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An application of Fishbein's attitude theory to the prediction of free-choice student behaviors in a.. Abramson, Kenneth Herbert 1972

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AN APPLICATION OF FISHBEIN'S ATTITUDE THEORY TO THE PREDICTION OF FREE-CHOICE STUDENT BEHAVIORS IN A FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY PHYSICS COURSE  by KENNETH H. ABRAMSON B.Sc,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the F a c u l t y of EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s the r e q u i r e d  t h e s i s as conforming to  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197 2  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree  that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  •7  permission.  ii  ABSTRACT  The  purpose o f the study was  to f o r e c a s t the a c t u a l  performance of f i v e e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l by 128  f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y P h y s i c s  students  activities  using  F i s h b e i n ' s model f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r intention.  The  and  behavioral  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of achievement measures  and  measures of a t t i t u d e toward v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t s i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior investigated.  and b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n was  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s model l e d to  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c problems: s h i p between v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to and the model;  the model;  the a t t i t u d i n a l and  (c) the accuracy  and b e h a v i o r  relation-  behavioral  normative v a r i a b l e s o f  w i t h which b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n  c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d , and  the r e l a t i v e  of the p r e d i c t o r s i n the p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n ;  importance  (d) the use  i n t e n t i o n measures as p r e d i c t o r s o f b e h a v i o r  s p e c i f i c educational  the  those e x t e r n a l to  (b) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o r ,  i n t e n t i o n , and  behavioral  (a) the  also  s i t u a t i o n s ; and  of  in  (e) the d e t e c t i o n o f  p o s s i b l e measurement e f f e c t s . A L i k e r t a t t i t u d e s c a l e was  used to o b t a i n measures  o f a t t i t u d e toward f o u r t e e n d i f f e r e n t aspects and  Physics  instruction.  Estimates  and  Grade 12 P h y s i c s achievement were obtained  of  Physics  of Grade 12 Mathematics from  self-  reports.  Fishbein's  model was a p p l i e d  to measures o f :  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p e r f o r m i n g each a c t i v i t y  (A ), ac u t h e i r s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (NB ), p e r s o n a l normative s b e l i e f s (NB ), m o t i v a t i o n to comply w i t h c e r t a i n r e f e r e n t s  P (Mc ), and b e h a v i o r a l were a l s o p r e d i c t e d u s i n g measures o f A  intention  (BI). Behavioral  f o r t h r e e o f the v o l u n t a r y . , NB  and NB  intentions  activities/  as p r e d i c t o r  variables.  The measures o f normative b e l i e f s were taken w i t h to the r e f e r e n t s :  s e l f , c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , parents,  of the c l a s s , l e c t u r e r , and r e l i g i o u s group. for predicting behavioral the  respect  form o f a m u l t i p l e  majority  The model  i n t e n t i o n was g i v e n by F i s h b e i n i n  regression  e q u a t i o n , where the  c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e i s BI and the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s a r e A  . and the summation  (over a l l r e f e r e n t s )  o f NB  multiplied S  clC "C  by Mc . Most o f the o b t a i n e d r e s u l t s tended to agree w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s based on F i s h b e i n ' s  theory.  Variables  to the model were, f o r the most p a r t , p o o r l y with behavioral  external  correlated  i n t e n t i o n and w i t h o v e r t b e h a v i o r  (B) u n l e s s  they were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a t l e a s t one o f the p r e d i c t o r s g i v e n i n the model.  Statistically significant  c o r r e l a t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t l y found between measures o f BI and  NB  . A_  students'  ., and the normative b e l i e f w i t h r e s p e c t  'best f r i e n d s ' .  to  The magnitudes o f c o r r e l a t i o n s  between measures of BI and the o t h e r s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s varied considerably  across a c t i v i t i e s ,  several  correlations  iv reaching s t a t i s t i c a l and  significance.  measures o f BI were g e n e r a l l y  f i v e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r  C o r r e l a t i o n s between B low, although t h r e e o u t o f  than z e r o .  Correlations  between b e h a v i o r and the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were a l s o and  were f r e q u e n t l y  multiple dicated  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant.  small,  High  c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f BI i n p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s .  a l l p r e d i c t i o n s o f BI, NB^ had, by f a r , the g r e a t e s t as a p r e d i c t o r .  Beta weights o f A  across a c t i v i t i e s .  Low m u l t i p l e  weight  ,, and NB v a r i e d ac t s  greatly  c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d  i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r from the p r e d i c t o r substantiating  In  variables,  the low p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d  between BI and B.  The o b s e r v a t i o n  that s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n s between b e h a v i o r and the p r e d i c t o r  variables  were reduced t o n o n s i g n i f i c a n c e  i n t e n t i o n was  held  c o n s t a n t , tended t o s u b s t a n t i a t e  pectation and  when b e h a v i o r a l  t h a t BI i s an i n t e r v e n i n g  the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s .  the t h e o r e t i c a l ex-  v a r i a b l e between b e h a v i o r  An unexpected r e s u l t was the  d e t e c t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t s i n the p r e d i c t i o n of voluntary  performance o f t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s .  These  2  e f f e c t s were s u b s t a n t i a t e d  by means o f x  independence o f b e h a v i o r a l  responses o b t a i n e d under d i f f e r e n t  measurement c o n d i t i o n s :  administration  t e s t s o f the  o f the r e s e a r c h  instrument, a placebo i n s t r u m e n t , and no i n s t r u m e n t . I t was concluded t h a t w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s theory, the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l  intention with  V  r e s p e c t to p e r f o r m i n g f r e e - c h o i c e a c t i v i t i e s s e t t i n g c o u l d be made w i t h  i n an  considerably^better  accuracy.  The  activities  from measures of b e h a v i o r a l  educational  than chance  p r e d i c t i o n of a c t u a l performance o f  the  i n t e n t i o n , however,  posed s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t was  recommended t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y  e f f e c t s i n f l u e n c i n g the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r careful consideration i n future educational the model.  o f measurement be  given  applications of  vi  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  II.  III.  IV.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  1.  Background to the Study  2.  Statement o f the General Problem  3.  Need f o r the Study  4.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Used  5.  S p e c i f i c Problems I n v e s t i g a t e d  6.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  3 . .  . . . . . . . . . .  4 6  8 12  CONTEXT OF THE STUDY  15  1.  The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t e x t  15  2.  The E d u c a t i o n a l  46  3.  Summary  Context  56  METHOD OF THE STUDY  60  1.  P i l o t Study: R e l e v a n t R e f e r e n t Groups  2.  Population  3.  E x p e r i m e n t a l Procedures  4.  Instruments  5.  Methods o f A n a l y s i s  . . .  and Samples  63 . . . . . . . . . .  64 67  . . . . . . . . . . . .  RESULTS 1.  60  75 78  The R e l a t i o n s h i p between V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l to and those E x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model  78  2.  The R e l a t i o n s h i p between V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l to the Model  3.  The P r e d i c t i o n o f B e h a v i o r a l  4.  The P r e d i c t i o n o f Behavior  93  5.  The Role o f B e h a v i o r a l P r e d i c t i n g Behavior  95  6.  Measurement E f f e c t  Intention  g-j . . .  89  Intention i n 95  vii CHAPTER  V.  PAGE 7.  Discussion of Results  8.  Summary  10° H7  CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY  .  122  1.  R e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f . t h e Problem  122  2.  Conclusions  123  3.  I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r Educational A p p l i c a t i o n  126  4.  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research  . . .  LITERATURE CITED  131 136  APPENDIX A.  PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE ON REFERENT GROUPS. .  B.  STUDENT RESPONSES TO VARIOUS REFERENTS IN THE PILOT STUDY  .  141  143  C.  RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE  145  D.  RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE . . . .  152  E. F.  PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS RECEIVING THE PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE  160 166  G.  LIST OF FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES  168  H.  ACTIVITY 1 ATTENDANCE SURVEY TICKET  170  I.  ACTIVITIES CHECK-LIST  172  J.  PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE. . .  174  K.  STUDENT RESPONSES TO STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE  •  185  .  202  L. M.  PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION  ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE STUDENT RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE  207  viii APPENDIX N. 0. P. Q.  PAGE x CONTINGENCY TABLES—RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT 2  X CONTINGENCY TABLES—PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT  218  2  .  221  x CONTINGENCY TABLES—RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT  224  x CONTINGENCY TABLES (CORRECTED FOR ABSENTEES) —RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT. . .  227  2  2  ix  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  II.  III.  PAGE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) AND A , NB , NB , NB (Mc ) , AND g dut p t> to t> CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDES TOWARD OBJECTS EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL (A ) AND VARIABLES IN THE MODEL  3  S  S  3  VI.  VII. VIII.  IX.  3  6  40  PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS AND PARTIAL CORRELATIONS (BI HELD CONSTANT) BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR/ B, AND THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A . AND NB act s VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL  41 61  CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL AND VARIABLES INTERNAL TO THE MODEL (N = 8 9 )  80  CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR AND CRITERION VARIABLES (N = 1 2 8 )  85 . . .  87  X.  CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR VARIABLES  XI.  STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIORAL INTENTION  90  PERCENT OF TOTAL VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR BY EACH PREDICTOR VARIABLE IN THE PREDICTION OF BEHAVIORAL INTENTION . . . .  92  XII.  1  S  STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A , NB / NB / AND NB (Mc ) ON BI . . . . . . . s' s s STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF Aa c t.' , NB s AND NB (Mc ) ON B s s P  V.  0  CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A . , AND NB OR NB (Mc ) c l C XI  IV.  26  X  TABLE XIII.  XIV. XV.  XVI.  PAGE STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIOR PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES . PARTIAL CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, HOLDING BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) CONSTANT CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVITIES, FROM THE RECEIVING OF A QUESTIONNAIRE  9  4  9  6  9  9  ?  8  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  For h i s d e d i c a t e d  and i n v a l u a b l e d i r e c t i o n , I wish  to express my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. W. B o l d t . Thanks a r e a l s o accorded to Dr. S.F. F o s t e r f o r h i s extremely u s e f u l a d v i c e  throughout the study.  I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. D.L. L i v e s e y o f the P h y s i c s Department f o r h i s h e l p i n a r r a n g i n g  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  s i t u a t i o n , and t o Dr. D.H. Phelps o f the F a c u l t y o f A p p l i e d Science  f o r h i s kind cooperation  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e  experiment. Acknowledgements a r e a l s o due t o M i s s S. Jackson and Mr. J.K. S i u f o r t h e i r h e l p w i t h  the computer work.  L a s t , b u t n o t l e a s t , I wish t o thank my w i f e , f o r her encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e .  Jana,  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  While many educators a r e engaged i n a s s e s s i n g the a t t i t u d e s o f students towards v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e engaged i n a major c o n t r o v e r s y about the assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a t t i t u d e o f a person  toward  an a t t i t u d e o b j e c t and h i s b e h a v i o r a l response w i t h r e s p e c t to the o b j e c t .  Recent theory c o n c e r n i n g p r e d i c t i n g o v e r t  b e h a v i o r from measures o f a t t i t u d e w e l l d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n s appears  and normative  beliefs i n  p r o m i s i n g b u t has never been  f u l l y a p p l i e d i n an e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t .  1.  Background t o the Study  Among the reasons g i v e n f o r c u r r e n t r e v i s i o n s o f s c i e n c e courses i s the concern f o r course  improvement,  student d i s i n t e r e s t and d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l m e n t . are r e f l e c t e d i n a number o f s t u d i e s (1,2,3,4).  These  concerns  The s t u d i e s  r e l a t e the d e c l i n e o f student e n r o l l m e n t to p o s s i b l e s t u d e n t disenchantment w i t h s c i e n c e and technology  ( g e n e r a l l y ) and  a l s o t o student d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e c o u r s e s . A decreasing enrollment trend i n physics i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. P h y s i c s Department Task Force Report  (5) s t a t e s  The U.B.C. in its  2 introduction/  that:  The r e d u c t i o n i n student demand f o r e d u c a t i o n i n pure P h y s i c s a t U.B.C./ i s n o t a new phenomenon. I t i s a t r e n d t h a t has been going on f o r a t l e a s t eight years. In o r d e r t o meet the problems o f d e c l i n i n g and p o s s i b l e student d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p h y s i c s  enrollment courses,  the P h y s i c s Department Task F o r c e made the f o l l o w i n g recommendation  (5) :  . . . as an experiment i n the 1971/72 year, the second term o f one s e c t i o n of P h y s i c s 115 be o r g a n i z e d as s e t s o f l e c t u r e s on t o p i c a l s u b j e c t s g i v e n by s e v e r a l f a c u l t y members; and t h a t , i f t h i s experiment i s s u c c e s s f u l , o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f P h y s i c s 105, 110, and 115 adopt t h i s modular approach. Some o f the l e c t u r e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s experiment offered a choice o f o p t i o n a l o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r l e a r n i n g activities.  One such l e c t u r e module d e a l t w i t h  a p p l i e d t o problems o f g e n e r a l s o c i a l concern week (four l e c t u r e s ) module e n t i t l e d mental and T e c h n o l o g i c a l Assessment.  environmental resources.  and was a two  "The P h y s i c s i n E n v i r o n 1  outcomes o f t h i s module, as expressed the g o a l o f student involvement  physics  Among the i n t e n d e d by the l e c t u r e r , was  i n a c t i v i t i e s dealing with  p o l l u t i o n and the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l The e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d  p a t i o n i n a number o f v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s , r a n g i n g  particifrom  a t t e n d i n g lunch-hour movies and p i c k i n g up o p t i o n a l r e a d i n g  3  material,  to t a k i n g p a r t i n a c t u a l p o l l u t i o n d a t a - c o l l e c t i n g  experiments. In t h i s c o n t e x t , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward participating i n s o c i a l l y relevant and  his perceived  p e r s o n a l and  extracurricular  activities,  s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s  c o n c e r n i n g the performance of these a c t s , are p o s t u l a t e d be good p r e d i c t o r s o f expressed p l a n s to intention)  and  behavior). b e h a v i o r and  participate(behavioral  a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s  Fishbein's behavioral  theory  (6), which r e l a t e s  i n t e n t i o n s , to a t t i t u d i n a l and for  an  t e s t of t h i s hypothesis.  2. The  Statement of the General Problem  major problem o f t h i s study i s to i n v e s t i g a t e  g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i f a P h y s i c s 115 and  (overt  overt  normative v a r i a b l e s , seems p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e empirical  to  normative p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t  the  student's a t t i t u d i n a l  to performing a f r e e -  c h o i c e l e a r n i n g task can be determined, then h i s expressed i n t e n t i o n o f p e r f o r m i n g the o f the  task, may  be p r e d i c t e d  T h i s g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s may regression  task,  and  h i s a c t u a l performance  with better  be  stated  than chance a c c u r a c y .  i n the  e q u a t i o n proposed by F i s h b e i n  form o f  (6).  The  a  equation  c o n s t i t u t e s a t h e o r e t i c a l model f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f havioral intention  B - BI =  [A  and  act  be-  corresponding overt behavior :  o  +  [  n I NB. . , i  (Mc.)]w. l l  (1.0)  4 where: B BI A  and  i s h i s b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n or h i s i n t e n t i o n to perform the task i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward the a c t o f performing the s p e c i f i e d task, i n the g i v e n situation  NB.  i s a s p e c i f i c normative b e l i e f , i . e . , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f c o n c e r n i n g what he should do i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , depending on h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f what he i s expected t o do by a s p e c i f i c person o r group ( r e f e r e n t group " i " )  Mc.  i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n to comply w i t h what he b e l i e v e s i s expected of him by r e f e r e n t group " i "  n 03  i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r t b e h a v i o r , i . e . , h i s a c t u a l performance o f some s p e c i f i e d task  to,  i s the number o f r e f e r e n t persons o r groups are s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s .  3.  Need f o r the Study  F i s h b e i n ' s theory r e p r e s e n t s an important development i n a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h .  The  recent  theory, however,  has  o n l y been a p p l i e d under r a t h e r c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s often u t i l i z i n g  contrived situations.  need f o r extending to determine how  There i s t h e r e f o r e the  the range o f a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the theory  w e l l the theory works i n l e s s  and  restricted  conditions. The p a r t i c u l a r concern  of t h i s study i s the a p p l i c a -  t i o n of the model to an e d u c a t i o n a l problem.  One  known study,  Devries and Ajzen (10), applied the model in part to an educational situation. For educational purposes the study was somewhat incomplete in that no direct observation of behavior was undertaken nor was the instructor used as a referent in assessing the normative beliefs of the students. The present study is therefore a more extensive application of Fishbein's theory in an educational context. Apart from its use in extending the model's range of application, the present study may provide educators with a useful means of assessing students behavioral tendencies. A common approach to the problem of assessing students' behavioral tendencies has been the practice of assessing students' attitudes toward objects such as instructional methods, subjects, course changes, and concepts. This procedure has been generally disappointing in terms of predicting actual behavior with respect to these objects (See Chapter II, section 1 ) . Fishbein's model might provide a useful alternative to the above approach. The criterion variable of the model is behavioral intention. From the point of view of evaluating learning activities, the theory has shown measures of behavioral intention to predict certain behaviors with better than chance accuracy. Information of this nature might enable an instructor to select learning activities having a maximum potential for class participation. With regard to devising new teaching strategies, the model is potentially capable of 1  6 i n d i c a t i n g the r e l a t i v e importance  of the v a r i a b l e s most  i n f l u e n t i a l i n predicting behavioral intention i n d i r e c t l y , most i n f l u e n t i a l an  (and thus  i n p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o r ) , namely,  i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward  an a c t and h i s normative  b e l i e f s w i t h r e s p e c t to the performance  of the a c t .  I f the  most i n f l u e n t i a l o f these p r e d i c t o r s can be determined,  the  i n s t r u c t o r might be a b l e to i n f l u e n c e o v e r t p a r t i c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r s through the r e s u l t s o f s u c c e s s f u l to modify  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward  participating in specific  l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and s t u d e n t s * normative b e l i e f s i n g those  concern-  activities.  4. 4.1  efforts  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used  Behavior o r A c t Behavior o r a c t i s to be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the c o n t e x t  of e q u a t i o n  (1.0)  as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p e c i f i c , o v e r t ,  v o l i t i o n a l , and observed b e h a v i o r i n a s p e c i f i e d arranged by the experimenter.  situation  I f the b e h a v i o r a l a c t i v i t y i s  to a t t e n d a p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l movie under  specified  c o n d i t i o n s , then the measure o f a s t u d e n t ' s b e h a v i o r i n t h i s case would be whether o r not the student has been observed a t t e n d i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r movie under the conditions.  The methods used  specified  f o r observing student  b e h a v i o r are d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I .  4 .2  Behavioral  I n t e n t i o n (BI)  T h i s term r e f e r s to a statement of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e n t i o n t o perform a s p e c i f i c a c t i n a g i v e n Operationally, behavioral  situation.  