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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Relationship among identified problem areas, choice of helpers, and sex-role differentiation in grade… Joy, Peter W. 1983

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R E L A T I O N S H I P A M O N G I D E N T I F I E D P R O B L E M A R E A S , C H O I C E O F H E L P E R S , A N D S E X - R O L E D I F F E R E N T I A T I O N IN G R A D E E L E V E N S T U D E N T S b y P E T E R W. J O Y B . A . ( H o n s . ) , Q u e e n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S Depar tmen t o f Educa t i on We accep t t h i s thes is as con fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A u g u s t , 1983 ( c ) Pe te r W. J o y , 1983. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree .that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 >E-6 (3/81) A B S T R A C T T h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s , w i th a g r o u p of 181 g r a d e e leven s t u d e n t s , the r e l a t i onsh ips among a number of s e l f - r e p o r t e d v a r i a b l e s : i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s , d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l ihood on these p r o b l e m s , and cho ice of h e l p e r . S t u d e n t s , g r o u p e d by b io log ica l sex and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x -role o r i en ta t i on (Bern , 1978) , were a s k e d by means of a t w o - p a r t q u e s -t i onna i re the ex ten t to wh ich each of e leven prob lem top ics was a p r o b -lem for them ( P a r t I o f the s t u d y ) , how l i ke l y they wou ld be to ta lk abou t each of the p rob lem t o p i c s , and w i th whom ( P a r t II o f the s t u d y ) . In P a r t I of the s t u d y , bo th the main e f fec t for i den t i f i ed p rob lem a n d the i n te rac t i on be tween i den t i f i ed p rob lem and sex of s t u d e n t were s i g n i f i c a n t , t h o u g h sex of s t u d e n t was not s i g n i f i c a n t . When s t u d e n t s were g r o u p e d b y p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , on ly the main e f fect fo r i den t i f i ed prob lem was s i g n i f i c a n t . In the second a n d l a r g e r pa r t of the s t u d y , the re were s i g n i f i c a n t main e f fec ts and lower o r d e r i n t e r -ac t ions w i th r e g a r d s to b io log ica l sex and psycho log i ca l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on of the d i s c l o s e r , g e n d e r and locat ion of the h e l p e r , and the p rob lem top ic to be t a l ked abou t . What is most no tab le , h o w e v e r , is the number o f s i g n i f i c a n t h i g h e r o r d e r i n te rac t i ons wh i ch ind ica te the comp lex i t y of cond i t i ona l i t y for s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . T h i s is to say that the sub jec t s in th i s s t u d y r epo r t that the deg ree of t he i r s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e d e p e n d s s p e c i f i c a l l y on who they a re in terms of t he i r b io log ica l sex and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , what the top ic i s , and to whom they a re d i s c l o s i n g . T h e an teceden ts o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e a re v a r i e d and c o m p l e x . ( i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page i Abstract i i List of Tables vi List of Figures ix Acknowledgements x CHAPTER '•.I INTRODUCTION 1 Background and Rationale for Study 1 Identified Problems 2 Self-Disclosure 3 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation and Self-Disclosure 6 Purposes of Study 8 General Purposes 8 Specific Purposes 9 Importance, Significance and Uniqueness of This Study 10 Importance 10 Significance 10 Uniqueness of This Study 11 Definition of Terms 12 II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 17 Introduction 17 Identified Problems 17 Self-Disclosure 17 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation X Self-Disclosure 18 (ii i) Identified Problems 18 Identified Problems 18 Identified Problems X Gender . . . . . . . . 19 Identified Problems X Psychological Sex-Role Orientation . 20 Self-Disclosure 21 Self-Disclosure 21 Measuring Self-Disclosure 22 Self-Disclosure 2 3 Main Effects 25 Lower Order Interactions 33 Higher Order Interactions . . . 38 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation . . . . . . . 39 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation and Androgyny - Background 39 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation and Identified Problems 41 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation and Self-Disclosure 41 Summary of Literature 45 Identified Problems 45 Self-Disclosure .Psychological Sex-Role Orientation, Identified Problems and Self-Disclosure Ill METHODOLOGY IV RESULTS 46 51 54 Description of Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Description of Measurement Instruments 55 Measurement of Identified Problems . . . . . 56 Measurement of Self-Disclosure 59 Bern Sex-Role Inventory 62 Data Collection Procedures . 67 Data Analysis 68 Correlational Approach 68 Analysis of Variance . 69 71 Identified Problems 7 1 (iv) Self-Disclosure 74 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation and Self-Disclosure 103 V DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 121 Discussion of Results 121 Identified Problems 121 Self-Disclosure . . . 122 Psychological Sex-Role Orientation and Self-Disclosure 126 Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research 128 Limitations 128 Recommendations for Future Research . . . . 129 Implications and Conclusions 131 BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 APPENDIX . 138 Part I 140 Part II 142 Part III 150 (v) LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Selected Demographic Characteristics of Mission, Vancouver, British Columbia and Canada . . 55 2 Four Themes and Eleven Problem Topics -Instrument: Identified Problems . . 56 3 Percentage of Subjects in Various Sex-Role Groups for a 1975 Sample of Stanford Undergraduates as Defined by a Median Split of Both Masculinity and Femininity . . . . . . 65 4 Summary Table - Identified Problem and Sex of Student - Analysis of Variance . 72 5 Means and Significant Differences of Identified Problems For Students Grouped by Sex . 73 6 Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Co-efficients Between Identified Problems and Sex of Student 74 7 Summary Table - Problem, Sex of Student, Gender of Helper and Location of Helper -Analysis of Variance 75 8 Mean Disclosure Scores on Problems for Students Group by Sex . . . . . . 76 9 Rank Order, Mean Disclosure Scores and Significant Difference Levels Between Likelihood of Problem Disclosure 77 10 Pearson Product - Moment Correlation Co-efficients for All Students Between Seriousness of Identified Problems and Likelihood of Disclosure on These Same Problems . . .. • 79 11 Pearson Product - Moment Correlation Co-efficients For Males Between Seriousness of Each Identified Problem and Likelihood of Disclosure on That Same Problem . . . . . . . . . 81 (vi) 12 Pearson Product - Moment Correlation Co-efficients for Females Between the Serious-ness of Each Identified Problem and Likelihood of Disclosure on That Same Problem . . . . 82 13 Mean Disclosure Scores to Male and Female Helpers For Students Grouped by Sex . . . . . . . . 85 14 Mean Disclosure Scores to Friends, Parents and School Personnel For Students Grouped by Sex . . . . 86 15 Rank Order, Mean Disclosure Scores and Significant Difference Levels for the Interaction: Sex of Student X Location of Helper 87 16 Gender of Helper X Location of Helper Design Into Six Targets 88 17 Rank Order, Mean Disclosure Scores and Significant Difference Levels Between Six Targets 89 18 Mean Disclosure Scores to Helper Gender X Helper Location (Friends, Parents, School Personnel) For Students Grouped by Sex . 90 19 Rank Ordering and Mean Disclosure Scores to Seven Helpers For Students Grouped by Sex 91 20 Summary Table - Problem and Sex of Student -Analysis of Variance For Helper, No One . . . . . . 93 21 Mean Problem Disclosure Scores to Helper No-One For Students Grouped by Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 22 Rank Order, Mean Disclosure Scores and Significant Difference Levels Between Likeli-hood of Problem Disclosure to Helper, No One . . . . 95 23 Mean Disclosure Scores and Significant Difference Level Notation Between Sex of Student For Each Problem to Each Helper by Gender and Location 97 24 Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Co-efficients Between BSRI Masculinity and v Femininity Scores for Male, Female and All Students for Eleven Identified Problems . . . . 105 (vii) 25 Distribution of Students According to Sex and Bern Grouping 107 26 Summary Table - Identified Problems and Bern Grouping of Student - Analysis of Variance 27 Rank Order, Mean Scores and Significance Difference Levels Between Identified Problems . . . 108 109 28 Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Between BSRI Masculinity and Femininity Scores For Male, Female and All Students X Likelihood of Problem Disclosure I l l 29 Summary Table - Problem, Bern Grouping of Student, and Gender and Location of Helper -Analysis of Variance . . . 113 30 Mean Disclosure Scores to Male and Female Helpers For Students Grouped by the BSRI 114 31 Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Between BSRI Masculinity and Femininity Scores for Males, Females and All Students to Helper No One, and All Combinations of Helpers 116 32 Mean Disclosure Scores to Helpers by Location For Students Grouped by the BSRI 118 33 Mean Disclosure Scores to Helper by Gender X Helper by Location For Students Grouped by the BSRI 119 34 Summary Table - Problem and Bern Grouping of Student - Analysis of Variance for Helper, No One 120 (viii) LIST OF FIGURES Self-Disclosing Communication Model: Tubbs and Baird (1978) (ix) A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I w i sh to e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e to the cha i rman of my commit tee. D r . J . B a n m e n , and to the members o f the commit tee, D r s . R . C o n r y and W. B o r g e n fo r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , encouragement and pa t i ence . (x) 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR STUDY This study, and the literature related to it, can best be understood if it is thought of as exploring three separate but related topics: (1) identified problems: problem areas typical to students at large, and then when they are differentiated by gender and psychological sex-role orientation; (2) self-disclosure: the extent to which students as a whole and students grouped by gender are likely to self-disclose on particular problem topics, and who they are likely to choose as helpers, when helpers (targets) are differentiated by gender and location; and (3) psychological sex-role orientation and self-disclosure: the extent to which students1 differentiated by a measure of psychological sex-role orientation are likely to self-disclose on particular problem topics, and who they are likely to choose as targets. What follows is a very brief summary of the literature related to these themes and a critical look at the limitations of this litera-ture. Implied in these limitations are invitations to do further research. Though the outline above appears to focus on students as the disclosing population and the population with problems, and the sample measured in this study is a grade eleven student population, at times my literature review and interpretation of this research will not be limited to just a student population. Identified Problems 1. Identified Problems O n l y a limited amount of r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d at d e t e r m i n i n g problem areas typical to s t u d e n t s in g e n e r a l , a n d t h e r e e x i s t s only one s t u d y ( L a F r o m b o i s e , 1978) that c o n s i d e r s a g r a d e e l e v e n p o p u l a t i o n . From t h e l i t e r a t u r e , it is not c l e a r l y e v i d e n t what problems a g r a d e eleven s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , or for that matter a n y s t u d e n t p o p u -l a t i o n , would see as t h e i r s . P r e s u m a b l y , problems that people (or s t u d e n t s ) have v a r y a c c o r d i n g to age a n d developmental stages ( J o u r a r d , 1971), as well as o t h e r u n s p e c i f i e d v a r i a b l e s . 2. Identified Problems X G e n d e r Hartman (1968) f o u n d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s r a n k e d s e r i o u s -ness o f problems to reflect s e x - s t e r e o t y p e s that h a v e e x i s t e d in o u r society (males were j u d g e d to be most w o r r i e d about Vocational a n d E d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s ; w h e r e a s , females were j u d g e d to be most c o n c e r n e d about Social P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e l a t i o n s ) . C o n t r a s t i n g l y , S n y d e r , Hil l a n d D e r k s e n (1972), u s i n g a similar p o p u l a t i o n , f o u n d t h e r e to be no d i f f e r e n c e a c c o r d i n g to g e n d e r in s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - r a t i n g of p r o b l e m s . C i n n (1975), in a behavioral r a t h e r t h a n s e l f - r e p o r t measure o f identi f ied p r o b l e m s , f o u n d p r a c t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes in p r e s e n t a t i o n o f actual p r o b l e m s . With the ava i l ab i l i t y o f on l y these t h ree s t u d i e s , we a r e not ab le to de te rmine i f male s t u d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t p rob lems t han t h e i r female c o u n t e r -p a r t s . 3 . Iden t i f i ed Prob lems X Psycho log i ca l S e x - R o l e O r i en ta t i on T h i s is an u n t a p p e d a r e a . No th ing e x i s t s in the l i t e r a -t u r e to re la te the f ac to r s o f i den t i f i ed p rob lems a n d psycho log i ca l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e 1. Main E f f e c t s In the s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e l i t e r a t u r e , we f i n d s e v e r a l f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t s i n g l e - f a c t o r t r e n d s fo r each of the d i s c l o s e r , the t o p i c , and the t a r g e t . From th i s co l lec t ion o f r e s e a r c h we c a n , w i th re la t i ve a s s u r e d n e s s , make some assumpt ions t h a t , fo r i n s t a n c e , females r epo r t to s e l f - d i s c l o s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than males ( J o u r a r d a n d L a s a k o w , 1958; Lombardo and B e r z o n s k y , 1979; D e F o r e s t and S t o n e , 1980) ; tha t i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d to d i s c l o s e more abou t less int imate top ics ( J o u r a r d , 1971; C o s b y , 1973; M o r g a n , 1976; G i l b e r t and Wh i t eneck , 1976; Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , 1977) ; and t h a t , as t a r g e t s , it is r e p o r t e d tha t females t end to rece ive more d i s c l o s u r e than males ( J o u r a r d , 1971; R i v e n b a c k , 1971; M o r g a n , 1976) . We a lso have some reason to be l ieve tha t t a rge t p r e f e r e n c e v a r i e s w i th the age of the d i s c l o s e r ( J o u r a r d , 1971) , and tha t t he n a t u r e of the r e l a t i onsh ip be tween the d i s c l o s e r a n d t a r g e t , pa r t i a l l y based on the b e h a v i o r of the t a r g e t , is n of g rea t impor tance ( J o u r a r d , 1970; L a F r o m b o i s e , 1978; T u b b s and B a i r d , 1978) . 2 . Lower O r d e r In te rac t ions When we c o n s i d e r i n te rac t i ons be tween , fo r i n s t a n c e , the 2 g e n d e r o f the d i s c l o s e r , the in t imacy a n d va lence leve l 3 of the t o p i c , a n d the g e n d e r a n d locat ion o f the t a r g e t , the i n t e r a c t i n g b e h a v i o r of these f ac to r s becomes less c l e a r . It seems that t he re is su f f i c i en t r e s e a r c h to s u p p o r t a s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r of d i s c l o s e r X in t imacy leve l o f top ic r e l a t i onsh ip ( that females r epo r t to d i s c l o s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more abou t int imate t op i cs t h a n males) ( M o r g a n , 1976; O ' N e i l l , F e i n , V e l i t a n d F r a n k , 1976; G i l b e r t and Wh i t eneck , 1976; Lombardo and B e r z o n s k y , 1979; and D e F o r e s t and S t o n e , 1980) , bu t on l y one s t u d y ( G i l b e r t a n d Wh i t eneck , 1976) c o n s i d e r s g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X v a l e n c e leve l o f t op i c a n d , b y i ts n a t u r e , one s t u d y is i n c o n c l u s i v e . S im i l a r l y i n c o n c l u s i v e a re two s tud ies ( D e F o r e s t and S t o n e , 1980, and G e r d e s , G e h l i n g and R a p p , 1981) that contemplate a g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X g e n d e r o f t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n , and t h r e e s t u d i e s t ha t c o n s i d e r a g e n d e r of d i s c l o s e r X locat ion o f t a rge t ' V a l e n c e r e f e r s to p o s i t i v e , nega t i ve o r neu t ra l va lue of a top ic ( G i l b e r t a n d W h i t e n e c k , 1976) . 3 Loca t ion r e f e r s to the t y p e of p e r s o n be ing men t ioned . Loca t ions may r e f e r to g e n e r i c t y p e s s u c h as p a r e n t s o r f r i e n d s o r the s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s u c h as mother o r c loses t female f r i e n d . 5 i n t e r a c t i o n ( M o r g a n , 1976; G i l b e r t a n d W h i t e n e c k , 1976; L o m b a r d o a n d L a v i n e , 1977). O n l y the work of Lombardo a n d L a v i n e shows a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n a n d these a u t h o r s do not i n t e r p r e t it . T h e r e is v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e to indicate what might be e x p e c t e d in e i t h e r a g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X g e n d e r o f t a r g e t , o r g e n d e r of d i s c l o s e r X location o f t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n . M o r g a n (1976), a n d G i l b e r t a n d Whiteneck (1976) both f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t topic X t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n r e v e a l i n g a p a t t e r n , for t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n s , w h e r e f r i e n d s were r e p o r t e d to receive s i g n i f i c a n t l y more intimate d i s -c l o s u r e t h a n o t h e r t a r g e t s . In the case o f v a l e n c e , the main effect for valence (the t e n d e n c y to d i s c l o s e p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than negative content) d i d not seem to matter as much when t a r g e t s were intimates as o p p o s e d to when they were a c q u a i n t a n c e s o r s t r a n g e r s ( G i l b e r t a n d W h i t e n e c k , 1976). It is e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e t r e n d o f r e s e r v i n g intimate d i s c l o s u r e for those people in o u r l ives with whom we have an intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p will hold in s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h . T h o u g h G i l b e r t a n d Whiteneck f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t relat ions hip between t h e f a c t o r s , g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X topic X t a r g e t , these r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e v e r y di f f icult to i n t e r p r e t a n d t h e y r e a l l y d o not g i v e the r e a d e r a n y indication o f what to e x p e c t in f u t u r e related r e s e a r c h . V/hen e n t e r t a i n i n g s ignif icant two a n d t h r e e - w a y i n t e r a c t i o n s between s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e v a r i a b l e s , what o becomes impor tan t is not so much the s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a -t i ons o f t hese s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s : r a t h e r , tha t t h e y a r e h a p p e n i n g . T h i s i nd i ca tes a c o m p l e x i t y o f c o n d i t i o n -a l l y f o r s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e tha t two o f the most c u r r e n t t h i n k e r s in the f i e ld a r t i c u l a t e . G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck (1976) c o n c l u d e f rom t h e i r s t u d y tha t " a mu l t id imens iona l a p p r o a c h to the s t u d y o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is bo th j u s t i f i e d a n d r e q u i r e d , " ( p . 3 1 7 ) , a n d T u b b s a n d B a i r d (1978) a s s e r t , " t h a t the p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i s a complex one that is c o n t i n g e n t u p o n a n u m b e r o f i n t e r a c t i n g f a c t o r s . " ( p . 3 2 ) It fo l lows t h e n , tha t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h in t h i s a rea s h o u l d be o f a d e s i g n that wi l l a l low the p r o b i n g o f a number o f i n t e r a c t i n g s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e f a c t o r s . C . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i en ta t i on a n d S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e 1. P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i en ta t i on In the last ten y e a r s o r so t he re has been a move on the p a r t o f a number o f soc ia l s c i e n t i s t s ( B l o c k , 1973; Bern , 1974; Bern, M a r t y n a a n d Watson , 1976; Bern , 1977; S p e n c e a n d H e l m r e i c h , 1978) to re jec t the t r ad i t i ona l s t e r e o t y p i c t r a i t s a n d b e h a v i o r s tha t have been assoc ia ted w i t h males a n d females ( e . g . , tha t males a r e " i n s t r u m e n t a l " ( P a r s o n s a n d B a l e s , 1955) a n d " a g e n t i c " ( B a k a n , 1966) ; w h e r e a s , females a r e " e x p r e s s i v e " ( P a r s o n s a n d B a l e s , 1955) a n d " communa l " ( B a k a n , 1966) ) , b e c a u s e , to t h e m , t hese v i e w s a r e bo th l im i t ing a n d i n a c c u r a t e . Pe rpe tua t i on o f t he s e x - r o l e d icho tomy ( tha t t r a i t s assoc ia ted w i t h masculinity and femininity are at bi-polar ends of a single continuum) fails to allow for the fact that someone could be "androgynous": that is, have access to traits that have been associated with maleness and femaleness. Proponents of an androgynous way suggest that an androgynous individual is able to call on a wide range of responses according to what is most appropriate in a given situation. Pursuing this theme, and wishing to develop an instrument to measure psychological androgyny, Bern (1974, 1976 and 1978) created the Bern  Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). Bern's assumptions are that masculinity and femininity are both conceptually and statistically independent. Psychological Sex-Role Orientation and Self-Disclosure Compared to the volume of research that has been done to link gender of discloser with other variables of self-disclosure, little research has been attempted that consid-ers psychological sex-role orientation as a measure of the subject and of what there is, most of the findings are inconclusive. Bern (1977), in a regression analysis, found the only significant correlation between her instrument, the BSRI (1974) and the Jourard Self- Disclosure Questionnaire (1971) was that total self-disclosure in men was positively related to masculinity. Unlike what might have been expected according to role theory; e.g., (Parsons and Bales, 1955), femininity 8 d i d not c o r r e l a t e with s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . Bern's f i n d i n g s n e e d to be r e t e s t e d . A u t h o r s of a second s t u d y , Lombardo a n d L a v i n e (1977), claim that the r e s u l t s of t h e i r work s u p p o r t that s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is more a function o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e t h a n biological g e n d e r . T h o u g h t h e r e e x i s t s in this s t u d y a d i s c l o s u r e main effect for subjects t y p e d a n d r o g -y n o u s , as well as a s ignif icant sex of subject X a n d r o g -y n y level X t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n , a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t sex o f subject X a n d r o g y n y level X intimacy level of topic r e l a -t i o n s h i p , t h i s r e s e a r c h does not c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n t e r a c t i n g b e h a v i o r between Bern's measure of p s y c h o l o g i -cal sex r o l e - o r i e n t a t i o n ( B S R I , 1976) a n d these o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . F i n a l l y , G e r d e s , G e h i i n g a n d R a p p (1981) f o u n d n o t h i n g in t h e i r r e s e a r c h to s u p p o r t t h e i r h y p o t h e s i s that a n d r o g y n o u s males would s e l f - d i s c l o s e more intimately t h a n s e x - t y p e d males nor that p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - t y p i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to a n y o t h e r f a c t o r o f s e l f -d i s c l o s u r e . II P U R P O S E S O F S T U D Y A . G e n e r a l P u r p o s e s : T h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s of this r e s e a r c h were to f i n d o u t : 1. what g e n d e r a n d s e x - r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d g r a d e e l e v e n s t u d e n t s see as t h e i r most serious p r o b l e m s ; 2. to what extent they say that they are likely to talk about these problems; and 3. with whom they are likely to talk. Specific Purposes: Specifically, the questions this study will attempt to answer are: 1. (a) Are some problem topics seen to be more serious for males than females? (b) Do females appear to be more troubled with problems in general than males? 2. (a) Are some problem topics more likely to be talked about by females than males? (b) Are females more likely to talk about more problems in general than males? (c) Are subjects, regardless of gender, more likely to talk about some problem topics than others? 3. (a) To what degree does statement of seriousness of problem topic correlate with likelihood of discussing problem topics? (b) Do males and females differ? H. Are males and females equally likely to choose the same helpers for their problems, and how does identity and/or sex of helper appear to influence choice? 5. How does an individual's score on Bern's measure of psychological sex-role orientation (BSRI, 1978) relate to an individual's (a) seriousness of problem topics, (b) likelihood of talking about problem topics, and (c) choice of helper? 10 III I M P O R T A N C E , S I G N I F I C A N C E A N D U N I Q U E N E S S O F T H I S S T U D Y A . Impor tance I be l i eve tha t it is impor tant to do th i s s t u d y to e x t e n d what has p r e v i o u s l y been d o n e . G a p s e x i s t in the re la ted l i t e ra tu re as ou t l i ned in the p r e v i o u s sec t ion " B a c k g r o u n d a n d Rat iona le fo r S t u d y . " B . S i g n i f i c a n c e T h i s s t u d y s h o u l d have s i g n i f i c a n c e to both p r a c t i t i o n e r s ( those w o r k i n g in the f i e ld w i th h i g h schoo l s t u d e n t s : g u i d a n c e c o u n s e l l o r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , e t c . ) , and the r e s e a r c h commun i t y . I wou ld e x p e c t that fo r schoo l re la ted pe rsonne l it may be he lp fu l to have an idea of what g r a d e e leven s t u d e n t s , as a who le , a n d a c c o r d i n g to g e n d e r , r e p o r t a re t he i r most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s . More impor tan t may be tha t schoo l pe r sonne l deve lop a sense of s t u d e n t s ' l i ke l i hood of d i s c u s s i n g d i f f e r e n t p rob lems w i th d i f f e r e n t h e l p e r s . G u i d a n c e p e r s o n n e l , in p a r t i c u l a r , whose f u n c t i o n it is to p r o v i d e a s o u n d i n g b o a r d fo r s t u d e n t s , s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e to t h i s and re la ted r e s e a r c h . Because the p e r s o n in the f i e ld o f ten does not have access to a Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y s c o r e , t h i s measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y and how it re la tes to s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is u n l i k e l y to be of much p r a c t i c a l u s e . I wou ld an t i c i pa te that the r e s e a r c h communi ty wou ld be i n t e res ted in e v e r y t h i n g above as wel l as how the B S R I (1978) i n t e rac t s w i th the two new measures of i den t i f i ed p rob lems a n d s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e tha t have been deve loped fo r th i s s t u d y . Uniqueness of this Study This study is uniquely different from the rest of the literature in the following ways: 1. The instruments used in this study to measure identified problems and self-disclosure are unique to this study. 2. The population measured is a grade eleven population rather than a first year university population upon which so much of the identified problems and self-disclosure literature is based (see Chapter II: Review of the Related Literature). 3. Most of the self-disclosure literature either sums over problems to give a total self-disclosure score or scales items. In this study, I have attempted to limit the number of problem topics so that some of the ways they interact with other variables of self-disclosure can be looked at on more of an individual basis. H. In this research design, the factor, helper or target has two levels, location (friend, parent and school person-nel), and gender (male and female); whereas, in the rest of the research, helper has had just one level: that is, who the target is. Typically, targets have been specified as closest male friend, mother, father, spouse and so on. 5. In this study, "no one" is a choice as a target person. That is, one could choose not to disclose to anyone on a given problem topic. "No one" as a choice does not exist anywhere else in the literature. Nowhere in the l i t e r a t u r e is t h e r e a c o r r e l a t i o n between a list of identif ied problem topics a n d subjects ' l ikel ihood of d i s c l o s i n g on them. V e r y little exists in the l i t e r a t u r e to s t u d y the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s among p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e orientat ion a n d v a r i -ables of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . D E F I N I T I O N O F T E R M S E a c h o f the following terms is u s e d in t h i s s t u d y . F o r some o f these items a d i s t i n c t i o n is made between the c o n c e p t u a l definit ion or c o n s t r u c t , a n d the operational def init ion a n d how the term relates specif ical ly to this r e s e a r c h . 1. Identified Problems In t h e l i t e r a t u r e , identif ied p r o b l e m s r e f e r to those problems that people identify as b e i n g t h e i r s . In terms o f this r e s e a r c h , g r a d e eleven s t u d e n t s a r e a s k e d "to what extent is each o f the following a problem for y o u ? " E l e v e n probl e m t o p i c s , r a n g i n g from " d i f f i c u l t y with g r a d e s " to "problems o f sexual a d j u s t m e n t , " are the s t i m u l u s . See the A p p e n d i x , P a r t I. 2. S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e T h e term " s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , " o r i g i n a l l y c o i n e d b y J o u r a r d (1964), r e f e r s to a p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t a n d a p r o c e s s w h i c h o c c u r s d u r i n g interact ion with o t h e r s . L i k e terms that may d e s c r i b e a p e r s o n a r e "social a c c e s s i b i l i t y " ( R i c k e r s - O v s i a n k i n a , 1956), " r e v e a l i n g n e s s " ( C r o w n e a n d M a r l o w e , 1964), a n d " o p e n n e s s " ( D r e y f u s , 1967). West 6. 7. 