UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Child images of attachment figures and self Head, Tim 1991

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CHILD IMAGES OF ATTACHMENT FIGURES AND SELF by TIM  HEAD  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Mathematics and S c i e n c e Education)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1991 ©  Tim Head, 1991  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  this  his  or  her  representatives.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  September 24, 1991  that the  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  September 24, 1991  requirements  I further agree  purposes  permission.  Department of  the  is  that  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  permission for extensive  granted  by the  understood be allowed  head  that without  of  my  copying  or  my written  ii  A b s t r a c t ; C h i l d Attachment-Related C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of P a r e n t s . Teacher and S e l f ; Forced Choice V i s u a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s Along a P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access Dimension  Twenty-three 5 t o 7-year-old boys were shown drawings d e p i c t i n g themselves w i t h t h e i r mother, f a t h e r or main t e a c h e r i n one o f 8 a t t a c h m e n t - r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s .  Subjects  were p r i m a r i l y Caucasian and l i v e d i n a suburban neighbourhood  i n Richmond, B.C.  They were asked t o s e l e c t  from 4 response c a t e g o r i e s the c a r e g i v e r "most l i k e " mom,  dad o r main t e a c h e r .  Response c a t e g o r i e s were  generated from attachment theory.  I n d i v i d u a l and  i n n e r image p r o f i l e s were developed from the 552 The v a r i a b l e " s i t u a t i o n " , but not the v a r i a b l e was determined by l o g l i n e a r a n a l y s i s t o be beyond the .05 l e v e l  their  (p. = .035).  group selections.  "caregiver",  significant  The c h i l d r e n s ' s e l e c t i o n s  were demonstrated t o be r e l e v a n t and non-haphazard and a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s .  within  The a n a l y s e s p r o v i d e  s i g n i f i c a n t support f o r the v a l i d i t y o f the response c a t e g o r i e s and the c e n t r a l i t y o f the u n d e r l y i n g dimension of "permitting/blocking access". In a d d i t i o n , the study supports the n o t i o n o f viewing main female t e a c h e r s a f t e r 9 o r 10 months w i t h a c h i l d - as an attachment f i g u r e t o t h a t c h i l d .  A fairly  generalized  m e t a - s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r n a l working models i s suggested by t h i s group p r o f i l e .  F i n a l l y , t h i s study g i v e s support t o  the n o t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y o f c a r e g i v e r response  iii  under c o n d i t i o n s o f c h i l d attachment b e h a v i o u r a l activation.  system  Table o f Contents Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures Acknowledgements  11 vi vii ix  Chapter 1: Statement o f Problem  1  R a t i o n a l e and Purpose o f Study: General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  3  Phenomenological C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  6  Developmental C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  8  I n c l u s i o n o f Teachers as Attachment F i g u r e s . . . 1 1 Background and T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s o f Problem  16  Chapter 2: L i t e r a t u r e Review: Overview  21  Important Dimensions o f Attachment Theory  23  C o g n i t i v e and A f f e c t i v e B i a s  26  I n t e r n a l Working Models  35  Chapter 3: Methodology: Overview  48  R a t i o n a l e f o r Design  50  The S u b j e c t s  54  The I n t e r v i e w S i t u a t i o n  57  The P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access Inventory  59  The F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory  61  The P i l o t Study  62  Chapter 4:  R e s u l t s : Overview  64  P i l o t Study R e s u l t s  67  Study R e s u l t s : Main E f f e c t s and  I n t e r a c t i o n s Between  Variables  68  Confidence I n t e r v a l s  70  I n t e r n a l Consistency  76  A n a l y s e s Based on a Subject's a Response Category One  Choice of  or More Times  Comparison of the P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g and  Access  F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s I n v e n t o r i e s . . . 81  Subcategories  Chapter  79  W i t h i n the I g n o r i n g  Blocking  Access Response Category..  87  T e s t f o r Understanding  88  5:  D i s c u s s i o n : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C o g n i t i v e , A f f e c t i v e or Response Bias i n the R e s u l t s  89  General D i s c u s s i o n  94  Conclusion  103  Future Research D i r e c t i o n s  105  References  107  Appendices: Appendix A: Drawings f o r  Permitting/Blocking  Access Inventory  120  Appendix B: Drawings f o r F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory  217  L i s t o f Tables Table 1: The P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access  Inventory:  Loglinear analysis  69  Table 2: Confidence  l e v e l s based on 23 s u b j e c t s  70  Table 3: Confidence  l e v e l s based on 22 s u b j e c t s  73  Table 4: Summarized data f o r a l l s u b j e c t s i n both inventories  74  Table 5: Anova r e s u l t s w i t h i n response c a t e g o r i e s  75  Table 6: P r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r response c a t e g o r i e s  79  Table 7: S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s f o r the f u l l v e r s i o n of  the primary measure  .82  Table 8: S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s f o r a reduced v e r s i o n o f the primary measure  83  T a b l e 9: S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s f o r a reduced v e r s i o n and the f u l l v e r s i o n of the secondary measure Table 10: Summary o f data from  84 Friendliness/  U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory  86  Table 11: S i t u a t i o n by c a r e g i v e r by response  100  vii  L i s t of Figures F i g u r e 1: Comparison o f P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g  Inventory  and F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory f o r a l l c a r e g i v e r s and o t h e r s , and f o r mother, f a t h e r o n l y  81b  Acknowledgements  I would l i k e t o extend my g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my a d v i s o r , K i p A n a s t a s i o u , whose c o n s i d e r a b l e support helped make t h i s r e s e a r c h study p o s s i b l e .  I am a l s o  g r a t e f u l t o Peggy Koopman and John A l l e n f o r t h e i r warm support, s u g g e s t i o n s and encouragement.  Other c o n t r i b u t o r s  whom I would l i k e t o acknowledge and thank a r e Stan K i t a , Jim Enns, and Walter B o l d t . speaks f o r i t s e l f ,  F i n a l l y , w h i l e t h e a r t work  I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge Barbara  for her considerable a r t i s t i c  contribution.  Clayden  1  Chapter 1: Statement of Problem  T h i s i s an e x p l o r a t o r y study designed of a t t a c h m e n t - r e l a t e d  to give a p r o f i l e  i n n e r images or e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r a  group o f 2 3 f i v e t o seven y e a r - o l d boys.  The  subjects'  s c h o o l and homes are l o c a t e d i n a suburban c i t y near a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n B.C.,  Canada.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study examines a s p e c t s o f the c h i l d r e n s ' i n t e r n a l working models i n v o l v i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the a t t a c h m e n t - r e l a t e d or b l o c k i n g access)  responses ( p e r m i t t i n g  of t h r e e a d u l t s t o v a r i o u s  s i t u a t i o n s of d i s t r e s s and p r o x i m i t y seeking  child  behaviour.  Each c h i l d i s asked t o i n d i c a t e the c a r d which i s "most l i k e " h i s mother, f a t h e r or main t e a c h e r i n a s e r i e s of forced choice tasks.  A s i m i l a r aspect of t h e i r  internal  working models t h a t i s measured, i n v o l v e s the c h i l d r e n s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r own  responses t o a d u l t attachment  f i g u r e p r o x i m i t y seeking behaviour.  In t h i s case each c h i l d  i s asked t o i n d i c a t e which c a r d i s "most l i k e " h i m s e l f i n a s e r i e s of forced choice tasks. In a secondary measure c h i l d r e n are g i v e n a s e r i e s of f o r c e d c h o i c e s designed  t o assess t h e i r t e n d e n c i e s  to  p e r c e i v e s i b l i n g s , peers and other s i g n i f i c a n t a d u l t s as "unfriendly" or " f r i e n d l y " . independently  T h i s measure i s assessed  of v i s u a l l y represented c h i l d  (or a d u l t )  s i t u a t i o n s of d i s t r e s s and p r o x i m i t y s e e k i n g .  I t i s a more  2 g e n e r a l measure, y e t s t i l l  assumed t o measure an aspect of  the c h i l d r e n s ' working models. The group p r o f i l e i s analyzed i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l support f o r the v a l i d i t y of the c a t e g o r i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r when u t i l i z e d  response  phenomenologically.  The u n d e r l y i n g dimension of these response c a t e g o r i e s ( p e r m i t t i n g / b l o c k i n g access) i s determined (Main, Kaplan, and Cassidy, 1985).  from t h e o r y  3  R a t i o n a l e and Purpose o f Study; General  Considerations  T h i s i s an e x p l o r a t o r y study o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f c h i l d r e n s ' i n n e r working models.  I t i s b e i n g conducted i n  o r d e r t o determine i f c h i l d r e n s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s e l f and t h r e e c a r e g i v e r s can be r e p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y a l o n g a c e r t a i n important  dimension.  As t h i s was an e x p l o r a t o r y study, i t  i s u s e f u l t o describe i t s r a t i o n a l e w i t h i n the context of a s s o c i a t e d p a s t and recommended f u t u r e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s . Both t h e t h e o r e t i c a l work on attachment and i n t e r n a l working models by Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1980) and t h e e m p i r i c a l work done by many o t h e r s  (e.g., Ainsworth,  Blehar,  Waters, & W a l l , 1978; Main & Cassidy, 1988; Sroufe, 1983) s t r o n g l y suggest a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f s t a b i l i t y i n b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s from i n f a n c y onwards.  Bowlby (1973)  suggests t h a t some b e l i e f s and e x p e c t a t i o n s a c t u a l l y have a c e r t a i n power t o be s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g .  Such elements o f t h e  i n t e r n a l working model a r e t h e o r e t i c a l l y i m p l i c a t e d by d e f i n i t i o n i n t h e maintenance o f important behavioural s t a b i l i t y .  Empirically,  aspects of  i n t h e attachment  r e s e a r c h however, t h e r e i s a d e a r t h o f evidence p o i n t i n g t o any p a r t i c u l a r p o t e n t i a l l y s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g  expectations  amongst c h i l d r e n , except as can be i n f e r r e d from t h e i r behaviour.  C r i t t e n d e n (1988b) s t a t e s t h a t a c h i l d ' s  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s mother i s probably b e s t c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  4 i n terms o f h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s  but notes t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  d e v i s i n g any procedure t h a t d i r e c t l y assesses  expectations.  T h i s r e s e a r c h attempts t o show t h a t such i n t e r n a l images o r e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  as aspects  o f t h e i n n e r working  model, can b e g i n t o be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and v i s u a l l y represented  by demonstrating t h a t t h i s group o f s u b j e c t s  shows c e r t a i n p a t t e r n ( s ) o f homogeneity i n t h e i r combined s e l e c t i o n s from t h e f o r c e d c h o i c e c a t e g o r i e s .  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h i s r e s e a r c h attempts t o show t h a t a l l t h e response c a t e g o r i e s generated f o r t h e study a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e subjects.  These f o r c e d c h o i c e c a t e g o r i e s were generated  from e s t i m a t e s  o f some o f t h e important types o f responses  t h a t a c a r e g i v e r might make (and v i c e - v e r s a ) some common s t r e s s f u l and p r o x i m i t y  to a child i n  seeking s i t u a t i o n s .  A r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s type o f study hinges i n p a r t i c u l a r on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e f o r c e d - c h o i c e  c a t e g o r i e s generated.  Main e t a l . , (1985) s t a t e d t h a t a c a r e g i v e r can e i t h e r p e r m i t o r b l o c k access t o a c h i l d and t h a t access permitted  consistently or inconsistently.  p e r m i t t i n g / b l o c k i n g access on t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i n h e r e n t  The  i n v e n t o r y was designed t o hinge i n i t s name.  The f o u r response  c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e one f o r " p e r m i t t i n g a c c e s s " "blocking access"  can be  (1), two f o r  (3, 4 ) , and one roughly midway on t h e  dimension o f p e r m i t t i n g / b l o c k i n g access o f c o n s i s t e n c y o f access  (2).  The dimension  i s a t b e s t o n l y p a r t i a l l y tapped i n  the response c a t e g o r i e s through t h e p r o v i s i o n o f e i g h t d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n which each o f t h e f o u r  access  5 p o s s i b i l i t i e s may be s e l e c t e d .  I t i s l i k e l y that within  c e r t a i n l i m i t s a t l e a s t , d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n s ' images o r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s may be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t even g i v e n t h e same l e v e l o f c a r e g i v e r c o n s i s t e n c y o r t h e same given d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of consistency. (1988) 4-generation 1928  C a s p i and E l d e r ' s  l o n g i t u d i n a l study conducted  and 1972 c e r t a i n l y supports t h i s p o i n t .  between  Using a  h i e r a r c h i c a l r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s they demonstrated t h a t " e a r l y f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e " d i d nothing t o p r e d i c t a d u l t behaviour" behaviour".  "problem  above and beyond " c h i l d h o o d problem  In o t h e r words, " e a r l y f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e " i s  not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f t h e d i r e c t i o n a person's  l i f e w i l l go.  C l e a r l y then, t h e r e i s n e c e s s a r i l y a  h i g h e r l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h i s study a c c u r a t e l y measures c h i l d r e n s ' images o r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s than t h a t i t measures how they came t o be, o r i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e exact q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t h e i r attachment-related  experiences.  Even though t h i s study i s not designed t o demonstrate the nature o f c h i l d r e n s ' experiences, tap a wide v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s .  i t may be important t o  Given t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t  p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l 5 t o 7 y e a r - o l d s have been m a l t r e a t e d (Berger, Knutson, Mehm, & P e r k i n s , 1988; P e l t o n , 1977; S t r a u s , 1979), i t i s c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l t h a t t h e response c a t e g o r i e s t a p some o f t h e images o r e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t a m a l t r e a t e d c h i l d might be expected  t o develop.  The  " i g n o r i n g b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " category taps an i s s u e c l e a r l y  6 c e n t r a l i n cases of n e g l e c t  (see C r i t t e n d e n ,  "angry b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " category  1988a).  s i m i l a r l y taps an  c l e a r l y c e n t r a l i n cases of p h y s i c a l abuse (see 1988a), and perhaps a l s o i n cases of n e g l e c t Conger, 1978).  Sexual abuse, as c o n s i d e r e d  p h y s i c a l abuse and n e g l e c t ,  issue  Crittenden,  (Burgess & distinctly  i s not d i r e c t l y tapped by  p a r t i c u l a r response c a t e g o r i e s . and  The  T h i s area a s i d e ,  these  "ignoring"  "angry b l o c k i n g access" c a t e g o r i e s are c o n s i d e r e d  u s e f u l i n spanning "normal" and m a l t r e a t e d i n t e r n a l images or e x p e c t a t i o n s . " p e r m i t t i n g " and considered  perceived  For t h a t matter,  be  the  are  t o be e q u a l l y u s e f u l f o r t h i s purpose.  In f u t u r e  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n degree of  " i g n o r i n g " , "angry", " p e r m i t t i n g " or "midway on  a c c e s s " c a r e g i v e r response f o r m a l t r e a t e d maltreated  to  subjects'  "midway on a c c e s s " c a t e g o r i e s  s t u d i e s of t h i s nature,  from  populations  i s probably  versus  b e s t tapped  non-  by  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f r e q u e n c i e s o f s e l e c t i o n f o r these f o u r access  categories.  Phenomenological  Considerations  In a review of 20-30 years of l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g  the  e f f e c t s o f c h i l d - t r a i n i n g methods on l a t e r p e r s o n a l i t y development Dubin and  Dubin (1964) noted "widespread  failure  even t o r e a l i s e t h a t i t i s not o n l y p a r e n t a l behaviour t o which the c h i l d responds but a l s o h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f p a r e n t a l behaviour"  (p. 809).  The  c h i l d ' s perception of parental  7 behaviour i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be the m i s s i n g element i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s response t o p a r e n t a l behaviour. to-one r e l a t i o n between p a r e n t a l behaviour and p e r s o n a l i t y has y e t t o be demonstrated success o f attachment 1978;  11  "The  one-  child  (p.810).  The  r e s e a r c h e r s , (e.g., Ainsworth e t a l . ,  C r i t t e n d e n , 1988a, 1988b; Main & Stadtman, 1981)  in  demonstrating s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between p a t t e r n s of p a r e n t a l and c h i l d behaviour does not negate the point. of may  Furthermore,  t h i s i s acknowledged w i t h i n the t h e o r y  the i n n e r working model (Bowlby, 1969, now  Dubins'  have improved  1973,  1980).  We  p r e d i c t i v e power between p a t t e r n s of  p a t e r n a l behaviour and p a t t e r n s of i n f a n t / c h i l d behaviours, between p a t t e r n s o f i n f a n t behaviour and psychopathology Jaskir,  1984),  child  f o r males (Lewis, F e i r i n g , McGuffog, & or between "problem c h i l d b e h a v i o u r " and  "problem a d u l t behaviour" (Caspi & E l d e r , 1988). there i s s t i l l  However,  a g r e a t d e a l of v a r i a n c e l e f t u n e x p l a i n e d  w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As w e l l , Hinde  (1982) suggests t h a t what was  i n the Strange S i t u a t i o n Procedure 1969)  was  observed  (Ainsworth & W i t t i g ,  not the c a r e g i v e r / c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e l f  but  r a t h e r the i n f a n t ' s view of i t , and a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time.  And  i n another r e f e r e n c e t o Bowlby, Main e t a l .  (1985) noted t h a t the Strange S i t u a t i o n r e f l e c t s a p r i m i t i v e i n t e r n a l working model a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time. R e c e n t l y , some attachment  r e s e a r c h e r s have i n c o r p o r a t e d  attempts t o d i r e c t l y t a p c h i l d r e n s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t o the  8 e s s e n t i a l d e s i g n o f t h e i r s t u d i e s (Cassidy, 1988; C a s s i d y & Kobak, 1988; Main, Kaplan  & Cassidy, 1985).  notes "problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e attempt  Cassidy  (1988)  t o make  o b s e r v a b l e t h a t which i s i n t e r n a l and unseen" (p.123) not the l e a s t b e i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f s e l f - r e p o r t s .  Main e t a l .  (1985) note t h a t i f c h i l d r e n s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f attachment are c o n s t r u c t e d out o f c r i t i c a l events  (such as s e p a r a t i o n s  from an attachment f i g u r e ) then r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n s ' responses t o such events a r e o f i n t e r e s t . F i n a l l y , C r i t t e n d e n (1988a) s t a t e s t h e need not o n l y t o f i n d ways t o change t h e experience o f abusing p a r e n t s and abused c h i l d r e n but a l s o t o f i n d ways t o change t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e i r experience.  Indeed, t h i s  study  i s designed t o e x p l o r e how 5 t o 7-year-old c h i l d r e n from one suburban neighbourhood c o n c e p t u a l i z e some a s p e c t s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c a r e g i v e r s , r e l a t i v e s and p e e r s .  Developmental C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  The 5 t o 7-year-old age group was chosen f o r t h i s i n p a r t because i t was thought  t o be t h e youngest  g e n e r a l l y capable o f c o n t r i b u t i n g u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n through t h i s format.  study  age group  internal  Indeed, a s m a l l but  s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y o f t h e 5-year-olds d i d not appear t o understand  o r t o be capable o f f o l l o w i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n s  sufficiently.  