i n t e n t i o n i s measured by means o f  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response to q u e s t i o n n a i r e  items d e a l i n g  the i n t e n t t o perform a c e r t a i n a c t under s p e c i f i e d An  with  conditions  assumption i m p l i c i t i n t h i s measure i s t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n i n d i c a t e d w i l l remain unchanged o v e r time, a t l e a s t until 4.3  the a c t has been performed. A t t i t u d e Toward the A c t (A ) —ac u T h i s study w i l l  follow Fishbein  (6) i n adopting  Thurstone's one-dimensional c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e as "the amount o f a f f e c t  1  (p. 478). In e q u a t i o n  f o r or against a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t " (1.0) the p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t r e f e r r e d  to i s the performance o f a s p e c i f i c a c t .  O p e r a t i o n a l l y , the  amount o f a f f e c t f o r o r a g a i n s t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t i s assessed  by means of a person's response t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e  items i n d i c a t i n g f a v o r a b l e n e s s  o r u n f a v o r a b l e n e s s toward  performing a s p e c i f i c a c t i n a given 4.4  Normative B e l i e f Fishbein  concerning  situation.  (NB)  (6) c o n s i d e r s  a b e l i e f t o be a  hypothesis  the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t an ( a t t i t u d e ) o b j e c t has a  s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p with  some o t h e r o b j e c t , v a l u e ,  concept,  ' A f f e c t ' i s used by F i s h b e i n (6) to r e f e r t o the e v a l u a t i v e component o f b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t 1  8 or g o a l .  In keeping w i t h t h i s , a normative b e l i e f  i s defined  as the s t r e n g t h o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o p i n i o n , c o n c e r n i n g  what  a c e r t a i n normative r e f e r e n t person o r group expects him do.  T h i s r e f e r e n t can be p e r s o n a l  (others).  The  (himself) or  to  social  s t r e n g t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r normative b e l i e f i s  measured by means of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response to a item i n which he i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t the s t a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s  questionnaire  to which he agrees w i t h  of a p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n t person o r  group. 4.5  Motivation  to Comply  T h i s term may  (Mc)  be d e f i n e d as the degree o f an  u a l ' s d e s i r e to comply w i t h what he b e l i e v e s o t h e r s of him.  O p e r a t i o n a l l y , a person's m o t i v a t i o n  the e x p e c t a t i o n o f o t h e r s questionnaire  individexpect  to comply  with  i s measured by h i s response to a  item i n which he i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t  he agrees w i t h a statement o f compliance w i t h  the  to which expectations  o f a p a r t i c u l a r person or group.  5. The 5.1  S p e c i f i c Problems  Investigated  f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c problems were i n v e s t i g a t e d :  The R e l a t i o n s h i p between V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l to those E x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model To what e x t e n t are v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l t o , or  s p e c i f i e d by  the F i s h b e i n model, r e l a t e d to each of  and  not the  9 v a r i a b l e s i n the model, f o r each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ? The- e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s examined were a t t i t u d e s toward: Physics  i n general, Physics  115, c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n , the  l e c t u r e r , the. textbook, the s u b j e c t matter o f the course, assignments, examinations, the l a b o r a t o r y , and v a r i o u s posed t o p i c s f o r the c o u r s e classical  pro-  (nuclear energy, the environment,  (Newtonian) P h y s i c s ,  the human body, and e l e c t r o -  magnetic theory and p r o p u l s i o n ) , and two n o n - a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s , Grade 12 Mathematics and Grade 12 P h y s i c s According  to Ajzen  and F i s h b e i n  marks.  (7), any v a r i a b l e s  e x t e r n a l .to the; model w i l l be u n r e l a t e d  to b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n s and. to o v e r t b e h a v i o r  they a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  unless  related- t o a t l e a s t one o f the p r e d i c t o r s g i v e n by the model. 5.2  The R e l a t i o n s h i p between V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l to the Model To what, e x t e n t a r e b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , B I , and B, r e l a t e d t o A  behavior,  ., NB. , Mc. , N B . ( M c ) , and ac *c x x x x  n Z NB.(Mc.) f o r each o f the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? i=l A c c o r d i n g to the t h e o r y , both B and BI a r e a f u n c t i o n of A . and o f the r e l e v a n t NB.(Mc.) p r o d u c t , a l t h o u g h doubt acr> x x 1  has  1  r e c e n t l y been c a s t on the p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f Mc^ by  Devries  and A j z e n  (8) and by A j z e n  and F i s h b e i n  (9,10) .  Further', a c c o r d i n g to A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (10) , A n should be r e l a t e d to £ NB.(Mc.) because both terms c o n t a i n i-1 a  1  c  t  1  a common f a c t o r (see Chapter I I , s e c t i o n 1.3 f o r a d e t a i l e d explanation)•  10 5.3  The P r e d i c t i o n o f B e h a v i o r a l  I n t e n t i o n / BI  (a) How a c c u r a t e l y can the b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n , BI,  with respect  t o each e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y  be p r e d i c t e d  from A  . and the sum o f the r e l e v a n t n I NB.(Mc.)? i=l  normative p r o d u c t s ,  1  (b) Which o f the two v a r i a b l e s , a t t i t u d i n a l o r normative, i s the b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f BI i n each d i f f e r e n t behavioral  situation?  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of F i s h b e i n ' s model  (7,8,9,10) i n d i c a t e  t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n weights o f the p r e d i c t o r s i n the model a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and a l s o t h a t BI can be p r e d i c t e d n from A - , - J - and E NB. (Mc. ) w i t h an accuracy c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r i l ^" —  than chance.  The theory  a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n  weights may v a r y , depending on the type o f a c t , the s i t u a t i o n under which the a c t i s c a r r i e d o u t , and on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the s u b j e c t s w i t h r e s p e c t  to t h e i r p r i o r  learning history. 5.4  The Role o f B e h a v i o r a l  Intention i n P r e d i c t i n g Behavior  n a r e A . and E NB.(Mc.) r e l a t e d t o act i=l the performance o f the a c t , B, i . e . , a c t u a l l y c a r r y i n g o u t To what e x t e n t  1  1  each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ? In a r e c e n t r e f o r m u l a t i o n Fishbein n Z i=l  o f the theory,  (10) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e f f e c t s o f A  A j z e n and  . and act  NB.(Mc.) on b e h a v i o r a r e assumed to be mediated by B I , 1  1  11 t h a t i s , t h a t BI i s an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e between B and u  n LA . 3 + t l NB. (Mc.)]w o act i=l  :  The p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s i s t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g to the theory, a necessary as w e l l as s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f o v e r t b e h a v i o r , (p. 469) I f t h i s i s the case, p a r t i a l l i n g o u t the e f f e c t o f BI should r e s u l t i n a r e d u c t i o n i n the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f B w i t h A „ . and B w i t h NB. (Mc.) . ac *c x x 5.5  Measurement E f f e c t To what e x t e n t do measurements on the components o f  F i s h b e i n ' s model i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t s ' b e h a v i o r a l responses toward the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r  activities?  I f measurement i n f l u e n c e s B, then, a c c o r d i n g to the model, t h i s e f f e c t must be r e l a t e d to one o f the v a r i a b l e s o f the model.  In the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f t h i s study, i t was  hoped t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s would come about as a r e s u l t of c l a s s r o o m  i n s t r u c t i o n and n o t as  a r e s u l t o f b e l i e f s aroused by the measurement or i t s use.  instrument  12 6.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  There are a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s which are w i t h r e s p e c t to the g e n e r a l i t y and the  important  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  study. Firstly,  the e x p e c t a t i o n o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the p r e d i c t o r s l e a d s to the e x p e c t a t i o n of an  attenuating  e f f e c t on the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e s o b t a i n e d multiple regression analysis.  A l t h o u g h complex mathematical  procedures are a v a i l a b l e f o r the m i n i m i z a t i o n the p r e s e n t  of t h i s  effect,  a p p l i c a t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s theory w i l l adhere to  the s t a n d a r d i z e d m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n technique previous  through  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the theory.  used i n a l l  This w i l l  enable  d i r e c t comparisons to be e a s i l y made w i t h s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to the  theory. Related  to the use o f m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s  i s the s p e c i f i c i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n and which the r e s u l t s may  be g e n e r a l i z e d .  the p o p u l a t i o n I t has  to  a l r e a d y been  mentioned t h a t the model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to s i t u a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and r e s u l t s obtained  individual differences.  from the a n a l y s i s must, t h e r e f o r e , d e s c r i b e  o n l y the p a r t i c u l a r sample of P h y s i c s 115 1 who  were p e r m i t t e d  students  from S e c t i o n  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  curricular activities. 115  The  Since the students  o f both  extra-  Physics  S e c t i o n s used l i t t l e e l s e than t i m e t a b l i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i n s e l e c t i n g one  S e c t i o n or the o t h e r  f o r attendance, S e c t i o n  13 1 i s expected to be r o u g h l y purpose o f t h i s study.  comparable to S e c t i o n 2 f o r the  Therefore,  the r e s u l t s c o u l d  likely  be g e n e r a l i z e d to the e n t i r e P h y s i c s 115 p o p u l a t i o n . A l though the r e s u l t s o f the study apply o n l y to the p o p u l a t i o n sampled, the theory various situations. theory  i s q u i t e g e n e r a l i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to I t i s the g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the  t h a t the p r e s e n t  study attempted to i n d i c a t e .  F i n a l l y , a l i m i t a t i o n t h a t should be r a i s e d i s the problem o f o b t a i n i n g v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measures on the v a r i a b l e s o f F i s h b e i n ' s model.  The p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f  the measures c o u l d be estimated  by the magnitude o f the  m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the p r e d i c t o r s on B I . P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y c o u l d a l s o be checked by the degree t o which measures on the v a r i a b l e s agreed w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p expected on the b a s i s o f the t h e o r y .  The a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t  v a l i d i t y i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . instrument  used i n the p r e s e n t  R e l i a b i l i t y o f the  study, must be judged  from the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f the o b t a i n e d  indirectly  results.  r e t e s t measures o f r e l i a b i l i t y would be d i f f i c u l t  Test-  to o b t a i n  under the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s study, because the r e s e a r c h instrument  and measures o f b e h a v i o r were components i n an  actual, non-replicative behavioral situation; i . e . , a student would n o t be i n c l i n e d instrument  twice, a t t e n d  to complete the r e s e a r c h  the same movie twice, o r r e p e a t  any o f the b e h a v i o r a l a c t i v i t i e s .  T h i s problem p o i n t s to a  need f o r some method f o r e s t i m a t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y o f  14 instruments o f t h i s k i n d .  While  r e l i a b i l i t y measure f o r the A  i t i s p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n a  . a t t i t u d e s c a l e , the h i g h c l C "C  reliability  of L i k e r t type measures on t h i s v a r i a b l e i s w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d , whereas the r e l i a b i l i t y of  and  b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s and normative  g e n e r a l l y known.  Furthermore,  s t a b i l i t y of measures  b e l i e f s are not  the l i m i t e d r e l i a b i l i t y  of a  s i n g l e a c t , s i n g l e dichotomous o b s e r v a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r  will  p r o b a b l y tend t o reduce  the c o r r e l a t i o n s of observed  behavior  w i t h measures of b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n . F u r t h e r d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y and  reliabil-  i t y o f the instruments used are g i v e n i n Chapter I I I .  15  CHAPTER I I CONTEXT OF THE STUDY  1.  The P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Context  A major concern among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s has been the l a c k o f e m p i r i c a l support f o r a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between measurements on change a t t i t u d e change and subsequent b e h a v i o r . Cohen  (11), f o r example, r e f l e c t s t h i s concern as f o l l o w s : U n t i l e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h demonstrates t h a t a t t i t u d e change has consequences f o r subsequent b e h a v i o r , we cannot be c e r t a i n t h a t our p r o cedures f o r i n d u c i n g change do a n y t h i n g more than cause c o g n i t i v e r e a l i g n m e n t s ; perhaps we cannot even be c e r t a i n t h a t the concept o f a t t i t u d e has c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r psychology. The  Dulany and F i s h b e i n t h e o r i e s o f a t t i t u d e a r e seen  by the p r e s e n t  author as being  s i g n i f i c a n t attempts to  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e s o l v e the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  prediction  problem. 1.1  The Problem o f P r e d i c t i n g Behavior from A t t i t u d e s Psychologists  have o f f e r e d v a r i e d o p i n i o n s  about  p o s s i b l e sources o f d i f f i c u l t y i n p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o r from measures o f a t t i t u d e . problematic  De F l e u r and Westie  concept o f a t t i t u d e i t s e l f .  been d e s c r i b e d  (12) p o i n t to the  A t t i t u d e has o f t e n  as a l a t e n t i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e between a  16 s t i m u l u s and the b e h a v i o r a l the  idea  response.  They suggest dropping  t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r i s somehow shaped,  guided o r mediated by an unobservable v a r i a b l e .  As a  replace-  ment f o r the l a t e n t v a r i a b l e n o t i o n o f a t t i t u d e , they would adopt a concept o f a t t i t u d e more c l o s e l y t i e d to o b s e r v a b l e behavior. In a review of f i f t e e n s t u d i e s  designed to s p e c i f i c -  a l l y a s s e s s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures o f a t t i t u d e and  b e h a v i o r , T i t t l e and H i l l  (13) concluded t h a t  the degree  of observed correspondence between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r is a function (b)  the degree t o which the c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r  action within and  o f (a) the measurement techniques employed, constitutes  the i n d i v i d u a l s ' common range o f e x p e r i e n c e ,  (c) the degree to which the b e h a v i o r a l  s i t u a t i o n occurred  r e p e t i t i v e l y i n the l i f e e x p e r i e n c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l . cerning  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  o f common a t t i t u d e measures used .  i n p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o r , T i t t l e and H i l l s c a l e as the b e s t p r e d i c t o r  The  fourth,  scale  t h i r d , the Semantic  and Thurstone s c a l e s , l a s t of^ the  five.  s u p e r i o r i t y o f the L i k e r t s c a l e i n t h i s i n s t a n c e was  attributed, a t l e a s t i n part, the  ranked the L i k e r t  o f b e h a v i o r ; the Guttman  ranked second, a s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e , Differential,  Con-  amount o f s e l f - r e f e r e n c e  to i t s g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y , c o n t a i n e d i n the s c a l e , and t o  an apparent i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r o p e r a t i n g i n the summated r a t i n g procedure used i n i t s s c o r i n g . contain  L i k e r t scales  a l a r g e r number o f s e l f - r e f e r e n t items  frequently (items c o n -  17 t a i n i n g the p e r s o n a l pronouns " I " o r s c a l e s and  "me")  than the  are t h e r e f o r e expected to e l i c i t more s p e c i f i c  responses.  The  i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r comes i n t o the L i k e r t  procedure by a summation o f the s t r e n g t h s o f a opinions  other  about the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t .  scoring  subject's  I r r e s p e c t i v e of  these  f i n d i n g s , the authors c o n c l u d e , I t i s c l e a r t h a t a t t i t u d e measurement alone, examined h e r e i n , i s not t o t a l l y adequate as a p r e d i c t o r of b e h a v i o r . Wicker's  as  (14) review o f t h i r t y - t h r e e s t u d i e s found  attitude-behavior c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging summarized the r e s u l t s as  from  .01  to  .86,  and  followss  Taken as a whole, these s t u d i e s suggest t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more l i k e l y t h a t a t t i t u d e s w i l l be u n r e l a t e d or o n l y s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to o v e r t b e h a v i o r s than t h a t a t t i t u d e s w i l l be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to a c t i o n s . Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r e l a t i n g the two k i n d s of responses are r a r e l y above .30, and o f t e n are near z e r o . Wicker a l s o p o i n t e d search i n order  to the need f o r s y s t e m a t i c  to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e and  to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e  of the many f a c t o r s which have been o f f e r e d as post explanations  f o r the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  explanations  have i n c l u d e d both p e r s o n a l  d i f f e r e n c e or or  ' i n t r a p e r s o n a l ) and  'extrapersonal')  1  factors.  s t u d i e s , Wicker l i s t s  hoo  inconsistency.  These  (i.e., individual  situational  (environmental  Drawing from many  the p e r s o n a l  re-  f a c t o r s having  previous some  i n f l u e n c e on the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p as:  other  18 competing a t t i t u d e s , competing motives, and t u a l , and  social a b i l i t i e s .  l a t e d to be:  behaviors,  r o l e requirements, a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e  extraneous events, and  Wicker  acts.  (14)  postu-  presence o f c e r t a i n p e o p l e ,  s p e c i f i c i t y of a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s ,  of v a r i o u s  intellec-  S i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s are  a c t u a l or c o n s i d e r e d  s o c i a l norms and  verbal,  unforeseen  expected and/or a c t u a l consequences  In r e g a r d  to the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  problem  advises,  Should c o n s i s t e n c y not be demonstrated, the a l t e r n a t i v e s would seem to acknowledge t h a t one's r e s e a r c h d e a l s o n l y w i t h v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , o r to abandon the a t t i t u d e concept i n f a v o r o f d i r e c t l y studying overt behavior. Ehrlich the  (16)  s t a t e s the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  form o f a more g e n e r a l  problem i n  question:  Under what c o n d i t i o n s , how, and to what degree a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y determine i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r ?  1.2  D u l a n y s Approach to the 1  In an e a r l y tributing the  do  Problem  (1939) attempt to r e l a t e v a r i a b l e s con-  to v a r i a t i o n i n o v e r t b e h a v i o r , Lewin  (17)  suggested  functional relationship:  B  where  =  f  (P, E) ,  ....(2.0)  19  and The  B  i s a p a r t i c u l a r behavior  P  i s the developmental s t a t e and person  E  i s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l environment  f  i s an u n s p e c i f i e d mathematical f u n c t i o n .  character of a  p o s t u l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between a person's b e h a v i o r  h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l environment might be c o n s i d e r e d to both Dulany's and F i s h b e i n ' s models i f one  anticipatory  can  ' s o c i a l environment' to be a t l e a s t a subset o f  and  consider  'psychological  environment'. Dulany following  (18), going  the  equations: BH  and  somewhat f u r t h e r , generated  B - BI  =  =  (RHd)  [(RHd) (RSv)]w  2  (RHs)  +  [(BH)  . . . .(2.1)  (MC)]w , 3  . . .(2.2)  where BH  i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ' b e h a v i o r a l h y p o t h e s i s ' o r h i s e x p e c t a t i o n as to what he i s supposed to do i n the s i t u a t i o n  RHd  i s a 'hypothesis o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e i n forcement' o r the s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f t h a t the response w i l l l e a d to c e r t a i n consequences  RHs  i s a 'hypothesis o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r e i n f o r c e r * o r the s u b j e c t ' s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the o c c u r r e n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r r e i n f o r c e m e n t (or consequence) s i g n i f i e s t h a t he has done what he was supposed to do (or expected to do)  B  i s the s u b j e c t ' s o v e r t v e r b a l  behavior  20 BI  i s the s u b j e c t ' s s p e c i f i c 'behavioral i n t e n t i o n ' or i n t e n t to t r y to make a p a r t i c u l a r response or c l a s s o f s i m i l a r responses  RSv  i s the ' s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e o f a r e i n f o r c e r ' o r the s u b j e c t ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f the r e i n f o r c e m e n t o r consequences, i . e . , f a v o r a b l e or u n f a v o r a b l e  MC  i s the s u b j e c t ' s 'motivation to comply' w i t h or h i s d e s i r e to c a r r y o u t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n (BH) as to what he i s supposed to do i n the s i t u a t i o n  W2 and w^  are s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o r beta weights determined e m p i r i c a l l y f o r a group o f s u b j e c t s and t a k i n g any v a l u e between -1.00 and 1.00.  