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A cognitive style study of Native Indian children Cullinane, Debra Kaye 1985

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A COGNITIVE STYLE STUDY  OF NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN  by DEBRA K A Y E CULLINANE B.Ed., Simon Fraser University,  A THESIS  1978  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH  September 27,  »  COLUMBIA  1985  DEBRA K A Y E CULLINANE, 1985  In presenting degree at Library  this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an  the  THE UNIVERSITY  shall make it freely  that permission  for  extensive  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  available for reference copying of this  and  thesis for  understood  that copying or publication of this  not be allowed without my written  thesis for  permission.  Date: September 27, 1985  COLUMBIA  I further  scholarly purposes  (Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  I agree that  study.  be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her is  advanced the  agree may  representatives. It financial gain  shall  ABSTRACT This study examined the  issues of culture, measurement  involved in field-dependent-independent and  Non-Indian  students.  consisted of 75  Two  students from  cognitive style research  cultural  groups  ages 8 to  composed of Tsimshian Indians  were  living in villages outside  development  with Native Indian  tested,  12. One of the  and  and  each  group  cultural groups  was  of Prince Rupert,  and  the other was composed of non-Natives living in Prince Rupert. Four measures of field-dependent-independent test  cognitive  students.  One  (Embedded  measure  of  measures  of cognitive style was  cognitive  style,  style  Figures  and  were  Test)  the  was  potential  investigated.  individually established  of  the  Five  other  ages were  administered as  the  to  criterion  three  tests  included so  as that  differences in developmental trends could be determined. Results  showed  field-independent  end  that of the  the  non-Natives  continuum  measures of cognitive style. These exist  between  the  two  cultural  than  results  groups  scored the  significantly closer  Natives  on two  to  of the  indicated that cultural differences for  two  of  the  measures.  The  the four do four  cognitive style measures were found to inter-correlate highly, which indicated that they form a reasonable battery to use for measuring Results that  also  showed  no interaction between  no significant differences  groups.  In both  groups,  in development  age  field-dependence-independence.  and culture, thereby indicating  existed between  cognitive style developed in the  and reached the same level of development by age 12.  ii  the  two cultural  same linear  sequence,  iii  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  LIST O F T A B L E S  v  LIST O F F I G U R E S  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  vii  I. P R O B L E M  1  A.  Introduction  1  B.  Background  1  C.  Statement of the Problem  4  D.  Purpose  6  E.  Description of Terms  6  II. R E V I E W A.  OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E  Field-Dependent-Independent Cross-Cultural Differences  8 Cognitive  Styles  and  Their 8  B.  Measurement of Cognitive Style Cross-Culturally  13  C.  Development of Cognitive Style  24  D.  Chapter Summary  26  III. M E T H O D  OF STUDY  29  A.  Description of the Sample  29  B.  Instrumentation  31  C.  Procedure  32  D.  The Design of the Study  33  E.  Hypotheses  33  F.  Statistical Analysis  35  IV. A N A L Y S I S A N D R E S U L T S  36  A.  Hypothesis I - Cultural Differences in Cognitive Style  36  B.  Hypothesis II - Intercorrelations Measures  45  between  the Cognitive Style  iv  C.  Hypothesis III - Development of Cognitive Style  V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS  A N D RECOMMENDATIONS  48 52  A.  Summary  52  B.  Limitations of the Study  53  C.  Conclusions  54  D.  Recommendations for Further Research  60  REFERENCES  62  APPENDIX A  68  APPENDIX B  69  APPENDIX C  73  V LIST O F T A B L E S Table 1: Means, SDs, and Rank Order of WISC-R and K - A B C Subtests  22  Table 2: Manova Summary  37  Table  Table 3: Means of Raw Scores  37  Table 4: Standard Deviations of Raw Scores  38  Table 5: Means for Scaled Scores  39  Table 6: Standard Deviations of Raw Scores  40  Table 7: Univariate Test for each Dependent Variable  41  Table  8: t-tests of Mean Differences  between Natives  and  Non-Natives on  Gestalt Closure and Triangles  42  Table 9: Comparison of C E F T Norms to Prince Rupert Samples Table  10:  Comparison  of  K-ABC  Raw  Score  Norms  to  43  Prince  Rupert  Samples Table  43  11: Comparison of Navajo and  Sioux Scaled Scores to Prince  Rupert  Scaled Scores  44  Table 12: Correlation Matrix of Gestalt Closure (BC), Triangles (TR), Spatial Memory  (SPM)  and  Children's  Embedded  Figures  Test  Combined Groups  (CEFT)  for 45  Table 13: Bartlett's Sequential Test  46  Table 14: Canonical Variable Loadings (Structure Coefficients)  47  Table 15: Higher Order Trend Analysis  51  vi  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Raw Score Means for Native and Non-Native Groups  49  Figure 2: Scaled Score Means for Native and Non-Native Groups  50  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My  thanks  to the  Prince Rupert School District Personnel and  Students  for their cooperation and hospitality while I was collecting data. "Thank you" to my school district (Dawson Creek) for their emotional and financial support. I  thank  throughout  my  this  adviser,  research  Art  project.  More His  for  his  guidance  patience and  and  personal  encouragement attention  were  invaluable. I  thank  Verna  Kirkness  for  her  help,  her  humour,  and  her  broader  perspective of the research process. I thank Julie Conry for her precise criticism. To  Walter  Boldt  I  bow.  Without  his  knowledge of  statistics  and  his  willingness to repeatedly explain them, I would have been at a loss. I thank Lori Levitt for her many hours of help and support. To my husband, my family and my friends I say many thanks for your infinite patience and constant faith in me.  vii  Chapter I PROBLEM  A. INTRODUCTION Man's  debate  for  centuries. Cognitive psychologists today continue to differ over the components  of,  and  cognitive  processes  functioning  involved  has  in, cognitive  been  the  functioning.  range from defining it by a single I.Q. score, scores (Guilford,  1980).  Cognitive  style,  (Berry, years.  as  one  of  the  many  1984), has been the focus of numerous A n individual's cognitive style was  ecological  and  (e.g., Berry,  cultural demands 1966,  of the  topic  Views  of  scholarly  cognitive  to defining it by  aspects  of  environment  processing  120  cognitive  empirical studies  proposed  1971; Berry & Witkin,  of  separate  functioning  in the last  to develop according to in which  he  or  she  25 the  lived  1975; Dasen, 1975; Kleinfeld,  1973,  1974; MacArthur,  1973; Vernon, 1972). It was to further  investigate  the notion  of  development  that  study  cognitive style  in  cross-cultural  situations  this  was  undertaken.  B.  BACKGROUND Werner  progressed to  (1948)  and  Witkin  (1952)  from viewing his environment  viewing  his  environment  in  a  held  the  belief  that  an  individual  in a relatively undifferentiated  relatively  differentiated  manner.  manner Witkin  empirically investigated the differentiation hypothesis, and his findings led him to formulate  the  theory  of psychological differentiation.  This theory  proposed  that  progress toward greater differentiation occurred as an individual developed. The  theory  also  held  that  greater  differentiation  in  one  psychological  domain "goes with" a similar tendency in other domains (Witkin & Berry, 1975).  1  2 This  quality  of  generalizability of  psychological domains was referred  differentiation  in  an  organized  background,  domain  to  all  other  to as, 'self-consistency' (ibid., p. 20). According  to the theory, if an individual easily differentiated in  one  the  individual  figures hidden or  would  also  easily  "embedded"  carry  out  an  intellectual differentiation task. The basic assumption of self-consistency across all domains 'cognitive  allowed cognitive psychologists to make style'  on  the  basis  of his/her  inferences  'perceptual  about  style'.  an individual's  Witkin  and  Berry  (1975) spoke of self-consistency in this way: With this extension of the picture of self-consistency from the perceptual to the intellectual domains the label of 'cognitive styles' becomes appropriate as a more comprehensive concept than 'perceptual styles', (p.9) Thus, the theory supported the notion that an individual is an integrated and  the  individual's development  domains. In other another  domain,  involves the  whole organism,  words, differentiation in one and  the  degree  of  differentiation  (FD/FI) cognitive style throughout  separate  domain mirrors differentiation in  individual's 'cognitive style'. [Cognitive style refers - independent  not its  system,  across  all  domains  is  an  specifically to field - dependent  this study.]  However, the question could be posed as to whether people from different cultures have different cognitive styles. Berry and Witkin (1975) hypothesized that ecology  and  psychological were  culture  differentiation,  expected.  (MacArthur,  were  Using  important  variables  therefore,  variances  their  own  research,  in  the  developmental  in differentiation as  well  1973; Vernon, 1972), Berry and Witkin  as  process  across  research  of  cultures  by  others  (1975) confirmed the notion  that psychological differentiation development differed according to the demands of the  environment  within  cultures,  and the and  cultural group  whole  psychological differentiation.  cultural  inhabited by the groups,  could  individual. Individuals  have  similar  levels  of  3 According hunting  and  to  Berry and  gathering  differentiation.  Witkin  encouraged  (1975), a  relatively and  between  requiring less  Witkin  high  Since hunters and gatherers must have  differentiate  eco-cultures  ecology  relatively  skills to locate their food, Berry and Witkin also  an  visual  to  less  visual  visual  discrimination  differentiation.  theorize  that  to  stimuli  a  migratory  level  of  perceptual  that these people would  quite for  This variability  study  for  keen visual discrimination  suggested  other  suited  readily.  survival  Conversely,  might  of differentiation  particular  culture's  display  led Berry  'cognitive  style',  culture and ecology must be considered (ibid., p. 11). Perceptual cognitive  style  tests  were  used  of  individuals  visual-spatial  skills.  The  differentiation  theory  differentiation  in other  differenatiate  a  perception extent or  might have  in  determine  different  for  domains.  the Some  use  the  level  eco-cultures.  self-consistency  allowed  part  to  These  construct of  the  perceptual  of differentiation,  in  the  perceptual tests  tests  these  tests,  required  psychological  tests  required  or  to  the  from  within  a  whole.  On  an  been  dominated  by the  organization of the  explore  subject  to  individual's field  to  the  that he was unable to "disembed" the parts from the whole. (Separation  extracting  the  figure  from  the  background  was  referred  to  by  Berry  and  Witkin as 'disembedding'.) Such a mode of perception was labeled 'field-dependent' (FD).  The  separated  contrasting out  mode  (differentiated)  'field-independent'  (FI).  of  perception  the  parts  Regarding  these  in  from two  which  the  within modes  the of  individual field,  perception,  was  readily labeled  Berry  and  Witkin (1975) said: Relatively field-dependent and relatively field-independent perceptual styles may be taken as indicators of greater or lesser differentiation in the perceptual domain, (p.8) Field-dependent  or  on the  of psychological differentiation, could then be extrapolated  theory  field-independent  performance  in the  perceptual domain, based to  the  4 cognitive domain. According to the results of developmental cross-cultural studies using F D / F I measures, all cultures develop from a less to more differentiated state. Berry and Witkin addressed the issue of cross-cultural development by stating: ...the available cross-cultural evidence suggests that the development of psychological differentiation follows a sequence in other cultures similar to that originally observed in Western cultures, (p. 3 9) Although  development  is  reported  to  progress  in  the  same  sequence  across  cultures, the overall level of development might vary.  C. S T A T E M E N T O F T H E P R O B L E M The role culture plays in an individual's development of cognitive style is an  issue  deserving further  development  with  attention.  eco-cultural  Due  setting,  to  each  the  variability  cultural  group  of cognitive style requires  individual  investigation. For example, the results of Berry and Annis' cognitive style study (1974),  involving  Cree Indians,  could  not  be  applied to  all Indians  in  North  America because of individual differences within and between cultural groups. Due to individual differences, it is important that cultural groups be studied  separately  and that generalizations across cultural groups be avoided. The  numerous  different  field-dependent-independent cross-cultural studies.  measures  instruments  Some of the  have  to  determine  cognitive style has led to problems with comparisons of tests are  modified versions of originals, and  they have been used either singly or as batteries. used  used  been  Kohs  Blocks,  Some of the most  Rod-and-Frame  Test  frequently  (RFT),  Raven's  Progressive Matrices, Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT), Porteus Mazes, and Weschler's  Block  Design  (BD). Regarding  measures,  Vernon  (1972)  cautions  arisen  from  the  use  that,  the  findings  obtained  from  "...inconsistent findings maj' often  of single, simplified  versions  of R F T or  E F T or  FD/FI have other  5 spatial  tests"  (p.  379).  