However, a t t h i s age i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e  use o f t h e f o r c e d - c h o i c e c a t e g o r i e s i s p r e f e r a b l e t o more  9 l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s because o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c and c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t y t o g i v e u s e f u l , i n t e r p r e t a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f themselves and o t h e r s . C e r t a i n l y , c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e i r responses i s enhanced. At t h e same time t h e c h i l d r e n themselves a r e s t i l l  being  s o l i c i t e d f o r t h e i r own views. Regarding t h e upper l i m i t o f t h i s age range, one o f Piaget's best v a l i d a t e d findings involves the great d i f f i c u l t y t h a t c h i l d r e n under 7 have i n s e e i n g  anything  from t h e p o i n t o f view o f anybody e l s e (Piaget, 1924; P i a g e t & Inhelder,  1948).  In t h e present  study t h i s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , c a l l e d "egocentrism", might be expected t o minimize t h e s u b j e c t s ' tendency t o t r y t o respond t o a perceived  expectation  of the interviewer.  T h i s form o f b i a s  then may s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e f o r groups o f c h i l d r e n o l d e r than 7. Rholes and Ruble (1984) suggest on t h e b a s i s o f two o f t h e i r own s t u d i e s and one by H e l l e r and Berndt and  6-year-old c h i l d r e n c o u l d a t b e s t make o n l y  (1981) t h a t 5 fairly  l i m i t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about others a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s . A f t e r t h e age o f 7 o r 8 c h i l d r e n were i n c r e a s i n g l y a b l e t o p e r c e i v e broad c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e behaviour o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n across d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s .  The p r e s e n t  d i f f e r s i n that p a r t i c u l a r caregivers are depicted, attachment-related  situations.  study and i n  In a d d i t i o n , subjects are  not r e q u i r e d t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s although we may observe g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r images o r  10 expectations  across the d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s .  These  other  s t u d i e s do however p o i n t t o f u r t h e r developmental changes a f t e r about t h e age o f 7.  The two Rholes and Ruble s t u d i e s  made an a d d i t i o n a l r e l e v a n t p o i n t i n t h a t they found evidence a g a i n s t t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t 5 t o 7 - y e a r - o l d s ' choices  r e f l e c t e d a " p o s i t i v i t y b i a s " , t h a t i s , a complete  preference  f o r p o s i t i v e behaviours.  R e l a t i v e t o 9 and 10-  year-olds,  they d i d not l a b e l t h e other c h i l d r e n s ' behaviour  as p o s i t i v e l y , though they were demonstrated t o be capable of doing so.  To summarize, although i t i s expected t h a t an  o l d e r group o f c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i v e t o a younger group o f children, could incorporate  i n their selections  expectations  o f s e l f and o t h e r s p o t e n t i a l l y a l t e r e d o r a f f e c t e d by a d d i t i o n a l l i f e experience - i t i s not c l e a r l y understood how t h e i r maturing developmental c a p a c i t i e s would a f f e c t t h e i r response  tendencies.  A p o s s i b l e advantage t o choosing t h i s age group involves the oft-expressed  p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c  o p i n i o n t h a t a c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i s l a r g e l y formed by t h e time he i s 4 through 6-years-old.  Attachment t h e o r i s t s  don't tend t o make t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , i n p a r t because a c l e a r r e l a t i o n between t h e i n n e r working model and the v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s has y e t t o be made. addition, there  isstill  the r e l a t i v e extent  a g r e a t d e a l o f debate  t o which v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s  behaviour demonstrate c o n t i n u i t y o r l a b i l i t y Thompson, Gardner, Charnov, & E s t e s ,  In  regarding  of c h i l d (e.g., Lamb,  1984; Thompson, Lamb, &  11 E s t e s , 1982).  Probably the d i s t i n c t i o n between open and  c l o s e d working models (see Chapter 2) r e f e r r i n g t o another continuum by which the i n n e r working model can be d e s c r i b e d - i s r e l e v a n t here.  I t may  be t h a t by a c e r t a i n average  age  a c h i l d has formed c l e a r images or e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g h i s attachment expectations  f i g u r e s and s e l f . (and others) may  However, these images o r  be more o r they may  be  less  open t o m i r r o r i n g any changes i n l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  This  p a r t i c u l a r study does not attempt t o measure the degree openness/closedness  of these c h i l d r e n s ' working  of  models.  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r degree has been e s t a b l i s h e d , a g a i n more o r l e s s , by the age of 5 o r so; t h a t i s another e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . attempts  In any event, t h i s  study  t o capture 5 t o 7 - y e a r - o l d s ' c u r r e n t images or  e x p e c t a t i o n s , however l a b i l e they s t i l l might be a t t h i s g e n e r a l age and f o r each p a r t i c u l a r  individual.  I n c l u s i o n of Teachers as Attachment F i g u r e s  S r o u f e ' s (1983) l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e study o f 40 y e a r - o l d p r e s c h o o l e r s goes a l o n g way  to establish  e m p i r i c a l l y t h a t c h i l d r e n can and do e x h i b i t behaviours towards t h e i r t e a c h e r s . c o n s i d e r e d t o be "attachment purpose  of t h i s study.  r e l a t i v e may  four-  attachment  Teachers are t e n t a t i v e l y  f i g u r e s " t o c h i l d r e n f o r the  Not uncommonly another in-home  take on s i g n i f i c a n t attachment  figure  status.  However, many c h i l d r e n do not have o l d e r s i b l i n g s or o t h e r  12 in-home r e l a t i v e s who  might a c t as attachment  figures.  P a r t l y f o r t h i s reason, each c h i l d ' s most permanent t e a c h e r was  s e l e c t e d to p o t e n t i a l l y represent a t h i r d  f i g u r e as d e p i c t e d i n the two speaking,  attachment  study measures.  Generally  each t e a c h e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o p o t e n t i a l l y a c t as a  "secondary"  (Ainsworth,  1982)  attachment f i g u r e and  each  p a r e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a " p r i n c i p a l " attachment  figure.  I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of the i n n e r working models o f c h i l d r e n w i l l p r o v i d e u s e f u l h i n t s f o r t h e r a p i s t s and s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l .  In C a r l Rogers' i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  V i r g i n i a A x l i n e ' s book (1947),  "Play Therapy", he w r i t e s  t h a t the book i s , "on the s u r f a c e , an account  of the way  which a t e a c h e r has come t o f u n c t i o n as a t h e r a p i s t ,  in  to  r e l e a s e the c u r a t i v e f o r c e s which e x i s t w i t h i n each individual"  (p.vii).  Axline believes that a teacher  make a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a c h i l d ' s  can  life-course.  She w r i t e s , the t h e r a p i s t - t e a c h e r i s a l e r t t o r e c o g n i z e the f e e l i n g s the c h i l d i s e x p r e s s i n g and r e f l e c t s  those  f e e l i n g s back t o the c h i l d i n such a manner t h a t the c h i l d g a i n s i n s i g h t i n t o h i s behaviour. done t o a g r e a t extent i n any classroom the t e a c h e r has an understanding i n s i g h t i n t o human behaviour.  T h i s can  situation i f  of her p u p i l s and  an  I f the t h e r a p e u t i c  r e l a t i o n s h i p has been e s t a b l i s h e d between p u p i l t e a c h e r , many c h i l d r e n may  be  and  be helped t o g a i n v a l u a b l e  i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r problems b e f o r e the problems become  13 so u n w i e l d l y t h a t they c r e a t e s e r i o u s maladjustment, (p.142)  Given C a s p i and E l d e r ' s (1988) evidence t h a t " c h i l d h o o d problem behaviour" mediates the r e l a t i o n between " e a r l y f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e " and "negative a d u l t behaviour", i t f o l l o w s t h a t " c h i l d h o o d problem behaviour" may  represent a  u s e f u l p o i n t of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a p o t e n t i a l l y p a t h o l o g i c a l life-course.  School probably r e p r e s e n t s the most  s i g n i f i c a n t stage between e a r l y n e g a t i v e f a m i l y experience on the one hand, and t r o u b l e w i t h the p o l i c e and a d u l t behaviour and p a r e n t i n g on the o t h e r .  negative  Teachers  can  become s i g n i f i c a n t attachment f i g u r e s a c t i n g t o c o n f i r m or d i s r u p t any n e g a t i v e and p o t e n t i a l l y e x p e c t a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n .  self-fulfilling  As C r i t t e n d e n (1988a) and Bowlby  (1988) have p o i n t e d out, c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n need t o spend time w i t h someone whose s e n s i t i v e responsiveness  and  communication of p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s towards and about them act  t o a l l o w c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i v e changes i n t h e i r i n n e r  working model. t e a c h e r who  S i m i l a r l y , Summit (1984) c l a i m s , "the  r e l a t e s e f f e c t i v e l y t o a c h i l d may  t h a t c h i l d an anchor of self-endorsement  and a p r o t o t y p e  which t o b u i l d o t h e r s u c c e s s f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " However, a l t e r n a t i v e l y ,  "the c h i l d may  t e a c h e r as an e x t e n s i o n of the p a r e n t . may  become f o r on  (p.33)  tend t o see the  . . and the t e a c h e r  f e e l i n the student an i n a p p r o p r i a t e f e a r and  distrust  14 accompanied by t e r r i b l e p r e s s u r e t o perform and a b j e c t expectation of f a i l u r e .  . ."  (p.33).  Aber, A l l e n , C a r l s o n and C i c c h e t t i  (1989) go so f a r as  t o say t h a t f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n attachment t o primary c a r e g i v e r s should perhaps be subsumed t o o t h e r s t a g e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f the attachment system, f o r example, t h e i r a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s with novel adults.  I f so, t h i s p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r reason t o e x p l o r e the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d r e n and t h e i r t e a c h e r s , both i t s a c t u a l i t i e s and i t s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s .  Bowlby (1973) a l s o  c o n s i d e r e d t h i s a type of r e l a t i o n s h i p worthy of e x p l o r a t i o n and c h a l l e n g e d r e s e a r c h e r s t o e s t a b l i s h e m p i r i c a l l y t h a t c h i l d r e n showed a c t u a l attachment behaviours  towards  teachers. F i n a l l y , Cohn (1990) has conducted  what i s p r o b a b l y the  most s i g n i f i c a n t e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h i l d - p a r e n t attachment and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the c h i l d t o peers and t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l s e t t i n g s i n c e the Sroufe (1983) study.  Cohn found t h a t 6-year-old boys, but not  g i r l s , w i t h an i n s e c u r e attachment t o t h e i r mothers are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e lower s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g s and h i g h e r r a t i n g s on a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and problems i n the s c h o o l .  behaviour  Non-attachment s t u d i e s s i m i l a r l y  p r o v i d e evidence t h a t "non-maltreated"  c h i l d r e n growing up  under a p a r e n t i n g s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  irritability,  e x p l o s i v e n e s s and t h r e a t s develop an a g g r e s s i v e s t y l e t h a t i s o f t e n g e n e r a l i z e d from the f a m i l y t o peers and  teachers  15 i n the s c h o o l  ( P a t t e r s o n , DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989;  Whitbeck, Conger, & Wu own  Chyi-In, 1991).  C l e a r l y , the  Simons, child's  p e r c e p t i o n s , images or e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i s t e a c h e r  qua  attachment f i g u r e i s an area of c h i l d development worthy of study. The p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study have been chosen t o maximize the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o understanding i n s i g h t i n t o c h i l d behaviour  and  f o r teachers i n t h e i r capacity  as attachment f i g u r e s and t e a c h e r - t h e r a p i s t s .  Some of the  most b a s i c dimensions of attachment theory have been utilized  f o r t h i s purpose namely, c h i l d d i s t r e s s s t a t e s i n  t h e i r c a p a c i t y as a c t i v a t o r s of the attachment b e h a v i o u r a l system, p r o x i m i t y seeking behaviour,  attachment f i g u r e as  "secure base" from which t o e x p l o r e the world,  attachment  f i g u r e behaviour w i t h r e s p e c t t o p e r m i t t i n g or b l o c k i n g access t o the c h i l d , and  i n t e r n a l working models as  e l u c i d a t e d i n c h i l d r e n s ' images or e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a d u l t attachment  behaviour.  16  Background, Development and T h e o r e t i c a l B a s i s o f the Problem T h i s study f o l l o w s i n the t r a d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by Sroufe  (1983) o f r e g a r d i n g the t e a c h e r  as a p o t e n t i a l  attachment f i g u r e . I t a l s o r e l i e s h e a v i l y on a s i n g l e c l a r i f y i n g  statement  made by Main e t a l . , (1985) t h a t t h e r e are b a s i c a l l y t h r e e ways t h a t an attachment f i g u r e can respond t o proximity  seeking behaviour, by p e r m i t t i n g  two  group.  of  non-  p h y s i c a l l y abused and/or n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n .  The m a l t r e a t e d considered  access.  measures of t h i s study are designed t o attempt  t o tap the i n t e r n a l images or e x p e c t a t i o n s maltreated,  child  access  c o n s i s t e n t l y , or i n c o n s i s t e n t l y , or by b l o c k i n g The  only  and non-maltreated c a t e g o r i e s are  t o be completely  d i s t i n c t w i t h i n the  T h i s i d e a i s supported i n two  not subject  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ways.  F i r s t , a c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s 5 t o 7-yearo l d group can be expected t o have been m a l t r e a t e d .  In t h i s  case t h a t c o n c l u s i o n i s based on s t a t i s t i c s f o r l a r g e populations  of c h i l d r e n .  study o f 1146  (1979) i n a  f a m i l i e s , found t h a t more than 14%  c h i l d r e n , 3 t o 17, 10.5  For example, Straus  r e c e i v e d abusive  o f American  v i o l e n c e an average of  times a year i n the form of "punching, k i c k i n g , b i t i n g ,  h i t t i n g w i t h an o b j e c t ,  'beating up',  a d d i t i o n , the most c o n s e r v a t i v e  or 'using a gun'.  estimates  In  of the annual  i n c i d e n c e o f p h y s i c a l abuse o f c h i l d r e n range from 60,000 t o 167,000 i n the U.S.  Neglect  i s b e l i e v e d t o be more than  17 t w i c e as f r e q u e n t ( P e l t o n , 1977). maltreatment  " M a l t r e a t e d " can mean  t h a t has been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n  agencies u s i n g one o r another c r i t e r i a .  However,  " m a l t r e a t e d " might a l s o mean maltreatment  t h a t would be  s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e same c r i t e r i a were a l l t h e f a c t s known t o a c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n agency.  There a r e many c o m p l i c a t e d  i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f maltreatment A l s o a c e r t a i n amount o f maltreatment  .  by any d e f i n i t i o n goes  unreported. The m a l t r e a t e d and non-maltreated  c a t e g o r i e s a r e not  c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i s t i n c t w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t group r a t h e r a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e as w e l l .  from  They a r e not  completely d i s t i n c t i n terms o f t h e types o f e x p e r i e n c e (and consequent i n n e r images o r e x p e c t a t i o n s ) shared t o one degree o r another by some members o f both c a t e g o r i e s . Bowlby (1973) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s a v a s t amount o f i n t e r m e d i a t e experience between those groups o f people w i t h extremes o f good and bad experience.  Each person i n a l l  groups grow up w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s t o match h i s / h e r e a r l y experience.  In t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e range,  p r o v i d e d t h e r u l e s have been moderate and t h e s a n c t i o n s m i l d and p r e d i c t a b l e , a person can s t i l l  come  c o n f i d e n t l y t o b e l i e v e t h a t support w i l l always be a v a i l a b l e when needed. But when r u l e s have been  strict  and d i f f i c u l t t o keep, and when s a n c t i o n s on b r e a k i n g them have been severe and e s p e c i a l l y when they have i n c l u d e d t h r e a t s t o withdraw support, c o n f i d e n c e i s  18 l i k e l y to wilt.  (p.209)  To i l l u s t r a t e f u r t h e r t h e commonalities i n experience between groups o f c h i l d r e n l a b e l l e d "maltreated" maltreated",  o r "non-  George and Main (1979) note s i m i l a r i t i e s  between r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n (without  substantiated  maltreatment) and t h e i r mothers on t h e one hand and p h y s i c a l l y abused c h i l d r e n and t h e i r mothers on t h e o t h e r . Both groups o f c h i l d r e n respond with avoidance t o t h e mother.  Both groups o f mothers engage i n angry, r e j e c t i n g  behaviour and a v e r s i o n t o p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t . (1988a) d e s c r i b e s abusive  Crittenden  c a r e g i v e r s as p r o v i d i n g g e n e r a l l y  needed c a r e accompanied by e x c e s s i v e anger, harshness and/or hostility.  Adequately r e a r e d c h i l d r e n c l e a r l y share t h e  experiences  i n h e r e n t i n " g e n e r a l l y needed c a r e " .  Crittenden  uses t h e same s c a l e s f o r f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f m a l t r e a t i n g mothers and one category  o f adequate mothers; a l l f i v e  c a t e g o r i e s o f c a r e g i v e r demonstrate one degree o r another o f the same types o f behaviours scales.  as c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g t h e shared  The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n degree do  d i s t i n g u i s h them however. Berger's e t a l . ' s (1988) study u s i n g t h e s e l f - r e p o r t s o f 4695 c o l l e g e students demonstrated t h a t 12% o f them c o u l d i d e n t i f y actual physical i n j u r i e s received during The  childhood.  g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f them had never been d e s i g n a t e d as  " p h y s i c a l l y abused".  Furthermore, o n l y 3% o f t h e students  c o n s i d e r e d themselves t o have been " p h y s i c a l l y abused".  19 C l e a r l y , however, t h i s study suggests t h a t a number of these s t u d e n t s by the age of 7 had probably been exposed t o harsh o r angry c a r e g i v e r behaviour. Simons e t a l . ' s (1991) study used parent and  adolescent  s e l f - r e p o r t s i n an e x p l o r a t i o n of harsh p h y s i c a l punishment practices.  They found t h a t male a d o l e s c e n t s were two  t h r e e times as l i k e l y t o be p h y s i c a l l y punished To be p h y s i c a l l y punished  as  to  females.  i n the p o s t - c h i l d h o o d y e a r s i s  c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s i g n of harsher p h y s i c a l p a r e n t i n g practices.  They do r e p o r t , however, t h a t although  abusive  p a r e n t i n g c o n t i n u e s t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t problem, harsh p a r e n t i n g has d e c l i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y over the course of the l a s t generation. The p o i n t of these examples i s towards the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the " m a l t r e a t e d " and "non-maltreated"  c a t e g o r i e s may  be  r e a s o n a b l y c o n c e i v e d as o p p o s i t e p o l e s on a rough continuum (or s e t of continuums) of c h i l d h o o d experience.  Rather  simply v i e w i n g c h i l d r e n as m a l t r e a t e d or not i t may  than  w e l l be  more u s e f u l and l e s s o b f u s c a t i n g t o view them i n terms of t h e i r own  (phenomenological)  range of c a r e - r e c e i v i n g  e x p e r i e n c e s a l o n g t h i s continuum The use o f the e a r l y A-B-C  (or s e t o f  continuums).  attachment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system  allowed many m a l t r e a t e d and s e m i - d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n f a n t s t o be c l a s s i f i e d as "secure"  (Spieker & Booth, 1988).  This  was  thought t o be a r e s u l t of an i n i t i a l primary focus on normal development ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1988b; S p i e k e r & Booth, 1988). s i t u a t i o n i s changing  f o r the b e t t e r i n the s t r e n g t h e n i n g  The  20  "marriage" o f developmental psychology and psychopathology (Belsky & Nezworski, 1988; Sroufe, 1986).  However, t h e  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s o f "normal" o r "abnormal", " m a l t r e a t e d " o r "non-maltreated" w i l l always  inevitably  remain t o some e x t e n t a " p o l i t i c a l " d e c i s i o n , s u b j e c t t o l o c a l e , e r a and human decision-making b o d i e s .  21  Chapter 2: L i t e r a t u r e Review: Overview  T h i s l i t e r a t u r e review i s comprised i n f o u r s e c t i o n s . Some o f the u n d e r l y i n g i n i t i a l l y explained  dimensions of attachment theory  and d e s c r i b e d  of behaviour, types of b e h a v i o u r a l  are  including c e r t a i n patterns systems and  behavioural  strategies. The  second s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the development of a  "marriage" between developmental psychology and psychology and p s y c h i a t r y . w i t h i n a context  T h i s "marriage" i s d e s c r i b e d  of the i n t e g r a t i o n o f d i s c i p l i n e s .  