The  equation  (2.2) w i l l be o f major importance i n the  subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s o f the F i s h b e i n e q u a t i o n , but importance of e q u a t i o n  (2.1)  should a l s o be noted.  simple  (RHd)  (RHs)  substitution of  the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n  B a BI =  The  (RHd)  By  the  i n equation  (2.2),  i s obtained:  [(RHd) (RSv)]w  appearance of  f o r (BH)  the  2  +  [(RHd) (RHs)  (MC)]w  . . .(2.3)  3  i n both p r e d i c t o r terms o f the above  e q u a t i o n l e a d s to the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t both p r e d i c t o r terms are c o r r e l a t e d . Dulany's approach showed c o n s i d e r a b l e promise i n t h a t p e r s o n a l and  s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s were accounted f o r i n the  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . f a c t o r s are i m p l i c i t , i n and  (BH)  (RSv)  and  appear to be predominantly  (MC),  while  Personal  (RHd),  situational.  (RHs),  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Dulany's theory to the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  21 problem i s a l s o apparent  i n i t s systematic, yet  flexible  framework of r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s which i s open to the o f new  terms. The r e s u l t s of Dulany's 1964  and 1965  validation  s t u d i e s of the p r e d i c t i o n o f v e r b a l b e h a v i o r may i n Tables I , I I I , and  IV.  and  (BH)  (MC)  was  between BI and B was f o r the t h e o r y . was  accounted  Although  p r e d i c t o r terms  'R' (RHd)  the product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n  i n d i c a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e support 77.4  p e r c e n t o f the v a r i a n c e of BI  f o r by the p r e d i c t o r terms, 22.6  remained unaccounted f o r . of  the two  .88 and  .94,  be examined  The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n ,  between the c r i t e r i o n BI and (RSv)  addition  Dulany suggests  percent  t h a t t h i s amount  ' e r r o r ' v a r i a n c e p r o b a b l y r e s u l t s from the use o f standard  m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n which the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y a t t e n u a t e d by the use of beta weights estimates of The  'average' weights  t h a t are  f o r the group of s u b j e c t s .  standard m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n technique i s n e c e s s a r y  because no o t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y method o f o b t a i n i n g e s t i m a t e s of the weights 1.3  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s has been  found.  F i s h b e i n ' s Approach to the Problem While Dulany's theory was  developed  i n the c o n t e x t  o f v e r b a l b e h a v i o r , F i s h b e i n ' s (6) e x t e n s i o n of the theory i s p o s t u l a t e d to a p p l y to o v e r t v e r b a l o r non-verbal in social situations.  behavior  I t i s t h i s g e n e r a l i t y t h a t makes  Fishbein's theory potentially useful in many educational situations. In order to examine the similarity of constructs used in the two theories, it is first necessary to review Fishbein's approach to determining attitudes toward an object. According to Fishbein (6), an individual's attitude toward any psychological object (A ) can be expressed as follows: Q  m A. = V * B. a. o .-— J 3 3=1  .  .  .  .(2.4)  where is the attitude toward some object 'o' the strength of belief j about 'o', i.e., B . is the probability that 'o' is related to some other object, Xj is the evaluative aspect of Bj, i.e., the subject's evaluation of the related object, j m is the number of beliefs.  a.  x  Reformulated in terms of attitudes toward performing a specific act, A becomes / j refers to a belief about the probability that the behavior (act) will result in a certain consequence, x^, and a., is the subject's evaluation of that consequence. It is important to note the specificity of the behavior (act) and the behavioral situation in the Fishbein equation. A . cannot be replaced by a A  Q  B  a c t  23 g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e term such as an a t t i t u d e toward any o b j e c t or person. If  m E B . a . i s now j=l 3 ^  substituted for A  a  c  . i n equation  t  (1.0) and i f the mathematical format o f the r e s u l t i n g e q u a t i o n i s put i n t o a form s i m i l a r to Dulany's e q u a t i o n , (2.2), the following r e s u l t i s obtained: B - BI  =  [(B_.) ( a ) ] W j  Q  + [(NB)  (Mc)]w  . . .  1  .(2.5)  compared w i t h e q u a t i o n (2.2):  B « BI  =  [(RHd) (RSv)]w  2  + [(BH)  (MC) ]w^  .. . . .(2.2)  a correspondence between the v a r i a b l e s o f F i s h b e i n ' s e q u a t i o n , (2.5), and those i n Dulany's e q u a t i o n , (2.2), becomes apparent.  F i s h b e i n has r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the f i r s t  term o f Dulany's e q u a t i o n (RHd) t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n consequences  (RSv), t h a t i s ,  predictor  the expec-  and the e v a l u a t i o n o f those  consequences, as the a t t i t u d e toward a s p e c i f i c a c t , ( A „ . m or E B. a . ) . Dulany's ' b e h a v i o r a l h y p o t h e s i s ' , (BH), has j=l 3  3  become F i s h b e i n ' s  'normative b e l i e f s ' ,  (NB), a term t h a t  appears t o be c o n c e p t u a l l y s i m i l a r to Dulany's term. bein's  ' m o t i v a t i o n to comply',  (Mc), has remained  Fish-  essentially  i d e n t i c a l to Dulany's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ( 6 ) . The major c o n c e p t u a l change t h a t F i s h b e i n has made i s the replacement o f Dulany's  (RHd)  (RSv) p r e d i c t o r term by  24  an a t t i t u d i n a l component  (A  .) which can be measured  such w i d e l y used a t t i t u d e measuring i n s t r u m e n t s as  by  the  Guttman s c a l e , the L i k e r t s c a l e , Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s and  Thurstone s c a l e s .  This r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  i s important  i n t h a t i t r e i n s t a t e s a t t i t u d e , i n p a r t , as a p r e d i c t o r b e h a v i o r and  of  suggests t h a t b e h a v i o r p r e d i c t i o n from a t t i t u d e s  i n the p a s t had  f a i l e d because measures o f a t t i t u d e s  general objects  were used i n s t e a d o f measures o f  toward s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l  attitudes  acts.  In i t s p r e s e n t form the F i s h b e i n have the f o l l o w i n g  toward  approach i s seen to  advantages over t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e -  behavior c o r r e l a t i o n studies  involving attitudes  toward  objects: (a) p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s such as competing a t t i t u d e s , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , b e l i e f s and  m o t i v a t i o n are  account i n the v a r i a b l e s A  . and  taken i n t o  Mc;  a C "D  (b) s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s such as s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (NBs), a l t e r n a t i v e b e h a v i o r s o f the consequences) and  (through  evaluation  group dynamics ( d i f f e r e n t  r e f e r e n t groups) are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n  the  equation; (c) the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p has  become con-  s i s t e n t w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s and s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c i n t h a t there i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between A  . and  behavior.  The  magnitude o f t h i s  25 r e l a t i o n s h i p depends, i n p a r t , on the weight determined  f o r the a t t i t u d i n a l term, and on  the  c l o s e matching of BI w i t h the b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n . F i s h b e i n ' s approach has been demonstrated to p r e d i c t some b e h a v i o r s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l .  Table I shows t h a t  the c o r r e l a t i o n o f BI w i t h B ranges between .211 the average  and  .970,  (by F i s h e r ' s Z - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of r) o f a l l  reported values  (r) i s about  .71.  A more d e t a i l e d examination  of F i s h b e i n ' s approach  l e a d s t o a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s t h a t are p e r t i n e n t to  the p r e s e n t  study.  F i r s t , any v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the model are s i d e r e d to be u n r e l a t e d t o b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , and  con-  thus to  o v e r t b e h a v i o r , u n l e s s they are r e l a t e d to a t l e a s t one the p r e d i c t o r s , A__. eluded i n t h i s  or NB(Mc), g i v e n by the model  ' e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e ' c a t e g o r y are  toward o b j e c t s (A ) . Q  (7).  A student's a t t i t u d e toward h i s to s c h o o l  b e h a v i o r , i f , and o n l y i f , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d the model's p r e d i c t o r s and  to  In F i s h b e i n ' s  (19)  words, . . . even though a t r a d i t i o n a l measure o f a t t i t u d e may be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one o f the two components, i t w i l l s t i l l be u n r e l a t e d to b e h a v i o r i f t h a t component c a r r i e s l i t t l e or no weight i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s and thus b e h a v i o r se.  one  i f t h a t p r e d i c t o r i s weighted  by a s i g n i f i c a n t b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t .  per  In-  attitudes  t e a c h e r , f o r example, i s p o s t u l a t e d to be r e l a t e d  of  of  TABLE I CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) AND A NB , NB , NB (Mc ), and B p' s' s s Study  Situation  N  B I  - a c t BI-NB A  p  BI-NB  s  BI-NB (Mc )  S  BI-B  s  Dulany, 1964 (18)  verbal  F i s h b e i n , 1966 (36 )  males females total  Ajzen & Fishbein, 1969 (9)  Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1970 (10)  108 21 14 35  .40  .86  .518* .918 .767  .843 .759 .810  party  100  .523  .815  .587  exhibit watching T.V. concert poker French movie discussion novel  100 100 100 100 100 100 100  .670 .567 .665 .668 .640 .669 .538  .630 .662 .713 .767 .782 .702 .543  .437 .439 .598 .591 .499 .678 .513  Game 1, coop.  32  .370*  .752  individual competitive total Game 2, coop. individual competitive total  32 32 96 32 32 32 96  .710 .883 .754 .253NS .673 .866 .735  NB p dropped I  .780 .733 .838 .579 .677 .741 .786  .94 .394NS .676 • .447  Mc dropped  B not measured  Mc dropped  .571 .758 .765 .847 not r e p o r t e d not r e p o r t e d not r e p o r t e d .841  TABLE I (continued) Study  Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1970 (37) Fishbein e t a l . 1970 ( 2 0 T  Hornik, 1970 (38)  Devries & A j z e n , 1971 (8)  Situation  N  risk  p r e t e s t commun. compliance p o s t e s t commun. compliance  BI-A  _ act  56  .778  144 144 144 144  GRIT RPM HAWK total  30 30 30 90  BI-NB  BI-NB P  s .414  .599 .573 .681 .739  .666 .493 .786 .608  .690 .211 .883 .502  .854  .695 .650 .114NS .597  .858 .521 .861  .800 .380* .799 .459 .546  .474  .526  .652  A j z e n , 1971 (32)  cooperation competition total  36 36 216  Darroch,  picture release  107  Average value over a l l  Note:  s  B not measured  146 146 146  a  BI-B  Mc dropped  cheat copy allow to copy  1971 (35)  BI-NB (Mc f  .970  Mc dropped  .593 .583 .781  .562 .550 .747  .834 .247NS .529  .578 .528 .822  .675  .537  .462  .534  a  cases  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t NS = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  a t a = .01  except  * = significant  at a =  .05,  28  TABLE I  (continued)  Abbreviations: N  =  Number o f s u b j e c t s  BI  =  Behavioral i n t e n t i o n  A  =  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  =  Personal  =  S o c i a l normative b e l i e f s  =  M o t i v a t i o n to comply  . act NB P NB s Mc s B  =  Behavior  normative b e l i e f (summed over r e f e r e n t s )  (summed over r e f e r e n t s )  29  Evidence f o r the importance o f the e q u a t i o n ' s a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components i n b e h a v i o r p r e d i c t i o n i s presented, i n T a b l e I I . reported.that  ( 9 ) have a l s o  A j z e n and F i s h b e i n  when the e f f e c t s o f the p r e d i c t o r  terms a r e  h e l d c o n s t a n t , the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between A  Q  and  b e h a v i o r i n most cases a r e low and n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . Secondly, some c o r r e l a t i o n i s expected between the predictor variables of Fishbein's  model.  Few r e s u l t s on  the c o r r e l a t i o n between p r e d i c t o r terms have been Table I I I d i s c l o s e s the r e s u l t s o f t h r e e s t u d i e s , Dulany's  ( 1 8 ) reported  (BH)(MC) i n c l u d e d  c o r r e l a t i o n between  f o r comparison.  (RHd)(RSv) and  BH t o be equal to the  In terms o f F i s h b e i n ' s  t h i s means t h a t N B ^ , F i s h b e i n ' s  with  I t may be r e c a l l e d from  equation. ( 2 . 1 ) t h a t Dulany p o s t u l a t e d p r o d u c t . o f RHd and RHs.  reported.  equation,  a d a p t a t i o n o f Dulany's BH,  a l s o c o n t a i n s a component o f the A  . term.  With r e g a r d t o  clG "C  the h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between A__, and NB, A j z e n a C u  and  Fishbein  ( 1 0 ) state,  I t should be noted that Dulany's ( 1 9 6 7 ) t h e o r y o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t r o l would l e a d us to expect a t l e a s t some c o r r e l a t i o n between these two p r e d i c t o r s s i n c e they a r e c o n c e i v e d to be p a r t l y determined by the same f a c t o r .  and  A c o r r e l a t i o n should t h e r e f o r e be found between A„ . act n NB. o r between A . and Z NB.(Mc.). T h i s r e s u l t i s l act i i  supported by the few r e s u l t s r e l a t i o n s h i p between A  shown i n Table I I I .  The  . and NB. might be i n t e r p r e t e d  as an  TABLE I I CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDES TOWARD OBJECTS EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL (A ) AND VARIABLES IN THE MODEL Study  A -BI A -A . A -NB o act o o s  Situation  Attitude A -NB (Mc )O b j e c t O  S  S  Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1970 (10)  Game 1 Game 2  Fishbein e t a l . , 1970 ( 2 0 T  Communicative Compliance  -.024NS -.003NS .262 .279  .059NS .418  .037NS .163NS  two groupmembers  Hornik, 1970 (38 )  GRIT RPM HAWK  .780 .771 .779 .730 .763 .718 -.117NS -.085NS -.015NS  .684 .741 .012NS  other player  Ajzen, 1971  risk  (32)  Darroch, 1971  Note:  .256* .091NS  (35)photo r e l e a s e s w i t h confederates having d i f f e r e n t c o l o r and/or sex  .237* .091NS  .354 .239*  .262* .015NS  other player  .265  .242*  .257*  .241*  other player  .212* .248* ..HONS .088NS  .390 .415 .118NS .142NS  .300 .306 .082NS .148NS  .233* .334 .109NS .143NS  Negroes  C o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .01 except f o r * = s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05 and NS = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  Abbreviations:  A  Q  B  =  A t t i t u d e toward an o b j e c t t h a t may be found i n the b e h a v i o r a l  =  Behavior  BI = A ' = act NB =  Behavioral i n t e n t i o n A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  Mc  Motivation  g  =  S o c i a l normative beliefs(summed over  situation  referents)  t o comply (summed over r e f e r e n t s ) CO  o  31 TABLE I I I CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A AND NB OR NB (Mc ) act' s s s  act NB (Mc )  A  Situation  Study  N  A  verbal  Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (10)  Game 1, coop. individual competitive total Game 2, coop. individual competitive total  32 32 32 96 32 32 32 96  Devries & Ajzen, 1971 (8)  cheat copy a l l o w t o copy  146 146 14 6  A j z e n , 1971  u n s p e c i f i e d by author  216  Note:  s  .26  108  Dulany, 1964 (18)  (32)  act"  N B  .199NS .647 .587 .627 .024NS .601 .662 .614 .361 .394 .398 .546  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .01 except f o r NS = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  Abbreviations: N A  =  . = act NB = s Mc =  Number o f s u b j e c t s A t t i t u d e toward t h e a c t S o c i a l normative b e l i e f s Motivation  t o comply  (summed over  (summed over  referents)  referents)  i n d i c a t i o n of the degree to which the a t t i t u d e toward a p a r t i c u l a r a c t the on  subject  (in part,  consequences o f p e r f o r m i n g the  act)  perceives his  h i s b e l i e f s about  as b e i n g dependent  the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n t persons or  groups.  Another r e l a t i o n s h i p to c o n s i d e r i n d e t a i l i s BI-B has  correlation.  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  been premised upon the  s e l e c t e d by  the  assumption t h a t  "...  (9).  highly  measure of  to  s i t u a t i o n must be  be to  specific in i t s  r e f e r e n c e to a p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r  i d e n t i c a l to the  particular  the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of BI  (a) the measure o f BI must be  the b e h a v i o r a l  BI  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s are h e l d  of importance i n i n f l u e n c i n g  (b) the  the  experimenter i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the  b e h a v i o r under study"  the  (10), i . e . ,  essentially  situation referred  to i n  the  BI;  time between the measurement of BI and  the  o b s e r v a t i o n of B must be minimized i n o r d e r p r e v e n t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a change i n (c) the b e h a v i o r must be, v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l by i f a s t u d e n t has  BI;  as f a r as p o s s i b l e , the  indicated  subject; a low  to  under  f o r example, behavioral  i n t e n t i o n toward s e e i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l movie, and  then i s t o l d t h a t he w i l l be  t h e r e i s a good chance t h a t the i n t e n t i o n w i l l change, and  examined on i t , student's  t h a t he w i l l ,  in fact,  B:  see  the movie  (b) e n t e r s  (note t h a t the time f a c t o r i n  i n t o t h i s change o f  BI).  A good d i s c u s s i o n of the above p o i n t s i s to be i n an a r t i c l e by F i s h b e i n  (19).  c o r r e l a t i o n between BI and s t u d i e s i s about .70.  An  mation o f r worked out to  He  s t a t e s t h a t the  B taken over s e v e r a l  One  (p <  .01),  (.432  and  i n F i s h b e i n et  Z-transfor-  counter-example  be n o t e d — t h e p r e - t e s t compliance BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n reported  average  (seven)  average u s i n g F i s h e r ' s .71.  should  relationship.  al.  found  (20) was  The  .211  a l t h o u g h the beta c o e f f i c i e n t s were moderate .248/  p < .01)  and  significant.  c o r r e l a t i o n of the p r e d i c t o r s on BI was F i s h b e i n et  al.  (20)  explain  The  .608  multiple  (p <  .01).  that:  . . . p r e - t e s t measures of i n t e n t i o n s may not be the most a p p r o p r i a t e measure f o r p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o r over a s e r i e s o f t r i a l s . A p o s t - t e s t measure o f the compliance BI-B  relationship  yielded a c o r r e l a t i o n of only  .502  et  t h a t communicative b e h a v i o r  was  al.  (20)  to the c o n c l u s i o n  (p < .01)  more s t a b l e than compliance b e h a v i o r and  of b e h a v i o r are c o n s i d e r a b l y  more d i f f i c u l t  leading  Fishbein  t h a t some types to p r e d i c t than  others. A l t h o u g h p r e - t e s t and a b l e over a s e r i e s o f t r i a l s conditions/  such may  not be  a p p l i c a t i o n s of the t h e o r y .  p o s t - t e s t measures are under i d e a l  obtain-  experimental  the case i n 'one-shot', p r a c t i c a l A p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l and  general  approach to the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior by Burhans  has  been suggested  (15):  . . . 'behavioral i n t e n t i o n ' , while probably a u s e f u l c o n s t r u c t f o r s i m p l i f y i n g r e s e a r c h methodology, i s a l s o probably f u r t h e r removed from o v e r t behavior than F i s h b e i n has i n d i c a t e d . Dropping the concept of ' b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ' and f o c u s i n g on the u t i l i t y of F i s h b e i n ' s model f o r d i r e c t l y p r e d i c t i n g o v e r t b e h a v i o r would seem the more f r u i t f u l approach. While the p r e s e n t extreme of completely  author does not propose to go to  the  d r o p p i n g the b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n term,  i t s r o l e i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior  w i l l be more c a r e f u l l y  examined i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. F i s h b e i n et a l . (20)  have s t a t e d t h a t under  c i r c u m s t a n c e s a person's o v e r t v o l i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r to be p e r f e c t l y determined by h i s b e h a v i o r a l  ideal i s expected  intentions.  many s i t u a t i o n s , however, a person's v o l i t i o n a l o v e r t may  be o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f h i s t o t a l o v e r t  A j z e n and  Fishbein  (10)  t o t a l overt behavior  ( v o l i t i o n a l and  ' h a b i t ' and  of these v a r i a b l e s was  behavior  behavior.  have p o i n t e d out t h a t a person's n o n - v o l i t i o n a l ) may  i n f l u e n c e d by v a r i a b l e s not c o n s i d e r e d v a r i a b l e s such as:  by  the p r e s e n t  'feasibility'.  suggested by Dulany's  The  model, existence 'H'  If, in a  h y p o t h e t i c a l one-shot a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s t h e o r y ,  (behavior)  be  (18) use o f  f o r h a b i t u a l or non-intentional overt behavior.  s u b j e c t i s faced w i t h  In  a  the performance o f a p a r t i c u l a r task  t h a t he has o f t e n performed i n the p a s t ,  i t would not be unreasonable to expect him  then  to perform  that  35  task i n a s t e r e o t y p e d experiences ing be  manner, based on the h a b i t u a t i o n of h i s  with previous  s i m i l a r t a s k s , r a t h e r than  to h i s b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n . s m a l l because b e h a v i o r  non-intentional  The  BI-B  still  ( h a b i t ) , and  t h e r e f o r e cannot be  1  s u b j e c t , however,  have a h i g h m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h A  .  1  This hypothetical habituated one  explanation  (Tables  I and  IV).  behavior  could p o s s i b l y  f o r the anomalous r e s u l t s f o r the  p r e - t e s t compliance behavior (20)  The  predicted  p r o f e s s to have a s t r o n g b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n and  t h i s BI may s t i l l n and Z NB.(Mc.). i=l  provide  c o r r e l a t i o n would  i n t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l case i s m o s t l y  from the terms i n the F i s h b e i n e q u a t i o n . may  accord-  case r e p o r t e d  by F i s h b e i n et a l .  I t i s e q u a l l y l i k e l y t h a t one  o t h e r p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d have o c c u r r e d  (although  of  the  BI-B  the time f a c t o r  appears to have been m i n i m i z e d ) . The  r e s u l t reported  the r e l a t i v e l y low  (r =  by F i s h b e i n et a l . (20), where  .211)  r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h n of A  . and  BI-B (R =  relationship did .608)  not  multiple correlation  I NB.(Mc.) on BI, i n d i c a t e s t h a t a h i g h  multiple  c o r r e l a t i o n o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s on BI does not  necessar-  ily  The  r e s u l t i n a good p r e d i c t i o n of a c t u a l b e h a v i o r .  p r e d i c t i o n of a c t u a l b e h a v i o r accuracy  o n l y i f BI and  i s seen to occur w i t h good  B are h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d .  