13 a n d Z ing le (1969) d e s c r i b e the p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t a n d p rocess o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e n i c e l y : " S e l f - d i s c l o s u r e as a d imens ion of p e r s o n a l i t y r e f e r s to the e x t e n t to wh i ch an i n d i v i d u a l r evea l s pe rsona l a n d p r i v a t e in fo rmat ion abou t h imse l f as he communicates wi th o r re la tes to o t h e r s . " (p .439) Prob lems o r Prob lem T o p i c s In the l i t e r a t u r e , p rob lems o r p rob lem top i cs e i t he r r e f e r to p rob lems peop le i den t i f y as be ing t h e i r s , o r those t h e y have d i s c l o s e d upon (as in the case of the J o u r a r d S e l f -D i s c l o s u r e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 1971) or wou ld d i s c l o s e upon in the f u t u r e . In terms of th i s s t u d y , e leven p rob lems a re p r e s e n t e d to s t u d e n t s fo r each o f seven h e l p e r s in the f o r m , "How l i k e l y wou ld y o u be to ta l k to abou t each o f the fo l low ing p r o b l e m s ? " Prob lems a r e l i s ted in t he A p p e n d i x , Pa r t II. He lpe r or T a r g e t H e l p e r o r t a r g e t r e f e r s to the p e r s o n c h o s e n to be the l i s tener in a s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s s t u d y , t he re a re s e v e n t a r g e t s : c loses t male f r i e n d , c loses t female f r i e n d , f a t h e r , mo the r , schoo l p e r s o n n e l (ma le ) , schoo l p e r s o n n e l ( female) and no o n e . T a r g e t s a re f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d b y g e n d e r (male and female) a n d b y locat ion ( t h e i r g e n e r i c c l a s s , whe the r t h e y a re f r i e n d s , p a r e n t s o r schoo l p e r s o n n e l ) . 14 G e n d e r o r S e x G e n d e r o r sex r e f e r s to b io log ica l g e n d e r o f e i t h e r a d i s c l o s e r o r t a r g e t . B i o l o g i c a l l y , a pe rson can be male o r female . Loca t ion In t h i s r e s e a r c h , locat ion r e f e r s to the g e n e r i c c l ass o f the t a r g e t , whe the r the p e r s o n , b y d e s c r i p t i o n , is a f r i e n d , p a r e n t o r school p e r s o n n e l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i en ta t i on C o n c e p t u a l l y , t h i s term r e f e r s to a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d b e h a v i o r a l o r i en ta t i on tha t a pe rson may have tha t may be s e x - t y p e d (mascu l ine o r f e m i n i n e ) , o r a b l e n d o f t hese to y i e l d an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d o r a n d r o g y n o u s o r i e n t a t i o n . In t h i s r e s e a r c h , the Bern S e x - R o l e I n v e n t o r y (Bern , 1973) (see the A p p e n d i x , Pa r t III) y i e l d s a mascu l i n i t y a n d fem in in i t y sco re as wel l as a ca tego r i za t i on a c c o r d i n g to one ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n : e i t he r m a s c u l i n e , f em in ine , a n d r o g y n o u s or u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Mascu l i ne M a s c u l i n e is a c a t e g o r y tha t d e s c r i b e s an i n d i v i d u a l w i th s i g n i f i c a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b e h a v i o r a l i nc l i na t i on towards the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the mascu l ine s e x - r o l e . T h i s c a t -e g o r y w i th in the B S R I (1978) r e f e r s to those i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a h i g h sco re on the i n s t r u m e n t ' s mascu l ine sca le a n d a r e l a t i v e l y low sco re on the femin ine s c a l e . 15 9. Feminine C o u n t e r to m a s c u l i n e , feminine is a c a t e g o r y that d e -s c r i b e s an i n d i v i d u a l with signif icant p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d b e h a v i o r a l incl ination towards the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the feminine s e x - r o l e . In the BSRI (1978), i n d i v i d u a l s c a t e -g o r i z e d feminine have a h i g h score on the i n s t r u m e n t ' s feminine scale a n d a r e l a t i v e l y low score on the masculine scale. 10. A n d r o g y n o u s - A n d r o g y n y In the B S R I (1978), a p e r s o n c a t e g o r i z e d a n d r o g y n o u s has a h i g h s c o r e on both the i n s t r u m e n t ' s masculine a n d feminine scale. C o n c e p t u a l l y , a n d r o g y n y means both male a n d female in o n e : a balance a n d a c a p a c i t y to e x h i b i t b o t h male a n d female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as t h e s i tuat ion d e m a n d s . T h e state of a n d r o g y n y allows both g e n d e r s to freely engage in b e h a v i o r s associated with males or f e -males a n d f u r t h e r assumes (other factors p e r m i t t i n g ) a f lexibi l i ty a n d h i g h level of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d social c o m p e t e n c y . 11. U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Someone c a t e g o r i z e d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the Bern i n s t r u -ment ( B S R I , 1978) would be one with low s c o r e s on both the masculine a n d feminine scales. A c c o r d i n g to some of the r e s e a r c h , subjects c lassi f ied u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t e n d to be the lowest of the four Bern categories on self-esteem ( S p e n c e , H e l m r e i c h a n d S t a p p , 1975) a n d demonstrate b e h a v i o r a l s t r a t e g i e s with low a p p a r e n t p r o b a b i l i t y for 16 s u c c e s s f u l soc ia l outcomes ( K e l l y , C a u d i l l , H a t h o r n a n d O ' B r i e n , 1977) . S e x - T y p e d I n d i v i d u a l s S e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( t y p e d e i the r mascu l ine or femin ine) a re those who con fo rm to the t r ad i t i ona l b e h a v i o r s t hough t to be assoc ia ted wi th e i t he r males o r females . B a s e d on the r e s u l t s ob ta ined b y Wigg ins and Ho lzmu l le r (1978) , m a s c u l i n e - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s a p p e a r to be dom inan t , a m b i t i o u s , a r r o g a n t a n d c a l c u l a t i n g ; where f e m i n i n e - t y p e d sub jec t s appea r to be a g r e e a b l e , warm a n d e x t r o v e r t e d . T o be s e x - t y p e d , p r e s u m a b l y i n d i v i d u a l s a r e mot iva ted to main ta in a se l f - image of e i t h e r mascu l ine o r f em in ine , and to do s o , seem to need to s u p p r e s s b e h a v i o r that t hey might c o n s i d e r u n d e s i r a b l e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e fo r t he i r g e n d e r . Bern (1975) s u g g e s t s tha t a h i g h leve l of s e x - t y p i n g does not fac i l i t a te a p e r s o n ' s g e n e r a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l deve lopment . S e x - R o l e S t e r e o t y p e s S im i la r to s e x - t y p i n g , s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s have to do w i th ro le c a s t i n g t r ad i t i ona l l y t hough t to be assoc ia ted w i th the way a man or a woman shou ld b e . A s wi th sex t y p i n g , ma in tenance of s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s l imi ts the c a p a c i t y o f bo th men and women to rea l i ze t he i r f u l l po ten t ia l as human b e i n g s . 17 C H A P T E R II R E V I E W O F T H E R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E I I N T R O D U C T I O N T h e a u t h o r has c h o s e n to c lassify the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to t h i s s t u d y into t h r e e b r o a d a r e a s : ( A ) Identified P r o b l e m s , ( B ) S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e , a n d ( C ) P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n X S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e . Within each of these b r o a d a r e a s , t h e r e e x i s t s u n d e r l y i n g complexit ies o u t l i n e d as follows: A . Identified Problems T h i s section r e f e r s to problem areas t y p i c a l to s t u d e n t s as a whole a n d t h e n more specif ical ly when they a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y g e n d e r a n d b y p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . B . S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e T h i s , the most complex s e c t i o n , attempts to review a massive b o d y of l i t e r a t u r e that c o n c e r n s i tsel f with the long-time i n t e r e s t in s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , its c o r r e l a t e s with mental h e a l t h , the m e a s u r i n g of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , a multidimensional model o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , a n d the s ignif icant main a n d i n t e r a c t i n g effects for the factors of d i s c l o s e r , topic a n d t a r g e t . F o r the d i s -c l o s e r f a c t o r , g e n d e r is most p e r t i n e n t ; for t o p i c , intimacy level a n d v a l e n c e are most i m p o r t a n t ; a n d for t a r g e t , g e n d e r , location a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e r e l e v a n t . 18 C . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e Or i en ta t i on X S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e T h e deve lopment o v e r time of the i n te res t in p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r ien ta t i on and a n d r o g y n y , a n d the i n t e r a c t i n g r e -s e a r c h tha t re la tes a n d r o g y n y leve ls to s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , g e n d e r of s u b j e c t , cho ice of t a rge t and top ic a re the themes w i t h i n t h i s sec t ion o f the r e v i e w . U p o n comple t ion o f t hese s e c t i o n s , a " S u m m a r y of the S ta te o f the A r t " w i l l a t tempt to c r i t i c a l l y eva lua te what a r e the most n o t e w o r t h y a n d v a l u a b l e f i n d i n g s in the re la ted l i t e r a t u r e . II I D E N T I F I E D P R O B L E M S Iden t i f i ed P r o b l e m s ; Iden t i f i ed Prob lems X G e n d e r ; Iden t i f i ed P r o b -lems X P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e Or i en ta t i on A . Iden t i f i ed Prob lems Some, bu t not a g r e a t deal of a t ten t ion has been d i r e c t e d at d e t e r m i n i n g prob lem areas t y p i c a l to s t u d e n t s at the h i g h s c h o o l , communi ty co l lege and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s . T w o o f the bes t w o r k s , Har tman (1968) and LaFrombo ise (1978) , c o n s i d e r p rob lem a reas r e g a r d l e s s o f g e n d e r o f s t u d e n t . H a r t m a n , u s i n g the Mooney Prob lem C h e c k l i s t (1950) , in a t tempt ing to locate the most p r e v a l e n t p rob lems of a f i r s t and second y e a r communi ty co l lege s t u d e n t b o d y , f ound that o f the e leven p rob lem a r e a s , s t u d e n t s i nd i ca ted they were h a v i n g the most p rob lems in the a reas of Ad jus tmen t to Co l lege W o r k , P e r s o n -a l - P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e l a t i o n s , and Soc ia l a n d Rec rea t i ona l A c t i v -i t i e s . LaFrombo ise (1978) , u s i n g he r own s e l f - r e p o r t i n s t r u -men t , f ound in h e r f i f t y n o n - I n d i a n g r a d e e leven a n d twe lve 19 s t u d e n t s (s im i la r in age to the popu la t ion in my s t u d y ) that the th ree most common prob lems that the s t u d e n t s sa id t hey wou ld l i ke to ta l k about w e r e , in o r d e r , p rob lem abou t my f u t u r e , p rob lem mak ing a d e c i s i o n , and a pe rsona l p r o b l e m . P r e s u m a b l y , p rob lems v a r y a c c o r d i n g to age and deve lopmenta l s tage of the i n d i v i d u a l ( J o u r a r d , 1971) . From the l i t e ra tu re it is not c l e a r l y e v i d e n t what p rob lems a re most impor tan t fo r s t u d e n t s when g e n d e r is not a f a c t o r . Iden t i f i ed Prob lems X G e n d e r In Ha r tman ' s s t u d y (1968) when s e r i o u s n e s s of p rob lems were r a n k e d b y u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , males r a n k e d the F u t u r e : V o c a t i o n a l a n d Educa t i ona l as t he i r second most s e r i o u s p r o b -lem; females r a n k e d it e leven out of e l e v e n . For females . Soc ia l P s y c h o l o g i c a l Re la t ions r a n k e d t h i r d out o f e l e v e n ; whe reas it r a n k e d e i g h t h out of e leven fo r males in s e r i o u s -n e s s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n t r esponses on the p a r t of Har tman 's male a n d female s t u d e n t sample may re f lec t s e x - s t e r e o t y p e s tha t h a v e e x i s t e d in s o c i e t y : men " s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y " have been more i n t e r e s t e d in w o r k , and females more c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o -c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , Har tman found that males s e l f - r e p o r t e d to have more prob lems than females a n d a lso more s e r i o u s o n e s . Har tman does not at tempt to i n t e r p r e t these f i n d i n g s . On the o the r h a n d , S n y d e r , Hi l l and D e r k s e n (1972) , in a s t u d y to l ea rn more abou t f rom whom u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s wou ld seek h e l p , deve loped s e v e n t y ques t i ons to tap t h i r t e e n p rob lem areas a n d f o u n d t he re to be no d i f f e rence a c c o r d i n g to 20 g e n d e r in s t u d e n t s ' se l f r a t i n g of p rob lem t o p i c s . T h i s , o b v i o u s l y , fa i l s to s u p p o r t Har tman 's f i n d i n g s . In a d i f f e r e n t w a y , C i n n (1975) in h i s s t u d y j u x t a p o s e d a u n i v e r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e c l a s s ' est imat ion of p rob lems that male and female s t u d e n t s would have aga ins t the ac tua l p r e s e n -ta t ion of p rob lems to t he i r u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r o v e r a y e a r pe r i od and f ound t he re to be v e r y l i t t le d i f f e r e n c e a c -c o r d i n g to g e n d e r in s t u d e n t s ' p resen ta t i on o f p r o b l e m s . T h o u g h t he re was agreement of males' and females ' es t imat ion on t h i r t y - f i v e t y p i c a l female prob lems s u c h as p h y s i c a l comp la i n t s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and emot iona l i ty (none were v o c a t i o n a l - e d u c a t i o n a l ) , and s i x teen male p rob lems (e igh t v o c a t i o n a l - e d u c a t i o n a l in na tu re and o the rs h a v i n g to do w i th a l c o h o l , a n g e r , d r u g s and s e x ) , in c o n t r a s t to the f i f t y - o n e prob lem d i f f e r e n c e s est imates a b o v e , in ac tua l f a c t , t he re was on l y a p resen ta t i on d i f f e r e n c e a c c o r d i n g to g e n d e r in t h ree out o f s e v e n t y - f i v e poss ib l e comp la in t s . What may be most s i g n i f i c a n t he re is the d i s c r e p a n c y between the r e s u l t s o f the s e l f - r e p o r t measure and the ac tua l b e h a v i o r e x h i b i t e d . T h e b e h a v i o r e x h i b i t e d must be the more v a l i d o f the two m e a s u r e s . Iden t i f i ed Prob lems X Psycho log i ca l S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n No th ing e x i s t s in the l i t e ra tu re that re la tes to i den t i f i ed p r o b -lems and how they i n te rac t w i th psycho log i ca l s e x - r o l e o r i e n -t a t i o n . ( T h e concep t and c o n s t r u c t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on has been e x p l a i n e d to a d e g r e e e a r l i e r in C h a p t e r I, and wi l l r e c e i v e f u r t h e r a t ten t ion la te r in t h i s c h a p t e r . ) 21 S E L F - D I S C L O S U R E A . S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e : Why the In te res t and C o r r e l a t e s w i th Menta l Hea l th It has been assumed by a c e r t a i n b o d y of t h e r a p i s t s a n d p s y c h o l o g i s t s tha t " a p p r o p r i a t e " s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e b e h a v i o r leads to pos i t i ve t h e r a p e u t i c outcome ( E g a n , 1975) , a n d f u r t h e r , e v e n i f a p e r s o n is not i n v o l v e d in p s y c h o t h e r a p y , to al low one ' s rea l se l f to be known to at least one " s i g n i f i c a n t " o the r is a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a hea l thy p e r s o n a l i t y ( J o u r a r d , 1959) . J o u r a r d (1963) , c o n c e r n e d w i th the concep t o f s e l f -ac tua l i za t i on (Mas low, 1954) , p roposed tha t low d i s c l o s u r e is i n d i c a t i v e o f a r e p r e s s i o n of se l f and i nab i l i t y to g row as a p e r s o n a n d that r e s p o n s i b l e s e l f - s h a r i n g is pa r t o f the normal b e h a v i o r o f the hea l t hy s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d p e r s o n . It is t h i s t h i n k i n g tha t is the ph i l osoph i ca l bas i s o f much of the whole b o d y of " t a l k " t h e r a p y that encou rages g e n u i n e n e s s , openness a n d re l a t i onsh ip between c l i en t and t h e r a p i s t . T h i s is one of the reasons the top ic o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is of i n te res t to many h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Wise ly t h o u g h , J o u r a r d (1964) and o the rs ( D r a g (1971) , C o s b y (1973) , E g a n (1975) , T u b b s a n d B a i r d (1978)) recogn ize t ha t f o r s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e to be g r o w t h f u l , i t must be " a p p r o p r i -a t e , " a n d t ha t i f t h e r e l a t i onsh ip be tween the d i s c l o s e r a n d the r e c e i v e r i s not a t r u s t i n g o n e , o r i f i t i s a soc ia l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e con tex t in w h i c h the d i s c l o s u r e takes p lace ( e . g . , t e l e v i s i o n ) , t h e n the e x p e r i e n c e may be a ha rmfu l o n e . S e l f - d i s c l o s u r e has been made a p o s i t i v e v a l u e , someth ing to 22 be fos te red ( E g a n , 1975) , bu t "more" openness may not n e c e s -s a r i l y mean " b e t t e r . " In r e l a t i onsh ip to mental h e a l t h , C o s b y (1973) s a y s tha t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t y p e of r e l a t i onsh ip has been r e p o r t e d in t he l i t e r a t u r e , ye t no co r re l a t i on r epo r t ed has been g r e a t e r t han . 5 0 , and most a re much l ower . A c c o r d i n g to J o u r a r d (1964) , and s u p p o r t e d b y C o s b y (1973) and E g a n (1975) , the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e a n d mental hea l th seems to be c u r v i l i n e a r . C o s b y (1973) h y p o t h e s i z e s that p e r s o n s w i th p o s i t i v e mental hea l th ( g i v e n t h e y can be iden t i f i ed ) a re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h d i s c l o s u r e to a few s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s a n d medium d i s c l o s u r e to o t h e r s in t he soc ia l e n v i r o n m e n t ; w h e r e a s , i n d i v i d u a l s who a re p o o r l y a d j u s t e d (aga in assum ing a su i t ab l e i den t i f i ca t i on can be made) a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y e i t he r h i g h or low d i s c l o s u r e to v i r t u a l l y e v e r y o n e in the soc ia l e n v i r o n m e n t . M e a s u r i n g S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e j b u r a r d ' s S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e Ques t i onna i r e (1971) a n d i ts v a r i o u s e a r l i e r fo rms (1958, 1961) a l l t h o u g h t to be r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t ( C o s b y , 1973) a re e v e n today b y fa r the most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d s e l f - r e p o r t " p a p e r a n d p e n c i l " measure o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . H o w e v e r , as w i th many s imi la r i ns t rumen ts d e v e l o p e d in the last f i f teen y e a r s , (P log (1965) , West a n d Z i n g l e (1969) , S t r o n g , Hende l a n d B r a t t o n (1971) , O ' N e i l l , F e i n , Be l i t a n d F r a n k (1976) , a n d LaF rombo i se (1978 ) ) , t h e r e l ies on the p a r t o f some c r i t i c s s t r o n g r e s e r v a t i o n s abou t t he p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i -t y o f these i n s t r u m e n t s . C o s b y (1973) , c i t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e 23 r e s e a r c h , ma in ta ins that t he re is l i t t le e v i d e n c e o f the p r e d i c -t i v e v a l i d i t y o f the J S D Q ( J o u r a r d S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e Q u e s t i o n - na i re ) a n d tha t s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e shou ld , be measu red b e h a v i o r a l l y a n d u s e d as a d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . He a s s e r t s that pape r a n d penc i l measures of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e do not re la te to ac tua l s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , a n d i f we a re go ing to use them at a l l , t h e n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures must be deve loped so that t h e y c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i th the sub jec t s ' ac tua l d i s c l o s u r e . T h i s may o r may not be p o s s i b l e . L u b i n and H a r r i s o n (1964) have an o l d , ye t n e v e r t h e l e s s t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g s t u d y where they a t tempted to p r e d i c t smal l g r o u p s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g b e h a v i o r w i th an e a r l y fo rm of t h e J o u r a r d S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e Ques t i onna i re and f o u n d that the i n v e n t o r y sco res and ac tua l s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g b e h a v i o r c o r r e l a t e d o n l y .13 (p . 0 5 ) . T h i s is e v i d e n t l y s u p p o r t f o r C o s b y ' s c o n t e n t i o n . S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e : A Gene ra l O v e r v i e w and a Model B e f o r e dea l i ng w i t h some of the s p e c i f i c main e f f ec t s re la ted to s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ( e . g . , p r o b l e m , g e n d e r a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on of s u b j e c t , and locat ion a n d g e n d e r o f h e l p e r ) a n d the p o s s i b l e lower o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween t h e s e f a c t o r s , i t may be impor tan t to c o n s i d e r a s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e model o f f e red b y T u b b s and B a i r d (1978) . In a f i g u r a t i v e s e n s e , t h i s model can s e r v e bo th as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s s e l f -d i s c l o s u r e l i t e r a t u r e rev iew a n d as a c o n c l u s i o n in that t he la test a n d bes t l i t e ra tu re is c o n s i d e r i n g s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e as a mul t id imens iona l phenomenon . T u b b s a n d B a i r d , in t h e i r 2a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , a f te r c o n s i d e r i n g some t w e n t y y e a r s o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e r e s e a r c h , c o n c l u d e tha t t he p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p e r -sona l s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is a complex one that is c o n t i n g e n t u p o n a number o f i n t e r a c t i n g f ac to rs that e f fec t a p e r s o n ' s " d e c i s i o n " to d i s c l o s e . (Peop le do make a consc i ous cho ice w h e t h e r o r not to s e l f - d i s c l o s e . ) T h e s e f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : (1) t h e b a c k g r o u n d a n d p e r s o n a l i t y o f d i s c l o s e r ( e . g . , a g e , r a c e , n a t i o n a l i t y , r e l i g i o n , g e n d e r ( J o u r a r d , 1971 ) ) , (2) the n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween the d i s c l o s e r a n d the r e c e i v e r w h i c h might i n c l u d e t r u s t a n d accep tance ( M e l l i n g e r , 1956) a n d someth ing J o u r a r d (1970) ca l l s " r e c i p r o c i t y " whe re " o p e n n e s s b e g e t s o p e n n e s s , " (3) the d i s c l o s e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f r e c e i v e r , (a) t he con ten t o f the d i s c l o s u r e w h e r e g e n e r a l l y t he l ess r i s k y is d i s c l o s e d be fo re the more in t ima te , (5) the soc ia l c o n t e x t in w h i c h the d i s c l o s u r e is made, a n d (6) the r e c e i v e r ' s reac t i on o r f e e d b a c k to t he d i s c l o s u r e : c o n f i r m a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e , r e j e c t i o n , o r w h a t e v e r . T h e model is p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y in F i g u r e 1. 25 D i s c l o s e r Na tu re o f Re la t i onsh ip C o n t e n t Feedback R e c e i v e r Soc ia l S e t t i n g D. F i g u r e 1 S e l f - D i s c l o s i n g Communicat ion M o d e l : T u b b s and B a i r d (1978) T h o u g h T u b b s and B a i r d are alone in p r e s e n t i n g a concep tua l mode l , t hey a re not a lone in r e c o g n i z i n g tha t s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e in a complex phenomenon . G i l b e r t and Whi teneck (1976) c o n -c l u d e , because of two s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e e - w a y i n t e rac t i ons in t h e i r r e s e a r c h " t ha t a mul t id imens iona l a p p r o a c h to the s t u d y o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is bo th j us t i f i ed a n d r e q u i r e d . " ( p . 3 4 7 ) G i l b e r t and Wh i t eneck ' s r e s e a r c h wi l l be examined in more de ta i l la te r in t h i s c h a p t e r . Main E f f e c t s : T h e D i s c l o s e r , T h e T o p i c , T h e T a r g e t 1. T h e D i s c l o s e r T h o u g h numerous a n d v a r i e d s t u d i e s h a v e been c o n d u c t e d o v e r t he las t twen t y y e a r s to measure the re l a t i onsh ip be tween c e r t a i n aspec t s o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e and the 26 d i s c l o s e r ( e . g . , age ( J o u r a r d , 1961 (a ) ) ; r ace ( J o u r a r d a n d L a s a k o w , 1958) ; na t iona l i t y ( P l o g , 1965) ; r e l i g i on ( J o u r a r d , 1 9 6 1 ( b ) ) ; b i r t h o r d e r (D iamond a n d H e l l k a m p , 1969) ; a n d soc ia l c l ass ( M a y e r , 1967)) a n d more r e c e n t l y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r ien ta t ion (Be rn , 1977; Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , 1977; C e r d e s , C e h l i n g , a n d R a p p , 1981) , b y f a r the most r e s e a r c h has re la ted to g e n d e r o f the d i s -c l o s e r , (a) G e n d e r J o u r a r d a n d Lasakow (1958) r e p o r t e d tha t females have h i g h e r d i s c l o s u r e sco res t han males a n d most o f t he d o z e n s o f s t u d i e s s i nce then have s u p p o r t e d t h i s f i n d i n g . O f the most c u r r e n t a re Lomba rdo a n d B e r z o n s k y (1979) , DeFo res t and S tone (1980) . a n d G e r d e s et at . (1981) . In some cases t h e r e has been f o u n d to be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be tween male and female sco res (P log (1965) , West a n d Z i n g l e (1969) , B r o o k s (1974) , G i l b e r t a n d Wh i teneck (1976 ) . O ' N e i l l , F e i n , V e l i t and F r a n k (1976) , Bern ( 1977 ) , Lombardo a n d L a v i n e (1977) ) ; h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no s t u d y t ha t r e p o r t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r male d i s -c l o s u r e . In t u r n , i t is s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s ample e v i d e n c e to mainta in tha t t he re e x i s t s a c t u a l s i g n i f i c a n t total d i s c l o s u r e d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e s e x e s . T o look f u r t h e r , h o w e v e r , t h i s p a t t e r n of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e may be more c o m p l i c a t e d . It a p p e a r s 27 tha t c e r t a i n aspec t s of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e a r e l i k e l y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between males and females wh i le o t h e r s may n o t . F o r examp le , Morgan (1976) , O ' N e i l l et a l . (1976) a n d Lombardo a n d B e r z o n s k y (1979) f o u n d the main e f fec t f o r g e n d e r o f the d i s c l o s e r not to be s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t g e n d e r became s i g n i f i c a n t on i tems w h e n i tems w e r e sca led f o r i n t i m a c y . S i m i l a r l y , G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck (1976) found the main e f fec t f o r g e n d e r not s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t when i tems were sca led f o r v a l e n c e ( p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l o r n e g a t i v e v a l u e ) , males were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t han females to d i s c l o s e p o s i t i v e va lence s t a t e m e n t s . T h e r e is some ev idence in the l i t e r a t u r e to s u p p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r X t a r g e t i n te rac t i on ( Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , 1977) ; h o w e v e r , i t a p p e a r s tha t t h i s is not as s t r o n g a phenomenon as the i n t e r a c t i o n be tween g e n d e r o f t he d i s c l o s e r a n d t o p i c . I n te rac t i ons w i t h g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r wi l l be c o n s i d e r e d in more de ta i l in s u b s e q u e n t sec t i ons o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . T h e T o p i c It is g e n e r a l l y f ound tha t t he re is an i n v e r s e r e l a t i onsh ip be tween the amount d i s c l o s e d and the in t imacy leve l o f t h e t op i c s u c h tha t i n d i v i d u a l s d i s c l o s e less abou t more int imate t op i cs ( C o s b y , 1973) . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , J o u r a r d ' s f i n d i n g s (1971) fo r the most p a r t s t a n d : i n f o r -28 mation abou t one 's w o r k , t a s t e s , h o b b i e s , i n t e r e s t s a n d one ' s a t t i t udes toward r e l i g i o n , po l i t i cs and the l i ke a re d i s c l o s e d more than in fo rmat ion about one ' s sex l i f e , f i nanc ia l s t a t u s , p e r s o n a l i t y a n d b o d y . S i n c e J o u r a r d , M o r g a n (1976) u s i n g the J S D Q (1971) sca led f o r in t imacy leve l ( two l eve l s - h i g h in t imacy a n d low in t imacy) f ound a s i g n i f i c a n t in t imacy main e f fec t show ing sub jec t s r e -vea led r e l a t i v e l y less about more int imate t o p i c s . S i m i l a r -l y , Lombardo a n d L a v i n e (1977) u s i n g the J S D Q (1971) f ound in t imacy to be s i g n i f i c a n t . When t h e y d e s i g n a t e d t h ree top ica l ca tego r ies as int imate ( p e r s o n a l i t y , b o d y , a n d s e x ) a n d th ree as non- in t ima te (a t t i t udes a n d o p i n i o n s , t as tes a n d i n t e r e s t s , a n d w o r k ) and d i d a separa te a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e fo r each of f ou r t a rge t s (mo the r , f a t h e r , bes t male f r i e n d , a n d best female f r i e n d ) , t hey f ound the in t imacy fac to r s i g n i f i c a n t w i th a l l t a r g e t s : non - i n t ima te top ics were r e p o r t e d as be ing d i s c l o s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than int imate t o p i c s . G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck (1976) a d d ano the r va l uab le p e r s p e c t i v e when t h e y c o n s i d e r , as p a r t o f the t o p i c , the themes p e r s o n a l n e s s ( in t imacy leve l o f t he con ten t ) a n d v a l e n c e ( p o s i t ! v e n e s s o r n e g a t i v e n e s s o f t he c o n t e n t ) . In a f o u r - w a y repea ted measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( t h ree leve ls o f p e r s o n a l n e s s : n o n - i n t i m a t e , modera te ly in t imate , a n d in t ima te ; t h r e e leve ls o f v a l e n c e : p o s i t i v e , neu t ra l a n d n e g a t i v e ; two leve ls o f g e n d e r of d i s c l o s e r , and f i ve leve ls o f t a rge t ) t hey f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f fec t f o r 29 bo th p e r s o n a l n e s s and v a l e n c e . More e x a c t l y , the less pe rsona l the s ta tements , the more l i k e l y t hey wou ld be d i s c l o s e d a n d the more pos i t i ve the s t a t emen ts , the g r e a t -e r l i ke l i hood t hey would be d i s c l o s e d . H o w e v e r , t h i s i s sue is not as s imple as the above may lead u s to t h i n k . G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck f o u n d the i n t e r a c t i o n be tween p e r s o n a l n e s s a n d va lence a lso s i g n i f i c a n t , meaning f o r non - in t ima te s ta temen ts , the l i ke l i hood o f d i s c l o s u r e o c c u r s in t he fo l lowing o r d e r : p o s i t i v e , neu t ra l a n d n e g a t i v e ; w h e r e a s , fo r int imate s ta temen ts , the l i ke l i hood o f d i s c l o s u r e o c c u r s : n e g a t i v e , p o s i t i v e a n d n e u t r a l . G i l b e r t and Whi teneck s u g g e s t that h i g h l y nega t i ve d i s c l o -s u r e s may be r e s e r v e d fo r in t imate r e l a t i o n s h i p s . O t h e r f ac to rs o f t h i s work i n c l u d i n g g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s u r e a n d cho ice of t a rge t and t he i r i n te rac t i on w i th p e r s o n a l n e s s and va lence wi l l be d i s c u s s e d la ter in t h i s c h a p t e r . Less f a n c y t hough w o r t h y o f ment ion be fo re leav ing t h i s top ic is the work of LaF rombo ise (1978) . C f he r f i f t y n o n - I n d i a n g r a d e e leven a n d twe l ve s t u d e n t s (s im i la r to t h e age o f the popu la t i on in t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y ) t h e t h r e e most impor tan t common p rob lems tha t t h e y r e p o r t e d tha t t h e y wou ld l i ke to ta lk abou t w e r e in o r d e r : (1) p rob lem about my f u t u r e , (2) p rob lem mak ing a d e c i s i o n , a n d (3) a pe rsona l p r o b l e m . L a F r o m b o i s e makes no ment ion to what ex ten t these p rob lems a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f rom each o the r in t h e i r r a n k i n g . 30 T h e T a r g e t ( G e n d e r , L o c a t i o n , Re la t i onsh ip ) (a) G e n d e r T h e r e is a cons i de rab le d e g r e e of l i t e r a t u r e to s u p p o r t tha t females r e c e i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s c l o s u r e than males (West a n d Z i n g l e , 1969; J o u r a r d , 1971; R i v e n b a c k , 1971; M o r g a n , 1976) and t h i s seems p r o b a b l e in tha t ro le t h e o r i s t s s u c h as P a r s o n s a n d Ba les (1955) a n d B a k a n (1966) see women as be ing soc ia l i zed to be more n u r t u r i n g , emot ional a n d e x p r e s s i v e t h a n m e n . H o w e v e r , G e r d e s , G e h l i n g a n d R a p p (1981) o f f e r an e x p l a n -a t ion fo r t h i s phenomenon tha t goes b e y o n d the v a r i a b l e o f g e n d e r to the ac tua l b e h a v i o r o f t h e t a r g e t . T h e y f o u n d in t h e i r s t u d y no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f fec t due to sex of t a rge t p e r s o n . R a t h e r , what seemed most impor tant was t h e i r v a r i a b l e o f d i s c l o s u r e cond i t i on ( two l eve l s - h i g h a n d l o w ) : tha t i s , the d i s c l o s u r e leve l o f the t a rge t in c o n -v e r s a t i o n . Sub jec t s who had t a r g e t s who d i s c l o s e d in t imate ly ( h i g h leve l ) were themse lves s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g than those who h a d l ow- leve l d i s c l o s i n g t a r g e t s . H igh leve l d i s c l o s u r e cond i t i on sub jec t s r e s p o n d e d more in t imate ly a n d s p o k e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l onge r t han t h e i r low leve l d i s c l o s u r e cond i t i on c o u n t e r p a r t s . It may be the case that females t y p i c a l l y happen t o , as t a r g e t s , d i sc lose more in t imate ly t han men , b u t G e r d e s et a l . say tha t 31 that is a f ac to r of t he i r behav io r a n d not t h e i r g e n d e r . T h i s s t u d y can a lso be t a k e n as to s u p p o r t t he phenomenon of r e c i p r o c i t y ment ioned e a r l i e r where " o p e n n e s s begets o p e n n e s s " ( J o u r a r d , 1970) . Locat ion In te rms of locat ion of t a r g e t , that is the t y p e o f p e r s o n t h e t a r g e t is as opposed to t he g e n d e r o f t he t a r g e t , the cho ice o f t a rge t seems to c h a n g e w i th the age of the s u b j e c t . T h e pa t t e rn a c c o r d i n g to J o u r a r d (1971) seems to be one where the p r e f e r e n c e t a r g e t o f c h i l d r e n is t h e i r p a r e n t s , t y p i c a l l y t h e i r mo the r , a n d as ado lescence is r e a c h e d , the amount o f d i s c l o s u r e to p a r e n t s is r e d u c e d a n d d i s c l o s u r e to same-sex f r i e n d is i n c r e a s e d . A s h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re commenced, cu lm ina t i ng in m a r -r i a g e , t he spouse becomes the c loses t c o n f i d a n t a n d t he re a re f u r t h e r dec reases in c o n f i d i n g to p a r e n t s a n d c loses t same-sex f r i e n d s . Hence the sh i f t is f rom p a r e n t s to f r i e n d s to s p o u s e . Know ledge of th i s p a t t e r n he lps us i n t e r p r e t what m igh t o t he rw i se seem to be v a s t l y d i v e r g e n t r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s . T h e r e s e a r c h , w i thou t g o i n g in to al l o f i t , can be d i s t i l l ed to s u p p o r t t h i s t a rge t p r e f e r e n c e p a t t e r n a c c o r d i n g to the age o f the sub jec t (West a n d Z i n g l e , 1969; R i v e n b a c k , 1971; S n y d e r et a l . , 1972; G i l b e r t and Wh i t eneck , 1976; M o r g a n , 1976; Lombardo and L a v i n e , 1977; 32 F r o m b o i s e , 1978). In terms o f a g r a d e e l e v e n p o p u -l a t i o n , one might expect target p r e f e r e n c e b y l o -cation to be in o r d e r , f r i e n d , p a r e n t a n d school p e r s o n n e l , g i v e n these t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s to choose f r o m . R e l a t i o n s h i p T h e n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d i s c l o s e r a n d r e c e i v e r a n d how the d i s c l o s e r p e r c e i v e s the t a r g e t i s , of c o u r s e , e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . T u b b s a n d B a i r d (1978) see " t r u s t a n d a c c e p t a n c e , " the level of intimacy between the d i s c l o s e r a n d t a r g e t , a n d " r e c i p r o c i t y " or r e c i p r o c a l d i s c l o s u r e on the part o f b o t h d i s c l o s e r a n d t a r g e t a s b e i n g the k e y s to the e x t e n t t o w h i c h a subject c h o o s e s to d i s c l o s e . J o u r a r d (1971) a n d L a F r o m b o i s e (1978) s u p p o r t this.. U s i n g the term " d y a d i c effect" to e x p l a i n r e c i -p r o c i t y , J o u r a r d (1971) claims that s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e from one p e r s o n is the most powerful s t i m u l u s to s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e from the o t h e r a n d that the amount o f d i s c l o s u r e r e c e i v e d t e n d s to c o r r e s p o n d to the amount of d i s c l o s u r e g i v e n a n d v i c e - v e r s a . L a -F r o m b o i s e (1978) f o u n d that within h e r g r a d e e l e v e n a n d twelve p o p u l a t i o n , b e i n g t r u s t w o r t h y was t h e most important qual i ty that a target o r p r o s p e c t i v e h e l p e r c o u l d h a v e . J o u r a r d ' s (1971) o p i n i o n d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y : in an adult p o p u l a t i o n , for women, l i k i n g for a t a r g e t p e r s o n is a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t e of 33 d i s c l o s u r e ; w h e r e a s , fo r men know ledge of the o the r p e r s o n is most impor tan t . Lower O r d e r In te rac t ions 1. G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T o p i c ( In t imacy a n d V a l e n c e ) A s i n t r o d u c e d in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s , " T h e D i s c l o s e r " a n d " T h e T o p i c , " some r e s e a r c h ( M o r g a n , 1976; O 'Ne i l l et a l . , 1976; G i l b e r t and Wh i teneck , 1976; Lombardo a n d B e r z o n s k y , 1979; and D e F o r e s t and S t o n e , 1980) s u g g e s t s tha t b y not c o n s i d e r i n g the in t imacy a n d / o r va lence a s p e c t s o f d i s c l o s u r e top i cs (de f i ned ea r l i e r ) and b y summing a c r o s s a l l d i s c l o s u r e t o p i c s , t he re is a t e n d e n c y to mask ac tua l sexua l d i f f e r e n c e s in d i s c l o s u r e p a t t e r n s . M o r g a n ' s s t u d y (1976) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s n i c e l y , (a) In t imacy In a 2x2x4 repea ted measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( two leve ls o f sex o f s u b j e c t ; two leve ls o f in t imacy o f top ic ( h i g h and l o w ) ; and f ou r l eve l s o f t a rge t (mo the r , f a t h e r , bes t same-sex f r i e n d and bes t o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d ) , M o r g a n found in t imacy to be s i g n i f i c a n t ( r ev i ewed ea r l i e r ) a n d in t imacy X sex to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Males were f ound to repo r t d i s -c l o s i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y less than females c o n c e r n i n g int imate t o p i c s , where t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s in d i s c l o s u r e o f non- in t ima te t o p i c s . S e x , h o w e v e r , was f ound not to be s i g n i f i -c a n t . T h a t i s , total se l f d i s c l o s u r e sco res a c c o r d i n g to sex were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . 34 S i m i l a r l y , O 'Ne i l l et a l . (1976) , Lombardo a n d B e r z o n s k y (1979) , and D e F o r e s t and S tone (1980) al l f ound s im i la r p a t t e r n s : s i g n i f i c a n t sex o f sub jec t X in t imacy leve l of t op i c i n te rac t i on w i th females be ing w i l l i n g to revea l on i tems ra ted int imate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than males . A s wi th M o r g a n ' s r e s u l t s , O 'Ne i l l et a l . f o u n d the main e f fec t f o r sex not to be s i g n i f -i c a n t . Va lence G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck (1976) take a s l i g h t l y more comp l i ca ted a p p r o a c h to the s e x of sub jec t X top i c o f d i s c l o s u r e i ssue w i th a d e s i g n that c o n s i d e r s bo th in t imacy leve l o f t op i c (what t h e y ca l l p e r s o n a l n e s s ) a n d v a l e n c e ( p o s i t i v e n e s s o r n e g a t i v e n e s s o f t h e c o n t e n t ) . H e n c e , r a the r t han the top ic v a r i a b l e h a v i n g two leve ls as in the case of M o r g a n (1976) ( in t imate o r n o n - i n t i m a t e ) , and O 'Ne i l l et a l . (1976) , : o r t h r e e l e v e l s , in the case of Lombardo a n d B e r z o n s k y (1979) and D e F o r e s t and S tone (1980) , G i l b e r t and Wh i teneck ' s d e s i g n has t h r e e leve ls o f p e r s o n a l n e s s (non - i n t ima te , modera te ly int imate a n d int imate) a n d th ree leve ls o f va l ence ( p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l a n d n e g a t i v e ) . In te rms o f t h i s sec t i on o f the r e v i e w , what i s most p e r t i n e n t ( n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g tha t p e r s o n a l n e s s , va l ence and t h e i r i n te rac t i on were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t - r ev i ewed e a r l i e r ) is that sex of sub jec t X p e r s o n a l n e s s was not s i g n i f i c a n t ; w h e r e a s . 35 sex o f sub jec t X va lence w a s . ( T h e t h r e e way In terac t ion of sex X pe rsona lness X v a l e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . ) T h e a u t h o r s see the s i g n i f i c a n t sex X va lence in te rac t ion as show ing males b e i n g s i g n i f i -c a n t l y less l i ke l y than females to d i s c l o s e on p o s i t i v e s ta temen ts , a l t hough both sexes were e q u a l l y l i k e l y to d i s c l o s e nega t i ve s ta temen ts . In o t h e r w o r d s , the va lence main e f fec t ( pos i t i ve d i s c l o s u r e s be ing more l i ke l y t han nega t i ve d i s c l o s u r e s ) seemed to be e x a g -g e r a t e d f o r females and min imized fo r ma les . G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T a r g e t (a) G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T a r g e t ( b y G e n d e r ) A s ment ioned e a r l i e r , t he re is c o n s i d e r a b l e bu t not unan imous s u p p o r t for the g e n d e r o f t a rge t main e f f e c t , tha t females rece ive s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s c l o -s u r e than ma les . T h e r e is n o t , h o w e v e r , a n y t h i n g n e a r l y as d e f i n i t i v e in the l i t e r a t u r e to ma in ta in a p a r t i c u l a r g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X g e n d e r o f t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n . To th i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s k n o w l e d g e , o n l y two p e r t i n e n t s t u d i e s e x i s t , those o f D e F o r e s t a n d S tone (1980) a n d G e r d e s et a l . (1981) a n d t h e y f i n d v e r y s im i la r i n te rac t i on r e s u l t s . In b o t h s t u d i e s , t h o u g h the main e f fec ts fo r g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r were s i g n i f i c a n t ( females were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g than m a l e s ) , t hey f o u n d no e f f ec t s due to sex of t a rge t p e r s o n . More impor tan t f o r t h i s sec t ion o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w is tha t in 36 n e i t h e r case was the re f o u n d to be s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X g e n d e r o f t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n , (b ) G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T a r g e t ( b y Loca t ion ) A s a r g u e d e a r l i e r , it seems reasonab le to a c c e p t , w i t h J o u r a r d (1971) , tha t p r e f e r e n c e o f t a r g e t ( b y locat ion) s h i f t s w i th age f rom p a r e n t s to f r i e n d s to s p o u s e as one moves f rom c h i l d h o o d , to ado lescence to mar r i age a g e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s t r e n d , h o w e v e r , does not c o n s i d e r the sex o f the d i s c l o s e r a n d w h e n one d o e s , no de f i n i t i ve p a t t e r n e m e r g e s . M o r g a n (1976) a n d G i l b e r t and Whi teneck (1976) bo th f o u n d g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r to be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , t a r g e t to be s i g n i f i c a n t ( rev iewed ea r l i e r ) a n d the g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X ta rge t i n te rac t i on not to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Lombardo and Lav ine (1977) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between these f a c t o r s t h o u g h t h e y do not i n t e r p r e t i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t he re is no i nd i ca t i on in the l i t e r a t u r e as to what one m igh t e x p e c t in a g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X locat ion o f t a r g e t i n t e r a t i o n . T o p i c X T a r g e t M o r g a n (1976) a n d G i l b e r t a n d Wh i teneck (1976) b o t h f ound s i g n i f i c a n t top ic X ta rge t i n t e r a c t i o n . M o r g a n , u s i n g a repea ted measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( two l eve l s o f d i s c l o s e r g e n d e r X two leve ls o f t op i c i n t i m a c y : h i g h a n d low X f o u r l eve ls o f t a r g e t : bes t s a m e - s e x f r i e n d , bes t o p p o s i t e - s e x f r i e n d , mo the r , a n d f a t h e r ) , f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f fec t f o r in t imacy ( r e v i e w e d e a r l i e r ) a n d 37 a s i g n i f i c a n t e f fec t fo r t a r g e t . Wi th in h is popu la t i on o f e igh teen to t h i r t y - t w o y e a r o ld co l lege s t u d e n t s , M o r g a n d i s c o v e r e d (not s u r p r i s i n g l y c o n s i d e r i n g t a rge t p r e f e r e n c e X age o f sub jec t t r e n d s ) that f o r bo th h i g h a n d low in t imacy items the re were no d i f f e r e n c e s be tween d i s c l o -s u r e to f r i e n d s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s c l o s u r e to f r i e n d s than p a r e n t s , a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y less d i s c l o s u r e to f a t h e r s than a n y o the r t a r g e t s . With in h is in t imacy leve l o f top ic X t a r g e t i n t e rac t i on a p a t t e r n emerged w h e r e f r i e n d s r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more int imate d i s c l o s u r e t han p a r -en ts w i th the d i f f e r e n c e s between d i s c l o s u r e to p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s b e i n g less fo r low in t imacy t o p i c s . T h e e f fec t o f p r e f e r e n c e fo r t a r g e t was more p r o n o u n c e d fo r h i g h in t imacy i tems. G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck (1976) , u s i n g p e r s o n a l n e s s a n d va lence r a t h e r than in t imacy to d icho tomize t h e i r t o p i c , f ound s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f ec t s fo r p e r s o n a l n e s s , v a l e n c e a n d t a r g e t ( r ev i ewed e a r l i e r ) a n d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e rac t i ons fo r pe r sona lness X va lence ( r e v i e w e d e a r l i e r ) , p e r s o n a l n e s s X t a r g e t , va l ence X ta rge t a n d p e r s o n a l n e s s X va lence X t a r g e t . T h e y e x p l a i n tha t the main e f fec t due to p e r s o n a l n e s s (a g r e a t e r l i ke l i hood o f mak ing non- in t ima te than int imate d i s c l o s u r e ) is e x a g g e r a t e d when the ta rge t is a s t r a n g e r o r a c q u a i n t a n c e bu t is no longer p r e s e n t when the t a rge t is a s p o u s e ( t hey have f i ve t a r g e t s : s t r a n g e r , a c q u a i n t a n c e , p a r e n t , f r i e n d , and s p o u s e ) . 38 With r e g a r d to va lence X t a r g e t ; that i s , the p o s i -t i v e n e s s or nega t i veness of the con ten t X t a r g e t , the main e f fec t d u e to va lence (a g r e a t e r l i ke l i hood o f mak ing pos i t i ve r a t h e r than nega t i ve d i s c l o s u r e ) was s l i g h t l y e x a g g e r a t e d fo r d i s c l o s i n g to acqua in tances a n d p a r e n t s , whi le d i f f e r e n c e s were g r e a t l y r e d u c e d when d i s c l o s i n g to f r i e n d s and s p o u s e s . It seems tha t in bo th p e r s o n a l n e s s X t a rge t and va lence X t a rge t i n t e r a c t i o n s , the more int imate the r e l a t i onsh ip w i th the t a r g e t i s , the less the d i f f e r e n c e s t h e r e are w i th in e i t he r the p e r s o n a l n e s s o r va lence f a c t o r s . N o t a b l y , G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck have a s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e e - w a y i n t e r a c t i o n , p e r s o n a l n e s s X v a l e n c e X t a r g e t . A c c o r d i n g to t h e m , the data fo l lows t r e n d s d e s c r i b e d in the p e r s o n a l n e s s X t a rge t and va lence X t a r g e t i n t e r -a c t i o n s . T h e y s a y , h o w e v e r , that the t h r e e way i n t e r -ac t ion is s i g n i f i c a n t because o f e x a g g e r a t i o n s a n d d e v i a t i o n s f rom these combined t r e n d s . I n t e rp re ta t i on o f t h i s t h r e e - w a y i n t e rac t i on is d i f f i c u l t o t h e r t h a n to r e p o r t tha t t he re were some u n e x p e c t e d v a r i a t i o n s in l i ke l i hood o f d i s c l o s u r e to s t r a n g e r a n d acqua in tance t a r g e t s . H i g h e r O r d e r In te rac t ions 1. G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T o p i c X T a r g e t Mo rgan (1976) d i d not f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r o f d i s -c l ose r X in t imacy leve l of top ic X ta rge t i n t e r a c t i o n , t hough G i l b e r t and Whi teneck (1976) f o u n d s u c h an 39 i n te rac t i on u s i n g va lence to d i f f e ren t i a te the d i s c l o s u r e t o p i c s . While t he re was not a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f fec t due to g e n d e r o f the d i s c l o s e r , nor a s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r X t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n , t he re was a s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r X v a l e n c e ( r e p o r t e d ea r l i e r ) and g e n d e r X va lence X t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n . It seems, a c c o r d i n g to the a u t h o r s , that the s t r e n g t h o f the va lence main e f fec t v a r i e d as a com-b ina t ion o f bo th g e n d e r and t a r g e t . T h e y i n t e r p r e t the l i ke l i hood of mak ing pos i t i ve r a t h e r than nega t i ve d i s c l o -s u r e s was g rea tes t when females were p ro jec t i ng d i s c l o -s u r e to s t r a n g e r s and acqua in tances and when males were p ro jec t i ng d i s c l o s u r e to p a r e n t s , f r i e n d s a n d s p o u s e s . T h e y h y p o t h e s i z e tha t p e r h a p s due to d i f f e r e n t s o -c i a l i z a t i o n , norms fo r a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c l o s u r e re la t i ng to va lence a n d t a rge t a re d i f f e r e n t fo r males a n d females. In t h e i r s t u d y , ne i the r the i n te rac t i ons o f g e n d e r X p e r s o n a l n e s s X t a r g e t no r g e n d e r X p e r s o n a l n e s s X v a l e n c e X t a r g e t were f ound to be s i g n i f i c a n t . P S Y C H O L O G I C A L S E X - R O L E O R I E N T A T I O N A . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e Or ien ta t i on and A n d r o g y n y - B a c k - g r o u n d F o r at least the last t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h -e r s and t h e o r i s t s have been a t tempt ing to e x p l a i n poss ib le b e h a v i o r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females . When t he re is a d i f f e r e n c e f o u n d , fo r i n s t a n c e , tha t females d i s c l o s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more abou t themse lves t han do males (w ide ly no s u p p o r t e d as demons t ra ted e a r l i e r in t h i s c h a p t e r ) , i t is f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d tha t the d i f f e rences a re as a resu l t o f the way males a n d females a re s o c i a l i z e d . In Weste rn s o c i -e t i e s , we u n d e r s t a n d that males have t r ad i t i ona l l y been r e i n -f o r c e d fo r the l e a r n i n g of " i n s t r u m e n t a l " b e h a v i o r s whe reas women have been t augh t to adopt " e x p r e s s i v e " ro les ( P a r s o n s a n d B a l e s , 1955) . P a r s o n s and Ba les s u g g e s t tha t men have been c h a r g e d w i th b e i n g the fam i l y ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s in the o u t s i d e wo r l d and ac t i ng on i ts beha l f , and women have had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a t t e n d i n g to the p h y s i c a l a n d emot ional needs of the fami ly a n d ma in ta in ing harmonious re la t ions w i t h i n i t . P u t ano the r w a y , B a k a n (1966) uses the te rms " a g e n c y " a n d " c o m m u n i o n , " whe re " a g e n c y , " fo r h i m , re f l ec t s a sense of se l f a n d is mani fes ted in s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n , a n d s e l f - e x p a n s i o n ; and " c o m m u n i o n , " on the o the r h a n d , impl ies s e l f l e s s n e s s , a c o n c e r n w i th o t h e r s and a d e s i r e to be at one w i th o t h e r s . Fo r B a k a n , a g e n c y is i den t i f i ed w i th male p r i n c i -p les o r m a s c u l i n i t y , a n d communion is i den t i f i ed w i th femin ine p r i n c i p l e s o r f e m i n i n i t y . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , s u c h as E r i k s o n (1964) and Wi tk in (1974) , r e f e r to " o u t e r " v e r s e s " i n n e r " space a n d " f i e l d d e p e n d e n c e " v e r s e s " i n d e p e n d e n c e , " r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l a t tempt to exp la i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the s e x e s . O f t e n i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d tha t i f males a r e t h i s , females must be t h a t . More r e c e n t l y , some r e s e a r c h e r s ( B l o c k , 1973; Bern, 1974; Bern, M a r t y n a and Wa tson , 1976; Bern , 1977; S p e n c e a n d H e l m r e i c h , 1978) h a v e re jec ted the t r ad i t i ona l concep tua l i za t i on 11 that mascu l i n i t y a n d femin in i t y and the t r a i t s assoc ia ted w i th them are b ipo la r ends of a s ing le con t i nuum and tha t a p e r s o n is e i t he r mascu l ine or f em in ine , bu t not b o t h . Bern (1974) e x p l a i n s tha t the s e x - r o l e d ichotomy has s e r v e d to o b s c u r e the h y p o t h e s i s tha t i n d i v i d u a l s might be " a n d r o g y n o u s , " that i s , bo th mascu l ine and fem in ine , both a s s e r t i v e a n d y i e l d i n g , both i ns t rumen ta l and e x p r e s s i v e , d e p e n d i n g on the s i tua t iona l a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the v a r i o u s b e h a v i o r s . A f u r t h e r imp l i ca -t ion o f a n d r o g y n y , a c c o r d i n g to h e r , is tha t an i n d i v i d u a l may b l e n d the above compl imenta ry modal i t ies in to a s i n g l e a c t : fo r i n s t a n c e , be ing ab le to f i r e an employee i f the c i r c u m s t a n c e s w a r r a n t i t , bu t d o i n g so w i th s e n s i t i v i t y fo r the human emotion tha t the ac t may p r o d u c e . (Bern, 1977) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e Or i en ta t i on and Iden t i f i ed Prob lems No l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s to re la te these two v a r i a b l e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i en ta t i on and S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e T h e r e a re t h ree s t u d i e s in the l i t e ra tu re tha t c o n s i d e r the r e l a t i onsh ip between psycho log i ca l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on a n d s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , one of wh i ch is v a l i d in te rms o f a s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i on (Bern , 1977) , ano the r ( C e r d e s , C e h l i n g a n d R a p p , 1981) wh i ch has two s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s , a n d a t h i r d (Lombardo and L a v i n e , 1977) wh ich u n c o v e r s some i n t e r e s t i n g main e f fec ts a n d two a n d t h r e e - w a y i n t e r a c t i o n s . Bern (1977) , d o i n g o n e - w a y anovas a n d mul t ip le r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s f rom the da ta gene ra ted f rom the J S D Q (1971) a n d he r own i n s t r u m e n t , the B S R I (1974) , f o u n d in he r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t total d i s c l o s u r e d i f f e r e n c e due to 42 g e n d e r of s u b j e c t . In the mul t ip le r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o n l y one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e m e r g e d : tota l s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e in men was p o s i t i v e l y re la ted to m a s c u l i n i t y , s u g g e s t i n g tha t men who a re low in mascu l i n i t y ( i . e . , femin ine o r u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d men) may be more i n h i b i t e d abou t d i s c l o s i n g pe rsona l i n fo rmat ion to o t h e r s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , in Bern's s t u d y , f e m i n i n i t y , g i v e n the assumpt ions o f ro le t h e o r y , was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i th s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e in e i t he r males or females . In a 2x2x2x2 between s u b j e c t s fac to ra l d e s i g n (b io log i ca l sex o f sub jec t X a n d r o g y n o u s v e r s e s s e x - t y p e d sex ro le c onc ep t o f sub jec t X b io log ica l sex o f t a rge t X d i s c l o s u r e leve l o f t a rge t p e r s o n , h i g h v e r s e s l o w ) , G e r d e s et a l . (1981) u s i n g the B S R I (1974) a n d measu r i ng s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e " b e h a v i o r a l l y " f o u n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l sex role o r ien ta t ion not to be s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t sex o f sub jec t to be s i g n i f i c a n t w i th females s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g more than males . P s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r ien ta t i on X sex o f sub jec t was not f o u n d to be s i g n i f i c a n t and c o n s e q u e n t l y d i d not s u p p o r t the a u t h o r s ' o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s that a n d r o g y n o u s males wou ld s e l f - d i s c l o s e more in t imate ly than s e x - t y p e d ma les . S e x o f t a rge t p e r s o n was not found to be s i g n i f i c a n t t h o u g h the main e f fec t fo r d i s c l o s u r e cond i t i on ( h i g h v e r s e low d i s c l o -s u r e o f the t a rge t ) was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t s u p p o r t i n g the r e c i p r o c i t y e f f ec t . In t h i s w o r k , t he re were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e rac t i ons between a n y of the v a r i a b l e s and t he re is rea l l y n o t h i n g to lead u s to be l i eve tha t psycho log i ca l s e x t y p e is s i g n i f i c a n t l y re la ted somehow to s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . H3 Lombardo a n d L a v i n e (1977) , on the o t h e r h a n d , c la im tha t the r e s u l t s o f t he i r work s u g g e s t tha t s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is more a f u n c t i o n of psycho log i ca l s e x - r o l e than b io log ica l g e n -d e r . In t he i r f i r s t of a t w o - p a r t s t u d y , Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , u s i n g a 2 ( sex of sub jec t ) X 2 ( a n d r o g y n y leve l o f sub jec t ) X 4 ( t a rge t ) u n e q u a l n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , f o u n d s e x o f sub jec t not to be s i g n i f i c a n t b u t a main e f fec t fo r a n d r o g y n y level o f sub jec t w i th a n d r o g y n o u s p e r s o n s d i s c l o s i n g more than s t e -r e o t y p e d p e r s o n s . A t a rge t main e f fec t was f o u n d w i th f r i e n d s be ing d i s c l o s e d more to than p a r e n t s a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t s e x o f sub jec t X t a r g e t i n te rac t i on was f o u n d t h o u g h Lombardo a n d L a v i n e do not i n t e r p r e t t h i s . More comp l i ca ted is a s i g -n i f i can t sex o f sub jec t X a n d r o g y n y leve l X t a r g e t i n te rac t i on whe re a n d r o g y n o u s males r epo r t ed to d i s c l ose more to mothers than s t e r e o t y p e d males bu t the re was no d i f f e r e n c e for f e -males. In the second o f t he i r t w o - p a r t s t u d y , Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , t a k i n g the same d a t a , ran f o u r sepa ra te unequa l n anovas of 2 ( sex o f sub jec t ) X 2 ( in t imacy leve l o f top ic -in t imate a n d non- in t ima te ) X 2 ( a n d r o g y n y leve l - a n d r o g y n o u s o r s e x - t y p e d ) fo r each of f ou r t a r g e t s : mo the r , f a t h e r , bes t male f r i e n d , a n d bes t female f r i e n d . O n l y t he in t imacy fac to r was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l t a r g e t s , c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t i n g the p r e f e r e n c e to d i s c l ose non- in t imate in fo rmat ion o v e r int imate sub jec t ma t te r . F o r the t a r g e t s , f a t h e r , bes t male f r i e n d a n d bes t female f r i e n d t he re was found to be an a n d r o g y n y main e f fec t i n d i c a t i n g tha t the sub jec t s c a t e g o r i z e d a n d r o g y n o u s r e p o r t e d tha t t hey wou ld d i s c l ose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n t h e i r s e x - t y p e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . O n l y to bes t female f r i e n d was sex of sub jec t s i g n i f i c a n t i nd i ca t i ng that females d i s c l o s e d more to female f r i e n d s than d i d males . No s i g n i f i c a n t sex of sub jec ts X a n d r o g y n y leve l i n te rac t i ons were f o u n d , t h o u g h a s i g n i f i c a n t sex X a n d r o g y n y X in t imacy level o f top ic was f o u n d in re la t ion to the t a r g e t , f a t h e r . Here a n d r o g y n o u s females d i s c l o s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more on non- in t ima te t o p i c s t han s e x - t y p e d females ; w h e r e a s , t he re were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a n d r o g y n o u s and s e x - t y p e d females on in t imate t o p i c s . A n d , a n d r o g y n o u s males d i s c l o s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more int imate in format ion to f a t h e r s t han s e x - t y p e d males bu t not s i g n i f i c a n t l y more non - in t ima te i n fo rma t i on . Lombardo and L a v i n e ' s w o r k , the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d of t hese t h ree s t u d i e s , is somewhat d i f f i cu l t to i n t e r p r e t , t h o u g h , t h r o u g h i t , u s i n g the B S R I (1976) and the J S D Q (1971) . Lombardo a n d L a v i n e c la im t h e i r data s u g g e s t s t ha t s e l f -d i s c l o s u r e is a f u n c t i o n o f s e x - r o l e and not b io log ica l g e n d e r . A s f a r as I am c o n c e r n e d , t h i s con ten t ion is s t i l l in d e b a t e . H o w e v e r , these a u t h o r s s a y i n g that a n d r o g y n o u s males t e n d to be s im i la r to females in s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e p a t t e r n s seems i n t u -i t i v e l y a p p e a l i n g . 