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Attention to imagery in learning and recall of French sentences in the senior secondary school Larkin, Thomas Clelland 1975

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ATTENTION TO IMAGERY IN LEARNING AND RECALL OF FRENCH SENTENCES IN THE  SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL by  THOMAS CLELLAND LARKIN B.Ed., S e c , University of B r i t i s h Columbia., 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS (Ed. Psych.) in the Department of Educational Psychology  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1975  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  for scholarly by h i s of  this  written  make i t  that permission  for  the requirements f<  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  for  It  is understood that  financial  gain s h a l l  of  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  not  copying or  tha  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Date  freely available  permission.  Department  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be allowed without my  ii t  ABSTRACT OF THESIS  The goal of t h i s study was to ascertain whether attention to imagery, by grade 11 students learning French i s an e f f e c t i v e psychological set i n learning French sentences compared to students who*learn "word f o r word".  T h i r t y French sentences to be learned were presented to the  students on an overhead projector. R e c a l l of the sentences was measured by an immediate post t e s t , and by a delay post t e s t twenty-four hours later. Three p i l o t studies were c a r r i e d out to v e r i f y the f e a s i b i l i t y of adapting previous research findings l a r g e l y derived from verbal learning studies which had used E n g l i s h language.  Psychological components  related to learning French as well as learning materials, r e c a l l t e s t s and subject samples were also examined and modified where necessary. Subsequent to these p i l o t studies d i f f e r e n t teaching methods were included i n the study as an independent variable to investigate a possible i n t e r action with the learning techniques.  One teaching method emphasised the  orthography of French language expressions, during the classroom learning process, with reinforcement of the correct student response following.  immediately  The other method employed an aural-oral learning approach.  The subjects i n the experiment were exposed to these two learning methods for s i x weeks preceding the learning session of the  experiment.  Experimental subjects consisted of grade 11 students learning French at two B.SJ.C. schools; Senior Secondary.  Semiahraoo Senior Secondary and Princess Margaret  At each school approximately h a l f of the students  i i i  were instructed by one method and the other half by the other method. The teacher i n each school was practiced i n both methods i n order to accomplish t h i s .  During the learning session students i n each of the  four groups were given s p e c i f i c instructions on how to learn the t h i r t y French sentences.  These instructions directed students either to l e a r n  by imaging the sentence meaning or by learning "word f o r word".  There  was also a control group i n which students learned i n t h e i r own  style.  In the post t e s t s , sentence subjects were given on the t e s t sheet and sentence predicates had to be r e c a l l e d . applied to the r e s u l t i n g r e c a l l data.  Four r e c a l l measures were  The most d i f f i c u l t measure, which  required exact r e c a l l of a French sentence to obtain c r e d i t , was to be an unreliable measure because of i t s extreme stringency.  found The  other three measures supported the theme that attention to imagery of sentence meaning was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e i n r e c a l l than "word  f o r word" l e a r n i n g .  Results indicated that t h i s treatment effect  present l a r g e l y i n the immediate post t e s t .  The experimental  was  treatments  probably lacked the impact to produce a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n the long term r e c a l l . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t school by r e c a l l measure i n t e r a c t i o n .  That  i s , students i n one school demonstrated a f a c i l i t y f o r r e c a l l i n g c e r t a i n words and students i n the other school demonstrated an a b i l i t y to r e c a l l J d i f f e r e n t choice of words. The pre-experimental i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t r e c a l l scores.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  . . . . . .  v  CHAPTER ONE  Statement of the Problem . . . . -  . 1  CHAPTER TWO  Imagery and the Acquiring of Meaning  7  CHAPTER THREE Three Preliminary P i l o t Studies CHAPTER FOUR  .14  Conclusions Relating to Comparison of Results at Princess Margaret and Semiahmoo Schools . . . 30  CHAPTER FIVE. Hypotheses and Procedure CHAPTER SIX  Research Results  35 . . . . . . .  CHAPTER SEVEN Conclusion  77  FOOTNOTES REFERENCES  45  .92 '  Appendix A ( i ) P i l o t Study I  93 •  .96  Appendix A ( i i ) P i l o t Study I  97  Appendix A ( i i i ) P i l o t Study I . . . . . . . . . .  98  Appendix A ( i v ) P i l o t Study I  99  Appendix A (v) P i l o t Study I  100  Appendix B ( i ) P i l o t Study I I  .101  Appendix B ( i i ) P i l o t Study I I Appendix B ( i i i ) P i l o t Study I I Appendix B ( i v ) P i l o t Study I I .  102 . . . . . .  . . . .103 .«*• .104  Appendix B (v) P i l o t Study I I  105  Appendix B ( v i ) P i l o t Study I I  106  Appendix B ( v i i ) P i l o t Study I I  107  \  108  Appendix C ( i ) . P i l o t Study I I I Appendix C ( i i ) . P i l o t Study I I I  .  109 110  Appendix C ( i i i ) . P i l o t Study I I I Appendix C ( i v ) . P i l o t Study I I I  Ill  Appendix C ( v ) . P i l o t Study I I I  112  Appendix D ( i )  113  Appendix D ( i i )  .  .  .  114  Appendix D ( i i i )  115  Appendix D (iv)  Il6  Appendix E ( l )  .  117  Appendix E i i )  120  Appendix E ( i i i )  121  Appendix E ( i v )  122  Appendix E (v)  123  Appendix E ( v i )  124  Appendix E ( v i i )  126  Appendix E ( v i i i )  127  vi.  TABLES AND FIGURES  Figure 1  Figure 2  Summary of prompt types required to achieve optimal performance as a function of age. Schematic patterns f o r high SES (upper panel) and low SES (lower panel) populations. . .  11  .  Graph Showing the Relative Value of the Treatment Means at the Two Schools "Words Correct" Snores  26  TABLE 1  "Words Correct" Means, ( x )  27  Figure 3  Graph Showing the Relative Value of the Treatment Means at the Two Schools "Content Word" Scores  .  TABLE 2  "Content Word" Means, (X)  TABLE 3  Mean Verbal I.Q.s f o r the Two Method Groups i n Both Schools Summary of Analysis of Variance of Verbal I.Q. Scores Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "Total Sentence Correct" Measure  TABLE 4 TABLE 5 TABLE 6  28 29  43 44 45  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Total Sentence 46  Correct" R e c a l l Scores TABLE 7  Means (X) of "School x Post Test" Interaction  TABLE 8  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts  .  48  "Total Sentence Correct" Scores  48  TABLE 9  Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "Content Word" Measure  51  TABLE 10  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Content Word" 52  R e c a l l Scores TABLE 11  Treatment Means (X) f o r "Content Word" Scores  TABLE 12  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Content Word" Scores Means (X) of "Treatment x Post Test" Interaction Cells  TABLE 13  .  53  5^ 55  v i i .  N  TABLE 14 TABLE 15 TABLE 16  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Content Word" Scores  56  Means (X) of School x Treatment Interaction Cells  57  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Content Word" Scores  .  .  .  .  .-  .  .  58  TABLE 17  Means (x) of School x Post Test Interaction C e l l s  60  TABLE 18  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Content Word" Scores  6l  TABLE 19  Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "correct word" Measure  6k  TABLE 20  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Correct Word" R e c a l l Scores Means (x) of Treatment Scores f o r "Correct Word" Measure Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts  TABLE 21 TABLE 22  65. 67  "Correct Word" Measure  68  TABLE 23  Means (x) of School x Post Test Interaction C e l l s  69,  TABLE 2k  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Correct Word" Scores Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" Measure  TABLE 25 TABLE 26 TABLE 27 TABLE 28  70 72  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" R e c a l l Scores  73  Means (x) of Treatment Scores "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" Measure  Ik  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" Measure . . .  75  1.  CHAPTER  OWE  Statement of the Problem  In B r i t i s h Columbia, commencing i n January 197^, the P r o v i n c i a l Government started scholarship examinations i n French, to be written twice per year, i n which the student i s expected not only to compose French discourse correctly, but also r e c a l l French  expression  which i s necessary to enrich i t . The goal of t h i s study which stems from these scholarship requirements, was to explore and possibly e s t a b l i s h the psychological mediating process whose functioning produces "most e f f e c t i v e " learning of French expressions.  The term "most e f f e c t i v e " t o be taken as a means of  predicting a b i l i t y of the learners to subsequently r e c a l l the language that has been learned. Several studies concerning variables related to r e c a l l of verbal material have suggested that most e f f e c t i v e r e c a l l has been associated with verbal learning which has emphasised the semantic aspect of the language. One study by King and R u s s e l l (1966), reported that ...when subjects are instructed t o learn connected meaningful material on the basis of many ideas they tend t o r e c a l l proportionately more words, l e t t e r s , sentences, etc., than ideas....On the other hand, when instructed to learn on an exact wording, or a word f o r word basis, subjects r e c a l l proportionately fewer words, l e t t e r s , sentences, etc., and more ideas. (j>. 478) There was found to be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two groups i n r e c a l l of ideas.  This would indicate that concentrating on meaning i s the  key to solving the problem as stated above.  2  However, the author i s aware that "meaning" i s obscured and complex, as evidenced by Paivio's (1971) d e f i n i t i o n , (p.5l); i t i s "an  organismic  reaction with a f f e c t i v e or motor (including verbal) or iraaginal components or a l l of these at once mediated by the n e u r a l - d i s p o s i t i o n a l meaning structures activated by the (stimulus) symbol and the s i t u a t i o n i n which i t occurs".  Despite t h i s complexity,  the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r  i n meaning which has been found to be the most e f f e c t i v e mediator of r e c a l l of verbal material has been imagery. The use of imagery mnemonics goes as f a r back into h i s t o r y as around 500 B.C.  to Simonides.  The mnemonic process involves a series of  symbolic transformations, thus, consider the task of committing to memory a speech.  During the learning of the speech the main points of i t would  be memorised as a s e r i e s of images. transferred to imagery symbols.  That i s , the verbal symbols are  The imagery symbols would be  to words when the speech was being delivered.  retransformed  Of course, the many smaller,  or form words which united the ideas were more d i f f i c u l t to r e c a l l exactly, (Yates, 1966).  This problem has persisted to the present day.  l e s s , even i n those early years the image was  Neverthe-  recognized as an invaluable  aid to verbal r e c a l l . The great weight of evidence favouring the use of imagery as an invaluable aid to r e c a l l of verbal material i s derived frorfr more s c i e n t i f i c studies of recent years which i n the early stages depended to a large extent upon paired-associate learning techniques.  A study by W.A.  Wallace, Turner  and Perkins, (1957), produced dramatic r e s u l t s favouring imagery f o r learning paired-associates.  Each p a i r of words had to be imagined l i n k e d  3.  together i n the same mental image.  The group that learned them i n t h i s  way were more successful than subjects who learned the words i n separate images.  This p a r t i c u l a r study i s relevant t o the learning of French  sentences i n which subjects and predicates must be linked together i n meaning--meaning which the student, i s asked t o picture i n his mind. Further support f o r t h i s u n i t i z a t i o n of imagery objects i s supplied by Gordon Bower (1969) who, using concrete noun p a i r s , found a highly s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n favour of subjects who were t o l d t o learn the p a i r of words by imagining some i n t e r a c t i o n between the words. More closely related t o the task of r e c a l l i n g expressions or sentences than paired associates studies are those concerned with chunking. M i l l e r (1956) found that immediate r e c a l l of language was constant at about seven units of the language. them w i l l be r e c a l l e d . words are r e c a l l e d . such as phrases.  Thus, i f the units are s y l l a b l e s , seven of  I f the s y l l a b l e s are made into word units, seven Words can be made into higher order units, or chunks,  Thus, by combining words into sentence form, phrase  units can be committed t o memory.  In t h i s way the chunking process  permits the memorising and r e c a l l of a greater number of words than can normally be retained i n the memory span. Tulving and Patkau (1962) showed that both grammaticalness aided i n the chunking process.  and meaning  However, they did not indicate the nature  of the semantic variable involved i n chunking.  This was done by Y u i l l e  and Paivio, (1969), who held the grammatical variable constant and varied noun imagery i n the sentences t o be learned.  The results indicated  that more words were r e c a l l e d as noun imagery increased.  h.  Some writers have declared that although sentences contain imagery many of the words such as prepositions or d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e s which are d i f f i c u l t to relate to the imagery mnemonic make research i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n too d i f f i c u l t .  However, Bugelaski (1969) postulates that  imagery i n sentences can be studied provided that one realizes that certain words can only be related to the image when they are not considered alone. Huttenlocher (1968), provided evidence that s p a t i a l relations as indicated by sentences, invoked s p a t i a l images. meaning may be condensed to imagery. the  Thus entire sentence  Werner and Kaplan (1963),  demonstrated  arousal of images to account f o r the meaning of "time" as indicated  i n senteces such as "He ran" and "He w i l l run".  In another study by  E r i e (1963), sentences which were r e c a l l e d a f t e r the imagery instructions frequently had ommissions of such words as " i f " and "but", obviously because of t h e i r lack of imagery content.  Despite t h i s , i f s p e c i f i c instructions  to create an imagery set were more e f f e c t i v e i n the r e c a l l of these words i n French, than i m p l i c i t speech mnemonics, then comparative lack of imagery content i n these words may be only a p a r t i a l hinderance t o learning. Paivio and Begg (1969), made use of 5 0 concrete and 50 abstract sentences to f i n d out how much time was required to involve imagery and comprehension>of the sentences.  Average time f o r the most d i f f i c u l t  sentences—the abstract ones—was 2 seconds f o r comprehension for imagery.  and  seconds  Students learning French sentences i n the present study were  given 2 0 seconds.  This extended period was necessary to give students  time to write the sentences down.  5.  Although the research suggested i n t h i s thesis derives much of i t s d i r e c t i o n from the King and Russell study (1966), i n which "word f o r word" learning i s compared with idea learning, the main difference l i e s i n the type of verbal material used. of short sentences.  King used connected verbal prose, instead  Short sentences are used i n the study because i t i s  thought that acquiring French idiom and expressions can best be done, and is  usually accomplished, when they are independently chosen from French  l i t e r a t u r e and usually they have no connecting theme.  Verbal learning  generalizations are therefore most relevant f o r our purpose i f they are drawn from research using sentence units and from paired-associates upon which sentence research i s founded. Because the emphasis i s upon how t o learn, rather than how t o instruct i n the French language, an important feature of the methodology used i n t h i s study i s the s p e c i f i c instructions given to the subject suggesting to him how he i s expected t o learn the language i n the related task.  