Another i n d i c a t o r o f accuracy behavior  i s obtainable  i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f  from the r e g r e s s i o n o f the p r e d i c t o r  TABLE IV STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A NB , NB , AND NB (Mc ) ON BI act p s s s Beta C o e f f i c i e n t s Study  Situation  N 108  act  NB P  .19t  NB (Mc ) s s  NB s  Dulany, 1964 (18)  verbal  F i s h b e i n , 1966 (36)  males females total  21 14 35  -.148NS .757 .374  C a r l s o n , 1968 (33)  average over t h i r t y behavioral intentions  49  .832  Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1969 (9)  party  100  .077NS .714*  .083*  exhibit TV show concert poker French movie discussion novel  100 100 100 100 100 100 100  .440* .255* .303* .227* .190* .252* .292*  .128* .180* .249* .158* .191* .300* .323*  Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1970 (10)  Game 1, coop. individual. competitive total Game 2, coop. individual. competitive total  32 32 32 96 32 32 32 96  i  .81  .8.8  .947 .232* .535  .850 .935 .849 .910  .105*  .275* .423* .376* .502* .649* .335* .268*  .229NS NB .353* dropped .691 .378 .239NS .416 .669 .405 p  R  .707 .552 .327 .601 .573 .427 .298 .539  Mc dropped  .819  Mc dropped  .785 .852 .922 .888 .626 .754 .894 .849  .724 .709 .787 .794 .794 .779 .684  co cn  TABLE IV (continued) Beta C o e f f i c i e n t s Situation  Study  N  A  NB P  act  .295 .432 .253 .585  .478 .248 .607 .255  .70 4 .608 .806 .765  .757 .714 .371* .712  .131NS .116NS .061NS .134NS  .859 .804 .385NS .806  Mc dropped  .566 .647 .714  .768 .225NS .399  .839 .594 .818  144 144 144 144  .139NS  Fishbein e t a l . , 1970 ( 2 0 T  pretest pretest po s te s t postest  Hornik, 1970 (38)  GRIT RPM HAWK total  Devries & Ajzen, 1971 (8)  cheat copy a l l o w t o copy  146 146 146  .331 .398 .317  A j z e n , 1971 (32)  cooperation competition total  36 36 216  .112NS .541 .529  Darroch, 1971 (35)  photo  107  .629 (avera ge)  Note:  release  R  NB (Mc ) s s  .793  .748  risk  30 30 30 90  s  Mc dropped  56  Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (37)  commun. compliance commun• compliance  NB  '  .354 .378 .526  .049NS (average)  .681 (average)  A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .01 except * = r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05 NS = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t = s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l not reported  CO  38 TABLE IV (continued)  Abbreviations: BI  =  Behavioral  N  =  Number o f s u b j e c t s  =  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  =  Personal  =  S o c i a l normative b e l i e f s  =  Motivation  =  M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f the p r e d i c t o r s on BI  A  ^ act  NB NB Mc R  P s s  intention  normative b e l i e f  to comply J  (summed over  (summed over  referents)  referents)  39  v a r i a b l e s on b e h a v i o r  (Table V ) .  Some mention should  be made o f the r o l e t h a t BI p l a y s  i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r .  BI i s t h e o r i z e d  to be an  i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e between B and the two p r e d i c t o r terms, n A , and £ NB.(Mc.). The c o r r e l a t i o n o f B w i t h these two act . , 1 1 i=l terms i s t h e r e f o r e expected to be l e s s than the c o r r e l a t i o n of BI w i t h the same p r e d i c t o r s . due  to the n o n - p e r f e c t  This attenuation  d e s c r i p t i v e matching o f a v e r b a l l y  assessed BI w i t h the a c t u a l b e h a v i o r a l two  i s likely  s t u d i e s c o u l d be found  situation.  Only  (Table VI) t h a t r e p o r t e d the  c o r r e l a t i o n o f B w i t h each o f the p r e d i c t o r terms.  A com-  p a r i s o n o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s to those between BI and the p r e d i c t o r terms  (Table I) tends to s u b s t a n t i a t e  t h a t BI  i s an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e between B and the p r e d i c t o r terms. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s f u r t h e r strengthened by the f a c t t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between B and the p r e d i c t o r s a r e seen  (Table VI)  to be reduced to n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e when the v a r i a n c e  attribu-  t a b l e to BI i s p a r t i a l l e d o u t . model cannot be claimed  This implies  t o be a theory  f o r the p r e d i c t i o n  of b e h a v i o r per se, b u t t h a t the theory b e h a v i o r p r e d i c t i o n i f the b e h a v i o r a l  t h a t the F i s h b e i n  can l e a d t o good  intention criterion  i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y s e l e c t e d t o match the b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n . In terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l  p r a c t i c e , these r e s u l t s would imply  t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l b e h a v i o r s may be p r e d i c t e d by a s s e s s i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e  behavioral  i n t e n t i o n s and t h a t any change i n  b e h a v i o r would be expected to be accompanied by a s i m i l a r  TABLE V STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS, MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF Aact, NB NB (Mc ) ON B, AND PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF B WITH BI s s  S  AND  Beta C o e f f i c i e n t s Study  Situation  Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970(10)  Game 1, c o o p e r a t i v e individual. competition total Game 2, t o t a l  32 32 32 96 96  Fishbein et a l . , 1970 (20T  p r e t e s t , commun. p r e t e s t , compliance p o s t e s t , commun. p o s t e s t , compliance  144 144 144 144  Note:  N  act .223NS .270NS .664 .331 .419  NB  NB (Mc ) s s  s .438 .302NS .186NS .478 .464  Mc dropped  .621 .351  .199 .311  R  r  B,BI  .529 .519 .788 .732 .793  .571 .758 .765 .847 .841  .619 .356 .774 .593  .690 .211 .883 .502  A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s , c o r r e l a t i o n s and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .01 except where NS = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t .  Abbreviations:  N act NB„ s Mc s B BI R r  B,BI  Number o f s u b j e c t s A t t i t u d e toward the a c t S o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (summed over Motivation  t o comply  (summed over  referents)  referents)  Behavior Behavioral  intention  M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f the p r e d i c t o r s on behavior Product moment c o r r e l a t i o n o f B with BI  41 TABLE V I PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS AND PARTIAL CORRELATIONS (BI HELD CONSTANT) BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR, B, AND THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A _ . AND NB r  r  Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1970 (10)  Devries & Ajzen, 1971 (8)  Note:  , act  B-NB  Game 1, coop. individual. competitive total Game 2, coop. individual. competitive total  .310NS .465 .773 .631 .272NS .506 .734 .703  .482 .477 .576 .685 .4 21 .546 .655 .721  cheat copy o t h e r s a l l o w to copy  .370 .425 .457  .159 .216 .535  Situation  Study  B-A  B-A s  . act  -.023NS  .233* .137NS .157NS .097NS  p B-NB  S  -.083NS  .178NS -.161NS -.138NS .055NS  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t ex = .01 except * = s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .01 NS = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  Abbreviations: B  =  Behavior  A  . act NB s BI  =  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  =  S o c i a l normative b e l i e f s  =  Behavioral intention  r  =  p r o d u c t moment  r  =  partial correlation  (summed over r e f e r e n t s )  correlation (BI h e l d  constant)  change i n these i n t e n t i o n s . ioral and  Given t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r behav-  i n t e n t i o n i s l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d to an a t t i t u d i n a l  term  a normative term i n F i s h b e i n ' s model, a change o f  b e h a v i o r would a l s o be expected to be accompanied by a change n i n the v a l u e of A , I NB.(Mc.) or both o f these p r e d i c t o r ace ^ ^ r x terms. Turning was  to the problem of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y , i t  i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter I t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n weights of  p r e d i c t o r s i n the F i s h b e i n e q u a t i o n have been found to statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t and  multiple correlation for A  that high reported n and  Z  be  values  Fishbein  (19)  c o r r e l a t i o n between the behavioral  two  of  NB.(Mc.) on BI i n d i c a t e d  t h a t BI can be p r e d i c t e d w i t h an accuracy c o n s i d e r a b l y than chance.  better  r e p o r t s t h a t the average m u l t i p l e components o f the theory  i n t e n t i o n s i s about .80  and  (based on nine s t u d i e s ) .  A c l o s e look a t the l i t e r a t u r e , however, r e v e a l e d necessity for caution  i n accepting  high p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y .  the  the c l a i m f o r r e a s o n a b l y  Table IV i n d i c a t e s t h a t  s t u d i e s out o f the e l e v e n r e p o r t e d  the  five  i n the t a b l e had  the normative p r e d i c t o r term by dropping Mc.  modified  Although  this  v a r i a t i o n i n the model's normative term would seem to r a i s e some s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s  about the v a l i d i t y o f the model,  i n c l u s i o n of measures of NB  does l e a d to s i g n i f i c a n t l y  p r e d i c t i o n s of BI than would be o b t a i n e d alone.  The  to be one  by a s s e s s i n g  the better  A  problem w i t h the normative p r e d i c t o r appears  of adequately measuring i t .  43 The i n order  importance of a s s e s s i n g  to p r e d i c t o v e r t behavior  the s o c i a l environment was  recognized  long  e i t h e r Dulany's or F i s h b e i n ' s work ( r e c a l l Lewin's 2.0).  In t h e i r study on v e r b a l a t t i t u d e s and  DeFleur and  Westie  (21)  equation  overt acts,  found t h a t s i x t y r e f e r e n c e  groups  were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g of f o r t y - s i x regarding  before  the s i g n i n g of photographic r e l e a s e s .  subjects  They  f u r t h e r conclude, Thus, a n a l y s i s of the b e l i e f s of an i n d i v i d u a l about the a t t i t u d e s , norms, and v a l u e s h e l d by h i s r e f e r e n c e groups, s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , peer groups, and the l i k e may be e s s e n t i a l f o r b e t t e r p r e d i c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s o f a c t i o n w i t h the use of v e r b a l scales. T h i s would r e p r e s e n t a more d i s t i n c t l y s o c i o l o g i c a l approach. Concerning the problem o f o b t a i n i n g measures o f the p r e d i c t o r , F i s h b e i n et al.  normative  (20) p o i n t s o u t the apparent crude  s t a t e o f t h i s measure: As to normative b e l i e f s , i t seemed reasonable to assume t h a t the r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n t s f o r the s u b j e c t were (a) h i s two p a r t n e r s and (b) the experimenter. They f u r t h e r s t a t e t h a t , In the absence o f any s p e c i f i c theory, we f e l t t h a t a simple summation o f the p e r c e i v e d expect a t i o n s of these t h r e e r e f e r e n t s would p r o v i d e an adequate estimate o f the normative component. T h i s sum was denoted ENB(Mc). Measures o f the  'motivation  to comply'(Mc) f a c t o r o f  the normative component have caused s i m i l a r c o n c e r n s , as  i l l u s t r a t e d by A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (10): Research to t h i s date has i n d i c a t e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e v a r i a n c e i n t h i s measure, and thus the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h normative b e l i e f s alone were as good o r b e t t e r than those o b t a i n e d when NB was m u l t i p l i e d by Mc. . . . In the same study, A j z e n and F i s h b e i n have noted i n many s i t u a t i o n s p e r s o n a l normative  that  b e l i e f s may serve m a i n l y  as an a l t e r n a t i v e measure o f b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s . In t h e i r r e c e n t review o f r e s e a r c h on the model, A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (7) make the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g the normative  component o f the model:  (a) normative  b e l i e f s may be c o n s i d e r e d to be a p a r t  of the b e l i e f system t h a t determines •*  A  . ; e.g., act ^ '  one o f t h e consequences o f p e r f o r m i n g a g i v e n a c t i s t h a t i t may p l e a s e o r d i s p l e a s e r e l e v a n t r e f e r ence i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups; (b) one p o s s i b l e method f o r e n t e r i n g the normative b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n c e groups i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l model i s i n a stepwise manner, w i t h each normative  term g i v e n i t s own b e t a  c o e f f i c i e n t ; e.g., B = BI =  t A  a  ...  c  t  +  ] c o  o  [NB (Mc ) ] C J + [ N B (Mc ) 3  +  1  1  1  [NB (Mc ) ] co n  n  n  2  2  0^ +  . . . .(2.6)  (c) an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f e n t e r i n g the normative p r e d i c t o r terms i n t o the e q u a t i o n i s to form a  45 g e n e r a l normative  term by summing over a l l  relevant referents;  e.g.,  B = BI =  [  [A^,]u  +  n I  NB. (Mc. )]w,  (d) the m o t i v a t i o n to comply, Mc, i n more than one way;  e.g.,  may  . . . .(1.0)  be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  a person's  motivation  to comply g e n e r a l l y w i t h a r e f e r e n c e group, and person's m o t i v a t i o n to comply w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h a t r e f e r e n t group. Fishbein  a  specific  Ajzen  and  (7) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f a v o r the  general conception.  They f u r t h e r say t h a t when Mc  i s measured s p e c i f i c to the b e h a v i o r , i t i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e more than a measure of weight c o ^ ( i n which i s a l s o  (c))  behavior-specific.  F i n a l l y , a few o b s e r v a t i o n s should be made c o n c e r n i n g the s i z e o f the b e t a r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s These s t a t i s t i c a l l y of  determined  weights  (W and q  p r o v i d e an  u^).  estimate  the r e l a t i v e degree to which the a t t i t u d i n a l and  normative  p r e d i c t o r terms i n f l u e n c e the p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l intentions.  In a p s y c h o l o g i c a l sense,  to what degree a person's the b e h a v i o r , and normative  behavior).  determine  a t t i t u d e toward the performance o f  to what degree h i s s o c i a l o r p e r s o n a l  beliefs, will  the b e h a v i o r  these weights  i n f l u e n c e h i s i n t e n t i o n to c a r r y out  (and, i d e a l l y , w i l l  thus i n f l u e n c e h i s a c t u a l  46  These e m p i r i c a l l y determined weights have been to depend upon t h r e e main  found  factors:  (a) the type o f behavior b e i n g  considered,  (b) the b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n o r s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s under which the b e h a v i o r  i s to be enacted,  and  'personality' of  the  (c) the i n d i v i d u a l , i . e . , the  i n d i v i d u a l or the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the who  c o n s i d e r s performing  Examples o f how  2.  behavior.  these t h r e e f a c t o r s a f f e c t b e t a weights  are r e p o r t e d i n Table IV. appears i n A j z e n and  the  individual  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f examples  Fishbein  (7).  The E d u c a t i o n a l  Context  G e n e r a l l y , a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n e d u c a t i o n have resembled a t t i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n psychology. the term  V a r i e d uses o f  ' a t t i t u d e ' are e v i d e n t and unwarranted  assumptions  about the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p are p r e v a l e n t . An i n d i c a t i o n o f the v a r y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l views o f ' a t t i t u d e ' i s g i v e n by Krathwohl et al.  (22)  in their  Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s : Often when we use the term ' a t t i t u d e ' we imply t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s v a l u i n g , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y , some b e h a v i o r , phenomenon, o r o b j e c t . But the term ' a t t i t u d e ' i s a l s o used to denote q u i t e g e n e r a l s e t s toward phenomena as w e l l as an o r i e n t a t i o n toward them.  47 Mager (23),  f o r example, c a l l s  'attitude*  of an i n d i v i d u a l to a c t i n a c e r t a i n way conditions,"  thus coming v e r y c l o s e  of a b e h a v i o r a l  intention.  "a g e n e r a l tendency under c e r t a i n  to F i s h b e i n ' s  definition  Other authors have used  as a term s p e c i f i c to a d i s c i p l i n e .  A  as d e f i n e d  i s "an o p i n i o n  by Moore and  taken w i t h r e s p e c t  Sutman  (24),  to a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  'scientific  object  i n the  'attitude' attitude', or  position  field  of  science." Irrespective ' a t t i t u d e ' has  of how  the  concept  a few  examples of  Blackwood Illinois  Dunfee  Mager  used,  r e c e n t l y become an important element i n many  f o r m u l a t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . but  s h o u l d be  The  following  ' a t t i t u d e ' as an e d u c a t i o n a l  (25) : Develop a p p r e c i a t i o n s f o r the about the environment. . . .  are  objectives  attitudes  C u r r i c u l u m Program (27): To h e l p c h i l d r e n develop proper a t t i t u d e s toward s c i e n c e and the world of t e c h n o l o g y . ... (26):  (23):  Morrison  (28):  We can assume t h a t the c h i e f purpose o f e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s to h e l p c h i l d r e n and young people a c q u i r e those u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s which happy and u s e f u l c i t i z e n s o f a democratic s o c i e t y need. ... ... a u n i v e r s a l o b j e c t i v e of i n s t r u c t i o n — the i n t e n t to send s t u d e n t s away from i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a t l e a s t as f a v o r a b l e an a t t i t u d e toward the s u b j e c t s taught as they had when they f i r s t a r r i v e d . That complex t h i n g which we c a l l m o t i v a t i o n or a t t i t u d e , the a f f e c t i v e s i d e o f l e a r n i n g , i s perhaps above a l l the human a t t r i b u t e which we hope to evoke.  48  2.1  E d u c a t i o n a l Research on the A t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r R e l a t i o n ship  The assumption i m p l i c i t i n the above e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s appears to be t h a t p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward  school  s u b j e c t s or s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l l e a d to e f f e c t i v e l e a r n ing  behavior  on the p a r t of s t u d e n t s .  Thus, Andersen  (29)  hypothesizes: I f the student's a t t i t u d e toward the s u b j e c t i s not a t a h i g h l e v e l , then the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t he c o u l d perform the congruent c o g n i t i v e task i s g r e a t l y diminished. The  l a c k of e m p i r i c a l evidence  to support  this  hypothesis  has been demonstrated i n the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n o f a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r problem.  I t was  p o i n t e d out t h a t  r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e and w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t and assessed  the  his  behavior  h i g h o n l y when h i s a t t i t u d e has  with respect to a s p e c i f i c a c t or behavior,  specific conditions  (6).  been  under  In the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t ,  f i n d i n g has been r e p e a t e d l y demonstrated by low < .30)  the  this  (typically  o r i n c o n s i s t a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures o f  a t t i t u d e and v a r i a b l e s such as: s c o r e s , and  a p t i t u d e scores  IQ s c o r e s , achievement  (see A. Rothman (30) and  S.  Khan (31)) . Nevertheless,  g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e instruments  f r e q u e n t l y used to assess o r course  changes.  student  are  ' a t t i t u d e s ' toward  courses  P o s i t i v e student a t t i t u d e s are assumed  49 to i n d i c a t e a good l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , w h i l e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s are assumed to imply a need f o r course While  improvement.  these assumptions cannot be supported by p a s t psycho-  l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n the a t t i t u d i n a l domain, the  possibility  o f i d e n t i f y i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s toward l e a r n i n g a c t s and v a r i a b l e s s p e c i f i c t o the l e a r n i n g needs to be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  specific  process  A t the p r e s e n t time, based on i t s  success i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t , the a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s theory t o the p r e d i c t i o n of student b e h a v i o r s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d i n a l and normative  from  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s would  appear to be p r o m i s i n g course of a c t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s to t a k e . 2.2  The A p p l i c a b i l i t y o f F i s h b e i n ' s Approach to E d u c a t i o n Up  to the p r e s e n t time  (1972), s t u d i e s on F i s h b e i n ' s  approach have been m a i n l y concerned  with v a l i d a t i o n .  (15), i n a s s e s s i n g F i s h b e i n ' s s t u d i e s , concluded  Burhans  that  . . . the f e w — t h o u g h h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s t h a t he has conducted which employ h i s model have been concerned w i t h v e r y s p e c i f i c and l i m i t e d k i n d s of b e h a v i o r . . . . Much e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s needed to t e s t the e f f i c a c y of h i s model i n p r e d i c t i n g b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s and b e h a v i o r under a wide range o f circumstances and w i t h a wide range o f c l a s s e s of behavior. In p a s t s t u d i e s , s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s have been imposed on e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s i n o r d e r to minimize error.  experimental  These l i m i t a t i o n s would be d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e  to a t t a i n i n a t y p i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g .  The f o l l o w i n g  50 d i s c u s s i o n i s intended perimental  to assess  the importance o f the ex-  r e s t r i c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the e d u c a t i o n a l  of the p r e s e n t 2.2.1.  study. Post  faoturn  measures of b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s .  The f i r s t r e s t r i c t i o n i n q u e s t i o n measure o f behavior  i s the p o i n t a t which the  (B) has been taken i n the s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d  to i n the t a b l e s .  