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A cognitive framework for deriving and interpreting learning style differences among a group of intermediate… Karlebach, David Geoffrey 1986

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A COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK FOR DERIVING AND INTERPRETING LEARNING STYLE DIFFERENCES AMONG A GROUP OF INTERMEDIATE GRADE NATIVE AND NON NATIVE PUPILS by DAVID GEOFFREY KARLEBACH B.A. The Unive r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1973 M.ED. The Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A DOCTORAL DISSERTATION FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Faculty of Education) We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF Apri 1, (c) David Geoffrey BRITISH COLUMBIA 1986 Karlebach, 1986 ?8 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Educational Psychology &.Special Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6-T 1Y3 ^ t e ^ ^ / f f f e DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT ; T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s a f r a m e w o r k f o r d e r i v i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g c o g n i t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n 3 £ N a t i v e a n d 3 2 n o n N a t i v e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e M e r r i t B . C . p u p i l s . S e v e n p r o c e s s i n g f a c t o r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a n d o p e r -a t i o n a l i z e d b y t w e n t y - t w o m e a s u r e s . B o t t o m - u p a t t e n t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g w a s d e f i n e d a s i n c i d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n t o d o m i n a n t o r c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s <e. g . a t t e n t i o n t o c o l o r ) . T o p - d o w n v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g w a s d e f i n e d a s g o a l — d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c t i v a t e d b y t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f c o n c r e t e / a c t i v e p l a n n i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i s u a l -m o t o r m o d e l l i n g o r f e e d b a c k . T o p - d o w n v e r b a l a t t e n t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g w a s d e f i n e d a s g o a l - d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n t o s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c t i v a t e d b y t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f v e r b a l / l o g i c a l p l a n -n i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s o r f e e d b a c k . S i m u l -t a n e o u s p r o c e s s i n g w a s d e f i n e d a s r e c e d i n g o f s e p a r a t e s t i m -u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o m e a n i n g f u l w h o l e s i n w h i c h a l l t h e e l e m e n t s a r e m u t u a l l y s u r v e y a b l e a n d m e a n i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e w h o l e r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e p a r a t e p a r t s . S u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g w a s d e f i n e d a s r e c e d i n g o f s e p a r a t e s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o t e m p o r a l , s e q u e n c e - d e p e n d e n t f o r m s w i t h m e a n i n g a c c e s s e d b y t h e o r d e r . C o n c r e t e / a c t i v e p r o c e s s i n g i i w a s d e f i n e d a s g e n e r a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n a n d m o n i t o r i n g o f g o a l -d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i s u a l / m o t o r f e e d b a c k . V e r b a l / 1 o g i c a l p r o c e s s i n g w a s d e f i n e d a s g e n e r a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n a n d m o n i t o r i n g o f g o a l - d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v e r b a l f e e d b a c k . A c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s t a s k a n a l y s i s w a s u s e d t o g e n e r a t e a t a r g e t m a t r i x f o r t h e 2 £ t a s k s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . S e p a r a t e o r t h o g o n a l p r o c r u s t e s s o l u t i o n s w e r e u s e d t o g e n e r a t e e r r o r m a t r i c e s f o r b o t h N a t i v e a n d n o n N a t i v e g r o u p s . fin e x a m i n -a t i o n o f t h e m e a n e r r o r r a t e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s s u g g e s t s t h e p r e l i m i n a r y e f f i c a c y o f t h e f r a m e w o r k . fin e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e c i s i o n i n l a n g u a g e f o r d e r i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e f r a m e w o r k . N a t i v e a n d n o n N a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s , b a s e d o n t h e s e s e v e n p r o c e s s i n g f a c t o r s , a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d r e l a t e d t o c h a n g e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l t a s k s d e m a n d s d e s i g n e d t o o p t i m i s e s t r e n g t h s . fi N a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t y l e i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p a t t e r n o f m o d e l l i n g m e d i a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e " o b s e r -v a t i o n a l " l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE - £6 The F i r s t Canadians. . . . £S Deficiency Theories of Nat i ve Cognit ion. £6 The Wechsler Scale Performance of Native Childrer £8 Competency Theories of Native Cognit ion £9 The Struct ures : ................. 2>7 Block I— A t t e n t i o n 38 Block 11—Coding 39 Block I I I — P l a n n i n g 39 The Processes: 40 Block I — A t t e n t i o n 40 Block I I — C o d i n g .44 B1 ock III —P1 arming........ 46 The Knowledge Bases: » 50 Block I — A t t e n t i o n 50 B1 ock 11 — Cod i ng. . . . 51 B1 ock III —P1 arming 55 Summary of the Luria/Das Cognitive Functions..... 57 The Ernie V a l i d i t y of the Luria/Das Model... .58 The E t i c V a l i d i t y of the Luria/Das Model. 66 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS (cent.) CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 73 The Qperati o n a l i z a t i o n of the Luria/Das Model.. 73 Subjects 9c.' Data Col lect ion Procedures 94 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS . 96 Data Reduct ion Procedures 96 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 124 BIBLIOGRAPHY 161 APPENDIX I 173 APPEND IX I I . . . . . . 175 v LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF THEORETICAL COGNITIVE PROCESS ANALYSIS OF THE TWENTY-TWO MEASURES . ...... 91 TABLE £: SIGNIFICANCE LEVELS FOR THE AGE, SEX, AND AGE/SEX EFFECTS ON THE INTERCORRELATIONS OF THE TWENTY-TWO MEASURES. 100 TABLE 3: TARGET MATRIX LOADINGS FOR ALL TWENTY-TWO TASKS..102 TABLE 4: SUMMARY OF ERRORS GENERATED BY THE PROCRUSTES AND PCA SOLUTIONS FOR THE NON NATIVE DATA ...106 TABLE 5: SUMMARY OF ERRORS GENERATED BY THE PROCRUSTES AND PCA SOLUTIONS FOR THE NATIVE DATA 108 TABLE 6: FACTOR LOADINGS FOR PROCRUSTES TRANSFORMATION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATION TO A SEVEN FACTOR SOLUTION. . . I l l TABLE 7: SUMMARY OF THE TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE BASES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NON NATIVE AND NATIVE. PROCRUSTES FACTORS 1£5 v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1: Z-SCORE COMPARISON OF NATIVE AND NON NATIVE PERFORMANCE ON THE TWENTY-TWO MEASURES 97 FIGURE 2: AN EXAMPLE OF CLOZE PROCEDURE FOR TEACHING VISUAL PHONETIC ANALYSIS. 130 FISURE 3: ERROR PATTERNS FOR THE NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE GROUPS ON A SAMPLE MATIX ANALOGY PROBLEM..... 133 v i i fill language i s of a successive nature; i t i s not an e f f e c t i v e tool for reasoning the eternal, the intemporal. — J o r g e Borges There are two kinds of people, those who believe there are two kinds of people, and those who don't. —Tom Robbins v i i i CHAPTER ONEi INTRODUCTION Differences in cognitive performance between Natives-c h i l d r e n and t h e i r non-Native counterparts have a long h i s t o r y dating from the f i r s t attempts to "educate" Native children. For over three decades, non-Native researchers and educators designed and c a r r i e d out research which demonstrated that Native children, when presented with t e s t s of mental a b i l i t i e s valued in the majority non-Native culture, could not handle the task demands as well as t h e i r non-Native counterparts. Consistent evidence from studies of Native performance on the Wechsler scales has been viewed by educators from a d e f i c -iency perspective (McShane and PIas, 1984). This has led many educators to design educational prog-rams that s t r e s s s k i l l development in the areas d i r e c t l y assessed by the Wechsler scales. For example, a verbal d e f i c i e n c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has led to a remediation approach which emphasizes language and vocabulary development. This s t y l e of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ignores the assumption of most "aca-demic i n t e l l i g e n c e " t h e o r i s t s who believe that these t e s t s measure both aptitudes f o r learning and knowledge or products of t h i s learning (e.g., Sternberg, 1982). Brown and French (1974) point out that other than being 1Native i s used as the generic term for a l l North American indigeneous people. 1 Chapter One Introduction able to predict f a i r l y accurately the school f a i l u r e of learn-ing disabled children, there i s l i t t l e e l s e that our IQ t e s t s o f f e r . This "deficiency" o r i e n t a t i o n has ursdoubt ly biased both our research as well as our a t t i t u d e s and treatment of Native children. In contrast to the overwhelming evidence concerning what the Native c h i l d cannot do or i s d e f i c i e n t in, we know very l i t t l e about what the Native c h i l d can do, under what learning conditions he or she can work best, and on what tasks t h i s occurs. The l a t t e r concerns, i t w i l l be noted, are of course of much greater concern from an educat-ional perspective. More recently, research concerned with the examination of information processing s k i l l s exercised in the context of Native c u l t u r e has highlighted some cognitive p r o f i c i e n c i e s of Native peoples. This research has outlined a complex array of culture-relevant learning s t r a t e g i e s (e. g. , Berry, 1971; Black, 1973; Brokenleg and Bryde, 1983; Cazden and John, 1971; Darnell, 1979; Durnont, 197S; Erickson, 1978; Greenbaum & Greenbaum, 1983; Kaulbach, 1984; K l e i n f e l d , 1970; Koenig, 1981; Krywaniuk 1974; Kuske, 1969; Lornbardi, 1969; Macftrthur, 1978; More, 1984a; Schubert and Cropley, 197£; Taylor and Skanes, 1975; Weitz, 1971). These studies, taken as a whole, have been interpreted as demonstrating that Native c h i l d r e n possess r e l a t i v e s t r e n -Chapter One Introduction gths in v i s u a l / s p a t i a l processing and r e l a t i v e weaknesses in verbal processing a b i l i t i e s . As educators and researchers began to interpret the ^"imeridous range of tasks used to assess cognitive performance d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native ch i l d r e n , they began to question the e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y ( c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c relevance) of these differences. The f i r s t attempts to d i r e c t l y investigate the e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y of Native strengths in v i s u a l processing and weak-nesses in verbal processing were conducted under the r u b r i c of "cognitive s t y l e " research (e.g., Berry, 1966; 1971; K l e i n f e l d , 1970; MacArthur,1968; Weitz, 1971). This l i n e of research provided d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the " h i s t o r i c a l " learning environment of Native peoples and the e c o l o g i c a l demands associated with that environment. The d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s approach i s that while demonstrating the e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y of Native c h i l d r e n ' s strengths in v i s u a l processing, these studies f a i l e d to investigate whether the same eco-l o g i c a l demands could be i d e n t i f i e d in the a s p i r a t i o n s of present-day Native groups. More (1984a) reports the r e s u l t s of over £00 interviews of Native parents, teachers and others concerned with s e t t i n g the goals and p r i o r i t i e s for Native children's education, concluding, "The responses make i t very c l e a r that basic academics, p a r t i c u l a r i l y reading and writing, are the highest Chapter One Introduction p r i o r i t y for educational goals" (More, 1984a, p 39). If Native c h i l d r e n d i f f e r from t h e i r non-Native counter-parts* in terms of r e l a t i v e strengths in v i s u a l / s p a t i a l pro-cessing and r e l a t i v e weaknesses i n verbal processing, then these v i s u a l / s p a t i a l strengths may aid in the development of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s which promote the use of these strengths on academic tasks. To ignore the i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications of these strengths i s to deny the importance placed on academic achievement by Native parents and educat-ors or the e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y of these strengths. The major d i f f i c u l t y associated with previous research on cognitive d i f f e r e n c e s between Native c h i l d r e n and t h e i r non-Native counterparts i s that the s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s i d e n t i f i e d lack the c l i n i c a l u t i l i t y necessary for deriving i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications. Instead of defining the academic underachievernent of Native c h i l d r e n in terms of cognitive s k i l l d e f i c i t s , i t may be more appropriate to define Native underachievernent in terms of i n t e r a c t i v e patterns of academic/ cogni t i v e strengths and weaknesses. ft f u l l y i n t e r a c t i v e a n a lysis of academic/cognitive strengths and weaknesses of Native c h i l d r e n would be much easi e r to i n t e r p r e t — a n d to derive i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications f r o m — i f the t e s t s were based on a s i n g l e integrated theory of reading, language, and cognition (Doehring, T r i t e s , Patel, Chapter One Introduction and Fiedorowicz,1981)- In order to f a c i l i t a t e a more eco-l o g i c a l l y v a l i d and c l i n i c a l l y useful framework for the i n t e r pretation of cognitive performance di f f e r e n c e between Native and non-Native children, a number of t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s need to be drawn. There are "quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n on a v a r i e t y of cog-n i t i v e and academic measures" leading to many in t e r p r e t a t i o n s which can be broadly c l a s s i f i e d as being derived from e i t h e r single-syndrome competency or from d e f i c i e n c y explanations of Native performance. ft d e f i c i e n c y or competency of a uniquely human cognitive function can have three aspects: structure, process, and knowledge base (Hunt, 1980). D i f -ferences i n cognitive a b i l i t i e s within an i n d i v i d u a l and between groups (e.g., Native and non—Native children) may be accounted for by the i n t e r a c t i o n between dif f e r e n c e s i n these three aspects of a cognitive function. The s t r u c t u r a l aspects of a cognitive function have been linked to the concept of functional units of the brain through the neurophysiological observations of ft. R. L u r i a (1966a; 1966b; 1970; 1973). Observations of the c o g n i t i v e / academic performance of patients sustaining r e l a t i v e l y d i s -crete injury to s p e c i f i c areas of the brain revealed three functional units of the brain d i f f e r i n g in terms of the Chapter One Introduction demands placed on attention, coding and planning by the various tasks (Luria, 1966a; 1966b). Implicit invthe d e f i n -i t i o n of the s t r u c t u r a l aspects of a cognitive function i-ti-the notion that structure i s interdependent upon the tasks used to assess that structure. It follows, that d e f i c i t s in structure are d i f f i c u l t to separate from e x p e r i e n t i a l d e f i c t i s associated with the s p e c i f i c task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used to measure them. For example, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the brain structures associated with a t t e n t i o n are linked to tasks demands which emphasize attention over coding or planning functions. fin a t t e n t i o n a l function has been linked to performance d e f i c i t s , on tasks r e q u i r i n g scanning and focusing of s t i m u l i character-i s t i c s . The response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these tasks emphasize rapid v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Attentional d e f i c i t s have been evidenced by i n d i v i d u a l s who have sustained injury to r e l -a t i v e l y d i s c r e t e brain structures, as well as by the learning disabled (see Ross, 1976 f o r a review of t h i s point of view). That s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s can lead to performances d i f f e r e n c e s i s inherent i n the manner in which the structures have been defined. This does not imply, however that these s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s represent only neurophysiological d e f i c i t s . Rather, these d i f f e r e n c e s may be accounted for in part by d i f f e r e n c e s i n an i n d i v i d u l ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with Chapter One Introduction the tasks used to measure these structures. The l a t t e r view i s consistent with the perspective o f t h i s paper. Differences i n cognitive performprjCB may also r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in the processes u t i l i z e d in solving the task. The manner in which an i n d i v i d u a l attacks a p a r t i c u l a r cog-n i t i v e task r e f l e c t s what Kirby (1984) terms "cognitive con-t r o l s t r a t e g i e s , " involved the s e l e c t i o n of which s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to attend to, which code type and organization to u t i l i z e in s t o r i n g and r e t r i e v i n g the information, and which type of feedback i s to be u t i l i z e d e d i n evaluating performance. According to Das (1984a) s e l e c t i o n of c o g n i t i v e control s t r a t e g i e s may vary depending on the task demands and/or the subject's competency with that strategy. At least two fa c t o r s contribute to competency with a p a r t i c u l a r control strategy. F i r s t , competency may r e f l e c t the neurophysio-l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y of the underlying brain structures. This implies that the processing aspects of a cognitive function are i n t e r r e l a t e d to and interdependent upon the s t r u c t u r a l aspects of that function. Second, competency may r e f l e c t the learning h i s t o r y of the i n d i v i d u a l both with the processes themselves, as well as with the task demands thought to be associated with those processes. This implies that the processing aspects 7 Chapter One Introduction of a p a r t i c u l a r c ognitive function interact with the occut— rence, frequency, and patterning of tasks c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and mediated models of that process provided i n an one's-1earning his t o r y . The greater the frequency of a partcular form of medi-ation being c o n s i s t e n t l y patterned with a s p e c i f i c set of task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the greater the l i k e l i h o o d of that mediated strategy being employed when those task character-i s t i c s are presented. When more than one cognitive process has been patterned with a given set of task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s then s e l e c t i o n of a control process usually r e f l e c t s the habitual mode of processing (Luria, 1984a). This implies that d i f f e r e n c e s in processing between Native and non-Native chi l d r e n ' s cognitive-task performance may r e f l e c t e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s associated with the mediation provided by t h e i r unique learning environment. fit least two learning environments can be i d e n t i f i e d f o r any i n d i v i d u a l on the basis of the s t y l e of mediation provided. Mediation in the form of feedback has been charac-t e r i z e d as l a r g e l y concrete/active and/or v e r b a l / l o g i c a l (Luria, 1970), and r e f l e c t s the d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between the "observational" and "formal academic" learning environ-ments of Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n drawn by Greenbaum and Greenbaum (1983). 8 Chapter One Introduction The mediation provided by or r e s u l t i n g from a learning environment develops into a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or habitual mode of functioning which has been va r i o u s l y termed as; a "global proccessing system" (e.g., Sternberg, 1980), a "cognitive s t y l e " (e.g., Werner, 1979), or a "learning s t y l e " (e.g., Kaulbach, 1984; More, 1984a). A "learning s t y l e " in t h i s paper r e f e r s to the s e l e c t i o n of cognitive control s t r a t e g i e s r e l a t e d to and dependent upon the mediation provided i n the two learning environments. Differences i n cognitive task performance, evidenced by Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n as well as other groups, may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in the type of mediation provided by the "observational" and "formal academic" learning environments. According to Greenbaum and Greenbaum non-Natives recieve r e l a t i v e l y more exposure to the task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and rnediational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the formal academic learning environment than t h e i r Native counterparts. F i n a l l y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n cognitive performance may be accounted for by d i f f e r e n c e s in the knowledge bases one has acquired in one's learning history. A d e f i c i t i n a p a r t i c u l a r knowledge base (e.g., vocabulary) a f f e c t s both the a c t i v a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r a l aspects of a cognitive function and the s e l e c t i o n of control processing. For example, the lack of verbal l a b e l l i n g of task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may not prevent Chapter One Introduction e f f i c i e n t performance of tasks associated with the "observa-t i o n a l " learning environment. The absence of verbal l a b e l l i n g may, however l i m i t a c t i v a t i o n or s e l e c t i o n of the most e f f i -c ient control strategy when that "observational" task i s tr a n s f e r r e d to the "formal academic" learning environment, since, verbal l a b e l l i n g i s a task demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the "formal academic" learning environment. fl d i s t i n c t i o n which has been drawn by 0'Conner and Blowers (1380) between cogn i t i v e functions associated with s t i m u l i processing and response processing, implies that while the s t i m u l i presentation of a task or knowledge of those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may a c t i v a t e a c e r t a i n set of structures and t h e i r dependent control s t r a t e g i e s , knowledge of the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may a c t i v a t e an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t set. S p e c i f i c a t i o n of the knowledge base aspects of a cog-n i t i v e function must r e f l e c t dimensions that are broad enough to describe both s t i m u l i and response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S i m i l a r i l y , s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the control processes must be broad enough to provide a framework for exploring the i n t e r -a c t i o n be the s t r u c t u r a l and knowledge base aspects of a c o g n i t i v e function. In other words, the knowledge base aspects of t h i s framework must be operationalized in terms of task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s designed to provide d i s t i n c t i o n s between s t i m u l i and response demands, as well as between Chapter One Introduction the depth of processing or s t r u c t u r a l demands ( i . e . , atten-t i o n , coding, and planning). Defining the control processes involves the i d e n t i f i -c ation of s t r a t e g i e s which are associated with a l l three functional systems of the brain ( i . e . , Attention, Coding and Planning), as well as with s t i m u l i and response character-i s t i c s of tasks occurring i n both the "observational" and "formal academic" learning environments. For these reasons, each cog n i t i v e control strategy i d e n t i f i e d in t h i s study w i l l f i r s t be defined i n information processing terms by spe c i f y i n g the depth of processing associated with each s t r u c t u r a l aspect ( i . e . , a t t e n t i o n a l , coding, and planning processes). Second, each processes w i l l then be i d e n t i f i e d with s t i m u l i and response task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s selected from t y p i c a l "observational" and "formal academic" learning tasks. Third, the d e f i n i t i o n of the cogn i t i v e control processes w i l l be further s p e c i f i e d by the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of these processes on twenty-two cognitive t a s k s — d e t a i l e d i n the Methodology chapter. F i n a l l y i n the Discussion chapter, the control processes w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d with the empirical task demands and i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications w i l l be drawn. Lupart and Mulcahy (19S4) i d e n t i f i e d three cognitive control s t r a t e g i e s associated with a t t e n t i o n a l performance on reading tasks. The f i r s t of the s t r a t e g i e s i d e n t i f i e d 11 Chapter One Introduction involves unintentional focusing and scanning of s t i m u l i charac-t e r i s t i c s and i s termed "Bottom-up at t e n t i o n a l c o n t r o l . " Note that, the important distinct..-, in t h i s case involves i n c i d e n t a l attention to s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Bottorn-up at t e n t i o n a l tasks are associated with " i n c i d e n t a l " learning which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the modelling provided i n the "observational" learning environment. For example, learning correct s o c i a l eye contact behavior i s an i n c i d e n t a l learning task common to an observational learning environment in which the dominant ( i . e . , b i o l o g i c a l l y e s s e n t i a l or c u l t u r a l l y relevant) s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of eye contact a c t i v a t e s attention to the eyes of the mediator or person serving as the model, and thereby f a c i l i t a t e s i n c i d e n t a l learning of appropriate eye-contact etiquette during modelling (e.g., Greenbaum & Greenbaum,1983; K l e i n f e l d , 1970; and P h i l l i p s , 1978). Formal academic learning tasks associated with bottom-up atte n t i o n should be i d e n t i f i a b l e i n terms of i n c i d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n to dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s relevant to t h i s environment. For example, reading requires that limited a t t e n t i o n a l resources are devoted to a number of d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The process of becoming a p r o f i c i e n t reader requires that progressively larger and larger portions of the s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s become "automatised" (La Berge Chapter One Introduction and Samuels (1974). The process of "automatically" recog-n i z i n g l e t t e r s , words and sentences i s characterized by these s t i m u l i becoming progressively more dominant and therefore i s associated with i n c i d e n t a l or bottom-up attention. The second cognitive control strategy i d e n t i f i e d by Lupart & Mulcahy (1984) involves the i n t e n t i o n a l scanning and focusing of s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with a given set of v i s u a l response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i s termed "Top-down Visual a t t e n t i o n a l c o n t r o l . " Note that d i s t i n c -t i o n s may be drawn between i n t e n t i o n a l and i n c i d e n t a l atten-t i o n as well as between s t i m u l i and response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Furthermore, the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are v i s u a l rather than verbal. For example, nonverbal modelling of task performance r e l i e s on the learner matching h i s or her pattern of v i s u a l -motor performance to that of the mediator or task model. In t h i s case, the model i s considered a response character-i s t i c of the task, while the learner's performance i s con-sidered a s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the task. The fact that the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s involve the provision f o r visual-motor feedback implies that v i s u a l top-down atten-t i o n i n t e r a c t s with or i s part of concrete/active planning. In t h i s manner, v i s u a l top-down a t t e n t i o n a l control represents the a t t e n t i o n a l component of concrete/active planning. Chapter One Introduction Formal academic tasks which require v i s u a l top-down at t e n t i o n a l control or i n t e n t i o n a l focusing and scanning of v i s u a l response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of primary grade tasks than intermediate and secondary grade l e v e l tasks. This i s emphasized by item content of standard-ized reading t e s t s . For example, the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a standardized primary l e v e l reading comprehension subtest usually provide a picture response format, while the i n t e r -mediate and secondary l e v e l s of the same subtest provide a verbal response format. Therefore, performance d i f f e r e n c e s on reading comprehension subtests may r e f l e c t performance d i f f e r e n c e s associated with response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in addi-t i o n to performance d i f f e r e n c e s associated with s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The t h i r d a t t e n t i o n a l control strategy i d e n t i f i e d by Lupart & Mulcahy (1984) involves the i n t e n t i o n a l scanning and focusing of s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of verbal response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i s termed "Verbal Top-down at t e n t i o n a l c o n t r o l . " The d i s t i n c -t i o n between the two top-down at t e n t i o n a l control s t r a t e g i e s involves d i f f e r e n c e s in trie nature of the response charactei— i s t i c s which serve as the focus of i n t e n t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n ( i . e . , v i s u a l / v e r b a l ) . The association between i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the planning structures Chapter One Introduction of a cognitive function implies that the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two top-down a t t e n t i o n a l control s t r a t e g i e s i s based on the form of planning associated with the response character-i s t i c s . That i s , v i s u a l feedback i s associated with concrete/-a c t i v e planning, while verbal feedback i s associated with v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning. The d i s t i n c t i o n between top-down at t e n t i o n a l control and bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l control involves a d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e n t i o n a l versus i n c i d e n t a l attention during task performance. The observational learning environment provides frequent visual-motor modell.ling of response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; however, there i s r e l a t i v e l y less exposure to verbal l a b e l l i n g of response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the observational environment than within the formal academic learning environment. For example, drawing of various geometric shapes i s a frequent a c t i v i t y within the observational learning environment. This drawing i s guided by visual-motor modelling and v i s u a l feedback. In contrast, the same task r e q u i r i n g the drawing of geometric shapes within the formal academic learning e n v i -ronment usually patterns visual-motor modelling with verbal l a b e l l i n g . As the c h i l d ' s competency i n drawing the figures increases the v i s u a l modelling i s withdrawn and the task comes under the control of verbal i n s t r u c t i o n s (e.g., "Draw 15 Chapter One Introduction a c i r c l e " ) . On the basis of behavioral observations of patient's with l o c a l i z e d c o r t i c a l lesions, L u r i a (1966a; 19SGb) proposed two modes of organizing and processing information, "simul-taneous" and "successive" and delineated t h e i r c o r t i c a l s t r u c -tures. Simultaneous processing, according to Luria, involves the synthesis of separate elements into q u a s i - s p a t i a l groups with a l l parts of the synthesis being surveyable. This type of synthesis i s required i n the formation of g e s t a l t s as well as the determination of verbal and nonverbal r e l a t i o n -ships between two or more objects. This synthesis i s c a r r i e d out as a receding function, and as such involves the Coding l e v e l structures. Detailed s p e c i f i c a t i o n of tasks associated with simultaneous processing within the observational and formal academic learning environments w i l l be discussed i n the Review of the L i t e r a t u r e chapter of t h i s paper. Successive processing i s characterized by the in t e g r a t i o n of d i s c r e t e elements into groups based on temporal ordering. The e n t i r e synthesis i s not accessible at any one time; i n -stead, i n d i v i d u a l elements can be accessed only by the pre-ceding element. Each element maintains an i n t r i n s i c indepen-dence to a l l other elements within the se r i e s , and acquires meaning only in terms of the e n t i r e sequence. This type of synthesis i s c a r r i e d out within the coding l e v e l functional Chapter One Introduction unit. Detailed s p e c i f i c a t i o n of tasks associated with suc-cessive processing within the observational and formal aca-demic learning environments wU? be discussed in the Review of the L i t e r a t u r e chapter of t h i s paper. Factor a n a l y t i c studies have shown that simultaneous and successive control processes appear to be v i a b l e i n d i -vidual d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s (Das, Kirby and Jarman, 1979). It follows, therefore, that d i s p a r i t i e s in cognitive behavior may be the r e s u l t of d i f f e r i n g information processing modes ( i . e . , the two types of synthesis, simultaneous and succes-s i v e ) , can be viewed as components in the processing of information and thus t h e i r appropriate use in task performance could be a determinant, in part, of i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e performance and achievement.' The d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between the a t t e n t i o n a l and coding l e v e l control processes r e f l e c t s the function of the s t r u c t u a l aspects of a c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y . In other words, the d i f f e r -ences between a t t e n t i o n a l