This  method of using s p e c i f i c instructions was also used by King and Russell, mentioned above, and although the learners behaviour i s not as observable as one would wish, i f s i g n i f i c a n t effect i s present i n the subsequent results, then such a method must be considered a relevant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the learning process.  Following the learning task, a debriefing of  the subjects by the experimenter should indicate to him what the subjects did, and whether they adhered c l o s e l y t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s . The subjects involved i n the above-mentioned related research have a l l been competent users of the language, and the language used has been English.  Although the psychological aspects of language learning may be  6  generalizable to a large extent from one language to another, i t i s s t i l l open to question whether the findings derived from these studies are applicable to Grade 11 students who language.  are not competent users of the French  Because of t h i s doubt preliminary p i l o t studies had t o be  carried out before a more controlled experiment could be proposed.  7.  CHAPTER TWO Imagery and the Acquiring of Meaning  The conceptualization of meaning has been a problem t o psychologists f o r a long time.  A succinct d e f i n i t i o n of i t has not yet been made but  at least great s t r i d e s have been taken towards uriderstanding i t .  After  studying the v a r i e t y of interpretations and positions held by many psycholog i s t s on meaning, Paivio has derived an analysis the description of which should serve as well as a d e f i n i t i o n . This analysis credits meaning with three cognitive levels: representational, r e f e r e n t i a l , and associative.  Representational meaning  refers to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the "imaginal and verbal representations corresponding  to p a r t i c u l a r nonverbal and verbal stimulus u n i t s " . ^  At  t h i s stage the i n i t i a l stimulus representation fades rapidly but a coded trace of some kind remains which has not yet been elaborated, or changed. The r e f e r e n t i a l ' l e v e l refers to the arousal of a word t o a nonverbal stimulus or of an image to a verbal stimulus.  Lastly, the associative  l e v e l of meaning i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y defined as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of words or images which are d i f f e r e n t t o those i n the r e f e r e n t i a l stage but which are related to them i n some way. In t h i s present study which requires r e c a l l of French sentence predicates, with the verbal representation of the subjects as a given  stimulus,  a l l three levels of meaning w i l l be brought into operation with s p e c i a l emphasis upon the r e f e r e n t i a l l e v e l .  The c e n t r a l concern focusses upon  two d i f f e r e n t operations which are employed t o help commit meaning into the  8.  memory storage.  These two operations  are best understood by considering  the positions held by Skinner and Paivio i n r e l a t i o n to the a c q u i s i t i o n of meaning. In h i s explanation of meaning Skinner avoids t r e a t i n g i t as an e n t i t y but focusses upon the operational process related to i t .  "The meaning of a  word i s . . . s p e c i f i e d by the conditions under which i t occurs and apart from such a functional account nothing further need be s a i d about meaning." But, he adds,  that discriminative operant conditioning must play an  important role i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of meaning.  Thus, i n t e r n a l i z e d behaviour  which imitates a concrete stimulus, or stimulus word, i s the conditioning behaviour which represents the meaning process, but the a c q u i s i t i o n of such an i n t e r n a l i z e d response i s dependent upon or shaped by, the to such responses.  reinforcement  Thus i f the response i s known by the i n d i v i d u a l t o be  a correct one then the a c q u i s i t i o n of i t i s more assured and thus more readily available f o r r e c a l l . In answer to t h i s analysis of meaning a c q u i s i t i o n Paivio points out that, The only s p e c i a l feature of t h i s analysis i s the emphasis on the stimulus conditions to which the sensory and motor reactions become conditioned: the reactions define the representational, r e f e r e n t i a l and associative meaning of the objects and words that e l i c i t them... (but that) the images aroused by verbal clues often appear too complex and creative f o r them to have been acquired on the basis of actual c o n t i g u i t i e s i n experience.^ The p r i n c i p a l difference between the acquiring of word meaning held by these two men i s i n the emphasis by Skinner i n the need f o r the process,  e s p e c i a l l y i f stimulus r e c a l l i s expected.  reinforcement  On the other hand,  Paivio holds strongly to the notion of imagery as a frequent,  although not  9.  always e s s e n t i a l , feature of the organismic  d i s p o s i t i o n which represents  i n t e r n a l i z e d meaning. This controversal issue i s thought to provide an explanation f o r the confounding results obtained i n p i l o t studies I I and I I I and which subsequently becomes an important cohsidemtioniin the design of the experiment following these studies. Another facet of imagery and verbal learning which has to be considered, before the development of experimental  treatments, i s the  concept of elaboration which has been pointed out by Rohwer (1972). postulates that a single underlying process i s responsible f o r the of correct responses on noun-pair tasks.  He production  When two words which are  unrelated are coupled together by the learner, t h i s coupling i s achieved by generating an event which unites them. of words by a relationship, elaboration. i s triggered the p a i r w i l l not be  Rohwer has named t h i s i n t e r g r a t i n g Unless t h i s process of elaboration  learned.  In a series of studies i n which children of d i f f e r e n t ages and of d i f f e r e n t socio-economic groups were involved Rohwer distinguished four degrees of prompt f o r t r i g g e r i n g the elaborationj substantial, moderate and minimal.  they were, maximal,  At the maximal l e v e l actual objects  representing the words to be learned are presented to the learners and these objects are v i s i b l y connected i n some way.  The substantial prompt  requires a picture or sketch of the objects corresponding be learned.  to the words to  A moderate prompt i s one i n which imagery i s used by the  learner to r e l a t e the meaning of the two words and the minimal prompt simply requires that the learner t r y to remember the two words which he  10.  sees i n written form. Schematic patterns of the four prompts-are  shown i n F i g . 1.  One of the conclusions derived from the r e s u l t s of t h i s studyby Rohwer was that, the age of the learners was a variable which related to t h e i r f a c i l i t y to elaborate by means of these prompts and that, rather than stemming from a difference i n underlying process, the source of the phenomenon appears to be that members of one group have acquired a propensity f o r autonomous activation of the elaboration process while members of the other group have not . learned t h i s s k i l l . 4  *  The r e s u l t s of the 15 year o l d and the 18 year o l d groups depicted i n F i g . 1 are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to t h i s study where the mean age of the grade 11 students i s 16 years 6 months. In the treatments of the three p i l o t studies and the f i n a l experiment, elaboration prompts are the same, or s i m i l a r , to those described by Rohwer. Unless these prompts are developed to an equal degree i n students of t h i s age, then mean scores derived from these treatments might show s i g n i f i c a n t differences because of a lack of control of the elaboration v a r i a b l e s . Therefore, to avoid such a p o s s i b i l i t y a preliminary examination of the treatment prompts to be used was necessary. In one of the treatments, i n p i l o t study 1, i n which French sentences had to be learned, attention to imagery, (A.I.) corresponds to the moderate prompt i n elaboration.  A second treatment employs attention to orthbgraphic  features (A.O.) of the sentences.  This treatment does not correspond to  any of the four prompts i n Rohwer's studies.  Even the minimal prompt  described by Rowher i s dependent to some extent upon.word meaning.  The  subjects involved i n h i s study were competent users of the language from which the paired-associates were chosen and therefore word meaning would  1  I71 r3  fc  I i  Age  3  12  15  18  Prompt type ^Maximal  || Substantial Q Moderate  jj Minimal  F i g . 1 Swrnmary of prompt types required to achieve optimal performance as a function of age. Schematic patterns for high-SES (upper panel) and low-SES (lower panel) populations. (From Rohwer  197 ) 9  12  almost c e r t a i n l y mediate learning and r e c a l l .  Such a f a c i l i t y f o r  perceiving word meaning may be dimished i n the case of the A.O. i n p i l o t study 1 because foreign language symbols are used.  group  However, the 5  goal of p i l o t study 1 i s to investigate the e f f e c t of e i d e t i c xmagery and t h i s phenomenon i s usually associated with young c h i l d r e n .  Therefore,  i t may be assumed that the students involved i n p i l o t study I have long since achieved optimal performance i n the type of prompt.associated with eidetic  imagery.  In p i l o t studies I I and I I I the process of elaboration i s more obviously present.  The two treatments, "word f o r word" learning (W.W.),  and attention to imagery learning both make use of the moderate prompt. The A.I. treatment corresponds very c l o s e l y to the moderate prompt as described by Rohwer. e a s i l y categorised.  The prompt used i n the W.W.  treatment i s not so  Because each item i s i n sentence form which, per se,  necessitates a meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p between words, then word meaning must be a factor i n "word f o r word" learning.  Therefore, i t i s l i k e l y  that the imagery component of meaning i s present to some extent i n t h i s treatment as w e l l .  This imagery  i s probably supplemented with covert  speech. In the f i n a l controlled experiment the treatment groups involved i n learning French sentences, that i s , the A.I. and W.W. (the  learners,  control group may be considered s i m i l a r to the l a t t e r group), relate  to the groups i n Rohwer*s study, which used the substantial and moderate  13.  prompts.  A combination of substantial prompts and moderate prompts are  employed by the A.I. group of students which sketches sentence meaning ^ to a s s i s t i n learning the French verbal material.  In Rohwer's study a  substantial prompt i s one which uses a picture or sketch of the  objects  which the verbal item represents i s not shown to the learners.  Such a  sketch i s drawn by the learners themselves.  Therefore, i t i s probable  that the students w i l l be assisted i n t h e i r memorising by t h e i r  own  sketches as well as by the imagery generated i n the process of drawing the sketches.  The other group which learns "word f o r word" has  already  been discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the elaboration prompt i m p l i c i t i n such a treatment. On:  of the basic assumptions made i n t h i s present  process of elaboration w i l l function i n the same way Rohwer study.  study i s that the  as i t has done i n the  This implies that the r e l a t i v e effectiveness of substantial  and moderate prompts remains f a i r l y constant f o r students aged 16 years 6 months.  Therefore,  any e f f e c t i v e difference that may  learning groups^ r e s u l t s may  arise between the  attributed to treatment rather than the  a b i l i t y to spontaneously generate elaboration.  Ik.  CHAPTER  THREE  Three Preliminary P i l o t Studies  Anderson (1972), described the verbal learning process as having three basic stages.  "Elements of text are f i r s t encoded i n terms  of perceptual features.  Since the relevant perceptual features of text  are orthographic, t h i s can be c a l l e d orthographic encoding. l e v e l of processing probably involves acoustic features.  The next  At t h i s  which can be c a l l e d phonological encoding, strings of words are i n t o i m p l i c i t (or e x p l i c i t ) speech.  stage,  rendered  F i n a l l y , there may be semantic  encoding, that i s , the person may bring to mind meaningful representation based upon the words he sees, or hears himself saying." It has already been pointed out that according to available evidence, the semantic stage holds the major mediating term r e c a l l .  component r e l a t i n g to long  Baddeley, (1966), suggests that the phonographic or  acoustical stage i s not so important.  "In long term memory (longer than  30 seconds) semantic interference i s more important than a c o u s t i c a l interference."  (The r e c a l l test i n t h i s present study i s completed long  a f t e r 30 seconds have elapsed). I t i s noteworthy that few researchers of recent years have paid any attention to the p o s s i b i l i t y that the orthographic stage could be related to long term r e c a l l and yet the phenomenon known as e i d e t i c imagery implies that such a r e l a t i o n may  exist.  In 1920,  Jaensch brought to notice the  a b i l i t y of people to r e c a l l , i n great d e t a i l , a p i c t u r e previously seen. Kluver (1930), reports that r e c a l l of d e t a i l can also be accomplished with a  15.  page of typed prose, and that such an e i d e t i c image could he almost photographic.  I t was a phenomenon found to he f a i r l y common i n children  but rare i n adults.  I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t that i t i s largely children  are able t o obtain an e i d e t i c image of written language.  who  I t i s possibly  because, not being practised readers l i k e adults, they are more i n c l i n e d to perceive the printed word as a symbol which does not convey meaning.  This process of reading without meaning i s quite  frequently encountered by the teacher who read.  immediately  instructs the small c h i l d to  Subsequent to apparently successful reading, questioning of the  reader by the teacher, on the content of the reading matter, reveals that l i t t l e or no meaning has been imparted by the printed  language.  Because the subjects i n t h i s present study are not competent users of the language there was the p o s s i b i l i t y of an i n h i b i t o r y effect being present i n the process t r a n s f e r r i n g the symbol into meaning, just as there may be with the small c h i l d learning to read.  Consequently,  something  akin to the child's e i d e t i c image as a r e s u l t of excessive attention being paid to the orthographic features, might have a greater influence upon retention and r e c a l l than was the case with the subjects i n Baddeley's study. The goal of t h i s f i r s t study was to ascertain whether the learning of French sentences by grade 11 students i s related to the orthographic stage and to compare r e c a l l scores related to "attention to the orthographic features of the language"  (A.O.) with"attention to the imagery component  of the meaning of language"  (A.I.).  I t was hypothesised that the students who adopted the "attention t o imagery"';would learn the French sentences more e f f e c t i v e l y than the students  16.  who  learned by attention to the orthography,  i n the two r e c a l l measures  described on page 19Post tests consisted of immediate and delay post tests,the l a t t e r taking place twenty-four hours a f t e r the immediate t e s t . Fifty-two of the subjects were given s p e c i f i c instructions to concentrate upon the actual p r i n t e d words of each of 30 sentences. were the A.O.  students.  These  The rest of the sample which consisted of f o r t y -  four subjects were to pay attention s o l e l y to the task of imagery of the sentence meaning.  These were the A.I. subjects.  The subject sample was drawn from four grade 11 classes, t o t a l l i n g 9^ students, who  attended Burnaby South Senior Secondary School.  Two  days before the learning task these students were given a l i s t of French words and expressions which were going to be used i n the learning assignment, together with the E n g l i s h meaning.  The students were t o l d that  they should know the meaning of the French language on the l i s t and that they were going to be tested on i t .  The order of the words and expressions  i n the l i s t s were scrambled so that the word sequence practice effect would not be an a i d to memorizing the sentences i n the experimental task.  The  purpose of t h i s l i s t was to ensure that the students involved i n the A.I. group would not be handicapped i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to attend to the language meaning. Each of the 30 sentences was structure was  constant.  