s e c t i o n i s included to provide for  clinical  f u r t h e r support and  This rationale  t h i s study's i n c l u s i o n of a l a r g e amount o f m a t e r i a l  from areas o f psychology and The  psychiatry.  t h i r d s e c t i o n i s a major s e c t i o n and  review of the l i t e r a t u r e on p e r c e p t u a l e x c l u s i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o attachment.  a substantial  d i s t o r t i o n or I t i s included i n  l a r g e p a r t i n order t o h e l p s e t l i m i t s on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f study r e s u l t s .  This section also contains  a review of  the l i m i t e d number of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t u d i e s conducted w i t h the same age The  final  group as i n t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  s e c t i o n l a y s out the theory  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l working model and s t u d i e s which support and d e s c r i b i n g i t s key  f e a t u r e s and  of the i n n e r  some o f the  refine i t .  study. or  empirical  In a d d i t i o n t o  types of s t r u c t u r e s ,  examples are g i v e n o f i n n e r models h e l d by v a r i o u s types o f  22 adequate and m a l t r e a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s .  C o n t i n u i t y and  i n the i n n e r working model and consequently explored.  T h i s s e c t i o n concludes  a p p l i c a t i o n s and  i n behaviour i s  with a d i s c u s s i o n of  future research d i r e c t i o n s .  T h i s i s the  s e c t i o n most o b v i o u s l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study of a s p e c t s o f 5 t o 7-year-old  change  important  boys' i n n e r models, t h a t i s ,  t h e i r i n n e r images or e x p e c t a t i o n s o f attachment f i g u r e s and self.  23  Important Dimensions  o f Attachment  Theory  Organized p a t t e r n s o f attachment behaviour may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from s e p a r a t e , d i s c r e t e attachment b e h a v i o u r s . Such d i s c r e t e behaviours, eg. " s m i l i n g " , " c r y i n g " o r " t o u c h i n g " , have been t r a c e d through e a r l y development  by  frequency counts and g e n e r a l l y without r e g a r d t o t h e i r c o n t e x t u a l meaning.  I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e same behaviour,  f o r example, " s m i l i n g " , may l o s e i t s common  (prosocial)  meaning i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s such as i n response t o t h e d i s t r e s s o f another.  In o t h e r cases l a r g e numbers o f  o r d i n a r i l y d i s s i m i l a r behaviours may be subsumed t o g e t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o some meaningful p r i n c i p l e . be l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t  Similarly,  i t may  ( i n i t i a l l y ) t o measure t h e s t r e n g t h o r  weakness o f d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s than t o measure t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; o r i t may be l e s s p e r t i n e n t t o look a t the s e v e r i t y of maladaptation i n development  o r c a r e g i v i n g than t o look a t t h e " s t y l e " o r  manner o f c a r e g i v i n g o r o f meeting developmental  issues  (Ainsworth, 1982; C r i t t e n d e n , 1988b; Sroufe, 1983). There a r e f o u r types o f b e h a v i o u r a l systems  activated  by t h e Strange S i t u a t i o n Procedure and by t h e v a r i o u s o t h e r assessment  t o o l s o f attachment  research.  The attachment  b e h a v i o u r a l system i s s t u d i e d i n i n t e r p l a y w i t h t h e w a r i n e s s / f e a r , a f f i l i a t i o n / s o c i a b i l i t y , and e x p l o r a t i o n b e h a v i o u r a l systems. classified  S i n g l e behaviours t h a t c o u l d be  i n two systems, e.g., moving toward mother  24 (attachment) w h i l e moving away from a s t r a n g e r the  (wariness) o r  s e q u e n t i a l a c t i v a t i o n o f more than one system, e.g.,  o f f e r i n g an o b j e c t t o t h e s t r a n g e r  (affiliative)  then  immediately running t o mother (attachment) a r e n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t s o f ongoing a c t i v i t y and environment Cicchetti,  (Schneider-Rosen, Braunwalk, C a r l s o n & 1985).  Each b e h a v i o u r a l system i s a c t i v a t e d by a unique s e t o f conditions.  I f one i s a c t i v a t e d a t low i n t e n s i t y  (e.g.,  attachment) i t i s l i k e l y t h a t another w i l l be a c t i v a t e d a t high i n t e n s i t y the  (eg. e x p l o r a t i o n ) , and t h i s w i l l  behaviour t h a t i s observed.  determine  The s t r a n g e o r n o v e l may  a c t i v a t e t h e e x p l o r a t o r y system o r a t a h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y (or i n t h e case o f a d i f f e r e n t c h i l d ) , t h e f e a r / w a r i n e s s system, with l i k e l y  i n t e n s i f i e d attachment behaviour (Ainsworth,  1982) . Corresponding t o t h e c h i l d ' s attachment b e h a v i o u r a l system i s t h e p a r e n t a l attachment b e h a v i o u r a l system.  Both  systems s e r v e p r o x i m i t y maintenance and p r o t e c t i o n and nurturance of the c h i l d Crittenden of  (Bowlby,  1969).  (1988b) d e s c r i b e s f o u r u n i v e r s a l dimensions  attachment t h e o r y , i n i t i a l l y s e t out by Ainsworth (1978).  Behaviours t h a t a c t t o b r i n g about p r o x i m i t y o r m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t c o r r e c t attachment p a r t n e r s a r e two f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ones. "resistance".  More complex a r e "avoidance" and  "Avoidance", i n v o l v e s t h e avoidance o f t h e  attachment f i g u r e o r o f o t h e r cues l i k e l y t o a c t i v a t e t h e  25 attachment b e h a v i o u r a l heightening  system.  of responsiveness  "Resistance"  involves a  on the p a r t o f the c h i l d  to  attachment e l i c i t i n g cues and t o the attachment f i g u r e - t o the p o i n t of anger and d i f f i c u l t y i n calming down ( C a r l s o n , C i c c h e t t i , Barnett,  & Braunwald, 1989).  dimensions or b e h a v i o u r a l  These f o u r  s t r a t e g i e s are thought t o u n d e r l i e  the e n t i r e attachment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system w i t h p o s s i b l e a d d i t i o n ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1988b, 1989). " c o n t r o l l i n g " behavioural population  one  T h i s i s the  strategy i d e n t i f i e d i n a  of 6-year-olds by Main and  Cassidy  (1988).  These  c h i l d r e n , whose behaviour had been v e r y d i s o r g a n i z e d i n i n f a n c y , were observed t o c o n t r o l t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s i n e i t h e r a p u n i t i v e or a c a r e g i v i n g f a s h i o n .  26  C o g n i t i v e and A f f e c t i v e B i a s D i s o r d e r s o f attachment a r e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e child/parent r e l a t i o n s h i p that r e s u l t i n the c h i l d ' s i n a b i l i t y t o experience and  t h e parent  as e m o t i o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e  as a r e l i a b l e p r o t e c t o r from e x t e r n a l danger o r i n t e r n a l  distress  (Lieberman & Pawl, 1988).  A secure  attachment  i n v o l v e s t h e c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s a f e and u n d i s t r e s s e d w i t h t h e parent  while  and f o r s h o r t but i n c r e a s i n g p e r i o d s o f time  w h i l e away from t h e parent.  In t h e meantime, f e e l i n g s o f  l o n g i n g and t h e d e s i r e t o r e s t o r e p r o x i m i t y p a r t and p a r c e l o f a secure Ainsworth e t a l . , 1978).  and c o n t a c t a r e  attachment (Bowlby, 1969;  A secure  attachment t o mother  hinges on t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r f a c t o r s : mother's s e n s i t i v i t y to s i g n a l s , her timing of interventions, the c h i l d ' s experience  o f p r e d i c t a b l e n e s s with r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s u l t s o f  h i s s o c i a l i n i t i a t i v e s , and t h e extent t o which h i s s o c i a l i n i t i a t i v e s are successful i n helping e s t a b l i s h a r e c i p r o c a l exchange w i t h h e r (Bowlby, 1969). When a c h i l d i s met by r e j e c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e attachment f i g u r e , a c o n f l i c t i s c r e a t e d f o r t h e c h i l d & Stadtman, 1981).  (Main  The c h i l d i s t o some extent t o r n between  attachment behaviour and withdrawal. Bowlby (197 3) i n i t i a l l y d i s c u s s e d t h i s c o n f l i c t i n terms o f v i o l e n c e o r t h r e a t s r a t h e r than r e j e c t i o n p e r se on t h e p a r t o f t h e attachment figure.  He noted t h e l i k e l i n e s s o f i n f a n t s , human and non-  human, t o c l i n g t o t h e t h r e a t e n i n g o r h o s t i l e attachment  27 figure.  Whether t h e attachment f i g u r e ' s behaviour i s one o f  p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n o r a m i l d e r form o f p h y s i c a l o r emotional r e j e c t i o n , t h e c h i l d w i l l t o some degree  find  h i m s e l f t o r n between t h e o p p o s i t e responses o f approach and withdrawal. There i s p a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h both p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n and r e j e c t i o n .  However, when t h e a g g r e s s i n g o r r e j e c t i n g  i n d i v i d u a l i s a l s o t h e attachment f i g u r e t h e r e i s an a d d i t i o n a l component o f p a i n i n t h e form o f anger and a n x i e t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n f l i c t between attachment behaviour and withdrawal.  C h i l d r e n who a v o i d t h e attachment  f i g u r e and o t h e r cues l i k e l y t o a c t i v a t e t h e attachment b e h a v i o u r a l system a r e thought t o be d e a c t i v a t i n g t h e p a i n f u l conciousness o f t h i s c o n f l i c t 1988; Main & Stadtman,  1981).  (Cassidy & Kobak,  An a v o i d a n t c o n f l i c t may be  c e n t r a l t o t h e c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o u r a l responses o f many m a l t r e a t e d c h i l d r e n and non-maltreated c h i l d r e n  (Crittenden,  1988a). As e a r l y as 1979, George and Main r e c o g n i z e d t h e s i m i l a r i t y between normal r e j e c t e d t o d d l e r s ' and p h y s i c a l l y abused t o d d l e r s ' avoidance o f t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s . a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l .  They shared  When they were n o t  e x p r e s s i n g a v o i d a n t behaviour they were both s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a g g r e s s i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s empathic t o t h e d i s t r e s s of others.  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e s i m i l a r t o  those o f a v o i d a n t c a r e g i v e r s .  That i s , a v o i d a n t c a r e g i v e r s  were demonstrated t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p h y s i c a l l y  28 r e j e c t i n g and  i n s e n s i t i v e with infants during  the  first  year  of l i f e when i n f a n t s are thought t o most need p h y s i c a l comforting  (Blehar,  Ainsworth & Main, unpub. ms.;  Marvin,  1977) ; i n a d d i t i o n p h y s i c a l l y r e j e c t i n g mothers were more l i k e l y t o handle t h e i r i n f a n t s roughly d u r i n g (Main & Stadtman, 1981).  This  free  play  "avoidant-aggressive  syndrome" (George & Main, 1979)  i s particularly interesting  with regard to p h y s i c a l contact  because a v e r s i o n  contact  and  divergent  rough p h y s i c a l h a n d l i n g seem t o be  behaviours (Main & Stadtman, 1981;  C a s s i d y and  such  O l d e r , 1981).  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  research  f i n d i n g s as w e l l as i n measurement c o n s t r u c t i o n At the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  behavioural l e v e l , strategies,  physical  Kobak (1988) suggest t h a t avoidance i s a  s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the  design.  to  subjects  "deactivation  and  research  l e v e l , as opposed t o  commonly use  two  the  defensive  of the attachment system"  and  "idealization".  Avoidance i s c e n t r a l t o both s t r a t e g i e s .  In a study of 52  s i x - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n Cassidy  t h a t those who  were c l a s s i f i e d as avoidant i n i n f a n c y were  more l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e p e r f e c t s c o r e s on  self-esteem,  s u g g e s t i n g l e s s than a c c u r a t e s e l f - r e p o r t i n g specifically,  (1988) found  "idealization".  I t was,  and  however, not  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c h i l d r e n p r e v i o u s l y  possible  classified  secure or avoidant on the b a s i s of p e r f e c t s c o r i n g  alone  s i n c e about a t h i r d of secure c h i l d r e n a l s o r e c e i v e d scores.  The  remaining secure c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d  p o s i t i v e l y , w i t h some flaws.  In a d o l l e x e r c i s e  as  perfect  themselves designed t o  29 t a p t h e i r views of s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o attachment f i g u r e s , the 6-year-olds p r e v i o u s l y c l a s s i f i e d as avoidant were l e s s l i k e l y t o acknowledge the importance  of t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r mothers, t o express a f f e c t i o n or t o v a l u e and accept themselves.  Kaplan and Main (1985) found  t h a t 6-year-old c h i l d r e n p r e v i o u s l y c l a s s i f i e d as avoidant, when asked t o draw f a m i l y f i g u r e s , drew tense o r f i g u r e s with l i t t l e  individuality.  rigid  These f i g u r e s were  unable t o reach out t o o t h e r s s i n c e they were drawn without arms.  F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s were o f t e n s t e r e o t y p e d w i t h  overemphasized s m i l e s s u g g e s t i n g the masking of n e g a t i v e affect.  O v e r a l l , the drawings s t r o n g l y suggested  the  d e a c t i v a t i o n of the attachment b e h a v i o u r a l system as expressed a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l e v e l .  In a d d i t i o n ,  these  same c h i l d r e n were shown a s e r i e s of photographs d e p i c t i n g s e p a r a t i o n s between c h i l d and mother (Hansburg S e p a r a t i o n A n x i e t y T e s t adapted  f o r age by Klagsbrun and Bowlby, 1976).  Those 6-year-olds c l a s s i f i e d as avoidant i n i n f a n c y were l a r g e l y unable t o suggest the use of o t h e r s as sources of comfort and support or t o suggest a d a p t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s in general.  They were, however, a b l e t o acknowledge  d i s t r e s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s i t u a t i o n s d e p i c t e d .  Cassidy  and Kobak conclude t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of experimental o b s e r v a t i o n on behaviour,  s e l f - r e p o r t s and on the v a r i o u s  forms of s e l f - r e l a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s - may attachment o r g a n i z a t i o n .  vary with  30 Based l a r g e l y on c l i n i c a l experience, Bowlby (1973, 1980)  c l a i m s t h a t i d e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e parent  (as opposed t o  i d e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e l f ) i s a common phenomenon i n v o l v i n g the e x c l u s i o n from awareness o f t h e model o f t h e bad unloving parent.  Some causes  include parental r i d i c u l i n g of  the c h i l d ' s s e c u r i t y - s e e k i n g (attachment)  behaviors,  their  r e i n t e r p r e t i n g r e j e c t i o n as l o v e o r motivated by l o v e , and o t h e r forms o f disavowing  o r denying t h e c h i l d ' s  angry o r l o v i n g f e e l i n g s towards t h e p a r e n t .  anxious,  Given  such  circumstances, a model o f t h e bad, u n l o v i n g parent i s s t i l l thought  t o e x i s t below conciousness as a " s u b o r d i n a t e " model  and t o c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  One mechanism  by which c o n f l i c t i n g i n n e r models may occur s i m u l t a n e o u s l y involves the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of " a c t u a l " experience with the attachment f i g u r e i n t o many c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d "schemata" (Mandler,  1979) a t d i f f e r e n t h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s o f memory  ( B r e t h e r t o n , Ridgeway, & Cassidy, 1990; Schank, 1982) A f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e p r o c e s s e d , p a r t i t i o n e d , c r o s s - i n d e x e d and summarized i n a v a r i e t y o f ways r e s u l t i n g i n t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r n a l schemata which simulate r e a l i t y .  Memories excluded a t t h e e p i s o d i c l e v e l ,  t h a t i s , e p i s o d i c memories excluded from conciousness, may n e v e r t h e l e s s be i n c l u d e d i n schemata a t o t h e r l e v e l s i n f l u e n c i n g a person's  thus  t h i n k i n g and behaviour.  Bowlby (1973) d e s c r i b e s " c o g n i t i v e development" as c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e s t e p s undergone from simple s t i m u l u s response t o u s i n g r u l e s t o combine i n f o r m a t i o n from  31 p e r c e p t i o n and memory.  By means of these r u l e s the  i n d i v i d u a l can p r e d i c t events i n the world more or a c c u r a t e l y and p l a n and respond a c c o r d i n g l y .  less  An  i n d i v i d u a l ' s " c o g n i t i v e b i a s " , along s i m i l a r l i n e s of reasoning,  r e f e r s t o the speed, completeness and accuracy  the p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n .  of  These r e l a t e d concepts  d e s c r i b e the f u n c t i o n i n g of the i n n e r working model. "The  storage of images of parents  c e r t a i n t o be of a t l e a s t two p.62).  They may  and s e l f i s almost  d i s t i n c t types"  (Bowlby,  1973,  be s t o r e d i n / a s " e p i s o d i c " or "semantic"  memory ( T u l v i n g , 1972).  E p i s o d i c memory commonly r e t a i n s  i t s p e r c e p t u a l p r o p e r t i e s w h i l e f i t t i n g i n t e g r a l l y i n t o the rememberer's sense of h i s p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y o r l i f e h i s t o r y . Semantic memory, on the o t h e r hand, i s comprised o f i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d i n the form of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  These  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the degree t o which they are " c o n s t r u c t e d " versus  "taken i n whole" from o t h e r s .  In a study of 40 a d u l t couples Main e t a l . (1985) demonstrated a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between i d e a l i z a t i o n of the a d u l t s ' parents childhood.  and  r e j e c t i o n by those p a r e n t s  C r i t t e n d e n ' s s t u d i e s (1985, 1988a) o f  p a r e n t - c h i l d dyads i s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t i v e pathway t o i d e a l i z a t i o n of the parent. months of age "cooperate"  during  some m a l t r e a t e d  of one  possible  From as e a r l y as  12  i n f a n t s were demonstrated t o  w i t h t h e i r mothers i n a r i g i d manner w h i l e  i n h i b i t i n g d i r e c t expressions mother ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1988b).  o f n e g a t i v e a f f e c t towards the They were d e s c r i b e d  as  32 " c o m p u l s i v e l y compliant" as opposed t o " c o o p e r a t i v e " towards the mother ( C r i t t e n d e n & D i L a l l a , 1988).  These mothers were  found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n t r o l l i n g and i n t e r f e r i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s e n s i t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e than o t h e r mothers.  The i n h i b i t i o n o f n e g a t i v e a f f e c t i n those  s i t u a t i o n s i n which i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e l y expressed i s expected t o put these c h i l d r e n a t a disadvantage a c t u a l l y knowing how they do f e e l . p h y s i c a l l y abusive parents  i n terms o f  In a d d i t i o n , many  (Azar, Robinson,  Hekimian, &  Twentyman, 1984; Azar & Rohrbeck, 1986; C r i t t e n d e n , 1988a) and perhaps n e g l e c t i n g p a r e n t s as w e l l (Azar e t a l . ,  1984)  have an u n u s u a l l y s t r o n g need t o be viewed as "good" parents. behaviour,  Given p a t t e r n s o f c o m p u l s i v e l y  compliant  i n h i b i t e d n e g a t i v e a f f e c t and c o n t r o l l i n g  parents  who perhaps need t o be viewed as n e a r - p e r f e c t p a r e n t s , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o imagine  some s i g n i f i c a n t number o f these  c h i l d r e n "learning" t o i d e a l i z e t h e i r parents. R e i d e r and C i c c h e t t i  (1989) r e p o r t d i f f e r e n t forms o f  information processing d e f i c i t s or, "cognitive control s t r a t e g i e s " , i n a study o f 72 f o u r t o n i n e - y e a r - o l d children.  Maltreated c h i l d r e n versus  non-maltreated  c h i l d r e n and boys i n g e n e r a l v e r s u s g i r l s i n g e n e r a l a r e more l i k e l y t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o d i s t r a c t i n g s t i m u l i when they a r e a g g r e s s i v e i n nature knives).  (i.e.,  images o f guns and  When n e u t r a l s t i m u l i a r e i n t h e foreground and  a g g r e s s i v e s t i m u l i a r e i n the background m a l t r e a t e d c h i l d r e n of both genders and boys i n g e n e r a l a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  33 l i k e l y t o a t t e n d t o i . e . , "the sharpening t o " background stimuli.  When a g g r e s s i v e and n e u t r a l s t i m u l i were r e v e r s e d  w i t h r e s p e c t t o background and foreground,  maltreated  c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e a g g r e s s i v e s t i m u l i more a c c u r a t e l y ; non-maltreated  c h i l d r e n o f both genders were  l e s s l i k e l y t o a t t e n d t o , i e . "the l e v e l l i n g t o " , t h e foreground a g g r e s s i v e s t i m u l i .  