u d e n t f o r t h e same s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y varied  from  proportions (78.9%), the  cost  quantity  to the other.  Similarly,  of schools o f f e r i n g  varying  Agriculture  ( 9 4 . 6 % ) , and Home S c i e n c e  (57.1%) e s t i m a t e d  of consumable  required  i n those s u b j e c t s  Estimated the  school  of headteachers  Commerce  annual  student  one  cost  materials  one  t o be KSh. 300 o r l e s s .  o f consumable m a t e r i a l s  and q u a l i t y  by  of the l e v e l  seemed  o f adequacy  to affect of  those  74 materials 94.6%,  obtained  78.9%,  and  f o r each 57.1%  Commerce, A g r i c u l t u r e , the  annual  300.  of  Corresponding  indicated obtained 20.6%,  cost  the for  and  their  cost  and  category.  headteachers  Home S c i e n c e  of  For  example,  schools  offering  respectively  consumable m a t e r i a l s per p r o p o r t i o n s of  adequacy  19.2%,  estimated  of  subject  of  schools 47.7%  d i d not  the  student  as  same h e a d t e a c h e r s  the  consumable  was  satisfactory  respectively.  seem  estimated  to minimize  w h i l e o b t a i n i n g t h o s e m a t e r i a l s (see T a b l e  materials or  better  Furthermore,  problems 25).  KSh. who they was the  encountered  75 CHAPTER FIVE:  TEACHER  CHARACTERISTICS AND  PEDAGOGICAL  AREAS  OFFERED  5.1.0  Introduction This chapter  comprise r e s u l t s of a n a l y s i s of responses  questions  concerning  offered  i n  the  teacher  schools.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s addresses study.  It  Kenya h i g h  belief  The  and t h e s u b j e c t  section  on  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n number  presents  qualifications,  characteristics  data  on  to  teachers'  teacher  two i n t h i s age,  sex,  i n s i x purposes of a p p l i e d education i n  s c h o o l s , and t h e i r  (teachers') i n t e r e s t  and demands  of  teaching applied education.  is  answered i n t h e s e c t i o n on s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l s .  This  s e c t i o n comprise  diversity,  basis  anticipated  subject  5.2.0 Section  A:  and  data  R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n number  on  criteria  student  f o r subject  Teacher  their  Questions  age and s e x .  subject  selection,  and  changes.  Characteristics  5.2.1 Age And Sex o f A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n In  enrolment,  three  18  and  Table  20,  teachers  Teachers were  asked  27 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e a c h e r s by s u b j e c t  category.  to state of  these  76 Table  27  DISTRIBUTION OF  TEACHERS' AGE  AND  SEX  BY  SUBJECT CATEGORY  SUBJECT AGE AND SEX AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  .IM-  AGE Under 25 years  6  3  8  1  1  15.7  25 to 29 years  27  16  10  7  6  54.5  30 to 34 years  6  7  1  1  1  13.2  35 to 39 years  3  3  4  -  1  9.1  40 to 44 years  4  2  -  1  -  5.8  Over 44 years  1  1  -  -  1.7  Male  41  28  2  9  7  70.7  7  4  22  1  2  29.3  SEX Female  Except  i n Home S c i e n c e ,  the  vast m a j o r i t y of  e a c h s u b j e c t c a t e g o r y were m a l e s . as  role  models  subjects likely student  by  to  a  to  their  large  bias  students'  enrolment  shown  Because t e a c h e r s a l s o  students,  number  of  teachers  teaching  teachers  choice  i n Table  in 38  of  those  of the  one  serve  or  same  this  more  sex  subjects.  suggests  in  is But,  i s not  a  s e r i o u s problem i n a p p l i e d education. Most them  were  t e a c h e r s were r e m a r k a b l y under, 30  years  of  age  young and  an  i n age.  Over  additional  70%  13.2%  of of  77 them  were  between  crosstabulating distributed  30  teachers  and age  among males and  34 and  A c a d e m i c , T e c h n i c a l , and Teachers  5.3.1  A c a d e m i c and  highest  15  responses  asked  areas.  to  this  Results  showed age  was  of  similarly  Professional Qualifications  of  Professional Qualifications  certificate  professional  sex  old.  females.  5.3.0  Question  years  teachers  they Table  held 28  question  to  state  in their  the  names  major  of  the  academic  and  shows r e s u l t s o f c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g and  the  subject  taught  by  each  respondent. A  notable  untrained A-Level  t h i n g on  Table  28  teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y  (Advanced H i g h  i s the the  School Level)  40  high  number  (63)  (32.8%) t e a c h e r s  Certificate.  of  with  78 Table  28  ACADEMIC AND  PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION OF  TEACHERS BY  SUBJECT  SUBJECT LEVEL OF QUALIFICATION  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  HOW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  : T r a i n e d Graduate/ .  J  rn  , . 15.6  n  c  ->  9  1.  (%)  Approved Teacher Untrained Graduate  5  -  -  2  3  Diplomate or SI  14  12  6  5  3  fA-Level ?  17  11  7  -  5  " ^ Craftsman  4  1  5  1  13.1  Untrained Others  1  -  -  1.6  8.2  7.4  trai  Sd  T  n  t  i  n  6  d  COLUMN TOTAL  -  -  5  1  38.5  26.5  19.7  4.2  32.7  32.8  100.0  _____  Crosstabulations the the  of  the  applied education teachers'  (Question teachers  12)  showed  them  competence  in practical  effective  in  and  those  they  pedagogical  monitored  i n teaching  the  to  taught  (32.8%)  high  skills  where  teachers (Question  professional 40  academic  training  be  subject  academic  attended  therefore,  institutions  skills,  in their  ensure  skills  they  In these  r e q u i r e d by  and  A-Level  addition  should,  teachers) the  to  teachers'  subject areas (the  22)  qualification  untrained  schools.  studied  are  s y l l a b u s of  their be  subject.  extended  on T a b l e 5.3.2  For  to  the  other  Institution Training  applied  shows  same r e a s o n , 23  teacher  education  (18.9%) u n t r a i n e d  should  teachers  shown  28.  In Q u e s t i o n the  the  Attended  22,  for  Pre-service  t e a c h e r s were a s k e d ,  education  distribution  subject  of  you  teachers  by  are  (Technical)  "Where d i d you teaching?"  institution  study  Table  29  attended  and  academic l e v e l s t u d i e d . Table  29  D I S T R I B U T I O N OF A P P L I E D EDUCATION ATTENDED AND LEVEL STUDIED  INSTITUTION ATTENDED  TEACHERS  Major  17  3 23 1 2 2 3  COLUMN TOTAL  72.8  27.2  (%)  only  their  school,  question  51  (40.8%) o f  applied education  but  subject.  did  23  out  of  Results and  the  these  of  51  the  ROW TOTAL %  Minor  17 2 28 1 24 2  study  INSTITUTION  LEVEL STUDIED  Harambee I n s t i t u t e of Science and Technology T e c h n i c a l School _ Academic High School C r a f t T r a i n i n g Centre Government Diploma C o l l e g e National Polytechnic Univers i t y  Not  BY  125  subject teachers  13.6 4.0 40.8 1.6 20.8 3.3 16.0  100. 0  teachers at  an  i n Table  academic  s t u d i e d i t as  c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g responses  subject  categories revealed  37  of  29  high  a  minor  to  this  them  were  80 either all  the  would to  in Agriculture teachers  have e x p e c t e d  have  they  125  been  are  attended  a  larger  recruited  presumed  knowledge  or Commerce.  of  their  to  In-Service In Q u e s t i o n  of  in-service  each  form  that  list,  and of  rate  of  from  technical  have  more  applied  the  training  Table  30.  14,  teachers and  training.  school  schools.  and  subjects  One  teachers  leavers  theoretical  education  because  practical than  their  schools.  forms o f  a  were g i v e n  a list  five-point  ordinal  They were  then  in-service  training  l e v e l of u s e f u l n e s s on  high  of  Training  training  the  technical  o n l y 4.0%  p r o p o r t i o n of u n t r a i n e d  c o l l e a g u e s from academic h i g h 5.3.3  Surprisingly,  the  scale  asked  f o r each o f  provided.  The  to  they  of  scale  forms beside  indicate, had  those  results  five  attended  five  are  on  forms  shown  on  81 Table  30  DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHER ATTENDANCE AND PERCEIVED USEFULNESS OF FIVE FORMS OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING  LEVEL OF  FORM OF IN-SERVICE  NUMBER OF TEACHERS  LEVEL OF USEFULNESS  TRAINING  WHO ATTENDED  MOST USEFUL  LEAST USEFUL  5  4  3  2  1  (N) Informal meetings with other a p p l i e d education teachers  59  25  16  10  6  13  Workshops presented by other a p p l i e d education teachers  5  14  17  2  2  3  Workshops presented by M i n i s t r y of Education off i c i a l s  32  16  9  10  6  6  Formal courses content  10  26  15  11  4  2  8  30  14  8  -  2  i n subject  Formal courses i n methodo l o g i e s of teaching a p p l i e d education  Results the  level  indicated forms rated  i nTable  of usefulness they  thelevel  meetings,  o f each  form  who r a t e d  of in-service  training  c o u l d b e n e f i t from a t t e n d i n g any one o f t h e f i v e  of in-service  training  30 s h o w a m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s  training.  When  of usefulness  as 4 and 5 a r e added formal  subject  t h e number  o f each  form  together,  content,  o f t e a c h e r s who on  in-service  informal  and formal  teacher  courses i n  82 teaching  methodologies  respondents  as  the  were p e r c e i v e d  by  useful  in-service  most  form of  the  majority  of  training.  Workshops by M i n i s t r y of Education O f f i c i a l s appeared to be the most  common f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d  education  teachers  indicated  they  inservice  but  relatively  benefited  training.  workshops presented  form of  in-servicing  fewer  or would b e n e f i t Similarly,  by t h e i r  few  of  the  teachers  from t h a t  teachers  c o l l e a g u e s as  applied  form of  perceived  a helpful  form of  in-service training. Given the l a r g e number of untrained teachers A-Level  Certificate  in-service  training  implementation interest poor  in  of  of  Table 28),  for  the apparently is  a serious  education.  inadequate  concern  Similarly,  training indicated  by the  responses about  perceived  and few each  teachers  applied  in-service  attendance  usefulness  (see  with an  form i n - s e r v i c e  training  is  for  lack  of  relatively level a  of  serious  concern. 5.3.4  Teaching Experience In Question 13,  ( 1988),  for  teachers Table 31.  teachers  how long have  a c c o r d i n g to  the  were asked,  you taught?" number of  years  "Including t h i s  year  D i s t r i b u t i o n of taught  is  shown  the in  83  Table  31  DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF YEARS TAUGHT SUBJECT NUMBER OF YEARS TAUGHT  COMMERCE  AGRICULTURE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  (%) 29  11  15  6  4  52 .8  3 to 5  9  13  4  2  3  25.2  6 to 8  4  2  -  -  1  5.7  9 to 11  1  3  -  1  1  4.9  12 to 14  2  1  3  -  -  4.9  Over  3  2  2  1  -  6.5  2 or  less  14  COLUMN TOTAL  N =  39.0  26 .0  19.5  8.1  7.3  100.0  123  About less.  53%  This  of  recruited  started  in  to  that  a  taught  5 years  experience  vast or  had  reflected  teach  a l l secondary  noteworthy  teaching  teachers  proportion  teachers  for  the  the  for  large  two  schools  in  (78%)  These  m a j o r i t y of teachers reported i n Table  the  relatively  were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  when  1986 . of  It  few  new  i t  was  is  also  years  age  or  of  teachers  t h e young  27.  years  number  applied education  majority less.  taught  of  had of the  84 5.4.0 Demands o f A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n on  Teachers  5.4.1 C l a s s S i z e Teachers are  i n your  were a s k e d largest  i n Question  applied  education  Results  of c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g responses  subject  each r e s p o n d e n t  Table  taught  20,  "How  many  class  to t h i s  students  this  term?"  q u e s t i o n and t h e  a r e shown i n T a b l e  32.  32  CLASS S I Z E BY SUBJECT CATEGORY  SUBJECT NUMBER OF STUDENTS  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON & ACCOUNT  Lil_ 20 or l e s s  15  8  2  1  1  22.1  21 to 24  1  2  1  3  1  6.6  25 t o 28  3  4  -  1  2  8.2  29 to 32  5  4  4  1  2  13.1  33 to 36  5  4  -  2  -  9.0  Over 36  18  10  17  2  3  41.0  COLUMN TOTAL  38.5  26.2  19.7  8.2  7.1  100.0  N = 122  Table category  32  varied  Home S c i e n c e students over  36  shows from  that  indicated  18 o f t h e i r  students  sizes  i n t h e same  one s c h o o l t o t h e o t h e r .  teachers  while  class  in their  their  colleagues classes.  subject  F o r example,  c l a s s e s had up i n other Different  t o 20  schools class  15  had  sizes  85 imply  varying  heavier  the  would be  less  amounts  load,  This  problem  of of  In  small  the  for  the  chances  teachers.  that  the  finding  to  note  i n Table  in Agriculture  less)  and  large  c o n c e n t r a t i o n was that  and (over  more l i k e l y  a l l students  past,  was  class  usually size  20  enabled  size  in  students the  two  32  36  is  to  the into  students)  compound  received  most or  teacher  m a t e r i a l s , equipment  any,  teacher  Commerce  and  applied  the  the same  less.  