UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Assessment of the management strategies for learning resources in Vancouver schools Hannis, E. Marilyn 1996

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1996-0472.pdf [ 5.89MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0054658.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0054658-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0054658-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0054658-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0054658-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0054658-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0054658-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0054658-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0054658.ris

Full Text

A S S E S S M E N T O F T H E MANAGEMENT S T R A T E G I E S FOR L E A R N I N G R E S O U R C E S I N V A N C O U V E R SCHOOLS BY E. MARILYN HANNIS B.A., University of Western Washington, 1969 DIP.in Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE IN MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION) We accept t h i s Graduating Thesis as conforming to tlje required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia cZ^t</ j l l * ? ' Ttl^ Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) I Abstract Significant changes to the British Columbia's educational system have been caused by new curriculums that are based on a resource-based learning and teaching model. The Ministry of Education evaluates learning resources and allocates funding to support the acquisition of learning resources at the district and school level. Learning resources selected for classroom use are to support the Principles of Learning: • learning requires the active participation of the student; • people learn in a variety of ways and at different rates; • learning is both an individual and a group process. The Ministry recommends that schools have a Learning Resource Committee to develop a school vision for learning resources, evaluate current school resources, establish selection priorities, evaluate resources and make recommendations for purchase, and identify learning resource management systems. A survey of Vancouver elementary and secondary schools indicates that 41% of the schools have Learning Resource Committees, but that their activities rarely include all the recommendations of the Ministry. The survey shows that only 25% of the Committees have an established procedure for selecting learning resources. This study includes an analysis of Learning Resources Committees at two secondary and one elementary school where interviews were done with administrators, teacher-librarians, teachers and staff assistants provide a picture of how learning resources are selected and managed and their impact on resource-based learning and teaching. This study found that systems for selecting and managing learning resources are in the developmental stage as teachers move from primarily print formats to a broad range of print and non-print learning resources. , ' ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would particularly like to thank Vancouver School District for enabling me to do this research. As a district they have been very supportive. I would also like to thank the administrators, teachers, teacher-librarians and staff assistants who participated in the study. They spent many hours with me explaining how learning resources were handled in their school. I would like to acknowledge the two men who have made this thesis possible. First, the most important person in my life, my husband, Ted. This thesis is as much his as mine. He kept life on an even keel at home with the children, doing the shopping, cooking, and cleaning which , i enabled me to pursue my research and write this thesis. He kept believing that I would finish and be a real person again. Without him, it would have been impossible. I would also like to thank my third advisor, Dr. John Willinsky. He dared to be my advisor, even though he knew my previous advisors had left the country. He supported me with valuable insight, and a sense of humour. He also believed that I would finish. Thank you both. iii T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Acknowledgements iii Table of Contents iv List of Figures r vii List of Tables - viii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO T H E STUDY Overview 1 Resource-Based Learning and Teaching 5 Overview of Recent Educational Changes in British Columbia 8 Learning Resources Funding 11 Learning Resources Funding Accounts 13 Impact on School Personnel and Systems 15 Research Questions 18 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF T H E LITERATURE Overview ... 19 School Restructuring 19 Changes in the School Library Resource Centre 21 Role of the Teacher-Librarian in Educational Restructuring in British Columbia 23 Perceptions of the Teacher-Librarian by Colleagues 25 Technology and the Teacher-Librarian 28 Influence of Funding Changes to the Library Resource Centre ...30 Learning Resources Selection and Management 30 Summary 31 CHAPTER THREE: METHODS AND PROCEDURES Overview 33 Research Design 35 Instrument: Survey 35 Pilot Survey 35 Test Survey 36 Survey Data Collection 37 Instrument: Interviews 37 Interview Data Collection 38 Interview Data Analysis 38 Limitations of the Interviews 39 Significance of This Study 39 iv CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS Overview : 42 Learning Resources Survey 42 Analysis of Data: Function 42 Analysis of Data: Management of Resources 48 School A: Secondary 52 School Organization 52 Organizational Procedures 53 Administrative Team and Department Heads 53 Department Heads and Subject Teachers 55 Selection, Management and Accounting 55 Textbooks 56 Non-textbook Learning Resources 57 Effects on Teaching and Learning 59 Summary 61 School B: Secondary ...66 School Organization 66 Organizational procedures 67 Administrative Decision-Making, Planning and Activities 67 Administrator and Department Heads 70 Department Heads and Subject Teachers 72 Selection, Management and Accounting 74 Effects on Learning and Teaching 76 Classroom 76 Library Resource Centre 76 Summary 78 School C: Elementary 80 School Organization 80 Organizational procedures 81 Effects on Learning and Teaching 85 Summary.. 88 Summary of Results 92 What roles do the administrator, teacher-librarian, teachers or others have in the selection and management of learning resources? What systems are being used for the management of learning resources? 92 Are Vancouver Learning Resource Committees fulfilling the expectations that the Ministry and the School District have placed on them? What is the effect of multiple resources on learning and teaching? 94 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS Overview 96 Are Learning Resource Committees fulfilling the expectations that the Ministry and the school district have placed on them? 96 What roles do the administrator, teacher-librarian, and others have in the selection and management of learning resources? 98 Administrator 98 Teacher-Librarian 100 Teachers... 101 What systems are in use for the management of learning . resources? 101 Are teachers and students engaged in resource-based learning and teaching? 102 Resource-Based Learning 102 Resource-Based Teaching 103 Implications for Schools: Learning Resource Committees 104 Implications for University Education Programs 105 Implications for Parents 105 Implications for Future Research 105 Conclusion 106 References 108 APPENDIX A: Learning Resources Survey 113 a . APPENDIX B: Learning Resources Survey Results 117 APPENDIX C: Interview Questions 127 vi LIST O F FIGURES Figure 1. Distribution of Learning Resources Funding 14 ) L vii LIST OF TABLES \ Table 1. Comparison Between Critical Survey Areas and School Practices 92 Table 2. Relationship Between School Decision-Making Organization and Resource-Based Learning and Teaching 94 viii 1 C H A P T E R 1 INTRODUCTION T O T H E STUDY Overview A shift in educational philosophy and pedagogy has been occurring in the English-j speaking world during the past twenty-five years. Since the advent of the printing press, the main teaching and learning tools have been books and other print/material, but with the development of the personal computer, and access to on-line information along with the surge of materials in non-print formats, there has been a move to broaden the range of resources used in day to day classroom practice. While primary teachers use manipulatives, visual, auditory and tactile resources and the complementary teaching strategies, intermediate and secondary teachers have generally used a lecture style approach when presenting lessons and print materials, usually in the form of text books, as resources for teaching and learning content information. Cumulative research on how people learn, combined with the accessibility of information in a variety of formats for all ages and levels of learners has caused the British Columbia Ministry of Education to encourage classroom teachers to broaden their repertoire of teaching strategies and incorporate non-print and electronic learning resources into daily classroom activities. To this end, the Ministry is producing new curriculums with lists of learning resources in print and non-print formats. The Ministry definition of learning resources now includes: software; video; optical formats, such as CD-ROM and laser discs; audio; information services, such as on-line services and learning networks; and manipulatives, usually associated with mathematics. (BC Min. of Ed. Learning Resources Funding, 1993/94, 1994/95, 1995/96). To support the acquisition of these learning resources, the Ministry has redistributed Learning Resources Funding so districts have 2 control of the selection and management of resources purchased for use in classrooms. The Ministry recommends that districts and schools have Learning Resource Committees to guide the professional and clerical tasks associated with selection and management of learning resources. This study examines at the problems in the Vancouver School District, related to who is on the Learning Resources Committee and what tasks the Committee is to accomplish. In two Ministry documents1 there is the assumption that the teacher-librarian is the person in the school who is responsible for the selection and management of learning resources. While the teacher-librarian is responsible for the selection and management of learning resources purchased for the Library Resource Centre it does not follow that she or he is responsible for all learning resources. Several factors have contributed to the confusion over who will select the resources, manage the resources and be accountable for them once they arrive at the school. One area of confusion is the definition of a learning resource. The term has been used in Ministry documents for resources which are housed in the Library Resource Centre and for resources purchased from the list of recommended titles published by the Ministry. Both uses of the term learning resource are correct, but who does the selection and what processes are used for management are dependent on the funding designation and decisions made at the district or school level. The second area of confusion has to do with the financial accounts. In the Vancouver School District, learning resources, by definition, are purchased from the school's Learning Resources Account and library resources from the school's Library Resources Account. Two different accounts with similar names. To complicate matters further, sometimes learning resources are purchased with the Primary program: Foundation document. Developing Independent Learners: The Role of the School Library Resource Centre. These documents will be discussed in Chapter 2 3 intent that they will be housed in the Library Resource Centre and the cost is divided between the Learning Resources Account and Library Resources Account. The money2 for the recommended resources comes directly from the Ministry of Education while the allotment for library resources is designated at the district level. The amount designated for the recommended learning resources is uniform throughout the province on a per capita basis, whereas the amount for library resources varies from district to district and sometimes from school to school within the same district. This would not be a problem if the majority of the recommended resources were different from resources typically purchased by a teacher-librarian, circulated from the Library Resource Centre and used in cooperative teaching units with the classroom teacher, but they are not. The majority of learning resources on recommended materials lists are identical to those purchased by teacher-librarians for circulation from the school Library Resource Centre. If the resources are primarily the same, then who should be involved in the selection and maintenance of the learning resource collection? What systems should be used to order, store, circulate, inventory and maintain the learning resource collection? As a result many schools and school districts have considerable money in trust accounts (Donkers, 1993) while they grapple with the problem. In \ > June, 1994 Vancouver had $2.5 million unspent in trust accounts. In Vancouver School District, teacher-librarians are encouraged by the Curriculum Resources and Technology section of the Program Services Division to assist with Learning Resources Committees. Teacher-librarians are encouraged to participate for two reasons. First is the belief that teacher-librarians can help implement resource-based learning and teaching because discussions around selection of learning resources will naturally focus on how resources will be 2 A detailed description of funding is found Learning Resource Funding 4 used as teaching and learning tools. Discussions will take place around different presentation strategies, the need to model usage of new resource formats, the need to acquire resources to match different learning styles and abilities, in addition to the content information which is being sought in the learning resource. Second, teacher-librarians bring a knowledge of procedures for selection and management to the group3. It is not expected that Learning Resource Committees will actually do all the clerical jobs required, but that they will select or develop procedures and organizational systems which support resource-based learning and provide equitable access and maintenance of the learning resources collection. This thesis reports on a study of Vancouver's School-based Learning Resource Committees. The function of Learning Resource Committees is to establish a school vision for resource-based learning; identify existing learning resources, library resources, personnel, and infrastructure; identify the strengths and weaknesses of existing management systems; examine the district Learning Resources Implementation Plan; identify resource priorities; apply criteria to short list potential resources; examine short listed resources and make recommendations for purchase4 (Appendix B: Learning Resources, Mathematics K-7 p. 159). The purpose of this research is to answer the questions related to how schools are managing the tasks of selection, acquisition, circulation, inventory and maintenance of classroom learning resources. First, a I Vancouver School District requires teacher-librarians to have completed or be in the process of completing university courses qualifing them as teacher-librarians. 4" A Model Selection Process" is found in all Integrated Resource Packages under Appendix B: Learning Resources. 5 district wide survey was done by teacher-librarians 5 to provide information about the function and responsibilities of Vancouver Learning Resource Committees. Second, interviews were conducted at two secondary schools and five elementary schools to develop an understanding of how the tasks were being accomplished. In Chapter four, the description of the two secondary schools and one elementary school will be presented. The systems used in the elementary schools were so similar that a representative elementary school was selected rather than reporting on all five elementary schools. Resource-Based Learning and Teaching The two components, resource-based learning and resource-based teaching work together to create an environment that encourages students to take responsibility for their own knowledge development within an educational framework. Resource-based learning occurs when students interact effectively with subject content through the use of learning resources which suit their current level of knowledge, skills and learning style. 'Resource-based teaching is a planned educational program where teachers demonstrate and model the use of resources, facilitate and actively guide students in the process of learning and continually assess and chart students' progress as they acquire skills in using learning resources' (Hannis, 1994, September) Research on teaching and learning styles indicate that people learn in many different ways. (Schmeck, 1988). To meet a variety of learners' needs and abilities, educators must expand the type of learning resources available and the integrate new teaching techniques so they model the use of different resources for the learner in day to day classroom practice. This puts a particular j / "A Model Selection Process", Appendix B, teacher-librarians are given as an example for resource-coordinator of Learning Resource Committees. w ( 6 responsibility on teachers to select learning resources which address different learning styles so students can connect effectively with content information. This interaction between the student and the information encourages the development and retention of knowledge. Resource-based lessons emphasize the development of skills that move the student toward greater personal independence. Resource-based teachers consciously plan the integration of specific resources and teaching strategies into units of study. Ideally, teachers try to match learning resources to the ability, skill level and learning style of individual students while challenging the student to expand his or her knowledge of the subject matter and skill level. The guiding elements of the philosophy of resource-based learning and teaching are often expressed as the three Principles of Learning: • Learning requires the active participation of the student • People learn in a variety of ways and at different rates • Learning is both an individual and a group process This philosophy has been put into practice in collaborative units of study done between the classroom teacher and the teacher-librarian. The method used is called Cooperative Program Planning and Teaching when teachers and teacher-librarians jointly plan, teach and evaluate resource-based lessons. During these units teachers ensure that students have access to a broad range of learning resources on the topic they are studying and use teaching strategies which demonstrate how to access information in different formats. These units produce a high level of r learning because the teacher and teacher-librarian match the learning resources to the learning styles of the students, as well as providing them with opportunities to learn how to access content information in formats new to the student. The number of times during a school year when a class can work with the teacher-librarian on resource-based units is dependent upon the size of the 7 school and the availability of the teacher-librarian. In day to day classroom practice, particularly at the upper elementary and secondary, the main learning resource continues to be a text book which is used by all students in the class. New curriculum from the British Columbia Ministry of Education indicate that the majority of lessons in all subject areas should be resource-based. This change means that every teacher needs to become adapt at selecting a broad range of learning resources in multiple formats and developing strategies in their uses as a teaching and learning tool. Qualified teacher-librarians have university courses and practical experience in this area, but it has not been a required component of other teachers. For this reason the teacher-librarian is a valuable resource for colleagues as they begin to select resources from many different sources and in a variety of formats. This is one reason why the Ministry uses that teacher-librarian as an example of the resource-coordinator for the Learning Resource Committee. The teacher-librarian has experience in applying district and provincial criteria to learning resources and knows the management systems necessary for efficient circulation of resources. Because the teacher-librarian works with all the teachers she/he also has a global view of the school and curriculum. This knowledge is valuable to school Learning Resource Committees as they make decisions about learning resources. In Vancouver School District, the majority of learning resources purchased from the Provincial Learning Resources Fund are not a part of the library resources or the library circulation system, therefore, the management decisions for selection, acquisition, circulation, inventory and maintenance must be coordinated so there is no confusion between the library system and library funding and the learning resources system and the Learning Resources ' Funding. In many Vancouver schools, the teacher-librarian is a member of the Learning Resources Committee, and some learning resources are circulated as part of the library collection. 8 This research pertains to the functioning of Learning Resource Committees and learning resources purchased using Provincial Learning Resources Funding. Teacher-librarians are a component of this research for two reasons. First, the teacher-librarian and the resource-based programs (Cooperative Program Planning and Teaching) done in the school library are discussed because of the impact resource-based learning and teaching has had on student learning. Second, teacher-librarians sit on 47% of the Learning Resource Committees (Q 2. Learning Resources Survey, Appendix B). It is important to stress that this research is not about teacher-librarians and their programs or the functioning of the school Library Resource Centre but a brief history of the school librarian will provide an understanding of how the teacher-librarian came to be recognized as a key person in resource-based learning and teaching. Overview of Recent Educational Changes in British Columbia Teacher-librarians were among the first definable groups to note the changing format of information from print to a variety of non-print formats. While this change was not the result of learning style research, but technological inventiveness, it complemented research on learning and i teaching styles. Educators began to make links between teaching and learning styles and new information sources with the ultimate goal that every high school graduate would achieve information literacy. The school library was one of the first places to begin responding to the change. Traditionally, teacher-librarians taught "library skills" to classes, during scheduled "library periods," and in the classroom, teachers used a text book as the basis for class lessons. As knowledge about learning and teaching styles became more wide-spread, it was discovered that when research skills \were taught in conjunction with subject matter, students retained both the skill and the information longer.' Teacher-librarians began to shift their emphasis from library management to teaching. By the mid 1970's, a movement to change the name librarian to teacher-librarian was well supported. In the editorial comment of Emergency Librarian, a magazine for teacher-librarians, Carol-Ann Haycock, emphasized that "we will use the terms 'teacher-librarian' and 'resource centre' to reflect more appropriately the teaching role of the full-time school librarian." (Haycock, C. 1987) Emergency Librarian magazine contributed\ enormously to the changes which affected i North America and Australia. The Emergency Librarian Advisory Board was a cross-section of leaders in school libraries on these continents. The focus of the articles was on resource-based learning and teaching through a partnership between classroom teachers and teacher-librarians6 . Most of the articles focussing on this cooperative partnership were well grounded in research that showed students' assimilate skills better when the skill is taught and then used immediately in a meaningful way with content information. The influence of this magazine and the status of its contributors was significant in changing the thinking of teacher-librarians. Another major change taking place outside the educational system strongly influenced the pedagogical shift away from lectures and textbook learning to resource-based learning and teaching. Technological developments, primarily the computer, were causing major changes to the business world and by extension, to education. Teacher-librarians were quick to envision changes that would occur to the educational system because of "instant information." As the main suppliers of alternative sources of information in the school system, teacher-librarians saw that they would be expected to use a greater variety of information sources to support students r 6 Cooperative Program Planning and Teaching 10 and teachers. Most teacher-librarians began to learn strategies for using and integrating learning resources in different formats - videos, software programs, Internet access and CD-ROMs. When teacher-librarians collaborate with classroom teachers, they are usually expected to model the use of non-print and electronic resources for students. In my experience as a district consultant, the majority of classroom teachers are uncomfortable using non-print or information technology learning resources. As a result, a large gap is developing between the information sources used by students and those used by their teachers. The teacher-librarian is being placed in the unique position of teaching both students and colleagues the basic skills for accessing information technology. In most schools, the teacher-librarian is the only person with an extensive understanding of the development of information skills, the ability to use a variety of information i sources and a knowledge of the management systems needed to cope with the quantity and variety of learning resources. Resource-based learning and teaching depends on efficient management systems so the learning resources can be located when needed. In educational terms, changes have occurred very quickly in British Columbia. The following is a brief history to put the problems into context. In 1988, A Legacy for Learners, The Report on the Royal Commission on Education, (Sullivan, 1988) was published.which began the dramatic shift in teaching and learning in British Columbia. The Ministry of Education changed direction in how curriculum was developed and presented, in the identification and management of learning resources, and in the expectation of how teachers and students work together. Elementary teachers who were the first to begin implementation of the Year 2000 Curriculum in 1991. With the Primary Program came lists of recommended learning resources. 