and coding control processes r e f -l e c t s the d i s t i n c t i o n between attention and coding. fittent ion involves the scanning and focusing of s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while coding involves the organization of these charactei— i s t i c s f o r storage and r e t r i e v a l . In discussing the two top-down a t t e n t i o n a l control pro-cesses reference was made to the involvement of planning Chapter One Introduction in providing the appropriate response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in the form of v i s u a l and/or verbal feedback. S i m i l a r i l y , coding control processes may be associated with e i t h e r the s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a task or with the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a task. In the former case, the s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c t i v a t e coding control processes independent of response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the synthesis i s said to be c a r r i e d out without the involvement of the planning structures. In the l a t t e r case, the response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c t i v a t e the coding control processes as part of an o v e r a l l goal-directed strategy and the planning structures are implicated. L u r i a (1970) i d e n t i f i e d two forms of processing a s s o c i -ated with the planning functional unit: concrete/active and v e r b a l / l o g i c a l . In t h i s manner, the planning function can be characterized as the generation, s e l e c t i o n , and monitoring of goal—directed attention and coding processes. The d i s t i n c -t i o n between the two forms of planning control processes r e f l e c t s d i f f e r e n c e s in the nature of the response character-i s t i c s u t i l i z e d in goal—directed a t t e n t i o n a l and coding pro-cessing. Note however, that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of response c h a r a t e r i s t i c s of a task i s always in t e n t i o n a l or a "top-down" at t e n t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , while the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may or may not be i n t e n t i o n a l or "top-down" at t e n t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . This implies that, s t i m u l i character-18 Chapter One Introduction i s t i e s of a task must be u t i l i s e d to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the d i s t i n c t i o n between "top-down" and "bottom-up" at t e n t i o n a l processing, while response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s must be -u.';i*ized to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the v e r b a l / v i s u a l d i s t i n c t i o n in top-down at t e n t i o n a l processing. Top-down processes always involve i n t e n t i o n a l or goal-directed scanning and focusing of s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , while bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l control processing i s charactei— ized by the scanning and focusing of dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Interestingly, a dominant s t i m u l i character-i s t i c i s considered to acquire saliency through the process of discriminant s t i m u l i learning, which may involve p a i r i n g response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a goal-directed manner. This p a i r i n g i s i n i t i a l l y associated with interpersonal mediation, which i s i n t e r n a l i z e d i n the form of the newly acquired dominant s t i m u l i or as a bottom-up at t e n t i o n a l process. The observational learning environment i s characterized by the provision of visual-motor models, while the formal academic learning environment i s characterized by verbal/ l o g i c a l feedbackor i n s t r u c t i o n s . ft modelling rnediat ional s t y l e i s i n t e r n a l i z e d by the learner into concrete/active planning according to Vygotsky's (1978) General Law of C u l t u r a l Development. To paraphrase Vygotsky, interpersonal Chapter One Introduct ion mediation becomes intrapersonal mediation. S i m i l a r l y , verbal/ l o g i c a l interpersonal mediation becomes the basis of verbal/ l o g i c a l planning. This l i n e of reasoning and set of examples drawn from both learning environments provides the basis f o r the follow-ing d e f i n i t i o n s of the seven cognitive control processes: a. BOTTOM-UP ATTENTIONAL CONTROL- ' i n c i d e n t a l ' a t t e n t i o n to dominant ( i . e . , discriminant) s t i m u l i charac-t e r i s t i c s . b. TOP-DOWN VISUAL ATTENTIONAL CONTROL- ' i n t e n -t i o n a l ' or goal-directed attention to s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s activated by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and under the control of concrete/active planning associated with visual-motor modelling or feedback. c. TOP-DOWN VERBAL ATTENTIONAL CONTROL— 'i n t e n -t i o n a l ' or goal- directed a t t e n t i o n to s t i m u l i character-i s t i c s activated by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of response character-i s t i c s and under the control of v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning a s s o c i -ated with verbal i n s t r u c t i o n s or feedback. d. SIMULTANEOUS CODING CONTROL- receding or syn-t h e s i s of separate s t i m u l i elements into meaningful wholes in which a l l the elements are mutually surveyable and meaning i s only a c c e s s i b l e from the whole. e. SUCCESSIVE CODING CONTROL- receding or synthesis of separate s t i m u l i elements into temporal, sequence-dependent forms which are surveyable only one at a time and meaning i s only a c c e s s i b l e from the order. f. CONCRETE/ACTIVE PLANNING CONTROL- generation, s e l e c t i o n and monitoring of goal-directed a t t e n t i o n a l and coding processes associated with visual-motor feedback. g. VERBAL/LOGICAL PLANNING CONTROL- generation, s e l e c t i o n , and monitoring of goal-directed a t t e n t i o n a l and coding processes associated with verbal feedback. Based on these d e f i n i t i o n s and a review of the relevant l i t e r a t u r e a study was designed to address the following £0 Chapter One Introduction t h e o r e t i c a l questions: QUESTION 1 Can the s«?t/^ n control f a c t o r s be o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined in such a way as to be i d e n t i f i a b l e in the cognitive perfor-mances of both Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n across a wide range of c o g n i t i v e tasks? RATIONALE: It would be incorrect to deny that there are q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n on tasks used to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define control pro-cesses. It would be equally wrong and perhaps more pernicious to deny q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n control s t r a t e g i e s . Kirby (1984) asks: "Can methods of i n s t r u c t i o n be designed that promote academic achievement (perhaps as defined by the part-i c u l a r culture) but CthatD protect the c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y of the learners? If t h i s i s to be done, a greater under-standing of the nature of s t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to performance i s required" L"p 93. QUESTION £ Do q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s on the seven control f a c t o r tasks provide s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l f o r d e r i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications f o r c o g n i t i v e process t r a i n i n g within the formal education system? Chapter One Introduction RATIONALE: It i s assumed that the p r e c i s i o n provided i n both the t h e o r e t i c a l and operational d e f i n i t i o n s of the cognitive control s t r a t e g i e s w i l l allow an i n s t r u c t i o n a l cognitive process task a n a l y s i s to be conducted on various academic tasks. Due to the exploratory nature of t h i s study a formal aptitude-treatment i n t e r a c t i o n study i s considered premature. Rather, the emphasis i s on providing precise d e s c r i p t i o n s of the task demands which a c t i v a t e various cognitive processes and on determining which control processes increase the l i k e -lihood of e f f i c i e n t performance on the various c o g n i t i v e tasks. In t h i s manner one should be able to s p e c i f y which Native cognitive processes are used most frequently and which cogni t i v e processes are in need of remediation. QUESTION 3 Do qua n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s on the seven control f a c t o r s provide s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l f o r deriving i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications f o r academic lesson plan-ning? RATIONALE: It i s assumed that the p r e c i s i o n provided in both the t h e o r e t i c a l and operational d e f i n i t i o n s of the cogn i t i v e control s t r a t e g i e s w i l l allow an i n s t r u c t i o n a l cognitive process a n a l y s i s to be conducted on various academic tasks. Chapter One Introduction The emphasis i s on i d e n t i f y i n g cognitive control strengths which can then be activated by manipulations of the task demands as i d e n t i f i e d i n Question £. Question 3 implies that Native c h i l d r e n attack reading tasks d i f f e r e n t l y than t h e i r non-Native counterparts because of the type of task demands required i n the "formal academic" and "observational" learning environments a c t i v a t e d i f f e r e n t control s t r a t e g i e s — an implication consistent with cognitive s t y l e and information processing research on reading (e.g., Cummins and Das, 1977; Davey, 1983). In summary, one of the more promising recent attempts to improve the d e l i v e r y of educational programs in school has been to match the methods of i n s t r u c t i o n to the c u l t u r a l c ognitive strengths or preferences of the Native c h i l d (e.g., Klesner, 198£>. The assumption behind matching teaching s t y l e to cognitive strengths i s that a c e r t a i n control s t r a -tegy w i l l function more e f f e c t i v e l y than another for the purposes of information processing i f that c e r t a i n control strategy has recieved a r i c h reinforcement schedule within the "observational" learning environment. It i s argued that i n s t r u c t i o n keyed to a c h i l d ' s cognitve strengths w i l l considerably enhance and f a c i l i t a t e h i s or her a b i l i t y to learn. Conversely, those taught without any £3 Chapter One Introduction regard for "learning" s t y l e may experience great d i f f i c u l t y and even face school f a i l u r e i f they lack the s t r a t e g i e s to e f f i c i e n t l y process and r e t a i n information pre^c-^ted i n a p a r t i c u l a r fashion (Kaulbach, 1984). This has led some researchers to view the mismatch between learning s t y l e and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e as a prime cause of school f a i l u r e among Native c h i l d r e n (Havinghurst, 1970; K l e i n f e l d , 1970). Attempts to match i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e to "learning" s t y l e do not assume that one i n s t r u c t i o n a l method i s better than another; nor i s i t assumed that students with c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are better learners than others. Rather, the two fa c t o r s ( i . e . , teaching method and learner charac-t e r i s t i c s ) may interact i n ways that have i n s t r u c t i o n a l impl-i c a t i o n s (Berliner and Cahen, 1973; Cronbach and Snow, 1977). The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a Native c h i l d ' s learning s t y l e fo r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes i s maximally useful only when c e r t a i n conditions are met (Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition, 1982). The f i r s t requirement i s that a l l , or at least a majority, of a c h i l d ' s educationally relevant c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s and methods of higher order information processing s k i l l s must be assessed in a q u a n t i f i a b l e , r e p l i -cable, and v a l i d manner. The second requirement i s that v a r i a t i o n s i n cognitive performance must be systematically r e l a t e d to l e v e l s of achievement. And f i n a l l y , the cognitive Chapter One Introduction a b i l i t i e s and higher order information processing s k i l l s assessed must f a c i l i t a t e the process of s e l e c t i n g i n s t r u c -t i o n a l task demands. Only i f these requirements are met can the promise of a learning s t y l e / i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e matching approach be f u l f i l l e d . This paper i s an attempt to meet these requirements by providing a t h e o r e t i c a l framework for i n t e r p r e t i n g the c o g n i t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n from which i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications can be c l e a r l y and p r e c i s e l y derived. A d e t a i l e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n of seven control s t r a t e g i e s derived from a s i n g l e integrated theory of reading, language, and cognition, may then be used to help i d e n t i f y how Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n process information and to a s s i s t i n the process of s p e c i f y i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l task demands which match t h i s processing s t y l e . Kane (1984) has summarized t h i s l e a r n i n g / i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e matching approach i n the following manner: "Ideally, educators must f i r s t recognize how they deal with information and comm-unicate with others and then become f l e x i b l e enough to incorporate contrasting s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e i r modus operandi. By doing so, educators w i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y reach more learners. Lastly, educators must help learners to recognize how they process information and problem-solve and a s s i s t them in developing a l t e r n a t i v e cognitive s t y l e s of thinking and learning" Cp913. £ 5 C H A P T E R T W O B R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E The F i r s t Canadians: The f i r s t Canadians were Natives as t h e i r t i t l e pro-claims. Having mastered the complex s k i l l s needed to cope with harsh environmental conditions, and having survived even harsher treatment meted out in the process of subsequent European c o l o n i z a t i o n , today's Native peoples face an unpar-a l l e l e d challenge to t h e i r c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l . To meet t h i s challenge, Native c h i l d r e n have acquired a s e r i e s of problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s from various learning environments and use these s t r a t e g i e s with varying degrees of success i n coping with d a i l y tasks. B r i t i s h Columbian Native people may be l i v i n g i n modern urban apartment buildings, in houses located in metropolitan suburbs, in small country towns, or in northern islands and coastal communities set among the r a i n f o r e s t s of the B.C. coast. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , they may be l i v i n g , sometimes under deplorable conditions, on reserves throughout B.C. Whatever t h e i r present s i t u a t i o n , the c u l t u r a l heritage of Native people i s unique, extensive, and diverse. Deficiency Theories of Native Cogniton: The e a r l i e s t recorded assessments by Europeans of Natives and t h e i r way of l i f e were couched in harsh derogatory terms. Disparaging commentaries by e a r l y Spanish and English navi-gators began a f a i r l y consistent pattern of negative value judgements by the new a r r i v a l s (Patterson,1972). Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e The advent of further exploration and c o l o n i z a t i o n brought in i t s wake anthropologists, h i s t o r i a n s , as well as, traders, s o l d i e r s , and administrators; however, increased contact and more d e t a i l e d observations produced l i t t l e i f any amelioration of e a r l i e r reactions to Natives. Their comparative lack of material possesions, instead of being viewed as the purposeful and successful product of e f f i c i e n t adaptation by a hunting and gathering society, was interpreted as a sign of c u l t u r a l impoverishment, with i t s consequent as s o c i a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l i n f e r i o r i t y . Occasionally, and with d i r e c t benefit to white society, observational concess-ions were made to Native cognitive competence, usually r e -f e r r i n g to d i s p l a y s of v i s u a l s k i l l s apparent in hunting or trapping. Where such seemingly p o s i t i v e comments did occur, these were nevertheless interpreted as evidence of the close a s s o c i a t i o n between Natives and lower animal forms, since animals r e l y more heavily than human beings on such keenly developed senses as sight and smell for everyday s u r v i v a l . In contrast, whites were seen to possess a su-perior " i n t e l l e c t u a l " sense. This assumption was supported, at the time, by findings which revealed that Native c h i l d r e n achieved less well than non-Native c h i l d r e n on t e s t s measuring i n t e l l i g e n c e or innate a b i l i t y . It wasn't u n t i l researchers began to c r i t i c a l l y examine the content and bias of these t e s t s that the f a l -£7 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e lacious assumption was s e r i o u s l y challanged. Researchers suggested that a l l of these t e s t s emphasized verbal reasoning, and therefore, openly discriminated against Native children, many of whom do not speak English as t h e i r f i r s t language <Jarnieson and Sanford, 19S8). Other researchers d i s c r e d i t e d the assumption of i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i e n c y by pointing to evidence that indicated that Native c h i l d r e n scored exceed-ingly well on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s which require visual-motor s k i l l s such as the Goodenough Draw—A-Man Test (e.g., Goode-nough, 1926; Telford, 1932; Eel Is, et a l . , 1951). The Wechsler Scale Performance of Native Children: The d i f f i c u l t i e s Native c h i l d r e n experienced on verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s and the mastery they displayed on v i s u a l -motor t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e were r e f l e c t e d on the Wechsler scales by a Verbal/Performance scale discrepancy (e.g., Cundlick, 1970; Havighurst and Janke, 1944; McAvery, 1976; Peck, 1973; Peters, 1973; Sacks, 1974; St. John and Baurnan, 1976; Thurber, 1976; Turner and Penfold, 195£). Research on Wechsler subtest performance has revealed patterns seemingly unique to Native c h i l d r e n (Mc Shane and Plas, 1984). A p a r t i a l l i s t of these findings include; an 8 to 19 point discrepancy favoring the Performance scales; Bannatyne (1971) factor scores i n d i c a t i n g S p a t i a l scores superior to Conceptual and Acquired Knowledge scores (e.g., Mc Shane and Plas, 198£; Zarske, Moore, and Peterson, 1981); £8 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e and the absence of a t h i r d " d i s t r a c t i b i 1 i t y " factor usually present in white samples (Reschly, 1978; Zarske, Moore, and Peterson, 1981). These findings, taken as a whole, have been interpreted as i n d i c a t i n g a verbal d e f i c i e n c y among Native c h i l d r e n not e n t i r e l y accounted for by English as a second language. For example, Mc Shane and Plas (1984) suggest the following f a c -t o r s may underly the evidenced verbal d e f i c i e n c y of Native c h i l d r e n : p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s such as higher prevalence rates of " o t i t i s media", or middle ear disease, among Native groups <e.g., Mc Shane, 198£; Mc Shane and Plas, 19S£); neurological f a c t o r s such as a l i n g u i s t i c p r e d i s p o s i t i o n f o r r ight hemisphere s p e c i a l i z a t i o n (e.g., Hynd and Scott, 1980; Thompson and Bogen, 1976; Mc Keever, 1981); and f i n a l l y , and more germaine to t h i s paper, socio-ethnic f a c t o r s such as r e l i a n c e on nonverbal communication techniques among Native f a m i l i e s (e.g., Boggs, 1965; Greenbaum and Greenbaum, 1983; Guilrnet, 1981; Hickerson, 1970; 1971; K l e i n f e l d , 1970; P h i l l i p s , 1976). While there appears to be no disagreement over the verbal d e f i c i e n c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , there appears to be continued confusion as to what fa c t o r s may underly t h i s d e f i c i e n c y (e.g., Brandt, 1984). Competency Theories of Native Cognition: One p o s i t i v e note coming from studies using the Wechsler scales on Native c h i l d r e n i s the finding of average to above Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e average visual-motor s k i l l s . Not only does t h i s finding help shatter the ethnocentric assumption that Native c h i l d r e n lack learning aptitudes, bvt i t also further supports the notion that Native c h i l d r e n may represent a unique group of students whose learning potential may be not be accurately assessed by v e r b a l l y dominated t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e l i k e the Wechsler scales. In support of t h i s contention are the r e s u l t s of studies of Native cognitive performance u t i l i z i n g so c a l l e d nonverbal i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s l i k e the Goodenough Draw-fl-Man test <e.g., E e l l s , et a l . , 1951; Goodenough, 1926; Telford, 1932). These studies demonstrate average to above average nonverbal i n t e l l i g e n c e among the diverse Native groups assessed. Given these r e s u l t s , the verbal d e f i c i e n c y i n t e r -pretation of Native ch i l d r e n ' s performance on Wechsler t e s t s was viewed as a by-product of an over r e l i a n c e on nonverbal modes of communication and problem-solving among Native ch i l d r e n . In t h i s manner, the verbal d e f i c i e n c y evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n was thought to be a product of a learning environment that s e l e c t i v e l y reinforced the development of visual/motor problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s over verbal s t r a t -egies. The f a c t o r s influencing the development of a v i s u a l competency among Native c h i l d r e n and the nature and extent of t h i s competency, have been the focus of recent studies of Native c h i l d r e n ' s performance. Perhaps the most comprehensive and most de t a i l e d studies Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e of the f a c t o r s influencing the development of v i s u a l problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s has been the work of John Berry and the late Herman Witkin from within a cognitve s t y l e framework (see Werner, 1379 for a recent review). B r i e f l y , the cog-n i t i v e s t y l e / p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n framework l i n k s the nature of the task demands within a learning environment to the nature of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n provided by a culture. Through the combination of techniques of s o c i a l i z a t i o n ass-ociated with e c o l o g i c a l and other demands, s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s are welded into " c h a r a t e r i s t i c s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t modes of func-t i o n i n g found pervasively throughout an i n d i v i d u a l ' s cog-n i t i o n , that i s , perceptual and i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s " (Witkin, 1966). From t h i s perspective the f a c t o r s influencing the development of a Native competency in v i s u a l s t r a t e g i e s i s r e l a t e d to the method of s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) , as well as the task demands which o r i g i n a l l y activated these s t r a t e g i e s . More (1984b) and Kaulback (1984) review cog n i t i v e s t y l e studies conducted among Canadian Natives. The evidence i s inconclusive regarding the f i e l d independence of Native groups as a whole, however, some sub—samples appear to be r e l a t i v e l y more f i e l d independent than f i e l d dependent. One explanation of the sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g evidence regarding f i e l d inde-pendence among Canadian Natives may l i e in the nature of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process associated with the sub samples. Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e For example, more t r a d i t i o n a l Native groups were more f i e l d independent than t r a n s i t i o n a l , urban Native groups (Weitz, 1971). This finding interpreted from a cognitve s t y l e / p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t a t i o n perspective, suggests that the more t r a d i t i o n a l Native groups d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t r a n s i t i o n a l Native groups in the s t y l e of s o c i a l i z a t i o n provided. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s consistent with recent observational studies of i n t e r a c t i o n patterns and learning a c t i v i t i e s in t r a d i t i o n a l Native homes (see Greenbaum and Greenbaum, 1983 f o r a recent review of these studies). The "observational" learning environment associated with more t r a d i t i o n a l Native homes provides frequent opportunities to p r a c t i c e and r e i n f o r c e s k i l l s associated with a f i e l d independent cognitive s t y l e . The defining strategy associated with a f i e l d independent cognitive s t y l e i s the s e l e c t i o n and generation of an organizational framework for a d i s o r g -anized set of observations (Witkin, 1966). This framework i s i n i t i a l l y activated by a s e r i e s of "mediated" s t r a t e g i e s provided by the processes of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . For example, in learning to make a t r a d i t i o n a l blanket each step in the process i s f i r s t modelled by a competent expert before the c h i l d i s allowed to begin. The d i v i s i o n of the o v e r a l l process into a s e r i e s of steps represents the imposition of an organizational structure on what would be considered a disorganized set of observations. Within Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e the observational learning environment t h i s organizational structure i s activated by a v i s u a l control strategy, whereas within the formal classroom, the structure i s usually consid-ered to be activated by verbal strategy. The process of a c t i v a t i n g an organizational structure r e f l e c t s Vygotsky's (1978, p 57) General Law of C u l t u r a l Development, whereby the form of s o c i a l control provided for a task by a s o c i a l mediator becomes the form of control strategy employed by the i n d i v i d u a l on s i m i l a r tasks. "Any function i n c h i l d r e n ' s c u l t u r a l dev-elopment appears twice, or on two planes. F i r s t , between people as an intei—psycho-l o g i c a l category and then within the i n d i -vidual c h i l d as an intra-psychological category. This i s equally true with regard to voluntary attention, l o g i c a l memory, the formation of concepts and the devel-opment of v o l i t i o n " (Vygotsky, 1978, p 57). One implication that can be drawn from Vygotsky's law i s that v i s u a l control s t r a t e g i e s appear twice in a Native c h i l d ' s development. F i r s t , they appear as "observational" learning (Kaulbach, 1984) or "observe-and-do" learning (More, 1984b), and then, they appear as intrapsychological v i s u a l control or global processing s t r a t e g i e s . The same would be true f o r a u d i t o r y / l i n g u i s t i c functions. F i r s t , they appear as "verbally-mediated" learning s t r a t e g i e s , and then as verb-a l l y regulated i n d i v i d u a l problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s . Given the "observational" learning environment in more t r a d i t i o n a l Native homes, one would a n t i c i p a t e that f a c i l i t y Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e with v e r b a l l y regulated problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s would be less developed among the more t r a d i t i o n a l Native groups. Schubert and Cropley (1972) found that r - j r i l Nothern Sask-atchewan Native c h i l d r e n demonstrated less p r o f i c i e n c y on a verbal r e g u l a t i o n of behavior task then did urban and non-—native children. This finding may be interpreted as implying that the "verbal d e f i c i e n c y " evidenced by most Native c h i l d r e n on the Wechsler t e s t s represents at least two d i s t i n c t classes of d e f i c i e n c i e s . F i r s t , there i s a c l a s s of d e f i c i e n c i e s associated with the "performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " of s p e c i f i c functions (Sternberg, I960). For example, Mc Shane and Plas's (19S4) explanations of the "verbal d e f i c i e n c y " Wechsler data include p h y s i o l o g i c a l and neurological f a c t o r s that r e s u l t i n d e f i -c i e n c i e s in performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In t h i s sense, the d e f i c i e n c y i s considered to be s t r u c t u r a l i n nature. F l a v e l l and other metacognitive researchers have iden-t i f i e d a second c l a s s of d e f i c i e n c i e s c a l l e d "production d e f i c i e n c i e s " ( F l a v e l l , Beach and Chinsky, 1966). A produc-t i o n d e f i c i e n c y occurs when a person f a i l s to spontaneously employ a strategy on a task even though he has demonstrated he can s u c c e s s f u l l y employ that strategy ( F l a v e l l et a l . , 1966). The cognitive s t y l e / p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n theory of Witkin and h i s colleagues and the c u l t u r a l develop-ment theory of Vygotsky both provide i n t e r p r e t a t i o n frameworks that s t r e s s the f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to the development of a 34 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e "verbal production deficiency". In a s i m i l a r manner, there must be at least two classes of competencies. The f i r s t c l a s s represents competencies in the perform-ance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t r a t e g i c behavior. For example, the v i s u a l strengths evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n can be interpreted as representing a s t r u c t u r a l l y more developed v i s u a l processing system. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , these strengths can be representative of the spontaneous production of control s t r a t e g i e s . This d i s t i n c t i o n has been drawn by Kirby (1984) in reference to a study of Native c h i l d r e n ' s performance on information processing tasks: "...For instance, Krywaniuk (1974) showed that Canadian native Indian c h i l d r e n per-formed less well on measures of successive processing than did white c h i l d r e n . A remedial program improved t h e i r scores on successive processing t e s t s , as well as on measures t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to successive processing (i.e.reading). Had the native c h i l d r e n previously had low successive processing a b i l i t y , and had the remedial program increased that a b i l i t y , or had they had normal a b i l i t y but not known how or when to use i t ? In the former case, the problem and s o l u t i o n concerned only processing (performance character-i s t i c s ) ; in the second, planning or (con-t r o l ) s t r a t e g i e s are c l e a r l y implicated" Cp 71. The question of whether verbal d e f i c i e n c i e s i n Native ch i l d r e n ' s performances are r e l a t e d to e i t h e r a processing d e f i c i e n c y or a planning d e f i c i e n c y has only recently received the attention i t deserves. Davidson and K l i c h (1984) have pointed out the d i f f i c u l t y Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the lack of t r a n s f e r of s t r a t e g i e s which . develop within the indigeneous context to t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n within the formal educational context: "One issue that has been neglected by the research on context and t r a n s f e r i s whether the lack of t r a n s f e r i s a r e s u l t e i t h e r of the greatly d i f f e r e n t demands of i n d i g -eneous and formal educational contexts and the subsequent i n a b i l i t y of c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n to make the t r a n s i t i o n , or of the i n a b i l i t y of those c h i l d r e n to d i s t i n g u i s h between the d i f f e r e n t contexts and to adjust t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s accordingly" Cp. 147-14B3. In t h e i r terms, the underachievement evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n may r e f l e c t a verbal d e f i c i e n c y activated by the highly verbal nature of formal education tasks, or a l t e r n a t -i v e l y , i t may r e f l e c t the i n a b i l i t y of Native c h i l d r e n to recognize verbal task demands, and to therefore v e r b a l l y regulate t h e i r behavior. U t i l i z i n g Hunt's (1980) d e s c r i p t i o n of the three aspects of any cognitive function, the t r a n s f e r of any cognitive function can be seen as having three separate but i n t e r e l a t e d aspects; structure, processing and knowledge base. For example, the f a i l u r e to t r a n s f e r a verbal function may have a s t r u c t u r a l aspect which can be rel a t e d to neurological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s (e.g., Bogen et a l . , 197£>, or, a processing aspect which can be related to the a c t i v a t i o n of control s t r a t e g i e s by inter-pychological functions becoming int r a - p s c h o l o g i c a l functions, and f i n a l l y , an aspect a s s o c i -36 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e ated with domain s p e c i f i c knowledge (see Campione et a l . , 19B£ and Das, 1984 for f u l l e r discussions of these aspects), ft Native c h i l d ' s d e f i c i e n c y and/or competency may be associated with any or a l l of these aspects. In order to f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Native c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r a n s f e r r i n g cognitive functions from the "observational" learning environment to the formal educational environment, an i n t e r a c t i v e framework which has explanatory power over d i f f e r e n c e s i n structure, processing and domain s p e c i f i c knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l . In other words, t h i s framework must account for d i f f e r e n c e s in cognition, language, and reading by providing an integrated model of the i n t e r a c t i o n between the s t r u c t u r a l , processing, and know-ledge base units of a c o g n i t i v e function (Doehring et a l . , 1981). One model which holds a great deal of promise for explaining such i n t e r r e l a t e d aspects of cognitive functions has been c a l l e d the Luria/Das model (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1984). The Structures: L u r i a (1966a; 1966b; 1969; 1970; 1973) has i d e n t i f i e d and investigated three units of the brain. The units are functional systems; the l o c a t i o n for which was determined through d e f i c i t s in performance following injury to these large areas of the brain. Reading, language, and cognition depend upon the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l three functional units: Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Block I — a unit f o r regulating attention; Block I I — a unit f o r coding and processing information; and Block I I I — a unit for programming, regulating, and evaluating mental a c t i v i t i e s (Das et a l . , 1977; 1979). Das (1984) has suggested that these functional systems may represent the s t r u c t u r a l aspects of a c o g n i t i v e function. The Structures: Block I-—Attention The a t t e n t i o n a l system of the L u r i a model i s situated in the upper and lower brain stem, the r e t i c u l a r formation, and the hippocampus structures of the brain. Marked damage to t h i s functional unit w i l l produce changes in the arousal l e v e l of the cortex (Luria, 1973). According to Das, et a l . , 1979): "An appropriate l e v e l of arousal i s required for any task, any deviations from t h i s optimal l e v e l i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n decreases performance (the Yerkes-Dodson Law). Ina-ppropriate arousal (whether i t be habitual or s i t u a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c ) i n t e r f e r e s with a t t e n t i o n a l processes, a f f e c t s processing which occurs i n Block II, and can produce d e t e r i o r a t i o n in the planning functions of Block I I I " Cp 433. Not only does a d e f i c i e n c y of arousal or attention interact to produce d e f i c i e n c i e s i n other structures, but also a def-i c i e n c y i n a t t e n t i o n a l structures may r e s u l t i n l i m i t e d dev-elopment of t h e i r associated processing and knowledge base aspects. 