This  to monitor  skill  education relatively  the  of l a r g e c l a s s  sizes  (e.g., over  s a f e t y of  development  students during applied education class sessions. if  The  education.  class  people,  or  ensuring  the  subjects  load  in teaching.  students  students  classes.  quality  of  work  higher  interesting  concentration (20  the  effective  Another  small  of  36  The  students)  of  the  effect, on  these  cover  "this  a s p e c t s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be s t u d i e d .  5.4.2  P e r c e i v e d Time Inadequacy When a s k e d  year's  whether  they  had  p a r t of a p p l i e d education  (Question  21),  80  out  "definitely  not  officially  allocated  remaining enough".  of  enough".  2 respondents  time  121 An  enough  time  syllabus for their  subject,"  respondents  time  was  indicated  the  additional  was  to  "just  ( i n Commerce) s a i d  39  said  enough" time  was  while  the  "more  than  86 Responses  to  Question  teachers  responses  education  class  Table  33.  Table  33  size  to  21  the  were  crosstabulated  question  (Question  about  20).  STUDENTS  PER  their  Results are  LEVEL OF ADEQUACY OF OFFICIALLY-ALLOCATED EDUCATION CLASS SIZE NUMBER O F  with  the  applied shown  in  TIME BY APPLIED  CLASS  TIME  ROW  ADEQUACY  20  21  OR  TO  28  29  TO  36  OVER  LESS  TOTAL  36  (%)  More Than Enough  1  1  -  —  J u s t Enough  9  6  9  18  32 .8  16  13  18  38  65.9  20 .2  15.6  20.9  43.4  Def i n i t e l y Not Enough  1.6  COLUMN TOTAL  100.0  N = 129  The of  26  of  their  interesting  to note  (61.5%) t e a c h e r s w i t h 56  students enough. more  thing  officially  had  allocated  agreed  class  time  i s that  what  the  most  was  time  (65.9%) t e a c h e r s c o u l d  allocated.  Furthermore,  with  sizes  16  out  38  out  of over  definitely  T h i s agreement s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s y l l a b u s  than  within  small classes  (67.9%) c o l l e a g u e s who  that  i n T a b l e 33  content  effectively the  36 not was  teach  majority  of  87 t e a c h e r s i n each c l a s s time  was d e f i n i t e l y  5.4.3  many  were  40 m i n u t e  those  weekly  responses  said o f f i c i a l l y  Load  asked  periods  i n Question they  taught  18 a n d 19 t o s t a t e  how  p e r week and how many o f  l e s s o n s were on a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n .  t o these  allocated  n o t enough.  Weekly T e a c h i n g Teachers  s i z e category  Analysis of  two q u e s t i o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e 34.  T a b l e 34 NUMBER OF TOTAL AND APPLIED EDUCATION LESSONS TAUGHT PER WEEK _„__ __ TYPE OF WEEKLY LOAD  NUMBER OF LESSONS PER WEEK  Total Load Applied Education  We had  week.  14 to 20  21 to 27  28 to 34  35 to 41  10  8  29  59  14  1  6  127  42  39  21  12  4  5  4  127  than  34 t h a t  t h e recommended  A lighter  demands noted  7 to 13  see i n Table  less  load probably  a s s o c i a t e d with  i n section  not  t h e time have  this  at least  83.5% o f t h e t e a c h e r s  teacher helped  Over 41  l o a d o f 30 l e s s o n s p e r them cope w i t h  implementing  a new p r o g r a m  t h e many but as  5.7 t h a t h e l p was n o t good enough t o o f f - s e t  p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by time at  ROW TOTAL  0 to 6  study  a Form Four  inadequacy.  I t should  was c o n d u c t e d  (senior  most  high  be n o t e d  that  (1988) t h e s c h o o l s d i d school)  class  because  88 of  the  change  education. January,  from  Normal  1989.  teachers  the  must  7-4-2-3  enrolment  Beginning have  risen  in  higher  to  1 2  was  the  8-4-4  expected  1989, than  the the  system  to  resume  teaching one  of  shown  in  load  of  in  Table  was  that  34. Another while  88  l o a d was said  (69.3%) o f  taught  These  taught 5.5.0  the  between 14 and  they  week.  interesting  other  up  figures  observation  teachers 27  to  indicated  lessons  suggest  that  of  demands syllabus  made for  were a s k e d on  them  their  in  total  weekly them  applied education  applied education  per  teachers  well.  P e r c e i v e d Teachers' A b i l i t y to Implementing A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n Teachers  their  34  l e s s o n s per week, 81(63.8%) o f  13  s u b j e c t s as  i n Table  i n Question  8 how  implementing  35  they  Demands  felt  applied shows  about  of the  education of  T h i s system of e d u c a t i o n comprised seven years p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n , four years of secondary e d u c a t i o n , y e a r s of h i g h e r secondary e d u c a t i o n , and t h r e e y e a r s minimum u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n .  of two of  1 2  Table  the  with  results  a n a l y s i s of responses  subject.  Cope  to t h i s question.  89 35  Table  TEACHERS' ABILITY TO COPE WITH DEMANDS OF APPLIED EDUCATION  LEVEL OF TEACHERS' ABILITY TO COPE  IMPLEMENTING  SUBJECT AGRICULTUHE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  WOODW & BLDG CONS  ROW TOTAL  ECON _ ACCOUNT  (%) Cannot  Cope  3  -  -  -  -  2.5  17  17  2  6  60.8  11  10  6  5  3  29.2  2  4  1  2  -  7.5  39.2  25.8  20.0  7.5  7.5  Somet imes Too Demanding 31 Generally Can Cope Demands Not A Problem COLUMN TOTAL  100.0  N = 120  Results felt of  they  i n Table  could,  implementing  exceptional  albeit their  feelings  to  or  that  90%  with d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  of cope  with  education syllabus.  were e x p r e s s e d by  77.8%  C o n s t r u c t i o n who  either  that  the  s u c h demands posed  no  of  teachers demands The  only  the t e a c h e r s  said  they  special  could  problems  them.  5.6.0  you  cope  indicate  applied  i n Woodwork & B u i l d i n g generally  35  Teacher  Interest  i n Teaching Applied Education  Question  7 asked  t e a c h e r s , " I f you  avoid  teaching  applied  had  a  choice,  education altogether?".  would  Responses  90 to  this  q u e s t i o n were  c r o s s t a b u l a t e d with subject  categories  as shown i n Table 36. Table 36 TEACHER INTEREST IN TEACHING CATEGORY  APPLIED EDUCATION BY SUBJECT  SUBJECT TEACHER INTEREST  AGRICULTURE  COMMERCE  HOME SCIENCE  ROW ECON & TOTAL ACCOUNT  WOODW & BLDG CONS  (%) Would Avoid Given Choice Undecided Whether Would Avoid Would Not Avoid Given Choice  COLUMN TOTAL  10  8  2  1  2  18.9  5  4  2  1  1  10.7  33  19  20  8  6  70.5  39.3  25.4  19.7  8.1  7.4  100.0  N = 122  It  was  despite Table  a welcome  surprise  heavy demands of  35),  70.5% of  them s a i d  had  Home Science,  particularly  respectively) education.  of  note  the s y l l a b u s e s  a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n even i f choices.  to  they  on the  36  they had other  that,  teachers  would c o n t i n u e  (see  teaching  (presumably  better)  and Woodwork & B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n  high  proportions  teachers  interested  However, the  in Table  18.9% of  the  they taught a p p l i e d education because  (83.3% in  and  teaching  teachers  80.0% applied  who suggested  they lacked a l t e r n a t i v e  choices with  should  any  aspect  effectiveness 5.7.0  be  a  of  source their  of  subject  i n teaching  that  Levels of Schooling Applied Education Question  level  of  9  Responses  responses  teacher's this  to  highest  a n a l y s i s are  that  would to  of  shown on  likely  Teachers " I f you  you this  Question level  is  because  dissatisfaction  to  minimize  their  subject.  teachers  schooling  education?". with  asked  concern  had  prefer question  12(a)  which  Preferred a  choice,  to  teach  were  Teach  at  which  applied  crosstabulated  enquired  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Table  to  about  the  Results  of  37.  37  Table  LEVEL OF SCHOOLING THAT TEACHERS PREFERRED TO TEACH BY HIGHEST LEVEL OF ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION ATTAINED CERTIFICATE  LEVEL OF SCHOOLING  ROW TOTAL  Graduate/ Approved Teacher  Diploma/ SI  Craft  A-Level  Primary  4  1  -  1  5.  Form  One  3  4  -  1  6 .  Form  Two  4  4  2  12  18 .  Form Three  3  5  1  11  16.  Form Four  7  11  4  11  28.  Post Secondary  2  4  3  1  Any  -  12  4  3  N=118  Level  8. 16.  92  The  results  teachers' teach.  i n Table  choice  of  Contrary  the  37  level  t o what one  graduated/approved  teachers  at  or  primary  school  Two)  compared  they  would  Unlike  they  had to  Senior  of  levels  5.9.0  of  teach of  and by  with  about  half  of  p r e f e r r e d to  level  the  (Forms  teachers  the  the  teach  One  and  who  said  post-secondary  level.  graudate/approved  level  of  versa.  teach  The  1 t o 6,  to  their  a p p l i e d education  to  Four) l e v e l .  schooling  to  at  cause of  27)  teachers  teach  teach  at  with  and  the  high  lower  this  apparent  to  the high  Craft senior  academic  the  teachers  at  Similarly  (48.8%),  teachers  graduate/Approved  11(a)  liked  Diploma/Si  Apparently,  vise  (see T a b l e  they  preferred  Teacher B e l i e f s i n The Kenya High Schools  of  at  untrained  o f s c h o o l i n g s h o u l d be  scale  23)  of  p r e f e r r e d to  almost  teachers, a l l  p r e f e r r e d to  In Q u e s t i o n a  of  secondary  (Forms T h r e e and  level.  aspiration  out  indicated  teachers  qualifications schooling  (11  (65%)  certificates  secondary  might e x p e c t ,  preferences  certificate  proportions  s c h o o l i n g they  pattern  teach.  Secondary  (57.1%)  to  category  c o n t r a s t , 26  A-Level  interesting  2 graduate/approved  liked  their  of  junior  the  other  liked In  with  have  any  teachers  to  show an  levels  teach  of  lack at  of  upper  investigated.  Purposes of  A p p l i e d Education  ( f ) , t e a c h e r s were a s k e d belief  i n Kenya  to rate,  i n each o f s i x g i v e n high  schools.  The  in on  purposes  data  from  93 this of  a  into Table  Question  were combined  teacher's  belief  i n order  i n each  three categories.  to c o l l a p s e the strength  purpose  of applied  education  The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e  38.  38  PURPOSES OF APPLIED EDUCATION BY STRENGTH OF TEACHERS IN EACH PURPOSE  BELIEF  LEVEL OF STRENGTH OF TEACHER'S BELIEF PURPOSE  Most Important  Important  Least Important  P r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l knowledge and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o be used f o r l e i s u r e or p e r s o n a l odd jobs  23  20  39  Provide occupational exploration to a i d students i n s e l e c t i n g a career  30  35  16  Develop m a n i p u l a t i v e s k i l l s necessary f o r s e c u r i n g s e l f or salaried-employment  82  12  5  Prepare f o r a v o c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , such as a Harambee I n s t i t u t e of Science and Technology, N a t i o n a l Polytechnic, etc.  27  29  22  Develop p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a i t s e s s e n t i a l to hold a job  21  23  32  Enrich general  14  30  35  The of  most  teachers  purpose  education  notable who  result  indicated  f o r teaching  i n Table they  38 was  believed  applied education  the high  t h e most  i n Kenya  number  important  high  schools  94 was  to  enable  the  leaving  school.  purpose  for  general  education  the  important the  i n Chapter  and  i n Kenya. the  The  teachers'  was  of  the i n n o v a t i o n .  teacher  among  of  belief  applied  a l l subject  teachers their  students)  belief  education  categories.  i n each  subject  livelihood  from  learn  in  any  was  as  by  This  suggests  of  between the  most  to  enhance  each  purpose  respondent  most  important  that  a  spread  majority  believe students  studied  main  part  uniformly  manipulative  the  in  each  the  roughly  category the  of  about  subject taught  in self-reliance  as  is likely  after  the  agreement  c r o s s t a b u l a t i n g responses the  was  mandated  personal  implementation  purpose  this  apparent  applied education  of  self-reliant  One,  applied education  a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n and  earn  become  of  showed  of  argued  to  purpose  Results of  As  which  official  students  skills  applied  could  they  (the  education  subjects. 5 . 1 0 . 0 Section  B:  5.10.1 S t u d e n t  Enrolment Per  Headteachers number applied  of  boys  education  shows t h e  sum  Pedagogical  were asked and  girls  subject  of each sex  Areas Subject  Offered Area  i n Question enrolled  in  i i ( a ) to f i l l Form  offered in their f o r the  125  out  Three  school.  in  the each  Table  schools studied.  