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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Curriculum implementation in a small and isolated school district Paulin, Robert Stanley 1985

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CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN A SMALL AND ISOLATED SCHOOL DISTRICT By ROBERT STANLEY PAULIN B . S . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Centre f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1985 © R o b e r t Stanley Paulin, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department O f C e n t r e for the Study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D e c e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 8 5 Date A B S T R A C T The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n a s m a l l and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s t u d y f o c u s e d on t h e s o u r c e s o f h e l p , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and t h e r e a s o n s f o r d e c i s i o n s d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a nev; s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r o g r a m f o r g r a d e s one t h r o u g h t h r e e , and a nev; s c i e n c e p r o g r a m f o r g r a d e t e n , d u r i n g t h e 1983 t o 1985 s c h o o l t e r m s . Taped i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h a l l t h e t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( n = 22 ) who had i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e s e p r o g r a m s . The t r a n s c r i b e d t a p e s were t h e n a n a l y z e d f o r m a j o r themes a r o u n d t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : s o u r c e s o f h e l p , d i f f i c u l t i e s , and d e c i s i o n s . The m a i n s o u r c e s o f h e l p were t h e t e x t b o o k s , c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and w h a t e v e r l i m i t e d e q u i p m e n t and s u p p l i e s were i m m e d i a t e l y a t hand i n t h e i s o l a t e d c o m m u n i t i e s . The l a c k o f t i m e and c l a s s r o o m r e s o u r c e s ; s e v e r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m s ; and t h e n a t u r e o f m u l t i g r a d e d t e a c h i n g l o a d s were t h e m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e c i s i o n s were made on p r a g m a t i c g r o u n d s , i n c l u d i n g t i m e and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , and t h e p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o be t a u g h t . The t e a c h e r was t h e i m p l e m e n t e r and d e c i s i o n s were l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f t h a t t e a c h e r ' s p r i o r i t i e s . I n t h i s s m a l l and i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t , t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r was p a r a m o u n t , as t h e r e were few t » If s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s and p e r s o n n e l a v a i l a b l e . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n put s t r e s s on t h e t e a c h e r s ' t i m e f o r p l a n n i n g and e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h program changes i n m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m s . No c o m p a r i s o n s were drawn between t h i s c a s e s t u d y and o t h e r s m a l l o r l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . R a t h e r , i m p l i c a t i o n s were drawn f o r t h e improvement o f program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h i s c a s e . »» » /II TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE 1 METHOD 2 BACKGROUND 4 LIMITATIONS 9 CHAPTER TWO - CONTEXT 10 CONTEXT - SCHOOL DISTRICT #84 10 CONTEXT - CURRICULAR DOCUMENTS 21 P r i m a r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s 21 G o a l s 21 A c t i v i t i e s 23 M a t e r i a l s 23 A s s u m p t i o n s 25 S c i e n c e 10 P r o b e 26 G o a l s 26 A c t i v i t i e s 27 M a t e r i a l s 28 A s s u m p t i o n s 28 CONTEXT - MINISTRY OF EDUCATION 30 CHAPTER THREE - SOURCES OF HELP 35 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION 35 SCHOOL DISTRICT 39 SCHOOL 42 TEACHERS 48 RESOURCES 50 OTHERS 51 CHAPTER FOUR - D I F F I C U L T I E S 54 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION 54 DISTRICT 56 PROGRAMS 64 IV S C H O O L A N D C O M M U N U T Y C H A P T E R F I V E - D E C I S I O N S W H A T D E C I S I O N S W E R E M A D E ? HOW W E R E D E C I S I O N S M A D E ? W H Y W E R E D E C I S I O N S M A D E ? C H A P T E R S I X - D I S C U S S I O N , C O N C L U S I O N S A N D I M P L I C A T I O N S D I S C U S S I O N C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h a n g e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - D i s t r i c t L e v e l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - S c h o o l L e v e l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - E x t e r n a l t o L o c a l C O N C L U S I O N S I M P L I C A T I O N S B I B L I O G R A P H Y A P P E N D I C I E S A P P E N D I X - A - P E R M I S S I O N L E T T E R A P P E N D I X - B - I N T E R V I E W E E L E T T E R A P P E N D I X - C - I N T E R V I E W Q U E S T I O N S A P P E N D I X - D - C H E C K L I S T A P P E N D I X - E - D E F I N I T I O N S 68 71 71 73 75 8 0 8 0 82 87 9 0 91 9 3 96 98 103 103 104 105 1 0 6 114 V ACKNOWLEDEMENTS The w r i t e r w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . Many p e o p l e p r o v i d e d i n p u t and t h e i r e f f o r t s were a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank you t o t h e t w e n t y t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f r o m S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #84 ( V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d West) t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e d a t a b a s e f o r t h e p r o j e c t . Thank you t o t h e B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #84 and t o t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . Thank you t o my C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and p e r s e r v e r a n c e . To D r . W a l t e r W e r n e r , C h a i r m a n o f t h a t C o m m i t t e e and my p r o f e s s o r p r o tern, a v e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k you f o r h i s mammoth e f f o r t s on my b e h a l f . R o b e r t S. P a u l i n vi CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION C u r r i c u l u m and change has become an i n t e n s e l y s t u d i e d t o p i c over the l a s t few years w i t h i n Canada. As a t eacher and a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n a s m a l l , r u r a l , i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was i n v o l v e d wi th many c u r r i c u l a and many c u r r i c u l a r changes . A f t e r s t u d y i n g the l i t e r a t u r e of c u r r i c u l u m change, however, i t became apparent that there i s a s e r i o u s l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on implementa t ion i n s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s study was to d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e program implementa t ion i n a s m a l l and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were a d d r e s s e d : 1. What were the sources of he lp f o r implementa t ion t h a t were a v a i l a b l e , and u t i l i z e d , w i t h i n a s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? 2. What were the d i f f i c u l t i e s wi th implementa t ion e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h i n a s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? 3. What implementa t ion d e c i s i o n s were made i n a s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? 1 METHOD The s m a l l i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t of c h o i c e was Schoo l D i s t r i c t #84 (Vancouver I s l a n d West ) , where the r e s e a r c h e r was employed. T h i s d i s t r i c t c o n s i s t s of s i x i s o l a t e d communities l o c a t e d a long the f j o r d s of the northwest coas t of Vancouver I s l a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Dur ing the 1983 to 1985 s c h o o l t erms , two new programs, developed by the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , were implemented i n the d i s t r i c t : 1. S t a r t e d i n 1978, the Sc i ence 10 Probe course was completed l a t e i n 1983, and was ready f o r implementa t ion i n t o d i s t r i c t s c h o o l s i n the f a l l of 1984. 2. W i t h i n the r e v i s e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m f o r grades one to seven , the pr imary p o r t i o n (grades 1 to 3 ) was a v a i l a b l e e a r l y i n 1983, and was adopted i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n September 1983. The f o l l o w i n g procedures were taken to c o l l e c t data about these two i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s : 1. P e r m i s s i o n to do the study was sought ( Appendix A ) , and t e a c h e r s who were implement ing one or both of these two programs were reques ted to p a r t i c i p a t e ( Appendix B ) . 2. Taped i n t e r v i e w s were conducted wi th a l l t e a c h e r s u s i n g the pr imary s o c i a l s t u d i e s ( n = 14 ) and the Sc i ence Probe 10 ( n = 4 ) i n Schoo l D i s t r i c t #84. The s u p e r v i s o r s of these t e a c h e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d , i n c l u d i n g the p r i n c i p a l s ( n = 8 ) and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t s charged with the s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c u r r i c u l u m and the d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e c e n t r e ( n = 2 ) . A M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n person was i n t e r v i e w e d : the D i r e c t o r of Program Implementat ion S e r v i c e s , d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1983 to 1985. ( I n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s are l i s t e d i n Appendix C ) . I n t e r v i e w s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g February and March 1985 at v a r i o u s s c h o o l s , each l a s t i n g about 40 m i n u t e s . 3 . A f t e r each i n t e r v i e w e e v o l u n t e e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on sources of h e l p , d i f f i c u l t i e s , and reasons f o r d e c i s i o n s , they were asked to review a c h e c k l i s t ( Appendix D ) to f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e r e c o g n i t i o n of o ther s o u r c e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s and r e a s o n s . 4. Document a n a l y s i s was undertaken on the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e i n the d i s t r i c t f o r t e a c h i n g these c o u r s e s , and on any m i n i s t r y or d i s t r i c t documents s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o v i d e d to the t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s f o r the purpose of e x p e d i t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 5. The t r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w s , the c h e c k l i s t s and the documents were ana lyzed i n terms of the three major q u e s t i o n s . From these data the author drew i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , which were then v a l i d a t e d with the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of s c h o o l s f o r a c c u r a c y and r e a s o n a b l e n e s s . 3 Although people i n v a r i o u s r o l e s ( w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t and M i n i s t r y ) were i n t e r v i e w e d , the p o i n t s of view from which these data were i n t e r p r e t e d were that of (1) the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of s c h o o l s and (2) the r e s e a r c h e r ( who i s a s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r and t eacher ) . V a l i d a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s was not extended to t e a c h e r s . D e f i n i t i o n s of major terms used throughout the s t u d y , as w e l l as an e x p l a n a t i o n of how i n t e r v i e w e e q u o t a t i o n s were coded , are found i n Appendix E . BACKGROUND In B r i t i s h Columbia there are 75 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and the s m a l l e s t 15 of these are under 1500 each i n t o t a l p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n . Schoo l D i s t r i c t #84 has j u s t under 1000 and ranks 9th s m a l l e s t ; as ment ioned, the d i s t r i c t i s a l s o very i s o l a t e d ( d e t a i l s are i n Chapter Two ) . Smal l and i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t s have problems of program implementa t ion which p e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r l y to s i z e and i s o l a t i o n . There has been l i t t l e study done wi th s m a l l i s o l a t e d sys tems. Most implementa t ion r e s e a r c h i s of s c h o o l systems that are l a r g e and urban ( e . g . , F u l l a n 1982, 1979 ) . The implementa t ion of programs i n s m a l l r u r a l i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s has r e c e i v e d very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n ; i n f a c t , the l i t e r a t u r e i s v i r t u a l l y devo id of s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a . For example, only a few a r t i c l e s address the implementa t ion of a p a r t i c u l a r course or area of s t u d i e s such as a v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e program, a g i f t e d s tudent 4 program, or a c a r e e r development program (Kaufman 1977, H a r r i s 1975 ) . In these papers the o r i e n t a t i o n i s towards the p a r t i c u l a r program, whereas the ongoing task of implementa t ion i s t r e a t e d as be ing of secondary i m p o r t a n c e . Thus implementa t ive problems i n r u r a l i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d no more than c a s u a l and incomple te ment ion , much l e s s , r e a l s t u d y . The r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d not f i n d any author tha t documented the "sources of h e l p " , the " d i f f i c u l t i e s " or the "reasons f o r d e c i s i o n s " i n implementa t ion tha t were r u r a l s p e c i f i c . I t i s to be remembered, though, that those of g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n l a r g e urban d i s t r i c t s may a l s o apply i n r u r a l i s o l a t e d a r e a s , o f t e n wi th i n c r e a s e d i n t e n s i t y ; f o r example, communication i s more p r o b l e m a t i c i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s . Implementers i n s m a l l B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , such as E l i z a b e t h Welch Wi l son (1983) of the Nelson School D i s t r i c t , r e p o r t tha t as the amount of implementa t ion expected by the M i n i s t r y i n c r e a s e s , so w i l l the need to have r e l i a b l e access to program m a t e r i a l s . She a l s o d e f i n e s a need to a l l o w f o r l o c a l a d a p t a t i o n s of the course being implemented because t e a c h e r s must take par t i n d e c i s i o n making, even i f t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t due to communications problems . She r e p o r t s how mandated new programs are a s p e c i a l d r a i n on the economic r e s o u r c e s of the s c h o o l , the energy of i t s t e a c h e r s , and the harmony of the c l a s s r o o m . In terms of i n - s e r v i c e , she p o i n t s out such problems as time and money spent to t r a v e l to c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s , and of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' d e s i r e f o r s p e c i f i c , c o n c r e t e t r a i n i n g r a t h e r than g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s . Lack of l i b r a r y budget and p e r s o n n e l are a l s o d i f f i c u l t i e s . As a source of he lp the new P r o v i n c i a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r L o c a l l y Developed M a t e r i a l s i s g iven as a q u a l i t y r e s o u r c e . Another source of he lp i n B r i t i s h Columbia seems to be the "resource" t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d at M i n i s t r y workshops and summer i n s t i t u t e s who come back to t h e i r s m a l l i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t s and are prepared to a s s i s t c o l l e a g u e s and to b u i l d a l o c a l network f o r support and s h a r i n g of problems and s t r a t e g i e s ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n C i r c u l a r 44 / 8 4 . 0 5 . 1 6 ) . The M i n i s t r y i n v i t e s each d i s t r i c t to send a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to be t r a i n e d . The r e s e a r c h e r a t tended the 1984 summer i n s t i t u t e f o r s c i e n c e 10 as an observer and found good p a r t i c i p a t i o n amongst the d e l e g a t e s . There was a d i s c u s s i o n of the new s c i e n c e 10 and how the i n n o v a t i o n was to be implemented. Jenny White (1983) from Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s D i s t r i c t concurs wi th the importance of i n - s e r v i c e , communicat ion , r e s o u r c e t e a c h e r s , a good d i s t r i c t p l a n and a need to cut b u r e a u c r a t i c red t a p e . Her implementa t ion e x p e r i e n c e began with a c las srooom need f o r a w r i t i n g program, wi th a c o o p e r a t i v e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and a M i n i s t r y summer i n s t i t u t e . She f e e l s tha t i n s e r v i c e should be f o l l o w e d by some months when the i n n o v a t i o n i s t e s t e d by t e a c h e r s i n c l a s s r o o m s . 6 C o a c h i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i o n l e s s o n s by p e e r s , as w e l l as f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n s , a r e i m p o r t a n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e have been s e v e r a l r e p o r t e d a t t e m p t s t o b r i n g new p r o g r a m s t o s m a l l r u r a l s c h o o l s . T h e s e p r o g r a m s were f e d e r a l l y i n i t i a t e d and f u n d e d , and g e n e r a l l y t h e y f a i l e d . The l a r g e s t was t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l S c h o o l s ( E . S . ) P r o g r a m w h i c h was s h o r t l i v e d . T h i s p r o g r a m began i n 1972, r a n s i x y e a r s and r e s u l t e d i n a r e p o r t o f some 14 v o l u m e s ; t h e r e a r e a l s o many s m a l l e r p a p e r s , by many a u t h o r s , t h a t r e f e r t o t h e s e v o l u m e s . I t c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l d e v e l o p e r s t r y i n g t o i m p o s e i d e a s and t h e l o c a l e d u c a t o r s who, a l t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y e n t h u s e d , s o o n became d e s p o n d e n t ; l o c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , g r a s s r o o t s p o l i t i c s and a l a c k o f s o u r c e s o f h e l p were c e n t r a l t o t h e s e f a i l u r e s . A l s o , i t seems t h a t d i s c u s s i o n and c o o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g were l a c k i n g . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , one o f t h e f i r s t p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e E.S. p r o g r a m was t h a t o f " i g n o r i n g " : t h e few f o l k s i n v o l v e d were n o t " w o r t h " c o n s i d e r i n g ( H e r r i o t t 1 9 8 0 ) . As a r e s u l t , l o c a l l a y p e o p l e and e d u c a t o r s were l e f t w i t h i n f e r i o r f e e l i n g s o r a l o w s e l f c o n c e p t . A l s o , t h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f s m a l l s c h o o l s , t h e f e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c y was t r y i n g t o e l i m i n a t e s m a l l n e s s . S m a l l n e s s and r u r a l i t y were n e g l e c t e d , e v e n t h o u g h f u l l y one t h i r d o f t h e n a t i o n ' s c h i l d r e n and one h a l f o f i t s p o o r f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n r u r a l a r e a s . Y e t , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f f u n d i n g was 13 o r 14 p e r c e n t ! 7 In s h o r t , due to a l a c k of economy of s c a l e , there was a d e f i c i e n c y of f u n d i n g . Other major f a c t o r s r e p o r t e d i n terms of t h i s program f o r r u r a l s c h o o l s , and i t s f a i l i n g s were: 1. M u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s of the s c h o o l . 2. T e n s i o n between s t a b i l i t y and change. 3 . Recency and problems wi th c o n s o l i d a t i o n of d i s t r i c t s . 4. S i z e , g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s p e r s i o n , p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . 5. The he terogen ious nature of the s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n . 6. P r e c a r i o u s economic base . 7. R u r a l f e a r of f e d e r a l ( o u t s i d e ) c o l o n i a l i s m . 8. S h i f t i n g ba lances of power and a u t h o r i t y . 9. C i t i z e n ' s r e s e r v a t i o n s about the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i c e n s e of t e a c h e r s . (1980) In terms of i m p l e m e n t i n g , some problems i n c l u d e d : 1. B u r e a u c r a t i c red t a p e . 2. Poor d e f i n i t i o n of the program. 3 . Poor p l a n n i n g . 4. Be ing over zea lous or i m p a t i e n t . ( 1 9 8 0 ) The best successes noted were the ones where the implementa t ion i n v o l v e d an e a r l y t r a n s i t i o n from c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l who d i d the i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , to those a s s o c i a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y wi th the a c t u a l s c h o o l s where the implementa t ion took p l a c e . The i m p o s i t i o n of programs or processes t h e r e o f met wi th c o n f l i c t and embarassment f o r both s i d e s . P e t e r s (1975) r e p o r t e d that change agents i n r u r a l s c h o o l s must be p e r c e i v e d as "be long ing" to the community. Along wi th t h i s "ownership", the agent of change must be s p e c i f i c a l l y knowledgeable about the day to day l i f e and p o l i t i c s of the community; t h i s b e l o n g i n g and l o c a l knowledge a s s i s t s him or her i n a c h i e v i n g h i g h e r l e v e l s of involvement amongst both s t a f f and community. C l e a r l y , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s are c a r d i n a l to a c h i e v i n g c o o p e r a t i o n and a v o i d i n g c o n f l i c t (Hennigh , 1979 ) . In s m a l l , i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s , good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s are r e a l l y very person s p e c i f i c due to the smal lnes s of the p o p u l a t i o n . F l e t c h e r (1980) advocates e l e c t r o n i c t echnology be used more when programs are implemented r u r a l l y , and f e e l s that many of the " d i f f i c u l t i e s " can and are be ing overcome by advanc ing t e c h n o l o g y . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h e n , we s t i l l need to document the "sources of h e l p " , the " d i f f i c u l t i e s " and "why" p r i o r i t y d e c i s i o n s are made as we implement programs w i t h i n s m a l l , r u r a l , i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . LIMITATIONS There were these major l i m i t a t i o n s to t h i s s t u d y : 1. T h i s study was l i m i t e d to one s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , and no comparisons were made wi th any o ther s m a l l or l a r g e d i s t r i c t s . C o n c l u s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . 2. The study p r i m a r i l y gathered i n t e r v i e w i n f o r m a t i o n from t e a c h e r s . These s e l f - r e p o r t data r e p r e s e n t p e r c e p t i o n s , and were not checked by means of o ther k i n d s of i n f o r m a t i o n , such as c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s by the r e s e a r c h e r . 3. I n t e r v i e w e e s were not i n v o l v e d i n v a l i d a t i n g the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the d a t a . T h i s task was done by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . CHAPTER TWO CONTEXTS The major c o n t e x t s - the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , the c u r r i c u l a r documents, and the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n - of the study are d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e s some background f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t t e r the i n t e r v i e w e e s ' comments about t h e i r sources of he lp i n implementa t ion (Chapter 3 ) , d i f f i c u l t i e s (Chapter 4 ) , and d e c i s i o n s (Chapter 5 ) . CONTEXT — SCHOOL DISTRICT #84 Schoo l D i s t r i c t #84 i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s l o c a t e d i n a l o g g i n g and f i s h i n g area on the n o r t h west coas t of Vancouver I s l a n d . T h i s outer c o a s t a l r e g i o n i s rough mountainous t e r r a i n inundated wi th many f j o r d s , and i s s u b j e c t to the w e s t e r l y i n f l o w which f r e q u e n t l y b r i n g s stormy and r a i n y weather . The s i x communities wi th s c h o o l s are s p a r s e l y l o c a t e d a long the coas t and t h e i r e x i s t a n c e i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to f i s h i n g or l o g g i n g or b o t h . Community-one has a p o p u l a t i o n of 2500 people and serves as a "bedroom" f o r a pulp m i l l and l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n . As the l a r g e s t community of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , i t i s l o c a t e d i n the south - east c o r n e r of same, about 55 paved m i l e s from a c i t y of 16 ,000 . As i t i s the l a r g e s t and the c l o s e s t to the " o u t s i d e " , i t has the s c h o o l board o f f i c e , the s c h o o l 10 D i s t r i c t Resource Centre ( D R C . ) » a n u the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t maintenance shop. The o f f i c e i s s t a f f e d by a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r and three h a l f - t i m e c l e r i c a l s t a f f persons ; the r e s o u r c e c e n t r e has a h a l f - t i m e c l e r k . The maintenance s t a f f i n c l u d e s one s u p e r v i s o r and two men. U n t i l March of 1984 there was a d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n , p r i m a r i l y r e s p o s i b l e f o r c u r r i c u l u m , but he was l a i d o f f due to the p r o v i n c i a l government's r e s t r a i n t program. The l o s s of t h i s r e s o u r c e person c r e a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d to t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s by the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . The e lementary s c h o o l i n community-one o f f e r s grades K-7 to 380 p u p i l s taught by 20 t e a c h e r s . The secondary s c h o o l o f f e r s grades 8-12 to 200 s t u d e n t s taught by 16 t e a c h e r s . Both s c h o o l s have a f u l l t ime s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l and two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t s (25% time e a c h ) . There are no department heads i n the secondary s c h o o l . We l eave community-one and t r a v e l nor th -wes t 42 m i l e s on rough and p r e c a r i o u s mountain l o g g i n g road to a r r i v e at community-two, the next l a r g e s t community, n e s t l e d at the head of a l ong f j o r d . I t has a t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n of 1700 to 2000 p e o p l e , main ly l o g g e r s and m i l l workers . The v i l l a g e s u p p l i e s l a b o u r to two s a w m i l l s (one - C e d a r , and one -Hemlock/Balsam F i r ) . There i s one e lementary - secondary s c h o o l d e a l i n g wi th a l l grades (K-12) i n one crowded b u i l d i n g , i n c l u d i n g 350 p u p i l s and 23 t e a c h e r s (12 11 e l e m e n t a r y , 11 s e c o n d a r y ) . There i s one s u p e r v i s i n g p r i n c i p a l ; two t e a c h e r s are a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t s f o r 25% of t h e i r t i m e . There are no department heads . Communi ty - three , the t h i r d l a r g e s t , i s a v i l l a g e of 200 p e o p l e , and i s a l o g g i n g d i v i s i o n of the l a r g e company tha t operates a l l the l o c a l t r e e farm l i c e n s e s . In 1983-84 the s c h o o l had 50 p u p i l s and f i v e t e a c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g p a r t time l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Dur ing 1985, d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l m e n t due to the economic down-turn i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , as w e l l as budgetary r e s t r a i n t w i t h i n the s c h o o l system, reduced the s t a f f to four and the s tudent p o p u l a t u i o n to 39 ( grades K to 10) . Community- three i s reached a long the f j o r d s by seaplane or boa t , or one can t r a v e l the east s i d e of Vancouver I s l a n d n o r t h as f a r as Nimpkish and then use 27 m i l e s of l o g g i n g road to aga in c r o s s to the west c o a s t . To t r a v e l from community-two to communi ty - three , f o r example, takes e i g h t minutes by seaplane or an hour by boat v i a the f j o r d s . I f one wishes to d r i v e i t i s a matter of 130 m i l e s of g r a v e l l o g g i n g road and takes about f i v e h o u r s . Located v i r t u a l l y on the open P a c i f i c , community- four i s even more i s o l a t e d . I t has had te lephone s e r v i c e f o r about one y e a r . One c o u l d t r a v e l an hour on l o g g i n g roads and an hour by boat from community- three to communi ty - four , or one c o u l d f l y by seaplane ( 20 minutes from community- three or 55 minutes from community-one ) . H a l f of the community l i v e s iZ on a p e n i n s u l a of Vancouver I s l a n d and h a l f on W a l t e r s I s l a n d . The main s t r e e t of the v i l l a g e i s a channe l of water about o n e - h a l f m i l e wide . T h i s community i s p r i m a r i l y a N a t i v e I n d i a n (90%) v i l l a g e of about 100 p e o p l e . The p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , Schoo l D i s t r i c t #84 and the f e d e r a l Department of N o r t h e r n and I n d i a n A f f a i r s are p r e s e n t l y b e g i n n i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new three room s c h o o l to r e p l a c e two d e l a p i d a t e d s c h o o l s . There are 30 p u p i l s (grades K to 10) taught by three t e a c h e r s . I t must be r e p o r t e d that weather here can be stormy wi th wind and r a i n , to the extent tha t o f t en t h i s community i s t o t a l l y i s o l a t e d from passage to the "outs ide " w o r l d . T h i s stormy weather a l s o a f f e c t s g e t t i n g to s c h o o l by boat down the channe l of ocean that i s "main s t r e e t " . C o m m u n i t i e s - f i v e and - s i x are j u s t as i s o l a t e d as communi ty - four , wi th access on ly by boat or seaplane and communication on ly by VHF r a d i o . Communi ty - f ive i s a l o g g i n g camp tha t i s on the open west c o a s t . There are 13 c h i l d r e n from four f a m i l i e s . There i s one s tudent i n each of grades one to n ine and two i n each of grades ten and e l e v e n . One teacher teaches a l l s u b j e c t s i n a l l e l even g r a d e s , which i s to say , tha t she has a p p r o x i m a t e l y 77 l e s s o n s to p r e p a r e , teach and e v a l u a t e each day! Community-s ix i s s i m i l a r l y a s m a l l i s o l a t e d l o g g i n g camp l o c a t e d on Nootka I s l a n d . Here aga in one teacher dea l s wi th 12 c h i l d r e n i n grades K to 8. Dur ing the M i n i s t r y of /3 E d u c a t i o n ' s " L e t ' s T a l k About Schoo l s" (1985) campaign, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r (as t eacher r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) , the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of s c h o o l s , and the s c h o o l board chairman at tended meetings i n each of these i s o l a t e d communit ies to hear parents and other community members r e i t e r a t e t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e i r i s o l a t i o n , they f r a n k l y s t a t e d tha t they expect f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n at l e a s t e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s equal to those of the c h i l d r e n of t h e i r urban p e e r s . Teachers i n a l l but community-one must be s u p p l i e d wi th r e n t a l t eacherages ( v i a c o n t r a c t ) , and a l l are pa id an i s o l a t i o n a l lowance ( a l l communities are des igna ted as i s o l a t e d posts i n terms of the Canadian Income Tax Act ) . I t i s to be emphasized that communit ies two and three o f t e n are cut o f f from the "outs ide" by weather or problems wi th the l o g g i n g r o a d s . B a s i c s e r v i c e s such as m e d i c a l , b a n k i n g , g r o c e r y , e t c . are e i t h e r non e x i s t a n t or very n e a r l y so i n communities two through s i x . Communication by m a i l , r a d i o , t e l e p h o n e , or a i r express i s e x p e n s i v e , spasmodic and o f t en undependable . T r a v e l about the d i s t r i c t i s a l s o expens ive i n terms of t ime and money, and i n t r a - d i s t r i c t communication i s the l a r g e s t o p e r a t i v e headache i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . To c i t e an example, can the reader imagine u s i n g VHF marine r a d i o wi th poor q u a l i t y r e c e p t i o n , on a p u b l i c channe l operated by the l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t o r , to d i s c u s s the f i n e r p o i n t s of c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , much l e s s d i s c u s s problems a s s o c i a t e d wi th one of your p u p i l s ? 