38 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e The Structures: Block I I — C o d i n g The second functional unit i s located in the neocortex and includes the o c c i p i t a l , temporal and p a r i e t a l lobes (Luria, 1973). It i s organized h i e r a r c h i a l l y according to primary, secondary, and t e r t i a r y zones. Block II i s regulated by the p r i n c i p l e of diminishing modality s p e c i f i c i t y ( i . e . , primary zones are more c l o s e l y linked to modality d e f i c i t s than t e r t i a r y zones). The coding block i s also regulated by a p r i n c i p l e of increasing functional l a t e r a l i z a t i o n ( i . e . , t e r t i a r y zones are more associated with hemispheric s p e c i a l -i z a t i o n than primary zones). Marked damage to t h i s unit w i l l produce s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n mnemonic performance charaterized by the extent of the injury to the three zones (Das et a l . , 1979). Coding l e v e l d e f i c i t s have been linked to academic achievement by several researchers (Das et a l . , 1979; Cummins and Das, 1977; Kaufman, 1978; Krywanuik, 1974; Leonfl, 1374). The Structures: Block III - Planning The t h i r d functional unit of the L u r i a model i s located in the f r o n t a l lobes, or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a n t e r i o r to the precentral gyrus. It may be organized into a global process-ing system as charaterized by Sternberg (138£). L u r i a (1373) describes the function of the prefrontal lobes i n the follow-ing manner: 33 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e "It i s these portions of the brain belonging to the t h i r d zone of the cortex that play a d e c i s i v e r o l e in formulation of intentions and programs and i n the regulation and v e r i f i c a t i o n of the most complex forms of human Lsiiavior" Cp 843. The prefrontal region i s involved i n both the reception and i n t e g r a t i o n of information from Block I attention and Block II coding, and f o r organizing and regulating the a c t i v i t i e s of these blocks. The f r o n t a l lobes, through t h e i r a s s ociation with the r e t i c u l a r formation, regulate conscious attention and execute programmed actions combining a l l three aspects of c o g n i t i v e functioning including process and knowledge base a c t i v a t i o n (see Sternberg, 19S2, f o r a more de t a i l e d discussion). 0 l i n k between planning-task performance and academic test performance has been established by Das and h i s fellow researchers (e.g., Snart, 0'Grady, and Das, 1982; Snart and Swarm, 1982). The Processes: Block I — A t t e n t i o n Three d i s t i n c t but i n t e r r e l a t e d a t t e n t i o n a l control processes have been i d e n t i f i e d in a recent c o g n i t i v e theory of reading processes (Lupart and Mulcahy, 1984). F i r s t , there are the "bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l " processes which are activated by dominant stimulus c h a r a t e r i s t i c s . For example, color and shape are considered dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which should a c t i v a t e c e r t a i n a t t e n t i o n a l processes. The extensive use of c o l o r and shape prompts provided in the formal classroom should attest to the importance placed on these stimulus 40 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r e l i c i t i n g attention. In fact, the e n t i r e range of word attack reading approaches are based on the hope that grapheme (shape) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l a c t i v a t e a c h i l d ' s attention. Second, the group of a t t e n t i o n a l processes reviewed by Lupart and Mulcahy (1984) are activated by v i s u a l control s t r a t e g i e s . In support of v i s u a l control of attention, Day (1975) reviewed l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f y i n g s i x developmental trends associated with a c h i l d ' s increasing a b i l i t y to control h i s v i s u a l scanning behavior. With increasing age and sub-sequent f a m i l a r i t y c h i l d r e n : 1. demonstrate more systematic, task-appropriate s t r a t -egies for acquiring v i s u a l information, 2. show an increasing a b i l i t y to maintain optimal pei— formanee across v a r i a t i o n in the content and arrangement of s t i m u l i , 3. exhibit v i s u a l scanning that becomes more exhaustive and more e f f i c i e n t , 4. show an increasing focus on the portions of v i s u a l s t i m u l i that are most informative for the s p e c i f i c task, 5. show an increase i n the speed of completion of v i s u a l search and comparison tasks, 6. show an increase i n the s i z e of the useful " f i e l d of view" (Lupart & Mulcahy, 1984, pp. 228-229). Although the l i s t i s not s p e c i f i c to reading and academic tasks, i t should be c l e a r that these trends r e f l e c t what La Berge and Samuels (1974) termed the "automatization" of the decoding process, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to suc-c e s s f u l reading and therefore to successful school achieve-ment . The t h i r d group of a t t e n t i o n a l processes discussed by 41 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Lupart and Mulcahy (1984) are activated by verbal control s t r a t e g i e s . In support of v e r b a l l y c o n t r o l l e d a t t e n t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , Lupart and Mulcahy (1984) proposed a top-down or co g n i t i v e view of attention i n which, both v i s u a l and verbal control of attenion occur. They subsequently reviewed recent studies supporting t h i s view, concluding: "In summary, the preceding review of the l i t e r a t u r e in the area of reading suggests that the p r o f i c i e n t reader i s one who can f l e x i b l y apply h i s or her attention to the v i s u a l information on the page, to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the author's meaning, to the reader's own r e f l e c t i v e or background knowledge, or to an overriding macro-goal that can be s e l f - r e g u l a t e d or other im-posed. Where the a t t e n t i o n gets a l l o c a t e d i s both s e l f - and s i t u a t i o n a l l y — deter-mined. The d e c i s i o n f o r a t t e n t i o n a l a l l o -c a tion i s dictated by the reader's s e l f -defined, s e l f - r e g u l a t e d or i n t e r p r e t i v e view of the task purpose" (Lupart & Mulcahy, 1984, pp.£33-234). The emphasis on s e l f — r e g u l a t e d a t t e n t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n i s consistent with recent research on the mentally—retarded, suggesting: s e l f — r e g u l a t o r y control may be implicated as the d e f i c i e n t process among i n e f f i c i e n t learners l i k e the retarded. These s e l f regulatory processes have been referre d to as metacognitive (Brown,1978; Campione & Brown, 1977; F l a v e l l & Wellman, 1977) or executive control (Belmont & B u t t e r f i e l d , 1977; Brown, 1974) processes. That s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y processes may involve e i t h e r v i s u a l and/or verbal mediators i s implied by the General Law of C u l t u r a l Development. If the form of c u l t u r a l mediation 42 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e provided in the t r a d i t i o n a l Native c h i l d ' s "observational" learning environment i s l a r g e l y v i s u a l in nature then t h i s visually-mediated i n t e r psycho log i c a l process must ap.psar as a v i s u a l s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n process. S i m i l a r i l y , i f the form of mediation provided i n the more urban, t r a n s i t i o n a l Native c h i l d ' s learning environment i s l a r g e l y verbal, then the performance of less t r a d i t i o n a l Native and non-Natives on a verbal regulation of behavior task should be superior to Native groups who are exposed l a r g e l y to an "observational" learning environment. This i s consistent with the r e s u l t s of Schubert and Cropley's (197£) in v e s t i g a t i o n . The form of v i s u a l mediation provided by an observational learning environment can be thought of i n terms of the develop-mental v i s u a l scanning trends described by Day (1975). Sim-i l a r i l y , the form of verbal mediation provided i n a classroom can be thought of i n terms of the developmental trends asso-cia t e d with the comprehension, and monitoring of communication ( F l a v e l l et a l . , 1981). Day's d e s c r i p t i o n of v i s u a l scanning s t r a t e g i e s can be adapted to describe verbal mediation trends in a manner consistent with the research reviewed by F l a v e l l et a l . (1981). In other words, with increasing age and sub-sequent f a m i l i a r i t y c h i l d r e n : 1. demonstrate more systematic, task appropriate s t r a t -egies for acquiring "verbal" information, £. show an increasing a b i l i t y to maintain optimal per-formance across v a r i a t i o n in the content and arrangement of "verbal" s t i m u l i (e.g., reading), 43 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 3. exhibit "active l i s t e n i n g " that becomes more exhaust-ive and more e f f i c i e n t , 4. show an increasing focus on the portions of "commun-i c a t i o n s " that are most informative f o r the task, 5. show an increase i n t h e i r "rate of comprehension" and "vocabulary", 6. show an increase i n the exent of t h e i r auditory/ temporal processing. These developmental processes are assumed to represent the processes associated with verbal control of a t t e n t i o n and at the same time to provide a framework from which to draw i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications. The Processes: Block I I — C o d i n g On the basis of behavioral observations of patients with c o r t i c a l lesions, L u r i a (1966a; 1966b) proposed two modes of information integration—simultaneous and successive syntheses. Simultaneous process according to L u r i a (1966b) involves the synthesis of separate features into q u a s i - s p a t i a l groups with a l l the synthesis being surveyable at the same time. Successive synthesis i s characterized by the integra-t i o n of d i s c r e t e features into groups based on temporal ordei— ing. The e n t i r e synthesis i s not a c c e s s i b l e at one time; instead, i n d i v i d u a l features can be accessed only by the preceding feature. Each feature maintains an i n t r i n s i c inde-pendence to a l l features within the s e r i e s , and acquires meaning only in terms of the e n t i r e s e r i e s . The simultaneous/successive coding processes have r e -ceived considerable research leading Das and h i s colleagues 44 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e to enumerate the strength of t h i s model (Das, et a l . , 1979). S p e c i f i c a l l y , the model: (a) provides for a u n i f i e d h o l i s t i c framework for 'nterpreting a wide range of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -ence v a r i a b l e s associated with performance on cognitive mea-sures; (b) r e s t s upon a wel1-developed t h e o r e t i c a l base i n c l i n i c a l neuropsychological research; (c) presents a process rather than a product explanation for d e f i c i t performance; (d) provides f a c t o r a n a l y t i c evidence i d e n t i f y i n g independent simultaneous and successive processing f a c t o r s associated with performance on a wide v a r i e t y of cognitive t a s k s — a c r o s s various demographic and c u l t u r a l sub-samples; and, (e) pro-vides empirical evidence i n d i c a t i n g that simultaneous-success-ive syntheses are necessary f o i — and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o - academic acheivement (see e.g., the recent review of the simultaneous-successive syntheses studies by Das, 1984a). Das (1984a) attempted to summarize the current postulates of the theory of simultaneous and successive processing and at the same time, he s p e c i f i e d the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between coding l e v e l processes and the planning l e v e l pro-cesses: 1. simultaneous-successive and planning processes occur at a l l three l e v e l s of cognition: perceptual, mnestic, and conceptual, £. simultaneous and successive processes are not h i e i — a r c h i c a l , 3. however, e i t h e r simultaneous or successive processing may appear e a r l i e r than the other and have a d i s t i n c t pattern of development that i s not shared by the other, 45 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 4. the same task (test) may be approached e i t h e r simul-taneously or successively (and within each mode of encoding, there may be v a r i a t i o n in s t r a t e g i e s for s o l u t i o n ) . This would be determined by the i n t e r a c t i o n of the subject's (a) competence in one mode of encoding; (b) habitual mode of encoding when he or she i s competent in both modes of encod-ing; and (c), task demands that can be modified by i n s t r u c -t i o n s , 5. simultaneous l i k e successive processing operates on verbal as well as nonverbal information, 6. simultaneous and successive processes operate on information presented through any sensory receptor, 7. planning subsumes (a) generation and s e l e c t i o n of plans and s t r a t e g i e s ; (b) dec i s i o n making; and (c>, execution of decisions and plans, 8. planning and coding are interdependent (Das, 1984, pp. £1-26). Not only do these postulates further s p e c i f y the nature of simultaneous/successive syntheses; but also, they begin to address the question of how d e f i c i t s and strengths i n p a r t i c -u l a r aspects of cognitive functions might i n t e r a c t . From t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n perspective, not only do planning pro-cesses a f f e c t coding processes but coding processes af f e c t planning processes. The same recursive r e l a t i o n s h i p i s ass-umed to exis t between at t e n t i o n a l and coding and planning processes. To paraphrase Das (1984), planning depends on both the nature of the at t e n t i o n a l processing, as well as the coded information provided processing. On the other hand, of a t t e n t i o n a l and coding s t r a t by simultaneous and successive the generation and s e l e c t i o n egies, or the decison to choose one process over another, and the execution of decisions and plans are a l l functions of planning l e v e l processes. The Processes: Block I I I — P l a n n i n g 46 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e The nature of planning processes can be t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f e r r e d from the nature of the interpsychological mediation provided by a p a r t i c u l a r learning environment. For example, the type of planning processes that would develop i n an "obser-v a t i o n a l " learning environment would be associated with the generation, s e l e c t i o n , and execution of l a r g e l y visual-motor s t r a t e g i e s or plans in which the d e c i s i o n making process i s based on concrete (visual) and/or a c t i v e (motor) feed-back. In contrast, i n a "verbally mediated" learning environ-ment the planning processes should be characterized by the generation, s e l e c t i o n , and execution of l a r g e l y verbal s t r a t -egies or plans i n which the d e c i s i o n making process i s based on verbal feedback and/or l o g i c a l consistency. L u r i a (1973) termed these processes concrete/active and v e r b a l / l o g i c a l a f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g d e f i c i t s in the performance of brain trauma pat ients. Das and h i s colleagues (Das et a l . , 1979) suggest that: "...cognitive s t y l e s may be r e l a t e d to the planning function, or to the sequence of c o g n i t i v e operations that are selected by the i n d i v i d u a l i n response to a problem s i t u a t i o n " Cp 1403. This implies that a l l planning processes interact not only with a l l other processing occurring within d i f f e r e n t s t r u c -tures but as well with the knowledge bases associated with these structures. Before turning to a discussion of the knowledge bases associated with each of the structures i t 47 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e i s important to note that each knowledge base i s considered both an independent aspect of a cognitive function as well as an interdependent aspect of a cognitive f urr-:^  •' on. Put simply, t h i s means that one type of knowledge base i s inde-pendent from another but interdependent on the processing generated, selected, or used i n the execution of a task. The Luria/Das cog n i t i v e functions have been described i n terms of both structure and processing. Luria's (1973) d e s c r i p t i o n of the the functional systems of the brain sug-gests that these systems have both depth as well as spread. Processing a c t i v i t y within a functional system i s spread over a wide area and i s consistent with the notion that pro-cessing i s not hemispherically s p e c i a l i z e d . It i s assumed that the other processes described are equally non hemisphei— i c a l l y s p e c i a l i z e d . If processing i s not hemispherically s p e c i a l i z e d , then, how can we explain the overwhelming e v i -dence concerning hemispheric s p e c i a l i z a t i o n for various cog-n i t i v e functions (e.g, A l i e n , 19S3; Bradshaw and Nettleton, 1981). Das, Kirby and Jarman (1979) suggest that: "There i s a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the the l a t e r a l i t y model and Luria's, how-ever; the former i s at least to a large extent "code content" s p e c i f i c , while the l a t t e r i s not. By code content we mean not the stimulus content (verbal, s p a t i a l , e t c . ) , but the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the code (verbal e t c ) " Cp 1493. The Luria/Das model states that a l l processes can be applied 48 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e to codes of any type. The nature of code content and how i t a f f e c t s processing within the Luria/Das functional systems i s re l a t e d to the h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement of c o r t i c a l zones (Luria, 1973) and the notion of depth of processing (Craik and Lockhart, 1972): "Considering depth, any kind of coding, such as v i s u a l information, passes through three h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s of the brain consistent with i t s topography. These can be described i n a rather s i m p l i s t i c manner as the projection area where the modality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the information i s i n t a c t . Above the projection area l i e s the projection-cum-association area. As information reaches t h i s area i t loses part of i t s modality tag. Above t h i s area i s the t e r t i a r y area or zone of overlapping where information i s t y p i c a l l y amodal. This enables information to be integrated from d i f f e r e n t sensory organs without any r e s t r i c t i o n due to modality (Das, 1984b, p 19). The hemispheric s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of language and other cognitive functions are explained i n terms of the increasing functional l a t e r a l i z a t i o n of information as i t moves from the primary zones of the cortex through to the t e r t i a r y zones; to quote: "The last point i s that progressive l a t e r a l -i z a t i o n of functions occurs as one pro-gresses from the primary c o r t i c a l areas through the secondary to the t e r t i a r y area. L u r i a has observed that higher func-t i o n s such as speech i l l u s t r a t e the degree of l a t e r a l i z a t i o n of functions. The func-t i o n s of the secondary and t e r t i a r y zones of the l e f t hemisphere s t a r t to d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from those of the right hemi-sphere i n right handed people.... For instance L u r i a mentions that i f lesions 49 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e are in the primary zones, the l e f t / r i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i s not seen. However, when these are i n the secondary or t e r t i a r y zones, the d i f f e r e n c e s in function i s quite apparent (Das, Kirby, Jarman, 1979, p 40). Hemispheric s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s most pronounced on tasks r e q u i r -ing an a s s o c i a t i o n between the s t i m u l i and some f a m i l i a r "second s i g n a l " , as on a task r e q u i r i n g l a b e l i n g of a feature or features. The l i n k between code content and depth of processing w i l l be discussed more f u l l y i n the sections which sp e c i f y the knowledge bases associated with the s t r u c t u r a l aspects of the Luria/Das model. The Knowledge Bases: Block I — A t t e n t i o n The a t t e n t i o n a l knowledge bases can be characterized by the nature of the features i d e n t i f i e d when scanning f o r perceptual features. The f i r s t set of attention l e v e l know-ledge bases are characterized by v i s u a l - s p a t i a l configurations of global information that are l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the Gestalt p r i n c i p l e s of perceptual organization and i n which only the o v e r a l l o u t l i n e i s v e r b a l l y labeled or v i s u a l l y framed. In contrast, there are a set of attention l e v e l knowledge bases characterized by temporal arrangement of d e t a i l e d information in which each feature i s v e r b a l l y l a b e l — eled or v i s u a l l y framed. The evidence regarding knowledge bases associated with a t t e n t i o n a l structures and processes i s based l a r g e l y on conjecture. Nonetheless, i t seems reason-able to argue that neuropsychological research which i s corning 50 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e to r e l y more arid more on a h o l i s t i c / a n a l y t i c d i s t i n c t i o n as underlying hemispheric s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , supports the con-tention that i n i t i a l percept ionr f-r a t t e n t i o n a l knowledge bases can be characterized by h o l i s t i c , v i s u a l - s p a t i a l l abels or frames, as well as by analytic/temporal labels and frames (e.g., Allen, 1983; Bradshaw and Nettleton, 1981). The Knowledge Bases: Block I I — C o d i n g The h o l i s t i c and a n a l y t i c features provided by atten-t i o n a l processes are associated with f a m i l i a r l a b e l s or v i s u a l patterns within the Coding l e v e l (Das, Kirby, and Jarrnan, 1979). It i s the nature of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n which forms the d e f i n i t i o n of the coding l e v e l knowledge bases. P a i v i o has suggested that these a s s o c i a t i o n s : "...are represented and processed in func-t i o n a l l y independent, though i n t e r - con-nected, cognitve systems. . . . One system, the imagery system, i s presumably s p e c i a l -ized for encoding, storing, organizing, t r a n s - forming, and r e t r i e v i n g information concerning concrete objects and events. In b r i e f , i t represents our knowledge of the world in a form that i s highly ... analogous to perceptual knowledge.... The other (verbal) system i s s p e c i a l i z e d f o r dealing with information involving d i s c r e t e l i n g u i s t i c units and structures. Indepen-dence implies, among other things, that the two systems can be independently access-ed by relevant s t i m u l i ; the imagery system i s activated more d i r e c t l y by perceptual objects or pictures than l i n g u i s t i c s t i m u l i ; and conversely i n the case of the verbal system. Interconnectedness simply means that nonverbal information can be trans-formed into verbal information, or vice versa." (Paivio, 1975, p 835). 51 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Reese (1977) reviews evidence supportive of a unique organ-i z a t i o n a l function f o r the imagery system as compared to the verbal system. This function appears to influence a s s o c i -a t i v e memory by affectng the strength or memorability of associations. It can also increase stimulus d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (Reese, 1977). While the imagery and verbal systems describ-ed by Pa i v i o (1975), and Reese (1977), describe the nature of f a c t o r s influencing the organization and memorability of associations, the de s c r i p t i o n s of these systems i n the l i t e r a t u r e do l i t t l e to sp e c i f y the nature of the content of an association. This l a t t e r concern i s more germaine to our discussion of coding l e v e l knowledge bases. Pai v i o ' s (1975) conceptualization of the verbal and imagery systems implies that a stimulus feature may be coded e i t h e r l a r g e l y i n terms of perceptual knowledge (e.g., color, shape, configurations, etc.) or i n terms of linguistic know-ledge (e.g., l a b e l s ) . The interconnectedeness of the dual code theory implies that perceptual knowledge, or knowledge supplied to the coding l e v e l by attention l e v e l functions, can be coded into l i n g u i s t i c knowledge. Reid (1974) provides a more d e t a i l e d account of t h i s encoding process by speci f y i n g the nature of two basic classes of imagery and verbal a s s o c i -ations which can be generated independently by e i t h e r the imagery and/or the verbal code systems: C O w J C Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e "Constraints in the use of language r e f l e c t to d i f f e r e n t kinds of r e l a t i o n s h i p s - p a r a -digmatic and syntagmatic.... Paradigmatic r e l a t i o n s are conceived of i n terms of the shared conceptual features that charac-t e r i z e the members of a given paradigmatic set. Units in a set c l o s e l y r e l a t e to one another and share a large number of such features, whereas fewer features are shared by those members not so c l o s e l y rela t e d . Syntagmatic r e l a t i o n s , on the other hand, do not consist of features but the r e l a t i o n s h i p s that hold between the features of the various p a r t i c i p a n t s in the image. Rather than sharing features, syntagmatically r e l a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s each have features that i n t e r l o c k in various ways with the features of the other p a r t i -cipants. <Reid, 1974, p 331). This implies that an a s s o c i a t i o n can be charaterized as belong-ing to e i t h e r a paradigmatic and/or a syntagmatic c l a s s . In the case of a paradigmatic a s s o c i a t i o n the feature(s) a r r i v i n g from the a t t e n t i o n a l functions are re l a t e d to pre-v i o u s l y acquired "paradigmatic sets" or c l u s t e r s of "shared conceptual features". For example, the separate features of an object or picture of a f o o t b a l l can be r e l a t e d to the c l a s s of " b a l l s " known as " f o o t b a l l s " . It i s important to note, that both a n a l y t i c and h o l i s t i c features can be para-di g m a t i c a l l y associated. In the case of syntagmatic associations, the feature(s) a r r i v i n g from the at t e n t i o n a l functions are re l a t e d to pre-v i o u s l y aquired "syntagmatic relatons" or by the order of t h e i r a r r i v a l as d i s c r e t e features. For example, the separate features of an object or picture of a f o o t b a l l can be related 53 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e to e i t h e r a feature l a b e l l i n g process (e.g., brown, oblong, used for kicking e t c . ) , or by r e l a t i n g these d i s c r e t e features as they a r r i v e into d e s c r i p t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s of the object (e.g. a brown, oblong b a l l used f o r kicking). Jarrnan (1980) reviews evidence on syntagrnat ic - p a r a d i g -rnatic associations from three d i f f e r e n t research areas: (1) developmental studies and experimental studies of word r e -t r i e v a l ; (£) c l i n i c a l research on aphasia; and (3), d i f f e r -ences i n simultaneous and successive synthesis. Developmental and experimental studies, taken as a whole, suggest that both paradigmatic and syntagrnatic associations can be ident-i f i e d as i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s among widely d i v e r -gent populations and, furthermore, demonstrate a f a i r l y c o n s i s -tent s h i f t from syntagrnat i c free a s s o c i a t i o n to paradigmatic free a s s o c i a t i o n soon a f t e r entry into school (Entwistel,19S6; Entwistel, Forsythe, and Muus, 1964; Ervin, 1961; Palermo, 1971; Palermo & Jenkins, 1963). From c l i n i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of disrupted language func-t i o n i n g among aphasics, associated dysfunctions have been characterized as representative of syntagrnat i c or paradigmatic knowledge d e f i c i t s and the processes which are associated with these d e f i c i t s are successive and simultaneous syn-theses, r e s p e c t i v e l y (e.g., Jakobson, 1956, 1964, 1966, 1977; Luria, 1964, 1970, 1972, 1973; and Pribram, 1971). Not only do these studies l i n k paradigmatic/syntagmatic associations 54 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e to hemispheric s p e c i a l i z e d structures or the secondary and t e r t i a r y zones of the cortex, but, in addition, they l i n k these associations to simultaneous and success•.'