constructed so that the syntactic  Each sentence contained a subject which consisted  of  one noun, preceded by the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e .  of  k words.  For example,  The predicate consisted  17.  Le prisonnier  f a i t semblant' de dormir  SUBJECT  PREDICATE  The predicate contains the expression which was considered by the author to be the kind t o enrich French essay-type answers.  The author  based h i s choice of expression upon h i s knowledge of the grade 1 1 and 12 French courses and upon his knowledge of essay requirements learned when marking scholarship papers i n French i n V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 2 , 1973Since imaging the meaning of the 30 sentences was the essence of one of the treatments the choice of the nouns to be inserted i n them was considered c a r e f u l l y .  In a study by Paivio, Y u i l l e , and Madigan ( 1 9 6 8 ) ,  a l i s t of 9 2 5 nouns were drawn up by Paivio and each noun was rated f o r concreteness and imagery. these two a t t r i b u t e s .  A correlation of 0 . 9 ^ was established between  Because of t h i s high c o r r e l a t i o n the nouns i n the  t h i r t y sentences were chosen on the same basis as the nouns i n Paivio's l i s t , that i s ,  "any word that refers t o objects, materials, or persons, 7  should receive a high concreteness rating." Paivio, when discussing paired-associate learning and r e c a l l states that the f i r s t word, or stimulus word, may redintegrate the compound ' image from which the response (word) could be retrieved.  I t follows that  the ease of learning a stimulus--response association would depend upon the image arousing value of both members of the pair, but that of the stimulus member w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y more important. Of course, i n subject-predicate association which was the concern Thanks to Mrs. J . Osborne, Chairman of French Department, Examination Marking Committee, f o r e d i t i n g the expressions.  18.  of t h i s p i l o t study, i t i s doubtful whether the predicate imagery could t r u l y be equivalent to the paired-associate response word, nevertheless the high concrete rating of the subject noun should f a c i l i t a t e predicate recall. Immediately preceding the presentation of the 30 sentences each i n d i v i d u a l i n the f i r s t two groups which had been selected by random assignment, was given the set of s p e c i f i c instructions on a sheet of paper, t e l l i n g him to attend to the meaning of the sentences.  The other group  received-the s p e c i f i c instructions d i r e c t i n g them t o attend to the orthographic features of the sentences. other's s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n . assigned into two sub-groups;  Neither group was aware of the  Each of these groups was further randomly one to serve as the immediate post test  sub-group and the other as the delay post test sub-group. Immediately following the t h i r t y sentence presentation the immediate post test group was given the r e c a l l t e s t .  This consisted of the t h i r t y  sentence subjects and the students had to r e c a l l the sentence predicates, thus, Le prisonnier The delay post t e s t group was kept occupied with a scrambled French word puzzle to solve.  letter  Twenty-four hours l a t e r the immediate and  delay post test groups reversed assignments. The method of assessing the r e c a l l scores was by King ( i 9 6 0 ) ,  who  derived from a study  attempted to v a l i d a t e various scoring procedures f o r  the r e c a l l of connected verbal material.  He f a c t o r analyzed various i n t e r -  correlations among the scoring procedures to i d e n t i f y the variables of  19.  importance i n the accuracy of r e c a l l .  He concluded,  ...there are two factors involved i n determining the accuracy of written recall...these two factors are the number of content words reproduced and the quantity of words reproduced. Accordingly, two measures of r e c a l l were used i n t h i s study.  After  a l l of the test papers had been c o l l e c t e d each one was marked by c r e d i t i n g each French word that was r e c a l l e d correctly.  Thus i f a test paper showed  f o r t y words correctly spelled then f o r t y was the score attributed to i t . This score was a measure of "Words Correct." When calculating the scores i n the "Content Word" count, a l l of the form words, i . e . , a r t i c l e s , conjunctions, prepositions, etc., were eliminated from the o r i g i n a l t h i r t y sentences and the r e c a l l responses were checked to determine the presence of the remaining content words.  To be  considered as present on the r e c a l l answer sheet the word had t o be exactly as given on the o r i g i n a l , except f o r minor s p e l l i n g v a r i a t i o n s .  No  penalty was given f o r sequence errors or f o r the presence of words not i n the o r i g i n a l story. I t i s conceivable that the groups of students who had been t o l d t o mentally picture the meaning of the sentences when memorising them, might pay less attention to form words than the A.O.  group learning the sentences,  hence the need f o r the content word count. Analyses of variance (Appendix A, Tables h,  5) f o r both "words  correct" and f o r "content words" scores indicated that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the treatments i n both immediate and delay post t e s t s .  For both treatments there was a predictable s i g n i f i c a n t  difference between these two post t e s t s .  20.  The hypothesis that attention to imagery would prove a more e f f e c t i v e treatment than attention to orthographic features of the sentences was not supported.  Such a finding was not i n accord with past research, mentioned  i n Chapter One,  r e l a t i n g to v e r b a l r e c a l l by means of imagery mediation.  Consequently, a day a f t e r the delay post test had taken place a debriefing session was held with the students who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the With a l l of the students the response was the same.  experiment.  The A.O.  group  declared that they had found i t too d i f f i c u l t to pay very much attention to the orthographic features of the sentences without the meaning interfering.  Without exception, they quickly abandoned hope of following i  the s p e c i f i c instructions d i r e c t i n g them to attend to the orthographic element of the language and they commenced learning "the way that they usually do." to obtain.  A common explanation of what they meant by that was  difficult  Apparently they use different methods of memorising, but i n  a l l of them a knowledge of the meaning of the sentence was an e s s e n t i a l factor. image.  No student claimed any degree of f a c i l i t y f o r securing an e i d e t i c On the other hand, every i n d i v i d u a l i n the A.I. group declared  that he had adhered t o the s p e c i f i c instructions. Subsequent to this f i r s t p i l o t study, a second one was carried out at another school:  Semiahmoo Senior Secondary School, White Rock, B.C.  There were two grade eleven classes learning French.  The t o t a l number of  students was 51. The purpose of t h i s study was again to v e r i f y that attention to imagery, related to the French sentence meaning was the most e f f e c t i v e to memorise and subsequently r e c a l l the French sentences.  way  As a result of  21.  the weaknesses learned i n the f i r s t p i l o t study, t h i s second one was changed i n two e s s e n t i a l features.  F i r s t l y , a l l of the students had t o write out  the sentences, as they were presented to them on the overhead projector. The active response to the situation served the purpose of assuring some ' In p i l o t study 1 they learned i n passive  degree of student attention. fashion.  This opened up the p o s s i b i l i t y of students not attending  s u f f i c i e n t l y to the task.  Secondly, because attention to orthographic  features had proven too d i f f i c u l t f o r the students to put into effect, they were t o l d to learn the sentences on an exact word, or "word f o r word" basis, as i n the King and Russell study (1966). them as the A.O.  Thus instead of r e f e r r i n g to  group they were changed to the W.W.  (word f o r word) group.  The A.I. group process remained the same, that i s , they had to attend c a r e f u l l y t o the imagery of the sentences.  But, t h i s time, they  also had to write the sentences instead of just reading them. The period of presentation time f o r each student was 20 seconds. complete  lengthened to  This provided s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the slowest writer to  each sentence.  Details of the administration of the learning task were i n every other way the same as i n the f i r s t p i l o t study. I t was hypothesised that the students who adopted the A.I. mental set  would learn the French sentences more e f f e c t i v e l y than the students who  learned by the W.W.  treatment.  Scores were assessed by means of the same  two r e c a l l measures as were used i n p i l o t study 1.  Again there were two  post tests, immediate and delay. Analyses of variance (Appendix B Tables 9> 10)  were estimated on  22.  the r e s u l t i n g test scores.  In the "words correct" measure significantly-  greater mean scores f o r the W.W.  learners were produced i n the t o t a l scores,  t h a t i s , immediate plus delay post test scores.  Because of evidence of  an interaction effect between treatments and post tests a Bonferroni test (Appendix B Table 12) was calculated to locate the source of the i n t e r a c t i o n . This indicated that the W.W.  treatment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e than  the A.I. treatment i n the immediate post test but not i n the delay post test. In the content word measure there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the treatment means. Once again the hypothesis that attention to imagery would prove the more e f f e c t i v e treatment had been rejected.  This r e s u l t , i n both measures,  c o n f l i c t e d with that of King and Russell, (1966), which found that the group which paid attention to the meaning scored higher than the one attending to the language on a "word f o r word" basis. I t i s possible that these results could have d i f f e r e d from those of King and Russell because the t h i r t y sentences were not meaningfully connected as the sentences had been i n the prose used by these researchers; because the language i s French, not English; not s u f f i c i e n t l y competent i n i t s use;  because the students were  or, because t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample  of students was a biased one. The author could f i n d no studies which might indicate that the f i r s t three of these p o s s i b i l i t i e s could present a cause f o r t h i s result.  unexpected  Indeed, time and again, studies i n verbal learning tend to  support the power of meaning as the most e f f e c t i v e mediator f o r r e c a l l of  23.  verbal material.  Consequently,  i t was decided to v e r i f y or reject the  last-mentioned p o s s i b i l i t y , that, that the student sample used i n the study were not necessarily representative of the student population. Accordingly, a t h i r d exploration study was  carried out using a d i f f e r e n t  student sample. The goal of t h i s study was to compare the findings of p i l o t study 2 with the results derived from duplicating the experiment subject sample.  using a d i f f e r e n t  This sample consisted of grade 11 students learning  French at Princess Margaret Senior Secondary School.  The catchment area  f o r t h i s school i s contiguous to that of Semiahmoo Senior Secondary School and students are of s i m i l a r socio-economic status. S i x t y - f i v e students were involved.  Their progress i n the learning  of French was equivalent to that attained by the Semisnmoo students.  At  both schools the students had reached the end of the sixth week i n grade 11 French when the experiment  was carried out.  Course work i n both schools  was the same, being the prescribed course f o r senior secondary students i n the province.  I t was v e r i f i e d that the rate of progress through the  course was equivalent.  This i s to be expected since the teachers have the  same period of time i n which to get through an equal amount of material. The experiment had t o take place i n a classroom i n the Princess Margaret School building but apart from that, administration of the experiment was i d e n t i c a l to that used i n p i l o t study 2.  The same teacher  (the author), carried out the experiment to decrease the l i k e l i h o o d that no accidental changes of d e t a i l might be introduced. As i n the previous p i l o t studies, i t was hypothesised that students  2k.  who adopted the A.I. mental set would learn the French sentences more e f f e c t i v e l y than the students who  learned W.W.,  f o r both r e c a l l measures.  I t was also hypothesised that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the t o t a l scores i n each of the schools, f o r both r e c a l l measures. This hypothesis was introduced as a control to permit a comparison of amount of learning accomplished by the two school samples and thus determine  the  equality of sample i n the student population. Subsequent to the French sentence learning and the two post tests, analyses of variance (index C Tables lb, 17) were carried out on the results.  The most noteworthy feature of the analyses was the general  reversal of trends shown at Semiahmoo School. superiority of r e c a l l i n the W.W.  Instead of a s i g n i f i c a n t  treatment i n the "words correct" measure  the means of the treatment groups at Princess Margaret School were not significantly different. On the other hand, i n the "content word" measure the students at Princess Margaret School gave evidence of s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e r e c a l l i n the A.I. treatment whereas the Semiahoo students had shown no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment effect i n t h i s measure. The hypothesis that the t o t a l scores f o r one school would not be s i f n i f i c a n t l y greater than the other was supported by the significance i  readings i n Tables 19 and 20 (Appendix  D).  Following the c o l l e c t i o n of data at both schools the KR^Q r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was  calculated f o r both measures.  measure KR.2Q=0.695,  a n  ^ f°  r  For the "words correct"  the "content word" measure KE^Q=0.787.  The  author was s a t i s f i e d that these r e l i a b i l i t i e s were adequate f o r present  o  o  25.  research purposes although higher r e l i a b i l i t i e s s h a l l he sought f o r future use of the instrument.  O  26.  FIG. 2  Graph Showing the Relative Value of the Treatment Means at the Two Schools "Words Correct" Scores  Princess Margaret  A.I. Means  Table of Means on page 27  W.W.  Means  TABLE 1  "Words Correct" Means, (X)  Semiahmoo School Princess Margaret Sch.  2  Immediate Post test Delay Post test A.I. W.W. A.I. W.W. ^ . l , 1.2 l6.8 9  ^  >  2  0  1 > 0  ,  3I1.I  23.6  18.0  FIG. 3  Graph Showing the Relative Value of the Treatment Means at the Two Schools "Content Word" Scores  29.  TABLE 2  "Content Word" Means, (X)  Immediate post test  Delay post t e s t  A.I.  W.W.  A.I.  W.W.  Semiahmoo School  21.4  33-0  l6.5  12.3  Princess Margaret School  27.0  21.5  17.5  13-0  30.  CHAPTER FOUR Conclusions Relating to Comparison of Results at Princess Margaret and Semiahmoo Schools  The outstanding feature of the studies, completed at Semiahmoo and Princess Margaret Senior Secondary Schools, was the paradoxical nature of the results derived from the two post t e s t s .  By choosing two subject  samples from what was expected to be the same student population i t was anticipated that the results of one study would v e r i f y the results of the other.  Interactions of a l l three variables:  (I) school;  (ii)  treatment;  ( i i i ) immed-delay, which are present i n one or both of the analyses of variance  (Appendix D Tables 19 and 2 0 ) , are further complicated by an  apparent  i n t e r a c t i o n related to the type of verbal r e c a l l measure used.  These results must be examined i n r e l a t i o n to the two student samples i n order to f i n d some relationship between them which could help t o account f o r these complex interacting effects. The experimenter had a prolonged discussion with the French teacher at Princess Margaret because i t was thought that the solution to the problem must l i e i n some difference, or differences, i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . Although the detailed differences of the teaching methods used by the teachers i n the two schools had to be numerous, nevertheless, there were two contrasting teaching techniques which seemed to be especially relevant. In class the French teacher at Semiahmoo School would choose French expressions, from prescribed reading sections, which he deemed worth committing  to memory.  