R e i d e r and C i c c h e t t i  suggest  t h a t t h e m a l t r e a t e d c h i l d , by t u r n i n g towards a g g r e s s i v e cues and as a r e s u l t away from non-aggressive b e t t e r prepared t o d e a l w i t h a d v e r s i t y . al.'s  ones, may  feel  Given Simons e t  (1991) f i n d i n g t h a t a d o l e s c e n t boys a r e two t o t h r e e  times more l i k e l y than a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s t o be p h y s i c a l l y , o f t e n h a r s h l y , punished by t h e i r parents i t would not seem u n l i k e l y t h a t roughly t h e same might apply f o r these 4 t o 9y e a r - o l d boys and g i r l s .  In o t h e r words, i n a d d i t i o n t o  m a l t r e a t e d c h i l d r e n o f both genders,  boys i n g e n e r a l may, by  sharpening t o a g g r e s s i v e cues, f e e l b e t t e r prepared t o d e a l with adversity.  Furthermore,  i f i t c o u l d be shown t h a t boys  are s u b j e c t t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r amounts o f p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n from persons o t h e r than t h e i r p a r e n t s  (e.g.,  peers, t e a c h e r s ) t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n would be supported further.  Of course, o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s w i l l no doubt  c o n t r i b u t e t o a f u l l e r understanding  o f t h i s phenomenon.  R e i d e r ' s and C i c c h e t t i ' s concepts o f "sharpening" and " l e v e l l i n g " t o s t i m u l i seem t o correspond c l o s e l y t o Bowlby's concepts o f " p e r c e p t u a l v i g i l a n c e " and " p e r c e p t u a l defence"  (Bowlby, 1973).  One d i f f e r e n c e perhaps a p p l i e s t o  34  the g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l applications  for affective neutrality  o f t h e former p a i r o f terms.  i n the  While  "sharpening" and " l e v e l l i n g " apply d e s c r i p t i v e l y  with  respect t o the perceiver's r e l a t i o n t o strong a f f e c t i v e s t i m u l i , they don't n e c e s s a r i l y  apply i n t h i s manner.  example, i f a c h i l d ' s l e v e l l i n g t o non-aggressive o c c u r s because the a p p l i c a t i o n  For  stimuli  o f h i s sharpening t o a g g r e s s i v e s t i m u l i ,  then  o f t h e concept o f " l e v e l l i n g " t o h i s  p e r c e p t i o n appears t o be a more n e u t r a l one. The a p p l i c a t i o n  o f t h e concept o f " l e v e l l i n g " t o  d e s c r i b e t h e m a l t r e a t e d c h i l d ' s tendency t o i n s u l a t e h i m s e l f from non-aggressive s t i m u l i i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s u l t s another study.  Aber and A l l e n  from  (1987) demonstrated t h e  m a l t r e a t e d c h i l d r e l a t i v e t o t h e non-maltreated c h i l d t o have l e s s " e f f e c t a n c e m o t i v a t i o n " .  By t h i s i t i s meant t h a t  l e s s i n i t i a t i v e was observed i n t h e seeking out o r mastery of new  situations.  35  I n t e r n a l Working Models  Bowlby, a psychoanalyst,  drew h e a v i l y from  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s of o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s ( B r e t h e r t o n e t al.,  1990).  H i s theory o f attachment i s narrower, i n t h a t  i t doesn't focus on a l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; i t i s a l s o more g e n e r a l  i n t h a t i t e x p l a i n s both h e a l t h y  and  p a t h o l o g i c a l development.  Perhaps i t s g r e a t e s t break from  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory was  i n i t s c l a i m t h a t the attachment  system i s a d i s t i n c t m o t i v a t i o n a l system, 1985).  Bowlby was  Piaget  (1952, 1954)  (Bretherton,  i n s p i r e d by C r a i k (1943) as w e l l as  as " i n t r o j e c t i o n " ,  t o rework p s y c h o a n a l y t i c concepts such " p r o j e c t i o n " and  "representation" into  the metaphor o f " i n t e r n a l working models." importantly,  by  Most  such a metaphor i s much more amenable t o  empirical investigation.  E m p i r i c a l evidence  suggests t h a t  from age  1 i n f a n t s use working models t o f o r e c a s t the  probable  f u t u r e behaviour of the attachment f i g u r e ( I z a r d ,  1978;  Sroufe,  1979).  Main and C a s s i d y  In a d d i t i o n , a v e r y important  (1988) demonstrated s t r o n g  study  predictability  from e a r l y s e c u r i t y of attachment t o aspects of the i n t e r n a l working model f i v e years Bowlby (1973) notes f o u r key working models.  The  first  child's  later. f e a t u r e s of  internal  i n v o l v e s the i d e n t i t i e s  and  expected l o c a t i o n s of the attachment f i g u r e s , and how may  be expected t o respond.  The  by  next f e a t u r e i s the  they child's  a c c e p t a b i l i t y or l a c k of a c c e p t a b i l i t y t o the attachment  36 figures.  The  t h i r d i s the use  the p e r c e p t i o n  of i n t e r n a l working models i n  of events, the f o r e c a s t i n g o f the f u t u r e  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of p l a n s .  Finally,  and  i t i s most s i g n i f i c a n t  whether the c h i l d f e e l s c o n f i d e n t or a f r a i d r e g a r d i n g  the  a v a i l a b i l i t y of attachment f i g u r e s - o c c a s i o n a l l y , f r e q u e n t l y or most of the time.  Such c o n f i d e n c e ,  or  lack  o f , depends on whether the attachment f i g u r e s are judged t o be the type o f people who p r o t e c t i o n and  g e n e r a l l y respond w i t h support  a l s o whether the s e l f i s judged t o be  type o f person t o whom o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the  and  the  attachment  f i g u r e s respond w i t h same. Although these two  judgements are l o g i c a l l y  they are i n p r a c t i c e completely i n t e r t w i n e d . attachment f i g u r e s and  independent  The  models of  s e l f are l i k e l y t o develop i n  complementary and mutually c o n f i r m i n g I f he r e c e i v e s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s p o n s i v e  manner (Bowlby, 1973). and s e n s i t i v e  behaviour w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s s i g n a l s , he  forms a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l model of the attachment f i g u r e as responsive  and  a c c e s s i b l e and  o f h i m s e l f as competent i n  e l i c i t i n g her response and worthy o f i t . Or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , he may  view h i m s e l f as i n e f f e c t i v e i n o b t a i n i n g  cooperation 1989).  and  her  as unworthy of i t ( C r i t t e n d e n & Ainsworth,  Bowlby (1973) puts i t s u c c i n c t l y , "Whether a c h i l d  o r a d u l t i s i n a s t a t e of s e c u r i t y , a n x i e t y o r d i s t r e s s i s determined i n l a r g e p a r t by the a c c e s s i b i l i t y  and  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of h i s p r i n c i p a l attachment f i g u r e . " (p.23).  37 Although models of the p r i n c i p a l attachment f i g u r e s , g e n e r a l l y the mother and then the f a t h e r , are b e l i e v e d t o at  first  process  be  independent they e v e n t u a l l y through some unknown become more o r l e s s l o o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a  g e n e r a l i z e d model of attachment f i g u r e s ( C r i t t e n d e n & Ainsworth, 1989).  I t i s i n terms of t h i s g e n e r a l i z e d model,  i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r t w i n e d with h i s model o f s e l f , t h a t p e r c e i v e s h i s e n t i r e s o c i a l world. continues  throughout the l i f e c y c l e .  i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s p o i n t , one DiLalla  To v a r y i n g degrees t h i s Towards an  study by C r i t t e n d e n  (1988) made c l i n i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s  school c h i l d r e n i n v o l v i n g unusually  he  and  o f elementary  compliant  and  vigilant  b e h a v i o u r s d i r e c t e d towards a l l a d u l t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r abusing p a r e n t s .  They claimed  months, the c h i l d r e n had adaptive  t h a t , a t the age  of 3 6  adopted such behaviour as  an  s t r a t e g y based on a f l e x i b l e open model o f  relationships.  Apparently  between 36 months and  5 or 6  years the p a t t e r n had become r i g i d and u n r e s p o n s i v e . addition, Crittenden and  (1985), i n a study o f 121  In  maltreating  adequate c a r e g i v e r s found t h a t p h y s i c a l l y abusing  c a r e g i v e r s appear t o have i n n e r models r e l a t e d t o i d e a s "power" and  " s c a r c i t y of needed r e s o u r c e s "  of  (both  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l ) ; t h e i r i n n e r models i n v o l v e them in own  c o e r c i v e and n o n - r e c i p r o c a l needs.  i n t e r a c t i o n s t o meet t h e i r  For n e g l e c t i n g c a r e g i v e r s the i d e a o f  "scarcity"  i s combined w i t h a sense of h e l p l e s s n e s s and d e s p a i r . adequate c a r e g i v e r s are a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h r e c i p r o c a l  Only  38 r e l a t i o n s h i p s or p e r c e i v e o t h e r s as w i l l i n g and a b l e t o meet t h e i r needs and themselves  as a b l e t o e n l i s t t h e i r  support.  In another study, P a s t o r (1981) d e s c r i b e d 62 s e c u r e l y and i n s e c u r e l y a t t a c h e d t o d d l e r s i n p l a y s i t u a t i o n s w i t h the mother and a peer.  Secure t o d d l e r s were more s o c i a b l e and  p o s i t i v e l y o r i e n t e d towards both mother and peer, as were t h e i r mothers more s u p p o r t i v e and a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i r e c t i v e . Park and Waters (1989) t e s t e d 33 f o u r - y e a r - o l d s w i t h t h e i r b e s t f r i e n d s i n a 1-hour f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n .  They found t h a t  s e c u r e - s e c u r e p a i r s were happier, more r e s p o n s i v e and harmonious and l e s s c o n t r o l l i n g than s e c u r e - i n s e c u r e p a i r s . In another e m p i r i c a l study, Slade d i f f e r e n c e between "secure" and  (1987) d e s c r i b e s the  " i n s e c u r e " c h i l d r e n not as a  d i f f e r e n c e i n c o g n i t i v e competencies per se but r a t h e r i n the way  c o g n i t i v e competencies i n t e r a c t w i t h  competence. support and environment.  social  Secure c h i l d r e n are b e t t e r a b l e t o e n l i s t " s c a f f o l d i n g " they need from the  the  social  When c h i l d r e n f e e l secure about the  a v a i l a b i l i t y of attachment f i g u r e s when needed - competence, s e l f - r e l i a n c e and knowledge about the world i s f o s t e r e d ( C r i t t e n d e n & Ainsworth,  1989).  They are a c t u a l l y " f r e e d t o  a t t e n d t o o t h e r a s p e c t s of t h e i r l i v e s " behaviour  (p.445).  Attachment  i s most i n t e n s e l y a c t i v a t e d under s t r e s s f u l  c o n d i t i o n s evoking alarm or a n x i e t y (Bowlby, 1973).  I f an  attachment f i g u r e i s sought without success or i f t h e r e i s doubt as t o the a v a i l a b i l i t y of an attachment f i g u r e s h o u l d one be needed the c h i l d w i l l  f e e l anxiety.  This fear  39 response t o i n a c c e s s a b i l i t y t o mother can u s e f u l l y be regarded as a b a s i c a d a p t i v e response i n terms o f s p e c i e s survival.  In f a c t , when the c h i l d ' s attachment system i s  a c t i v e i t e l i c i t s c a r e g i v i n g behaviour from t h e p a r e n t (Shaver, Hazan, & Bradshaw, 1988).  S i m i l a r l y an a c t i v e  p a r e n t a l c a r e g i v i n g system b r i n g s about b e h a v i o u r s t h a t ease the c h i l d ' s d i s t r e s s .  However, i t i s not o n l y s h o r t - t e r m  a n x i e t y but o f t e n anxious attachment t h a t i s brought about by t h e k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t shake a c h i l d ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e attachment f i g u r e ' s a v a i l a b i l i t y when needed  (Bowlby,  1973) . The concepts o f " c o n t i n u i t y " and "change" a r e c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e n s i o n and i n t e r p l a y i n the e m p i r i c a l l y supported development  o f the t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n o f t h e  i n t e r n a l working model. acknowledged  Both c o n t i n u i t y and change must be  i f the concept o f the i n n e r working model i s t o  be a t e n a b l e one.  Although the m a j o r i t y o f attachment  s t u d i e s demonstrate c o n t i n u i t y , more o r l e s s  successfully,  some s t u d i e s s i m i l a r l y focus upon change i n i n n e r models and s e c u r i t y o f attachment Lamb e t a l . ,  (e.g., Gaensbauer  1984; Thompson e t a l . ,  & Harmon,  1982).  1982;  At l e a s t two o f  these s t u d i e s  (Egeland & Farber, 1984; Vaughn, Egeland, &  Sroufe, 1979)  focussed upon the s y s t e m a t i c n a t u r e o f change  i n i n n e r models and s e c u r i t y o f attachment. Cassidy  (1988), i n the f o l l o w i n g , d e s c r i b e s a s p e c t s of  the " c o n t i n u i t y " n o t i o n : Although some of the p r e s s u r e f o r c o n t i n u i t y comes from  40  the environment, the working models o r g a n i z e and  help  mold t h a t environment; by seeking p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s of people and by e l i c i t i n g p a r t i c u l a r behaviours  from  them, the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the c r e a t i o n of h i s or her own  environment. A d d i t i o n a l l y , Bowlby  suggests t h a t working models a l s o t r i g g e r d e f e n s i v e p r o c e s s e s t h a t a c t t o s e l e c t i v e l y exclude  certain  i n f o r m a t i o n from b e i n g processed and hence a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o c o n t i n u i t y , (p.133)  Sroufe and F l e e s o n  (1986) focus on " e x p e c t a t i o n s " as  c a r r i e r s of c o n t i n u i t y : E x p e c t a t i o n s are the c a r r i e r s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C a r r y i n g forward a l l of the s p e c i f i c behaviours response  and  c h a i n s from p r e v i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s would be  an  overwhelming t a s k , but a l i m i t e d s e t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s can generate  countless behavioural reactions, f l e x i b l y  employed i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . One's o r i e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g o t h e r s , one's e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y and l i k e l y responses, g e n e r a l terms, one can do  and what, i n  (or cannot do)  the l i k e l i h o o d of f a m i l i a r responses shaped by e a r l i e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  their  to increase  are s t r o n g l y  (p.68)  S e v e r a l home o b s e r v a t i o n s t u d i e s (Ainsworth e t a l . , 1978;  Belsky, Rovine,  Spangler,  & T a y l o r , 1984;  Suess, & Unzer, 1985;  Grossmann, Grossmann,  M a s l i n & Bates,  1983)  41 support a c o n n e c t i o n between i n f a n t s ' ( i n f e r r e d ) e x p e c t a t i o n s o f r e j e c t i o n or responsiveness secure v e r s u s i n s e c u r e behaviours. (Blehar, Lieberman, & Ainsworth,  - and  In a t l e a s t one  1977)  other  Sroufe  Krazier, Fryer, &  (1988) gave evidence s u p p o r t i n g a l i n k between s e l f -  esteem and the a b i l i t y t o l e a r n and use skills.  later  (1983) t i e d s e c u r i t y i n  i n f a n c y t o s e l f - e s t e e m a t the age of 4. Miller  study  simultaneously  taken i n f a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a i l e d t o p r e d i c t s e c u r i t y or i n s e c u r i t y .  their  abuse-prevention  Bowlby (1973) and E p s t e i n (1980) suggest  the  c o n n e c t i o n e x i s t s between s e l f - e s t e e m and e x p e c t a t i o n s of s e l f and o t h e r s .  However, t o date one study  (Cassidy,  1988)  has t r i e d but f a i l e d t o support the c l a i m . A d d i t i o n a l support  f o r the i d e a t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n s are  t h e c a r r i e r s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s may attachment s t u d i e s .  be found i n v a r i o u s  For example, Dodge and R i c h a r d s  non(1985)  showed a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n t o be b i a s e d towards i n t e r p r e t i n g agemates' behaviour compared two  as h o s t i l e or m a l i c i o u s .  Waas (1988)  groups of low and h i g h a g g r e s s i v e and r e j e c t e d  3rd and 5th-grade boys t o a group of n o n - r e j e c t e d boys. When g i v e n no o t h e r s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the a g g r e s s i v e groups made more h o s t i l e a t t r i b u t i o n s of h y p o t h e t i c a l peers d e p i c t e d i n drawings, and suggested Parke and Slaby  more h o s t i l e  responses.  (1983) demonstrated t h a t a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n  were l i k e l y t o come from homes i n which d i s c i p l i n e i s harsh and p u n i t i v e .  Hart, Ladd, & Burleson  (1990) found t h a t 5 t o  7 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n whose mothers were more p o w e r - a s s e r t i v e  42 i n t h e i r d i s c i p l i n a r y s t y l e s received  lower peer r a t i n g s  b e i n g l i k e d and were more l i k e l y t o expect  on  successful  outcomes f o r u n f r i e n d l y / a s s e r t i v e methods o f r e s o l v i n g peer conflicts. Ricks  (1985) adapting E p s t e i n ' s  (1973, 1979,  1980)  t h e o r y proposed t h a t change i n i n n e r working models o c c u r through change w i t h i n the same e a r l y a c r o s s time.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may  may  relationships  occur through repeated  e x p e r i e n c e s i n o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s or through e s p e c i a l l y strong  emotional experience w i t h i n a s i n g l e r e l a t i o n s h i p  that disconfirms  e a r l i e r postulates  or models.  e t a l . (1990) p o i n t out t h a t d e s p i t e  Bretherton  constraints  a child's  i n n e r model must adapt as the attachment r e l a t i o n s h i p develops.  Needs t h a t change w i t h development must  r e f l e c t e d i n r e v i s i o n s t o the mention e x t e r n a l  i n n e r model.  the p a r e n t ' s job which may c h i l d ' s model.  They a l s o  f a c t o r s or changes a f f e c t i n g the  r e l a t i o n s h i p such as a d e v e l o p i n g c h r o n i c require  be  attachment  i l l n e s s o r l o s s of  further r e v i s i o n s to  In a d d i t i o n , they note t h a t  development can be presumed t o a f f e c t the  the  cognitive  developing  complexity o f the c h i l d ' s i n n e r model. Crittenden  (1988a) proposed:  the g o a l of i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h both compliant and  acting  out abused c h i l d r e n must be t o engage them i n i n t e r a c t i o n with s e n s i t i v e l y responsive soon enough and  adults  long enough t h a t t h e i r p a t t e r n s  of  43 interaction  (and r e s u l t a n t i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  models) are not l i m i t e d t o those d e r i v e d from i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r parents,  (pp. 183-184)  F i n a l l y , Bowlby (1988) d i r e c t l y r e f e r s t o  one  commonality between the manner i n which models are formed and y e t may  a l s o be changed:  There are, i n f a c t , no more important communications between one  human being and  expressed e m o t i o n a l l y , f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g and s e l f and  and no i n f o r m a t i o n more v i t a l  r e c o n s t r u c t i n g working models of  o t h e r s than i n f o r m a t i o n about how  toward the other,  importance of having on experience,  each f e e l s  (pp. 156-157)  C r i t t e n d e n and Ainsworth  adjustment.  another than those  (1989) p o i n t out  the  i n n e r models not only a c c u r a t e l y based  but a l s o open t o new  i n p u t and  consequent  I t i s h e l p f u l t o d e f i n e some a d d i t i o n a l  concepts i n order t o e l a b o r a t e upon t h i s p o i n t . (1989) d e s c r i b e s two  a d d i t i o n a l dimensions of the  Crittenden inner  working model, or i n n e r " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l " model, d e l i n e a t e d by Bowlby and  l a r g e l y neglected  l i t e r a t u r e to-date. "open" and  The  or misunderstood i n the  extremes of these dimensions are  " c l o s e d " , "working" and  Open models are open t o new  non-working".  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  44 predictions.  Closed models i n t e r p r e t a l l behaviour i n  terms o f t h e e x i s t i n g model. . . Working models c o g n i t i v e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e responses.  allow Non-  working models do not a l l o w c o g n i t i v e e x p l o r a t i o n o f behavioural  a l t e r n a t i v e s , (p.11)  C r i t t e d e n g i v e s arguments based on her r e s e a r c h f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g t h e models o f abusive p a r e n t s as " c l o s e d but working", n e g l e c t i n g p a r e n t s as " c l o s e d and non-working", marginally-maltreating  p a r e n t s as "open but non-working" and  adequate p a r e n t s as "open and working". Given t h a t persons g e n e r a l l y develop s e v e r a l attachment r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s h e l p f u l t o delineate the meta-structure o f i n n e r working models.  The s i m p l e s t  one, which C r i t t e n d e n  suggests i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h abusing mothers, i s t h e " s i n g l e i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l model".  Piaget's  (1952) concept  of " a s s i m i l a t i o n " i s r e l e v a n t here such t h a t a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f the one model. More complex and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e a l i t y are " m u l t i p l e , unrelated  i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l models".  Since there i s  one model f o r each r e l a t i o n s h i p , the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f each r e l a t i o n s h i p but not the coherency between them i s recognized.  Marginally-maltreating  with t h i s meta-structure. information  mothers a r e a s s o c i a t e d  "Accommodation" o f new  i s the a s s o c i a t e d p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by  Piaget.  