/•-• processing (see also Cummins and Das, 1978). In summary, the knowledge bases associated with coding l e v e l processing have been charac-t e r i z e d as syntagmatic/paradigmatic associations which are coded e i t h e r v e r b a l l y or by imagery. The Knowledge Bases: Block I I I — Planning The knowledge bases associated with the planning l e v e l are the same knowledge bases, already i d e n t i f i e d , at the atte n t i o n and coding l e v e l s . That i s , the planning l e v e l knowledge bases have been defined i n terms of how they are activated rather than by i d e n t i f y i n g uniquely d i f f e r e n t bases. Sternberg and Powell (198£) describe a theory of planning or i n t e l l i g e n c e which i d e n t i f i e s two l e v e l s of planning. F i r s t , a "global" mode i n which the generation, s e l e c t i o n , and execution of cogn i t i v e functions i s " h i e r a r c h i c a l and consciously c o n t r o l l e d " and, secondly, a l o c a l mode which i s "non h i e r a r c h i c a l and automatic": "Thus in processing information from old domains or domains i n which one has acquired considerable expertise, the i n d i v i d u a l r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y upon automatic, l o c a l processing. A central executive i n i t i a l l y a c t i v a t e s a system c o n s i s t i n g of l o c a l l y a p p l i c a b l e processes and a l o c a l l y a p p l i -cable knowledge base. Mul t i p l e l o c a l sys-tems can operate i n p a r a l l e l . Performance 55 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e in t h i s system i s both automatic and of almost unlimited capacity; attention i s not focussed upon the task at hand. Only knowledge that has been transferred to the l o c a l knowledge base i s a v a i l a b l e f o r access by the storage and r e t r i e v a l compon-ents u t i l i z e d i n a given task. An important d e t a i l to note i s that the l o c a l system i s activated by metacomponents from the global processing system" (Sternberg and Powell, 198£, p 990). This d e s c r i p t i o n of the operation of a l o c a l processing system may be considered an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n of how each of the a t t e n t i o n a l and coding control s t r a t e g i e s operate. For example, i f a c h i l d has not previously acquired a label/frame f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y t i c or h o l i s t i c feature, a t t e n t i o n w i l l be directed only to the s a l i e n t c h a r a t e r i s t i c s of the s t i m u l i . That i s , only bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l processing w i l l be activated. In t h i s manner, each a t t e n t i o n a l and coding control process can operate independently of a l l others. S i m i l a r l y , each of these l o c a l control processes can operate i n p a r a l l e l with any or a l l of the others. Plan-ning has been described as the generation, s e l e c t i o n , and execution of s t r a t e g i e s or c o g n i t i v e functions. The nature of t h i s process has been described further by Sternberg and Powell in t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of the "global processing" system: "In contrast, i n domains in which one has l i t t l e expertise, processing i s l a r g e l y focused in the global processing and know-ledge system. As expertise develops, great-er and greater proportions of processing are transferred to ( i . e . , packed into) a given l o c a l processing system. The advantage of the l o c a l system i s that a c t i -56 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e vat ion i s of the system as a whole, rather than of i n d i v i d u a l components within the system, and thus i t requires much less a t t e n t i o n than does the global system" (Sternberg & Powell, 19B£, p 990). This implies that the s e l e c t i o n of a control strategy i s based on f a m i l i a r i t y . A c t i v a t i o n of a l o c a l control system by f a m i l i a r task demands includes a r e s t r i c t i o n on the know-ledge bases a v a i l a b l e . In other words, a l o c a l control pro-cess, when activated as part of a l o c a l system, does not have access to other l o c a l knowledge bases but i s limited to the habitual or preferred a s s o c i a t i o n or feature ident-i f i c a t i o n . In contrast, a c t i v a t i o n of the global system by unfamiliar task demands allows unlimited access to various combinations of control processes and knowledge bases. Any given knowledge base can be transf e r r e d into any given control process. In the case of l o c a l control process a c t i v a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n of the knowledge base i s considered habitual. When global a c t i v a t i o n of control processes occurs, s e l e c t i o n of a knowledge base i s considered i n t e n t i o n a l or goal—directed i n keeping with a the goal—directed nature of the planning process. Summary of The Luria/Das Cognitive Functions: Seven cognitve functions have been i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of three aspects: processes, structures, and knowledge bases. Each aspect of a cogni t i v e function i s considered independent from- but interconnected with- the other aspects. The s e l -Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e ection of a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of a cognitive function can be e i t h e r habitual or i n t e n t i o n a l . Quantitative and q u a l i -t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s have been demonstrated, on a wide v a r i e t y of tasks and research designs, and across a diverse population. This suggests these cog n i t i v e functions possess explanatory power over a wide v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s including academic acheivement. The Emic V a l i d i t y of the Luria/Das Model: There are several points which suggest that the f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s paper underlie the cognitive task perform-ance of Native children, both within the "observational", as well as, within the formal academic learning environ ments. F i r s t , i t i s reasonable to expect that a model based on neuropsychological theory and empirical i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l apply equally across cultures since the same s t r u c t u r a l aspects are present i n a l l human learning environments (Luria, 19&6a). Second, considerable i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the model across diverse populations and on a v a r i e t y of tasks suggests that these aspects can be i d e n t i f i e d even on indigeneous tasks, such as the card playing s t r a t e g i e s demonstrated by Au s t r a l i a n aborigines (Klich and Davidson, 1984). Third, research c a r r i e d out on Native c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s can be t h e o r e t i c a l l y linked to one of the seven cog n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s and i t s associated knowledge base. For example, the a n a l y t i c - h o l i s t i c knowledge bases can be t h e o r e t i c a l l y 58 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e linked to the knowledge required on f i e l d a r t i c u l a t i o n tasks and to v i s u a l control of attention (see Kane, 1983). find f i n a l l y , there i s a small, but growing body of l i t e r -ature i d e n t i f y i n g these c o g n i t i v e functions among Native populations. For example, simultaneous and successive syn-theses have been investigated in Canadian (e.g.,Krywaniuk, 1974: More, 1984a) and American (Brokenleg and Bryde, 1984) Native c h i l d r e n . These studies used d i f f e r e n t b a t t e r i e s of marker t e s t s to i d e n t i f y these processes by fa c t o r analyses. Krywaniuk's study u t i l i z e d the simultaneous- successive battery designed by Das et a l . (1979). Despite the fact that the American researchers u t i l i z e d the Kaufman Assessment Battery For Children - K—ABC (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983) to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e simultaneous—succesive syntheses, a l l researchers i d e n t i f i e d a simultaneous f a c t o r s on which the majority of simultaneous marker tasks were highly loaded. The same held true for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a successive processing factor. Evidence regarding q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-native groups on the tasks used to op e r a t i o n a l i z e simultaneous and successive processing f a c t o r s i s les s conclusive. Krywaniuk (1974) compared low achieving grade 3 Cree c h i l d r e n attending a reserve school to high and low achieving white c h i l d r e n attending an urban school. Mean WISC Perform-ance IQ's f o r low achieving white and Native c h i l d r e n were 59 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( i . e . , mean 98.96, s. d. 11.78 versus mean 93.39, s.d. 12.41, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In terms of Verbal IQ the Cree c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the low achieving white ( i . e . , means of 73.05 versus 93.88, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . This verbal-performance discrepancy i s con-s i s t e n t with most studies reviewed i n t h i s paper. Krywaniuk then administered a battery of t e s t s to measure simultaneous/successive processing (Das, et a l . , 1979) to a l l groups. Results of separate p r i n c i p a l component f a c t o r analyses on the performance of the Cree and low achieving whites indicate d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r loadings f o r the two groups on a v a r i e t y of the te s t s , suggesting that Native c h i l d r e n may approach the same task i n a manner d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the manner of low achieving white children. For example, on the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, low achieving whites appeared to use simultaneous processing consistent with p r i o r simultaneous-factor loadings f o r the Raven performance's obtained i n v a l i d a t i o n studies of the battery. In contrast, the Cree c h i l d r e n appear to use successive processing as demonstrated by i t s high loading on the fa c t o r with the major-i t y of successive marker t e s t s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups, despite q u a l i t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s on t h i s task. ft second important fi n d i n g of Krywaniuk's study i s that the Cree c h i l d r e n demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower performance 60 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e on a l l marker t e s t s of successive processing. In fact, the only test with a high loading on the successive f a c t o r that the Natives performed "i on was the Raven. This r e s u l t led Das and h i s colleagues to speculate as to the nature of a successive processing d e f i c i e n c y among Natives: "How does one account for the s i m i l a r i t y of performance in simultaneous processing but d i f f e r e n c e i n successive processing between white and native children? Fur-ther, how does one interpret the d i f f e r -ences in f a c t o r loadings? One may argue that since the white and native c h i l d r e n had comparable Performance IQ's, and since WISC-P i s akin to simultaneous, they are not expected to d i f f e r on usual simultaneous t e s t s . However, the simultaneous tasks did not behave i n the usual manner i n terms of the f a c t o r lodings f o r the native data. S i m i l a r l y one may argue that since one group was higher than the other on WISC—R Verbal IQ, these d i f f e r e n c e s would be ex-pected. Again a simple inference such as t h i s w i l l be i n e r r o r : Color Naming and Cross Modal coding are not verbal in the sense of s e r i a l r e c a l l of words. Perhaps, we should understand that native c h i l d r e n have not learnt to use successive processing e f f e c t i v e l y " (Das, Kirby, and Jarman, 1979, p 130). Recent studies using the K-ABC with Native c h i l d r e n support the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a successive processing d e f i c i -ency among more t r a d i t i o n a l Natives groups l i k e those assessed by Krywaniuk (1974). Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) report two r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y studies c a r r i e d out among North American Native c h i l d r e n . Brokenleg and Bryde administered the K-ABC to £0 male and £0 female Sioux c h i l d r e n who were well integrated into white society, attended regular public Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e schools, arid spoke English well. In contrast, N a g l i e r i et a l . 1 s study included 14 rr»ale and 19 female Navajo c h i l d r e n who l i v e d on a reservation, in an is o l a t e d community, and spoke p r i m a r i l y Navajo. The Navajo sample appears to match both the Cree c h i l d r e n tested by Krywaniuk, as well as the more t r a d i t i o n a l groups described by K l e i n f e l d (1970) and Greenbaum and Greenbaum (1983). Before i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of these studies i t i s important to note the WISC-R Verbal-Performance discrepancy t y p i c a l l y found i n Native c h i l d r e n ' s performance was not evidenced i n ths Sioux sample ( i . e . , mean VIQ 91.4, s.d. 14.88 versus PIQ mean 103.8, s.d. 11.8). In contrast, the Navajo evidenced the t y p i c a l WISC—R Verbal-Performance discrepancy ( i . e . , VIQ mean 74.9, s. d. 13.5 versus PIQ mean 102.8, s. d. 11.8). The K-ABC defines i n t e l l i g e n c e i n terms of an i n d i v i d -ual's s t y l e of solv i n g problems and processing information. The K-ABC Mental Processing scales are based on the simultan-eous—successive processes outlined in the Luria/Das model and have been validated against the o r i g i n a l battery (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983). The Mental Processing scales were designed to minimize the r o l e of language and verbal s k i l l s . In add-i t i o n to the Simultaneous and Successive Mental Processing scales, the K-ABC provides Achievement and Nonverbal scales, as well as a Mental Processing Composite score ( i . e . , simultan-62 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e eous + successive processing scores). The Sioux and the Navajo groups earned v i r t u a l l y iden-t i c a l mean standard scores on the Simultaneous Processing s c a l e ( i . e . , mean 101.3, s. d. 10.7 versus mean 99.8, s. d. 10.£, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . This f i n d i n g implies that t r a d i t i o n a l and t r a n s i t i o n a l Native groups do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each other on t e s t s designed to measure simultaneous processing nor, f o r that matter, from the standardization sample. In contrast, the Sioux c h i l d r e n obtained a s i g n i -f i c a n t l y higher Sequential scale standard score than the Navajo ( i . e . , mean 99.8, s. d. 12.4 versus mean 87.7, s. d. 11.3, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Interestingly, the Achievement scale standard scores of the Sioux and Navajo demonstrated the same discrepancy favoring the Sioux ( i . e . , mean 93.3, s.d. 12.8 versus mean 81.7, s. d. 11.2). These r e s u l t s , as well as Krywaniuk"s (1974) findings, suggest more t r a d i t i o n a l Native groups, such as the Navajo, can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t r a n s i t i o n a l Siuox and non-native groups on the basis of performance on marker tasks f o r suc-cessive—sequential processing. Furthermore, the r e l a t i v e performance d e f i c i t evidenced on the sequential tasks by t r a d i t i o n a l Native groups i s r e f l e c t e d i n a comparable d e f i c i n Achievement subtest performance. There i s no evidence to i n d i c a t e whether t h i s performance d e f i c i t on successive marker tasks i s of the "production d e f i c i e n c y " type. Navajo S3 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e c h i l d r e n did as well as both the Siuox and the standardization sample on Hand Movements, which i s one of the three Sequential scale subtests. This implies that the sequential processing d e f i c i t evidenced by Navajo c h i l d r e n i s most pronounced on the l a r g e l y verbal subtests of the sequential scale. ft "pro-duction d e f i c i e n c y " i n sequential/successive processing would be implicated i f the Navajo chi l d r e n ' s r e l a t i v e l y poorer performance on the l a r g e l y verbal Number Recall and Word Order subtests were a function of not spontaneously employing the successive processing strengths, which they had previously demonstrated on the Hand Movement task, to the execution of the more verbal sequential processing subtests. The low verbal requirements of the K-ABC suggest that vocabulary alone cannot account f o r the lower performance of Navajo speaking c h i l d r e n on sequential subtests. fin a l t e r n a t i v e explanation f o r the discrepancy between the Navajo's r e l a t i v e strength on Hand Movements and r e l a t i v e weaknesses on Number Recall and Word Order implies that the processing used on the Hand Movements subtest was not sequen-t i a l i n nature, rather, Navajo c h i l d r e n may have transferred a concrete/active planning strategy, developed i n the "observa-t i o n a l " learning environment to the coding of the various hand movements. This concrete/active planning strategy may have involved the a c t i v a t i o n of a simultaneous processing funct ion. 64 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Since the sequential processing d e f i c i t evidenced by the Navajo was associated with a d e f i c i t on the Achievement scale, determining the nature of the c ' i c i t i s a neccessary, but not a s u f f i c i e n t , pre-condition f o r drawing i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications. For example, a verbal knowledge base d e f i c i t associated with sequential processing implies the need fo r vocabulary and language development type programs. A d e f i c i t i n sequential processing implies that i n s t r u c t i o n should focus on c o g n i t i v e process t r a i n i n g a l a Krywaniuk (1974). A "production d e f i c i t " implies the need fo r "executive control t r a i n i n g " as described by Borkowski and Cavanaugh (1978, p 54),. This pattern of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e f l e c t s interventions aimed at the knowledge base, processing, and planning aspects of the sequential c o g n i t i v e function. Consistent with the independent but i n t e r r e l a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the model, a l l three d e f i c i t s , presumably inter a c t with each other necess-i t a t i n g a l l three i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the sequential—successive process-ing performance of the Navajo, to date, has been conducted from within a d e f i c i e n c y perspective. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the r e l a t i v e weaknesses demonstrated by the Navajo on the Sequen-t i a l Processing scale of the K-ABC, may r e f l e c t the use of Navajo chi l d r e n ' s r e l a t i v e competencies i n concrete/active planning and simultaneous processing. In t h i s case, the performance d e f i c i t i s interpreted as a function of the i n -Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e e f f i c i e n c y of simultaneous processing and concrete/active planning to meet the task demands. Here, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications are to modify the task demands in such a way as to improve the e f f i c i e n c y of concrete/active planning and simultaneous processing. Notice that the competency i n t e r p r e t a t i o n leads to an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e / "learning" s t y l e matching program. In order to determine whether a competency based i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Native performance and i t s subsequent i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e / l e a r n i n g s t y l e matching i s appropriate f o r s p e c i f i c academic tasks, a c l e a r e r under-standing of the " e t i c " v a l i d i t y of the various Luria/Das c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s i s needed. In other words, before i n s t r u c -t i o n a l s t y l e / l e a r n i n g s t y l e matching can occur, a c l e a r e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the r o l e of c o g n i t i v e functions on academic tasks i s needed. The " E t i c " V a l i d i t y of the Luria/Das Model: There are several f a c t o r s which suggest that the L u r i a / Das cognitive f a c t o r s outlined i n t h i s report underlie, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y account for, the academic performance of both Native and non-native c h i l d r e n . F i r s t , the neuropsychological model implies that the s t r u c t u r a l aspects of the model are " e t i c " or " t r a n s - c u l t u r a l " constructs. Secondly, various aspects of the model have been i s o l a t e d i n reading d i s a b i l i t y subtype studies. For example, a sequential reading d i s a b i l i t y subtype has recently been i d e n t i f i e d (Doehring et. a l . , 1981, Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e p 195). Thirdly, whenever a performance d e f i c i t i n one of the aspects of the model has been i d e n t i f i e d i n a population, there has usually been an i n d i c a t i o n of lowered achievement, as demonstrated i n the studies of sequential processing among more " t r a d i t i o n a l " Native groups ( i . e . , Krywaniuk, 1974). find f i n a l l y , there i s a considerable body of evidence d i r e c t l y l i n k i n g various aspects of the model to the reading achieve-ment of diverse non-native populations. A selected review of these studies i s provided with an emphasis on the i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of re l a t e d reading d e f i c i t s and i n s t u c t i o n a l i m p l i -cations. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a t t e n t i o n a l functions and reading achievement has been t h e o r e t i c a l l y derived from stud-ies of a t t e n t i o n a l processes during reading (see Lupart and Mulcahy, 1984). Bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l functions are t h e o r e t i -c a l l y linked to the recognition of such dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as color, shape, and o u t l i n e (Lupart and Mulcahy, 1984). Performance on a c o l o r naming task which requires the recognition of dominant c o l o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has been s u c c e s s f u l l y used to discriminate between various reading d i s a b i l i t y subtypes (e.g., Doehring et. a l . , 1981: Satz and Morris, i960). This f i n d i n g implies that the a b i l i t y to recognize various dominant s t i m u l i may be implicated i n the processes of reading. In general, the reading d i s a b i l i t y subtype described was characterized by an oral reading 67 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e d e f i c i t . Top-down v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l functions have been theo-r e t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with tasks r e q u i r i n g " a n a l y t i c " and " h o l i s t i c " feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (e.g., c o g n i t i v e s t y l e tasks). Davey (1983) reviews a number of studies i n v e s t i -gating the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a field-independent cognitive s t y l e and reading achievement, implying a field-independent s t y l e i n t e r a c t s d i f f e r e n t i a l 1 l y with academic task performance depending on the nature of the task demands and degree of f i e l d independence demonstrated. "For example, types of reading comprehension which appear to r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y to f i e l d independence include: paragraph meaning, lo c a t i o n of main ideas, and tasks r e q u i r i n g a reorganization of material.... In add-i t i o n strong supports e x i s t s f o r the sup-e r i o r i t y of f i e l d independence in s p e l l i n g , word recognition s k i l l s and grammar..." (Davey, 1983,p 683) Top down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l functions have been i d e n t i -f i e d with the control of feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by a verbal mediation process based upon syntagrnatic/paradigmatic ass-o c i a t i o n s . In t h i s case, the associations serve to focus attention. Cummins and Mulcahy (198S) provide l i m i t e d e v i -dence that the "nominative" and "predicative" aspects of par ad i grnat ic-synt agrnat i c associations are r e l a t e d to story r e c a l l . They found that the rate at which a c h i l d r e c a l l e d nominative units of a story loaded on simultaneous processing f a c t o r and r e f l e c t e d the e f f i c i e n c y of simultaneous processing 68 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e for organization of the nominative aspects. They reasoned that p r e d i c a t i v e aspects of language would be r e l a t e d to successive processing since these aspects are necessary f o r understanding s y n t a c t i c a l l y complex material. The accuracy of r e c a l l on s y n t a c t i c a l l y complex material loaded on a suc-cessive processing factor. It appears that paradigmatic mediation of attention i s highly e f f i c i e n t f or rapid story r e c a l l , while syntagmatic mediation of at t e n t i o n i s required i n order to understand the story. Several studies have r e l a t e d simultaneous-successive processing to reading achievement (e.g., Cummins & Das, 1977; 1979; Das, Manos and Kanungo, 1975; Kirby & Das, 1977) using t r a d i t i o n a l f a c t o r a n a l y t i c approaches. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between simultaneous and successive processes and reading i n these studies has been described i n the following manner: "Among c h i l d r e n who are l i k e l y to experience d i f f i c u l t y i n reading, competence i n successive processing i s strongly r e l a t e d to reading achievement. However, among normal readers at more advanced l e v e l s of reading s k i l l s , simultaneous processing i s equally, i f not more, important" (Cummins & Das, 1977, p £54). This implies that simultaneous and successive processing interact with reading task demands i n a manner consistent with the a t t e n t i o n a l functions of the model. Of more c l i n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e are recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of cognitive process t r a i n i n g which indicate that improvements i n successive pro-cess can be transferred to academic tasks. 69 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Two studies have shown that non academic tasks and s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures can be used to improve suc-cessive processing (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1979; Krywaniuk, 1974). Importantly, the i n s t r u c t i o n given i n these studies also seemed to t r a n s f e r to academic areas, as evidenced by improved performance in word reading and mathematics. B r a i l s f o r d (1981) included procedures f o r increasing simul-taneous processing i n a t r a i n i n g program containing the o r i g i n a l successive t r a i n i n g tasks. An experimental group outperformed the control group on a l l successive t e s t s and one of the simultaneous t e s t s : but more importantly, they demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t gains on a reading l e v e l measure. Not only does research on simultaneous and successive process t r a i n i n g hold promise f o r s p e c i f y i n g the nature of processing d e f i c i t s and suggested techniques f o r remediating them which can be generalized to academic tasks, a d d i t i o n a l l y , i t holds promise f o r designing changes i n task demands in order to e l i c i t processing strengths. The importance of a d i s t i n c t i o n between global and l o c a l processing systems i s apparent when studying the acquistion of decoding and comprehension s k i l l s in reading. La Berge and Samuels (1976) suggested that f o r fluent readers the s decoding process was automatic or under the control of a l o c a l processing system. Sternberg (1981), suggests that the advantage of using a l o c a l system i s that attention i s 70 Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e not focused on the task, at hand, thereby allowing attention to be devoted to more semantic and s y n t a t i c processes. Reading d e f i c i 4 - - evidenced i n various studies have been i n t e r -preted as r e l a t e d to a successive processing d e f i c i t . This d e f i c i t may be e n t i r e l y within the coding l e v e l and therefore be associated with an i n e f f i c i e n t l o c a l processing system which lacks the neccessary knowledge base for rapid decoding. ft second explanation of the l i n k between successive processing d e f i c i t s and reading d e f i c i t s i s the f i n d i n g that reading disabled children, as a group, approach reading tasks as l a r g e l y decoding tasks, while p r o f i c i e n t readers view reading as a communication process (Barclay & Hagen, 1982; Meyers and Paris, 1978; Olshavsky, 1977). The d i f f i c u l t y with understanding the purpose of reading prevents reading disabled chidren from using t h e i r "average" i n t e l l i g e n c e to solve the task. S i m i l a r i l y , i t can be argued that an i n s t r u c t i o n a l emphasis on phonetic decoding aspects of reading may prevent a Native c h i l d from using h i s own strengths i n simultaneous processing. Phonetic task demands have been r e l a t e d to suc-cessive processing (Cummins and Das, 1977). Most adult and peer modelling of reading problem—solving behaviors emphasize successive processing s t r a t e g i e s i n some form of the "sound-i t - o u t " strategy. It may be that c h i l d r e n who approach reading as a decoding task do so because they have not been Chapter Two Review of the L i t e r a t u r e exposed to a s a t i s f a c t o r y problem-solving model f o r reading that emphasizes t h e i r strengths rather than weaknesses, ft planning d e f i c i t may be more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of how we are taught rather than how well we learn. Thus, before we learn how to teach we must f i r s t know more about how others learn. 7£ CHAPTER THREEi METHODOLOGY THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE LURIA/DAS MODEL: Lu r i a (1976) reviews evidence i n d i c a t i n g that during mnemonic a c t i v i t y at least three separate phases of a c t i v i t y can be i d e n t i f i e d and linked to brain s t r u c t u r e s : "...Hippocampal structures are responsible f o r elementary comparison of actual s t i m u l i with traces of previous experience. The gnostic and speech areas of the cortex are concerned with the an a l y s i s and coding of incoming information and e s t a b l i s h i n g the e s s e n t i a l conditions f o r organization of the material to be memorized. The ante r i o r (frontal) areas of the cortex perform completely d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n t h i s system, since they provide f o r maintenance of the plan, the programming of behavior, and the performance of active, s e l e c t i v e , mnestic a c t i v i t y " (Luria, 1976, p 15). Se l e c t i o n of the various tasks used to op e r a t i o n a l i z e the Luria/Das model are based on t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , as well as those provided throughout the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . For example, tasks designed to assess a t t e n t i o n a l functions were selected on the basis of re q u i r i n g "elementary comparison(s) of actual s t i m u l i with traces of previous experience". Coding tasks were selected which required "the a n a l y s i s and coding of incoming information and establishment of the e s s e n t i a l conditions for the organization of the material". And f i n -a l l y , planning tasks were selected which required "active, s e l e c t i v e , mental a c t i v i t y " . 73 Chapter Three Methodology In order to op e r a t i o n a l i z e a bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l function, a task that required elementary comparisons of highly s a l i e n t s t i m u l i c h a r a t e r i s t i c s needed to be i d e n i f i e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been further defined i n terms of a n a l y t i c and h o l i s t i c features. Three tasks were selected which seemed to meet these requirement: (1) the K-ABC S p a t i a l Memory subtest (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983); (£) the Test of Concept U t i l i z a t i o n ' s (TCU) (Crager & Spriggs, 1977), "Color R e a l i t y Match score" and (3>, the TCU Shape Real i t y Match score. The K-ABC S p a t i a l Memory subtest, which requires comparison of h o l i s t i c features ( i . e . , g r i d location) and also e f f i c i e n t performance, i s considered to be r e l a t e d to a field—independent c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . " Spatial Memory" demands good concentration f o r success, and performance can e a s i l y be disrupted by poor attention span, d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y , anxiety, and possibly a field-dependent c o g n i t i v e s t y l e " (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p 49). The TCU's Color Reality Match score i s based on the number of times, out of ten t r i a l s , a subject w i l l c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y a s i m i l a r i t y i n c o l o r between pictures of everyday objects, when those objects have been d e l i b e r a t e l y paired in terms of c o l o r (Crager & Spriggs, 1977, p 4). The fact that the s e l e c t i o n of c o l o r pairings has often involved two co l o r s and only parts of the objects implies that both ana-74 Chapter Three Methodology l y t i c and h o l i s t i c features have been presented. This task requires elementary comparison of both a n a l y t i c and h o l i s t i c features. The use of 'everyday objects' i s assumed to improve the g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y of the feature concepts being assessed. For example, knowing which two colored squares are a l i k e i s a greatly d i f f e r e n t task from using c o l o r to determine the s i m i l a r i t y between objects when they vary on so many other dimensions. In the former case, one i s assessing a perceptual matching task, while i n the l a t t e r a conceptual matching task. That i s , the TCU Color Reality Match score r e f l e c t s conceptual feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n most cases these features are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a n a l y t i c knowledge bases. The TCU Shape Rea l i t y Match score i s based on the number of times, out of ten t r i a l s , a subject w i l l c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y a s i m i l a r i t y i n shape between pictures of two everyday ob-j e c t s . The shape comparisons r e f l e c t mainly o v e r a l l feature shape or o u t l i n e matching. The task requires a n a l y t i c know-ledge of the o u t l i n e s of everyday objects. A l l three bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l - marker tasks are assumed to present task demands re q u i r i n g v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n to highly s a l i e n t s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , location, color, and out l i n e , respect-i v e l y ) . Top-down v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l functions are characterized by v i s u a l l y mediated comparisons of elementary s t i m u l i . 