45 S U M M A R Y O F L I T E R A T U R E A . Iden t i f i ed P rob lems 1. I den t i f i ed Prob lems T h e r e is v e r y l i t t le in the l i t e r a t u r e to a r t i c u l a t e the t y p e s of p rob lems that people i d e n t i f y as be ing t h e i r s ( i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m s ) . One might h y p o t h e s i z e tha t i d e n -t i f i ed p rob lems v a r y w i th age a n d g e n d e r a n d t he re is marg ina l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s ( J o u r a r d , 1971; H a r t m a n , 1968) t h o u g h th i s is not c o n c l u s i v e . More r e s e a r c h needs to be c o n d u c t e d tha t c o n s i d e r s these f a c t o r s . 2 . I den t i f i ed Prob lems X G e n d e r Ha r tman ' s f i f teen y e a r o ld s t u d y (1968) r e f l ec t s what look to be " s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e d " r e s p o n s e s when males r a n k e d the F u t u r e : Voca t i ona l and Educa t i ona l two out o f e leven in s e r i o u s n e s s , and fo r females i t p laced e leven out o f e l e v e n . S im i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes e x i s t e d f o r the top ic Soc ia l P s y c h o l o g i c a l Re la t ions w i th females see ing t hese p rob lems as much more s e r i o u s t h a n ma les . O n the o t h e r h a n d , in a s imi la r s t u d y , S n y d e r , H i l l a n d D e r k s o n (1972) f o u n d t h e r e to be no d i f f e r e n c e a c c o r d i n g to g e n d e r in s t u d e n t s ' " s e l f - r a t i n g " o f p rob lem t o p i c s . In wha t t h i s r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r s a v e r y impor tan t s t u d y , G i n n (1975) f ound a ma rked d i s c r e p a n c y be tween the r e s u l t s o f h i s s e l f - r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t a n d the ac tua l b e h a v i o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p rob lems to a u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r o v e r a y e a r p e r i o d . T h i s wo rk a n d o t h e r s - e . g . , L u b i n a n d H a r r i s o n (1964 ) , a n d C o s b y 46 (1973) - ca l l to ques t i on the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f s e l f -r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t s that measure i den t i f i ed p rob lems a n d s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . R e s e a r c h e r s may v e r y well be i n a c c u r a t e in p u r s u i n g a s e l f - r e p o r t t y p e of measurement to measure i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s . 3 . Iden t i f i ed P rob lems X P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n N o t h i n g e x i s t s in the l i t e ra tu re to i nd i ca te the t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p tha t may e x i s t between i d e n t i f i e d p rob lems a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . B . S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e 1. Why the I n te res t a n d C o r r e l a t e s With Menta l Hea l th " A p p r o p r i a t e " s e l f - d i s c l o s i n g b e h a v i o r is c o n s i d e r e d good a n d is the u n d e r p i n n i n g of much of the whole body of " t a l k t h e r a p y . " It is e x p e c t e d tha t the r e l a t i onsh ip between s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e a n d mental hea l th may be c u r v i l i n e a r ( J o u r a r d , 1964; C o s b y , 1973; E g a n , 1975) . 2 . M e a s u r i n g S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e T h e J o u r a r d S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (1971) and i ts e a r l i e r f o rms a r e the most w ide l y u s e d p a p e r a n d penc i l m e a s u r e s . T h e y and al l o the r p a p e r a n d penc i l measures may be d o u b t f u l in terms of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . 3. S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e : A Gene ra l O v e r v i e w a n d a Model T u b b s a n d B a i r d (1978) p r e s e n t an i n t e r e s t i n g a n d v a l u -ab le model a n d c o n c l u d e tha t the p r o c e s s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is a complex one tha t is c o n t i n g e n t upon a number o f i n t e r a c t i n g f a c t o r s . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s pos i t i on comes f rom G i l b e r t a n d Wh i teneck (1976) w h o , in an 47 exce l l en t s t u d y , are d r a w n to deduce " tha t a m u l t i d i m e n -s iona l a p p r o a c h to the s t u d y of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e is bo th j u s t i f i e d a n d r e q u i r e d . " S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e : Main E f f ec t s (a) T h e D i s c l o s e r G e n d e r as a d e s c r i p t o r o f the d i s c l o s e r has b y f a r r e c e i v e d more a t ten t ion than a n y o t h e r f a c t o r . E v i d e n c e is p r a c t i c a l l y c o n c l u s i v e tha t females in Wes te rn soc ie t y s e l f - d i s c l o s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more in bo th vo lume and in t imacy level than do t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . (b) T h e T o p i c It is g e n e r a l l y f ound that t he re is an i n v e r s e r e l a -t i o n s h i p be tween the amount d i s c l o s e d a n d the i n t i -macy leve l o f the top ic s u c h tha t i n d i v i d u a l s d i sc l ose less about more int imate top i cs ( J o u r a r d , 1971; C o s b y , 1973; M o r g a n , 1976; G i l b e r t and W h i t e n e c k , 1976; Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , 1977) . G i l b e r t a n d Whi teneck (1976) , in a v a l u a b l e s t u d y , f o u n d main e f f ec t s in t he top i c fo r bo th p e r s o n a l n e s s ( i n t imacy leve l o f con ten t ) a n d va lence ( p o s i t i v e n e s s a n d n e g a t i v e n e s s of con ten t ) w i th r esu l t s as we might e x p e c t : the less pe rsona l the s ta temen ts , the more l i k e l y t hey wou ld be d i sc l osed and the more p o s i t i v e the s ta temen ts , the g r e a t e r l i ke l i hood t h e y wou ld be d i s c l o s e d . F o r t h e m , a pe rsona l X v a l e n c e i n t e r -ac t ion a lso p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t , s u g g e s t i n g that h i g h l y 48 nega t i ve d i s c l o s u r e s may be r e s e r v e d fo r in t imate r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e T a r g e t ( G e n d e r , L o c a t i o n , R e l a t i o n s h i p ) i G e n d e r Females in Western soc ie ty r e c e i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s c l o s u r e t h a n males (West a n d Z i n g l e , 1969; J o u r a r d , 1971; R i v e n b a c k , 1971; M o r g a n , 1976) . i i Loca t ion T h e t y p e of p e r s o n who is chosen as t a rge t seems to v a r y w i th the age o f t he d i s c l o s e r . J o u r a r d (1971) s u g g e s t s , a n d the l i t e ra tu re (West and Z i n g l e , 1969; R i v e n b a c k , 1971; S n y d e r , H i l l a n d D e r k s o n , 1972; G i l b e r t a n d Wh i t eneck , 1976; M o r g a n , 1976; Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , 1977; L a F r o m b o i s e , 1978) s u p p o r t s tha t as the d i s c l o s e r moves f rom c h i l d h o o d to a d o l e s -cence to a d u l t h o o d , t he t a r g e t p r e f e r e n c e c h a n g e s f rom p a r e n t to c l oses t s a m e - s e x f r i e n d to s p o u s e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . i i i Re la t i onsh ip T h e n a t u r e o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween the d i s c l o s e r a n d the t a rge t may be the most p o w -e r f u l de te rm inan t o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . T u b b s a n d B a i r d (1978) s i te f ac to rs s u c h as " t r u s t a n d a c c e p t a n c e , " level o f in t imacy be tween d i s c l o s e r a n d r e c e i v e r , a n d " r e c i p r o c i t y " o r r e c i p r o c a l 49 d i s c l o s u r e on the pa r t o f bo th d i s c l o s e r and t a rge t as be ing the k e y s to the e x t e n t to wh ich a sub jec t chooses to d i s c l o s e . J o u r a r d (1971) uses the term " d y a d i c e f f ec t " to e x p l a i n r e c i -p r o c i t y . T h e more t r u s t i n g , a c c e p t i n g , int imate a n d r e c i p r o c a l the r e l a t i o n s h i p , the more e x t e n -s i v e a n d more int imate the d i s c l o s u r e is l i k e l y to b e . G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T o p i c ( In t imacy a n d V a l e n c e ) B y not c o n s i d e r i n g the in t imacy a n d o r va lence a s p e c t s o f d i s c l o s u r e t op i cs and b y summing a c r o s s al l t o p i c s , t he re is a t e n d e n c y to mask ac tua l g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n d i s c l o s u r e p a t t e r n s . Morgan (1976) , O ' N e i l l , F e i n , V e l i t and F r a n k (1976) , Lombardo and B e r z o n s k y (1979) , a n d D e F o r e s t a n d S tone (1980) a l l f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t sex o f sub jec t X in t imacy level of top ic i n t e rac t i ons i n d i c a t i n g that females a re w i l l i ng to revea l on items ra ted int imate s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than males . T h i s a u t h o r fee ls tha t t h i s is an impor tan t d i s c o v e r y and s c a l i n g t o p i c s a c c o r d i n g to in t imacy s h o u l d be a p a r t o f a n y new s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e r e s e a r c h . S i m i l a r l y , G i l b e r t and Whi teneck (1976) f ound a s i g n i f i c a n t s e x o f sub jec t X va lence i n te rac t i on w h i c h s u g g e s t s tha t males may be less l i ke l y t han females to d i s c l o s e on pos i t i ve s ta temen ts . S c a l i n g o f t op i cs a c c o r d -ing to v a l e n c e , t h o u g h not as impor tan t as in t imacy l e v e l , may a lso o f fe r d i r e c t i o n in new s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e r e s e a r c h . 50 G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T a r g e t (a) G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T a r g e t ( b y G e n d e r ) In the two s tud ies tha t have c o n s i d e r e d th i s theme, ( D e F o r e s t and S t o n e , 1980; G e r d e s , G e h l i n g a n d R a p p , 1981) ne i the r found a s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r o f d i s c l o s e r X g e n d e r o f t a rge t i n t e r a c t i o n . G i v e n the s t r o n g t r e n d s fo r the main e f f e c t s , g e n d e r of d i s -c l ose r and g e n d e r of t a r g e t , I might have e x p e c t e d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . (b ) G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T a r g e t ( b y Loca t ion ) G i l b e r t and Whi teneck (1976) f ound th i s i n te rac t i on not to be s i g n i f i c a n t ; w h e r e a s , Lombardo and L a v i n e (1977) d i d f i n d s i g n i f i c a n c e w i thou t i n t e r p r e t i n g i t . G i v e n the l i t e r a t u r e a n d the amb iguous na tu re , o f peop les ' cho ice of t a r g e t , I wou ld e x p e c t tha t any. i n t e rac t i ons of t h i s n a t u r e wou ld not be c l e a r . T o p i c X T a r g e t M o r g a n (1976) a n d G i l b e r t and Whi teneck (1976) bo th f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t top ic X ta rge t i n t e r a c t i o n . In each c a s e , top ic does not r e f e r to the sub jec t mat ter o f the t o p i c : r a t h e r , f o r Morgan it r e f e r s to in t imacy leve l a n d fo r G i l b e r t a n d Wh i t eneck , the themes o f p e r s o n a l n e s s a n d v a l e n c e . With h i s e igh teen to t h i r t y - t w o y e a r o ld co l lege s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Morgan (1976) f ound f r i e n d s r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more int imate d i s c l o s u r e t han p a r e n t s , b u t the d i f f e r e n c e s be tween d i s c l o s u r e to p a r e n t s a n d f r i e n d s was less fo r low in t imacy i tems. T h e 51 e f fec t of p r e f e r e n c e fo r t a rge t was more p r o n o u n c e d fo r h i g h in t imacy i tems. G i l b e r t and Whi teneck (1976) u s i n g the f ac to r s p e r s o n a l n e s s and va lence to d i f f e ren t i a te t h e i r t o p i c s , f ound s i g n i f i c a n t pe r sona lness X t a r g e t , v a l e n c e X t a rge t a n d p e r s o n a l n e s s X va lence X t a rge t i n t e r a c t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e i r r e s u l t s a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s para l le l those of Mo rgan (1976) a n d we can e x p e c t in r e s e a r c h to f i n d the more int imate the r e l a t i onsh ip w i th the t a r g e t i s , the more l i ke l y one is to revea l h i g h l y pe rsona l t op i cs o f nega t i ve v a l e n c e . 8 . G e n d e r o f D i s c l o s e r X T o p i c X T a r g e t O n l y one p a r t o f one s t u d y ( G i l b e r t and W h i t e n e c k , 1976) has shown a s i g n i f i c a n t gende r o f d i s c l o s e r X top ic X t a r g e t i n t e r a c t i o n , and t h i s is d i f f i c u l t f o r us to i n t e r -p r e t . A c c o r d i n g to the a u t h o r s , p e r h a p s due to d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n , norms fo r a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c l o s u r e re la t i ng to va lence a n d t a rge t a re d i f f e r e n t fo r males and females . G i l b e r t and Wh i t eneck ' s s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r X va lence X ta rge t f i n d i n g and i n te rp re ta t i on o f it is complex a n d o b t u s e , a n d at t h i s s tage I f i nd l i t t le va lue o r d i r e c t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h w i t h i n i t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n , Iden t i f i ed Prob lems a n d  S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e 1. P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e Or i en ta t i on and A n d r o g y n y - B a c k g r o u n d Some soc ia l s c i e n t i s t s (Bern, 1974 a n d o t h e r s ) have re jec t -ed the t r ad i t i ona l d ichotomous concep tua l i za t i on o f 52 mascu l i n i t y and femin in i t y and p r e f e r to t h i n k o f males a n d females as h a v i n g , to v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , b l e n d s of qua l i t i e s assoc ia ted w i th each of mascu l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i -t y . T h a t p e r s o n , whe the r male o r female b y g e n d e r , h a v i n g a ba lance o f mascu l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y , i s ca l l ed " a n d r o g y n o u s . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e Or i en ta t i on and Iden t i f i ed Prob lems No l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s tha t re la tes these two f a c t o r s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e Or ien ta t i on and S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e (a) T h e work o f Bern (1977) is i n t e r e s t i n g in tha t in he r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s the on l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n tha t o c c u r r e d in he r u n i v e r s i t y f reshmen popu la t ion was that in men , total s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e was p o s i t i v e l y re la ted to m a s c u l i n i t y . Femin in i t y as measu red b y the B S R I (1974) was not c o r r e l a t e d to s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e in e i t he r males o r females , as the l i t e r a t u r e may lead us to e x p e c t . (b) G e r d e s , G e h l i n g and R a p p (1981) , in a s t u d y tha t measured s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e " b e h a v i o r a l l y , " f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i onsh ip be tween p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x -ro le o r i en ta t i on a n d s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e t h o u g h a s i g n i f i -can t g e n d e r o f sub jec t X s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i n t e rac t i on d i d e x i s t . (c ) Lombardo and L a v i n e (1977) c la im and d e m o n s t r a t e , to an e x t e n t , tha t s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e may be more a f u n c t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on than b io log ica l g e n d e r . In the f i r s t o f a t w o - p a r t s t u d y , Lombardo and L a v i n e f i n d sex of sub jec t not to be s i g n i f i c a n t bu t t he re is s i g n i f i c a n c e fo r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . A s w e l l , these a u t h o r s f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t sex o f sub jec t X a n d r o g y n y leve l X ta rge t i n t e r a c t i o n . In the second of t h e i r t w o - p a r t s t u d y , Lombardo and L a v i n e , b y the way of s i g n i f i c a n t sex o f sub jec t X in t imacy leve l of top ic X a n d r o g y n y leve l i n te rac t i on to the ta rge t f a t h e r , f o u n d a n d r o g -y n o u s males to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e v e a l i n g than t h e i r s e x - t y p e d c o u n t e r p a r t s on int imate top ics and i r o n i c a l l y , a n d r o g y n o u s females to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more r e v e a l i n g than s e x - t y p e d females on n o n -int imate t o p i c s . T h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t tha t a n d r o g -y n o u s males tend to be s imi la r to females in se l f -d i s c l o s u r e pa t t e rns and th i s is a po in t tha t shou ld be he ld in m i n d . T h o u g h the above s tud ies g i v e us some s u g g e s t i o n s , t hey do not lead us to any conc lus i ons about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on a n d s e l f -d i s c l o s u r e . 54 C H A P T E R III M E T H O D O L O G Y Face ts o f the methodo logy to be d e s c r i b e d in th i s c h a p t e r a r e , in o r d e r : d e s c r i p t i o n of s u b j e c t s , d e s c r i p t i o n of measurement i n s t r u m e n t s , da ta co l l ec t i on p r o c e d u r e s a n d da ta a n a l y s i s . I D E S C R I P T I O N O F S U B J E C T S T h e popu la t i on fo r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d of 181, l a r g e l y Cauca-s i a n , f i f teen to s e v e n t e e n - y e a r - o l d g r a d e e l even s t u d e n t s f rom one h i g h s c h o o l . M i s s i o n S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , in M i s s i o n , B . C . M i ss i on is a s e m i - u r b a n town of app rox ima te l y 15,000 p e o p l e , f o r t y -th ree miles (69 k m . ) east of V a n c o u v e r on the n o r t h bank of the F r a s e r R i v e r . O f the 181 s t u d e n t s , s e v e n t y - n i n e were male and 102 were female , to ta l i ng to w i th in f o r t y of the en t i r e g r a d e e leven popu la t i on e n r o l l e d in t he i r s c h o o l , the on l y sen io r s e c o n d a r y schoo l in the immediate v i c i n i t y . 1 F o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e are the c h i e f r e s o u r c e sec to rs in the immediate area and p r o v i d e the bas i s f o r re ta i l a n d s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e n t r a t e d in M i s s i o n . T a b l e 1 p r e -sen t s f u r t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c in fo rmat ion on M i ss i on compared to V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h Co lumb ia and the c o u n t r y as a who le so that the r e a d e r can c o n s i d e r the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t he sample p o p u l a t i o n . O r i g i n a l l y , 193 s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f rom twe lve s t u d e n t s were d i s c a r d e d because they were i ncomp le te . 55 TABLE 1 Selected Demographic Characteristics of Mission. Vancouver, British Columbia and Canada Population Average Income in Dollars % of Labor Force Unemployed % of Population Fifteen and Over With University Degrees Average Size of Families in Members % of Single Parent Families Mission Vancouver B.C. Canada 14,997 10,313 9.4 410,188 10,809 9.4 2,466,608 11,111 8.6 22,992,600 10,313 7.1 2.6 7.9 4.9 4.3 3.4 8.9 3.0 12.7 3.2 11.5 3.5 9.8 Reference: Census of Canada, 1976 T h e r e a d e r may c o n c l u d e that r es i den t s of M iss ion a re s l i g h t l y less w e l l - e d u c a t e d than those of V a n c o u v e r , bu t s im i la r w i th V a n c o u v e r on o the r c o u n t s as a re they w i th measures fo r both the popu la t i ons of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia a n d C a n a d a . II D E S C R I P T I O N O F M E A S U R E M E N T I N S T R U M E N T S In t h i s s t u d y , t h r e e measurement i n s t r u m e n t s were u s e d , two c rea ted b y t h i s a u t h o r (one to measure i den t i f i ed p rob lems and one 2 to measure s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ) and a t h i r d , the B S R I (1978) to mea-s u r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . 2 T h e i den t i f i ed p rob lem measure was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d to p recede the s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e m e a s u r e , the t h i n k i n g be ing that i f sub jec t s were go ing to be a s k e d about d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l i hood on a set of p r o b l e m s , one shou ld f i r s t ask to what e x t e n t these same prob lems e x i s t . T h e s e i nven to r i es c a n , h o w e v e r , be u s e d t oge the r o r s e p a r a t e l y . 56 Measurement o f Iden t i f i ed Prob lems 1. Deve lopment of Ins t rument Iden t i f i ed p rob lems used in th i s s t u d y are f o u n d in T a b l e 2 , numbered one to e l e v e n . Prob lems are " t h o u g h t " to be g r o u p e d in to f ou r main fac to rs or themes as i l l u s t r a t e d . No fac to r a n a l y s i s has been done on t h i s se t o f p r o b l e m s . T h e f o u r t h theme, ad jus tment to se l f a n d o t h e r s , has two s u b s e t s , ad jus tment to o the rs ( i n t e r p e r s o n a l ) a n d a d j u s t -ment to se l f ( i n t r a p e r s o n a l ) . TABLE 2 Four Themes and Eleven Problem Topics - Instrument: Identified Problems School Routine Money and Work The Future Adjustment to Self and Others (Interpersonal) (Intrapersonal) 1. Difficulty with grades. 2. Adjustment to school routine: attendance, homework, classes, _ teachers. r ~3 . Problems with finances and employ-ment (current). ~~4. The future: choice of occupation and/or further study. ~ 5 . Difficult relations with family. 6. Problems in getting along with friends. 7. Boyfriend - girlfriend problems. ~~8. Health and physical development problems. 9. Problems with morals and religion. 10. Uncomfortable feelings and emotions. 11. Problems of sexual adjustment. S u b j e c t s u s i n g th i s i den t i f i ed p rob lems i n v e n t o r y to a s s e s s p r e s e n c e o r s e r i o u s n e s s o f poss ib le p rob lems a r e a s k e d , " T o what ex ten t is each o f the fo l low ing a p rob lem 57 fo r y o u ? " ( F o r a copy of th i s i n s t r u m e n t , p lease r e fe r to the A p p e n d i x , Pa r t I.) Sub jec ts r esponded b y c h e c k i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e box in a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t sca le r a n g i n g f rom one (not at al l a prob lem) to f i ve ( v e r y much a p r o b l e m ) . B e c a u s e it was deemed , fo r the p u r p o s e s of th i s s t u d y , tha t a su i t ab le i ns t rumen t to measure i den t i f i ed p rob lems (and s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ) d i d not e x i s t , the a u t h o r chose to deve lop the e leven top ic i ns t rumen t r e f e r r e d to a b o v e . It was not that the re were no i n s t r u m e n t s to measure i den t i f i ed prob lems (and s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ) ; r a t h e r , the i n s t r u m e n t s that d i d e x i s t were e i t he r t hough t to be i n a p p r o p r i a t e fo r a g r a d e e leven popu la t ion o r ( the most se r i ous prob lem) too la rge to f i t bo th the c u r r e n t i den t i f i ed p rob lem and s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e d e s i g n n e e d s . Mooney and C o r d o n (1950) have a 330 i tem, e leven fac to r h i g h schoo l form of the Mooney Prob lem C h e c k l i s t ; Warman (1961) o f f e r s a s i x t y - s i x i tem, t h ree fac to r i n s t r u m e n t ; J o u r a r d (1971) p r e s e n t s a s i x t y i t em, s i x f ac to r form o f the J o u r a r d S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; a n d LaF rombo ise (1978) f u r n i s h e s a f i f t y - o n e item i ns t r umen t ca l led the C o u n s e l l i n g He lp i ng Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . H o w e v e r , a l l o f t hese m e a s u r e s , and o t h e r s b y d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s ( P l o g , 1965; West and Z i n g l e , 1969; S n y d e r , H i l l a n d D e r k s o n , 1972; and C i n n , 1975) have too many prob lem top i cs in them for one to be ab le to c o n s i d e r i n d i v i d u a l p rob lem d i f f e r e n c e s . O n l y the i ns t r umen t b y S t r o n g , 58 Hende l and B r a t t o n (1971) seemed at al l su i t ab le ( i t has n ine d i f f e r e n t p rob lem top ics ) t h o u g h not al l t o p i c s were worded ih l anguage u n d e r s t a n d a b l e to a g r a d e e leven p o p u l a t i o n , a n d , b e s i d e s , I w i shed to i n c l u d e a few more themes s u c h as ad jus tment to schoo l r o u t i n e , the f u t u r e ( c o n s i d e r e d a v e r y impor tan t t op i c in the l i t e r a t u r e ) , a n d b o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d p r o b l e m s . A l l of the w o r k s c i t ed a b o v e have i n f l u e n c e d the deve lopment o f my e leven t op i c i den t i f i ed p rob lems i n s t r u m e n t : p a r t i c u l a r l y , Mooney a n d C o r d o n (1950) , Warman (1961) and S t r o n g et a l . (1971) . From Mooney a n d C o r d o n , w i th some wo rd c h a n g e s , I have i n c l u d e d in th i s i ns t rumen t f i ve f ac to rs ( i tems 2 , 3 , 4 , 8 a n d 9 ) ; f rom Warman, I have c o n s i d e r e d two main f ac to rs (schoo l rou t i ne and ad jus tment to se l f a n d o t h e r s ) ; and f rom S t r o n g et a l . , I have been i n f l u e n c e d b y f i v e p rob lem themes . H e n c e , se lec t ion o f the p rob lem items f ound in t h i s i ns t rumen t has been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d b y the re la ted l i t e r a t u r e . In t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e has been an a t tempt to o r d e r t o p i c s , in a loose s e n s e , f r om less in t imate to more in t imate . T o p i c s have been c h o s e n to c o v e r a r a n g e o f themes tha t m igh t be o f c o n c e r n to bo th males and females at the g r a d e e leven l e v e l , a n d t o p i c s have been g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g to what may be the i n c l u s i v e f ac to r s o r themes as r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 2 . 59 2 . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y O n l y marg ina l r e l i ab i l i t y and v a l i d i t y da ta e x i s t s fo r t h i s i ns t rumen t at th i s t ime. In r e f e r e n c e to r e l i a b i l i t y , t he re is no s ta t i s t i ca l ev i dence of i n t e rna l c o n s i s t e n c y o r o f s t a b i l i t y o f t h i s measu r i ng d e v i c e o v e r t ime. It has been u s e d on l y o n c e , in t h i s s t u d y . With r espec t to v a l i d i t y , c r i t i c i s m s la id aga ins t o t h e r s e l f - r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t s (see C h a p t e r II) r e g a r d i n g p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y a p p l y he re as w e l l . H o w e v e r , in the cases o f c o n t e n t , c o n s t r u c t a n d face v a l i d i t y , a rgumen ts can be made to s u p p o r t t he c u r r e n t measu re . Because the con ten t o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t has been based l a rge l y on e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , it can be c o n s i d e r e d c o n s t r u c t and con ten t v a l i d . In the same w a y , it a p p e a r s , at face v a l u e , to ask the q u e s t i o n s c l e a r l y , a n d in no i ns tances d i d . a n y of the 181 r e s p o n d e n t s in the p r e s e n t s t u d y c la im to h a v e p rob lems u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t . Measurement o f S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e 1. Deve lopment o f I ns t rument L i k e the i den t i f i ed p rob lems measure j us t d e s c r i b e d , t h i s s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i ns t r umen t uses the same e leven prob lem top i cs (see the A p p e n d i x , P a r t I I ) . P r e v i o u s ra t iona le f o r s e l e c t i o n , o r d e r i n g a n d g r o u p i n g o f t op i cs a lso a p p l i e s . In t h i s m e a s u r e , sub jec t s a r e a s k e d , "How l i k e l y wou ld y o u be to ta lk to • abou t each of the • 60 fo l low ing p r o b l e m s ? " In a repea ted measu res f a s h i o n , sub jec t s a re a s k e d seven t imes , f o r s e v e n d i f f e r e n t t a r g e t s , to r e s p o n d to the set o f e leven p r o b l e m s . A t the top o f each of seven p a g e s , the name o f a d i f f e r e n t he lpe r a p p e a r s . O r d e r i n g of h e l p e r s is d e s i g n e d s u c h tha t the r e a d e r wi l l not compare in h i s m ind h i s r e s p o n s e s f rom one t a r g e t to the n e x t : f o r i n s t a n c e , mother to f a t h e r . T a r g e t p resen ta t i on is in o r d e r : c l oses t male f r i e n d ; mo the r ; male t e a c h e r , male c o u n s e l l o r , male c o a c h , e t c . ; c l oses t female f r i e n d ; f a t h e r ; female t e a c h e r , female c o u n s e l l o r , female c o a c h , e t c . ; a n d no o n e . S u b j e c t s r e s p o n d b y c h e c k i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e box in a s i x - p o i n t L i k e r t sca le r a n g i n g f rom one ( v e r y u n l i k e l y ) , to s i x ( v e r y l i k e l y ) . T a r g e t s were se lec ted a c c o r d i n g to s u g g e s t i o n s f rom the l i t e r a t u r e and pe rsona l d e s i g n n e e d s . Ind ica t ion i s that l i ke l y t a r g e t s by locat ion fo r a g r a d e e l e v e n s t u d e n t popu la t i on a r e f r i e n d s , p a r e n t s a n d schoo l p e r s o n n e l ( J o u r a r d , 1971; L a F r o m b o i s e , 1978) . G e n d e r o f t a r g e t i s a lso c o n s i d e r e d impor tan t (West a n d Z i n g l e , 1969; J o u r a r d , 1971; R i v e n b a c k , 1971; M o r g a n , 1976) a n d a c c o r d i n g l y , g e n d e r of t a rge t has been i n c l u d e d as a f ac to r in t h i s d e s i g n . C o m b i n e d , locat ion o f h e l p e r a n d g e n d e r o f h e l p e r p r o d u c e s i x d i f f e r e n t t a r g e t s . H e l p e r no one has been i n c l u d e d as a s e v e n t h t a r g e t because o f a sense t h a t , because of t h e i r n a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y at t h i s 61 a sense t h a t , because of t he i r n a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y at t h i s a g e , some s t u d e n t s p r e f e r to keep comple te ly to t h e m -se l ves about some more int imate prob lem t o p i c s . It was fe l t tha t a measurement of t h i s phenomenon might be h e l p f u l . T h e w o r d i n g of the ques t ion "How l i k e l y wou ld y o u be to ta lk to about each of the fo l low ing p r o b l e m s ? " was chosen because of pe rsona l p r e f e r e n c e . S t r o n g , Hende l a n d B r a t t o n (1971) a n d LaF rombo ise (1978) use a s imi la r w o r d i n g tha t i nc l udes l i k e l i h o o d ; w h e r e a s . West and Z ing le (1969) and J o u r a r d (1971) have a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h . West and Z i n g l e ' s q u e s -t i onna i r e a s k s sub jec ts to ind ica te the e x t e n t to wh i ch c e r t a i n t op i cs become the focus of communicat ion w i th d i f f e r e n t h e l p e r s , and the J S D Q (1971) a s k s sub jec t s to i nd i ca te the ex ten t to wh ich they have t a l k e d to o r made themse lves known to a set o f people on a set o f p r o b l e m s . T h e a p p r o a c h of S t r o n g et a l . and LaF rombo ise (and t h i s i ns t r umen t ) a s k s sub jec ts to pro jec t into the f u t u r e on l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e ( sub jec ts p r o b a b l y do so based on pe rsona l know ledge of a p a r t i c u l a r h e l p e r a n d t he i r own pas t d i s c l o s i n g b e h a v i o r ) ; v /he reas . West a n d Z i n g l e ' s a p p r o a c h a s k s sub jec ts to repo r t on pas t b e h a v i o r , as does the J S D Q . T h e r e is no th ing in the l i t e ra tu re to c o m p a r e , w i th in these i n s t r u m e n t s , the v a l i d i t y of these t h ree d i f f e r e n t ques t i on i ng a p p r o a c h e s , t h o u g h I e x p e c t tha t t hey a l l p r o d u c e qu i te s imi la r r e s u l t s . 62 2 . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y A s w i th the i den t i f i ed p rob lems m e a s u r e , no r e l i a b i l i t y data e x i s t s on th i s s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i n s t r u m e n t . S i m i l a r l y , e x c e p t fo r face v a l i d i t y , that it a p p e a r s to be o k a y (a s u b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t ) , and tha t it a p p e a r s to ask q u e s t i o n s c l e a r l y and i nc lude re l evan t t a r g e t s , no v a l i d i t y data e x i s t s fo r th i s measu re . E v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t p r e -d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y is l ack ing ( th i s is the case f o r al l mea-s u r e s o f t h i s t y p e ) as is ev idence for c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y in that we do not know how wel l t h i s i ns t r umen t measures the c o n s t r u c t o f s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . Bern Sex Role I n v e n t o r y 1. T h e Ins t rumen t A s s u m i n g that mascu l i n i t y and fem in in i t y a r e not at oppos i te ends of a s i ng le con t i nuum ( B l o c k , 1973; Bern, M a r t y n a and Watson , 1976; Spence and H e l m r e i c h , 1978) , Bern (1974) , deve loped the Bern S e x Role I n v e n t o r y ( B S R I ) that g i v e s separa te measures fo r each of these t r a i t s . Bern (1974) a r g u e s that mascu l i n i t y a n d fem in in i t y a r e l og ica l l y a n d emp i r i ca l l y i n d e p e n d e n t . T h e B S R I is composed of s i x t y ad jec t i ves wh i ch sub jec t s rate on a s e v e n - p o i n t sca le r a n g i n g f rom o n e , " n e v e r o r almost n e v e r t r ue [of m e ] " to s e v e n , " a l w a y s o r a lmost a lways t r u e [of m e ] . " T w e n t y i tems a re m a s c u -l ine t r a i t s , twen ty a re femin ine a n d t w e n t y a re ra ted n e u t r a l . Two sco res fo r each sub jec t a re d e r i v e d f rom 63 the r e s u l t s , a sco re fo r mascu l i n i t y and a sco re fo r f e m i n i n i t y . A r e s e a r c h e r can use the sco res g e n e r a t e d b y the B S R I in two w a y s : (1) e i t he r to c l a s s i f y s u b j e c t s in to f ou r g r o u p s ( m a s c u l i n e , f em in ine , a n d r o g y n o u s o r u n d i f -f e ren t i a ted ) on the bas i s o f r e la t i ve s c o r e s on the m a s c u -l ine a n d femin ine sca les o f the B S R I , o r (2) to a n a l y z e sub jec t s w i t hou t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y u s i n g raw mascu l i n i t y a n d f em in in i t y s c o r e s . Bern (1977) uses m a s c u l i n i t y a n d fem in in i t y s c o r e s in a mul t ip le r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s to c o r r e l a t e s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e a n d h e r i n s t r u m e n t . It may be a r g u e d tha t t h i s a p p r o a c h is p r e f e r a b l e to t h e c l a s s i f i c a -t ion sys tem in tha t b y a s s i g n i n g sub jec t s to b road c a t -e g o r i e s , t h e r e can be a loss o f in fo rmat ion a n d a c o n s e -q u e n t loss o f a c c u r a c y ( P e d h a z u r and T e t e n b a u m , 1979) . E v e n s o , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n sys tem is a d v o c a t e d b y r e -s e a r c h e r s s u c h as H e i l b r u n (1976) , K e l l y a n d Worel l (1976) , a n d K e l l y , C a u d i l l , H a t h o r n and O ' B r i e n (1977) . It c o n t i n u e s to be used fo r many r e a s o n s , one of them b e i n g t ha t i t g i v e s a measure o f a n d r o g y n y . F o r t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a p p r o a c h , Bern (1976) r ecom-mends a f o u r - f o l d g r o u p i n g b a s e d on a m e d i a n - s p l i t me thod . O n c e the median m a s c u l i n i t y a n d fem in in i t y s c o r e s h a v e been d e t e r m i n e d , s u b j e c t s a r e g r o u p e d a c -c o r d i n g to t h e fo l l ow ing c h a r t : 64 M a s c u l i n i t y Sco re A b o v e Med ian Below Median A b o v e Med ian A n d r o g y n o u s Femin ine Fem in in i t y S c o r e Be low Median Mascu l i ne U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d F o r i n s t a n c e , someone to be g r o u p e d a n d r o g y n o u s wou ld have above the spec i f i ed median on the mascu l ine s c a l e , and above the p a r t i c u l a r popu la t ion median on the femin ine s c a l e . A s a g u i d e l i n e , Bern (1976) , in T a b l e 3 , o f f e r s an example o f he r g r o u p i n g of a 1975 sample of S t a n f o r d u n d e r g r a d u a t e s whe re the median mascu l i n i t y and fem i -n i n i t y sco res were 4.89 a n d 4 . 7 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 65 T A B L E 3 Pe rcen tage of S u b j e c t s in V a r i o u s S e x - R o l e C r o u p s fo r a 1975 Sample o f S t a n f o r d U n d e r g r a d u a t e s as De f ined b y a Med ian S p l i t o f Bo th M a s c u l i n i t y and Femin in i t y S e x Role Males Females Femin ine 16% 34% U n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 27% 20% A n d r o g y n o u s 21% 29% Mascu l i ne 37% 16% R e f e r e n c e : S c o r i n g P a c k e t : Bern Sex Role I nven to ry R e v i s e d 4/76 One might e x p e c t g r o u p i n g s in o ther popu la t i ons to be somewhat s im i la r to those r e p r e s e n t e d a b o v e . 2 . Re l i ab i l i t y and V a l i d i t y C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h has gone in to e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b i l -i t y and v a l i d i t y da ta fo r the B S R I . Bern (1974) computed coef f i c ien t a lphas sepa ra te l y f o r the mascu l ine a n d femin ine sca les fo r each of he r two normat i ve samp les . T h e sco res were h i g h l y re l iab le ( m a s c u l i n e , a = . 8 6 ; f em in ine , a = .82 and a n d r o g y n o u s , a = . 8 5 ) . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i ab i l i t y est imates were mascu l i ne , r = . 9 0 ; femin ine r = . 9 0 ; and a n d r o g y n o u s r = . 9 3 . C o n c e r n i n g the emp i r i ca l i ndependence of the mascu l i n i t y and femin in i t y s c a l e s , Bern found the i n t e r sca le co r re l a t i on between mascu l i n i t y and femin in i t y fo r he r S t a n f o r d 66 popu la t i on to be fo r ma les , r = . 1 1 , and fo r fema les , r = - . 1 4 , s u g g e s t i n g a t r u e empi r i ca l i n d e p e n d e n c e . V a l i d i t y of the B S R I has been s u p p o r t e d t h r o u g h repea ted e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . V a r i o u s s t u d i e s h a v e shown that sub jec t s ' b e h a v i o r s were cons i s ten t w i th t h e i r c l a s s i -f i ca t i ons on the B S R I (Bern, 1974, 1975. 1976) . Bern a n d L e n n e y (1976) , fo r i n s t a n c e , show tha t a n d r o g y n o u s sub jec t s c o n s i s t e n t l y show no p r e f e r e n c e fo r mascu l ine o r femin ine a c t i v i t i e s , whe re s e x - t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l s show p r e f e r e n c e fo r a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i th t h e i r g e n d e r s . A s w e l l , Bern (1975) , in a set o f expe r imen t s to s t u d y a n d r o g y n y in re la t ion to i ndependence and n u r t u r a n c e , f o u n d on l y sub jec t s c l a s s i f i e d a n d r o g y n o u s d i s p l a y e d bo th a h i g h leve l of i ndependence when p r e s s u r e d to c o n f o r m , as wel l as a h i g h leve l o f n u r t u r a n c e when g i v e n a chance to p lay w i th a k i t t e n . T h e B S R I , h o w e v e r , does not go w i thou t c r i t i c i s m . T o name two e x a m p l e s , P e d h a z u r a n d Te tenbaum (1978) c la im tha t in it the c o n s t r u c t s of mascu l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i -t y a re not c l e a r l y ope ra t i ona l l y d e f i n e d ; a n d C a u d r a u (1977) cha l l enges the assumpt i on tha t the sca les a re i n d e p e n d e n t . In s u m , h o w e v e r , the B S R I is w ide ly accep ted and w ide l y used as a measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . 67 D A T A C O L L E C T I O N P R O C E D U R E S A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the th ree measurement i n s t r u m e n t s j us t r ev iewed took p lace in M iss ion Sen io r S e c o n d a r y Schoo l in a r e g u l a r c lass room se t t i ng in e igh t i n d i v i d u a l c l ass pe r i ods o v e r two c o n s e c u -t i ve d a y s . Comple t ion o f the t h r e e - p a r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i th i n -s t r u c t i o n s , took s t u d e n t s between t h i r t y and f o r t y m i n u t e s . No s t u d e n t s needed more than the f o r t y m i n u t e - c l a s s p e r i o d to complete the i n s t r u m e n t s . In a l l c l a s s e s , t es t i ng was c o n d u c t e d b y t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . I n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e - s t a n d a r d . S t u d e n t s were a s k e d to read d i r e c t i o n s to themse lves wh i le the a u t h o r read them out loud (see the A p p e n -d i x , P a r t I, P a r t II and Pa r t I I I ) . Upon complet ion o f the rev iew of w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s , any new ques t i ons tha t may h a v e a r i s e n were a n s w e r e d . S t u d e n t s were d i r e c t e d to on ly work on one sec t ion at a t ime (each sec t ion was d i f f e r e n t l y co lou r c o d e d ) , to w o r k on t h e i r o w n , a n d when t hey had completed the sec t ion they were w o r k i n g o n , to s top a n d rev iew t he i r a n s w e r s bu t not to go on un t i l t h e y were to ld to do s o . A t the b e g i n n i n g of each s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n , d i r e c t i o n s were r ev i ewed as ou t l i ned a b o v e . A l l s t u d e n t s w o r k e d on the same sec t ion at the same t ime. S t u d e n t s a p p e a r e d to have no d i f f i c u l t y w i t h p a r t one o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s . With pa r t two of the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e , s i x s t u d e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g how to r e s p o n d to h e l p e r , no o n e . In these c a s e s , the r e s e a r c h e r r e e x p l a i n e d the s i t ua t i on un t i l t h e y i nd i ca ted tha t t hey u n d e r s t o o d . 68 It was an t i c i pa ted that the B S R I (1978) might p r e s e n t some v o c a b u l a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s fo r some of t h i s g r a d e e leven p o p u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l i s t o f po ten t ia l l y d i f f i c u l t wo rds and t h e i r mean ings a n d / o r s y n o n y m s were w r i t t en on the b l a c k b o a r d f o r s t u d e n t s ' r e f e r e n c e . Words l i s t ed i n c l u d e d : a f f ec t i ona te , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , a s s e r t i v e , compass iona te , a d a p t i v e , dominan t , t a c t f u l , c o n v e n t i o n a l , y i e l d i n g , a n a l y t i c a l , i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , g u l l i b l e a n d so lemn . A n y o the r q u e s t i o n s tha t s t u d e n t s had r e g a r d i n g wo rd mean ings were a n -s w e r e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . F i n a l l y , t owa rd the end o f each c l ass p e r i o d , a l l comple ted q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p i c k e d up by the r e s e a r c h e r . A t tha t t ime , each s t u d e n t was a s k e d i f he o r she had a n y ques t i ons o r p rob lems w i th the i n s t r u m e n t s , and i f t he re were f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s , they were a t t ended to at tha t t ime. A l l s t u d e n t s were d i s m i s s e d at the same t ime: none were d i sm issed e a r l y . D A T A A N A L Y S I S A n a l y s i s o f r e s u l t s in t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y were e i t h e r : (a) co r re l a t i ona l in n a t u r e , where Pearson p roduc t -momen t c o r r e l a t i o n coe f f i c i en t s were computed to compare r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween mea-su remen ts t aken on d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s , o r (b ) fo l lowed a fac to r i a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n w h e r e s e v e r a l a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e examined d i f f e r e n t main a n d i n t e r a c t i n g e f fec ts fo r a number o f re la ted f a c t o r s . A . C o r r e l a t i o n a l A p p r o a c h P e a r s o n p roduc t -momen t co r re l a t i on coe f f i c i en t s we re computed to est imate t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween : 69 1. Iden t i f i ed p rob lems a n d sex of s t u d e n t ( r e s e a r c h ques t i on l b . C h a p t e r I ) ; 2 . S e r i o u s n e s s of i den t i f i ed p rob lems a n d l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o -s u r e on p rob lems ( r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 3a a n d 3 b , C h a p t e r I ) ; 3 . M a s c u l i n i t y and fem in in i t y sco res on the B S R I a n d i d e n -t i f i ed p rob lems ( r e s e a r c h ques t i on 5 , C h a p t e r I ) ; 4 . M a s c u l i n i t y a n d fem in in i t y s co res on the B S R I and l i k e l i -hood of p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e f o r each o f t h r e e g r o u p s : male s t u d e n t s , female s t u d e n t s , a n d male a n d female s t u d e n t s combined ( r e s e a r c h ques t i on 5 b , C h a p t e r I ) ; a n d 5 . M a s c u l i n i t y and femin in i t y sco res on the B S R I a n d cho ice of a l l p o s s i b l e h e l p e r s , b y g e n d e r , b y l o c a t i o n , o r a combinat ion of g e n d e r x locat ion ( r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 5 c , C h a p t e r I ) . T h e U B C S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e fo r the Soc ia l S c i e n c e s (1978) was u s e d fo r compu t i ng al l o f the a b o v e . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e A number o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s were emp loyed to examine the s e v e r a l f ac to r i a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s as l i s t e d : 1. A 2 x 1 1 , sex o f s t u d e n t X i den t i f i ed p rob lem d e s i g n ( r e -s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s l a a n d l b . C h a p t e r I ) ; 2 . A 4 x 1 1 , Bern g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t X i den t i f i ed p rob lem d e s i g n ( r e s e a r c h ques t i on 5 a , C h a p t e r I ) ; 3 . A 2 x 2 x 3 x 1 1 , s e x o f s t u d e n t X g e n d e r o f h e l p e r X locat ion o f h e l p e r X p rob lem " r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n " (W ine r , 1962) , w h e r e each s t u d e n t is a s k e d abou t l i ke l i hood o f 70 d i s c l o s u r e on the same prob lem s i x t imes ( r e s e a r c h ques t i ons 2 a , 2 b , 2c and 4 , C h a p t e r I ) ; 4 . A 2 x 1 1 , sex o f s tuden t X prob lem d e s i g n , where s t u d e n t s a re a s k e d about d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l i hood to h e l p e r , no one ( r e s e a r c h ques t i on 4 , C h a p t e r I ) ; 5 . A 4 x 1 1 , Bern g r o u p i n g of s t u d e n t X p rob lem d e s i g n , where s t u d e n t s are a s k e d about d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l ihood to h e l p e r , no one ( r e s e a r c h ques t i on 5 c , C h a p t e r I ) ; and 6. A 4 x 2 x 3 x 1 1 , Bern g r o u p i n g of s t uden t X g e n d e r of he lpe r X locat ion o f he lpe r X prob lem " r e p e a t e d measures d e -s i g n " (W ine r , 1962) , ( r e s e a r c h ques t i ons 5b and 5 c , C h a p t e r I ) . Where main e f fec ts or i n te rac t i ons from a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s reached s ta t i s t i ca l s i g n i f i c a n c e (set at the .01 level ra the r than the .05 level because of the power i nhe ren t in a repeated measures d e s i g n ) , D u n n ' s mul t ip le compar ison p r o c e d u r e ( K i r k , 1968) , was emp loyed . It, in t u r n , f ocused on those s ta t i s t i ca l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n te rac t i ons to de termine wh i ch s u b g r o u p s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom the o t h e r s . A g a i n , t he .01 level of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used w i th D u n n ' s mul t ip le compar i son p r o c e d u r e . T h e U B C B M D 2 P V compute r p r o g r a m was used fo r compu t i ng al l of the above unequa l n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s ( i tems 1 - 6 ) . 71 C H A P T E R IV R E S U L T S T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a re o r g a n i z e d f i r s t in to th ree b r o a d themes: (1) i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s , (2) s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , and (3) p s y c h o l o g i -ca l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on and s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , and t h e n , w i th in these themes , a c c o r d i n g to the r e s e a r c h ques t i ons as ou t l i ned in C h a p t e r I. Impor tant f i n d i n g s wi l l be h i g h l i g h t e d , t hough more complete i n t e r p r e -ta t ions o f t hese f i n d i n g s wi l l be left un t i l C h a p t e r V . I I D E N T I F I E D P R O B L E M S A c o p y of the i ns t r umen t d e s i g n e d to measure i den t i f i ed p r o b -lems fo l lows in the A p p e n d i x , Pa r t I. T h e reade r wi l l remember tha t when do ing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e the sub jec t was a s k e d : " T o what ex ten t is each of the fo l low ing a prob lem for y o u ? " R e s e a r c h Ques t i on 1: (a) A r e some prob lem top i cs seen to be more se r i ous fo r males than females? (b) Do females appea r to be more t r o u -b led w i th p rob lems in gene ra l t han males? T o a r r i v e at a n s w e r s fo r these two q u e s t i o n s a s imp le two -way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was pe r fo rmed y i e l d i n g the fo l low ing summary t a b l e : 72 TABLE 4 Summary Tab le - I d e n t i f i e d Problem and Sex o f Student -A n a l y s i s o f Var iance Sum o f Mean T a i l Source Squares d f Square F P r o b a b i l i t y Mean 5 ,741 .22 1 5 ,741.22 1,883.67 .0000 Sex .39 1 .39 .13 .7206 E r r o r 545.57 179 3.05 Problem 245.43 10 24.54 33.65 .0000 Problem X Sex 43 .83 10 4 .38 6.01 .0000 E r r o r 1,305.55 1,790 .73 n = 181 A c c o r d i n g l y , we f i n d that because T a b l e 4 i nd i ca tes tha t sex is not s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s s t u d y ( p > . 0 1 ) , females do not a p p e a r to be more t r o u b l e d w i th p rob lems in gene ra l than males ( r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n l b ) . H o w e v e r , because of a s i g n i f i c a n t p rob lem X sex i n te rac t i on ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y . 0 0 0 0 ) , we need to look at the da ta more c a r e f u l l y to a n s w e r r e s e a r c h ques t i on l a . P lease r e f e r to T a b l e 5 . 73 TABLE 5 Means and Sign i f i c a n t Differences of Identified Problems For Students Grouped by Sex p1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 V P9 pio P 11 Mar-ginal Count Males 2.35 2.30 2.00 2.30 1.68 1.28 1.63 1 .42 1.25 1.54 1.22 1.73 79 Females 1.98 1.57 1.92 2.34 1.90 1.17 1.68 1.37 1.42 1.99 1.33 1.70 102 Sign.Diff. * * * Marginal 2.14 1.89 1.96 2.33 1.81 1.22 1.66 1.39 1.35 1.80 1.28 1.71 181 Note: Sig n i f i c a n t difference 1 evel = .36 * P = .01 n = 181 From Dunn's Multiple Comparison Procedure (Kirk, 1968) E v i d e n t l y , p rob lems one a n d two , d i f f i c u l t y w i th g r a d e s a n d a d j u s t -ment to schoo l r o u t i n e , a re seen to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s e r i o u s to t h i s sample of males than females and prob lem t e n , uncomfo r tab le f ee l i ngs a n d emot ions , is s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s e r i o u s fo r females than ma les . P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n coe f f i c i en ts s u p p o r t t h i s p a t t e r n as e v i d e n c e d in T a b l e 6. T h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s in T a b l e 6 pa ra l l e l those p rob lem cases in T a b l e 5 where t he re is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between sex of s t u d e n t . 74 TABLE 6 Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between I d e n t i f i e d Problems and Sex of Student P l P 2 P 3 P 4 P 5 P P P P P 8 *9 *10 P l l Sex - . 2 0 * - . 3 6 * * - . 0 3 .01 .10 - . 1 0 .02 - . 0 3 .10 . 2 3 * .09 * P < . 0 1 n = 181 ** p < . 0 0 1 Note: For the purposes o f t h i s Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n , males were coded 0 and females were coded +1. II S E L F - D I S C L O S U R E T h e r e a d e r wi l l remember tha t p rob lems fo r d i s c l o s u r e are the same as those fo r i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s . H e l p e r s o r t a r g e t s i n c l u d e : f a t h e r , mo the r , c loses t male f r i e n d , c loses t female f r i e n d , schoo l p e r s o n n e l (ma le ) , schoo l p e r s o n n e l ( female) a n d no o n e . S u b j e c t s a re a s k e d , "How l i ke l y wou ld y o u be to ta l k to abou t each of the fo l low ing p r o b l e m s ? " A copy of t h i s s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i ns t r umen t is f ound in the A p p e n d i x , Pa r t II. R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 : (a) A r e some p rob lem top i cs more l i k e l y to be t a l ked abou t by females than males? (b) A r e females more l i ke l y to ta l k abou t more p rob lems in gene ra l than males? (c) A r e s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s of g e n d e r , more l i k e l y to ta l k abou t some p r o b -lem top ics t han o the rs? T o . a n s w e r t hese r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , a n d o t h e r s tha t wi l l fo l low (ques t i ons 3 a n d 4 ) , it is a p p r o p r i a t e to p r e s e n t the fo l lowing a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary t a b l e . T a b l e 7 . 75 TABLE 7 Summary Table - Problem, Sex of Student, Gender of Helper and Location of Helper - Analysis of Variance Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Tail Probabi 1 i t y Mean Sex Error 115,687.19 1,150.43 8,907.09 1 1 179 115,687.19 1,150.43 49.76 2,324.89 23.12 .0000 .0000 Location Location X Sex Error 4,087.59 217.54 5,943.98 2 2 358 2,043.80 108.77 16.60 123.10 6.55 .0000 .0016 Gender Gender X Sex Error 750.86 436.55 1,540.81 1 1 179 750.86 436.55 8.60 87.23 50.72 .0000 .0000 Location X Gender Location X Gender X Sex Error 88.58 14.48 2,605.55 2 2 358 44.29 7.24 7.28 6.09 .99 .0025 .3709 Prbblem Problem X Sex Error 3,859.37 64.56 4,984.69 10 10 1790 385.94 6.46 2.78 138.59 2.32 .0000 .0104 Location X Problem Location X Problem 980.87 20 49.04 35.77 .0000 X Sex Error 80.37 4,908.27 20 3,580 4.02 1.37 2.93 .0000 Gender X Problem Gender X Problem 58.24 10 5.82 5.99 .0000 X Sex Error 55.81 1,740.22 10 1,790 5.58 .97 5.74 .0000 Location X Gender X Problem Location X Gender 40.89 20 2.04 2.35 .0006 X Problem X Sex Error 55.54 3,118.23 20 3,580 2.78 .87 3.19 .0000 n 181 76 R e s e a r c h Ques t i on 2 : (a) A r e some problem top ics more l i ke l y to be ta l ked about b y females than males? T h e answe r to t h i s ques t i on is no . Because sex of s t u d e n t X p rob lem ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y exceeds .01 (see T a b l e 7 ) , females in th i s s t u d y r e p o r t that t hey a re not s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y than males to ta lk about some p r o b l e m s . H o w e v e r , fo r the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t . T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s mean l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e sco res f o r males and females fo r each of e leven p r o b l e m s . No at tempt has been made to tes t fo r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e leve ls on p rob lems between s e x . TABLE 8 Mean Disclosure Scores on Problems for Students Grouped by Sex P 1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 Mar-ginal Count Males 3.48 3.28 3.22 3.79 2.77 2.50 2.57 2.68 2.28 2.42 2.03 2.82 79 Females 4.30 4.06 3.79 4.54 3.47 3.29 3.00 3.21 2.76 3.14 2.40 3.45 102 Marginal 3.94 3.72 3.54 4.22 3.15 2.97 2.81 2.98 2.55 2.82 2.24 3.18 181 - n = 181 R e s e a r c h Ques t i on 2: (b) A r e females more l i ke l y to ta lk about more p rob lems in g e n e r a l t han males? B e c a u s e the fac to r fo r sex has been found to be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y .0000: r e f e r to T a b l e 7) and because the mean d i s c l o s u r e sco re f o r females is 3.45 as compared to 2.82 f o r males ( r e f e r to T a b l e 8 ) , the answe r to th is ques t i on is y e s . T h e resu l t s i nd i ca te tha t females repo r t a h i g h e r total d i s c l o s u r e sco re than 77 males a n d that females a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y t han males to ta lk about more p rob lems in g e n e r a l . R e s e a r c h Ques t ion 2: (c ) A r e s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f g e n d e r , more l i ke l y to ta lk about some p r o b -lem top i cs than o the rs? S ince the main e f fec t fo r p rob lem as i l l u s t r a t e d in T a b l e 7 is h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y . 0 0 0 0 ) , we can h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t , y e s , s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f g e n d e r , s e l f - r e p o r t that t hey a re more l i ke l y to ta lk about " some" p rob lem top i cs than o t h e r s . B e l o w , T a b l e 9 , i l l u s t r a t e s s u c h a p a t t e r n . TABLE 9 Rank Order, Mean Disclosure Scores and Sign i f i c a n t Difference Levels Between Likelihood of Problem Disclosure X • 4 1 2 3 5 8 6 10 7 9 11 4 1 2 3 5 8 6 10 7 9 11 4.22 3.94 3.72 3.54 3.15 2.98 2.97 2.82 2.81 2.55 2.24 D : : Significant difference level = .27 * p = .01 From Dunn's Multiple Comparison Procedure (Kirk, 1968) n = 181 78 To i n t e r p r e t T a b l e 9 , one shou ld c o n s i d e r those prob lem top ics in b r a c k e t s below the a s t e r i s k s as be ing s i g n i f i c a n t l y less l i k e l y to be d i s c l o s e d upon than the head l i n i ng prob lem t o p i c . We can see t h a t , fo r i n s t a n c e , p rob lem top ic 4 , the f u t u r e , is s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to be t a l ked about than prob lem top ics 1, 2 , 3 , 5 , 8 , 6 , 10, 7 , 9 and 11 . S i m i l a r l y , s t u d e n t s r epo r t t ha t p rob lem top ic 1 , d i f f i c u l t y w i th g r a d e s , is s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to be t a l ked about than prob lem top i cs 3 , 5 , 8 , 6 , 10 , 7 , 9 and 11 . T h e reade r may l i ke to c o n s i d e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s fo r o ther p rob lem top ics ou t l i ned in t h i s t ab l e . R e s e a r c h Ques t i on 3 : (a) To what d e g r e e does statement o f s e r i o u s n e s s o f p rob lem top i c c o r r e -late wi th l i ke l i hood of d i s c u s s i n g p rob lem top ics? (b) Do males a n d females d i f f e r? T o a n s w e r pa r t (a) o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , it is a p p r o p r i a t e to c o n s i d e r a total popu la t i on Pearson co r re l a t i on between the two v a r i a b l e s , s e r i o u s n e s s o f p rob lems and l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e on these same p r o b l e m s . T a b l e 10 p r e s e n t s these c o e f f i c i e n t s . 79 TABLE 10 Pearson Product - Moment Correlation Coefficients For A l l Students Between Seriousness of Identified Problems and Likelihood of Disclosure on These Same Problems Seriousness of Each Identified Problem Sum IP -.09 -.08 .05 .01 .02 .02 .05 .09 .08 .06 .08 .03 IP 11 .07 .09 .12 .08 .05 .06 .05 .09 .11 .04 .06 .09 l p i o .05 .07 .13 .10 .10 .12 .02 .16 .16 .10 .12 .13 , P9 .00 .02 -.01 .03 .02 .04 .08 .19* .12 .17 .13 .08 I P8 -.06 -.12 -.06 -.04 -.09 -.04 -.03 .09 -.02 -.06 .01 -.06 , P7 -.07 -.04 -.03 .00 .05 .07 .04 -.01 .03 -.02 -.02 -.00 , P6 -.07 -.06 -.02 .03 -.01 .06 .07 .01 .05 .08 .12 .03 , P5 -.07 -.07 .00 .05 .08 .04 .02 .13 .03 .09 .04 .03 % .08 .11 .13 .09 .06 .07 .10 .05 -.01 .03 .04 .08 , P3 -.09 -.13 .09 -.03 -.09 -.04 -.00 -.07 .03 -.02 .04 -.04 , P2 -.20* -.20* -.05 -.18 -.02 -.07 .00 -.04 -.02 .01 .02 -.09 , P1 -.09 -.15 -.01 -.07 -.04 -.06 -.05 -.05 .04 -.04 -.00 -.06 P1 P2 Li kei ihood P P P 3 4 5 of Disclosure on P6 P7 Each Problem P8 P9 P10 P11 Sum P * p < .01 n = 181 Note: Sum IP = Sum of extent of a l l i d e n t i f i e d problems Sum P = Sum of like l i h o o d of disclosure of a l l problems Most re levan t to t h i s ques t i on is the ex ten t to wh ich the s e r i o u s -ness of each prob lem c o r r e l a t e s w i th the l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e on tha t same p r o b l e m . In o t h e r w o r d s , i f s t u d e n t s j udge prob lem 1 to be a se r i ous i ssue fo r t h e m , do t hey c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y say that t hey a re l i ke l y to d i s c l ose to a la rge ex ten t on it? Re fe rence to T a b l e 10 80 ind i ca tes that on l y in one c a s e , w i th p rob lem 2 , ad jus tment to schoo l r o u t i n e , is t he re a n y s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i on between the ex ten t to wh i ch th i s is a se r i ous p rob lem and the l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e on i t . A n d , t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i on ( p < . 