Most complex and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e a l i t y i s the " g e n e r a l i z e d model w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p - s p e c i f i c submodels". Adequate mothers are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s m e t a - s t r u c t u r e ,  45 d i s p l a y i n g both a s s i m i l a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n  about  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e g e n e r a l i z e d model and accommodation o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c submodels o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Finally,  i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o d e l i n e a t e t h e t h r e e  best  understood memory systems ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1989; T u l v i n g 1979, 1985) .  " P r o c e d u r a l " memory i s t h e f i r s t t o develop and i s  captured  i n observations  Situation.  o f i n f a n t behaviour i n t h e Strange  I t consists of f a m i l i a r behavioural  c a r r i e d out u n c o n s c i o u s l y l i f e cycle.  routines  and e x t e n s i v e l y throughout t h e  The " e p i s o d i c " memory system i s b e l i e v e d t o  develop mostly a f t e r t h e age o f f i v e  (Fivush and Slackman,  1986) , and c o n s i s t s o f s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l memories encoded v i s u a l l y or l i n g u i s t i c a l l y . conscious Finally,  They a r e more e a s i l y open t o  review and revisement than p r o c e d u r a l memory. "semantic" memory i s conscious,  g e n e r a l i z e d and undated  impersonal,  ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1989; T u l v i n g , 1989).  I t c o n t a i n s , among other t h i n g s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n g e n e r a l .  It  c o n s i s t s o f a person's own c o n c l u s i o n s based on d i r e c t experience  and on i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from  others.  Semantic memory i s not e v i d e n t u n t i l a f t e r t h e development of representation  (Bretherton,  1984; C r i t t e n d e n ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e l f and o t h e r s l a t e r experience Representation The  1989).  The  forms t h e context by which  i s i n t e r p r e t e d (Sroufe,  1986).  would appear t o be a form o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  e p i s o d i c and semantic memory systems ( a t l e a s t )  c o n t a i n both a f f e c t i v e and f a c t u a l knowledge.  Such  46  knowledge may v a r y between t h e memory systems f o r each individual.  S i n c e e i t h e r form o f knowledge may be  d i s t o r t e d , t h e a s s o c i a t e d memory system may be d i s t o r t e d accordingly.  Each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n n e r working model i s as  d i s t o r t e d o r a c c u r a t e as i t s a s s o c i a t e d memory systems.  In  a d d i t i o n , i t i s probable t h a t each memory system has i t s own i n n e r working model.  In any event,  " i n d i v i d u a l s appear t o  d i f f e r i n t h e extent t o which they can c o - o r d i n a t e d i f f e r e n t memory systems" and " i n d i v i d u a l s may have concious access t o a l l o r o n l y some o f these memory systems" ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1989, pp. 8-9). The  above d e l i n e a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n n e r working  models a r e conceptual t o o l s which should prove i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r two types o f r e s e a r c h .  "Normal" developmental  change  may be e x p l o r e d u s i n g assessments which c l e a r l y s p e c i f y t h e l e v e l s o f memory, and t h e dimensions and m e t a - s t r u c t u r e s o f i n n e r models b e i n g assessed.  In a d d i t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and t h e b e h a v i o u r a l systems most r e l e v a n t a t t h e age l e v e l s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d c o u l d be s t a t e d .  To-date not many  assessments i n t h i s g e n e r a l area have been d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f developmental ( C r i t t e n d e n , 1989).  change  These conceptual t o o l s may h e l p t o  change t h a t . The o t h e r r e l e v a n t form o f r e s e a r c h i s t h a t d i r e c t e d towards i n t e r v e n t i o n .  B e h a v i o u r a l , c o g n i t i v e and  psychodynamic t h e r a p i e s may be viewed as working w i t h p r o c e d u r a l , semantic  and e p i s o d i c models p r i m a r i l y , i n t h a t  47 order.  (Psychodynamic t h e r a p i e s may be viewed as d i r e c t e d  towards uncovering  e p i s o d i c memories i n o r d e r t o r e v i s e  semantic models.)  The two t o p i c s which C r i t t e n d e n d e s c r i b e s  as most i n need o f r e s e a r c h and e l a b o r a t i o n a r e "(a) t h e r e l a t i o n o f the development o f i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l models t o treatment o f c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t ages and, determination  (b)  o f the model(s) ( i e . p r o c e d u r a l , e p i s o d i c ,  semantic o r combination) w i t h which t o i n t e r v e n e "  (p.27).  48 Chapter 3; Methodology Overview  T h i s r e s e a r c h uses an e x p l o r a t o r y d e s i g n t o map group p r o f i l e  out a  i n terms o f s u b j e c t s ' i n n e r images or  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of attachment f i g u r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o self.  The  t h r e e or f o u r response c a t e g o r i e s used i n the  primary measure are generated from theory 1973,  1980;  Bretherton  s t a t i s t i c a l analyses  e t a l . , 1990)  (Bowlby,  as opposed t o  such as c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s .  b e g i n s t o gather e m p i r i c a l support  1969,  T h i s study  f o r the v a l i d i t y  response c a t e g o r i e s by demonstrating c o n s i s t e n t  of  four  patterns  a c r o s s c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s and between i n v e n t o r i e s o r measures. The  response c a t e g o r i e s c o n s t i t u t e the dependent  variable.  The  independent v a r i a b l e s are " c a r e g i v e r "  and  " s i t u a t i o n " of which t h e r e are t h r e e and e i g h t r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the main measure.  Non-parametric s t a t i s t i c s  (loglinear)  are used t o determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e or i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the independent v a r i a b l e s a c r o s s the response c a t e g o r i e s . C h i square s t a t i s t i c s are used t o i l l u s t r a t e a d d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s .  Parametric  statistics  (anova) are used t o demonstrate i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y  within  each of the i n d i v i d u a l response c a t e g o r i e s f o r the primary measure.  D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s are used t o compare the  inventories. w i t h i n and  two  They are a l s o used t o show a d d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s  a c r o s s the response c a t e g o r i e s f o r the primary  49 measure.  F i n a l l y , a s h o r t t e s t of understanding  o f some o f  the b a s i c v i s u a l and v e r b a l concepts r e q u i r e d f o r adequate participation  i s described.  T h i s study does not attempt t o l a b e l s u b j e c t s i n the study.  individual  Rather, the s u b j e c t s are viewed  c o l l e c t i v e l y i n order t o determine i f a c o n s i s t e n t group profile exists.  The p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s i n h e r e n t i n the  group p r o f i l e are used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the v a l i d i t y o f the response c a t e g o r i e s i n the primary measure.  Deviations  from  homogeneity w i t h i n the group p r o f i l e are based on a normal curve c o n f i d e n c e  interval criterion.  I t i s not  suggested  t h a t o u t l i e r s t h a t are d e f i n e d as a r e s u l t o f the use c r i t e r i o n have any d i a g n o s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e  this  or v a l i d i t y .  The  c r i t e r i o n and the r e s u l t i n g o u t l i e r s serve o n l y t o d e s c r i b e the group p r o f i l e i n terms of the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s homogeneity and non-homogeneity w i t h r e s p e c t t o the dependent v a r i a b l e .  of  50  R a t i o n a l e f o r Design The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the v a l i d i t y o f the  response  c a t e g o r i e s generated by attachment t h e o r i s t s i s a s t e p ; i t should precede  their utilization in  first  comparative  experimental s t u d i e s , p r e v e n t i v e work w i t h c h i l d r e n , e t c . The e x p l o r a t o r y d e s i g n of t h i s study i s o r g a n i z e d around an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of i t s two measures. primary measure i s the P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access The secondary  The Inventory.  measure i s the F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s  Inventory. The main advantage of non-parametric  over p a r a m e t r i c  s t a t i s t i c s with regard to r e l a t i o n s h i p s across  response  c a t e g o r i e s i n t h i s case i n v o l v e s the extremely  skewed nature  o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The normal d i s t r i b u t i o n  requirement  f o r the use of p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d not be met  across  response c a t e g o r i e s (although i t c o u l d t o a much g r e a t e r degree w i t h i n response c a t e g o r i e s ) .  On the o t h e r hand, the  repeated d e s i g n manova s t a t i s t i c s had the advantage over l o g l i n e a r s t a t i s t i c s i n terms of the c a p a c i t y t o c o n s i d e r repeated measures. attempted  When repeated d e s i g n manovas were  s i g n i f i c a n t " w i t h i n s u b j e c t s e f f e c t s " were found.  These are most l i k e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a i l u r e t o meet the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n requirements.  L o g l i n e a r models are  r o b u s t i n the f a c e of repeated measures however, and f r e q u e n t l y used  i n such cases.  are  51 The  advantages o f l o g l i n e a r over o r d i n a r y c h i square  methods a r e s e v e r a l : t h e l a t t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o F i e n b e r g (1980): (a) confuses t h e marginal r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p a i r of c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p when o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a r e present  (b) does not a l l o w f o r t h e  simultaneous examination o f these relationships,  pairwise  (c) ignores t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h r e e -  f a c t o r and h i g h e r order i n t e r a c t i o n s among t h e variables, (p.l) In a d d i t i o n , l o g l i n e a r models have t h e same m o d e l l i n g f l e x i b i l i t y as a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and r e g r e s s i o n , and they are a l s o i n t e r p r e t a b l e ( C h r i s t i a n s e n , 1990). Confidence i n t e r v a l s a r e determined f o r two purposes. In t h e f i r s t case they a r e used t o demonstrate t h e degree t o which t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e a r e normal.  T h i s can p r o v i d e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r  u s i n g anovas w i t h i n response c a t e g o r i e s .  That, i n t u r n ,  a l l o w s t h e two h a l v e s o f t h e group t o be compared as a check for i n t e r n a l consistency.  Confidence i n t e r v a l s have t h e  a d d i t i o n a l purpose i n t h i s study o f p r o v i d i n g a  reasonable  c r i t e r i o n by which s u b j e c t s can be s o r t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o homogeneity o r non-homogeneity o f response.  Without such a  c r i t e r i o n t h e degree o f homogeneity a s s o c i a t e d w i t h group p r o f i l e c o u l d not be d e s c r i b e d . course have t o be a d j u s t e d  this  T h i s c r i t e r i o n may o f  i n t h e l i g h t o f any f u t u r e  s t u d i e s which c o n t r i b u t e t o e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f  52  these response c a t e g o r i e s or which d e s c r i b e o t h e r group profiles. A simple but important  means t o d e s c r i b e the group  p r o f i l e and  support  determining  the percentage of s u b j e c t s who  response category  the v a l i d i t y of the c o n s t r u c t s i n v o l v e s  one  or more times.  of the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s and c a t e g o r i e s combined. by d e t e r m i n i n g chosen one  chose each  T h i s i s done f o r each  f o r the two  "blocking  access"  These c a t e g o r i e s are f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d  the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a category w i l l  or more times when another category  have been chosen one  or more times.  be  i s known t o  This provides  evidence  of the degree of dependence or independence of the response c a t e g o r i e s t o each o t h e r .  This i n turn, allows f u r t h e r  s p e c u l a t i o n as t o the interdependent  nature  of the  categories. The  secondary measure, the F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s  Inventory,  has the advantage of a l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  g r e a t e r numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s from the s u b j e c t ' s p o i n t of view. context  There i s , however, no  or s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s measure.  The  d e p i c t e d persons are merely i l l u s t r a t e d i n poses.  This  a l l o w s i n e f f e c t a comparison a c r o s s i n v e n t o r i e s of the r e l a t i v e d e s c r i p t i v e v a l u e of v a r y i n g c o n t e x t on the hand and  l a c k o f context o r s i t u a t i o n on the o t h e r .  same time, the s u b j e c t ' s mother and  one At  the  f a t h e r are d e p i c t e d i n  both i n v e n t o r i e s , a l l o w i n g f o r more p r e c i s e comparisons of s u b j e c t response.  53 C h i square s t a t i s t i c s are used t o demonstrate  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s o f skewness a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s i n both i n v e n t o r i e s .  Histograms p r o v i d e v i s u a l evidence o f  the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f the group f o r the two  inventories.  distributions  Both l o g l i n e a r and manova models  were inadequate f o r t h i s j o b due p r i m a r i l y t o the i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f responses c a l l e d f o r on the secondary measure. Seventeen o f the 23 s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a s h o r t t e s t o f understanding u s i n g submeasures o f the secondary i n v e n t o r y . They were f i r s t asked t o p o i n t t o the drawing which i s "the most f r i e n d l y and n i c e " .  T h e i r s e l e c t i o n was  then covered  and they were asked t o p o i n t t o the drawing which i s "the most angry and u n f r i e n d l y " .  From t h i s t e s t i t i s d e c i d e d  whether o r not s u b j e c t s appear t o have an  adequate  understanding o f the v e r b a l and v i s u a l concepts r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  54  Subjects  The s u b j e c t s comprised  one group o f 23 f i v e t o  y e a r o l d boys i n k i n d e r g a r t e n or grade one.  A t the time of  the study t h e r e were e l e v e n 5-year-olds, e i g h t and f o u r 7-year-olds.  The age range was  seven-  6-year-olds  5 y e a r s , two months  - t o 7 y e a r s , 4 months w i t h an average o f 74 months. of the s u b j e c t s are Caucasian.  Most  The 5 or 6 t h a t are not  Caucasian r e p r e s e n t a number of e t h n i c i t i e s .  A l l were  a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l and l i v i n g i n a suburban neighbourhood Richmond, B.C. Seventeen  in  f o r a t l e a s t n i n e months p r i o r t o the study.  were l i v i n g a t the time w i t h both p a r e n t s ; 6 were  l i v i n g o n l y w i t h t h e i r mothers and were v i s i t i n g with t h e i r fathers.  regularly  A l l boys had one of s i x d i f f e r e n t  female t e a c h e r s as h i s main t e a c h e r f o r t h a t s c h o o l y e a r . L e t t e r s were sent t o a l l 80 s e t s of p a r e n t s w i t h 5 t o 7 - y e a r - o l d boys i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one.  I t was  o f f e r e d t o p a r e n t s t h a t any i n f o r m a t i o n gained about c h i l d r e n would be shared w i t h them.  Belsky and  their  Nezworski  (1988) found t h i s b a s i c c o u r t e s y t o be a major m o t i v a t o r behind p a r e n t a l c o o p e r a t i o n . responded,  T h i r t y sets of parents  27 of them a f f i r m a t i v e l y .  Of the 27,  26  requested t o be informed about t h e i r sons' r e s u l t s a f t e r the study. Of the 27 boys, uncomfortable  1 of the 5-year-olds appeared  extremely  and s t a t e d c l e a r l y t h a t he d i d not want t o  55 l e a v e the classroom  t o go w i t h the t e s t e r .  o t h e r boys o b j e c t e d i n any n o t i c e a b l e way;  None of the i n f a c t , most of  them were c l e a r l y eager t o go. Some data were taken of  them.  f o r each  Three other f i v e - y e a r - o l d s c l e a r l y were not  or w i l l i n g t o cooperate data were not analyzed.  adequately The  able  on the e x e r c i s e and  remaining  their  23 boys completed the  e n t i r e e x e r c i s e and t h e i r data were analyzed. School personnel were not aware of  official  s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of abuse i n the case o f any o f the subjects.  However, one  of the boys (#22)  was  23  b e l i e v e d by  the s c h o o l t o have been s e x u a l l y abused by someone whose i d e n t i t y was  not known t o the s c h o o l .  the s c h o o l by the p a r e n t s .  T h i s was  Another boy  (#23)  reported to  was  suspected  by the s c h o o l t o have been e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or s e x u a l l y abused based on aspects of h i s behaviour. f o r two  reasons  I t was  decided  t o i n c l u d e these s u b j e c t s i n the a n a l y s i s .  The  first  i s simply t h a t the abuse was  The  second and more important  reason  not s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  i s t h a t t h i s group  not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t a completely maltreated  was  non-  population.  A l l of the k i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1 t e a c h e r s a t the s c h o o l were female.  Boys were s e l e c t e d over g i r l s  c a t e g o r i c a l l y i m p e r a t i v e reason.  The  s c h o o l was  f o r no  chosen  because the d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l t e a c h e r s were w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e . s c h o o l and  Additionally,  i t s environment were reasonably  a middle-income suburban neighbourhood.  and the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  The  school i s  situated  on  a quiet traffic-regulated  green p l a y i n g space and  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r i e n d l y and s o c i a l environment c o u l d be e f f e c t on the  children.  s t r e e t with l o t s  p r i n c i p a l and relaxed.  of  t e a c h e r s were  Such a p h y s i c a l  expected t o have a  and  positive  57 The  Interview S i t u a t i o n  A l l s u b j e c t s were i n t r o d u c e d t o the i n t e r v i e w e r by  the  p r i n c i p a l or v i c e - p r i n c i p a l i n groups of 2 t o 7 depending on the number of s u b j e c t s i n any p a r t i c u l a r classroom. i n t r o d u c t i o n was provided  b r i e f and  i n f o r m a l w i t h an  The  opportunity  f o r c h i l d r e n t o ask the i n t e r v i e w e r q u e s t i o n s  shake hands w i t h him.  S u b j e c t s were informed  would be shown drawings and asked q u e s t i o n s they would be a b l e t o answer.  that  they  about them t h a t  They were t o l d as w e l l t h a t  t h e r e would be an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o l o u r , do p u z z l e s p l a y a game of cards, as they wished. i n t r o d u c t i o n each c h i l d was classroom  and/or  W i t h i n a few days of  i n d i v i d u a l l y p i c k e d up a t h i s  and e s c o r t e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r t o the v i c e -  principal's office. o f f i c e was  and  (Neither the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l nor  associated with a d i s c i p l i n a r y role.)  her  The  office  i s about 10 by 12 and c o n t a i n s a desk and a c h i l d - s i z e t a b l e and  s e t of 3 c h a i r s .  S t u f f e d animals were p l a c e d on  t a b l e w i t h i n reach of any c h i l d who g r e a t e r sense of s e c u r i t y . h e l d them.  The  might d e s i r e them f o r a  Only 2 or 3 c h i l d r e n a c t u a l l y  games mentioned above were p l a c e d  out o f reach of the c h i l d u n t i l a break was e x e r c i s e was  finished.  e x e r c i s e without  slightly  r e q u i r e d o r the  Seventeen s u b j e c t s f i n i s h e d  a break i n 15 t o 20 minutes.  asked f o r a break e i t h e r w i t h or without interviewer.  the  A l l s u b j e c t s spent  The  the rest  prompts from the  15 t o 25 minutes i n  r e l a x i n g a c t i v i t i e s before returning to t h e i r  classrooms.  58 P r i o r t o t h i s some s u b j e c t s appeared s l i g h t l y f a t i g u e d and a few mentioned b e i n g t i r e d .  No s u b j e c t a t any time appeared  or mentioned being d i s t r e s s e d . teachers any  There were no r e p o r t s from  o r t h e p r i n c i p a l t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w had d i s t u r b e d  of the c h i l d r e n . Seventeen o f t h e c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d b r i e f l y t o t h e  i n t e r v i e w i n g o f f i c e w i t h i n 10 days o f i n i t i a l f o r l e s s than 5 minutes each.  interviewing  C h i l d r e n were g i v e n a s h o r t  t e s t t o determine t h e i r degree o f understanding o f some o f the e a r l i e r i n t e r v i e w i n g d i r e c t i o n s and a l s o o f t h e i r understanding o f the f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s inherent  i n t h e drawings.  and body language  T h i s t e s t was not g i v e n p r i o r t o  the study i n order t o a v o i d p o s s i b l e b i a s due t o t h e formation  of perceptual  of t e s t i n g .  