1H A l l the communit ies have a mix of t r a n s i e n t l o g g e r s , m i l l workers and f i s h e r m a n . The p r i n c i p a l employer makes a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t to r e c r u i t f a m i l i e s and to reduce t h i s t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e ; c u r r e n t severe economics have cut the use of the "bunkhouse / cookhouse syndrome" i n favor of l o c a t i n g f a m i l y u n i t s i n a camp s e t t i n g or i n a more permanent community. Many of the a d u l t s have had n e g a t i v e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s themse lves , are poor s u p p o r t e r s of s c h o o l and t e a c h e r s , and are e a s i l y i n t i m i d a t e d by the s t a t u s and r o l e of the " teacher" . T h u s , i n these communities program changes e x i s t w i t h i n a f r a g i l e i n t e r p e r s o n a l network. The m a j o r i t y of the p a r e n t a l community advocates the b a s i c 3R's and i n s i s t s tha t the s c h o o l system should be a b l e to s o l v e the s o c i a l e v i l s of each r e s p e c t i v e community. C u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n i s a s t r o n g s o c i a l f a c t i n these communi t i e s . Community-one has a hockey and c u r l i n g r i n k that might as w e l l be i n Vancouver as f a r as the o ther communities are concerned; the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s p e r s i o n makes t h i s f a c i l i t y d i f f i c u l t f o r the o ther communities to use . There i s a s m a l l bowl ing and swimming poo l complex and not much e l s e i n community-two. Another example i s the s m a l l p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n community- three which i s open two hours per week and has a t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n which i s s m a l l e r than the p e r s o n a l c o l l e c t i o n of the w r i t e r . Other than these f a c i l i t i e s and p i r a t e d s a t e l l i t e t e l e v i s i o n , community c u l t u r a l / r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s are v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t a n t . Each community has so few f a c i l i t i e s and i s so 15 i s o l a t e d that c u l t u r a l , s p o r t s , or o ther i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchanges are at b e s t , m i n i m a l . For a l a r g e segment of the p o p u l a t i o n , c u l t u r e c o n s i s t s of a l c o h o l consumption e i t h e r i n the l o c a l bar or at home i n f r o n t of s a t e l l i t e t e l e v i s i o n . Any o c c a s i o n a l b u r s t of l o c a l a c t i v i t y i s s t r i c t l y a "make your own fun" a f f a i r . P o l i t i c a l l y , the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t has f i v e t r u s t e e s ( two i n community-one, and one each i n communities two through four ) . I t i s expens ive i n time and money f o r them to meet, and they operate from a r e s t r a i n e d budget based on the p r o v i n c i a l " F i n a n c i a l Framework" that i s funded f o r c l a s s e s at 25 p u p i l s per t e a c h e r . S ince t h i s r a t i o cannot be mainta ined even i n the l a r g e s t s c h o o l due to s m a l l secondary c l a s s e s , there i s j u s t no economy of s c a l e to f i n a n c e the s m a l l s c h o o l s . That i s , the funds p r o v i d e d through the " F i n a n c i a l Framework" pay on ly a c o m p a r a t i v e l y t i n y f r a c t i o n of the r e a l cos t of r u n n i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s r o o m or s c h o o l . T h i s puts p r e s s u r e on the system and i t s employees; and t h i s s c e n a r i o m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f n e g a t i v e l y on c u r r i c u l u m and the contex t f o r l e a r n i n g . ( I t should a l s o be p o i n t e d out that the d i s t r i c t c l o s e d two of i t s s m a l l e s t i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s i n the l a s t two y e a r s . ) The s c h o o l board o f f e r s a b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and t r i e s to make the best p o s s i b l e use of r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . At the same time they are c o n s c i o u s o f , and i n favour o f , equa l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l p u p i l s , even though t h i s i s an e l u s i v e u and i m p r a c t i c a b l e goa l i n t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Among t h e i r p o l i c i e s f o r d i s t r i c t governance i s a p o l i c y tha t has the b o a r d , d i s t r i c t s t a f f , p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s a n n u a l l y d e f i n e t h e i r goa l s and o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s process of d i s c u s s i n g , w r i t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g i s u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , d e s p i t e i t s d i s p e r s i o n . Teachers are encouraged to w r i t e out major goa l s and the in tended l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r each c o u r s e . Over the l a s t four years t h i s procedure has evo lved i n t o a p r a c t i c a l form of l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g wherein the t eacher se t s out t o p i c a l goa l s and a time frame. As the d i s t r i c t i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t to t r a v e r s e and as there i s on ly one e d u c a t i o n a l o f f i c e r ( d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ) , the amount of " i n c la s sroom" s u p e r v i s i o n , a s s i s t a n c e or communication from the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e , i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . The s c h o o l i n community- three had the d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t on s i t e f i v e t imes d u r i n g 1983-84 ( not i n excess of 15 hours t o t a l ) . In the l a s t three years the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n had one of t h e i r o f f i c i a l s on s i t e at t h i s s c h o o l on one o c c a s i o n ; h i s h e l i c o p t e r landed i n the s c h o o l yard and departed twelve minutes l a t e r ! The d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e c e n t r e i s a s m a l l f a c i l i t y wi th about 1000 v i d e o t a p e s , c o v e r i n g a d i v e r s e range of e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c s , a s m a l l c i r c u l a t i n g f i c t i o n l i b r a r y , a few f i l m s t r i p s , a l a m i n a t o r , and a computer . The f i c t i o n l i b r a r y i s boxed such tha t segments of i t can be f lown out to i s o l a t e d 17 s c h o o l s ; t h i s program l a c k s e f f i c i e n c y as a r e s u l t of expense and t r a n s p o r t f r u s t r a t i o n s . L i b r a r i e s i n s m a l l s c h o o l s are s p a s m o d i c a l l y kept by a t eacher who a l r e a d y has too much to do . Communities -one and -two both have p a r t - t i m e l i b r a r y a i d e s but there i s no l i b r a r i a n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . On the o ther hand, these two communit ies do have access to the p r o v i n c i a l Knowledge Network ( t e l e v i s i o n ) and the community c o l l e g e (North I s l a n d C o l l e g e ) has l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s ; but they are the on ly ones wi th t h i s k i n d of a c c e s s . N . I . C . has a mobi le van which appears i n community- three on three Wednesday a f t e r n o o n s per month. Any c o l l e g e c o n t a c t wi th the s m a l l e s t communities would be by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . The d i s t r i c t has s e v e r a l p o l i c y committees r e p o r t i n g to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and the b o a r d , as o u t l i n e d on the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t . The C u r r i c u l u m Committee, c h a i r e d by a s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , has r e p r e s e n t a t i o n throughout the grades and from the three l a r g e r communi t i e s . I t d e a l s wi th a l l c u r r i c u l a r matters i n c l u d i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Sub-committees p r o v i d e a d v i c e i n s p e c i f i c areas such a s , f o r example E n g l i s h , mathemat ics , s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and computers . Other committees are not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m but have an i n c i d e n t a l e f f e c t . The P u p i l P e r s o n n e l Committee dea l s w i th s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n and a l l s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n . The Working R e l a t i o n s Committee d e a l s wi th the r e l a t i o n s h i p I f between the board and i t s employees , i n c u d i n g t h e i r c o n t r a c t and working c o n d i t i o n s . The I n t e r - M i n i s t e r i a l C h i l d r e n s ' Committee i n each of the three l a r g e s t communities at tempts to b r i n g v a r i o u s governmental agenc ie s toge ther to d e a l wi th severe problems i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n . The E d u c a t i o n J o i n t Committee responds to the need f o r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . Parent a d v i s o r y groups e x i s t at most s c h o o l s and f u n c t i o n on a more or l e s s r e g u l a r b a s i s ; these groups supply v o l u n t e e r s f o r a c t i v i t i e s at the s c h o o l s and meet to d i s c u s s e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . The t e a c h e r s of the d i s t r i c t form an a s s o c i a t i o n of 66 i n d i v i d u a l s who meet two or three t imes y e a r l y at great expense i n time and money. A g e n e r a l meeting may cos t $2000.00 due to the expense of c h a r t e r a i r f a r e s , h o t e l s and meal s . The e x e c u t i v e and s t a n d i n g committees meet more o f t e n to run the a s s o c i a t i o n , a l though a l o t of "meeting" i s done by t e l e p h o n e . A s s o c i a t i o n b u s i n e s s , economic w e l f a r e and p o l i t i c s consume most of the time at these meet ings , l e a v i n g l i t t l e f o r academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l communicat ion , or f o r i n - d e p t h c o l l e g i a l d i s c u s s i o n about a course and i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The d i s t r i c t and the t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n share i n a s m a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l development f u n d , which p r o v i d e s about $158 per t eacher per year - one t h i r d of the average r e a l cos t of going to Vancouver or V i c t o r i a f o r a t h r e e - d a y p r o f e s s i o n a l development o p p o r t u n i t y ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , each teacher g e t s , on the average , one p r o f e s s i o n a l development o p p o r t u n i t y per two years of t e a c h i n g because of the expense i n time and money. ( The w r i t e r missed h i s l a s t o p p o r t u n i t y because of a v i o l e n t wind and snow storm which c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d community-two on the morning of d e p a r t u r e . ) I n t e r n a l l y the average i s one d i s t r i c t - w i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l day per two y e a r s , a l t h o u g h the l a r g e r i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s may have one or two i n t e r n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l days per y e a r . In s h o r t , p r o f e s s i o n a l i s o l a t i o n i s a r e a l i t y of the d i s t r i c t . In summary, t h i s d i s t r i c t of l e s s than 3000 square m i l e s r e p r e s e n t s s i x s m a l l i s o l a t e d communities which l a c k s e r v i c e s , communicat ions , f a c i l i t i e s , and p o p u l a t i o n . The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s about 5500 of whom 980 are c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s geographic d i s p e r s i o n , budgetary economies of s c a l e are i m p o s s i b l e . The p e r s o n n e l are s e v e r l y l i m i t e d by a heavy workload and " p r o f e s s i o n a l i s o l a t i o n " . M u l t i g r a d e d c las srooms are the r e a l i t y i n most communit ies and a l l c l a s s e s d e a l wi th a heterogeneous mix of l e a r n i n g a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n a s m a l l s tudent p o p u l a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s are l i m i t e d . I t i s t h i s abundance of e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o n s t r a i n t s which r a i s e s concern about the p o t e n t i a l v i a b i l i t y of any program implementa t ion i n i t i a t i v e s . The a f f e c t of these c o n s t r a i n t s upon implementa t ion i s of great i n t e r e s t to the w r i t e r . 20 CONTEXT — CURRICULUM DOCUMENTS In t h i s p r o v i n c e the Schoo l s Act ( 15 / h ) s t a t e s t h a t : the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may, by r e g u l a t i o n , p r e s c r i b e courses of s t u d y , and adopt and p r e s c r i b e t e x t b o o k s , and a u t h o r i z e supplementary r e a d i n g and other i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r use i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Teachers r e l y h e a v i l y on the t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y to t h e i r s c h o o l s . B r i e f l y I present below the " o l d " and the "new" c u r r i c u l a f o r each of what are now the pr imary s o c i a l s t u d i e s and Sc i ence 10 Probe c u r r i c u l a i n terms of t h e i r s p e c i f i e d g o a l s , a c t i v i t i e s , m a t e r i a l s and as sumpt ions . PRIMARY SOCIAL STUDIES Goals The o l d c u r r i c u l u m guide of 1974 o u t l i n e s i t s i n t e n t i o n s v i a o b j e c t i v e s and key c o n c e p t s . O b j e c t i v e s i n v o l v e : Knowledge: I n c r e a s i n g the s t u d e n t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of concepts about s i m i l a r i t y and d i v e r s i t y i n human a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l arrangements and b e l i e f s . S k i l l s : P l a n n i n g , c o l l e c t i n g , r e c o r d i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as s o c i a l s k i l l s . F e e l i n g s , A t t i t u d e s , V a l u e s : Examine c r i t i c a l l y and perhaps modify h i s ( c h i l d ' s ) p o i n t of v i e w , . . . . a c q u i r e a system of v a l u e s , extend s e n s i t i v i t y to c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . (1974: p . 2) In the new c u r r i c u l u m guide of 1983 the program goa l s are set out i n g e n e r a l terms and are underscored by more s p e c i f i c i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g outcomes. The program goa l s are 1. S tudents should know and unders tand the f a c t o r s which have shaped and c o n t i n u e to shape Canada and C a n a d i a n s . 2. S tudents should know and understand the d i v e r s e p a t t e r n of human a c t i v i t y i n the w o r l d . 3. S tudents should know and unders tand the r o l e s , r i g h t s and r e s p b s i b i l i t i e s of an i n d i v i d u a l as a member of s o c i e t y . 4. S tudents should develop a w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y to use knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g as a member of s o c i e t y . (1983: p . 10 ) In both cases these "goals" are f o r grades one through seven . In the new g u i d e , d e t a i l s of "program f l o w , grade f o c u s , grade g o a l s , c o n t e n t , u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , i n q u i r y and s k i l l s " f o r each grade are a l s o g i v e n . I n s t r u c t i o n i s sequenced and an e v a l u a t i o n process i s set o u t . Grade goa l f o r grade one a r e , f o r example, b r i e f l y : - f a m i l y s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n - e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l background - y o u r own f a m i l y - r o l e s , r e s p o s i b i l i t i e s and f e e l i n g s - f a m i l y changes and needs - o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s - a c t i o n s and b e l i e f s (1983: p . 12 ) In s h o r t , the content f o r grades one, two and three i s s i m i l a r i n the o l d and the new course but the s p e c i f i c i t y the goa l s and o b j e c t i v e s i s enhanced i n the new c o u r s e . XX A c t i v i t i e s In the 1974 course the methodology v/as in tended to be p r i m a r i l y a t e a c h e r - l e d d i s c u s s i o n from a g iven l a r g e p i c t u r e (18" X 24"). E v a l u a t i o n was l a r g e l y t eacher focussed as the t eacher was to a p p r a i s e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s "development i n a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r " . P r o v i n c i a l examinat ions p layed no p a r t . The a c t u a l a c t i v i t y per se which was r e q u i r e d / suggested f o r each c la s sroom tended to t a l k about o b s e r v i n g , s h a r i n g , d i s c u s s i n g , and l i s t e n i n g ; such a c t i v i t i e s as d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , r o l e p l a y i n g , s i m u l a t i n g , d e b a t i n g , and f i e l d - t r i p p i n g were l e f t to t eacher d i s c r e t i o n . In c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e , more a c t i v i t y may have been used , but such a c t i v i t y was t e a c h e r - i n i t i a t e d . In the new c o u r s e , a c t i v i t y i s b r o a d l y encouraged . The t e x t s , t h e i r p i c t u r e s and the r e s o u r c e manuals emphasize " l e a r n i n g by d o i n g " . I n q u i r y i s regarded as important and s k i l l s are o u t l i n e d on c h a r t s and c h e c k l i s t s f o r t eacher usage . E v a l u a t i o n i s t r e a t e d r a t h e r c a s u a l l y i n the 1983 c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , but the reques t i s f o r a c o n s i s t e n t b r o a d l y - b a s e d type of e v a l u a t i o n . M a t e r i a l s T h i s area i s where there i s the g r e a t e s t change. The o l d c u r r i c u l u m guide was b r i e f and sketchy and promoted "a wide s e l e c t i o n of content by the t e a c h e r " . In a d d i t i o n , there was a c o m m e r c i a l l y - p r o d u c e d t e a c h e r ' s manual which p r o v i d e d a b r i e f background and some d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s f o r each of the p i c t u r e s i n the p i c t u r e s e t s . Each grade had se t s v a r y i n g from 50 to 90 l a r g e p i c t u r e s . The use of r e s o u r c e s beyond these p i c t u r e s was l e f t e n t i r e l y to the t e a c h e r . In the new course there i s the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , a r e s o u r c e book, a media g u i d e , and a t e a c h e r ' s manual s u p p l i e d by the commercia l p u b l i s h e r s of the s tudent t e x t s . The new r e s o u r c e manual d i s c u s s e s v a r i o u s p r i n t and f i l m r e s o u r c e s , community use , e v a l u a t i o n , a c t i v i t i e s , and sample u n i t p l a n s . A p p e n d i c i e s are a v a i l a b l e on mapping, g r a p h i n g , r o l e p l a y i n g and the use of media . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s book i s f u l l of u s e f u l t e a c h e r - o r i e n t e d m a t e r i a l s . The media guide from the P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n Media Centre (PEMC) g i v e s d e s c r i p t i o n s of i t s a v a i l a b l e f i l m s / v i d e o t a p e s . The commercia l t e a c h e r ' s manual goes from a statement of p h i l o s o p h y and l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s to l i s t s of a c t i v i t i e s , books and audio v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s ; a l t e r n a t i v e ways to teach each p a r t of the course are g i v e n , as i s he lp i n o r g a n i z i n g your c l a s s r o o m . I n s t e a d of p i c t u r e s e t s , there are textbooks f o r s tudent use . For grade one there i s a s e r i e s of s i x b o o k l e t s about the f a m i l y . These b o o k l e t s p r o v i d e p i c t u r e s w i th b r i e f c a p t i o n s which the c h i l d cannot read at the b e g i n n i n g of grade one, but c e r t a i n l y c o u l d l a t e r i n the y e a r . T i t l e s i n c l u d e , f o r example, " F a m i l i e s Have Needs", " F a m i l i e s Share" and " F a m i l i e s Change"- f o r grade one. Grade two has two l a r g e r t e x t s and four s m a l l "community" b o o k l e t s f o r " e x p l o r i n g " Mount C u r r i e , E l k f o r d , P r i n c e George and Naramata. The f i r s t l a r g e r t ex t e x p l o r e s "Your Schoo l and Neighbourhood" and the second one does a comparison of an imaginary "space community" wi th the c h i l d ' s own community. For grade three the three t e x t s are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d and p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . Drawings , graphs and maps now are presented f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . These p r i n c i p a l m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e to the t eacher on a more or l e s s automat ic b a s i s i n each s c h o o l . F i l m s , v i d e o t a p e s , a d d i t i o n a l books ( p r o f e s s i o n a l , l i b r a r y e t c . ) , and other m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , on the o ther hand, are l e f t up to the i n g e n u i t y and r e s o u r c e s of the t e a c h e r s and the d i s t r i c t . Assumptions The o l d course assumed the t eacher would r e s e a r c h and thereby l e a r n , would develop or o therwise supply needed m a t e r i a l s , and would d i r e c t the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o u r s e . Other than s imple g u i d e l i n e s and a set of p i c t u r e s , the s o c i a l s t u d i e s program, i t appears , - was assumed to be the domain of the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r . The new courses make a s i m i l a r assumption - b u t to a much l e s s e r degree . The q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d i s g r e a t e r . G o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , methodology and e v a l u a t i o n are more c o m p l e t e l y set o u t . Sample u n i t s , l e s s o n s and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s are d e t a i l e d . There i s s t i l l the assumption that t e a c h e r s w i l l r e s e a r c h the needed background i n f o r m a t i o n and f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l s , but they may be much more t i e d to r e q u i r e d m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e d u r e s . In s h o r t , the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s i s more d e t a i l e d than the o l d . G o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s , m a t e r i a l s , r e s o u r c e s and a c t i v i t i e s are more f u l l y set o u t . However, f o r t e a c h e r s i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s , the supply of m a t e r i a l s i s s t i l l not at a l l adequate . (One cannot r e p l a c e , f o r example, inadequate r e s o u r c e s , wi th homi lys about g o a l s . ) In terv i ewees complained tha t books , audio v i s u a l s , community f a c i l i t i e s and other r e s o u r c e s named were o f t e n not a v a i l a b l e . These s h o r t f a l l s no doubt a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g and the f i d e l i t y of the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . SCIENCE 10 PROBE Goals The 1967 and 1970 v e r s i o n s of the c u r r i c u l u m guide d i d not d e l i n e a t e goa l s and o b j e c t i v e s . R a t h e r , these o l d c u r r i c u l u m guides o u t l i n e d each l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e l i k e a r e s o u r c e manual . A b i b l i o g r a p h y , a long equipment l i s t , and some d i s c u s s i o n of s c i e n t i f i c theory as a p p l i c a b l e to p a r t i c u l a r l a b o r a t o r y exper iments were i n c l u d e d . T o p i c a l areas covered by the course i n c l u d e d i o n i c c h e m i s t r y , c e l l u l a r b i o l o g y , g e n e t i c s , e l e c t r i c i t y , magnetism, sound and e a r t h s c i e n c e . For the new c o u r s e , implemented i n 1984, the M i n i s t r y p r o v i d e d a c u r r i c u l u m guide and r e s o u r c e book a l l i n one. T h i s volume p r e s e n t s four g e n e r a l goa l s w i th ten g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g outcomes each . The goa l s are f o r a l l of j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e , and are supported by s i x s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e r s so that s e q u e n t i a l l e a r n i n g outcomes and a c t i v i t i e s can be developed f o r each j u n i o r secondary y e a r . The g e n e r a l goa l s s t a t e tha t the j u n i o r secondary s c i e n c e program should p r o v i d e : - f o r s t u d e n t s to deve lop p o s i t i v e s c i e n c e a t t i t u d e s , - f o r s tudent s to develop the s k i l l s and proces ses of s c i e n c e , - an i n c r e a s e to the s t u d e n t ' s s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, - f o r s tudent s to deve lop c r e a t i v e , c r i t i c a l and formal ( a b s t r a c t ) t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . (1984: p . 5 ) Each of these goa l s i s c r o s s r e f e r e n c e d to each s u b j e c t o r g a n i z e r i n each g r a d e . A c t i v i t i e s The o l d course was i n t e n d e d to be 50 percent l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s . The c u r r i c u l u m guide o u t l i n e d experiments and equipment l i s t s , but there was no d i s c u s s i o n of o ther methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n , or of e v a l u a t i o n , r e c o r d - k e e p i n g or program p l a n n i n g . The s tudent textbook p r o v i d e d a long s e r i e s of exper iments and a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s f o r e a c h . The s t u d e n t s ' r eader c o n t a i n e d a r t i c l e s r e l a t e d to t o p i c s under study as w e l l as q u e s t i o n s based on each a r t i c l e . 