11 Intermediate and secondary teachers did not like the changes required in the Intermediate and Graduate parts of the Year 2000 Plan. In order to involve more teachers in the development of the new curriculum, the Ministry of Education established a procedure whereby districts have an opportunity to apply to write the Learning Outcomes for new curriculum. One of the requirements is the involvement of a representative sample of teachers on the writing committee. Changes were also made to the design of the grades four through twelve curriculums so that they all have the same format. New curriculums began arriving in British Columbia classrooms in the spring of 1995 with implementation to beginning in September 1995. By January 1995, seventeen new curriculum had arrived in schools. The curriculum packages are called Integrated Resource Packages (IRPs) and strongly reflect the commitment to resource-based learning and teaching. Learning Resources Funding The allocation of funding for learning resources was redefined and reallocated as a result of the move to resource-based learning and teaching. Until 1988, the majority of funds for learning resources were held in a Credit Allocation Plan. The Ministry assigned a dollar figure to districts and maintained the district's accounts in Victoria. Schools ordered and received resources directly from the Ministry because they warehoused and distributed the learning resources from Victoria. Most of these were text books. Schools placed orders with the Learning Resources Branch and their purchases were debited from the district's Credit Allocation Plan account. Until 1988, the majority of the funds for learning resources was held in this account. The shift to resource-based learning and teaching meant a.move to learning resources which are readily available from publishers and producers. The Credit Allocation Plan was not suitable for this kind of purchase because schools would now be purchasing small quantities of 12 resources in a variety of formats. A reallocation of funding was made with a new account - the Learning Resources Account, being created. Learning Resources Accounts are real dollars which have been transferred by the Ministry directly into district trust accounts. The district is responsible for maintaining accounts related to the expenditure of these funds. In Vancouver School District, the majority of the Learning Resources Account funds are redistributed to individual school Learning Resources accounts. At the same time as the Ministry was shifting money to districts, Vancouver was changing to a school-based model of decision-making and school personnel were overwhelmed with changes coming at them from two different jurisdictions. Many school personnel who were familiar with the Credit Allocation Plan are still confused about the meaning of the changes. Each plan is targeted for a specific purpose and has a different structure and use. The following comparison highlights the differences between the two plans. CREDIT ALLOCATION P L A N LEARNING RESOURCES A C C O U N T I Funding assigned to districts on a Funding assigned to districts on a per capita per capita basis ' basis Accounts maintained as a credit allocation by , Money transferred in 'real dollars' into the Learning Resources Branch y district trust accounts District may reassign credit allocations to the Districts may redistribute money into school schools accounts Districts/schools purchase resources supplied Districts/schools purchase directly from by the Learning Resources Branch many different suppliers and producers Payment is made as a debit against the credit Payment is made in real dollars by the allocated school/district directly to the supplier/producer of the learning resource Credit allocation is for a specific time frame Funds are in a trust account and may be carried over to the following year 13 Learning Resources Funding Accounts The total Learning Resources Fund is allocated into three distinct accounts. All the accounts are targeted for a specific use. The designated uses are listed below: Credit Allocation Plan • Prescribed curriculum guides • Authorized resources distributed by the Learning Resources Branch, • Ministry publications District Learning Resources Trust Accounts • Learning resources recommended by the Ministry • Learning resources selected locally by school or district personnel which: 1. Meet the Ministry's Definition of a Learning Resource 2. Comply with Provincial and District Selection Policies • Release time for selection of learning resource to a maximum of 5% • Technology hardware to a maximum of 20% Retained by the Ministry • Integrated Resource Package (IRP) support • Learning Resources sets B C Library Book Plan • CanCopy licencing • Technical support materials • Acquisition and renewal of provincial rights for recommended videos 14 • Acquisition of software licenses • Development of M A R C records As previously stated, the shift in funding occurred very quickly. The following graph (see Figure 1) highlights the speed of change. The total in the Learning Resources Fund fluctuates around the $28 million mark, therefore, I have used percentages of the total rather than dollar amounts. In the 1989/90 school year, 70% of Provincial learning resources funding was allocated to the Credit Allocation Plan and 28% to District Learning Resource Accounts. By the 1991/1992 year, only 15% was allocated to the Credit Allocation Plan and 76% to District Learning Resource Accounts. Figure 1. Distribution of Learning Resources Funding Ministry of Education: Learning Resources Branch Compiled by Marilyn Hannis, Consultant for Learning Resources / The speed of the change, was a significant factor in the lack of adequate planning by districts and schools for how they would implement selection, management and accountability systems for learning resources. Districts and schools have been receiving money for eight years and the assumption by the Ministry is that districts and schools have now implemented Learning Resource Committees and established management systems. This research documents how one system, the Vancouver public schools is responding to the challenge of developing systems to select and mange learning resources. Impact on School Personnel and Systems Prior to 1990, classroom teachers did not have to select a broad, range of resources in order to teach each subject. The accepted classroom learning resource, particularly for upper intermediate and secondary was a text book which was selected from a small list of texts warehoused and distributed by the Ministry from Victoria. Resource-based learning and teaching occurred when the teacher and teacher-librarian taught together, but it did not happened in all subject areas within the classroom and a wide range of non-print resources were rarely used within the classroom setting because classrooms lacked the equipment and/or physical space. Students used a textbook as the main source of information and the majority of assignments used print resources as the basic information source. Likewise assignments were commonly done in written form, or as a oral presentation to the class. Rarely did students hand in an assignment in video or digital format. The expectation that learning would continue to rely on a primary text or even on print alone changed when the Catalogues of Learning Resources Primary to Grade 7, arrived in 1993. The number of learning resources available to teachers jumped from a few text 16 books to over 2,000 learning resources in a wide range of media! Elementary school teachers traditionally used a wider range of resources than secondary teachers, but the same shift in learning resources is occurring at the secondary. An example is the 1995 Mathematics 8 list of learning resources where the number of recommended learning resources is now 58 resources in print, visual, tactile and electronic formats. The expectation, by the Ministry, is that teachers will move from a text book to a large number of resources in multiple formats in all subject areas. To do this teachers must select the resources, learn how to use them and transfer or adapt their resource-based teaching skills to suit different content areas. Our example, Grade 8 Mathematics, includes new software programs, videos and manipulatives that the teachers must learn to use and then integrate in to lessons. Selection has been a difficult area for the classroom teacher because professional development on selection criteria has often been aimed at teacher-librarians because they have been the key selectors of a wide variety of resources. Many classroom teachers are unaware of how to identify their own bias, or the author's biases in material, how to check for competent authorship, production quality, or evaluate ease of use in CD-ROM search engines and other elements which are part of the Vancouver School Board's selection policy. To complicate matters, the curriculums are new to teachers and in-service training on implementation of the curriculum is going on at the same time as selection of resources. By 1993, teacher-librarians were also beginning to realize the implications that it had for the manner in which they work with students and teachers. The Cooperative Program Planning and Teaching done by teacher-librarians and classroom teachers used learning resources which were generally part of the school Library Resource Centre collection. The teacher-librarian knew 17 how to access these resources and the strategies for integrating them into lessons. The knowledge of resources, and resource-based teaching skills is a major contribution that the teacher-librarian brings to this collaboration, but now, teachers and students would require a broad scope of resources in all content areas for use in the classroom and these new learning resources are often stored and circulated from other areas of the school. During the mid-1990's teacher-librarians wrestled philosophically with the issue of their responsibility in helping with school learning resource selection and management. In most schools, they were the only people who had specialized academic and practical training in the professional area of selection. They also had the administrative knowledge of the clerical tasks needed to manage resources. Most schools had no system, other than a book room, for managing classroom resources. School Library Resource Centres, in Vancouver, are only beginning to have an automated circulation system, so it would increase the workload tremendously to add in this new quantity of learning resources to a manual system, and in many schools, teachers were also not in favour of the learning resources becoming part of the Library Resource Centre collection. Teacher-librarians were naturally reluctant to take on this additional task because it meant more time either away from working with students or doing it in a volunteer capacity. However, in Vancouver, many \ teacher-librarians have became involved in Learning Resource Committees. While it is the individual teacher-librarian's choice whether or not to be involved in the Learning Resource Committees and learning resource management, teacher-librarians who are involved say that their belief in resource-based learning and teaching combined with a feeling of professional obligation to see that the materials are fairly and equitably managed made it impossible for them to turn their backs on this issue. 18 This study provides inforrnation on how some Vancouver schools are organizing themselves to select, acquire, circulate, inventory and account for learning resources purchased using the Provincial Learning Resources Account money. It will provide the first statistical evidence on how many Learning Resource Committees there are, and who is on the Committee. The school interviews provide a picture of how some schools are managing the professional and clerical tasks. The link between available learning resources in a variety of formats and the effect on resource-based learning and teaching is explored. Research Questions L, 1. Are Vancouver Learning Resource Committees fulfilling the expectations that the Ministry and the School District have placed on them? 2. What roles do administrators, teacher-librarians, teachers or others have in the selection and management of learning resources? 3. What systems are being used for the management of learning resources? 4. What is the effect of multiple learning resources oh learning and teaching? 19 C H A P T E R 2 R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E Overview The technological revolution has been a key factor to the changes that are taking place in educational policy throughout North America. It has been both the catalyst and the vehicle for change. For example, technological advances in transmitting information allow educators to access information from universities, libraries and research foundations using telecommunications sites and other electronic sources. Research that has influenced educational change includes a o greater knowledge of how people learn, of teaching strategies that increase a student's ability to acquire knowledge, and of information about the kind of knowledge needed in the future. As society restructures to adapt to these changes, the skills and subject matter taught in school is also being evaluated. Educators, business leaders and parents recognize the need for students to become better thinkers, and effective users of information technology. Throughout North America, educators are stressing the need to restructure the education system so students are learning the skills to live and work in today's society. (Breivik 1991, C. Haycock 1991, Keegan and Westerberg 1991, Thompson 1991, American Library Association 1989). Breivik expressed the concerns of the business community when she stated the "work force is increasingly unprepared to deal effectively with the challenges of high-tech equipment, but. . . is also often incapable of making good decisions or of adjusting to job changes."(1991) School Restructuring The solution Breivik envisions is a school environment rich in the same kinds of resources i j used in the "real" world. Students would be actively involved in developing skills that enable 20 them to use information effectively. She feels this means restructuring the learning process into a resource-based learning and teaching system where teachers would form partnerships with teacher-librarians whose expertise is retrieval and effective use of information. This partnership would allow students access to an information rich environment where they would learn the skills to be information literates, and life long learners. Several provincial governments have been actively trying to promote this partnership. In 1982, Ontario published Partners in Action which defined resource-based learning as a "planned education programs that actively involves students in the meaningful use of a wide range of appropriate print, non-print and human resources." (p.6) The teacher moves from the dispenser of content to the assistant and co-discoverer of information. As this happens the learner moves from the passive receiver of knowledge to the active seeker of knowledge. The educational goal has become two-fold. One part is to teach content information about different subjects, the other is to teach students the process of learning. Therefore, learners will respond differently in different learning situations. It should be noted that there is no one "correct" teaching/learning approach because different people with different learning styles interact with knowledge differently depending on many diverse factors. The critical job of the teacher is to provide the opportunity for students to develop a broad repertoire of skills which will let them respond effectively in all situations. In order for this new learning structure to be effective a shift must occur on the part of the teacher. She or he needs to select resources which will convey the information while effectively teaching students the information literacy skills of how to acquire and use information. Simply incorporating a variety of resources into the teacher's presentation does not constitute resource-based teaching because teachers need to teach how to effectively use 21 different formats as learning tools. For example, CD-ROM programs contain a tremendous amount of material, and teachers using information from a CD-ROM program would demonstrate the skills needed to select and perhaps manipulate the information so it is relevant to the topic. In order for resource-based learning to take place students need to learn the skills to select, evaluate, compile and present content information. The teacher must first create a resource-rich environment and then ensure that students develop the skills needed to use the resources. Changes in the School Library Resource Centre Teacher-librarians were among the first to recognise the need to expand their repertoire of teaching strategies to teach students how to access and use information in a wide variety of „ formats and media. The Library Resource Centre is the main area in a school to have content information in different formats. One of the goals of units taught cooperatively by the classroom teacher and the teacher-librarian is the development of resource-based learning skills in students. As information technology became common in the Library Resource Centre, teacher-librarians saw they needed to learn strategies for using these formats and modelling their use for colleagues and students. The changes teacher-librarians initially envisioned centred around an expansion of their role as a teaching partner with the classroom teacher. The entire process represented a change in the delivery of education and Loertscher (1988) developed a taxonomy to judge where teachers were in this process. The first level occurred when a teacher used a limited number of resources. When the teacher assimilated these resource formats into his/her teaching, then a gradual expansion in the number and type of resources occurs. This is a slow process of experimentation and assimilation as the teacher becomes comfortable with different formats and teaching strategies. Classroom teachers then move from using the services of the teacher-librarian 22 as a support person to a partnering in units of study. Finally, through continued interaction with resources, students are guided to select and use a variety of resources on their own. Teacher, teacher-librarian and students become co-learners. In order to reach this point all the participants will have worked over a sequential information skills continuum which taught students to assess, evaluate, analyse, synthesize and communicate information. Teacher-librarian associations have been active in producing publications which provide support for resource-based learning and teaching, as well as information on the skills needed by teachers to create a resource-based learning environment. Three examples of the type of publication which went beyond the self-interest of the association to produce a document of value to the broader educational community: Fuel for Change by the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association; The 4th R: Resource-Based Learning, The Library Resource Centre in the School Curriculum, by the Saskatchewan Association of Educational Media Specialists and the American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report (American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy, 1989). International (English-speaking world) periodicals, aimed at school librarians, such as Emergency Librarian also focussed on the evolution of librarians and libraries. The National Association of School Principals Bulletin (NASSP) devoted over half the May 1991 issue to information literacy t and the restructuring needed for schools to implement resource-based learning. It is unclear what future changes may occur to the cooperative programs developed by the teacher and teacher-librarian or to Library Resource Centres in British Columbia as a result of new curriculums which recommend resource-based learning at all times. The reallocation of learning resources funding, much of which is going directly to teachers and classrooms, may also 23 change the way teachers and teacher-librarians have been work together. A search of ERIC, CIJ located only two articles written between 1993 and 1995 under the descriptor resource-based learning and only one on resource-based teaching. On the other hand, a search of CEIS located over 200 articles on educational change in the last two years. In the descriptors for nearly every article, the terms library, librarian and resources, and electronic resources are repeated. It would appear that the school library and teacher-librarian are considered instrumental to educational change but that the emphasis is on electronic/technological media rather than the broad use of resources. While most of the articles are on educational change in the English speaking world, other countries, such as Japan and Nigeria were mentioned. In Sweden, the Barestorp Project (Kuhne, 1995) describes the learning which takes place before and after the introduction of libraries and teacher-librarians into the curriculum. It is interesting to note that the teacher-librarian began as a cooperative partner, not as keeper of books. This shows that the movement for resource-based learning and teaching that began in the English-speaking world is spreading throughout the world. At this point in time, there seems to be consensus from the academic community and the public regarding the need for information literacy (Dwyer, 1994). The development of information literacy skills are dependent on students working in a resource-rich environment where they can use a broad range of resources. i Role of the Teacher-Librarian in Educational Restructuring in British Columbia The move to resource-based learning in British Columbia began in 1989 with the Year 2000 Program which introduced radical changes to the traditional organization of the intermediate and secondary system as well as the delivery of curriculum. Many of the changes envisioned in the Year 2000 Document have evolved into other areas or been discarded, but changes which 24 supported the philosophy of resource-based learning and teaching are continuing and being expanded. Initially, $2.5 billion was targeted by the provincial government for new learning resource purchases until the year 2000. This funding, in conjunction with the expectations of how resources will be used continues to be a main platform in the K-12 Education Initiative which replaced the Year 2000 Plan. All new curriculum documents state a commitment to resource7 based learning and teaching, identified as The Principles of Learning. Curriculum documents also include the recommendation that teacher-librarians will be a significant part of the process for selecting and managing learning resources at both the school and district level. One part of this research will identify who is part of the Learning Resources Committee. The Primary program: Foundation document states that "The responsibilities of the teacher-librarian for curriculum development, consultation and the selection of learning resources are carried out in partnership with the classroom teachers." (1990, p.37) The emphasis in this first document, on the expertise of the teacher-librarian is further clarified in the Ministry document: Developing Independent Learners: The Role of the School Library Resource Centre, where it states that an effective "school library resource centre program . . . emphasizes the collaboration of all participants in education and focuses on resource-based learning, using a wide variety of resources, as essential to education", (p.2) Under "The Roles of the Participants" it states that the teacher-librarian is able to: "integrate the planned use of learning resources with the educational program; lead in-service education programs on . . .the criteria for selection of materials; develop and implement criteria for the evaluation and the selection of. . . resources; develop policies and procedures for the selection of learning resources that meet curricular. . . needs", (p. 11) 25 The classroom teachers' role includes "providing for student's individual differences in learning styles by using a variety of resources . . .and evaluating. . . the appropriateness of resource materials. . . previewing and selecting resources that meet curriculum and student needs", (p.9) This theme is reiterated again in Literature Connections: The Teacher and the Teacher-Librarian Partnership. (1991) Perceptions of the Teacher-Librarian by Colleagues On the surface, it would appear that the teacher-librarian is the logical person to assist the staff in the selection and use of learning resources. In What Works, Research About Teaching and Learning Throught the School's Library Resource Centre. Haycock, (1992) has compiled research "related to the instructional effectiveness of the school librarian and the school library", (p. 8) It would also seem that the management of learning resources could be managed through the existing library circulation system. The question of how to manage and account for learning resources is not a recent question. In the 1960's, the Levir's Report (Harper, 1991) indicated that all school resources should be centralized and the only discernable group to do this were school librarians. The qualified teacher-librarian is trained in selection, she or he has a tradition of collaboration with staff, the circulation system provides equitable access to resources and inventory is done on a yearly basis. Also the impression from reading many articles on the teacher-librarian's job is that teachers and teacher-librarians have a positive collaborative working relationship. A thorough search of UBCLIB located only two small research studies on the collaborative relationship between teacher-librarian and classroom teacher. Betts (1993) studied four Vancouver Island School Districts and Meyer (1992), four schools in Saskatoon. Betts, in her article, "The Role of the Teacher-librarian in British Columbia Secondary Schools: A Shared 26 Vision?" (1993) addressed the issue of differing perspectives. The results of this qualitative study indicated that the vision of the teacher-librarian as an active partner with the classroom teacher differs from principal to teacher to teacher-librarian. Meyer looked at the implementation of cooperatively planned resource-based learning and teaching units from the classroom teacher's perspective. (Meyer & Newton, 1992). Meyer studied a total of 18 teachers at four Saskatoon schools. The results of this qualitative research study was that teachers did not view the teacher-librarian in the leadership/ consultant role suggested by the literature. No teachers were at number eight, the Curriculum Development level of The Teacher's Taxonomy of Resource-Based Learning (Loertscher, 1988 p.23) At this level "teachers consult with the library media specialists as curriculum changes are being considered. Advance planning for changes and their impact on library media centre materials, facilities, and activities are considered." (p.23) Only three out of the eighteen teachers studied were working at level seven: Teacher/Library Media Specialist Partnership in Resource-based Teaching. At this level the teachers "construct a unit of instruction that will use the resources of the library media centre fully." (p.23). The majority, nine teachers were working at level six: Using the Library Media Resources as a Part of Unit Content. The remaining six teachers were all using the library collection and the teacher-librarian to some degree, either borrowing resources, as an idea source, or as student enrichment. One other study reported on principals' perceptions of the teacher-librarians. Dorrell and Lawson (1995) did a quantitative study of high school principals in Missouri. The results from Dorrell and Lawson's survey of 77 high school principals was slightly more positive for teacher-librarians. American guidelines define