39  95  Table 39 STUDENT ENROLMENT BY SUBJECT AREAS ENROLMENT SUBJECT AREA  ROW  BOYS  GIRLS  TOTAL  Agr i c u l t u r e  3803  2881  6684  Economics  2910  2401  5311  Home s c i e n c e  1185  1483  2668  Commerce  861  787  1648  Accounts  548  656  1204  Drawing and design  537  360  879  15  354  368  0  328  328  139  130  269  Art and Design  74  89  163  E l e c t r i c i ty  40  21  61  Building construction  45  0  45  Power mechanics  0  0  0  Metalwork  0  0  0  Mus i c Typing and O f f i c e  Practice  Woodwork  Compared w i t h  the average  r e p o r t e d by t e a c h e r s i n T a b l e 39  seems  area  c l a s s s i z e o f 33 t o 36 s t u d e n t s 30, t h e l a r g e e n r o l m e n t  t o i n c l u d e a l l the students  rather  Nonetheless,  than  Form T h r e e s  these  results  only show  enroled  i n each  as t h e q u e s t i o n the schools  i n Table  had  offered  subject asked. a  wide  96 variety  of  practical subject 6684  applied  skills).  education The  area varied  from  Thus  by s u b j e c t a r e a s  example,  Power  normally  require special  Mechanics,  equipment, w o r k i n g s p a c e , highest  Economics,  obtainable physical It subject  areas  segregated  the l e a s t Metalwork  etc.  or  number  of  practical  of students, f o r  and E l e c t r i c i t y ,  facilities  f o r example,  require  like  would  tools  and  relatively  Agriculture  fewer  o r more  and  easily  facilities.  were  of both  of  the  boys  same  and  sex,  girls  there  i n some  were  large  in traditionally  sex-  s u b j e c t s l i k e Home S c i e n c e and Woodwork.  Question  s i x given  actually  i n each  In c o n t r a s t , t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h  5.10.2 C u r r i c u l u m S t a k e h o l d e r s Who O f f e r e d i n The S c h o o l s  among  enroled  i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t w h i l e a l l the s t u d e n t s  proportions  In  presumably  unbalanced.  physical  enrolments,  usually  of students  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  seemed  Most s u b j e c t a r e a s w i t h  the  (and  0 i n Metalwork and Power M e c h a n i c s t o  in Agriculture.  skills  number  subjects  (iii),  A c t u a l l y Chose t h e S u b j e c t s  headteachers  alternatives,  were  asked  to  the c u r r i c u l u m s t a k e h o l d e r  chose the a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ( s ) o f f e r e d  her s c h o o l .  select,  R e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e  40.  who  inhis  97  Table  40  DISTRIBUTION OF CURRICULUM STAKEHOLDERS WHO ACTUALLY CHOSE THE SUBJECTS OFFERED IN THE SCHOOLS STUDIED ACTUAL CHOOSERS OF SUBJECT OFFERED  FREQUENCY  School  62  50.8  Parents/Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n  25  20.5  Students  12  9.8  12  9.8  10  8.3  1  0.8  N  Staff  M i n i s t r y of  Education  Board of Governors Unknown to Headteacher  Results about  half  subjects  i n Table of  the  schools  40  decisions  offered  d e c i s i o n s were made by teachers  were  subjects  offered  involvement the  heavy  Policy (iii) school often  involved in  i n the  p.  7).  t h a n any  chose other  an  in  a  and  placed  alone  applied  the  of  the  was  on  i n a l l the  subjects  staff  parents.  Crosstabulation  the  the  choosing  majority  that  school  of  offered  group of c u r r i c u l u m  those  Thus, w h i l e  the  education  schools,  parental  by  commensurate the  responses  four  of  applied  not  them  made  education  a d d i t i o n a l 20.5%  same d e c i s i o n s  ( i ) showed  staff  and  the  about  teachers  responsibility  (see and  suggest  school  in their  with  Cost  Sharing  to  Question  categories, school  stakeholders.  more  98 5.10.3 M a i n R e a s o n F o r C h o o s i n g Offered i n Schools Headteachers thought  was  subject main  offered  reason  and  applied  their  renamed  the  education  41.  school.  "Any  these  reason  s u b j e c t taught  (31.7%)  (d) i n T a b l e  of a l t e r n a t i v e s  Distribution they  education  three a l t e r n a t i v e s  combination  gave  at their  they  of providing  majority  ( a ) , ( c ) and  analysis."  main  a  Subjects  ( i v ) what  the a p p l i e d  Instead  response,  Consequently,  (d) d u r i n g to  i n Question  f o r choosing  gave a l t e r n a t i v e s  response.  according  Table  i n their  as  collectively (c),  asked  t h e main r e a s o n  headteachers their  were  Applied Education  of  of  40 a s were (a),  headteachers  for choosing school  one  the  i s shown i n  99 Table  41  DISTRIBUTION OF HEADTEACHERS ACCORDING TO THE MAIN REASON FOR CHOOSING APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECT TAUGHT AT THEIR SCHOOL MAIN REASON  a) Least expensive  FREQUENCY N %  to run  24  20.5  b) S k i l l s taught are u s e f u l t o the community served by the school  29  24.8  c) P h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s available  13  11.1  12  10.3  2  1.7  37  31.7  d) Lack of q u a l i f i e d education  r e q u i r e d were r e a d i l y  teachers  i n other a p p l i e d  subjects of interest  e) To e n r i c h academic s u b j e c t s f ) Any combination and (d)  The  results  curriculum applied  physical proportion  the on  facilities  taught  cost and  at individual  qualified who  i t s perceived  facilities,  indicated that  subject  running  availability  their  cost, of  schools  mainly  When  each  of  the r e s u l t s  of the  these  headteachers  who show  t h e d e c i s i o n about o f f e r e d was  availability  qualified  about t h e  availability  identified t o those  of the  schools  teachers.  factors collectively,  of the headteachers  a p p l i e d education  a majority  of the s u b j e c t ,  of the headteachers  t h e same  that  who made t h e a c t u a l c h o i c e  subject  the running  41 s u g g e s t  f a c t o r s s e p a r a t e l y a r e added  identified 73.6%  i n Table  stakeholders  education  considered  three  of a l t e r n a t i v e s ( a ) , (c)  based  of p h y s i c a l  teachers,  or  a  100 combination almost  of  two  or  one-quarter  usefulness choosing  of  On were  the a p p l i e d  and, those  a  list  asked  school  of  the  5.10.4 A n t i c i p a t e d of  these  factors.  headteachers taught  as  cited the  In  addition,  the p e r c e i v e d  main  reason  e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t taught at t h e i r  for  school.  S u b j e c t Changes 14  applied  t o add  i f applicable, changes.  the  skills  i n Question  intended  anticipated  three of  the  (v) or  education subjects, to  drop  year  Distribution  indicate from  i n which of  a r e shown i n T a b l e  the  their they  subjects  their  school curriculum planned  the changes t h a t 42.  headteachers  to  effect  headteachers  101  Table 42 ANTICIPATED SUBJECT CHANGES BY TIME  SUBJECT  1988/89 Add Drop  1990/91 Add Drop  Home Science  10  3  15  -  9  Art & Design  1  -  1  -  6  Agriculture  3  -  -  2  Electricity  -  -  -  1  Power Mechanics_  -  -  1  -  Woodwork  3  -  9  8  -  4  5  2  -  -  -  3  Design  2  -  1  -  3  Music  5  -  2  -  3  Accounts  2  1  8  -  3  Commerce  2  Economics  7  1  Typing & O f f i c e Practice  1  -  Metalwork Building construction  TO BE A D D E D WHEN TEACHER AND FACILITIES BECOME AVAILABLE  1  Drawing &  We changes present effected  2  see i n Table  by  1  -  42  a r e expected curriculum.  4  that  t o be  -  almost  a l l anticipated  additions  Some o f t h e s e  1991 w h i l e  5  others  of  changes  will  subjects  subject to the  are expected  depend  on how  t o be  soon t h e  102 necessary  educational  resources  become a v a i a b l e t o  individual  schools. More planned  specifically,  t o add  c u r r i c u l u m by their  and  will  do  Thirteen to  add  to  teach  to  add  intended teacher high  those  the  was  main  subjects  more s u b j e c t s because  In  Giving  to  (28.9%) more h e a d t e a c h e r s  those  subjects  contrast, to  said  drop  and  they the  qualified  students given  reason their said had  by  skills  5  subjects  23  five  cost  schools  facilities  required  students  their  they  Lack  of  a  decide students of  on  alternatives, which  applied  would s t u d y  responses  schools qualified  (2 s c h o o l s ) ,  as t h e  reasons  why  t o d r o p some s u b j e c t s .  H e a d t e a c h e r s were a s k e d given  would  students.  5.10.5 C r i t e r i a S c h o o l s U s e d t o A s s i g n A p p l i e d S u b j e c t s t o I n d i v i d u a l Form One Students  seven  schools  intended  said  intended  45  schools  the  (1 s c h o o l ) were c i t e d  of  curriculum.  headteachers taught.  and  choice  out  their  (2 s c h o o l s ) , l a c k o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s running  indicated  wider  present  their  their  teacher  a  why  the  schools  s u b j e c t s on  t o be more u s e f u l t o the only  their  51 h e a d t e a c h e r s  same when a  subjects as  more  l e a r n were e x p e c t e d  and  the  education  headteachers  intended  an a d d i t i o n a l  become a v a i l a b l e .  applied  (51.1%)  headteachers  or more a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n  1991  schools  facilities of  one  83  the  i n Question criterion  education  i n Form One.  Education  ( i x ) to choose their  schools  subject(s)  Distribution  t o t h i s q u e s t i o n a r e shown i n T a b l e  among  used  to  individual  of  frequencies  43.  103  Table  43  C R I T E R I A FOR ASSIGNING A P P L I E D INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS IN FORM ONE  EDUCATION  CRITERIA  SUBJECTS  TO  FREQUENCY N %  S u b j e c t s are randomly assigned to students by the s c h o o l before students a r r i v e at the school Students make t h e i r subject choices a f t e r a short exposure to a l l a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by the school Students are exposed to a l l a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l , then s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d by the school on the b a s i s of student performance i n each a p p l i e d education subject  25  21.7  7  6.1  31  27.0  1  0.9  20  17.4  5  4.3  26  22.6  S u b j e c t s are assigned to students on the b a s i s of t h e i r KCPE performance No  specific criterion  More than one  i s used  criterion  i s used  Students are assigned a l l a p p l i e d education s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by the school  An  important  criteria  schools  point used  individual  students  responses  into  operated  under  to  to  note  assign  i n Form One.  four  Table  applied The  criteria  conditions  in  is  education  clustering  suggest  which  43  schools  predisposed  the  varying  subjects  to  of  headteacher  in  each  them  to  group  use  the  same c r i t e r i o n . A  majority  individual  (31)  students  of  the  schools  in assigning  considered  them a p p l i e d  talents  education  of  subject  104 but  only  12  schools  gave  their  choose the s u b j e c t s they l i k e d . to  choose  most  (when  interest  subject effect.  and  there them  failure  students  t o do  enhance so  opportunity  Giving students  are choices  would  an  an  opportunity  t o be made) t h e s u b j e c t their  is likely  to  that  performance i n that t o have  the  opposite  105 CHAPTER SIX:  CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  6.1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n This which  chapter  comprise  addressed issues the of  a brief  i n this  raised  chapter adequacy  and  begins  with  the c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s  review  study  of the three research q u e s t i o n s  and t h e i r  by t h e r e s u l t s  ends w i t h  answers.  of the study  recommendations  of physical  study  Then  important  a r e d i s c u s s e d and  f o r improving  facilities,  the l e v e l  instructional materials,  teachers.  6.2.0 C o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e Study The  general  quantity  purpose  and q u a l i t y  of t h i s  and l e a r n i n g  subjects  i n the C e n t r a l Province  p r o b l e m s were a d d r e s s e d  and  to assess  each  teachers'  concerned  subjects offered student  enrolment  offered,  and t h e c r i t e r i a  As  described  sample  of  197  was  facilities sought  the t h i r d These  per s u b j e c t , d i v e r s i t y used  specific  an a t t e m p t  the study  while  education  Three  of p h y s i c a l  among t h e s c h o o l s .  i n Chapter  (36.8%)  First,  Second,  characteristics  included  selection.  study.  available for  applied  o f Kenya.  o f adequacy  materials.  identify  subject  of fourteen  i n this  the l e v e l  instructional  was t o i d e n t i f y t h e  of e d u c a t i o n a l resources  teaching  made  study  to  problem concerns  of subjects  by c u r r i c u l u m s t a k e h o l d e r s f o r  Three,  secondary  a proportional schools  random  stratified  by  106 administrative Complementary developed, fourteen  for  which  was  and  tested,  teaching  the  was  the respondent  subject The  headteacher  automatically  became  questionnaire.  Data a n a l y s i s was  the  or  she  f o r each  respondent  were  on any one  by  required  he  data.  subject  and t h e t e a c h e r s  selected  was  f o r which  data  The s p e c i f i c  completed  questionnaire.  and  to c o l l e c t  were  the  questionnaires  subjects.  questionnaire  However,  in collecting  headteacher  a p p l i e d education  that  used  and used  a questionnaire  out  staff.  