0 1 ) is a nega t i ve o n e , meaning that the more s t u d e n t s repo r t tha t t h i s is a p r o b l e m , the less l i k e l y they claim to be to s e l f - d i s c l o s e on i t . A l s o , w o r t h y of no t ing is the lack o f s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i on ( .03) be tween the sum of s e r i o u s n e s s of al l i den t i f i ed p rob lems (Sum IP) and the sum of the l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e on al l p rob lems (Sum P ) . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 3 : (b) Do males and females d i f f e r? T h e a n s w e r s to t h i s ques t i on a re f ound in s e p a r a t e , s h o r t e n e d Pea rson p roduc t -momen t co r re la t i on tab les fo r the male and female p o p u l a t i o n s . T a b l e s 11 and 12 fo l low: TABLE 11 Pearson Product - Moment Correlation Coefficients For Males Between Seriousness of Each Identified Problem and Likelihood of Disclosure on That Same Problem Sum IP , P11 , P10 ' P9 Seriousness IP -.03 of Each Identified IP .10 Problem \PC .15 b IP C .01 l f\ -,.18 IP 3 .08 IP 2 -.06 IP 1 .05 .07 .12 P P P P P P P P P P 1 2 3 . 4 *5 ^6 *7 *8 P9 P10 Likelihood of Disclosure on Each Problem * p < .01 n = 79 82 TABLE 12 Pearson Product - Moment Correlation Coefficients For Females Between the Seriousness of Each Identified Problem and Likelihood of Disclosure on That Same Problem Sum IP Seriousness of Each Identified Problem IP. 11 IP. 10 IP. IP. IP-IP. IP IP. IP-IP. IP. .11 -.15 • 11 .01 .08 .05 .19 -.03 .01 .07 .03 .07 3 P P P P P P P 1 2 r3 k *5 K6 7 P£ Likelihood of Disclosure on Each Problem P9 P10 P11 S u m P * p < .01 n = 102 A c c o r d i n g to T a b l e s 11 a n d 12, ne i the r Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s show t h e r e to be a n y s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i on fo r males or females between the s e r i o u s n e s s of each i den t i f i ed p rob lem and the l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e on that same p r o b l e m . Nor is t he re a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e -lat ion between Sum IP and Sum P in e i the r c a s e . Do males and females d i f f e r to the d e g r e e wh i ch s e r i o u s n e s s of p rob lem top ics co r re l a te w i th l i ke l i hood of d i s c u s s i n g these prob lems? Because 83 ne i t he r males nor females show s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i ons a n y w h e r e w i t h i n these m a t r i c e s , i t does not appea r tha t t hey do d i f f e r s i g n i f -i c a n t l y . No f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence t e s t i n g has been app l i ed to the co r re l a t i on coe f f i c i en ts p resen ted in T a b l e s 11 and 12. R e s e a r c h Ques t i on 4 : A r e males and females equa l l y l i ke l y to choose the same h e l p e r s fo r t h e i r p r o b -lems, and how does i den t i t y a n d / o r sex o f he lpe r appea r to i n f l u e n c e cho ice? T h e q u e s t i o n , on the s u r f a c e seeming ly s i m p l e , in fac t demands some e x t e n s i v e examinat ion o f t h i s s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e r e s e a r c h d a t a . It a s k s us to look at the main e f fec ts fo r each o f g e n d e r a n d locat ion o f h e l p e r , and at least some of the i n t e rac t i ons between sex of s t u d e n t X g e n d e r o f h e l p e r ; sex o f s t u d e n t X locat ion o f h e l p e r ; g e n d e r o f h e l p e r X locat ion o f h e l p e r ; sex o f s t u d e n t X g e n d e r X locat ion o f h e l p e r ; p rob lem X g e n d e r of h e l p e r ; p rob lem X locat ion o f h e l p e r ; p rob lem X g e n d e r X locat ion of h e l p e r ; sex of s t u d e n t X p rob lem X g e n d e r o f h e l p e r ; sex o f s t uden t X p rob lem X locat ion o f h e l p e r ; and sex of s t u d e n t X prob lem X g e n d e r X locat ion o f h e l p -e r . ( T h e main e f f ec t s fo r sex o f s t u d e n t a n d p rob lem and t h e i r i n te rac t i on have been c o v e r e d t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h ques t i on 2.) A l s o , re la ted to t h i s q u e s t i o n a re two more i s s u e s : (1) the ex ten t to w h i c h s t u d e n t s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y s e x , c la im t h e y wou ld r e s p o n d to the h e l p e r , no o n e ; and (2) the ex ten t to w h i c h they a re l i ke l y to d i s c l ose to al l s e v e n h e l p e r s when he lpe rs a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d jus t by who t h e y a r e , r a t h e r t han by g e n d e r a n d / o r l oca t i on . Fo r reasons of c l a r i t y and to compl iment the format of the l i t e ra tu re r e v i e w , it is p r o p o s e d that q u e s t i o n 4 be a p p r o a c h e d as impl ied a b o v e , f rom the s imple to the more comp lex : that i s . 84 examinat ion of main a n d lower o r d e r i n te rac t i ons f i r s t , and h i g h e r o r d e r i n t e rac t i ons l a te r . Because of the comp lex i t y a n d o b s c u r i t y o f some of the i n te rac t i ons tha t have to do w i t h p rob lems ( t h e r e a re e leven leve ls of p r o b l e m ) , it is a lso p roposed that pos t hoc a n a l y s e s s h o u l d be done on l y for some main e f fec ts a n d lower o r d e r i n t e r -ac t i ons where i n t e rp re ta t i on may be mean ing fu l in the l i gh t o f the l i t e r a t u r e . T h e s e , I s u g g e s t , shou ld i n c l u d e the main e f fec t fo r locat ion o f h e l p e r and the i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s fo r sex o f s t u d e n t X g e n d e r o f h e l p e r ; sex o f s t u d e n t X locat ion o f h e l p e r ; g e n d e r o f he lpe r X locat ion o f h e l p e r ; and sex of s t u d e n t X g e n d e r X locat ion o f h e l p e r . Ce l l means wi l l be p r e s e n t e d fo r the sex of s t u d e n t X p rob lem X g e n d e r o f he lpe r X locat ion o f h e l p e r a n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between sex of s t u d e n t wi l l be m a r k e d , bu t t h e r e w i l l not be an at tempt to i n t e r p r e t t hese s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e l e v e l s . O t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t i n te rac t i ons w i th p rob lems s u c h as locat ion o f h e l p e r X p r o b l e m ; locat ion of he lpe r X p rob lem X sex of s t u d e n t ; g e n d e r o f h e l p e r X p r o b l e m ; g e n d e r of he lpe r X p rob lem X sex o f s t u d e n t ; and locat ion o f he lpe r X g e n d e r o f he lpe r X p r o b l e m , because of t h e i r o b s c u r e i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y , w i l l not be a n a l y z e d at t h i s t ime. G e n d e r o f H e l p e r  Loca t ion o f H e l p e r T h o u g h q u e s t i o n 4 does not a s k about s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e o f t a r g e t s a c c o r d i n g to the main e f fec ts o f g e n d e r and l oca t i on , these themes a re wo r th c o n s i d e r i n g be fo re dea l i ng d i r e c t l y w i th the q u e s t i o n . T a b l e 7 i nd i ca tes that g e n d e r o f he lpe r is s i g n i f i c a n t 85 ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y . 0 0 0 0 ) , as is locat ion of h e l p e r ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y . 0000 ) . T a b l e 13 o f f e r s a mean d i s c l o s u r e to female h e l p e r s ( g e n -d e r 2) o f 3 . 4 5 , s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the d i s c l o s u r e sco re of 2.90 to male h e l p e r s ( g e n d e r 1 ) . TABLE 13 Mean D i s c l o s u r e Scores to Male and Female He lpers For Students Grouped By Sex Male Students (Sex 1) Female Students (Sex 2) Marg ina l Male He lpers (Gender 1) 2.76 3.00 2.90 Female He lpers (Gender 2) 2 .88 3.90 3.45 Marg ina l 2 .83 3.45 3.18 Count 79 102 n = 181 S i m i l a r l y , T a b l e 14 d i s p l a y s mean d i s c l o s u r e sco res to he l pe r s b y l oca t i on : f r i e n d s ( locat ion 1 ) , 3 . 76 ; pa ren t s ( locat ion 2) , 3 . 4 2 ; and schoo l p e r s o n n e l ( locat ion 3 ) , 2 . 3 5 . Man ipu la t i on o f D u n n ' s Mu l t i p le C o m p a r i s o n P r o c e d u r e y i e l d s a s i gn i f i cance d i f f e r e n c e level o f .89 (p = .01) s u g g e s t i n g that s t u d e n t s , as a g r o u p . r epo r t that they a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to d i s c i ose to f r i e n d s than school p e r s o n n e l and to p a r e n t s than schoo 1 p e r s o n n e l bu t not f r i e n d s more than p a r e n t s . 86 TABLE 14 Mean Disclosure Scores to Friends, Parents and School Personnel For Students Grouped By Sex Male Students (Sex 1) Female Students (Sex 2) Marginal Friends (Location 1) 3.20 4.20 3.76 Parents (Location 2) 3.19 3.60 3.42 School Personnel (Location 3) 2.10 2.55 2.35 Marginal 2.83 3.45 Count 79 102 n = 181 S e x of S t u d e n t X G e n d e r o f He lpe r P e r t i n e n t to the s i g n i f i c a n t i n te rac t i on between sex of s t u d e n t a n d g e n d e r o f h e l p e r ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y .0000 - T a b l e 7) a r e the ce l l means p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 13 . In t h i s r e s e a r c h female s t u d e n t s r e p o r t tha t t h e y a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to d i s c l o s e to female h e l p e r s than to male h e l p e r s and more l i ke l y t han male s t u d e n t s to d i s c l o s e to e i t h e r male o r female h e l p e r s . ( D u n n ' s M u l t i p l e C o m p a r -ison P r o c e d u r e s u g g e s t s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e leve l o f . 8 0 , p = . 0 1 . ) No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t be tween the f o u r i n t e r a c t i n g c e l l s . 87 S e x o f S t u d e n t X Loca t ion of He lpe r T a b l e 7 a lso i nd i ca tes a s i g n i f i c a n t sex of s t u d e n t X locat ion of he lpe r i n te rac t i on ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y .0016) (p . 0 1 ) . C e l l means f rom T a b l e 14 a re p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 15. TABLE 15 Rank Orde r , Mean D i s c l o s u r e Scores and S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e L e v e l s f o r the I n t e r a c t i o n : Sex o f Student X L o c a t i o n o f He lper X 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 .20 * 3.60 * 3.20 3.19 2.55 . 2.10 "1 S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e l e v e l = 1.47 * p = .01 n = 181 From Dunn's M u l t i p l e Comparison Procedure ( K i r k , 1968) T o i n t e r p r e t T a b l e 15 , one s h o u l d c o n s i d e r those i n te rac t i on ce l l means in b r a c k e t s below the a s t e r i s k s as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y less l i ke l y to o c c u r than the head l i n i ng i n t e r a c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , in t h i s s t u d y sub jec t s r epo r t that female s t u d e n t s a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to d i s c l ose to f r i e n d s than female s t u d e n t s to schoo l p e r s o n n e l a n d male s t u d e n t s to schoo l p e r s o n n e l . T h e o n l y o the r 1. Female Students X F r i ends ( L o c a t i o n 1) 2 . Female Students X Parents ( Loca t i on 2) 3 . Male Students X F r iends ( L o c a t i o n 1) 4 . Male Students X Paren ts ( L o c a t i o n 2) 5. Female Students X School Personnel ( L o c a t i o n 3) 6. Male Students X School Personne l ( Loca t i on 3) 88 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e is that s t u d e n t s repo r t that female s t u d e n t s a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to d i sc lose to pa ren ts than a re male s t u d e n t s to schoo l p e r s o n n e l . G e n d e r o f H e l p e r X Locat ion of He lpe r U n d e r s t o o d in th i s d e s i g n is tha t two leve ls o f g e n d e r o f he lpe r (male a n d female) and t h ree leve ls of locat ion of he lpe r ( f r i e n d , p a r e n t a n d schoo l pe r sonne l ) when merged p roduce s i x d i f f e r e n t t a r g e t s . T a b l e 16 below i l l u s t r a t e s th i s t r a n s l a t i o n . G e n d e r 1, male h e l p e r c r o s s e d w i th locat ion 1, f r i e n d , y i e l d s c l oses t male f r i e n d ; g e n d e r 1, c r o s s e d w i th locat ion 2 , p a r e n t y i e l d s f a t h e r , and so o n . TABLE 16 Gender o f He lper X L o c a t i o n o f He lper Design Into S i x Targe ts Gender 1 (Male He lpe r ) Gender 2 (Female He lpe r ) L o c a t i o n 1 ( F r i e n d ) C l o s e s t Male F r i e n d C l o s e s t Female F r i end L o c a t i o n 2 (Paren t ) Fa ther Mother L o c a t i o n 3 (School Pe rsonne l ) School Personnel (Male) School Personnel (Female) T h e reade r wi l l note that T a b l e 7 r e p o r t s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n te rac t i on fo r the v a r i a b l e s g e n d e r o f he lpe r X locat ion o f he lpe r ( ta i l p r o b -ab i l i t y .0025) s u g g e s t i n g tha t s t u d e n t s ( r e g a r d l e s s of g e n d e r ) r e p o r t tha t some he lpe rs a re p r e f e r r e d as t a r g e t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more 89 than o t h e r s . R a n k o r d e r , mean d i s c l o s u r e sco res a n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e leve ls between s i x t a rge ts f rom the g e n d e r o f h e l p e r X locat ion o f h e l p e r i n te rac t i on are p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 17. TABLE 17 Rank Orde r , Mean D i s c l o s u r e Scores and S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e Leve l s Between S i x Targets 1. C l o s e s t Female F r i e n d 2. Mother 3 . C l o s e s t Male F r i e n d 4 . Fa the r 5. School Personnel (Female) 6. School Personne l (Male) X 4.12 3.73 3.40 3.10 2.50 2.20 3 4 5 6 ] S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e l e v e l = .96 * p = .01 n = 181 From Dunn's M u l t i p l e Comparison Procedure ( K i r k , 1968) A s w i th p r e v i o u s tab les o f s im i la r fo rmat , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is much the same: the reade r s h o u l d c o n s i d e r those labe l led h e l p e r s in b r a c k e t s below the a s t e r i s k s as be ing s i g n i f i c a n t l y less l i ke l y to be d i s c l o s e d to than the h e a d l i n i n g h e l p e r s . Fo r i n s t a n c e , s t u d e n t s r e p o r t t h a t , as a g r o u p , t hey a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y to d i sc lose to t he i r c l oses t female f r i e n d t han t h e i r f a t h e r , schoo l p e r s o n n e l ( female) a n d schoo l p e r s o n n e l (ma le ) ; to t he i r mother than to e i t h e r schoo l p e r s o n n e l , a n d to t h e i r c l oses t male f r i e n d t han to schoo l p e r s o n n e l (ma le ) . Notab le fo r school pe rsonne l is tha t t hey p lace lowest in s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e fo r t a r g e t s . 90 S e x o f S t u d e n t X G e n d e r of He lpe r X Locat ion o f H e l p e r In te rms o f the sex of s tuden t X g e n d e r X locat ion o f he lpe r r e l a -t i o n s h i p s . T a b l e 7 s u g g e s t s a n O n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n te rac t i on ( ta i l p r o b -a b i l i t y . 3 7 0 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , t he re wi l l be no at tempt to tes t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e leve ls between c e l l s . H o w e v e r , f o r t he r e a d -e r ' s i n f o r m a t i o n , ce l l means are p r e s e n t e d below in T a b l e 18. TABLE 18 Mean Disclosure Scores to Helper Gender X Helper Location (Friends, Parents, School Personnel) For Students Grouped By Sex MALE STUDENTS (Sex 1) FEMALE (Sex STUDENTS 2) Male Female Helpers Helpers (Gender 1) (Gender 2) Male Helpers (Gender 1) Female Helpers (Gender 2) Marginal Friends (Location 1) 3.06 3.33 3.66 4.74 3.76 Parents (Location 2) 3.12 3.24 3.08 4.12 3.42 School Personnel (Location 3) 2.11 2.08 2.27 2.83 2.35 Marginal 2.76 2.88 3.00 3.90 n = 181 91 S e x of S t u d e n t X S e v e n He lpe rs Pu t ano the r way and Inc lud ing the h e l p e r , no o n e . T a b l e 19 p r e -sen ts the d i s c l o s u r e sco re ce l l means to al l seven h e l p e r s fo r both male and female s t u d e n t s . TABLE 19 Rank Ordering and Mean Disclosure Scores to Seven Helpers For Students Grouped by Sex Male Students Female Students Marg ina l C l o s e s t Female F r i e n d 3.33 (2) 4.74 (1) 4 .12 (1) Mother 3.24 (3) 4.12 (2) 3.73 (2) C l o s e s t Male F r i e n d 3.06 (5) 3.66 (3) 3.40 (3) No One 3.47 (1) 2.94 (5) 3.17 (4) Fa the r 3.12 (4) 3.08 (4) 3.10 (5) School Personnel (Female) 2 .08 (7) 2.83 (6) 2.50 (6) School Personnel (Male) 2.11 (6) 2.27 (7) 2.20 (7) Marg ina l 2.91 3.38 n = 181 T h e r i g h t hand co lumn marg ina l in T a b l e 19 o f fe rs i n d i v i d u a l ta rge t p r e f e r e n c e in o r d e r f rom most p r e f e r r e d to least p r e f e r r e d for al l s t u d e n t s r e g a r d l e s s o f g e n d e r . Rank o r d e r is i nd i ca ted b y numbers in p a r e n t h e s i s . Rank o r d e r p r e f e r e n c e fo r i n d i v i d u a l 92 t a r g e t s w i th in sex of s t u d e n t are s im i l a r l y i nd i ca ted by numbers in p a r e n t h e s i s . T h o u g h male and female s t u d e n t s repo r t tha t t hey a re g e n e r a l l y in agreement in t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e r a n k i n g of t a r g e t s (w i th in one or two p o s i t i o n s ) , what is most notab le is the d i s c r e p a n c y between male and female p r e f e r e n c e for the h e l p e r , no o n e . Fo r ma les , no one or not s p e a k i n g to anyone is t he i r p r e f e r e n c e o v e r al l o the r t a rge t c h o i c e s ; w h e r e a s , fo r females no one is t h e i r f i f t h p r e f e r e n c e . No at tempt has been made to tes t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e leve ls between the seven h e l p e r means p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 19 because he lpe r no one means have been a d d e d to the g e n d e r o f he lpe r X locat ion of he lpe r mode l . No one d i s c l o s u r e means have come f rom a sepa ra te a n a l y s i s . H e l p e r , No One A g a i n , because the he lpe r no one d i d not f i t the g e n d e r X locat ion o f h e l p e r mode l , s t u d e n t s l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e r e s p o n s e s to t h i s t a rge t were not a n a l y z e d w i th in the la rge a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 7. R a t h e r , T a b l e 20 p r e s e n t s a sepa ra te a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e fo r the v a r i a b l e s sex of s t uden t and p rob lems to t h i s t a r g e t . 93 TABLE Summary Table - Problem Analysis of Variance 20 and Sex of Student -For Helper, No One Sum of Mean Tail Squares df Square F Probability Mean 20,063.22 1 20,063.22 954.37 .0000 Sex 137.08 1 137.08 6.52 .0115 Error 3,763.01 179 21.02 Problem 343.12 10 34.31 18.85 .0000 Problem X Sex 28.33 10 2.83 1.56 .1139 Error 3,258.49 1,790 1.82 n = 181 A s T a b l e 20 s u g g e s t s , sex of s tuden t in th i s s t u d y was not s i g n i f i -can t ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y . 0 1 1 5 ) , nor was prob lem X sex of s t u d e n t . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t tha t ne i the r sex r e p o r t s to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t in t he i r d i s c l o s u r e pa t t e rns when p rob lems a re summed o v e r , and that males and females claim to r e s p o n d s im i l a r l y in t he i r re t i cence to d i sc l ose on p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s . P r o b l e m , h o w e v e r , is s i g n i f i c a n t ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y .0000) meaning tha t some prob lems a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y less l i k e l y to be ta l ked about t han o t h e r s . T h e prob lem marg ina l in T a b l e 21 p r e s e n t s re levan t ce l l means fo r th i s d i s c u s s i o n . 94 TABLE 21 Mean Problem Disclosure Scores to Helper No-One For Students Grouped by Sex P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 V P 10 P 11 Marginal Males 3.15 3.22 2.81 2.96 3.71 3.48 3.71 3.81 3.44 3.73 4.09 3.47 Females 2.41 2.35 2.50 2.12 3.29 3.06 3.15 2.99 3.33 3.37 3.73 2.94 Marginal 2.74 2.73 2.64 2.49 3.48 3.24 3.39 3.35 3.38 3.53 3.88 n = 181 T a b l e 22 r e p r e s e n t s the rank o r d e r i n g of s t u d e n t s ' r e t i cence to d i s c l ose on p a r t i c u l a r p rob lem top ics and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the l i ke l ihood of d i s c l o s u r e . 95 11 10 5 7 9 8 6 1 2 3 4 3.88 3.53 3.48 3.39 3.38 3.35 3.24 2.74 2.73 2.64 2.49 TABLE 22 Rank Order, Mean Disclosure Scores and Significant Difference Levels Between Likelihood of Problem Disclosure to Helper, No One 11 10 Sign i f i c a n t difference level = .53 * p = .01 n = 181 From Dunn's Multiple Comparison Procedure (Kirk, 1968) T h e reade r needs to be aware that d i s c l o s u r e to h e l p e r , no one is sco red in r e v e r s e to d i s c l o s u r e to the o the r s i x t a r g e t s . T h a t i s , t h o u g h p rob lem top i c 1 1 , p rob lems of sexua l ad jus tmen t , is r a n k e d f i r s t in T a b l e 22 w i th the h i g h e s t mean s c o r e , s t u d e n t s a re r e -s p o n d i n g to the q u e s t i o n , "How l i ke l y wou ld y o u be to ta lk to no o n e : tha t i s , keep comple te ly to y o u r se l f about each o f the fo l low-ing p r o b l e m s ? " S t u d e n t s s a y i n g tha t t hey a re most l i ke l y to keep to themse lves about in t imate top ics s u c h as p rob lem 10 and 11 and be open about t op i cs s u c h as 3 and 4 is e n t i r e l y cons i s ten t ( in 96 r e v e r s e ) w i th l i ke l i hood of p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e to the o ther s i x h e l p e r s as r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 8. T o i n t e r p r e t T a b l e 22 one s h o u l d c o n s i d e r those top ics in b r a c k e t s below the a s t e r i s k s as h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l ihood than the h e a d -l i n i ng t o p i c . S t u d e n t s r epo r t tha t they are s i g n i f i c a n t l y less l i ke l y to d i sc l ose on top ic 11 , fo r i n s t a n c e , than top ics 6 , 1, 2 , 3 and 4 . Pu t ano the r w a y , and p l a y i n g w i th seman t i cs , s t u d e n t s say that t h e y a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to d i sc l ose to he lpe r no one on top ic 11 than on top ics 6 , 1, 2 , 3 and 4 . Please c o n s i d e r o ther s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on d i s c l o s u r e l i k e l i h o o d . S e x of S t u d e n t X Prob lem X G e n d e r of He lpe r X Locat ion of He lper T h e f ina l t ask in response to r e s e a r c h ques t i on 4 is to c o n s i d e r the notab le s i g n i f i c a n t h i g h e r o r d e r i n te rac t i on between the v a r i a b l e s : p r o b l e m , sex of s t u d e n t , g e n d e r o f h e l p e r , a n d locat ion o f he lpe r ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y .0000 - see T a b l e 7 ) . With e leven leve ls of p r o b -lem, two leve ls of sex o f s t u d e n t , two leve ls o f g e n d e r of he lpe r and t h ree leve ls of locat ion o f h e l p e r , t es t i ng and i n t e r p r e t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e l eve l s fo r a l l i n t e rac t i ng ce l l s wou ld be laborsome, d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t a n d wou ld go b e y o n d what is n e c e s s a r y f o r the scope of th i s p a p e r . What is o f i n t e r e s t , h o w e v e r , and keep ing w i th the s p i r i t of r e s e a r c h ques t i on 4 , is the way male and female s t u d e n t s r e p o r t to d i f f e r on l i ke l ihood of d i s c l o s u r e on each prob lem to each h e l p e r by g e n d e r a n d l oca t i on . T a b l e 23 d i s p l a y s mean d i s c l o s u r e s c o r e s and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e leve l nota t ion between sex o f s t u d e n t ( S 1 , S2) fo r each prob lem to each he lpe r by g e n d e r ( G 1 , G2) and locat ion ( L 1 , L 2 , L 3 ) . If the reade r p r e f e r s , how-e v e r , he o r she can t r ans la te male he lpe r X f r i e n d into c loses t male 97 f r i e n d , male he lpe r X pa ren t into f a t h e r , male he lpe r X school pe r sonne l into school p e r s o n n e l (ma le ) , and so o n . F o r t r a n s l a t i o n , p lease r e f e r to T a b l e 16. No at tempt has been made to t es t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e leve ls between marg ina l male a n d female s t u d e n t mean sco res in that the i n te rac t i on prob lem X sex of s t uden t was f ound not to be s i g n i f i c a n t . R e f e r to T a b l e 7. TABLE 23 Mean Disclosure Scores and Significant Difference Level Notation Between Sex of Student For Each Problem to Each Helper by Gender and Location Problem 1: D i f f i c u l t y with grades. MALE HELPER (G1) FEMALE HELPER (G2) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 3.54 3.47 3.28 3.77 3.28 3.01 3.48 Females (S2) 4.08 3.99 3.34 5.37 4.81 4.19 4.30 * * * * * 98 Problem 2: Adjustment to school routine: attendance, homework, classes, teachers. MALE HELPER (C1) FEMALE HELPER (G2) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 3.25 3.29 3.09 3.71 3.53 2.78 3.28 Females (S2) 3.94 3.70 3.06 5.27 4.48 3.92 4.06 * * * * * 3roblem 3: Problems with finances and employment (current). MALE HELPER (G1) FEMALE HELPER (G2) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (SI) 3.68 4.39 1.99 3.25 4.01 2.00 3.22 Females (S2) 3.78 4.28 2.18 4.70 4.95 2.82 3.79 * 99 Problem 4: The future : choice of occupation and/or future study. MALE HELPER (C1) FEMALE : HELPER (C2) Friend Parent (L1) (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend u n Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 3.97 4.48 3.28 3.94 4.33 2.76 3.79 Females (S2) 4.28 4.47 3.73 5.23 5.11 4.44 4.54 * * * * Problem 5: D i f f i c u l t relations with family. MALE HELPER (CD FEMALE HELPER (G2) Friend a n Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend Parent (L1) (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 3.01 3.25 1.62 3.41 3.57 1.78 2.77 Females (S2) 4.19 3.09 2.04 4.85 4.06 2.57 3.47 * * * * * 100 Problem 6: Problems in getting along with friends. MALE HELPER (GI) FEMALE HELPER (C2) Fri end (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend Parent (LI) (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (SI) 3.04 2.56 1.70 3.39 2.80 1.78 2.50 Females (S2) 3.78 2.67 1.90 4.95 3.97 2.47 3.29 * * * * Problem 7: Boyfriend - gi r l f r i end problems. MALE HELPER (C1 ) FEMALE HELPER (G2) Fri end (LI.) Parent (L2) School Personnel ' (L3) Fri end (LI) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Margi nal Males (S1) 3.24 2.44 1 .53 3.85 2.57 1.81 2.57 Females (S2) 3.96 2.07 1 .61 5.05 3.24 2.08 3.00 * * * 101 Probl em 8: Health and physical development problems. MALE HELPER (G1) FEMALE : HELPER (C2) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 2.75 3.05 2.23 2.76 3.28 2.03 2.68 Females (S2) 2.78 2.75 2.10 4.37 4.57 2.71 3.21 * * * Problem 9: Problems with morals and r e l i g i o n . MALE HELPER (C1) FEMALE HELPER (G2) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 2.44 2.75 1.49 2.52 2.84 1.65 2.28 Females (S2) 2.83 2.68 1.74 3.78 3.60 1.91 2.76 * * 102 Problem 10: Uncomfortable feelings and emotions. MALE HELPER (C1) FEMALE HELPER (G2) Friend (L1) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend a n Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 2.53 2.47 1.57 3.38 2.82 1.76 2.42 Females. (S2) 3.79 2.50 1.92 4.64 • 3.72 2.25 3.14 * * * * Problem 11: Problems of sexual adjustment. MALE HELPER (G1) FEMALE HELPER (G2) Friend (LI) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Friend (LI) Parent (L2) School Personnel (L3) Marginal Males (S1) 2.18 2.22 1.44 2.66 2.09 1.57 2.03 Females (S2) 2.89 1.70 1.34 3.96 2.78 1.75 2.40 * * * * S i g n i f i c a n t difference level = .39 * p = .01 n = 181 From Dunn's Multiple Comparison Procedures (Kirk, 1968) T h e r e a d e r wi l l note that of s i x t y - s i x compar i sons (e leven prob lems X s i x h e l p e r s ) , f o r t y - t h r e e reach s i g n i f i c a n c e w i th females r e p o r t -ing to be l i ke l y to d i sc lose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more in f o r t y - t w o of the f o r t y - t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s . O n l y on prob lem 11 , p rob lems of sexua l ad jus tmen t , do male s t u d e n t s repo r t tha t t hey a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more 103 l i k e l y to d i s c l o s e to t he i r f a the rs than female s t u d e n t s to t h e i r f a t h e r s . A l s o o f note is that females repo r t l i ke l ihood of d i s c l o s u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more^ than males to the he lpe r s c loses t female f r i e n d a n d mother on a\[ e leven p rob lems . F o r the p u r p o s e s of th i s s t u d y and because it wou ld , be of l imi ted use in the l i gh t of the l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r p roposes not to a r t i c u l a t e , at t h i s t ime, a n y more of the s p e c i f i c r e s u l t s f rom T a b l e 2 3 . P S Y C H O L O G I C A L S E X - R O L E O R I E N T A T I O N A N D S E L F - D I S C L O S U R E R e s e a r c h Ques t i on 5 : How does an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s co re on Bern's measure o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n -ta t ion ( B S R I , 1978) re la te to an i n d i v i d u -a l ' s (a) s e r i o u s n e s s of p rob lem t o p i c s , (b) l i ke l ihood of t a l k i n g abou t p rob lem t o p i c s , and (c) cho ice of he lpe r? T w o s ta t i s t i ca l a p p r o a c h e s have been se lec ted to he lp answer the above q u e s t i o n : (1) a co r re la t i ona l a p p r o a c h that t akes > raw m a s c u -l i n i t y a n d femin in i t y sco res from the Bern i ns t rumen t fo r each of ma les , females and the whole s tuden t p o p u l a t i o n , a n d co r re la tes them w i th i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s , l i ke l i hood o f d i s c l o s u r e on p rob lems a n d r e p o r t e d d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l i hood to d i f f e r e n t l eve l s o f h e l p e r s , a n d (2) an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a p p r o a c h tha t wi l l c o n s i d e r i n t e rac t i ons be tween Bern g r o u p i n g s X i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s ; Bern g r o u p i n g s X p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e ' l i ke l i hood to h e l p e r no o n e ; and Bern g r o u p i n g s X p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l i hood to h e l p e r s b y g e n d e r a n d loca t ion . It is p r o p o s e d tha t most measures of s i g n i f i c a n c e wi l l be t aken f rom the co r re l a t i ona l p r o c e d u r e ( P e a r s o n co r re l a t i on c o e f f i c i e n t s ) : a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e summary tab les wi l l be p r e s e n t e d as wi l l tab les 104 i l l u s t r a t i n g rank o r d e r i n g s and mean sco res fo r some i n t e r a c t i o n s , t h o u g h on ly in the cases of main e f fec ts fo r i den t i f i ed p rob lems a n d Bern g r o u p i n g wi l l a t tempts be made to test fo r and demons t ra te s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between means . R e s e a r c h Ques t ion 5 : (a) How does an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s co re on Bern's measure o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i en ta t i on ( B S R I , 1978) re la te to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e r i o u s n e s s of p rob lem top ics? T a b l e 24 e x p r e s s e s Pea rson p roduc t -momen t c o r r e l a t i o n coe f f i c i en t s be tween the B S R I mascu l i n i t y a n d femin in i t y s c o r e s fo r ma les , females and al l s t u d e n t s t imes e leven iden t i f i ed p r o b l e m s . Iden t i f i ed p rob lems a re the same l i s t o f e leven prob lems that have been u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y . ( R e f e r to the A p p e n d i x , P a r t I.) T h e reade r wi l l remember that s t u d e n t s were a s k e d , " T o what e x t e n t is each of the fo l lowing a p rob lem for y o u ? " 105 TABLE 24 Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y Scores f o r M a l e , Female and A l l Students For Eleven I d e n t i f i e d Problems MALE Masc. STUDENTS Fern. . FEMALE Masc. STUDENTS Fern. MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS Masc. Fern. - . 