a three-fold role for the library media specialist (US term 27 for teacher-librarian): information specialist, teacher and instructional consultant, (p.73) The tasks which received the highest ratings from principals were: materials selection, library management and reference/research resource to students, (p. 75) Curriculum planning and subject discipline instruction received slightly lower marks, (p.78) The survey results indicated that the traditional view of the librarian as manager of the books was still strong but there was agreement that librarians/media specialists should receive more recognition and status, (p.77) "Nevertheless, there was agreement that it was not necessary for the librarians to be directly involved in school curriculum planning and development." (p. 78). There is clearly a question r whether classroom teachers accept the influence of teacher-librarians to provide leadership in determining how resources will be selected and managed. The results of these research projects are a surprise because Canadian and American School Library Associations have been advocating the teacher-librarians/media specialist as a cooperative teaching partner for many years. In British Columbia there has also been a long history of recognition that the library plays an important role in the overall climate of the school. In 1946, Sbrocchi, described the library as the "heart of the school" with "its influence radiating to every department". Sources and Resources ( BC Ministry of Education, 1978), defined the library as having "a specialized function in that its collection and services support the curriculum for learning and the improvement of the instructional process" (p. vi), and is "central to the educational process" (p. vii). The teacher-librarian was also described as having "special training and skills because, besides performing the ordinary functions of a librarian, he/she must also be a teacher, informed about the curriculum and the teaching process. He/she must be able to speak to a teacher on equal terms, capable of giving the kind of assistance and making the kind of 28 recommendation that will be helpful to a teacher in planning the instructional program" (p. vi). In Developing Independent Learners: The Role of the Library Resource Centre, (1991) there is a stronger statement: "An effective school library resource centre program promotes the development of independent lifelong learners. It emphasizes the collaboration of all participants in education and focuses on resource-based learning, using a wide variety of sources, as essential to education" (p. 2). These statements by the British Columbia Ministry, combined with articles written over the past twenty-four years beginning with Ken Haycock in 1978 (McComb, 1991) would indicate that teacher-librarians are an integral part of the teaching team and a strong resource for curriculum implementation. Teachers who are working at the upper levels of Loertscher's taxonomy understand and recognize the special training and skills teacher-librarians bring to their job. During planning for a cooperative unit, teacher-librarians discuss student learning styles, resources that will be selected to accomplish the learning outcomes, ways to bring resources and students together and strategies for presenting content. Teachers know that in order to support the units, teacher-librarians rely on efficient selection and management systems. Teachers who are working at the lower levels of the taxonomy will lack experience with the teacher-librarian but may still view the teacher-librarian as an expert in selection and management of learning resources. Technology and the Teacher-Librarian In 1989, Lim asked, "What does this (curricular and technological change) mean for teacher-librarians?" He indicated teacher-librarians would be expanding their skills to include electronic information sources. Bailey (1990) focussed on a redefinition of the role of the secondary teacher-librarian as the collection evolves from print and non-print formats to electronic formats. McClaren (1991) stated that the purpose of school libraries to make meaning from information will continue, and teacher-librarians have a definite role in helping students access and use information which may not be physically within the library. One of the results of using technology and telecommunications is that changes occur in how students and teachers interact together and with the technology. Wiburg (1996) notes that when "teachers teach in a technology-rich environment, there are significant changes in the way they teach and in the way students learn". The main change is that there is "less lecturing and more doing of science and math, improved feedback to students, more problem-solving, more hypothesis generating and testing, more performance-based assessment, increased student creativity, increased student motivation, and increased teacher productivity". Teacher-librarians, in Library Resource Centres which have access to technology can integrate the technology into units as they plan with teachers. In 1996, the Ministry released the Information Technology (IT) curriculum. This curriculum is to be imbedded into all courses. Johnson and Eisenberg (1996) recommend that the "teacher-librarians can do a tremendous service to their students by combining their district's computer literacy and information literacy curricula". Technology in the Library Resource Centres may suffer as a result of funding allocations for learning resources and cuts to library budgets and staffing. The Ministry has been allocating approximately $28 million dollars per year toward purchases of recommended learning resources whereas British Columbia's Library Resource Centres receive less than $10 million. This number was reached by using the average of the elementary and secondary provincial per pupil average times the 500,000 students in British Columbia (Heide, 1995). In some school districts, a freeze has been placed on library acquisitions and teacher-librarians have been repositioned. 30 Influence of Funding Changes to Library Resource Centres Throughout the province the purchasing power and positions of teacher-librarians are being cut as school boards bring district level budgets in line with provincial funding allocations. The result is a cut in teacher-librarian time, technical and clerical support services and/or purchasing power. For example, in 1988, Vancouver School Board allocated $21.45 per capita for elementary and $30.39 per capita for secondary library purchases (Adset, 1988), whereas the 1995/96 allocation was $16.03 per capita for both elementary and secondary (Macdonald, 1995).. As a result of cuts to budgets and positions, teacher-librarians are hesitant to take on the added work and time commitment required to assist staffs with school Learning Resource Committees. Topic discussions by teacher-librarians at Vancouver Teacher-Librarian Association meetings in 1994/95 reflected a concern that collaborative programs will suffer and student-contact time may diminish. If this happens there is a fear the commitment to resource-based learning and teaching will wain at a time when the province is actively advocating it. Some teacher-librarians see this as a more valuable expenditure of their time than participating on the Learning Resources Committee. On the opposite side is the belief that this is part of their training and professional obligation to students and colleagues. Also, some argue, assisting on the Learning Resource Committee will increase the opportunities to network with staffs and thereby encourage more teachers to involve their students in cooperative resource-based units. Learning Resources Selection and Management Prior to beginning the research, an exhausting search of UBCLIB, ERIC, CU, including Canadian and international periodical indexes and abstracts, suggests that no research has been done on Learning Resource Committees or the relationship between selection and management of 31 learning resources and their use in the classroom. While this is disappointing, it is not surprising. Resource-based learning and teaching seems to be an accepted philosophical position and is mentioned frequently in literature on educational change, but I couldn't find any information on whether other Ministries or Departments of Education were funded resource-based learning to the extent found in British Columbia. Melanie Myers, (1995) President of the B.C. Association of Learning Materials and Educational Representatives says that British Columbia has moved farther from a text book base system than any province in Canada. Many British Columbia school districts have been grappling with the issue of how to select and effectively manage the learning resources. A number of school districts have produced outlines of procedures for districts and schools. Burnaby (1993), Saanich (Coupal, 1994), Greater Victoria (1992) and Windermere (1994/95) are four such districts. With the exception of Saanich these districts focus on clerical procedures for ordering and managing the influx of new learning resources. Saanich makes the establishment of a school-based Resource Committee a condition to receiving the Learning Resource Fund money but does not provide a clear picture of how the committee will actually function. None of these districts incorporate information about how the schools are presently organizing themselves or present any models that schools can adapt. Summary To summarize, school restructuring is causing changes throughout the educational community. Schools are responding to research data that indicates that students learn best when they can interact in a meaningful way with information. In order to do this students must have access to information in different formats and at a level appropriate to their ability, skills and 32 current knowledge level. They must be taught the skills to use the information effectively. This is referred to as resource-based learning and teaching. The British Columbia Ministry of Education has taken steps to ensure the students receive this type of education across the system. First, new curriculums contain lists of learning resources in different media. Second, money has been allocated to support the acquisition of these learning resources. Districts and schools are encouraged to establish Learning Resource Committees to oversee the selection and management of the learning resources. The teacher-librarian is considered an important component of the process. She or he has a long standing working partnership with teachers in developing resource-based units. In many schools, the Library Resource Centre is also the centre for information technology sources, and the teacher-librarian has learned the skills of using these information tools. The teacher-librarians also has the management skills related to selection and management of diverse resources. For these reasons, she or he is a candidate for inclusion on a Learning Resource Committee. Several school districts have established guidelines on procedures for selection and management of learning resources but Saanich is the only district to require a Learning Resources Committee before funding is released to a school. To date, no study was found which studied the function of Learning Resource Committees, and the effectiveness of processes used to select and manage learning resources for classroom use. 33 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Overview The selection and management of learning resources may be an indicator of whether classroom teachers are moving toward a resource-based learning and teaching environment. The assumption is made that if teachers are selecting multiple types of learning resources for classroom use then they plan to use these resources with the students. The main body of this research studies learning resource selection and management systems because experience indicates that learning resources dictate what curriculum will be taught and how it will be taught. If learning resources are not readily available the likelihood of a shift from the text book, as the sole learning resource, to the use of multiple learning resources is very slim. The nucleus of this study is the form and function of school Learning Resource Committees in selected Vancouver School District schools. The Ministry and the Vancouver School District both recommend the implementation of Committees to establish school priorities and make decisions regarding selection and management systems. Both jurisdictions recommend the involvement of the teacher-librarian. Previous chapters have discussed the qualifications of the teacher-librarian for assisting in this task. The first part of this study is a survey of 110 teacher-librarians. The survey identifies the main participants and the function and effectiveness of the Committee from the viewpoint of the teacher-librarian. The second part was to conduct interviews at five elementary and two secondary schools have functioning Learning Resource Committees. Only one elementary school is included because all the elementary schools with Learning Resource 34 Committees have very similar systems of management. The reason for this is two-fold. First, the Learning Resource money began coming into the elementary schools in 1989, so these schools have had a longer period of time to refine their systems and share information. Second, and most significantly, in 1990, school-based decision-making was not well established. The District Principal in charge of the dispersement of the Learning Resource Account promoted a system of management which was used by most elementary schools that chose to establish a Learning Resource Committee. The elementary school chosen was one of the first to have a Committee. It was selected because the school personnel would be able to provide a broad overview about the effectiveness of the system they are using and an insight into how the staffs skills at resource-based learning and teaching have evolved. Two secondary schools were studied. The first school was selected because the teacher-librarians is not involved in the decision-making process of learning resources selection and management. The second reason was that the school was considering implementation of an automated system to manage the learning resources. The third reason was that the administrator in charge of the Learning Resource Account was working on several levels within the school to develop a school plan for the acquisition of learning resources. The administrator, the teacher-librarian, a teacher and the staff assistant were interviewed. The second secondary school was selected because a Learning Resource Committee has been in effect for several years. This school also used two different systems for learning resources management. The administrator in charge of the Learning Resource Account, the teacher-librarian, a teacher and the staff assistant were interviewed. The survey and school 35 interviews will be discussed in detail.in the following section. Research Design Instrument: Survey The goals of the survey are: 1. To develop a statistical picture of how schools are selecting, managing and accounting for learning resources; and 2. To identify schools which have a Learning Resource Committee. Permission for teachers-librarians to participate in the survey was granted by UBC, Vancouver School Board, and the Vancouver Teachers Association. Pilot Survey No instrument was found which measured these goals, therefore a survey had to be developed which was tested on 110 teacher-librarians in January, 1995. When interpretation of the results began, the researcher found there was confusion over the first question - "Does your school have a Learning Resource Committee?", which skewed results. The confusion revolved around the fact that the Learning Resource money had been available to the elementary schools since 1990 and various methods for spending the money have been tried and respondents did not necessarily know if the method used at their school was a true Learning Resource Committee or an ad hoc group. At the secondary level, few people seemed to know about the Learning Resource Account. Terminology was also a problem at the secondarylevel because in some schools, Department Head Meetings and Finance Committees had the responsibility for distribution of Learning Resource funds but were not involved in selection. A new survey was developed (Appendix A) which corrected the problems caused by i 36 the first survey. The revised survey immediately separated the respondents in schools with a Learning Resource Committee from those in schools with no committee. In the time between the test survey and the survey, the researcher addressed the problem of terminology through newsletters, workshops and one-on-one discussions with schools administrators, teachers and teacher-librarians. Test Survey This survey was administered to 110 teacher-librarians in September 1995, at an annual district meeting. Teacher-librarians were selected as the target group because the Ministry recommends that they be a part of the Learning Resources Committee and their position means that they are usually aware of school committees which deal with curriculum and learning resources even if they are not directly involved. The survey has two parts: First is Function. Second is Decision-Making/ Management. The function of the Learning Resource Committee is to ensure that learning resources are selected and purchased which support the curriculum, students' learning styles and teachers' presentation styles. The Committee is responsible for deciding on management systems which ensure fair and equitable access, and which provide for regular assessment of the resources. The survey provides information on what, and how, schools are selecting and managing learning resources. The Function section consists of 21 questions which provide statistics on: • the number of schools with Learning Resource Committees • the committee member's positions on staff • how funding distribution decisions are made 37 • strategies used to identify Learning Resource needs • selection and ordering procedures Decision-Making/Management consists of 10 questions which provide statistics on: • management procedures • circulation, maintenance and accountability Survey Data Collection The surveys were handed in at the end of the meeting or mailed to the researcher's office at Vancouver School Board. The results for each question were correlated and presented as a percent. The findings are reported in Chapter Four and the survey results are in Appendix B. Instrument: Interviews At each school, the administrator in charge of the Learning Resource Account, the teacher-librarian and a teacher were interviewed. At the secondary level, there is also a book room staff assistant who does most of the clerical duties related to the ordering and inventory of text books and class sets of print resources. This person was also interviewed because of their involvement in the clerical aspects of ordering and tracking learning resources. In elementary schools, staff assistants tend to work with students or support classroom teachers but generally do not do the same clerical tasks as their secondary counterparts. The interview questions (Appendix C) focused on the following areas: • committee organization • selection and purchase • circulation and maintenance 38 • accountability ; • impact on learning and teaching styles • impact on the Library Resource Centre • recommendations for other schools • issues or concerns Interview Data Collection All the interviews were tape recorded, with the permission of the interviewee. Each interview took approximately one hour. Transcripts were made of the tapes with all the transcripts from individual schools being kept together. Interview Data Analysis The responses in the transcripts where then cut up and pasted, by hand into the following categories: • school organization decision-making pre-Learning Resources Committee decisions Learning Resources Committee Secondary was further sorted into administrator and department heads; department heads and subject area teachers • organizational procedures selection, purchasing and receiving, circulation, inventory, maintenance • effects on learning and teaching • other issues This procedures was done for each school that was interviewed. This includes the elementary schools at which interviews took place but which are not part of this final report. The results of the elementary schools indicated the differences from one school to the other was minimal, therefore, a representative school was selected for inclusion. Limitations of the Interviews The secondary study, in particular, is limited by the number of schools. Unlike the elementary schools, which had a lot of district direction in suggesting ways to organize the Committees and the learning resources, there is no equivalent district direction for secondary schools. The schools reported on in Chapter four are individual examples of how some schools are selecting and managing their learning resources and the effect it seems to have on resource-based learning and teaching within that school. The school interviews will provide , examples of how these school's Committee functions and these teachers opinion of the effect on resource-based learning and teaching. Significance of This Study My research of the literature did not locate any studies of the function of Learning Resource Committees in British Columbia. Therefore, it may be useful to Faculties of Education and Vancouver School District. The study focuses on the changes which have taken place in the use of multiple resources for teaching and learning. The new curriculum indicates that teachers are expected to incorporate a broad range of learning resources in different formats into their content presentations and student assignments. Teachers, pre-service and practising, need both academic and practical knowledge of these formats. This means that teachers need training in a broad repertoire of strategies in order to integrate information technology such as CD-ROMs and Internet into daily lessons. Pre-service, 4 0 teachers need to take university courses in the new area of classroom management with multimedia, in selection criteria and have a broad knowledge of learning and teaching styles. For Vancouver School District, the survey results provide the first indication of how effective they have been in recommending schools have Learning Resource Committees. District selection committees will use the information as a basis for deciding the most effective way to communicate learning resources recommendations to schools. District staff will have knowledge of the learning resource organization of schools and be able to use that information as a "common knowledge base" when preparing workshops or supporting teachers in their professional growth related to the selection, management and use of learning resources. This is the first study done on Vancouver schools to determine what is occurring with the $1.5 million annually which is entering the system, therefore, it will provide senior management with an opportunity to assess the school level decision-making process. The school interviews will report on the decision-making structure, the processes used for selection and management, the reasons for selecting these processes and the effect on resource-based learning and teaching. The information from the survey and the interviews will be developed further into a management guide for Learning Resource Committees. This will be of interest to other districts that can adapt a model to suit their needs. Some other districts have provided district level directives to schools regarding suggestions for the selection and management and Learning Resource Committees, but I have located nothing which reports on what is actually happening in the schools. The survey and the interviews will provide insight into the effect the influx of learning resources has had on teachers and teaching styles, and students and learning styles. 41 The Vancouver School Board is in the process of updating their district library system. Students can do electronic searches to find learning resources in their own library, and teacher-librarians have data access to the complete district collection. It is possible to manage all of a schools' learning resources on this system but, as discussed in Chapter One, teacher-librarians are hesitant to take on this task. In any case, most schools feel that they cannot wait for library automation to help with learning resource management - circulation and inventory, therefore some schools are exploring other systems. One secondary school already has an automated text-book systems and is exploring ways this system could be expanded to circulate the plethora of learning resources scattered throughout the school. I 4 2 C H A P T E R 4 RESULTS Overview This chapter is divided into the following main sections: an analysis of the significant results from the Learning Resources Survey, and the description of the individual school situations as a result of compiling the interviews for each school. Learning Resources Survey The survey was administered to 110 teacher-librarians and 75 surveys were returned. Of these 54.7% of the schools had a Learning Resource Committee. Survey questions 1 to 19 deal with the function of the Committee and 19 to 28 deal with the management of learning resources. Questions 28 to 31, allowed for written comments but none was received. The complete survey is in Appendix A and the responses in Appendix B. Analysis of Data: Function Q2 . Who i s on -the committee? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator 34 45.3 Teacher-Librarian 35 46.7 Teacher 35 46.7 Secretary 5 6.7 S t a f f Assistant 0 Department Head 6 8.0 These committees commonly include the administrator, the teacher-librarians and classroom teachers. At secondary the department heads were part of the committee. The administrator does not appear to sit on all committees although he or she is responsible for all funding expenditures in the school and the Learning Resources Account is the largest targeted fund in the school. Also, curriculum leadership is a key responsibility of the administrator and 43 learning resources are key to curriculum implementation for the resource-based curriculum. The interviews at the secondary schools included the book room staff assistant because she or he is responsible for placing orders, maintaining financial accounts, circulating resources and doing the inventory yet is not a part of any Committee. Q3. Who i s the contact person for the committee? Value Label * Frequency Percent Administrator 18 24.0 Teacher-Librarian 18 24.0 Teacher 11 14.7 The information provided by this question identifies the contact person who may or may not be the coordinator. This question would have been more enlightening if the coordinator of the Committee was identified because the teacher-librarian has been suggested as a coordinator in the Integrated Resource Packages. Q4. Has the committee developed a decision-making process to set p r i o r i t i e s for learning resources requests? V a l i d Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent (yes/no) yes / 1 25 33.3 64.1 64.1 no 2 14 18.7 35.9 100.0 36 48.0 Missing To t a l 75 100.0 100.0 Only half the respondents answered the question, "Has the Committee developed a decision-making process to set priorities for learning resource requests?" Of those, a third indicated that their committee had established a process. If there is no process in place to set priorities then, in all likelihood, there are no priorities. If there are no priorities, then the Learning Resource Committee has no way of determining whether a request to purchase a learning resource is a valid use of public funds. 