This teacher, who  employed certain programmed  31.  learning p r i n c i p l e s , (such as active response, immediate reinforcement, and cuing), would further the learning process on the following day by writing the English t r a n s l a t i o n of the French expression alongside part of the French expression on the chalkboard.  The incomplete French  expression acted as a cue r e c a l l of the whole expression, thus: English:  I have two dollars l e f t .  French:  II  re  deux d o l l a r s .  The students had to respond by writing the completed French expression i n t h e i r notebooks.  The teacher would then write the correct answer on  the board to reinforce correct responses, thus: I I me reste deux d o l l a r s . The student, s t r i v i n g f o r the parts of the French expression necessary to complete the response correctly, i s drawn by t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l method to t r y to r e c a l l the orthographic parts which are missing. In contrast, the teacher at Princess Margaret School introduced the French expression to her students by saying i t i n class and then by using i t o r a l l y i n a variety of ways.  The students are induced to a comprehension  of the expression by discriminating between the various examples which helped them to focus upon a more correct and precise meaning.  The students,  working i n pairs, were then encouraged to use the expression i n dialogue fashion.  F i n a l l y , the teacher would write the l i s t of expressions on the  board f o r the students to copy into t h e i r notebooks.  By t h i s method, the  student i s induced to learn by concentrating his attention more on the meaning, o r a l l y communicated, and less upon the orthography of the expression than the Semiahmoo students had done.  32.  Because of the d i f f e r e n t teaching methodology employed with the two subject samples, i t i s theorised that the bond between word and meaning have been established i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, thus a f f e c t i n g strength of r e c a l l of the French language and the choice of words r e c a l l e d .  Such a  theory concurs with the d i f f e r e n t positions held by Skinner and Paivio i n how  word meaning i s acquired (re: Chapter Two).  reinforcement  The former emphasises  as the key to the process and the l a t t e r supports imagery  mediation. In r e l a t i o n to educational i n s t r u c t i o n there i s also another important difference between the positions held by Skinner and Paivio on word meaning.  Skinner's reinforcement  of the correct verbal response i s  dependent upon an external sign which represents the correct response and provides reinforcement  to the learner.  the teacher finds that he i s needed.  I t i s i n providing t h i s sign that This process which requires an  i n t e r a c t i o n between teacher and learner develops into a teaching method; the method used by the French teacher at Semiahmoo School. On the other hand, Paivio's insistence that imagery i s an important a t t r i b u t e uniting word and meaning i s not dependent upon any external sign to act as reinforcement. way  of learning.  It i s e s s e n t i a l l y a process which i s a subjective  The teacher i s not r e a l l y required.  I f the learner has  imaged the word meaning, e f f e c t i v e r e c a l l of the word i s supposedly strengthened by such imagery. I t i s theorised that an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between teaching method and learning s t y l e i s the cause of the apparently  discordant r e c a l l r e s u l t s  33.  obtained i n P i l o t Studies 2 and 3«  This i s a post hoc interpretation but  in the ensuing study the relationship between two teaching methods and two learning styles are examined.in an experiment i n which both method and treatment w i l l be controlled.  One method i s the reinforced orthographical  style described above and used by the Semiahmoo French teacher. the treatments employed i s "attention t o imagery."  One of  I t i s s t i l l the  primary goal of t h i s study to examine the effectiveness of t h i s treatment i n the learning of French language. To contrast with the reinforcement teaching method (R. Meth.) i s the aural-oral method (0. Meth.) used by the French teacher at Princess Margaret School.  This l a t t e r method i s the one most commonly espoused by French  teachers.  The basic argument i n i t s favor i s that i t i s a method of  i n s t r u c t i n g language which p a r a l l e l s closely the natural method.  The  n a t u r a l method may be represented by the young c h i l d who learns h i s native tongue by means of hearing i t and by repeating what he hears.  He does not  have to contend with the written aspect of language u n t i l a few years of t h i s preliminary a u r a l - o r a l t r a i n i n g have passed.  By t h i s time he has  become a f a i r l y competent user of the language. There are many reasons why t h i s method may not necessarily work so w e l l with English speaking grade 11 students who are learning French. However, these w i l l not be enumerated here. The other treatment t o compare with "attention to imagery" i s the one already used i n the P i l o t Studies 2 and 3, namely, "word f o r word" learning. In addition t o these two learning treatments a control group i s  34  included.  A comparison of the r e c a l l scores of t h i s group and the other  two treatment groups w i l l provide an i n d i c a t i o n of the effectiveness of the learning of the l a t t e r groups as well as the equivalence of r e c a l l of the students i n the two schools. The same two schools, Semiahmoo and Princess Margaret provided the grade 11 students to act as subjects i n the experiment which took place twelve months a f t e r the P i l o t Studies 2 and 3»  35  CHAPTER FIVE Hypotheses and Procedure  Hypotheses In accord with findings i n past research mentioned i n Chapters One and Two, i t i s expected that attention to imagery should prove more e f f e c t i v e than e i t h e r "word f o r word" learning or learning by a control group. Knowledge of which language teaching method—orthographic  reinforce-  ment or a u r a l - o r a l — i s more e f f e c t i v e i s l a r g e l y conjectural since there i s l i t t l e evidence available from controlled studies to provide a strong indicator.  Reinforcement of student response has been a technique which  educators have used i n common practice and have found i t to be p o s i t i v e l y related to e f f e c t i v e learning.  On the other hand, the r e l a t i v e strength  of covert reinforcement which i s probably present i n aural-oral language communication  i s unknown.  Hypothesis I I r e f l e c t s t h i s controversial  issue. In p i l o t studies 1 and 2 i t was found that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the amount of learning i n the two schools. I t was assumed that t h i s would hold true i n t h i s experiment and the amount of learning i n each school would be compared to v e r i f y t h i s assumption. 0  Hypothesis I  Students learning French sentences by consciously imaging  the sentence meaning w i l l r e c a l l the material more e f f e c t i v e l y than those learning "word f o r word", or those i n the control group.  36.  Hypothesis I I  Students who  are habituated to learning French  by a reinforced written method w i l l show d i f f e r e n t i a l  sentences  r e c a l l of the  sentences compared to those who normally learn by an a u r a l - o r a l method. The above hypotheses w i l l be considered i n r e l a t i o n to four d i f f e r e n t verbal r e c a l l measures.  These measures w i l l be described i n  Chapter Six. In the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses, i n Chapter Seven, r e j e c t i o n or t e n a b i l i t y of hypotheses w i l l be established.  There w i l l be separate analyses  corresponding t o the four r e c a l l measures.  Any discussion attached to  a p a r t i c u l a r analysis w i l l merely state obvious s i g n i f i c a n t variable effects without attempting to account f o r causes and trends.  This w i l l be  done i n Chapter Eight' when the results of the four analyses can be related to each other and a more comprehensive perspective can be obtained.  37  Procedure Eight classes of grade 11 students learning French were involved. There were approximately 25 to 3 0 students i n each class; four classes i n each school.  In these two schools, Semiahmoo Senior Secondary and  Princess Margaret Senior Secondary, the experimental plan of procedure was the same.  Two classes of students were taught French expressions i n an  aural-oral method i n the way which has been h a b i t u a l l y used by the teacher i n the Princess Margaret school. explained.  This teaching style has been previously  The other two classes were taught the same expressions by  using the method which involves written chalkboard expressions, active student responses, and immediate reinforcement.  This method, which has  also previously been described, i s the one which was normally used by the Semiahmoo teacher.  Each of the teaching techniques ran concurrently  during a s i x week pre-experimental period. Each teacher, then, taught two classes i n a fashion which he normally used and the other two classes i n a style copied from h i s colleague i n the other school.  Much of the lesson, i n a l l classes and i n both schools  was i n essence the same.  A c e r t a i n amount of the French text, Parler et  Lire had to be translated; a c e r t a i n section of grammar had to be taught; certain exercises from a work-book had to be completed by the students. These sections of work were equated, lesson by lesson, i n both schools. This was e a s i l y achieved because there i s u s u a l l y l i t t l e difference between work accomplished  i n the high schools under  non-experimental  38.  conditions, since each teacher has a prescribed course of material to teach i n a l i m i t e d time. did  The parts of the lessons where the teachers  have t o adjust t h e i r s t y l e of teaching to accord with the experimental  t r a i n i n g was i n the teaching of French expressions ( d e t a i l s of t h i s have been given i n conclusion t o comparison of results at Princess Margaret and Semiahmoo^ schools pages Jo,3l)At the end of s i x weeks the students were given a l i s t of French words and expressions the English meaning of which they had t o know (Appendix E i ) .  This verbal material was the same as that used i n the  t h i r t y sentences, (Appendix E i i ) / . which the students had to learn three days l a t e r . of  The words and expressions were scrambled  so that comprehension  them was possible but no association between them such as that present  in the 30 sentences, -was apparent. In the experiment three days later, the students were assigned t o learn the 30 French sentences which were shown t o them on a screen by means of  an overhead projector.  There were two learning sessions f o r each class.  A f t e r randomly assigning the class i n t o three groups, one group was sent t o the l i b r a r y .  A l l other p a r t i t i o n i n g of the t o t a l class sample was done  by random assignment, using the l i s t of names i n the r e g i s t e r i n conjunction with a l i s t of random numbers, before the. actual experiment.  One of the  remaining two groups was given e x p l i c i t instructions t o learn "word f o r word" (Appendix E i i i ) and t o ensure that each word was attended to by the students they were also instructed t o copy each of the t h i r t y on a sheet of paper provided f o r t h i s purpose.  This was the W.W.  These students were seated at one side of the classroom.  sentences group.  39.  The other group, which was the control group, situated at the other side of.the class, (a gap between these groups was created by the exit . of students t o the l i b r a r y ) , was given instructions (Appendix E i v ) to learn the sentences i n the fashion which they customarily employed. They were also provided with paper so that they could write or draw as they wished i f they f e l t that i t would a s s i s t them i n the learning process. These two groups, the W.W.  group and the control group, took part  i n the f i r s t of the two learning sessions.  E x p l i c i t instructions f o r  each group were typed upon paper s i m i l a r i n appearance t o avoid suspicion or c u r i o s i t y between members of the groups. The time of exposure of each sentence t o be learned was 20 seconds.  .9 Paivio and Foth  exposed paired associates f o r 15 seconds t o college  students f o r a s i m i l a r type of experiment but i n p i l o t studies run at Semiahmoo i t was found that many of the grade 11 students required up to 20 seconds t o copy the sentences or draw the meaning implied by them. Immediately following the sentence presentation approximately h a l f of the students were given the test sheets t o complete, (Appendix E, v i ) .  This  test sheet consisted of 30 stimulus words which were the subjects of each sentence.  Students were expected to r e c a l l the predicates of the 30  sentences and to write them down. The other h a l f of the class was given a French word puzzle to solve (Appendix E v i i ) . test group.  This group of students formed the delay post  They had to r e c a l l the French predicates 2k hours l a t e r .  When the t e s t sheets were completed, a l l sheets ( s p e c i f i c instructions, tests, drawings, and puzzle sheets), were collected.  These students  40.  were displaced by those who had waited i n the l i b r a r y and whose turn i t was i n the experimental s i t u a t i o n .  This group was the A.I. group which  had t o attend to the imagery of the sentences and who received s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n sheets urging them t o do that (Appendix E v ) .  They were  also provided with sheets on which t o draw a sketch of the "sentence meaning" f o r each of the 30 items (Appendix E v i i i ) .  This ensured that  they did s t r i v e t o conjure up an image t o f i t the meaning of the sentence.  The q u a l i t y of the picture was not considered too relevant  and the students were informed of t h i s . Before presenting 30 sentences a demonstration of what was expected of them was given by the experimenter, on the chalkboard.  F o r example,  i f the sentence was: La v i e i l l e regarde par l a fenetre (The o l d lady looks out of the window). an appropriate drawing may simply be l i k e t h i s :  Three examples such as t h i s were demonstrated and pertinant questions from the students were answered.  When a l l 30 items had been  completed by the students those of them who had been assigned i n the immediate post test groups completed the same test as the W.W. and control groups and the rest worked at the French puzzles.  When the tests were  completed, once again, a l l papers were collected.  Questions from curious  students r e l a t i n g to the experiment were deferred f o r a couple of days u n t i l following the delay post t e s t s . On the following day the delay post test groups were t o l d to complete the same form of t e s t as had been used on the previous  day.  Data C o l l e c t i o n There were four measures of r e c a l l .  Two  of these have been  previously used i n King and Russell's study ( 1 9 5 6 ) .  One measure was  "words correct" score i n which the numbers of words which are correct were t o t a l l e d f o r the t h i r t y items.  The other one consisted of a count of  "content words", which included nouns, verbs and adjectives, and form words such as a r t i c l e s , conjunctions and prepositions.  excluded  A third  measure, which was the most stringent one, credited only predicates which were p e r f e c t l y recalled;  a s p e l l i n g error or an i n c o r r e c t l y placed word  rendered the item incorrect.  The fourth measure gave p o s i t i v e credit to  a word or an expression which, although i t may have been d i f f e r e n t t o the o r i g i n a l l y learned material, indicated some measure of r e c a l l .  For  example, synonyms and verbal substitutes which were not too remote from the correct meaning were scored p o s i t i v e l y .  Included i n t h i s "synonym group"  were words which, but f o r a minor misspelling would have been correct. This measure required more a r b i t i n g i n item scoring than the other three measures but a consistency of scoring judgement was applied throughout the two school samples to permit sound comparative  relations to be made.  42.  Randomness i n the Class Samples Although random assignment and s t a t i s t i c a l analysis based upon randomness does obviate the influence of variables due to i n d i v i d u a l differences, these French class groups had been previously selected so that i n d i v i d u a l differences i n students programmes could be accommodated into the school timetable.  Consequently, i t was  groups had not been randomly chosen.  Therefore,  l i k e l y that the class a comparison of the  verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e scores of the students i n each of the classes had to be made to v e r i f y whether they were s i m i l a r i n t h i s regard.  