1 3 - . 1 7 .02 .04 - . 0 0 - . 1 8 * • I P 2 .01 - . 1 5 - . 0 6 - . 0 6 .06 _ 2 9 * * I P 3 - . 1 7 - . 1 3 .13 - . 11 .00 - . 1 1 I P 4 - . 2 7 * - . 1 1 - . 0 8 - . 0 5 - . 1 6 - . 0 6 I P 5 .05 - . 0 2 .11 .02 .06 .05 I P 6 - . 3 2 * - . 0 1 .14 .05 - . 0 6 - . 0 4 I P 7 - . 0 9 .05 .08 - . 11 .00 - . 0 1 I P 8 - . 1 3 .02 .14 .01 .02 - . 0 1 I P 9 - . 1 6 .12 .09 - . 0 3 - . 0 3 .09 I P 1 0 - . 0 9 - . 0 7 - . 0 8 .03 - . 1 3 •11 I P 1 1 - . 1 2 .13 - . 1 8 .07 - . 1 7 * .13 Sum IP - . 2 4 - . 0 9 .05 - . 0 4 - . 0 6 - . 0 7 * p < * * p < .01 .001 n = 181 T h o u g h the re a re a few s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i ons w i th in th i s t a b l e . c lose i nspec t i on o f i t does not s u g g e s t a n y u n i q u e d i s c o v e r y o r revea l a n y impor tan t p a t t e r n ( s ) . No r do sco res on mascu l i n i t y o r femin in i t y c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th total i den t i f i ed p rob lems (Sum IP) fo r a n y g r o u p . 106 A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h to a n s w e r i n g th i s ques t i on is b y an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e . A l l s t u d e n t s , by a med ian - sp l i t method (Bern , 1976) , were ca tego r i zed a c c o r d i n g to t he i r mascu l i n i t y a n d fem in in i t y sco res into fou r Bern g r o u p i n g s : m a s c u l i n e , f em in ine , a n d r o g y n o u s and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , a p e r s o n t y p e d mascu l ine s c o r e d above the median on the mascu l ine sca le ( 9 6 . 0 0 , in the p r e s e n t s t u d y ) and below the median on the femin ine scale ( 9 4 . 6 7 , in the p r e s e n t s t u d y ) ; a pe rson t y p e d femin ine s c o r e d above the median on the femin ine sca le and below the median on the mascu l ine s c a l e ; a p e r s o n t y p e d a n d r o g y n o u s s c o r e d above the median on both s c a l e s ; and a p e r s o n t y p e d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s c o r e d below the median on both s c a l e s . T a b l e 25 d i s p l a y s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t u d e n t s , in t h i s s t u d y , a c c o r d i n g to sex and Bern g r o u p i n g s . TABLE 25 Distribution of Students According to Sex and Bern Grouping Count Group Row Percentage Column Percentage Total Percentage Male Female Row Total Masculine 31 10 41 75.6 24.4 22.7 39.2 9.8 17.1 5.5 Feminine 2 37 39 5.1 94.9 21.5 2.5 36.3 1.1 20.4 Androgynous 17 35 52 32.7 67.3 28.7 21.5 34.3 9.4 19.3 Undifferentiated 29 20 . 49 59.2 40.8 27.1 36.7 19.6 16.0 11.0 Column 79 102 181 Total 43.6 56.4 100.0 T h o u g h the re is a f a i r l y equa l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f total s t u d e n t s into each o f the f o u r Bern g r o u p i n g s , t he re is not as much o f a ba lance w i th in each o f the s e x e s . Most s t r i k i n g is that o f s e v e n t y - n i n e ma les , on l y two fa l l in to t he ca tego ry of f em in ine . P u t ano the r w a y , o f the t h i r t y - n i n e i n d i v i d u a l s g r o u p e d f em in ine , two a re male and t h i r t y - s e v e n a r e female . Bern's 1975 sample o f S t a n f o r d u n d e r -g r a d u a t e s ( T a b l e 3) is much more even in i ts d i s t r i b u t i o n . 108 T a b l e 26 p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e fo r i den t i f i ed p r o b -lems X Bern g r o u p i n g of s t u d e n t . T h e reader needs to be aware that t h i s is an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e for al l s t u d e n t s . Sepa ra te a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were not pe r fo rmed fo r each of the male and female s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . TABLE 26 Summary Table - Identified Problems and Bern Grouping of Student - Analysis of Variance Source Sum of Mean Tail Squares df Square F Probability Mean 5,726.72 1 5,726.72 1,890.99 .0000 Bern 9.93 3 3.31 1.09 .3534 Error 536.03 177 3.03 Problem 240.95 10 24.10 32.48 .0000 Problem X Bern 36.43 30 1.21 1.64 .0164 Error 1,312.96 1,770 .74 n = 181 Bern g r o u p i n g is not s i g n i f i c a n t ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y .3534) no r is i den t i f i ed prob lem X Bern g r o u p i n g ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y .0164) (P . 0 1 ) ; h o w e v e r , p rob lem is s i g n i f i c a n t , meaning that s t u d e n t s r epo r t that some prob lems are seen to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more se r i ous fo r them than o t h e r s . T a b l e 27 p r e s e n t s r a n k o r d e r , mean sco res a n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e leve ls between iden t i f i ed p r o b l e m s . T h e same mean s c o r e s appea r in T a b l e 5 . ( T h i s a n a l y s i s cou ld have been done e a r l i e r in th i s c h a p t e r had r e s e a r c h ques t i on 2 been worded d i f f e r e n t l y . ) 109 TABLE 27 Rank Order, Mean Scores and Significance Difference Levels Between Identified Problems * 1 3 2 5 1 0 7 8 9 4 2.33 1 2.14 3 1.96 2 1.89 5 1.81 10 1.80 7 1.66 8 1.39 9 1.35 11 1.28 6 1.22 Signi f i c a n t difference level = .34 * p = .01 n = 181 From Dunn's Multiple Comparison Procedure (Kirk, 1968) S t u d e n t s , r e g a r d l e s s of Bern g r o u p i n g , r epo r t tha t i den t i f i ed p r o b -lem 4 , t he f u t u r e : cho ice of occupa t i on a n d / o r f u r t h e r s t u d y , is s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a p rob lem for them than p rob lems 3 , 2 , 5 , 10 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 11 a n d 6. O f c o u r s e , the reader s h o u l d c o n s i d e r those p rob lem top i cs in b r a c k e t s below the a s t e r i s k as be ing repo r t ed to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y less se r i ous for s t uden ts than the head l i n i ng p r o b -lem t o p i c . 110 R e s e a r c h Ques t ion 5 : (b) How does an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s co re on Bern's measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r ien ta t i on ( B S R I , 1978) re la te to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i ke l ihood of t a l k i n g about prob lem top ics? A s in the a n s w e r i n g of pa r t (a) of th is q u e s t i o n , a co r re l a t i ona l a p p r o a c h wi l l be p u r s u e d f i r s t ( the ex ten t to wh ich Bern mascu l i n i t y a n d femin in i t y s co res co r re l a te w i th l i ke l ihood of p rob lem d i s c l o -s u r e ) , fo l lowed b y an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e to c o n s i d e r t he i n t e r -ac t ion be tween l i ke l i hood of p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e and Bern g r o u p i n g . T a b l e 28 o f fe rs c o r r e l a t i o n s as l abe l l ed . 111 TABLE 28 Pearson Product-Moment C o r r e l a t i o n s Between BSRI M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y Scores f o r Ma le , Female and A l l S tudents X L i k e l i h o o d o f Problem D i s c l o s u r e MALE Ma s c . STUDENTS Fern. FEMALE STUDENTS Masc. Fern. MALE AND. FEMALE STUDENTS Masc. Fern. p l .15 .21 - . 0 7 .13 - . 0 4 . 3 2 * * P2 .02 .18 - . 01 .20 - . 0 7 . 3 2 * * P3 .13 .19 .02 .20 .00 . 3 0 * * P4 .17 .20 .19 .21 .10 . 3 4 * * P5 .20 . 2 8 * .08 .18 .05 . 3 7 * * P6 .09 .21 .18 . 2 5 * .05 . 3 6 * * P7 .18 .17 .19 .18 .13 . 2 6 * * P8 .05 .17 .22 .19 .09 . 2 7 * * P9 .12 .15 .13 .10 .08 . 2 1 * P 1 0 .15 . 3 2 * .23 . 2 6 * .11 . 4 0 * * P l l .10 .21 .12 .05 .06 . 2 2 * Sum P .15 .25 .14 .23 .06 . 3 7 * * * p < .01 * * . p < .001 n = 181 Most o b v i o u s is the v e r y s t r o n g and c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d o f pos i t i ve s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between femin in i t y sco res , w i t h i n the tota l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , and r e p o r t e d l i ke l ihood of d i s c l o s u r e on al l e l even p rob lems ( i n c l u d i n g Sum P ( total p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e l i k e l i -h o o d ) ) . O n l y two c o r r e l a t i o n s w i th in t h i s g r o u p i n g do not reach the .001 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l , femin in i t y a n d p rob lem 9 , p rob lems w i th 112 mora ls a n d re l i g ion and femin in i t y and prob lem 1 1 , p rob lems of s e x u a l ad jus tmen t . T h e y , h o w e v e r , reach the .01 p r o b a b i l i t y leve l and a re p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i th femin in i t y as are al l o the r s i g n i f i -can t c o r r e l a t i o n s in T a b l e 28. In s u m , the B S R I measure of f e m i -n i n i t y a p p e a r s to co r re l a te pos i t i ve l y and v e r y h i g h l y w i th l i k e l i -hood of d i s c l o s u r e on a l l e leven prob lems f o r s t u d e n t s as a whole g r o u p , a n d less s t r o n g l y fo r a few spec i f i c p rob lems w i t h i n each of the male and female p o p u l a t i o n s . T h e B S R I measure of mascu l i n i t y a p p e a r s not to co r re l a te s i g n i f i c a n t l y in any way w i th l i ke l i hood o f p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e . A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h to a n s w e r i n g r e s e a r c h ques t i on 5 (b ) is by a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e as shown in T a b l e 29 . Here the whole s tuden t popu la t i on has been c a t e g o r i z e d in to f ou r Bern g r o u p i n g s as i l l u s -t r a t e d e a r l i e r in T a b l e 25 . Fac to rs become: Bern g r o u p i n g X p r o b -lem X locat ion o f h e l p e r X g e n d e r of h e l p e r . L e v e l s o f p r o b l e m , locat ion o f he lpe r and g e n d e r o f he lpe r remain the same as that fo r T a b l e 7 , as does the ques t i on that s t u d e n t s a re a s k e d , "How l i k e l y wou ld y o u be to ta lk to ' about each of the fo l lowing p r o b l e m s ? " 113 TABLE 29 Summary Table - Problem, Bern Crouping of.Student, and Cender and Location of Helper - Analysis of Variance Source Mean Bern Error Location Location X Bern Error Cender Cender X Bern Error Location X Cender Location X Cender X Bern Error Problem Problem X Bern Error Location X Problem Location X Problem X Bern Error Cender X Problem Cender X Problem X Bern Error Location X Cender X Problem Location X Cender X Problem X Bern Error Sum of Mean Squares df Square F 118,569.59 1 118,569.59 2,403.86 1,327.07 3 442.36 8.97 8,730.46 177 49.32 4,334.61 2 2,167.30 129.74 247.81 6 41.30 2.47 5,913.71 354 16.71 911.06 1 911.06 86.58 114.77 3 38.26 3.64 1,862.59 177 10.52 91.29 2 45.64 6.28 48.55 6 8.09 1.11 2,571.48 354 7.26 4,054.82 10 405.48 146.67 155.83 30 5.19 1.88 4,893.42 1,770 2.76 1,041.62 20 52.08 37.97 133.35 60 2.22 1.62 4,855.29 3,540 1.37 56.15 10 5.61 5.68 46.91 30 1.56 1.58 1,749.12 1,770 .99 46.26 20 2.31 2.66 92.09 60 1.53 1.76 3,081.68 3,540 .87 Tail Prob-a b i l i t y .0000 .0000 .0000 .0235 .0000 .0140 .0021 .3536 .0000 .0028 .0000 .0019 .0000 .0237 .0001 .0003 n = 181 * O n c e a g a i n , ques t i on 5 (b ) a s k s how an i n d i v i d u a l ' s sco re on the B S R I re la tes to tha t i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i ke l i hood of p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e . T a b l e 29 i nd i ca tes tha t Bern g r o u p i n g is s i g n i f i c a n t ( ta i l p robab i l i t y 114 .0000 ) ; p rob lem is s i g n i f i c a n t ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y . 0000) ; and Bern g r o u p i n g X prob lem is s i gn i f i can t ( ta i l p r o b a b i l i t y . 0028) . Mean Bern g r o u p i n g d i s c l o s u r e sco res summed o v e r al l p rob lems to al l s i x he lpe r s a re p r e s e n t e d in the r i gh t hand marg ina l of T a b l e 30. TABLE 30 Mean Disclosure Scores to Male and Female Helpers For Students Grouped by the BSRI Male Helpers (Gl) Female Helpers (G2) Marginal Masculine 2.73 3.05 2.89 Feminine 3.03 3.85 3.44 Androgynous 3.21 3.90 3.55 Undifferentiated 2.61 3.00 2.81 Marginal 2.90 3.45 n = 181 D u n n ' s Mu l t i p l e Compar i son P r o c e d u r e ( K i r k , 1968) s u g g e s t s a .29 d i f f e r e n c e fo r t h e r e to be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence between means at the .01 l e v e l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , it a p p e a r s tha t sub jec ts g r o u p e d a n d r o g y n o u s and femin ine a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to d i sc lose on al l p rob lems to a l l h e l p e r s than those t y p e d mascu l ine or u n d i f -f e r e n t i a t e d . S u b j e c t s t y p e d a n d r o g y n o u s and femin ine seem to be s im i la r in the way they repo r t l i ke l ihood of d i s c l o s u r e as is the case fo r those t y p e d mascu l ine and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . 115 A s in the case of the a n a l y s i s p resen ted in T a b l e 7 , p rob lem in T a b l e 29 is s i g n i f i c a n t . A n a l y s i s o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l i ke l i hood o f p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e remains the same as tha t p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 9 . S i g n i f i c a n t i n te rac t i on between Bern g r o u p i n g and prob lem also e x i s t s t h o u g h in k e e p i n g w i th p r e v i o u s ra t iona le r e g a r d i n g s i g n i f i -can t p rob lem X o the r v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s , an a n a l y s i s o f it (e leven leve ls o f p rob lem X f o u r leve ls of Bern g r o u p i n g ) does not seem to be impor tant o r p a r t i c u l a r l y use fu l at t h i s t ime. R e s e a r c h Ques t i on 5 : (c) How does an i n d i v i d u a l ' s sco re on Bern's measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r ien ta t i on ( B S R I , 1978) re late to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s cho ice of he lper? A g a i n , t he re a re two a p p r o a c h e s that can be used to a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n , a co r re l a t i ona l a p p r o a c h , a n d an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a p p r o a c h . T a b l e 31 makes ava i l ab le c o r r e l a t i o n coe f f i c i en t s be tween the B S R I mascu l i n i t y a n d femin in i t y s co res f o r ma les , females a n d a l l s t u d e n t s X al l the d i f f e r e n t ways to c o n s i d e r h e l p e r s : b y g e n d e r , b y l o c a t i o n , or s p e c i f i c a l l y by who t hey a r e . 116 TABLE 31 Pearson Product-Moment Correlations Between BSRI Masculinity and Femininity Scores for Males, Females and All Students to Helper No One, And All Combinations of Helpers MALE STUDENTS Masc. Fern. FEMALE Masc. STUDENTS Fern. MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS Masc. Fern. Male Helper (Gl) .10 .17 .10 .21 .07 .22* Female Helper (G2) .18 .30* .16 .20 .04 .45** Friend (LI) .12 .35** .14 .25* .03 .45** Parent (L2) .13 .13 .05 .12 .04 .20* School Personnel (L3) .11 .13 .13 .13 .07 . 22* Male Friend -.05 .14 .11 .27* -.01 .28** Female Friend .04 .05 .10 .14 .00 .24** Father .11 .07 .15 .10 •11 .11 Mother .25 .14 .16 .06 .50** School Personnel (Male) .19 .19 -.03 .07 .08 .10 School Person-nel (Female) .10 .18 .10 .13 .02 .29** No One . -.10 -.27* .06 -.01 .03 .23** * p < .01 ** P < .001 n = 181 117 A s w i th the c o r r e l a t i o n s between B S R I mascu l i n i t y a n d femin in i t y sco res and top ic d i s c l o s u r e ( r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 2 8 ) , a l l s i g n i f i -can t c o r r e l a t i o n s in T a b l e 31 are wi th femin in i t y s c o r e s . A l l bu t two ( fem in in i t y in total s t u d e n t s to he lpe r no one and femin in i t y in males to he lpe r no one) a re pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i o n s . Mos t o c c u r u n d e r the b a n n e r , male and female s t u d e n t s ( that is al l s t u d e n t s ) w i th a few notab le e x c e p t i o n s : femin in i t y in male s t u d e n t s w i th female h e l p e r , f r i e n d and m o t h e r , and femin in i t y in female s t u d e n t s w i th f r i e n d a n d male f r i e n d . It is a p p r o p r i a t e that s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e -la t ions to h e l p e r no one a r e nega t i ve in that to t h i s t a rge t the ques t i on was not how l i k e l y wou ld you be o p e n , bu t r a t h e r , how l i k e l y wou ld y o u be to be c losed o r keep to y o u r s e l f . A s e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , d i s c l o s u r e to no one was sco red in r e v e r s e to the o ther s i x h e l p e r s . T h e o the r way of look ing at t h i s ques t i on is o f c o u r s e b y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . T a b l e 29 s u g g e s t s s i g n i f i c a n t main e f fec ts fo r Bern g r o u p i n g , p r o b l e m , l oca t i on , and g e n d e r , and as w e l l , s i g n i f i -can t lower o r d e r i n t e rac t i ons fo r locat ion X g e n d e r ; p rob lem X Bern g r o u p i n g ; locat ion X p r o b l e m ; and g e n d e r X p r o b l e m . A l l o f these main e f f ec t s a n d lower o r d e r i n te rac t i ons have been a n a l y z e d a n d / o r d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r in t h i s c h a p t e r . T h o u g h i n t e rac t i ons for g e n d e r o f h e l p e r X Bern g r o u p i n g ; locat ion of h e l p e r X Bern g r o u p i n g ; and locat ion o f he lpe r X g e n d e r o f he lpe r X Bern g r o u p i n g d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e in T a b l e 29 , ce l l means fo r these a re p r e s e n t e d , fo r the r e a d e r ' s i n f o rma t i on , in T a b l e s 30 , 32 a n d 33 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e s 32 and 33 fo l low: 118 TABLE 32 Mean Disclosure Scores to Helpers by Location For Students Grouped by the BSRI Friends (LI) Parents (L2) School Personnel (L3) . Marginal Masculine 3.29 3.30 2.08 2.89 Feminine 4.26 3.64 2.42 3.44 Androgynous 4.28 .3.67 2.71 3.55 Undifferentiated 3.21 3.06 2.15 2.81 Marginal 3.76 3.42 2.35 n = 181 119 TABLE 33 Mean Disclosure Scores to Helper by Cender X Helper by Location For Students Grouped by the BSRI CIosest Male Friend (C1,L1) Closest Female Friend (G2,L1) Father (G1.L2) Mother (G2,L2) School Personnel (Male) (G1.L3) School Personnel (Fema1e) (C2,L3) Marginal Masculine 2.98 3.60 3.14 3.45 2.06 2.11 2.89 Feminine 3.80 4.72 3.25 4.04 2.06 2.77 3.44 Androgynous 3.78 4.79 3.31 4.03 2.54 2.87 3.55 Undifferentiated 3.04 3.39 2.72 3.40 2.07 2.27 2.81 Marginal 3.40 4.12 3.10 3.73 2.20 2.50 3.18 n = 181 T h e model a b o v e , o f c o u r s e , does not c o n s i d e r d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l i hood to h e l p e r , no o n e . For no o n e . T a b l e 34 i nd i ca tes tha t ne i t he r the main e f fec t fo r Bern g r o u p i n g no r the i n te rac t i on between Bern g r o u p i n g and p rob lem reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . P r o b l e m , h o w e v e r , is s i g n i f i c a n t a n d ce l l means and i n t e rp re ta t i on o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between prob lem top ics is the same as tha t wh i ch is p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 22. 120 TABLE 34 Summary Table - Problem and Bern Grouping of Student -Analysis of Variance For Helper, No One Sum of Mean Tail Source Squares df Square F Probability Mean 19,650. 70 1 19,650. 70 906. ,37 .0000 Bern 62. 62 3 20. 87 ,96 .4116 Error 3,837. 48 177 21. 68 Problem 377. 12 10 37. 71 20. ,79 .0000 Problem X Bern 75. 91 30 2. 53 1. ,39 .0761 Error 3,210. 91 1,770 1. 81 n = 181 Lef t to c o n s i d e r f rom T a b l e 29 are the s i g n i f i c a n t h i g h e r o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s : locat ion of he lpe r X prob lem X Bern g r o u p i n g , and locat ion of he lpe r X gende r , of he lpe r X prob lem X Bern g r o u p i n g . A s w i th the a rgumen t r e g a r d i n g i n t e rp re ta t i on of the s i g n i f i c a n t sex of s t u d e n t X prob lem X locat ion o f he lpe r X g e n d e r of he lpe r i n te rac t i on rev iewed e a r l i e r , i t can be a r g u e d here tha t fo r these i n t e r a c t i o n s , p u r s u i t of s i g n i f i c a n c e tes t i ng and i n te rp re ta t i on wou ld not be p a r t i c u l a r l y use fu l at t h i s t ime. R a t h e r , what is more impor tan t is tha t the reade r app rec i a tes the comp lex i t y of c o n d i t i o n -a l l y f o r d i s c l o s u r e fo r s t u d e n t s g r o u p e d by the Bern S e x - R o l e  I n v e n t o r y . C H A P T E R V D I S C U S S I O N , L I M I T A T I O N S , R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S A N D C O N C L U S I O N S D I S C U S S I O N O F R E S U L T S T h e d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s of th i s s t u d y are o r g a n i z e d f i r s t , b r o a d l y , in to t h r e e themes (a) Iden t i f i ed P r o b l e m s , (b ) S e l f -D i s c l o s u r e , a n d (c ) P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i en ta t i on X S e l f -D i s c l o s u r e , a n d then w i t h i n these themes a c c o r d i n g to the s p e c i f i c s of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s l i s ted e a r l i e r . R e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s wi l l not be r e p e a t e d . I n te rp re ta t i on of r e s u l t s wi l l be l imi ted to on l y those f i n d i n g s that t h i s r e s e a r c h e r c o n s i d e r s most i n t e r e s t i n g a n d most impor tan t . A . Iden t i f i ed Prob lems 1. Iden t i f i ed Prob lems T h e f ac to r i den t i f i ed p rob lems was s i g n i f i c a n t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f sex o f s t u d e n t , some p rob lems were r e p o r t e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s e r i o u s than o t h e r s . A s one might have e x p e c t e d , p rob lem f o u r , the f u t u r e : cho ice o f occupa t i on a n d / o r f u r t h e r s t u d y was r e p o r t e d to be of g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n fo l lowed c l ose l y b y p rob lems to do w i th s c h o o l , money a n d w o r k . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t he more in t imate in n a t u r e the p r o b l e m , the less i t was r e p o r t e d to be of c o n c e r n . T h a t g r a d e e leven s t u d e n t s wou ld be most c o n c e r n e d w i th t op i cs to do w i th the f u t u r e , s c h o o l , wo rk a n d money makes s e n s e , a n d c o n c u r s w i th the f i n d i n g s of LaFrombo ise (1978) . 122 2 . S e x of S t u d e n t T h e fac to r sex o f s tuden t d i d not reach s i gn i f i cance s u g g e s t i n g , b y g r o u p , ne i t he r males no r females repo r ted to have more p rob lems than the o t h e r . Har tman (1968) f ound tha t males r epo r t ed to have more prob lems than fema les , t h o u g h S n y d e r , H i l l and D e r k s e n (1972) f ound no d i f f e r e n c e between s e x e s . 3 . Iden t i f i ed Prob lems X S e x of S t u d e n t T h e i den t i f i ed p rob lems X sex of s t u d e n t i n te rac t i on was s i g n i f i c a n t w i th males r e p o r t i n g to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o n c e r n e d w i th p rob lems one and t w o , bo th schoo l re la ted m a t t e r s , and females r e p o r t i n g to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t r o u b l e d than males w i th p rob lem t e n , uncomfor tab le fee l i ngs a n d emot ions . T h e s e r e s u l t s r o u g h l y para l le l those o f Har tman (1968) and may re f l ec t soc ie ta l s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e What fo l lows is a cons ide ra t i on o f some of the s ing le and i n t e r a c t i n g b e h a v i o r s o f the fo l low ing f a c t o r s : s e x o f s t u d e n t , p r o b l e m , g e n d e r o f h e l p e r , and locat ion o f h e l p e r . C o r r e l a -t iona l r e s u l t s between s e r i o u s n e s s of i den t i f i ed prob lems and l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e on these same prob lems a re i n c l u d e d in i tem f o u r . 1. S e x o f , S t u d e n t A s w i th most o f the l i t e ra tu re and as a n t i c i p a t e d , sex of d i s c l o s e r in t h i s s t u d y was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t w i th 123 females r e p o r t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r total d i s c l o s u r e l i ke l i hood than males.; P rob lem A s w i th sex of s t u d e n t and as might have been e x p e c t e d , p rob lem was a lso found to be s i g n i f i c a n t w i th sub jec t s r e p o r t i n g tha t t hey were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y to d i s c l ose on some prob lems than o t h e r s . P rob lem top ic f o u r , the f u t u r e : cho ice of occupa t i on a n d / o r f u r t h e r s t u d y was r a n k e d most l i ke l y to be d i s c l o s e d u p o n , fo l lowed b y top i cs to do wi th schoo l r o u t i n e , money a n d w o r k . T h e s e r e s u l t s fol low t r e n d s in the l i t e ra tu re whe re i n d i v i d u a l s r epo r t to d i sc lose more about t op i cs of t h i s na tu re a n d less about more int imate t o p i c s . S e x o f S t u d e n t X Prob lem U n l i k e wha t has been a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d in the l i t e r a t u r e , the sex of s t uden t X p rob lem i n te rac t i on in t h i s s t u d y d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . Had the t r e n d c o n t i n u e d , one might have o b s e r v e d males r e p o r t i n g to d i s c l o s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y less than females c o n c e r n i n g int imate top i cs ( e . g . , t op i cs f i ve t h r o u g h e l e v e n ) . C lose e x -aminat ion o f the data f rom th i s s t u d y does not revea l s u c h a p a t t e r n . Iden t i f i ed Prob lems X Prob lems U n l i k e what t h i s r e s e a r c h e r migh t have e x p e c t e d , no s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e Pea rson c o r r e l a t i o n s were e v i d e n t in a n y of the sample popu la t i ons be tween s e r i o u s n e s s o f 124 i den t i f i ed prob lems and l i ke l ihood of d i s c l o s u r e on these same p r o b l e m s . G e n d e r of He lpe r A s e x p e c t e d , and in keep ing w i th the l i t e r a t u r e , g e n d e r of h e l p e r was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t w i th sub jec t s r e -p o r t i n g to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y to d i s c l o s e to female h e l p e r s than to male h e l p e r s . Loca t ion of H e l p e r Loca t ion o f he lpe r was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t w i th f r i e n d s and pa ren t s be ing p r e f e r r e d as h e l p e r s s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more than school p e r s o n n e l . T h e s e r e s u l t s ag ree w i th s u g g e s t i o n s made by J o u r a r d (1971) , r e s u l t s o f re la ted s t u d i e s , and what one might have e x p e c t e d , g i v e n the deve lopmenta l s tage of s t u d e n t s at t h i s a g e . S e x o f S t u d e n t X G e n d e r of H e l p e r R e s u l t s o f t h i s i n te rac t ion ind ica te a p r e f e r e n c e on the p a r t o f bo th male and female s t u d e n t s fo r female h e l p e r s , t h o u g h fo r males the p r e f e r e n c e is on l y marg ina l and not s i g n i f i c a n t . G i v e n the s t r o n g g e n d e r of h e l p e r e f f e c t , t h i s is not s u r p r i s i n g , t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t sex o f d i s c l o s e r X g e n d e r of he lpe r i n t e rac t i on e x i s t s in the l i t e r a t u r e . G e n d e r o f He lpe r X Locat ion of H e l p e r When sex of s t u d e n t and prob lem a re summed o v e r , o r d e r o f h e l p e r p r e f e r e n c e fo r s t u d e n t s becomes: c l oses t female f r i e n d , mo the r , c loses t male f r i e n d , f a t h e r , schoo l p e r -sonne l ( f ema le ) , and schoo l p e r s o n n e l (ma le ) . T h e s e 125 r e s u l t s f i t w i th what one might have e x p e c t e d when one b l ends p r e f e r e n c e for female he lpe rs w i th locat ion p r e f -e renc es fo r s t u d e n t s at th i s a g e . 9 . S e x of S t u d e n t X S e v e n H e l p e r s When he lpe r no one is a d d e d to the g e n d e r o f h e l p e r X locat ion o f h e l p e r mode l , no one becomes an a s t o u n d i n g f i r s t cho ice fo r ma les , f i f t h cho ice fo r females a n d f o u r t h cho ice o v e r a l l . What is most i n t e res t i ng (and p e r h a p s accu ra te ) is tha t t h i s g r o u p of males r e p o r t s that t h e y p r e f e r to keep to themse lves a n d d i sc l ose to no o n e ; r a t h e r t han d i s c l o s e to a n y of t he o the r h e l p e r s . U n f o r -t u n a t e l y , because ce l l means for no one have been a d d e d to the g e n d e r of he lpe r X locat ion of he lpe r mode l , l eve ls have not been e s t a b l i s h e d fo r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t a r g e t s . T h e above r e p r e s e n t s on l y a r ank o r d e r i n g . 10. S e x of S t u d e n t X Prob lem X C e n d e r of H e l p e r X Loca t ion  of H e l p e r R e s u l t s o f t h i s i n te rac t ion have p r o v e d to be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i th females r e p o r t i n g to d i s c l ose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than males in f o r t y - t w o out o f s i x t y - s i x p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s . O n l y in one c a s e , on p rob lem e l e v e n , p r o b -lems o f s e x u a l ad jus tmen t , do male s t u d e n t s r epo r t t ha t t hey a re s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i k e l y to d i s c l ose to t h e i r f a t h e r s than female s t u d e n t s to t h e i r f a t h e r s . A p a r t f rom these f i n d i n g s , r e s u l t s o f t h i s s o r t i nd i ca te a h igh c o m -p l e x i t y o f cond i t i ona l i t y fo r d i s c l o s u r e , and lend s u p p o r t 126 to some o f the re la ted l i t e r a t u r e tha t e n c o u r a g e s a m u l t i -d imens iona l a p p r o a c h to the s t u d y of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e x - R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n and S e l f - D i s c l o s u r e 1. C o r r e l a t i o n o f B S R I M a s c u l i n i t y and Femin in i t y S c o r e s  With L i ke l i hood of Prob lem D i s c l o s u r e U n l i k e the r e s u l t s o f Bern (1977) where tota l s e l f -d i s c l o s u r e in men was p o s i t i v e l y re la ted to mascu l i n i t y s c o r e s , in t h i s s t u d y , a l l s i g n i f i c a n t pos i t i ve co r re l a t i ons were re la ted to f em in in i t y s c o r e s , i n c l u d i n g total se l f -d i s c l o s u r e in the a l l - s t u d e n t g r o u p . T h e r e s u l t s of th i s s t u d y a re cons i s t en t w i th the assumpt ions of ro le t h e o r y , that i s , tha t s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e would be a l i gned w i th sco res that re f lec t femin ine p r i n c i p l e s ra the r than mascu l ine p r i n c i p l e s . 