44 Q5. Who i s involved i n assessing needs when your school i s planning -to purchase l e a r n i n g resources? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator 52 69.3 Teacher-Librarian 49 65.3 LAC/ELC Teachers 40 53.3 Classroom Teachers 55 73.3 Department Heads 8 10.7 Learning Resources Committee 21 28.7 Q6. Who are the key people who decide which learning resources w i l l be purchased? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator 45 60.0 Teacher-Librarian 43 57.3 LAC/ELC Teachers 22 29.3 Classroom Teachers 48 64.0 Department Heads 7 9.3 Learning Resources Committee 10 13.3 The responses to both these questions suggest the Learning Resources Committee has minimal influence in assessing need or allocating funding yet one of the prime responsibilities of the Committee is to develop a school vision and identify priorities for learning resource acquisition. The problem with teachers determining needs in isolation of an overall school plan is that resources are sometimes viewed as exclusive to a particular program, or teacher and much duplicate ordering can occur. Past experience with kind of funding indicates that this can lead to the development of classroom collections which teachers feel belong exclusively to their programs. The teacher, often unconsciously, selects resources in a format that is comfortable to his or her teaching style. This preserves the status quo rather than developing a broader range of resources suited to the learning styles of students. The interaction of groups of teachers doing selection expands the viewpoint of the participating teachers. One of the Learning Resources Committees' tasks is to set priorities for learning resource acquisition in line with school goals. / 45 Q 7. What i s the basis f o r a l l o c a t i n g learning resources funding? Value Label Frequency Percent per student 5 6.7 per subject area 19 25.3 per teacher 8 10.7 need 35 46.7 Q 8. Who makes the decision on how funds are allocated? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator . 46 61.3 Teacher-Librarian 19 25.3 LAC/ELC Teachers 10 13.3 Classroom Teachers 22 29.3 Department Heads 4 5.3 Learning Resources Committee 19 25.3 Finance Committee 9 12.0 Other 13 17.3 The responses to this question highlight a problem whereby the responsibility of the Learning Resource Committee is to providing leadership in setting learning resource priorities for acquisition of learning resources, yet in only 25% of the cases does the Committee have any control over funding. Since meeting school learning resources needs is directly tied to funding, then the low percentages on questions related to the function of Learning Resources Committees would indicate that survey respondents see them as making only a marginal contribution. It is not clear who the other decision makers are, but at 17% it suggests a need for further research. Q 9. Please rate the importance of school programs (e.g., Reading/Science /Socials) when s e l e c t i n g learning resources at your school. V a l i d Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 52 69.3 74.3 74.3 • 2 16 21.3 22.9 97.1 • 3 1 1.3 1.4 98.6 Least Important 5 1 1.3 1.4 100.0 1 46 Q10. Please rate the importance of an inventory of existing school resources when selecting learning resources at your school . Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 31 41.3 44.9 44.9 • 2 28 37.3 40.6 85.5 • 3 7 9.3 10.1 95.7 4 2 2.7 2.9 98.6 Least Important 5 1 1.3 1.4 100.0 Q l i . Please rate the importance of teachers' requests when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 27 36.0 38.0 38*0 • 2 35 46.7 49.3 87.3 • 3 7 9.3 9.9 97.2 Least Important 5 2 2.7 2.8 100.0 Q12. Please rate the importance of teaching styles when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 14 18.7 20.6 20.6 • 2 23 30.7 33.8 54.4 • 3 23 30.7 33.8 88.2 • 4 6 8.0 8.8 97.1 Least Important 5 2 2.7 2.9 100.0 Q13. Please rate the importance of students' learning styles when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 21 28.0 31.3 31.3 • 2 27 36.0 40.3 71.6 • • 3 14 18.7 20.9 92.5 • 4 4 5.3 6.0 98.5 Least Important 5 1 1.3 1.5 100.0 Q14. Please rate the importance of meeting needs in terms of subject areas when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 39 52.0 56.5 56.5 2 19 25.3 27.5 84.1 • 3 10 13.3 14.5 98.6 Least Important 5 1 1.3 1.4 100.0 47 Q15. Please rate the importance of meeting needs in terms of formats within subject areas (e.g., print, video) when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 14 18.7 20.9 20.9 • 2 19 25.3 28.4 49.3 • 3 19 25.3 28.4 77.6 • 4 11 14.7 16.4 94.0 Least Important * 5 4 5.3 6.0 100.0 Q16. Please rate the importance of meeting needs in terms of format among current resources (e.g., print, video) when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cumulative Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 11 14.7 17.2 ^  17.2 • 2 21 28.0 32.8 50.0 • 3 18 24.0 28.1 78.1 • 4 9 12.0 14.1 92.2 Least Important 5 5 6.7 7.8 100.0 Q17. Please rate the importance of other factors when selecting learning resources at your school. V Valid Cumulative Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percentage Most Important 1 3 4.0 60.0. 60.0 • 2 2 2.7 40.0 100.0 The top criteria for selection of learning resources are school programs, an inventory of existing learning resources and teacher requests. The low percentage for student learning styles would suggest that a shift in pedagogy has not taken place amongst the general teaching population because in a resource-based learning environment, suiting resources to student learning needs would be one of the top priorities. Selection to support teaching styles and format needs are also low. The discrepancy between selecting to meet teaching styles, student learning styles and formats reinforces the gap that is developing between students' preference for information in non-print formats and teachers' preference for print. A review of purchase orders in Vancouver reveals that thex format most requested by teachers is print material, particularly in 48 grades six through twelve. Teachers' preference for print learning resources was confirmed by observation of three district selection committees in 1996 where the majority of teachers favoured print over non-print and were uncomfortable with optical formats (CD-ROMs, Laser discs) and on-line information services. This is particularly relevant since the British Columbia curriculums emphasize a multi-format approach to teaching and learning. Q18. How are learning resources previewed and selected? Value Label Frequency Percentage VSB learning resource displays 58 77.3 Publishers' representatives at school 49 65.3 Min i s t r y of Education recommended l i s t 56 74.7 Annotations 34 45.3 Personal recommendation 58 77.3 An annotation is an evaluation of a resource and is a selection tool which can be used to provide additional input, beyond personal likes and dislikes. Annotations by reliable reviewers describe the resource and identify how the resource's qualities measure in relation to pre-determined criteria. Annotations are particularly useful for people learning how to select resources. The low percentage for annotations combined with the high percentage for personal recommendation may indicate that selection is being done without taking into account abroad range of opinions. Analysis of Data: Management of Resources Q19. Who i s responsible f o r p l a c i n g the orders? Value Label Frequency Percentage Administrator 43 57.3 Teacher-Librarian 44 58.6 Teacher 26 34.7 Secretary 16 21.3 St a f f Assistant 12 16.0 49 Q21. Who i s responsible f o r checking incoming orders? Value Label Frequency Percentage Administrator 29 38.7 Teacher-Librarian . 3 4 45.3 Teacher 10 13.3 Secretary 15 20.0 Sta f f A s s i s t a n t 35 46.7 The survey shows that teachers, particularly administrators and teacher-librarians are spend a large percentage of time on clerical tasks such as placing orders and checking incoming orders. Although at secondary the book room staff assistant often checks incoming orders. It is very expensive for a school district to have teachers and administrators doing clerical jobs because students lose the services of the teacher-librarian if she or he is involved in non-teaching tasks, and staff lose the curriculum leadership of the administrator if his or her time is spent accounting for learning resources. Q22. Does your school have procedures f or managing l e a r n i n g resources? Value Label Value Frequency Percentage Yes 1 49 65.3 No 2 14 18.7 12 16.0 Q25. Who i s i n charge of c i r c u l a t i o n ? Value Label Frequency Percent No one ^ 18 24.0 Teacher 24 32.0 Other 18 .24.0 Teacher-Librarian -"37 49.3 One of the duties of the Learning Resource Committee is to existing system within the school and, by extension, recommend adjustments to the system which make it possible to manage the learning resources effectively. When this answer is looked at in light of Q. 25 where 24% of the schools have no one in charge of circulation then the concern for effective use of the resources / • . • • 50 becomes quite high. The other person participating in circulation is likely the book room staff assistant. In future surveys this person would be included. The effective management of learning resources requires that one or two people take responsibility for the system. In ideal circumstances this would be a clerical person who reports to the Learning Resources Committee. Q20. Are resources ordered with cataloguing? Value Label Value Frequency Percentage A l l 1 3 4.0 Some 2 40 53.3 None 3 30 40.0 2 2.7 Q23. Where are the resources stored? Value Label Frequency Percentage L i b r a r y Resources Centre 46 61.3 Individual Classrooms 52 69.3 Book room 50 66.7 Q24. How are the resources stored? Value Label Frequency Percentage Theme groups 35 46.7 No p a r t i c u l a r order 7 9.3 T i t l e groups 31 41.3 Other 19 25.3 The majority of learning resources are stored in classrooms, closely followed by the book room and the Library Resource Centre. Resources integrated into the Library Resource Centre location would be ordered with cataloguing. These resources would be single or small copies of items because Vancouver Library Resource Centres do not include large quantities of single items in their library data base at this time. Some schools maintain a data base of resources and their location which is published for the staff. 51 Q26 Does your school have an inventory of a l l i t s l e a r n i n g resources (excluding those i n the school l i b r a r y ) ? Value Label Value Frequency Percentage yes 1 28 37.3 no 2 44 58.7 3 4.0 Q27. Is a yearly inventory conducted of the learning resources that are NOT catalogued i n your school l i b r a r y ? V a l i d Cumulative Value Label r Value Frequency Percent Percent Percentage yes 1 16 21.3 23.9 , 23.9 no 2 51 68.0 76.1 100.0 8 10.7 Missing In 44% of schools, there is no inventory so schools have no method of accounting for previous expenditure of funds and the Learning Resource Committee must do a hands-on job of collecting, sorting, and counting the existing resource. Lack of an inventory leads to a perpetuation of the duplication, damage, and dissipation cycle. Q28 Are lear n i n g resources i n your school r e g u l a r l y evaluated according to VSB s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a ? V a l i d Cumulative Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percentage yes 1 26 34.7 39.4 39.4 no 2 40 53.3 60.6 100.0 More than half of the schools with an inventory do not do an annual check to see if the resources are still in the school. Of the schools that do have an inventory, only 40% regularly evaluate their collection to see if the resources continue to meet the criteria set out in the Vancouver School Board Selection Policy which require the presentation to be accessible and appropriate Jo the learners, the content information to be factual and relevant to the curriculum, and the content and presentation to be respectful of the human condition in terms of inclusiveness with aesthetic, literary and social value. 52 School A: Secondary Three interviews were done at this school: • Vice-Principal 1 • Teacher-Librarian Department Head • Staff Assistant School Organization This school was selected because it has an established method for the management and accountability of learning resources. The school also has an automated Library Resource Centre. Many non textbook: learning resources are stored, circulated and inventoried with the school library collection, while textbooks are stored, circulated and inventoried through the book room. This school has a student population of 1318 students and 74 teaching staff. The administrative staff consists of one principal and two vice-principals. The school follows a hierarchial organizational structure for the distribution of information. Vice-Principal One is in charge of school budgets. As such, this vice principal deals with department heads regarding financial decision-making. The school's Learning Resource Fund allocation for 1995-96 is $49,640.00. Officially, the Learning Resource Committee and the Department Head Committee are the same group although the 16 department heads rarely discuss learning resources anymore. Three years ago there were extensive discussions centring on the changes in funding and what approach the school would take to manage learning resources. The decision was that most learning resources, except textbooks, would be handled through the Library Resource Centre. This school has an automated library management system and a teacher-librarian who is very knowledgeable about 53 the overall school curriculum. The administrators and department heads felt that the Library Resource Centre was able to provide equitable access to learning resources for all staff and students. The general belief of the department heads now is that the system is working well and does not warrant time in Department Head Meetings. The interview responses have been organized into three parts: Organizational Procedures; Effects on Learning and Teaching Styles; and Summary. Organizational Procedures The interview questions covered: the decision-making, planning and activities which are done by the administrative team and/or the department heads, the role of the department head within the department and the systems the school is using for selection, management and accountability of learning resources. Administrative Team and Department Heads The philosophy of school-based decision-making means that very little money is held at district level. The discretionary budget for this school is $180,000.00. Vancouver School District suggests uses for this money but the school may decide to use the money in other ways. This school has decided to follow the district's suggestions, therefore, the total money allocated to the Learning Resource Fund is the $49,640.00. The vice-principal and department heads feel this is insufficient money for their requirements. The majority of learning resources purchased by this school are textbooks. The decision was made to do three-to-five year planning with emphasis on what is required or wanted on a yearly basis. Traditionally the learning resources money has been split fairly equally among departments. The equal distribution of money may need to be 54 evaluated before the end of the 1996 year because the new curriculum emphasizes the move away from a single text to a broader range of learning resources. The vice-principal does not envision any changes to the management system when a greater variety of non-print or non-text book resources are acquired. She says, "The system in place here appears to work well and there are no plans to revamp it at the present. It may change as we get more requests for software, etc. or it may not change the overseeing of it even though the types of format changes." A Technology Committee has been established and one of their responsibilities is to make recommendations on the management of software. In general, decisions on the organizational systems have been made by the administration and department heads1, then the action is carried out by the staff assistant if it is textbooks or within the Learning Resource Centre by clerical staff or the teacher-librarian if the format of the learning resources means that they require specialized management or storage facilities. The vice-principal felt that it was critical to have one or two people responsible for managing and accounting for the learning resources. She stated, "It is really chaotic if it is the department heads." The teacher-librarian stated that".. .it is not realistic for a small committee, such as the department heads, to have control of the Learning Resource Funds. I think it works better within departments, the way we have it, as long as that department is happy with the kind of learning resources they feel they need. I think this is the best way." While the teacher-librarian has done j some presentations at Department Head Meetings, the most common pre-selection activity is for the teacher-librarian to work with individual department heads and departments. 1 The teacher-librarian is also a department head but is discussed separately because of the unique aspects of the position 55 Department Heads and Subject Teachers Individual department heads lead their subject teachers in reviewing the curriculum, setting department goals and guiding learning resource selection. The teacher-librarian provides support by ensuring all teachers have the appropriate curriculum information, by presenting information about official district Learning Resources Selection Criteria, describing the system used for circulation of learning resources from the Library Resource Centre, and by providing information and samples on learning resources that relate to their subject area. Both the teacher-librarian and the department head are involved in meeting with representatives from publishing/producing companies. The teacher-librarian attends all the District Learning Resource Displays and brings back information to specific departments. The teacher-librarian advertises the subject specific displays to the departments and often the department head or a teacher also attends the display. The increase in learning resource choices has changed the way they are selected. It is now common for departments to order preview copies of textbooks and non-textbook learning resources and have different teachers evaluate them. This information is then brought back to the department group and a decision made by the department as a whole. The majority of departments have continued to use a single textbook as the main print resource and augment it with learning resources in different formats. After the department groups has made their selections, it is up to the department head to take the request for funding to the next level. Selection, Management and Accounting Selection of text books is done by teachers working together in grade groups, then coordination their decisions with other members of the department. Text selection is done from 56 the lists of recommended learning resoruces from the Ministry. Two main people are responsible for this area, depending on the type of learning resource. If the learning resource is a textbook then the staff assistant is responsible for compiling the selections, preparing the orders, processing, circulating and accounting for the textbooks. If the learning resource is in another format or is a single copy of a print learning resource, then the teacher-librarian is responsible. Textbooks. The staff assistant uses Microsoft Works to maintain individual department accounts and a textbook inventory. She began maintaining these accounts a number of years ago. The accounting history helps to keep the funding equitable between departments. This means that more funds may be allocated to one department in a particular year in response to a need, such as the implementation of a new course, but that department would receive less in another year. After textbook requests are approved the staff assistant enters the data into the department's account and prepares the order. Textbooks are ordered in July when course enrollment for the following year is known. At this time the enrollment is cross-checked with the number of textbooks available. The number of texts is not exact until school completion in June, when students have turned in their texts and the condition evaluated. The most urgent needs are filled at this time. Other requests are left until September when school budgets are released. Small orders are placed throughout the year. The staff assistant is responsible for distributing textbooks to the subject area teachers at the beginning of the year. The teachers are responsible for hand recording the textbook number and the student's name on a form. At the end of the year the teacher collects the textbooks from the students and hand writes any bills the student has for loosing or abusing the textbook. Some J 57 subjects, notably English, share class sets of books. The staff assistant is responsible for the scheduling and circulation of these. Each time a text circulates through the book room, its condition is evaluated. The staff assistant trains and supervises Community Service students in repairing and rebinding textbooks. This eliminates the time lost when books are sent out. External rebinding can take the textbook out of the system for many months or even a year. All textbooks are returned to the book room in June and the staff assistant does an inventory of the collection. , Non-textbook Learning Resources. The majority of these learning resources are selected by the teacher-librarian and the department head working together. Each person brings unique information to the partnership. The teacher-librarian is aware of a broad range of publishers and producers and the quality control exercised by them over the product. She is also the link between departments. Some learning resources are subject specific but many are applicable to more than one department. In addition the teacher-librarian works with multiple formats and is able to demonstrate usage of different learning resources to the department head and discuss how different formats may assist in the teaching of a topic or be used as a tool for student learning. The department head brings to the partnership, an intimate working knowledge of the curriculum content together with a specific knowledge of teacher and student requirements. Both people share information from publishers, Learning Resource Displays or reviews. Often they will find ways to preview learning resources. Sometimes the learning resource will be available from publishers and sometimes they will already be in the district. Many non-print learning resources . are available through Media Services and Technology (MST). MST is a district wide library of .58 videos, laser disks, laser disk players, CDS, CD-ROMs, realia, video recorders, and cameras throughout the district. Learning resources available from MST fall into two categories. One category includes high cost specialty items which schools would not purchase because the usage j would be limited to two or three times a year or because the school is small and could not afford to purchase the item. The other category includes learning resources which schools would like to preview before purchasing. One goal of the MST collection is that all the Recommended media and electronic learning resources would be available to Learning Resource Committees when they previewing learning resources for selection and purchase. Once the learning resources have been brought together by the teacher-librarian and the department head, they are often given to department teachers to preview and/or try in the classroom. After this, all the department teachers come together and make a decision to purchase. Either the teacher-librarian or the department head prepares the order. The item will be purchased using the Learning Resource Fund, Library fund or a 50/50 split. When the learning resource arrives in the school, it is entered into the Library Resource Centre's data base, bar coded and circulated with the rest of the library collection. Learning resources which are circulated through the Library Resource Centre include single copies of books, specialty reference resources, CD-ROMS, videos, transparencies and ephemeral information. These learning resources are treated the same as library material. This means that both teachers and students have equal access to the learning resource. As this Library Resource Centre is automated the tracking of the learning resources is very easy. This means that if a learning resource is needed on short notice the system is capable of tracking it or placing a "hold". Inventory is done once a year and ) 59 the teacher-librarian is responsible for maintaining the quality of the collection. The management tasks of storage, circulation and inventory are carried out by the library clerk. The evaluation of the collection is a professional task which is the responsibility of the teacher-librarian. It is common for the teacher-librarian to enlist the assistance of subject area department heads when evaluating the content of the collection. Together they keep the collection up to date in content and in line with district and Ministry directions and criteria. r Effects on Teaching and Learning Over the past five years, teachers have been incorporating more visual information into their class presentations. The shift for teachers has been primarily to video and laser disks. As a result of this change, the school purchased additional T.V.s and laser disk players. The availability of this technology has expanded the information base of lessons. For example, in English literature, students reading the novel The Singing Stone, learn about Stonehenge using video resources. Another change in teaching strategies is the incorporation of laser disk information into lessons. The key word here is incorporate. Teachers present information in a variety of verbal and visual ways. They may lecture about the topic but also use technology to state, restate or extend the topic. Therefore same basic information is presented to students in a variety of formats. This method of presenting information using auditory and visual formats tries to address the broad range of learning styles and English comprehension levels within a class, as well as ability levels. The incorporation of media by teachers also means that if a student is absent, the teacher is comfortable referring him/her to the Library Resource Centre to view the video or laser disk. Before teachers began incorporating these media, students who had missed a class had to 60 rely on notes taken by other students. Teachers report that it has been excellent for the ESL students because they can check a video out of the Library Resource Centre and view it several times at home. This experience with auditory/visual information is helping them make connections between the English terminology and what they perceive visually and may already understand in their first language. ,; . Student research skill development is very important at this school. Learning tools include electronic, auditory, visual, tactile and print information. Research usually begins with the student accessing the database in the Library Resource Centre but can also take them to information outside the school's walls. Through the communication tools in the Library Resource Centre, the student has access to the Vancouver Public Library, university libraries and the