Vernon  was  concerned  that  investigators  have  used  modified versions of E F T too freely and that they have reported the results if  each  test  suggested because  measured  everything  that  that at least three measures  was  implied  by  FD/FI.  Vernon  as also  be combined to form a battery of F D / F I  no one test is valid as a measure  of all the different kinds of spatial  ability (ibid., p. 368). Similarly, Berry (1966) suggested  that four tests be used  to ensure reliability (p. 218). Another  aspect  of FD/FI  cognitive style  which  requires  further  study  is  the development of cognitive style with age. Using the E F T , Berry (1966) studied Eskimo  and  Scottish individuals from  study, Berry's (1971)  age  age  ranges were  10 to  10-15,  40. In  another  cross-cultural  16-20, 21-30, and  31-40. Weitz  (1971), using the E F T , looked at Native Indians and Euro-Canadians aged 17-55. MacArthur (1973) using E F T , along with thiry-four other tests, studied individuals aged 9-40. In these studies, developmental trends were looked at for individuals from  age  10 to  50  and  minimal  attention  involving age spans of one and two years 10 would yearly  be  useful.  increments,  B y studying the rather  than  in  paid to the  ages.  Studies  and involving children at ages below  early five  younger  to  development ten  of cognitive style in  year  increments,  a  better  uncerstanding of the developmental process might occur. The  issues  measurement  of  cross-cultural differences  of cognitive style, and the  in  cognitive  style,  developmental trends  the  of cognitive style  require much further  investigation. To deal with these three issues,  need  differences  to:  focus  individually, use  on  a number  developmental patterms  of the  between  cultural  groups  same F D / F I measures  in young children.  by  accurate  researchers  studying  them  consistently, and study  6 D. P U R P O S E This  study  examines  field-dependent-independent 1.  three  issues  in  the  investigation  of  cognitive style:  F D / F I cognitive style is unique to each cultural group, thus it is  necessary  that it be studied in individual cultures. 2.  Numerous  measures  of  diversity of measures, comparisons  within  FD/FI  cognitive  and the limited  and  across  Developmental through  studies  adulthood,  of  cultural  and  FD/FI the  been  used per  groups  used,  study,  difficult.  It  but has  is  the made  therefore  of cognitive style be used.  cognitive  ages  have  number  important that three or more measures 3.  style  were  categories. It is important that further  style  have  grouped  into  involved five  ages  and  ten  ten  year  studies involve children at each age,  from eight to twelve years.  E. DESCRIPTION  OF TERMS  The following terms are used throughout the present  study:  Perception refers to visual and spatial abilities. Cognitive  Style  refers  to  the  characteristic  method  by  which  an  individual  processes perceptual, cognitive, and social information (Berry, 1980). Field-Dependent-Independent studying  cognitive  Cognitive  styles.  Style  (FD/FI)  Field-independence  refers (Vernon)  to  one  involves  approach the  to  spatial  ability required to perceive and hold in mind the structure and properties of a  figure,  and  "disembed"  it  from  the  whole  (Vernon,  1972,  p.  370).  Field-dependence is the inability to disembed figures from the background in a  relatively  easy  manner.  Field-independence  and  field-dependence  are  relative terms existing along a continuum from a field-dependent state to a more  field-independent  state. Since the  present  study  deals  with  only  the  7 field-independent-dependent  dimension of cognitive style, the  term 'cognitive  style', unless otherwise noted, refers only to F D / F I cognitive style. Native  Indian refers  to people of aboriginal Indian ancestry  in North  America  to those individuals living in Canada whose ancestors  are not  who live either on or off reserves. Non-Native refers  of Native descent. Culture  refers  to  "group-shared  patterns of behavior which  group's habitat" (Berry, 1974, p. 175).  are  adapted  to  the  Chapter II REVIEW OF T H E LITERATURE This  literature  review addresses the  cognitive style in different  issues  of:  cultures, the measurement  Field-dependent-independent of cognitive style, and  the  development of cognitive style.  A.  FIELD-DEPENDENT-INDEPENDENT  COGNITIVE  STYLES  AND  THEIR  CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES The  construct  differentiation, years.  has  Werner's  of  cognitive  been the  basis  definition  style,  based  on  the  theory  of much empirical research  (1948)  presented  the  of psychological for the  concept  of  past  25  psychological  differentiation to be like a psychological umbrella which explained or "covered" all functions of human activity. Based on Werner's original hypothesis, Witkin (1962, p.  18) described  psychological differentiation  global (not internally separate) structure system  that  differentiation  is  separated  hypothesis,  into  all  individuals  composed of many domains, rather whole  system  Within the  becomes  capable  as  the  process  of change  of functioning, to a more  its  component  function  parts.  as  a  differentiated  According  psychologically  from  to  one  the  system  than each domain functioning in isolation. The  of greater  differentiation  as  development  occurs.  system, a certain level of functioning in one psychological domain is  indicative of the same level of functioning in another domain. Witkin  expanded  on  Werner's  original  differentiation  hypothesis  by  investigating it empirically. To investigate the level of differentiation, Witkin used perceptual  measures,  and  then  made  inferences  to  psychological domains  other  than perception. The perceptual tests consisted of geometric figures hidden within a  field  of similar  shapes.  Subjects  were required to disembed the  figures  from  the context within which they were hidden. If an individual could readily perform  8  9 the  task,  he  was  labeled 'field-dependent'.  Depending upon where  performed along the continuum from field-dependent to could  be  made  about  all of  'dependent-to-independent'  his  other  an  individual  field-independent,  inferences  psychological functions.  continuum, Berry (1984)  Concerning the  stated:  No interpretation is made about levels of (field-independent) development, given that no assumptions are made about the absolute value of a particular style; indeed, such work assumes that differing positions on a cognitive style dimension will best meet the requirements of living in differing ecological and cultural contexts. (p.344) In  other  words,  relative terms. and  no  the  continuum  Individual culture groups hold different  position  measurement,  field-dependent-independent  is  with  any more  better or  less  that  any  other.  field-independence  must  be  viewed in  positions along the  It  is  a  relative  scale,  form  of  varying between individuals  and across cultures, and one source of this variance is suggested  to be due to  culture (More, 1984). Witkin's psychological  all  encompassing  development  and  the  theory  (1962)  was  interrelationship  intended  of all the  to  domains.  explain It  was  therefore of considerable scientific importance. However, the all inclusive nature of the  theory,  which  field-independence,  was  bordered  based  on  results  on exaggeration.  obtained  Vernon  from  (1972, p.  measures  366)  pointed  of out  that Witkin could be criticized for exaggerating the significance of his "style" and that he (Witkin) may have been "empire building". To include all parameters  of  human activity under one theory was certainly a questionable procedure. Vernon's comments serve as valuable cautionary notes to remind cross-cultural that  cognitive style  is  only  comments remind researchers  one  small  component  researchers  of cognitive functioning. His  that using perceptual measures  to describe abilities  in all psychological functions can lead to inaccurate conclusions. Another the  area  area  of cognitive style research  of definition  of terms.  Due to the  which  use  requires  further  study is  of inconsistent, poorly defined  10 terminology, cognitive  it  is  style  difficult  studies.  to  For  understand  example,  what  in  his  is  actually  1971  study  being measured of eight  samples  in of  subsistence level peoples, Berry used the words 'spatial', 'perceptual', 'visual' and 'discrimination' ambiguity  of  interchangeably. terms  by  using  Gaddes  (1968)  was  'spatial  imagery',  also  guilty  'visual-spatial  of  promoting  ability',  'spatial  aptitude' and 'perceptual habits' as though they were one term, and he failed to give any definition of these terms. Clear explanations of the terms used, and consistency in their use  would  enhance the cross-cultural comparison of cultures. Attention to these areas would also facilitate replication of studies across and within cultures. Regardless of its flaws, Berry's (1966) research has become the basis for a  cross-cultural  research  tradition.  By  adding  Witkin's psychological differentiation theory,  the  eco-cultural  dimension  Berry provided researchers  to  interested  in other cultures with a very useful guide for investigation. Berry (1966, p. 208) hypothesized  that  ecological factors  which consequently  contributed  to  that  developed  visual  speculated  that  behaviors  which  particular  led to certain cognitive adaptations.  relied on hunting as their mode of sustenance, adapted  to  particular and  ecology.  spatial  skills  cultural characteristics, allowed people  their particular ecology. In  exist such  qualities,  For instance, people who  developed visual and spatial skills  Likewise, to  cultural  a in  as  to develop and  culture that  based  particular  cognitive styles, maintain the  1980, Berry continued to support  on  agriculture  ecology. Berry were  adaptive  skills required his original  for  theory  about the role of eco-culture in determining cognitive style. However, he chose to limit the interpretation of F D / F I measures to the 'perceptual-cognitive' and 'social domains' (ibid., p. 95). This choice helped to provide some limitation to the very broad theory of psychological differentiation.  11 After which  Berry's  supported  cognitive  work  the  development  (1966),  notion  of  (Dasen,  many the  1975;  researchers  interrelationship Kleinfeld,  1973;  did  cross-cultural  of  ecology,  MacArthur,  studies  culture 1973;  and  Shade,  1981; Vernon, 1969). As a result of these studies, cognitive style was identified as  being influenced by  dimension,  added  to  specific  eco-cultural demands.  Witkin's  psychological  Thus,  Berry's eco-cultural  differentiation  theory,  provided  a  substantial base for cross-cultural comparisons of cognitive style. A have  result of numerous  cross-cultural studies,  come to agree that cultural groups  perceptual  problems,  and  that  varying  is that cognitive psychologists  develop their own methods degrees  of  of solving  field-independence  help  to  indicate levels of cognitive development (Goodenough, 1976). An  individual's degree  of  field  independence  or  dependence,  or cognitive  style may be affected by his experiences with child-rearing practices, socio-cultural practices  and  ecological factors  (Berry,  1971,  p.  326).  Child-rearing practices,  which foster the development of greater psychological differentiation, hence a more field-independent  perception,  are  allow for flexibility in parental in  its  social  encouraging  a  structure, relatively  the  practices  which  encourage  autonomy  and  authority. Such a culture might be termed "loose"  because  it  field-independent  allows  flexibility  perceptual  in  response.  behavior,  thereby  In regard  to  the  ecological factor of cognitive development, Berry (1980) stated: Both the ecological and cultural factors to be found cross-culturally among subsistence-level peoples are predictive of greater field-dependence among agriculturalists and greater field-independence among hunters and gatherers, (p.97) In  support  of  this  statement,  Berry  and  Annis  (1974)  found  Native  Indians who were migratory hunters and gatherers in northern British Columbia to be more more  on  field-independent  agriculture.  The  than more  children more strictly, interacted  the  Native Indians  sedentary,  in that  agricultural  group  socially in a "tighter" manner,  area  who relied  disciplined  their  and relied more  12 on agriculture than the migratory hunters and gatherers. Hunting and subsistence the  lifestyle required the  hunting area. Therefore,  ability to visually extract  acute visual  and  gathering  key information from  spatial perception were  necessary  skills in a traditional hunting and gathering culture (Witkin & Berry, 1975). However, Witkin (1967) noted that the contribution of ecology to cognitive development, in a person-environment from  the  interaction sense, was not readily separable  contribution of socialization. Ecology,  Witkin  and  Berry (1975)  noted,  "...is the characteristic relationship between man and the land he occupies and it may  be  a  concluded  major  that  factor  social  in  the  arrangements  kind  of behavior  and  he  develops"  child-rearing practices  (p. 15).  