2 . Bern G r o u p i n g of S t u d e n t In the f o u r - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e : Bern g r o u p i n g of s t u d e n t X p rob lem X g e n d e r of he lpe r X locat ion o f h e l p e r , Bern g r o u p i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t s u g g e s t i n g a pa t -t e r n where sub jec t s t y p e d a n d r o g y n o u s a n d femin ine seemed to be s im i la r in the way t hey r e p o r t e d l i ke l i hood of d i s c l o s u r e , as was the case f o r those t y p e d mascu l ine and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . E v e n t h o u g h the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a -t u re is i n c o n c l u s i v e on t h i s c o u n t , g i v e n the assumpt ions assoc ia ted w i th the Bern g r o u p i n g s (see de f i n i t i on o f t e r m s ) , it m ight have been an t i c i pa ted tha t mascu l ine and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t y p e s wou ld r e p o r t to d i s c l o s e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y less than those t y p e d femin ine a n d a n d r o g y n o u s . 127 A p a r t f rom t h a t , and p e r h a p s equa l l y impor tan t is that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s t u d e n t s in th i s s t u d y b y sex in to Bern g r o u p i n g s was not e q u a l , w i th the major i ty of females fa l l i ng in to the g r o u p s femin ine and a n d r o g y n o u s a n d ma les , in to the g r o u p s mascu l ine a n d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Fema les , o f c o u r s e , had e a r l i e r r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r total d i s c l o s u r e sco re than ma les . C o r r e l a t i o n , o f B S R I M a s c u l i n i t y a n d F e m i n i n i t y S c o r e s  With C h o i c e of H e l p e r s A s w i th c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween B S R I mascu l i n i t y and f e m i -n i n i t y s co res a n d top ic d i s c l o s u r e , aga in a l l s i g n i f i c a n t co r re l a t i ons h e r e a re re la ted to f em in in i t y s c o r e s . S t r o n g e s t a re the c o r r e l a t i o n s in the a l l - s t u d e n t popu la t ion be tween fem in in i t y s co res and the fo l low ing h e l p e r s : male h e l p e r , female h e l p e r , f r i e n d , p a r e n t , school p e r s o n n e l , male f r i e n d , female f r i e n d , m o t h e r , a n d school p e r s o n n e l ( f ema le ) . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , a n y n e g a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s a re w i th fem in in i t y s c o r e s a n d h e l p e r , no o n e . B e c a u s e of t he s t r e n g t h o f t hese f i n d i n g s , a n d because t h e r e is no th i ng in t he l i t e r a t u r e to l i nk m a s c u l i n i t y o r f em in in i t y s co res w i th r e p o r t e d cho i ce of t a r g e t s , i t i s fe l t tha t t hese a re impor tan t r e s u l t s . Bern G r o u p i n g X Prob lem X G e n d e r o f H e l p e r X Loca t i on  of H e l p e r A s w i th the sex of s t u d e n t X p rob lem X g e n d e r o f h e l p e r X locat ion of h e l p e r i n t e r a c t i o n , so was t h i s a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n . E v e n w i thou t i n t e r p r e t i n g the 128 i n t r i c a c i e s of th i s i n t e r a c t i o n , the fac t that it e x i s t s is i m p o r t a n t , and no s imi la r f i n d i n g s e x i s t in the l i t e r a t u r e . L I M I T A T I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S F O R F U T U R E R E S E A R C H A . L im i ta t ions T h e most o b v i o u s l imi ta t ions o f t h i s s t u d y a r e , o f c o u r s e , the measurement i n s t r u m e n t s t hemse l ves . F i r s t , a n d most impo r -t a n t , al l t h r e e measurement i ns t r umen ts a re s e l f - r e p o r t in n a t u r e a n d in be ing so have ques t i onab le p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y -we do not know to what ex ten t r e s u l t s f rom them re f lec t real b e h a v i o r . S e c o n d l y , the two i n s t r u m e n t s c r e a t e d b y th i s a u t h o r a r e new a n d un tes ted o the r t han t h e i r use in th i s s t u d y . T h o u g h t hey appea r to have p e r f o r m e d w e l l , and the r e s u l t s p r o d u c e d a re g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i th the l i t e ra tu re and what makes s e n s e , more re l i ab i l i t y and v a l i d i t y t es t i ng needs to be c o n d u c t e d on them. In the case of the B S R I (1978) , i f one wants a measure of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , the B S R I is p r o b a b l y the bes t i n s t r u m e n t o f i ts k i n d a v a i l a b l e , in sp i te of i ts l imi ta t ions (see C h a p t e r I I I ) . In te rms o f s a m p l i n g , one c lass o f g r a d e e l evens (181 s t u d e n t s ) in one c e n t e r is not enough to be ab le to make b r o a d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r at t h i s a g e . O t h e r w i s e , da ta co l lec t ion and data a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s were s a t i s f a c t o r y . Recommendat ions fo r F u t u r e Resea rch C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the re la ted l i t e r a t u r e , and examina t ion of the r e s u l t s f rom th i s s t u d y st imulate the fo l low ing ideas f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h : 1. Comb ine some behav io ra l measures of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e w i th the s e l f - r e p o r t measures f rom th i s s t u d y to de te rm ine ac tua l p rob lem areas of g r a d e e leven s t u d e n t s and who s t u d e n t s choose as h e l p e r s . Because s t u d e n t s at t h i s age a p p e a r to be most l i ke l y to d i s c l ose to t h e i r pee rs a n d the i r p a r e n t s , it may be a p p r o p r i a t e to moni tor p rob lems b r o u g h t to peer counse l i ng g r o u p s where one o r two s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s act as t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s . S i m i l a r l y , a g r o u p of t r a i n e d paren t v o l u n t e e r s may act as o b s e r v e r s and moni to r ac tua l prob lems b r o u g h t home. I dea l l y , these o b s e r v e r s wou ld be mothers o f s t u d e n t s in the peer c o u n s e l i n g g r o u p . 2 . T o i n c r e a s e the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s of a s t u d y l i ke t h i s , ge t a l a rge r more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f g r a d e e leven s t u d e n t s . Samp l ing s t u d e n t s f rom d i f f e r e n t g r a d e e leven c lasses f rom d i f f e r e n t communi t ies in t he Lower Ma in land would ach ieve t h i s e n d . 3. T o r e f i n e bo th the i den t i f i ed p rob lem a n d s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i n s t r u m e n t s , fac to r ana l yze the e leven p rob lem t o p i c s . T h i s , in t u r n , cou ld improve the w o r d i n g , o r d e r i n g , a n d g r o u p i n g of p rob lem t o p i c s . 4. To f i t w i th a v e r y impor tant p a r t o f the l i t e r a t u r e , scale p rob lem top ics a c c o r d i n g to in t imacy a n d v a l e n c e l e v e l s . 130 A s w e l l , in a mu l t i - f ac to r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , smal le r s i zed fac to rs for in t imacy and va lence may be more man-ageab le a n d mean ing fu l than the one e l e v e n - l e v e l fac to r fo r p rob lems tha t e x i s t s . 5 . T o compl iment the l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y Lombardo a n d L a v i n e (1977) , c r o s s fac to rs f o r sex o f sub jec t X a n d r o g -y n y leve l o f sub jec t and add them to the e x i s t i n g p s y c h o -log ica l s e x - r o l e o r ien ta t ion X s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e d e s i g n to p r o d u c e a 2 x 2 x 1 1 x 2 x 3 fac to r mode l . T h i s wou ld y i e l d a sex of sub jec t X a n d r o g y n y level of sub jec t X p rob lem X g e n d e r o f he lpe r X locat ion of h e l p e r d e s i g n . B y do ing t h i s , one cou ld tes t the con ten t ion tha t s e l f -d i s c l o s u r e is more a f unc t i on o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e x - r o l e o r ien ta t i on than b io log ica l g e n d e r (Lombardo a n d L a v i n e , 1977) . 6 . C o n t i n u e r e s e a r c h that co r re la tes B S R I mascu l i n i t y a n d femin in i t y s co res w i th measures of i den t i f i ed p r o b l e m s , l i ke l i hood of p rob lem d i s c l o s u r e , a n d cho ice o f h e l p e r . T h e s e r e s u l t s h a v e the po tent ia l of b e i n g v e r y f r u i t f u l . I M P L I C A T I O N S A N D C O N C L U S I O N S O f the r e s u l t s g e n e r a t e d b y t h i s s t u d y , two s tand ou t as be ing impor tan t fo r the r e s e a r c h commun i t y , a n d a t h i r d has s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t hose w o r k i n g w i th s t u d e n t s at the g r a d e e leven l e v e l . A . In te rms of r e s e a r c h , it is h i g h l y notab le tha t bo th f o u r - f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e i n te rac t i ons were s i g n i f i c a n t at t he i r most 131 complex l e v e l s . A g a i n , th is s u g g e s t s that f u t u r e r e s e a r c h in t h i s a rea s h o u l d be of a mul t id imens iona l n a t u r e . No t to do so would be to mask impor tan t d i f f e rences w i th in f a c t o r s . B . R e s u l t s f rom the co r re l a t i on between the B S R I f em in in i t y sco res a n d prob lem d i s c l o s u r e , and the fem in in i t y s c o r e s a n d cho ice o f h e l p e r a re v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . T h a t t hey have o c -c u r r e d makes s e n s e , and l ends s u p p o r t fo r the v a l i d i t y o f the Bern i n s t r u m e n t . C . A n impor tan t c o n c e r n fo r those w o r k i n g in the f i e l d w i t h g r a d e e leven s t u d e n t s is s t u d e n t s ' r epo r t ed p r e f e r e n c e fo r t a r g e t s . G e n e r a l l y , s t u d e n t s have sa id that t hey are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l i ke l y to d i s c l ose to the i r c loses t female f r i e n d on most t op i cs s u g g e s t i n g an ove ra l he lpe r p r e f e r e n c e , almost r e g a r d l e s s of t o p i c . E v e n i f the top ic is a school re la ted c o n c e r n ( t h o u g h t to be the domain of school p e r s o n n e l ) , s t u d e n t s r e p o r t tha t t hey wi l l choose to d i sc lose to t he i r c loses t female f r i e n d o r mother s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than to a n y schoo l p e r s o n n e l . O b v i o u s l y , imp l ica t ions fo r peer c o u n s e l i n g e x i s t h e r e . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r might s u g g e s t that school p e r s o n n e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y g u i d a n c e p e r s o n n e l , shou ld spend less time c o u n s e l i n g a n d more time as c a t a l y s t s to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s to counse l each o t h e r . 1 3 2 B I B L I O G R A P H Y B a k a n , D . T h e d u a l i t y of human e x i s t e n c e . C h i c a g o : R a n d M c N a l l y , 1966. Bern , S . L . T h e measurement of psycho log i ca l a n d r o g y n y . J o u r n a l of  C o n s u l t i n g a n d C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1974, 42 , 2 , 155-162. Bern , S . L . S e x - r o l e a d a p t a b i l i t y : " One consequence of p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d r o g y n y . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and Soc ia l P s y c h o l o g y , 1975, 3 1 , 634-643. Bern , S . L . On the u t i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s fo r a s s e s s i n g psycho log i ca l a n d r o g y n y . 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Why some s t u d e n t s do not use u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g  P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 19 , 4 , 263-268. ~ S p e n c e , J . T . , H e l m r e i c h , R. and S t a p p , J . R a t i n g s of se l f a n d pee rs on s e x - r o l e a t t r i b u t e s a n d t h e i r re la t ion to se l f - es teem a n d c o n -cep t i ons of mascu l i n i t y a n d f em in i n i t y . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d  Soc ia l P s y c h o l o g y , 1975, 32 , 1 , 29 -39 . S p e n c e , J . T . a n d H e l m r e i c h , R . L . M a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y : T h e i r esycho log i ca l d i m e n s i o n s , c o r r e l a t e s and a n t e c e d e n t s . A u s t i n : n i v e r s i t y of T e x a s P r e s s , 1978. S t r o n g , S . R . , H e n d e l , D . D . a n d B r a t t o n , J . C . Co l l ege s t u d e n t s ' v i e w s of campus h e l p - g i v e r s : C o u n s e l o r s , a d v i s e r s , a n d p s y c h i a t r i s t s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1971, 1 8 , 2 , 234-238. T u b b s , S . L . and B a i r d , J . W. E lements of s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d at t he a n n u a l meet ing of the C e n t r a l S ta tes S p e e c h A s s o -c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , I l l i no i s , A p r i l 4 - 7 , 1978. Warman , R . E . D i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of the c o u n s e l i n g r o l e . J o u r n a l  o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1960, 8 , 3 , 269-274. 136 Warman, R. E . T h e c o u n s e l i n g ro le of co l lege and u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l -ing c e n t e r s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1961, 8 , 3 , 231-238. West , L . W. and Z i n g l e , H . W. A s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i n v e n t o r y fo r a d o l e s -c e n t s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 1969, 24, 439-445. W i g g i n s , J . S . and H o l z m u l l e r , A . Psycho log i ca l a n d r o g y n y a n d i n t e r -pe rsona l b e h a v i o r . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1978, 46 , 1, 40 -52 . ' " W ine r , B . J . S ta t i s t i ca l p r i n c i p l e s in expe r imen ta l d e s i g n . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1962. W i t k i n , H . A . Soc ia l con fo rm i t y and psycho log i ca l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . In ternat iona l J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y , 1974, 9 , 11 -29 . 1 3 7 A P P E N D I X 139 PART I On t h e n e x t page i s a l i s t o f 11 p r o b l e m t o p i c s t h a t a r e o f t e n a c o n c e r n t o p e o p l e y o u r age. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e , by c h e c k i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b o x , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h e a c h i s a p r o b l e m f o r y o u . F o r i n s t a n c e , y o u m i g h t be a s k e d : To what e x t e n t i s e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a p r o b l e m f o r you? (Check (i/) t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r a n s w e r . ) n o t a t a l l a p r o b l e m s l i g h t l y a p r o b l e m somewhat a p r o b l e m p r e t t y much a p r o b l e m v e r y much a p r o b l e m n 2 n3 a , a a) P r o b l e m w i t h money management. LZ), p 2 D 3 a I f y o u r answer i s t h a t a " p r o b l e m w i t h money management" i s " n o t a t a l l a p r o b l e m " f o r y o u , c h e c k (/) box 1. b) D e c i d i n g how t o , . • r j 1 spend t h e summer J ^ [ _ J 2 | | 3 | | 4 [ _ J £ v a c a t i o n . Now t r y an- example on y o u r own. To what e x t e n t i s " d e c i d i n g how t o spend t h e summer v a c a t i o n " a p r o b l e m f o r you? (Check (•) t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r answer.) I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e r a i s e y o u r hand f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . P r o c e e d t o t h e n e x t page. 140 To what extent i s each of the following a problem f o r you? (Check ( * 0 the box which i s c l o s e s t to your answer.) 1 2 3 4 5 not at s l i g h t l y somewhat p r e t t y very much a l l a a a much a a problem problem problem problem problem 1 L La a a 1. D i f f i c u l t y with grades. u, a • a a a 2. Adjustment to school routine: attendance, homework, cl a s s e s , teachers. a • a 3. Problems with finances and employment (current). a a 3 a •. 4. The future: choice of occupa-t i o n and/or further study. u • 2 • a a • s 5. D i f f i c u l t r e l a -t i o n s with family. a u • 3 I—14 • s 6- Problems i n get t i n g along with f r i e n d s . a • 3 Q a 7. B o y f r i e n d - g i r l -f r i e n d problems. a a • 3 a 8. Health and p h y s i c a l develop- . ment problems.: • 3 9. Problems with morals and r e l i g i o n . I—Ii a • 3 n , • 5 10. Uncomfortable f e e l i n g s and emotions. • 3 u a 11. Problems of sex?-u a l adjustment. V i L i - a | la a 141 PART I I On t h e f o l l o w i n g pages you w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h examples o f d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e y ou may choose t o t a l k t o about 11 p r o b l e m t o p i c s . What you a r e as k e d t o -do i s t o i n d i c a t e how l i k e l y y o u w o u l d be t o t a l k t o e a c h o f t h e s e p e o p l e a b o u t each o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I n o t h e r words, i f _ you had c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s , t h e n how l i k e l y w o u l d y ou be t o t a l k t o t h e p e r s o n i d e n t i f i e d a t t h e t o p o f t h e page a b o u t each o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s ? F o r i n s t a n c e , y o u m i g h t be a s k e d : How l i k e l y w o u l d you be t o t a l k t o an o l d e r male f r i e n d o f t h e f a m i l y about each o# t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s ? (Check (/) t h e b o x w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r answer.) v e r y q u i t e somewhat somewhat q u i t e v e r y u n l i k e l y u n l i k e l y u n l i k e l y l i k e l y l i k e l y l i k e l y •1 P i , •< •, Q a) P r o b l e m w i t h money manage-ment. Q u • 3 • < n i a }lllZr„?tZ"fU-iha\±t 1S n q U l t e l i k e l y " t h " ?°a " ° u l d « «•>• o l d e r mal f r i e n d o f t h e f a m i l y about a " p r o b l e m w i t h money management", cheek ( • / b o x 5 . m a l e b) D e c i d i n g how t o spend the summer v a c a t i o n . • 3 U D 5 Q Now t r y an example on y o u r own. How l i k e l y w o u l d you be t o t a l k t o *n nTA i anyRation' "pleas/raS y o ^ a S r o V & ^ S T ' - k ^ J T , ^ c o n t x n u e u n t i l y o u c o m p l e t e t h i s n e x t s e c t i o n . P 8 YOUR CLOSEST MALE FRIEND How l i k e l y w o u l d you be t o t a l k t o y o u r c l o s e s t male f r i e n d about each o f the f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s ? (Check (/) t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r answer V 1 . 2 3 4 5 v e r y u n l i k e l y a q u i t e u n l i k e l y Q somewhat u n l i k e l y • 3 somewhat l i k e l y a q u i t e l i k e l y a 1. D i f f i c u l t y w i t h g r a d e s . a, •2. a • s 2. A d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l r o u t i n e : a t t e n d a n c e , homework, c l a s s e s , t e a c h e r s . a 3 . P r o b l e m s w i t h f i n a n c e s and employment ( c u r r e n t ) . . a a a Q 4 . The f u t u r e : c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n and/or f u r t h e r s t u d y . a a a • 4 • s 5. D i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s w i t h f a m i l y . a • 3 • 4 • s 6. P r o b l e m s i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h f r i e n d s . a I—L a 7. B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d p r o b l e m s . a a 8. H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l d e velopment p r o b l e m s . a • s 9. P r o b l e m s w i t h m o r a l s and r e l i g i o n . a • 2 a a 10. ' U n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . a • 2 a • 4 11. P r o b l e m s o f s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t . a • 2 • 3 • 5 143 YOUR MOTHER How l i k e l y w ould you be t o t a l k t o y o u r mother about each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s ? (Check (••) t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r answer.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 - v e r y u n l i k e l y q u i t e u n l i k e l y somewhat u n l i k e l y somewhat l i k e l y q u i t e l i k e l y v e r y l i k e l y a a a a • 5 u 1. D i f f i c u l t y w i t h g r a d e s . a a • s 2. A d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l r o u t i n e : a t t e n d a n c e , homework, c l a s s e s , t e a c h e r s . a a a' • s • 6 3. P r o b l e m s w i t h f i n a n c e s and employment ( c u r r e n t ) a a a ( \Q 4 . The f u t u r e : c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a n d / o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . a a • s • e 5. D i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s w i t h f a m i l y . a • 4 P. 6. P r o b l e m s i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h f r i e n d s . • i .a • 4 • s 7. B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d p r o b l e m s . a • 2 a •a • 1 > 6 8. H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s . a • a a 9. P r o b l e m s w i t h m o r a l s and r e l i g i o n . • 2 a a 10. U n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . a L J 2 a • 4 • s 11. P r o b l e m s o f s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t . a • 2 • 3 • 5 a 144 A MALE TEACHER, MALE COUNSELOR, MALE COACH, ETC. How l i k e l y w o u l d you be t o t a l k t o a male t e a c h e r , male c o u n s e l o r , male c o a c h , e t c t o . a b out e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g probl< y o u r a n s w e r . ) sms? (Check (•) t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 v e r y u n l i k e l y Q q u i t e u n l i k e l y •, somewhat u n l i k e l y a somewhat l i k e l y a q u i t e v e r y l i k e l y l i k e l y a u 1. D i f f i c u l t y w i t h g r a d e s . j. | • . a a 2. A d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l r o u t i n e : a t t e n d a n c e , homework, c l a s s e s , '1 t e a c h e r s . •, • a • s • . 3. P r o b l e m s w i t h f i n a n c e s | | and employment ( c u r r e n t ) . | H Q a ——^6 4. The f u t u r e : c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a n d/or f u r t h e r s t u d y . ' 1 Q n • '— o Q •. 5. D i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s | ~J w i t h f a m i l y . I Ii • a a _—6 6. P r o b l e m s , i n g e t t i n g I I a l o n g w i t h f r i e n d s . I |-j a • a a I I 6 7. 1 B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d I | p r o b l e m s . I 11 • a a • s 4 8. H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l | j d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s . 1 J-j • 2 • a a • s • . 9 . P r o b l e m s w i t h m o r a l s | I and r e l i g i o n . I »1 • a a • a 10. U n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s I | and e m o t i o n s . I )i • 2 • a a • s • e 1.1. P r o b l e m s o f s e x u a l i 1 a d j u s t m e n t . j [-j • 2 • a R • s • e I 145 YOUR CLOSEST FEMALE FRIEND How l i k e l y w o u l d you be t o t a l k t o y o u r c l o s e s t f e m a l e f r i e n d about e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s ? (Check (•O t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r answer -) 1 2 3 4 5 6 v e r y u n l i k e l y a q u i t e u n l i k e l y • 2 somewhat u n l i k e l y a somewhat l i k e l y a q u i t e l i k e l y • s v e r y l i k e l ) 1. D i f f i c u l t y w i t h g r a d e s . a • 2 a u 2. A d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l r o u t i n e : a t t e n d a n c e , homework, c l a s s e s , t e a c h e r s . • 2 • 3 • s • a 3 . P r o b l e m s w i t h f i n a n c e s and employment ( c u r r e n t ) . a • 2 a a • s • a 4 . The f u t u r e : c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a n d / o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . a Q 'a Q 1 — i f i 5 . D i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s w i t h f a m i l y . a •*• • 4 • s • e 6. P r o b l e m s i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h f r i e n d s . • 2 • 3 • 4 • s • a 7. B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d p r o b l e m s . • i . • 2 a • 4 • s • a 8. H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s . a • 2 a • 5 • a 9. P r o b l e m s w i t h m o r a l s and r e l i g i o n . a • 2 • 4 • s • s 10. U n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . • 2 a • 4 • s • a 11. P r o b l e m s o f s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t . • 2 • 3 •. • a 14 6 YOUR FATHER How l i k e l y w ould you be t o t a l k t o y o u r f a t h e r a b out each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s ? (Check t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r answer.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 v e r y u n l i k e l y Q q u i t e u n l i k e l y • 2 somewhat u n l i k e l y a somewhat l i k e l y a q u i t e l i k e l y • s v e r y l i k e l y U 1. D i f f i c u l t y w i t h g r a d e s . a •, a • 5 2 . A d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l r o u t i n e : a t t e n d a n c e , homework, c l a s s e s , t e a c h e r s . • a • 3 1 15 • e 3 . P r o b l e m s w i t h f i n a n c e s and employment ( c u r r e n t ) , . a Q CO i 1 a • s •.. 4 . The f u t u r e : c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n and/or f u r t h e r s t u d y . • a • 3 a • s • a 5 . D i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s w i t h f a m i l y . a • a a p. n 6 6. P r o b l e m s i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h f r i e n d s . • a • 3 • 5 • a 7. B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d p r o b l e m s . a • a • 5 I (g 8. H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s . • a a • 1 6 9 . P r o b l e m s w i t h m o r a l s and r e l i g i o n . a • a a • a 10 . U n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . a • 2 • 4 a • a 1 1 . P r o b l e m s o f s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t . a • a • 3 • 4 • s • a A FEMALE TEACHER, FEMALE COUNSELOR, FEMALE COACH, ETC. 147 How l i k e l y w o u l d you be t o t a l k t o a f e m a l e t e a c h e r , f e m a l e c o u n s e l o r , f e m a l e  c o a c h , e t c . about each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m s ? (Check (»/) t h e box w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o y o u r answer.) 1 2 3 5 6 v e r y q u i t e somewhat somewhat q u i t e v e r y u n l i k e l y u n l i k e l y u n l i k e l y l i k e l y l i k e l y l i k e l y a Q a P L • s U 6 1. D i f f i c u l t y w i t h ' g r a d e s . a a • e 2. A d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l r o u t i n e : a t t e n d a n c e , homework, c l a s s e s , t e a c h e r s . a a • 5 • e 3. P r o b l e m s w i t h f i n a n c e s and employment ( c u r r e n t ) Q a a n • — J • e 4 . The f u t u r e : c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a nd/or f u r t h e r s t u d y . a • a a • s 5 . D i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s w i t h f a m i l y . a 6. P r o b l e m s i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h f r i e n d s . a • 3 a,- a • e 7. B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d p r o b l e m s . a • 4 a 8 . H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l d e velopment p r o b l e m s . a • 4 a • a 9. P r o b l e m s w i t h m o r a l s ' and r e l i g i o n . a • a 10. U n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . a • 4 • s • e 11. P r o b l e m s o f s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t . a • 3 a a • a NO-ONE 1 4 8 y o u r answer.) 1 n e c K K y > t h e b o x w h i c h i s c l o s e s t t o 1. D i f f i c u l t y w i t h g r a d e s , 2. A d j u s t m e n t t o s c h o o l r o u t i n e : a t t e n d a n c e , homework, c l a s s e s , t e a c h e r s . 3 . P r o b l e m s w i t h f i n a n c e s 4 . The f u t u r e : c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a n d / o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . 5 . D i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s w i t h f a m i l y . 6. P r o b l e m s i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h f r i e n d s . 7. B o y f r i e n d - g i r l f r i e n d p r o b l e m s . 8 . H e a l t h and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s . 9. Problems with m o r a l s and religion. 10. U n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . 11. P r o b l e m s of s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 v e r y u n l i k e l y • V q u i t e u n l i k e l y somewhat u n l i k e l y a somewhat • l i k e l y • 4 q u i t e l i k e l y a v e r y l i k e l y D 6 a • 4 • a a a • 4 • s • a • Q a a a a • a • 2 a • 4 • s • a a a • s • a a • a a • a a • s • e a ; • a • 3 • a • a • a a • 4 a • a a • a a • 4 • s • a • a • 3 • a • a 1 4 9 PART I I I On t h e f o l l o w i n g page, you w i l l be shown a l a r g e number o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o u s e t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f . T h at i s , I w o u l d l i k e you t o i n d i c a t e , on a s c a l e f r o m 1 t o 7 , how t r u e o f you t h e s e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e . P l e a s e do n o t l e a v e any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c unmarked. Example: s l y Mark a J. i f i t i s NEVER OR ALMOST NEVER TRUE t h a t y ou a r e s l y . Mark a 2 i f i t i s USUALLY NOT TRUE t h a t y ou a r e s l y . Mark a 3 i f i t i s SOMETIMES BUT INFREQUENTLY TRUE t h a t you a r e s l y . Mark a 4 i f i t i s OCCASIONALLY TRUE t h a t y ou a r e s l y . Mark a 5 / i f i t i s OFTEN TRUE t h a t you a r e s l y . Mark a 6 i f i t i s USUALLY TRUE t h a t y ou a r e s l y . Mark a 7_.if i t i s ALWAYS OR ALMOST ALWAYS TRUE t h a t y ou a r e s l y . Thus, i f you f e e l i t i s sometimes b u t i n f r e q u e n t l y t r u e t h a t y ou a r e " s l y " , n e v e r o r a l m o s t n e v e r t r u e t h a t you a r e " m a l i c i o u s " , a l w a y s o r a l m o s t a l w a y s  t r u e t h a t y ou a r e " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " , and o f t e n t r u e t h a t y ou a r e " c a r e f r e e " , t h e n you w o u l d r a t e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s f o l l o w s : S l y M a l i c i o u s 1 I r r e s p o n s i b l e C a r e f r e e - 3 _4 D i s r e g a r d t h e s m a l l numbers t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e box. They a r e f o r s c o r i n g o n l y . I f y o u a r e n o t s u r e a b o u t t h e meaning o f any o f t h e words on t h e n e x t page, q u i e t l y a s k y o u r t e a c h e r f o r h e l p . Do so by n o t d i s t u r b i n g o t h e r s . 150 1 2 1 ! 3 4 5 1 6 7 1 ! Never or Usually almost not never true true Sometimes but Occasionally infrequently true true Often true 1 j -Usually Always or true almost always true Defend my own beliefs 1 Adaptable ?1 Flatterable Affectionate 2 Dominant 22 Theatrical Conscientious 3 Tender Self-sufficient Independent 4 Conceited 24 Loyal Sympathetic 5 Willing to take a stand ?F> Happy Moody 6 Love children ?fi Individualistic Assertive 7 Tactful 27 Soft-spoken Sensitive to needs of others 8 Aggressive ?8 Unpredictable Reliable 9 Gentle ?9 Masculine Strong personality 10 Conventional 30 Gullible Understanding 11 Self-reliant 31 Solemn Jealous 12 Yielding 32 Competitive Forceful 13 Helpful 33 Childlike Compassionate 14 Athletic 34 Likable Truthful 15 Cheerful 35 Ambitious Have leadership abilities, 16 Unsystematic 36 Do not use harsh language Eager to soothe hurt feelings 17 Analytical Sincere Secretive 18 Shy 38 Act as a leader Willing to take risks 19 Inefficient 39 Feminine Warm 20 Make decisions easily 40 Friendly 

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