Internet. The teacher-librarian states that print and microfiche magazine use has "just exploded" as students learn how to access the magazine data bases. Not only are students using many different formats to locate information, but they are now using technological tools to manipulate the information. As computer skills increase students can use software programs to analysis, synthesise and present their information. This school is at the beginning of another change which will impact on the teaching and learning styles. A plan is being developed which will upgrade the technology available. This will mean increased student access to networks. The school will have a local area network (LAN) connected with the Library Resource Centre. It will also have greater access to Internet through connections in the Library Resource Centre and the multi-purpose lab. There is a lot of excitement about this project and teachers are preparing themselves for the change by upgrading 61 c their skills through workshop attendance and personal study. One thing that happened to the staff here as a result of early exposure to information technology, is that the majority of teachers are comfortable with technology. Students are also very technologically literate. Teachers say that the majority have home computers and access to Internet. This fact has also ensured that teachers at this school demonstrate an acceptable level of information technology literacy to the parent community. j Summary Administration and staff at this school are quite pleased with the organizational systems which support the selection, management and accountability of learning resources. The school has several levels of Learning Resource Committees. Decisions regarding management systems are made at the Department Heads Meetings. Selection is done at the department level. Selection of learning resources is done between department heads, their departments and the teacher-librarian. The selection of learning resources provides an opportunity for discussing the link between learning resources and student learning outcomes. The new BC curriculum, as expressed in the Integrated Resource Packages (IRPs) contains an expectation that teachers will model and actively use a wide range of learning resources in their class presentation. While they are more actively including students with visual learning styles, class lessons are still teacher directed. They are not doing resource-based teaching. Many continue to use a teacher-directed lecture style to present information. The interviewees indicated that a move from lecturer to facilitator or guide is rarely demonstrated in the classrooms, although it is in the Library Resource Centre. Department discussions on learning resources provide an opportunity for the curriculum leaders, 62 the department head and the teacher-librarian to raise these issues. The presentation of new learning resources quite naturally leads into discussions of how to effectively present content information to students. As the teacher-librarian introduces new learning resources, she demonstrates strategies teachers can use to incorporate the learning resource into classroom activities. The accessibility of learning resources affects the use teachers and students can make of them. While two management/accountability systems exist, they complement each other. One focuses on textbooks and class sets of print resources and is the responsibility of the staff assistant. The textbook system has a computerized database which provides a comprehensive management and accountability system for resources in the book room. However, once resources leave the book room, classroom teachers must maintain a paper-trail. Teachers using this system obtain the majority of these resources at the beginning of the school year. Teachers assign them to the students. Some topic specific sets of resources move around amongst teachers. These teachers decide when they will teach the topic and decide on a schedule. The staff assistant is responsible for ensuring that the resources are collected from one teacher and move on to the next. This system provides for sharing of learning resources among teachers but does not address unique needs of students or different learning styles. These resources are inventoried, but the staff assistant is not trained for the professional task of evaluating the usefulness of the resource. The other system focuses on single or small quantities of specialized or specific learning resources. These learning resources include non-print and print formats which have become part of the responsibility of the teacher-librarian. The automation of the Library Resource Centre 63 facilitates the sharing of learning resources to both staff and students. It also means that the Library Resource Centre maintains and accounts for the learning resources because they are inventoried along with the library collection. The learning resources circulated from the school library are more responsive to individual teacher and student needs because the teacher-librarian and library staff are available to respond throughout the day whereas the book room staff assistant requires lead time because she has other responsiblities besides learning resource circulation. Teachers work with the teacher-librarian to develop units and research assignments that will provide students with an opportunity to find and use information effectively—two aspects of the learning process. Using these learning resources students develop a broader awareness of the source and nature of different kinds of information. In the Library Resource Centre, students also have access to learning resources outside the school. The use of these learning resources enables teachers to respond to a broader range of students' academic knowledge, abilities and learning styles. The learning resources from the Library Resource Centre provide a balance for the textbooks and traditional teaching strategies associated with them. This school embraced visual technology, primarily laser disks and video several years ago, and teachers' presentation strategies include these formats. ESL students, in particular, make high use of the visual formats, often taking videos home for repeated viewing. Reference requirements by teachers indicate an expectation that students will use a wide range of print and non-print sources in their research. Likewise student assignment reflects this ability to access a broad range of information sources. The school's technology hardware is dated and plans are underway to purchase new 64 equipment and expand access to information through Internet. By the end of the 1996/97 school year, students will be able to access the World Wide Web from the school library and the multi-purpose lab. Teachers have begun to upgrade their skills but to date there has been no discussion about how they are going to incorporate this medium into lessons. While teachers are using a wider range of mediums in their presentations, the actual style of teaching has not changed dramatically. Teachers continue to be most comfortable when in control of the medium rather than placing themselves and their students in an interactive position with the medium during teaching situations. The community supports the use of a broad range of learning resources. The majority of parents work at professional or para-professional jobs where they use information technology constantly and expect their children to become competent users of information. They support teaching procedures which model using information technology and student assignments which incorporate the use of information from many sources. They value the teaching of skills needed for their children to become information literate, that is the ability to find, interpret, use and communicate information drawn from a variety of sources. While parents are not members of the Learning Resources Committee, these expectations encourage the school to provide students with experiences using information from print to the World Wide Web. This school is at the beginning of the transition from teacher-directed learning to resource-based learning and teaching. The incorporation of visual, auditory and print in teacher presentations reflects an awareness that students learn in a variety of ways. Class assignments often require students to actively interact with the information either independently or through group assignments and students are expected to access a variety of information sources when doing research. The organization of learning resources within the school reflects the transition occurring at the classroom level. The management of text books is efficient and available to teachers who are comfortable with traditional strategies and resources. Learning resources available through the library are available to teachers who are ready to incorporate them into content presentation or who use them in collaboration with the teacher-librarian. Some teachers who are uncomfortable with incorporating different formats into classroom lessons, do give assignments which require students to use broad sources of information because they know that the teacher-librarian can assist students in using a multi-media approach to research. All the teachers are aware of resource-based learning and teaching principles and conscious of making sure the students have an opportunity to interact with the learning situation although they may be personally challenges by the shift to resource-based teaching. At this point in time, the teachers felt that the systems they had in place for the selection, management and accountability of their learning resources supported the students and teachers. They are not being critical enough of the type of learning resources they are using nor are they expanding their skills to bring them in line with the requirements of the new curriculums. Resource-based learning is occurring to a degree. Teachers of second language learners are doing more resource-based learning and teaching than is found in regular classes. If real resource-based teaching was occurring, the dual system currently in place would not support the plethora of resources that would be needed. 66 School B: Secondary Five interviews were done at this school: • The 1994-95 outgoing Vice-Principal • The 1995-96 incoming Vice-Principal • One Subject Area Department Head • The Teacher-Librarian Department Head • The Staff Assistant in charge of textbook accounts School Organization This school has a student population of 1485 students and 91 teaching staff. The Administrative staff consists of one Principal and two Vice-Principals. The school follows the traditional secondary organizational structure for the distribution of information. One vice-principal is in charge of school budgets. As such, this vice principal deals with department heads regarding financial decision-making. The school's Learning Resource allocation for 1995-96 was $60,700. Other funding, such as department funds or flexible funding can also be used for learning resource acquisition. Department heads are responsible for decision-making within their particular subject area. The Learning Resource Committee and the Department Head Committee are the same group. There are fourteen department heads. They meet every two months and discuss many issues besides learning resources. As a result, discussion about learning resources is given 5-10 minutes out of a 90 minute meeting. All the people interviewed, including the outgoing vice principal who has been presenting the information, felt that this was insufficient. The incoming vice principal (1995-96) plans to arrange a formal presentation and discussion time so there is a 67 thorough understanding of the Learning Resource Account and the types of learning resources that can be purchased. The vice principal sees his role as providing information to the committee, guiding the s process by identifying the issues that affect the whole school, and ensuring that decisions made by the committee are carried out. The department head saw his role as bringing the department together with the same vision, setting long and short term goals for implementation of curriculum and learning resource use, and supporting teachers as they acquire new skills and strategies. The teacher-librarian saw herself as supporting staff if they asked, but primarily guiding and teaching students to use new information sources. The staff assistant viewed herself as the key person in the management of learning resources. She has been the "book room person" for five years and sees the job continuing in the same way but with new directions on the management processes from the Learning Resource Committee. Everyone saw themselves expanding on their current functions in order to adapt to the new, broader vision of learning resources. The interview responses have been reorganized into three parts: Organizational procedures; Effects on Learning and Teaching Styles; and Summary. Organizational procedures Organizational Procedures includes the decision-making, planning and activities done by administration team and/or vice principal; the issues and procedures which are the responsibility of the administrator and department head, the role of department head within their department and the systems that the school is using for selection, management and accountability. Administrative Decision-Making, Planning and Activities i The philosophy of school-based decision-making means that very little money is held at 68 district level, therefore schools receive a lot of money. The discretionary budget for this school is $340,000.00 The vice principal felt that the first step was to evaluate all the allocations of funds. Second, he looked at the criteria for previous spending decisions and cross-referenced these to the definition of learning resources. As a result, he found that some items defined as learning -~ resources were already being paid from other allocations. For example, the Computer Implementation Committee formed in the 1994-95 school year had been given a budget for j computer hardware and software from the Flexible Purchases allocation. This meant that the 20% of the Learning Resource money that could be spend on hardware could be used for other things or could be added to the Computer Implementation Committee's budget. Also, the learning resource money could pay for software, but the money could be spent for other learning resources and let the software come out of the Computer Implementation Committee's budget. The third preparation activity was to compile a list of the various funds that are being used to purchase learning resources,, and the type of learning resources being purchased. This develops the big picture for the department heads as well as highlighting any overlaps. Because of this evaluation of funds, the vice principal found that an additional $50,000 was being directed toward learning resources. ^  , A fourth decision was to choose what learning resources would be acceptable for selection. He decided that only Provincially recommended learning resources would be eligible. His thinking was that "presumably there has been some thought, research, that has gone into these lists. They have been evaluated, they are extensive. I thought that most of the resources that a department would want, they would find available within the recommended lists. Looking ahead to the new curriculums, they will also have list of recommended learning resources." ' 69 In the 1994-95 the vice principal began a process to establish learning resource directions for the next three years. He provided the information given above, but also asked department heads to work with their departments outlining, in detail, their learning resource needs for 1995-96, and sketch in the expected needs for 1996-97 and 97-98. He asked that learning resources needs "be listed in order of priority, providing as much information as you can, giving your best guess as to estimated costs." When he had these plans in, the staff assistant filled in actual costs for 1995-96 school year. After receiving this information, the vice principal compared it against the Learning Resource Account budget and other monies for learning resources, then with the time lines for the new curriculums. Before taking this to a department head meeting, he consulted with individual department heads about their priorities. The vice principal's goal was to ensure that departments implementing new curriculum, or those in the most need, received funding. The vice principal states, "I'm spending more time talking with teachers, department heads, computer experts and the teacher-librarian about learning resources and how to support these resources." The goal of the administrative team is that a learning resources vision or direction will develop out of the discussions at the department level. This is an up/down process. The administration is placing expectations on the department heads that they will work with the subject area teachers to lessen the reliance on textbooks and increase their information technology skills. At the same time, some department heads, themselves are resisting a move away from one text or are only in the first stages of the change from textbooks to more diversified learning resources. Some subject area teachers are the resource leaders on teaching strategies when incorporating information technology. The vice principal feels it is important "to identify your people who are computer literate, I think you need to establish a good working relation with 70 department heads and use them as a link to the departments." On developing the vision, the vice principal states "I think it is difficult. We certainly haven't arrived at a comprehensive vision, but we are working toward that. I think that the crucial component would be that people share a cooperative spirit, that they have to look beyond their department. But first, you have to be selfish, wanting to secure resources for your own department, your own little part of the school, your own little empire. That's natural. I think you are doing your job if you are pursuing the acquisition of resources as energetically as possible. At the same time, you have to be able to see that there are other people and other groups, not just divided by subject department lines that need access to resources. I think the sharing of information is important. I don't think people should be secretive about their needs. For example, I think people should know that the French department needs lot of money this year because there is a new mandated French 12 curriculum, so this is not the year to push for some very good resources which are second level priority. Next year or in year three, those resources may be first level priority because French will not require the support they do now." Administrator and Department Heads ( One role of the Department head is to support provincial philosophical goals and directions. Department head and administrators take provincial directions and apply them to the unique needs of their school. For example, part of the K-12 Education Plan is that students will achieve an acceptable level of literacy in information technology. To this end, the Ministry is imbedding the Information Technology curriculum into other curriculums with the expectation that students will be using technology throughout all subject areas. In order to make this possible the first step is to obtain up-to-date hardware and software. The Curriculum Implementation 71 Committee was formed to pursue this step. At the same time it was the responsibility of department head to raise the awareness of teaching staff that a new computer lab would be a reality. Teachers should, therefore, prepare to use the broad scope of learning resources described as recommended in the provincial lists and in the new curriculum. The other decision is the processes used for the selection and management of learning resources. At this level, selection involves doing long term planning and making budgetary decisions to support this planning. Management involves all the clerical areas of ordering, bookkeeping, storage, circulation, and inventory. The need for consistent school-wide policies and procedures become apparent to the group and during the 1995-96 year they will be discussing different options. Three years ago, they decided to automate the textbook management and circulation. The software selected was a circulation and inventory system used by video stores. This was purchased but not used until the 1994-95 school year. It was halted almost immediately because of the shift away from textbooks. The group, with district personnel, will be reviewing software in the spring of 1996 that will accept: a diversity of formats; a variety of storage places around the school; and be compatible with other programs currently in use. This group did the Three Year Plan taking into account the implementation schedule for hew curriculums. The department heads have also been preparing themselves to be role models for the integration of information technology. This involves becoming familiar with the information technology curriculum and learning how to use the tools and programs, as well as learning strategies for incorporating non textbook resources into their teaching and assignments. - As one member stated, "As a group we can see what the total school needs are by department." The department heads identified two areas where they need to develop leadership knowledge. 72 One area is in understanding the changes made to the funding process. Another is the Vancouver School Board policy on selection and on-line resources. The incoming vice principal (1995-96) is addressing these areas during department head meetings. Department Heads and Subject Teachers The Social Studies Department Head was interviewed. He had been in this position for six years. During this time, he has worked to bring the subject area teachers together both philosophically and physically. Initially, this was a volatile department with different philosophies about what should be taught and how it should be taught. While there are some issues teachers have agreed to disagree on, they are now able to work together and will listen to each other's opinions. As the Department head said, "You must have people talking to each other." One key decision they made is that each course will include 60-70% of core material. This gives the teacher some flexibility to follow interests of his/her own and the students. Cooperation has been the number one concern of the department head. Consequently, he chose to use the department office as a department learning resources' room: ' I have to get the traffic before I can sell the content of the learning resources. The advantage of centring the supplies and materials within the department is that it provides me with an opportunity to chat with the teachers within the department. It provides a means of pulling the department together/People come to me and say they need this or that and I am able to fulfil one of my mandates which is to provide some curriculum leadership. I can give some direction about use etc. I can show them other things than what they came for, and talk to them about teaching and learning styles. 73 Thus, the importance of the room is not in its function as a store room but in the opportunity it provides for communicating with the teachers on a regular basis. Another key decision was that they would purchase more non textbook materials. This meets the needs of teachers with different philosophies. The Department head said that "last year we had some success with the grade nine program by having those teachers identify what they saw as their needs based on the existing shortcomings of the present books and materials. We then had members who were teaching the course look at a number of alternatives to those books, in doing that they came up with recommendations which we were then able to secure the necessary financial resources to purchase. Everyone was excited because it has attractive key visuals, and a variety of learning activities, as well as videos which are in the library." As a result of this kind of reviews and research there is more soft cover books, videos and specific topic material available for teachers. He works with the teachers as a group to put together a budget. The activities he pursues are a repeat of the ones done by the vice principal in preparing the department heads for changes. He talks to each person in the department so they know ahead of time if a sensitive issue is being discussed. Budgets are always sensitive because there needs to be a lot of give and take between teachers. One year the Grade eight program may require a lot of the department's budget and another year it may be the Grade twelve program. He did a long term needs assessment within the department similar to the Three Year Plan. Another phases of his work is to meet with publishers. This department head spends about two hours a week dealing with issues related to learning resources. ' Once learning resources are in the department he makes the teachers aware of what has arrived. He will direct specific learning resources first to teachers who requested the resources r 74 but he emphasises that the learning resources belong to the department not to the teacher and must be shared. Teachers have become good at coordinating their teaching times so that the • i resources are shared. A schedule in the department head's office tracks learning resources used in the core areas so they circulate efficiently throughout the year. The department head wanted to keep the material in the department office because it gave him a means of speaking to the teachers on a regular basis. Sometimes, he would show them a new learning resource or discuss teaching strategies. It has been very successful and now he is looking for other ways to display and circulate the learning resources. This school is trying to make decisions that reflect the need for teachers to shift their practice to incorporate a broad range of resources and expand their strategies. The administrative team began the process with a two-fold plan. First, the budget allocation would raise awareness of the need to develop a plan at both the school and the department level. Second, the department heads were to take an active role as curriculum leaders. As a Learning Resource Committee, the department heads were actively fulfilling part of their role in learning, practising and sharing resource-based teaching strategies with their department. Selection, Management and Accounting The staff assistant is in charge of this area. She has been at the school for many years, working in several different departments before becoming "the book room person." The staff assistant works closely with the vice principal. After receiving the Three Year Plans, she found exact costs, and prepared the orders. She also keeps accounts on each department. She works with Department heads preparing orders, then processes and distributes incoming learning resources. This was a straightforward task for textbooks but she now finds herself caught in the 75 change. The Staff Assistant is still in charge of textbooks but there are fewer textbooks. The accounting has become more difficult because department heads often do their own ordering of non textbook Learning resources. As a result, keeping accounts up to date is more difficult and sometimes different departments have ordered the same thing. For example, in 1994-95 two sets of learning resources were returned because of double-ordering. Also, in 1994-95, it was decided to start the textbook automation system purchased three years earlier. The software, called Scan Text is