evolve  in  They close  relation to ecology. The interrelationship of ecology, culture and cognitive style is indeed complex. A t any  time these three factors  are  in continuous  interaction,  and the question of their independent contributions remains to be explained. The  following  (Goodenough,  1976;  is  a  Vernon,  summary 1972;  of  Witkin,  the  characteristics  1977)  have  found  that to  researchers  be  associated  with field-independent and field-dependent individuals or cultures: Field-independent articulated or analytical (able to find discrete parts background) imposes structure on unstructured situation spontaneous response to stimulus material able to keep body upright while environment is rotating impersonal social orientation individualistic intrinsically motivated learns best by going from general to specific active learner  in  a  complex  has experienced loose discipline and adult authority not enforced • Field-dependent does not separate figure and ground, global approach to tasks does not impose structure on unstructured material but leaves material it is needs external structure socially oriented superior memory for social information externally motivated (heavily infuenced by situation and other people)  as  13 passive learner no difference in learning when presented general to specific or reversed has experienced relatively strict discipline and conformity to adult authority is enforced The cultures as  investigation  is enhanced  of  field-dependent-independent  by a theory  Berry discovered, the  such as  variables  in an  cognitive  style  across  psychological differentiation. However, eco-culture,  which can affect  style, require each cultural group to be studied separately.  cognitive  Child-rearing practices,  social structure and ecology vary from one cultural group to the next, and these are  critical  variables  in the  determination  of cognitive style  (Berry,  1966,  p.  327).  B. M E A S U R E M E N T Researchers  OF COGNITIVE S T Y L E CROSS-CULTURALLY have  used a variety of field-dependence-independence  to identify individuals' cognitive style. Vernon (1972) suggested field-independence, mind the  Embedded  ability required  Figures  (Berry,  (Gaddes,  1966;  (Berry,  1968),  that a measure of  to perceive  and hold in  of a figure and disembed it from the whole."  measures of field-dependent-independent  Kohs Blocks  Mazes  spatial  structure and properties  Some of the  1977),  "involves the  measures  cognitive style  MacArthur, 1973),  1966),  Gestalt  WISC-R  Block  Rod-and-Frame  Closure test Design,  are  (Berry,  WISC-R  WISC-R Object Assembly (McShane, 1982), Draw-A-Man  Witkin's  Test  1966),  Picture  (Case, Porteus  Completion,  (Vernon, 1972), Raven's  Progressive Matrices (Berry, 1966) and Morrisby Shapes (Berry, 1966). These spatial  perceptual  ability.  field-independent Shade, cognitive  tests are  Spatial  ability  perception.  1981, Witkin,  1966,  functioning  required  reported  to measure visual discrimination and  is  factor  Several  the studies  considered  (Kleinfeld,  1971;  as  distinctive  MacArthur,  1971) note in their cross-cultural research, to  do  involves spatial skill.. Concerning the  a  field-dependent-independent  to  1973;  that the  task primarily  spatial skills or spatial abilities involved in  14 F D / F I and the tests used to measure it, Vernon (1972) wrote: Despite the considerable unitariness of spatial and perceptual abilities, they are also complex, and many have tried to break them down into distinctive spatial, orientation, visualization, or other factors. It follows that any single test such as R F T or E F T , and even any one battery, is only partially representative, and may show different correlations with cognitive or personal characteristics from any other single test or battery... It is unfortuanate that agreement can not be reached on some single representative battery, (p. 368) Vernon suggests that because different tests measure somewhat different things, a battery of measures should be used in cognitive style studies (ibid., p. 368). Witkin's  Embedded  Figures  WISC-R Block Design subtest are been used most frequently  Embedded Figures Test  used  children age  Witkin,  Children's Embedded  Figures  three of the perceptual measures  to test for field-dependent-independent  Children's for  Test,  6 to  12.  1975; Dawson (1967);  (CEFT) These  is a tests  MacArthur,  which  1974;  been  Shade  and have  cognitive style.  version of Witkin's have  Test  used  test to be  by:  (1981);  Berry  Vernon,  and 1969;  and Weitz, 1971. The inter-correlation of these tests has been recorded to be as high as .82 by Shade (1981) and as low as .66 by Robinson (1983). The  Embedded Figures Test  and  the  Children's Embedded Figures  Test,  which is a version of E F T modified to use with children aged 6 to 12, requires a  subject  complex forms  to  locate  figure  a  previously  presented  to  it.  designed  a gestalt  embed  (Robinson, 1983).  The  simple  geometric  whole picture  Some subjects  figure  within  in E F T (and  quickly break  up  a  CEFT)  the complex  figure in order to find the simple figure; this is a field-independent performance. At  the  opposite  end  of  the  continuum,  the  subject  sees  the  simple  figure  remaining fused with the complex design and a good deal of time is required to detect the  simple figure. The E F T and C E F T  field-dependent individuals. separated  In  are  scored on a continuum with  individuals receiving relatively lower scores the  reported  research,  individuals in  the  than  field-independent  sample  studied  are  according to their relative performance within that particular group. For  15 example,  a  score  (global) and  of 14 might be  field-independent  might be considered with  in the  middle range between  (analytical) in one  in the  field-dependent  individuals scoring the  highest  study,  range.  being labeled  The  lowest scoring individuals being labeled  range  supposedly  be  determined  by  the  in another  scale  as  and with the would  but  the  field-dependent  is a  most  study  sliding  it  scale,  field-independent  field-dependent.  experimenter  The middle  using  his  best  judgement. Berry  (1966)  found  Eskimo scores  to  significantly exceed  and to come close to matching Scottish scores  Temne  on four spatial tests (EFT, Kohs  Blocks, Morrisby Shapes, Raven's Progressive Matrices). These scores as  indicators  of  the  Eskimo  being  relatively  scores,  more  were  field-independent  taken  than  the  Temne and slightly more field-dependent than the Scottish. Witkin excellent  (1967)  measure  found of  that  the  Block  Design (BD) test  field-dependence-independence  (FD/FI),  also  provided  since  it  an  required  perceptual organization and reproduction of a spatial design fused within a more complex design (p. 237). Determination of an individual's F I / F D based on the B D score would be based on a continuum just as E F T and C E F T scores As determine  Vernon  (1972)  pointed  F I / F D because "any  out,  a  number  characteristics  and may  the  (1966).  To measure perceptual  Eskimos of Baffin  be  show different  from any other  (p. 368). A n example of a study involving a number Berry  should  used  single test such as R F T or E F T , and even  one battery, is only partially representative with cognitive or personal  of tests  are.  skills of the  Island, Berry, used  a  any  correlations  single test or battery"  of measures was done by  Temne  test for  to  of Sierra Leone and  closure  discrimination skill, and Kohs Blocks, E F T , Morrisby Shapes  to  assess visual  and Raven Matrices  as tests of spatial ability. Berry (1966) selected these measures "for their ability to discriminate fine degrees of ability at both ends of the  (spatial ability) scale:  16 (p.  218). He also chose to use four tests rather  ensure reliability of measurement  than  a single one "partly to  and partly to gauge their relative usefulness in  a cross-cultural setting" (ibid., p. 218). Examples Grimes  of  (1971),  studies  Shade  which  (1980),  did not  Siebens  include  (1973)  and  at  Taylor  Although these studies were not with Native students, primarity  as  least  three  and  tests  Skanes  were (1976).  cognitive style was  used  a blocking variable, and students were initially divided into F I / F D  groups. Such categorization of students, based on a 10 minute group administered measure test.  is  a  Berry  questionable  (1966)  and  cognitive style measures  procedure  Vernon  given the  (1972)  both  ambiguity of any  noted  that  at  least  single  FI/FD  three  FI/FD  should be used and that these three should be highly  correlated and reliable. The  Wechsler  Intelligence  cross-culturally in the been  identified  measurement  cognitive  (Kaufman,  included  a  subtests  (Picture  interest,  as  United  States and style  Revised  The  (WISC-R)  Canada. A few of the  measures  because  of  been  Design,  which  Object  used  subtests  their  spatial  recategorization of WISC-R  Spatial category,  Completion, Block  has  have ability  subtests  is comprised of three  Assembly),  is  of  primary  it has been shown to load substantially on the same factor as  field-independent (Kaufman,  -  1979). Bannatyne's  Spatial category.  as  Test  measures,  Rod and  1979). Bannatyne's  Frame  recategorizations  Test  and  Embedded  however, are  based  Figures  the Test  primarily on  clinical experience (Kaufman, 1979). A  number  McCullough  of  researchers  such  (1985), McShane & Plas  as  (1984,  Browne 1982)  (1984), and  Connelly  Scaldwell  (1983),  (1984)  have  done WISC-R studies with Native Indian children. They have found these children to  score  spatial  significantly  category  than  higher  on  the  WISC-R  subtests  on subtests in any of the  other  included  in  Bannatyne's  three categories  (Verbal  17  Conceptual, Sequencing, Acquired Knowledge). McShane WISC-R  and  Spatial  significantly  Plas  scores  higher  (1982),  (using  than  when  studying  Bannatyne's  Sequential  142  Ojibwa  recategorization  scores,  which  children, found  framework)  were  in  turn,  review  of  WISC-R  to  be  significantly  higher (p < .05) than Acquired Knowledge scores. However,  in  involving  Native  Assembly  and  demonstrate  McShane  Indian  students,  Mazes form relative  and  Plas' it  (1984)  was  noted  that  a spatial processing factor  strength.  These  researchers  Block  research  Design,  in which  Object  Indian children  speculated  that  this  recategorization might be unique to Indian children. Browne, using factor analysis, found  a  Perceptual  Organization factor  6-16) in Nebraska. Her perceptual  for  factor  197  Native American  consisted of Block  children  Design and  Assembly in all groups. Also, Mazes and Picture Arrangement appeared  (age  Object to have  a clear relationship to the spatial factor, but Picture , Completion was consistently absent. Connelly (1983) investigated patterns of WISC-R scores using Bannatyne's recategorization.  In  Connelly  the  found  a  study Spatial  of score  146  Tlingit  (9.46)  to  children be  in  southeastern  significantly  higher  Alaska, than  the  Sequential (7.04) score. Connelly (1983) stated, The close other than He  mean Spatial scores of both groups (age 6-10 and 11-16) were to the expected (10.0) of the normative population, while all the mean recategorized scores were from 2.05 to 4.11 points lower those that would be expected.... (p.275)  suggested  that McShane's (1984)  notion of a  pattern  for  Indians  persisted  across his sample. McShane (1982) and Browne (1984) drew different conclusions about which subtests form  a spatial factor. Neither of them found the  Spatial factor  to be included in their spatial category. However, Connelly (1984)  did  find  results  similar  formation  of one  WISC-R  to  Banatyne's.  Spatial factor  Conclusive for  tests in Bannatyne's  evidence  to  support  all Native children has  not  the been  18 demonstrated.  The use of the WISC-R with the various Indian children certainly  suggests relative strength  on the subtests measuring spatial skill. Yet no single  cluster of subtests seem to measure spatial skill for all children. The suggestion that certain WISC-R subtests form an "Indian pattern" 1984) seems premature  and unwarranted.  of processing (McShane,  Chrisjohn (1984) questions  the use of  Bannatyne's categorization with Native Indians on the grounds that the  categories  were formed without a statistical rationale. He does admit that some exploratory factor  analytic  results  have  revealed  some  factors  that  resemble  Bannatyne's  clusters. Krywaniuk and Das (1976), using the WISC, in addition to other cognitive tests, noted the relative spatial strength of 40 (Grade 3-4) Native Indian children (Performance Mean 93, Verbal Mean 78) in Hobbema, Alberta. The children were not  a  and  representative Das  sample,  hypothesized  simultaneous,  non-verbal  WISC Performance  that  as  they  this  method  were  cognitive of  low achievers. However, Krywaniuk strength  processing  might  information.  reflect They  an  holistic,  equated  high  scores and Raven scores with relatively well-developed spatial  abilities (Krywaniuk & Das, 1976, p. 273). Browne (1984) and Scaldwell (1984) also These  mention two  the  relatively  researchers  high  spatial  suggested  that  skill  performance  educators  of  extensively  Indian  children.  examine  the  relationship of spatial skill scores to simultaneous processing. The WISC-R studies and Krywaniuk and Das' WISC study (1976) indicate a tendency on the part of Indian children to perform relatively higher on spatial tests than on sequential or verbal tests. Also, the Indian children who have been exposed to less Western acculturation tend to score significantly higher on spatial skill tests than the more acculturated children (Berry, 1980; McShane, 1982). It is possible that a relationship exists between scores  and F I / F D  cognitive style  scores,  which  WISC-R Spatial category  primarily involve spatial  ability.  19 Further  substantiation  of  this  relationship  could  link  current  WISC-R  studies  involving Indian children, with the F D / F I studies which were done in the Kaufman measures between  of  (1979)  FD/FI  (p.  Performance  style.  Before  suggested  for  41).  