In o n l y two o f the p u b l i s h e d  Ajzen  (10), and A j z e n  and F i s h b e i n  intentions  context  studies,  (32), have the b e h a v i o r a l  (BI) and the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s A  , and ENB(Mc) c3.CC  been measured p r i o r to the measure o f behavior published  s t u d i e s , except f o r A j z e n  measure o f behavior  Devries  and F i s h b e i n  was taken, i n d i c a t e a post  o f B I , t h a t i s , the b e h a v i o r before  (B). A l l o t h e r  factum  students'  (8) u t i l i z e d  past cheating  (9,37) and C a r l s o n  measure  has been performed and measured  the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s have been a s s e s s e d . and A j z e n  (9) where no  Furthermore,  s e l f - r e p o r t e d estimates  behaviors  whereas A j z e n  (33) u t i l i z e d h y p o t h e t i c a l  of  and F i s h b e i n  behavioral  s i t u a t i o n s w i t h no p r o v i s i o n made f o r the performance o r observation by F i s h b e i n  of actual behavior. (36) and Darroch  The two unpublished  (35) t h a t used pre factum  studies measures  o f BI, showed n o t i c e a b l y reduced BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s (Table I ) . An i m p l i c a t i o n o f post  factum  measures o f b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n s has been suggested p r e v i o u s l y by Gerard) (34). He suggested t h a t a s u b j e c t may b r i n g h i s i n t e n t i o n s i n t o l i n e with h i s actual behavior. u t i l i z i n g post  factum  I f t h i s i s so, the s t u d i e s  measures o f BI, A  . and INB(Mc) would  51 be expected  to  ' p r e d i c t ' b e h a v i o r and b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s  w i t h b e t t e r accuracy than  the  studies  t h a t measured  behavior a f t e r the p r e d i c t o r s were a s s e s s e d .  Tables I and  IV i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s not always the case, a l t h o u g h ,  the  e f f e c t may  error.  be s m a l l and might be masked by experimental  In the p r e s e n t study the word  ' p r e d i c t ' i s used i n  the sense of c o r r e l a t i n g measures o f b e h a v i o r w i t h measures o f b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s t h a t are taken p r i o r to the measure of b e h a v i o r .  An attempt was  made to p r e d i c t  students*  performance of o p t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s from assessment o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s toward the s p e c i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s .  performing  The assessment o f b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n s and p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , i n the p r e s e n t was  prior  study,  c a r r i e d o u t p r i o r t o the performance o f the b e h a v i o r  because  an  i n s t r u c t o r would p r o b a b l y want to  b e h a v i o r ahead o f time.  predict  I n f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d was  as p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r p l a n n i n g the types o f  student seen  activities  t h a t would be most l i k e l y c a r r i e d o u t by the s t u d e n t s . 2.2.2  P r a c t i c e and r e p e t i t i v e t r i a l s .  Another r e -  s t r i c t i o n e v i d e n t i n p a s t s t u d i e s of the model i s the use of p r a c t i c e t r i a l s of the b e h a v i o r i n o r d e r to b o l s t e r  the  b e h a v i o r a l r e l i a b i l i t y and b e h a v i o r - b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n correlation  stability.  Dulany  (18) measured b e h a v i o r d u r i n g the l a s t  twenty  of one hundred t r i a l s , and measured b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s  after  the f u l l one  hundred t r i a l s .  Ajzen  subjects eight practice t r i a l s  and  behavior  and  measure was  (10)  These were  followed  ten more t r i a l s d u r i n g which  taken.  the  S i m i l a r l y , p r a c t i c e or  repetit-  i o u s t r i a l s were used i n s t u d i e s by F i s h b e i n e t al. and A j z e n  (32) .  t r i a l s , Darroch  Two  (20),  s t u d i e s t h a t d i d not u t i l i z e p r a c t i c e  (35), and  Fishbein  (36) , are seen  (Table  to have n o t i c e a b l y lower BI-B  c o r r e l a t i o n s than the  reported  (r =  i n the o t h e r  Darroch and  studies  .462  and  .447  Fishbein studies, respectively).  c o r r e l a t i o n s , however, may r e l a t i v e l y l o n g BI-B  gave  d u r i n g a P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma  game (see Rapoport and Chammah (40)). by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Fishbein  values  f o r the  These low  be p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f  time element p r e s e n t  I)  BI-B  the  i n both s t u d i e s  ( d i s c u s s e d below). The  present  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the model i s d i r e c t e d  toward e d u c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s  which cannot be p r e d i c t e d r e -  p e t i t i v e l y o r performed r e p e t i t i v e l y . a t t e n u a t i o n o f the BI-B  Consequently, some  c o r r e l a t i o n might be expected i n  the p r e s e n t  study because of the r e d u c t i o n o f  behavioral  reliability  which might have been enhanced by  repetitive  behavioral  activities.  2.2.3 gained was  BI-B  by the use  f u r t h e r advantage  (10) .  studies,  o f the c r u c i a l time between the measure  the performance o f B.  about an hour  One  of game-like s i t u a t i o n s i n p a s t  the m i n i m i z a t i o n  of BI and  time element.  The  T h i s time was  s t u d i e s by Darroch  typically  (35)  and  Fishbein  53 (36) were the o n l y r e p o r t e d attempts to measure b e h a v i o r a l phenomena separated  from the measure of b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s  by a time g r e a t e r than a few  hours.  of behavioral i n t e n t i o n  the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s about  and  Darroch o b t a i n e d  one month i n advance o f the observed behavior/ a b l e to o b t a i n a moderate, average BI-B (p < .01). beginning  F i s h b e i n assessed  ing  BI-B  c o r r e l a t i o n s of  still  c o r r e l a t i o n of  .462 the  s e l f - r e p o r t s of  a t the end o f the semester, o b t a i n -  .676  (p < .01)  As was  f o r females and  (NS)  f o r males  BI-B  c o r r e l a t i o n s were n o t i c e a b l y lower than those  i n other  (Table I ) .  and was  behavioral intentions at  of a semester, and o b t a i n e d  p r e m a r i t a l sexual behavior  measures  discussed  .394  i n 2.2.2, these reported  s t u d i e s , but the s m a l l e r v a l u e s o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s  c o u l d , i n p a r t , be caused by the n o n - r e p e t i t i v e t h a t were assessed  and  behaviors  the time i n t e r v a l over which BI might  have changed. The behaviors  present  study has  provided various  educational  which c o u l d be performed e i t h e r immediately  or up to two  and  one-half  predictor variables. expect h i g h e r BI-B  weeks a f t e r the measurement of  Accordingly,  c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the case of  activities  This f a c t o r w i l l be examined i n the  d i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s i n Chapter  the  i t might be reasonable  performed c l o s e to the time o f the measurement o f the dictor variables.  after  IV.  pre-  to  54  2.2.4  Relevant r e f e r e n t s .  The problem o f the  normative p r e d i c t o r term has a l r e a d y been mentioned.  It  should perhaps be f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d t h a t i n the p a s t , the question  o f a s c e r t a i n i n g the r e f e r e n t groups r e l e v a n t t o t h e  i n d i v i d u a l , has depended l a r g e l y on the type o f b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n i n which the s u b j e c t has been p l a c e d .  The game  s i t u a t i o n s i n the m a j o r i t y o f the p r e v i o u s l y - r e p o r t e d have u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d the experimenter t o a s s e s s  studies  normative  b e l i e f s w i t h r e s p e c t to o n l y a s m a l l number o f r e f e r e n t s ( t y p i c a l l y one to t h r e e ) . the experimenter.  Ajzen  Dulany  (18) used o n l y one r e f e r e n t —  and F i s h b e i n  (9) used "my f r i e n d s "  as the o n l y r e f e r e n t upon which the s o c i a l normative b e l i e f , NB  s  was based.  Ajzen  and F i s h b e i n  (10), and A j z e n  a l s o used one r e f e r e n t , "my p a r t n e r " Dilemma game s i t u a t i o n s .  i n their  (32) have  Prisoner's  F i s h b e i n et at. (20) summed o v e r  three r e f e r e n t s , "member 1", "member 2", and "the experimenter", i n order  to a r r i v e a t a g e n e r a l  In an e d u c a t i o n a l  s o c i a l normative term, ZNB(Mc).  s i t u a t i o n , Devries  and A j z e n  (8) found  that  a sum o f f o u r normative b e l i e f s r e f e r e n t to classmates, the s u b j e c t ' s church, f a m i l y , and f r i e n d s , p r e d i c t e d intentions s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  The normative b e l i e f  behavioral concerning  the s u b j e c t ' s f r i e n d s (FrNB ) was, however, a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r than was ZNB i n two o f the t h r e e b e h a v i o r s  situations. I t  i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t no p r o f e s s o r o r i n s t r u c t o r was  used as a r e f e r e n t , even though t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study was  concerned with a d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  situation.  55 The importance  o f the i n s t r u c t o r as a r e f e r e n t  e x p l o r e d i n the p r e s e n t study, as were o t h e r r e f e r e n t s as:  'Closest f r i e n d s ' ,  'my  r e l i g i o u s group', and  was such  'parents', 'the m a j o r i t y of the c l a s s ' , ' I , m y s e l f ' as a p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n t .  The use of these p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n t s was  based  on a p r e -  e x p e r i m e n t a l survey o f t h e i r p o s s i b l e r e l e v a n c e ( d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I ) . 2.2.5 undergraduate and A j z e n  Subjects.  A l l of the r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s used  students as s u b j e c t s .  F i s h b e i n et al.  (20),  (32), f u r t h e r s t a t e t h a t these students were drawn  from i n t r o d u c t o r y Psychology  c o u r s e s , and t h a t they  pated i n the Psychology experiments o f the requirements  f o r the c o u r s e .  as a p a r t i a l  partici-  fulfillment  I t i s not known whether  these f a c t s have p l a y e d any important r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e s u l t s i n the game s i t u a t i o n s t e s t e d . might be expected  the  However, these r e s u l t s  to be somewhat b e t t e r than the r e s u l t s  t h a t would be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d from a d i s c i p l i n e o t h e r than p s y c h o l o g y . Psychology  s t u d e n t s who  course c r e d i t may  I t i s possible  that  are p l a y i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l games f o r  be b i a s e d i n f a v o r o f the b e h a v i o r o r the  t e s t instrument and may toward and r e l i a b i l i t y  thus e x h i b i t a g r e a t e r m o t i v a t i o n i n performing the a c t i v i t y .  S i m i l a r l y , i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , any b i a s of the s u b j e c t s toward the b e h a v i o r a l a c t i v i t i e s o r the instrument may  be c r u c i a l .  The  i n s t r u m e n t i s presumably  test  56 attempting t o a s s e s s the genuine o f s t u d e n t s toward  a t t i t u d e s and i n t e n t i o n s  specific instructional a c t i v i t i e s , rather  than t h e i r responses b i a s e d by a m o t i v a t i o n to f u l f i l course requirements,  to o b t a i n h i g h e r marks, to a v o i d f a i l u r e ,  o r t o p l e a s e the i n s t r u c t o r . S u b j e c t s f o r the p r e s e n t study were s t u d e n t s i n an introductory physics course.  These students were n o t expected  to have a p o s i t i v e b i a s toward  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b u t some  p r e c a u t i o n s were taken i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l t h i s f a c t o r . was expressed t o the students t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s were e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y and i n no way counted credit.  It  "  toward  course  A l s o , a c o n t r o l group was used which d i d n o t r e c e i v e  the r e s e a r c h instrument b u t which was acquainted w i t h the v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s i n the same ways as the e x p e r i m e n t a l group.  The use o f t h i s c o n t r o l group p e r m i t t e d an e s t i m a t e  of the i n f l u e n c e o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on the performance o f b e h a v i o r by the s u b j e c t s .  3.  Summary  Research has been unable  to produce  a consistent  r e l a t i o n s h i p between g e n e r a l measures o f a t t i t u d e s toward an o b j e c t and the b e h a v i o r o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the attitude object.  Some authors  (12) have suggested  concept o f a t t i t u d e r e q u i r e s r e f i n e m e n t . observed  Others  t h a t the  (13) have  t h a t some o f the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the measuring  57  instrument used. Still others (14) have held that the difficulty has been in operationalizing the assessment of personal and situational factors associated with various behavioral situations. Dulany (18) made an important approach to the problem by formulating a regression equation that accounted for both personal and situational variables in the prediction of verbal behavior. The operationalization of these variables led to a good prediction of behavioral intention and his multiple correlation of the predictor terms on behavioral intention equalled .8 8. The prediction of verbal behavior was also quite successful to the extent that the correlation between behavioral intention and verbal behavior was found to be .94. Fishbein (6) extended Dulany's theory to the prediction of non-verbal, overt behavior in social situations. The generality of this extended model is seen to be most relevant in terms of the social setting of the modern-day educational situation. Fishbein also reconceptualized Dulany's predictors in terms of an attitudinal component and normative component, thus reinstating attitude as a predictor of behavior. Significantly, Fishbein pointed out a solution to the problem of behavior prediction from measures of attitude: the necessity for measuring attitudes toward performing a specific act, as opposed to measuring attitudes toward some general attitude object.  58 Recent research (7) on Fishbein's theory has indicated that the normative term is still problematic in its operationalization. Specifically, the 'motivation to comply' factor has been of little value in the prediction of behavioral intention or behavior. In spite of these difficulties, addition of the normative term has resulted in significantly better predictions of behavior and intention than would be obtained by assessing the attitudinal term alone. Educational research in the area of attitudes has, in general, reflected the problems indicated by psychological studies of the attitude-behavior problem. The definition of 'attitude' varies considerably from application to application. Consequently, the various conceptualizations of 'attitude' have led to a number of assumptions in educational practice, few which have been supported by research. It would thus seem logical to attempt to apply Fishbein's theory to educational situations in the hope that some of the attitude-behavior confusion in the educational context might be partially resolved. Applications of Fishbein's model have been limited in the scope of behavioral situations that have been investigated. This limitation has resulted, in part, from validation studies that required a maximization of behavioral reliability by means of repetitive behaviors in game-like situations. Other restrictive experimental conditions used in the validating studies involved: assessing the predictor terms after  the performance trials A  o f the b e h a v i o r , u t i l i z i n g  practice  of a c t u a l b e h a v i o r b e f o r e o b t a i n i n g measures o f B, B I ,  . and  ZNB.Mc.,' and l i m i t i n g the time between the a s s e s s -  ment of BP and the performance hour.  repeated  o f the b e h a v i o r to about one  These t y p i c a l e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s t r i c t i o n s would be  unacceptable i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and would have t o be dropped, p r o b a b l y a t the expense o f some o f the r e l i a b i l i t y and  stability  o f the measures.  the p r e s e n t study a r e expected r e p o r t e d elsewhere  While  the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n  to be lower  than  those  (because o f fewer e x p e r i m e n t a l  restrictions)  the l i t e r a t u r e has i n d i c a t e d t h a t u s e f u l p r e d i c t i v e may s t i l l be o b t a i n a b l e .  results  60  CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE STUDY The previous chapters indicated the possible usefulness of applying Fishbein's theory to more varied true-tolife, and less restrictive situations. In doing so it is to be expected that a certain amount of predictive validity has to be sacrificed. Some factors contributing to the loss of predictive validity are, (a) a lack of repetition of behavior, (b) the use of pre factum measures of behavioral intention as opposed to post factum measures of behavioral intention , and (c) relatively long periods of time between the measure of the behavioral intention and the performance of the behavior. Aside from these differences in the application of Fishbein's theory and some alterations in the type of measuring instrument used in previous studies, the methods employed in this study are an attempt to carefully apply Fishbein's theory to an educational situation. 1. Pilot Study: Relevant Referent Groups The literature gives few guidelines for the selection of relevant normative referent groups to be used in the Fishbein model. Since the normative component of the model is dependent upon the subjects' perceptions of the expectations  61 of r e l e v a n t r e f e r e n t persons o r groups, ent group q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix  an e x p l o r a t o r y r e f e r -  A) was  d e v i s e d i n o r d e r to  o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance  to the s u b j e c t s  of the study of v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i t h r e s p e c t to performing e d u c a t i o n a l e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . i n f o r m a t i o n was  used  This  i n s e l e c t i n g o n l y the most r e l e v a n t  r e f e r e n t groups f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t  used  f o r o b t a i n i n g measures on the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s . The r e f e r e n t group q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o u r d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n 321 in a l l .  E d u c a t i o n 321  administered  s t u d e n t s , 64  to  students,  i s a S c i e n c e Methods course f o r t h i r d  year E d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s .  The  students i n t h i s course were  s e l e c t e d because of the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f P h y s i c s 115 a t the time t h a t the r e s e a r c h instrument was  students  under d e v e l o p -  ment. As a check on the d i f f e r e n c e s between the o f E d u c a t i o n students and  the P h y s i c s 115  r e f e r e n t group q u e s t i o n n a i r e was from P h y s i c s 115  s t u d e n t s , the  t r i e d on some of the  t h a t were made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s  s h o r t l y b e f o r e the r e s e a r c h instrument was r e f e r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  responses  students  purpose  administered.  a d m i n i s t e r e d to f i f t y P h y s i c s  The 115  s t u d e n t s from S e c t i o n 2 (the c l a s s not t a k i n g the modular l e c t u r e program).  Appendix B shows the r e f e r e n t s ranked  a c c o r d i n g to p e r c e n t o f student responses and  'Very Important'  As might be expected,  to the  'Important'  c a t e g o r i e s o f the r e f e r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . four o f the s t r o n g e s t r e f e r e n t s f o r  both groups of students were:  'self,  'best f r i e n d (s) ' ,  ' l e c t u r e r ' , and 'parents', the o r d e r o f rank b e i n g  slightly  d i f f e r e n t from one group o f students t o the o t h e r . appeared  as a s l i g h t l y s t r o n g e r r e f e r e n t than  'Parents'  'lecturer* f o r  the P h y s i c s 115 s t u d e n t s , whereas the r e v e r s e was t r u e f o r the E d u c a t i o n 321 students  ( t h i s r e f e r e n t o r d e r may have  depended on such f a c t o r s as age, y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g and academic i n t e r e s t s ) .  Below the f i r s t  four highest ranking  r e f e r e n t s , n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the rank o r d e r o f the remaining r e f e r e n t s became apparent. students s u r p r i s i n g l y ranked  The S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n  ' r e l i g i o u s group o r church' as  f i f t h and ' s c i e n t i f i c community' as n i n t h , whereas the P h y s i c s students ranked  ' s c i e n t i f i c community' as f i f t h  group o r church' as t e n t h .  E d u c a t i o n students  and  ranked  'majority o f c l a s s members' s i x t h , whereas P h y s i c s ranked  students  this referent ninth. While  these d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a n k i n g p o i n t toward some  d i f f e r e n c e s i n normative  b e l i e f s between groups o f students  i n d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s , the- o v e r a l l Spearman rank ation  'religious  correl-  ( c o r r e c t e d f o r t i e s ) between the two s e t s o f s t u d e n t  responses was found  t o be .88  (p < .001) .  Although the  r e f e r e n t s i n c l u d e d i n the r e s e a r c h instrument were chosen on the b a s i s o f the r a n k i n g s o f E d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , the four h i g h e s t r a n k i n g r e f e r e n t s were the same f o r both Educat i o n and P h y s i c s 115 groups and were t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e d i n the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The use o f ' r e l i g i o u s group  o r c h u r c h ' and 'majority o f c l a s s members' i n the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n s t e a d o f the r e f e r e n t s , ' s c i e n t i f i c and  " u n i v e r s i t y community*  community'  (more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r P h y s i c s 115  students) were not expected  to a f f e c t the w e i g h t i n g  o f the  normative term o f the F i s h b e i n model to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree because o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e unimportance to the s u b j e c t s . Nevertheless, for  the p i l o t study r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e the need  some c a r e i n the s e l e c t i o n o f r e f e r e n t s f o r s p e c i f i c  groups o f s u b j e c t s i n s p e c i f i c  2. The  situations.  P o p u l a t i o n and Samples  s u b j e c t s c o n s t i t u t e d a sample o f 199 P h y s i c s 115  students'* from a p o p u l a t i o n o f 318 students P h y s i c s 115.  Approximately  i n Section 1 of  n i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t were g e n e r a l l y  between e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n years o l d and had two y e a r s o f high school physics.  A l l P h y s i c s 115 students  intended to  pursue s t u d i e s i n d i s c i p l i n e s o t h e r than P h y s i c s s c i e n c e s , Chemistry,  Mathematics, M e d i c i n e ,  female r a t i o was about 6.75.  etc.)  (e.g., B i o The male/-  Of the 199 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  r e t u r n e d , a t o t a l o f 185 were u s a b l e i n the a n a l y s e s o f d a t a .  Student's i n S e c t i o n s 1 and 2 were not randomly a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r S e c t i o n . The c h o i c e o f S e c t i o n s was based p r i m a r i l y on t i m e t a b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . i t i s t a c i t l y assumed t h a t any sampling b i a s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the placement o f students i n the two S e c t i o n s i s o f l i t t l e importance i n the p r e s e n t study.  