teacher  pilot  of  filled  districts  school  t o have  been  completed  the  selected  f o r the  done u s i n g  the  who  school  headteacher  crosstabulations  frequencies. In g e n e r a l ,  quantity  and  quality  instructional inadequate  of  materials,  for effective  education. resources  the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s suggest  In a d d i t i o n , varied  those  schools  areas.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , as  and  teaching  expressed  and  the l e v e l  offered  facilities,  characteristics learning  of  of adequacy  t o the other  results  are  applied  for  these  irrespective  t h e same o r d i f f e r e n t  these by  physical  teacher  from one s c h o o l  whether  conclusions  available  that the  of  subject  l e d t o the f o l l o w i n g  the m a j o r i t y  of  teachers  or  h e a d t e a c h e r s as t h e c a s e may be: 6.2.1 1.  Physical  Facilities  Specially built most  teachers  rooms o r b u i l d i n g s were n o t a v a i l a b l e t o  and, a c c o r d i n g  to headteacher  projections,  107 they  will  large  proportion  date  i n which  built. a  be r e a d y  by 1990 o r l a t e r .  (35.8%)  they  expect  However, most  building  that  of teachers t o have  indicated  they  subject  improvised  buildings i s less  schools  students  materials. are  less  but the l e v e l  students'  than  the  cannot applied  Similarly,  counters  insufficient  these  spaces  for  spaces  the  for  or storage  spaces  i n quality  available  and q u a n t i t y . facilities  was s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r  desks  have  been  unlike practical  were  available  i n a l l subject  B u t one built for  work,  theory  in sufficient  areas.  i n Home  colleagues  indicated  areas.  classrooms.  of teachers  but t h e i r  Construction  working  new c l a s s r o o m s  i n existing  class  majority  of  satisfactory.  i n a l l subject  because,  numbers and q u a l i t y The  applied  o f adequacy  space a v a i l a b l e  that  education  can be t a u g h t  their  had t h e b e s t .  of teachers  conclude  have a c c e s s t o  A g r i c u l t u r e had t h e p o o r e s t  of classroom  majority  room  c l a s s p r o j e c t s , and c o n s u m a b l e  satisfactory  w h i l e Home S c i e n c e  a  no s e t  special  nor storage  The few w o r k i n g  Proportionately,  Amount  than  the teacher  tools/equipment,  their  that they  have n e i t h e r s p e c i a l  or  indicated  use f o r t e a c h i n g  education  Most  Furthermore,  Science  i n Woodwork  t h e work  benches  i n numbers and q u a l i t y .  had enough and B u i l d i n g  they  h a d were  The m a j o r i t y o r a l l  108 teachers they 6.  The  i n Commerce, A c c o u n t s ,  d i d not  have work b e n c h e s o r  majority  hand  tools  quality  of  of  equipment  (61.7%)  or  the  ones  had  less  they  Commerce,  Accounts, or  than  teachers  teacher  or  Teachers  less  Economics  was  without and  satisfactory.  than  equipment  the  in  rest  had  quantity  there  than  and  no  mainly  the  and  general,  had  satisfactory  were  while  the q u a l i t y  w i t h hand t o o l s or  number  equipment  In  either  the  Economics  equipment but  suggested  counters.  applied education  (28.7%).  power t o o l s  and  were  power  was more  operated  ones.  6.2.2 1.  Instructional Materials Class most  textbooks  and  teachers  While  the  Ministry  but  book  of  Teaching  Accounts, 3.  About  writing  were  This and  numbers  workshops  i n 1988 i s yet  either  problem  conducted  might t o be  ease  most  the  quality. by  the  problem  of  determined.  u n a v a i l a b l e or was  and  to  insufficient  acute  in  in  Economics,  Agriculture.  two-thirds  materials  insufficient  quality  aids  number.  in  Education  numbers, t h e i r 2.  r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s were a v a i l a b l e  but,  like  are  insufficient  the  majority  of  of  the  other  teachers  instructional  in quality teachers  have  and  have  materials,  quantity. problems  consumable they  Furthermore,  procuring  those  109 materials per 6.2.3 1.  although  they  c o s t KSh  Teacher About  55%  o f the t e a c h e r s a r e between 25 and  over  83%  of  them were below  all  Except  35  years  29 y e a r s o l d  old.  This  age  of a l l a p p l i e d education  i n Home S c i e n c e , t h e y a r e a m a j o r i t y i n  subject areas.  Most  teachers  pedagogical Applied  r e q u i r e more  training  education.  t o be  About  training  and  academic  background  (4.2%), taught  or  the  are  factors  qualified  A-Level  materials; training;  which to  poor  teaching  with  an  graduates,  Furthermore,  they  have  less.  teachers  to p l a c e great  but  c o n t r i b u t e to cover  they  cope  demands  and  technical  sizes;  p a r e n t s , communities, and  those  It i s speculated  those  facilities  demands  with  prescribed syllabus  academic,  large class  and  pedagogical  university  (14.7%).  physical  for  graduates  with great d i f f i c u l t i e s .  time  inadequate  of  technical,  o f them have no  (32.7%),  y e a r s or  majority  inadequate  from  fully  a p p l i e d education appears  demands a l b e i t that  academic,  50%  either  craftsmen  f o r two  Teaching on  student  i n a l l subject areas.  O v e r a l l , males make up about 70% teachers.  4.  l e s s per  Characteristics  span i s u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d  3.  or  year.  and  2.  300  include content;  instructional  and  professional  high  expectations  and  too  the  government.  110 5.  The m a j o r i t y than  the prescribed  weekly  teaching  education  increase  beginning  new  after  Teacher is  have  lessons This  i n January,  Their  which load  i s completed  i n continuing  to teach  proportion  for teaching  the m a j o r i t y  applied  a t any  p r e f e r to teach  particular  a t lower  teaching  less qualified beliefs  are similar  t h e main  t o those  founded:  that  practical  education  can  be  Twelve three  subject  used  Subjects  areas  out of every  education  teachers  academic  levels  purpose  of  on which  skills by  than  four  applied  the program  learned  the students  was  in applied for  self-  training.  Offered  are offered  are studying  Home S c i e n c e .  three,  teachers.  about  6.2.4 A p p l i e d E d u c a t i o n  education  forms  employment, s a l a r i e d - e m p l o y m e n t , o r f u r t h e r  1.  at the  (16.1%) o f them  tend  education  to  enrolments  S u r p r i s i n g l y , graduate  Teacher  9  t h e o l d (7-4-2-3) t o t h e  of education  preference  to prefer  average  i s likely  1989 when f u l l  from  load  includes  four, or post-secondary.  other 7.  p e r week.  While a s i g n i f i c a n t  academic l e v e l ,  teaching  level.  interest  no  a lighter  lessons.  system  school  high.  i s 23  the t r a n s i t i o n  (8-4-4)  secondary  have  30 l e s s o n s  load  applied  occur  6.  of teachers  among  students  the s c h o o l s but  enroled  in applied  e i t h e r A g r i c u l t u r e , Economics, or  A g r i c u l t u r e alone  accounts  f o r about  1/3  Ill of  the  total  students  into  indicate school  student  the  few  the  same a p p l i e d  applied  diversity  leavers  therefore  enrolment.  are  of  practical at  leavers  education  concentration  education  acquiring  school  This  subject skills  school  will  be  are  areas  that  the  limited  and  competing  opportunities  of  after  for  they  the  leave  school. Almost  the  same number  traditionally Science  and  prevalent Building  staff  sex-segregated  Woodwork but in  Music,  about  offer  the  are  members.  making  those  financial  important  rather  by  decisions  and  areas  like  Office  in  Home  seem t o be  still  Practice,  reason  and  choices  education  and  the and  were  subjects  headteachers community  minimal  entailed  o f the for  by  skills  choosing  compared in  such  individual  running made.  instructional cost Thus,  o f f e r e d i s made on  were the  the  main of  decisions  as  an  education of  qualified  reasons  cited  subject  areas  the b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e  t h a n program o b j e c t i v e s .  in the  availability  materials,  choice  to  cited  applied  schools,  their  t o meet.  l e a r n e d was the  and  that  involvement  communities a r e e x p e c t e d  facilities,  teachers,  t o be  &  applied  Parental  offered  physical  the  were e n r o l e d  subject  Typing  made  Although usefulness  for  girls  sex-stereotypes  responsibilities  which p a r e n t s  subject  boys as  Construction.  Decisions schools  of  resources  112 5.  Criteria  used  education  subject  include:  by s u b j e c t  the basis  subjects choice, Primary  exposure  Education  assigning  performance,  (6.1%) o f t h e s c h o o l s  6.3.0 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e stated  randomly  were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  However,  the freedom  meant  that  pedagogical  addition,  counts. therefore and  tables  given  areas  with  inadequate. drawn  when small  students the  like.  responses  4)  administrative  to choose the  responded  t o the  questionnaires  were  some  n o t randomly  of  some  cells  these  selected.  variables  having  of chi-square  beyond p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s .  (see Table  staff  Consequently, from  were  to school  they  The a p p r o x i m a t i o n  conclusions  these  a  of  Muranga, N y a n d a r u a , and N y e r i .  crosstabulations  contingency  Certificate  d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e f i v e  f o r which  a l l  subject  p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools  and t h e c o l l a p s e d  o f Kiambu, K i r i n y a g a ,  areas  give  they  Three,  districts  subject  of  Conclusions  i n Chapter  selected,  of  t o Form One s t u d e n t s and o n l y  f r e e d o m t o choose t h e s u b j e c t s  As  assignment  Kenya  offered  by t h e s c h o o l  due t o l a c k  assignment.  take  (KCPE) r e s u l t s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d  subjects  proportion  i n Form One w i l l  to students  i n the school  a n d random  on t h e a p p l i e d  to a l l subjects  assignment  of student  offered  to decide  t h a t each s t u d e n t  students  followed on  i n the schools  less  f o r such  In  yielded than  tables  five was  r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s  r e s u l t s a r e not  generalized  113 Moreover, major  the e n t i r e  changes.  facilities,  educational system i s  The q u a n t i t y  and  instructional materials,  going through  quality  of  physical  and t e a c h e r s  available  for the teaching and l e a r n i n g of a p p l i e d education i s probably changing  too.  resources  This p o s s i b l e  complicates  the process  and conclusions of t h i s However,  the  representative administrative  change of  relatively  of g e n e r a l i z i n g the  high  d i s t r i b u t i o n of covered  return  responses i n the  (94.0%) p r o p o r t i o n of  students e n r o l e d  studies  questions  serious  education o f f e r e d i n the 6.4.0  educational results  study.  districts  raise  available  rate  (68.0%),  across  study, i n the  the  five  and the  high  subject  about the q u a l i t y of  areas  applied  schools.  D i s c u s s i o n Of R e s u l t s The f o l l o w i n g  discussion  arises  from i n t e r e s t i n g  issues  a r i s i n g from the r e s u l t s presented i n chapters four and f i v e . 6.4.1  C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s to Inadequacy F a c i l i t i e s / Instructional Materials  of  Physical  R e s u l t s i n Chapter Four i n d i c a t e that p h y s i c a l  facilities  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s quantities of  the  special schools period  and q u a l i t y .  dates  their  rooms will of  For example,  schools  (Table  20)  remain without  time  into  are not a v a i l a b l e  the  headteacher  were expected show  that  a special  1990s.  in  at  sufficient projections  to  complete  least  35.8%  room for an  A review  of  the  their of  the  indefinite literature  114 suggests to  that  three  contribute  instructional The  incapable  of  sciences,  etc.  have  manual  labour  pursuing  by  If  the  f i t for  subjects  schools  status,  only  they  financial  material  and  consider  m a t e r i a l support  Doubt about t h e s c h o o l reliant  through  may  yet  be  physical  another  Subjects  concluded skills  practical  that  by  number  Yambo  and  of  and  in of  an  20%  finding  (1986) on  in  served  by  leading low  learned  of  their  social  the  or  white  ( s e e p.  their  7). self-  education  inadequacy  materials.  school  the  economic  withhold  to  by  A  leavers  patterns  of  in  study  Lauglo  self-employed.  to  children  in applied  factor  employment  might  individual  A  on  (1985)  with  salaried-employment  became  use  a t t i t u d e among  l e a v e r s ' c h a n c e s o f becoming  instructional  them  the  serving  f o r the program  skills  about  arts,  usually given  i n Kenya S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s  only  succeeded  negligible  be  contributing  facilities  Practical  to  on  are  Additionally,  rewards  as  who  liberal  c o u l d c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y  and  and  skills  local materials  communities  a p p l i e d education  they  like  attitude.  