2.7 The new course i s l e s s l a b o r a t o r y - o r i e n t e d , and i n t e n d s a s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d and p e r s o n a l approach to s c i e n c e ; a c t i v i t i e s promote c l a r i t y of i s s u e s and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of s c i e n c e . L e a r n i n g i s sequenced w i t h i n each grade , w i th a l lowance g iven to i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s a n d / o r l o c a l t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Ins tead of the o l d e r s k i l l s / k n o w l e d g e emphasis , the new a c t i v i t i e s are d i r e c t e d to a t t i t u d e s and t h i n k i n g as w e l l as be ing " i n v e s t i g a t i v e " and wider i n v a r i e t y than j u s t e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . M a t e r i a l s A g a i n , the o l d course r e q u i r e d a l a r g e i n v e n t o r y of m a t e r i a l s and equipment to have s tudents do the many exper iments ; the t e x t was v i r t u a l l y a l a b o r a t o r y procedures guidebook. In the nev/ c o u r s e , because e x p e r i m e n t i n g i s r e d u c e d , so i s the q u a n t i t y of equipment . There i s , though, a need f o r audio v i s u a l s , and such r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s as j o u r n a l s and p e r i o d i c a l s . ( These r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s are not p r o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y ; d i s t r i c t s have to supply these needs d e s p i t e t h e i r c u r r e n t budgetary r e s t r a i n t and, i n the case of some d i s t r i c t s , t h e i r s m a l l s i z e and i s o l a t i o n . ) Assumptions The assumption of s p e c i f i c knowledge on the par t of the t eacher i s s i m i l a r i n both the new and o l d c o u r s e s , and t h i s i s c r u c i a l f o r our purposes , as i s the assumption that the t eacher w i l l be ab le to o b t a i n needed background m a t e r i a l s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n s , debates and audio v i s u a l p a r t s of the c o u r s e . However, the l a r g e s t change i s that the i n n o v a t i o n was des igned on the b a s i s of an i n t e g r a t e d themat ic a p p r o a c h . S i m p l y , the d e s i g n e r s wanted t e a c h e r s to i n t e g r a t e knowledge from the d i s c i p l i n e s of c h e m i s t r y , b i o l o g y and p h y s i c s around themes; one s e l e c t s b i t s of knowledge from each of these d i s c i p l i n e s as i t a p p l i e s to the theme. S e c o n d l y , the M i n i s t r y and the d e v e l o p e r s p laced the enormous task of theme development at the f ee t of the c la s sroom t e a c h e r , who, i n my o p i n i o n , does not have the time to d e v i s e m a t e r i a l s or r e s o u r c e s t h e r e t o . In summary, S c i e n c e 10 Probe o f f e r e d more c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d goa l s and o b j e c t i v e s , program o r g a n i z e r s and some hope of improved guidance to busy t e a c h e r s - such as a r e d u c t i o n i n r e p e t i t i v e use of pre - formed exper iment s ; a c t i v i t i e s are more v a r i e d and are i n v e s t i g a t i v e ; m a t e r i a l s show g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y . However, i t seems to me the i n t e g r a t e d themat ic approach i s a major f a i l i n g of the new c o u r s e , e s p e c i l l y f o r t e a c h e r s i n s m a l l , i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s . 29 CONTEXT ~ MINISTRY OF EDUCATION Before i n t e r v i e w i n g w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t , the r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d the former D i r e c t o r of Program Implementat ion S e r v i c e s w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y . The purpose of t h i s i n t e r v i e w was to get a M i n i s t r y p e r s p e c t i v e , such that the r e s e a r c h e r and the reader would have another angle from which to unders tand teacher responses to the three r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The D i r e c t o r ( M - l ) l e d t h a t branch of the M i n i s t r y from October 1978 u n t i l June 1983, when i t was t e r m i n a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l budgetary r e s t r a i n t program. The task of t h i s branch was to a s s i s t d i s t r i c t s i n the implementa t ion of m i n i s t r y - m a n d a t e d c u r r i c u l a , or as M - l puts i t : "to he lp people p lan and unders tand change ." L i k e the r e s t of the M i n i s t r y , t h i s branch was not d i r e c t e d to do a n y t h i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i c a b l e to s m a l l r u r a l d i s t r i c t s ; i t was mandated to serve s m a l l and l a r g e , r u r a l and u r b a n , d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s e q u a l l y . Rather than merely a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s , the branch t r i e d to work wi th s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l at the d i s t r i c t l e v e l - i n an e f f o r t to get a c r o s s the message t h a t : The M i n i s t r y i s remote to most t e a c h e r s ; the M i n i s t r y has to r e l y on the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . I f the m i n i s t r y does too much, i t a l l o w s l o c a l people to cop o u t . Implementat ion i s l a r g e l y a l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The t eacher i_s the 3t? implementer! Teachers need a l l k i n d s of s u p p o r t ; a c t i v e and ongoing at the l o c a l l e v e l . ( M - l ) The pr imary r o l e of the M i n i s t r y i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was one of t r a i n i n g the " t r a i n e r " . T h i s began with f i v e - d a y summer i n s t i t u t e s where implementa t ion t h e o r i e s of r e s e a r c h e r s such as F u l l a n , L e i t h w o o d , and o thers were d i s c u s s e d and made ready f o r d i s t r i c t use . These i n s t i t u t e s o c c u r r e d each year f o r s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , d i r e c t o r s of i n s t r u c t i o n and o ther d i s t r i c t l e a d e r s . A l s o , there were s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t e s des igned f o r such s p e c i f i c implementat ions as pr imary s o c i a l s t u d i e s and Sc i ence 1 0 . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was to be d e l i v e r e d down the l i n e to the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ; each person on tha t l i n e was to have a r e s p o s i b i l i t y to keep i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i n g . Communication was to be enhanced through the use of t e l e c o n f e r e n c i n g , so that people i n i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s c o u l d speak to o ther t e a c h e r s , d i s t r i c t s t a f f , M i n i s t r y s t a f f , s p e c i a l i s t s or any o ther person who c o u l d be of h e l p . Computer and te l ephone n e t w o r k i n g , the Knowledge Network, or o ther i n t e r a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e t e l e v i s i o n , d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s , PEMC, and the P r o v i n c i a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r L o c a l l y Developed M a t e r i a l s , were seen by M - l as h e l p f u l communication s o u r c e s . A c c o r d i n g to M - l the C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r L o c a l l y Developed M a t e r i a l s was one of the best ideas r e c e n t l y put i n t o p r a c t i c e by the M i n i s t r y , as i t was h i g h l y used d e s p i t e i t s low budget . The r e c e i v e r c o u l d phone the 31 author of the m a t e r i a l s to f i n d out how they were implemented. Other sources of he lp advocated by M - 1 i n c l u d e d the R u r a l T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , i n t e r - s c h o o l v i s i t a t i o n , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t consor t iums ( i n t e r - d i s t r i c t s h a r i n g of r e s o u r c e s ) , and correspondence c o u r s e s . To he lp d i s t r i c t s wi th t h e i r implementa t ion p l a n n i n g and i n s e r v i c e , the branch p r o v i d e d s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c c o n s u l t a n t s , r e g u l a r n e w s l e t t e r s that o u t l i n e d c u r r i c u l a r changes , v i d e o t a p e s , a l i b r a r y of implementa t ion p lans developed by d i s t r i c t s , names and addresses of p r o v i n c i a l educa tors who had i m p l e m e n t a t i o n / i n s e r v i c e e x p e r t i s e and wanted to share i t wi th o t h e r s , r e g u l a r conferences and r e g i o n a l meet ings , and documents to he lp r e a d e r s unders tand and p lan e d u c a t i o n a l change. Changes f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s c i e n c e were i n p r e p a r a t i o n when the Implementat ion Branch was t e r m i n a t e d due to budgetary r e s t r a i n t . M - l c la imed that p r e p a r a t i o n s had been made toward t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , such as the p r o d u c t i o n of implementa t ion v i d e o s . M - l suggested t h a t the bottom l i n e f o r communication was commitment to i t by the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and the p r i n c i p a l s . E x c e l l e n t communicat ion and a s o l i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of change had to come from the s u p e r v i s o r s . P r i n c i p a l s had to unders tand the need f o r c r o s s p o l l i n a t i o n of good ideas w i t h i n the s c h o o l system, as w e l l as' r e c e i v i n g them from the " o u t s i d e " . 3* With s m a l l d i s t r i c t s hav ing on ly a s k e l e t o n d i s t r i c t s t a f f , and t e a c h e r s being o v e r l o a d e d , M - l s a i d that the branch encouraged these d i s t r i c t s have a t h r e e - y e a r implementa t ion p lan and that they d e a l on ly wi th as many implementa t ions as were r e a s o n a b l e . T i m e l i n e s , dates and pac ing were seen as c r u c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s to overcome. Before d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be made about i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , p r i o r i t i e s were to be dec ided a c c o r d i n g to three q u e s t i o n s : 1. Is t h i s change going to i n c r e a s e s tudent i n t e r e s t and achievement? 2. W i l l the proposed change i n c r e a s e t eacher e x p e r t i s e and job s a t i s f a c t i o n ? 3. Is i t go ing to improve the o v e r a l l c l i m a t e of the s c h o o l , the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the c lassrooms and the c o n f i d e n c e of the community i n the s choo l? M - l c la imed that number 1 above was most i m p o r t a n t ; i f there was improved l e a r n i n g , then the r e s t would f o l l o w . In t h i s v e i n , M - l advocated the use of m u l t i - a g e g r o u p i n g s , peer l e a r n i n g , c o n t i n u i t y of t e a c h e r s , and the downplaying of grade groups and g r a d e - o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l a . Many d i f f i c u l t i e s of the m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m , i t \iras sugges ted , c o u l d be s o l v e d with a l e a r n i n g cont inuum. A l s o , M - l asked f o r pragmat ic d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by those charged wi th the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s m a l l i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t s : The c u r r i c u l u m l a r g e l y d e a l s i n a b s t r a c t i o n s . K i d s who l i v e i n i s o l a t e d r u r a l communit ies tend to be more o r i e n t e d to "hands on", and t h e r e ' s a s o r t of snobbishness i n the s c h o o l system i f you are not an academic 33 a c h i e v e r ! T h a t i s s h o r t s i g h t e d and i g n o r e s e v e r y t h i n g we know now a b o u t l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . K i d s a c h i e v e a b s t r a c t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t ways; a c h i e v e them t h r o u g h a l o t o f c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s . K i d s who d e a l w i t h "hands on " a c t i v i t i e s g e t a c o n c r e t e p r o d u c t t h a t t h e y c a n l o o k a t and s a y " s e e what I d i d " . T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g m a r v e l o u s and t h e r a p e u t i c a b o u t t h o s e c o n c r e t e p r o d u c t s and i t makes e d u c a t i o n so much more v i s i b l e t h a n a t e s t s c o r e d o e s . T h e r e i s a p r i d e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , t h a t goes away be y o n d a n y t h i n g a t e s t s c o r e c a n p r o d u c e . CHAPTER THREE SOURCES OF HELP T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s on data r e c e i v e d from t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s about s o u r c e s of h e l p . In each i n t e r v i e w t h e r e were t h r e e q u e s t i o n s about s o u r c e s of h e l p (Appendix C numbers 5,6 and 1 0 ) . Then a l l i n t e r v i e w e e s d i s c u s s e d a c h e c k l i s t (Appendix D) and i d e n t i f i e d o t h e r r e l e v a n t s o u r c e s of h e l p . T h i s c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d under f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s from which h e l p c o u l d be expe x t e d . D u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s , t e a c h e r s d i s c u s s e d what they saw as r e l e v a n t and p r a c t i c a l s o u r c e s of h e l p . T h e i r a t t i t u d e was t h a t of making the best use of whatever was q u i c k l y and r e a d i l y a t hand. They seemed to have l i t t l e time t o s e a r c h f o r r e s o u r c e s , and had l i t t l e f a i t h i n d e l i v e r y systems from " o u t s i d e " the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . MINISTRY OF EDUCATION As a source of h e l p , the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n was mentioned by very few t e a c h e r s . The M i n i s t r y p r o v i d e d c u r r i c u l a , and i t was seen as i n e v i t a b l e , r a t h e r than h e l p f u l . One t e a c h e r even s a i d "The M i n i s t r y i s more problem to me than s o l a c e " ( T-32 ). C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s were r e p o r t e d by h a l f the t e a c h e r s as i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s when one f i r s t b e g i n s a course l i k e s c i e n c e or s o c i a l s t u d i e s , but these t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d 25 them " o n l y g u i d e l i n e s " and not very u s e f u l f o r day to day cl a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f o r example, T-14 c l a i m e d t h a t the prim a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s guide was "not very u s e f u l " because i t l a c k e d i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the more i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t s , language a r t s and mathematics. On the o t h e r hand, T-13 p o i n t e d out t h a t c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s were more u s e f u l to her s i n c e she had taken a cour s e on c u r r i c u l u m development. The c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r s c i e n c e 10 seemed to be more u s e f u l t o t e a c h e r s ; T-26 p o i n t e d out t h a t i t was c l e a r i n terms of what was expected and what was o p t i o n a l , and two of the t e a c h e r s remarked t h a t s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g outcomes were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . For both c o u r s e s the M i n i s t r y developed a t e a c h e r RESOURCE BOOK . These books were mentioned by the m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s as b e i n g comprehensive and p r a c t i c a l . The f a i l i n g s of these volumes were two: 1. Resource m a t e r i a l s ( e . g . , f i l m s , books) mentioned i n them c o u l d not be e a s i l y or q u i c k l y a c c e s s e d by the t e a c h e r , and so f o r the most p a r t were i g n o r e d . 2. L e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were not always a p p r o p r i a t e or p o s s i b l e f o r s m a l l and i s o l a t e d communities: Guidebooks a re s e t up f o r urban a r e a s . We can't v i s i t museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s ; a l l we have i s the n a t u r a l woods. ( T-50 ) Few s p e c i f i c i m p l e m e n t a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s seemed to rea c h t h i s d i s t r i c t from the M i n i s t r y . For example, the d i s t r i c t ' s 34 d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n , who l o s t h i s job to the r e s t r a i n t program (March 1984) , a t t e n d e d a M i n i s t r y workshop on the prim a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n 1983. ( I n t e r e s t i n g l y , o n l y T-22 mentioned r e c e i v i n g any of t h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n ; the o t h e r 12 t e a c h e r s a p p a r e n t l y heard n o t h i n g . ) A l s o , t h e r e had been a M i n i s t r y v i d e o t a p e , f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of primary s o c i a l s t u d i e s , i n the d i s t r i c t f o r a t l e a s t one y e a r , but i t had not been viewed by these t e a c h e r s . Both c u r r i c u l a r changes were found to be more p r a c t i c a l and r e l e v a n t than the former c u r r i c u l a : s c i e n c e was more c u r r e n t and " r e a l " ; the pri m a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s a l t h o u g h i t c o n t a i n e d more up-to-date p i c t o r a l m a t e r i a l was somewhat l a c k i n g i n r u r a l examples. P r i m a r y t e a c h e r s a l s o e x p r e s s e d a need to h e l p the c h i l d t o r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the people or communities t h a t were s t u d i e d ; the c h i l d needed to be a b l e to "put h i m / h e r s e l f i n the p i c t u r e " . Teachers even suggested t h a t the m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be made more r e l e v a n t i f the t e a c h e r c o u l d r e l a t e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s from the communities under study l i k e P r i n c e George or E l k f o r d : T e l l i n g the r e a l s t o r y of a r e a l c h i l d was much more m e a n i n g f u l to the c h i l d . I was f o r t u n a t e i n knowing people who l i v e i n some of the c e n t r e s t h a t the books are based on. The one f o r E l k f o r d ; I have a b r o t h e r - i n - l a w t h e r e and he knows the boy t h a t the book was a l l about, so t h a t helped g r e a t l y . We had a l l s o r t s of p i c t u r e s sent from E l k f o r d . P r i n c e George; I l i v e d t h e r e , so I used r e s o u r c e s of my own l i k e p i c t u r e s . ( T - 22 ) 37 Teachers seemed to be c l e a r i n t h e i r own minds about the changes from the o l d to the new c u r r i c u l a . The s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the new c u r r i c u l u m emphasized t o p i c s which were s i m i l a r to the o l d ; the b i g g e s t change seemed to be the move from l a r g e p i c t u r e c a r d s to p i c t u r e t e x t books w i t h a few words. I t was noted by T-11-12-21-31 t h a t grade one c h i l d r e n had d i f f i c u l t y r e a d i n g the p r i n t e d t e x t f o r the m a j o r i t y of the y e a r . In the m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s e s of T-31-42-50 t h i s problem was c i r c u m v e n t e d by h a v i n g grade two or t h r e e c h i l d r e n read the t e x t of whichever p r i m a r y c o u r s e was b e i n g used. S c i e n c e 10 Probe i n v o l v e d a t h e m a t i c approach as opposed to the p r e v i o u s approach of t e a c h i n g the s e p a r a t e d i s c i p l i n e s of c h e m i s t r y , p h y s i c s , b i o l o g y and e a r t h s c i e n c e . In the summer of 1984, AA-2 a t t e n d e d a week l o n g M i n i s t r y workshop to l e a r n about the new c o u r s e and i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , so as to take t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n back to the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . I t was expected t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s workshop, and s u b s e q u e n t l y a l l s c i e n c e 10 t e a c h e r s , would work out t h e i r own themes and c o l l e c t the r e s o u r c e s f o r same. AA-2 p r e f e r s and s t i l l t e a c h e s the d i s c i p l i n e approach. T-26 t r i e d the t h e m a t i c approach ( but soon l e a r n e d the f u t i l i t y of t e a c h i n g s e r i e s and p a r a l l e l household c i r c u i t s w i t h i n a theme of s a l m o n i d enhancement! ) and w i l l use the d i s c i p l i a r y approach next y e a r . Other c l e a r changes i n c l u d e d a new u n i t on human s e x u a l i t y and an improved u n i t on h e r e d i t y . 3 * The d i s t r i c t d i d not r e c e i v e any s p e c i a l g r a n t s from the p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l governments f o r t h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . SCHOOL DISTRICT As a l r e a d y n o t e d , the d i s t r i c t no l o n g e r had a d i r e c t o r of i n s t r u c t i o n . There was no h e l p i n g t e a c h e r , d i s t r i c t program c o o r d i n a t o r , or t e a c h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to c a l l upon f o r h e l p w i t h any of the s u b j e c t s or f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . No i n t e r v i e w e e mentioned the s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r or the d i s t r i c t maintence s t a f f as s o u r c e s of h e l p . The o n l y f u l l - t i m e d i s t r i c t l e v e l e d u c a t o r was the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t who was busy w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n , budgets, and day by day d i s t r i c t o p e r a t i o n ; he had l i t t l e time to be i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . AA-2 a t t e n d e d the M i n i s t r y workshop on s c i e n c e 10; i n the year s i n c e , he spoke f o r l e s s than one hour t o T-26 and had not yet spoken to the o t h e r s i x t e a c h e r s of s c i e n c e . O p p o r t u n i t y f o r such communication was poor due to geography and t i m e . However, i t was somewhat s u p r i s i n g t h a t a communication network had not been b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . The d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e c e n t r e (DRC.) was l o c a t e d i n community one and had a l i m i t e d l i b r a r y of v i d e o t a p e s and l i t t l e e l s e . Teachers mentioned the DRC. as m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l . ( There were some d i s t r i c t d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the DRC. which w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter Four.) AA-2 had a t h i r d r o l e as the person i n charge of the DRC. and was g i v e n an FTE time assignment f o r same of about 0.125 . The DRC. c l e r k was a l s o p a r t - t i m e (0.4) . These two people were r a r e l y mentioned as s o u r c e s of h e l p by the t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d . For example, T-31 s a i d t h a t a p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n t of community t h r e e was now l i v i n g i n community one and a c t i n g as a t e a c h e r - a i d e ; T-31 had t h i s f r i e n d go to the DRC. to p r e view and check-out m a t e r i a l s as she c o u l d not do i t h e r s e l f . T-31 wished t h a t DRC. p e r s o n n e l c o u l d come to each s c h o o l o c c a s i o n a l l y t o d i s c u s s what was a v a i l a b l e , or t h a t t e a c h e r s c o u l d have the o c c a s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y to go to the DRC. to " l o o k through the s t u f f so as to choose". There was a s t r o n g f e e l i n g of b e i n g i s o l a t e d from the DRC: We don't always have the m a t e r i a l s f o r s c i e n c e or s o c i a l s t u d i e s because of i s o l a t i o n making them d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n a t the proper t i m e . Because of budgetary concerns we don't o f t e n have the funds to purchase the t h i n g s we need . In the past i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s a problem has been the t u r n o v e r of t e a c h e r s from year to y e a r , and as a r e s u l t we have not had a c o n s i s t a n t d i r e c t i o n i n the o b t a i n i n g of m a t e r i a l s . One of my c o m p l a i n t s about i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s t h a t I had a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e c e n t r e was going t o be a " f u n c t i o n i n g model", and I am f i n d i n g , as o t h e r p r i n c i p a l s a r e , t h a t i t i s not a f u n c t i o n i n g r e s o u r c e f o r a s c h o o l away from (community one). From my p o i n t of view, I taught here f o r a l o n g time and, no, I don't t h i n k the d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e c e n t r e has improved our s i t u a t i o n . There o n l y i s o s t e n s i b l y someone i n charge of the d r c . but i t has not e f f e c t i v e l y changed the s e r v i c e of r e s o u r c e s to the s c h o o l . The r e s o u r c e c e n t r e c a t a l o g i s not kept up to date and changes or updates are not sent to us . In f a c t , ( p r i n c i p a l , community t h r e e ) has been t o l d to "purchase " some t h i n g s . ( P-2 ) The d i s t r i c t ' s c u r r i c u l u m committee met t h r e e times i n the l a s t year (1984-1985). P r i m a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s was d i s c u s s e d i n November w i t h r e s p e c t to the M i n i s t r y tape which was to be c i r c u l a t e d , as was a s o c i a l s t u d i e s c h e c k l i s t to be used as a l o c a l l y developed s e t of g u i d e l i n e s . N e i t h e r of these s o u r c e s of h e l p seemed to reach or e f f e c t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . Teachers complained of never h a v i n g seen the v i d e o ( T-13-14-42), and a l t h o u g h each pr i m a r y t e a c h e r was to r e c e i v e a copy of the g u i d e l i n e s , no i n t e r v i e w e e mentioned r e c e i v i n g them. In June 1985 the r e s e a r c h e r asked t h a t the committee make e f f e c t i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s one of i t s g o a l s f o r the next y e a r , as i t was h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t such m a t e r i a l s were not r e a c h i n g t e a c h e r s . Each t e a c h e r was r e q u i r e d by d i s t r i c t p o l i c y to s e t out g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r each co u r s e t a u g h t . Over the l a s t f o u r y e a r s the format of these i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n s has been m o d i f i e d to make them more c l a s s r o o m u s e f u l and l e s s academic. S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s mentioned . t h a t these p l a n s were h e l p f u l f o r a s s i s t i n g t h e i r l o n g term and d a i l y p l a n n i n g , and f o r the sequencing of c u r r i c u l a r t o p i c s . Sequencing i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s or s c i e n c e became d i f f i c u l t i n a m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s b e c a u s e t h e t o p i c s c o u l d n o t b e p r e s e n t e d i n a l o g i c a l o r g r a d e s p e c i f i c w a y . T h e t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n w a s m e n t i o n e d b y o n l y a f e w t e a c h e r s , y e t w a s i m p o r t a n t i n a n u m b e r o f s i t u a t i o n s . T - l l - 1 2 t a l k e d a b o u t t h e r o l e o f t h e s p e c i a l i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n i n o r g a n i z i n g p r i m a r y t e a c h e r s c o n f e r e n c e s . T h e l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s m e t t h r e e t i m e s p e r y e a r . T h e s e w e r e t h e o n l y t i m e s w h e n c o l l e a g u e s w e r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t o s h a r e i d e a s a n d e n g a g e i n i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n . A l s o , t h e l o c a l t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n w a s i n v o l v e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t d a y s h e l d w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t o r s c h o o l . A p a r t f r o m s u c h m e e t i n g s , t h e r e w e r e f e w r e m i n d e r s a b o u t n e w p r o g r a m s , a s t h e t e a c h e r e n j o y e d v i r t u a l l y f u l l a u t o n o m y i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . No o t h e r d i s t r i c t i n i t i a t i v e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d b y t e a c h e r s a s s o u r c e s o f h e l p . T h e r e w a s n o p u s h b y t h e s c h o o l b o a r d t o i m p l e m e n t , n o r d i d i t e s t a b l i s h a n y l o n g t e r m p l a n , o r a n y s p e c i f i c f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r a n y p r o g r a m b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d . P u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o s w e r e n o t m e n t i o n e d b e c a u s e i n t h i s i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t c l a s s e s w e r e s m a l l ; r a t h e r t h e p r o b l e m w a s t h a t o f g r e a t h e t e r o g e n e i t y a n d / o r m u l t i g r a d e d n e s s . SCHOOL A t t h e s c h o o l l e v e l , t h e f i r s t s o u r c e o f h e l p m e n t i o n e d w a s t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d h i s / h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t s . ( T h i s d i s t r i c t had no v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s . ) A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l of the people implementing the s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s were a l s o p r i n c i p a l s or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t s , no i n t e r v i e w e e saw such people as a p a r t i c u l a r source of h e l p . T - l l - 1 2 r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r p r i n c i p a l made sure they had t e x t b o o k s , g u i d e s , and r e s o u r c e books, b u t , beyond t h i s h e l p , f o r example, T-32 c l a i m e d t h a t " My p r i n c i p a l knows n o t h i n g about s c i e n c e and s t a y s out of my way." P r i n c i p a l s saw themselves as a source of h e l p . They p o i n t e d out t h a t they were f a c i l i t a t o r s who p r o v i d e d m i n i s t r y and d i s t r i c t d i r e c t i v e s to t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as a l l t e x t b o o k s , g u i d e s and r e s o u r c e books. They a l s o noted t h a t they i n f l u e n c e d and c a r e d f o r s c h o o l budgets which made p o s s i b l e the v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s needed by t e a c h e r s . P r i n c i p a l s i n s t r u c t e d " l i b r a r i a n s " to " o r d e r books", which was a way of s a y i n g they f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n of s t a f f and the p r o v i s i o n of r e s o u r c e s ; however, P - l s a i d t e a c h e r s were expected to take the i n i t i a t i v e i n the c l a s s r o o m and i n the r e q u e s t i n g of new m a t e r i a l s or r e s o u r c e s , or budget f o r same. P- l - 2 agreed t h a t more p r o f e s s i n a l development was needed f o r t e a c h e r s ; s t a f f s h a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n was i m p o r t a n t , and P - l c l a i m e d to work towards t h a t g o a l . P-2 s t a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s came to the p r i n c i p a l o c c a s i o n a l l y about i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; t h i s p r i n c i p a l "makes sure c o u r s e s are b e i n g p r o p e r l y implemented" by means o f : 1. making sure the t e a c h e r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l p lans r e f l e c t the new c o u r s e ; 2. " t r y i n g to f o l l o w - u p i n the c l a s s r o o m . " (which means s u p e r v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n ) . No t eacher r e p o r t e d s p e c i f i c he lp from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t o ther than o b t a i n i n g t e x t s and c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s . There were no department heads , and no teacher mentioned the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s . Teacher c o l l e a g u e s were h i g h l i g h t e d as p r o v i d e r s of he lp by t e a c h e r s i n the l a r g e r s c h o o l s where they r e a d i l y cou ld c o n v e r s e . T-23 s t a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n o b s e r v i n g o ther t eachers ( not many t e a c h e r s were enthused about being observed as they s t r u g g l e d through an implementat ion of a new program ) and was w i l l i n g to observe i n o ther d i s t r i c t s a l though such o p p o r t u n i t y was extremely l i m i t e d . I s o l a t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y of t r a v e l , as w e l l as expense i n money and t ime , made such o b s e r v a t i o n p r o h i b i t i v e , mentioned T-25 . In the s m a l l s c h o o l s of community f o u r , T-41-42 s a i d that wi th c o l l e a g u e s : There i s c o n s u l t a t i o n , but i n terms of he lp we're a l l overwhelmed i n each of our own a r e a s . We do t r y to share even though a l l t e a c h e r s are t e a c h i n g at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . F u r t h e r , i t should be p o i n t e d out tha t T-50 and T-60 taught i n very i s o l a t e d o n e - t e a c h e r s c h o o l s and had no p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e a g u e s w i th whom to t a l k ! 