75 Chapter Three Methodology The operational d e f i n i t i o n of these tasks has been limited to comparisons involving h o l i s t i c features, so that, l i n k s between a h o l i s t i c knowledge base and a f i e l d independent/ dependent c o g n i t i v e s t y l e can be explored (e.g., Cohen, 1969). E r r o r and number attempted scores from the Hidden Patterns Test—CF£ (HPT) were selected to represent top—down v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l control functions. Elementary comparisons of v i s u a l h o l i s t i c features have been defined i n terms of two performance f a c t o r s : perceptual speed and f l e x i b i l t y of closure (Ekstrom, et a l . , 1976). Both require the subject to make a match, but "disembedding" i s required on the f l e x i b i l i t y of closure portion of the task while l o c a t i o n a l information i s required f o r increasing perceptual speed. In addition, both f a c t o r s have been a s s o c i -ated with a f i e l d independent cog n i t i v e s t y l e (Ekstrom, 1973). The f l e x i b i l i t y of closure function i s operationalized by the e r r o r score of the HPT, while the perceptual speed func-t i o n i s measured by the number- attempted score. Top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l functions are characterized by v e r b a l l y mediated comparisons of elementary s t i m u l i . The operational d e f i n i t i o n of these tasks has been limited to comparisons of a n a l y t i c features, i n order to investigate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a n a l y t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and an i m p l u s i v e / r e f l e c t i v e c o g n i t i v e s t y l e (e.g., Zelniker 76 Chapter Three Methodology and J e f f r e y , 1976). Error and number-attempted scores from the Identical Pictures <IPT) test were used to operation-a l i z e top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l functions (Ekstrom et a l . , 1976) i n a manner consistent with the operational d e f i n i t i o n of top-down v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l functions. In others words, the major operational d i s t i n c t i o n between the top-down v i s u a l and verbal functions i s characterized by the unit of atten-t i o n a l -feat ure i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In the case of v i s u a l func-t i o n s that unit i s considered a h o l i s t i c feature, while i n the case of verbal a t t e n t i o n a l function that unit i s consider-ed an a n a l y t i c feature. Elementary comparisons of v i s u a l a n a l y t i c features have been defined i n terms of two performance characteristics:: perceptual speed (or the IPT number-attempted score and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n score) or the number of items correct on the IPT (Ekstrom et a l . , 1976). In addition, both f a c t o r s have been r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e s t y l e : "It i s possible that t h i s f a c t o r [perceptual speed] i s r e l a t e d to the automatization of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e " (Ekstrom et a l . , 1976,p 123). Note that the HPT contains a perceptual speed factor. Since t h i s f a c t o r i s r e l a t e d to automatization of a cognitive s t y l e , high number-attempted score on the HPT i s assumed to r e f l e c t the degree of automatization of a f i e l d independent-dependent cogn i t i v e s t y l e , while a high numbei—attempted 77 Chapter Three Methodology score on the IPT i s assumed to r e f l e c t the degree of automati-zation of an i m p u l s i v e / r e f l e c t i v e c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . In these cases, the e r r o r scores represent the breadth of the knowledge base associated with h o l i s t i c and a n a l y t i c features. In t h i s manner top-down a t t e n t i o n a l functions can be ch a r a c t e i — ized i n terms of the degree of f a c i l i t y with which a person demonstrates a p a r t i c u l a r cognitive s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . According to Zelniker and J e f f r e y (1976), the d i f f e i — e n t i a l performance of implusives and r e f l e c t i v e s on d e t a i l matching and global matching of i d e n t i c a l p i c t u r e items r e f l e c t s the d i f f e r e n c e i n degree of perceptual a n a l y s i s demonstrated by these groups. Impulsives adopt a whole-scanning strategy e f f e c t i v e on global items while r e f l e c t i v e s adopt a part—scanning strategy e f f e c t i v e on d e t a i l items. In an attempt to broaden t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n to include con-ceptual as well as perceptual analysis, these authors adminis-tered a concept-attainment task to groups of implusives and r e f l e c t ives. Zelniker and J e f f r e y (1976, pp 36 - 37), i n reporting the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, l i n k a d e t a i l f e a t u r e - i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n strategy to the examination of only a s i n g l e dimension of a concept at one time: "...the d i f f e r e n c e between the two cog n i t i v e s t y l e groups was expressed i n a tendency to focus on or to examine a s i n g l e dimension or 78 Chapter Three Methodology component at a time versus several dimensions of the s t i m u l i simultaneously. Quality and speed of performance were not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the two scanning s t r a t e g i e s ; there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between implu-s i v e and r e f l e c t i v e subjects in number of prob-lems solved, number of cards to solution, nor in response latency per card to s o l u t i o n of con-cept-attainment problems.... The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the whole-scanning strategy may be p a r t i c -u l a r l y marked i n solving multidimensional problems where i t i s l i k e l y to enable s o l u t i o n with fewer cards than the part-scanning strategy" The TCU requires comparison of pictures of two everyday objects i n order to answer one of the questions: "How are they a l i k e ? " , or, "How do they go together?" The s e l e c t i o n of TCU Color and Shape r e a l i t y match scores f o r operation-a l i z i n g the bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l functions was based on the assumption that these features of a s t i m u l i would be dominant, and therefore, would control a t t e n t i o n a l functions during the comparison process. This implies attention on the TCU i s i n i t i a l l y d irected towards dominant s t i m u l i char-a c t e r i s t i c s . Subsequently, and only following the f a i l u r e to i d e n t i f y a match on dominant features, would one expect to see a t t e n t i o n come under the control of a v i s u a l or verbal a t t e n t i o n a l function. This sequence of a t t e n t i o n from bottom-up to top-down control i s in keeping with Sternberg and Powell's (1982) view of the i n t e r a c t i o n between l o c a l pro-cessing and global processing systems. This also suggests that the TCU i s a concept-attainment task r e q u i r i n g compar-79 Chapter Three Methodology isons of elementary features one-at-a-time i n sequence. For example, the two objects are compared f i r s t i n terms of dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (e.g., location, color, and shape), then f a i l i n g a match, these objects are compared on a s e r i e s of other dimensions which have important implica-t i o n s f o r verbal functions. The task demands favor the generation of v i s u a l and verbal mediators one at a time u n t i l a match i s found. This implies the TCU measures both a perceptual matching aspect or bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l function and a conceptual matching aspect or top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n -a l function. The TCU Homogenous Function Reality Match score w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the syntagrnatic ( i . e . , predicative) knowledge base associated with top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l functions. The homogeneous function score i s based on the number of times out of ten t r i a l s that a subject c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e s a pair of objects as serving a s i m i l a r purpose when those objects have been selected to r e f l e c t a homogeneous function (e.g., typewriter and p e n c i l ) . Notice that the task requires the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of noun—verb or syntagrnatic r e l a t i o n s h i p s that i s to say, a typewriter and a pencil are both used f o r writing. The TCU Abstract Function Reality Match score w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the paradigmatic ( i . e . , nominative) 80 Chapter Three Methodology knowledge base associated with top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l functions. The abstract function score i s based on the number of times, out of ten t r i a l s , that a subject c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i -f i e s a p a i r of objects as belonging to the same abstract c l a s s when those objects have been selected to r e f l e c t ab-s t r a c t c l a s s membership (e.g., tree and pig). Notice that the task requires the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a noun-noun or para-digmatic r e l a t i o n s h i p , that i s , a tree and a pig are both l i v i n g e n t i t i e s . Non-verbal a t t e n t i o n a l functions can then be described i n terms of the subjects f a c i l i t y with an ana-l y t i c c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , and h i s breadth of syntagmatic/ para-digmatic knowledge. The K-ABC Simultaneous and Sequential Mental Processing s c a l e s were selected to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the coding functions of the Luria/Das model since these provide a d i r e c t l i n k to the measurement of these processes among Native c h i l d r e n (as discussed i n the review (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983)). A c o g n i t i v e process a n a l y s i s of the various subtests suggests that besides measuring simultaneous and successive coding functions, these t e s t s may very well be measuring a concrete/ a c t i v e planning function. Further s p e c i f i c a t i o n of both the process and knowledge base aspects of each of the subtests i s required. The Simultaneous scale i s composed of f i v e subtests; 81 Chapter Three Methodology Gestalt Closure, Triangles, Matrix Analogies, S p a t i a l Memory, and Photo Series. Although a l l of these subtests loaded on the simultaneous f a c t o r during the standardization of the K-ABC, there i s s u f f i c i e n t t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n to suggest that these subtests may measure aspects of coding well beyond simultaneous processing. For example, Gestalt Closure requires the c h i l d to i d e n t i f y an object from an incomplete l i n e drawing. Kaufman et a l . (1983) suggest that Gestalt Closure i s a reasonably "pure" measure of simultaneous processing at a l l age l e v e l s assessed by the K-ABC. The Gestalt Closure raw score w i l l be used to op e r a t i o n a l l y define simultaneous processing of h o l i s t i c feature knowledge. The Triangles subtest requires a c h i l d to assemble several i d e n t i c a l rubber t r i a n g l e s (blue on one side, and yellow on the other) to match a picture of an abstract design. "Performance i s enhanced f o r those who can employ a systematic strategy f o r analyzing the model design into i t s component parts, and f o r those who are f l e x i b l e in t h e i r approach to problem-solving (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983, p 44). The Triangles raw score w i l l be used to op e r a t i o n a l i z e both concrete-active planning, as well as simultaneous processing. The Matrix Analogies subtest requires the c h i l d to select a picture or design that best completes a two-by—two v i s u a l analogy. According to Kaufman & Kaufman (1983), "... Matrix 82 Chapter Three Methodology Analogies was includsed i n the K—ABC because i t was found to be a superb measure of simultaneous processing f o r school-age c h i l d r e n (p 47)." The Matrix Analogies raw score w i l l be used to ope r a t i o n a l l y define simultaneous processing of paradigmatically r e l a t e d features. The S p a t i a l Memory subtest requires the c h i l d to r e c a l l the l ocations of pictures arranged randomly on a gri d . Location has been i d e n t i f i e d with bottom-up s t i m u l i charactei— i s t i e s and represents one aspect of a n a l y t i c feature i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n . The S p a t i a l Memory raw score w i l l be used to ope r a t i o n a l l y define bottom-up at t e n t i o n and simultaneous processes. The Photo Series subtest, which loads on the simultaneous f a c t o r i n the standardization studies of the K-ABC, was not used to op e r a t i o n a l i z e simultaneous processing. The j u s t i f i -c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s subtest w i l l be discussed with regard to the concrete-active planning functions. Das (1984b) has suggested that simultaneous processing underlies verbal as well as non-verbal organization of mater-i a l f o r r e t r i e v a l . Jarman (1980) provides evidence i n d i c a t i n g that the nature of a word a s s o c i a t i o n may interact with the s e l e c t i o n of e i t h e r simultaneous or successive syntheses. The s e l e c t i o n of a paired associate f o r r e c a l l i s considered to i n t e r a c t with the s e l e c t i o n of processing strategy. 83 Chapter Three Methodology One form of a s s o c i a t i o n defined by Moran (1966) i s " i c o n i c " or a syntagrnatic word pair that ascribes a q u a l i t y to a referent (e.g., red-blood, b i g - c i t y , old-gentleman, e t c . ) . It i s assumed that i f the q u a l i t y i s ascribed to the referent i s a dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , then the a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be coded i n the form of a " u n i t i z e d " image by simultaneous or p a r a l l e l processing (Paivio, 1974; 1975; Reese, 1977). The number of c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d " i c o n i c " paired-associates w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define simul-taneous processing of syntagrnatic verbal knowledge. The Sequential scale i s composed of three subtests: Hand Movements, Numbers Recall and Word Order. Hand Movements requires the c h i l d to repeat a s e r i e s of f i s t , palm, and side-hand movements demonstrated by the examiner which i n -crease i n length and complexity of pattern. "Hand Movements, a visual-motor task, assesses the unique s k i l l of motoric reproduction of a sequence (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p 40)." Number Recall requires s e r i a l r e p e t i t i o n of an increas-ing longer s t r i n g of d i g i t s . Number Recall i s considered the "best measure of Sequential Processing across a l l age ranges assessed by the K—ABC" (Kaufman, et a l . , 1982). Word Order requires the reproduction of an i n c r e a s i n g l y longer word s e r i e s . In order to prevent the use of "rehearsal", or repeating the word s e r i e s to aid retention, a c o l o r naming 84 Ch«pt»»s»-rTf>rNni Methodology task was inserted between the presentation of stimulus words and r e c a l l . The use of a nonverbal, that i s touching the pictures i n the correct order according to an auditory sequ-ence, suggests that a separation between sequential processing and verbal knowledge i s maximized, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n l i g h t of the fact that a l l vocabulary i s taught. The Hand Movements raw score w i l l be used to operation-a l i z e sequential processing of verbally—mediated motor a c t i v i t y . For example, Kaufman and Kaufman (19S3) point out, "While concentrating, i t i s b e n e f i c i a l to develop some type of mediating strategy (e.g., v e r b a l l y l a b e l l i n g each of the three hand positions or f i n d i n g a method fo r organizing the s t i m u l i into a pattern) to aid performance (p 40). The Number Recall raw score w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define sequential processing of auditory knowledge in the form of perceptual or ' f i r s t ' s i g n a l system information. The Word Order raw score w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define sequ-e n t i a l processing of nonverbally-mediated knowledge. The lack of verbal mediation i s ensured by the use of an i n t e r -ference task between presentation and r e c a l l . In addition to the K-ABC sequential subtests, the number-attempted score on the Identical P ictures Test w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e sequential processing. Since the Id e n t i c a l P i c t u r e Test has been associated with verbal top-Chapter Three Methodology down at t e n t i o n a l control through the successive scanning of a n a l y t i c features, the use of sequential processing i s implicated i n the scanning process of the task. One f i n a l task used to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e sequential process-ing i s the TCU Relational Function Reality Match score. This score i s based upon the number of times, out of ten t r i a l s , a subject c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e s a p a i r of objects as being r e l a t e d to each other i n some "ac t i v e " fashion when those objects were selected to r e f l e c t such an " a c t i v e " r e l a -t i o n s h i p (e.g.,apple-tree). The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s " a c t i v e " r e l a t i o n s h i p requires the use of predicative s t r u c -tures (e.g., an apple grows on a t r e e ) . The TCU Relational Function R e a l i t y Match score w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define sequential processing of paradigmatic verbal knowledge. Concrete/active planning has been defined i n terms of "the generation, s e l e c t i o n , and monitoring of goal—directed a t t e n t i o n a l and coding processes activated by f a m i l i a r v i s u a l -motor feedback". Two subtests from the K-ABC present task demands consistent with t h i s d e f i n i t i o n s Photo Series and Triangles. The Photo Series subtest requires the c h i l d to organize a randomly placed array of photographs i l l u s t r a t i n g a f a m i l i a r event and then order them in t h e i r proper time sequence. "Photo Series requires reasoning and planning a b i l i t y , the l a t t e r s k i l l akin to the Luria-based thinking a s Chapter Three Methodology process that Das and h i s colleagues have investigated i n conjunction with successive and simultaneous processing" (Ashman & Das, 1980; Das & Jarman, 1981; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983, p 50). The Photo Series raw score w i l l be used to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define concrete/active planning of both atten-t i o n a l and coding processes, since access to the previously ordered p i c t u r e s i s r e s t r i c t e d by having the c h i l d hold the pi c t u r e s i n a p i l e as the task i s completed. Triangles, which requires f l e x i b i l i t y of problem—solving s t r a t e g i e s , i s considered to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define concrete/active planning of a t t e n t i o n a l processes, since the model i s always present and does not require memorization or coding. The TCU Color Reality Match score o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s one aspect of bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l functions; but, i t also serves as an operational d e f i n i t i o n of concrete/active planning of a t t e n t i o n a l feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The aspect of con-c r e t e / a c t i v e planning associated with the Color R e a l i t y Match score i s the monitoring of bottom—up a t t e n t i o n a l feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n order to solve a concept learning task. The c h i l d , when presented with pictures of two objects which vary on several dimensions must not only i d e n t i f y and match key features, but also must monitor t h i s automatic or l o c a l processing i n order to s e l e c t which of the several features i d e n t i f i e d provide a concept match between the two objects. 87 Chapter Three Methodology Color i s assumed to represent the most dominiant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on the TCU, and therefore, c o l o r i s most l i k e l y to be processed automatically with the v i s u a l / verbal mediation serving as a label for the response portion of bottom-up attention. In t h i s manner, the TCU Color score i s representative of concrete/active planning of mediators f o r the products of bottom—up attention. Verbal/Logical planning has been defined i n terms of "the generation, s e l e c t i o n , and monitoring of goal-directed a t t e n t i o n a l and coding processes activated by f a m i l i a r verbal feedback" (Luria, 1966a; 1966b). The operational d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s control process emphasizes the use of verbal mediators to code the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between paired associates on a r e c a l l task. Moran (1973) suggested four such mediators between paired associates. F i r s t , are Iconic mediators f o r syntagrnatic (adjective-noun) word pairs that ascribe q u a l i t i e s to the referents (e.g., redblood). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the q u a l i t y and the referent i s mediated by a label which " u n i t i z e s " these two words and thereby f a c i l i t a t e s r e t r i e v a l (Reese, 1977). Generation of t h i s mediator i s considered to be a product of simultaneous processing and not verbal/ l o g i c a l planning. Second, are Enactive mediators f o r syntagrnatic (noun-verb) p a i r s that describe actions upon the referent (butter-88 Chapter Three Methodology melt). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the action and the referent i s mediated by a "predicative", v e r b a l / l o g i c a l label which serves to increase "depth of processing" and thereby f a c i l i -t a t e s r e t r i e v a l (Craik and Lockhart, 197£). Generation of t h i s mediator i s considered to be a product of v e r b a l / l o g i c a l monitoring of the successive processing of verbal and/or imagery coded material. Third, are Functional mediators f o r paradigmatic (noun-noun) p a i r s that describe a co-function f o r the p a i r (e.g., t a b l e - c h a i r ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two nouns i s mediated by a functional c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i n the form of a v e r b a l / l o g i c a l label which serves to increase the "depth of processing" and thereby f a c i l i t a t e s r e t r i e v a l (Craik & Lockhart, 197£). Generation of t h i s type of mediator i s considered to be a product of v e r b a l / l o g i c a l monitoring of conceptual learning. Fourth, are Logical mediators f o r paradigmatic (noun-noun) pai r s that l i n k the two nouns i n a c a t e g o r i c a l sense (e.g., ocean-sea). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two nouns may be characterized by: a) semantic equivalence (car-auto-rnobile); b) super-ordi nates (cat-animal); or, c) contrasts ( c i r c l e - square).. The use of any of these c a t e g o r i c a l char-a c t e r i s t i c s does not require a verbal label or mediator but does require conceptual knowledge of the category. The search 89 Chapter Three Methodology for conceptual categories i s considered to increase the "depth of processing" and thereby f a c i l i t a t e s r e t r i e v a l (Craik & Lockhart, 197£>. Generation of t h i s type of mediator i s considered to be a product of v e r b a l / l o g i c a l monitoring of conceptual learning. Based on these four types of mediators ( i . e . , iconic, enactive, functional and l o g i c a l ) a paired associate task was designed which presented each type of mediated pair s i x -teen times. Eight of these presentations u t i l i z e d concrete nouns and the other eight used abstract nouns. This procedure yielded 64 paired associates i n a £ (abstract-concrete) by 4 (iconic, enactive, functional and l o g i c a l ) nested design. A latin-square procedure was used to control for order e f f e c t s of presentation (see Appendix I f o r a sample task). The number of c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d associates i s considered to r e f l e c t the e f f i c i e n c y with which a c h i l d can use the various forms of mediators as aides during r e c a l l . Enactive, Func-t i o n a l , and Logical r e c a l l scores are considered to be oper-a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of the verbal/ l o g i c a l planning processes. Table One presents ££ measures which have been selected to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define the various processing dimensions associated with the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Rationales fo r s e l e c t i o n of the tasks have been s p e c i f i e d and where necessary a task has been assigned to two processing factors. 90 TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF THEORETICAL COGNITIVE PROCESS ANALYSIS OF THE TWENTY-TWO MEASURES PROCESSING FACTORS KNOWLEDGE BASES B T T S S C V H A V A S S V N c V 0 0 0 I u 0 E 0 N I U I u E 0 0 E T P P M c N R L A S D M c R N N R T U c C B I L u I U c B c B 0 D D L E R A S Y A T L E A V R A M 0 0 T S E L T T L 0 T S L E E L U W A S T / I I R A S R T U H N N I E L C C S Y N I M B E F P E V / 0 T E V E A E V V 0 E A G F F I S 0 E D L F E A I E U C I E E M T U I E D T S R S C T C A A U I S S A M E B T U B 0 I A T T L M T T E D A E A A C D V L U U I U S I 0 D B C N L L 0 I E R R L T M R I A K T D N E E I I u S A C I I 6 S S M L T K 0 N U I 0 TASKS SOURCE N 6 L I R ,S HIDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED EKSTROM ET AL , .1976 - * - * - - - - •* — * - - •* * -HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS EKSTROM ET AL , 1976 - * - - - - - - * * - •* - - •* * -IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED EKSTROM ET AL., 1976 - - - -* - - - * •* - * - • - * -IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS EKSTROM ET AL., 1976 K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS KAUFMAN i KAUFMAN, 1982A - - - - - - - • - - * * * * -K-ABC SESTALT CLOSURE KAUFMAN J KAUFMAN, 1983A - - - -* — - - * - * - * - * - * -K-ABC NUMBER RECALL KAUFMAN I KAUFMAN, 1983A - - - - * - - - * - * - * - * K-ABC TRIANGLES KAUFMAN & KAUFMAN, 19B3A - - - * - * - - •* * - * - - « * -K-ABC WORD ORDER KAUFMAN I KAUFMAN, 1983A - - - - •* - - - * - • - * * - * -K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES KAUFMAN t KAUFMAN, 1983A - - - - - - - * • - - * - • - * K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY KAUFMAN i KAUFMAN, 1982A t - - * - - - • - * - * - - * -K-ABC PHOTO SERIES KAUFMAN & KAUFMAN, 19B3A - - - - - * - - * * - * - - « * -ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES APPENDIX I - - - * - - - - * - * - * - * -ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES APPENDIX I - - - - - - •* - * - * - « * - - * FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES APPENDIX I * - - * - * - - * LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES APPENDIX I - - - - - * - * - * - * * - - t TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS CRAGER & SPRIGGS, 1977 TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH CRAGER t SPRIG6S, 1977 * - - - - * - * - « - * - - * * -TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH CRAGER t SPRI66S, 1977 * - - - - - - * - •* - * - - * * -TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH CRAGER i SPRIGGS, 1977 - - * - - - - * - * - « - * - - * TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH CRAGER I SPRIGGS, 1977 - - * - - - - * - < - * - * - - * TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH CRAGER t SPRIGGS, 1977 - - - - * - - - • * - * - * - - * * indicates presence of characteristic 91 r Chapter Three Methodology SUBJECTS: Age, degree of e t h n i c i t y , and sex were s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r the Native sample. A mean age of approximately ten years (mean = 126 months; s. d. — 8.9) was selected to r e f l e c t the period in a c h i l d ' s growth when the learning environment to which the c h i l d i s exposed undergoes numerous and funda-mental changes. For example, the "cross-over" phenomenon associated with increasing declines in achievement begins to be demonstratable at about t h i s age. Increasing demands upon verbal s k i l l s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the begini-ng—inter-mediate grades. As well, reading comprehension begins to be a measure of a s k i l l ; i n addition, i t begins to be a measure of the l i m i t of the acquistion of information from the formal academic learning environment. The degree of e t h n i c i t y , or membership i n a p a r t i c u l a r Native group, r e f l e c t s the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l learning environment within the band according to Vygotsky's General Law of C u l -t u r a l Development. The issue of e t h n i c i t y or membership in a p a r t i c u l a r Native group was decided by the p a r t i c u l a r Native group and not by the author. Such an approach ensures the e c o l o g i c a l v a l i d i t y of the Native sample. The thirty-two Native c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d by the Nicola Valley Indian Author-i t y for i n c l u s i o n in t h i s study can be characterized as p r i m a r i l y English-speaking, r u r a l - r e s e r v e c h i l d r e n . 92 Chapter Three Methodology The majority of the measures selected to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the processing f a c t o r s have not demonstrated sex-consistent performance d i f f e r e n c e s i n the standardization samples (e.g., Crager & Spriggs, 1977; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983). However, di f f e r e n c e s between male and female Native c h i l d r e n ' s per-formance on the Wechsler scales have been reported i n a number of studies reviewed by McShane & Plas (1984), suggesting that sex d i f f e r e n c e s are more frequently evidenced among Native than non-Native ch i l d r e n . For t h i s reason, the Native sample was balanced f o r sex by i n c l u s i o n of sixteen male and sixteen female c h i l d r e n . The non—Native sample was drawn from the same classrooms as the Native sample but no attempt was made to control f o r age, degree of e t h n i c i t y , or sex within the non—Native sample. It i s assumed that t h i s l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the non—Native sample findings. As i t turned out, the e n t i r e non-Native population of these classrooms (mean age = 119 months; s.d. =7.0 months) was included i n the study. The younger mean age of the non—Native sample r e f l e c t s the more frequent ret e n t i o n of Native c h i l d r e n i n the primary grades r e l a t i v e to t h e i r non—Native counterparts. The non-Native sample included a number of East Indian, Chinese, and various other ethnic groups, as well as many "white" ethnic groups. There were more female students 93 Chapter Three Methodology (twenty-one) than male students (eleven) in these classrooms. A l l c h i l d r e n included i n the study had attended at least four years of p r o v i n c i a l schooling. Many of the Native ch i l d r e n , however, attended bandoperated preschools and kindergarten, and some Native c h i l d r e n had attended s p e c i a l primary adjustment classes. No c h i l d included i n the study was considered a f u l l - t i m e s p e c i a l education pupil according to the d i s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n . DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES: Data c o l l e c t i o n was c a r r i e d out over a s ix week period. Testing was c a r r i e d out i n two sessions each of 1 hour and £0 minutes i n duration. The f i r s t session was an i n d i v i d u a l standardized administration of the K-ABC by the author or a fellow graduate student trained i n the procedures. The paired—associate task (see Appendix I) was administered immediately following administration of the K—ABC. The second session was a group administration of the TCU, the HPT and the IPT t e s t s to a l l of the students tested i n the f i r s t session. An average delay of four weeks occurred between the f i r s t and second sessions. The administration of the TCU requires the examiner to i n d i v i d u a l l y present each item and to record the subjects o r a l statement verbatim. This procedure was changed to 94 Chapter Three Methodology f a c i l i t a t e group administration of the TCU by having the c h i l d r e n write t h e i r answers while two q u a l i f i e d teachers were a v a i l a b l e f o r assistance with grammar. There was no TCU response which was e n t i r e l y unscorable due to e i t h e r handwriting or s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . This implies that the children, as a group, possessed the s k i l l s necessary fo r the written format. Raw scores f o r each of the standardized measures were cal c u l a t e d for each student according to the procedures outl i n e d i n t h e i r respective scoring guides ( i . e . , Crager & Spriggs, 1977; Ekstrom et al.., 1976; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983b). Raw scores f o r the paired-associate task were c a l -culated on the basis of the number of concrete paired- asso-c i a t e s c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d from a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of asso-c i a t e s (e.g., Iconic, Enactive, Functional, L o g i c a l ) . An i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y check of the scoring of the TCU R e a l i t y Match and U n i l a t e r a l Concept raw scores y i e l d s a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of o v e r a l l agreement (r = 0.84) between the two judges. 95 CHAPTER FOUR« R E 8 U L T 8 DATA REDUCTION PROCEDURES Each of the twenty-two raw scores c a l c u l a t e d has been derived from a s i n g l e integrated theory of reading, language, and cognition, thus implying that these measures r e f l e c t a common t h e o r e t i c a l metric. To f a c i l i t a t e comparisons along t h i s metric, each raw score was converted to a " 2 " score using the BMD:P1S program (Dixon et a l . , 1983). In order t o f a c i l i t a t e comparison of Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n ' s performance on these measures, separate "z" score means f o r each measure were cal c u l a t e d f o r both the Native and non-Native groups. These r e s u l t s are gr a p h i c a l l y presented i n Figure 1. A b r i e f examination of Figure 1 suggests there are s u f f i -cient d i f f e r e n c e s between the performance of Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n on these various tasks to warrant further data reduction and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Performance d i f f e r e n c e s were evidenced between populations on a number o f — b u t not a l l o f — t h e measures. For example, tasks t h e o r e t i c a l l y assoc-iated with the a t t e n t i o n a l control processes appear close together i n Figure 1 implying l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two populations. In contrast, there i s a large gap between Native and non Native c h i l d r e n ' s performance on coding and planning marker tasks. 96 FIGURE 1: Z-SCORE COMPARISON OF NATIVE AND NON NATIVE PERFORMANCE ON THE TWENTY-TWO MEASURES HIDDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS K-ABC SESTALT CLOSURE K-ABC NUMBER RECALL K-flBC TRIANGLES K-ABC WORD ORDER K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY K-ABC PHOTO SERIES ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 0 8 6 4 2 0 8 6 4 2 0 8 6 4 2 0 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 indicates Native Z-Scores indicates Non Native Z-Scores Z-Score (x -0.01) 97 Z-Score (x 0.01) Chapter Four Results Sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s are assumed to have a pronounced e f f e c t on the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the various tasks among Native c h i l d r e n since the s e l e c t i o n of processing i s r e l a t e d to the form of mediation provided i n the socio-ethnic learning environment, thereby d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i n g the strength of the t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s , based on the s e l e c t i o n of processing s t r a t e g i e s . In the case of Native children, age and sex e f f e c t s are more frequently reported on academic i n t e l l i g e n c e tasks such as the Wechsler subtests, implying d i f f e r e n c e s in processing between genders may r e f l e c t d i f f e r -ences i n the s t y l e of mediation provided f o r Native boys and g i r l s . Differences between genders i n non Native samples are infrequent, implying a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous learning environment f o r non Native boys and g i r l s . Age differences, which s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t the i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s of the various subtests, r e f l e c t the adoption of d i f f e r e n c e s i n processing strategy. Non Native c h i l d r e n have not evidenced s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance on most information processing tasks u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study. Furthermore, age d i f f e r e n c e s i n processing do not s i g n i f i -c a n tly e f f e c t the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the subtests of the K-ABC (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983a) or the TCU (Crager & Spriggs, 1977). Based on the "cross-over" phenomenon and the increased exposure to the mediational s t y l e provided i n the formal 98 Chapter Four Results academic learning environment, Native c h i l d r e n should evidence q u a l i t a t i v e and qua n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s in processing with increasing age. In order to investigate the e f f e c t s of age and gender on the q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of the various measures, the BMD: P£R program was used to ca l c u l a t e , separately f o r the two groups, the e f f e c t s of age and sex, and the combined e f f e c t s of these parameters on i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the twenty-two measures. Table Two summarizes these r e s u l t s . fin examination of Table Two suggests that f o r Native children, age and gender d i f f e r e n c e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of eight of the measures. Sex d i f f e i — ences r e f l e c t q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance between Native g i r l s and boys on the HPA, the IPA, the K-ABC Hand Movements, the Word Order, Photo Series, and Functional and Logical paired associate scores. S i m i l a r i l y , age di f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s in performance on the IPA, the K-ABC Matrix Analogies, the Functional paired-associates and the TCU Relational Reality Match scores with increasing age. Non Native q u a l i t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i -ated with gender increasing age were demonstrated on the K-ABC Hand Movements task. Non-Native q u a l i t a t i v e performance differences, associated with gender differences, were present the Functional paired associate task. 99 TABLE £: SIGNIFICANCE LEVELS FOR AGE, SEX, AND AGE/SEX EFFECTS ON THE INTERCORRELATIONS OF THE TWENTY—TWO MEASURES AGE EFFECT NATIVE HIDDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED — HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS — IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED 0.01 IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS — K-flBC HAND MOVEMENTS -K-ABC SESTALT CLOSURE -K-ABC NUMBER RECALL — K-ABC TRIANGLES — K-ABC WORD ORDER — K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES 0.05 K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY — K-ABC PHOTO SERIES — ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES — ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES -FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.05 LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES — TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS -TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH — TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH — TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH — TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH -TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.01 — indicates value is non-significant SEX EFFECT NATIVE 0.05 0.05 0.001 0.005 0.01 0.05 0.05 AGE/SEX EFFECT NATIVE 0.05 0.05 0.001 0.005 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.01 AGE EFFECT NON NATIVE SEX EFFECT NON NATIVE AGE/SEX EFFECT NON NATIVE 0.05 0.05 100 Chapter Four Results The presence of q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s in performance between ages and genders among the Native c h i l d r e n i s highly i n t r i g u i n g ; p a r t i c u l a r i l y . in l i g h t of the r e l a t i v e l y few q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s evidenced by the non Native group. R e s t r i c t i o n s in sample s i z e prevent a more d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i -gation of these q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s . Investigation of the causes and the nature of these q u a l i t a t i v e differences, while e s s e n t i a l , i s beyond the scope of the present research. Based on the r e s u l t s summarized i n Table Two, further analyses of the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of these tasks would be ef f e c t e d by age and sex d i f f e r e n c e s without a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the nature of these diff e r e n c e s . For t h i s reason p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n matrices with age, sex, and age/sex e f f e c t s were u t i l i z e d i n subsequent f a c t o r analyses. Investigating the processing d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non Native c h i l d r e n required constructing a target matrix representative of the t h e o r e t i c a l structure outlined in Table Three with each measure being assigned e i t h e r a 0.0, a 0.5, or a 1.0 loading f o r each of the seven t h e o r e t i c a l factors. The t h e o r e t i c a l f a c t o r structure i s summarized i n Table Three. 