o r c o g n i t i v e s e t s formed as a r e s u l t  59 The  r e m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access  Inventory  There are 8 submeasures of t h i s task, one s i t u a t i o n depicted. separate and  Each s i t u a t i o n i s d e p i c t e d  f o r each in a  s e r i e s of 4 drawings f o r each of "mother", " f a t h e r "  "main t e a c h e r " .  drawings.  The  Therefore  each submeasure c o n t a i n s  c h i l d i s d e p i c t e d i n every drawing w i t h  of the t h r e e c a r e g i v e r s .  12 one  However, i n 1 o f the 8 submeasures  the r o l e s of " i n i t i a t o r " and  "responder" are  reversed  between the c h i l d and each c a r e g i v e r . In each of the t h r e e s e r i e s of each submeasure an (or i n one  case the c h i l d ) i s e i t h e r p e r m i t t i n g  adult  access  (roughly means "responding s e n s i t i v e l y " ) , b l o c k i n g  access,  or i s midway on the dimension of p e r m i t t i n g / b l o c k i n g  access.  In each case where the a d u l t i s b l o c k i n g access, he/she i s doing  so i n e i t h e r an " i g n o r i n g " manner or i n a more  explicitly  " u n f r i e n d l y / a g g r e s s i v e " manner.  Each t a s k i s presented manner. "OK, you.  Billy,  imagine t h a t i n each p i c t u r e t h i s i s  I t l o o k s l i k e you  knee", e t c . ) .  the two  are s i c k i n bed  (alternatively  I a l s o want you t o imagine, B i l l y ,  c o u l d be your dad pictures.  t o the c h i l d i n the f o l l o w i n g  (or mom  Which one  or teacher) i n each one  that  this  of these  of the f o u r i s m o s t - l i k e your dad?"  o r t h r e e i n s t a n c e s when a c h i l d commented t h a t  p i c t u r e d i d not look l i k e h i s mom  or dad  moustache" or " h a i r i s too short") he was be a "good pretender"  "cut  and  "pretend  (specifically  In  the "no  b a s i c a l l y asked t o  r e a l hard".  This  60 s t r a t e g y seemed t o take care of the problem a t l e a s t i n s o f a r as no c h i l d p e r s i s t e d i n mentioning the problem again  and  a l l c h i l d r e n were then a b l e t o begin and complete the interview. Similarly,  i n the case o f the r e v e r s e d  ( " s e l f " ) , the t a s k i s presented "OK,  Billy,  (or dad hug. you  submeasure  i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.  imagine t h a t i n each p i c t u r e t h i s i s your  or teacher).  mom  I t looks l i k e she wants t o g i v e you  I a l s o want you t o imagine, B i l l y , t h a t t h i s c o u l d i n each o f these p i c t u r e s .  pictures i s most-like  Which one  a be  o f these f o u r  you?"  For 11 of the s u b j e c t s the 4 drawings i n each s e r i e s were presented  i n order  from most " p e r m i t t i n g " t o  least  " p e r m i t t i n g " w i t h the "angry b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " c a r d coming last.  For 12 o f the s u b j e c t s the most " p e r m i t t i n g " c a r d  switched  was  w i t h the " i g n o r i n g b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " c a r d i n a  d i f f e r e n t 2 of the 3 s e r i e s i n each submeasure (counterbalancing). Each p r e s e n t a t i o n u n i t c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s o f 4 drawings, each on 8 1/2  by 11 pages and a t t a c h e d  a s i n g l e p i e c e of b r i s t o l board.  together  to  61  The  F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory  In t h i s i n v e n t o r y , persons, buildings are depicted.  groups o f persons and  N e i t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i t u a t i o n s nor  the c h i l d h i m s e l f a r e d e p i c t e d .  There a r e s i x + n  submeasures o f t h i s task, where n = t h e number o f o l d e r s i b l i n g s p l u s t h e number o f non-parental The  a d u l t s i n t h e home.  submeasures shared by a l l s u b j e c t s a r e "mother",  " f a t h e r " , " t e a c h e r s " , "peers",  " s c h o o l " and "home".  Each submeasure i n v o l v e s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h r e e drawings r a n g i n g from most f r i e n d l y on t h e l e f t t o l e a s t f r i e n d l y on t h e r i g h t .  T h i s i n v e n t o r y was p r e s e n t e d i n  p a r t s p r i o r t o , i n t h e course o f , and a f t e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access Inventory.  The "mother",  " f a t h e r " and "peers" submeasures were presented  first  because they c o n s t i t u t e d simple t a s k s t o g e t t h e c h i l d r e n started.  The submeasures f o r " s i b l i n g s o r o t h e r in-home  relatives", important  " s c h o o l " and "home" were c o n s i d e r e d t o be l e s s  and so were p l a c e d a t t h e v e r y end when c h i l d  f a t i g u e as a p o t e n t i a l cause o f b i a s might be g r e a t e s t .  The  submeasure f o r " t e a c h e r s " was presented between t h e middle and t h e end, a f t e r seven o f t h e e i g h t P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access submeasures.  62 The  Pilot  Study  The p i l o t study was conducted w i t h 4 s u b j e c t s .  Five-  y e a r - o l d s were not i n c l u d e d i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e and r e f i n e t h e procedures  w i t h more  mature s u b j e c t s . The p i l o t was approached w i t h a r e a d i n e s s t o a l t e r procedures  as necessary  or appropriate  (e.g.,  counterbalance  a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t a s k s t o t e s t f o r apparent forms o f response b i a s , shorten and spread out t h e t e s t i n g sessions).  The p i l o t had t h e f o l l o w i n g purposes:  (a) To determine t h e optimal number o f c a r d t a s k s p e r s e s s i o n and t h e number o f s e s s i o n s r e q u i r e d , (b) To t e s t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  o f t h e age range f o r  the c a r d t a s k s , (c) To r e v e a l any problems i n t h e procedures  used t o  implement t h e c a r d t a s k s , (d) To r e v e a l any problems which t h e c h i l d r e n might have i n understanding  and responding  t o the d i r e c t i o n s ,  (e) To p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e p r e s e n t i n g and  i n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l s and t o d e t e c t any problems i n t h e  schedule  and format,  (f) To r e v e a l any d i f f i c u l t i e s which t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n might c r e a t e with r e s p e c t t o t h e c h i l d r e n s ' subjective feelings of stress or d i s t r e s s , (g) To r e v e a l any obvious response b i a s  o r p o t e n t i a l forms o f  63  (h)  To  sensitivity study.  otherwise of  the  determine  instrument  the  appropriateness  f o r the  objectives  of  and the  64  Chapter 4:  Results  Overview  The  Permitting/Blocking  Access  Inventory:  L o g l i n e a r a n a l y s i s determined a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship  between the v a r i a b l e " s i t u a t i o n "  v a r i a b l e "response" beyond the  .05  s i g n i f i c a n t three-way i n t e r a c t i o n "situation", distinguish  and  "caregiver".  There was  do  not  independent v a r i a b l e s so  of "response" and  "situation" "situation".  interaction  e f f e c t between  "situation"  "caregiver". Confidence l e v e l s were determined f o r each o f the  response c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as f o r the combined access" 95%  categories.  confidence  Two  (1).  confidence  excluded.  general  s u b j e c t was  At the  r e s u l t s are i d e n t i c a l t o the g e n e r a l  "midway on a c c e s s " response category s u b j e c t excluded from the 99% c a t e g o r i e s 1 and and  99%  "blocking  i n t e r v a l f o r a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n on  l e v e l o n l y one  2 was  confidence  four  of 23 s u b j e c t s were o u t s i d e of  " p e r m i t t i n g a c c e s s " response category  95%  is  t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r  " c a r e g i v e r " and no and  no  between "response",  e q u i v a l e n t t o a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Similarly,  the  Loglinear analyses  between dependent and  the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n  level.  and  (2).  confidence  the  the  99%  These  results  f o r the  In a d d i t i o n , the interval for  the o n l y s u b j e c t excluded from the intervals  f o r the " i g n o r i n g " (3)  and  65 the combined " b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " blocking access" s u b j e c t s excluded  (3-4) c a t e g o r i e s .  The "angry  (4) category had t h r e e completely  different  from t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l , but none  f o r t h e 99% c o n f i d e n c e  interval.  When t h e s u b j e c t who was excluded  from t h e 99%  c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l f o r c a t e g o r i e s 1,2,3 and 3-4 - was  left  out o f t h e a n a l y s i s , one new s u b j e c t and one p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s u b j e c t became excluded a t t h e 99% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s f o r t h r e e response  categories.  T h i r t e e n percent  (3 o f 23) o f s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as o u t l i e r s . Anovas were a p p l i e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o l l a p s e d response  c a t e g o r i e s (1,2 and 3-4).  In each case t h e  response  c a t e g o r y c o n s t i t u t e d t h e dependent v a r i a b l e .  The  independent v a r i a b l e s were " c a r e g i v e r " , and " s i t u a t i o n " . The two groups ("halves") r e c e i v e d counterbalanced  o f s u b j e c t s used i n t h e anova had presentations of the inventory.  No  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between groups on each o f the t h r e e a n a l y s e s . One hundred percent o f s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d response c a t e g o r y 1 one o r more times. and  30% s e l e c t e d response  In a d d i t i o n , 57%, 22%, 22%  c a t e g o r i e s 2,3,4 and 3-4,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , one o r more times.  Seventy p e r c e n t o f  s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s 2,3 o r 4 one o r more times. The knowledge t h a t a s u b j e c t chose category 1 one o r more times does not p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a s u b j e c t choosing any o t h e r c a t e g o r y one o r more times.  response  In t h i s sense c a t e g o r y 1 i s  66 independent from t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s .  In t h e same sense  c a t e g o r i e s 2 and 3 a r e p o s i t i v e l y dependent.  Categories 2  and 4 a r e independent one way and n e g a t i v e l y dependent t h e other.  C a t e g o r i e s 3 and 4 a r e p o s i t i v e l y  dependent.  H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h i squares were found f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f responses a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s . The F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Response Inventory H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c h i squares were found f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f responses a c r o s s t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . They were skewed i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n as i n t h e primary inventory.  A l o g l i n e a r a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  "caregiver"  (mother and f a t h e r only) and t h e two response  v a r i a b l e s from t h e two d i f f e r e n t i n v e n t o r i e s produced a n e a r - s i g n i f i c a n t Pearson c h i square s t a t i s t i c  (p_ = .06).  A g a i n t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f data produced from t h i s probably a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s .  inventory  67  P i l o t Study R e s u l t s I t was determined i n t h e p i l o t study t h a t most o f t h e procedures were u n f o l d i n g as p r e d i c t e d .  The c h i l d r e n  appeared t o understand and t o be a b l e t o f o l l o w t h e directions appropriately.  I t was decided t o make two  changes d u r i n g t h e course o f t h e p i l o t study. and  The "home"  " s c h o o l " submeasures o f t h e secondary i n v e n t o r y were  determined t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e because t h e c h i l d r e n tended t o t h i n k t h a t t h e bars were " b l i n d s " o r " c u r t a i n s " . A c t u a l l y t e l l i n g them "these a r e supposed t o be b a r s " would of course d e f e a t t h e purpose o f t h e submeasure.  In  a d d i t i o n , i t was decided t h a t t h e o r d e r o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f response c a t e g o r i e s should be counterbalanced subjects.  T h i s was concluded  among  on t h e b a s i s o f a heavy  s e l e c t i o n by t h e 4 s u b j e c t s o f t h e response category  i n the  f i r s t position. A l l data from t h e 4 p i l o t s u b j e c t s were t r e a t e d i d e n t i c a l l y t o t h e data from t h e other 19 s u b j e c t s .  The  procedures f o l l o w e d f o r p i l o t and n o n - p i l o t s u b j e c t s were i n every way i d e n t i c a l .  68 Study R e s u l t s : Main E f f e c t s and I n t e r a c t i o n s Between Variables  There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p variable  " s i t u a t i o n " and the v a r i a b l e  .05 l e v e l .  between the  "response" beyond the  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t three-way  interaction  between "response", " s i t u a t i o n " , and " c a r e g i v e r " .  There i s  no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between "response" and "caregiver". dependent  L o g l i n e a r a n a l y s e s do not d i s t i n g u i s h  and independent v a r i a b l e s  interaction  so the s i g n i f i c a n t  o f "response" and " s i t u a t i o n " i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r " s i t u a t i o n " .  S i m i l a r l y there i s  no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r " c a r e g i v e r " and interaction  between  e f f e c t between " s i t u a t i o n " and  beyond the .05 l e v e l .  No r e c o d i n g was  no  "caregiver"  c a r r i e d out i n t h i s  analysis. The Pearson c h i square s t a t i s t i c f o r the f u l l  4  response c a t e g o r i e s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l (p_ = .092).  There i s some doubt then t h a t " s i t u a t i o n " i s  s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the f u l l (1,2,3-4) model.  (1,2,3,4), though not the c o l l a p s e d  T h i s i s the case because  f o r small-sample  d i s t r i b u t i o n s the Pearson c h i square s t a t i s t i c i s more, a c c u r a t e than the L i k e l i h o o d (Fienberg, 1980).  R a t i o c h i square  statistic  T h i s i s a l l the more t r u e f o r samples  such as the one i n t h i s study w i t h many observed counts o f "0" and  "1".  69  Table 1 The P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g  response  variables  Access Inventory: L o g l i n e a r  df  Likelihood Ratio c h i  categories  square  1,2,3,4  response  83  caregiver  83  Analysis  Pearson  p_  chi square  81.0  541 82.0  509  situation 1,2,3-4  response  60  caregiver  60  .242  67.2 64.0  .337  situation 1,2,3,4  1,2,3-4  1,2,3,4  1,2,3-4  p_ < .05,  response  21  situation  21  response  14  situation  14  response  6  caregiver  6  response  4  caregiver  4  33.4  .042* 29.9  27.4  .092 .017*  24.9  .035* .080  11.2 11.4 6.7  .077 149  6.5  161  Confidence  Confidence f o u r response  Levels  i n t e r v a l s a r e determined  f o r each o f t h e  c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as f o r t h e combined  "blocking access" categories.  Two o f 23 s u b j e c t s a r e  o u t s i d e t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l f o r a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n on t h e " p e r m i t t i n g a c c e s s " response  category.  At t h e 99% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l o n l y 1 s u b j e c t i s excluded. These g e n e r a l r e s u l t s a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e g e n e r a l f o r t h e "midway on a c c e s s " response the s u b j e c t excluded  category.  In a d d i t i o n ,  from t h e 99% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l f o r  c a t e g o r i e s 1 and 2 i s t h e o n l y s u b j e c t excluded and 99% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s  from t h e 95  f o r t h e " i g n o r i n g " and t h e  combined " b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " c a t e g o r i e s .  The "angry b l o c k i n g  a c c e s s " c a t e g o r y has 3 completely d i f f e r e n t excluded  results  subjects  from t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l , but none f o r t h e  99% c o n f i d e n c e  interval.  Table 2 Confidence  Subscale  l e v e l s based on 23 s u b j e c t s  Permitting  Midway  Ignoring  Angry  Collapsed  (3)  (4)  (3-4)  (1)  (2)  23  23  23  23  23  T o t a l Responses 484  48  12  8  20  2.08  .5  .35  .9  Subjects  Mean  21  71 T a b l e 2 (continued)  Subscale  Permitting (1)  Midway  Ignoring  (2)  (3)  Angry  Collapsed  (4)  (3-4)  Sum o f squares  381  218  41.75  11.22  48.22  1.45  Standard deviation  4.07  3.08  1.35  .70  68% C.I.  17 t o 24  0 to 5  0 t o 1.9  0 to 1  0 t o 2.4  68% o f N  16  16  16  16  16  68% C.I.  19  20  21  20  20  95% C.I.  15 t o 24  0 to 8  95% o f N  22  22  22  22  22  21  21  22  20  22  No. i n  0 to 3  0 t o 1.8  0 t o 3.7  No. i n 95% C.I. Identity of Ss. out 99% C.I. 99%  #15,#21 12.5 t o 24  #15,#21 0 t o 10  #21 0 to 4  #8,#13,#21 0 to 2  #21 0 t o 4.6  N  23  23  23  23  23  99% C.I.  22  22  22  23  22  #21  #21  -  #21  O f  No. i n  Identity o f Ss. out  #21  When s u b j e c t #21 (see T a b l e 3) i s excluded from t h e a n a l y s i s because o f h i s obvious " o u t l i e r " s t a t u s , s u b j e c t s  72 #10 and #15 a r e excluded from t h e 99% c o n f i d e n c e one  interval i n  and i n two response c a t e g o r i e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Three  s u b j e c t s then, may reasonably be c l a s s i f i e d as o u t l i e r s #10, #15, and #21 -  on t h e b a s i s o f being  excluded a t one  o r t h e other 99% C.I. The use o f a c u t - o f f p o i n t approximately two standard  d e v i a t i o n s from t h e mean i s not  unusual i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . a r b i t r a r i n e s s i s discussed  The importance o f i t s  i n Chapter 5.  s u b j e c t s can perhaps be c o n s i d e r e d  Three  other  t o be " b o r d e r l i n e  o u t l i e r s " - #8, #23, and #13 - on t h e b a s i s o f being excluded from one o r more 95% C.I. when s u b j e c t out o f t h e a n a l y s i s .  T h i r t e e n percent  s u b j e c t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as o u t l i e r s .  #21 i s l e f t  (3 o f 23) o f  I f the 3 borderline  o u t l i e r s a r e i n c l u d e d then 26% o f s u b j e c t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as outliers.  73  Table 3 Confidence  Subscale  l e v e l s based on 22 s u b j e c t s  Permitting  Midway  (1) Subjects  22  Ignoring  (2) 22  Angry  (3)  Collapsed  (4)  22  22  (3-4) 22  T o t a l Resp.  477  37  6  8  14  Mean  22.00  1.68  .27  .36  137  10.38  11.09  0-6.6  0-1.6  21  21  21  21  21  19  21  21  19  20  .64  Sum o f squares 95% C.I. 95% o f N  185 16.2-24  0-1.8  24.40 0-2.7  No. i n 95% C.I. Identity of Ss. out 99% C.I. 99% o f N  #10,#13,#15 14.3-24  #15  #10  0-9  0-2.1  #8,#13,#23  #10,#13  0-2.1  0-3.3  22  22  22  22  22  21  21  21  22  22  #15  #15  #10  No. i n 99% C.I. Identity o f Ss. out  Table  4  Summarized data f o r a l l s u b j e c t s i n both i n v e n t o r i e s  Inventories F./U.  I.  P./B.  I.  Subscales  Subjects  ABC  1 2 3 4  1  2 11  20 04 0 0  2  5 10  23 01 0 0  3  4 2 0  22 02 0 0  4  4 0 0  24 00 0 0  5  2 10  24 00 0 0  6  3 10  24 00 0 0  7  3 0 1  24 00 0 0  8  3 10  22 00 0 2  9  5 0 0  23 01 0 0  10  4 10  16 05 3 0  11  12  12  5 10  23 01 0 0  13  3 1 0  15 06 1 2  14  3 11  23 01 0 0  15  5 10  14 10 0 0  16  4 10  22 02 0 0  2  20 02 1 1  75 Table 4  (continued)  Inventories  F./TJ. I.  P./B.  I.  Subscales  2  3 4  Subjects  A B C  1  17  6 0 0  24 00 0 0  18  3 1 0  22 00 1 1  19  2 2 0  24 00 0 0  20  5 0 0  24 00 0 0  21  3 1 1  07 11 6 0  22  4 0 0  22 02 0 0  23  2 3 0  22 00 0 2  Note. F.U./I. - F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory P.B./I. - P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access Inventory  Internal  The  Consistency  r e s u l t s of anovas.are g i v e n i n T a b l e 5 f o r the  c o l l a p s e d response  c a t e g o r i e s , " p e r m i t t i n g a c c e s s " (1),  "midway on a c c e s s "  (2) " b l o c k i n g a c c e s s "  i n s t a n c e was  (3-4).  the v a r i a b l e " h a l v e s " s i g n i f i c a n t e i t h e r as a  main e f f e c t or as p a r t of an i n t e r a c t i o n . corresponds  In no  t o the two groups of 11 and  12 s u b j e c t s who  presented the drawings i n counterbalanced P r e s e n t a t i o n order was check f o r one  This variable were  order.  v a r i e d i n t h i s manner i n o r d e r t o  form of response  bias.  The group o f 23  s u b j e c t s c o u l d have been s p l i t up i n numerous o t h e r ways as w e l l i n o r d e r t o demonstrate i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . The main e f f e c t s and the i n t e r a c t i o n of " s i t u a t i o n " " c a r e g i v e r " are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the "midway on response  category.  access"  These r e s u l t s should be subsumed t o the  l o g l i n e a r r e s u l t s f o r the c o l l e c t i v e l y analyzed categories.  and  response  77  Table 5 Anova r e s u l t s w i t h i n response  Response c a t e g o r y  Main e f f e c t or  Permitting  (1)  categories  Z  interaction  Sig. of F  halves  .02  .909  caregiver  .47  .717  situation  1.02  .644  h a l v e s by c a r e g i v e r  . 22  .834  h a l v e s by s i t u a t i o n  1. 00  .650  c a r e g i v e r by s i t u a t i o n  .62  .774  h a l v e s by c a r e g i v e r by s i t u a t i o n  .23  .942  halves  1.49  .231  situation  1.59  .173  .96  .478  halves  1.58  .216  caregiver  2.34  .108  Midway (2)  h a l v e s by s i t u a t i o n  h a l v e s by c a r e g i v e r  . 10  .905  situation  2.79  .028*  caregiver  4.16  .028*  s i t u a t i o n by c a r e g i v e r  2.59  .019*  Table 5  (continued)  Sig.  