4 V No t e a c h e r mentioned the c o u n s e l l i n g of c h i l d r e n as a source of h e l p , perhaps because f o r m a l c o u n s e l l i n g per se was non-e x i s t e n t and/or had low a p p l i c a b i l i t y to s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s . P a r e n t a l community groups were not mentioned and seemed to have l i t t l e i n p u t ; t e a c h e r s were not l i k e l y to seek a s s i s t a n c e from t h e s e groups w i t h the t a s k of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, s e v e r a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s mentioned pare n t v o l u n t e e r s , the s u c c e s s of which depended on the group of c h i l d r e n b e i n g taught and on p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s . For example, the e x p e r i e n c e w i t h v o l u n t e e r s v a r i e d from p o s i t i v e to n e g a t i v e f o r one t e a c h e r w i t h two d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s i n two s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s . In the f i r s t year ( 1 9 8 3 ) , the c l a s s was a group of low a c h i e v e r s w i t h b e h a v i o r a l and e m o t i o n a l problems, and t h i s group had a s e t of u n c o o p e r a t i v e , u n c a r i n g , and seemingly i n c a p a b l e p a r e n t s , which made v o l u n t e e r i s m a p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e . The next c l a s s (1984) was b r i g h t e r and had more enthused and p o s i t i v e p a r e n t s ; c l a s s r o o m v o l u n t e e r i s m was a g r e a t e r s u c c e s s . V i r t u a l l y every t e a c h e r mentioned t h a t the main v e h i c l e of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o r them was the s t u d e n t t e x t . Each t e a c h e r r e c e i v e d a c u r r i c u l u m guide and a s e t of s t u d e n t t e x t s , so the t e x t became c e n t r a l to whatever form or degree of c l a s s r o o m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o c c u r r e d . A l t h o u g h the s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s had a good f o r m a t , and were c o n s i d e r e d to be more c o l o r f u l and modern than the p i c t u r e s e t s of the p r e v i o u s c o u r s e ( c h i l d r e n r e l a t e d e a s i l y to the c h i l d r e n i n the p i c t u r e s which l o o k e d l i k e o r d i n a r y " k i d s " ), t e a c h e r s complained: When these t e x t s were used i n m u l t i g r a d e c l a s s r o o m s , the c o u r s e s were taught on a r o t a t i o n a l b a s i s . For example, T-31 spoke of " s a v i n g " c e r t a i n t e x t s f o r next year and of u s i n g p a r t s of t e x t s and t h e i r i d e a s d u r i n g two s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s . T h i s t e a c h e r implemented the grade t h r e e t e x t w i t h grades t h r e e and f o u r , adding enrichment f o r the f o u r s ; the grade twos d i d not f i n i s h the m a t e r i a l from the grade t h r e e t e x t , so a g a i n next year t h i s t e a c h e r w i l l modify the m a t e r i a l s . S u i t a b l e b i t s of each co u r s e and/or i t s t e x t were used to c r e a t e a m o d i f i e d c o u r s e t h a t s u i t e d the p r e s e n t s t u d e n t c o m p o s i t i o n . As T-31 s a i d " I found t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y enough i n the ( p r i m a r y ) program f o r f i v e y e a r s ; you j u s t have to modify i t . " The grade two t e x t s d e a l t w i t h the community, and s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s r e f e r r e d to t h a t s e c t o r of the course wherein a f i c t i t i o u s space community was c r e a t e d i n the c l a s s r o o m and compared to the s t u d e n t s ' own community. T-13-14-22 a l l p r a i s e d t h i s p a r t of the t e x t as i n t e r e s t i n g . C h i l d r e n found A l o t of words are beyond the grade ones. I t would be n i c e i f they c o u l d have s i m p l e enough v o c a b u l a r y t h a t they c o u l d read the books on t h e i r own. ( T-22 ) The t e x t s are too urban; n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n an i s o l a t e d c o a s t a l v i l l a g e r e l a t e to f i s h b o a t s but do not understand t r a f f i c l i g h t s or bus t r a n s f e r s . ( T-42 ) i t f u n . On the o t h e r hand, T-24 found the space community i m p r a c t i c a l i n a s m a l l i s o l a t e d community t h a t was not growing l i k e the space community. The s c i e n c e 10 t e x t was w e l l r e c e i v e d i n communities one and two as a source of h e l p t o t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . I t was an improvement upon i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . On the o t h e r hand, i t pr e s e n t e d some c o n s i d e r a b l e problems i n s m a l l m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s e s i n communities 3, 4 and 5. T-41 p o i n t e d o u t : 11 S c i e n c e i s c u m u l a t i v e and the n a t i v e c h i l d r e n of (community 4) a re not n e a r l y ready to use t h i s t e x t . " Because t h r e e grades were taught s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s t u d e n t s had to be a b l e to work on t h e i r own, and i t was u s u a l l y the case t h a t more s i m p l e m a t e r i a l s were r e q u i r e d . The i n t e g r a t e d t h e m a t i c approach i n t r o d u c e d a new s e t of " i m p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e s " , s a i d T-41, and so he used a s i m p l e r t e x t not p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h i s c o u r s e . There was no p r e s c r i b e d t e x t f o r a l t e r n a t i v e use w i t h l e s s academic s t u d e n t s who had l i t t l e a b i l i t y to read or comprehend, or were l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d . F u r t h e r , i n community f i v e the two grade ten s t u d e n t s used the t e x t v i r t u a l l y on t h e i r own w h i l e the t e a c h e r and the o t h e r c h i l d r e n were doing work i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s and grades, even though the t e x t was not des i g n e d f o r s e l f - s t u d y programs. As T-50 s a i d : When a c h i l d works on h i s own i t t a k e s a l o t l o n g e r to master a c o n c e p t . He has worked s t e a d i l y from October to March, yet he i s o n l y t o c h a p t e r 4. How do we e v a l u a t e h i s p r o g r e s s a g a i n s t the s t u d e n t s i n (communities one and two)? There were no o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l s o u r c e s of h e l p mentioned by any t e a c h e r . I n c r e a s e d m a t e r i a l equipment and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t were viewed as d e s i r e a b l e but u n a v a i l a b l e . TEACHERS The t e a c h e r l e v e l l e a v e s q u e s t i o n s as to what were s o u r c e s of h e l p and what are d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n s e r v i c e ( "hands-on" t r a i n i n g or o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l development) was mentioned by t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as i m p o r t a n t : i t h e l p e d them not to " r e - i n v e n t the wheel" ( T - l l ) and as T-23 s a i d a f t e r b e i n g i s o l a t e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s , she needed " some o u t s i d e e x p e r i e n c e s to a c t as benchmarks." They a l l committed themselves to the need f o r i n s e r v i c e , e s p e c i a l l y the i d e a of " l e a r n i n g i t on F r i d a y and p u t t i n g i t to use on Monday". U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, most complained t h a t t h i s source of h e l p was not a v a i l a b l e to them: I would l i k e more i n p u t from o t h e r t e a c h e r s on what they are d o i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t e a c h e r s from l a r g e r c i t i e s . We need more p r o f e s s i o n a l development or a study s e s s i o n to get more i d e a s on p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l s . ( T-15 ) To go out f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development i s e x p e n s i v e to me p e r s o n a l l y , d e s p i t e the funds t h a t might be a v a i l a b l e to d e f r a y some p a r t of the c o s t . A l s o , I have to p r o v i d e a few days of s u b s t i t u t e work f o r a sub i n a l l s u b j e c t s (and g r a d e s ) , and t h i s i s a g r e a t d e a l of work. ( T-32 ) Summer s c h o o l s ( u n i v e r s i t y ) and summer i n s t i t u t e s were viewed as d e s i r a b l e , as were r e g u l a r f o l l o w - u p meetings a f t e r such c o u r s e s or t r a i n i n g . H8 Teacher e x p e r i e n c e was h e l p f u l i n p r e p a r i n g d a i l y l e s s o n s and l o n g - t e r m p l a n s . To the i s o l a t e d t e a c h e r , h i s or her e x p e r i e n c e was c r i t i c a l f o r i m p r o v i s i n g and making do w i t h meagre r e s o u r c e s . Even seasoned t e a c h e r s d o i n g the s o c i a l s t u d i e s f o r the f i r s t time found i t n e c e s s a r y to r e l y on past e x p e r i e n c e , as w e l l as to probe the e x p e r i e n c e of c o l l e a g u e s ( T-12-13 ). As a young t e a c h e r t r y i n g t o g a i n e x p e r i e n c e , T-23 f e l t t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y t o " r e - i n v e n t the wheel" or t r y t h i n g s out was i m p o r t a n t . A l l s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s s a i d t h a t t h e i r s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g and background was u s e f u l . C h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s r o o m c o u l d a l s o be a source of h e l p : C o n t r o l over s t u d e n t s , or d i s c i p l i n e , i s needed. W e l l behaved k i d s h e l p i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . On t a s k time i s i m p o r t a n t and so i s s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . (T-23) M i s b e h a v i n g c l a s s e s respond p o o r l y to thes e c o u r s e s ; they need non academic s t i m u l i . ( T-25 ) T-32 e x p l a i n e d t h a t s m a l l i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s a l s o have p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h a wide spectrum of s t u d e n t a b i l i t i e s . These new c o u r s e s had l i t t l e to o f f e r s t u d e n t s w i t h l e a r n i n g problems, as t h e r e were no s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s of h e l p w i t h i n the d e s i g n of e i t h e r c o u r s e t h a t o s t e n s i b l y a s s i s t e d the t e a c h e r who had a s t u d e n t w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y . With the prim a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s , s m a l l group d i s c u s s i o n became d i f f i c u l t w i t h l a r g e r c l a s s s i z e s ; groups of 20 or more were d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l and to get p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( T-22 ). Grouping ( o f s p l i t and m u l t i g r a d e c l a s s e s ), s t u d e n t L/7 p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , on t a s k b e h a v i o r of the s t u d e n t s c o u l d be i m p o r t a n t time and g e n e r a l s o u r c e s of h e l p . RESOURCES The a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i l m s , f i l m s t r i p s , v i d e o t a p e s and o t h e r a u d i o - v i s u a l s was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by a l l t e a c h e r s as a way to expand narrow l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . T-11-12-15-22 would use more of these r e s o u r c e s i f they were a v a i l a b l e , c o u r s e s p e c i f i c , and from the p o i n t of view of the c h i l d . S e q u e n t i a l i z e d f i l m s from the DRC. or PEMC were not always r e c e i v e d on time when needed. T-22 would l i k e t hese r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s to t a k e photographs of the d i s t r i c t f o r use as a source of h e l p ; o t h e r grade one t e a c h e r s c l a i m e d t h e r e was o n l y one s e r i e s of f i l m s on the f a m i l y , and t h e s e o n l y c o n s i d e r e d the t y p i c a l f a m i l y of "mom, dad and 1.8 k i d s " ; needed were f i l m s showing o t h e r f a m i l y c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s of d i v o r c e , s t e p - p a r e n t s and a l t e r n a t i v e f a m i l y arrangements ( T - l l - 1 2 ). The v i d e o t a p e l i b r a r y of the l o c a l community c o l l e g e p r o v i d e d f i l m s f o r S c i e n c e 10 t h a t were not a v a i l a b l e i n o t h e r r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s ( T-26 ). A c c o r d i n g to AA-2, however, a c u r r e n t t a s k of the DRC. was to o b t a i n f i l m s r e l e v a n t to new c o u r s e s l i k e S c i e n c e 10, and he wanted to have s u g g e s t i o n s from T-26. The P r o v i n c i a l C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r L o c a l l y Developed M a t e r i a l s was used i n at l e a s t t h r e e of the communities, but was not $0 mentioned by i n t e r v i e w e e s . Networking of r e s o u r c e s had not begun i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . No t eacher used r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s , or o ther d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n d e v i c e s such as i n t e r a c t i v e t e l e v i s i o n ( c u r r e n t budgetary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t e l e c t r o n i c t e c h n o l o g y ) . The Correspondence Branch was not mentioned as a source of he lp even though i t s m a t e r i a l s were used p e r i o d i c a l l y i n the d i s t r i c t . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s made textbook d e c i s i o n s based on a l i s t of t i t l e s i n a M i n i s t r y c a t a l o g u e . Other m a t e r i a l s , from audio v i s u a l a i d s to m a t e r i a l s u p p l i e s , were ordered from c a t a l o g u e s . The educator most o f t e n had no idea e x a c t l y what he /she was b u y i n g ; t h e r e f o r e P -2 spoke about the n e c e s s i t y of a c t u a l l y l o o k i n g at sample m a t e r i a l s : I f there are a l t e r n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s , we need more i n f o r m a t i o n . We f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to make a c h o i c e based s o l e l y on a " t i t l e " . We need to have a sample i n hand. P a r t i c u l a r l l y i n the case of s o c i a l s t u d i e s we had to make an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n as to which b o o k l e t s ( t e x t s ) we would p u r c h a s e . They were c o s t l y and we c o u l d on ly order 35 c o p i e s of four t i t l e s . OTHERS The l a s t area c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s chapter i s those sources of he lp mentioned by t e a c h e r s a p a r t from those l i s t e d i n Appendix D. Schoo l l i b r a r i e s were a he lp i n the l a r g e r s c h o o l s and a h i n d r a n c e (no s t a f f to care f o r i t , and too l i m i t e d to be u s e f u l ) i n the s m a l l ones . The d i s t r i c t r e c e n t l y set up a " l i b r a r y committee" i n each s c h o o l ( there are no l i b r a r i a n s ) , w i th the task of s e a r c h i n g f o r and o r d e r i n g r e s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y books . T - l l - 1 2 found t h i s committee h e l p f u l when o r d e r i n g books about " F a m i l i e s " . AA-2 used people from i n d u s t r y or government as speakers or r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , a l t h o u g h i t was o f t en d i f f i c u l t to get them because they had to t r a v e l i n from the o u t s i d e ; one c o u l d r a r e l y have these people upon demand. T-26 used government b i o l o g i s t s from a nearby sa lmonid enhancement p r o j e c t to s u c c e s s f u l l y he lp wi th h i s theme of sa lmonid enhancement i n Sc i ence 10. There seemed to be a d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n about commercia l m a t e r i a l s . Some t e a c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d them v a l u a b l e because they saved t i m e , and would use more of these m a t e r i a l s i f they were made a v a i l a b l e . Another group of t eachers p r e f e r r e d to make t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s . Beg inn ing t e a c h e r s , f o r example, wanted to prepare t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s more than the e x p e r i e n c e d t eacher or the t eacher wi th a m u l t i g r a d e ass ignment . T - l l - 1 2 l i k e d to d e v i s e m a t e r i a l s and a c t i v i t i e s to supplement the pr imary s o c i a l s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s p e c i a l events l i k e C h r i s t m a s . The next c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s data on some d i f f i c u l t i e s that t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e d whi le implement ing Sc i ence 10 and pr imary s o c i a l s t u d i e s . The i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between sources of he lp and d i f f i c u l t i e s i s o b v i o u s . I t i s p r o b l e m a t i c to s epara te what i s " h e l p f u l " and what i s a " d i f f i c u l t y " b e c a u s e b o t h o f t e n depend on each o t h e r . Many of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r a r e r e a l l y p l e a s f o r p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e s o f h e l p . b3 CHAPTER FOUR DIFFICULTIES I t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e s o u r c e s of h e l p and d i f f i c u l t i e s . I f a t e a c h e r b e l i e v e s he/she needs a p a r t i c u l a r source of h e l p t h a t i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , then t h a t l a c k of " h e l p " may become a d i f f i c u l t y . Many t e a c h e r s have l i t t l e time to d e a l w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s , and so do the best they can w i t h the r e s o u r c e s at hand. T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s . MINISTRY OF EDUCATION The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n was viewed by t e a c h e r s as "something" f a r away, l a r g e , p o l i t i c a l and a u s t e r e . Any d i r e c t i v e from the M i n i s t r y was taken as a f a i t a c c o m p l i , and the M i n i s t r y took the blame f o r s h o r t c o m i n g s of new programs. I n t e r v i e w e e s d e s i r e d new c u r r i c u l a c o m p l e t e l y packaged as opposed to bare s k e l e t o n s . Rather than c u r r i c u l a r g u i d e l i n e s s u g g e s t i n g books or f i l m s , t e a c h e r s i n t h i s i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t wanted such r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e d i n the package, and i s s u e d by the M i n i s t r y . The new program has been plunked on us, and i f i t s to succeed i t must be w e l l l a i d o u t . There needs to be more m a t e r i a l we c o u l d j u s t p i c k up and use . . . t h e r e must be a s i m p l e r way. ( T-24 ) F Some t h i n g s I would l i k e to do, I ca n ' t do because I don't have the m a t e r i a l s . M a t e r i a l s are d i f f i c u l t to get h o l d o f . The c u r r i c u l u m guide i s s e t f o r the i d e a l urban c l a s s . I have to use the st u d e n t book and develop t e a c h e r made wor k s h e e t s . ( T-25 ) Teacher guide was d i f f i c u l t because I d i d n ' t know what to s t r e s s . Too much s c r o u n g i n g , I don't have time to prepare a l l of these t h i n g s . I want p r e - p r e p a r e d m a t e r i a l s . There i s too much cour s e m a t e r i a l , I o n l y use one book "Turn On To Canada" . I t t a k e s a l l your time to d e a l w i t h one t h i n g w e l l . ( T-15 ) Too much m a t e r i a l f o r day by day i s needing to be t e a c h e r p r e p a r e d . I am not f a m i l i a r w i t h the " r e s o u r c e p e o p l e " i n (community two ), you are very l i m i t e d i n the number of people you can draw i n f o r m a t i o n from. ( T-24 ) More packaged programs would a l l o w more i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g ; k i t s , games, t a p e s . I f I spent many hours working out a f u l l program, I c o u l d p r o b a b l y , g i v e n a few months, develop my own i n f o r m a t i o n , but t h a t s h o u l d not be the s i t u a t i o n w i t h a new program p r e s e n t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government. They s h o u l d have a l l s o r t s of i n f o r m a t i o n packages, f i l m s , p i c t u r e s e t s , e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e , a v a i l a b l e t o us. Because the t e a c h e r has not been to a l l the p l a c e s mentioned, we need audio v i s u a l and n a r r a t i v e backup.( T-25 ) Teacher-made m a t e r i a l s t a k e t i m e . I l i k e " k i t - l i k e " p r e - p r e p a r e d m a t e r i a l s t o save t e a c h e r t i m e . We need time to prepare a l l these l i t t l e t h i n g s , such s i m p l e t h i n g s as a p h o t o c o p i e r b e i n g down p r e v e n t s p r e p a r a t i o n . These f o l k s r e a l l y need p r e - p r e p a r e d packaged e q u i p m e n t / s u p p l i e s f o r the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . The i d e a i s to cut down on scrounge time so as to be a b l e to spend more time on c h i l d - o r i e n t e d needs. ( T-24 ) ( T-31 ) ( T - l l ) I need o u t l i n e / l e s s o n p l a n s where k i d s can work on t h e i r own. M u l t i l e s s o n s a r e i m p o s s i b l e . I o f t e n t e a c h one l e s s o n t o a l l t h r e e g r a d e s . U n l i k e more u r b a n a r e a s , I c a n ' t j u s t r u n t o t h e " d r u g s t o r e " ; s u p p l i e s a r e a p r o b l e m . B e c ause t h e d i s t r i c t s t a f f was t o o s m a l l t o h e l p and t h e t e a c h e r was t o o busy w i t h day t o day t h i n g s , t h e m a j o r i t y of l i s t e d r e s o u r c e s r e m a i n e d "on t h e l i s t " . DISTRICT The d i s t r i c t ' s s m a l l n e s s c o n t r i b u t e d t o an o v e r w h e l m i n g l a c k of p e r s o n n e l , r e s o u r c e s , f u n d s and o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e a l w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , o f v/hich i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was o n l y one. As a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h e r e was l i t t l e d i s t r i c t h e l p w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n beyond t h e s u p p l y o f t e x t b o o k s . An immediate d i f f i c u l t y was a l a c k o f money, the major e n g i n e of t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , from 1982 t o 1985 d e v e l o p e d a new framework f o r f i n a n c i n g e d u c a t i o n , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n ment's r e s t r a i n t p rogram. W i t h t h e budget c u t s o f t h e r e s t r a i n t program and t h e i n e q u i t i e s o f t h e f i n a n c i a l framework, s c h o o l s and t h e i r programs s u f f e r e d d i s r u p t i o n . (A p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g was s h e l v e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s due t o t h e l a c k o f f u n d i n g t o implement i t . ) The t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d knew t h a t t h i s p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was one o f t h e prime s o u r c e s o f t h e i r l a c k o f ( T-41 ) f u n d s . The f o l l o w i n g " h i s t o g r a m " shows which t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d what v o i d s : l a c k of s t u d e n t m a t e r i a l s T-•21- 15- •32- 24 -25 l a c k of a u d i o v i s u a l s T- 13- 14- •21- 15 -41 -42 l a c k of t e x t b o o k s 0 l a c k of l i b r a r y books T- 31- 22- •21- 15 -41 -26 l a c k of l i b r a r i a n s T- 31- 22- 26 l a c k of s e c r e t a r i a l time T- 22- 15- 26 l a c k of t e a c h e r a i d e s T- 32- 26 l a c k of s u b s t i t u t e s T- 22 I s o l a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a l a c k or a need. There were many v o i d s t o d e a l w i t h i n the s e s m a l l communities. The two most t a l k e d about were l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s and l i m i t e d communication: 1. L i m i t e d R e s o u r c e s , e.g.: Many of the r e s o u r c e s l i s t e d i n the guide a re u n a v a i l a b l e t o us e s p e c i a l l y because we are i n a s m a l l community. We do not have a c c e s s to the books. Because i t i s a new program our l i b r a r y does not have these books y e t ; maybe they w i l l some day. The f i l m s and the l i k e are d i f f i c u l t f o r us to get a h o l d of i n a s m a l l community and a r a t h e r i s o l a t e d one. ( T-24 ) There i s v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g e x t r a a v a i l a b l e t o the t e a c h e r except what i s i n the book. With t h a t as the o n l y s t i m u l u s f o r grade t h r e e s t u d e n t s , i t s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t to get them i n t e r e s t e d i n the program. ( T-25 ) There are no PEMC v i d e o s a v a i l a b l e f o r the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . There are none a t d r c . e i t h e r . ( T-25 ) As f o r the DRC, I d i d n ' t f i n d much there....why don't we have f i l m s and r e s o u r c e s here i n our l i b r a r y ? ( T-22 ) We get t h i s "What's New" news tape ( c u r r e n t e v e n t s ) from the DRC. I t i s c o p i e d i n (community one) and f o r w a r d e d . 