an adaption of a commercial Video store rental software. The staff assistant was extremely frustrated when I interviewed her. Her computer skills were low and she had no idea of the capabilities of a computer program. The plan was to begin with the grade eight texts and add a year at a time. The classroom teacher would continue to distribute texts for the other grades and maintain a paper trail of their circulation. The incoming vice principal (1995-96) decided to halt the bar coding of the grade eight textbooks until he could review the system and decide if it were appropriate to the new learning resources with their range of formats, and storage places. The circulation of learning resources then returned to a manual system, except for the grade eight textbooks. Accounting for this inventory is a problem. All grade eight texts can be scanned into the system in approximately two hours. Doing the textbooks by hand for the rest of the school takes two to three days. Inventory of other learning resources is the responsibility of the department heads. There is no process or requirement to inventory the resources in department head offices/cupboards, etc. The administrator and department heads (Learning Resource Committee) need to decide quickly to set up a management system. There are two key problems with the management as it is 76 now exists. First, the system is becoming so decentralized that accounting for the resources is extremely difficult. Resources that are not centrally recorded and are in no data base are being stored and circulated on an ad hoc basis from department offices and cupboards around the school. More duplicate ordering will result if this is not corrected. Text books are now on two systems-one automated and one paper and pencil. Almost $61,000.00/year is allocated to this school for learning resources. The Learning Resource Committee/ Department Heads need to have an inventory of what is in the school. They also must implement a system that will handle the quantity of learning resources purchased each year. Effects on Learning and Teaching Classroom Within the Social Studies classroom studied, the teacher is planning more learning situations where students can actively participate in their learning, researching and presenting information on an ongoing basis throughout the year. The students are encouraged to include overheads, graphs and other visuals in their presentations. They are also encouraged to involve their fellow students. At present, the classroom does not have computers, so students and teacher are often found in the library. P Library Resource Centre The shift to resource-based learning and teaching is most evident in the school library. Except for text books, the only distinction between learning resources in the classroom and those in the library is that they are purchased from different budgets. The teacher-librarian says that a combination of technology and administrative encouragement to integrate resource-based learning and teaching strategies is bringing more students and teachers into the facility. As department 77 heads model resource-based learning and teaching strategies, more teachers are seeing the value of the process of learning rather than the final student report. As the teachers develop more skills in using information technology, it seems they are more comfortable collaborating with the teacher-librarian and using the school library as a regular teaching and learning area. Teachers expect their students will use a wide range of information sources. Students regularly use the Internet to search Vancouver Public Library or the university libraries. The kinds of assignments have also increased in complexity, and students are expected to cite current information as well as previously known information. For example, students researching weather across Canada in February 1996 would be expected to have data from previous years that showed trends in climatic behaviour and data from January 1996. The way information is presented has also changed from the written report to the expectation that students will be able to present their information in a variety of spoken, written and visual ways. The computer has made some level of information accessible to students of all ability levels. The teacher-librarian said, "students are quite excited about using the technology because they have success and the information is right there for them. I find that with the electronic encyclopaedias, the ease of searching is wonderful." The teacher-librarian is involved in helping students learn the skills to carry out resource-based learning. This school has a high ESL and special needs population and the complexity of an alphabetical, subject or Dewey index is daunting. Finding information in this library is difficult. Students must use an antiquated card catalogue system. With CD-ROM and Internet access students who often gave up before they even began, now bypass traditional search techniques and use only electronic information sources. The teacher-librarian also said that "some students, who are familiar with computers believe that if 78 you can't get on the computer then the information must not exist or must be dated." The excitement for learning has increased as the task of finding information becomes easier. Succeed at the beginning of a project often carries a student through to the next stage of a project. The expectation that students will use technology in their research seems to be fairly universal. Despite this, all interviewees told me that most of the staff use lectures as the primary strategy for teaching. The interviewees all felt it was their responsibility to continually broaden their own repertoire so that they provided.models for the students and other staff. In the last four years there has been a 25% turnover in staff. Many new staff are young and familiar with a broad range of learning resources and are enthusiastic about resource-based learning and teaching. They also act as peer role models for more traditional teachers. Summary This school is in the early stages of transition from a school that relied heavily on textbooks, lecture-style lessons, and print-based assignments to a resource-based learning and teaching system. Students are ahead of the staff in their knowledge of how to use information technology. The shift began with the administrative decision to encourage department heads to expand their skills in resource-based teaching actively. The need to plan for learning resources acquisition was an opportunity for departments to discuss teaching and learning styles and the Principles of Learning. The Library Resource Centre has become a more vital part of the school because of the shift in teaching styles. Another factor is a large turnover in teachers. In the last four years there has been 25% of the staff have retired or changed schools. Many of the new staff are young and familiar with a broad range of learning resources and enthusiastic about resource-based learning and teaching. Students are excited about the resource-based learning 79 opportunities. As students use resources that complement their learning abilities, knowledge and styles, more students are having success with their assignments. There are too many systems for managing learning resources. The Learning Resource Committee (department heads) cannot make appropriate decisions about learning resource selection if they do not choose a system immediately. Right now, there is no infrastructure to handle the variety of learning resources entering the school. With an annual budget of more than $60,000.00 the challenge is to choose a system that will involve minimal clerical work by teachers, yet provide a way to select, equitably manage, and account for these resources. Several things happened at this school that started to move the school to fulfil the directives of the Ministry. First the administrative team evaluated the use of money coming into the school. Second the administrators kept the department heads informed about changes to funding allocations and requested a three year learning resource acquisition plan. The administration also made sure the department heads knew the Principles of Learning and the expectation of the Ministry that teachers would move away from text books into resource-based teaching and learning. The administration recognized and actively encouraged teachers who were trying out different teaching and learning strategies. This encouragement to be curriculum leaders and the requirement to develop a learning resource acquisition plan helped implement changes. In my experience, the key reason teachers, particularly secondary teachers have been so slow to begin changing the way they teach is because no one has communicated the changes to them. At this school, teachers received information about funding allocations and the teacher leaders are recognized as valuable assets to their peers and the students. r 80 School C: Elementary Three interviews were done at this school: • Principal • Teacher-librarian • Science teacher School Organization The interviews at this school took place in the January 1996. This school was selected because it has had a Learning Resource Committee since 1991. It was one of the first schools to establish a committee. The other reason is that it uses a dual circulation system. Some learning resources are circulated through the school library system, but the majority are circulated using an honour system through a Learning Resources room. The school has seventeen teachers and one administrator. The student population is 330 in grades kindergarten through seven. The school offers both English and French programs. In 1995/96 they received $12,000.00 in the Learning Resource Fund allocation. Originally, the Learning Resource Committee consisted of the administrator, three classroom teachers, the teacher-librarian and a parent representative. The parents' main contribution was not as an active member of the Learning Resources Committee but in organizing help to prepare learning resources for circulation. The principal stated that the parents' contribution during the work evening, was one of the key reasons the school could implement a resource-based learning program so quickly. He stated, "There needs to be an effective way of connecting the resources with the students. That means that we have to have an organization that provides easy, efficient access for teachers." The principal mused during the interview that it would be a good idea to involve a parent representative again in the 1996/97 school year, only this time in selection of learning resources. Learning resources were first selected to support the literature-based program and therefore most of the resources were fiction stories and novels. This area continued to be the main focus until the 1994/95 school year. That year the school began to shift the focus to learning resources that support the new prescribed curricula. Interview responses are organized into three parts: Organizational Procedures; Effects on Learning and Teaching; and Summary. j Organizational Procedures i The interview questions covered the decision-making, planning and activities which are done by the full staff Learning Resources Committee; Selection Committee; and individuals. Each September, the administrator tells the teachers how much money is in the Learning Resources Account so they can prepare for the decision-making meeting. The full staff is the Learning Resource Committee. At the Learning Resources Meeting at the beginning of each school year, the staff meets to discuss changes in philosophical directions for the school, revisit the goals they set the previous year and identify priorities for the coming year. When they have decided, they decide how to fill the priorities they have identified. Staff members have a high level of interest and involvement in decision-making for learning resources. The administrator is actively involved and supportive of integrating a wide variety of learning resources into the curriculum. This support for teachers to take risks and experiment with different learning resources may be the catalyst that has raised the interest of the staff beyond what is normally seen in schools. The Learning Resources Committee makes the initial decisions about school priorities and establishes the guidelines for learning resource selection and management. Sometimes the decision is for groups of teachers to form Selection Committees, other times individual staff members do research on a resource and bring their findings back to the full staff. In September 1995, the staff decided that energy needed to be focussed on the new prescribed Math and Science curriculum and that a Selection Committee would be formed. There are two permanent members of every Selection Committee - the administrator and the teacher-librarian. The form the Selection Committee takes changes with the focus. The form may be a combination of grade groups, cross-grade groups, theme groups or subject groups. In 1995/96, the staff decided that there was a need for two committees, a Math and a Science Selection Committee. The committees were to be cross-grade to ensure continuity for the selection of learning resources and guarantee that the interests of all students would be represented. Teachers volunteered for the committees according to their interests. The Learning Resources Committee also evaluates, on a yearly basis, the management of the learning resources. In the fall of 1995, they discussed the current organization of literature-based learning resources and assessed .which elements of the structure would work well for math and science resources and which would have to be changed. The literature-based resources are organized by theme and title groups. The idea of the groupings around specific teaching topics was one the Committee felt would transfer for science and math resources. The physical 83 organization would have to be slightly different to accommodate the manipulatives that would be the basis of the science and math resources. In the end, the Learning Resources Committee decided that the science and math resources should be organized into multimedia boxes around a topic. The boxes would contain specific print and non-print resources, such as video or software, along with the manipulatives. A bibliography would be included of other resources that a teacher could draw on to extend the information in the box. The boxed information would include both student and teacher resources. Circulation of the boxes would follow the honour system. This staff has had a positive experience using the honour system with literature learning resources. The literature resources are grouped in theme groups or by author and circulate on an honour system. I think one reason is that the full staff is the Learning Resources Committee, so they make the decisions as a full group. Then staff members do the selection and bring it back to the full staff for review. I believe this method develops a commitment to maintaining the system. In my experience the honour system is rarely successful. A lack of staff commitment usually leads to dissipation of the resources within two or three years. The Learning Resources Committee also decided a time line. The Selection Committee should complete their research by Christmas, compile the boxes by January and have most of the boxes ready for use by the end of February. From the full staff Learning Resources Committee, the members of the Selection Committee received clear directions about the expectations of the staff. Circulation of the boxes is from a room adjacent to the current Learning Resources Room that houses the literature-based resources. Staff members would clean out the room so it would 84 be ready for the boxes. A pocket chart like the one used for literature-based resources, would hang on the wall and every teacher, whether they enroll a class or not, would have a pocket. The science and math boxes would also have a card and pocket. Each card would identify the boxes' topic and list the contents. When a teacher borrows a box, she or he removes the card from the box and places it behind her/his pocket on the chart. They are "on their honour" to keep track of the resources in the boxes and return them after use. The effectiveness of this circulation system for science and math resources would be evaluated after one year. Unlike the literature-based learning resources, these boxes contain many different large and small items. There is a concern that items could easily be lost. The staff also decided to allocate some Learning Resources funding to individual classrooms for the purchase of manipulatives that are used frequently. Each teacher would be allocated a specific amount of money and entrusted with the responsibility of selecting resources to support the students and the curriculum. The administrator stresses that resources purchased for the classrooms belong to the school, not individual classrooms or teachers. To guarantee that the resources remain in the school the administrator describes the procedure followed when teachers are leaving the school. He explains, "We want to ensure that resources are not taken away from the school. When a teacher leaves the school, before they had in their key, all the resources are checked off and placed in the Learning Resources Room. So when a new teacher comes in, I go to the Learning Resources Room and give them the resources they need." The management of the learning resources is maintained using Microsoft Works' database. The teacher-librarian has taken on the responsibility of maintaining the literature-based learning 85 resources' database. The resources are identified in several ways. First, they are designated either French or English, then they are broken into Primary and Intermediate, then series receive a further designation. For example: EPS = English Primary resources in Series. While most resources are located in the Learning Resources Room, some resources are stored in classrooms. If this is the case, the designation is by room number, not teachers' name. The reason for this is to make a dear distinction between the teacher and the resources. The database, of course, allows sorting of the fields for inventory. Inventory is done on an irregular basis. The Learning Resource Committee has not considered this terribly important because there have been no noticeable loses. Effects on Learning and Teaching Learning resources are discussed at approximately every third meeting staff meeting, making part of these meetings a Learning Resources Committee meeting. Any person on staff can bring up an issue but the principal and the teacher-librarian usually initiate discussion on an issue. The area of highest concern is the heavy focus on print resources. The parent association has also expressed concern to the principal that the staff should be moving beyond print into a wider variety of formats. At this school, the majority of the Learning Resources Fund between 1991 and 1994 was earmarked for developing the literature-based collection. Approximately $45,000.00 was spent on print materials to support this program. It was only in 1995 that the Learning Resource Committee began to seriously look beyond print resources. This was a result of new curriculums which strongly endorses resource-based learning. The expectation in the IRPs is that the teachers will facilitate and guide learning using a multiplicity of learning resource 86 formats. The administrator has been at this school for five years and he has been trying to help the staff move beyond print. As the curriculum leader, he forged strong alliances with the teacher-librarian and two other teachers on staff who were experimenting with teaching strategies. These teachers were trying to move from the lecturer position at the front of the class to the position of facilitator and learner. The work students were doing in these teachers' classes was demonstrating the success of this approach. Students were excited about their learning. They were involved in using many different formats at different levels of ability. This created an aura of success that other teachers were noticing. As a result, more cautious teachers felt safe trying a new approach because they had a mentor on staff. The administrator, who is conscious that change takes place very slowly, is working on one area at a time. When the Learning Resources Fund was first established, he helped the staff move from basal readers into novels, videos of ( stories and other literature-based resources, mainly in print. The result is that teachers have moved away from one reader to a multiplicity of language arts resources and students have moved into a more active partnership with the teacher in selecting stories and novels. The majority of the novels are not in class sets but in theme sets. This means that there may be thirty different novels on the theme, "Friendship." The novels will cover a range in reading and comprehension level. All students in the class can read a book on friendship, and will have something to contribute to discussions or activities. Manipulatives are being stressed in the selection of science and math resources. The principal, science and math specialists have all given presentations and demonstrations to their / 87 colleagues and the parent association. As a result, the parents understand the learning that comes from using manipulatives and other non-print resources as well as print. The administrator accomplished three things by making parents aware of the new Science and Math curriculum and how teachers planned to increase the use of manipulatives. First, the parents understand the changes that are part of the new curricula. Second, they are supportive of teachers moving away from a single text. Third, the parents' expectation is that teachers will be using manipulatives in the classroom. In this way, the administrator has guaranteed that all teachers will include some manipulatives in their classes. He believes that once teachers see the increased understanding that takes place with students, they will want to use them more often. In my experience, this has always been the case. Teachers who were sceptical about resource-based learning have become committed within a very short time of integrating a broad range of resources into their subject areas. The principal states, "There is not a teacher in this school who is not making a really good effort at it. We are moving away from boring repetition (in math) of doing pages 17, 18 and 19 to having students actively using math in problem-solving activities." The information technology area is very limited in this school but the school has linked with U B C to do Internet Math. Students and parents work on this at home. This school is in an affluent area and only a handful of students do not have a computer/modem at home. Within the school, the information technology resources are entered in the Library Resource Centre. Teachers and teacher-librarian work together on cooperatively planned units with emphasis a ; facilitator approach by the teachers. The teacher-librarian says that she plans the administration has supported the cooperation by providing substitutes for all the teachers twice a year for unit • { 88 planning with her. The teachers model and teach the use of different resources, then guide students as they work on a topic. Assignments tend be specific in the kinds of formats students are to use. For example, students might be told that their bibliography must include a minimum of three different kinds of information sources. Students could then use magazines, books, CD-ROMs, on-line resources, videos, interviews, etc. Topics also generally provide students with a wide choice so that they can explore, in-depth, the topic area of interest to them. This may mean that a student studying natural disasters may select to do 'fire' and choose videos, T. V. news clips, and current magazines as the source of information. The result of the research may be a report, a demonstration on fire safety, a model, etc. The principal expressed how the changes have made school more compatible with, and responsive to, student abilities and interests. Using a grade seven class as an example, he states: "They will do a unit in Language Arts and Social Studies on compost, and bring in a unit of math which is not prescribed, but fits. So the students really like the idea of that freedom and know that they are not going to get their old math book and have to open it to page such-and-such. They actually have choices and obviously, that affects the learning. We respond to different learning styles and abilities. They do not all have to work as one large group. We have on a student here working on grade 10 math, using grade 10 resources from the high school. We have students in the same class working on grade five math. So there is a wide range of resources and materials for all the kids here." Summary In some ways this school walks "on the edge." Practices, which have not worked 89 elsewhere, seem to bey working here. First, is the full staff forming the Learning Resource Committee. A committee of seventeen is large but it has resulted in the full staff understanding the concepts together rather than a tiered system of information and feedback groups. I think one of the reasons this school has been so successful in it management of learning resources is because the staff discusses issues together and comes to a consensus. This does not mean all the staff agree or are at the same point in resource-based learning and teaching; it does mean that they have agreed to a democratic system of decision-making. Second, is the honour system for learning resources. Usually, this system is equal to dissipation of resources in a very short time. I think that the group decision-making has encouraged the sharing of resources but the lack of loss at this school is a surprise, Third, are purchases by individual teachers for their own classroom. Experience has been that teachers feel ownership of resources they buy for their classes. There are too many instances of teachers who changed schools and took all the classroom resources with them. This principal has had this experience in a past school. He stated that, "we were missing a lot of materials which we paid a lot of money for, and we really knew that they had gone and the person denied it. We eventually had to get quite sticky and it was very i. uncomfortable for everyone involved." Perhaps, the administrator's previous experience led to the system of checks and balances which is in place here. Turning in the classroom resources along with the school key guarantees that the resources do not leave with teachers who are transferring out of the schools. Another check is that resources kept in classrooms are identified by room location in the database. Psychologically, this reinforces the fact that the resources are the property of the school, not any particular teacher or grade. ^ 90 It is clear from the interviews that the administrator has been a driving force behind the effective management of the learning resources and the development of teaching skills. The goal of any system is to improve the education of the students. This staff seems to understand that education is driven by available resources. The systems they have instituted to this point make the resources available, hence allowing the teachers to concentrate on how they will use them, not how they will find them. Students and parents are benefiting from this system. Certainly some parents are textbook-oriented but the staff has attempted to explain the changes in a curriculum because of the shift to resource-based learning. Resource-based learning focuses on the learner. Cumulative research on student learning has demonstrated that meaningful involvement with subject content leads to retention of information. As students learn more, they gain confidence in their own abilities and the more they enjoy learning and want to continue. This leads to the ultimate goal of wanting to be a lifelong learner. When teachers were asked about the self esteem of the students, one said, "I think it is a lot worse for the individual's self esteem when they work in the same book and they just cannot keep up at all and they are falling further and further behind. The student gets so far behind that self-esteem and confidence is completely gone." If the student does not understand the basic concepts, there is no "hook" to attach additional knowledge. Learning requires people to expand or add-on to the knowledge they already have. Therefore teaching information to students that lack the necessary foundation to understand new concepts is not valid educationally. One of the three Principles of Learning is that students learn at different rates. The examples show that this 91 school has been using a range of resources to meet the needs of individual students. The administrator at this school understands that learning is a building process by the I • • • developmental way he has approached the expansion of teaching strategies with the staff. Like the students, he has begun at the spot that they feel confident. Like the students, some are self-learners and anxious to explore on their own and take risks. He has encouraged these teachers to continue to experiment with integrating new strategies for student learning. He has also used these teachers as mentors for other staff. Learning never exists in a vacuum. Until the Ministry of Education put its support behind resource-based learning and teaching, students who did not learn well in a lecture situation or by using print-only resources had a lot of trouble. Resource-based learning should begin with the knowledge a student has, building on it in a way that suits the students' ability, and learning style. When this happens effectively, students usually develop confidence in their own abilities and like to learn. Problems are rare when students are actively Q involved in their own learning. The teachers here are conscious of creating learning situations where the students are interacting effectively with different learning resources.. Not all the teachers are at a point where they can model a wide range of learning resources, but they are working to expand their repertoire of resource-based teaching skills. I think the discussions initiated by the administrator and progressive staff members have created an atmosphere where risk-taking is acceptable. The school also has systems in place to handle a variety of learning resources. Good management and easy accessibility to learning resources are basic to their effective use. I think that the management systems introduced in 1991 have been key to the shifts in teaching and learning which have occurred in this school. 