64  These 185 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n s i s t e d o f 128 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used to o b t a i n measures on the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s (Appendix C ) , and 57 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n s t i t u t i n g a k i n d of placebo used to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f measurement effect  instrument  (Appendix E ) .  3. The  Experimental  Procedure  l e c t u r e module e n t i t l e d ,  "The P h y s i c s i n E n v i r o n -  mental and T e c h n o l o g i c a l Assessment" c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s of f o u r l e c t u r e s d u r i n g the r e g u l a r P h y s i c s 115 l e c t u r e times, g i v e n by a member o f the F a c u l t y o f A p p l i e d S c i e n c e . were t o l d i n the f i r s t l e c t u r e t h a t some v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s were b e i n g arranged  follow-up  f o r them t o do because the  b l o c k o f l e c t u r e s r e l a t i n g P h y s i c s and environmental was o f such s h o r t d u r a t i o n .  Students  problems  I n the second l e c t u r e , the  students were b r i e f l y t o l d about each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r and  activity,  t h a t the e x a c t d e t a i l s o f these a c t i v i t i e s would be made  a v a i l a b l e t o them i n the next  lecture.  In the t h i r d l e c t u r e , a l l students p i c k e d up a d e t a i l e d l i s t o f the v o l u n t a r y follow-up  a c t i v i t i e s f o r the  b l o c k o f l e c t u r e s on 'The P h y s i c s i n Environmental n o l o g i c a l Assessment'  (Appendix G ) .  and Tech-  These sheets were a l s o  a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the f o u r t h ( l a s t ) l e c t u r e f o r any students who were absent d u r i n g the t h i r d l e c t u r e . placebo  The s h u f f l e d  and r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by  the author and three P h y s i c s  115 l a b o r a t o r y i n s t r u c t o r s 2  toward the end of the t h i r d l e c t u r e . The f i v e  ' v o l u n t a r y ' a c t i v i t i e s used i n the p r e s e n t  study were as f o l l o w s :  (see Appendix G f o r d e t a i l e d a c t i v i t y  descriptions): A c t i v i t y 1:  to a t t e n d a f r e e lunch-hour movie "Environment i n the  Activity  2:  entitled,  Balance";  to s i g n up to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment and how you may p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t i f you wish;  A c t i v i t y 3:  A c t i v i t y 4:  to p i c k up an assortment o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l and  l i s t o f supplementary r e a d i n g s  and  Technology;  on P o l l u t i o n  to a t t e n d a f r e e lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "The Time of Man";  A c t i v i t y 5:  to c o n t a c t the l e c t u r e r i n o r d e r  to o b t a i n  i n f o r m a t i o n about a s s i s t i n g some p r o f e s s o r s i n doing  r e s e a r c h on the l e a c h i n g o f l a n d f i l l s  (dumps) . In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a d i r e c t behavior  (dichotomous) measure o f  f o r A c t i v i t y 1 ( a t t e n d i n g the movie  "Environment i n the B a l a n c e " ) , requesting  the student's  entitled,  attendance survey  P h y s i c s course  slips  number, l e c t u r e  2 I t should be noted t h a t an e r r o r i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the instruments reduced the number of r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d by about f i f t y . While t h i s l o s s i n data was r e g r e t t a b l e , a r e a s o n a b l y l a r g e number o f s u b j e c t s (N = 128)were r e t a i n e d f o r the study.  66 S e c t i o n number, name and r e g i s t r a t i o n number were f i l l e d  (Appendix  H)  o u t by a l l students as they entered the t h e a t r e .  With the e x c e p t i o n o f A c t i v i t y 4 ( a t t e n d i n g a movie entitled,  "The Time o f Man"), the performance o f the  a c t i v i t i e s was a s c e r t a i n e d by s e c r e t a r i e s checking o f f the names o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g students on a c l a s s l i s t , o r by the s t u d e n t s , themselves,  s i g n i n g t h e i r names on l i s t s  provided.  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f P h y s i c s 115 s t u d e n t s i n A c t i v i t y 4 c o u l d n o t be checked  d i r e c t l y because t h i s movie  had been thrown open to the e n t i r e campus, and the l a r g e number o f people expected  t o a t t e n d would have made the  survey t i c k e t method i m p o s s i b l e to use.  In o r d e r to o b t a i n  b e h a v i o r d a t a f o r A c t i v i t y 4, and a l s o check on the data c o l l e c t e d from the o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , an ' A c t i v i t i e s Checklist'  (Appendix  I) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l s t u d e n t s d u r i n g  t h e i r l e c t u r e on the day a f t e r the A c t i v i t y 4 movie. c h e c k - l i s t asked  This  s t u d e n t s to check o f f each a c t i v i t y t h a t  they had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n up to t h a t d a t e . Two v a l u a b l e p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were gained by comparing the student completed observed  behaviors.  Firstly,  c h e c k - l i s t s t o the d i r e c t l y  s e v e r a l students who had  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n A c t i v i t y 1 were n o t r e c o r d e d by the d i r e c t attendance  survey because they had a r r i v e d i n the t h e a t r e  d u r i n g a non-Physics attendance of  survey  115 l e c t u r e , w e l l i n advance o f the  ( t h i s was confirmed by t e l e p h o n i n g s e v e r a l  the students i n q u e s t i o n ) .  Secondly,  t h r e e students were  found  to have checked-off  not observed  to perform  s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s which they were  (according to the d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s ) .  T h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were subsequently  identified,  and  e l i m i n a t e d from the f i n a l a n a l y s i s as q u e s t i o n a b l e d a t a .  4.  Instruments  Measures on the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s , BI, A and Mc^  NB.,  were b u i l t i n t o a f i v e p a r t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (Appendix  C) each o f the f i v e p a r t s d e a l i n g w i t h a s t u d e n t  b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n to perform one  of the  extracurricular  activities.  Only P a r t s A to C  (concerning A c t i v i t i e s 1 to  3) attempted  to measure a l l o f the F i s h b e i n v a r i a b l e s .  Because o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f answering  time  (and  probably  student p a t i e n c e ) , o n l y b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s were measured i n P a r t s D and E  ( A c t i v i t i e s 4 and  5).  The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z e d a 5-choice b i p o l a r s c a l e format because of the P h y s i c s 115  instructor's  p r e f e r e n c e f o r the L i k e r t - t y p e instrument, and because o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y of IBM (IBM Document No.  5-category m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e response  505)  t h a t c o u l d be a u t o m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d  onto computer d a t a cards v i a the IBM Model 1232 Scanner.  Although Osgood et al.  i n c i d e n t a l e m p i r i c a l evidence appears  sheets  Optical  (40) have p r e s e n t e d some  (p. 85)  t h a t a 7-choice  scale  to be o p t i m a l f o r use w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , the  probable g a i n s o f t h i s s c a l e over a 5-choice  s c a l e were  68 judged to be  inconsequential.  The S e m a n t i c - D i f f e r e n t i a l  s c a l e s commonly  A j z e n and F i s h b e i n i n the measurement of A  used by  , were transformed c l C "C.  i n t o L i k e r t - t y p e a t t i t u d e measures. ed from  Two L i k e r t items r e s u l t -  each b i p o l a r S e m a n t i c - D i f f e r e n t i a l According  t o Osgood  scale.  (40) and Edwards  (41) c o r r e l -  a t i o n s between L i k e r t , Thurstone, and S e m a n t i c - D i f f e r e n t i a l measures o f a t t i t u d e are t y p i c a l l y about .90.  With  respect  to the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r , however, T i t t l e and H i l l  (13)  suggested t h a t the L i k e r t s c a l e may be s l i g h t l y s u p e r i o r t o the o t h e r s  4.1  (see Chapter I I , s e c t i o n 1.1).  Variables External  to the F i s h b e i n Model  V a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l to the model were a s s e s s e d by means o f two L i k e r t - t y p e instruments  (Appendix J and L ) . The merg-  i n g of e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e d a t a w i t h the d a t a f o r v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the model reduced the number o f u s a b l e cases t o a t o t a l of 89 from the o r i g i n a l 128. sets of subscales to s p e c i f i c  c o n s t i t u t e d both i n s t r u m e n t s .  items were summed f o r each d i f f e r e n t  The e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d the  Seventeen d i f f e r e n t  'Physics  Evaluation  Study* q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Toward the P h y s i c s  Laboratory')  o r i g i n a t e d i n a study by G. Page (42).  items  Laboratory'  (Appendix L ) , are shown i n Table V I I .  ('Attitude  subscale.  i n Chapter I , t h a t  J) and the ' A t t i t u d e Toward the P h y s i c s naire  Responses  included (Appendix question-  The l a t t e r questionnaire  TABLE V I I VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL Abbreviation  External Variable A t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c s i n g e n e r a l A t t i t u d e toward P h y s i c s 115 A t t i t u d e toward c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n A t t i t u d e toward the l e c t u r e r A t t i t u d e toward the textbook A t t i t u d e toward the s u b j e c t matter A t t i t u d e toward the assignments A t t i t u d e toward examinations A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c 'Nuclear Energy A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c 'Environment' A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c ' C l a s s i c a l P h y s i c s ' A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c 'The Human Body' A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c 'Propulsion and E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Theory A t t i t u d e toward the P h y s i c s 115 l a b o r a t o r y session 1  A , A  phys  A "  5  class Prof text sm asgn ^exams nuc A  A A  A  A  A  cp ^od A  V  1  P h y s i c s 12 achievement Mathematics 12 achievement Combined P h y s i c s 12 and Math achievement  pr&em A  lab  PHiMA  1 2  Questionnaire  Items  a  29 - 38 39 - 49 50 - 59 60 - 69 70 - 73 74 - 78 79-84 85 - 94 95, 106 99, 104 96, 101, 102, 107 100, 103 97, 98, 105, 108 P a r t B, 1 - 26 (see footnote) 3 6 3, 6  A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e items a r e taken from the 'Physics E v a l u a t i o n Study' q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix J) , except i n the case o f A i _ . Items f o r the assessment o f A _ _ 3 were taken from the ' A t t i t u d e Toward the Physics L a b o r a t o r y ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix L ) . a  A  VO  70 4.2  V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l t o the Model The measures on the v a r i a b l e s i n the F i s h b e i n model  i n c l u d e d i n the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e were based on the k i n d s of measures t y p i c a l l y used by F i s h b e i n et al. , on the b a s i s o f i d e a s drawn from F i s h b e i n ' s theory, o f c r i t i c a l comments made by t r i a l questionnaire 4.2.1  and on the b a s i s  s u b j e c t s on a s e t of t r i a l  items. B e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n ( B I ) . The b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n measure c o n s i s t s of from one t o three items per activity. from  Each item has f i v e response c a t e g o r i e s v a r y i n g  'strongly agree  1  to ' s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ' , i n d i c a t i n g the  i n t e n t i o n o f the student act  (or b e h a v i o r a l  toward performing  a c e r t a i n voluntary  activity).  In d i s c u s s i n g the T r i a n d i s B e h a v i o r a l instrument  (43) , F i s h b e i n  Differential  (6) s t a t e s ,  While the c o r r e l a t i o n s between a t t i t u d e and the d i f f e r e n t types o f b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y , the c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and the sum of the b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s tends to be q u i t e s t a b l e and h i g h (r = .70) . (p. 481) With t h i s i n mind, one c o n c l u s i v e BI item, and  one o r two c o n d i t i o n a l items,  I have nothing  "I i n t e n d to  "I i n t e n d t o  e l s e to do," and "I i n t e n d t o  have time," were used i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  .",  only i f only i f I  I t was hoped  t h a t the summation o f these BI items would g i v e a more r e l i a b l e measure of BI than a s i n g l e BI item.  F o r comparison,  each BI item was  tested i n a separate regression  analysis.  Example i t e m : I i n t e n d to see t h i s  movie.  S t r o n g l y agree 1_ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ D i s a g r e e _ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5_ .  4.2.2  Attitude — toward . ) . S i x to e i g h t — — — — the a c t (A_ —ac t.—  L i k e r t - t y p e a t t i t u d e items, i n d i c a t i n g the s u b j e c t ' s  evaluative  b e l i e f s about the consequences of p e r f o r m i n g the a c t , were used to a s s e s s A  .. The items c o n c e r n i n g 'interesting' act 'boring' were o m i t t e d from the assessment of A__, i n 3  and  aC u  Activities trial  2 and 3 because they were not v e r y meaningful to  s u b j e c t s i n the c o n t e x t of d e s c r i b i n g these a c t i v i t i e s . Examples: A t t e n d i n g t h i s movie would be a good t h i n g f o r me  to do.  S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ D i s a g r e e 4_ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5_ A t t e n d i n g t h i s movie would be a b o r i n g t h i n g f o r me  to do.  S t r o n g l y agree 1_ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ D i s a g r e e 4_ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5_ 4.2.3 (NB^).  Normative b e l i e f s about s p e c i f i c  The measure o f NB^  referents  c o n s i s t e d o f s i x items, each con-  c e r n i n g a d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n t group, and i n d i c a t i n g the s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f c o n c e r n i n g what the r e f e r e n t expected him  72 .to do, o r what. ne f e l t he  "should" do  the p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r a l a c t i v i t y .  w i t h r e s p e c t to  The r e f e r e n t groups used  i n a s s e s s i n g the s i x normative b e l i e f s were: ' C l o s e s t f r i e n d s ' , 'parents .., 1  1  m a j o r i t y of the c l a s s , 1  group*, and NB^  'myself,  corresponding  'the l e c t u r e r ' ' , t o NB^,  'religious  NB * NB , 2  NB ,  3  4  and ISB^ r e s p e c t i v e l y . Examples s My  c l o s e s t f r i e n d s would expect me  t o see  this  mcvie. H i g h l y l i k e l y 1_ l i k e l y 2_ Undecided 3_ U n l i k e l y 4_ HigiuLy u n l i k e l y 5_ . My  p a r e n t s -would e x p e c t me  t o see t h i s mo-vie.  H i g h l y l i k e l y 1 I i i k e l y 2 Undecided 3_ U n l i k e l y 4 H i g n l y u n l i k e l y 5_ . 4.2.4  M o t i v a t i o n t o comply  (Mc^).  Six items,  c o n e e m i n g a d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n t group, and i n d i c a t i n g s u b j e c t ' s d e s i r e t o comply w i t h what he b e l i e v e d was of him  (NB^), c o n s t i t u t e d the measure of  each the  expected  Mc^.  Examples s Concerning my what I  s e e i n g t h i s movie, I want to  t h i n k my  c l o s e s t f r i e n d s e x p e c t me  do to  do. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree disagree 5 .  4_ S t r o n g l y  73 Concerning my  s e e i n g t h i s movie, I want to do  what I t h i n k my  p a r e n t s would expect me  S t r o n g l y agree 1^ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree  to  do.  4_ S t r o n g l y  d i s a g r e e . 5_ . 3  4.2.5  .Behavior  or a c t  (B)..  The  five  a c t i v i t i e s , were s e l e c t e d from about twice  behavioral  t h a t number o f  possible;, a c t i v i t i e s , on the b a s i s o f student appeal  and  sev-  e r a l c r i t e r i a i m p l i c i t i n the model. F i r s t l y , the tasks s e l e c t e d were d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r with, r e g a r d method o f  to the type of b e h a v i o r  task s e l e c t i o n was  elicited.  employed i n o r d e r  a g r e a t e r ; o v e r a l l number o f students  and  This  to appeal  to  e l i c i t a wider  v a r i a n c e i n t h e i r : responses. Secondly, i n an e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was instruction.  The  to the g o a l s o f  participation in  a hoped f o r outcome o f  a c t i v i t i e s chosen, t h e r e f o r e , were r e l a t e d  instruction.  T h i r d l y , there had  to be a way  of d i r e c t l y , or at  l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y r e c o r d i n g the a c t u a l b e h a v i o r a l  responses  of the. s u b j e c t s , u n o b t r u s i v e l y , i n o r d e r to a v o i d s u s p i c i o n t h a t performance o f the t a s k s was voluntary.  any  really  In the case of such i n d i r e c t methods as  r e p o r t i n g , t h e r e had  not self-  to be a l s o some method f o r checking  on  3 Note t h a t b e h a v i o r , as measured, was a dichotomous v a r i a b l e , w h i l e b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s , a t t i t u d e toward the a c t , and normative b e l i e f s were measured as continuous v a r i a b l e s . . Hence, any r e p o r t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures o f b e h a v i o r and measures o f the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w i l l be p o i n t bis e r i a l .  the honesty of the s u b j e c t s .  In t h i s study, a l l b e h a v i o r a l  a c t i v i t i e s except A c t i v i t y 4  ("The  d i r e c t l y observed  r e l a t i v e l y easy to check  and  i t was  Time o f Man")  were  s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - r e p o r t e d ' a c t i v i t i e s check l i s t s ' the d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s of a c t i v i t i e s 1 to 4. 1 1/2% and  against  Only about  o f the s u b j e c t s r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n a b l e check  t h i s provided  the  lists,  a method f o r s c r e e n i n g o u t these  respon-  d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses as b e i n g p o t e n t i a l l y u n r e l i a b l e F o u r t h l y , a c c o r d i n g to the model, the BI-B i n t e r v a l must be minimized, and task had  to be p o s s i b l e  possible. BI may  thus the performance of  as soon a f t e r the measure o f BI  I f t h i s c o n d i t i o n was  not f u l f i l l e d ,  the  the as  original  have been r e p l a c e d by an a l t e r n a t i v e w i t h a r e s u l t i n g  decrease of  time  i n the r e l a t i o n between BI and  B.  Under c o n d i t i o n s  l o n g time i n t e r v a l s between measures o f BI and  cease to be an a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t o r of F i n a l l y , a l l behavior  B, BI  may  B.  tasks had  to be independent o f  each other w i t h r e s p e c t to the l o c a t i o n i n which each a c t i v i t y was  executed.  a s u b j e c t performing in  the same l o c a t i o n .  This diminished  another  the p o s s i b i l i t y  task because i t was  of  conveniently  75 5. The  Methods of A n a l y s i s  a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t by means o f an  360/67 computer, u t i l i z i n g the UBC-TRIP (44) and The  BMD  IBM  the a p p l i c a b l e s u b r o u t i n e s 02R  of  (45) r e g r e s s i o n programs.  s p e c i f i c research questions  i n v e s t i g a t e d and  o f a n a l y s i s used are d e s c r i b e d below. a-levels i n educational research  (a =  Commonly .05 o r  to suggest whether o r not the r e s u l t s were  the methods accepted  .01)  were used  statistically  significant.^  5.1  The  R e l a t i o n s h i p between V a r i a b l e s I n t e r n a l to  and  Those E x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n Model To what e x t e n t are c e r t a i n a t t i t u d i n a l and  non-  a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s , e x t e r n a l t o , o r not s p e c i f i e d by  the  F i s h b e i n model, r e l a t e d to each o f the v a r i a b l e s i n the model, f o r each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r  activity?  Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between each o f the e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s and  B, BI, A  ., ZBI,  ZNB^(Mc^) were computed f o r each b e h a v i o r a l  ZNB.,  EMc.,  and  activity.  4 From a p r a c t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , i t i s probably u s e f u l , f o r the purpose o f comparison, to know t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Type I e r r o r ( r e j e c t i n g a n u l l h y p o t h e s i s when i t i s true) i s g r e a t e r than or l e s s than commonly accepted p r o b a b i l i t i e s ( a - l e v e l s ) i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h o r s t u d i e s along similar lines. To a r b i t r a r i l y s e t an a p r i o r i a - l e v e l and then to a c c e p t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i f the v a l u e o f the t e s t s t a t i s t i c does not reach the c r i t i c a l v a l u e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the predetermined a - l e v e l , would be more a p p r o p r i a t e to v a l i d a t i o n procedures than to the a p p l i c a t i v e c o n t e x t o f the p r e s e n t study.  76 5.2  The R e l a t i o n s h i p  between V a r i a b l e s  Internal  to the  Model To what e x t e n t a r e BI, I B I , and B r e l a t e d t o A  ., clC  NB., M c ,  N B . ( M c ) , and INB.(Mc)  curricular  t  f o r each o f the e x t r a -  activities?  Computation of a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was performed f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s each b e h a v i o r a l  5.3  i n t e r n a l to the model, f o r  activity.  The P r e d i c t i o n o f B e h a v i o r a l (a) How  accurately  respect  Intention  can the b e h a v i o r a l  intention with  to each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y be p r e -  d i c t e d from A  . and the sum o f the r e l e v a n t act  t i v e products,  norma-  ENB^(Mc^)?  (b) Which o f the two p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , a t t i t u d i n a l o r normative, i s the b e s t p r e d i c t o r of BI i n each d i f f e r e n t behavioral  situation?  M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of [A  . + ZNB.(Mc.) ]  w i t h BI were computed f o r each b e h a v i o r a l  activity.  computed were the s t a n d a r d i z e d  coefficients for  the A  regression  Also  . and i n d i v i d u a l NB(Mc.) terms of the e q u a t i o n .  percent variance  The  accounted f o r by each i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i c t o r  was a l s o computed by t a k i n g  the p r o d u c t o f the b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t  of each p r e d i c t o r and the c o r r e l a t i o n o f the p r e d i c t o r the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , BI.  with  77  5.4  The Role of B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n  i n Predicting  Behavior To what e x t e n t a r e A  . and ENB.(Mc.) r e l a t e d t o B, X  d C t  X  the performance o f the a c t , i . e . , a c t u a l l y c a r r y i n g extracurricular  activity?  A computation of the product-moment between B and A  X  f o r the f i r s t t h r e e b e h a v i o r a l Partial correlations of A  with B holding statistical 5.5  correlations  ., and between B and ZNB.