5 1 Sometimes we g e t i t one week l a t e , and t h a t ' s p r e t t y new -- o t h e r t i m e s we g e t i t t wo, t h r e e weeks l a t e , and t h e n i t s n o t new; and i f you g e t t h r e e t a p e s a t o n c e , i t s an o v e r d o s e . I f we c o u l d t a p e o f f a d i s h i t w o u l d be b e t t e r . A b o u t a new d i s h -- we need i t now! ( T-41 ) The o n l y r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e u s e f u l a r e t h e r e s o u r c e s you c a n have on hand on a p e r m a n e n t b a s i s l i k e v i d e o t a p e s o r a c o m p u t e r . ( T-42 ) P e r h a p s t h e f i l m s and v i d e o s f r o m PEMC c o u l d be d u p l i c a t e d more so t h e y c o u l d be more u s e f u l t o u s . ( T-22 ) 2. L i m i t e d C o m m u n i c a t i o n , e.g.: The s h i p p i n g c h a r g e s on f i l m s a r e huge and we c a n ' t r e l y on t h e m a i l o r t h e a i r p l a n e . You s e e , a n o t h e r p r o b l e m h e r e i s t h a t a v i d e o t a p e c o s t s n i n e d o l l a r s , b u t i t c o s t s us n i n e d o l l a r s f r e i g h t o r e i g h t e e n d o l l a r s a i r f a r e ; i t c o s t s e i g h t e e n d o l l a r s ( e a c h way) t o s h i p a t a p e t h a t i s o n l y w o r t h n i n e d o l l a r s . We need a d i s h so we c a n do o u r own c o p y i n g . ( T-41 ) We need more c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; we a r e u n a b l e t o g e t t h i n g s i n and o u t due t o i s o l a t i o n . I t i s e x p e n s i v e t o g e t s t u f f i n and o u t . ( T-50 ) I n a s m a l l community t h e r e i s no a c c e s s t o m a t e r i a l s , e x p e r t s , museums e t c . T h e r e s h o u l d be more v i d e o t a p e s , p i c t u r e s e t s and t e a c h e r m a t e r i a l s . G r a d e t h r e e i s n o t as w o r k a b l e i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s as i t w o u l d be i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d ( a n u r b a n a r e a ) . I s o l a t i o n g i v e s us l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , p e o p l e p r o b l e m s , l o t s o f l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s and a s i t u a t i o n where r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g , l a n g u a g e a r t s and math a r e more i m p o r t a n t . ( T-25 ) A r r i v a l t i m e s on f i l m s i s h o p e l e s s . I c a n ' t g e t t o t h e r e s o u r c e c e n t r e on t i m e ; I d o n ' t know w h a t ' s t h e r e . We have a s h o r t a g e o f f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s f o r t h i s c o u r s e and l i t t l e o r no m a t e r i a l i n t h e DRC. ( T - l l ) There were l o t s and l o t s of f i l m s , e t c . , mentioned i n the t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e , however, very few of them are to be found i n SD #84. The f i l m s I found d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d t h r ough PEMC; as w e l l , and of c o u r s e you have the problem t h a t you o r d e r them i n September f o r December and the f i l m s show up i n March. I f they are not a v a i l a b l e u n t i l 2,3,4 months a f t e r you have taught the c o u r s e , they are not much use. ( T-22 ) There are few v i d e o s from PEMC or DRC, and they are u s e l e s s here because they are never on time and can o n l y s t a y f o r a l i m i t e d t i m e . ( T-42 ) The people who wrote the program at the M i n i s t r y l e v e l s h o u l d have as p a r t of t h e i r job to s e l l the program to the d i s t r i c t s and come out to each d i s t r i c t and do a h a l f - d a y workshop. Our s c h o o l d i s t r i c t needs someone i n charge of s o c i a l s t u d i e s . I t i s hard f o r our d i s t r i c t t o meet. I need another grade two t e a c h e r to t a l k t o ! B e i n g i s o l a t e d means we have no one to r e f l e c t o f f o f . Pro'D time i s needed to observe i n o t h e r c l a s s r o o m s . ( T-13 ). I would l i k e to be a b l e to o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n t a c t some o t h e r s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t or i n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . The geography of the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n p r e c l u d e s t h i s , more than perhaps t w i c e i n a s c h o o l y e a r . I would l i k e to emphasize t h a t t h i s problem of not b e i n g a b l e to s o c i a l i z e w i t h o t h e r s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s might seem t r i v i a l t o whoever i s d o i n g the assessment of t h i s document i n an o f f i c e downtown somewhere, but, b e i n g the o n l y s c i e n c e t e a c h e r w i t h i n a f i v e hour d r i v e , one tends o n l y to use h i s own i d e a s . I am concerned about academic d r i f t t a k i n g p l a c e ! ( T-32 ) As can be seen from these q u o t e s , the l a c k of f u n d s , r e s o u r c e s , and communication were i n t e r r e l a t e d ; each f a c t o r impacted upon and e x a c e r b a t e d the o t h e r s . On the matter of f i e l d t r i p s and/or the use of community f a c i l i t i e s , the i n t e r v i e w e e s a l l complained of the l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y . The communities are d e v o i d of most b a s i c s e r v i c e s . When communities 4, 5 and 6 do not have a bank or even a g r o c e r y s t o r e , how can we t a l k about v i s i t i n g s c i e n c e i n s t i t u t i o n s or a r t g a l l e r i e s ? For example, F i e l d t r i p s are out of the q u e s t i o n , no p l a c e to go. ( T-24 ) As f a r as f i e l d t r i p s go i t ' s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t b e i n g i n a s m a l l i s o l a t e d community. You don't have the l a r g e supermarkets or a l a r g e bakery to go v i s i t as suggested i n the r e s o u r c e book i t ' s not p r a c t i c a l i n (community two). What you don't have you can't go and see. Perhaps the M i n i s t r y or the d i s t r i c t c o u l d take a f i l m crew i n t o a bakery or supermarket and make a f i l m t h a t we c o u l d show to the c h i l d r e n i n s t e a d of h a v i n g to take them to the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . ( T-22 ) I t s a r e a l drawback — no f i e l d t r i p p o t e n t i a l h e r e . A l s o , no d o l l a r s to go anyway. ( T-21 ) We j u s t cannot take k i d s on a f i e l d t r i p -- no a c c e s s to a m a j o r i t y of them; \\re're too i s o l a t e d . ( T-42 ) Weather was not mentioned by any i n t e r v i e w e e , a l t h o u g h i t would be a problem i f f i e l d t r i p s were p o s s i b l e , as t h i s a r e a r e c e i v e s 180 to 250 i n c h e s of r a i n per annum. The l a c k of t e a c h e r s u b s t i t u e s was mentioned ( T-22 ); i n i s o l a t e d communities, most s u b s t i t u t e s were mothers w i t h no t e a c h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . In most cases very l i t t l e t e a c h i n g <o 0 may o c c u r , r e g a r d l e s s o f c u r r i c u l u m , when t h e s u b s t i t u t e t a k e s o v e r . A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y t h a t a r o s e i n e a c h community was p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , as a r e f l e c t i o n o f p o o r i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y c o m m u n i c a t i o n and o f how s e p a r a t e l y e a c h c ommunity o p e r a t e d . B o t h P - l - 2 were i n a g r e e m e n t t h a t more i n s e r v i c e was n e e d e d , b u t t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t e r m s o f t i m e and money; y e t P-2 w o u l d l i k e more d i s t r i c t c o o r d i n a t i o n o f what i n s e r v i c e d o e s o c c u r . The l a c k o f t i m e and money f o r i n s e r v i c e was d i s c o u n t e d by T-24, c l a i m i n g t h a t " P r o'D i s n o t as i m p o r t a n t as a c c e s s i b l e m a t e r i a l s " . R e c e n t l y t h e d i s t r i c t a s s i g n e d AA-1 t o t h e t a s k o f c u r r i c u l u m and t h e r e s o u r c e c e n t r e as a 0.4 a s s i g n m e n t . AA-1 c o n t e n d e d t h a t i t w o u l d be e a s i e r f o r t h e d i s t r i c t t o d e a l w i t h t h e t i m e and money p r o b l e m i f he went t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n s e r v i c e o u t o f t h e d i s t r i c t and b r o u g h t back t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e t e a c h e r s by t r a v e l l i n g t o t h e d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t i e s : I t i s n o t f e a s i b l e o r p r a c t i c a l f o r t h o s e t e a c h e r s f r o m ( c o m m u n i t i e s 1,2,3) t o t r a v e l t o ( t h e n e x t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ) . I go t o t h o s e t h i n g s and t h e n I c a n go t o e a c h o f t h e s c h o o l s and t a l k t o e a c h o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y . T h i s a p p l i e s e s p e c i a l l y t o i n i t i a l p i l o t w o r k s h o p s . AA-1 c l a i m e d c o r r e c t l y t h a t i t was l e s s e x p e n s i v e t o have him t r a v e l t o v a r i o u s c o m m u n i t i e s t h a n i t w o u l d be t o g a t h e r a l l t h e t e a c h e r s o f a g i v e n s u b j e c t t o g e t h e r . E n r o l l m e n t i n t h i s d i s t r i c t d e c l i n e d s e v e r e l y due to the r e s t r a i n t program and poor markets i n the f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y . In the l a s t f o u r y e a r s the s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d i n e xcess of 15 p e r c e n t and i n community t h r e e the s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d from 77 to 36 ( 53 % ). A h i g h p ercentage of the c l a s s e s i n the d i s t r i c t ' s s i x communities were low e n r o l l m e n t m u l t i g r a d e heterogeneous c l a s s e s . Such c l a s s e s were p e r c e i v e d to be a d i f f i c u l t y : M u l t i g r a d e makes PTR ( p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o ) s i l l y . Time i s a b i g r e s t r i c t i o n because of the number of groups of k i d s you have i n one c l a s s . ( T-42 ) T e aching a s p l i t grade i s d i f f i c u l t . ( T-24 ) PTR i s low, but I have a m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s . Long range- p l a n n i n g i s d i f f i c u l t because we can't p r e d i c t how f a s t the t h r e e grades w i l l c over the m a t e r i a l . I f i n d i t hard to know what k i d s have covered -- perhaps a p r e t e s t ? ( T-32 ) I may o n l y have 13 k i d s but I have 11 grades and 77 s u b j e c t s . ( T-50 ) I have t h r e e ESL's t h a t l a c k language s k i l l s , and o t h e r k i d s w i t h extreme b e h a v i o r . When thes e groups don't u n d e r s t a n d , m u l t i g r a d e d t e a c h i n g becomes more d i f f i c u l t . ( T-22 ) V i r t u a l l y every t e a c h e r mentioned time as the f a c t o r of prime importance to them. In a s m a l l community the t e a c h e r i s o f t e n the o n l y p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e person and as such i s e xpected to perform e x t r a o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t a s k s r e g a r d l e s s of the number of work hours i n v o l v e d per day (T-32-50-24-11-12-22-42-41-24). The response to change by s m a l l communities was not w e l l documented i n t h i s s t u d y , but the g e n e r a l t r e n d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t seemed to be one of r e s i s t a n c e . The r e s i s t a n c e took a p e c u l i a r form. P a r e n t s were i n g e n e r a l a p a t h e t i c towards e d u c a t i o n and a l l i t s encumbered b u r e a u c r a c y . In the s p r i n g of 1985 the M i n i s t r y ran a " L e t ' s T a l k About S c h o o l s " campaign wherein e d u c a t o r s met w i t h p a r e n t s to understand what the parent wanted f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r a t t e n d e d these meetings i n each community and h e l p e d r e c o r d d a t a . P a r e n t s g e n e r a l l y saw m i n i s t r y mandates as " c a s t i n s t o n e " . T h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l d e s i r e s were g e n e r a l or i l l d e f i n e d ; they wanted a good b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , but t h e r e was l i t t l e consensus on what t h a t was. They wanted to be i n f o r m e d of c u r r i c u l a r change, but were not w i l l i n g to study the change i n any d e t a i l ; t h i s they l e f t t o the " t e a c h e r " . They wanted m a t e r i a l s t h a t were r e l e v a n t to s t u d e n t s and saw l i t t l e purpose i n the more academic and a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s . T-32 e x p l a i n e d community a t t i t u d e s t h i s way: The community does not p l a c e a h i g h p r i o r i t y on i n t e l l e c t u a l , academic or c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . There i s l o t s of money i n a l o g g i n g community so i t s hard to persuade c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g to r e a l l y be gained by academic d i l i g e n c e . They can see t h e i r n e i g h bours ( l o g g e r s ) work 3 or 4 l e s s months per year than I do and make anywhere from 5 to 30 thousand d o l l a r s a year more than I do. Young people see a l o t of money which has no c o r r e l a t i o n to the t h i n g s s c h o o l and t e a c h e r s t e l l them are i n v o l v e d i n a s u c c e s s f u l and f u l f i l l i n g l i f e . The t e a c h e r s i n a l l communities wanted the Knowledge Network ( a s a t e l l i t e d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n net\vork) to be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e . The r e a l i t y i s t h a t i t was n o t , and w i t h the c u r r e n t f u n d i n g f o r m u l a t h e r e was l i t t l e hope; T-50-42-41-32-26-25-22-21-16-15-14 t r e a t e d the Knowledge Network and o t h e r s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y as e s s e n t i a l i n t h i s i s o l a t e d a r e a . PROGRAMS As t o d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the mandated primary s o c i a l s t u d i e s , t e a c h e r s agreed t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e change from the o l d cour s e i n terms of i t s c o n t e n t . The change was seen as e s s e n t i a l l y from the use of p i c t u r e s e t s s u p p o r t e d by d i s c u s s i o n , to t e x t b o o k l e t s ( b a s i c a l l y p i c t u r e s e t s w i t h s t a p l e s ) used f o r the same type of d i s c u s s i o n ; t h e s e b o o k l e t s had c a p t i o n s and some s m a l l amount of t e x t . Teachers a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the new t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e book f o r these c o u r s e s was s u p e r i o r t o i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . However, d e s p i t e the s m a l l change to the c u r r i c u l u m , t h e r e was s t i l l some r e s i s t a n c e , as r e s o u r c e s were not at hand. S e v e r a l t e a c h e r s a l s o f e l t t h a t the s o c i a l s t u d i e s l a c k e d "hands on" a c t i v i t y and t h a t i t was somewhat b o r i n g , l a c k i n g i n v a r i e t y , and t h a t the c o n t e n t was sometimes i r r e l e v a n t to c h i l d r e n : The i n t e r e s t of the k i d s i s c a r d i n a l , we are t i r e d of f a m i l i e s . The f a m i l y s t u f f i s s i m p l i s t i c f o r good l e a r n e r s . They l e a r n e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n or b e f o r e how f a m i l i e s s h o u l d s h a r e . ( T - l l ) Lacks "hands-on " a c t i v i t y . ( T-21 ) I t i s i m p o r t a n t to have r e s p o n s i v e k i d s . You can't d i s c u s s w i t h grade 3 f o r more than t h r e e m i n u t e s ; t h e r e f o r e , i t needs seat work or s m a l l groups. I had to modify the c o u r s e . I l e f t l o t s of d i s c u s s i o n o u t . More a c t i v i t i e s are needed f o r slow k i d s . ( T-22 ) We must have " l e a r n i n g by d o i n g " . (T-15) I d i d t h i s c o u r s e i n f i t s and s t a r t s because the k i d s don't enjoy i t ; not enough i n f o r m a t i o n on a c t i v i t i e s i s a v a i l a b l e and I f i n d i t tough to s t a y i n t e r e s t e d . I t s too " i d e a l " . ( T-25 ) I need a s t u d e n t workbook of a c t i v i t i e s . ( T-42 ) I use the Judy S k i l l Books. There are no w o r k s h e e t s . We need workbooks or s k i l l b o o k s t h a t are c o p y a b l e . ( T-21 ) Over and over a g a i n the k i d s asked "Where i s t h i s p i c t u r e ? Who are t h e s e p e o p l e ? " , and I had no way of t e l l i n g them or f i n d i n g out where the p i c t u r e was t a k e n . Perhaps a l i t t l e word underneath would h e l p . Then you c o u l d p o i n t out the p l a c e on the map. ( T-22 ) The books, f o r i n s t a n c e " P r i n c e George", don't get deep enough i n t o b i g c i t y e x p e r i e n c e s . To e x p e r i e n c e such t h i n g s as a t r a f f i c l i g h t i s i m p o r t a n t when you l i v e where t h e r e i s none. There are no t r a f f i c l i g h t s i n t h i s e n t i r e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . ( T-14 ) We chose o n l y V i c t o r i a and Grand F o r k s because someone l o c a l l y has l i v e d t h e r e . Nobody l i v e s i n B a r k e r v i l l e . ( T-31 ). The c o u r s e does not have a r e a l s ource / method of e v a l u a t i o n . ( T-42 ) Record k e e p i n g i s s u b j e c t i v e . ( T-22 ) Too much r e c o r d k e e p i n g t a k e s away from t e a c h i n g time to do b u r e a u c r a c y . ( T-32 ) 65 Time was s t a t e d over and over as a problem w i t h the s o c i a l s t u d i e s no matter what t a s k was to be done: I need l o t s of time ahead to p r e v i e w , to read and to c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s . I f e e l l i k e a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r , f o r c e d to p l o d and s t r u g g l e t h rough t h i s . ( T-24 ) My time i s s p l i t too f i n e w i t h 77 s u b j e c t s t o p r e p a r e , t e a c h and e v a l u a t e . The time to fumble through any books and r e s o u r c e s t h a t do come i n , i s a problem because t h e r e i s too much. I t i s hard to s o r t and p r i o r i z e . ( T-50 ) No time to get i n t o d epth, so I p i c k out i m p o r t a n t a r e a s . In a m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s I use a two year program by t a k i n g the most s a l i e n t of one, tv/o, and t h r e e , then t e a c h i n g h a l f each y e a r . ( T-42 ) With s c i e n c e 10 the most s u b s t a n t i v e changes were i n the s e c t i o n s on r e p r o d u c t i o n and g e n e t i c s , as w e l l as i n the attempt to implement the i n t e g r a t e d t h e m a t i c approach. There were some s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Assessment i s needed. Often t h e r e are k i d s i n grade 10 t h a t s h o u l d n ' t be. The k i d s don't have the s k i l l s needed. The l a b i s p o o r l y d e s i g n e d and p o o r l y equipped. I n t e g r a t e d t h e m a t i c approach was a good i d e a , but o r d e r i n g of t o p i c s or sequence was d i f f i c u l t . Must do the book from page 1 to the end because i t b u i l d s on i t s e l f . I f you hop around you get messed up. A s m a l l a r e a doesn't have r o l e models. K i d s need to be s e e i n g c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s e s or hydro dams or i n d u s t r i e s . ( T-26 ) In i s o l a t i o n a k i d has nobody to bounce i d e a s o f f , to g i v e him a d i s c u s s i o n . The new i n t e g r a t e d program i s p o i n t l e s s . I am not doing i t ; we go from c h a p t e r one, 6 6 t a k e t h e book a s i t comes. S c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e a d i s r u p t i o n ! I f you do e x p e r i m e n t , you a r e a c t i v e and you d i s t u r b t h e o t h e r k i d s i n o u r one room s c h o o l . T h e r e i s no w a t e r i n o u r c l a s s r o o m . ( T-50 ) T h e r e i s a l a c k o f o t h e r t e a c h e r s t o d i s c u s s themes and b u i l d m a t e r i a l s . The d i s c i p l i n e a p p r o a c h h e l p s i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o g r a d e 11 and c o u r s e s l i k e Chem. 11. ( AA-2 ) The l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n c o s t me c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e . T h i s d i d n o t a l l o w me t o c o v e r o t h e r a r e a s l a t e r on t h a t s h o u l d have been c o v e r e d . Some o f t h e a r e a s I d i d n ' t c o v e r t o t h e d e p t h I s h o u l d h a v e , b e c a u s e o f my p e r c e i v e d f a i l u r e w i t h t h e i n t e g r a t i o n . I w o u l d l i k e t o t a l k t o o t h e r t e a c h e r s . I have a p o o r l y e q u i p p e d l a b and I f i n d s u p p l i e s h a r d t o g e t . ( T-26 ) I f I was t o t e a c h g r a d e 10 s c i e n c e t h e way i t was i n t e n d e d t h e r e w o u l d be a need f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f money f o r e q u i p m e n t , f i e l d t r i p s , e t c . , and t h e money i s s i m p l y n o t a v a i l a b l e . We have a few b a s i c m a t e r i a l s i n a k i t , b u t no c h e m i c a l s . E x p e r i m e n t s a r e r e a l l y l i m i t e d . ( T-50 ) I n s h o r t , t h e S c i e n c e 10 c o u r s e seemed t o be a c c e p t e d by t e a c h e r s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y f e l t e ncumbered by t h e i n t e g r a t e d t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h . S o c i a l s t u d i e s was a c c e p t e d as i n e v i t a b l e and was a d a p t e d t o t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . The m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s , t h e l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s , and t h e l a c k o f l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e i s o l a t e d c o m m u n i t i e s a l l i n f l u e n c e d t h e t e a c h e r s ' i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e new p r o g r a m s . What F u l l a n ( 1 9 7 9 ) c a l l e d t h e m u t u a l a d a p t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e c e r t a i n l y was ( T-32 ) a p p l i c a b l e i n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as t e a c h e r s d e a l t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s and made i m p l e m e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY Sc h o o l l e a d e r s h i p d i f f i c u l t i e s d i d not s o l i c i t a s i n g l e comment. There had been i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s t a f f c o n f l i c t s , l e a d e r s h i p c o n s t r a i n t s , and o t h e r i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems t h a t may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a s m a l l d i s t r i c t . N o n e t h e l e s s , i n t e r v i e w e e s d i d not l i n k t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Teachers defended t h e i r t e a c h i n g by p o i n t i n g out many v o i d s and s a y i n g t h a t they d i d the best they c o u l d w i t h what they had. They adapted t o the incoming t e x t b o o k and the l o c a l r e a l i t i e s more than to the new program. Emotion e x p r e s s e d was t h a t of f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the v o i d s of s m a l l i s o l a t e d r u r a l communities: In (community t h r e e ) the t e a c h e r i s the number one r e s o u r c e ! There are no f r i l l s here a t a l l . Even I have grown used t o i t to the p o i n t where I don't r e c o g n i z e any d i s a d v a n t a g e t o i t . The f i r s t year I taught here a f t e r t e a c h i n g i n Edmonton, I thought t h i s was the end of the w o r l d . I t s j u s t the o l d n e s s of the p l a c e . The f a c t t h a t the b u i l d i n g i s f a l l i n g a p a r t and t h e r e i s n o t h i n g new to l o o k a t . B e s i d e s which, I am overwhelmed w i t h f o u r grades. ( T-31 ) These f e e l i n g s w e l l e x p r e s s e d a t t i t u d e s towards l i v i n g and t e a c h i n g i n a t i n y s e t t l e m e n t , i n c l u s i v e of any ongoing i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Many t e a c h e r s found t e a c h i n g l o n e l y due to academic i s o l a t i o n and the l a c k of a d u l t / a d u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Two s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s e x p l a i n e d : Teaching i s l o n e l y , the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet v/ith c o l l e a g u e s i s needed to c l a r i f y t h o u g h t s . Not h a v i n g anyone to t a l k to i n terms of the academic m a t e r i a l does h i n d e r you i n c l a r i f y i n g c o n c e p t s . ( T-26 ) A f t e r s e e i n g the same 12 k i d s f o r s i x or seven s u b j e c t s each day (4 g r a d e s ) , I would l i k e to go to another s c h o o l to observe and t a l k w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s . ( T-32 ) These i n t e r v i e w e e s were committed t e a c h e r s w i t h energy and enthusiasm f o r t h e i r j o b ; any t e a c h e r not h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , e n e r g e t i c and c a p a b l e would c o l l a p s e under the s t r a i n and s t r e s s of these p r e s s u r e s of i s o l a t i o n . Nor were these t e a c h e r s n a i v e , and they c e r t a i n l y had awareness of the programs through the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s and t e x t s . They were v i c t i m s of o v e r l o a d . There seemed to be t h r e e groups amongst s t u d e n t s of most of the communities. One l a r g e group of s t u d e n t s had c o n s i d e r a b l e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . The second and s m a l l e r group r e c e i v e d marks below average ( C-, D ). The t h i r d was a s m a l l group of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n t h a t got h i g h marks. The s o - c a l l e d "average" s t u d e n t (C, C+) was v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . ( The r e s e a r c h e r p e r s o n a l l y found t h i s to be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f i c u l t y to t e a c h i n g i n two of the c o m m u n i t i e s ) . Such an anomaly f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d 6 9 heterogeneous m u l t i g r a d e c l a s s r o o m s . When s p e a k i n g of c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t i e s , here are two t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s : The k i d s are not work o r i e n t e d , they l a c k energy. Most have poor r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . I have two grade f o u r f a i l u r e s t h a t are p h y s i c a l l y l a r g e boys i n a d i f f i c u l t s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . These f o u r s t u t o r the twos. The twos have t r o u b l e w i t h c o n c e p t s . I f i n d t h a t group work i s d i f f i c u l t w i t h the m u l t i g r a d e problem. Most of our k i d s a r e n ' t aware of what's i n o t h e r s c h o o l s so they don't miss i t . ( T-31 ) Our k i d s are t r a n s i e n t , they have no aim. They l i v e u n s e t t l e d l i v e s . F a m i l y problems f i n d t h e i r way i n t o c l a s s . The k i d s have a low s e l f - c o n c e p t . ( T-41 ) Teacher a t t i t u d e s were governed by the q u a l i t y of the work environment. I f t h a t environnment was c l u t t e r e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s , as d e l i n e a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , the t e a c h e r showed f r u s t r a t i o n i n t r y i n g t o cope. A l b e i t , t o t e a c h i n a s m a l l r u r a l i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s d i f f i c u l t ! But f o r one t e a c h e r a t l e a s t , these d i f f i c u l t i e s were l a r g e l y t aken f o r g r a n t e d . The l a s t word here i s l e f t t o h er: I was h i r e d i n 1982, so I o n l y know i s o l a t i o n d u r i n g r e s t r a i n t ; I don't f e e l I can s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k of t h i n g s here because I don't know what i t s l i k e to have a n y t h i n g e l s e , h a v i n g never been anywhere e l s e and hav i n g never taught when the money flo w e d a l i t t l e more f r e e l y . I've always taught d u r i n g r e s t r a i n t and t h i s i s a l l I know. As a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r I had to c o l l e c t my own m a t e r i a l s . I l i k e t o make t e a c h e r made s t u f f . ( T-23 ) 10 CHAPTER FIVE DECISIONS T h i s c h a p t e r examines b r i e f l y the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e c i s i o n s t h a t were made, how, and f o r what r e a s o n s . WHAT DECISIONS WERE MADE? Few d e c i s i o n s were made about what and how to implement. The d i s t r i c t d i d not g i v e e x p l i c i t p r i o r i t y t o one of the new c o u r s e s i n terms of r e s o u r c e s and s u p p o r t , nor was p r i o r i t y g i v e n to any one a s p e c t of each c o u r s e . Rather than d e c i d i n g to s t a r t s m a l l and to implement i n c r e m e n t a l l y , the d i s t r i c t "adopted" the new c o u r s e s i n t o t a l , and l e f t each s c h o o l to i t s own d e v i c e s f o r p u t t i n g t h e s e c o u r s e s i n t o p r a c t i c e . I t was the t e a c h e r s who r e a l l y made the major d e c i s i o n s about what to do w i t h t h e s e new c u r r i c u l a . F i r s t , they d e c i d e d the p r i o r i t y g i v e n to each c o u r s e . A c c o r d i n g to the t i m e t a b l e , f o r example, t h e r e was a p a r t i c u l a r number of minutes per week a l l o c a t e d to each c o u r s e . However, many primary t e a c h e r s d e c i d e d t h a t s o c i a l s t u d i e s was of low p r i o r i t y ; d e s p i t e i t s being a " c o r e " c o u r s e , s o c i a l s t u d i e s was t r e a t e d l i k e an o p t i o n a l course i n some c l a s s r o o m s : S o c i a l s t u d i e s o f t e n g e t s l e f t out because t e a c h e r s can't f i n d the n e c e s s a r y p r e p a r a t i o n time or r e s o u r c e s . Math and language a r t s a re f a v o u r e d . ( T-13 ) We l a c k time and our p r i o r i t y i s language a r t s . S o c i a l s t u d i e s i s brought i n t o language a r t s and math as much as p o s s i b l e . The course has a l o t to d e a l w i t h i n a s h o r t time b l o c k . ( T-22 ) S o c i a l s t u d i e s i s not a core c o u r s e , language a r t s and math are more i m p o r t a n t . ( T-21 ) There i s not enough time to do each s u b j e c t the way you want t o . S o c i a l s t u d i e s needs to be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t i n a m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s to have