101 TABLE 3: TARGET MATRIX LOADINGS FOR ALL TWENTY—TWO TASKS VISUAL VERBAL SIMUL-BOTTOM-UP TOP-DOWN TOP-DOWN TANEOLS ATTENTION ATTENTION ATTENTION C0DIN6 CONCRETE VERBAL SUCCESSIVE ACTIVE LOGICAL CODING PLANNING PLANNING HIDDDEN PATTERNS ATitMPTED HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS K-ABC GESTALT CLOSURE K-ABC NUMBER RECALL K-ABC TRIANGLES K-ABC WORD ORDER K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY K-ABC PHOTO SERIES ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH — indicates an assigned value of 0.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 .1.0 1.0 10S Chapter Four Results fl comparison of the t h e o r e t i c a l f a c t o r structure with e m p i r i c a l l y derived f a c t o r structures provides a framework for i n t e r p r e t i n g the degree of error introduced by the theo-r e t i c a l structure. The nature of the e m p i r i c a l l y derived f a c t o r matrices can be conceptually divided into two classes. The f i r s t c l a s s of empirical f a c t o r structures represents the e x t r a c t i o n of the maximum variance from the data set by i d e n t i f i y i n g seven orthogonal components, in other words seven-factor p r i n c i p a l component analyses. The second c l a s s of empirical f a c t o r structures represents the ex t r a c t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l f a c t o r structure from a data set by i d e n t i f y -ing, not only a seven f a c t o r s o l u t i o n , but also, by sp e c i f y i n g f a c t o r loadings i n the form of a target matrix, u t i l i z i n g an orthogonal procrustes f a c t o r transformation (Schonemann, 1966). P r i n c i p a l component analyses with varirnax r o t a t i o n s were performed separately f o r the Native, and non Native groups using the filbert a General Factor Analyses Prograrn-AGFfiP <Hakstian & Bay, 1973). Table II.1 summarizes the PCfi seven fa c t o r s o l u t i o n f o r non Native children. S i m i l i a r i l y , Table II.S presents the PCfi seven f a c t o r s o l u t i o n f o r the Native data using the same procedures. Orthogonal procrustes f a c t o r analyses were c a r r i e d out on both the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n matrices used i n the PCfi analysis, with the aid of AGFftP. 103 Chapter Four Results Tables II.3 and II.4 summarize the procrustes s o l u t i o n s f o r non-Natives and Natives r e s p e c t i v e l y . A v i s u a l inspection of Tables II. 1 and II.£ suggests, for ho+-h Native and non Native data a PCA seven f a c t o r s o l u t i o n y i e l d s seven well defined and i n t e r n a l l y consistent factors. An inspection of the variances of fa c t o r s for both groups further supports the adequacy of a seven f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . The i n t e r p r e t a b i 1 i t y of the PCA fa c t o r s i s based on a comparison of the PCA fa c t o r loading matrices and the procrustes generated empirical matrices, which are summarized i n Tables II.3 and II.4. An e r r o r matrix was generated for both Native and non Native data by subtracting the PCA fact o r structure from the corresponding procrustes f a c t o r structure. The mean err o r rate generated by t h i s subtraction represents the strength of the as s o c i a t i o n between the seven p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s and the seven t h e o r e t i c a l factors. The higher the err o r c o e f f i c i e n t the weaker the as s o c i a t i o n between the two f a c t o r structures. Visual inspection was used to assign corresponding f a c t o r s by matching the fa c t o r s i n terms of the highest loading tasks. For example, the PCA fa c t o r with the highest loading for the Hidden Patterns scores was said to correspond to the procrustes f a c t o r with the highest load-ing f o r Hidden Patterns scores. The AGFAP program c a l c u l a t e s a second type of error 104 Chapter Four Results matrix i n producing an orthogonal procrustes s o l u t i o n . This type of error i s generated by subtracting the unrotated f a c t o r loading matrix frorr the t h e o r e t i c a l l y transformed f a c t o r loading matrix. The mean error rate generated by t h i s type of error matix represents the strength of as s o c i a t i o n between the unrotated empirical f a c t o r structure and the procrustes orthogonally rotated f a c t o r structure. In t h i s case, the assignment of corresponding f a c t o r s i s based on a transform-a t i o n matrix. The higher the mean error rate the weaker the a s s o c i a t i o n between the two fact o r structures. Table Four summarizes these two types of e r r o r s f o r the non—Native c h i l d r e n ' s data, while Table Five summarizes these e r r o r s f o r the Native c h i l d r e n ' s data. A b r i e f overview of Table Four indicates a r e l a t i v e l y low error rate when comparing the t h e o r e t i c a l loadings of the marker t e s t s . For example, the o v e r a l l procrustes mean err o r was 0.19, with a standard deviation of 0.14, while the PCA—generated mean error rate was 0.15 with an associated standard deviation of 0.11. A l l twenty-two of the marker tasks demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings <r = 0.35 or above) on t h e i r assigned factors. Furthermore, i n no case were s i g n i f i c a n t e rrors <i.e. ) + OR - 0.35) demonstrated on a rnarkei—task factor. 105 TABLE A: SUMMARY OF ERRORS GENERATED SOLUTIONS FOR THE NON BY THE NATIVE PROCRUSTES AND PCA DATA VISUAL VERBAL SIMUL- CONCRETE VERBAL BOTTOM-UP TOP-DOWN TOP-DOWN TANEOUS SUCCESSIVE ACTIVE LOGICAL ATTENTION ATTENTION ATTENTION CODING CODING PLANNING PLANNING PROC/PCA PROC/PCA PROC/PCA PROC/PCA PROC/PCA PROC/PCA PROC/PCA HIDDDEN PATItRNS ATTEMPTED * * * * * « * * * * * * * • HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS * * * * • * * * • IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED * * * * .35 .43 * * * * • * * IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS * .44 * * .39 * * * * * * K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS * * * * * * * * * .37 . K-ABC BESTALT CLOSURE * * * • * * * * • K-ABC NUMBER RECALL * .43 * * * * * * * * K-ABC TRIANGLES * • * • •* * * * * K-ABC WORD ORDER * .37 * * .43 * * * K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES * * * * * .75 * .57 * • -K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY • .45 .43 * • * * * * K-ABC PHOTO SERIES * * * * .44 * * • .35 * ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES * • * * * • * ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES * * * • FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES • * * < * • • LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES * * * * * * * * * TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS .29 * .48 * * •* * * * * * * TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH .41 • * * * * * * .66 TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH .61 .37 * * .61 * * * * * .42 * * TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH .39 .37 * * .50 * * * * * .48 # TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH * • « * .52 * * * * * * TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH * * * * • * * * * * Error values less than 0.35 are replaced by * 106 Chapter Four Resul' A b r i e f review of Table Five indicates a r e l a t i v e l y low error rate when comparing the market—task t h e o r e t i c a l loadings. For example, the o v e r a l l procrustes mean e*~ror rate was 0.24 with a standard deviation of 0.18, while the PCA-generated mean error rate was 0. 19 with a standard devi at ion of 0.11. A l l twenty-two of the marker tasks demon-strated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings (r — 0.35 or above) on t h e i r assigned factors. Where error rates above + or - 0.35 are reported on t h e o r e t i c a l l y assigned target f a c t o r s the er r o r i s associated with complex v a r i a b l e s or va r i a b l e s with more than one s i g n i f i c a n t loading. 107 TABLE 5: SUMMARY OF ERRORS GENERATED BY THE PROCRUSTES AND PCA SOLUTIONS FOR THE NATIVE DATA BOTTOM-UP ATTENTION PROC/PCA HIDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED * HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS -* IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED * IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS * K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS * K-ABC 6ESTALT CLOSURE .49 K-ABC NUMBER RECALL * K-ABC TRIANGLES « K-ABC WORD ORDER .38 K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES .43 K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY * K-ABC PHOTO SERIES « ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES * ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES .51 FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES * LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES * TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS * TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH .Al TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH « TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH * TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH * TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH * Error values less than 0.35 are replaced by 37 35 43 VISUAL VERBAL SIMUL-TOP-DOUN TOP-DOWN TANEOUS ATTENTION ATTENTION CODING PROC/PCA PROC/PCA PROC/PCA .60 « * « .59 .51 49 . 58 . 48 * * .43 .53 .53 .41 * * « * .71 * * * .59 * .68 .38 * .75 •* * * * * * 47 .58 .44 » .64 .38 * * * .40 .36 .66 • 46 * 3£ * .57 • • * .63 * * * * t * CONCRETE SUCCESSIVE ACTIVE CODING PLANNING PROC/PCA PROC/PCA .73 * .42 .48 .40 48 .43 .71 .46 .60 .56 * * .62 .49 .48 .35 « * .75 .42 .42 .37 .48 .44 .40 * .69 t * .69 .59 .50 VERBAL LOGICAL PLANNING PROC/PCA .41 .37 .62 66 .61 .49 48 108 Chapter Four Results For example, the IPT error score was assigned a loading of 1.0 on the Top-down Verbal Attentional control factor; however, the empirical data suggests that s i g n i f i g a n t loadings occur on both the Top-down verbal factor and on the Simul-taneous factor. A s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n could be offered f o r the K-ABC Gestalt Closure, the Numbers Reversed, and the Iconic paired-associate fa c t o r loadings. While the t h e o r e t i c a l assignment of each subtest appears to represent the empirical Native data, there i s evidence suggesting that the simultaneous-successive f a c t o r s are s i g n i -f i c a n t l y associated with almost h a l f of the tasks performed. This finding implies that the coding of information in terms of these processes i s activated by a wider range of task demands than was o r i g i n a l l y s p e c i f i e d in the target matrix. The fact that no such pattern emerged i n the non-Native data suggests that Native c h i l d r e n may use coding processes on a wider range of tasks than t h e i r non—Native counterparts. In other words, while Native c h i l d r e n demonstrate s i m i l a r processing f a c t o r s to the non-Native sample, the coding f a c -t o r s are associated with performance on a wider v a r i e t y of t asks. In summary, there i s t e n t a t i v e empirical support f o r the existence of the seven processing fac t o r s across both of the populations. Also, there i s evidence that the two 109 Chapter Four Results populations d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r performance l e v e l s on some of these tasks. The evidence from the error Tables suggests that the marker tasks behaved r e l a t i v e l y as expected for the non Native sample and not quite as expected for the Natives. The major unexpected f i n d i n g was the increase in complex v a r i a b l e loadings for the Native c h i l d r e n most of which involved a dual loading with e i t h e r simultaneous or successive coding and t h e i r assigned target factor. There i s a s u f f i c i e n t l y close a s s o c i a t i o n between the t h e o r e t i c a l and the e m p i r i c a l l y derived fa c t o r structures to f a c i l i t a t e f urther analyses between the Native and non Native theore-t i c a l l y transformed fa c t o r matrices. Orthogonal procrustes transformations were performed separately through flGFftP (Hakstian & Bay, 1973) on the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of the twenty-two marker tasks with age, sex, and age/sex e f f e c t s p a r t i a l l e d out f o r the Native and non—Native samples. The target matrix was composed of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.0 loadings f o r each of the twenty-two var i a b l e s on each of the seven f a c t o r s thereby generating a 22 by 7 matrix. Table Six reports the transformed fa c t o r loading matrix f o r both the Native and non-Native samples. The report-ing of the two fa c t o r matrices side-by-side e f f e c t i v e l y en-hances v i s u a l comparisons. 110 TABLE 6: FACTOR LOADINGS FOR PROCRUSTES TRANSFORMATION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATION TO A SEVEN FACTOR TARGET MATRIX FOR NON NATIVE AND NATIVE DATA HIDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS K-ABC SESTALT CLOSURE K-ABC NUMBER RECALL K-ABC TRIANGLES K-ABC WORD ORDER K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY K-ABC PHOTO SERIES ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH VISUAL VERBAL BOTTOM-UP TOP-DOWN TOP-DOWN ATTENTION ATTENTION ATTENTION N.N. N N.N. N N. N. N 0.0 0.0 0.77 0.B3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.80 0.93 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.43 0.47 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.42 0.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 -0.49 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.38 0.0 0.38 -0.37 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.43 0.0 -0.47 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.51 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.40 -0.39 0.0 -0.48 0.0 0.0 -0.36 0.51 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.69 0.71 -0.37 0.0 0.0 0.0 TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH-0.39 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50 0.36 TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.81 0.73 TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 VARIANCE OF FACTORS 1.64 1.91 2.31 2.28 2.10 2.03 Values less than 0.35 are replaced by 0.0 SIMUL-TANEOUS CODING N.N. N 0.40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.43 0.59 0.0 0.58 0.0 0.0 0.78 0.57 0.0 0.53 0.71 0.46 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.57 0.44 0.59 0.70 0.0 0.0 0.0-0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.46 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.64 2.10 SUCCESSIVE CODING N.N. N 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.26 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.71 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.73 0.58 0.0 0.48 0.57 0.60 0.57 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.43 0.38 -0.71 0.0 0.60 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.62 0.0 0.48 0.80 0.71 3.04 3.86 CONCRETE ACTIVE PLANNING N.N. N 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.42 0.64 0.52 0.0 0.40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.69 0.39 0.0 0.0 0.48 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.02 1.73 VERBAL LOGICAL PLANNING N.N. N 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.41 0.37 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.43 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.66 0.87 fl.69 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.52 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.35 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.59 2.50 111 Chapter Four Results In order to f a c i l i t a t e the discussion of the transformed fa c t o r loading matrix, the unit of analysis w i l l be the factor of come r-'i son and the comparisons w i l l be made between the two populations i n terms of the s i m i l a r i t y / d i s s i m i l a r i t y of each of the seven factors. Differences in performance l e v e l s f or each subtest w i l l then be discussed i n terms of an i n t e r a c t i v e pattern of strengths and weaknesses evidenced on each of the seven f a c t o r s by each population. The Bottom-up Attentional control f a c t o r was defined as, "scanning and focussing of attention on environmental s t i m u l i activated by dominant ( i . e . , b i o l o g i c a l e s s e n t i a l or c u l t u r a l l y relevant) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t i m u l i " . Three out of the twenty-two tasks were considered to require predominantly t h i s form of processing ( i . e . , TCU Shape Reality Match score with a t h e o r e t i c a l loading of 1.0, and the Color Reality Match score and K-ABC Sp a t i a l Memory both with 0. 5 loadings on t h i s f a c t o r ) . The Bottom-up Attentional control f a c t o r f o r both Native and non—Native samples accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n performance evidenced across tasks (eigen values were 1.9 and 1.6, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . An examination of the non-Native Bottom-up Attentional control f a c t o r load-ings suggests s i g n i f i c a n t correspondence on a l l three marker tasks ( i . e . , TCU Shape = 0.69, TCU Color = 0.51 and K-ABC Chapter Four Results S p a t i a l Memory = 0.55). Native Bottom-up Attentional control fa c t o r loadings display correspondence on the highest theo-r e t i c a l l y loaded marker task (TCU Shape = 0.71) but not on e i t h e r the TCU Color or K-ABC Sp a t i a l Memory tasks (loadings < .35). A number of tasks, which were not designated as loading on the Bottom-up Attentional control f a c t o r in the target matrix, demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the empirical bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l factor. Non-Native performance on the TCU Homogeneous Function items and the U n i l a t e r a l score demonstrated low negative loadings (- 0.39) on the Bottom-up Attentional factor. Native performance on K-ABC Gestalt Closure (- 0.49), Word Order (0.38), Matrix Analogies (0.43) and the Enactive paired associate items (0.51) demonstrated secondary loadings on the bottom-up factor. A secondary load-ing indicates that a subtest loads s i g n i f i c a n t l y on one or more other factors. Top-down Visual Attentional control has been defined as "scanning and focussing of attention on environmental s t i m u l i under the control of concrete/active planning a c t i -vated by f a m i l i a r visual-motor feedback". Only the Hidden Patterns number attempted and error scores were considered to predominantly require t h i s form of processing ( i . e . , theo-r e t i c a l loadings of 0.5 and 1.0, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 113 Chapter Four Results The Top-down Visual Attentional control f a c t o r for both the Native and non-Native samples accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of the v a r i a b i l i t y in performance across tasks (eigen values of £.3). An examination of the non-Native top-down v i s u a l control f a c t o r suggests correspondence on both marker scores ( number attempted score loading = 0.77 and error score loading = 0.80). The top-down v i s u a l marker score loadings were equally high ( i . e . , number attempted score loading = 0.83 and error score loading = 0.93). A number of tasks, which were not t h e o r e t i c a l l y assigned to the top-down v i s u a l control f a c t o r target matrix, demon-strated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the empirical top—down v i s u a l control factors. Identical P ictures test e r r or score (0.44), TCU U n i l a t e r a l (- 0.48) and Shape (- 0.37) scores demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the non-Native top—down v i s u a l control factor. S i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native top-down v i s u a l f a c t o r were obtained for the K-ABC Matrix Analogies (- 0.47) and Logical paired associate scores. The Top-down Verbal Attentional control f a c t o r has been defined as "scanning and focussing of attention on environ-mental s t i m u l i under the control of v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning and activated by verbal feedback". Four out of the twenty-two measures were assigned target loadings on the Top—down Verbal Attentional factor. The TCU Homogeneous and Abstract Function Chapter Four Results scores and the Identical Picture error score were assigned 1.0 loadings, while the number of Identical Picture attempted score was assigned a 0.5 loading). The Top-down Visual Attentional control f a c t o r for both the Native and non-Native samples accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a b i l i t y in performance across tasks <i.e., variances of fa c t o r s of £.0 and £.1, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S i g n i f i -cant f a c t o r loadings on a l l four of the marker tasks were obtained for both the Native and non-Native top-down v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l factors. Native fa c t o r loadings f o r these marker tasks were: TCU Homogeneous Function (0.36), Abstract Function (0.73), Identical Picture error (0. 4£) and attempted (0.47), while non-Native fa c t o r loadings were 0.50, 0.81, 0.4£, and 0.43, re s p e c t i v e l y . A number of tasks, not t h e o r e t i c a l l y assigned loadings on the top—down v i s u a l target factor, demon-strated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the empirical top-down v i s u a l control factor. The K-ABC Triangles and TCU U n i l a t e r a l scores demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t but secondary loadings on the Native top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l control f a c t o r ( i . e . , 0.38 and — 0.36, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Non-Native performance on the K—ABC Numbers Reversed, Word Order, and S p a t i a l Memory tasks demon-strated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the non-Native top-down v i s u a l control f a c t o r ( i . e . , 0.43, 0.38, and 0.45, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The Simultaneous Coding control f a c t o r has been defined Chapter Four Results as "synthesis of separate s t i m u l i elements into meaningful wholes in which a l l the elements are mutually sureveyable and meaning i s only a - ^ s s i b l e from the whole with i n d i v i d u a l elements lacking meaning". Six out of the twenty-two tasks were assigned s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Simultaneous Coding control target factor. The K-ABC Gestalt Closure, and Matrix Analogies tasks were assigned loadings of 1.0 on the Simul-taneous target factor. The Iconic paired associate items were also assigned a loading of 1.0 on the Simultaneous factor. Secondary loadings on the Simultaneous coding target fa c t o r of 0.50 were assigned to two other K-ABC simultaneous scale subtests ( i . e . , Triangles and Sp a t i a l Memory), as well as the Hidden Patterns attempted score. The Simultaneous Coding control f a c t o r s of both the Native and non-Native samples account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n performance evidenced across tasks ( i . e . , eigen values of 3.1 and £.6, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Corre-spondence between the target loadings for the six marker tasks and the empirical Simultaneous f a c t o r loadings for these marker tasks i s equivocal. For example, of the three tasks assigned 1.0 loadings on the Simultaneous target matrix only Gestalt Closure performance demonstrates a s i g n i f i c a n t loading on both the Native and non-Native simultaneous f a c t o r s ( i . e . , 0.57 and 0.7S, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Neither group demon-116 Chapter Four Results strated a significant loading on the simultaneous fa c t o r for their' K-ABC Matrix Analogies performance. The Iconic paired associate items demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t loading on the non-Native simultaneous fa c t o r <0.70), but not on the Native simultaneous f a c t o r <i.e., a loading < 0.35). The fa c t o r loadings for the marker tasks with 0.50 or secondary loadings on the Simultaneous Coding control target f a c t o r do not demonstrate corresponding loadings on the Native and non-Native simultaneous factors. Both the Hidden Patterns attempted and K-ABC Triangles scores demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the non-Native simultaneous f a c t o r <i.e., loadings of 0.40 and 0.71 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The K-ABC Sp a t i a l Memory f a i l e d to demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t loading on the non-Native simultaneous factor. Both the K-ABC and Sp a t i a l Memory sub-t e s t s demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native simul-taneous fa c t o r ( i . e . , 0.46 and 0.57, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The Hidden Patterns attempted performance of Native c h i l d r e n did not load s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the Native simultaneous fa c t o r ( i . e , a loading ( 0.35). A number of tasks, not assigned loadings on the Simul-taneous Coding target factor, demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t load-ings on the simultaneous f a c t o r s of both the Native and non-Native samples. For example, the Identical P i c t u r e attempted and K-ABC Photo Series scores demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t , but 117 Chapter Four Results secondary, loadings on the non-Native simultaneous factor ( i . e . , 0 .4£ and 0.44, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The Identical Pictures attempted and error scores, as well as the K-ABC Numbers Reversed and Photo Series scores demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t , but secondary, loadings on the Native simultaneous factor. The Successive Coding control f a c t o r has been defined as, "synthesis of separate s t i m u l i elements into temporal, sequence dependent forms which are surveyable only one at a time and meaning i s accessed only from the order". Five out of the twenty-two tasks were assigned s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Successive Coding control target f a c t o r ( i . e . K-ABC Hand Movements, Numbers Reversed, and Word Order, as well as the TCU Relational scores, were assigned loadings of 1.0, while the number of Identical Picture items attempted was assigned a 0.50 loading on the Successive Coding control target f a c t o r ) . The successive coding control f a c t o r f o r both the Native and non-Native samples accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a b i l i t y in performance across tasks ( i . e . , v a r i -ances of fa c t o r s of 3.9 and 3.0, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . fill f i v e of the successive marker tasks demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t load-ings on the non-Native successive factor. Non-Native success-ive factor loadings for the successive marker tasks are: K-ABC Hand Movements (0.71), Numbers Reversed (0.73) and Word Order 118 Chapter Four Results (0.57), TCU Relational Function (0.80) and Identical P ictures attempted (0.36). K-ABC Numbers Reversed (0.58) and Word Order (0.60), as well as, the TCU Relational Function (0,71), demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native successive coding control factor. Both the K-ABC Hand Movement and the number of Identical P ictures attempted scores f a i l e d to demonstrate loadings greater than 0.35 on the Native suc-cessive coding control factor. A number of the tasks not assigned s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Successive Coding control target f a c t o r demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native and non-Native successive coding control factors. Only the K-ABC Matrix Analogies and TCU U n i l a t e r a l scores demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the non-Native successive f a c t o r ( i . e . , 0.57 and 0.38, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In contrast, K-ABC Triangles (0.48), Logical paired associate items (- 0.43), TCU U n i l a t e r a l (- 0.72), Color (0.60), Homogeneous Function (0.62), and Abstract Func-t i o n (0.48) scores, a l l demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native successive coding control factor. The Concrete/Active Planning control f a c t o r has been defined as "generation, s e l e c t i o n and monitoring of g o a l — d i -rected a t t e n t i o n a l and coding processes activated by f a m i l i a r visual-motor feedback". Three out of the twenty-two tasks were assigned s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r loadings on the Conrete/ Chapter Four Results Active Planning control target factor ( i . e . , K-ABC Photo Series which was assigned a loading of 1.0 and K-ABC Triangles and TCU Color Reality Match scores, -I; i.ch were assigned 0.50 or secondary loadings). The Concrete/Active Planning control f a c t o r s for both the Native and non-Native samples account for a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a b i l i t y in performance across the tasks ( i . e . , variances of f a c t o r s of 1.7 and £.0, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A l l three of the marker tasks for the Concrete/Active planning target f a c t o r demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the non-Native concrete/active planning control factor. The loadings f o r these marker tasks on the non-Native concrete/active planning f a c t o r were: K-ABC Photo Series (0.65), Triangles (0.43) and TCU Color (0.69). Both K-ABC Photo Series (0.5£) and TCU Color (0.39) marker tasks demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native concrete/active planning factor, while only the K—ABC Triangles marker task f a i l e d to demonstrate a loading of 0.35 or above on the Native concrete/active planning factor. A number of the tasks, not assigned s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Concrete/Active Planning target factor, demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the concrete/active planning f a c t o r s of both the Native and non-Native samples. Only the TCU Homogeneous Function score demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t (0.48), 1£0 Chapter Four Results but secondary, loading on the non-Native concrete/active planning factor. K-ABC Hand Movements had a s i g n i f i c a n t (0.75) and primary loading on the Native concrete/active planning factor. K-ABC S p a t i a l Memory and Iconic paired associate items demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t , but secondary, loading, on the Native concrete/active planning f a c t o r ( i . e . , loadings of 0.4£ and 0.39, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The Verbal/Logical planning control f a c t o r has been defined as, "generation, s e l e c t i o n , and monitoring of goal-directed a t t e n t i o n a l and coding processes activated by fami-l i a r verbal feedback." Three out of the twenty-two tasks were assigned s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Verbal/Logical Planning control target f a c t o r ( i . e . , Enactive, Functional, and Logical paired associate items were a l l assigned 1.0 loadings on the Verbal/Logical target f a c t o r ) . Both the Native and non-Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning f a c t o r s account for a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the v a r i a b i l i t y in performance demonstrated across tasks ( i . e . , variances of f a c t o r s of £.5 and £.6, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A l l three of the marker tasks assigned to the Verbal/Logical Planning target fa c t o r demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on both the Native and non-Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning factors. Loadings on the non-Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning f a c t o r were: Enactive (0.S7), Functional (0.SO), and Logical (0.81), while 1£1 Chapter Four Results loadings on the Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning fa c t o r were: Enactive (0.69), Functional (0.80), and Logical (0. 5£). fill three of the marker tasks had primary loadings, or load-ings only on the v e r b a l / l o g i c a l f a c t o r f o r the non-Native factor. Enactive and Logical paired associate items demon-strated secondary loadings on the Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l factor, while Functional paired associate items demonstrated a primary loading on the Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l factor. Only the three v e r b a l / l o g i c a l marker tasks demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the non-Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l factor, while Identical P i c t u r e s error scores, Iconic paired associate items and TCU Homogeneous Function scores demonstrated s i g n i -f i c a n t but secondary loadings on the Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning fa c t o r (i.e.., 0.41, 0.66, and 0.35, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In summary, the fact o r loading r e s u l t s seem to demon-s t r a t e a s a t i s f a c t o r y degree of correspondence between the seven f a c t o r structure o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined in the 7 by ££ target matrix i d e n t i f i e d i n Table 3 and the e m p i r i c a l l y determined fa c t o r structures of the Native and non-Native groups as reported i n Table Six. Note, however, the r e s u l t s are r e s t r i c t e d by a number of factors. F i r s t , the small sample s i z e places c o n s t r a i n t s on the r e l i a b l i t y of t h i s f a c t o r structure. Second, the exploratory nature of t h i s study prevented a d i r e c t assessment of the Chapter Four Results "goodness of f i t " between the t h e o r e t i c a l and empirical factor structures of the two groups, thereby l i m i t i n g the p r e c i s i o n with which t h i s correspondence can be reported. And f i n a l l y , the operational d e f i n i t i o n s of the f a c t o r s required using tasks which could be associated with more than one type of process, thereby l i m i t i n g the purity of the factors. Nevei— theless, the r e s u l t s seem to support the conceptual d e f i n i -t i o n s of the seven control processes to a degree s u f f i c i e n t f o r further i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these secondary loadings, as well as d i f f e r e n c e s between the f a c t o r loadings of the two groups. Due to the l i m i t s imposed on the r e s u l t s further i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must remain speculative and be drawn more heavily from the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed than from the r e s u l t s obtained. 