(Mc.) was 3.C u  out  o u t each  carried  X  activities.  . w i t h B, and NB. (Mc.) ac t ' 1 1  BI c o n s t a n t , were a l s o computed and the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the r e s u l t s  indicated.  Measurement E f f e c t To what e x t e n t do measurements on the components o f  Fishbein's  model i n f l u e n c e  toward the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r 2  students' behavioral  responses  activities?  X - t e s t s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the type o f instrument completed by the s t u d e n t s , and f r e q u e n c i e s o f their behavioral  responses was computed, u s i n g two by two  c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s , and u s i n g Y a t e s ' c o r r e c t i o n cell  frequencies  (Appendices  N  t o Q) .  f o r small  78  CHAPTER IV RESULTS  During the course of the a n a l y s i s o f d a t a , two r e s u l t s predicted  i n Chapter I I became r e a d i l y apparent:  (a) the Mc  f a c t o r tended to a t t e n u a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the normative component o f the model and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s , and (b) the f i r s t and t h i r d BI items i n each p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not g i v e  the h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s and m u l t i p l e  c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s by u s i n g  the n o n - c o n d i t i o n a l  BI  4.2.1).  F o r these reasons, the m a j o r i t y  2  item  t h a t were o b t a i n e d  (see Chapter I I I , s e c t i o n o f the r e s u l t s shown  i n t h i s chapter w i l l omit measurements on Mc, BI.^, BI^ and ZBI.  Measurements on B I  2  w i l l be taken as the s o l e measure-  ment on BI, and measurements on NB^, NB , NB^, NB^, NB^ and 2  NB  w i l l take the p l a c e o f measures on F i s h b e i n ' s * n p r e d i c t o r term, Z NB.Mc. i=l 1  1. The R e l a t i o n s h i p  normative  1  between V a r i a b l e s  Model and those E x t e r n a l  Internal  to the F i s h b e i n  to the Model (N = 89)  A c c o r d i n g t o the theory, any v a r i a b l e s e x t e r n a l t o the model s h o u l d be u n r e l a t e d  to b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n and to  o v e r t b e h a v i o r , u n l e s s they a r e a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y " ^ r e l a t e d  to a t l e a s t one o f the p r e d i c t o r s g i v e n i n the model ( 7 ) . Table V I I I shows the c o r r e l a t i o n s between variables external model. only  several  t o the model and v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e t y p i c a l l y low (r < .35).  f i v e instances  out of e i g h t y - f i v e  ( A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 5 ) ,  was b e h a v i o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) c o r r e l a t e d an e x t e r n a l  i n t e n t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the e x t e r n a l  nuc'  a  t  t  i  t  Behavioral  variables i n thirteen  f i v e a t the p < .01 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y  e i g h t a t the p < .05 l e v e l . A  u  with  v a r i a b l e , two o f these cases a t the p < ,01  l e v e l and the o t h e r t h r e e a t the p < .05 l e v e l .  instances,  In  <  ^  e  Curiously,  toward the t o p i c  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with behavioral 3, 4, and 5.  Also,  the e x t e r n a l  'Nuclear Energy',  intentions  and variable,  correlated  for Activities  1,  a m a r g i n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t r e n d was shown  i n the c o r r e l a t i o n o f a ^ ^  ( A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c  'The  Human Body') w i t h BI f o r a c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 4 (the c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h N = 89, was 0.210 a t a = .05). Although the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s  with  v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l t o the model tended to be low, the adherence o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s to the t h e o r y was checked i n the f i r s t three  activities.  ^"A ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' c o r r e l a t i o n , f o r t h i s c h a p t e r , w i l l r e f e r to a c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from zero c o r r e l a t i o n a t the .05 l e v e l (two t a i l e d t e s t ) .  TABLE V I I I CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL AND VARIABLES INTERNAL TO THE MODEL a  Activity  l i  attending B .054  *pi>y» A  P115  A  cla»o  A  proJ  A  toxt  A  oci\ align  A  axim«  A  nuc  A  onv  A  CP  A  bod  A  12  HAJJ  A c t i v i t y 3i  .188  A  P115 class  A  prof  onv A  cp  A  bod  A  pr*om  l«b PH  A  U  HA, "12 P1UMA  12  .259"  ND  1  -.065  NB  2  .087  NB  3  .061  NB  4  .017  NB  5  .059  NB  Activity  p  .246*  phys  .159  -.018  -.034  .080  -.171  .079  .043  .009  .085  -.072  -.148  .110  .165  -.006  -.017  .118  .150  .345t  .022  .039  .102  -.208  -.075  .117  prof  .128  .028  .137  -.058  -.073  -.026  .002  .005  .000  -.170  .096  .092  .014  .059  -.022  .074  .056  .055  -.051  -.057  .087  -.157  -.014  -.047  -.281t  -.231*  -.051  -.002  -.089  -.215*  -.134  .030  -.079  -.014  .036  -.1B4  .247"  .174  .001  -.196  -.151  -.004  .339t  -.049  .112  .201  .102  .064  .150  .246*  .040  -.113  .059  .064  .144  .074  .118  toxt A sm A asgn A oxoma A nuc A onv A  .074  .189  -.071  .086  .097  .309t  -.025  .161  .081  -.007 .224*  -.015 .112  .238* .099  .034  .050  .011  -.063  .051  .114  -.148  -.029  .030  .000  -.094  -.086  -.022  -.034  -.028  -.123  .088  -.014  -.005  -.018  -.128  .009  -.020  p i c k i n g up a s o to f i n f o r m a t i o n m o t a r i a l s Technology  A  Ab o d , prfcom  -.178  -.081  .023  lab  -.153  -.237*  .033  .008  -.028  -.007  -.013  12 MA  -.043  -.099  -.130  .009  l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and  NB  NB.,  NB  NB„  NB,  NB„  .076  -.094  -.081  .000  .085  .031  .190  .180  .082  .113  -.159  -.043  -.043  -.078  .097  .150  .154  .090  .113  -.0 26  .003  .127  .062  .129  .173  .097  .183  .315t  -.024  .021  .105  .016  .015  .294t  .145  .103  -.04 2  -.011  .026  -.033  -.021  -.044  -.094  .122  .268*  12  PMtMAjj  phyB A  P115  A  claBB  A  pro£  4i  A  information  about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n s a m p l i n g e x p e r i m e n t ND  act  .121  .096  .153  .022  .014  .004  .067  -.145  -.132  .025  N!l  2  3  N 0  4  ND  NO  5  P .205  - .027  .100  .097  .023  -.085  .052  .091  -.197  .036  .032  -.026  -.047  .030  -.091  .068  -.104  -.124  .000  .287t  -.061  -.025  .046  -.142  .026  .019  -.030  .054  .047  .032  -.008  .082  .020  .075  .092  -.002  .076  .221*  .027  .012  .076  .048  -.046  .071  .062  -.174  -.170  -.185  -.126  -.296t  -.211  -.028 -.260*  -.260*  .051 -.192  -.116  .064  -.143  -.072  -.048  .095  .125  .135  -.079  -.152  -.161  -.011  -.126  .142  -.060  -.120  -.165  .053  .122  .051  -.159  -.157  -.001  .014  .002  -.046  .005  -.019  .097  .108  .009  -.026  .205  .145  .152  .134  .123  -.138  .158  .014  .103  .103  .015  .131  -.093  -.127  P,l  Activity  BI  .240*  A  .072  and r e a d i n g  s i g n i n g up t o r o c e i v o  -.093  cp  -.090  .177  .209  .027  P115  "class  -.151  .278t  act  A  .176  -.027  2i  B  .103  BI "phys  V t  i n the Balance"  .122  .176  lab P H  OI  "Environment  .135  .042  pr*am  a f r o o lunch-hour m o v i e . e n t i t l e d ,  .254*  .231*  .177 .317t  -.016  -.022  -.093  .000  .068  -.144  -.094  .007  -.236*  -.226*  -.067  -.194  -.025  -.103  -.225*  .092  - .096  -.061  .106  -.027  .069  -.026  -.076  .017  .061  -.186  -.159  .031  -.121  ,300t  -.071  -.167  -.028  attending.a froo lunch-hour movio o n t i t l e d , "Tho Time o f Man"  Activity  5i  .050 -.073  c o n t a c t i n g tlio l e c t u r e r t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about a B u i s t i n g t h e summor l a n d f i l l l e a c h i n g experiment  BI  B  BI  .013  .138  . 101  .021  .126  .083  -.113  -.039  .108  .050  -.161  -.224'  .052  .383t  -.204  -.114  .004  .072  -.022  .025  .038  .169  .162  -.061  .113  .117  .008  -.037  -.243*  -.212*  -.140  -.184  -.147  .028  .078  .064  -.125  -.102  -.044  -.091  .100  .073  .027  -.115  .062  -.212*  .081  .308t  .045  -.196  -.228*  -.249'  -.085  -.107  .293t  -.007  .113  -.005  -.093  .068  .086  -.124  -.149  .211*  .076  -.014  .030  -.018  .088  -.008  .038  -.108  .002  .087  -.033  -.015  .113  .114  .002  .101  .079  .164  .003  .086  -.019  .140  .133  .024  .111  .182  .12S  .218*  -.071  .069  .043  .042  -.012  -.126  .067  -.034  -.047  .039  -.163  .028  .070  -.104  -.136  .107  -.024  .020 .153  -.034  -.147  .030  -.187  -.149  .137  -.055  -.017  .102  -.135  -.091  -.064 .024 -.019  -.195 -.063 -.144  -.119 -.023 -.07 8  .012  A A  nuc env  A  cp  A  bod  -.007 -.044  oxams  prtom lab PH ""12 PlltMA, A  -.031  A  1 2  -.187  .226*  -.075  .118  .200  .066  .260*  -.191  .012  .122  .336t  .016  -.057  .114  .211*  .156  .141  .086  .192  .211*  .288t  .133  .081  -.045  .039  -.065  .137  .141  -.003  -.132  .007  .158  .013  .070  .174  .007  -.118  00  o  81 TABLE V I I I (continued)  c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s and are not s i g n i f i c a n t except where noted o t h e r w i s e . (N = 89) *P < +  p  .05  < .01  Abbreviations: phys ^115 A  class prof  a  A t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c s i n g e n e r a l A t t i t u d e toward P h y s i c s  115  A t t i t u d e toward c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n A t t i t u d e toward the l e c t u r e r A t t i t u d e toward the textbook  text  A t t i t u d e toward the s u b j e c t matter  sm  A t t i t u d e toward assignments  A A asgn exams nuc A env A  A  cp ^od  A t t i t u d e toward examinations A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c ,  'Nuclear Energy'  A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c , 'Environment' A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c , ' C l a s s i c a l  A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c , 'The Human Body' A t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c , ' P r o p u l s i o n and E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Theory'  "lab pr&em  A t t i t u d e toward the P h y s i c s 115 session  PH  P h y s i c s 12 marks  A.  MA  1 2  12  laboratory  Math 12 marks  PH&MA 12 B  Combined P h y s i c s 12 and Math 12 marks  BI  Behavioral intention  A a c. t  Attitude  NB  Physics'  Behavior toward the a c t  Normative b e l i e f s w i t h r e s p e c t t o : (1) ' C l o s e s t f r i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the c l a s s ' , (4) ' l e c t u r e r ' , (5) ' r e l i g i o u s group', (p) 'myself.' .  82 In A c t i v i t y 1, i t was found o f BI w i t h A  n u c  and A j ^ were .309  (p < .05) r e s p e c t i v e l y . also correlated .339,  (p < .01) and .224  In accordance  w i t h the t h e o r y , &  s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h p r e d i c t o r s NB  p < .01) and A  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h NB^ The  t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s  (r =  ' (r = .247, p < .05), and A j ^ (r = .238, p < .05).  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s under A c t i v i t y  show a s i m i l a r tendency toward examinations  n u c  t o conform t o the t h e o r y .  (A  ) , and P h y s i c s 12 marks  2 also Attitude (PH, ) 0  exams 1showed c o r r e l a t i o n s o f -.260 (p < .05) and -.236 (p < .05) r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h B I . 'A a l s o showed a c o r r e l a t i o n o f exams -.260 w i t h NB , w h i l e 'PH,-' showed a c o r r e l a t i o n o f -.226 p 1_ J  1  with A  . and -.225 w i t h NB,.  cl C *C  of B with A  D  pr&em r  The .240  (p < .05) c o r r e l a t i o n  ( a t t i t u d e toward the t o p i c  ' P r o p u l s i o n and  c  E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Theory') was accompanied by a c o r r e l a t i o n of  .317  (p < .01) between A c  T h i s tendency without  and NB . pr&em p t o conform w i t h the theory was n o t  some d i f f i c u l t y ,  A c t i v i t y 3 (Table V I I I ) . 1  r  as shown by the r e s u l t s f o r While A  nuc  tended  theory by e x h i b i t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .308 (p < .05), -249  (p < .05) and .293  t o conform to  (p < .01), -.228  (p < .01) w i t h BI, NB_,  NB^ and NB^ r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h r e e other e x t e r n a l not conform.  variables did  The a t t i t u d e toward P h y s i c s i n g e n e r a l  showed c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .278 (p < .01) and .209  ),  (p < .06)  w i t h B and BI r e s p e c t i v e l y , b u t d i d not c o r r e l a t e w i t h any o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s  (A ^  significantly  (although the c o r r e l a t i o n  83 o f Ap^yg w i t h NBp was a s s o c i a t e d p < .07 5) .  with a p r o b a b i l i t y value o f  The a t t i t u d e toward the textbook  (  A  a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .294 (p < .01) w i t h B, b u t no  t e x t  ) showed  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h any o f the p r e d i c t o r variables. .218  Similarly, A  showed a m a r g i n a l l y  £  significant  (p - .05) c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h BI, b u t d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h any p r e d i c t o r . A c t i v i t y 5 produced two m a r g i n a l l y  significant  (p = .05) c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h b e h a v i o r , and  A c t i v i t i e s 4 and 5 combined gave seven s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s between the e x t e r n a l  v a r i a b l e s and B I .  Since  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were n o t a s s e s s e d f o r A c t i v i t i e s 4 and 5, adherence t o the theory c o u l d  n o t be checked f o r these  correlations.  2.  The R e l a t i o n s h i p  between V a r i a b l e s  to the Model  Internal  (N = 128)  On the b a s i s o f theory, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were expected t o occur between the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s and  (BI and B ) , between the c r i t e r i o n  each o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s  the a t t i t u d i n a l and r e l e v a n t  separately,  normative p r e d i c t o r  S i n c e s e p a r a t e , b u t s i m i l a r normative p r e d i c t o r used i n the stepwise r e g r e s s i o n  and between variables. terms were  a n a l y s i s , some s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s between these terms were a l s o  expected.  84 Tables IX and X summarize these c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each o f the a c t i v i t i e s  (note t h a t A  . and NB. were n o t ac *c i Significant correlations  assessed i n A c t i v i t i e s 4 o r 5 ) . were found  i n A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3, between BI and the  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , NB , A . and NB.. P act i c  Correlations  between B and the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , however, were s m a l l and o f t e n i n s i g n i f i c a n t . A check o f the BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o r e v e a l e d low c o r r e l a t i o n s  ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n the cases  o f A c t i v i t y 2 and A c t i v i t y 4 ) .  A c t i v i t y 3 showed a n e g a t i v e  c o r r e l a t i o n of -.273  (p < .01) between B and NB^  (normative  b e l i e f w i t h r e s p e c t to the l e c t u r e r ) a l t h o u g h the c o r r e l a t i o n o f BI w i t h NB  4  was almost  Correlations X) i n d i c a t e d  zero  (.020NS).  between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s  t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f normative  s i g n i f i c a n t l y and r a t h e r  (Table  b e l i e f s were  h i g h l y r e l a t e d to each o t h e r .  however, was n o t very h i g h l y  correlated with  A a  c  f  normative  b e l i e f s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f , NB . p  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f A  a c t i v i t i e s analyzed. A  . w i t h NB was about .50 f o r a l l ac t p  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the  ^-NB- c o r r e l a t i o n i n a l l three a c t i v i t i e s was act 3  h i g h e r than the c o r r e l a t i o n o f A  consistently  . w i t h any o t h e r s o c i a l  normative b e l i e f . In summary, the students* p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s toward the a c t , and normative to  ' c l o s e s t f r i e n d s ' , appeared  b e l i e f s with respect  to be most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to  TABLE IX CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR AND CRITERION VARIABLES Predictor Variable A  ^ act NB^ N B  2  Activity 2 B BI  Activity 1 B BI .383  .206*  .483  -.068NS  .385  .253  .368  .002NS  .192*  .118NS  .210*  .236  .186*  .303  .185*  -.145NS  -.009NS  .111NS  -.142NS  .007NS  .160NS  -.154NS  .107NS  -.032NS  .020NS  -.257  .080NS  -.107NS  -.029NS  NB  .182*  .080NS  .326  -.074NS  .692  .267  .771  .114NS  .677  .180*  1.000  .280  1.000  .111NS  1.000  .268  4  NB BI  r> ir  -.039NS  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t p = .01 except where noted o t h e r w i s e . (N = 128) * p < .05  a  Abbreviations:  Activity 5 B  .105NS  3 NB N B  Activity 4 B  Activity 3 BI B . .498  a  .142NS  f i g u r e s and are s i g n i f i c a n t a t  NS  =  Not s i g n i f i c a n t  BI  =  Behavioral  B  =  Behavior  =  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  =  Normative b e l i e f s with r e s p e c t t o : (1) 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the c l a s s ' , (4) ' l e c t u r e r ' , (5) ' r e l i g i o u s group', (p) ' m y s e l f  A  ^ act  NB  .339  intention  CO Ul  86  TABLEIX (continued) Activity 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" Activity 2 = signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment Activity 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology Activity 4 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "The Time of Man" the lecturer to obtain information Activity 5 =contacting about assisting the summer landfill leaching experiment  87 TABLE X CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR VARIABLES  NB Activity  2  NB  3  NB  4  NB  5  NB  2  NB  3  NB  4  NB  5  NB P  act  1 1 .000  NB^ NB  1  3  .398  .550  .082NS  .339  .408  .223*  1 .000  .636  .245  .470  .268  .100NS  1 .000  .241  .500  .357  .227*  1 .000  .310  .074NS  .086NS  .252  .125NS  1 .000  1 .000  NB  .505  P Activity NB  X  NB  2  NB  3  NB  4  NB  5  2 1 .000  .642  .697  .113NS  .519  .344  .125NS  1 .000  .600  .287  .496  .248  .138NS  1 .000  .250  .516  .366  .247  .212*  .172NS  .168NS  .330  .273  1 .000  .483  1 .000  1 .000  NB P Activity NB  1  NB  2  NB  3  NB  4  NB  5  3 1 .000  .687  .680  .146NS  .454  .178*  .06 2NS  1 .000  .702  .209*  .449  .208*  .150NS  1 .000  .186*  .487  .084NS  .166NS  .269  .151NS  .126NS  1 .000  .164NS  .001NS  1 .000  1 .000  NB  .450  P  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f t o t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s and a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t p = .01 except where noted o t h e r w i s e . (N = 128) * p < .05  88 TABLE X (continued) Abbreviations: NS Aact. NB  = Not significant = Attitude toward the act = Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself  Activity 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" Activity 2 = signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling•experiment Activity 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology  89  the b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n i n each a c t i v i t y .  The o t h e r s o c i a l  normative b e l i e f s tended to be somewhat l e s s r e l a t e d to BI ( g e n e r a l l y having c o r r e l a t i o n s o f r < .25).  The BI-B  r e l a t i o n s h i p tended to be low, b u t s i g n i f i c a n t i n A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and 5, r a n g i n g between r = .27 and r = .34. correlations for activities r = .14 2NS r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The BI-B  2 and 4 were r = .111NS and  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f the p r e d i c t o r  v a r i a b l e s w i t h BI tended to be l a r g e r than c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the  same p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h B.  F i f t y p e r c e n t o f the  v a r i a b l e s i n t e r n a l to the model c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with behavior or behavioral  intention  ( i n A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3 ) ,  compared t o a n i n e p e r c e n t f i g u r e f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l ations  3.  of the e x t e r n a l  variables with B or BI.  The P r e d i c t i o n o f B e h a v i o r a l  Intention  (N = 128)  Table XI shows the b e t a weights o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s and the m u l t i p l e with behavioral  intention.  c o r r e l a t i o n o f these v a r i a b l e s The l a r g e m u l t i p l e  o b t a i n e d tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t b e h a v i o r a l predicted  correlations  i n t e n t i o n can be  t o a h i g h degree o f accuracy by the use o f a t t i t u d e  toward the a c t and v a r i o u s predictors.  relevant  The beta weight of A  , f o r A c t i v i t y 1 was found cLC  to be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ,  normative b e l i e f s as t  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t normative b e l i e f s ,  s p e c i f i c a l l y NB^ and NB^ were the v a r i a b l e s r e s p o n s i b l e i n the p r e d i c t i o n of BI f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y . showed s i g n i f i c a n t b e t a weights f o r A  Activities  2 and 3  ., i n d i c a t i n g  that  TABLE  XI  STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIORAL INTENTION a  Activity  a  NB^  act  NB  2  NB  3  NB  NB  4  5  R  NB  1  .054NS  .157  .025NS  -.095NS  -.085NS  •026NS  P .627  2  .164  .219  -.068NS  -.109NS  -.023NS  .043NS  .666  .797  3  .240  .131NS  -.228  -.096NS  -.038NS  .608  .739  .178  .710  A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s and are s i g n i f i c a n t a t p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128)  Abbreviations:  R  =  Multiple correlation of p r e d i c t o r s on b e h a v i o r a l intention  NS  =  Not s i g n i f i c a n t  A  =  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  =  Normative b e l i e f s w i t h r e s p e c t t o : - (1) 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the c l a s s ' , (4) ' l e c t u r e r ' , (5) ' r e l i g i o u s group', (p) ' m y s e l f  . act NB  Activity 1  =  a t t e n d i n g a f r e e lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d ,  "Environment i n the Balance"  Activity  2  =  s i g n i n g up t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment  Activity 3  =  p i c k i n g up a s e t o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l s and reading Technology  l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and  o  a t t i t u d e toward the a c t as w e l l as the r e l e v a n t normative b e l i e f s were important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s f o r those two a c t i v i t i e s .  The o n l y  s o c i a l normative b e l i e f found to be s i g n i f i c a n t was  NB^  the  normative b e l i e f w i t h r e s p e c t to ' c l o s e s t f r i e n d s ' .  The  NB  NB  1  b e t a weight was  i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n A c t i v i t y 3, b u t  2  (the normative b e l i e f w i t h r e s p e c t to 'parents') was  seen  to have a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t , and  NB^  (the normative b e l i e f w i t h r e s p e c t to 'majority o f the c l a s s ' ) had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e w e i g h t i n g . b e t a weight i n . a l l normative b e l i e f  t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s was  The  largest  t h a t o f the p e r s o n a l  (NB^) which appeared to be the major con-  t r i b u t o r to the p r e d i c t i o n of BI i n each a c t i v i t y .  