s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n r e a d i n g c o n t e n t . ( T-31 ) I t e a c h on a two year c y c l e , i n t e g r a t i n g the grade 2 and 3 c o u r s e s . Grade one c a t c h e s what they can. S o c i a l s t u d i e s i n t h i s ( m u l t i g r a d e d ) environment i s not a p r i o r i t y because we have to devote so much time to r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c . Most of our k i d s read a t l e a s t one grade below t h e i r grade l e v e l . ( T-42 ) Second, the t e a c h e r s d e c i d e d what s e c t i o n s of these c o u r s e s would be emphasized, and those t h a t would no t . The reasons f o r such c h o i c e s were r e l a t e d l a r g e l y to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s , t i m e , and to the needs of s t u d e n t s . For example: I found t h a t t h e r e was so much i n the c o u r s e t h a t those p a r t s I d i d n ' t have r e s o u r c e s f o r were j u s t l e f t out or changed to such a g r e a t e x t e n t t h a t they h a r d l y resembled the c o u r s e . Rather than use the r e s o u r c e book, I c e n t e r e d my a t t e n t i o n more on the p i c t u r e books the c h i l d r e n use. ( T-22 ) The c u r r i c u l u m I use i s determined not by the c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , but by the s t u d e n t . T h i s s t u d e n t s e t s the l i m i t a t i o n s . At p r e s e n t w i t h one s t u d e n t i n each grade I cannot f o l l o w m i n i s t r y g u i d e l i n e s . We choose t o p i c s as they are r e l e v a n t to our s i t u a t i o n . These t o p i c s f o r d i s c u s s i o n have to be p e r t i n e n t to a l l g r a d e s . ( T-50 ) IX There's so much more I f e e l I c o u l d do i f e v e r y t h i n g was a v a i l a b l e to you and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e i n s t e a d of h a v i n g to read and f i n d out where to get m a t e r i a l s and f i l m s ; i t s very time consuming. I f you haven't had time to preview i t and l e a r n a l l these t h i n g s , by the time you know what you want i t s too l a t e to o r d e r i t so you can use i t . ( T-24 ) For a t l e a s t one t e a c h e r , however, t h e r e was l i t t l e need to make i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . T-50, w i t h the course m a t e r i a l s f o r e l e v e n grades to keep t r a c k o f , and an i s o l a t e d s c h o o l to r u n , was unaware of c u r r i c u l a r changes: With r e s p e c t to the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m my f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s : what i s the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m ? (85:03:09) In amongst s t a c k s and s t a c k s of i n f o r m a t i o n at the s c h o o l , I have r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t we have a new s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m ! I don't know what the o l d c u r r i c u l u m i s , l e t a l o n e the new, but by a c c i d e n t I have d i s c o v e r e d t h a t I am u s i n g the new c u r r i c u l u m ! Teaching methods are a n c i e n t h e r e , a l l w r i t i n g , pen and paper, a l o t of "on t a s k " . ( T-50 ) (independent l e a r n i n g s k i l l s ) HOW WERE DECISIONS MADE? There were no e x p l i c i t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p l a n s f o r the d i s t r i c t . AA-1, who had d i s t r i c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c u r r i c u l u m , endorsed a two-year t i m e t a b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n : I d e n t i f y i n the p i l o t year the c o u r s e ( s ) f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , because most d i s t r i c t / M i n i s t r y p l a n n i n g s t e m s f r o m t h a t y e a r o f p i l o t i n g . We must g e t t h e p r i m a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s t o i n s e r v i c e w i t h t h e p e o p l e p i l o t i n g i t and e i t h e r t h e p u b l i s h e r o r a s p e c i a l i s t f r o m t h e m i n i s t r y . We c a n f u m b l e i n t h e p i l o t y e a r , do a c h a p t e r o r a u n i t ; i t i s n o t a r e q u i r e d c o u r s e . A f t e r t h a t I w o u l d have a n o t h e r i n s e r v i c e a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l t o c h e c k t h e p i l o t and t h e t e x t b o o k s . Then i m p l e m e n t t h e b o o k s n e x t S e p t e m b e r and have t h e p u b l i s h e r come up and i n s e r v i c e t h o s e t e a c h e r s . None o f t h i s r e a l l y h a p p e n e d . I n s t e a d , i t became a c a s e o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s i n i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t i e s s e t t i n g what t h e y p e r s o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be " r e a s o n a b l e " t i m e t a b l e s . T h e r e was no u n i t y o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o r m a t o r t i m i n g a c r o s s i s o l a t e d c o m m u n i t i e s . A l l t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s w o u l d l i k e t o have had a w e l l l a i d o u t i m p l e m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s . The r e a l i t y , t h o u g h , i n t h i s s m a l l i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t was t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i m p l e m e n t a t i v e p r o c e s s was random. As d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , p r i n c i p a l s seemed t o be m e n t i o n e d o n l y i n t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f t e x t b o o k s , some l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , and p e r h a p s m i n i m a l i n s e r v i c e . T h e i r a c t u a l r o l e and i t s i n f l u e n c e upon i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was s m a l l . The r e s e a r c h e r e x p e c t e d t o f i n d s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s more d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , b u t t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h i s . B o t h P - l - 2 m e n t i o n e d t h a t t e a c h e r s o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s c u s s e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o b l e m s w i t h them, b u t t h i s seemed t o be r a t h e r r a r e . The matter of "who does what" was easy to s e t t l e . In communities t h r e e through s i x t h e r e was o n l y one t e a c h e r t e a c h i n g t h r e e to e l e v e n grad es s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and i f t h a t t e a c h e r d i d not have time or i n t e r e s t ( p r i o r i t y ) f o r a t a s k , i t s i m p l y d i d not get done. In the t h r e e s m a l l e r s c h o o l s the t e a c h e r was the p r i n c i p a l , sometimes the j a n i t o r and always the community r e s o u r c e p e r s o n . For these i n t e r v i e w e e s , the more f o r m a l d i s t r i c t s t r u c t u r e s meant l i t t l e : The c u r r i c u l u m committee doesn't r e a l l y mean a g r e a t d e a l to us; because of d i s t a n c e s , we c a n ' t p a r t i c i p a t e . Whatever the c u r r i c u l u m committee comes up w i t h may not be t e r r i b l y r e l e v a n t to our l o c a l m u l t i g r a d e s i t u a t i o n . ( T-42 ) WHY WERE DECISIONS MADE? Major reasons a f f e c t i n g d e c i s i o n s were r e a l l y the s m a l l n e s s and i s o l a t i o n of the s c h o o l s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . In the l i g h t of these two f a c t o r s , one can understand the i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r reasons such as communications, money, t i m e , meagre r e s o u r c e s , m u l t i g r a d e d l e a r n i n g and l o c a l p o l i t i c s ( as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapters Three and Four ). Money was l i s t e d as a major reason f o r the d e c i s i o n s made. The f i n a n c i a l framework i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e d funds a c c o r d i n g to a s p e c i f i c and complex f o r m u l a . Over i t s f i r s t few years of o p e r a t i o n the government made s e v e r a l minor changes to t r y to e q u a l i z e o p p o r t u n i t y , but most of these f a i l e d because p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g was based on the r a t i o of 25 p u p i l s to one t e a c h e r . There were few c l a s s e s where t h i s I S r a t i o e x i s t e d i n t h i s s m a l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h e r e f o r e i f a cours e was to be taught as i n t e n d e d by the d e v e l o p e r s , c o n s i d e r a b l e funds would be needed. As a r e s u l t of the money s h o r t a g e , t h e r e was a l a c k of m a t e r i a l s , s t a f f , and p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s : The f u t u r e , and the budgetary o u t l o o k , were u n c e r t a i n , p o l i t i c a l and even s e c r e t i v e . Teachers remained h o p e f u l t h a t c o n d i t i o n s would improve, but at t h i s w r i t i n g t h e r e i s no evid e n c e of d e c i s i o n s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . E x p e c t a t i o n s i n any g i v e n community were governed by those t h i n g s p e r c e i v e d t o be p o s s i b l e . Each community seemed to have i t s own c h a r a c t e r and i t s own needs (as p o i n t e d out i n Chapter Two); the s e c o n d i t i o n s i n each s i t u a t i o n a f f e c t e d d e c i s i o n s . For example, i f the p o t e n t i a l f o r f i e l d t r i p s was l i m i t e d m o n e t a r i l y and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e r e would be no f i e l d t r i p s . The s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n was s m a l l , and t h i s meant t h a t s t u d e n t s i n f l u e n c e d d e c i s i o n s about c u r r i c u l a . In No t i m e , no r e s o u r c e s , no t e a c h e r ( f o r s c i e n c e ) . S c i e n c e equipment i s e x p e n s i v e . I r e a l l y need a t e a c h e r a i d e . ( T-50 ) We need more maps, more l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s , more p i c t u r e books, more "hands on" t h i n g s ! ( T-15 ) In S c i e n c e 10 we d i d n ' t have support t o implement the new ( AA-2 ) f i n a n c i a l c o u r s e , c o m m u n i t i e s t h r e e t h r o u g h s i x t h e r e o f t e n were f o u r o r f e w e r c h i l d r e n p e r g r a d e i n a m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s . As s u c h , t h e q u a l i t y o f c l a s s r o o m l i f e was a f f e c t e d by i n t e r s t u d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s o l i d l y e n t r e n c h e d b e c a u s e t h e s m a l l g r o u p r e p r e s e n t e d a l l t h e " f r i e n d s " t h e y had t o i n t e r a c t w i t h . What was l a c k i n g i n f a c i l i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s was c o m p e n s a t e d f o r w i t h a f o r m o f c l a s s r o o m s o l i d a r i t y . B e c a u s e t h e c l a s s r o o m s o c i a l f a b r i c was o f t e n t i g h t l y k n i t ( t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o i n e d t h e o p e r a t i v e " s o c i a l l y i n b r e d " ) , p a r t i c i p a n t s were h i g h l y r e a c t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r . The p r e v a i l i n g p a r e n t a l / p u p i l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n r e v o l v e d a r o u n d i t s i m m e d i a t e p r a c t i c a l i t y t o t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . P a r e n t s w a n t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o do b e t t e r t h a n t h e y p e r s o n a l l y d i d , and t h e y saw a need f o r e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h t h e " o u t s i d e w o r l d " even t h o u g h t h e y knew t h a t t h i s was i m p o s s i b l e i n a s m a l l i s o l a t e d s c h o o l . The h e a r i n g s f r o m " L e t s T a l k A b o u t S c h o o l s " ( 1 9 8 5 ) p r o d u c e d a good r e g i s t e r o f t h e s e p a r e n t a l f e e l i n g s . Y e t , " m i l l w o r k e r a t t i t u d e s " a r e h e a r d f r o m c h i l d r e n o f a l l g r a d e s f r o m p r i m a r y on: (Community Two) i s u n i q u e and h a r d t o compare b e c a u s e h e r e t h e r e a r e m a i n l y k i d s f r o m b l u e c o l l a r homes r a t h e r t h a n a r e a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n ; d o c t o r t o d i t c h d i g g e r . I d o n ' t f e e l I g e t t h e s u p p o r t I w o u l d g e t i f I had k i d s who came f r o m f a m i l i e s where t h e r e was more m o t i v a t i o n t o g e t on w i t h s c h o o l i n g . S c h o o l i n g i n an i s o l a t e d b l u e c o l l a r town i s n ' t t h a t i m p o r t a n t . What I h e a r i s "I'm j u s t g o i n g t o work i n t h e m i l l , 7 7 so what does i t matter i f I f i n i s h grade 12." ( T-23 ) I f they don't want to l e a r n i t , I'm not going to f o r c e i t down t h e i r t h r o a t s ! S t u d e n t s here l a c k i n t e r e s t and do not pursue study w i t h much z e a l . ( T-25 ) G r a s s r o o t s programs, t h e r e f o r e , were t r e a t e d as i m p o r t a n t . For example, t h i s r e s e a r c h e r developed a f o r e s t r y program i n community t h r e e , and T-26 used salmonid enhancement i n s c i e n c e 10. Both of these p r a c t i c a l w orkplace o r i e n t e d programs were w e l l r e c e i v e d . These c h i l d r e n f o r the most p a r t p e r c e i v e d a r u r a l " l o g g i n g camp/sawmill way of a d u l t e x i s t e n c e " f o r t h e m s e l v e s . A t e a c h e r r e f l e c t e d : Does t h i s program s e t a k i d up to e x i s t r u r a l l y ? I don't see t h a t as bei n g the ca s e . Much i s d e a l t w i t h i n an urban p e r s p e c t i v e . I t may, i n f a c t , be d i f f i c u l t f o r r u r a l k i d s t o r e l a t e to some of the methods used to cover the c o n c e p t s . ( T-26 ) Every t e a c h e r mentioned l a c k of time as a reason f o r many of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m . Shortage of time f o r c l a s s r o o m p l a n n i n g produced some q u a n d r i e s , as f o r T-23, who became more and more dependent on commercial m a t e r i a l s ; however, the s e m a t e r i a l s c o s t money, which was a l s o i n s h o r t s u p p l y ! In s h o r t , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e c i s i o n s i n t h i s s m a l l , r u r a l , i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t seemed to be made on a p r a c t i c a l , p r a g m a t i c , and day by day s i t u a t i o n a l grounds. D e c i s i o n s about new c o u r s e s r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to If f i t i n t o t h e communnity and s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n a t hand. The t e a c h e r had t o work v/ith "what i s " b o t h i n terms o f s o u r c e s of h e l p and i n terms o f e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a r o s e . 1 1 CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS  DISCUSSION The q u e s t i o n now a r i s e s c o n c e r n i n g how the f i n d i n g s of t h i s case study r e l a t e t o the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t a re found i n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . S i n c e 1977 a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of r e s e a r c h on program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n s c h o o l s has accummulated, and v a r i o u s a u t h o r s have attempted to f o r m u l a t e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from a c r o s s the l i t e r a t u r e . The most e x t e n s i v e s y n t h e s i s t o date i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the work of M i c h a e l F u l l a n . F u l l a n has attempted to do two t h i n g s w i t h the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F i r s t , he has d e v i s e d a t h e o r y of program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n which he d e s c r i b e s those f a c t o r s t h a t are b a s i c to s u c c e s s f u l change (1977, 1979, 1982b ). Second, he has o u t l i n e d a t h e o r y of c h a n g i n g , about how one b r i n g s about program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n (1979, 1981, 1982ab, 1985 ). He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the problems and a m b i g u i t i e s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n cannot be r e s o l v e d s i m p l y by i d e n t i f y i n g and f o l l o w i n g a s e t of p r o c e d u r e s ; " The best we can do i s d e r i v e a s e t of g u i d e l i n e s which i d e n t i f y the t h i n g s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t o be taken i n t o account i n r e l a t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r problem at hand." (1977:40) Both h i s d e s c r i p t i v e t h e o r y and h i s p r e s c r i p t i v e t h e o r y are based on a common s e t of f a c t o r s t h a t , a c c o r d i n g to F u l l a n , r e s e a r c h e r s have found c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d to program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The f i f t e e n f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n are as f o l l o w s : A. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Change 1. Need and r e l e v a n c e of the change 2. C l a r i t y 3. C o m p l e x i t y 4. Q u a l i t y and p r a c t i c a l i t y of program ( m a t e r i a l s e t c . ) B. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t the S c h o o l D i s t r i c t L e v e l 5. The h i s t o r y of i n n o v a t i v e a t t e m p t s 6. The a d o p t i o n p r o c e s s 7. C e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p port and i n v o l v e m e n t 8. S t a f f development ( i n - s e r v i c e ) and p a r t i c i p a t i o n 9. T i m e - l i n e and i n f o r m a t i o n system ( e v a l u a t i o n ) 10. Board and community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t the S c h o o l L e v e l 11. The P r i n c i p a l 12. T e a c h e r - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s 13. Teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o r i e n t a t i o n s D. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s E x t e r n a l t o the L o c a l System 14. Role of Government 15. E x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e ( F u l l a n 1982b:56) Not a l l of t h e s e f i f t e e n f a c t o r s are e q u a l l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s case s t u d y . In p a r t i c u l a r , e l e v e n of these f a c t o r s seemed to be i m p o r t a n t and are d i s c u s s e d here i n the l i g h t of the case s t u d y . The d i s c u s s i o n t h e r e b y p l a c e s the f i n d i n g s of the case study i n r e l a t i o n to c u r r e n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from the l a r g e r body of r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e . C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F T H E C H A N G E F u l l a n s a y s t h a t p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s m o s t e f f e c t i v e w h e n i t i s f o c u s e d o n s p e c i f i c " n e e d s " ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , a p r o g r a m i s s e l e c t e d t o f u l f i l l a p e r c e i v e d p r i o r i t y n e e d o f s o m e k i n d , a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d i s c u s s i o n s h a p p e n i n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s n e e d . T h u s t h e d e g r e e o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n may b e c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r c e i v e d r e l e v a n c e o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n . T h e r e w a s a p e r c e i v e d n e e d f o r c h a n g e f o r b o t h t h e o l d s o c i a l s t u d i e s a n d S c i e n c e 1 0 . S o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s w a n t e d d e f i n e d s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s t o a u g m e n t t h e p i c t u r e s e t s . S c i e n c e 10 t e a c h e r s n e e d e d a n u p - t o - d a t e s c i e n c e c o u r s e t h a t i n c l u d e d l e s s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d m o r e b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l s a n d r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n b o t h c a s e s , a p e r c e p t i o n o f n e e d w a s e v i d e n t ; h o w e v e r , w h e n t e a c h e r s a t t e m p t e d t o u s e t h e new c u r r i c u l a , r e l e v a n c e b e c a m e p r o b l e m a t i c . T h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s p i c t u r e b o o k l e t s p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l t h a t p r o v e d t o b e s o m e w h a t i r r e l e v a n t t o s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n r u r a l a n d i s o l a t e d a r e a s . R e l e v a n c e i n t e r m s o f t h e p r i m a r y c h i l d ' s r e a l f a m i l y o r c o m m u n i t y e x p e r i e n c e s w a s m i s s i n g f r o m t h e s e g e n e r a l i z e d b o o k l e t s a n d t h e r e was n o m e c h a n i s m b u i l t i n t o t h e new m a t e r i a l t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e r e l e v a n t c h i l d / u s e r e x p e r i e n c e s . S c i e n c e 10 P r o b e m e t m o s t o f t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d s o f t h e t e a c h e r s , b u t a g a i n t h e r e w a s a l a c k o f r e l e v a n c e t o t h e l i f e experiences of grade 10 students l i v i n g in a rural and isolated community. Many of the materials were largely relevant to more urban settings rather than to the workplace of fishermen and millworkers. Without workplace p r a c t i c a l i t y , content was not seen as relevant by students. Fullan's second factor, that of c l a r i t y , i s about goals and the means of achieving them. Fullan notes that a l l too often goals are diffuse and in t e n t i o n a l l y general, sometimes to the extent that bringing a more precise focus becomes d i f f i c u l t . He does not mention, although i t i s plausible, that this lack of c l a r i t y may be intended in the name of f l e x i b i l i t y , thereby allowing the user of a curriculum to apply his or her interpretation in the l i g h t of a l o c a l context. The means and process by which goals are to be achieved may suffer the same lack of precision, especially when only generalized a c t i v i t y suggestions are given with l i t t l e or no back-up materials for students. In the primary s o c i a l studies, the goals were cert a i n l y more clear and s p e c i f i c than those of the old course, even though there was s t i l l a quantity of abstractness to deal with. For the most part, teachers understood the goals and the means. In Science 10 Probe the goals were s p e c i f i c and clear. The teachers understood what was being asked of them in the teaching sense and in the s c i e n t i f i c sense. It was not as much a lack of c l a r i t y with goals, but rather, a lack of c l a r i t y of means. The teachers were expected to prepare and execute t e a c h i n g p l a n s which i n t e g r a t e d through a t h e m a t i c approach the t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e d i s c i p l i n e s ; t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n was not implemented because i t was i m p r a c t i c a l i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g . They chose not to implement the t h e m a t i c approach and they knew why. T h e i r problem was one of f i n d i n g time and r e s o u r c e s to c o n v e r t g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s about means i n t o p a r t i c u l a r means which c o u l d address both the new t h r u s t towards i n t e g r a t i o n and the e x p e r i e n t i a l background of the s t u d e n t s For the user of an i n n o v a t i o n , c l a r i t y a l s o i n v o l v e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the o l d and the new programs, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these d i f f e r e n c e s f o r one's c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . The t e m p t a t i o n to o v e r s i m p l i f y these d i f f e r e n c e s may l e a d to a f a l s e c l a r i t y , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t a t e a c h e r r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y on the s t u d e n t t e x t b o o k . However,in t h i s case i t was not f a l s e c l a r i t y -the t e a c h e r s d i d understand the new i n t e n t i o n s . So, what may appear to be f a l s e c l a r i t y i n t h i s c a s e , i n f a c t was n o t . Thus, t e a c h e r s d i d r e l y on the t e x t s , not because they d i d not u n d e r s t a n d the g o a l s and means of the program, but r a t h e r because they l a c k e d time and r e s o u r c e s to do o t h e r w i s e . C o m p l e x i t y , F u l l a n ' s t h i r d f a c t o r , d e a l s w i t h the r e l a t i v e l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y of the change and the e x t e n t of change. F u l l a n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e r e a re degrees of change and of d i f f i c u l t y i n implementing the change. However, he co n c l u d e s t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e e x t e n t o f t h e c h a n g e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a t l e a s t some i m p l e m e n t a t i v e s u c c e s s - " t h e more t r i e d f o r , t h e more a c c o m p l i s h e d " . I n c r e m e n t a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n means t a k i n g a c o m p l e x i n n o v a t i o n w h i c h i s d i v i s i b l e and d i v i d i n g i t i n t o s i m p l e component p a r t s f o r more g r a d u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n c r e m e n t a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s a way t o d e a l w i t h c o m p l e x i t y and t o a s s u r e g r e a t e r s u c c e s s . F u l l a n ' s i n c r e m e n t a l a p p r o a c h t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c a n h e l p us t o s e e what went on i n m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m s w h e r e i n t h e t e a c h e r was o v e r l o a d e d w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s a c r o s s s e v e r a l g r a d e s . I n c r e m e n t a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w o u l d g i v e t i m e t o t h e d a i l y c l a s s r o o m t a s k s i n t h e l i g h t o f l a c k i n g r e s o u r c e s , p o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n and o t h e r i n h i b i t o r s t o c h a n g e . R e d u c i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o " b i t e - s i z e d " component • p i e c e s h e l p e d t h e o v e r l o a d e d t e a c h e r t o make p r a g m a t i c p r i o r i t y c l a s s r o o m d e c i s i o n s . S i m p l y , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t a s k was n o t so o v e r w h e l m i n g ! The f o u r t h f a c t o r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e q u a l i t y and p r a c t i c a l i t y o f an i n n o v a t i o n , as j u d g e d by t e a c h e r s , was most s i g n i f i c a n t . I n t h i s c a s e t h e M i n i s t r y mandated and t h e d i s t r i c t and s c h o o l a d o p t e d w i t h l i t t l e r e a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r a c t i c a l i t i e s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o r t o t h e q u a l i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n was u n d e r m i n e d b e c a u s e s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s o f q u a l i t y l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s were n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a t h a n d . I n t e r v i e w e e s s t r e s s e d a need f o r pr e - p r e p a r e d and packaged m a t e r i a l s as e s s e n t i a l t o i s o l a t e d and m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m s . For example, to v i s i t a museum, a r t g a l l e r y , bakery or f i r e h a l l from communities f o u r , f i v e and s i x would c o s t each s t u d e n t about $400 per t r i p , which i s to say t h a t even c l a r i t y does not guarantee the p r a c t i c a l i t y of the means to a c h i e v e the g o a l s . In s h o r t , t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between g o a l s t h a t are c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and g o a l s t h a t are p r a c t i c a b l e i n s p e c i f i c c l a s s r o o m s . S c i e n c e 10 t e a c h e r s were not a b l e t o prepare the n e c e s s a r y t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . These m a t e r i a l s had not been p r e - p r e p a r e d f o r them. There was a l s o a severe l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, and r e s o u r c e s . F u l l a n does not s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r e s s p r a c t i c a l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of i s o l a t i o n , c o s t s , l a c k of r e s o u r c e s or l a c k of communication. F u l l a n r e f e r s t o e x p l i c i t n e s s as a dilemma; I agree. The h i g h l y e x p l i c i t c u r r i c u l u m l a c k s the f l e x i b i l i t y needed to be o p e r a b l e i n " u n u s u a l " or v a r y i n g e n v i ronments, whereas the u n s p e c i f i e d , or p o o r l y s p e c i f i e d c u r r i c u l u m l e a d s to c o n f u s i o n , i n t o l e r a n c e and misuse. For example, the new s o c i a l s t u d i e s i s not e x p l i c i t enough about v a r i o u s f a m i l y c o n f i g u r a t i o n s or about r u r a l and i s o l a t e d communities. In the two c u r r i c u l a s t u d i e d t h e r e a re many examples of m a t e r i a l t h a t i s too urban s p e c i f i c , and t h i s e x p l i c i t n e s s ^ 6 makes t h e s e p a r t s u n u s e a b l e i n s m a l l , i s o l a t e d , r u r a l s c h o o l s . To s u m m a r i z e t o t h i s p o i n t : i n l i g h t o f t h e c a s e s t u d y , a c a u t i o n c a n be r a i s e d a b o u t t h e s e f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c hange as o u t l i n e d by F u l l a n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s need t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . T e a c h e r s may u n d e r s t a n d t h e need f o r an i n n o v a t i o n , be c l e a r on i t s g o a l s and means, a p p r e c i a t e i t s c o m p l e x i t y and q u a l i t y and y e t n o t i m p l e m e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e t i m e and r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s o f an i s o l a t e d and m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m . F o r s u c h a c o n t e x t , t e a c h e r s need p r o g r a m s t h a t a r e more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d t h a n m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be t h e c a s e -p a r t i c u l a r l y v f i t h s t u d e n t m a t e r i a l s . F u l l a n ' s f i f t h f a c t o r , t h e p a s t h i s t o r y o f i n n o v a t i v e change i n a d i s t r i c t , means t h a t t e a c h e r ' s n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e p a s t may b e g e t a p a t h y , c y n i c i s m , and r e s i s t a n c e t o p r e s e n t c h a n g e . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r was l e f t t o h i s / h e r own d e v i c e s w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , as t h e d i s t r i c t d i d v e r y l i t t l e . The l a c k o f d i s t r i c t s u p p o r t , r e s o u r c e s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n c r e a t e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w h i c h were o f t e n e x p r e s s e d as s i m p l e f r u s t r a t i o n . W i t h r e s p e c t t o number 7 , d i s t r i c t i n v o l v e m e n t : b e c a u s e t h e d i s t r i c t s t u d i e d i s s m a l l and i s o l a t e d , c e n t r a l o f f i c e CHARACTERISTICS AT THE SCHOOL DISTRICT LEVEL a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . L a c k o f t i m e , g e o g r a p h i c d i s p e r s i o n o f c o m m u n i t i e s , and o v e r l o a d made a c t i v e s u p p o r t and i n v o l v e m e n t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o m m i t t e e . C l e a r l y , t h o u g h , t h i s d i s t r i c t ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d make i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a p r i o r i t y , and t h e n g i v e a g r e a t e r commitment o f t i m e , e f f o r t , r e s o u r c e s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Above a l l , c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h and s u p p o r t f o r t e a c h e r s a r e c a r d i n a l . S u c c e s s f u l s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e e i g h t h f a c t o r , i s t h a t w h i c h o c c u r s d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n on a c o n t i n u a l b a s i s . The t r a i n i n g i s o n g o i n g , p e r c e i v e d t o be p r a c t i c a l and c o n c r e t e , and a l l o w s f o r t e a c h e r - t e a c h e r i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t e r a c t i o n i s c a r d i n a l t o t h e p r o c e s s o f r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . S uch i n s e r v i c e i s u n r e a l i s t i c i n a d i s t r i c t where t h e t e a c h e r s may meet f o r one day e v e r y two y e a r s t o d e a l w i t h a w i d e d i v e r s i t y o f s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t n e e d s ; money, t i m e and g e o g r a p h i c d i s p e r s i o n p r e v e n t them f r o m d o i n g o t h e r w i s e . The l a c k o f d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t a l s o had n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t . T e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t a c t w i t h p e e r s on a p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l , b u t c i r c u m s t a n c e s made p r o f e s s i o n a l i s o l a t i o n a f a c t . W i t h s t u d e n t h e t e r o g e n e i t y , s c h o o l m u l t i g r a d e d n e s s and t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f e a c h c o m m u n i t y , s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t n e e d s a r e d i v e r s e f o r any t e a c h e r i n s u c h a d i s t r i c t . I f s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t , as F u l l a n o u t l i n e s i t , i s t o Iff be a r e a l i t y , t h e r e would need t o be an i n f u s i o n of money f o r d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y , as a c t u a l t r a v e l i s i m p r a c t i c a l . The i n c r e a s e d use of i n t e r a c t i v e s a t e l l i t e communication and computer systems would a l l o w s p e c i f i c and ongoing s t a f f development. Time i s o f t e n n e g l e c t e d as a f a c t o r because i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a d e l i v e r y date r a t h e r than a p r o c e s s of te a c h e r l e a r n i n g and r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . U n r e a l i s t i c t i m e - l i n e s may compound d i f f i c u l t i e s , such as the d e l i v e r y of support m a t e r i a l s , or w i t h any o p e r a t i o n a l parameter t h a t i s time o r i e n t e d . T i m e - l i n e s t h a t are r e a s o n a b l e , enhance a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y when e v a l u a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the i n n o v a t i o n a re l i n k e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l improvement p r o c e s s e s . In the case s t u d i e d no t i m e - l i n e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e i t h e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . One r e s u l t was wide v a r i a n c e i n the type and e x t e n t of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n which took p l a c e i n the d i f f e r e n t communities. T e a c h e r s ' d e c i s i o n s were taken on a day by day prag m a t i c b a s i s , and t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s v a r i e d from community to community. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s c h o o l boards and communities can vary w i d e l y and, t o some e x t e n t , i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r . In the d i s c u s s i o n of h i s t e n t h f a c t o r , F u l l a n r e p o r t s e v e r y t h i n g from p o s i t i v e s u p p o r t to n e g a t i v e r e j e c t i o n of a g i v e n i n n o v a t i o n by these two p u b l i c s . S i m p l y , the i n n o v a t i o n s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y e x p l a i n e d to the v a r i o u s p u b l i c s which t h a t i n n o v a t i o n w i l l a f f e c t . F u l l a n says t h e r e must be p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i z a t i o n i f a new i n n o v a t i o n i s to succeed. I n the d i s t r i c t s t u d i e d , board members and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e were w e l l aware of the v a r i e t y of views i n the s e v e r a l i s o l a t e d communities of t h a t d i s t r i c t . The p u b l i c s of the d i s t r i c t may be w e l l and f a i r l y d e a l t w i t h on many i s s u e s , but the i s s u e of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r e c e i v e d l i t t l e or no a t t e n t i o n . T h i s l a c k of involv e m e n t i s t y p i c a l a c c o r d i n g t o F u l l a n . D e s p i t e low o r g a n i z e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , community persons made i t c l e a r t h a t they would l i k e to be i n v o l v e d i n the change p r o c e s s e s , and f u r t h e r t h a t a b a s i c , o p e r a t i v e c r i t e r i o n of adequacy f o r such an e x e r c i s e was the p r o v i s i o n of e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c h i l d r e n of the d i s t r i c t -r e g a r d l e s s of i s o l a t i o n and s m a l l n e s s . CHARACTERISTICS AT THE SCHOOL LEVEL The s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l must take an a c t i v e and committed r o l e i f he/she i s to e f f e c t and l e g i t i m i z e change. The p r i n c i p a l i n t e r v i e w e e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t they were p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s s u p p o r t i n areas of m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , moral support and s t a f f development, whereas the t e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w e e s viewed p r i n c i p a l s as h a v i n g a minimal r o l e i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . There a r e , of c o u r s e , the one or two t e a c h e r s c h o o l s wherein the t e a c h e r i s the p r i n c i p a l . The d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r c e p t i o n by the t e a c h e r s and the p r i n c i p a l s as to the p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e became a " d i f f i c u l t y " . The t e a c h e r s wanted the p r i n c i p a l s to <?0 t a k e a g r e a t e r r o l e as f a c i l i t a t o r s o f s t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t , and i n p r o v i d i n g i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s and r e s o u r c e s . S i m p l y , t h e t e a c h e r s w a n t e d t h e p r i n c i p a l s t o e a s e t h e t a s k o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n by r e d u c i n g o r e l i m i n a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . T e a c h e r - t e a c h e r c o l l e g i a l i t y , open c o m m u n i c a t i o n , m u t u a l t r u s t and s u p p o r t a r e a l l p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t may have one t o t w e n t y t e a c h e r s on s t a f f ; t h e y a r e a l l t e a c h i n g d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s a n d / o r g r a d e s s u c h t h a t any g i v e n t e a c h e r has no o t h e r t e a c h e r on s t a f f t e a c h i n g t h e same c u r r i c u l a as h e / s h e i s . I t i s m o s t l y t h e c a s e t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i n q u e s t i o n r e a l l y h a s no c o l l e a g u e i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e t o t a l k t o . T e a c h e r - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l i s o l a t i o n . I s o l a t i o n becomes a l a r g e d i f f i c u l t y ; f o r t h e s p e c i f i c c o l l e g i a l i t y , as w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m a s p e c i f i c i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . M i n i m a l s u p p o r t and d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d t a k e p l a c e by l o n g d i s t a n c e t e l e p h o n e , b u t g e n e r a l l y i t d i d n o t , b e c a u s e o f t h e e x p e n s e and t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t p r o g r a m . CHARACTERISTICS EXTERNAL TO THE LOCAL SYSTEM F u l l a n c l a i m s t h a t when g o v e r n m e n t i s a " s o u r c e " o f r e f o r m and t h e l o c a l a c t o r s become t h e i m p l e m e n t e r s . T h e r e may be po o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n , m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and m i s p l a c e d f e e l i n g s b e t w e e n t h e two l e v e l s . I n t h e c a s e s t u d y , t h e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n p r e c l u d e d much o f t h e 9/ M i n i s t r y ' s i n f l u e n c e . The M i n i s t r y d i d have c o n s i d e r a b l e h e l p t o o f f e r ( C h a p t e r Two); h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e o f p o o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t e r v i e w e e s r e m a i n e d i g n o r a n t o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . The l i s t o f M i n i s t r y s o u r c e s o f h e l p was l o n g , b u t t h e s e s o u r c e s were s i m p l y t o o f a r away and i t was t o o t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o s o r t and s e l e c t s p e c i f i c a i d s . A i d s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a t hand were i g n o r e d . F u l l a n c l a i m s t h a t e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e by way o f money and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a f f e c t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The c a s e s t u d y showed t h e need f o r g r e a t e r e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s b e c a u s e o f t h e i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y and t o o f f s e t t h e i r s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s . The i n t e r v i e w e e s i n d i c a t e d t h e y w a n t e d i t and g o v e r n m e n t c l a i m e d i t was a v a i l a b l e ; a g a i n t h e r e was a f a i l u r e i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . As we saw a b o v e , w h i l e l o c a l community members a d v o c a t e d e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , t h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t u d y r e v e a l s t h a t p r o b l e m s o f i s o l a t i o n a c t u a l l y show t h a t i t i s an u n r e a l i z e d i d e a l . F u l l a n has i s o l a t e d f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; most o f h i s f a c t o r s c a n be u s e d as a f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h t o d i s c u s s t h i s c a s e . However, a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i s m i s s i n g o r a t l e a s t i s n o t g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t s t r e s s . The n o t i o n o f " e n v i r o n m e n t " o r " n i c h e " i n w h i c h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i s a b s o l u t e l y v i t a l , as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y o f s m a l l , i s o l a t e d s c h o o l s ; mundane d a i l y r e a l i t i e s may make i n e f f e c t i v e t h e b e s t o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t e n t i o n s . I n t h e c a s e c o n s i d e r e d h e r e c l a s s r o o m r e a l i t i e s , s c h o o l and community p o l i t i c s and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s , pragmatic day by day d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s , and a l l the i n ' s and out's of the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g / l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n can have overwhelming importance i n e f f o r t s at i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . In summary, we have been p r o v i d e d w i t h a c o n t e x t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s . F u r t h e r , not a l l f a c t o r s a f f e c t the s i t u a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and not a l l s i t u a t i o n s f i t the g e n e r a l format of F u l l a n ' s f a c t o r s . CONCLUSIONS Busy t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s from S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #84 p r o v i d e d a window to view the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of two programs i n a s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Taped and t r a n s c r i b e d i n t e r v i e w s , a l o n g w i t h the documents i n t e n d e d to h e l p b r i n g about the change, p r o v i d e d a data base from which the r e s e a r c h e r drew some c o n c l u s i o n s and some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . The t h r e e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d : 1. What were the so u r c e s of h e l p f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t h a t were a v a i l a b l e , and u t i l i z e d , w i t h i n a s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? 2. What were the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h i n a s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? 3. What i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e c i s i o n s were made i n a s m a l l and i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? 9 3 T h e f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n e d t h e s o u r c e s o f h e l p t h a t m i g h t b e a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t t h e t a s k o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . M a n y s o u r c e s w e r e p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s ( a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n A p p e n d i x D ) , b u t t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s w e r e h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t o n s o u r c e s t h a t w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y a n d e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e . T h e a c t u a l n u m b e r o f s o u r c e s o f h e l p w a s l o w ; t e a c h e r s u s e d t h e t e x t b o o k , t h e r e s o u r c e b o o k a n d w h a t e v e r e q u i p m e n t w a s r e a d i l y a t h a n d i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l o r c o m m u n i t y . T h e m o r e i s o l a t e d t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e m o r e s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d w e r e t h e s o u r c e s o f h e l p f o r t h e s e t e a c h e r s . T e a c h e r s c l a i m e d t h a t f i d e l i t y o f c h a n g e w a s n o t p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f t h i s l a c k o f h e l p . T h e l a c k o f s o u r c e s o f h e l p w a s p e r c e i v e d t o b e r e l a t e d t o t e a c h i n g i n i s o l a t e d c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d b y t e a c h e r s w h i l e i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e t w o p r o g r a m s . I s o l a t i o n a n d s m a l l n e s s o f t h e d i s t r i c t w e r e r e g i s t e r e d a s t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r s c a u s i n g t h e l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s , e q u i p m e n t , f a c i l i t i e s a n d a l l m a n n e r o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . I n i s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n s t h e t e a c h e r w a s h i s o r h e r o w n c a r d i n a l r e s o u r c e ; t h e r e f o r e t h e r o l e o f t h a t t e a c h e r w a s c r i t i c a l t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . L i m i t e d c o n t a c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t , o r i n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s , r e s u l t e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l i s o l a t i o n f o r t h e t e a c h e r s i n t e r v i e w e d . F o r e x a m p l e : i f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s l i m i t e d t o V H F r a d i o , o n l y t h i n g s o f t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y 9 V c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d . The p o i n t was made e m p h a t i c a l l y by i n t e r v i e w e e s t h a t i s o l a t i o n and g e o g r a p h i c d i s p e r s i o n made e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I n t e r v i e w e e s a l s o made i t c l e a r t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s and as cha n g e a g e n t s , was r e s t r i c t e d by t h e l a c k o f t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . They wanted p r e - p a c k a g e d c o u r s e s and c o u r s e r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e . S m a l l n e s s c r e a t e d a d i f f i c u l t m o n e t a r y s i t u a t i o n t h a t i m p a c t e d on t h e number o f a v a i l a b l e p e r s o n n e l o r r e s o u r c e s . T h i s d i s t r i c t had so few a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l t h a t c o n s u l t a t i v e h e l p was g i v e n l ow p r i o r i t y . The r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h a t " t i m e " was t h e most p r e c i o u s c o m modity f o r t h e s e i s o l a t e d t e a c h e r s ; t h e y needed t i m e t o d e a l w i t h t h e new p r o g r a m , t o f i n d s o u r c e s o f h e l p a m i d s t t h e i r l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s , and t o c o n f r o n t t h e many d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y f a c e d . M u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s e s a f f e c t e d t h e f i d e l i t y o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , as t e a c h e r s o f t h e s e c l a s s e s had t o e x t e n s i v e l y m o d i f y c o u r s e s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y r e a l l y had l i t t l e t i m e f o r m a k i n g s u c h c h a n g e s . R e s e a r c h on t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t e a c h e r d e c i s i o n s were made p r a g m a t i c a l l y f o r day by day s u r v i v a l i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e r e s o u r c e s a c t u a l l y a t h a n d . P r i o r i t i e s were i m p o r t a n t . T e a c h e r s seemed t o make d e c i s i o n s b a s e d on s t u d e n t need as f o u n d i n any g i v e n m u l t i g r a d e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Time was a l l o t e d t o t h e p r i o r i t y t h a t w o u l d s o l v e t h e p r e s e n t n e e d . I f a r e s o u r c e w a s n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , i t w a s i g n o r e d . I M P L I C A T I O N S T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p l a n n i n g o f f u t u r e p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s d i s t r i c t a n d p o s s i b l y o t h e r s l i k e i t . T h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e t o t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s - t i m e , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , r e s o u r c e s - i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s t u d y . 1 . S h o r t a g e o f t i m e f o r t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m i s a r e a l i t y t h a t n e e d s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d w h e n p l a n n i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l . R a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o c o p e w i t h a n u m b e r o f c h a n g e s a t o n c e , s o m e p r i o r i t i z i n g m a y b e n e c e s s a r y c o n c e r n i n g w h i c h i n n o v a t i o n ( o r e v e n w h a t p a r t o f a n i n n o v a t i o n ) w i l l b e p u t i n t o c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e . R e a l i s t i c t i m e l i n e s c o u l d t h e n b e p l a n n e d f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n c r e m e n t a l l y o v e r t w o o r t h r e e y e a r s . 2. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o u l d b e m a d e a n e x p l i c i t m a t t e r o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t i n a t l e a s t t h r e e w a y s . F i r s t , i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e h e l p a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y a n d f r o m o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c o u l d b e m a d e c o n s i s t e n t l y a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . S e c o n d , d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l w h o r e c e i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g f r o m o u t s i d e o f t h e d i s t r i c t c o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o s h a r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h c o l l e a g u e s . T h i r d , e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n - e g . t h e D R C . o r d i s t r i c t a n d s c h o o l i n s e r v i c e - c o u l d i n p a r t h i g h l i g h t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p l a n n i n g a n d r e s o u r c e s . 3. M a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e i n d e e d a p r o b l e m i n t i m e s o f f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t . H o w e v e r , t h i s r e s t r a i n t h i g h l i g h t s t h e n e e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h r e s o u r c e s a r e m o s t i m p o r t a n t , a n d f o r p r i o r i t i z i n g t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y . F u r t h e r s t u d y o n p r o g r a m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o u l d f o c u s o n t h e a c t u a l l i n e s a n d p a t t e r n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n s u c h a d i s t r i c t , a n d a m o n g t h e d i s t r i c t , t h e M i n i s t r y , a n d o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . A l s o , a n a s s e s s m e n t o f o b s e r v e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s ( r a t h e r t h a n p e r c e i v e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ) w o u l d h e l p d e t e r m i n e h o w i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o c c u r s , a n d w i t h w h a t d e g r e e o f f i d e l i t y o r a d a p t i o n . 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY A o k i , T.T.; L a n g f o r d , C.; W i l l i a m s , D.M.; W i l s o n , D.C. B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s Assessment: Summary  Repor t . V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1977. B a i l e y , G.D. C u r r i c u l u m Development i n the R u r a l S c h o o l . November 16, 1982. (ERIC Document ED 223 373). Bass, G. , and Berman, P. F e d e r a l A i d to R u r a l S c h o o l s :  C u r r e n t P a t t e r n s and Unmet Needs. Santa Monica, C a l i f o r n i a : Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1979. Bass, G and Berman, P. A n a l y s i s of F e d e r a l A i d to R u r a l  S c h o o l s : P a r t I I , S p e c i a l Needs of R u r a l D i s t r i c t s . Santa Monica, C a l i f o r n i a : Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981. Buchanan, B. " I n t r o d u c t i o n " to Program Implementation E x p e r i e n c e s . Francombe, B., G r i e v e , T., Watson, R., and Werner, W. , ( E d . ) , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1983. B u l l a r d , J . S c i e n c e 10 Probe . T o r o n t o : John W i l e y and Son, 1984. B u l l a r d , J . S c i e n c e 10 Probe: Teacher Resource Guide. T o r o n t o : John W i l e y and Son, 1984. Cole J . " B u i l d i n g P a r t n e r s h i p s f o r Q u a l i t y E d u c a t i o n i n R u r a l A m e r i c a " , CRESS Notes. ERIC C l e a r i n g h o u s e of R u r a l E d u c a t i o n and S m a l l S c h o o l s , Las Cr u c e s , New Mexico, S p r i n g 1984. D a v i s , J.C. "Correspondence C o u r s e s : A New Role i n R u r a l Secondary E d u c a t i o n " , R u r a l E d u c a t o r , 5:1:1-6, F a l l 1983. (ERIC Document EJ 290 295). D e a l , T.E., and N u t t , S.C. "Promoting, G u i d i n g and S u r v e y i n g Change i n S m a l l S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s " , i n L o n g i t u d i n a l Study  of E d u c a t i o n a l Change i n R u r a l America. R.E. H e r r i o t ( E d . ) , Cambridge, Mass.: AST A s s o c i a t e s I n c . , June 1979. Department of E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n of C u r r i c u l u m . J u n i o r Secondary S c h o o l S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Guide: S c i e n c e 10, ( E x p e r i m e n t a l E d i t i o n ) . V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1967. Department of E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n of C u r r i c u l u m . J u n i o r Secondary S c h o o l S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Guide: S c i e n c e 10. V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h . E l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s ^ Y e a r s 1_ t_o 1_. V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 4 . F l e t c h e r , J . L . " A p p l i c a t i o n o f E l e c t r o n i c T e c h n o l o g i e s t o R u r a l E d u c a t i o n " . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o , T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n t h e S e r v i c e o f R u r a l E d u c a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , J u l y 8 - 9 , 1 9 8 0 . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t E D 2 2 9 2 0 5 ) . F u l l a n , M . , a n d P o m f r e t , A . " R e s e a r c h o n C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " , R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , 4 7 : 1 : 3 3 5 - 3 9 7 , 1 9 7 7 . F u l l a n , M . " C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g P r o b l e m s o f C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " , i n C u r r i c u l u m C a n a d a . E d i t e d b y W . W e r n e r , V a n c o u v e r : C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C u r r i c u l u m S t u d i e s a n d C e n t r e f o r t h e S t u d y o f C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) , p p . 4 0 - 5 0 , 1 9 7 9 . F u l l a n , M . a n d P a r k , P . C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : A_ R e s o u r c e B o o k . T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 1 . F u l l a n , M . " I m p l e m e n t i n g E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e : P r o g r e s s a t L a s t " . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o N a t i o n a l I n v i t a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e , W a r r e n t o n , V a . , F e b r u a r y 2 5 - 2 7 , 1 9 8 2 . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t E D 2 2 1 5 4 0 ) . F u l l a n , M . a n d L i e t h w o o d , K . D e v e l o p i n g a P l a n f o r  C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . V i c t o r i a : P r o g r a m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n S e r v i c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 2 a . F u l l a n , M . T h e M e a n i n g o f E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e . T o r o n t o : 0 I S E P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 b . F u l l a n , M . " E v a l u a t i n g P r o g r a m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : W h a t C a n B e L e a r n e d f r o m F o l l o w T h r o u g h " , C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 1 3 : 2 : 2 1 5 - 2 2 7 , 1 9 8 3 . F u l l a n , M . " C h a n g e P r o c e s s e s a n d S t r a t e g i e s a t t h e L o c a l L e v e l " , T h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 8 5 : 3 : 3 9 1 - 4 2 1 , 1 9 8 5 . G o o d l a d , J . I . A P l a c e C a l l e d S c h o o l . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 8 3 . G o r e , G . " T e a c h e r s N o t T e x t b o o k s ' S e l l ' S c i e n c e " , B C T F  N e w s l e t t e r , 8 4 : 1 1 : 0 9 , p . 