and  making  that  administered  discussed He  Verbal  decisions  value  also Scales about  a  of  along with the  WISC-R.  He  many  WISC-R  populations  that  signified a  measure  across  of the  suggested  purer  cognitive style  a  the  a  field  student's  spatial  is necessary,  as  difference  independent  cognitive  FD/FI,  that  subtests  significant  field-independence, noted  1970's.  Kaufman  the  continued as the  (1979)  E F T should  be  investigation of  majority of  studies  have been done with Westernized populations. Studies  using the WISC-R with Native Indian children have discussed  potential as a cognitive style measure (McShane, 1984). Yet, to validate spatial  tests  as  cognitive  style  measures,  E F T or  R F T should  its  WISC-R  also  be  used.  Without using the original F D / F I tests, a thorough measurement of cognitive style is impeded  (Vernon, 1972). Comparisons across  all cognitive style studies would  be facilitated if at least some of the F D / F I tests were consistently Another test which has  potential  as  a measure of cognitive style is the  Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). Kirby  and  processing. styles  Jarman's The  K-ABC  (1976)  of solving problems.  involves  linear,  processing.  The  analytic, other  labeled simultaneous  type  The K - A B C is based on Das,  Simultaneous-Successive  is designed  to  used.  assist  educators  model  of  information  in identifying  students'  One type  of problem solving tested by the  temporal  processing  involves  processing  gestalt,  which  is  holistic, spatial  (Kaufman & Kamphaus,  labeled  K-ABC  sequential  processing  and  is  1984). The selection of  either or both modes of processing depends on the individual's habitual mode of processing individual's  information.  This  processing  socio-cultural background,  mode  and  by  is  determined  the  demands  primarily of the  by  task  the (Das,  20 Kirby, & Jarman, 1975). In WISC-R  observing  that  Performance  Native  scale,  Indian  Browne  children  (1984),  are  frequently  Scaldwell  strong  (1984)  and  on  the  Krywaniuk  (1976) speculated that a simultaneous processing strength might also prevail. This simultaneious processing strength  could possibly be measured by the  simultaneous  subtests of the K - A B C . Three K - A B C subtests which are measures of Simultaneous processing, and which  also  show  field-independence, Kaufman's  a are  contention  similarity Triangles, that  Triangles subtest is a  other  Gestalt  they  cognitive style. In his K - A B C the  to  are  previously  Closure measures  Interpretive  Manual  modification of the  used  measures Memory.  of  and  Spatial  It  of  field-dependent-independent  (1983), Kaufman stated  WISC-R  Block  is  that  Design test  and  Koh's Block Design test. Both Block Design tests have been consistently used measures Witkin,  of  field-independence  1967). They have  (Berry,  been  1966;  Gaddes,  shown to have  Kaufman claims that Triangles are  1968;  a strong  Kleinfeld,  as  1971;  correlation with E F T .  a good measure of field-independent cognitive  style, which in addition measure simultaneous  processing, perceptual organization,  spatial ability and synthesis of part-whole relationships. The visual different  Gestalt  Closure test  discrimination.  He  was  stated  that  used  by  "the  Berry  (1966)  formation  of  as  a  measure of  closure...appears  to  extents in societies with differing ecologies" (ibid., p. 217). The use of  closure tests to measure perceptual  differences  between  cultures  is supported  by  Berry's statement. The Gestalt Closure subtest in the K - A B C is a descendent of various Gestalt Completion Tests. It was based on the Gestalt psychology concept of  closure, which  depends on an  complete it (Kaufman, reported  to  be  a  independent  1983). In addition, the  measure  of simultaneous  perceptive K-ABC  and  cognitive style  to  Gestalt Closure subtest is  processing,  part-whole  relationships,  21 spatial ability and perceptual The  K-ABC  simultaneous  organization.  Spatial  processing  Memory  (Kaufman,  subtest  measures  short-term  recall  via  1983). Because the subject is required to  use  visual-spatial skills and recall the organization of the stimuli, it can be that  the  Spatial Memory subtest  requires  similar skills to the  speculated  E F T . Kaufman  suggests that Spatial Memory is a measure of F D / F I cognitive syle, as well a measure of simultaneous short-term  processing, perceptual  as  organization, spatial ability and  visual memory. Vernon (1972) defined  a measure of F D / F I  cognitive  style as a measure requiring the spatial ability to perceive and hold in mind the structure and properties of a figure (p. 370). The K - A B C Spatial Memory subtest would seem to qualify as such a measure. Recent scores  to  research  K-ABC  performance  which  scaled  explored  scores  has  the  relationship  found  of  interesting  all  WISC-R  patterns  of  scaled subtest  (Naglieri, 1985). A summary of Naglieri's findings are in Table 1.  The results are presented by rank ordering of WISC-R and K - A B C subtest profiles for 3 groups: borderline mentally retarded,  learning disabled and normal.  [Naglieri's (1985) ' L D ' , ' M R ' and 'normal' samples  were defined by State of Ohio  guidelines for placing students in special programs.] ranked,  using  Arrangement,  Spearman Object  WISC-R  subtests  children  performed  Design. K - A B C  rank  Assembly  of  best  best  difference  and  Picture  performance on  Object  for  The  correlational Completion  the  Assembly,  subtest patterns  M R and Picture  analyses.  were  ranked  were  Picture as  the  L D children. Normal  Arrangement  and  Block  subtest profiles showed the M R and L D children to perform best  on Gestalt Closure, Photo Series, and Triangles/Spatial Memory.  22  Table 1 Means, SDs, and Rank Order of WISC-R and K-ABC Subtests Subtest Scores by Group Borderline Mentally Retarded Tests WISC-R Verbal Scale Information Similarities Arithmetic Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span Performance Scale Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Coding K-ABC Sequential Scale Hand Movements Number Recall Word Order Simultaneous Gestalt Closure Triangles Matrix Analogies Spatial Memory Photo Series Achievement Faces & Places Arithmetic Riddles Reading/ Decoding Reading/ Understanding  M  SD  Learning Disabled  RK  M  SD  Normal RK  M  SD  RK  4.7 5.8 5.3 5.0 5.9 4.5  (2.3) 10 (2.7) 7 (2.0) 8 (2.9) 9 (2.2) 6 (2.4) 11  7.8 8.9 8.2 8.8 10.4 6.8  (2.4) 10.0 (3.4) 6.0 (2.8) 9.0 (2.8) 7.0 (2.8) 4.0 (3.3) 11.0  10.9 11.0 10.5 11.1 11.2 9.7  (2.4) 8.0 (3.0) 6.5 (2.7)10.0 (2.3) 5.0 (2.2) 4.0 (2.5)11.0  7.8  (2.9)  3  10.9  (1.9)  3.0  10.8  (2.2) 9.0  9.3 6.3 8.5 6.0  (3.5) (3.1) (2.9) (2.9)  1 4 2 5  11.6 9.9 11.2 8.6  (1.7) (2.7) (2.6) (3.3)  1.0 5.0 2.0 8.0  11.7 11.6 12.4 11.0  (2.4) (2.5) (3.3) (3.0)  6.9 6.0 6.1  (2.3) (2.8) (2.9)  5 8 7  8.6 8.7 9.1  (1.8) (2.4) (2.6)  7.0 6.0 5.0  11.1 11.7 11.4  (2.3) 6.0 (2.5) 1.0 (2.2) 2.0  8.2 7.1  (2.7) (3.0)  1 3  11.4 9.9  (2.8) (2.5)  1.0 3.5  10.8 11.2  (2.5) 7.0 (2.3) 5.0  6.4 7.0 7.4  (1.7) (2.4) (2.0)  6 4 2  8.5 9.9 10.5  (2.7) (2.6) (1.8)  8.0 3.5 2.0  10.7 11.2 11.3  (2.9) 8.0 (2.3) 5.0 (2.0) 3.5  78.9 75.2 78.5  (9.4) (8.0) (11.6)  1 3 2  91.6 (13.1) 2.0 90.4 (11.6) 3.0 96.9 (12.2) 1.0  102.2 101.6 106.9  (10.6) 4.0 (13.8) 5.0 (11.4) 1.0  70.8  (12.5)  4  81.2 (12.6)  4.0  104.7  (11.9) 2.0  68.0  (11.1)  5  80.8 (10.8)  5.0  102.5  (9.0) 3.0  2.0 3.0 1.0 6.5  from Naglieri, J . (1985). Use of the WISC-R and K - A B C with learning disabled, borderline mentally retarded, and normal children. Psychology in the Schools, 22, 138.  23 Normal children performed best on Number Recall, Word Order and Photo Series  of  the  K-ABC.  Varying  performances  Kaufman to be F D / F I measures,  between  primary  WISC-R  function and  correlations of the  of  is necessary  Naglieri's  K-ABC  tests.  tests across  the  subtests,  designated  may indicate variance in cognitive styles  the three groups tested. Further research The  on  study  Future  by  across  to substantiate this idea.  was  to  research  a variety of samples  show is  a  relationship  needed  to  show  and to show how specific  subtests on both tests may correlate. This information would allow researchers to see  if  suggested  cognitive style  cognitive  style  subtests on the  two achievement  tests  subtests K-ABC.  on  the  WISC-R  correlate  Cognitive style research  should involve further  with  the  involving these  investigation of the  correlation of  Block Design, Object Assembly, and Picture Arrangement with Triangles, Gestalt Closure and Spatial Memory. The  results  of Naglieri's study,  with  the  varying profiles  for  groups of children, show the complexity of the exceptional children's They also show that simultaneous-sequential the  K-ABC,  do  not  necessarily  describe  differences,  the  which  performances  the  three  performance.  are  the basis of  of the  three  groups  (Naglieri, 1985). On  testing  35  Navajo  children  to  find  simultaneous-sequential  (1984)  also  failed  scores.  The  Navajo  a  children performed  with  the  virtually  WISC-R  the  and  K-ABC,  discrepancy same  on  in each  Naglieri  performance scale,  and  because the Simultaneous Processing Scale scores did not correlate more strongly with the  WISC-R  Performance  scores  than  with the Verbal scores,  interpretation needed to be carried out cautiously. It is unfortunate,  Naglieri  felt  in his article,  that specific subtest correlations were not provided, as this descriptive information would have been useful. Naglieri (1984) stated: The present findings offer general support for use of the K - A B C with Navajo children. However, much more research is needed to determine  24 the stability of the present findings. In addition, the generalizability of these results to other Native Americans as well as other bilingual/bicultural children warrants investigation, (p. 378) Likewise, to understand how  stable Kaufman's  F D / F I subtests are  across Indian  cultures in British Columbia, many more studies using the K - A B C are necessary. In summary, the measurement of F D / F I cognitive style, particularly across cultures, is a debatable issue. Witkin primarily used two tests (EFT and RFT) to determine few  cognitive style.  FD/FI  magnitude few  measures. Witkin  Vernon (1969) He  (1962)  doubted  and  subsequently  whether  questioned  psychological  others intended  the  use  of so  inferences  could be accurately  of  the  made from  so  tests. The WISC-R studies have found some subtests (Block Design, Picture  Completion, Object Assembly) to be effective  measures of F D / F I  cognitive  style.  These subtests were found to load highly on the same factor as R F T and E F T . According believed  to  be  to  Kaufman  FD/FI  measure F D / F I ,  are  the  in fact  K-ABC  K-ABC  are  or any  include at  (1983),  measures.  expected  the  The  K-ABC  K-ABC  to correlate  also  has  subtests  with the  subtests  which  WISC-R,  are FD/FI  which  are  expected  to  subtests, if  measures of F D / F I . However, when using the  one of Witkin's F D / F I  WISC-R,  measures, researchers would be wise  least three cognitive style measures. This practice would insure  to  more  accurate measurement of individual and cultural differences in cognitive style.  C. D E V E L O P M E N T O F C O G N I T I V E  STYLE  Berry and Witkin (1975) wrote: "Intraculturally, psychological differentiation shows a clear developmental cultures EFT,  develop  Native  field-independence  found Eskimos age  a reduction of Indians  sequence" (p. 37). In other words, individuals within the  10-40 to increase  field-independence (17-55),  in  also  same  the  Berry  (1966),  using  in field-independence until age 30, but  occurred after found  sequence.  30. Weitz (1971), when  older  group,  30-55,  to  studying be  more  25 field-dependent  than  the  17-29  group.  The  older  group  had  stopped  moving  toward the field-independent end of the continuum and were moving more toward field-dependence. MacArthur  (1973) similarly found Eskimos, in a study  involving  9 to 40 year olds, to display a decrease in field-independence at the oldest level (27-40). This decrease in field-independence,  Berry and Witkin  (1975)  suggested,  may be due to the fact that older people in many non-Western settings  are  less  exposed to acculturation influences (p. 40). Witkin literature, group. ages  and  Berry  (1975)  found  in  their  review  of  that the cognitive style of an individual is stable  However, the have  been  research  grouped  has  been  together  limited  (e.g.  to age  27-40).  A  the  cognitive  style  relative to his  10 and  over,  progressive  age  and  the  increase  in  field-independence was found to occur from age 10 up to the late 20's, and from ages  30  to  necessary  50,  a  leveling  off of differentiation  for some understanding  and the years after  occurred.  Further  of cognitive style in the years  research  before  age  is 10  age 30.  There is a scarcity of studies which investigate the F D / F I cognitive style of Native Indian children from most has young  been done with Western cultures.  Indian  patterns  ages 6-12. Of the  children are  without  one  of  available, it is the  original  research  on cognitive styles,  Although WISC-R difficult  FD/FI  Spatial scores of  to determine  measures  to  cognitive style  correlate  with  the  WISC-R scores. Another problem with studies of Native Indian cognitive styles is that researchers have grouped subjects (e.g. yearly  10-25  or  29-55). This practice  developmental  increments,  from  trends  of  ages 6 through  into age brackets of grouping makes  of five or more it difficult  cognitive  style.  Looking  at  12, with  particular attention  group differences would be of value to teachers and educational  1  years  to look or  2  at  year  paid to cultural researchers.  