92 Summary of Results What roles do the administrator, teacher-librarian, teachers or others have in the selection and management of learning resources? What systems are being used for the management of learning resources? Table 1 Comparison Between Critical Survey Areas and School Practices Survey A B c Learning Resource Committee Administrator Teacher-librarian (main people) No active Committee Administrator Department Heads Full staff Decision-Making: Priorities Administrator is the prime decision-maker No main person identified Administrator Dept. Head and the department Learning Resource Committee Decision-Making: Allocating Funds 25% = Administrator Administrator: accepts individual requests Staff Assistant: Input into balancing funds to departments Learning Resource Committee Learning Resource Committee Selection N/A Individual teachers, Dept. groups Sub-Committee of Learn. Res. Com.: Departments & Computer Implementation Committee Sub-Committee of Learn. Res. Com.: grade groups & theme groups Management Systems 50% = Yes Dual System: Book room and Library No complete system Yes Circulation 50% = Teacher-librarian 25% = clerical staff Teacher-librarian Staff Assistant Staff Assistant & Dept. Heads Honour, System & school library system/teacher-hbrarian Inventory 25% = Yes Yes r Incomplete Yes Regular Maintenance & Evaluation 25% = Yes Yes: Teacher-librarian & Staff Assistant No designated person No: Teacher-librarian does some evaluation on an irregular basis as time permits 93 i Table 1 compares the main people who are performing tasks related to learning resources. An analysis would indicate schools B and C, which have active Learning Resource Committees, confirm survey results of including an administrator and teacher-librarian1. Unlike survey results regarding decision-making, schools with active Committees have a process for collaborative decision-making. In School B there is an up/down flow of information and decision-making by which the department head takes information back to the teachers within the department and receives input from them that is then taken back to the Department/ Learning Resource Committee meetings. School A purchases mainly text books. The decision for what and how many is made during the summer, primarily by the staff assistant who is given class registration lists and matches numbers to the text books in the school. The staff assistant provides the vice-principal with information about previous budget allocations to departments, and an effort is made to equalize the amounts departments receive. No long term planning is done with the staff, nor is there a discussion of school direction with full staff input. It is interesting that both secondary school B and elementary school C created selection subcommittees. The selection committees varied depending on the subject area or segment of the subject being selected. It is interesting that this arrangement was working so well for both these schools because they were very different. School C is a large cohesive staff with similar pedagogical viewpoints. School B is a small department with outspoken teachers some of whom have radical different viewpoints. The survey showed that 50% of Vancouver schools have established management systems, most of which involve the teacher-librarian. Except for School B, the teacher-librarian is 'The teachers-librarian is a department head in Vancouver secondary schools. 94 involved in the management, circulation and inventory. In School A the teacher-librarian does some of the maintenance because some learning resources are integrated into the library collection. Are Vancouver Learning Resource Committees Fulfilling the Expectations that the Ministry and the School District Have Placed on Them? What is the Effect of Multiple Resources on Learning and Teaching? Table 2 Relationship Between School Decision-Making Organization and Resource-Based Learning and Teaching A B C School Vision for Learning Resource Development Not clear to individual teachers Collaborative: Learn. Res. Com. with input from teachers via dept. heads Collaborative: full staff participation School Priorities Not clear to individual teachers Learning Res. Com.-communicated to teachers via dept. heads Learning Res. Committee Selection Individuals, Departments Department level collaboration r V Collaborative: Selection Committee receives directive from full staff Resource-Based Learning In transition: Research assignments are more resource-based than daily work In transition: Some classroom work is interactive between learner & a variety of resources (not just assignments) Well into the transition: Students use resource-based learning in most subjects Resource-Based Teaching Primarily dispensers of knowledge Early transition stages: teachers are moving between facilitating learning & dispensing knowledge strategies In transition: Most subjects have a strong resource-based teaching component. Key areas that impact on these questions are whether aspects of school decision-making such as the development of a school vision or goal setting activities influence resource-based learning and teaching. It would appear that teachers are familiar with the concept because the interviews indicated that students at the three schools were participating in it to some degree. 95 The assumption is that teachers have read the new curriculum and are therefore familiar with the Principles of Learning and the Provincial mandate to create opportunities for students to interact with resources. This is particularly interesting in the case of School A because the teachers primarily remain in the traditional teaching role of dispensers of knowledge whereas the other two schools are in transition stages in the move to a resource-based teaching model. The main difference between School A, and Schools B and C is the communication and decision-making areas. Despite the levels of communication and decision-making of School B, all teachers have an opportunity to participate in discussions around school goals and vision whether it is at the department level or the department head level. Unlike School B, School C s decision-making and goal setting activities involve the entire staff. Selection by both B and C is carried out by subcommittee and individuals only after they have been through discussions to set priorities and establish a processes for selection. This exchange of ideas around curriculum and school priorities appears to be the key difference between the schools. We would be tempted to draw the conclusion that pedagogical exchanges about Provincial directions is a key to teachers moving toward resource-based teaching, but another part of the reason may be that the administrators at Schools B and C actively promote teacher-leaders and supporting risk takers who are trying out v. new ideas. The administrator in School A is not creating an opportunity for discussion, nor encouraging a move to resource-based teaching. Teachers I spoke with at School A believe they are doing resource-based teaching because of the incorporation of videos and laser discs material into lessons and the idea of moving into the position of facilitator and guide is not strong at this school. 96 C H A P T E R FIVE DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS Overview In this chapter the results of the research are discussed using the research questions listed in Chapter one as a framework. The implications for practice within the school setting will be discussed in relation to the selection and management of learning resources. The final section will identify areas for future research. Are Learning Resource Committees fulfilling the expectations that the Ministry and the school district have placed on them? The results of the survey would indicate that the Committee structure is not working in most of the schools. The research did not identify whether it is not being used because the administrator or teachers are unclear about the function of the Committee or whether it is being bypassed by the staff. A fully functioning Committee establishes checks and balances to the system which may not make all teachers happy. One function is to ensure that selected resources r fit in with school priorities and Ministry and District Policy. In my experience, many schools in Vancouver do not have pedagogical discussions that establish school directions. Therefore, there is no consensus on school priorities. If the Learning Resource Committee has been given a mandate by the staff to secure learning resources in a particular area, there may be teachers who feel their class needs are more important than the needs of the school. She or he may elect to . bypass the Committee process and make a case with the administrator for special funding. A more serious problem arises when the learning resource allocation has been simply divided among staff members with no discussion about selection criteria or curriculum and school goals. My 9 7 experience indicates that the last scenario is common. When this has happened, changing the status quo is very difficult. Teachers have come to develop classroom collections which are thought of as their own, the money is perceived as necessary funding for their program, and any moves to change are perceived as an attempt to remove their autonomy and censor their selection decision. My observation of discussions on this issue indicates that it is very contentious and can cause many bad feeling on staffs. r. The case study schools have active Learning Resource Committees that are an integral part of school's professional life. At School A, the Learning Resource Committee fulfilled the Ministry requirement of establishing systems for resource management. Unfortunately the system is based on the use of text books. It is also run by a staff assistant who is well liked by the staff and subtly contributes to reinforcing the text book system. This is because she is not an educator and does not have any knowledge of the Principles of Learning or trends in education. There is no leadership by the administration or department heads to provide a resource-rich learning environment. The teachers may be too complacent with having an efficiently managed system to be able to visualize changes to their methods of teaching which would require changes to the system. When they work with the teacher-librarian they expect the students to work in a resource-rich environment and plan resource-based learning projects, but there is a separation between classroom and library. In Schools B and C the Learning Resource Committee is fulfilling the expectations of the Ministry by identifying school goals and shifting practice toward resource-based teaching and learning. School B has done the most important step which is to plan for long term learning resource acquisition and choose processes for selection. They need to choose a system for 98 developing an inventory of resources or they will be wasting money on duplicate orders because they do not know what is in the school. If the parts that are functioning effectively in School A and B could be merged, the result would be a school well on the way to fulfilling the expectations of the Ministry and District. School C has all aspects of the system well in hand and is moving toward full school implementation of resource-based teaching. Resource-based learning is pretty universal at the school. This school is an example of how long it takes to bring together different aspects of the process. School C has invested five years to reach the point where teachers are actively incorporating aspects of resource-based teaching - some to a greater degree than others, and where they have a system that works for them, and functions smoothly. The purpose of this research was not to study change, but the reader may know that change is a slow process that involves different levels. In a very simplified way, we could classify School A in the awareness stage where teachers are thinking about it and some may be doing some minor experimentation. School B is in a transition stage where many teachers are experimenting with resource-based strategies and School C is at the point where teachers are beginning to refine strategies. What roles do the administrator, teacher-librarian, teachers and others have in the selection and management of learning resources? Administrator The purpose of Learning Resource Committees is to provide direction on learning resource selection in line with goals and priorities established by the staff. The administrator is vital to this process because he or she has a global view of the school and is the recognized curriculum leader. Teachers expect the administrator to initiate discussions on school directions i 99 and curriculum and be instrumental in establishing school priorities. Once priorities have been established, the administrator is ultimately responsible to ensure that the priorities are adhered to by the Learning Resource Committee. The establishment of a resource-based teaching and learning system means changes for students and teachers but it also means changes for parents. The administrator in School C spent considerable time in parent meetings explaining curriculum changes, and the shift that teachers were making to create a different kind of learning situation for students. The majority of parents have grown up with a text book system and they understand it. The process of resource-based teaching and learning, from the decision-making done by students in selecting assignments to the way assessment is done by teachers needs to be explained fully to parents. The key issue most schools struggle with is ownership of resources. The experience of the administrator in School C suggests that it rests with the administrator directly to address the fact that resources are the property of the school and not individual teachers. The administrator in School C finds it necessary to have transferring teachers check in the learning resources assigned to them before handing in their room key. Defining school ownership is particularly difficult if the school is moving to a Learning Resource Committee system from one where each teacher received a certain number of dollars to spend exclusively on resources of his or her own choice. Management of the resources is a clerical task. Ideally, it would be part of the administrator's role to ensure that a clerk could enter data and maintain the inventory. In secondary schools, assigning a clerk to this job is usually possible but in elementary schools, this task often falls to a teacher to do on a volunteer basis, this study shows that it is usually the p \ 100 teacher-librarian who takes up this task. This is really an unacceptable situation because teachers are too expensive to be entering data and counting books. The administrators in School C stated that inventory and maintenance of resources is a high priority, but funding issues hamper , management. Teacher-Librarian The role of the teacher-librarian is to share his or her knowledge about resource selection, strategies for using different resources and management techniques. In most schools, the teacher-librarian has been doing resource-based teaching for many years and can demonstrate new technologies and teach strategies for integrating resources. The collaboration between teacher and teacher-librarian is usually the first place teachers have exposure to resource-based teaching1 and the Library Resource Centre may have been the first area in the school with access to information technology sources. The teacher-librarian can also teach the Learning Resource Committee or Selection Sub-Committee about the District Policy on Selection of Learning Resources. She or he is an expert in selection criteria and in knowing where to look for impartial annotations on resources. The teacher-librarian also knows where and how to make the most cost-effective purchases. Management of resources is another area where the teacher-librarian makes a great contribution to the school. Certain resources can be handled efficiently by using existing school systems, such as the library system. Other resources may be better managed by using or adapting an existing school system. The academic and practical experience of the teacher-librarian is critical to the selection and management of learning resources. 1 Cooperative Program Planning and Teaching. See Chapter 1. ( 101 The administrator and teacher-librarian bring a global knowledge of the school curriculum, and an understanding of the systems and procedures needed to make selection and management work effectively for all teachers. Teachers Classroom teachers bring a specialized knowledge to selection that focuses on their particular content area or type of student. In Schools B and C, teachers tend to rotate on and off the Committee depending on how relevant the resources being selected were to their area of focus. The classroom teacher also has a responsibility to represent the interests of other teachers in the school who will be using the materials and make sure that the needs of students are met. The teachers on the Committee have a role to play as teacher-leaders in implementing the use of new resources and as advocates for supporting the management system selected by the group. In School B the department heads were encouraged to be teacher leaders in advocating resource use in their departments. They are also responsible for leadership in deciding how resources would be selected and often made the contacts with publishers' representatives. What systems are in use for the management of learning resources? The research found that there is no one system within a school. School A used a dual system which divided learning resources between two areas depending on the number and format or the resource. Large quantities of the same resource, if in print, was handled from the book room. This collection was recorded on a data base and inventory is done annually. Single quantities of print resources and resources in other formats, are managed using the school library system and are in that data base. School B had a similar system for book room resources, but with some of them bar coded and in an automated data base, and some in hand maintained 102 records. An inventory was done of these resources. Small quantities of specialized resources, are kept in department offices. Usually there is only a limited inventory. School C also had class sets, small sets, kits, and boxes of manipulatives in a room. These were all on a data base and inventory is possible. Resources integrated into the library collection are inventoried regularly. To recap, all schools have an inventory and data base of text book type learning resources. These may be actual text books or they may be novel sets. The secondary schools have a circulation system that often includes the teacher who has to create a paper record linking the book with the student. School C's system, was an honour system, (described in detail in Chapter four) which suited the needs of teachers but was not applicable to students. The most efficient system would be an automated system where all resources are bar coded. This system would provide an inventory of school learning resources and could manage resources in various locations, such as department head offices. Are teachers and students engaged in resource-based learning and teaching? Resource-based learning A degree of resource-based learning is taking place in the schools. Students are using a variety of media to do assignments. Teachers are providing a range of topic choices within assignments and are requiring a greater exploration of resources by students. Students are responding to this with a fair bit of excitement. The key for research assignments has been refinements made to information technology tools. One tool, the computer, has been an equalizer for many students. It is possible for students of low ability; those with language difficulties; average and gifted student to use the same tool and achieve success relevant to their ability. Many different formats converge in the computer-graphics, sound, text, static and video images, 103 so that in one spot, many different learning styles are addressed. This makes it possible for students with different learning styles, perspectives and prior knowledge to work together. While the computer is not the only tool, it is the most powerful tool for making information available to students. Students of the 1990's have grown up with many different kinds of information technology, and interaction with this medium is an important aspect of resource-based learning. Teachers also see the value of the Principles of Learning for students. My observation would suggest that all students have some experiences with resource-based learning. Most elementary teachers include resource-based learning as a major component in most units of study. , If the unit is done in the classroom, it usually does not include computer technology, but will provide ways for students to interact with other learning resources. A study of behaviour may include students building a maze and studying the response of rats to a stimulant. The student makes the selection of the kind of behaviour to be studied, researches about mazes and stimulants, builds a maze, designs and carries out the experiment, and evaluates the data. In so doing, the student makes a personal investment of himself/herself to the project. All research has shown that this student will have a greater retention of the knowledge and the process of learning than a student who read about a behaviour experiment in the text book. All units done with the teacher-s librarian have a heavy resource-based learning component. Resource-based teaching Teachers generally value resource-based learning therefore why are they not doing resource-based teaching? From talking to teachers, I think the reason is they do not know how. Most of them have never had a resource-based teaching course. One reason in Vancouver, is that most of the teachers are more than 45 years old. When they graduated from University, the 104 research on learning styles and teaching styles was in its infancy and the information was not widespread. Another reason is that until the new curriculums began to arrive there was no incentive from the Ministry or the District to learn the strategies. There is also a school culture that does not honour risk takers. There has been no incentive from parents to move away from a text book. Indeed, many parents feel very comfortable with a text book and a worksheet. They understand it. Teachers also understand it. Teachers need professional growth in understanding resource-based teaching and then in strategies which enable them to broaden their repertoire of skills. Universities also need to require resource-based teaching courses so new teachers come into the schools equipped with the skills to teach in the BC system. The only times I have observed a complete resource-based learning activity is when teachers and teacher-librarians collaborate. Even then the assessment component of charting and evaluating student progress as they learn information literacy skills, is often not well developed. The underdeveloped area is building in opportunities for teachers and students to reflect on the process of learning. If this is not done, then students have a more difficult time recognizing when to apply skills to similar learning situations. Implications for Schools: Learning Resource Committees This study shows that the mandate of the Learning Resource Committee to "develop a school vision and approach to resource-based learning"2 can help schools make the transition to resource-based learning and teaching. The interviews at all the schools indicates the effectiveness of a functioning Learning Resource Committee in developing a support structure for effective selection and management of learning resources therefore Learning Resource Committees should 2 A Model Selection Process. Appendix B in Integrated Resource Packages. 