r e i n f o r c e such  parents  perceive  careers  this  and  people  program d e v e l o p e r s  academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  can the  to  social  high  jobs,  public.  study  physical f a c i l i t i e s  only  academic  Emphasis  high  with  collar  of  continue  i s a p u b l i c a t t i t u d e that p r a c t i c a l  credence  relatively people  inadequacy  (manual) t o o l s or equipment, and  given  into  one  tedious  hand  this  have c o n t r i b u t e d and  materials.  first  entail  of  to  f a c t o r s may  such and  a  similar  leavers  of  115 Youth P o l y t e c h n i c s  (YPs)  (HITs)  that  two  also  found  institutions  between  1980  and  employment  unemployment  Their  1986.  even  skills  proficiency  Policy  in  G)  Huge  facilities  other,  of  and  KSh  to  the  cost  still  this  high.  this  can  advanced education.  by  whether  guarantee  financial  meet  the  and  rising  about  school  cost  (see  Cost  Sharing  costs  might  the  biggest  widespread  of  physical  estimate  expected and  But  inadequacy Appendix  for  Furniture  to cost  equipment  the  KSh  G  cost  burden  from  higher  for teaching  of  meeting  students  one  year.  one  While  the  of  l e a r n i n g each  cluster  this  cost  of  in  for  subject  than t h a t  the  basic  to  and  subject  subjects  i s made  the  regular  physical f a c i l i t i e s  and  cheaper  a  textbooks  80,000 per  of p r o v i d i n g  shows  constructing  and  varied  considerably  comparatively The  be  s t u d e n t s or a c l a s s r o o m f o r 40  i t t e n d s t o be  in  se  of  parents  more  doubts  instructional materials.  instructional materials area  observations  far  heavy  to  running  200,000.  tools  classrooms.  the  required  and  factor  c l a s s r o o m was cost  per  these  worsened  through a p p l i e d  caused  skills  and  about  with  of  7).  room f o r 20  was  have  1973  leavers,  aware  people  justify  are  conservative  special 1984  to  capital  contributing  most  may  technical  they  (see p.  casual  than those l e a r n e d  employment  Appendix  Through these  Technology  graduates  since  become  among  among  increasing  among  have  observation  leavers  been  might  Harambee I n s t i t u t e s o f  unemployment  patterns  communities  practical  has  and  is  heavier  116 by for  the  fact  that  i t were,  the  between  providing  similar  practical  subjects.  To  help  in  school  this  1988  selected  and  necessary  subject  of  that  burden  applied  the  book  including  skills  as w e l l as This  textbooks  (Cronbach,  1980)  exclusively and,  to  be  and  (see  teachers  lack  materials knowledge textbooks  the  (see  28,  29  sufficient  t o o l s and  skills,  should  entrepreneurship,  30).  i n Chapter the  include  honesty,  to  of  in  the  teachers in  applied  awareness,  and  is  these  physical  consumable  Beside  like  their  teachers  of  a i d s , and  attributes  of  professional  quality  in  the  rely  This  education  Four).  is  that  use  Additionally,  and  content  safety  it  technical  on  t e c h n i c a l , and  quantities  A  to  syllabus.  for applied  and  affordable  textbook  the  equipment, t e a c h i n g  Section  and  majority  i t becomes  i n academic,  Tables  studies  prescribed  true  college  relevant  regard  and  teachers,  a t t i t u d e s embedded  show the  particularly  training  the  i s because  therefore,  inadequate  facilities,  on  with  of  writing  quantities, is  for  parents  organized  content  pay  component  developers,  education  to  responsible  on  sufficient  their  content.  are  expected  primary  specialists  in  technical  who  also  the  curriculum  ensure  knowledge and  likely  for  government  available  to  objectives  teaching  1984,  are  However, w h i l e t h e s e t e x t b o o k s might be  price  almost  and  cost  the  inspectors,  lecturers. in  1983  resources  ease  communities, workshops by  same communities who  technical education  ingenuity, cooperation,  117 since  these values  are c e n t r a l to success as a  self-employed  i n d i v i d u a l i n the informal s e c t o r . 6.4.2  Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , Effectiveness Results  (Table 28), (Table  on academic forms of  30),  (technical) teaching  Orientations,  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  in-service  institutions pre-service  experience  and  qualifications  t r a i n i n g attended by  teachers  training  (Table  Perceived  31)  attended  (Table  suggest  29),  most  teachers  for  their  and  their  teachers  may  r e q u i r e f u r t h e r t e c h n i c a l or pedagogical t r a i n i n g . Currently, successfully areas  to  applied  used by jua kali  provide  services  education  at  a wide  that  graduates  with  for  of  artisans  range  very c o m p e t i t i v e  skills  of  are  i n the  a p p l i e d education  It are  s a l a r i e d - or self-employment.  is  goods  these  expected Sometimes  provide  unconventional  technical  problems  available  to  them.  using  but  functional  whatever  In a d d i t i o n ,  tools most  or  artisans compete  the  job of  conditions  solutions equipment  jua kali  and  to  these a r i t i s a n s e n t a i l working under very d i f f i c u l t to  and  r u r a l and urban  satisfactory  prices.  widely  to are  businesses  depend on i n d u s t r i a l waste and scraps for t h e i r raw m a t e r i a l s . All  these  education  demands  teacher  materials,  that  an e f f e c t i v e  would be r e q u i r e d to  not only t h e o r e t i c a l r e a l i s t i c attitudes  suggest  knowledge  teach  their  and p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ,  towards the working c o n d i t i o n s ,  t o o l s and equipment  that  his  applied students but  also  consumable  or her students  are  118 likely  to  work  the p r e v i o u s on  traits  with  after  like  initiative,  cooperation  d e p t h and  scope of  education  program  According what  teaching  those that  and  programs  125)  Werner  they  are  judge  further  If  Thus  by  the  programs  beliefs  applied teachers  about  influences  the  their  claim  that  teachers  often  from  their  beliefs  about  know  views  i t i s important  teachers  the  training.  greatly  this  focus  safety  f o r the m a j o r i t y o f  teaching  new  i n Table with  skills  leavers  apparent about  teachers  (1988) t e a c h e r s '  i s correct,  agreed  practical  the  to  without  honesty,  in  hold  to  about  their  the  respective  areas.  Results  school  a l l u d e d to  entrepreneurship.  i s t o o complex  applied education  subjects  of  and  effectiveness.  interpret  creativity,  change r e q u i r e d o f  to teach e f f e c t i v e l y  of  As  s e c t i o n , teaching methodologies should a l s o  consciousness  worth  leaving school.  38 the  learned to  earn  congruence  that  facilities  and  Four),  qualifications would not  despite  initiators  a  livelihood. the  beliefs  o b j e c t i v e s and based.  widespread  held the  It  technical,  teachers,  the  (Table  the  used  by  is  an  teachers on  which  surprising, of  physical  Section  A  in  professional  majority  avoid teaching applied education  that  be  beliefs  and  out  the  inadequacy  low  the  by  (see  (82  there  i s not  materials  academic,  can  Thus,  instructional  among  views  i n applied education  o b j e c t i v e s were  therefore,  Chapter  program  between  applied education  program  show t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s  of 36).  teachers  119 Nonetheless, meant  to  certify  education, sector  current  of  candidate's  further the  objectives assumed  a  training,  economy pose  of  not  applied  only  to  are  teacher's  performance sponsors.  teacher,  i t as  emphasized content  also  i s most likely  in  the  enhances  to  6.4.3  Time Inadequacy  strong  school  likely  that  final  whether  examinations  becoming  33  week,  academic  judging  how  time  ensure  to  Curriculum assumptions  For  the  teacher,  time  per  class  its  on  the  seen  by  will  be  that  self-reliant  term,  year,  the  whole  f o u r t h year developers  for their  etc.,  provide  thought  subject  area  of o f f i c i a l  time  l e s s o n , number  much s u b j e c t c o n t e n t  of a student's  a  to  view)  show the m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s  indicators  of  of  not.  was  amount  are  individual  content  time  like  of  ( i n teacher's  chances of  the  results  external pressures  come i n the  i n Table  enough.  formal  achieving  accountability  subject  are with  indicators  t h e amount o f o f f i c i a l l y - a l l o c a t e d not  the  Examination  as  these  in  to  abilities  which  continue  employment  the  to  a student's  s c h o o l or  Results  and  classroom  after  to  s e r i o u s problems  used  Due  examinations  "fitness" or  evaluate  but  financial  on  education.  students,  teachers  emphasis  a  of  lessons  per  benchmark  for  should  be  covered  by  a  syllabus w i l l  be  covered  by  the  i n high  end  school.  for applied education  when d e c i d i n g about  given  the  amount o f  made  certain  subject  content  120 to  be  i n c l u d e d i n each  adequate  physical  materials  t o be  every  school  between  found  indicated  time  much  by  as  shown  content  the  amount  the e f f e c t s  alternative  a  of  content  their  is  definitely  student  not  can  be  relatively  four  results  are  33.  The  for  their  discrepancy cover  s y l l a b u s ) and creates  (as what  frustration  T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s ways o f due  of  resources,  required to  i n the  and  a result  essential  inevitably  of f r u s t r a t i o n  teacher  may  of  examined  As  Four  in  coping  to lack of s u f f i c i e n t  time  s y l l a b u s content.  First,  their  these  teachers  teachers.  individual  to s t a r t  i n Chapters  i n Table  within  cover  results  expected  instructional  o f f i c i a l l y - a l l o c a t e d time  a b l e to cover  to  and  they  f o r t h e program  of  they are a c t u a l l y  with  example,  teachers,  However,  the  inadequate how  on  unavailability  teachers  subjects  provided  For  t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s were i n c o r r e c t .  widespread  most  facilities,  i n 1986.  F i v e suggest the  syllabus.  seek  a s e r i o u s problem  light  teaching  a b i g problem  years  i n ten  or  of  f o r the  secondary  eleven  continue  load  with  While  for teachers 1 3  (see  students.  schooling,  subject areas  of these examinations would  o u t - o f - c l a s s time.  the  (KNEC,  Table At  because 34), i t  the  end  students 1987)  c o l l e c t i v e l y determine education,  this  training,  and  of are the  whether or  a  work.  A t t h e t i m e t h i s s t u d y was conducted, Kenya h i g h s c h o o l s d i d n o t have Form F o u r c l a s s e s b e c a u s e t h e y were i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c h a n g i n g from t h e o l d (7-4-2-3) t o t h e new (84-4) system of e d u c a t i o n . Therefore, t h i s teaching load i s expected t o i n c r e a s e b e g i n n i n g J a n u a r y 1989 when s c h o o l s attain their f u l l enrolment. 1 3  121 This  i s a very  afford of  to  heavy l o a d f o r s t u d e n t s .  spend more time  seeking  modifications an  individual  teacher's content their  to  subject area  being  at  classroom,  and  the  cannot expense  with  time  program's c o n t e n t Third,  them  will  be  problems  time  applied  content  education  syllabus topics  and  select  the  content  risk  of  i n order  changing  a  time,  too  much  e x p l a i n why teachers"  the  s i t for  t h e y can hope  that  them c o v e r their  colleagues  individual  in the  Kenya  f o r the  have  have feel found  officially-allocated  "informal meetings 30)  who  teachers  the o n l y ones who  (Table  teach  (KCSE).  d i s c u s s i o n with with  in  to enable  students  i n knowing t h e y a r e not  may  the  available  before  through  This  the  t e a c h whatever c o n t e n t  of Secondary Examination  time.  about  program  run  Certificate  subject  beliefs  a  of  content  their  expectations,  In a d d r e s s i n g t h e p r o b l e m  remaining  comforted  student  beyond r e c o g n i t i o n .  " f u t u r e " more time  experienced  the c o n s t r a i n t s  to  officially-allocated  Lastly,  by  content  modify  inadequacy  t e a c h e r s can  the  time. who  and  prioritize  to help  teachers  accompanied  perceived  community  styles,  Teachers  i n the a v a i l a b l e  inadequacy,  within  parents  activities  is often  to f i t b e t t e r with  teacher's  taught.  