26 Dasen  (1978)  a  developmental  psychologist,  contended,  numerous cross-cultural studies, that the basic processes  after  reviewing  of cognitive development  are universal. Dasen felt that cultural differences in performance were due more to  situations  in  which  existence of a process  particular  cognitive processes  in one cultural group  doing cross-cultural developmental studies,  are  applied, than  to  the  and its absence in another. When  Dasen warned researchers to keep in  mind that: 1) cognitive theories are often based on the cognitive development of a  Western  scientist;  2)  'logic'  has  been  assumed  as  better  than  'primitive'  thinking and this view may hinder cross-cultural communication; 3) there may be a time lag in development due to socio-economic bias in developmental theories; 4) if individuals display  a  certain  reasoning  structure  it  does  not  necessarily  prove this is their customary mode of functioning. Dasen's  four  points  are  valuable  for  all  researchers  of  developmental  behavior to consider. No absolutes for perceptive-cognitive development have been shown  through  cross-cultural  investigation.  More  specifically,  development  of  cognitive style in Native Indian cultures demands much further exploration before conclusive statements can be made.  D. C H A P T E R This measurement  SUMMARY literature problems,  review and  addressed  developmental  the  issues  questions,  of which  cultural are  differences,  associated  with  the study of field-dependent-independent cognitive style. The theory of psychological differentiation employed in cross-cultural studies has  been found to provide a valuable basis  for inquiry. With  the  guidance of  this theory, individual differences in perceptual and cognitive style were found to be  related  to  differences  in  child-rearing,  individual processed information in a  culture  field-independent  and  ecology.  Whether  an  (analytical) manner or in a  27 field-dependent Berry  and  (holistic) manner Witkin  (1975)  field-dependence-independence, predictions  could  sources  for  Witkin  (1975)  groups  are  be  made  individual  necessary  be  determined  by  perceptual  measures.  suggested  that  from  an  individual's  level  which  determined  by  perceptual  measures,  about  differences  suggested,  could  are  is  the  individual's cognitive style.  in perceptual  ecology and  to confirm  the  and  Two primary  cognitive ability,  culture. Studies  of  Berry  and  of individual cultural  role of ecology and culture in determining  cognitive style. A perform  number  of  studies  involving  relatively high on measures  Native  Indian  of perceptual  children  and  found  spatial ability,  them  to  such  as  Embedded Figures Test (Berry & Annis, 1974; Gaddes, 1968), as well as on the spatial subtests of the WISC-R. Witkin's Embedded Figures Test was one of the original  perceptual  style, but numerous  tests  used  other  to  measure  measures  field-dependent-independent  also became known as indicators of F D / F I .  Four of the subtests of the WISC-R were found to measure also  to  correlate  strength,  as  simultaneous  significantly  identified  by  with  which was designed to measure are  thought  to  measure  the  WISC-R  processing strength  spatial  cognitive  E F T . The  scores,  was  Native  spatial ability, and spatial  hypothesized  to  processing indicate  (Browne, 1984). One scale of the  K-ABC  a  test,  simultaneous processing, has three subtests which ability.  Naglieri's  K-ABC  studies  (1984,  1985)  revealed that there is a significant correlation of the WISC-R Performance  scale  and K - A B C Simultaneous Scale, but identification of any spatial factor within the K-ABC  is  premature.  Further  studies  correlating  the  K-ABC  with  reliable  measures of spatial ability are necessary. Development from a field-dependent to a field-independent cognitive style is theorized to follow studies  the  same  sequence  involving young (6-12 year  across cultures. However, the  old) Native Indian children are  number of so few that  28 confirmation of this theory is not yet possible. It is with concern for the of field-dependence-independence  cultural differences,  the  accurate  measurement  and the developmental trends in cognitive style in  mind, that this study of Native Indian children's cognitive style development was undertaken.  Chapter III METHOD OF STUDY This chapter the  study,  the  contains: a description of the sample, the instruments  procedures  followed, the  design of the  study,  and the  used in statistical  hypotheses.  A. D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E S A M P L E The children  sample  consisted  of  75,  8-12  year  old  living in Indian villages near Prince Rupert,  Tsimshian  Native  Indian  British Columbia, and  75,  8-12 year old non-Native children living in Prince Rupert. The native sample was taken school  from  2, of the  district  (see  possible  3 isolated Indian  Appendix  Euro-Canadian descent were taken  A,  Figure  1).  villages in the The  Prince  non-Native  Rupert  children  from 2, of a possible 8 elementary  of  schools in  Prince Rupert. Only the children whose parents had signed letters of consent were tested; approximately than necessary  10% of the parents refused were returned,  permission. Where more consent  forms  randomization was used for selection.  The village schools: A description. The two village schools are  located in  Hartley Bay and in Port Simpson. The population is approximately 235 people in Hartley  Bay and  920  in Port  Simpson. Transportation  to  Prince Rupert  from  Hartley Bay is 1 hour by plane. From Port Simpson to Prince Rupert it is a 15 minute plane ride, a 1 hour ferry ride, or a three hour boat ride. These two villages are part of the Tsimshian Indian cultural group. They traditionally speak Sm'algyax and the  language  is being revived in the  schools.  Elementary students receive 20 minutes Sm'algyax instruction per day. The primary source  of income for the  ranges from 25% in the summer  villages is fishing. Unemployment  to 90% in the winter.  29  30 Electricity in Hartley Bay is provided by  a generator,  and  television is  available in all the homes. Hartley Bay is a village without vehicles. Access to the .approximately  seventy  boardwalks.  small  One  homes store  in  the  operates  village out  of  is  provided  a  home,  by  cedar  and  a  plank  nurse  is  permanently stationed in the village. A  cannery  is located in Port Simpson. There  is also a cafe,  two small  grocery stores, and a full-time doctor sponsored by the United Church. Elecricity and  television  villages,  are  groceries  also are  available flown  to  all the  in from  Prince  homes  in Port  Rupert.  Simpson.  In  both  But fishing, hunting  and  gathering are also common methods of obtaining food in these villages. The art of the Tsimshian culture is displayed within the  schools. In Port  Simpson, an Indian artist is hired by the school to teach carving, as well as to provide counselling. Basket making is taught by the  Sm'algyax language  teacher  in Hartley Bay. Hartley  Bay  School has  72  students  with  6  Simpson  school (Lax Kwalaams Community School) had  teachers.  Both  schools  go  from  kindergarten  to  grade  teachers, 186 10.  and  the  students The  Port  with  16  percentage  of  native students in Hartley Bay and Port Simpson schools was 99%. The and  Prince Rupert  non-native  Elementary Indian  had  schools  students, 311  and  students  - A description.  went and  students in Conrad was  from  Roosevelt  137  Both  schools  kindergarten had  (44%); the  380. number  to The  included  grade  7.  number  native Conrad  of Native  in Roosevelt was  164  (43%). Prince sources  Rupert  is  a  town  of  approximately  18,000  of income are fishing, pulp and paper and harbour  people.  Its  primary  services. A n airport  with national flights operates daily, and a bus system operates within the  city,  (see Appendix A for location of Hartley Bay, Port Simpson and Prince Rupert)  31 B. I N S T R U M E N T A T I O N The and  K-ABC  achievement  is an individually (Kaufman,  1983,  p.  administered measure 1), for  of mental processing  children from  ages  2  years  months to 12 years 5 months. It was normed on 2000 children selected from test  sites  across  geographic  the  region,  a  States.  socioeconomic  educational placement scales:  United  (regular  Mental  or  Processing  The  status,  sample ethnic  was  stratified  groups,  (Simultaneous  and  age,  sex,  community  site  and  Sequential)  Achievement Scale. The entire test is composed of 16 subtests. 8-12,  only  3 subtests  in the  scale and 5 subtests in the  Sequential scale,  34  by  special class). It is organized into two  Scale  5  major  and  an  For children age  5 subtests in the  Simultaneous  Achievement scale are used (Kaufman, 1983). This  study involved 3 of the Simultaneous subtests (Gestalt Closure, Triangles, Spatial Memory) because of their potential as measures of F D / F I cognitive style. The  Children's  ranging in age  from  Embedded 5 to  schools in Brooklyn,  Embedded  Figures  reliability estimates 11-12  year  measure  olds,  Test  (EFT),  New York. but  is  It  normed  on  160  suggest  that  the  children from  is a version of Witkin's  designed  for ages 7-12 range from "...studies  was  12. The children were randomly selected  elementary  Test  Figures  for  younger  two  (1962)  children.  The  .71 for 9-10 year olds to .85 for CEFT  is  related  to  the  same  of psychological differentiation as the E F T " (CEFT Test Manual,  1976,  p. 26). The  'Test for Colour-Blindness' is a standardized screening test for colour  blindness (Ishihara,  1964). This screening was necessary because  performance on  the C E F T and the K - A B C subtests depends on a normal perception of colour, (see Appendix B for samples of scores sheets for the for Colour-Blindness)  K-ABC,  CEFT,  and Test  32 C. P R O C E D U R E Subjects in each school were selected randomly from a list composed of all the  students  in  their  particular  age  level,  complete. Children were placed in the  age  and  whose  categories  permission  slips  were  according to their age on  the day they were tested. For example an 8 year old, for the purpose of this study, was a child 8 years  ±  made  number  to  include  an  equal  6 months on. the day of testing. A n effort of boys  and  girls.  Recent  immigrants  was to  Canada and Native Indians who had recently moved into town were not included in  the  sample.  Each  child  chosen  was  individually  administered  the ' K - A B C  Mental Processing subtests (Triangles, Gestalt Closure, Spatial Memory), The Test for  Colour-Blindness and the  Children's Embedded Figures Test. A male doctoral  student, qualified  as  a school psychologist, administered  the  K-ABC  subtests  as  part of a larger  study. The C E F T and colour-vision tests were administered by  the author, who is qualified to administer restricted tests. Approximately  30  minutes  were  required  to  administer  all the  tests  to  each child in this study. The  administration of the K - A B C and C E F T followed procedures from each  test manual. The C E F T administrative manual was unclear about test procedures, therefore  the  method  most  likely  intended  was  used  (see  Appendix  C for  Protocol). The tests for Colour Blindness were administered prior to the and C E F T  the  K-ABC  since colour discrimination is an important factor in performance  on  both tests. Six plates, No. 1, 2, 4, 9, 10 and 14 were used to test for colour blindness. If 5 or more were incorrect, the whole test was administered, and the student randomly  was  not  selected  given to  the  replace  K-ABC any  subtests  or  CEFT.  student who was  Another  thought  to be  This replacement procedure applied for only one 11 year old boy.  student  was  colour-blind.  33 D. T H E D E S I G N O F T H E S T U D Y The present study  can be categorized as  Crossed, Factorial design. The independent  a  2 x 5, Fixed Effects,  variables were  the  Fully  ethnicity and  the  age of the students. Ethnicity involved 2 groups, Indian and non-Indian. Age was divided  into  5  age  categories  field-dependent-independent on  the  four  tests:  to  provide  a  developmental  perspective  cognitive style. The dependent variables were the  K-ABC  Gestalt  Closure, K - A B C  Triangles,  K-ABC  of  scores Spatial  Memory and Children's Embedded Figures Test.  E.  HYPOTHESES Ecology  cognitive  and  styles.  field-independent  culture  Some  have  Indian  cognitive  been  cultures  style.  The  shown have  to  been  more  be  determining  shown  traditionally  to  have  they  lived,  factors  in  a relatively the  more  field-independent they were found to be (Berry, 1980). Hypothesis I. There is therefore be  studied in individual  many  Indian  cultures.  a need for field-dependent-independent Indian cultures  Will  to  see  individuals living  cognitive style to  if Berry's findings occur  in a  more  across  traditional culture  be  more field-independent? This question lead to hypothesis number one. There  will  be  significant  differences  between  the  Native  Indian  and  Euro-Canadian groups in scores on the K - A B C Gestalt Closure, Triangles, Spatial Memory  subtests  and  on  the  Children's Embedded  Figures  Test.  The  Native  Indian group will have scores on all the measures which are significantly higher than those of the non-Native group. Stated non-Native  in the  on the  null form, scores K-ABC  Gestalt  of the  Native Indian and scores  Closure, Triangles,  of the  Spatial Memory subtests  and on the Children's Embedded Figures Test will not differ.  34 Hypothesis II. Numerous  measures  of  field-dependence-independence  cognitive styles studies, but the variety of measures measures test  used in any  results  between  one study,  and  within  have  been  used  in  and the limited number of  lead to problems in the  cultures. A battery  correlated would be advantageous  have  comparison of  of tests which  are  highly  in cross-cultural studies of cognitive style. Could  the K - A B C , like the WISC-R have a number of subtests which would complement each other  to form  a battery?  