Main e f f e c t  Response category or  of F  interaction  Combined I g n o r i n g and Angry  (3-4) halves  .02  .909  caregiver  .29  .795  situation  .33  .873  h a l v e s by c a r e g i v e r  .03  .970  h a l v e s by s i t u a t i o n  .23  .927  c a r e g i v e r by s i t u a t i o n  .18  .968  .15  .977  h a l v e s by c a r e g i v e r by s i t u a t i o n  Note. No F g i v e n f o r response by h a l v e s by c a r e g i v e r by s i t u a t i o n - f o r "midway on a c c e s s " response c a t e g o r y p_ <  .05,  79  Analyses Based on a S u b j e c t ' s Choice o f a Response Category One o r More Times One hundred percent o f s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d t h e "permitting access"  (1) response  F i f t y - s e v e n percent  (13 o f 23) s e l e c t e d t h e "midway on  access"  category one o r more times.  (2) category one o r more times.  Twenty-two p e r c e n t  (5 o f 23) s e l e c t e d each o f " i g n o r i n g " (3) and "angry (4) b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " response  c a t e g o r i e s one o r more times.  C l e a r l y , t h e "22%" f o r each o f c a t e g o r i e s 3 and 4 r e p r e s e n t s two  d i f f e r e n t but o v e r l a p p i n g subgroups s i n c e 30% (7 o f 23)  o f s u b j e c t s were found t o choose t h e c o l l a p s e d " b l o c k i n g (34) a c c e s s " category one o r more times.  Seventy p e r c e n t (16  of 23) o f s u b j e c t s chose c a t e g o r i e s 2, 3 and/or 4 one o r more times. Table 6 P r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r response  categories  The prob. of 1 or more I s  100%  The prob. o f 1 or more 2s  57%  The prob. of 1 or more 3s  22%  The prob. of 1 or more 4s  22%  The prob. o f 1 or more 3s o r 4s  30%  The prob.  o f 1 o r more 3s g i v e n 1 o r more 2s  4/9=44%  The prob. o f 1 o r more 4s g i v e n 1 o r more 2s  2/11=18%  The prob.  4/9=44%  o f 1 o r more 3s o r 4s g i v e n 1 o r more 2s  80 Table 6  (continued)  The prob. o f 1 o r more 2s g i v e n 1 o r more 3s  4/5=80%  The prob. o f 1 o r more 3s g i v e n 1 o r more 4s  3/5=60%  The prob. o f 1 o r more 4s g i v e n 1 o r more 3s  3/5=60%  The prob.  2/5=40%  o f 1 o r more 2s g i v e n 1 o r more 4s  The knowledge t h a t a s u b j e c t chose response  category 1  one o r more times does not p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a s u b j e c t choosing any o t h e r response  category one o r more times.  In t h i s sense  c a t e g o r i e s 2 and 3 a r e c l e a r l y p a r t i a l l y dependent s i n c e the knowledge t h a t a s u b j e c t has chosen one o f them 1 o r more times i n c r e a s e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t has chosen the o t h e r 1 o r more times from 22% t o 44% o r from 57% t o 80%. The p r o b a b i l i t y o f one o r more 3s g i v e n one o r more 2s i s t h e same (44%) as t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f one o r more 3s o r 4s g i v e n one o r more 2s.  However, t h e knowledge t h a t t h e r e a r e  one o r more 4s c o u l d a c t u a l l y lower t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f one o r more 2s from 57% t o 40%.  From t h i s data 2 and 4 a r e  independent one way and n e g a t i v e l y dependent t h e o t h e r .  On  the o t h e r hand, c a t e g o r i e s 3 and 4 a r e c l e a r l y p o s i t i v e l y dependent s i n c e t h e knowledge t h a t t h e r e a r e one o r more o f e i t h e r 3 o r 4 i n c r e a s e s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e r e b e i n g one or more o f t h e o t h e r from 22% t o 60%.  81 Comparison o f the P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access and Friendliness/Unfriendliness Inventories  A l o g l i n e a r a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between "caregiver"  (mother and f a t h e r only) and t h e two response  v a r i a b l e s from the two i n v e n t o r i e s produced a nears i g n i f i c a n t Pearson c h i square s t a t i s t i c Likelihood-Ratio  (p_ = .06).  c h i square had a much h i g h e r  p r o b a b i l i t y , but the Pearson i s more a c c u r a t e samples such as t h i s one (Fienberg,  1980) .  l e v e l of f o r small  A g a i n the  r e l a t i v e l a c k o f data produced from t h i s i n v e n t o r y the r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s .  The  affected  T h i s was due t o t h e f a c t  that  l o g l i n e a r a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l data f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s be c o n s e c u t i v e l y numbered w i t h each numerical c a t e g o r y represented. the l o s s o f  S u b s t a n t i a l r e c o d i n g was r e q u i r e d r e s u l t i n g i n information.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c r o s s i n v e n t o r i e s i s perhaps b e s t expressed v i s u a l l y 1).  The f i r s t  (1), second (2) and t h i r d  (3-4) response  c a t e g o r i e s o f the c o l l a p s e d P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Inventory a r e compared t o the f i r s t third  (see F i g u r e  Access  (A), second (B) and  (C) response c a t e g o r i e s o f the  F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory. made f o r both f u l l  The comparison i s  and p a r t i a l v e r s i o n s o f both i n v e n t o r i e s .  The f u l l v e r s i o n compares the data f o r a l l " c a r e g i v e r s " i n the primary i n v e n t o r y inventory.  and a l l " o t h e r s "  i n t h e secondary  The p a r t i a l v e r s i o n compares "mother" and  " f a t h e r " o n l y a c r o s s the two i n v e n t o r i e s .  81b  FIGURE 1: Comparison of P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g I n v e n t o r y and F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s Inventory f o r A l l C a r e g i v e r s and O t h e r s , and f o r M o t h e r , Father Only  10G-  100-•  90..  90 d)  80  in c  80  X  0  a in  70  U•  60 - •  50  70  Q) L  60-  0) D) (D •P C  -•  aj  40  40 +  30 •  30 20  50 -  a) u  20  ..  10  10  Tst"  2nd 3 r d  Response  Categories  1st  Full Version  Permitting/Blocking 88:9:3 ( f u l l )  3 r d  Inventory  Friendliness/Unfriendliness 75:20:5 ( f u l l ) Both  2nd  Mother, Father only  inventories  88:8:4  (partial)  Inventory 65:31:4  (partial)  Skewness towards  "most f r i e n d l y " i n t h e case o f t h e  secondary measure and towards of  "most p e r m i t t i n g " i n t h e case  t h e primary measure i s obvious; t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e  highly significant  (p < .001) c h i squares f o r t h e f u l l and  p a r t i a l v e r s i o n s o f each measure i n T a b l e s 7, 8 and 9. Table 7 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e f u l l v e r s i o n o f t h e primary measure  Inventory  P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access  No. o f s u b j e c t s  23  Variables Categories  caregiver,  situation  3  8  Responses/subject  24  T o t a l responses  552  Response c a t e g o r y  Permitting (1)  Midway (2)  Ignoring (3)  Angry (4)  T o t a l responses  484  48  12  8  Proportion  88%  9%  2%  1%  chi  square = 1176.8  c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o r df=3 i s 16.3 1176.8 > 16.3  *  p_ < .001  83  Table 8 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s f o r a reduced v e r s i o n o f t h e primary measure  Inventory  P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g Access  No. o f s u b j e c t s  23  Variables  caregiver  Categories  situation  2 (mother, f a t h e r )  Responses/subject T o t a l responses  Response category  7 ( " s e l f " excluded)  14 322  Permitting (1)  Midway (2)  Blocking (3-4)  T o t a l responses  284  25  13  Proportion  88%  8%  4%  c h i square = 605.2 c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o r df=2 i s 13.8 605.2 > 13.8 p_ < .001  84  Table 9 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s f o r a reduced v e r s i o n and t h e f u l l v e r s i o n o f t h e secondary measure  Inventory  (A)  (B)  Friendliness/  Friendliness/  Unfriendliness  Unfriendliness  23  23  No. o f s u b j e c t s Variable  other  Categories  other  mother, f a t h e r  mother, f a t h e r , peers,  teachers,  relatives No. o f c a t e g o r i e s  2  5  Responses/subj e c t  2  4-6  46  110  T o t a l responses  (A) Response category  Most f r i e n d l y  T o t a l responses  30  14  2  65%  31%  4%  Proportion  Midway on Least friendliness  c h i square = 29.84 c r i t i c a l value 29.84 > 13.8  f o r df=2 i s 13.8  friendly  85  Table 9  (continued)  (B) Response category  Most f r i e n d l y  Midway on  Least  friendly  friendliness  T o t a l responses Proportion  82  22  6  75%  20%  5%  c h i square = 57.2 c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o r df=2 i s 13.8 57.2 > 13.8  E < .001  86 One s l i g h t advantage o f t h e secondary i n v e n t o r y  i s that  i t explores  i n n e r images f o r a wider v a r i e t y o f o b j e c t s (see  T a b l e 10).  Unfortunately,  t h e submeasures o f "home" and  " s c h o o l " a r e o f no use s i n c e many o f t h e s u b j e c t s  assumed  the b a r s on t h e windows t o be " b l i n d s " o r " c u r t a i n s " .  The  submeasures o f "mother" and " f a t h e r " were t h e most u s e f u l s i n c e they c o u l d be d i r e c t l y compared on t h e primary measure.  The r e l a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o primary  measure d i s t r i b u t i o n s i s o b s e r v a b l e i n F i g u r e 1. T a b l e 10 Summary o f data from F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s  Response category (A)  (B)  (C)  Variable "others"  mother  14  9  0  father  16  5  2  teachers  18  4  1  relatives  13  3  2  peers  21  1  1  Inventory  87  Subcategories Within  the Ignoring  Blocking  Access  Response Category  A p o s t e r i o r i , i t was noted t h a t t h e " i g n o r i n g access" ways.  response category was d e p i c t e d  i n 2 rather  In 4 o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s ("bully",  c h i l d reaching",  blocking different  " c u t knee", " s m i l i n g  " d i s t r e s s e d c h i l d reaching") a r e a r  of the caregiver i s given.  profile  In 2 o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s ( " s e l f " ,  "puzzle-schoolwork") t h e p r o f i l e o f t h e face and body i s shown.  The other  depict hybrid  2 s i t u a t i o n s ("sick",  "ignoring" versions  across caregivers.  "spilt  f o r each c a r e g i v e r o r  S i x o f t h e 12 s e l e c t i o n s o f t h e  " i g n o r i n g " c a t e g o r y f o r t h e group o c c u r r e d of 2 s i t u a t i o n s d i s t i n g u i s h e d above. occurred  milk-late")  i n the f i r s t set  Only 1 o f t h e 12  i n t h e s e t o f 4 s i t u a t i o n s d i s t i n g u i s h e d above.  If  the h y b r i d v e r s i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d such t h a t t h e " i g n o r i n g " response c a t e g o r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o a s e t t h a t shows f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and a s e t t h a t does not, then i t i s found t h a t 11 o f 12 " i g n o r i n g " s e l e c t i o n s d e p i c t e d  facial  features.  Furthermore, t h e r e were 13 p o s s i b i l i t i e s without  facial  f e a t u r e s t o choose from compared t o 11 w i t h f a c i a l The  2 s e t s - w i t h and without f a c i a l f e a t u r e s - a r e  d i s t r i b u t e d almost e q u a l l y a c r o s s  caregivers.  features.  88  T e s t f o r Understanding  Seventeen o f the 23 s u b j e c t s whose data were used i n t h i s study and  1 s u b j e c t whose data were not used were g i v e n  a s h o r t t e s t of understanding u s i n g submeasures o f secondary i n v e n t o r y . f o r "teachers", "brother"  one  Subjects  were shown the  submeasures  "peers", "mother", " f a t h e r " , " s i s t e r " ,  a t a time.  and  They were f i r s t asked t o p o i n t  the drawing which i s "the most f r i e n d l y and s e l e c t i o n was  the  then covered and  nice".  Their  they were asked t o p o i n t  to  the drawing which i s "the most angry and u n f r i e n d l y " . c h i l d got 2 of 12 responses c o r r e c t .  T h i s c h i l d was  One already  s t r o n g l y suspected of not being a b l e t o respond on the o f adequate understanding of the measures. not used a t a l l i n t h i s study.  The  other  r e c e i v e d a minimum o f 10 c o r r e c t s c o r e s .  between the  "midway on f r i e n d l i n e s s " c a t e g o r i e s .  basis  H i s data were 17 s u b j e c t s  each  There were a t o t a l  of 6 e r r o r s from f i v e s u b j e c t s out o f a p o s s i b l e 204. e r r o r s involved confusions  to  "most f r i e n d l y "  All and  Three s u b j e c t s  who  made s i n g l e e r r o r s were r e t e s t e d on the submeasures.  Two  of  e r r o r s were made.  It  the 3 c o r r e c t e d t h e i r e r r o r and  no new  i s concluded t h a t s u b j e c t s appear t o have an adequate understanding of the v e r b a l and v i s u a l concepts r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  study.  to  89  Chapter 5: D i s c u s s i o n : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C o g n i t i v e . A f f e c t i v e o r Response B i a s i n the Results  With r e s p e c t t o t h e study g o a l o f r e p r e s e n t i n g c h i l d r e n s ' i n t e r n a l images o r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , i t i s not necessary t o demand t h a t such images be f r e e o f t h e e f f e c t s of c o g n i t i v e or a f f e c t i v e b i a s .  These images, as a s p e c t s o f  the c h i l d r e n s ' i n n e r working models, a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e same forms o f b i a s as i n n e r models i n g e n e r a l .  T h i s study  attempts t o access t h e i n n e r working model p r i m a r i l y a t t h e l e v e l o f semantic memory (P. C r i t t e n d e n , communication, June, 1990).  personal  I t i s possible that  salient  e p i s o d i c memories a l s o e n t e r d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e r e s u l t s f o r the more c o n c r e t e  s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c measure.  However, i t  i s thought f o r t h e most p a r t t h a t e p i s o d i c memory i s o n l y b e i n g accessed  i n d i r e c t l y v i a semantic memory.  Both  semantic and e p i s o d i c memory a r e s u b j e c t t o c o g n i t i v e and affective distortion.  One form o f b i a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  semantic l e v e l o f memory i s t h e i d e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e parent. The h i g h l y skewed r e s u l t s towards t h e " p e r m i t t i n g response category  access"  and t h e subsequent c e i l i n g e f f e c t  suggest  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s form o f c o g n i t i v e / a f f e c t i v e b i a s i s present.  On t h e other hand, Bowlby (1973, 1980) and Main  e t a l . (1985) d i s c u s s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e parent as t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e j e c t i o n and low s e l f - e s t e e m .  90 There i s no evidence of low  self-esteem  c h i l d r e n s ' images of t h e i r own Furthermore, t h e r e  suggested i n the  responses t o  caregivers.  i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the  the group views the t h r e e c a r e g i v e r s .  If idealization  way of  p a r e n t s i s a f a c t o r i n t h i s group p r o f i l e then i t s e f f e c t s , o r the e f f e c t s which i t r e p r e s e n t s ,  have g e n e r a l i z e d  i n c l u d e the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of c a r e g i v e r s . the extent  t h a t the concrete  to  In a d d i t i o n , t o  s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c nature o f  the primary measure can access e p i s o d i c memory more or l e s s d i r e c t l y , any reduced.  " i d e a l i z a t i o n of p a r e n t " e f f e c t c o u l d  be  T h i s , of course, assumes t h a t the i d e a l i z a t i o n  of  the p a r e n t occurs v i a the semantic l e v e l o f the i n n e r model and  t h a t t h i s l e v e l might be bypassed. Cassidy  and  Kobak (1988) s t a t e t h a t "avoidance" i s  c e n t r a l t o i d e a l i z a t i o n of the s e l f and d e a c t i v a t i o n o f attachment system a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l e v e l . suggest t h a t "avoidance" i n p a r t i c u l a r and organization  i n general  experimental o b s e r v a t i o n  can  the  They  attachment  i n f l u e n c e the e f f e c t s of  on s e l f - r e l a t e d  representations.  Of course, the attachment o r g a n i z a t i o n of these s u b j e c t s i s not known.  S u p e r f i c i a l examination of the data  could  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence of "avoidance" as a form o f c o g n i t i v e / a f f e c t i v e b i a s . r e l a t i v e l y large proportion and  T h i s i s based on  of " p e r m i t t i n g a c c e s s "  the responses  on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t t h i s i n d i c a t e s a c t i v a t i o n  r a t h e r than d e a c t i v a t i o n of the attachment system.  behavioural  Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not j u s t i f i e d f o r a t  91 l e a s t two  reasons.  permitting access" and  A r e l a t i v e l y small p r o p o r t i o n responses may  affective bias.  be  of  "non-  i n d i c a t i v e of c o g n i t i v e  Secondly, images of  responsive  c a r e g i v e r s do not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e a l a c k o f d e a c t i v a t i o n of the attachment b e h a v i o u r a l the c h i l d r e n i n g e n e r a l .  That s t i l l  system amongst  requires that a  s u b s t a n t i a l i n f e r e n c e be made - although i t i s tempting t o do so.  We  do know f o u r r e l e v a n t t h i n g s about c h i l d r e n o f  t h i s age who  have avoidant  They tend t o r e p r e s e n t represent  others  attachment o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  themselves i d e a l l y .  as d i s t a n t (Cassidy,  (a)  (b) They tend t o  1988).  (c) They are  a b l e t o acknowledge d i s t r e s s i n themselves (Kaplan & Main, 1985).  (d) They don't tend t o reach out t o o t h e r s  1988).  The  (Cassidy,  t h i r d f a c t i s r e l e v a n t because seven of  eight situations depict a c h i l d i n d i s t r e s s .  The  first  p o i n t c o u l d be r e l e v a n t i f i t c o u l d be assumed t h a t childrens' representations access"  the  the  of themselves as " p e r m i t t i n g  are i n d i c a t i v e of i d e a l s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  s t i l l has  t o i n t e r p r e t the exceptions,  tendency t o r e p r e s e n t  however.  of One  The  o t h e r s as d i s t a n t i s most r e l e v a n t ,  but again the p o s s i b i l i t y must be faced t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of "non-permitting a c c e s s " i n d i c a t i v e of "avoidance" or avoidant organization. and  The  be  attachment  f o u r t h p o i n t can be assessed most e a s i l y  d i r e c t l y i n the c h i l d r e n s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s  responses t o the c a r e g i v e r s . "midway on a c c e s s "  responses may  of t h e i r  Six children selected  own the  or " i g n o r i n g " response c a t e g o r i e s .  None  92 s e l e c t e d the "angry" response c a t e g o r y . each o f t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s once  (#13).  One c h i l d One  selected  s e l e c t e d the  " i g n o r i n g " c a t e g o r y t w i c e and the "midway on a c c e s s " c a t e g o r y once  (#21).  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , these c h i l d r e n a c h i e v e d  o u t l i e r or b o r d e r l i n e o u t l i e r status.  The o t h e r f o u r  c h i l d r e n each s e l e c t e d the "midway on a c c e s s " c a t e g o r y once. The drawings p r e s e n t e d t o the c h i l d r e n can a l s o be viewed as s t i m u l i i n themselves.  S e v e r a l o f the s i t u a t i o n s  as w e l l as the "angry" c a r e g i v e r responses, i f not the " i g n o r i n g " c a r e g i v e r responses, c o u l d a c t as s t i m u l i s u f f i c i e n t t o a c t i v a t e the attachment b e h a v i o u r a l system. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n one o r more cases the s u b j e c t was i n e f f e c t withdrawing from a noxious s t i m u l i and approaching a p o s i t i v e s t i m u l i when he chose the " p e r m i t t i n g a c c e s s " response c a t e g o r y .  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o p r e s e n t the  drawings t o a group o f c h i l d r e n w i t h the most noxious s t i m u l u s , the "angry" c a r e g i v e r response c a t e g o r y removed. There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t l e a s t two o t h e r g e n e r a l forms o f response b i a s i n e f f e c t i n t h i s study.  First,  the  c h i l d r e n s ' responses c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by a d e s i r e t o respond as they imagine the i n t e r v i e w e r wants them t o respond Inhelder  (observer e f f e c t ) .  Piaget  (1924) and P i a g e t and  (1948) demonstrated t h a t c h i l d r e n under the age o f  7 have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y s e e i n g from another's p o i n t o f view ("egocentrism").  T h i s f a c t reduces but does not e l i m i n a t e  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i s form o f response b i a s .  There i s  i n a d d i t i o n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a g e n e r a l p o s i t i v i t y  bias,  93 t h a t i s , a tendency t o s e l e c t o n l y " p o s i t i v e " behaviours. Again the notable  c e i l i n g e f f e c t f o r the "permitting"  response category  i s suggestive.  Two s e t s o f s t u d i e s a r e  r e l e v a n t although t h e p o i n t remains u n s e t t l e d .  R e i d e r and  Cicchetti  (1989) demonstrated t h a t 4 t o 9-year-old  not g i r l s  "sharpen t o " a g g r e s s i v e  cues.  boys but  One can conclude  from t h i s t h a t t h e male s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were a t l e a s t l i k e l y t o a c c u r a t e l y note t h e "angry b l o c k i n g " response category  even though i t was t h e l e a s t s e l e c t e d .  In  a d d i t i o n , a p a i r o f s t u d i e s by Rholes and Ruble (1984) showed t h a t 5 t o 7-year-old  c h i l d r e n d i d not l a b e l t h e  behaviours o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n as p o s i t i v e l y as d i d 9 t o 10year-olds  even though they were demonstrated t o be capable  o f doing so. I t can not be r u l e d out t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s study are s u b j e c t t o mood o r other short-term factors.  within  subject  However, t h e o v e r a l l homogeneity and g e n e r a l  p a t t e r n s o f responses f o r the group suggest t h e m i n i m i z a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f such f a c t o r s . of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e study.  