teaching  deal  time  p r e f e r r e d teaching  taught  time  extra  o f a program  characteristics,  be  one  they  another. Second,  of  on  Besides,  are  found  with to  be  other more  122 u s e f u l by  t h e m a j o r i t y o f the t e a c h e r s  more h e l p f u l  forms o f  According cover  more  subject  (1988),  allow,  official  available  This  is a  than  teaching  than  important  the  point  can a c h i e v e  leavers s e l f - r e l i a n t ,  the  the  i t would be  can  amount  o b j e c t i v e s of to  consider  difficult  of the  because  to  making justify  G).  Recommendations Based  this  by  i t s s t a t e d g o a l of  t h e heavy c o s t i t i n v o l v e s (see Appendix  6.5.0  required to  fixed-time  i s directed  rather  very  unless a p p l i e d education school  when t e a c h e r s a r e  content  realistically  program.  other  in-servicing.  t o Werner  time  i n the a b s e n c e o f  upon  study,  student  the  the  d i s c u s s i o n of  following  accessibility  resources  are  to  adequate  can  constructed  information  literature  and  the  put  into  for  in  knowledge  of  improving  educational  on  practice  contained  researchers  conclusions  applied  Suggestions  recommendations from  and  recommendations  proposed. be  results  how  in  these  Kenya  are  implementation of  the  Kenyan  context. 6.5.1  P o o l a n d s h a r e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s by neighbourhood a p p l i e d education s c h o o l s Instead  of  parents  struggling  to provide  tools  equipment,  and  teachers  and  support  their  and own  communities classrooms  instructional staff),  communities of neighbouring  they  of and  materials should  schools i n order  creating  every  school  special  rooms,  (and  join  at  times  parents  to provide  and  common  123 but  adequate  for  the  educational  resources  schools  involved.  account  ease  student  for  of  of  use  the  applied  provided  of  various  education  skills,  access  a  i n order  and  will  a  convenient  project  to  these  r e s o u r c e s , and  to the s t u d e n t s  knowledge,  Such  at  to  the  should  take  facilities, aims and  ensure  enable  location  that  schedule  objectives  the  resources  them t o a c q u i r e  a t t i t u d e s that  will  help  into  technical  them  realize  those o b j e c t i v e s . It should used  is be  by  suggested simple  most  be  buildings, tools,  and  c o n s t r u c t i o n , and  use  i n design,  entrepreneurs  provided  for achieving  than  per  simplicity  forestalling  associated Additionally, informal leavers join after  the But  for applied education  appropriateness  of  in  Jua Kali s h e d s .  example, improved to  that  status  manual  tools,  sector  an  be  of  informal  they  training,  or  fail  sector  problems  to  get  a  as  place  salaried-employment.  for  resource  based  on  a good  for  equipment  greater  either  be  provides  the and  its  who  a matter for  those  will of  further  chance program  skills.  in training  b e n e f i t to  ( f o r whom the program i s i n t e n d e d )  the  those  sector,  educational  should  of appropriate resources would  like  program's o b j e c t i v e s r a t h e r  This c r i t e r i a  potential  with use  se.  the  informal  equipment  for  the  school  inevitably choice,  or  education,  124 6.5.2  Improve t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t o o l s , equipment, and t e a c h i n g a i d s by b u i l d i n g n o n - p r o f i t m a k i n g p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s to manufacture and d i s t r i b u t e t h e s e resources The  supply  mandate  schools  and t e a c h i n g  for  with  aids  maintenance.  such  adequate  as  well  Such a u n i t  of  its  when  (KSTC).  to  determining Kenya  Institutes  their  can  of  the  cost  schools  the  Science  unit  spare  parts  modelled the  of  a  such  and T e c h n o l o g y  as  6.5.3  Improve the relevance, quantity, t e x t b o o k s and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s  Education  in  affordable, applied resources books or  should  should  materials,  services  to in  to  not  good  be  be  start  in  and be  Teachers  unit.  Harambee considered  technologies,  be  based  informal  on  material  successful informal  the  in  sector.  of  of of  relevant,  materials  these  for  essential  content  and i d e a s  knowledge,  providing  Ministry  providing  sector.  processing  quality  by t h e  However,  a compilation  Kenya's  this  conducted  schools.  in  and  Science  considerations  and  t e x t b o o k s and r e f e r e n c e  on r e s o u r c e s ,  unworkable  proved  a  and adequate  based  content  was  education  the  locations.  w r i t i n g workshops 1988  r e p a i r and  production  should  to  transportation  College,  first  The books  for  Kenya S c i e n c e  be major  be  equipment,  along  and e a s e o f  Teachers  should  tools,  should  location  Technical  appropriate  be  (SEPU) a t  Reduction of  products  However,  production and a f f o r d a b l e  as  Equipment P r o d u c t i o n U n i t College  a  from  other  unavailable  Rather, tools,  their  equipment,  techniques/procedures marketable  To p r o d u c e  such  goods books  or for  125 various  applied  addition also  to a panel  include  successful education  self-employed  material used  into  made  consultant  person  that,  t h e team who  should  should  i n the r e s p e c t i v e  in  be a  applied  form  actual  would be t o tools,  sketch  equipment,  t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s , p r o d u c t s , e t c . ,  i n the  informal  be  about  specialization, materials,  and a c o n s u l t a n t  printable  would  information  specialists,  The r o l e o f t h e a r t i f i c e r  processing  or  i t i s suggested  ( f o r example, metalwork, commerce, e t c . ) i n t h e  sector.  refine  areas,  of subject  an a r t i f i c e r  area  informal and  education  to provide any  of  that  related  goods  of the  the panel  h i s or  issues  of their  while  or help  aspect  f o r example  marketing  sector  her to  obtain  area  of  consumable  or s e r v i c e s ,  labour,  business organization, e t c . 6.5.4  I n c r e a s e t h e number a n d q u a l i t y o f a p p l i e d teachers through s e l e c t i v e recruitment Teacher  from  trainees of applied education  graduates  practitioners sector.  of a p p l i e d  In a d d i t i o n  recruited  sector  in  sector.  valuable may  education  skills  to pedagogical  In order  be r e c r u i t e d  Institutes  gain  t h r o u g h work a t t a c h m e n t  expertise  not possess  school  Technical  from HITs and T I s s h o u l d  informal that  of HITs,  should  (TIs),  i n the  training,  to a relevant  f o r students  to benefit  of p r a c t i t i o n e r s of applied  i t would  be  necessary  trainees i n the  business from t h e  education  to  and  informal  work e x p e r i e n c e  the academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d  teachers,  education  of  waive  who high such  126 qualifications measure) theory  but  or  for this have  any  trainees transfer  taught  their  entails  programs  to  study  (particularly possess  to  effectively. needs  be  these  needs  training in  to  i n the  concluded  category skills  their  and  of  to  revision  of  that  them  be  with  used  as  help  The  a program and  This  current  teacher  teachers  majority  • Attachment informal  teach  that  focus  of  and  their full  teachers do  not  education  additional  training  involvement  f o r the  who  pedagogical  applied  teachers'  following a c t i v i t i e s  and  that  inservice  would be  central  effective: specific  teachers  sector  practitioners  and  instructions  through  seminars.  of  materials,  technical,  to  knowledge  workshops and  them  all-important s k i l l s  the  teachers'  the  not  teacher  students.  applied education  academic,  enable  programs.  work  skills  t h o s e w i t h o n l y an A - L e v e l q u a l i f i c a t i o n )  determined  • Skill  temporary  informal sector.  I t i s suggested  making s u c h  This  basic teaching  extensive  (as a  practical  i n c o r p o r a t e the  sufficient  training  teachers  work.  Improve t h e q u a l i t y of are already teaching This  of  only  knowledge  knowledge w i d e l y used 6.5.5  teach  academic  be  recommendation training  them  other  should  category  to  learn  technical of  experience.  to  a  relevant business about  skills  tools,  and  applied education  in  the  equipment,  knowledge skills,  and  from gain  127 • Teacher (to  visits  their  adapt  to e f f e c t i v e  own) e d u c a t i o n a l  o r adopt  comparable  t o l e a r n and l a t e r colleague  j u d g e s t o be s u c c e s s f u l and e f f e c t i v e .  or informal  other's  resources  using  the s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s of a  whom t h e t e a c h e r • Formal  schools  teacher  experiences  meetings  by s h a r i n g  t o l e a r n from  their  problems  each and  successes. • Formal  i n s t r u c t i o n s on a p p r o p r i a t e  teaching  and a s s e s s i n g  theory  strategies for  and p r a c t i c e o f a p p l i e d  education. 6.5.6  Increase education content In  subject at  f o r the current  t o be c o v e r e d  t h e moment s h o u l d  can in  order  officially a l l o c a t e d time f o r a p p l i e d t o ensure e f f e c t i v e coverage o f s y l l a b u s e s content  i n depth, at least  be o b t a i n e d  by r e d u c i n g  the school  curriculum  i n applied  t h e amount  be d o u b l e d . t h e number (there  education  o f time a l l o c a t e d  The a d d i t i o n a l t i m e  o f examinable  are currently  subjects 10  o r 11  examinable s u b j e c t s ) . 6.5.7  D i v e r s i f y t h e number o f s u b j e c t s t a u g h t i n i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s t o e n s u r e s c h o o l l e a v e r s as a whole a c q u i r e different practical skills Headteacher  that  they  schools lack  intend  projections t o make  want t o d i v e r s i f y  the necessary  recommendations physical  regarding  i n their  their  schools  resources.  The  changes  indicate  applied education  1 t o 5 t o improve  facilities,  the subject  most  s u b j e c t s but  suggestions  made i n  t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f  instructional  materials,  and  teacher  128 e f f e c t i v e n e s s would a l s o e n a b l e of a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n 6.5.8  schools to o f f e r  a wider  range  subjects.  C o n d u c t more d e t a i l e d f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o areas i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study as implementation problems f o r applied education. The  study  following suggestions  effective  generic  Second, should  should  sample  addition  like  be a d a p t e d  selection  be random.  diversified  include  and c o m p r e h e n s i v e :  questionnaire,  questions  education  teachers,  than  factors  o f these  use a study,  to s p e c i f i c  subject  areas.  the schools  Fourth,  The s t u d y  and  respondents s h o u l d be  inspection i n  respondents  leaders, should  t o the widespread  resources  a  i n this  community  r e s o u r c e s and s u g g e s t  availability  rather  i n t e r v i e w s , and on s i t e  administrators.  contributing  first,  make s u c h  T h i r d , methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  to include  parents,  to help  t h e one used  o f both  to questionnaires.  education  a r e made  should  students,  identify  inadequacy  and  specific  of applied  f e a s i b l e ways o f i m p r o v i n g t h e to a l l students.  129 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a r r o w , R. Teaching BCRCE  (1984). 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Nairobi: U n i v e r s i t y of N a i r o b i .  APPENDIX A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE  134  SCHOOL CODE  DO NOT IDENTIFY YOURSELF ANYWHERE IN THIS QUESTIONNAIRE S t r i c t C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y W i l l Be M a i n t a i n e d  ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE  The purpose o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o c o l l e c t d a t a t o be used i n a s t u d y meant t o a s s e s s t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l Province o f Kenya. Thequestions cover p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by i n d i v i d u a l secondary s c h o o l s . I t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s i n s t r u m e n t may not f i t t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t t h a t y o u t e a c h . Where t h e r e i s a l a c k o f " f i t " between t h e q u e s t i o n asked and y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t , p l e a s e s p e c i f y and comment. Use t h e l a s t page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments. In g e n e r a l , y o u a r e asked t o respond a s f u l l y as you c a n . How t o Respond  P l e a s e t i c k o r f i l l t h e b l a n k s w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e f o r each i t e m . F o r some i t e m s , more than one c h o i c e may be marked. Stems o f m u l t i p l e response items w i l l be f o l l o w e d by " ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y ) " . A l l o t h e r items a r e t o be responded t o o n l y once. Important  B e l o w a r e 14 a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n Kenya S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . P l e a s e t i c k ONE s u b j e c t y o u a r e t e a c h i n g t h i s term and respond t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t h i s one s u b j e c t i n mind even though you may a l s o be t e a c h i n g o t h e r s u b j e c t s . Home S c i e n c e 1 Music 10 A r t and D e s i g n 2 Acounts 11 Agriculture 3 Commerce 12 Electricity 4 Economics 13 Power Mechanics 5 T y p i n g and O f f i c e Woodwork 6 Practice 14 Metalwork 7 B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n -- 8 Drawing and D e s i g n 9  135 PHYSICAL FACILITIES  1. How adequate a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e a c h i n g y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ? ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y . )  a) b) c) d) e) f)  g) h) i) j) k) 1) m) n) o) P)  working space c l a s s space c l a s s desks work benches o r c o u n t e r s — number o f hand t o o l s o r equipment q u a l i t y o f hand t o o l s o r equipment number o f power t o o l s o r equipment c o n d i t i o n o f power t o o l s o r equipment indivudual instruction space s u i t a b i l i t y o f demonstration and p l a n n i n g a r e a s s t o r a g e spaces f o r : projects consumable m a t e r i a l s t o o l s and equipment a v a i l a b i l i t y o f water s u i t a b i l i t y and use o f doors ( S a f e t y & S e c u r i t y ) b l a c k b o a r d space  2.  How do y o u r a t e t h e o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f t h e a p p l i e d b u i l d i n g f o r your subject? a) excellent I b) good c) satisfactory d) fair e) poor I  3.  Is t h e b u i l d i n g i n which you teach y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n permanent o r temporary? a) permanent b) temporary  education  subject  NOT APPLICABLE  DO NOT HAVE  POOR  FAIR  SATISFACTORY  GOOD  EXCELLENT  LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  136 4.  P l e a s e r a t e each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n y o u r a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y . ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y . ) LEVEL OF ADEQUACY Excellent a)  b) c)  Good  Satisfactory  Fair  Poor  s u i t a b i l i t y o f overa l l s p a c e , e.g., w e l l adopted t o a c t i v i t y , easy a c c e s s , e t c . u t i l i z a t i o n o f space, e.g. n o t used t o s t o r e broken desks, e t c . maintenance o f w a l l s , f l o o r , and c e i l i n g  INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS  5.  How do you r a t e t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y f o r each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials a v a i l a b l e f o r your class? ( T i c k A l l That Apply.)  a) b) c) d) e)  6.  adequacy o f consumable m a t e r i a l s adequacy o f o v e r c o a t s / a p r o n s — A v a i l a b i l i t y of teaching a i d s , e . g . , c h a r t s , models, overhead p r o j e c t o r s , e t c . availability of suitable class t e x t books a v a i l a b l e f o r your c l a s s adequacy o f r e f e r e n c e books and o t h e r r e s o u r c e materials A p a r t f r o m minor c h a n g e s , how o f t e n have you had t o adapt y o u r t e a c h i n g p l a n s t h i s y e a r because o f d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y consumable m a t e r i a l s ? a) never \~ b) 1 - 3 times c) 4 - 5 times d) 6 t i m e s o r more  NOT APPLICABLE  <C U_  DO NOT HAVE  ec  POOR  SATISFACTORY  GOOD  EXCELLENT  LEVEL OF ADEQUACY  137 TEACHING APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECTS  7.  I f you had a c h o i c e , would you a v o i d t e a c h i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n altogether? a) yes I b) undecided c) no |  8.  How do you f e e l about the demands made on you i n implementing applied education s y l l a b u s f o r your subject? a) I c a n ' t cope with i t I b) sometimes I f i n d i t too demanding c) g e n e r a l l y I can cope d) no problems i n t h i s a r e a j  9.  I f you had a c h o i c e , a t which applied education? a) primary b) form one c) form two d) from t h r e e e) form f o u r f) other (specify)  10.  the  l e v e l would you p r e f e r t o t e a c h I  How o f t e n t h i s y e a r have you used each o f the f o l l o w i n g methods o f teaching i n your applied education c l a s s ? E s t i m a t e d Number o f Times Never a) b) c) d)  go on a f i e l d t r i p have guest speaker go t o another s c h o o l with better f a c i l i t i e s other (specify)  1-2  3-4  More than 5  138 11.  On a s c a l e o f 1 - 6, r a t e your b e l i e f i n each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g purposes o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n Kenya h i g h s c h o o l s . a) p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l knowledge and r e l a t e d 1 most o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o be used f o r important l e i s u r e o r p e r s o n a l odd j o b s b) p r o v i d e o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n t o a i d 2 students i n s e l e c t i n g a career c) develop manipulative s k i l l s necessary for securing s e l f - or salaried 3 employment d) p r e p a r e f o r a v o c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , such as a Harambee I n s t i t u t e o f 4 S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y , N a t i o n a l Polytechnic, etc. e) d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a i t s 5 e s s e n t i a l t o hold a j o b f) e n r i c h general education least 6 important g)  other (specify)  TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS  12.  13.  What i s t h e name o f t h e h i g h e s t c e r t i f i c a t e t h a t you h o l d i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g areas? a)  academic:  b)  professional:  I n c l u d i n g t h i s y e a r , f o r how l o n g have you t a u g h t ? a) 2 years or less I_ b) 3 - 5 y e a r s c) 6 - 8 years d) 9 - 1 1 y e a r s e) 12 - 14 y e a r s f) 15 y e a r s and over --  139 14.  Which of the f o l l o w i n g forms o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g have you had? P l e a s e r a t e the u s e f u l n e s s o f each o f t h e s e forms o f t r a i n i n g on t h e five-point scale provided. Attended  L e v e l of U s e f u l n e s s Most Useful  YES a) b) c) d) e) f)  i n f o r m a l meetings w i t h other applied education teachers workshops p r e s e n t e d by other applied education teachers workshops p r e s e n t e d by M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n officials formal courses i n subject content formal courses i n methodologies o f t e a c h i n g applied education other (specify)  BACKGROUND AND GENERAL INFORMATION  15.  Are you male o r female? a) male — b) female -  16.  When a) b) c) d) f)  17.  How o l d are you? a) under 20 y e a r s b) 25 - 29 ) 30 - 34 d) 35 - 39 ) 40 - 44 f) 45 and over C  e  d i d you j o i n y o u r p r e s e n t s c h o o l ? b e f o r e January 1988 January 1988 - A p r i l 1988 May 1988 June 1988 a f t e r June 1988  NO  5  Least Useful 4  3  2  1  140 18.  How this a) b) c) d) e) f)  g)  many 40 minute p e r i o d s p e r week a r e you t i m e - t a b l e d t o t e a c h term? 0 - 6 7 - 13 14 - 20 21 - 27 28 - 34 35 - 41 42 and  19.  How many 40 minute p e r i o d s p e r week do you t e a c h a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n t h i s term? 0 - 6 a) 7 - 13 b) 14 - 20 c) 21 - 27 d) 28 - 34 e) 35 - 41 0 42 and g)  20.  How many s t u d e n t s a r e i n your l a r g e s t a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n c l a s s t h i s term? a) 20 o r l e s s — f . ~ b) 21 - 24 c) 25 - 28 d) 29 - 33 e) 33 - 36 f) o v e r 36 LZ -  21.  Do you have enough time t o c o v e r t h i s y e a r ' s p a r t o f t h e a p p l i e d education s y l l a b u s f o r your subject? a) more than enough [~ b) j u s t enough c) d e f i n i t e l y n o t enough d) other (specify)  22.  Where d i d y o u study t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t y o u a r e t e a c h i n g ? Level S t u d i e d Major a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)  harambee i n s t i t u t e o f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y — t e c h n i c a l school academic high s c h o o l c r a f t t r a i n i n g centre government diploma c o l l e g e national polytechnic university other (specify)  Minor  141 23.  Which o f the f o l l o w i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s i n c e 1986? ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y . )  1 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) 1) m) n)  home s c i e n c e a r t and d e s i g n agriculture woodwork metalwork building construction power mechanics electricity drawing and d e s i g n music accounts commerce economics t y p i n g and o f f i c e p r a c t i c e  s u b j e c t s have you  T h i s Year  Previous Two Y e a r s  Form  Form  2  3  1  2  taught  142 COMMENTS P l e a s e use t h i s page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments.  THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION  APPENDIX B HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE  144  SCHOOL CODE  DO NOT IDENTIFY YOURSELF ANYWHERE IN THIS QUESTIONNAIRE S t r i c t C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y W i l l Be M a i n t a i n e d  ASSESSMENT OF THE STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA A HEADTEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE  T h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s one p a r t o f a l a r g e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a t o be used i n a study meant t o a s s e s s t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e o f Kenya. The o t h e r p a r t i s t i t l e d "A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE". Together, both i n s t r u m e n t s c o v e r p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , s a f e t y , t e a c h e r s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s , and t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by i n d i v i d u a l secondary s c h o o l s . I t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e may n o t f i t t h e a s p e c t s o f y o u r s c h o o l f o r w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e i n t e n d e d . Where t h e r e i s a l a c k o f " f i t " between t h e q u e s t i o n asked and y o u r s c h o o l , p l e a s e s p e c i f y and comment. Use t h e l a s t page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments. In g e n e r a l , you a r e asked t o respond as f u l l y a s you can. How to Respond  P l e a s e t i c k o r f i l l t h e b l a n k s w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e f o r each item. F o r some i t e m s , more than one i n t e r e s t c h o i c e may be marked. Stems o f m u l t i p l e response items w i l l be f o l l o w e d by " ( T i c k A l l That A p p l y ) " . A l l o t h e r items a r e t o be responded t o o n l y once.  145  i)  What a c c r e d i t a t i o n and t y p e i s y o u r s c h o o l ? Type Boys Only a) b) c) d)  ii)  grade grade grade grade  Girls Only  Mixed  A B C D or E  F i l l o u t t h e number o f boys and g i r l s e n r o l l e d i n Form I I I i n each of t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n y o u r s c h o o l . Number o f Boys a) b) c) d) e) f)  g) h) i) j) k) D  m) n)  Girls  Home S c i e n c e A r t and D e s i g n Agriculture Electricity Power Mechanics Woodwork Metalwork Building Construction Drawing and D e s i g n Music Accounts Commerce Economics T y p i n g and O f f i c e P r a c t i c e  i i i ) Who, among t h e f o l l o w i n g , made t h e a c t u a l c h o i c e o f t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n your s c h o o l ? a) b) c) d) e) f)  parents/teachers association board o f governors ministry of education personnel students I do n o t know other (specify)  —  146  What do y o u t h i n k was t h e main r e a s o n f o r t h e c h o i c e made? reasons v a r i e d e i t h e r by s u b j e c t s o r o t h e r w i s e , p l e a s e s p e c i f y . a) b) c) d) e) f) g)  If  l e a s t expensive t o r u n s k i l l s taught a r e u s e f u l t o t h e community s e r v e d by t h e s c h o o l — physical f a c i l i t i e s required were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e lack of q u a l i f i e d teachers i n other applied education subjects of i n t e r e s t t o e n r i c h academic s u b j e c t s I do n o t know other (specify)  Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s does y o u r s c h o o l i n t e n d t o add t o o r drop from t h e school t i m e t a b l e and when does i t i n t e n d t o do so? ( T i c k A l l That Apply.) Intend To Add Year a)  No change o f s u b j e c t s i s a n t i c i p a t e d [  b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) 1) m) n) o)  Home S c i e n c e A r t and Design Agriculture Electricity Power Mechanics Woodwork Metalwork Building Construction Drawing and Design Music Accounts Commerce Economics T y p i n g and O f f i c e P r a c t i c e  Year  I f y o u r s c h o o l p l a n s t o add t o o r drop some a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s from t h e school t i m e t a b l e , p l e a s e s t a t e r e a s o n s f o r t h e a n t i c i p a t e d change.  