These measurement  questions  lead to  hypothesis  number two. There  will  be  significant  intercorrelations  between  scores  on  Gestalt  Closure, Triangles, Spatial Memory, and Children's Embedded Figures Test for the Native and non-Native groups. Stated  in  the  null  form,  there  will  be  no  significant  intercorrelations  between the scores on Gestalt Closure, Triangles, Spatial Memory, and Children's Embedded Figures Test for the Native and non-Native groups. Hypothesis III. Developmental  studies  of  style  have  been primarily limited to Western cultures. The developmental stages have  been  grouped into 5 or more years involved  the  younger  ages  field-dependent-independent  cognitive  (e.g. 10-15, 30-55) and have not, to any (e.g.  6-12).  These  problems  lead  to  extent,  the  third  hypothesis. There will be significant differences between Native and non-Native scores for  8,  9,  10,  11,  and  12  year  olds  on  Gestalt  Closure, Triangles, Spatial  Memory, and Children's Embedded Figures tests. Stated in null form, scores for the 8, 9, 10, 11, and non-Natives,  on  GC,  TR,  S P M , and  CEFT  will  12 year old Natives and not  differ;  developmental trend will be the same for both cultural groups.  that  is,  the  35 F. STATISTICAL  ANALYSIS  Analyses of the data were carried out using a Multi-Factorial Analysis of Variance program.  and  a  The  inter-correlations  Canonical Correlational Analysis by using the multi-factorial of  because it functions provided study.  computations  design  variables. as  an for  The  extended the  more  was  used  Canonical  due  its  Correlational  version of the complex  to  BMDP ability  analysis  computer to  detect  was  multi-factorial analysis  inter-correlations  required  in  used and this  Chapter IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Cultural  differences  tests and development study.  To explore  scores  were  Closure, Test  cognitive  style,  of cognitive style were  cultural  compared  Triangles,  were  in  on  of  cognitive  in cognitive style, Native and  four  The  tests.  Memory  by  relationship  subtests  analyzing  the  style  the three issues considered in this  differences  Spatial  investigated  intercorrelation  and  between  Children's  intercorrelation  non-Native  K-ABC  Gestalt  Embedded  Figures  of  the  test  scores.  Developmental patterns of cognitive style were examined by trend analysis. Data  were  analyzed  using  the  computing  facilities  of the  University of  British Columbia. The four cognitive style tests were individually hand scored and coded on fortran  sheets in raw  computer  was  analyzed  Variance  (MANOVA)  by  and  and  the by  scaled  BMDP4V the  scores.  The  program  BMDP6V  for  program  data  entered into  the  Multivariate Analysis of for  Canonical Correlation  Analysis.  A. HYPOTHESIS I - C U L T U R A L DIFFERENCES IN COGNITIVE The first hypothesis null  hypothesis  Native was ethnic  and  stated  non-Native  analyzed  using a  groups,  that  dealt  with cultural differences  there  would  be  the  2x5 Fully  Crossed, Fixed Effects  non-Native,  in cognitive style. The  significant  scores on  Native and  four  no  difference  dependent variables.  and  five age  STYLE  This  MANOVA  levels from  between hypothesis  for the  8 to  two  12. The  dependent variables were scores on: Gestalt Closure (GC), Triangles (TR), Spatial Memory  (SPM),  and  Children's  Embedded  scaled score means were computed The  assumptions  of normality,  Figure  Test  (CEFT).  to make comparisons  independence,  and multicollinearity were satisfied.  36  homogeneity  Both raw  and  with test norms easier. of variance,  linearity  37 The results of the analysis are presented in Tables 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.  Table 2 Manova Summary Source of Variation  ^-  Age  0.0868  F  DF  24.62  Ethnicity Age x Ethnicity  Table  0.8738  P  20,452  .00*  4.91+  5,136  .00*  0.94  20,452  .53  T =4.91 2  Table 3 Means of Raw Scores Ethnicity  Native  Age 8 9 10 11 12  Grand Mean  Non-Native  Grand Mean  8 9 10 11 12  Cell Size  GC  Dependent Variables TR SPM  CEFT  15 15 15 15 15  16. 13 16. 40 18. 07 18. 20 20. 07  11.93 11.80 14 .00 13 .81 15 .53  12 .73 12 .07 14 .53 15 .27 15 .87  9.93 10.53 14 .53 15 .27 15 .60  75  17. 77  13 .42  14 .09  13 .17  .15 15 15 15 15  16. 60 18. 20 19. 00 19. 53 20. 40  13 .40 14 .47 14 .93 15 .27 15 .67  12 .73 13 .13 14 .07 15 .67 15 .80  11.20 10.93 12 .60 16 .40 16 .80  75  18.74  14.74  14.28  13.58  38  Table 4 Standard Deviations of Raw Scores Ethnicity  Native  Non-Native  Age  Cell Size  GC  Dependent Variables TR SPM  8  15  2.26  1.90  1.94  4.11  9  15  2.79  2.20  2.31  4.54  10  15  2.91  1.89  1.35  3.31  11  15  2.42  1.92  3.32  4.74  12  15  2.08  1.24  3.20  3.04  Grand Mean  75  2.49  1.83  2.42  3.94  8  15  2.55  1.95  1.79  3.82  9  15  2.39  1.45  2.26  5.31  10  15  2.85  1.83  1.38  4.08  11  15  1.76  1.71  2.28  4.68  12  15  1.84  1.67  1.85  5.06  Grand Mean  75  2.27  1.72  1.91  4.59  CEFT  39  Table 5 Means for Scaled Scores Ethnicity  Native  Age  Grand Mean Note:  GC  Dependent Variables TR SPM  8  15  9.80  10.13  10..33  9  15  9.00  8.87  8.,47  10  15  9.80  10.33  9.,80  11  15  9.00  9.53  9..40  12  15  10.53  11 .00  9..93  75  9.63  9.97  9..59  8  15  10.53  12.00  10..1*3  9  15  10.80  11 .80  9..33  10  15  11 .00  11 .67  9..40  11  15  10.87  11 .27  9..60  12  15  11 .20  11 .13  9..67  75  10.88  11 .57  9..63  Grand Mean  Non-Native  Cell Size  CEFT not available i n scaled  scores  40  Table 6 Standard Deviations of Raw Scores Ethnicity  Native  Age  Cell Size  8  15  2.43  1.96  1.80  9  15  2.73  2.38  2.07  10  15  3.50  2.19  1.14  11  15  2.93  2.29  3.40  12  15  2.85  1.83  3.24  75  2.88  2.20  2.50  8  15  2.62  2.27  1.60  9  15  2.54  1.52  2.06  10  15  3.50  2.29  1.24  11  15  2.88  1.98  2.82  12  15  2.54  2.17  2.02  75  2.81  2.04  1.99  Grand Mean  Non-Native  Grand Mean  Dependent Variables GC TR SPM  41  Table 7 Univariate Tests for  each Dependent Variable  SS  MS  DF  265.29 167.70 269.77 867.77  63.32 41.92 67.44 216.97  4,140 4,140 4,140 4,140  11.31* 12.95* 13.16* 11.58*  ETHNICITY GC TR SPM CEFT  35.52 65.34 1.30 6.40  35.52 65.34 1.30 6.4  1,140 1,140 1,140 1,140  6.06* 20.18* .25* .34*  AGE & ETH GC TR SPM CEFT  11.10 25.49 10.09 55.29  2.77 6.37 2.52 13.82  4,140 4,140 4,140 4,140  .47 1.97 .49 .74  AGE GC TR SPM CEFT  *p  < .05  The significant main effects of age Manova Summary was  F  found.  In  Table  measures for the 12. The  Table (see 3,  deviations  Table 2). No interaction  the  Natives and  standard deviations  raw  score  non-Natives  in Table  diminish in size from  to Triangles.  and ethnicity  show no difference in performance  on  increased  demonstrated in the  between the the  four  consistently  4 were greatest on  Gestalt  Scaled score means and  means  are  main  cognitive from  CEFT,  deviations  on  and  Tables  style  age  8 to  that  Closure to Spatial Memory, and standard  effects  the  finally  5 and  6  between both ethnic groups. Univariate tests of  each dependent variable (see Table 7) show that age significantly affects all the dependent related  to  Embedded  variables.  Also,  Gestalt  Closure  Figures  univariate  Tests are  and  tests  Triangles,  show but  that  ethnicity  is  Spatial  Memory  and  Children's  to ethnicity. No  significant  not significantly related  significantly  42 interaction of age and ethnicity was found on any of the dependent variables. The non-Native the  four  measures.  group  scored  higher  than  However,  the  differences  the  Native groups  achieved  statistical  on each of  significance  two of the four; Gestalt Closure and Triangles. That is, the null hypothesis  on was  rejected for Gestalt Closure and Triangles. A  number of t-tests were carried out to determine  significant  cultural  differences  occurred  on  Gestalt  the ages at which the  Closure  and  Triangles.  The  results of the t-tests are presented in Table 8.  Table 8 t-Tests  o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s between N a t i v e and Non-Natives on G e s t a l t C l o s u r e and T r i a n g l e s Age  *p  GC  Triangles  8  -2.08*  -8.26*  9  -7.53*  -15.43*  10  -3.50*  -5.47*  11  -6.85*  -8.19*  12  -1.83  -0.7  < .05 At  all age  levels, except  found to be significantly  12,  different on  the  Native  and  non-Native  children  were  Gestalt Closure and on Triangles.  Comparisons of the C E F T and K - A B C norms, with scores obtained in this study are presented in Tables 9, 10 and 11.  43  Table 9 Comparison of CEFT Norms to Prince Rupert Native  Age  X 8 9 10 11 12  9.93 10.53 14.53 15.27 15.60  Samples  Non--Native  SD  X  (4.11) (4.54) (3.31) (4.74) (3.04)  11.20 10.93 12.60 16.40 16.80  SD  CEFT Norms Age  (3.82) (5.31) (4.08) (4.68) (5.06)  X  SD  (7-8)  10.6  (5.6)  (9-10)  16.4  (5.5)  (11-12)  18.0  (5.1)  Table 10 Comparison of K-ABC Raw Score Norms to Prince Rupert Samples  Gestalt Closure  Triangles  Spatial Memory from  Age  Standardization Mean SD  Native Mean SD  NonNative Mean SD  8 9 10 11 12  16.5 17.7 18.2 19.1 19.2  (2 .9) (3 .0) (2 .7) (2 .7) (2 .4)  16 .1 16 .4 18.0 18.2 20.0  16.,6 18..2 19,.0 19..5 20..4  8 9 10 11 12  12.4 13.4 13.8 14.4 14.5  (2 .8) (2 .7) (2 .7) (2 .5) (2 .6)  11 .9 (1 .9) 11 .8 (2 .2) 14.6 (1 .8) 13 .8 (1 .9) 15 .5 (1 .2)  13..4 (1. 9) 14..4 (1. 4) 14,.9 (1. 8) 15,.2 (1. 7) 15,.6 (1. 6)  8 9 10 11 12  13.3 14.4 15.4 15.7 16.4  (3 .1) (3 .2) (2 • 8) (2 .8) (2 .8)  12.7 (1 .9) 12.0 (2 .3) 14 .5 (1 .3) 15 .2 (3 .3) 15 .8 (3 .2)  12,.7 13,.1 14 .0 15 .6 15,.8  Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983a, p. 101  (2 .2) (2 .7) (2 .9) (2 .4) (2 .0)  (2. 5) (2. 3) (2. 8) (1. 7) (1. 8)  (1. 7) (2. 2) (1. 3) (2. 2) (1. 8)  44  Table  11  Comparison of Navajo and Sioux Scaled Scores to Prince Rupert Scaled Scores Gestalt Closure Mean  Triangles  SD  Mean  Spatial Memory  SD  Mean  SD  Navajo  10.30  (2..6)  10..90  (2 .3)  11..10 (2..8)  Sioux  10.60  (2..2)  10..20  (2 .6)  10,.80 (2,.2)  Native  9.63  (2,.8)  9..97  (2 .2)  9,.59 (2,.5)  10.88  (2,.8)  11,.57  (2 .0)  9,.63 (1,.9)  Non-Native  Note: Means represent ages 8-12 combined from Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983a, p. 151  Data Native  in Table  and non-Native  9 presents groups  a  against  Children's Embedded Figures Test.  comparison  of raw score  the standardization  In Table  means  sample  10, the Prince Rupert  used  for the in the  Native and  non-Native raw score means are shown to be close to the standardization  sample  mean. Similarly, in Table 11, the Prince Rupert sample scaled scores are shown to be close to the standardized  mean of 10.  45 B.  HYPOTHESIS  II  -  STYLE  MEASURES  The  relationships  determining  their  INTERCORRELATIONS  between  BETWEEN  G C , TR, S P M , and  intercorrelations,  and  by  a  THE  COGNITIVE  were  analyzed  CEFT  canonical  analysis  of  the  by four  measures and the two independent variables: age and ethnicity. Intercorrelations. intercorrelations  The  between  null  the  hypothesis  four  was  dependent  that  variables.  there The  would  be  no  intercorrelations  between the four measures are presented in Table 12.  Table  12  Correlation Matrix of Gestalt Closure (GC), Triangles (TR), Spatial Memory (SPM) and Children's Embedded Figures Test (CEFT) GC  SPM  SPM  .46**  TR  .37**  .54**  CEFT  .43**  .46**  TR  .47**  **p < .01 A l l intercorrelations  were significant beyond the .05 level; that is, the null  hypothesis was rejected for all intercorrelations.  using "best"  Canonical Analysis. The intercorrelation  of the  Canonical  form  linear  Correlational  combination  variables.  The  assumptions  normality,  linearity,  and  deletion of four outliers.  Analysis.  of  the  required  This  dependent to  multicollinearity.  of  variables  perform These  tests was  this  analysis and linear  assumptions  further  explored  determined the  independent  relationship were  the  met  are after  46 Two  new constructs  or canonical variates  were found to underlie the two  sets of variables. The results of the Canonical Analysis are  presented  in Tables  13 and 14. The  first  canonical variate  variance of all the 9% of the with  was responsible for approximately  variables and the  second was  variance. Age, an independent  the  first  canonical  correlated highly (r =  variate,  responsible  variable, correlated  ethnicity,  the  second  for  42% of the approximately  highly (r  independent  =  .95)  variable,  .95) with the second canonical variate. Canonical Variable  loadings are presented in Table 14. On .71  to  the  .84)  first and  construct  only one  the  dependent variables all load fairly  independent  variable,  age,  loads  very  high (from highly  (.95).  Evidently, this construct is one which is specific to age or development. On high  the  (from  .41  second construct, to  .47),  the  only three dependent variables  independent  variable,  ethnicity,  load  loads  moderately very highly  (.95). It would appear that this construct has primarily to do with ethnicity.  Table  13  Bartlett s Sequential 1  Eigen value (Rc ) 2  x  Test  Canonical Correlation (Rc )  P  t  0.4237  0.6509  0.00  0.0884  0.2973  0.00  Bartlett's test indicates the number of s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant canonical variates necessary to express the dependency between the two sets of variables. In this case two variables were identified as significant.  