1£3 CHAPTER FIVE i DISCUSSION In order to provide a structure for the discussion sec-t i o n and to f a c i l i t a t e p r e c i s i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s , the seven control processes are redefined in terms of patterns of task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on a processing factor. Native empirical processing f a c t o r s and t h e i r associated task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are compared to non-Native performance on these same tasks. Performance strengths and weaknesses are re l a t e d to the "observational" and "formal academic" learning environments. F i n a l l y , i n s t r u c -t i o n a l implications drawn from the patterning of empirical task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with empirical processing f a c t o r s are presented. Note that, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications drawn are equally a p p licable to both Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n who display s i m i l a r patterns of empirical processing on these empirical task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e l a t i v e heterogenity of the Native group's performance, as indicated by a number of s i g n i f i c a n t age/sex e f f e c t s on the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the various tasks, severely l i m i t s the determination of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c "Native learning s t y l e . " However, the s p e c i f i -c a t i o n of r e l a t i v e strengths and weaknesses for Native c h i l d -ren i s c a r r i e d out, i n order to further s p e c i f y the i n s t r u c -t i o n implications. The patterning of e m p i r i c a l l y derived task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and processes i n the following Table. 1£4 TABLE 7: SUMMARY OF- THE TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE BASES ASSOCIATED WITH THE NON NATIVE AND NATIVE PROCRUSTES FACTORS SINUL-HOLISTIC ANALYTIC VISUAL AUDITORY TANEDUS SUCCESIVE VERBAL NONVERBAL CONCRETE VERBAL FEATURES FEATURES STIMULI STIMULI STIMULI STIMULI MEDIATOR MEDIATOR FEEDBACK FEEDBAC NATIVE BOTTOM-UP ATTENTION 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 NON NATIVE BOTTOM-UP ATTENTION 3 0 3 0 3 0 2 1 1 2 NATIVE TOP-DOWN VISUAL 0 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 HON NATIVE TOP-DOWN VISUAL 0 3 3 0 2 1 1 2 2 1 NATIVE TOP-DOWN VERBAL 2 3 S 0 5 0 4 1 3 2 NON NATIVE TOP-DOWN VERBAL 3 4 5 2 5 2 5 2 4 3 NATIVE SIMULTANEOUS CODING 2 5 £ 1 4 3 3 4 6 1 NON NATIVE SIMULTANEOUS 1 5 5 1 S 1 3 3 £ 0 NATIVE RUTTFRSIVE CODING 3 4 S 2 S 2 S 2 2 5 NON NATIVE SUCCESSIVE 0 6 4 2 2 4 4 2 4 2 NATIVE CONCRETE/ACTIVE 3 2 4 1 3 2 0 5 5 0 NON NATIVE CONCRETE/ACTIVE - 2 2 4 0 4 0 1 3 3 1 NATIVE VERBAL/LOGICAL 2 4 2 4 2 4 £ 0 2 4 NON NATIVE VERBAL/LOGICAL 1 2 0 3 0 3 3 0 0 3 Values represent the nusfaer of subtests with specified characteristic 1£5 Chapter Five Discussion Table Seven presents a summary of the e m p i r i c a l l y derived knowledge base task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for each of the seven processing f a c t o r s for both Native and non-Native r e s u l t s . Table Seven i s based on the Knowledge base task a n a l y s i s presented i n Table One. fin examination of Table Seven sug-gests that Native Bottom-up at t e n t i o n a l processing i s asso-ciated with a n a l y t i c features. In contrast, non-Native Bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l processing i s associated with h o l i s t i c f e a -t ures. Mediation provided within the observational learning environment emphasizes i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of h o l i s t i c s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a n a l y t i c s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The prevalence of a n a l y t i c task c h a r a c t e i — i s t i e s associated with Native Bottom—up at t e n t i o n may not represent s t i m u l i task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but rather, response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This implies that a n a l y t i c s t i m u l i charactei— i s t i c s may not be dominant or discriminant s t i m u l i for Natives to the same degree as they are f o r non-Natives. Verbal mediation may be a necessary condition for es t a b l i s h i n g a n a l y t i c features as discriminant s t i m u l i . For example, the f a i l u r e of Native c h i l d r e n to perform at the same le v e l on the TCU Shape r e a l i t y match items r e l a -t i v e to t h e i r non—Native counterparts may be a t t r i b u t a b l e in part to a Native i n a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y shape as a h o l i s t i c 1£6 Chapter Five Discussion s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The lack of recognition of s i m i l a r shapes in the s t i m u l i , rather than i n d i c a t i n g a d e f i c i t i n shape recognition, may be the r e s u l t of shape being only one of several possible response feature s i m i l a r i t i e s . In t h i s way, performance on t h i s task may be rela t e d to whether or not shape i s treated as a h o l i s t i c s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , or a l t e r n a t i v e l y as, merely one of many response ch a r a c t e i — i s t i c s . In the former case, the s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are associated with Bottom-up a t t e n t i o n a l processing, while in the l a t t e r case, the multiple response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may somehow prevent shape from assuming i t s expected dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . " _ ' . This implies that Native Bottom-up processing may be lim i t e d when multiple response o p t i o n s — i n c l u d i n g a n a l y t i c response f e a t u r e s — a r e part of the o v e r a l l task. This i n t e i — p retation i s supported by s i g n i f i c a n t loadings for the K-flBC Word Order and Enactive paired associate tasks on the Native Bottom—up processing f a c t o r without s i m i l a r load ins on the non-Native processing factor. The bottom-up processing factor i d e n t i f i e d f or non-Natives i s consistent with the s p e c i f i -c a t i o n of processing of dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s without regard to response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , while the tasks loading on the Native bottom—up processing factor are more representative of the response c h a r a t e r i s t i c s of the task Chapter Five Discussion and therefore, do not represent bottom—up processing. The influence of the multiple response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may account, in part for the r e l a t i v e l y poor pev- ormance on the TCU Shape items by the Native group. In l i g h t of the r e l a t i v e Native strength demonstrated on the K-ABC Gestalt Closure task, y i e l d i n g a negative association. The i m p l i -cation l e f t to be drawn i s that h o l i s t i c features in the form of g e s t a l t s are the dominant s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Native c h i l d r e n . The f a i l u r e to recognize the s i m i a r i t y i n shape between the two objects presented on a TCU Shape item may, i n part, be accounted f o r by a Native p r o c l i v i t y to organize a n a l y t i c shape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s into h o l i s t i c g e s t a l t s i n which the s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of shape are ignored i n favor of the more dominant response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e l a t i n g object g e s t a l t s . One i n s t r u c t i o n a l implication which can be drawn from t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i s that performance d i f -ferences on global reading comprehension tasks may r e f l e c t the a n a l y t i c response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with having to "sound—out—the—word," rather than an i n a b i l i t y to recognize the h o l i s t i c features of the story. In other words, f a i l u r e to comprehend a passage may be associated with a lack of "automazation" of the decoding s k i l l s (La Berge & Samuels, 1974). The lack of automatic decoding s k i l l s may be r e l a t e d 1£S Chapter Five Discussion to an emphasis on multiple a n a l y t i c response features during i n i t i a l reading i n s t r u c t i o n (mediation) provided by the i n s t r u c t i o n a l prompt to "so^.nd-out-the-word. " Furthermore, the observational learning environment tends to favor the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of h o l i s t i c features over a n a l y t i c features by a rnediat ional emphasis on v i s u a l pattern matching, implying that . i n i t i a l reading i n s t r u c t i o n should focus on h o l i s t i c features (e.g., words) over a n a l y t i c fea-tures (e.g., l e t t e r s ) f o r c h i l d r e n whose home environment i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the observational learning environment. Reading programs which emphasize whole word approaches and meaning over phonics are suggested f o r t h i s group. In add i t i o n to an emphasis on the meaning-based h o l i s t i c features (e.g., words) encountered during i n i t i a l reading i n s t r u c t i o n , d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n acquiring "automatic" a n a l y t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s k i l l s i s implied. That i s , the 'broad sweeping perception' required within the observational learning environment needs to be adapted to the more a n a l y t i c response demands of the formal academic ' learning environment. This process of adapting an observational a t t e n t i o n a l s t y l e to a n a l y t i c a t t e n t i o n a l demands has been a major focus of Feuerstein's (1980) Instrumental Enrichment Program, which i s characterized by a provision for mediated learning experi Chapter Five Discussion ences designed to i n i t i a l l y frame a n a l y t i c response features by t r e a t i n g them as h o l i s t i c v i s u a l s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l a t e ~ r e l a t i n g them to a n a l y t i c s t i m u l i features. Another approach to increasing the sali e n c y of a n a l y t i c stirnuli/response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s the use of p a r t i a l cloze procedures on the a n a l y t i c features. The cloze procedure should help to focus a t t e n t i o n on the relevant a n a l y t i c st irnul i/response features by ensuring that a t t e n t i o n to the a n a l y t i c feature or d e t a i l i s associated with the process of forming ge s t a l t s . For example, p a r t i a l d o z i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l grapheme should ensure that the grapheme i s treated as a dominant s t i m u l i by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n to the task of forming the gestalt f o r that graheme (e.g., see Figure Two). Concisely, a gestalt i s considered a dominant stim-u l i , and bottom-up attention i s implicated. FIGURE £: AN EXAMPLE OF CLOZE PROCEDURE FOR TEACHING VISUAL PHONETIC ANALYSIS O S o s O S 4. 130 Chapter Five Discussion There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native groups in the pattern of task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Visual Top-down at t e n t i o n a l control f a c t o r (see Table Seven). Native c h i l d r e n evidenced performance equivalent to t h e i r non-Native counter-parts on a l l but one of the four tasks loading on t h i s f a c -t o r (see Figure v One). Interestingly, the only task s i g n i f i c a n t l y loading on the Native top-down v i s u a l factor, which demonstrated a r e l -a t i v e weakness i n performance, was the negative loading obtained f o r K-ABC Matrix Analogies. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between K-ABC Matrix Analogies performance and v i s u a l top—down atten-t i o n a l processing by Native c h i l d r e n may be interpreted within the context of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the fact o r loadings of a measure of field-independence/dependence which serves as a marker task for v i s u a l top-down attention (i.e.., Hidden Patterns number attempted and error scores),. Both groups appeared to perform at the same l e v e l on the Hidden Pattern items, implying a field-independent cog-n i t i v e s t y l e (Ekstrom, 1973). The performance d i f f e r e n c e evidenced on the Matrix Analogies task was associated with a d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i r e c t i o n of fac t o r loadings between the two groups. This d i f f e r e n c e i n loadings suggests that the use of a field-independent s t y l e may be negatively associ— 131 Chapter Five Diseuseion ated with Matrix Analogies performance f o r Natives and pos-i t i v e l y associated with task performance for non-Natives. The Matrix Analogies and Hidden Patterns items present non-meaningful h o l i s t i c s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, the Hidden Patterns items are associated with h o l i s t i c r e s -ponse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s through matching of a v i s u a l figure. In contrast, the Matrix Analogies subtest presents a n a l y t i c response demands in the form of a s e r i e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between several s t i m u l i figures. Perhaps the r e l a t i v e l y poor performance on the Matrix Analogies subtest by Native c h i l d r e n i s r e l a t e d to the a n a l y t i c response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the task. In other words, poor performance on tasks l i k e Matrix Analogies may be associated with d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i -fying the relevant response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Suggestive of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s an error a n a l y s i s of the performance of Native c h i l d r e n on the Matrix Analogies items. The majority of e r r o r s committed were i n choosing an incorrect response items with s i m i l a r h o l i s t i c features to one of the stimulus items, by missing a key a n a l y t i c feature of the stimulus. For example, Figure Three presents a t y p i c a l e r r or of the Native group on a Matrix Analogies item. No such pattern of errors was found for the non-Native group. FIGURE 3; ERROR PATTERNS F D R THE NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE GROUP' ON A SAMPLE MATRIX ANALOGY PROBLEM Dir e c t i o n s : Say, This (point to 1) goes with t h i s (point to £') just as t h i s (point to 3) goes with which one of these (point ti A—H responses). 1 « c!« ? 4. 0 H A. B. 0. D. Native 14^*Native 36"/- Native £"/ Native 0% Non-Native 5% Non-Native 11% Non-Native 13"/ Non-Native €,"/• E. F. G. Native 0"A Native 43% Native 4% Non-Native 8% Non-Native 46*/ Non-Native 9"/ •"•Percentage choosing t h i s response. Chapter Five Discussion The type of error i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure Three implies a h o l i s t i c matching s t y l e was u t i l i z e d by the Native group, that i s , scanning and f o m s i n g on a n a l y t i c features on the Hidden Patterns task was not considered a response charactei— i s t i c and consequently t h i s has f a c i l i t a t e d performance. In contrast, a h o l i s t i c matching s t y l e on the Matrix Analogies has prevented e f f i c i e n t performance, since a n a l y t i c features were a relevant response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the task. In t h i s way, poor performance on Matrix Analogies may be accoun-ted for, i n part, by the f a i l u r e to i d e n t i f y a n a l y t i c response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Several i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications can be drawn from the s i m i l a r performance l e v e l s of Native and non-Native c h i l -dren on the tasks loading on the Native top—down v i s u a l atten-t i o n a l factor. F i r s t , top—down v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l control should be considered a r e l a t i v e strength f o r Native c h i l d -ren. This implies that v i s u a l meaning can be used to control attention. For example, the use of rebus (pictographs) words should help to focus the Native c h i l d ' s attention on the meaning aspects of reading by providing a v i s u a l symbol or frame for the meaning. A further example of using a Native c h i l d ' s r e l a t i v e strength i n top-down v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n a l processing on academic tasks i s the use of rnorphographs to improve s p e l l i n g . A 134 Chapter Five Discussion morphographic s p e l l i n g approach l i n k s a n a l y t i c features i n the form of grapho-phoneme units with meaning-based units. In t h i s way, v i s u a l l y meaningful a n a l y t i c features of a word can be coded and r e t r i e v e d as v i s u a l l y meaningful units, thereby improving both s p e l l i n g and vocabulary simultaneously. A second i n s t r u c t i o n a l implication to be drawn from Native c h i l d r e n ' s r e l a t i v e strength i n top-down v i s u a l pro-c e s s i n g — a s evidenced by equivalent Hidden Patterns factor loadings—concerns the use of i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures desig-ned for a field-independent s t y l e a construct assumed to be associated with e f f i c i e n t performance (Ekstrom, et a l . , 1976). For example, i t has been suggested that f i e l d indepen-dence could be r e l a t e d to e f f e c t i v e cue-sampling during reading. That i s , Native readers who perform well on d i s -ernmbedding tasks of cognitive s t y l e s (e.g.. Hidden Patterns) should perform e f f e c t i v e l y in reading tasks re q u i r i n g the e x t r a c t i o n (from a print—stirnulus) of s a l i e n t cues or inform-ation, i f provided with guides as to "What to look f o r " or h o l i s t i c response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Singer and Donlan (1980) provide several examples of " learning-f rorn—text" guides (see also Davey, 1983, for a more de t a i l e d discussion of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Field-independence and reading i n s t r u c -t i on) . 135 Chapter Five Discussion A l l of the marker tasks of top-down verbal processing were characterized by p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i which required match-ing on some conceptual dimension (see Table Seven). The response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on these tasks required verba1/-l o g i c a l labels, which serve as a frame or label f o r the conceptual equivalence scanning and focusing a c t i v i t y . There were no performance differences, between Native and non-Native children, on any of the marker tasks of the top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l f a c t o r (see Figure One & Table Three). There were, however, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the number of tasks demonstrating s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on t h i s f a c t o r between the two groups (see Table S i x ) . For example, the non—Native sample demonstrated only one s i g n i f i c a n t task loading on the v i s u a l top—down f a c t o r other than the marker tasks ( i . e . , K-ABC Sp a t i a l Memory). In contrast, Native c h i l d r e n demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings fo r four a d d i t i o n a l tasks ( i . e . , K-ABC Hand Movements & Triangles, Logical paired associates, and a negative loading on the TCU U n i l a t e r a l Concepts). Interestingly, task perform-ance favored non-Natives over Natives i n a l l cases (see Figure One) . One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s in the a d d i t i o n a l tasks loading on the top-down verbal f a c t o r f o r the two groups i s that v e r b a l / l o g i c a l response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a s s o c i -136 Chapter Five Discussion ated with a t t e n t i o n a l control for the Natives more frequently than for non-Natives accounted for, in part, by d i f f e r e n c e s in the type of mediation provided within the observational learning environment and the formal academic learning environ-ment . For example, in the "observational" learning environ-ment, a t y p i c a l learning task associated with top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l control presents a v i s u a l / a u d i t o r y a s s o c i a t i o n task with v i s u a l response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Mediation i s provided i n terms of verbal l a b e l s for guiding s e l e c t i o n of the correct v i s u a l response. In contrast, in the l a t e r grades of the "formal academic" learning environment a s i m i l a r v i s u a l / a u d i t o r y a s s o c i a t i o n task linked to top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l control supplies only verbal response charactei— i s t i c s . Note that, the Identical Pictures items are consid-ered representative of the type of top-down verbal processing favored by the "observational" learning environment, while the TCU Homogeneous and Abstract Reality Match items are more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the type of top—down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l control favored i n the l a t e r grades of the "formal academic" learning environment. The lack of performance d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n on the top-down verbal marker tasks may mask s i g n i f i c a n t q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the way the con— 137 Chapter Five Discussion ceptual equivalence i s i d e n t i f i e d . Native children, when i d e n t i f y i n g conceptual equivalence, may use "images" activated by the p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i more frequentW than t h e i r nonNative counterparts. In contrast, non-Native c h i l d r e n may determine conceptual equivalence by e i t h e r v e r b a l / l o g i c a l or imagery t y p e / l o g i c a l codes. That i s , the type of coding employed as a mediator may account., in part, for performance d i f f e r -ences on conceptual equivalence tasks. Several i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications can be drawn from the discussion of the q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e in Native and non—Native childrens' performance on tasks loading on the top—down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l control factors. F i r s t , i n s t r u c -t i o n a l procedures designed to remediate a generalized Native "verbal d e f i c i e n c y " must be questioned, as no such d e f i c i e n c y was evidenced on the verbal response tasks (e. g., the TCU items) loading on t h i s f a c t o r between the two groups. Second, a r e l a t i v e strength i n top—down verbal control was evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n when prompts associated with the a c t i v a t i o n of imagery coding were provided i n the form of response pictures (e.g., I d e n t i c a l P i c t u r e s ) . The use of prompts designed to a c t i v a t e images i n the absence of actual concrete/active feedback i s suggested. As an example, prompts designed to aid coding of sequentially presented material s i m i l a r to the K-PBC Numbers Reversed 138 Chapter Five Discussion and Word Order s t i m u l i can be provided i n the form of "mne-monic" devices (e. g. , the peg word method). Study s k i l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques which u t i l i z e o u t l i n i n g and diagramming techniques should help to provide the Native c h i l d with self-generated prompts to use "imagery" codes for storage and r e t r i e v a l of conceptual equivalence dimensions. In general, t h i s study s k i l l s approach should emphasize the provision of concrete/active feedback for audit-ory conceptual equivalence tasks. This can be accomplished by providing "metaphors" f o r the auditory equivalence dimen-sion. For example, the term "attention" can be thought of as a f l a s h l i g h t beam within a darkened room. The scanning and focusing aspects.of attention can then be rela t e d to the image of the f l a s h l i g h t beam, as well as the verbal d e f i n -i t i o n of attention. The simultaneous coding control processes of both Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n can be characterized by a s i m i l a r pattern of associated task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (see Table Seven). Performance d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n favored Native c h i l d r e n on two of the seven tasks that demon-strated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native simultaneous processing f a c t o r ( i . e . , K-PlBC Gestalt Closure and Sp a t i a l Memory). These tasks require the formation of a gestalt for matching s t i m u l i and response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Chapter Five Discussion s t i m u l i features are a n a l y t i c a l l y presented, while the response features are h o l i s t i c . The st irnu 1 i/response match-ing i s performed by viewing the a n a l y t i c a l l y presented stim-u l i components as a s i n g l e h o l i s t i c feature. ft r e l a t i v e strength evidenced on t h i s task may represnt the viewing of the a n a l y t i c s t i m u l i components "automatically" as a h o l i s -t i c s t i m u l i . Performance d i f f e r e n c e s on marker tasks loading on the simultaneous f a c t o r may be accounted for, i n part, by the nature of the features used in matching stirnuli/response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s within the d i f f e r e n t learning environments. The observational learning environment favors matching h o l i s -t i c s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to h o l i s t i c response character-i s t i c s , while the formal academic learning environment favors matching a n a l y t i c s t i m u l i components to h o l i s t i c response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Native c h i l d r e n may approach the synthesis of separate s t i m u l i features into meaningful wholes on the basis of simultaneous coding of matching h o l i s t i c stimuli/response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , while non-Native c h i l d r e n may approach the synthesis of separate s t i m u l i features on the basis of suc-cessive l a b e l l i n g of a n a l y t i c s t i m u l i features (which are subsequently r e l a t e d to h o l i s t i c response categories sharing s i m i l a r a n a l y t i c features). Thus for non-Native children, ,140 Chapter Five Discussion verbal top-down control of attention may ac t i v a t e successive coding by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a s e r i e s of separate sequen-t i a l l y r e l a t e d features. For Native c h i l d r e n the h o l i s t i c response features may serve to ac t i v a t e simultaneous syn-th e s i s . This i s consistent with empirical f a c t o r loadings reported i n Table Six for these two groups. One result, associated with the simultaneous marker task f a c t o r loadings i s the s i g n i f i c a n t loading of the Iconic paired associate items f o r non-Native but i n t e r s t i n g l y . not for Natives. Non—Natives demonstrated r e l a t i v e l y l e s s d i f -f i c u l t y i n r e c a l l i n g i c o n i c associates comparedf to Natives. This may be related, in part, to a s i g n i f i c a n t negative a s s o c i a t i o n between Color Reality Match items and the Native simultaneous factor. Additionally,' the Native group demon-strated a r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g two objects as being s i m i l a r in co l o r when compared to the non-Native performance. These qu a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between tasks associated with Native and non—Native chi l d r e n ' s simul-taneous processing are r e f l e c t e d i n di f f e r e n c e s between the "observational" and "formal academic" learning environments. For example, a strength i n simultaneous coding of " i n t e r a c t i v e images" i s anticipated to develop i n an environment in which the major form of mediation provided for i d e n t i f y i n g the Chapter Five Discussion r e l a t i o n s h i p between features and objects i s nonverbal model-l i n g ( i . e . , observational). In contrast, the formal academic learning environment provides verbal mediation for i d ; : : i f i -c a t i on of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between features and objects, implying " i c o n i c word asso c i a t i o n s " are developed. Quantatative and q u a l i t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e s on the TCU Color items may be accounted for, i n part, by the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between the a n a l y t i c s t i m u l i features (e.g., color, shape, etc.,) and the h o l i s t i c s t i m u l i features of the two objects portrayed. This r e l a t i o n ship can be characterized as " i c o n i c " (i.e.., adjective-noun).. Performance d i f f i c u l t i e s on the Iconic associate items and the TCU Shape and Color items may be accounted for, i n part, by the d i f f e r e n c e i n the mediation encountered on s i m i l a r tasks in the two learning environments. It i s pos-s i b l e , therefore, that a d i f f i c u l t y in i d e n t i f y i n g " i c o n i c " r e l a t i o n s h i p s on formal academic tasks may be related, i n part, to a r e l a t i v e l y infrequent exposure to " i c o n i c word ass o c i a t i o n s " and a r e l a t i v e l y frequent exposure to " i n t e i — a c t i v e images" associated with the observational learning environment of Natives. Several i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications can be drawn from the q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n simultaneous coding evidenced by Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n . Native Chapter Five Discussion c h i l d r e n ' s strength in simultaneous processing can be a c t i -vated on verbal tasks by providing prompts to create the needed v i s u a l s t i m u l i . For examp.1 sentence diagramming techniques provide a v i s u a l prompt for i d e n t i f y i n g the r e l a -t i o n s h i p s between words. ft skimming and scanning study s k i l l strategy based on a diagramming technique would help the c h i l d from the observational learning environment to "see" key a n a l y t i c features of a set of s t i m u l i . Furthermore, we may need to teach c h i l d r e n how to a c t i v a t e simultaneous processing strengths, gained i n the observational learning environment, by teaching them how to use imagery to explain v e r b a l / l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . That i s , they may need to be taught when and how to form " i c o n i c images," rather than " i n t e r a c t i v e images" on comparison tasks. The successive processing f a c t o r of both Native and non-Native groups are associated with d i f f e r e n c e s in task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For example, tasks associated with the Native successive processing f a c t o r were more l i k e l y to involve simultaneous presentation of the s t i m u l i and verbal response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than tasks associated with the non-Native successive processing f a c t o r (see Table Seven). Interestingly, only two of the four successive marker tasks demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native successive f a c t o r ( i . e . , Number Recall & TCU Relational items). Per-Chapter Five Discussion forrnance d i f f e r e n c e between Natives and t h e i r counterparts were evidenced on both of these tasks. The highert loading marker task for both groups of c h i l d r e n on the successive processing f a c t o r s was the TCU Relational Function R e a l i t y Match items, which did not demon-s t r a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t performance d i f f e r e n c e between groups. The TCU r e l a t i o n a l items can be considered to represent "enactive" r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which the two objects pictured are r e l a t e d syntagrnat i c a l ly i n the form of a p r e d i c a t i v e statement (e.g., an Apple grows on a Tree). Note: the two pictures portraying a r e l a t i o n a l item are h o l i s t i c or indepen-dently meaningful units (Apple & Tree). which are f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d and then r e l a t e d i n an " i n t e r a c t i v e " or "enactive" r e l a t i o n s h i p (grows)-. Native c h i l d r e n ' s successive coding control i s l a r g e l y associated with "predicative" r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This form of processing was associated with the TCU Homogeneous, Abstract, and Relational Function items. Native c h i l d r e n i n i d e n t i f y i n g conceptual equivalence between h o l i s t i c s t i m u l i features r e l a t e these features i n an " i n t e r a c t i v e " or "enactive" man-ner. For Native children, conceptual equivalence on these types of TCU items i s characterised by "syntagrnat i c " or "predicative" r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In contrast, non-Native c h i l d r e n seem to determine conceptual equivalence of the TCU Horno-144 Chapter Five Discussion geneous and Abstract Function items, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of top-down verbal a t t e n t i o n a l processing and not on the basis of successive coding control processing. This implies that non-Native chi l d r e n ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of conceptual equivalence may be i n terms of e i t h e r "paradigmatic" r e l a t i o n ships <e.g., TCU Homogeneous & Abstract Fuction items) or "syntagmatic" r e l a t i o n s h i p s (e.g., Relational Function items) A r e s t r i c t i o n i n Native childrens' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of conceptual equivalence on the TCU Homogeneous and Abstract Function items to "predicative" or "syntagmatic" r e l a t i o n s h i p i s assumed to l o g i c a l l y follow from the combination of the lack of a n a l y t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n the form of " i c o n i c " syntagmatic word associations, and the frequent exposure to i n t e r a c t i v e images or enactive word associations within the "observational" learning environment. In other words, the "observational" learning environment may be said to favor i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of h o l i s t i c features, whereas the "formal academic" learning environment may be said to favor the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a n a l y t i c features. The e f f e c t of reduced a n a l y t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n within the "observational" learning environment should be most pronounced on successive processing marker tasks i n which order or sequentially-dependent meaning i s a response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . This assumption i s supported by the r e l a t i v e Chapter Five Discussion performance weaknesses evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n on the K-ABC Numbers Reversed, Word Order, and TCU Color items when compared to t h e i r non-Native counterparts. Differences between Native and non-Native childrens' successive coding processing have been i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of both s t i m u l i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , h o l i s t i c / a n a l y t i c ) and response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , syntagrnat i c / paradimatic or predicative/nominative). These s t i m u l i and response task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be i d e n t i f i e d on both "observational" and "formal academic" learning tasks. Performance d i f f e r e n c e s on tasks loading on the Native suc-cessive coding control f a c t o r can be interpreted i n terms of the occurrence, frequency, patterning, and s t y l e of verbal mediation provided by the "observational" learning environ-ment for a n a l y t i c / h o l i s t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The "observational" learning environment can be charactei— ized as providing r e l a t i v e l y frequent exposure to v i s u a l framing of h o l i s t i c features, which are associated or r e l a t e d to each other in a predicative manner. In other words, the modelling of a learning task within the "observational" learn-ing environment i s usually verbally-mediated by predicative response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , Look & Do), with the r e l a t i o n -ship between h o l i s t i c s t i m u l i features mediated by a c t i v i t y or visual/motor d i r e c t i v e s . 