147 v i i ) In y o u r s c h o o l , what i s the e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f consumable m a t e r i a l s f o r one s t u d e n t per y e a r i n Kenya s h i l l i n g s (Ksh)? ( T h i s e s t i m a t e r e f e r s t o the SPECIFIC s u b j e c t f o r which the accompanying "A TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE" i s f i l l e d o u t . Ksh. v i i i ) what w a s / w i l l be t h e d a t e f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t y needed t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t r e f e r r e d t o i n q u e s t i o n v i i ) above? a) b e f o r e 1986 b) between 1987 - 1988 — c) between 1989 - 1990 — d) a f t e r 1990 L ix)  What c r i t e r i o n does y o u r s c h o o l use t o d e c i d e on what a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ( s ) Form One s t u d e n t s w i l l study i n Forms I and I I ? a) s u b j e c t s a r e randomly a s s i g n e d to s t u d e n t s by the I s c h o o l b e f o r e s t u d e n t s a r r i v e a t the school b) s t u d e n t s make t h e i r s u b j e c t c h o i c e s a f t e r a s h o r t exposure t o a l l a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l c) s t u d e n t s are exposed t o a l l a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l , then s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d by t h e s c h o o l on the b a s i s o f s t u d e n t performance i n each applied education subject d) s u b j e c t s are a s s i g n e d t o s t u d e n t s on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r KCPE performance e) no s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n i s used LZ f) other (specify)  x)  How were s t u d e n t s i n Form I I I t h i s y e a r s e l e c t e d t o take t h e a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n s u b j e c t ( s ) they are s t u d y i n g ? s t u d e n t s chose the s u b j e c t s themselves s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d by the school on the b a s i s o f performance i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d on the recommendations o f t h e i r parents s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d randomly no s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n was f o l l o w e d other (specify)  a) b) c) d) e) f)  148 ix)  Has y o u r s c h o o l had t h e f t c a s e s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n p r o p e r t y s i n c e 1_86? No V e s  I f y e s , s t a t e t h e y e a r , name and e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f t h e p r o p e r t y s t o l e n . ( P l e a s e use t h e Comments space.) COMMENTS P l e a s e use t h i s page f o r more d e t a i l e d comments.  THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION  149  APPENDIX C C O V E R I N G L E T T E R TO TEACHER AND HEADTEACHER  QUESTIONNAIRES  150  Kenya T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s P.O. Box 44600 NAIROBI  College  May 10, 1988 A l l Headteachers S e l e c t e d Secondary S c h o o l s CENTRAL PROVINCE Dear Sir/Madam, RE:  ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA:  E n c l o s e d p l e a s e f i n d one copy o f each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  Teacher Questionnaire Headteacher Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S e l f addressed and stamped envelope Research c l e a r a n c e p e r m i t No. 0.P./13/001/18 C 79. A n e n d o r s e m e n t l e t t e r from t h e Permanent S e c r e t a r y , M i n i s t r y o f Education.  Your school has been randomly s e l e c t e d t o take p a r t i n a study on t h e above s u b j e c t . A l t h o u g h t h i s e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h was o r i g i n a l l y proposed as a n academic e x e r c i s e , Kenya I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n (K.I.E.) and t h e I n s p e c t o r a t e S e c t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n has shown g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n i t s f i n d i n g s . T e a c h e r s S e r v i c e Commission ( T S C ) , Kenya N a t i o n a l Examinations C o u n c i l (KNEC), and t h e f i v e D i s t r i c t Development Committees (DDCs) i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e a r e a l s o expected t o f i n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study u s e f u l i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o improve t h e q u a l i t y o f applied education i n Central Province. The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w i l l be made p u b l i c t h r o u g h t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y (NCST); D i r e c t o r a t e o f P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e m e n t (DPM); I n s p e c t o r a t e , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ; a n d K e n y a I n s t i t u t e o f Education (K.I.E.). You a r e r e q u e s t e d t o g i v e v i t a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s e x e r c i s e b y e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e two e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e f i l l e d o u t and m a i l e d back t o t h e undersigned by June 15, 1988. T h i s d e a d l i n e i s suggested b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s s u r e o f time w i t h i n w h i c h t h i s r e s e a r c h must b e completed. Hoping f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n on t h i s e x e r c i s e , s i n c e r e l y ,  JAMES NGUGI MUKORA L e c t u r e r - Kenya T e c h n i c a l Teachers C o l l e g e / G r a d u a t e Student, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  APPENDIX D RESEARCH CLEARANCE PERMIT  APPENDIX E  ENDORSEMENT LETTER  APPENDIX F FOLLOW-UP LETTER  156  Kenya T e c h n i c a l T e a c h e r s P.O. Box 44600 NAIROBI May 10,  College  1988  A l l Headteachers S e l e c t e d Secondary S c h o o l s CENTRAL PROVINCE Dear Sir/Madam, RE:  ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF APPLIED EDUCATION IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF KENYA:  About f o u r weeks ago, a t e a c h e r and a headteacher q u e s t i o n n a i r e o n the above s u b j e c t were mailed t o your s c h o o l . Both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a t o be used i n a study on the p r e s e n t s t a t u s o f applied education i n Central Province. Y o u r i n s t i t u t i o n i s among a few s c h o o l s r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. Your response i s t h e r e f o r e v i t a l i n making v a l i d i n f e r e n c e s about the s t a t u s o f a p p l i e d e d u c a t i o n i n y o u r p r o v i n c e . To d a t e , I have not r e c e i v e d have a l r e a d y m a i l e d them, i g n o r e n o t , p l e a s e r e t u r n them a s soon stamped envelope p r e v i o u s l y m a i l e d  your completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I f you t h i s f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r , but i f you have a s p o s s i b l e i n the s e l f - a d d r e s s e d and t o you.  Sincerely,  JAMES NGUGI MUKORA L e c t u r e r , Kenya T e c h n i c a l Teachers C o l l e g e / G r a d u a t e Student, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  APPENDIX G DEVELOPMENT COST ESTIMATES  COMPARATIVE DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR SOME APPLIED EDUCATION SUBJECTS AT 1984 PRICES IN K SHS. (l.OOOS) BUILDING COSTS FOR A 20 STUDENT SPECIAL ROOM  SUBJECT  HAND TOOLS & EQUIPMENT COSTS FOR 20 STUDENTS  TOTAL COST  Agriculture  160  50  210  Economics} Accounts } Commerce }  200  240  440  Home S c i e n c e (Food & N u t r i t i o n )  500  500  1,000  Drawing & D e s i g n  300  70  370  Typing & O f f i c e Practice  400  700  1,100  Woodwork  300  200  500  Electricity  350  500  850  Building Construction  300  150  450  Power Mechanics  400  300  700  Metalwork  350  200  550  Classroom (40 s t u d e n t s )  200  24  224  Note:  Adapted from Pre-Investment Nairobi: Government P r i n t e r  Cost  Estimates  for  Applied  Education  by  the  Ministry  of  Education,  1984  APPENDIX H LIST  OF SCHOOLS THAT RESPONDED TO T H E Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S  160  SCHOOLS WHICH RESPONDED TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES Kiambu 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.  St. Joseph's Sec. Komothai S e c . K i r a n g a r i Sec. Alliance Girls Munyu Mixed I t u r u Sec. K a r u r i High G i t h i g a High K a r a i Mixed G a t h i r u i n i Sec. K i k u y u Day Gichuru Sec. E x - S e n i o r C h i e f Koinange Gacharage S e c . I c a c i r a Sec. Tingana Sec. M i r i t h u Sec. R u n g i r i Sec. Kamahindu S e c . K i r i k o Sec. Kamburu S e c . Muthurwa S e c . Musa G i t a u S e c . Murera S e c . T h i r i r i k a Sec. G i k a n g a Kagece S e c . J u j a Sec. Mbau-Ini S e c . Muongoiya H i g h Renguti Sec. Manguo S e c . Kiangunu Sec. Ndundu S e c . Mbichi Sec. Karinga G i r l s Sec.  Muranga 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  District  District  Nginda G i r l s M b u g i t i Day S e c . K i a n d e r i Sec. G i t u r u Sec. Makuyu Day M u g o i r i Boys Kiriani Girls M u t h i t h i Sec.  9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. • 37.  Nye r i 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.  Mumbi S e c . Marugua S e c . Kibage Sec. Mununga S e c . G i t h u n g u r i Mixed Dr. K i a n o G i r l s Kahatia Sec. Kaganda S e c . Giachuki Sec. M a r i i r a Sec. Kiaguthu Sec. Chomo S e c . Gatura Sec. Tuthu S e c . Gathera Sec. Punda M i l i a Kiawambogo S e c . G i t i g e Sec. M a r i g i Sec. G a k u r a r i Sec. Nguthuru S e c . Kiunyu Sec. Gikindu Sec. Kangui S e c . Maganjo S e c . Nginda Boys S e c . K a r i t i Sec. Nguku S e c . Sch Wamahiga S e c . S c h District Giakanja Sec. Kirimara Sec. Ruthagati Sec. Tumutumu S e c . Endarasha Sec. K e n y a t t a Mahiga Kiandu Sec. K a b i r u i n i Sec. Kiangoma S e c . Gatondo H a r . Magutu H a r . Kianguthu Har. G i a k a b i i Sec. G e n e r a l C h i n a Sec Ngaini Sec. K a r i n d i Sec. Ichuga S e c .  161 Nyeri D i s t r i c t 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.  K a i r u t h i Sec. M u h o i n i Sec. I t u n d u Sec. Ithekahumo Sec. M i i r i Sec. Kanyama Sec. M u t h u a i n i Sec. Ngorano S e c . C h a r i t y Sec. K a r u t h i Sec. K a i g o n d e Sec. K a h i g a Sec. Muhoya H i g h Naromoru Boys Munyu S e c .  Kirinyaga 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  District  M u t i g e Sec. B a r i c h o Sec. N j e g a Sec. T e b e r e Sec. K i a r a g a n a Sec. K i i n e Sec. Kutus Har. Sec. K i b i r i g w i Sec. Kiamwathi Sec. T h u m a i t a Sec. Kabonge Sec.  Nyandarua 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.  (cont'd)  District  K a n g u i Sec. Pasenga Sec. Wanjohi Mixed M i h a r a t e Sec. N d u r u r i Sec. Leshau Day Bongo Har. Sec. M a t i n d i r i Sec. R a g i a G i r l s Sec. K a r a t i Sec. G a t h a n j i Sec. S a l i e n t Sec. M u r i c h u Sec. K a r a g o - i n i Sec. Kagondo Sec. Mukoe Sec.  17. 18.  Ndemi S e c . Githunguchu  Sec.  162  APPENDIX J L I S T OF SCHOOLS WHICH DID NOT RESPOND TO THE QUESTIONNAIRES  163 SECONDARY SCHOOLS WHICH DID NOT TO THE Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S Kiambu 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.  District  St. Joseph's L a r i High K i h a r a Secondary K i a i r i a Secondary Gatitu Girls S t . J o s e p h The W o r k e r Secondary K i n a l e Secondary Mununga S e c o n d a r y Gakge H i g h Wangunyu S e c o n d a r y Mataara Secondary School Nyamweru H i g h Mutuma S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l G i t a r e Secondary School K i h a r a Secondary School M b a r i Ya Ruga S e c o n d a r y Ngethue Secondary School Muthiga Secondary School Kanjuku Secondary School  Muranga 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  Ichagaki Secondary Kirwara Secondary Githunguri Girls M i r i c h u Secondary Kamacharia Secondary K a i r i Secondary M i r i c h o Secondary Ngutu Secondary Watuha Secondary Mwarano S e c o n d a r y G a t a n g a C.C.M. Nyamangara Secondary Githembe Secondary Gacharaigu Secondary Runyeki Secondary Manada S e c o n d a r y Kamune S e c o n d a r y Rarwaka Secondary Wangai Secondary Gacharage Secondary  Nyeri 1. 2. 3. 4.  District  District  Nyeri Secondary Kagumo S e c o n d a r y K a n g u b i r i Secondary Gachatha Secondary  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.  Naromoru G i r l s Mwangathia Har. Muruguru Secondary St. Pauls Githakwa H i r i g a Secondary Muruguru Mixed Kihome Secondary Mwega H a r . S e c o n d a r y Ruringo G i r l s Dr. Kamundia H i g h Munyaka S e c o n d a r y  Kirinyaga 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  District  Kianyaga Secondary Kabare G i r l s Karumandi Secondary Mukangu S e c o n d a r y Kagio Secondary Kiaragana G i r l s Nguguini Secondary  Nyandarua 1. 2. 3. 4.  RESPOND  District  Magumu S e c o n d a r y Malewa Secondary Kinangop G i r l s Secondary Geta Secondary  

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