47  Table 14  Canonical Variable Loadings (Correlations  (Structure Coefficients)  of Canonical Variables with Original Independent Variables)  Variables for  CNVRF1  CNVRF2  Age  0.949  -0.315  Ethnicity  0.315  0.949  (Correlations  of Canonical Variables with Original Dependent Variables)  Variables for  CNVRS1  CNVRS2  GC  0.784  0.058  TR  0.838  0.465  SPM  0.742  -0.411  CEFT  0.714  -0.368  48 Results  from  the  intercorrelational  analysis  indicated  the  null  hypothesis  could be rejected. A l l dependent variables were shown to be highly intercorrelated. The canonical analysis underlying constructs  showed  the  extent of the  variables  correlation with  the  involving age and ethnicity.  C. H Y P O T H E S I S III - D E V E L O P M E N T O F C O G N I T I V E S T Y L E The development this  hypothesis.  The  of cognitive style from age 8 to 12 was the  null  hypothesis  stated  that  there would be  subject of  no  significant  difference in the development between the Native and the non-Native scores from 8  to  12  on  any  Tables 2 through to  age.  of the  MANOVA  results,  presented  were  significant, but  ethnic  differences  and  interactions  age and ethnicity were non-significant (see Table 7). Therefore,  hypothesis  was  differences  in the  in  7, show the four dependent variables to be significantly related  Age differences  between  dependent variables.  rejected  for  all the  dependent variables,  that  is, there  the  null  are  no  development of cognitive style for the Natives and non-Natives.  The developmental  similarities between  the  two groups  are  shown in Figures  1  and 2. The two ethnic groups for  age  on  were  G C , TR, S P M , and  relationship between  the five  combined to find CEFT.  Trend  the best fitting trend  analysis  assessed  whether  line the  age levels was linear on nonlinear. The results of  the Trend Analysis are presented in Table 15.  Figure 2: Scaled Score Means for Native and Non-Native Groups scaled score  • • Native '-• Non-Native  10  12  AGE  scaled score 12 '>  8  9  10 A6E  scaled score 12 T  II  12  51  Table  15  Higher Order Trend Analysis GC  Tt  4.00*  TR  T  2  4.48*  SPM  T  2  4.31*  CEFT  T  2  4.66*  2  •Significant at p < .05 Note: (T = F ) t 2  The  results  show  that  the  relationship  was  linear  for  the  four  dependent  variables. Summary. The results  of testing the three hypotheses  show that cultural  group makes a significant difference on Gestalt Closure and Triangles, but not on Children's Embedded Figures Test or Spatial Memory. The four tests were found to be moderately  to highly intercorrelated  and the  developmental  trends of the  four tests were found to be linear and to not be significantly related to culture.  Chapter V S U M M A R Y , CONCLUSIONS A N D RECOMMENDATIONS  A. S U M M A R Y Witkin's (1964) theory of psychological differentiation has long served as a model  for  exploring the  cross-cultural  style (Berry & Witkin,  development  of field-independent  1975). Cross-cultural researchers,  involved in other  fields, have  come to accept  culture contribute  to individual differences,  the  as well as  cognitive  researchers  notion that environment  particularly in the  area  and  of cognitive  style. To explore the variance of field-dependent-independent cultures,  each  investigated  culture  in  Northwestern  this  British  must study  be  studied  was  Columbia.  the  For  individually.  Tsimshian  comparative  cognitive style across  The  Native  purposes  individual Indian  a  culture  culture  non-Native  in  group  living in Prince Rupert was studied along with the Tsimshian sample. To  measure  Embeddded  the  Figures  cultural Test  field-dependence-independence  differences  (CEFT), (FD/FI)  in  a  was  used.  cognitive  style,  the  Children's  well  recognized  measure  In  addition to the  CEFT,  of three  Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) subtests (Gestalt Closure (GC), Spatial Memory (SPM), and Triangles (TR)) were included for their similarity to other field-dependence-independence The that  developmental  younger  children  aspect have  tests. of cognitive  not  been  style  included  was in  studied many  for  of  the  the  reason previous  cross-cultural studies. It was believed that a cross-cultural developmental study of cognitive style would provide valuable information to educators age 8 - 12.  52  of children from  53 The results of this performed  higher  than  study  the  shov/ed  Native  the  children  non-Native on  These differences  were significant for ages 8 to  findings  that cultural differences  indicated  tests. This is consistent Chapter  Two.  No  difference  Gestalt  Closure  and  11, but  not at  age  in performance  with other research  intercultural  Prince Rupert  existed  on . older people  on  Spatial  as  Memory  children Triangles.  12.  These  on these referred or  two to in  CEFT  was  displayed at any age level. Moderate inter-correlations indicated the four tests form a battery useful in developmental high  studies of cognitive style. A canonical correlational analysis  intercorrelation  of all four  (1966), as noted Chapter tests to ensure the  dependent variables.  Vernon  (1972)  2, suggested the use of a highly correlated  and  showed Berry  battery of  accurate measurement of cognitive style, and it appears that  these four tests could form such a battery. When  ethnicity,  rather  than  age,  was  the  only  independent  variable  considered in the canonical correlation, a moderate intercorrelation of three of the tests was found (TR, S P M , C E F T ) . This intercorrelation suggested the three tests could form a battery useful in cross-cultural studies of cognitive style. No interaction between Native and  age  non-Native samples  and ethnicity was found, which suggested  follow the  same developmental  from trend analysis indicated a linear development  sequence.  the  Results  occurred on all four dependent  variables, form age 8 to 12.  B. L I M I T A T I O N S O F T H E S T U D Y This cognitive study was limited to 150 subjects, cultural groups. The cultural groups were outside  of Prince  Rupert,  and  sample  of Native children, and  non-Native a  Native Indians living  village sample  aged 8 to 12, from two living in island villages  in Prince  Rupert.  of non-Native  A n in-town  children would  54 have enriched the study. The assignment of the Native children to each age level was not a purely random was  process.  limited,  In the  therefore  Indian villages, availability of children at random  selection was  not  always  all age  possible,  and  levels  in these  instances all the available children were used to fill the cells. The study was limited to four measures of FD/FI: K - A B C Gestalt Closure, Spatial Memory, Triangles and the Children's Enbedded Figures Test.  C. C O N C L U S I O N S Conclusions presented  in  about  the  variable scores,  the  following  three  order:  hypotheses  the  effect  the intercorrelation of the  investigated  of culture  in  on  this  the  study  four  are  dependent  dependent variables, and the effect of  age on the dependent variables. The Effect of Culture on the Dependent Variables. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences the  Native  and  non-Native  Significant differences  samples  on  each  of the  four  dependent  between variables.  were found on two of the four dependent variables and  null hypothesis was rejected  the  for them. The non-Native sample was found to score  significantly higher than the Native sample  on Gestalt Closure and Triangles  each age from 8 to 11. There was no significant difference between  at  the Native  and non-Native samples on Spatial Memory or Children's Embedded Figures Test, and the null hypothesis was CEFT, showed  the  differences  the  dependent variable most  Native did not  accepted.  and appear  non-Native to  be  recognized as  samples  related  to  to FD/FI  be for  a  measure  of  FD/FI,  equally  FD/FI.  Cultural  this  measure.  This is  contrary to the theory proposed by Berry and Witkin. However, Berry and Annis (1974), failed to find significant dfferences  in F D / F I in a study they conducted in  55  the same geographical area as this study. The non-significant differences  between  the Native and non-Native children  on the C E F T may be explained in a number of ways. It may be that different factors,  or  sources,  (1974) suggested alternative  in each  culture  and  ecology  or  different  source of the F D / F I similar  sources  may  scores  of the  C E F T to adequately  presented  in Table  9  exist  during  be  interpreted  to  field-dependent-independent, cognitive  style  performance  Berry  skills, but  acculturation  (p.  188).  do not necessarily mean that the  might be  Native  both  different.  non-Native  samples  is  the  Native  and  non-Native  groups  were  deviation below the C E F T norms. This result  mean  although  and  measure the differences. The comparison of  show  considerably less than one standard could  FD/FI.  was the same. Another possibility to consider in explaining  performance  reliablity of the means,  to  that traditional cultural sources may exist for F D / F I  Non-significant differences in F D / F I performance  the  contributed  as  the  two  Berry noted  Another  cultures (1974),  the  possible explanation  are  equally  source  of  for  the  the  similar  of the Native and non-Native groups, is that the test lacks precision  in measurement  of F D / F I .  The results between  the  culture  had  on the  Native and no  Spatial Memory measure show non-Native groups  differential  measure of short-term  effect  memory  on  requires  to be  the  mean  differences  non-significant. This indicates  performance. recall of the  Spatial  Memory,  being  a  positions of a number of  objects arranged in a grid. C E F T , similarly, requires memory of a figure and the figure must be recalled and identified within a picture. Both tests require recall of shapes and their positions. Thus, the same explanation for the non-significance of  CEFT  score  culture contribute  differences  should  to a similar  hold  for  S P M : different  outcome,  the  test may not be reliable, the  may not have adequately measured  FD/FI.  factors  from  each test  56 The difference Gestalt  closure  was  between  scores  the  GC  subtest  significant difference  Native and  significant. This type  measures visual discrimination as that  of the  well  measures  of task,  as  spatial  processing  non-Native samples  according to  ability.  of  Kaufman  part-whole  might indicate that what the  Berry  on  (1966),  (1982)  held  relationships.  The  GC subtest actually measures  is not only F D / F I , but also part-whole relationships and previous exposure to the object pictured. The non-Native sample may have scored higher than  the Native  sample for the simple reason that the non-Natives were more familiar with objects  displayed in  the  test  groups  were  one  standard  This  within  inconsistency  Closure  with  measuring  (Berry,  Berry's  skills  other  1966).  Both  the  deviation of the results  (1971,  than  those  Native  GC test  1966)  may  involved  in  and  norms be  non-Native (Table  due  FD/FI,  the  to  and  10).  Gestalt due  to  differences in familiarity with the objects shown in the test. The results higher  than  between  the  the  on Triangles show the Native  means.  scores  of the  inconsistency  with  Berry's  admins tration  time,  Further  Native  and  results  something  non-Native means to be significantly analyses non-Natives  might  other  found  than  be  from  significant age  explained  FD/FI  was  8  by  differences  to  11. This  four  measured,  factors: strategy  differences, and cultural factors. Triangles other  three  required  tests  approximately  combined  required  15 15  minutes  minutes.  to The  adminster, time  whereas  factor  may  the have  contributed to a significant difference in scores on this subtest and not the other three  (GC, S P M , C E F T ) .  The  pressure of time differently than time limit of the  Native the  test (two minutes  have been a source of group  children  may  have  responded  to  the  non-Native children. The strictly controlled per item),or the  differences.  duration of the  test  may  57 The Triangles subtest, like the reported 1985;  to  measure  Kaufman,  correlation with  complex  1983). CEFT  thought  Although  in Table  have contributed to the  Block Design test it is modeled after, processing,  TR  appears  as  well  as  FD/FI  to  measure  is  (Bracken,  FD/FI,  as  its  12 shows, some more complex processing may  significant difference  between the  Native and non-Native  scores. A  difference  significant groups.  in performance  difference  The  in  examiner  strategy  Triangle noted  scores  that  the  may  also  between  the  Native  have  contributed  Native  children  and  appeared  to  the  non-Native to  rely  on  memory to complete the task. They glanced at the picutre to be replicated and proceeded again.  to put  Memory  children.  The  children's based  the  triangular shapes together,  seems  to  serve  predominant  use  relatively higher  as of  the  primary  memory  performance  on memory. Memory  and the  without looking at  on  picture  by  the  Native  explain  the  Native  S P M which  are  largely  strategy  also  helps  CEFT  and  manner  the  used to  it is used in different  ecocultures  may have contributed to the differences in the performances of the two groups. The final  explanation for the  what Berry  and Witkin  which  present  was  suspected  significant difference  in TR scores may be  (1975). Some environmental or cultural factor  in Prince Rupert,  but  not  present  in the  villages,  might  explain the significant difference between the Native and non-Native mean scores. When test  comparing the  manuals,  no  two samples'  definitive  picture  of  scores  to the  cognitive  norms provided in  style  can  be  the  observed.  In  comparison to the C E F T norms, both the Native and non-Native groups in this study were relatively field - dependent (Table 8). Assuming the three K - A B C measures scores,  of F D / F I , the  Native  and  assuming the  and  the  FD/FI  non-Native  scale is a  samples  in  are  continuum of relative  this  study,  were  more  field-dependent on Spatial Memory than the general norming sample or the Sioux  58 and Navajo norming samples used for the K - A B C (see Tables 9 and 10, Chapter 4).  