146 Chapter Five Discussion In contrast, within the "formal academic" learning e n v i -ronment, there i s frequent exposure to v i s u a l framing but, t h i s exposure i s "patterned" with verbal l a b e l l i n g that may r e f l e c t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n labels. The verbal l a b e l s code both a n a l y t i c and h o l i s t i c features into r e l a t i o n s h i p s which can be described as having paradigmatic or c a t e g o r i c a l r e l a t i o n -ships. For example, a picture of a table and a chair can be re l a t e d by the sentence "You s i t on a cha i r at a tab l e . " and i n t h i s case, the nature of the relationship' between table and cha i r is'syntagmatic <Sit>. This response would be scored under the TCU Homogeneous Function category. The same s t i m u l i picture of a table and chair could be rel a t e d by i d e n t i f y i n g them as both fu r n i t u r e , here table and cha i r are r e l a t e d to each other paradigmatically or as members of the same c l a s s (Furniture). and the response would be scored under the TCU Abstract Function category. The formal academic learning environment may provide more opportunities for verbal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n tasks, s i m i l a r to those required in i d e n t i f y i n g a paradigmatic r e l a t i o n s h i p , r e l a t i v e to the observational learning environment. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s supported by an error examination of the TCU U n i l a t e r a l category, which demonstrates that Native c h i l d r e n produced more responses c l a s s i f i e d as U n i l a t e r a l Concepts (mean = 8.1, standard deviation = 8.9) than t h e i r 147 Chapter Five Discussion nonNative counterparts (mean = 3.1, standard deviation = 3.3). More importantly, the majority of Native U n i l a t e r a l Concepts r e f l e c t e d separate noun-verb or predicative r e s -ponses. For example, when presented with a s i n g l e picture of an eye and a f o o t b a l l , which i s considered a Shape Reality Match item, Native c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y responded "You see with your eye and you play with a footbal1." Results i n d i c a t i n g that Native c h i l d r e n evidence more s i g n i f i c a n t task loadings on the successive control factor, than t h e i r non-Native counterparts (see Table Six), may be rel a t e d to the receding of v i s u a l s t i m u l i into verbal r e s -ponses. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s portrayed v i s u a l l y may a c t i v a t e successive processing due to the Native pro-c l i v i t y to u t i l i z e syntagrnat i c or predicative forms of verbal mediation, r e s u l t i n g from frquency of t h i s form of mediation within the "observational" learning environment. Syntagrnat i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s have loaded on successive processing f a c t o r s and paradigmatic r e l a t i o n s h i p s have loaded on simultaneous. processing f a c t o r s (e.g., Jarrnan, 1980); therefore, the increased loadings of tasks associated with verbal response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the Native Successive processing f a c t o r may be accounted for, i n part, by Natives' r e l a t i v e f a m i l i a r i t y with syntagrnatic verbal mediation and t h e i r r e l a t i v e unfami 1 i a r i t y with paradigmatic verbal medi-148 Chapter Five Discussion at ion. This i s supported by a r e l a t i v e strength i n "enactive" paired associate r e c a l l ( i . e . , syntagmatically related p a i r s of the noun-verb type) evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n when compared to t h e i r performance on the functional and l o g i c a l paired associate r e c a l l ( i . e . , paradigmatically r e l a t e d pairs of the noun-noun type). See Figure One. One i n s t r u c t i o n a l i m plication which can be drawn from t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that c h i l d r e n whose homes r e f l e c t the observational learning environment may require modelling of paradigmatic verbal mediation to a degree not required by those whose homes r e f l e c t the formal academic learning environment. Modelling of paradigmatic v e r b a l l y mediated learning experiences i s a major component of the Instrumental Enrichment Program, which i s designed to provide a t r a n s i t i o n from "enactive" mediation to " i c o n i c and paradigmatic" medi-ation (Feuerstein, 1978, see p a r t i c u l a r l y Chapter Two and the Making Comparisons and Cateqori zat ion units).. P. second i n s t r u c t i o n a l implication to be drawn from the q u a l i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n verbal mediation provided by the two learning environments regards the question of whether t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e generates a d e f i c i t , or merely a developmental delay. Like most "either/or" questions, the answer i s probably i n t e r a c t i v e . Reduced exposure to paradigmatic verbal mediation would not only delay the " i n t e r n -149 Chapter Five Discussion a l i z a t i o n " of t h i s type of verbal l o g i c a l planning, but would also reduce the l i k l i h o o d of i t s a c t i v a t i o n by v i s u a l s t i m u l i / response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f a i l u r e to a c t i v a t e verbal/ l o g i c a l planning may be representative of a "production d e f i c i e n c y " ( F l a v e l l , et a l . , 1977) and i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning needs to take t h i s into account (see Brown & French, 1979, fo r a discussion of t h i s point of view). F i n a l l y , there i s a growing body of l i t e r a t u r e concerning the i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications of emphasizing simultaneous/ successive processing by varying academic task demands. The r e s u l t s of t h i s body of research attest to the e f f i c a y of such an approach (see Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, f o r a review and a preview of new s t r a t e g i e s being developed). Performance d i f f e r e n c e s between the Native c h i l d r e n and t h e i r counterparts were evidenced on four of the f i v e tasks which loaded s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the Native concrete/active planning factor. There were no major d i f f e r e n c e s in terms of the task demands associated with the concrete/active processing f a c t o r f o r the two samples, however, there were di f f e r e n c e s i n terms of the loadings of the various tasks. The f a c t o r loading d i f f e r e n c e s on the concrete/active f a c t o r appeared to be associated with co-loadings on f a c t o r s other than the concrete/active factor. ft performance d i f f e r e n c e on the K-ftBC S p a t i a l Memory 150 Chapter Five Discussion task may be interpreted i n terms of t h i s task's s i g n i f i c a n t loading on the top—down verbal attention f a c t o r for non—Native ch i l d r e n . In other words, S p a t i a l Memory performance d i f -ferences favoring Natives may r e f l e c t the l i m i t a t i o n placed on non-Native performance by the use of verbal mediation. In contrast, Native c h i l d r e n demonstrated that S p a t i a l Memory performance was associated with the Simultaneous factor, implying they may not have attempted to label the objects spontaneously l i k e t h e i r non-Native counterparts. The four concrete/active marker tasks demonstrating performance d i f f e r e n c e s favoring non-Native c h i l d r e n share in common a n a l y t i c response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , K-ftBC Hand Movements, K-fiBC .Photo Series, Iconic paired associate items, and TCU Color R e a l i t y Match items).. This implies that performance d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n may r e f l e c t i n t e r a c t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n both atten-t i o n a l and coding processes. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s supported by the various d i f f e r e n c e s in s i g n i f i c a n t co-loadings demon-strated on these tasks by the two samples (see Table Six).. For example, one explanation of the d i f f i c u l t y Native c h i l d r e n experienced on the K-PBC Hand Movements test i s that Native c h i l d r e n may u t i l i z e top-down verbal processing fo r the task, as demonstrated by a s i g n i f i c a n t loading on t h i s factor. In other words, t h e i r a t t e ntion was directed 151 Chapter Five Discussion to the l a b e l l i n g process, as well as modelling the hand movements. It i s possible that these two processes were ca r r i e d out quite independently, which would be consistent with the form of mediation provided i n the observational learning environment—characterized as l a r g e l y dominated by modelling independent of l a b e l l i n g . In contrast, non—Native c h i l d r e n demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t co-loadings on the V e r b a l / l o g i c a l and Successive factors, which suggests that they u t i l i z e d a combination of successive processing and v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning i n meeting the task demands of Hand Movements. In other words, t h e i r verbal l a b e l l i n g of the s t i m u l i ( i . e . , hand moements) was part of a goal-directed and verbal ly-rnediated plan, which allows the successive input of a n a l y t i c features to be r e l a t e d to the sequential a r r i v a l of the features. Successive processing of these tasks i s consistent with the "formal academic" learning environment mediation—characterized as l a r g e l y v e r b a l l y mediated. While Native c h i l d r e n may experience d i f f i c u l t i e s on tasks re q u i r i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of verbal a n a l y t i c response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , they have demonstrated performance l e v e l s equal to t h e i r non-Native counterparts on tasks re q u i r i n g a n a l y t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i f these features are high-lighted by v i s u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . For example, the Identical Chapter Five Discuesion Pictures task requires v i s u a l comparison of a n a l y t i c features, and Natives did not evidence a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on t h i s task compared to t h e i r counterparts. Native c h i l d r e n appear to be able to i d e n t i f y a n a l y t i c features, but i t also appears that they recode these a n a l y t i c features "automatic-a l l y " into a s i n g l e h o l i s t i c or i n t e r a c t i v e image. I n t e i — a c t i v e images or models of what to "look" for i n a s t i m u l i provide h o l i s t i c concrete/active feedback to the Native c h i l d which may be used in c o n t r o l l i n g attention to a n a l y t i c d e t a i l . fin i n t e r a c t i v e image corresponds to a syntagrnatic verbal r e l a t i o n s h i p (Reid, 1974)-. One i n s t r u c t i o n a l implication which can be drawn from t h i s l i n e of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that Native childr e n s perfoi—-mance on tasks re q u i r i n g a n a l y t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n may be enhanced by "deautomatizing" the feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n control processes (ala., La Berge & Samuel, 1974). For example, the use of verbal-mediation on v i s u a l l y presented a c t i v i t i e s i s one method for increasing a n a l y t i c perception, as employed in Feuerstein's <1978) Instrumental Enrichment Program. The task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with the verbal/ l o g i c a l planning control processing of Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n demonstrates no s i g n i f i c a n t pattern of v a r i a t i o n , implying that s i m i l a r task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are associated Chapter Five Discussion with loadings on t h i s f a c t o r for the two populations (see Table Seven). Native performance on the three marker tasks of v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning suggests that Natives are equal to t h e i r non-Native counterparts in the r e c a l l of Enactive paired associate items but not in the r e c a l l of the Functional or Logical items. The "observational 1 1 learning environment provides f r e -quent mediation f o r a c t i v i t y based, syntagmatically related, h o l i s t i c feature i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The "formal academic" learning environment provides frequent mediation for verbal/ l o g i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of both h o l i s t i c and a n a l y t i c features, which f a c i l i t a t e s the development v e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning c o n t r o l . One explanation of the d i f f i c u l t y encountered by Native c h i l d r e n in r e c a l l i n g Paradigmatic associates i s that para-digmatic associate r e c a l l i s f a c i l i t a t e d by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a n a l y t i c features. In order to u t i l i z e a paradigmatic a s s o c i a t i o n to r e c a l l a word, i t i s assumed that the pair of words must be broken into two separate words or into a compound image. It i s l i k e l y that non-Native c h i l d r e n process paradigmatic paired associates in t h i s manner, while Native c h i l d r e n appear to process these associations as i n t e r a c t i v e images (see Reese, 1977, f o r a d e t a i l e d discussion of the unique organizational properties of these two types of images Chapter Five Discussion fo r the storage and r e t r i e v a l of information). P. second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e weakness e v i -denced by Native c h i l d r e n on tasks loading on the verbal/ l o g i c a l f a c t o r involves the " l e v e l of processing" theory of Craik and Lockhart (1977) which hypothesizes that dual coding ( i . e . , imagery & verbal coding) increases the depth of processing and therefore the memorability of the inform-ation. In t h i s case, superior paradigmatic paired associate r e c a l l may r e f l e c t dual coding by non-Natives. This i s consistent with the lack of performance d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n on the Identical P i c t u r e - e r r o r and TCU Homogeneous Function scores, both of which demon-strated s i g n i f i c a n t loadings on the Native v e r b a l / l o g i c a l factor. Both i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are probably involved in-an i n t e r a c t i v e pattern. Native c h i l d r e n appear to form i n t e r a c t i v e h o l i s t i c images f o r the storage and r e t r i e v a l of paired associates. Intera c t i v e imagery i s assumed to be les s e f f e c t i v e i n i n -creasing paired associate r e c a l l than dual coding (Reese, 1977). The fact that dual coding i s t y p i c a l of the formal academic learning environment, but not the observational learning environment, implies that the d i f f i c u l t y Native c h i l d r e n experience on most vocabulary t e s t s may be related to t h i s paradigmatic r e c a l l d i f f i c u l t y . 155 Chapter Five Discussion One i n s t r u c t i o n a l i mplication of performance di f f e r e n c e s in V e r b a l / l o g i c a l planning involves the design of Vocabulary development exercises. The provision f o r synonyms of new vocabulary terms and/or the cat e g o r i z a t i o n of vocabulary through topic-generated l i s t s may be considered a s p e c i a l case of paradigmatic paired associate l e a r n i n g — a r e l a t i v e weakness among Native children. Furthermore, the vocabulary content c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the formal academic learning environ-ment i s more abstract than concrete r e s t r i c t i n g coding to l a r g e l y verbal codes, which i s also a r e l a t i v e weakness for Native c h i l d r e n . F i n a l l y , the formal academic learning e n v i -ronment emphasizes the use of compound imagery over i n t e i — a c t i v e imagery, as suggested by the frequency of paradigmatic type vocabulary lessons. Native c h i l d r e n demonstrated r e l a t i v e strengths on tasks associated with syntagrnat i c a ssociations when the r e l a t i o n -ship between the pair was "predicative". A "predicative" r e l a t i o n s h i p may be considered the verbal equivalent of an i n t e r a c t i v e image in that both r e l a t i o n s h i p s involve one element i n t e r a c t i n g with another (Reid, 1974).. The observa-t i o n a l learning environment may faVor the development of these Native strengths, thus the vocabulary d e f i c i t evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n may be characterized as an e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e . 156 Chapter Five Discussion The i n s t r u c t i o n a l implications for an e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than what one would draw from a general verbal d e f i c i e n c y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . For example, a verbal d e f i c i e n c y perspective would suggest the need f o r increased vocabulary development but without regard to the nature of the tasks demands associated with teaching vocabulary. In contrast, the e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e per-spective implies that strengths need to be represented i n terms of s p e c i f i c task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c during the process of vocabulary development. From the e x p e r i e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e perspective, vocabulary development designed to optimize Native strengths should involve the provision of " i n t e r a c t i v e verbal metaphors" i n add i t i o n to the t y p i c a l l y paradigmatic associations provided. For example, in teaching the term " r e p t i l e " the provision of s i m i l a r i t i e s between members of that c l a s s should be made in terms of a s e r i e s of " i n t e r a c t i v e images" which are genet— ated by prompts concerning s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s between group members <e.g., "Where do they l i v e ? " , "What do they eat?", and "How do they reproduce?"). The paradigmatic r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r example, between a frog and a r e p t i l e can then be r e c a l l e d i n terms of a s e r i e s of enactive paired associates,or i n t e r -a c t i v e images. 157 Chapter Five Discussion In summary, t h i s study provides preliminary evidence regarding q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n on the twenty-two marker tasks. The r e s u l t s have been considered suggestive of a unique "learning s t y l e " associated with the di f f e r e n c e s i n the form of mediation provided within the observational learning environment of Native children. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a "Native learning s t y l e " requires addressing a number of methodological and t h e o r e t i c a l issues including the following points. F i r s t , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the seven control processes needs to be r e p l i c a t e d across Native groups and between v a i — ious non-Native groups. Results of t h i s type of r e p l i c a t i o n would increase confidence i n the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of these f a c -t o r s within various learning environments. For example, r e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s study comparing groups with sensory impairments would provide further d e t a i l s concerning the nature of the observational environment., as represented by the hearing-impaired population, while d e t a i l s concerning the verbal mediated learning environment could be gained by studying a visually-impaired population. Second, these f a c t o r s must be i d e n t i f i e d using d i f f e r e n t tasks, including measures more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to academic tasks, which could be subsequently tested on the basis of 158 Chapter Five Discussion the empirical task a n a l y s i s summarized i n Table Seven. This type of r e p l i c a t i o n would provide increased confidence i n the convergent and discriminant v a l i d i t y of the processing factors. The use of a mult i - t r a i t / r n u l t i-method matrix r e -search paradigm should prove e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s s t y l e of r e p l i c a t i o n . Third, d i f f e r e n c e s between Native males and females need to be investigated i n terms of the t r a d i t i o n a l d i f f e r -ences i n the form of mediation provided to the two groups. For example, the q u a l i t a t i v e performance d i f f e r e n c e evidenced by female Native c h i l d r e n compared to male Natives on these seven processing f a c t o r s may r e f l e c t a consistent observa-t i o n a l mediation s t y l e , which has not changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n generations of Native females. In contrast, the c u l t u r a l 1; relevant tasks which are required of male Native c h i l d r e n have undergone major changes without the necessary changes i n mediational s t y l e . F i n a l l y , a "Native Learning S t y l e " requires r e l a t i n g learning s t y l e s to i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s . It i s suggested that an i n t e r a c t i o n between the strengths i n processing evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n and t h e i r performance under c e r t a i n i n s t u c t i o n a l conditions ( i . e . , l e a r n i n g / i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e matching) i s best investigated by an aptitude-treatment i n t e r a c t i o n paradigm. In fact, an aptitude-treatment i n t e r -Chapter Five Discussion a c t i o n must be considered as necessary but not s u f f i c i e n t proof of any learning s t y l e . Note that, the pronounced hetero-genity of learning environments associated with c u l t u r a l development of various Native and non-Native groups suggests that small sample research designs such as time s e r i e s designs may be required. In t h i s sense, i t i s u n l i k e l y that one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c learning s t y l e can be i d e n t i f i e d f o r a l l Natives. Rather, several learning s t y l e s maybe involved and represented, i n part, by the i n t e r a c t i o n between the learning environment task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c h i l d i s exposed to, and the type of control processes u t i l i z e d on formal academic tasks. In conclusion, the p r e c i s i o n of language used i n i n t e i — preting the seven control processes i n t h i s paper provides a basis f o r future operational d e f i n i t i o n s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of learning s t y l e dimensions. Only with precise language and d e t a i l e d c o g n i t i v e task analyses, can we hope to begin to design more appropriate i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures fo r Native c h i l d r e n . Many roads and b l i n d a l l e y s must be t r a v e l l e d before the promise of matching i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e to learning s t y l e can be met. This paper i s submitted as a signpost. 160 BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, M. <19S3). 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Witkin, H. ft. , Dyk, R. B. , Faterson, H. F. , Goodenough, D. R. , & Karp, S.A. (1962). Psychological D i f f e r e n t iat ion. New York: Wiley. Zarske, J. A., Moore, C. L., & Peterson, J. D. (1981). WISC-R fac t o r structures for diagnosed learning disabled Navajo and Papago ch i l d r e n . Psychology in the Schools. 18, 402 - 407. Zelniker, T. & J e f f r e y , W. E. (1976). R e f l e c t i v e and impul-sive c h i l d r e n : Strategies of information processing undei— ly i n g d i f f e r e n c e s in problem solving. Monographs of  Society for Research in Child Development. 41, (5, No. 168). APPENDIX 1 173 PAIRED ASSOCIATES TEST" Directions "I'm going to read a l i s t of eight pairs of words that go together like salt and pepper. When I'm through reading al l eight pairs, I ' l l read one of the words like salt and you hcve to tell me what word went with i t . Ready? Listen carefully." Read each pair with a one second pause between pairs. After the last pair, immediately read the f i rst prompt word, then continue reading prompt words at the rate of one per three seconds. Record al l answers on. the line next to prompt word even i f incorrect. Use N. R. for no response, and D. K. for dcn't know responses. Name Date of Birth Sex: M F B 4 high style D happen C 5 butter mel t E mother C corn grow F greed A red blood H direction A hot fireplace G circle D duty calls 6 honest E door house C qrurf G ocean sea F quality r* greed hatred A hot H position direction G ocean D event happen H belief E mother child C melt H hope belief B high F cost quali ty A red G circle square E house B honest truth D calls D6 power shock F item E7 teacher student G money F item unit D shock H humor joke E teacher G car automobile H spir i t B pleasant dream F effort C ship sank A old F outcome effort H humor A old gentleman B horrible G dollar money C dance H soul spir it G automobile C shoes dance B pleasant B horrible fate E hospi tal A small bird D give E hospital doctor C sank D hint give A small F 8 hearing silence H deed G1 cat animal A green D heaven help G church E chair table B bad H 1i fe deed E sky F answer knowledge C flow A big city B strong H justice law D measure B strong opinion D help r river -Haw E chair G church building A big •i bad attitude F knowledge F star sky C cooks D length measure G animal C meat cooks F hearing A green grass H justice H2 quantity amount B second A 3 glass bottle C kiss G arm body C ride B proven fact A glass E garden flower A sharp C l ip kiss D run B second chance E flower D trouble run G boy D mercy k i l l F hour E book school H thouaht A sharp rock D k i l l F fault excuse E book C horse ride H amount G boy gi rl F excuse F hour time G arm H idea thought B proven 174 APPENDIX II 175 A P P E N D I X T A B L E I I . 1 : F A C T O R L O A D I N G S F O R P R I N C I P A L C O M P O N E N T S A N A L Y S I S W I T H V A R I M A X R O T A T I O N O F A S E V E N F A C T O R S O L U T I O N F O R T H E N O N N A T I V E D A T A VISUAL VERBAL SIMUL-BOTTQM-UP TOP-DOWN TOP-DOWN TANEOUS ATTENTION ATTENTION ATTENTION CODING HIDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED 0.0 O.B9 0.0 0.0 HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS 0.0 0.88 0.0 0.0 IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED 0.0 0.0 0.76 0.0 IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS 0.0 0.36 ,0.42 -0.41 K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC SESTALT CLOSURE 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.86 K-flBC NUMBER RECALL 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC TRIANGLES 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.74 K-ABC WORD ORDER 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY 0.52 0.0 0.58 0.0 K-ABC PHOTO SERIES 0.0 0.0 .0.0 0.45 ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 . 0 . 0 0.63 ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 , 0,0 0.0 FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS -0.54 0.0 0.0 0.0 TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH 0.91 0.0 0.0 0.0 TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH 0.0 -0.44 0.0 0.0 TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 0.0 0.77 0.0 TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 VARIANCE OF FACTORS 1.83 2.38 2.45 2.44 Loading values less than 0.35 are replaced by 0.0 1 7 6 CONCRETE VERBAL SUCCESSIVE ACTIVE LOGICAL C0DIN6 PLANNING PLANNING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.76 0.0 0.82 0.0 0.66 0.45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.76 0.0 0.69 2.92 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.54 0.0 0.0 0.0 :0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.65 0.0 0.0 -0.36 1.69 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.36 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.38 0.86 0.78 0.85 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.35 0.0 0.0 2.63 APPENDIX TABLE II. 2: FACTOR LOADINGS FOR PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS WITH VARIMAX ROTATION OF A SEVEN FACTOR SOLUTION FOR THE NATIVE DATA BOTTOM-UP ATTENTION HIDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED 0.0 HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS 0.0 IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED 0.0 IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS 0.0 K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS 0.0 K-ABC GESTALT CLOSURE 0.0 K-ABC NUMBER RECALL 0.0 K-ABC TRIANGLES 0.36 K-ABC WORD ORDER 0.0 K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES 0.0 K-ABC.SPATIAL MEMORY 0.52 K-ABC PHOTO SERIES 0.0 ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.70 ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.86 FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.53 LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS 0.0 TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH 0.0 TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH 0.58 TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 VARIANCE OF FACTORS 2.51 Loading values less than 0.35 are replaced by 0.0 VISUAL TOP-DOWN ATTENTION 0.81 0.89 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.37 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.39 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.28 VERBAL TOP-DOWN ATTENTION 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.54 0.0 0.0 0.38 0.0 -0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.84 0.73 0.0 0.78 0.76 0.62 3.67 SIMUL-TANEOUS CODING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.86 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.45 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.64 SUCCESSIVE CODING 0.0 0.0 0.56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.80 0.0 0.80 0.72 -0.41 0.65 0.0 0.0 0.47 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.46 3.67 CONCRETE ACTIVE PLANNING 0.0 0.0 0.57 0.91 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.54 0.0 -0.40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.35 0.0 0.0 1.94 VERBAL LOGICAL PLANNING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.38 0.0 0.0 0.85 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.79 177 APPENDIX TABLE II.3: FACTOR LOADINGS FOR PROCRUSTES TRANSFORMATION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATION TO A SEVEN FACTOR TARGET MATRIX FOR THE NON NON NATIVE DATA VISUAL VERBAL BOTTOM-UP TOP-DOWN TOP-DOWN ATTENTION ATTENTION ATTENTION HIDDEN PATTERNS ATTEMPTED 0.0 0.77 0.0 HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS 0.0 0.80 0.0 IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED 0.0 0.0 0.43 IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS 0.0 0.44 0.42 K-ABC HAND MOVEMENTS 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-flBC SESTALT CLOSURE 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC NUMBER RECALL 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC TRIANGLES 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC WORD ORDER 0.0 -0.37 0.0 K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES 0.0 0.0 0.0 K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY 0.55 0.0 0.45 K-ABC PHOTO SERIES 0.0 0.0 0.0 ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 0.0 ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 0.0 FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 0.0 LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 0.0 0.0 TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS -0.39 -0.48 0.0 TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH 0.51 0.0 0.0 TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH 0.69 -0.37 0.0 TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH -0.39 0.0 0.50 TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 0.0 0.81 TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 0.0 0.0 VARIANCE OF FACTORS 1.64 2.31 2.10 Loading values less than 0.35 are replaced with 0.0 SIMUL-TANEOUS CODING 0.40 0.0 0.43 0.0 0.0 0.78 0.0 0.71 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.70 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.64 SUCCESSIVE CODING 0.0 0.0 0.36 0.0 0.71 0.0 0.73 0.0 0.57 0.57 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.38 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.80 3.04 CONCRETE ACTIVE PLANNING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.44 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.64 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.69 0.0 0.48 0.0 0.0 2.02 VERBAL LOGICAL PLANNING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.37 0.0 0.43 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.87 0.80 0.81 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.59 178 APPENDIX TABLE II.4: FACTOR LOADINGS FOR PROCRUSTES TRANSFORMATION WITH ORTHOGONAL ROTATION TO A SEVEN FACTOR TARGET MATRIX FOR THE NATIVE DATA BOTTOM-UP ATTENTION HIDDEN PATTERNS HIlEMPTED 0.0 HIDDEN PATTERNS ERRORS 0.0 IDENTICAL PICTURES ATTEMPTED 0.0 IDENTICAL PICTURES ERRORS 0.0 K-flBC HAND MOVEMENTS 0.0 K-ABC GESTALT CLOSURE -0.49 K-ABC NUMBER RECALL 0.0 K-ABC TRIANGLES 0.0 K-ABC WORD ORDER 0.38 K-ABC MATRIX ANALOGIES 0.43 K-ABC SPATIAL MEMORY 0.0 K-ABC PHOTO SERIES 0.0 ICONIC PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 ENACTIVE PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.51 FUNCTIONAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 LOGICAL PAIRED ASSOCIATES 0.0 TCU UNILATERAL CONCEPTS 0.0 TCU COLOR REALITY MATCH 0.0 TCU SHAPE REALITY MATCH 0.71 TCU HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 TCU ABSTRACT FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 TCU RELATIONAL FUNCTION REALITY MATCH 0.0 VARIANCE OF FACTORS 1.91 Loading values less than 0.35 are replaced by 0.0 VISUAL TOP-DOWN ATTENTION 0.83 0.93 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.47 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.28 VERBAL TOP-DOWN ATTENTION 0.0 0.0 0.47 • 0.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.38 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.40 -0.36 0.0 0.0 0.36 0.73 0.0 2.03 179 SIMUL-TANEOUS CODING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.58 0.0 0.57 0.52 0.46 0.0 0.0 0.57 0.59 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.46 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.10 SUCCESSIVE CODING 0.0 0.0 0.59 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.58 0.48 0.60 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.43 -0.71 0.60 " 0.0 0.62 0.48 0.71 3.86 CONCRETE ACTIVE PLANNING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.42 0.52 0.40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.39 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.73 VERBAL LOGICAL PLANNING 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.41 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.66 0.69 0.80 0.52 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.35 0.0 0.0 2.50 

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