One  of  the basic assumptions i m p l i c i t i n taking t h i s p a r t i c u l a r measure i s that the learning of French sentences i s a variable which correlates with verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e .  The verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e scores were obtained from  the students record cards which are on f i l e i n the school administration office.  A l l of the verbal I.Q.'s were not a v a i l a b l e because of incomplete  record cards but s u f f i c i e n t data was comparison (Tables 3 and  k).  obtained to permit a v a l i d group  TABLE 3 Mean Verbal I.Q.s f o r the Two Method Groups i n Both Schools  Teaching method  Semiahmoo School  Princess Margaret School  Aural-oral  120.10 (N=45)  121.10 (N=45)  Reinforcement  119.86 (N=42)  119.80 (N=50)  An analysis of variance (Table k) was calculated t o estimate equivalence of means.  44.  TABLE k Summary of Analysis of Variance of Verbal I.Q. Scores  Source  S.S.  School (S)  7.0  1  Method (M)  25.0  Interaction SXM E r r o r (within cells) TOTAL  D.F.  M.S.  F  SIG  7.0  0.2  N.S.  1  25.0  0.8  N.S.  14.0  1  14.0  0.4  N.S.  5446.0  170  32.0  5492.0  173  As Table 4 indicates the verbal I.Q.s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . This was not surprising since no apparent selection system was used f o r placing students into d i f f e r e n t classes except f o r student convenience.  CHAPTER SIX Research Results  These r e s u l t s are organised i n four sections.  Each section i s  concerned with one of the p a r t i c u l a r verbal r e c a l l measures used. each case mean scores of a l l the sample subgroups are presented  In  followed  by an analysis of variance of the four variables involved i n the experiment.  Support or r e j e c t i o n of the hypotheses and any pertinent  comment r e l a t i n g to the analysis of the r e s u l t s are also stated. I.  Analysis of Scores f o r "Total Sentence Correct" Measures TABLE 5 Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "Total Sentence Correct" Measure  method  Post test  Reinforced  Immed.  Semiahmoo School A.I. W.W. Control 5.5  . (N=9)  Aural-• oral  4.6 3.4 (N=9) (N=9)  Princess Margaret School Control W.W. A.I. 2.4 (N=ll)  1.5 (N=12)  2.2 (N=13)  Delay  1.0 (N=8)  2.5 (N=8)  1.5 (N=7)  0.7 (N=ll)  1.4 (N=9)  Immed.  2.8 4.2 3.5 (N=10) (N=10) (N=9)  4.0 (N-9)  1.1  (N-8)  2.6 (N=12)  Delay  1.2 1.1 ( N - l l ) (N=8)  1.0 (N=12)  2.7 (N=8)  1.75 (N=7)  0.7 (N=9)  2.2 (N=9)  x  46.  TABLE 6 Summary of Analys i s of Variance of "Total Sentence Correct" R e c a l l Scores  Source  S.S.  Schools (S) 36.30 Treatments (T) 6.69 Teaching Method (M) 0.51 , Immed:Delay post Tests (P) 158.85 Interaction SxT 6.91 12.89 SxM SxP 49.75 TocM 8.70 TxP 23.36 MxP 2.54 SxTxM 4.50 " SxTxP 27.00 8.00 SxMxP " TxMxP 38.15 SxTxMxP 0.72 E r r o r (within c e l l s ) 1501.03 TOTAL  I885.90  D.F.  M.S.  1 2 1  36.30 3.36 0.51  1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 204  158.85 3.45 12.89 49.75 4.35 11.68 2.54 2.25 13.50 8.00 19.08 0.36 7.36  227  F 4.93  0.46 0.07 21.58 0.47 1.75 .6.76 0.59 1.59 0.35 0.31 I.83 1.09 2.59 0.05  Sig. p<0.05 N.S. N.S. p<0.001 N.S. N.S. p<0.01 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.  47.  HYPOTHESIS 1 This hypothesis i s rejected. sentences hy consciously  The students who learned the  attending t o the imagery of the sentence meaning d i d  not learn s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the W.W.  and the control groups.  HYPOTHESIS 11 This hypothesis i s also rejected. teaching French—whether  The habitual method of  i t be reinforced or aural-oral, has no s i g n i f i c a n t  effect upon the r e c a l l of the t o t a l correct sentence.  Throughout the rest of Chapter Seven the Bonferroni  t t e s t was  used: (i)  t o determine whether the A.I. treatment i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior i n r e c a l l effect t o both W.W.  (ii)  and control treatments;  t o locate the source of variable interactions indicated i n the analyses of variance.  48  The analysis of variance i n Table 6 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between school and post t e s t .  TABLE 7 Means (X) of "School X Post Test" Interaction Semiahmoo School  Princess Margaret School  (N = 109)  (N = 119)  Immediate post test  X = 3.89 (S.D. = 2.9)  X = 2.29 (S.D. = 1.6)  Delay post t e s t  X = 1.36 (S.D. « 0.9)  X = 1.44 ,(S.D."=- l . l )  The source of the i n t e r a c t i o n between schools and post test was determined by means of the Bonferroni t t e s t . S t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis: Ho : Semiahmoo^ Princess Margaret r e c a l l • recal (Bonferroni table of 2 t a i l  probabilities)  TABLE 8 Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Total Sentence Correct"Scores Lower limit  Comparing Semiahmoo immediate Princess Marg. immediate Semiahmoo delay: Prxncess Marg, delay  , °'  _s ^  C**  _ 0.4  ^  V ^  n +  Upper limit  6  o — ^  +  2  ,  8  + 2.0  sig. rt p  <  ^ °'°  5  N.S.  h9.  The n u l l hypothesis (Ho) i s supported by the immediate post t e s t results but i t i s not supported by the delay post test r e s u l t s .  DISCUSSION In t h i s r e c a l l measure attention to imagery has not been found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior compared to the other treatments.  Different  teaching methods which were used f o r s i x weeks preceding the experiment have not shown d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t .  The variable which did produce a  s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n r e c a l l scores was the school v a r i a b l e .  This  result i s confounding because of the basic assumptions i n t h i s study  was  that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means of the r e c a l l scores of the two  schools.  Because there i s evidence of an interaction effect between the schools and the post tests, the Bonferroni calculation '(Table 8), was used to ascertain i n which test, immediate or delay, the greater r e c a l l effect was  located.  The Bonferroni results indicate that the r e c a l l  scores of the Semiahmoo students were s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior only i n the immediate post t e s t .  The reason f o r t h i s r e s u l t i s not at a l l  clear, and i t w i l l be considered l a t e r when i t can be related to the results of the other r e c a l l measures. This " t o t a l sentence correct" measure, which demands a p e r f e c t l y r e c a l l e d sentence i n order to obtain credit, i s obviously a very stringent one.  Out of the twelve c e l l s , which show the means of the immediate  r e c a l l scores, i n Table 5, the highest mean i s only 5.h7. possible correct i s 3 0 .  The maximum  The KRgQ r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the test  50.  was r, , = 0.43.  I t i s possible that the d i f f i c u l t y of r e c a l l ,  as  XtXi  measured here, together with the poor r e l i a b i l i t y of the measure, i s responsible f o r the enigmatic r e s u l t .  51.  II  Analysis of Scores f o r "Content Word" Measure TABLE 9 Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "Content Word" Measure  Teaching method  Post test  Semiahmoo Control A.I. W.W. School  Reinforced  Immed.  44.5  32.9  35.8  (N=9)  20.6 (N=8)  19.0  Aural-oral  (N=9)  35.8 (N=ll)  21.3 (N=12)  25.3 (N-13)  l6.l (N=8)  23.2 (N=7)  16.5 (N=ll)  15.8 (N=9)  32.6 31.7 33.7 (N=10) (N=10) (N=9)  38.0  (N=9)  24.3 (N=8)  22.6 (N=12)  21.0 (N=ll)  22.5 (N=12)  13.3 (N=8)  15.8 (H=7)  (N=9)  Delay Immed. Delay  Princess Margaret School W. W. A.I. Control  (N=9)  17.5 14.3 (W=8) (N=9)  TABLE 10 Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Content Word" R e c a l l Scores Source  S• S•  D.F.  Schools (S)  774.00  1  774.00  9.44  p<  0.01  2582.50  2  1291.25  15.75  p<  0.001  109.90  1  109.90  1.34  Immed:delay post tests (P)  9368.90  1  9368.90  114.25  Interaction SxT  531.50  2  265.75  3.24  SxM  160.11  1  l60.ll  1.95  SxP  975.38  1  975.38  II.89  "  TxM  319.60  2  159.80  1.90  N.S.  "  TxP  542.60  2  271.30  3.30  p,< 0.05  MxP  43.25  1  43.25  0.53  N.S.  SxTxM  6.70  2  3.35  o.o4  N.S.  SxTxP  97.59  2  48.80  0.60  N.S.  SxMxP  43.00  1  43.00  0.52  N.S.  TxMxP  34.00  2  17.00  0.20  N.S.  SxTxMxP 335.97  2  167.99  2.05  N.S.  16742.00  204  82.07  32667.00  227  Treatments ( T ) Teaching method (M)  "  Error '(within c e l l s ) TOTAL  M.S.  F  SIG.  N.S.  p<  0.001  P <  0.05 N.S.  P^:  0.001  53.  HYPOTHESIS 1 This hypothesis i s supported. Attention t o imagery i s the most e f f e c t i v e treatment, ( p < 0.001).  HYPOTHESIS I I This hypothesis i s rejected. No s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean scores of "reinforced learners" and "aural-oral learners" i s apparent.  The analysis of variance i n Table 10 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the treatment means. TABLE 11 Treatment Means (X) f o r "Content Word" Scores A.I.  x = 27.78  W.W.  x = 22.27  Control  x = 22.83  54  The Bonferroni c a l c u l a t i o n was used to determine which of the treatments produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean scores. S t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses: 1 Null  2 Ho : A.I.^. W.W.  Research Ho : A.I. >  W.W.  3  Ho : A.I.-= Control  Ho : W.W.  ^ -Control  Ho : A . I . > Control  Ho : W.W.  = Control  (1 t a i l t e s t )  ( l t a i l test)  (2 t a i l t e s t )  TABLE 12  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means^Contrasts "Content Word" Scores  Comparing  Lower limit  A.I. : W.W.  +2.3  ^  A.I. : Control  +1,7  6  ^  W.W.  - 3.0  <a  ¥  : Control  Upper limit  ^  — 6  Sig.  °°  . p^.0.05  «  &  p < 0.05  + 4.2:  N.S.  The n u l l hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 are a l l rejected.  /  The analysis of variance i n Table 10 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t interaction between treatments  and post t e s t s .  TABLE 13 Means (X) of "Treatment x Post Test" Interaction C e l l s Treatments Tests  A.I.  W.W.  Control  Immediate  X = 37.26  X = 27.46  X = 28.46  Delay  X = 21.84  X = 16.64  X = 15.48  56  The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , indicated i n Table 10, between treatment and post test was examined by means of the Bonferroni t test i n order to locate the source of the i n t e r a c t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses: 1 Null Ho: u A. I. :•=: W.W.  Ho : A . I . C o n t r o l  Ho : W.W.  ^/Control  Research  Ho : A . I . > Control  Ho : W.W.  = Control  Ho: A.I.  W.W.  ( l t a i l test)  ( l t a i l test)  (2 t a i l t e s t )  TABLE 14 Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Content Word"Scores Lower limit  Comparing  CD + J - p CQ cd CD -P  •H  CD - P  fl  M  O  &  Upper limit  Sig  A.I.  W.W.  + 4.7  p ^ 0.05  A.I.  Control  +3.8  p  W.W.  Control  - 4.5  + 13.8  0.05 N.S.  A  -p A.I. : W.W. A.I. : Control  + 0.2 + 0.9  4=.  if/ A  Cd -4-> CQ  H o B, W.W.  : Control  p < 0.05  -10.2  p < 0.05 + 12.6  N.S.  The n u l l hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 are rejected. The Bonferroni contrasts between immediate and delay post test means on the same variable have been ommitted i n t h i s Table and i n others where they are a l l c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n the one d i r e c t i o n .  57.  The analysis of variance i n Table 1 0 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between the means of treatments and schools.  TABLE 1 5 Means (X) of School x Treatment Interaction C e l l s  School  A.I.  W.W.  Control  Semiahmoo  X - 29.3  X = 25.9  X = 25.2  Princess Margaret  X = 30.0  X = 18.9  X = 20.8  58  The Bonferroni c a l c u l a t i o n was used to determine the source of the i n t e r a c t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses: 1 Null Ho : A . I . ^ W.W.  2 Ho : A.I.. Control  Ho : W.W.  ^ Control  Research  Ho : A.I. 7 * Control  Ho : W.W.  = Control  Ho : A.I.  W.W.  (2 t a i l t e s t )  (1 t a i l t e s t )  (1 t a i l t e s t )  Null Research  Ho : Semiahmoo / School ^ Ho : Semiahmoo ^. School  Princess Margaret School Princess Margaret School  TABLE 16 Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Content Word" Scores Comparing  Semi. A.I. :Semi. W.W. Semi. A.I. :Semi Control Semi. W.W. : Semi Control P.Marg. A.I. 1 P.Marg. W.W. P.Marg. A.I. : P. Marg. Control P.Marg. W.W. : P. Marg. Control Semi. A«I.« : P.Marg. A»I. Semi. W.W. : P.Marg. W.W. Semi. Control P.Marg. Control  Lower  Upper  limit  limit  - 2.0 - 1.3 -5.0 + 5.8 + 4.0 - 3.1 - 5.3 + 2.1 - 0.4  A  If  %  CO + 6.4 OO  + + + +  7.5 6.6 13.9 9.3  Sig.  N.S. N.S. N.S. p < 0.05 p < 0.05 N.S. N.S. p < 0.05 N.S.  The n u l l hypotheses 1 and 2 are supported at Semiahmoo School but hypothesis 3 i s rejected.  59.  At Princess Margaret School hypotheses 1 and 2 are not supported. Once again hypothesis 3 i s rejected. When the treatment means of the two schools are compared, the n u l l hypotheses f o r the A.I. and the control treatments are rejected. The n u l l hypotheses f o r the W.W.  treatment i s supported.  6o.  The analysis of variance i n Table 10 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t interaction between the means of post t e s t and school  TABLE 17 Means (X) of School x Post Test Interaction C e l l s  Post Test  Semiahmoo School  Princess Marg. School  Immediate  X" = 3 5 . 1  X = 27.5  Delay  X = 18.2  X = 18.1  61  The  source  investigated  of  the  i n t e r a c t i o n between  by using the  Statistical  Bonferroni  t  Ho  :  Semiahmoo  ^  Princess  Margaret  Research  Ho  :  Semiahmoo  = Princess  Margaret  t a i l  test)  TABLE  Confidence  Limits  "Content  18  for  Word"  Semiahmoo' I m m e d i a t e : Margaret Immediate  i t  i s  null  Means  Contrasts  Scores  Comparing  Semiahmoo D e l a y : Margaret Delay  was  test.  Null  Bonferroni  test  hypothesis:  (2  The  s c h o o l and post  Princess  Lower  Upper  limit  limit  y/ ^  + 4.0  Princess - 3 . 8  hypothesis  rejected i n the  i s  supported  delay post  test.  i n  the  ^  ~P  immediate  + 11.3 +  post  Sig.  p^-  N.S.  4.1  test,  0.05  but  62.  DISCUSSION R e c a l l of the content words i n the French sentences i s clearlysuperior when they are learned by attending t o the imagery that they invoke.  Not only i s t h i s r e c a l l superior t o that of the W.W. learning  group but also t o the control group of students who learned the sentences i n t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l fashion. of learning of both W.W.  I t i s quite probably that the method  and control group students i s similar;  there  being hardly any difference between t h e i r r e c a l l scores. Once again, the Semiahmoo students' r e c a l l scores were higher than the scores of the students of the other school. l i e s i n the W.W. treatments,  This superior r e c a l l  treatments but not i n the A.I. nor i n the control  (Table l6).  The scores of the Princess Margaret A.I. group  which are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those i n the W..W.  and control groups  of the same school supports hypothesis 1 but the same support i s not evident i n Semiahmoo where the three treatments are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different.  This inequality between the scores of the two schools and  the i n t e r a c t i o n between treatments i s the single most confounding feature of the study.  A possible explanation f o r these results i s given i n  Chapter 8. Like the " t o t a l sentence correct" measure, the greater mean scores of the Semiahmoo students are located i n the immediate post scores; the difference i n the delay post test scores being not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (Table 18).  I t may be assumed that the reason f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t  difference i n the school v a r i a b l e i n the " t o t a l sentence correct" measure i s causally related t o the difference i n the same v a r i a b l e i n the "content  63.  word measurerj;  the items i n the former measure being more global and  being, t o some extent, composites of several items of the l a t t e r measure. In t h i s measure the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the test i s considered by the author t o be adequate, K R  2Q  = O.78.  r e l i a b i l i t y may be sought f o r future use of the t e s t .  A higher  64.  III.  Analysis of Scores f o r "Correct Word" Measure  TABLE 19 Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "Correct Word" Measure  Teaching method •  ^  03  0  Post test  Semiahmoo School Control A.I. W.W.  Princess Margaret School W.W. Control A.I.  Immed.  60.I  49.7  46.2  (N=9)  (N=9)  (N=9)  55.8 (N=ll)  33.4  26.0  .35.8  (H-8)  (N=9)  27.5 (N=8)  52.0  50.3 (N=10)  46.3 (w=9)  58.0  25.5  23.2  (K=8)  (N=9)  u  0 a •H CO  Delay  « Immed.v  1  r-i Cd  U  3  <  (N=10)  r-i  cd  U O  Delay  34.4 (N=ll)  34.5 (N=12)  42.6  26.3 (N=ll)  25.0  (N=9)  36.0 (W=8)  36.0 (N=12)  35.0 (N=12)  21.7 (N=8)  25.8  (N=7)  (N=13)  (N=9)  (N=7)  65.  TABLE 2 0 Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Correct Word" R e c a l l Scores  Source  SS.  D.F.  M.S.  F  Sig  467.80  1  467.80  2.20  6041.82  2  3020.91  14.23  35.49  1  35.49  0.17  20304.89  1  20304.89  99.53  Interaction SxT  976.OO  2  488.00  2.30  N.S.  