On  GC,  the  field-independence Natives  were  Prince  Rupert  Native  scores  indicated  than all the norming sample. On Triangles, the  higher,  or  more  field-independent  than  the  the  Prince  Rupert  the K - A B C  Rupert  non-Natives  disagreement  and  are  the  slightly more norms  of  field-dependent  the  K-ABC.  more  than  the  gathering.  of  field-independent  the on  show that  than- the  These  results  Prince are  in  with Berry and Witkin's theory of psychological differentiation. The  relative field-dependence of the Prince Rupert Natives supports the  scores  scaled and raw score norms. The results  Natives  more  Prince Rupert  scaled  Navajo and Sioux. The Prince Rupert non-Natives were more Triangles than  relatively  sedentary Sioux  Tsimshian (Berry & Annis,  and Navajo  (Kaufman,  However, additional  research  1974)  the hypothesis that  are  more  field-dependent  1983), who rely more  on hunting  and  is  substantiate  the  required  to  further  validity of the K - A B C subtests as measures of F D / F I and to reinforce the notion of field - dependence  as a characteristic of sedentary life-styles.  Intercorrelations and Canonical Correlation of the Dependent Variables. It was  hypothesized that there would be no intercorrelation between  four dependent variables. The null hypothesis was rejected  the  beyond the .05 level.  The intercorrelation matrix showed all tests were moderately  correlated.  The canonical correlation analysis showed significant intercorrelations of the three four  K - A C subtests with tests  correlated  very  CEFT.  When age  was  the  independent  highly. When only ethnicity  was  variable, all  considered  in  the  intercorrelation, three of the tests correlated significantly, but G C did not. Gestalt Closure is not affected by ethnicity to the degree the other measures are. These canonical results suggest the K - A B C subtests are potential measures of  FD/FI,  but  their  confimed by further  true  value  as  cognitive  style  measures  remains  to  be  study. Vernon (1972) and Berry (1966) suggested researchers  59 use a number of tests, which combined, form a reliable measure of FD/FI, since what the individual tests actually measure is uncertain. It can be concluded that Gestalt Closure, Spatial Memory and Triangles correlate therefore could  the three Kaufman subtests can be considered as measures of F D / F I .  also be  K-ABC  significantly with C E F T ,  suggested  simultaneous  from  the  processing  intercorrelation measures,  that  of the  CEFT  with the  CEFT  involved  It  three  simultaneous  processing. Effects of Age on the Dependent Variables. It was hypothesized that the Native and the non-Native sample would not display the same developmental pattern on the four dependent variables. The null hypothesis  was not rejected,  and age, consequently, a  trend  analysis.  that is, no interaction was  found between  the Native and non-Native samples  This analysis  was  performed  ethnicity  were combined to do  to determine  if the  relationship  between the test scores and age (8-12) was linear. The relationship was found to be  linear  MANOVA  on  all  results  four and  dependent  variables.  subsequent  linear  It  analysis  can  be  results,  concluded that  the  from  the  Native  and  non-Native samples develop F D / F I cognitive style in the same linear manner, all four dependent variables. The skills required to do the three K - A B C reached  the  same level by age  here. Bracken (1985) suggested adequate simple items at  12, although  a ceiling effect  may be  on  samples operating  that the Gestalt Closure tests might not include  the lower end of the test or adequate complex items  at the upper end of the test. The Intercorrelation Matrix and Canonical Correlation Analysis indicate that some  skills  required  to  Field-dependent-independent  perform  each  cognitive  responsible for these developmental  test  style  results.  are may  common be  the  to  all four  common  measures.  factor  most  60 D. R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S F O R F U R T H E R R E S E A R C H It was hypothesized in this study that culture and environment affect development two  of F D / F I cognitive styles. Cultural group differences  of the  differences,  four  tests  however,  used  is  to  not  measure  known.  cognitive  Future  style.  studies  were found on  The  should  the  source  of these  employ  a  greater  number of reliable measures of F D / F I to facilitate comparison to less well known measures such as been  shown  to  the  be  K-ABC.  A combination of WISC-R  consistent  across  Native  cultural  subtests, which  groups,  K-ABC  have  subtests,  reported to measure spatial skills, the Children's Embedded Figures Test, and Rod and Frame Test would form a battery of using a battery  was  presented  of F D / F I measures.  by Berry (1966)  the  The importance  and Vernon(1972). Also, by  including a number of measures previously used in cross-cultural studies of F D / F I cognitive style, comparability of results FD/FI  tests  measures,  employed  would  by  cognitive  might  Goodenough  (1976),  relationship  of  of  reveal  discussed  FD/FI  be  with  fostered.  the  gap between  Use  WISC-R  of the  and  the a  (1976)  and  accommodate  field-dependent  role  source  studies  cognitive  Goodenough  K-ABC  FD/FI  1970's cognitive style  studies  and  of  memory individual  which  provided  with  memory  style  Witkin  of  (1977)  suggested  field-independent  in  the  and  Native  cultural  evidence and  to  the  conclusive  evidence  to  styles, implementation of these  required  more  the  Although  strategies  Much further  provide  differences.  learning.  teaching  children's  support  techniques with the samples of this study is premature. to  original  studies.  investigation  style  along  serve to bridge the  and present day WISC-R Further  Berry,  would  about  Tsimshian  research is children's  cognitive style. Studies  of  other  cognitive  styles,  such  with F D / F I would be of value to educators.  as  Impulsivity/Reflectivity, along  More developmental studies involving  61 school age children would increase the possiblity of research findings being utilized in an educational setting. This study has served to show that culture makes a difference on two of the K - A B C  subtests; there is an intercorrelation of C E F T and the three K - A B C  subtests, and development sequence  for  Native  and  of the skills required on these tests follow the non-Native  children.  However,  conclusive  evidence  showing the Native sample as more field-dependent or more  field-independent  the  Further  non-Native  necessary suggested.  before  sample  in Prince  Rupert  was  not  found.  same  than  research  is  any conclusions can be drawn, or instructional changes can  be  REFERENCES Arbess, Saul. (1981) New Strategies in Indian Education: Utilizing the Indian Child's Advantage in the Elementary Classroom. Victoria: B . C . Ministry Publication. Berry, J . W . (1966). Temne and Eskimo perceptual Psychology, 1, 207-229.  skills. International  Journal of  Berry, J . W . (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial development. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, _3_, 324-336.  perceptual  Berry, J . W . (1974). Ecology, culture and psychological differentiation. Journal of Psychology, _9, 173-193.  International  Berry, J . W . (1980). Cultural ecology and individual behavior. In I. Altman, A . Rapoport, J . Wohlwill (Ed.), Human Behavior and Environment - Advances in Theory and Research (pp.83-105). New York: Plenum Press. Berry, J . W . (1984). Towards a universal psychology International Journal of Psychology, 19, 335-562.  of  Bracken, B . (1985). A critical review of the Kaufman children. 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Paper presented to the International Conference in Neuroscience and Education, Teachers College, New York.  APPENDIX A  Geographical Location of Hartley Bay, Port Simpson and Prince Rupert  from Foods of Port Simpson. Prince Rupert School D i s t r i c t P u b l i c a t i o n , 1984, p. 93.  68  APPENDIX B Samples of Score Sheets for the K - A B C , C E F T ,  69  and Test for Colour-Blindness  K a u f m a n A s s e s s m e n t Battery^ f o r Children  Number_ Group Tttsi dale Bart/i dais CTMOnotogical age  4. Gestalt Closura Simullaneous Processing Scale Ages 2-6 thiough 12-5  Spatial Memory  Mere  All ages tr Sample: bird 214-e tf 1. lace 2. dog 3. pig 4 TV •• S. camera  StfnuBaneous Processing Scale Ages 5-0 Bvougti 12 6  All agea i 5-7 i  7 9 «y 6. chaii 7. camel 8. hammer 9. tish  8 12H 2H  tj)  10 12H «V10 ship 11 frog 12. dinosaur 13. fork 14. elephant  6. Triangles Simullaneous Processing Scale Ages 4-0 through 12-5  Sample 1 2 3 4  Ram  4tr 5  s «r 4 5 6  6 7. 6. 9. : 10  7  «v 7  9  12  f  15. crown 16. jet 17. stove 18 typewriter 19. gymnast 20. sailboat  66  <|  6  #  13 14 15  ' # 16 17 18  19 20 21  4  *  11 12  Age 5 go to 12 Faces & Places 16 17 18  8-12»  4-5 8-1214 afr" 10  14 15  21. five 22. guitarist 23. mountain climber 24 violinist 25 teapot  —  a  ii 3  Score  All agea 4r Sample 4-s air 1 2 3  a-12'? 8 12)1  Ceiling item minus Errors equals Raw Score  Calling Item minus Errors equals Raw Score  4. GuUII Closure ...1.4 e r a  (. Saillil • u u r |  tcita! Scare  ||  <§  .  Ceiling Item minus Errors equals Raw Score 6. [nanglai Seated Score  O  71  SCORE SHEET FOR NAME. CLASS,  CHILDREN'S EMBEDDED FIGURES  BIRTH O A T E —  TEST  DATE  TENT P  1  P  2  T  1  T  2  T  3  T  4  T  5  T  a  DESCRIPTION  10  T  11  HOUSE P  3  H  1  H  -  9  T  EXAMINER  sco Re  V T  SEX= M _ F _  Tom Soon TENT  OESCRIPDON  2  H  3  H  4  H  5  H  8  H  7  H  8  H  9  H  10  H  11  H  12  H  13  H  14 Total Scor* HOUSE TOTAL TEST SCORE  ©  CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS, INC. 577 College Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94306  SCORE  72  TEST FOR  COLOUR-BLINDNESS by  Dr. Shinobu I s h i h a r a ANSWER SHEET Person  Person w i t h T o t a l Colour Blindness  w i t h Red-Green Deficiencies  Plate  Normal Person  1  12  12  12  2  8  3  X  3  29  70  X  4  5  2  X  5  .3  5  X  6  15  17  X  7  74  21  X  8  6  X  X  9  45  X  X  10  5  X.  X  11  7  X  X  12  16  X  X  13  73  K  X  14  X  5  X  IS  X  45  X  Protan  Deutan  Strong Mild 16  26  6  (2)  | Strong  6!  Mild  2  2  (6)  4  4  (2)  i  17  42  2  (4)  2  j  The mark x shows t h a t t h e p l a t e cannot be r e a d . Blank space denotes t h a t t h e r e a d i n g i s i n d e f i n i t e . The numerals i n p a r e n t h e s i s show t h a t t h e y can be read but t h e y a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n c l e a r .  APPENDIX C Children's Embedded Figures Test - Protocol Tent Discrimination Series (D1-D4) Subject was shown D1-D4 and the tent cut-out. Examiner said, "This looks like a tent; the black line shows where the tent rests on the ground. Find a tent like this on the card. Point to it please." The cut-out was placed over the student's choice whether it was correct or incorrect to indicate to the student why it was the right or wrong choice. Examiner said, "This is not like our tent because it is too small", or "this is not like our tent because it is upside-down." The child was shown all the D1-D4 cards until he got two successive items correct. If he failed to reach this standard of two correct on the first trial, the series was repeated two additional times. If the child could not achieve two successive correct discriminations on the third repetition, testing was discontinued. Tent Practice Series (P1-P2) P I was presented and Examiner said, " A tent like this one is hidden somewhere in this picture. The idea of the game is to find the hidden tent. Point to where the tent is." The child's choice then verified or refuted by placing the cut-out tent over the area where the child had pointed. P2 card was then presented without displaying the cut-out form. The child was asked to find the tent in the picture by pointing to where he thought it was. The response was verified with the cut-out tent. Tent Test Series ( T l - T l l ) Age 8 children began testing at T l ; age 9-12 children began with T6 and were automatically credited with having passed T l through T5. If the child failed three or more of the tent items from T7-T11 he was required to do T1-T5. On the first three test items the child was helped, but it was scored as a failure. If after the first 3 items the child got 3 in a row incorrect the cut-out tent was shown to him, otherwise the cut-out tent was not in view. If 3 items from T7-T11 were incorrect, items T1-T5 were administered. If even one of T7-T11 was correct the house series was administered. House Discrimination Series (D1-D4) Instructions followed the same routine as the tent discrimination series. House Practice Series (P3) With the cut-out house still in view, the child was asked to find the house hidden in the picture. Verification of child's correct or incorrect response followed. House Test Series (H1-H14) On the first three items the child was helped if necessary, but a failure was marked down. If three items were consecutively wrong at any time throughout H4-H14 the house cut-out was shown to the child. If 5 consecutive failures occurred testing was terminated. Timing No specific time limit was imposed. The 'open' procedure was adopted since, within a moderate period of time, most children either pointed out the simple form they had selected or gave signs of wanting to discontinue the search.  73  74 Scoring Responses were scored 1 or 0. A score of 1 was given only when the first choice the child made was correct or if he corrected his choice before the cut-out was seen. The maximum total score for the test was 25.  

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