T h i s i s important i n terms In a d d i t i o n , a l l s u b j e c t s  appeared t o be f r e s h and h e a l t h y versus subject  t i r e d or i l l .  One  (#21) seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y sombre throughout t h e  interview.  Although very p o l i t e , he never came c l o s e t o  cracking a smile.  T h i s was noted a t t h e time as unusual.  However, i t i s not known t o what extent t h i s was t y p i c a l o f the boy o r merely a s h o r t term c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  94 General  Discussion  P a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h an e x p l o r a t o r y d e s i g n one  t h e i r usefulness  They are mentioned o n l y i n p a s s i n g ,  having been expended.  t h a t about 75%  t o 80%  " p e r m i t t i n g " p r o f i l e and profile.  (1) and  One  such h y p o t h e s i s  of s u b j e c t s would show a p r i m a r i l y 20% t o 25%  - a primarily  20%  on a c c e s s "  t o 25%  t o 80%  "permitting"  selections  " b l o c k i n g " s e l e c t i o n s (3-4).  category was  not  v a l i d category i n i t s e l f .  i n i t i a l l y conceived I t was  The  "midway  of as a  planned t h a t i f a  chose response category 2 he would be asked some like,  "blocking"  A p r i m a r i l y " p e r m i t t i n g " p r o f i l e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l  would c o n s i s t of about 75%  subject  questions  "what i s he/she doing? what i s he/she t h i n k i n g ? what  i s he/she f e e l i n g ? "  I t was  h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the c h i l d ' s  answers would a l l o w c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c a t e g o r i e s or perhaps i t would p r o v i d e was  this  a f a i l u r e t o prove some o f one's hypotheses i s not  overly consequential.  was  such as  I t was  the c l o s e d  a d d i t i o n a l l y a way  I t was  out"  It  the  "blocking  a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the v a r i a b l e  " c a r e g i v e r " would be shown t o be moderately s i g n i f i c a n t at  4,  forced-choice  to " f i l l  dimension or continuum from " p e r m i t t i n g " t o access".  or  some unexpected i n f o r m a t i o n .  i n p a r t a method t o "open up"  categories.  1,3  and  l e a s t as s i g n i f i c a n t as the v a r i a b l e " s i t u a t i o n " . The  v a r i a b l e " c a r e g i v e r " was  significant.  The  demonstrated not t o  v a r i a b l e " s i t u a t i o n " was  be  demonstrated t o  be s i g n i f i c a n t , a t l e a s t f o r the c o l l a p s e d response  95 categories  (1,2,3-4).  The second response category  indeed  served one o f i t s f u n c t i o n s , namely t h e " f i l l i n g o u t " o f t h e " p e r m i t t i n g " t o " b l o c k i n g access" dimension.  I t was  s e l e c t e d 8% o f t h e time, twice as o f t e n as t h e combined "blocking access" categories.  I t was a l s o chosen by n e a r l y  twice as many c h i l d r e n (57% v s . 30%). Furthermore, once a c h i l d chose t h i s response category  he gave t h e i n t e r v i e w e r  no reason whatsoever t o r e c l a s s i f y i t i n one o f t h e o t h e r categories. Even t h e one s u b j e c t  (#21) most d e s e r v i n g  o f t h e term  " o u t l i e r " d i d not match the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r i m a r i l y " b l o c k i n g " p r o f i l e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l . 25%  H i s p r o f i l e i s about  " p e r m i t t i n g " , 25% " b l o c k i n g " and 50% "midway on access".  7 i n d i v i d u a l s show a 100% " p e r m i t t i n g " p r o f i l e . show a 92% t o 96% " p e r m i t t i n g " p r o f i l e .  Ten o t h e r s  C l e a r l y , the  " p e r m i t t i n g " and "midway on a c c e s s " response c a t e g o r i e s were s e l e c t e d much more o f t e n than was expected and t h e " b l o c k i n g a c c e s s " c a t e g o r i e s much l e s s o f t e n than expected.  As a  r e s u l t , t h e c r i t e r i o n used t o d i s t i n g u i s h o u t l i e r s from a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group, i f t h e r e i s t o be any c r i t e r i o n at a l l ,  appears more s t r i n g e n t i n i t s e f f e c t than  would have been expected on t h e b a s i s o f e a r l i e r hypotheses. In o t h e r words, u s i n g normal d i s t r i b u t i o n  confidence  i n t e r v a l s as t h e c r i t e r i o n t o d e f i n e an o u t l i e r , a 67% " p e r m i t t i n g access",  21% "midway on access",  "blocking access" p r o f i l e d e f i n e an o u t l i e r .  and 12%  (#10) i s s u f f i c i e n t i n one case t o  Using more s t r i n g e n t c o n f i d e n c e  interval  96 c r i t e r i a t o d e f i n e " b o r d e r l i n e o u t l i e r s " causes two s u b j e c t s (#8,  #23) w i t h 92% " p e r m i t t i n g " and 8% "angry b l o c k i n g "  access p r o f i l e s t o be so d e f i n e d . p r o f i l e d e s c r i b e d by having  T h i s d e f i n e s a group  13% (3 o f 23) o u t l i e r s , o r 26%  (6 o f 23) o u t l i e r s o r b o r d e r l i n e o u t l i e r s .  These  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s do not have d i a g n o s t i c v a l i d i t y o r significance. arbitrary  The confidence  i n t e r v a l c r i t e r i a a r e somewhat  and f u t u r e s t u d i e s may develop more u s e f u l , more  e m p i r i c a l l y based and/or l e s s a r b i t r a r y  criteria.  They a r e  used here t o d e s c r i b e t h e group i n terms o f i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s along a r a t h e r l i m i t e d  number o f dimensions  or v a r i a b l e s ( i e . " c a r e g i v e r " , " s i t u a t i o n " ,  "response").  O u t l i e r s and b o r d e r l i n e o u t l i e r s have an o p e r a t i o n a l o r s t a t i s t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n as used i n t h i s study. i s premature t o g i v e them a t h e o r e t i c a l  However, i t  definition.  S u b j e c t s who meet t h i s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n ,  and s u b j e c t s  who do not meet i t , need t o be compared on o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures whose v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y a r e established. There a r e s e v e r a l other p a t t e r n s t h a t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c r o s s response c a t e g o r i e s and i n v e n t o r i e s . These p a t t e r n s p r o v i d e  support  f o r the relevance,  haphazardness, and t h e i n t e r n a l  t h e non-  consistency of the s u b j e c t s  s e l e c t i o n s a c r o s s o r w i t h i n t h e response c a t e g o r i e s . t h i s means, t h e p a t t e r n s p r o v i d e support  By  - and a r e submitted as -  f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e response c a t e g o r i e s and  t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d c o n s t r u c t , " i n n e r images" o r  7  97 "conceptualizations".  Stronger evidence of v a l i d i t y  r e q u i r e f u t u r e s t u d i e s w i t h s i m i l a r and  will  d i f f e r e n t groups of  subjects. The  most obvious p a t t e r n a c r o s s c a t e g o r i e s  i n both  i n v e n t o r i e s i s the h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t skewed nature of distributions.  They are s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n s but not t o a  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t degree. t h a t i f the f i r s t two  I t i s the case, however,  c a t e g o r i e s of  the  F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s measure are c o l l a p s e d c a t e g o r y r a t i o changes from 15:7:1 t o 22:1. (1,2,3-4) P e r m i t t i n g / B l o c k i n g r a t i o i s 22:2:1.  the  The  the collapsed  measure response c a t e g o r y  A case c o u l d be made f o r c o l l a p s i n g ( i n  the " F r i e n d l i n e s s / U n f r i e n d l i n e s s r a t i o ) the f i r s t  two  c a t e g o r i e s on the b a s i s t h a t the second c a t e g o r y r e a l l y i s a lot  more l i k e the f i r s t c a t e g o r y than the I t was  proportion  third.  suspected t h a t t h e r e would be a of " p e r m i t t i n g access"  higher  responses than "most  f r i e n d l y " responses p e r t a i n i n g t o these p a r e n t s . two  r e l a t e d reasons f o r t h i s .  There are  F i r s t l y , the p a r e n t s of  this  s u b j e c t group were c l e a r l y not s e l e c t e d i n order t o form k i n d of h i g h - r i s k p r o f i l e group.  Secondly, the s i t u a t i o n s  d e p i c t e d were i n t e n t i o n a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d c h i l d s t r e s s and d i s t r e s s .  any  around i s s u e s  of  In g e n e r a l , these p a r e n t s would  be expected t o be more s e n s i t i v e l y r e s p o n s i v e c h i l d r e n i n such s i t u a t i o n s .  to  their  However, i f a h i g h - r i s k group  of p a r e n t s or a m a l t r e a t i n g group of p a r e n t s had s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s e l e c t e d t h i s might not be the  been  case.  98 I t i s not p o s s i b l e , however, t o c o n f i d e n t l y i n t e r p r e t the r e l a t i o n of the r e s u l t s from the two secondary i n v e n t o r y  inventories.  The  i s perhaps most u s e f u l i n i t s c a p a c i t y  t o h i g h l i g h t the s u p e r i o r i t y of a measure which d e p i c t s m u l t i p l e s i t u a t i o n s over one  d e p i c t i n g no s i t u a t i o n s  whatsoever. The  demonstration t h a t t h e r e i s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y  w i t h i n response c a t e g o r i e s of v a l i d i t y . consistency, The  v a l i d i t y i s s e r i o u s l y threatened.  f a c t t h a t a t l e a s t 22%  of s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d each  or more times combined w i t h the  that i n t e r n a l consistency response c a t e g o r y p r o v i d e s and  good e m p i r i c a l support f o r the  the v a l i d i t y of the response c a t e g o r i e s .  response c a t e g o r i e s "permitting/blocking  access"  i s suggested however.  category appears t o be  dependent w i t h both the "midway on a c c e s s " blocking access"  forms of  f o r the dimension of  " i g n o r i n g b l o c k i n g access"  categories.  the "midway on access"  The  and  the  "angry b l o c k i n g  The mutually "angry access"  c a t e g o r i e s appear t o be e i t h e r  independent or n e g a t i v e l y dependent. t e n t a t i v e but  fact  i s demonstrated w i t h i n each  F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of the i d e a l number and  and  evidence  On the other hand, without i n t e r n a l  response c a t e g o r y one  relevance  i s of course not s t r o n g  Conclusions  must be  i t appears t h a t the " i g n o r i n g b l o c k i n g  response c a t e g o r y i s between the other two "permitting/blocking  access"  continuum.  on  a  access"  99 On the b a s i s t h a t the " i g n o r i n g " and are both " b l o c k i n g a c c e s s "  categories,  "angry"  i t was  categories  thought  t h a t an a s s o c i a t i o n would be found between the  likely  two.  However, the v e r y d i f f e r e n t kinds o f a s s o c i a t i o n found between the the one  " i g n o r i n g " and  hand, and  "midway on a c c e s s "  the " i g n o r i n g " and  c a t e g o r i e s on the other, was  not  categories  "angry b l o c k i n g  access"  foreseen.  I t i s a d d i t i o n a l l y noteworthy t h a t s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d the " i g n o r i n g b l o c k i n g access"  who  c a t e g o r y almost  always s e l e c t e d the s i d e p r o f i l e d e p i c t i o n showing p a r t the face over the d e p i c t i o n of the c a r e g i v e r s ' backs. was  the case d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was  equal o p p o r t u n i t y  design  at least  t o s e l e c t the l a t t e r v e r s i o n of  " i g n o r i n g " response category. of f u t u r e s t u d i e s .  on  T h i s has  of This  an  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  100 T a b l e 11 S i t u a t i o n by c a r e g i v e r by response  Response c a t e g o r y  (2)  (3)  mother  20  1  1  1  father  20  3  0  0  teacher  16  7  0  0  total  56  11  1  1  mother  22  1  0  0  father  19  3  0  1  teacher  22  1  0  0  total  63  5  0  1  mother  18  4  1  0  father  18  4  0  1  teacher  20  1  0  0  total  55  10  2  1  mother  22  1  0  0  father  21  2  0  0  teacher  21  2  0  0  total  64  5  0  0  mother  20  1  2  0  father  20  2  0  1  teacher  20  0  2  1  total  59  3  4  2  Caregiver  Situation  Distressed  (4  (1)  child  reaching  Cut knee  Sick  Bully  Puzzle-Schoolwork  T a b l e 11  (continued)  Response  Category  Situation  Spilt  milk-Late  Smiling reaching  Self  child  (4  (1)  (2)  (3)  mother  20  1  1  1  father  19  1  1  2  teacher  21  2  0  0  total  60  4  2  3  mother  23  0  0  0  father  22  1  0  0  teacher  20  3  0  0  total  65  4  0  0  mother  20  1  2  0  father  22  0  1  0  teacher  18  5  0  0  total  60  6  3  0  Caregiver  102  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a r i a b l e " s i t u a t i o n " and  i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of i t s i n t e r a c t i o n with,  the  o r the main e f f e c t  o f , the v a r i a b l e " c a r e g i v e r " i s c e r t a i n l y i n t e r e s t i n g .  The  g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n the c h i l d r e n s ' responses appears t o be between the d e p i c t i o n of the c h i l d r e a c h i n g w i t h a d i s t r e s s e d look on h i s face and c h i l d reaching 11).  for a  hug  the d e p i c t i o n of  f o r a hug w i t h a smile on h i s f a c e  Category 1 r e c e i v e d more; a l l other  r e c e i v e d l e s s responses when the c h i l d was  the  (see Table  categories depicted  smiling.  C h i l d r e n a l s o appear t o view t h e i r c a r e g i v e r s as responding more s e n s i t i v e l y when they have cut t h e i r knee as opposed t o when they are s i c k .  A l l c a r e g i v e r s are seen t o respond  p r o t e c t i v e l y f o r the most p a r t t o the s i t u a t i o n of the being b u l l i e d .  The  "distressed c h i l d reaching  s i t u a t i o n r e c e i v e d the most "midway on a c c e s s " of 48).  The  hug"  responses  " c h i l d f r u s t r a t e d w i t h p u z z l e o r schoolwork"  s i t u a t i o n r e c e i v e d the most " i g n o r i n g b l o c k i n g responses (4 o f 12). milk"  for a  child  The  " d i s t r e s s e d c h i l d has  access" spilt  s i t u a t i o n r e c e i v e d the most "angry b l o c k i n g  responses (3 of 8).  his  access"  (11  Conclusion  T h i s study p r o v i d e s  some support  the f o u r response c a t e g o r i e s .  f o r the v a l i d i t y of  In doing so, i t supports t h e  n o t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g dimension o f " p e r m i t t i n g t o b l o c k i n g " access  suggested by attachment  t h e o r i s t s , Main, Kaplan and Cassidy a c c e s s " response category,  (1985).  The "midway on  t o t h e extent t h a t i t s v a l i d i t y  i s here supported, i s an a d d i t i o n a l response category dimension o f " p e r m i t t i n g t o b l o c k i n g access".  on the  Although t h e  u n d e r l y i n g dimension was d e s c r i b e d by Main, Kaplan and Cassidy,  t h i s response category  was n o t . T h i s study a l s o  supports t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n s ' i n n e r images o r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f s e l f and others can be  represented  visually. Methodological presented  rigourousness  requires that  conclusions  i n t h e remaining s e c t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d t e n t a t i v e .  The v a l i d i t y o f t h e primary measure r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r support,  i n p a r t because o f t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e sample.  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study i s i n essence an i n t e r n a l study.  One should not use t h e presence o f p a t t e r n s  data t o support and  validity i n the  t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e response c a t e g o r i e s -  then use t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s o f v a r i a b l e s determined  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e response c a t e g o r i e s - t o make f u r t h e r conclusions.  On t h e o t h e r hand, t o t h e extent t h a t t h e  response c a t e g o r i e s a r e v a l i d a t e d on a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s and  104 by v a r i o u s r e l a t e d attachment s t u d i e s , the conclusions The  are  following  supported.  t h r e e c a r e g i v e r s t h a t were d e p i c t e d  were c o n s i d e r e d  i n t h i s study  t o be primary attachment f i g u r e s i n the  of the p a r e n t s and  t e n t a t i v e l y , secondary attachment f i g u r e s  i n the case of the main t e a c h e r s .  A l l of the s i t u a t i o n s  t h a t were d e p i c t e d  i n the study were c o n s i d e r e d  attachment-related  s i t u a t i o n s , although some more than  others. was  of d i s t r e s s . was  was  The  t h a t the c h i l d be d e p i c t e d  a l s o generated from attachment theory.  situation.  beyond the appropriate categories.  .05  The  be  seeking i n a state  o n l y other v a r i a b l e , "response category",  s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n s i n v o l v e d the c h i l d and one  to  The minimum c r i t e r i o n used, i f p r o x i m i t y  not d e p i c t e d ,  case  Each of the one  552  caregiver i n  variable "situation" i s significant  l e v e l w i t h p_ = .035  Pearson s t a t i s t i c )  (using the more  f o r the c o l l a p s e d response  N e i t h e r the v a r i a b l e " c a r e g i v e r " nor i t s  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the v a r i a b l e " s i t u a t i o n " i s s i g n i f i c a n t . A f a i r l y g e n e r a l i z e d m e t a - s t r u c t u r e of i n t e r n a l working models i s suggested by t h i s group p r o f i l e o f 5 t o boys.  Even the o u t l i e r s responded s i m i l a r l y  caregivers.  "Multiple unrelated  7-year-old  across  i n n e r working models" i n  which the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of each r e l a t i o n s h i p but not coherency between them i s r e c o g n i z e d these subjects.  the  - i s not suggested f o r  In a d d i t i o n , the data on t e a c h e r s  relative  t o p a r e n t s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence t h a t main female  105 teachers  a f t e r 9 o r 10 months of t e a c h i n g a c h i l d may  considered  t o be an attachment f i g u r e t o t h a t  F i n a l l y , several studies Kadushin and M a r t i n , Putman, 1971;  1981;  child.  (Bauer and Twentyman,  1985;  Thomson, Paget, Bates, Mesch, &  Zussman, 1980)  have noted  situational  s p e c i f i c i t y of c a r e g i v e r response under g e n e r a l T h i s study g i v e s support  be  t o the n o t i o n of  conditions.  situational  s p e c i f i c i t y of c a r e g i v e r response under c o n d i t i o n s o f attachment b e h a v i o u r a l  child  system a c t i v a t i o n .  Future Research D i r e c t i o n s I f i n n e r images can be s u c c e s s f u l l y e x p l o r e d group of c h i l d r e n i t may  for this  be done f o r other groups -  i n c l u d i n g groups of g i r l s ,  o l d e r c h i l d r e n , abused c h i l d r e n ,  peer-rejected children, etc.  Comparisons can then be made  amongst d i f f e r e n t groups and t h e i r p r o f i l e s .  It  may  e v e n t u a l l y be p o s s i b l e t o use t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h  directly  t o f a c i l i t a t e normal development or i n t e r v e n t i o n and/or i n d i r e c t l y through the development of r e s e a r c h theory  in  c h i l d development. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i n e of r e s e a r c h may e x p l o r e one  i n the  future  or more of the f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s : (a)  development of new  forced choice categories,  the  e.g.,  " m a l i c i o u s l a u g h t e r " as a c a r e g i v e r response; or " i g n o r i n g blocking access" f a c i a l features; e.g.,  responses s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h and/or without (b) the development of new s i t u a t i o n s ,  " c h i l d a s k i n g c a r e g i v e r t o j o i n him  i n play" or v i c e -  v e r s a ; or " c h i l d has damaged a m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n  with  106 caregiver present"; parent  present";  or " c h i l d awakes from a nightmare w i t h  (c) the comparison of members of one  i n terms o f t h e i r i n n e r images a c r o s s time;  (d)  group  the  comparison of d i f f e r e n t types of groups i n terms o f t h e i r i n n e r images; (e) the comparison of i n n e r image p r o f i l e s f o r one  group t o attachment c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s or  other  b e h a v i o u r a l / c o g n i t i v e measures taken a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n time. A c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t ages are important developmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the c u r r e n t and f u t u r e study d e s i g n s .  The  an in  development of c o g n i t i v e  c a p a c i t i e s over time c o u l d be one  factor that seriously  hampers attempts t o develop i n the t h i r d d i r e c t i o n mentioned. be  On the other hand, i f developmental change can  i s o l a t e d from a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the content  of  the  i n n e r images of the i n d i v i d u a l s ' i n t e r n a l working models t h e r e may  be no problems; however, t h e r e have been  few  assessments d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y towards e x p l o r i n g developmental change i n t h i s g e n e r a l area  (Crittenden,  1989) . 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Child  Appendix  A:  Drawings f o r  Permitting/Blocking  Access  Inventory  121  122  123  125  126  127  1S8  129  130  131  132  133  134  135  136  138  139  140  141  142  143  144  145  147  148  149  150  151  152  153  154  155  156  157  158  159  160  161  162  163  164  165  168  169  170  171  172  173  174  175  176  177  178  179  180  182  185  186  188  183  /  191  192  194  195  196  197  198  199  200  201  202  203  204  205  206  207  208  209  210  211  212  213  214  215  Appendix  B:  Drawings f o r  Friendllness/Unfriendliness  Inventory  217  218  219  220  221  222  223  224  225  226  227  228  229  231  232  1  233  

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