SxM  59.51  1  59.51  0.27  N.S.  SxP  826.64  1  826.64  3.89  P<  TxM  316.96  2  158.48  0.75  N.S.  TxP  926.09  2  463.04  2.18  N.S.  MxP  5.58  1'  5.58  0.01  N.S.  SxTxM  35.22  2  17.61  0.08  N.S.  SxTxP  127.56  2  63.78  0.30  N.S.  SxMxP  19.89  1  19.89  0.09  N.S.  TxMxP  32.00  2  16.00  0.07  N.S.  . 114.60  2  57.30  0.27  N.S.  cells)43311-75  204  212.31  73601.80  227  Schools (S) Treatments (T) Teaching method (M) Immed.: delay post tests (P)  "  "  SxTxMxP E r r o r (within TOTAL  N.S. p<r 0 . 0 0 1 N.S.  p< 0 . 0 0 1  0.05  66.  HYPOTHESIS 1 This research hypothesis i s supported. Attention t o imagery again proves the most e f f e c t i v e treatment.  HYPOTHESIS 11 This hypothesis i s rejected. Different methods of teaching French expressions during the s i x months pre-experimental period produced no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n r e c a l l scores.  67.  The analysis of variance  i n Table 20 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference between the means of treatments.  TABLE 21 Means (X) of Treatment Scores f o r "Correct Word" Measure A.I. X = 45.7  W.W. X = 35-7  Control X = 34.0  68.  The source of the s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the treatment means was investigated by the Bonferroni t t e s t . S t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses:  1 Null  Ho : A . I . ^ W.W.  Ho : A.I. ^ C o n t r o l  Ho : W.W.  ^ Control  Research  Ho : A.I.> l.W.  Ho : A. I.> Control  Ho : W.W.  = Control  (1 t a i l t e s t )  (1 t a i l t e s t )  (2 t a i l test)  TABLE 2 2 Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Correct Word" Measure  Comparing  l  A.I. : W.W.  Lower  Upper  Sig  A  p < 0.05  + 4.9 A  A.I. : Control  + 6.5  p < 0.05 A  W.W.  : Control  - 4.0  Null hypotheses 1, 2 and 3 are rejected  + 7.4  N.S.  69.  The analysis of variance i n Table 2 0 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t interaction between the means of school x post t e s t .  TABLE 2 3 Means (X) of School x Post Test Interaction C e l l s  Post test  Semiahmoo School  Princess Margaret School  Immediate  X = 50.9  X = hk.h  Delay  X = 28.5  X = 28.5  70  The the  source  post  tests  of was  Statistical  s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between  ascertained by  means  Semiahmoo  Research  Ho  Semiahmoo  Bonferroni  Bonferroni  Confidence  test.  24  Limits, for  Comparing  Word"  Means  Contrasts  Source  Lower limits :  Princess Immed.  Marg.  :  Princess Delay  Marg.  Immed.  t  and  Princess Margaret School School = Princess Margaret School  "Correct  Semiahmoo Delay  the  schools  School ^  TABLE  Semiahmoo  of  the  hypothesis:  Null  :  the  +  0.5  -  6.1  The  null  hypothesis  i n  the  immediate  The  null  hypothesis  i n  the  delay  post  Upper limits  r  post test  test i s  ^=  + 12.6  —  +  i s  6.2  supported.  rejected.  Sig  p <  0.05  N.S.  71.  DISCUSSION The attention to imagery learning once again proved more e f f e c t i v e than the learning accomplished by the students i n the "word f o r word"- or the control groups.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the  r e c a l l means of the two l a t t e r groups (Table 22). Compared to the two previous r e c a l l measures the results of t h i s one suggest that an equalising influence i s present which has reduced the d i s p a r i t y between the scores of the students i n Semiahmoo and Princess Margaret, f o r t h i s time there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means of the two schools.  Nevertheless, the Bonferroni test (Table 2k),  reveals that i n the immediate post t e s t there i s s t i l l more e f f e c t i v e r e c a l l occurring with the students at Semiahmoo than with the students -at Princess Margaret  School.  KRgQ f o r "correct word" measure was 0;69,  which the author  considers a reasonably high r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r present research purposes.  72.  IV  Analysis of Scores f o r "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" Measure.  TABLE 2 5 Means of R e c a l l Scores f o r "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" Measure  Post test  method  Immed.  O  U  O -P <H a  C  •H  <L)  S  Delay  <D  K  Immed. I  Semiahmoo School A.I. W.W. Control  70.2 (N=ll)  57.3 (N=12)  51.2 (N=13)  34.5 (N=8)  48.8  31.4  (N=7)  35.5 (N=ll)  56.9 (N=10)  60.3 (N=9)  76.5  56.9  (N=9)  (N*8)  50.8 (N=12)  33-3  29.1  (N=8)  (N=9)  51.0 (N=12)  28.3 (N=8)  80.0  57.0  56.5  (N=9)  (N=9)  (N=9)  48.2 (W=8)  32.3 (N=9)  77.5 (N=10) 55.0 (N=ll)  r-l  Delay  1°  Princess Margaret School W.W. Control A.I.  (H=9)  38.5  (N=7)  TABLE 26 Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Correct Word Plus Synonyms " R e c a l l Scores Source  S.S.  D.F.  M.S.  F  Sig  Schools  (S)  253.95  1  253.95  0.76  N.S.  Treatments  (T)  17271.40  2  .8635.70  25.88  p< 0  85.59  1  85.59  0.26  N.S.  29030.13  1  29030.13  86.99  p< 0  SxT  6.40  2  3.20  0.01  N.S.  SxM  14.34  1  14.34  0.04  N.S.  SxP  538.93  I  538.93  1.62  N.S.  TxM  28.19  2  14.09  0.04  N.S.  TxP  1827.73  2  913.87  2.74  N.S.  MxP  172.98  1  172.98  0.52  N.S.  SxTxM  180.33  2  90.17  0.27  N.S.  SxTxP  194.70  2  97-35  0.29  N.S.  "  SxMxP  7.99  1  7.99  0.02  N.S.  "  TxMxP  79.40  2  39.70  0.19  N.S.  SxTxMxP  527.01  2  263.51  0.79  N.S.  Error (within c e l l s ) 68077.13  204  333.70  118296.20  227  Teaching method (M) Immed.: delay post test Interaction  ''  TOTAL  (P)  74.  The analysis of. variance Table 26 indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the treatment means.  TABLE 27 Means (X) of Treatment Scores "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" Measure A.I. X =  63.6  W.W. X = 45.0  Control X = 45.5  75.  The source of the s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the treatment means was determined by using the Bonferroni t test S t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses  Null  Ho: A.I.  W.W.  Ho : A.I. ^ Control  Ho : W.W. -f Control  Research  Ho : A.I.> W.W.  Ho : A.I. y Control  Ho : W.W.  (1 t a i l t e s t )  (1 t a i l t e s t )  TABLE  £ Control  (2 t a i l t e s t )  28  Bonferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Correct Word Plus Synonyms" Measure Comparing  ,  Lower limit  Upper limit  A.I. : W.W.  + 12:3  —  Y  ^  A.I. : Control  + 11.8  ^  Y  ~  W.W.  -  —  V  ~  : Control  6.5  The n u l l hypotheses 1, 2 and 3 are rejected.  0  P < 0.05  0  °° +  Sig  7  '  P 7  <  °*° N , S  '  5  76.  DISCUSSION Unlike the previous measures, no i n t e r a c t i o n between schools and post test i s apparent, indicating that any equalising influence between the two school r e c a l l scores i s stronger s t i l l than i n the preceding  recall  measure. KRpQ r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the "correct words plus synonyms" measure was 0.73; a uthor.  considered an acceptable index of r e l i a b i l i t y by the  77.  CHAPTER SEVEN Conclusion  Attention to Imagery Three out of four of the r e c a l l measures used i n t h i s experiment strongly support the theme that attention to imagery more than any other attribute associated with verbal learning, i s most e f f e c t i v e i n r e c a l l . The "content word", "correct word" and "correct word plus synonym" r e c a l l measures a l l produced s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n mean scores i n d i c a t i n g that the students who imaged the French sentence meaning had succeeded i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g task better than the students who learned "word f o r word'! or the students of the control group. Both the low r e l i a b i l i t y and the p o s i t i v e l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores i n the " t o t a l sentence correct" measure make the r e s u l t s derived from them of doubtful worth.  A longer period of learning time would have been  required to have produced l a r g e r scores which could have been more e f f e c t i v e l y compared.  However, such a change might have adversely affected  the three other measures e s p e c i a l l y the l e a s t stringent r e c a l l measure— the "correct word plus synonym" measure.  V e r i f i c a t i o n of excessive  d i f f i c u l t y i n such a measure may be of value i n determining the type of measures to be used i n future studies when r e c a l l of a foreign language, or time required i n such r e c a l l , are being considered. The o v e r a l l effectiveness of "attention to imagery" i n the three more r e l i a b l e measures i s confirmed i n a l l of the immediate post t e s t s as well as i n the delay post test of the "content word" measure.  Such a  78.  result i s understandable when one considers that long terra r e c a l l has been found to be related p o s i t i v e l y to imagery, and as Paivio has stated, (p. concrete nouns, such as those used i n the t h i r t y French sentences, have high imagery value.  Accordingly, attention to sentence imagery should  more surely produce a superior r e c a l l effect i n the "content word" measure than i n the other measures where form words, which are low i n imagery, are taken into account i n assessing scores. The present finding that content words p o s i t i v e l y relate t o long term r e c a l l i s a more p r a c t i c a l extension to Paivio's study of t h i s phenomenon.  In h i s research he used paired-associates.  That i s , the  content words were not embedded i n sentence structures as i s the case i n these t h i r t y French sentences.  In t h i s study, the learning of French  verbal material, by the A.I. students, was carried out by the process of "chunking" (Tulving and Patkau,  I962, i n Statement of the Problem).  That  i s , the learning "unit" may consist of several words of the sentence. The i n d i v i d u a l word meanings are united by the t o t a l sentence imagery conjured up i n the mind of the learner.  Since chunking imagery necessitates  that form words are symbolically represented i n the imagery as an i n t e g r a l part of the sentence meaning, when the sentence r e c a l l i s required the f orm words, connecting the concrete words, are also transformed into word symbols. An examination of the less e f f e c t i v e verbal mediation used by students i n the other two treatment groups gives an idea of how students usually learn French sentences.  Students i n the W.W.  and control groups  obtained more practice at the orthography of the verbal material.  A l l of  79.  them i n the W.W.  group wrote out each sentence as i t was presented to them  and many of the control group did the same.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  that not one of the learners i n the control group drew sketches to represent sentence meaning, as> did a l l of the A.I. learners.  I t may  be  that those i n the control group who were not copying the sentences were concentrating upon sentence meaning but i n a more passive manner than the A.I. group. I t i s very l i k e l y that both W.W.  and control groups also got more  practice at r e c i t i n g sentences since r e c i t a t i o n i s an automatic process when;..sentence copying i s done.  In t h i s way they could transform the'verbal  material into speech patterns.  Fur those students the chunking process  would function moreso the A.I. learners.  i n covert speech mediation than i t had done with Nevertheless, i t i s probable that the W.W.  and control  group students also imaged the meaning to some extent, although not as much as the students who were obliged to sketch the imagery. When the learning process carried out i n t h i s research i s seen i n terms of the three stages--orthgraphical, phonological and  semantic—the  results of t h i s study must favour emphasis of the l a s t stage f o r successful learning and subsequent  recall.  This i s especially so i f the imagery  a t t r i b u t e of the semantic process i s where the emphasis i s l a i d .  However,  i n endeavouring to encourage students to attend zo imagery, both teacher and student should r e a l i z e that, i n the i n i t i a l steps of the process, an active response, such as sketching, may be essential to the success related to the imagery learning.  I f the learner i s merely l e f t to mentally picture  sentence meaning, without the active response, i t i s possible that  80.  retransforming the imagery into verbal form may not meet with the same success.  I t may be necessary to spend some time i n t r a i n i n g the learner  to image sentence meaning without the support of the sketching. The control group scores, i n a l l four measures, were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to the W.W.  group scores.  Nor was the manifest behaviour of  the students i n the control group any d i f f e r e n t to that of the  W.W.  students, f o r the majority of them also wrote out the sentences to be . learned on the sheet of paper provided f o r them, which they had the choice of using or not.  I t would seem reasonable to conclude that there  was l i t t l e , i f any, difference between the W.W. that there were only two treatments  and control groups and  at work rather than three.  The  implication of t h i s would be that "attention to imagery" was being compared with the students" habitual style of learning French  expressions.  The psychological process involved i n the two treatments might very broadly be interpreted as an emphasis on imagery with minimal attention being paid to the orthographical and phonological stages of l e a r n i n g — t h i s i s the A.I. treatment.  The other two treatments may be considered a  synthesis of variable amounts of emphasis applied when the students  attended  to each of the three learning stages.  The Two  Schools  Among the variables studied the one which produced the most r e s u l t s was the school v a r i a b l e . I t was assumed that the two would not score s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to each other.  confounding  schools  This was true i n  81.  two out of the four r e c a l l measures but i n the other two measures Semiahmoo scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher, suggesting that there has been a "school x r e c a l l measure" interaction.  That i s , students i n one school have a f a c i l i t y  f o r r e c a l l i n g certain words i n the French sentence--as indicated by the s p e c i f i c i t y of word selection of which a p a r t i c u l a r r e c a l l t e s t  was  composed—and students i n the other school have compensated by r e c a l l i n g a different choice of words. The most pronounced s u p e r i o r i t y of r e c a l l was provided by the Semiahmoo students i n the "content word" scores (p<O.Ol).  Because  "content words" have high imagery i t should follow that these same students should have performed better i n the treatment attention to imagery. treatment"  which required  This i s not borne out by the s i g n i f i c a n t "school x  i n t e r a c t i o n which indicates that the Semiahmoo students  scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n the W.W.  treatment  (Tables 15,  l6).  had Even  the control group of Semiahmoo gave evidence of high r e c a l l r e l a t i v e to the Princess Margaret control group. The  "correct words" measure did not support the superiority of r e c a l l  by Semiahmoo.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the scores of  the two schools i n t h i s t e s t .  Nor was there any s i g n i f i c a n t difference  between the scores of the two schools i n the "correct word plus synonym" r e c a l l measure. From the o v e r a l l view of the results, i n the four d i f f e r e n t measures, the nature of the tendency f o r r e c a l l of a p a r t i c u l a r class of word by students i n the two schools, becomes apparent. e f f e c t i v e i n r e c a l l i n g the "content words";  Semiahmoo has been more  Princess Margaret students  82.  have compensated i n part by form words (as indicated by the "words correct" r e s u l t s ) and i n part by the synonyms. These results indicate an almost complete reversal of the trend shown i n p i l o t studies 2 and 3 where there had been a similar "school x word measure" i n t e r a c t i o n but i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n .  That i s , the  Semiahmoo learners had r e c a l l e d more e f f e c t i v e l y i n the "exact words" measure.  Princess Margaret had scored higher i n the "content words"  measure. In order to f i n d the reason f o r t h i s reversal of trend an examination of the changes made between the p i l o t studies and t h i s one might provide some clue.  There were two major changes.  F i r s t l y , both  teachers i n t h i s l a t e s t study had t o teach by using two d i f f e r e n t methods instead of just one, and secondly the A.I. students had to sketch the imagery of the sentence meaning instead of just passively imaging i t . The p o s s i b i l i t y that the active response of sketching may have been responsible f o r the "school x r e c a l l measure" i n t e r a c t i o n must be rejected. Sketching was an a c t i v i t y r e l a t i n g to only one of the treatments, "attention to imagery", not to the other two.  