105 be supported by administrator and teachers within all schools. Implications for University Education Programs The key to implementation of resource-based learning and teaching is professional training so teachers know how to effectively use resources in different format within a resource-based learning environment. In light of British Columbia curriculum directions, a specific course should be required for pre-service teachers, and part of the course should focus on selection of resources, the changes needed in classroom practice therefore resource-based teaching The focus is on the student's needs, then on his or her interaction with content information. Implications for Parents The school system has a responsibility to explain to parents how schooling is different from when they were children. Parents need to understand the basic concepts of resource-based learning and teaching and understand the place different information sources, from the text book to telecommunications, have on their child's skills and knowledge. Implications for Future Research This research focussed on a thin slice of the issues surrounding resource-based learning and teaching. Resource-based teaching, in particular deserves much more research, quite possibly this is a key area for action research. Other questions might be: What variables will cause practising teachers to initiate a change to resource-based teaching? Is there a difference between the rate of change in small districts as compared to very large districts? Is collegial discussion a necessary component to shifting philosophical beliefs and practice? Which comes first - the practice or the pedagogical belief? Learning Resource Committees and all the aspects of their responsibility need to be 106 studied in more detail. This study has shown that only 50% of Vancouver schools have committees, and only 25% of those are recognized as effective. What dynamics within schools are hampering the effectiveness of the Committee? In School A, one of the hindering factors to the move to resource-based learning and teach may be the subtle influence of the well-liked and efficient staff assistant. Future research into the influences of non-educators within the school might point to some dynamics within the school that may not be taken into consideration during a change process. What strategies would be effective to enable Committees to fulfill their duties? This would be a very useful action research study. Lastly, it would appear that new secondary teachers, in particular, are not contributing as much as colleagues expected to the rejuvenation of the education system. I think a long term case study should be done to see what effect new teachers are having on the system, and conversely, what effect the system is having on new teachers. Conclusion Resource-based learning and teaching shifts the focus from the teacher dispensing information to planning opportunities for learners to make connections and interact with content information. New British Columbia curriculums are recommending the integration of multiple resources in order to teach Provincially prescribed Learning Outcomes. The schools' Learning Resource Committee can contribute to the change in learning resources selection and use by being the catalyst in developing a school vision for resource-based learning. A key partner in the change is the teacher-librarian who has academic and practical experience in the use of learning resources in multiple formats and she or he can assist the classroom teacher in the move to resource-based teaching by continuing to model techniques and strategies during cooperatively taught units. The 107 qualified teacher-librarian can also assist in developing criteria and processes for effective selection, acquisition, circulation, inventory and maintenance of the learning resource collection. \ The district survey indicated that Learning Resource Committees are not active in every Vancouver school, and were they do exist, many are not performing all the tasks ascribed to them. The school studies suggest that active Learning Resource Committees make a significant contribution to the school in terms of helping schools select, manage and move towards effective use of learning resources. ( • { 108 References Adset, K. (1988). Learning and working conditions. The Bookmark. 30(2), 120-131. American Library Association Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. (1989). American library association presidential committee on information literacy: Final report. Chicago: American Library Association. (ERIC Document reproduction service no. ED315074). Austrom, L. (1989). Library resource centre support for the primary program: An alternative to the classroom collection. The Bookmark. 37(2), 137-141. Austrom, L . , & Scott, S. (1991). How to manage language arts, primary program and intermediate program paperbacks. The Bookmark. 33(2), 145-148. Bailey, L . (1990). Secondary school collection development and the role of the teacher-librarian. The Bookmark. 32(1), 37-44. Betts, B. (1993). The role of the teacher-librarian in British Columbia secondary schools: A shared vision? The Bookmark. 34(3), 18-23. Breivik, P. S. (1991). A signal for the need to restructure the learning process. NASSP Bulletin. 75(535), 1-7. British Columbia. Learning Resources Branch. (1990). Developing independent learners: The role of the school library resource centre. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Education, Learning Resources Branch. British Columbia. Learning Resources Branch. (1992). Intermediate program: Foundations [draft]. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Education, Learning Resources Branch. 1 109 British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1993). Learning resources funding 1993/94. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Education. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1994). Learning resources funding 1994/95. Victoria, B.C.: Ministry of Education. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1995). Learning resources funding 1995/96. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Education. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1991). Literature connections: The teacher and teacher-librarian partnership. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Education, Learning Resources Branch. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. Learning Resources Branch. (1992). Making choices/choisir [video]. Richmond, B C : Image Media Services. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1995). Mathematics K to 7 integrated resource package. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Education, Learning Resources Branch. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1990). Primary program: Foundation document. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Educatio,. Learning Resources Branch. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1990). Primary program: Resource document. Victoria, B . C . : Ministry of Education, Learning Resources Branch. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. (1991). Selection and challenge of learning resources. Victoria, B. C : Ministry of Education, Learning Resources Branch. British Columbia. Ministry of Education. Learning Resources Branch. (1993). You can get there from here [video]. Richmond, B C : Image Media Services. Burnaby School District #41. (1993). Learning resources: Guidelines for selection. Burnaby ) 110 Coupal, L . (1994). Local selection of resources in school district #63 (Saanich). Saanich. Donkers, P. (1993, March). Industry services manager. Ministry of Education. Learning Resources Branch. Victoria. Personal interview with E. M . Hannis. Dorrell, L. D. & Lawson, V. L. (1995). What are principals' perceptions of the school media specialist? NASSP Bulletin. 79 (573 ): 72-80. Dwyer, V. (1994). Are we cheating our kids? McLeans Magazine. March 14, 44-49. Elbaz, F. (1991). Teacher's curricular knowledge in 4th grade: The interaction of teachers, children and texts. Curriculum Inquiry. 21(3), 299-320. Greater Victoria School District #61. (1992). Resources handbook. Victoria, B. C : Hannis, M . (1994, March). Report on the forum on resource-based learning and teaching: a joint venture by the B C T L A and the Ministry of Education November 21-23, 1993. The Bookmark. 35(3) 69-71. Hannis, M . (1994, September). Recommendations from the provincial forum on resource-based learning and teaching. The Bookmark. 36(1)91-97. Hannis, M . (Speaker). (1994, May). Recommendations for the implementation of resource-based learning and teaching. Surrey, B. C. Harper, J. (1991). Accounting for classroom collections: A lesson from the past. Canadian School Executive. 7(5), 29-31. Haycock, C. (1987). Notebook. Emergency Librarian. 17 (3), 1. Haycock, C. (1991). Resource-based learning: A shift in the roles of teacher, Learner. NASSP Bulletin. May, 15-22. I l l Haycock, K. (1992). What works: Research about the teaching and learning through the school's Library Resource Centre. Vancouver, B. C : Rockland Press Haycock, K. (1994). Notebook. Emergency Librarian. 21 (3), 7'. Heide, R. (1995). Working and learning conditions survey. The Bookmark. 37(3), 70-90. Johnson, D. Eisenberg, M . (1996). Computer literacy and information literacy: A natural combination. Emergency Librarian. 23(5), 12-16. Keegan, B. and Westerber, T. (1991). Restructuring and the school library: Partners in an information age. NASSP Bulletin. May, 1991, 9-14. Kuhne, B. (1995). The Barkestorp Project: Investigating school library use. School Libraries Worldwide. Jan. 1995, 13-27. Lim, S. (Speaker). (1989, October). The white paper and the School Act. What does this mean for teacher-librarians K-12Z Presentation at Update '89. University of B.C. Vancouver. Loertscher, D. (1988). Taxonomies of the school library media program. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Macdonald, B. (1995, June). 1995/96 Budget for library resource centres. Distributed to Vancouver School District teacher-librarians. McClaren, M.( Speaker). (1991, October 19). The library of the future: High tech, high touch and higher thought. Presenter: Bridging the Millennium Conference. Whistler, BC. McComb, B. (1991). Patterns of change in teacher-librarianship: Coming of age with Developing Independent Learners. The Bookmark. 33(2), 151-155. Meyer, J. & Newton, E . (1992). Teachers' view on the implementation of resource-based learning. Emergency Librarian. 20(2), 13-18. 112 Myers, M (1995, October 6). Personal interview. Victoria. Ontario. Ministry of Education. (1982). Partners in action: The library resource centre in the L school curriculum. Toronto. Ministry of Education. Rogan, J. & Luchowski, J. (1990). Curriculum texts: The portrayal of the field, part 1. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 22(1), 17-39. Saskatchewan Association of Educational Media Specialists, Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation. (1986). The 4th R: Resource-based learning, the library resource centre in the school curriculum. Regina: Saskatchewan Teachers' Federation. ^ Saskatchewan Instructional Development and Research Unit. (1992). Where did you find that? Resource-based learning. Regina: University of Regina. Sbrocchi, F. (1989). School libraries in British Columbia: From boxes of books to resource centres, 1872-1970. The Bookmark. 30(4), 32-59. Schmeck, R. R. (1988). Learning strategies and learning styles. New York, Plenum Press. Schumm, J., & Doucette, M . (1991). Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of textbook selection procedures: A smorgasbord of suggestions and strategies. Reading Horizons. 37(4), 272-285. Sullivan, B. M . (1988). Legacy for learners: The report on the Royal Commission for education. British Columbia Ministry of Education. Victoria, B. C. Queen's Printer. Thompson, J. C. (1991). Resource-based learning can be the backbone of reform, improvement. NASSP Bulletin. May, 24-28. Urbanik, M . (1991). The role of the library media program in curriculum planning. School Library Media Activities Monthly. 7(9), 24-25, 35, 46. 113 Vancouver School District #39. (1992, January). Management of learning resources survey results. Vancouver. Vancouver School District: Curriculum Resources and Technology. Wiburg, K. (1996). Changing teaching with technology. Learning and Leading with Technology. 23(4), 46-48. Windermere School District #4. (1994). Windermere school district learning resources selection plan 1994/95. Windermere. Appendix A Learning Resources Survey L E A R N I N G R E S O U R C E S SURVEY All questions in this survey refer to the learning resources which are purchased using money from the Provincial Learning Resources Fund (NOT Library Funds). Our goal is to find out how schools select, purchase, and manage these learning resources. Section 1: F U N C T I O N 1. Does your school have a Learning Resources Committee? Yes • No • IF No please skip to Question 5. 2. Who is On the Committee? (Please check all that apply) • administrator • department heads • teacher-librarian • parents • teacher • students • secretary • other • Staff assistant please specify 3. Who is the contact person for the committee? • administrator • department heads • teacher-librarian • parents • teacher • students • secretary • other v, • Staff assistant please specify 4. Has the committee developed a decision-making process to set priorities for learning resources requests? Yes • No • 5. Who is involved in assessing needs when your school is planning to purchase learning resources? • administrators • department heads • teacher-librarian • learning resources committee • L A C / E L C teachers • other • classroom teachers please specify 6. Who are the key people who decide which learning resources will be purchased? • administrators • department heads • teacher-librarian • learning resources committee • L A C / E L C teachers • other • classroom teachers please specify 7. What is the basis for allocating learning resources funding? • per student? • per teacher? • per subject area? • other please specify 8. Who makes the decision on how funds are allocated? • administrators • department heads • teacher-librarian • learning resources committee • L A C / E L C teachers • Finance committee • classroom teachers • other _ _ please specify Please rate the importance of the criteria in Questions 9-17 when selecting learning resources at your school School Programs (e.g., Reading/Science/Socials) In Most Important 2a 3D 10. Inventory of existing school resources la Most Important 2D 3D 4a 4a 5a Least Important 5a Least Important 11. Teachers', requests I D 2a Most Important 12. Teaching styles la Most Important 2D 13. Learning styles of students ID 2D Most Important 3D 3D 3D 14. Meeting needs in terms of subject areas la 2a 3a Most Important 4a 4a 4a 4a 5a Least Important 5a Least Important 5a Least Important 5a Least Important 15. Meeting needs in terms of formats within subject areas (e.g., print, video) la 2a 3a 4a 5a Most Important Least Important 16. Meeting needs in terms of format among current resources (e.g., print, video). la 2a 3a 4a 5a Most Important ^ Least Important 17. Other (please state) _ la Most Important 2a 3a 4a 5a Least Important 18. How are learning resources previewed and selected? a VSB learning resource displays a publishers' representatives come to the school a Ministry of Education recommended materials list a annotations o personal recommendation • other please specify 19. Who is responsible for placing the orders? a administrator a secretary a teacher-librarian a staff assistant a teacher a other ' please specify 20. Are resources ordered with cataloging? • all • some • none 21. Who is responsible for checking incoming orders? • administrator • secretary • teacher-librarian • staff assistant • teacher ' Dother please specify Section 2: D E C I S I O N - M A K I N G / M A N A G E M E N T 22. Does your school have procedures for managing learning resources? Yes • No • 23. Where are the resources stored? • Learning Resources Center • bookroom • individual classrooms • staffroom • other 24. How are the resources stored? • theme groups • title groups • no particular order • other please specify 25. Who is in charge of circulation? • no one • teacher librarian • teacher • secretary • other please specify please specify 26. Does your school have an inventory of all its learning resources (excluding those in the school library)? Yes • No • 27. Is a yearly inventory conducted of the learning resources that are N O T catalogued in your school library? Yes • No • 28. Are learning resources in your school regularly evaluated according to VSB selection criteria? Yes • No • 29. Do you have any comments about how your school selects learning resources? 30. Do you have any comments about how your school orders learning resources? 31. Do you have any comments about how your school manages learning resources? • • - V Appendix B Learning Resources Survey Results /It Page 1 Learning Resources Survey 75 completed surveys written to the f i l e . 1/10/96 Ql. Does your school have a Learning Resources Committee? Value Label yes no V a l i d cases yes no V a l i d Cumulative Value Frequency Percent Percent Percentage 1 2 To t a l 41 34 54.7 45.3 54.7 45.3 54.7 100.0 75 100.0 100.0 41 34 _L 0 10 20 75 Missing cases 0 30 40 50 Q2. Who i s on the committee? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator 34 45.3 Teacher-Librarian 35 46.7 Teacher 35 46.7 Secretary 5 6.7 S t a f f A s s i s t a n t 0 Department Head 6 8.0 Parent 0 Student 0 Other 1 1.3 Q3. Who is,t h e contact person f o r the committee? Value Label . Frequency Percent Administrator 18 24.0 Teacher-Librarian 18 24.0 Teacher 11 14.7 Secretary 1 1.3 S t a f f A s s i s t a n t 0 Department Head 2 2.7 Parent 0 Student 0 Other 2 2.7 Q4. Has the committee developed a decision-making process to set p r i o r i t i e s f o r learning resources requests? V a l i d Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent (yes/no) 111 yes no Total 25 14 36 75 33.3 18.7 48.0 100.0 64.1 35.9 Missing 100.0 64.1 100.0 yes no 14 10 15 20 25 25 V a l i d cases 39 Missing cases 36 Q5. Who i s involved i n assessing needs when your school i s planning to purchase learning resources? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator 52 69 3 Teacher-Librarian 49 65 3 LAC/ELC Teachers 40 53 3 Classroom Teachers 55 73 3 Department Heads 8 10 7 Learning Resources Committee 21 28 7 Other 8 10 7 Q6. Who are the key people who decide which learning resources w i l l be purchased? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator 45 60 0 Teacher-Librarian 43 57 3 LAC/ELC Teachers 22 29 3 Classroom Teachers 48 64 0 Department Heads 7 9 3 Learning Resources Committee 10 13 3 Other 3 4 0 /a.o Q7. What i s the basis f o r a l l o c a t i n g learning resources funding? Value Label Frequency Percent per student 5 6 7 per subject area 19 25 3 per teacher 8 10 7 Other (need) 35 46 7 Other 5 6 7 Other 2 2 7 Other 2 2 7 Other 1 1 3 Other 2 2 7 / Q8. Who makes the decision on how funds are allocated? Value Label Frequency Percent Administrator 46 61 3 Teacher-Librarian 19 25 3 LAC/ELC Teachers 10 13 3 Classroom Teachers 22 29 3 Department Heads 4 5 3 Learning Resources Committee 19 25 3 Finance Committee 9 12 0 Other 13 17 3 Q9. Please rate the importance of school programs (e.g., Reading/Science / S o c i a l s ) when s e l e c t i n g learning resources at your school. V a l i d Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 52 69.3 74.3 74.3 • 2 16 21.3 22.9 97.1 • 3 1 1.3 1.4 98.6 Least Important 5 1 1.3 1.4 100.0 To t a l 75 100.0 100.0 i V a l i d cases 70 Missing cases 5 Q10. Please rate the importance of an inventory of existing school resources when selecting learning resources at your school. Value Label Valid Cum Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important Least Important 1 31 41 3 44 9 44 9 2 28 37 3 40 6 85 5 3 7 9 3 10 1 95 7 4 2 2 7 2 9 98 6 5 1 1 3 1 4 100 0 Total 75 100 0 100 0 Valid cases 69 Missing cases Q l l . Please rate the importance of teachers' requests when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 .27 36.0 38.0 38.0 • 2 35 46.7 49.3 87.3 • 3 7 9.3 9.9 97.2 Least Important 5 2 2.7 2.8 100.0 4 5.3 Missing Total 75 100.0 100.0 Valid cases 71 Missing cases 4 Q12. Please rate the importance of teaching styles when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 14 18.7 20.6 20.6 • 2 23 30.7 33.8 54.4 • 3 23 30.7 33.8 88.2 • 4 6 8.0 8.8 97.1 Least Important 5 2 2.7 2.9 100.0 •• 7 9.3 Missing Total 75 100.0 100.0 Valid cases 68 Missing cases 7 Q13. Please rate the importance of students' learning s t y l e s when s e l e c t i n g learning resources at your school. V a l i d Cum Value Label .Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 21 28 .0 31 .3 31 .3 • 2 27 36 .0 4 0 . 3 71 .6 • 3 14 18 .7 2 0 . 9 9 2 . 5 • 4 4 5.3 6 .0 9 8 . 5 Least Important 5 1 1.3 1.5 1 0 0 . 0 8 10 .7 Missing Total 75 100 .0 1 0 0 . 0 V a l i d cases 67 Missing cases 8 Q14. Please rate the importance of meeting needs i n terms of subject areas when se l e c t i n g learning resources at your school. V a l i d Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 39 5 2 . 0 5 6 . 5 5 6 . 5 • 2 19 25 .3 2 7 . 5 8 4 . 1 • 3 10 13 .3 14 .5 9 8 . 6 Least Important 5 1 1.3 1 .4 100 .0 6 8 .0 Missing T o t a l 75 100 .0 100 .0 V a l i d cases 69 Missing cases 6 7 Q15. Please rate the importance of meeting needs i n terms of formats within subject areas (e.g., p r i n t , video) when s e l e c t i n g learning resources at your school. V a l i d Cum Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 14 18 .7 2 0 . 9 2 0 . 9 • 2 19 25 .3 2 8 . 4 4 9 . 3 • 3 19 25 .3 2 8 . 4 7 7 . 6 • 4 11 14 .7 1 6 . 4 9 4 . 0 Least Important 5 4 5 .3 6 . 0 100 .0 8 10 .7 Missing T o t a l 75 100 .0 1 0 0 . 0 V a l i d cases 67 Missing cases 8 Q16. /A3 Please rate the importance of meeting needs in terms of format among current resources (e.g., print, video) when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cumulative Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percent Most Important 1 11 14.7 17.2 17.2 2 21 28.0 32.8 50.0 • 3 18 24.0 28.1 78.1 • 4 9 12.0 14.1 92.2 Least Important 5 5 6.7 7.8 100.0 11 14.7 Missing Total 75 100.0 100.0 Valid cases 64 Missing cases 11 Q17. Please rate the importance of other factors when selecting learning resources at your school. Valid Cumulative Value Label Value Frequency Percent Percent Percentage Most Important 1 3 4.0 60.0 60.0 • 2 2 2.7 40.0 100.0 70 93.3 Missing Total 75 100.0 100.0 Valid cases Missing cases 70 Q18. How are learning resources previewed and selected? Value Label Frequency Percentage VSB learning resource displays 58 77.3 Publishers' representatives at school 49 65.3 Ministry of Education recommended l i s t 56 74.7 Annotations 34 45.3 Personal recommendation 58 77.3 Other 13 18.7 Q19. Who is responsible for placing the orders? Value Label Frequency Percentage Administrator 43 57.3 Teacher-Librarian 44 58.6 Teacher 26 34.7 Secretary 16 21.3 Staff Assistant 12 16.0 Other 6 8.0 Q20. Are resources ordered with cataloging? Value Label Value Frequency Percentage A l l 1 3 4 0 Some 2 40 53 3 None 3 30 40 0 2 2 7 Total 75 100 0 ( 0 8 16 24 32 40 V a l i d cases 73 Missing cases 2 Q21. Who is responsible for checking incoming orders? Value Label Frequency Percentage Administrator 29 38.7 Teacher-Librarian 34 45.3 Teacher 10 13.3 Secretary ' 15 20.0 St a f f A s s i s t a n t 35 46.7 Other 8 10.7 Q22. Does your school have procedures for managing learning resources? Value Label Value Frequency Percentage Yes No 49 14 12 65.3 18.7 16.0 To t a l 75 100.0 yes no 10 14 20 30 40 49 50 V a l i d cases 63 Missing cases 12 /AS Q23. Where are the resources stored? Value Label Frequency Percentage Learning Resources Centre Individual Classrooms Bookroom Staffroom Other 46 61.3 52 69.3 50 66.7 12 16.0 11 14.7 Q24. How are the resources stored? Value Label Frequency Percentage Theme groups 35 46.7 No particular order 7 9.3 Ti t l e groups 31 41.3 Other v 19 25.3 Q25. Who is in charge of circulation? Value Label Frequency Percent No one Teacher Other Teacher-Librarian Secretary 18 24 18 37 0 24.0 32.0 24.0 49.3 Q26 Does your school have an inventory of a l l i t s learning resources (excluding those in the school library)? Value Label Value Frequency Percentage yes no Valid cases yes no 1 2 Total 28 44 3 75 37.3 58.7 4.0 100.0 _L 0 10 20 72 Missing cases 3 30 40 44 50 Q27. Is a yearly Inventory conducted of the learning resources that are NOT catalogued in your school l ibrary? Value Label Value Frequency Percent V a l i d Percent Cumulative Percentage yes no 1 2 16 51 8 21.3 68.0 10.7 , 23.9 76.1 Missing 23.9 100.0 yes | Total 75 • 16 100.0 100.0 no i 1 1 I I 1 0 12 24 36 48 60 V a l i d cases 67 Missing cases 8 Q28 Are learning resources in your school regularly evaluated according to VSB selection cr i ter ia? Value Label yes no yes no V a l i d Cumulative Value Frequency Percent Percent Percentage 1 26 34.7 39.4 39.4 2 40 53.3 60.6 100.0 • 9 12.0 Missing Total 75 100.0 100.0 26 1 1 1 1 1 0 8 16 24 32 40 V a l i d cases 66 Missing cases 1&7 Appendix C Interview Questions K Marilyn Hannis, Researcher Interview Questions \ The Selection and Management of Learning Resources in Vancouver Schools The Implications for Resource-based Learning and Teaching Preamble: I am going to ask you about the processes for the selection, management and accountability of learning resources, and the impact they have had on various areas of this school. May I tape this interview? 1. Are you a member of the LR Committee? 2. What is the position of other committee members? (Subject areas, levels, departments, etc.) 3. How were people selected for the LR committee? 4. How often do you meet? 5. What are the main issues discussed? 6. Did LR Committee members receive any special training to prepare them for this job? What type of training would you recommend? (Budget reading, selection criteria, LRPs, etc.) 7. What specific contribution do you make to the LR Committee? Selection and Acquisition: Please describe, in detail, the following processes: 8. Selection -school evaluation/goals -curriculum matches -by format (print, CD-ROM, on-line) -specific grade/theme -collection evaluation (school/Library Resource Centre) -IRPs -LR Displays -teacher requests 9. Acquisition -methods of ordering (a specific publisher, local purchase, cataloging) -frequency of purchases (number of orders/year) -Procedure: publisher to school; jobber to school; through VSB (CAP, purchasing/accounting) -person responsible for placing the order (support, training) 10. What, if any, are the changes that have occurred in the way selection is done now, compared tc the first time in 1990/91? -redefinition of roles -refinements to the process E. Marilyn Hannis, Researcher Interview Questions Management and Accountability: 11. Please describe, in detail, the management procedures. -checking in -record keeping -inventory -maintenance of collection (3Ds: damage, dissipation, duplication) -storage -circulation procedures **equitable access for staff and students -support personnel Affect on the School: 12. How has this system changed the way resources are used? -students -staff Affect on Teaching Styles: 13. How has the opportunity to use a variety of resources changed your teaching style? -positive/negative Affect on Learning Styles: 14. How has the accessibility to a wide range of resources changed the way students' work/ approach assignments? Affect on the Library Resource Centre Program: 15. What changes have occurred, in the program, as a result of the shift to resource-based teaching and learning? -positive/negative 16. Has your relationship with other teaching staff changed as a result of your participation in LR Committee and this process? 17. Approximately what percentage of your time is spent doing CPPT? -Has this changed since the introduction of the Provincially Recommended L R -Has it changed because of more disposable money to spend on learning resources? Recommendations: 18. What advice would you give a school just embarking on this process? Additional issues/concerns: 19. Is there anything you would like to discuss in relation to the learning resources? 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0054658/manifest

Comment

Related Items