4 . 1? H a r r i s , W . J . a n d M a h a r , C . " P r o b l e m s i n I m p l e m e n t i n g R e s o u r c e P r o g r a m s i n R u r a l S c h o o l s " , E x c e p t i o n a l  C h i l d r e n , 4 2 : 2 : 9 5 - 9 9 . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t E J 1 2 7 7 7 7 ) . H e n n i g h , L . " C o o p e r a t i o n a n d C o n f l i c t i n L o n g T e r m E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e : S o u t h U m p q u a , O r e g o n " , i n T h e L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e i n R u r a l A m e r i c a , M a y 1 9 7 9 . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t E D 2 0 1 4 4 2 ) . H e r r i o t t , R . a n d G r o s s , N . , ( E d . ) . T h e D y n a m i c s o f P l a n n e d E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e : A n A n a l y s i s o f t h e R u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S c h o o l P r o g r a m . B e r k l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : M c C u t c h e o n , 1 9 7 9 . H e r r i o t t , R . " F e d e r a l I n i t i a t i v e s a n d R u r a l S c h o o l I m p r o v e m e n t s : F i n d i n g s F r o m t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l S c h o o l s P r o g r a m " . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s : A B T A s s o c i a t e s I n c . , M a r c h , 1 9 8 0 . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t E D 1 9 2 9 6 1 ) . L a n g f o r d , C . a n d H e a t h , C . , ( E d . ) . E x p l o r a t i o n s : T e a c h e r  B o o k - G r a d e O n e . V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M c l n t y r e L t d . , 1 9 8 3 . L a n g f o r d , C . a n d H e a t h , C . ( E d . ) . E x p l o r a t i o n s : T e a c h e r  B o o k - G r a d e T w o . V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M c l n t y r e L t d . , 1 9 8 3 . L a n g f o r d , C . a n d H e a t h , C . ( E d . ) . E x p l o r a t i o n s : T e a c h e r B o o k - G r a d e T h r e e . V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M c l n t y r e L t d . , 1 9 8 3 . L a n g f o r d , C . a n d H e a t h , C . ( E d . ) . E x p l o r a t i o n s : G r a d e O n e . S e r i e s o f b o o k l e t s , V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M c l n t y r e L t d . , 1 9 8 3 . L a n g f o r d , C . a n d H e a t h , C . ( E d . ) . S e r i e s o f g r a d e t w o t e x t b o o k s : - " E x p l o r i n g M o u n t C u r r i e " - " E x p l o r i n g E l k f o r d " - " E x p l o r i n g N a r a m a t a " - " E x p l o r i n g P r i n c e G e o r g e " - " E x p l o r i n g Y o u r S c h o o l a n d N e i g h b o u r h o o d " - " E x p l o r i n g a S p a c e C o m m u n i t y " V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M c l n t y r e L t d . , 1 9 8 3 . L a n g f o r d , C , a n d H e a t h , C . ( E d . ) . S e r i e s o f g r a d e t h r e e t e x t b o o k s : - " E x p l o r i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s P a s t " - " E x p l o r i n g O u r C o u n t r y " - " T u r n o n t o C a n a d a " V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s a n d M c l n t y r e L t d . , 1 9 8 3 . i 0 0 L o u c k s , S . F . a n d L i e b e r m a n , A . " C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n " , i n F u n d a m e n t a l C u r r i c u l u m D e c i s i o n s . E n g l i s h , F . W . ( E d . ) , A . S . C . D . Y e a r b o o k , 1 9 8 3 . M c C u n e , A . D . " P l a n n i n g , I m p l e m e n t i n g a n d E v a l u a t i n g a P r o g r a m i n G i f t e d E d u c a t i o n i n S m a l l R u r a l S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s " , A p r i l 1 9 8 0 . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t E D 1 8 4 8 0 5 ) . M a r s h a l l , M . A . " E v a l u a t i o n a n d t h e F o u r G o a l s o f t h e N e w S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m " . D e l t a B . C . : O m e g a R e s e a r c h a n d E v a l u a t i o n , A u g u s t 1 9 8 4 . M i n i s t r y o o f E d u c a t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h . C u r r i c u l u m U p d a t e 1 9 7 9 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 9 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h . C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g 1 9 7 9 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 9 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h . C u r r i c u l u m S u m m a r i e s 1 9 8 2 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 2 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . G u i d e l i n e s f o r P l a n n i n g P r o g r a m  I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 2 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m  G u i d e a n d R e s o u r c e B o o k . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 2 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . S o c i a l S t u d i e s C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e : G r a d e s O n e t o S e v e n . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 3 . M i n i s t t r y o f E d u c a t i o o n . S o c i a l S t u d i e s R e s o u r c e M a n u a l : G r a d e s O n e t o T h r e e . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 3 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . S o c i a l S t u d i e s M e d i a R e s o u r c e s : G r a d e s O n e t o T h r e e . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 3 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . M i n i s t r y I n f o r m a t i o n C i r c u l a r 4 4 / 8 4 . 0 5 . 1 6 , J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c i e n c e S u m m e r I n s t i t u t e  1 9 8 4 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 4 . M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . M i n i s t r y P o l i c y C i r c u l a r 2 2 / 8 5 . 0 2 . 2 5 , C u r r i c u l u m C h a n g e s 1 9 8 5 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 5 . M u r p h y P . J . " R u r a l S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , T h e R u r a l  E d u c a t o r , 6 : 1 : 6 - 7 , F a l l 1 9 8 4 . N o l i n , R . S . a n d S l o a n , C . A . A_ U n i q u e M o d e l f o r S m a l l S c h o o l  S u r v i v a l , 1 9 7 9 . ( E R I C D o c u m e n t E D 1 9 7 8 6 5 ) . 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" R e a c h i n g and T e a c h i n g t h e R u r a l P o o r " , The R u r a l  E d u c a t o r , 6:3:23-24, S p r i n g 1985. S c h m i d , M.C. E x t e n d i n g S c i e n c e C o n c e p t s i n t h e L a b o r a t o r y . V a n c o u v e r : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f C a n a d a , 1970. S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #84 ( V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d W e s t ) . C u r r i c u l u m C o m m i t t e e m i n u t e s , 84:11:23 and 8 5 : 0 6 : 1 2 . S o u t h e a s t e r n E d u c a t i o n L a b o r a t o r y . "A C o m p r e h e n s i v e P l a n n i n g G u i d e : S.E.L. P a t h w a y s t o B e t t e r S c h o o l s " . S.E.L. P a t h w a y s S e r i e s , Volume 1. M a r c h 1970. ( E R I C Document ED 040 8 0 3 ) . T e x a s S m a l l S c h o o l P r o j e c t 1960 ( E R I C Document ED 019 149. W h i t e , J . " T e a c h e r I n i t i a t e d W r i t i n g - As - A - P r o c e s s " , f r o m P r o g r a m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e s . F r a n c o m b e , B. and W e r n e r , W. ( E d . ) , P r o g r a m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n S e r v i c e s , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983. W i l s o n , E.W. " M a n a g i n g I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n a S m a l l D i s t r i c t " , f r o m P r o g r a m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n E x p e r i e n c e s . F r a n c o m b e , B. and W e r n e r , W. ( E d . ) , P r o g r a m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n S e r v i c e s , M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1983. Woodrow, J . R e a d i n g A b o u t S c i e n c e Book 3. T o r o n t o : H o l t R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n C a n a d a , 1970. A P P E N D I X A R E Q U E S T F O R P E R M I S S I O N L E T T E R B o x 5 3 , T a h s i s B . C . V O P 1 X 0 8 4 : 0 1 : 1 7 M r . X . X X X X X X , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , B o x 0 0 0 , G G G G G G G G G , H H H . D e a r X X X X X X , We h a v e s p o k e n s e v e r a l t i m e s a b o u t my M a s t e r s t h e s i s , a n d a t t h i s t i m e I f o r m a l l y r e q u e s t t h a t y o u a n d o u r B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s g i v e a p p r o v a l f o r me t o i n t e r v i e w s o m e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . A s y o u a r e a w a r e , my i n t e r e s t i s i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( p r o b l e m s , s o u r c e s o f h e l p , a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ) i n a s m a l l a n d i s o l a t e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ( o u r s ) . M y i n t e n t i s t o t a l k t o t h e t e a c h e r s o f p r i m a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s a n d S c i e n c e P r o b e 1 0 . I t h a n k y o u a n d t h e B o a r d f o r s u p p o r t i n t h i s p r o j e c t , a n d m a y I s a y t h a t I a m m o r e t h a n w i l l i n g t o s h a r e a n y f i n d i n g s t h a t c o u l d s e r v e i n a n y u s e f u l w a y f o r o u r d i s t r i c t . Y o u r s t r u l y , R . S . P a u l i n 10Z A P P E N D I X B R E Q U E S T F O R I N T E R V I E W L E T T E R B o x 5 3 , T a h s i s B . C . V O P 1 X 0 8 4 : 0 1 : 1 7 D e a r M a y I r e q u e s t y o u r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n t o m o s t o f u s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . We a r e a l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e l i v e r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o d u c t t o c h i l d r e n . M y s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n i s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c u r r i c u l a s u c h a s t h e n e w p r i m a r y s o c i a l s t u d i e s a n d S c i e n c e P r o b e 1 0 . I a m d o i n g a M a s t e r s t h e s i s o n t h e t o p i c o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s i t o c c u r s i n a s m a l l i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t s u c h a s o u r s . M y n e e d i s s o u r c e s o f p r i o r i t i e s a m u t u a l l y D a t a w o u l d p r e v a i l . I m e e t i n g s . t o t a l k w i t h t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e s e c o u r s e s a b o u t h e l p , p r o b l e m s e x p e r i e n c e d , a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . M a y I a r r a n g e t o d i s c u s s t h i s t o p i c w i t h y o u a t c o n v e n i e n t t i m e ? I w o u l d n e e d a b o u t 4 0 m i n u t e s , b e c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d t e a c h e r a n o n y m i t y w i l l w i l l m a k e a l l o t h e r c o n t a c t l i k e l y b y p h o n e o r a t I a m m o r e t h a n w i l l i n g t o a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n s y o u m i g h t h a v e a n d I t h a n k y o u i n a d v a n c e f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e . Y o u r s t r u l y , R . S . P a u l i n P e r m i s s i o n i s h e r e b y g r a n t e d t o M r . R . S . P a u l i n t o u s e a l l c o m m e n t s g i v e n b y me i n a t a p e r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w t o h i m . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y a n d a n o n y m i t y w i l l p r e v a i l , a n d f u r t h e r t h a t t h e s e d a t a g i v e n a r e o n l y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . I a l s o p e r m i t d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a a s m a y r e a s o n a b l y b e r e q u i r e d f o r w r i t i n g a t h e s i s . D a t e : S i g n e d : APPENDIX C INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1 . What s c h o o l do you t e a c h a t ? What s u b j e c t s and g r a d e s ? W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e s a r e you t e a c h i n g a) G r a d e 1 S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( f a m i l i e s ) b) G r a d e 2 S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( c o m m u n i t i e s ) c ) G r a d e 3 S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( B . C . & Canada) d) G r a d e 1 0 S c i e n c e ( S c i e n c e P r o b e 1 0 ) ? 3. A r e you t e a c h i n g any o f t h e c o u r s e s m e n t i o n e d i n q u e s t i o n 2 i n a m u l t i g r a d e d c l a s s r o o m ? I f s o , t o what g r a d e ( s ) ? t o what g r a d e s a r e you s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t e a c h i n g o t h e r c o u r s e s ? 4. How have you i m p l e m e n t e d t h i s c o u r s e o r c o u r s e s ? 5. T e l l me a b o u t some o f " t h e s o u r c e s o f h e l p " you u s e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g ? D i s t i n g u i s h t h e " u s e f u l " f r o m t h e l e s s h e l p f u l s o u r c e s o f h e l p . 6 . Can you t h i n k o f any " s o u r c e s o f h e l p " f o r t h i s c o u r s e t h a t you do n o t h a v e , c a n n o t a c c e s s , o r a r e l i m i t e d f r o m a c c e s s i n g ? Why a r e t h e s e s o u r c e s n o t a v a i l a b l e t o you? 7. What " d i f f i c u l t i e s " impeded o r i n h i b i t e d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s c o u r s e ? M e n t i o n t h e p r a c t i c a l " i n s i t u " d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t you e x p e r i e n c e d . 8. How d i d you d e a l w i t h t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s ? 9. I n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e new p r o g r a m , what a r e t h e r e a s o n s , v a l u e s o r c r i t e r i a by w h i c h you made t h e s e d e c i s i o n s ? 1 0 . CHECKLIST: P l e a s e u se t h i s c h e c k l i s t t o d o u b l e c h e c k f o r any s o u r c e s o f h e l p , d i f f i c u l t i e s o r r e a s o n s you may have m i s s e d ? A d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n s w e r i n g t h e s e q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d g e n e r a l l y r e p l a c e t h e c o n c e p t " t e a c h " w i t h t h e c o n c e p t " s u p e r v i s e " . APPENDIX D CHECKLIST * SOURCES OF HELP  P r o v i n c i a l L e v e l M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s S o c i a l S t u d i e s g r a d e s 1 t o 7 C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e S c i e n c e P r o b e 10 G u i d e l i n e s a b o u t t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n A c u r r i c u l u m t h a t i s p r a c t i c a l and r e l e v a n t C u r r i c u l u m has c l a r i t y a b o u t c h a n g e s t o be made S p e c i a l ( e x c e p t i o n a l ) f e d e r a l g r a n t s D i s t r i c t L e v e l D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c t i o n R e s o u r c e C e n t r e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s s i s t a n t R e s o u r c e C e n t r e (SD#84) R e s o u r c e C e n t r e C l e r k " H e l p i n g t e a c h e r " D i s t r i c t C u r r i c u l u m and P r o g r a m s C o o r d i n a t o r S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r M a i n t e n a n c e S t a f f C u r r i c u l u m C o m m i t t e e T e a c h e r R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r : SC 10 SS 1 SS 2 SS 3 A " T r o u b l e s h o o t e r t o p r o v i d e c o m f o r t and c a r e " H a v i n g a s e q u e n t i a l d i s t r i c t p l a n G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s ( p o l i c y #6130) I n t e r d i s t r i c t c o o p e r a t i v e s S h a r i n g and p a i r i n g by d i s t r i c t s P r o g r a m i s a d o p t e d and p u s h e d by t h e B o a r d Good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s Good p u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o s F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s * The w ords o r p h r a s e s on t h i s c h e c k l i s t were s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n b e t ween t h e i n t e r v i e w e e and i n t e r v i e w e r . I0G S c h o o l L e v e l P r i n c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s s i s t a n t s L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r D e p a r t m e n t a l s u p p o r t ( i . e . , a l l S c i e n c e t e a c h e r T e a c h e r c o l l e a g u e p r o v i d e s h e l p C h i l d r e n r e c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g P a r e n t a l community g r o u p (PTA) P a r e n t v o l u n t e e r s T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n P r o 'D d a y s ( s c h o o l o r d i s t r i c t ) S h a r i n g and p a i r i n g s c h o o l s I n t e r s c h o o l c o o p e r a t i o n R e m i n d e r : T h i s p r o g r a m i s a s c h o o l p r i o r i t y G i v e n autonomy o f p r a c t i c e i n s c h o o l A 5 y e a r p l a n P r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n A c o n d u c i v e e n v i r o n m e n t S t u d e n t t e x t s G r a d e 1 Grade 2 Gr a d e 3 Grade 10 S o c i a l S t u d i e s S u b - c o m m i t t e e S c i e n c e S u b - c o m m i t t e e S o c i a l s t u d i e s o r s c i e n c e d i s t r i c t c h e c k l i s t s I m p l e m e n t a t i v e v i d e o t a p e C o m m e r c i a l l y s u p p l i e d r e s o u r c e b o o k s C o m m e r c i a l s u p p l i e s ( p u r c h a s e d ) P r e - p r e p a r e d c l a s s r o o m e x e r c i s e s P r e - p r e p a r e d p r e and p o s t t e s t s M a t e r i a l goods and e q u i p m e n t s u p p o r t F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t Needs a s s e s s m e n t t h a t shows need An o r d e r l y p r o c e s s i s i n p l a c e P o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s a m e n a b l e t o cha n g e p r e v a i l T e a c h e r L e v e l P r i o r i t y i n s e r v i c e A t l e a s t m i n i m a l t r a i n i n g f o r t h e t e a c h e r "Hands on " t r a i n i n g S t a f f d e v e l o p m e n t by c o l l e a g u e s R e g u l a r m e e t i n g s w i t h a f o c u s on t h e p r o g r a m F o l l o w up s e s s i o n t o t h e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n Summer i n s t i t u t e s Summer s c h o o l ( u n i v e r s i t y ) T e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e " L e a r n i n g by d o i n g " e x p e r i e n c e s f o r t h e t e a c h e C l a s s r o o m a s s i s t a n c e C o a c h i n g o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n l e s s o n s O b s e r v i n g o t h e r t e a c h e r s 10 7 P r i o r i z e d i n t e n d e d o u t c o m e s E n c o u r a g e m e n t M o t i v a t i o n C u r i o u s i t y t o e x p e r i m e n t P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g H a v i n g a s t r a t e g y f o r use i n t h e c l a s s r o o m W e l l b e h a v e d r e s p o n s i v e c h i l d r e n S t u d e n t g r o u p i n g ( e . g . , r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ) S t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n On t a s k t i m e R e s o u r c e L e v e l P.E.M.C. F i l m s u p p l i e r s ( e . g . , NFB ) A u d i o - v i s u a l s ( e . g . , t a p e s , o v e r h e a d s , f i l m ) P r o v i n c i a l R e s o u r c e C e n t r e f o r L o c a l l y D e v e l o p e d M a t e r i a l s NETWORK o f S c h o o l B a s e d E d u c a t o r s ( i n o p e r a t i o n ) R a d i o b r o a d c a s t s D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n C o r r e s p o n d e n c e B r a n c h E l e c t r o n i c t e c h n o l o g y ( e . g . , c o m p u t e r s ) O p p o r t u n i t y t o e x a m i n e new m a t e r i a l s 10? D I F F I C U L T I E S M i n i s t r y L e v e l M a ndate by M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n No M i n i s t r y h e l p O v e r s e l l i n g t h e p r o g r a m B u r e a u c r a t i c c o m p l e x i t i e s o r h a s s l e s P o o r l y d e s i g n e d p r o g r a m C u r r i c u l u m i s o v e r l y a b s t r a c t C u r r i c u l u m g u i d e i s " u s e l e s s " D e l a y o r n e g l e c t D i s t r i c t L e v e l Who i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o whom Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e No d i s t r i c t h e l p P o l i t i c s P r o g r a m " a d o p t e d " b u t n o t y e t i m p l e m e n t e d L a c k o f money ( b u d g e t ) Not c o s t e f f e c t i v e L a c k o f e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y L a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n L a c k o f m a t e r i a l s L a c k o f t e x t b o o k s L a c k o f l i b r a r i a n s o r d i s t r i c t l i b r a r i a n s L a c k o f t e a c h e r a i d e s L a c k o f s e c r e t a r i a l t i m e P a r e n t a l h a s s l e s T r u s t e e i n t e r f e r e n c e P r e s s u r e f r o m o t h e r p r o g r a m s n e e d i n g a d o p t i o n o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n F a l s e c l a r i t y t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e a l s u b s t a n t i v e c h ange S c h o o l L e a d e r s h i p L e v e l C o n s t r a i n e d by s c h o o l l e a d e r s h i p Too many l i n k s i n p r o p e r c h a n n e l s ( r e d t a p e ) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n e r t i a H i d d e n a g e n d a s S t a f f c o n f l i c t I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s I n a c c u r a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s R e o r d e r i n g and r e f u r b i s h i n g o f s u p p l i e s S m a l l and I s o l a t e d Community L e v e l U n i q u e n e s s o f t h e community o r i t s s c h o o l H i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s I s o l a t i o n L a c k o f s e r v i c e s L a c k o f community f a c i l i t i e s 101 L a c k o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s L a c k o f , o r p o o r d u p l i c a t i n g s e r v i c e s L a c k o f f i e l d t r i p p o t e n t i a l and / o r t r a n s p o r t W e a t h e r L a c k o f q u a l i f i e d s u b s t i t u t e s T r a v e l c o s t s ( $ ) r e i n s e r v i c e S m a l l e n r o l l m e n t E n r o l l m e n t p o t e n t i a l M u l t i g r a d e d m a i n s t r e a m e d c l a s s e s Time T e a c h e r h a s many r o l e s P a r e n t a l / s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s No c o n s e n s u s r e l o c a l n e eds L a c k o f a c c e p t a n c e o f change a g e n t "Back t o b a s i c s " p r e s s u r e Not r e l e v a n t t o c h i l d r e n L a c k o f K n o w l e d g e N e t w o r k P r o g r a m L e v e l C o r e c o u r s e v e r s u s o p t i o n a l c o u r s e The "how t o ' s " a r e n o t s p e c i f i c enough L a c k s "hands - on " a c t i v i t i e s I n a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g l e v e l No s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e u s i n g new p r o g r a m Time t o p l a n Time t o l e a r n new m a t e r i a l I n c l a s s r o o m t i m e T e a c h e r L e v e l T h e r e a r e no r e a s o n s o r i n c e n t i v e s f o r me t o change P r e v i o u s n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n R e s i s t i n g c hange The t a s k was s i m p l y "dumped" on y o u ! P r e v i o u s p r o g r a m was w o r t h w h i l e O w n e r s h i p ( i f I d o n ' t p o s s e s s i t do, I r e a l l y c a r e a b o u t i t ? ) R e a d j u s t m e n t o f r o l e and c o n f l i c t t h e r e f r o m How I c h a n g e o r a d a p t as I a p p r o a c h new i d e a s P e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e new p r o g r a m s (+/-) E m o t i o n ( h i d d e n o r open) T e a c h i n g i s l o n e l y - ( a c a d e m i c a l l y ) - ( a d u l t - a d u l t ) I m p e t u s , e n e r g y , e n t h u s i a s m C o mmittment T e a c h e r o v e r l o a d L a c k o f " e x p o s u r e " t o t h e p r o g r a m Not f a m i l i a r w i t h p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e N a i v e t y D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t e a c h e r a b i l i t y C l a s s r o o m c o m p l e x i t i e s I I O S t u d e n t a t t i t u d e a n d / o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n M i s t a k e s T e a c h i n g s t y l e i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c R e c o r d k e e p i n g : t o o much t i m e t o o c o m p l e x p o o r e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a S t u d e n t L e v e l L a c k o f s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s Low s t u d e n t s e l f - c o n c e p t M o b i l e o r t r a n s i e n t s t u d e n t Low s t u d e n t a b i l i t y P r o g r a m i s n o t "work p l a c e " p o p u l a t i o n r e l a t e d (II REASONS FOR DECISIONS Who does what ( r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) What e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e t h e r e What c o n d i t i o n s a r e t h e r e What t h i n g s a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y What t h i n g s a r e i n c o n c l u s i v e A s s u m p t i o n s Time f o r t h e p r o c e s s . . . ( t o o g r e a t / s m a l l ) F i n a n c e s E x p e n s i v e p r o g r a m ( e . g . , i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n ) New m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p m e n t A d e q u a t e p e r s o n n e l ( s t a f f i n g ) P h y s i c a l , s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s T i m e t a b l e P r i n c i p a l ' s s t y l e P r i n c i p a l s u p p o r t : p r o b l e m s n e e d s i n s e r v i c e m a t e r i a l s S t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e N e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h e p r o g r a m P a r e n t / p u p i l a t t i t u d e s E s t a b l i s h e d p u p i l e v a l u a t i o n and t e s t i n g I s i t a c o r e c o u r s e ? R e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s r e a d y a t hand Mew t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s New b e l i e f s I f t h e r e were more e l e c t r o n i c s e r v i c e s More p a c k a g e d p r o g r a m s Use o f s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r v i a e l e c t r o n i c m e d i a t o a s s i s t " i n s i t u " g e n e e r a l i s t t e a c h e r P r e s s u r e f o r change Change i s go o d : d e p e n d i n g on one's v a l u e s We w i l l n e v e r know t h e t r u e i m p a c t o f change What t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n s w i l l b e s t p r o d u c e w a n t e d r e s u l t s ? What k i n d o f s o c i e t y do we want? E d u c a t i o n i s a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e t e a c h e r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r e t c . I t i s t e c h n i c a l l y s i m p l e b u t s o c i a l l y c o m p l e x P r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s C o n f u s i o n and / o r c o n f l i c t What a d v a n t a g e i s t h e r e t o n o t c h a n g i n g ? How i s s u c c e s s d e f i n e d ? T r u s t O penness C o n s i s t e n c y Q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m C l a s s r o o m harmony A f f i r m a t i o n o f s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s W i l l i n g n e s s t o f o l l o w s t a g e s : ux O r i e n t P r e p a r e M e c h a n i c a l use R o u t i n e use R e f i n e or a d j u s t F u t u r e budgetary o u t l o o k "The s t a t u s quo i s f u l l of f i x i t y " Which does the program emphasize: C o g n i t i v e / academic g o a l s P e r s o n a l / s o c i a l development g o a l s Not r e l a t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l need " G r a s s r o o t s " programs are b e t t e r than " o u t s i d e " programs Does t h i s new program h e l p the s t u d e n t to e x i s t r u r a l l y ? APPENDIX E DEFINITIONS IMPLEMENTATION; The p u t t i n g of new programs i n t o c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e ( F u l l a n 1979 ). SOURCES of HELP ( f o r I m p l e m e n t a t i o n ) : Any r e s o u r c e t h a t a i d s program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The r e s o u r c e might be m a t e r i a l goods or s e r v i c e s rendered to or sought by the implementing t e a c h e r . DIFFICULTIES: Any f a c t o r t h a t i n any way i n h i b i t s the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . These f a c t o r s may be m a t e r i a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l or even p e r s o n a l . REASONS ( f o r d e c i s i o n ) : These are the v a l u e s or c r i t e r i a upon which i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e c i s i o n s are made . SCIENCE 10 PROBE j _ The B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n S c i e n c e 10 c u r r i c u l u m (1982), i n c l u d i n g the t e x t by B u l l a r d , J.e_t a l . (1984). SOCIAL STUDIES ( p r i m a r y grades 1,2,3): The B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m (1983) i n c l u d i n g the t e x t s e r i e s by Douglas and M c l n t y r e L t d . t i t l e d EXPLORATIONS (1983). PEMC: P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n Media Centre i s a f a c i l i t y i n Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c q u i r i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a r g e f o r m a t a u d i o v i s u a l s ( f i l m s , v i d e o t a p e s a n d c o m p u t e r s o f t w a r e ) . D R C : T h e d i s t r i c t r e s o u r c e c e n t r e f o r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t # 8 4 . M I N I S T R Y ; T h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a . I N T E R V I E W E E S : T e a c h e r s o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t # 8 4 w e r e d e n o t e d a s f o l l o w s : e . g . , T - 4 3 w h i c h w o u l d m e a n t h e t h i r d t e a c h e r i n c o m m u n i t y f o u r . T - 5 0 i s t h e o n l y t e a c h e r i n c o m m u n i t y f i v e a n d i s a l s o t h e p r i n c i p a l . P - 1 m e a n s a p r i n c i p a l a n d A A - 1 m e a n s a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t . M - 1 r e f e r s t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f I m p l e m e n t a t i o n S e r v i c e s f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . It* 

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