The students of Semiahmoo d i d not  r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y better i n the A.I. group. more apparent  i n the other two treatments  The superior effect was  (Tables 15, 16).  Some reason  other than sketching must be responsible. It i s more l i k e l y that the "teacher x method" i n t e r a c t i o n would cause the r e c a l l of a d i f f e r e n t choice of words i n the two schools.  A glance  at the r e c a l l results i n the ANOVA f o r a l l four measures indicates that i n both schools the two methods, a u r a l - o r a l and reinforcement, have produced  83.  no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means i n the scores r e s u l t i n g from them.  The f a c t o r influencing the scores to produce the reverse trend must  not be confined t o a p a r t i c u l a r method but must be e f f e c t i n g both methods i n both of the schools. I t i s theorised that some of the ideas i m p l i c i t i n the new method, which the teacher has copied from h i s colleague at the other school, are being transferred unwittingly into the method which he has habitually used i n the past.  Thus, the Semiahmoo school teacher, i n h i s e f f o r t s to teach  the aural-oral method, must have carried over some of the methodological features into the reinforcement method.  In l i k e manner, the teacher at  Princess Margaret, t r y i n g t o teach the reinforcement method, may also have retained some of i t s p r i n c i p l e s and have applied them i n the aural-oral method. I f t h i s i s true, then the research design which planned f o r a balanced i n s t r u c t i o n i n both methods at the two schools has not been successful. An absolutely equal effect on p u p i l learning by both teachers and i n both methods has been too d i f f i c u l t to achieve.  The fact that the methods have  not produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e c a l l scores does not necessarily imply that they have equal effect unless the teachers have been able t o produce the balance i n teaching the two methods that had been o r i g i n a l l y planned. The f a i l u r e t o control the methods variable i s not e n t i r e l y negative i f i n fact there are signs of a "method x treatment" i n t e r a c t i o n i n the research.  This would seem to be the case.  Further evidence i s necessary  to establish the relationship and also t o provide information on the nature of t h i s relationship.  84.  An i n t e r a c t i o n effect of r e l a t i v e l y less import i s shown between school and post test (Tables 10, 20).  Semiahmoo's s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater  scores i n the "content word" and i n the "correct word" measures are found to occur i n the immediate post test (Tables 18, 24). surprising.  This i s not  In only one of the analyses (Table 14) so f a r has there been  an i n d i c a t i o n of a delay post test s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . the learning task may  The nature of  have been such that i t lacked the impact to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  the other groups i n the delay t e s t , carried out one day l a t e r .  Reinforcement Versus Aural-Oral Method In not one of the four r e c a l l measures does the  pre-experimental  teaching method produce any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . One of the features of the research design which had to be c a r e f u l l y considered before commencing t h i s l a s t study was the methodological  balance  i n the two schools during the s i x weeks preceding the learning of the t h i r t y French sentences.  I t was  expected that the teacher i n Semiahmoo would  teach the reinforcement method e f f e c t i v e l y since i t was the method that he h a b i t u a l l y used i n the past.  The a u r a l - o r a l method was not his customary  method of teaching and had to be mastered by p r a c t i c e .  One might have  anticipated that t h i s method had less chance of being taught so well. With the Princess Margaret teacher, i n respect of teaching method, the opposite argument could hold true.  Nevertheless, the fact that r e c a l l  scores derived from these "school x method" groups did not interact i n any of the four r e c a l l measures i s not necessarily a sign that both methods have equal impact.  This has been discussed above, on page 85.  85.  Limitations of the Study A problem which i s common to nearly a.ll research findings i s the assessment of the extent to which the findings, are generalisable.  In  t h i s study two senior secondary school student samples which may  be  assumed to be of s i m i l a r socio-economic  Residential  status, were involved.  areas of the students are about twenty miles from the c i t y of Vancouver. Although access to the c i t y f o r these students i s f a i r l y easy i t i s doubtful whether they could be thought to be of the same socio-economic status as students who reside i n the urban areas.  Nor, are they so  removed from the town that they could be considered representative of more distant r u r a l areas.  Because of t h i s , any educational implementation  of  French language learning should view the present research findings as having limited application u n t i l further confirmation of them can be obtained from a wider population. A further consideration r e l a t i n g to g e n e r a l i s a b i l i t y to student population i s the extent of the student exposure to French language usage. I f students l i v e i n an area where French i s spoken there i s greater p r o b a b i l i t y that they have acquired both a larger number of speech patterns and a greater f a c i l i t y f o r imaging French verbal material.  For such students the  effect of attention to imagery and of "word f o r word" learning may  differ  from that produced i n t h i s study. The chunking of words into "units" during the learning i s also a process which should vary according t o subject sample.  Tulving and Patkau  (1962) found that "adopted chunks", that i s , groups of words recalled, which were i d e n t i c a l to those learned, varied with Thorndike-Lorge  frequency of  86.  the words.  There i s no study comparable to that of Thorndike and Lorge  to provide an i n d i c a t i o n of the frequency of French words used by English speaking students learning French.  In t h i s study, words used i n the  t h i r t y sentences t o be learned were chosen from the text books upon which the grade 11 French course was based.  I f students were very f a m i l i a r  with certain words the number of "adopted chunks" might increase.  This  could possibly result i n an increase i n the number of form words r e c a l l e d r e l a t i v e to content words. The v a r i e t y of methods used by teachers of French i s also a variable which must be taken into account.  Although the two d i f f e r e n t teaching  methods studied i n t h i s experiment have not provided conclusive evidence of effect, the p i l o t studies d i d indicate that teaching methods probably present a covarying f a c t o r with learning technique.  U n t i l more studies of  similar nature are completed, i n which a v a r i e t y of methods and student samples are used, French teachers should regard present research findings with some circumspection. The f i x e d period of time permitted t o the students to learn each sentence also imposes a l i m i t a t i o n to the geS§ralizability of the research findings.  Only i n one of the r e c a l l measures was there any sign of  e f f e c t i v e r e c a l l over a period of twenty four hours.  This was i n the  "content word" measure where imagery mediation was p o s i t i v e l y related t o recall.  Such was not the case with the verbal mediation used by the  other two treatment groups.  One implication i s that the learning procedure  i n the experiment may lack the impact t o commit a more permanent memorisation of words other than words of high imagery.  "Word f o r word" and the  87.  control group of learners probably used covert speech mediation to a greater extent than the group which was instructed to attend to word imagery.  I f covert speech patterns were given more learning time than  just twenty seconds to become imprinted i n the memory then i t i s possible that greater r e c a l l would r e s u l t .  The value of these speech patterns  could l i e i n the i n c l u s i o n not only of content words but also of form words which are comparatively lacking i n the semantic attribute of imgery. Speech patterns may play a major role i n the verbal repertoire of young children whose a b i l i t y to image verbal symbols i s not so highly developed.  As Rohwer has already pointed out, the use of imagery mediation  for memorising verbal material does not reach optimal performance u n t i l , on average, the age of nine years.  Therefore, teaching and learning  techniques which are developed with attention to imagery as a basic fundamental should only be used f o r students above t h i s age.  Below t h i s  age, to support covert speech habits, i t i s l i k e l y that more e x p l i c i t prompts are needed.  Suggestions f o r Further Research In considering t h i s present study and research related to i t , i t must be born i n mind that i t i s concerned with the learning of a second language.  Findings from past research i n verbal learning may provide  useful clues on how to f a c i l i t a t e the learning process but direct application of these findings i n r e l a t i o n to the learning process may need modification. For example, the chunking process i s dependent both on the syntactic and semantic structure.  I t i s possible that attention to imagery i n learning  88.  the  second language could be as potent as i n the learning process of the  student's native language.  On the other hand, the syntactic structure  of a second language may be very different and successfully learned only a f t e r years of continuous usage.  Further studies are needed, using the  chunking process, to establish the relationship between imagery and sentences of increasing s y n t a c t i c a l complexity. If, as the grade 11 students i n t h i s study indicated, attention to imagery i s a better way of learning the French language, i t i s to be wondered why they do not use t h i s learning method to a greater extent than they do.  The reason why less e f f e c t i v e learning techniques are  used might be investigated.  I t may be that t h e i r learning styles have been  found t o be e f f i c i e n t i n t h e i r native tongue where covert speech patterns are w e l l established and new speech associations can be e a s i l y made. a second language t h i s may be much more d i f f i c u l t to achieve.  In  Knowledge  of p r e c i s e l y what mediators f o r retention of language they do use would provide a sound base f o r further study i n t h i s regard. One of the major problems i n research, involving students i n a learning session, i s t o devise a method which w i l l have s u f f i c i e n t impact to produce s i g n i f i c a n t learning effect which w i l l endure f o r more than a few hours.  The average student w i l l show only a l i m i t e d enthusiasm and  willingness t o learn i n a style i n which he i s not accustomed. the  Increasing  length of the learning period or r e p e t i t i o n of a learning task can  produce boredom and fatigue. instrument might be used.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a more sensitive measuring In any case, i t i s a consideration which i s of  great import i n respect to learning a second language where long term  89.  retention relates more r e a l i s t i c a l l y to the nature of the task i n everyday life. Attention to imagery may be considered a f a i r l y passive  behaviour.  In the present study i t was accompanied by the active response of sketching. An evaluation of these two factors i n verbal r e c a l l might more accurately pinpoint which of the two attributes contributes most to successful verbal learning. An aspect of learning French which i s s t i l l open to much study i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the teaching method to the learning process.  I t has  already been pointed out that great care i s required to avoid i n t e r a c t i o n with other variables such as teacher competence and s t y l e of teaching. Perhaps the use of teaching machines or tape recorders, where teacher personality i s removed from the teaching method, might produce more r e l i a b l e results. to  With such equipment replacing the teacher i t might be possible  compare the effect of overt written reinforcement  o r a l reinforcement. i n the classroom, reinforcement  compared to overt aural-  In the more usual a u r a l - o r a l language learning lesson,  l i t t l e i s known of the nature and strength of the  in i t .  Some knowledge of correctness of response must  accompany the discriminant operant conditioning i m p l i c i t i n language learning which i s dependent upon interpersonal communication. reinforcement  i s r e l a t i v e l y covert and less obvious.  reinforcement  compared to the more overt reinforcement,  Such  The strength of t h i s such as that  used by the teacher, i s not known. One of the basic assumptions incorporated i n t h i s thesis i s that autonomous a c t i v a t i o n of the process of elaboration with the age of the  90.  learner i s the same as that indicated i n Rohwer's study, ( c f . p. 10) Such an assumption seems reasonable  since elaboration seems to r e l a t e  more with the i n d i v i d u a l ' s mental development through time rather than with the words themselves which provide the stimulus f o r e l i c i t i n g the process.  Thus French words may  replace E n g l i s h words without  elaboration process being affected.  the  However, a study, such as that  carried out by Rohwer, i n which the paired-associates use French words rather than English would help to e s t a b l i s h that the above assumption i s w e l l founded, and i n so doing, open up decisive research related to French i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology. This l a s t suggestion f o r a research project probably holds high p r i o r i t y over a l l others.  As Rohwer states the case:  A strategy f o r gaining the information prerequisite to decisive research has been i l l u s t r a t e d i n terms of the case study. The strategy could be further improved by analyzing school subject tasks to reveal t h e i r e s s e n t i a l psychological components, creating non-school tasks that are isomorphic with these components, and conducting coherent programs of research using the new tasks. The reason f o r i n s i s t i n g on non-school tasks, of course, i s that school-subject tasks cannot be used i n such research u n t i l the present lock on the timing of t h e i r introduction i s opened. And that lock cannot be opened u n t i l we know enough to make a key. , , (p. 121) N  For many years, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, French i n s t r u c t i o n has been largely confined to secondary schools, s t a r t i n g at grade 8 l e v e l .  Wow,  in  certain school d i s t r i c t s , the teaching of French i s beginning i n the primary schools. Because so many students at various ages are now  learning French,  study, using French paired-associates, could be more e a s i l y accomplished.  a  91.  The research could determine the student age when optimal performance i s reached, using prompts of d i f f e r e n t degrees of explicitness.  Such a  study could be a f i r s t step i n providing d i r e c t i o n f o r the organization of French teaching methodology i n different school grades i n the province.  92.  FOOTNOTES  1  Paivio, A.,  1971.  pp.  2 Cited by Paivio, A.,  73^77  1971.  p.  3  Paivio, A., 1 9 7 1 . ^Rohwer, W.D.  p. 51.  (Jun.) 1 9 7 2 .  p.  116.  ^ E i d e t i c imagery, Chap. Three. 6 7  P.  P a i v i o , A., Y u i l l e , J.C., and Madigan, S.A., King, D.J. ( i 9 6 0 ) ,  9  p.  Paivio and Foth ( 1 9 7 0 ) .  113. pp. 3 8 4 - 3 9 0 .  (1968).  p. 5-  93.  REFERENCES  Anderson, R.C. "How to Construct Achievement Tests t o Assess Comprehension," Review of Educational Research, 1 9 7 2 , II.. p 1 4 6 . Baddeley, A.D. "The Influence of Acoustic and. Semantic S i m i l a r i t y on Long Term Memory f o r Word Sequences, " Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology,  I966,  pp 3 0 2 - 3 0 9  18.  Baddeley, A.D. and Dale, H.C.A.. "The E f f e c t of Semantic S i m i l a r i t y on Retroactive Interference on Long and Short Term Memory," Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour,  I 9 6 5 , 5« pp 4 1 7 - 4 2 0  Bower, G.H. "Mental Imagery and Associative Learning," F i f t h Annual Symposium on Cognition, Carnegie Mel. University, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 1 9 6 9 . Bugelski, B.F. Learning Theory and the Reading Process, U n i v e r s i t y of Pittsburg Press, 1 9 6 9 . E r i e , R. ( c i t e d by Werner and Kaplan,  I963, 454-466).  Holland, J.G. and Skinner, B.F. Analysis of Behavior, McQraw H i l l , New York, I96I. Huttenlocher, J . "Constructing S p a t i a l Images: a Strategy i n Reasoning," Psychological Review, 1 9 6 8 , 7 5 , 5 5 0 - 5 6 0 . King, D.J. "On the Accuracy of Written Recall; Analytic Study,"  A Scaling and Factor  The Psychological Record, i 9 6 0 ,  King, D.J. and Russel, W.R.  10, 113-122.  "A Comparison of Rote and Meaningful Learning of  Connected Meaningful M a t e r i a l , " Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal BehaviorS, 1 9 6 6 , 4 7 8 - 4 8 3 .  3k.  Kluver, H. "An Experimental Study of the E i d e t i c Type,"  Genetic  Psychology Monographs, 1 9 2 6 , 1 . Montagne, W.E. Adams, J.A. and Keiss, H.D. "Forgetting and Natural Language Mediation, " Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1 9 6 2 , v o l . 7 2 ,  p 829  M i l l e r , G.A. "The Magical Number Seven, plus or Minus Two," Psychological Review, 1 9 5 6 , 6 3 , 8 I - 9 7 .  Paivio, A. Imagery and Verbal Processes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1 9 7 1 , p. 5 1 . Paivio, A. and Begg, I. "Imagery and Comprehension Latencies as a Function of Sentence Concreteness and Structure," Research B u l l e t i n No.154, Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 1 9 7 0 . Paivio, A. and Foth, D. "Imaginal and Verbal Mediators and Noun Concreteness i n Paired-Associate Learning: the Elusive Interaction," Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1 9 7 0 , 9 - p 3 6 6 Paivio, A., Y u i l l e , J.C. and Madigan, S.A. "Concreteness, Imagery and Meaningfulness Values, " Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1 9 6 8 , 76,  1, part 2 .  Rohwer, W.D. J r . "Decisive Research;  A Means f o r Answering Fundamental  Questions about Instruction," Educational Research,  1972, I  No. 1, 5 - 1 1 . Wallace, W.H. Turner, S.H. and Perkins, C.C. "Preliminary Studies of Human Information Storage,"  Signal Corps Project No. 1 3 2 0 , I n s t i t u t e f o r  Cooperative Research, University of Pennsylvania, 1 9 5 7 . Werner, H. and Kaplan, B. Symbol Formation: An  Organismic-Developmental  Approach to the Psychology of Language and the Expression of Thought,  95.  New York, Wiley, 1963. Yates, F.A. The Art of Memory, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, I966, 24-25.  Y u i l l e , J.C. and Paivio, A. 'Abstractness and R e c a l l of Connected Discourse,' Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, 62. pp 467-471  96.  Appendix A ( i ) . P i l o t Study I  Means (X), Standard Deviations (S.D.), and Sample Sizes (N), f o r the Immediate Post Test  A.I. Group "Correct Word" "Content Word"  A.O. Group "Correct Word"  "Content Word"  X = 48.2  X = 34.3  X = 53-9  X = 35.0  S.D. = I 6 . 9  S.D. = 3 3 . 0  S.D. = 1 8 . 0  S.D. = 3 1 . 0 N = 13  W = 13  N = 15  N = 15  97.  Appendix A (ii).. P i l o t Study I  Means (x), Standard Deviations (S.D.) and Sample Sizes (N) f o r the Delay Post Test  A.I. Group "Correct Word" Scores X =  35.6  "Content Word" Scores X =  23.0  A.O. Group . "Correct Word" "Content Word" Scores Scores X = If 1.6  X =  26.0  S.D. = 12.5  S.D. = 7.7  S.D. = 14.7  S.D. =  N=9  N=9  N = 11  N = 11  8.9  98.  Appendix A ( i i i ) . P i l o t Study I  Before c a l c u l a t i n g an analysis of variance on the scores B a r t l e t t ' s test was applied to ascertain whether there was any s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the variances.  Summary of Results of B a r t l e t t ' s Test Bartlett R e c a l l measures  Statistic  D.F.  Chi. Sq.  Sig  "Correct Word" scores  b = 3.4  V  = 3  7.8  N.S.  "Content Word" scores  b = 2.8  V = 3  7.8  N.S.  99.  |Appendix A (iv) P i l o t Study I  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Correct Word" Scores  Source  S.S.  D.F.  M.S.  F.  Sig.  O.38  N.S.  3.6  N.S.  0.07  N.S.  Treatments  (T)  236.2  1  236.2  Immed.:Delay  (P) 2 2 3 3 . 3  1  2233.3  42.3  1  42.3  Error (within ce l l s ) 2 8 2 6 4 . 2  46  Interaction TxP  TOTAL  30776.0  614  100.  Appendix A (v). P i l o t Study I  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Content Word" Scores  Source  S.S. (T)  Treatments Immed'.): Delay Interaction E r r o r (within  (P) TxP cells)  TOTAL X  D.F.  M.S.  F 0.125  22.5  1  22.5  1175-0  1  1175.0  7.3  •1  • 7.3  8421.7  46  9626.5  49  183.0  6.4  0.04  Sig N.S. <0.05  N.S.  101.  Appendix B ( i ) . P i l o t Study I I  Means (X), Standar Deviations (S.D.) and Sample Sizes (N) of the Immediate Post Test  A.I. Group Correct word Content word scores scores  W.W. Correct word scores  Group Content word scores  X = 29.0  X = 21.4  X = 1+9.4  X = 33.0  S.D. = 1 9 . 2  S.D. = 1 0 . 4  S.D. = 2 0 . 8  S.D. = 1 0  N = 14  N = 14  N = 13  N = 13  102.  Appendix B ( i i ) . P i l o t Study I I  Means (X), Standard Deviations (S.D.) and Sample Sizes (N) of the Delay Post Test  A.I. Group "Correct word" "Content Word" scores scores  W.W. Group 'Correct Word" "Content Word' scores scores  X = 21.2  X = 16.5  X = 16.8  X = 12.3  S.D. = 12.5  S.D. = 1 0 . 7  S.D. = 14.3  S.D. = 8 . 5  N = 13  H = 13  N  =  11  N = 11  103.  Appendix B ( i i i ) . P i l o t Study I I  As i n P i l o t Study I B a r t l e t t ' s test f o r the equality of variance was  estimated.  Summary of Results of B a r t l e t t ' s Test R e c a l l measures  Bartlett's  D.F.  Chi. Sq.  Sig.  Statistic Correct word scores  b = 1.0  V = 3  7.8  N.S.  Content word scores  b = 0.5  V = 3  7.8  N.S.  Since the variances i n the subgroups f o r both measures were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t the t o t a l scores were then subjected to analyses of variance (Appendix B i v , v ) .  104.  Appendix B ( i v ) . P i l o t Study I I  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Correct Word" Scores  Source  S.S.  Treatments  (T)  Immed.: delay Interaction Error  (P) TxP  (within c e l l s )  TOTAL  D.F.  MS.  F  1158.0  1  1158.0  4.2  4905.0  1  4905.0  17.8  1837.0  1  1837.0  6.7  12973.0  47  276.0  20873.0  50  Sig. P<  0.05  P < 0.05 P C  0.01  105.  Appendix B ( v ) . P i l o t Study I I  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Content Word" Scores Source  S.S.  D.F.  M.S.  F  Sig  Treatments  (T)  205.3  1  205.3  0.6  N.S.  Immed.:delay  (?)  1793.2  1  1793.2  5.6  p <" 0  840.5  1  840.5  2.7  N.S.  4809.1  47  318.6  7648.1  50  Interaction TxP Error (within c e l l s ) TOTAL  106.  Appendix B ( v i ) . P i l o t Study I I  The analysis of variance (Appendix B ( i v ) ) indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n effect between the means of treatment x post t e s t .  Means (X) of Treatment x Post Test Interaction C e l l s  Post test  Treatments A^I.  VMJ.  Immediate  X = 29.0  X = h9.k  Delay  X = 21.2  X = 16.8  107  Appendix B ( v i i ) . H o t Study I I  The Bonferroni c a l c u l a t i o n was used t o determine the source of the i n t e r a c t i o n indicated i n the Table (Appendix B ( i v ) ) . S t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis: Null  Ho : A.I. ^  W.M.  Research  Ho :.A.I. ;>  W.W.  (1 t a i l t e s t )  Benferroni Confidence Limits f o r Means Contrasts "Correct Word" Scores  Comparing  Lower limit  Upper limit  A.I.  immed. : W.W.  immed. "  + 5.4  ^  if/  ~  A.I.  delau  delay  - 11.6  ^  ^  —  : W.W.  The n u l l hypothesis (Ho) i s rejected  0  0  ®°  Sig  p <c 0.05 N.S.  108.  Appendix C ( i ) . P i l o t Study I I I  Means (X), Standard Deviations (S.D.) and Sample Size (W) of the Immediate Post Test A.I. Group "Correct word" "Content word" scores scores  W.W. Group "Correct word" "Content word" scores scores  X = 1+1.9  X = 27.0  X = 34.1  X = 21.5  S.D. = 2 0 . 8  S.D. = 1 0 . 1  S.D. = 1 5 . 2  S.D. = 7 - 5  N = 18  N = 18  N = 19  N = 19  109.  Appendix C ( i i ) . P i l o t Study I I I  Means (X), Standard Deviations (S.D.) and Sample Size (N) of the Delay Post Test A.I. Group "Correct Word" "Content Word" scores scores  W.W. "Correct Word" scores  Group "Content Word" scores  X = 23.6  X = 17.5  X = 18.0  X = 13.0  S.D. = 1 7 . 0  S.D. = 8 . 9  S.D. = 1 2 . 8  S.D. = 7 . 0  N = 13  N = 13  N = 15  N = 15  110.  Appendix C ( i i i ) . P i l o t Study I I I  B a r t l e t t ' s test f o r the equality of variance was calculated f o r the subgroups i n t h i s study.  Summary of Results of B a r t l e t t ' s Test R e c a l l measure  Bartlett's  D.F.  Chi.Sq.  Sig  statistic Correct word scores  b = 0.5  V = 3  7.8  N.S.  Content word scores  b = 2.8  \) = 3  7.8  N.S.  Since the variances i n the subgroups f o r both measures were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t the t o t a l scores were then subjected t o analysis of variance (Appendix C (iv)).  111.  Appendix C ( i v ) . P i l o t Study I I I  Summary of Analysis of Variance of "Correct Word" Scores Source  S.S.  D.F.  M.S.  F  Treatments  (T)  774.3  1  774.3  2.7  Immed.:delay  (P)  4559.3  1  4559.3  16.4  56.1  1  56.1  0.2  16926.7  61  277.5  22316.4  64  Interaction TxP Error (within c e l l s ) TOTAL  Sig N.S. p  C  0.01  N.S.  112.  Appendix C (v). P i l o t Study I I I  Summary of Analysis of Variance1 of "Content Word" Scores Source  S.S.  D.F.  M.S.  F  Sig  Treatments  (T)  433.1  1  433.1  6.1  p < 0.05  Immed.:delay  (P)  1275.9  1  1275.9  18.0  p < 0.01  30.0  1  30.0  0.4  4341.4  61  71.2  6080.4  64  Interaction  TxP  Error (-within c e l l s ) TOTAL  N.S.  Means (X), Standard Deviations (S.D.) and Sample Size (N) of Post Test Results i n the Two Schools f o r "Correct Word" and "Content Word" Measure (-A.I.=Attention t o Imagery. W.W. = Word f o r Word) Semiahmoo School Words Correct Scores Content Word Scores W.W. W.W. A.I. A.I. Immediate POst  x = 29.0  X = 49.4  X = 21.4  X = 33.0  S.D.=19.2 S.D. =20.8 S.D.=10.4 S.D.=10.1  Princess Margaret School Words Correct Scores Content Word Scores W.W. W.W. A.I. A.I. X = 41.9 X = 34.1 S.D.=20.8  18  N = 14  N = 13  N = 14  N = 13  H =  X = 21.0  X = 16.8  X = 17.5  x = 12.3  x = 23.7  Post  S.D. =12. 5  S.D.=14.3  S.D.=10.7 S.D.=8.5  Test  N = 13  N = 11  N = 13  Test Delay  N = 11  x = 27.0 X = 21. 5  S.D. =15.2 S.D.=10.1  S.D.-7.5  N = 19  N = 18  N = 19  x = 18.3  x = 19.5  x = 13.0  S.D.=l6.9 S.D.=12.8  S.D.=8.9 S.D.=7.0  N = 13  N = 13  N = 15  N = 15  114.  Appendix D ( i l )  Before analysing the scores of p i l o t studies I and I I B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t f o r the equality of variance was estimated.  Summary of Results of B a r t l e t t ' s Test Bartlett R e c a l l Measures  Statistic  D.F.  Chi.Sq.  Sig.  "Correct Word" scores  J> = 2 . 2  V =7  18.5  N.S.  "Content Word" scores  o =1.3  \) =7  14.1  N.S.  115.  Appendix D ( i i i )  Summary of Analysis of Variance f o r "Correct Word" Scores f o r Immediate and Delay Tests (both Schools)  Source  S.S.  D.F.  M.S.  F  Sig  16.0  1  16.0  0.1  N.S.  (T)  175.0  1  175.0  0.6  N.S.  (P)  9438.0  1  9438.0  34.0  SxT  1747.0  1  1747.0  6.2  p<0.05  SxP  37.0  1  37.0  0.1  N.S.  TxP  423.0  1  423.0  1.5  N.S.  SxTxP  1275.0  1  1275.0  4.6  p<0.05  E r r o r (within c e l l s ) 3 0 2 4 6 . 0  108  280.0  43357.0  115  Schools  (s)  Treatments Immed.:delay Interaction  M ri  TOTAL  p<" 0 . 0 0 1  lib.  Appendix D ( i v )  Summary of Analysis of Variance f o r "Content Word" Scores f o r Immediate and Delay Tests (both Schools)  Source  S.S.  D.F.  M.S.  F  Sig.  Schools  (S)  39.3  l  39-3  0.1  N.S.  Treatments  (T)  40.7  1  40.7  0.1  N.S.  Immed.: delay  (P)  2748.6  l  2748.6  34.4  SxT  677.2  1  677.2  8.5  p< 0 . 0 1  SxP  320.2  1  320.2  4.0  p< 0 . 0 5  TxP  536.5  1  536.5  6.7  p<0.05  SxTxP  1760.0  1  1760.0  22.0  108  79.0  Interaction  II  E r r o r (within c e l l s ) 8 6 3 5 . 0 "  TOTAL  14757-5  115  p«c 0 . 0 0 1  p< 0 . 0 0 1  117.  Appendix E ( l )  INSTRUCTIONS:  You are t o get a test which w i l l include these French words  and expressions.  You must know t h e i r meaning.  FRENCH  ENGLISH  chou chanter rire bavarder entrer  cabbage to sing to laugh to gossip to enter castle to go up to protect to sleep boy judge lady German correspondent scissors to play hairdresser to l i k e European to l i v e to grow to give third smell much (lots) after programme against day chef flyer thank you to advance to eat dress to cook ocean animal  chateau  monter proteger dormir garcon juge dame Allemand correspondant ciseaux jouer coiffeur aimer europeen habiter cultiver donnerc troisieme odeur beaucoup apres programme contre journee chef aviateur merci avancer manger robe cuire ocean animal  Appendix E pupitre classe argent belle nuit pluie bon cage vert fleur rester sonner village prince fermier pays etage pendant bombe prisonnier livre parapluie paysanne veut chi en viande laisser triste ascenseur touriste porter enfant repondre toute beau reine plage ours tarte etranger mere coq chat tomber telephone boulanger lettre eleve  cont'd. desk class money beautiful night rain good cage green flower to stay to sound (to ring) village prince farmer country f l o o r (storey) during bomb prisoner book umbrella peasant ( f ) wants dog meat to l e t sad elevator tourist to wear child to reply all handsome queen beach bear pie foreigner mother rooster cat to f a l l telephone baker letter pupil  Appendix E ( i ) cont'd.. EXPRESSIONS l o i n de chez moi avoir envie beaucoup de au s o l e i l f a i r e semblant a* l a t e l e v i s i o n a l l e r chercher veut dire rentrer aimer mieux de bonne heure avoir l ' a i r f a i r e attention  f a r from at my home to want (to long f o r ) lots of i n the sun to pretend on the t e l e v i s i o n to go f o r to mean to go home to prefer early to look to pay attention  120.  Appendix E ( i i ) L i s t of T h i r t y Sentences 1. 2. 3. k. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Ik. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 2k. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.  L'ours reste l o i n du v i l l a g e . La reine a l ' a i r t r i s t e . Le boulanger a beaucoup d'argent. Le prisonnier f a i t semblant de dormir. Le prince est un beau garcon. L'e"leVe rentre apres l a classe. La fermier c u l t i v e de bons choux. Le coq. chante de bonne heure. L'ascenseur monte au troisieme etage. Le juge a envie de r i r e . La f l e u r donne une b e l l e odeur. Le programme est et l a t e l e v i s i o n . Le parapluie protlge contre l a p l u i e . La paysanne aime mieux bavarder beaucoup. Le telephone sonne pendant l a nuit. Le t o u r i s t e entre dans l e chateau. Le l i v r e est sur l e pupitre. Le chef f a i t cuire des t a r t e s . La dame porte une robe verte. L'aviateur l a i s s e tomber l a bombe. L'animal dort dans l a cage. L'allemand veut habiter chez nous. La France est un pays europeen. Le chat aime rester au s o l e i l . La-, correspondante repond a* l a l e t t r e L'ocean avance sur l a plage. L'etranger veut dire merci beaucoup. Le c o i f f e u r va chercher les ciseaux. Le chien mange toute l a viande. L'enfant f a i t attention aux instructions.  121.  Appendix E ( i i i )  Learning Instructions There w i l l be a t e s t following the presentation of 30 sentences, on the overhead projector, to see i f you can r e c a l l them. The test w i l l be one requiring exact wording of the sentences. Write each sentence on the sheet provided and t r y t o remember them "word for word".  122.  Appendix E (iv)  Learning Instructions  There -will be a t e s t following the presentation of 30 sentences, on the overhead projector, to see i f you can r e c a l l them. The test w i l l be one requiring exact wording of the sentences. You should learn the way  you usually do.  123.  Appendix E (v)  Learning Instructions  There w i l l he a t e s t following the presentation  of 3 0 sentences,  on the overhead projector, to see i f you can r e c a l l them. The t e s t w i l l he one requiring exact wording of the sentences. Buts, as you are writing each sentence, t r y t o picture i n your mind, as c l e a r l y as possible, the image or picture that the sentence i s t r y i n g t o convey t o you. Draw a l i t t l e picture of the meaning of each sentence on the sheet provided to help you t o make the sentence more v i v i d i n your mind.  12k.  Appendix E ( v i )  Date:  FRENCH.  / NAME:  Predicate.  Below you are given the f i r s t two words of each of the sentences which you have just seen.  Complete  the sentence by writing i n the remaining four French words. 1.  L'ours  2.  Le boulanger  3.  La reine  k.  Le prisonnier  5.  Le prince  6.  L' e*leve  7.  Le fermier  8/  Le coq  9.  L'ascenseur  10.  Le juge  li  La f l e u r  12.  Le programme  13.  Le parapluie  ik.  La paysanne  15.  Le telephone  16.  Le t o u r i s t e  17.  Le l i v r e  18.  Le chef  19-  La dame  20.  L'aviateur  21.  L'animal  22.  L'Allemand  23.  La France  2k.  Le chat  25.  La correspondent  26.  L'ocean  27.  L'etranger  28.  Lecoiffeur  29.  Le chien  30.  L'enfant  126.  Appendix E ( v i i )  NAME:  DATE:  How many of these following puzzles can you get correct?  You have t o  rearrange the l e t t e r s to make a French word. Example:  TNSO  Answer:  SONT  I f one word seems t o be d i f f i c u l t , t r y another one and return to the d i f f i c u l t one l a t e r .  1.  LI  2.  IAVS  3.  ONN  4.  URM  5.  OIICV  6.  ESRUO  7.  EBNI  8.  SUASI  9.  MIA  10.  TOEPR  11.  NPIA  12.  CNERT  13.  SONLA  14.  OSINAM  15.  OERCUUL  '  127.  Appendix E ( v i i i )  Draw a picture of the sentence meaning i n the spaces below.  There are more spaces over page. NAME:  128.  Appendix E ( v i i i ) cont'd...  Appendix E ( v i i i ) cont'd..  

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