The  q u a n t i t i e s o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f BI accounted f o r by the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were .50,  .63 and  .55 f o r  A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y , l e a v i n g about f o r t y to f i f t y p e r c e n t unaccounted  for.  Table XII shows the p e r c e n t  o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by each p r e d i c t o r i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f BI.  NB^  variable  accounted f o r the l a r g e s t  of the p r e d i c t a b l e v a r i a n c e i n each a c t i v i t y , w i t h A NB,  portion  . and  c o n t e n d i n g f o r the next l a r g e s t q u a n t i t y o f v a r i a n c e .  TABLE XII PERCENT OF TOTAL VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR BY EACH PREDICTOR VARIABLE IN THE PREDICTION OF BEHAVIORAL INTENTION a  , % act  NB _% ]  NB %  NB %  NB %  NB %  NB %  R%  1  2.05  6.06  0.48  -2.25  0.25  0.48  43.39  50.47  2  7.94  8.07  -1.42  -3.29  - .24  1.40  51.30  63.48  3  11.93  2.43  -2.54  2.85  - .20  - .30  41.17  54 .67  Activity  a  A  2  3  4  5  2  p  A l t h o u g h f i g u r e s are given t o two decimal p l a c e s , these l a s t two decimal p l a c e s a r e not significant (N = 128). Percentages ± 5% are not s i g n i f i c a n t .  Abbreviations:  A  . act NB  =  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  =  R  =  Normative b e l i e f s with r e s p e c t t o : (1) 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3)'majority o f the c l a s s ' , ( 4 ) ' l e c t u r e r ' , (5) ' r e l i g i o u s group', (p) ' m y s e l f M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f p r e d i c t o r s on b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n  Activity 1  =  a t t e n d i n g a f r e e lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d ,  "Environment i n the Balance"  Activity 2  =  s i g n i n g up to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment  Activity 3  =  p i c k i n g up a s e t o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l s and reading l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and Technology VD IO  4. The  The P r e d i c t i o n of Behavior  (N = 128)  p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r was found to be  consider-  a b l y l e s s a c c u r a t e than the p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l The  b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s and m u l t i p l e  intention.  c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the p r e -  d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h b e h a v i o r a r e shown i n Table X I I I . portion of t o t a l variance  The  accounted f o r by the p r e d i c t o r  v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f behavior was found to be o n l y .11,  .04 and .14 f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  leaving eighty-six unaccounted f o r .  to n i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e This poor p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r was  also  i n d i c a t e d by the low BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s shown i n Table IX. Although the beta weights o f the p r e d i c t o r s regression  on B (Table  insignificant, the p a t t e r n  XIII) were i n most  i n the  instances  they presented an i n t e r e s t i n g d e v i a t i o n  from  shown i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f B I .  A . d i d not . ac *c c a r r y a s i g n i f i c a n t weight f o r any a c t i v i t y , and NB was P  s i g n i f i c a n t only  in Activities  2 and 3.  The o n l y  instance  o f a s i g n i f i c a n t l y weighted s o c i a l normative b e l i e f came i n Activity the  3, w i t h NB^  lecturer).  greater  (the normative b e l i e f w i t h r e s p e c t to  The b e t a weight f o r NB^ was n e g a t i v e and  than the weight o f NB^.  the r e g r e s s i o n weight, and NB  Such was not the case i n  on BI, where NB^ had a s m a l l , was h i g h l y  non-significant  s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .001).  TABLE X I I I STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIOR a  Activity  A a c t^  NB  1  NB  2  NB  NB, 4  NB  .059NS  -.077NS -.034NS  3  1  .093NS  .155NS  2  -.146NS  -.034NS  .018NS  .043NS  3  .061NS  -.092NS  -.064NS  -.036NS  <.01NS  -.282  C  NB  R  -.028NS  P .149NS  .331*  -.114NS  .220  .210NS  .014NS  .234  .376  D  A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s and are s i g n i f i c a n t a t p = .01 except where noted o t h e r w i s e . (N = 128) p < .05 Abbreviations: NS  =  Not s i g n i f i c a n t  A a c. t  =  Attitude  =  Normative b e l i e f s with r e s p e c t t o : (1) 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority o f the c l a s s ' , (4) ' l e c t u r e r ' , (5) ' r e l i g i o u s group', (p) 'myself'  =  Multiple  NB -  Activity 1  =  correlation of predictors  on behavior  R a t t e n d i n g a f r e e lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance"' s i g n i n g up to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n experiment  Activity 2 Activity 3  toward the a c t  =  sampling  p i c k i n g up a s e t of i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l s and r e a d i n g . l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and Technology  vo  95  5.  The Role o f B e h a v i o r a l I n t e n t i o n i n P r e d i c t i n g Behavior  (N = 128)  The r e s u l t s g i v e n i n Tables X I I I and XIV tend t o support the h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t BI i s an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e  between o v e r t b e h a v i o r and the p r e d i c t o r s o f model.  the F i s h b e i n  Each o f the s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between  b e h a v i o r and a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e (Table XIV) was reduced t o n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e when the e f f e c t o f BI was p a r t i a l l e d o u t (Table XV).  The n e g a t i v e product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s g i v e n  i n Table XIV i n c r e a s e d i n v a l u e i n the n e g a t i v e when BI was h e l d c o n s t a n t  (Table XV).  direction  Some n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  n e g a t i v e product c o r r e l a t i o n s became s i g n i f i c a n t i n the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n matrix 6.  (Table XV).  Measurement E f f e c t  In order t o i n v e s t i g a t e measurement e f f e c t s on a c t u a l 2 performance o f the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a x independence was c a r r i e d o u t f o r each a c t i v i t y . contingency  test of  The  2 x 2  t a b l e s used i n these analyses a r e shown i n  Appendices N, 0, P and Q. 2 The v a l u e s o f x  (corrected f o r small c e l l  frequencies)  o b t a i n e d f o r each a c t i v i t y , comparing the e f f e c t o f the r e search instrument  to the e f f e c t o f the placebo  instrument a r e  g i v e n i n Table XVI. The p o s s i b l e presence  o f a measurement e f f e c t i n  A c t i v i t y 3 l e d t o the s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t the placebo  instrument  TABLE XIV PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES Behavior  a  B  l  B  2  B  3  4-  A  NB^  act .206*  .253  NB  NB  2  .119NS  3  NB  4  NB  C  D  -.074NS  .114NS  .111NS  -.114NS  .192*  .268  .081NS  -.032NS -.273  -.010NS  .008NS  .108NS  -.149NS  -.146NS  -.159NS  P .280  -.040NS  .003NS  BI  NB .267  .188*  -.068NS  a  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s and are s i g n i f i c a n t a t p =.01 except where noted otherwise (N = 128); s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o r r e l a t i o n s shown i n t h i s t a b l e and those shown i n Table X are due to d i f f e r e n t rounding e r r o r s between computer programs. p < .05  Abbreviations:  NS act NB  BI  =  Not s i g n i f i c a n t  =  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t  =  Normative b e l i e f s w i t h r e s p e c t t o : (1) 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority o f the c l a s s ' , (4) ' l e c t u r e r ' , (5) ' r e l i g i o u s , group', (p) 'myself'  =  Behavioral  =  The performance  (or non-performance)of A c t i v i t y 1  =  The performance  (or non-performance)of A c t i v i t y 2  =  The performance  (or non-performance)of A c t i v i t y 3  intention  TABLE XV PARTIAL CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, HOLDING BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) CONSTANT a  Behavior  a  B  l  B  2  B  3  A a c. t  NB  NB^  2  NB  3  NB  NB  4  NB  C  .111NS  .164NS  .069NS  .131NS  -.033NS  .031NS  P .106NS  -.140NS  -.043NS  -.035NS  -.028NS  -.032NS  -.118NS  .044NS  -.032NS  -.211*  -.184*  -.212*  -.289  -.14 2NS  .012NS  0  A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s p = .01 except where noted o t h e r w i s e . (N = 128)  and are s i g n i f i c a n t a t  p < .05 Abbreviations:  NS act NB  A  ] B,  B  B.  Not  significant  A t t i t u d e toward the a c t Normative b e l i e f s w i t h r e s p e c t t o : (1) 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the c l a s s ' , (4) ' l e c t u r e r ' , (5) ' r e l i g i o u s group', (p) ' m y s e l f The performance  (or non-performance) o f A c t i v i t y 1  The performance  (or non-performance)  The performance  (or non-performance) o f A c t i v i t y 3  of A c t i v i t y 2  VO  TABLE XVI CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVITIES, FROM THE RECEIVING OF A QUESTIONNAIRE** Activity  Research vs placebo questionnaire 2 X  Placebo vs no questionnaire  2  P<  X  P< .02  Research vs no questionnaire  2  P<  X  .001  16.66  Research vs no questionnaire (absentees corrected) 2 X  P<  6 .23  .02  .07  .80  1  .64  .50  5.78  2  .04  .90  _*  _*  1.04  3  3.53  .10  _*  _*  15.08  .001  8.52  .005  4  .53  .50  7.94  .005  21.33  .001  9.49  .005  5  .005  .95  1.36  .25  .05  1.24  .30  .50  3.93  p i s the p r o b a b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g a x value g r e a t e r than o r equal to the corresponding t a b l e d v a l u e , f o r one degree o f freedom, given the n u l l hypothesis H^ H^  i s the hypothesis questionnaire  t h a t the performance of an a c t i v i t y i s independent from r e c e i v i n g a  *  2 c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s were too s m a l l f o r an accurate c a l c u l a t i o n o f x  ** complete contingency  t a b l e s are shown i n Appendices N, 0, P and Q VD CO  i t s e l f might produce  some measurement e f f e c t and thus mask  the measurement e f f e c t o f the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t . p o s s i b i l i t y was  checked  out by u t i l i z i n g  This  the s t u d e n t s  who 2  r e c e i v e d no instrument a t a l l ,  comparing the b e h a v i o r performance the students who  x  as a c o n t r o l group.  tests  (or non-performance) of  r e c e i v e d the placebo instrument, to the  responses of those who r e c e i v e d no instrument were c a r r i e d out. Although cell f r e q u e n c i e s were too small 2 2 f o r computation o f x A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3, the x values i  n  o b t a i n e d f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1, 4 and 5 are shown under the 'Placebo vs no q u e s t i o n n a i r e column o f T a b l e XVI. 1  The  c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s used i n these c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n Appendix  0. 2 Another  s e r i e s of x  t e s t s was  conducted,  the b e h a v i o r responses o f the students who  r e c e i v e d the  r e s e a r c h instrument to the responses o f those who no instrument Table  (Appendix  P).  comparing  received  The r e s u l t s are g i v e n i n  XVI. Measurement e f f e c t i s a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r  A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and 4, m a r g i n a l i n A c t i v i t y 5, and s i g n i f i c a n t i n A c t i v i t y 2.  One  non-  p o s s i b l e confounding  factor  should be mentioned; i n c l u d e d i n the group o f s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d no measuring  instrument were the absentees.  r e c o r d o f the exact number o f absentees  who No  per l e c t u r e was  kept,  but a rough e s t i m a t e by the p r o f e s s o r i n charge o f S e c t i o n 1  placed  the number of d a i l y absentees a t an average o f f i f t y .  Assuming the worst case,  i . e . , t h a t the same f i f t y students 2 were absent f o r the e n t i r e l e c t u r e s e r i e s , x v a l u e s were 2 recalculated (Appendix Q) and gave the r e s u l t shown i n 2 Table XVI. 4 were s t i l l  The f a c t t h a t x  f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and  s i g n i f i c a n t a f t e r being  would lend support  7.  c o r r e c t e d f o r absentees  t o the e x i s t e n c e o f the measurement  e f f e c t i n a t l e a s t these  The  values  three  activities.  Discussion of Results  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t F i s h b e i n ' s model can be  u s e f u l l y a p p l i e d i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n .  Problems i n  a p p l i c a t i o n of the theory noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e and a few problems more s p e c i f i c to the p r e s e n t  study became apparent.  These problems a r e p o i n t e d o u t i n the s e c t i o n s below, b u t n o t accounted f o r .  The p r e s e n t  study attempted to c o l l e c t  i n f o r m a t i o n about the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f F i s h b e i n ' s theory t o classroom  p r a c t i c e and not i n f o r m a t i o n  d e v i a t i o n s from  accounting f o r  theory.  2 C o r r e c t i o n f o r absentees (N = 50) was accomplished by s u b t r a c t i n g f i f t y from the group o f 132 students who r e c e i v e d no q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t a l l (there was no way o f t e l l i n g i f those students were p r e s e n t o r absent d u r i n g the assessment l e c t u r e p e r i o d except by b e h a v i o r performance, s i n c e they d i d not t u r n i n response s h e e t s ) . From each contingency t a b l e g i v e n i n Appendix P, f i f t y has been s u b t r a c t e d from the c e l l r e p r e s e n t i n g the number o f students i n the no instrument group who d i d not perform the b e h a v i o r . This s u b t r a c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the contingency t a b l e s g i v e n i n Appendix Q.  101 7.1  The  Relationship  those E x t e r n a l  between V a r i a b l e s  .294,  s i o n and  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  to conform w i t h the  of a t t i t u d e toward the (r =  p < .01),  (r =  ( 4-) A  textbook  and  .218,  attitude correlated  and  (Table V I I I )  theory were the  a t t i t u d e toward the  p < .05).  ( p £ A  r  e m  that  correlations  with behavior  tex  E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c Theory'  intention  to  to the F i s h b e i n Model  For A c t i v i t y 3, appear not  Internal  topic  ) with  'Propul-  behavioral  N e i t h e r o f these measures  s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h any  o f the  on  predictor  variables. The p < .01)  A c t i v i t y 3 c o r r e l a t i o n of A . with B phys  might be  of s t a t i s t i c a l  interpreted with respect  f l u c t u a t i o n and  The  the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (N = 89) r =  .210  (p =  may  be,  within  .05) .  statistical  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the of Aphyg w i t h NBp .075. plus for  Given the the h i g h l y  NBp  external  The  .05 was  c r i t i c a l values f o r  are r =  .274  c o r r e l a t i o n of p h A  (r =  previously  .209) .  v s  The  (p =  .01)  with  BI  marginally  correlation  shown to be r =  .190,  p <  almost s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e of the b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t  in Activity 3  (Table  XI),  the c o r r e l a t i o n s of  v a r i a b l e A , „ w i t h the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e BI phys  to conform to e x p e c t a t i o n s based upon the any  possibility  f l u c t u a t i o n , considered  level  .278,  the m a r g i n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  the c o r r e l a t i o n o f A , w i t h BI. phys  and  to the  (r =  variables external  the tends  theory, i . e . , t h a t  to the model w i l l be u n r e l a t e d  to  102 behavior and to b e h a v i o r a l shown to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y predictors  7.2  i n t e n t i o n , u n l e s s they can be r e l a t e d to a t l e a s t one o f the  g i v e n i n the model ( 7 ) .  The R e l a t i o n s h i p  among V a r i a b l e s  Internal  to the Model  The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h BI (Table  IX) tended to s u b s t a n t i a t e  function of A observation  the theory t h a t BI i s a  . and o f the r e l e v a n t act  normative b e l i e f s .  The  t h a t a l l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between BI and  each normative b e l i e f were c o n s i d e r a b l y  reduced when each  normative b e l i e f term was m u l t i p l i e d by i t s r e s p e c t i v e v a r i a b l e , supports the c o n j e c t u r e  Mc  (8, 9, 10) t h a t the  p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f Mc as measured i s i n s e r i o u s doubt. Suggestions c o n c e r n i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e a r e made i n the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , s e c t i o n 7.4, and Chapter V, s e c t i o n  4.1.  The r e s u l t t h a t a l l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h B were s m a l l e r  than the c o r r e s p o n d -  i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the p r e d i c t o r s w i t h BI, (Table  IX), i s  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the theory t h a t BI i s an i n t e r v e n i n g between B and the p r e d i c t o r  variable  terms, b u t t h i s e f f e c t c o u l d 3  a l s o have been due to method v a r i a n c e .  The n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n -  Since b e h a v i o r was assessed i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than the other v a r i a b l e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t v a r i a n c e due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n method c o u l d account f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e s more h i g h l y w i t h the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s than does b e h a v i o r . A j z e n and F i s h b e i n (10), however, have shown t h a t v a r i a n c e due to method was not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s i m i l a r e f f e c t observed i n t h e i r work (p. 484).  103 s h i p between s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s and suggests t h a t normative b e l i e f s may  B in Activity 3  actually shift polarity  i n the i n t e r v a l between the assessment of BI and performance o f the b e h a v i o r . theory, i n t h a t b e h a v i o r a l  T h i s , too  w i t h the The  not  correspond  of the b e h a v i o r a l  c o r r e l a t i o n s suggest the  t h a t i n these p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ,  with  change over time,  s i t u a t i o n may  i n d i v i d u a l ' s expectation  low o b t a i n e d BI-B  i s consistent  i n t e n t i o n s may  or t h a t the a c t u a l b e h a v i o r a l  the  situation.  possibility  the  actual  behavioral  s i t u a t i o n s were not adequately d e s c r i b e d  i n the  assessment  of behavioral  changed  i n t e n t i o n s , o r t h a t BI had  over a p e r i o d of time. f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the  These p o s s i b i l i t i e s  The between NB  c o n s i s t e n t l y high and  p  A  (r = .48)  correlations  . suggests t h a t these two  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s of equation  A j z e n and was  (Table  X)  predictor  i s i n accordance w i t h Dulany's RHd  which o c c u r r e d i n both the a t t i t u d i n a l and  1 to 3, NB  correspondence.  have a component i n common w i t h each o t h e r .  This specualtion  P  a l s o a need  ciC u  v a r i a b l e s may  between NB  suggest a need  s t a b i l i t y of a BI measure and  f o r procedures w i t h which to e s t i m a t e BI-B  considerably  Further,  normative correlations  and  BI  was  not q u i t e an a l t e r n a t i v e measure of BI  Fishbein  (r - .71)  (2.3).  i n the  variable  (10)  had  further substantiated  by  tend to i n d i c a t e t h a t i n A c t i v i t i e s  found p r e v i o u s l y .  This  as  finding  the r e l a t i v e magnitudes of  beta c o e f f i c i e n t s o f o t h e r p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s  (Table  the  XI).  104 The for  high  (r = .65)  c o r r e l a t i o n s between NB  and  2  NB^  A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3 i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a common  component or s i m i l a r i t y between these two r e s u l t may and  NB  a l s o be  applied  (r = .50) , NB  5  2  and  to NB^ NB^  and  NB  2  predictors.  This  (r - .58) ,  (r = .47) , and  NB^  NB^  and  NB^  (r * .44) .  7.3  The  P r e d i c t i o n of B e h a v i o r a l  Intention  Although the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r a t least f i f t y  p e r c e n t o f the  of BI  (Table  for.  This  t o t a l variance  i n the  X I I ) , f o r t y to f i f t y p e r c e n t was  "error" variance  may  by  several possible attenuating  be  the i n h e r e n t  reliability  measuring i n s t r u m e n t .  The  be  of the  unaccounted  speculatively  factors.  One  prediction  explained  f a c t o r might  s c a l e s used i n  reliability  of the  the  s c a l e s used was  not  4  determined d i r e c t l y because o f p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . A more important f a c t o r may v a l i d i t y o f the items i n the involved  have been the  instrument.  i n d e v e l o p i n g v a l i d measures on  b e l i e f s , relevant v a r i a b l e , and previously 4  referents,  The  construct  problems  the v a r i o u s  normative  the m o t i v a t i o n to comply  (Mc)  the p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f have been  discussed.  In the case of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study,  These p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d Chapter I, s e c t i o n 6.  *. in  105 Chapter I I I i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e f e r e n t groups, community' and  '.university community', might have been more  r e l e v a n t to P h y s i c s and  'scientific  115  students than  ' r e l i g i o u s group*  'majority o f the c l a s s " , the r e f e r e n t s t h a t were  a c t u a l l y used. Associated  w i t h the problem of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y  are the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the p r e d i c t o r s w i t h each o t h e r .  The  f a c t t h a t a number o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were h i g h l y r e l a t e d to each other  n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t e d i n some s t a t i s t i c a l  a t i o n of the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e s regression analysis  ity.  multiple  (46).  Response b i a s was which may  i n the  l a r g e l y an unexpected o c c u r r e n c e  have n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d s t u d e n t response  Several  attenu-  students were heard to make n e g a t i v e  about the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  during  reliabilremarks  the course o f i t s c o m p l e t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , three response sheets t h a t were handed i n appeared to have been p u r p o s e l y  spoiled.  A t o t a l of  fourteen  response sheets were v i s u a l l y r e j e c t e d as being p o t e n t i a l l y u n r e l i a b l e , but  i t i s possible that others  Finally,  the p o s s i b i l i t y  escaped  detection.  t h a t some unknown f a c t o r s  might be  important p r e d i c t o r s of BI should  Dulany's  (18)  not be  excluded.  o r i g i n a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework m a i n t a i n e d  openness to the a d d i t i o n o f new  terms.  it  i s possible that a motivational  be  found to c o n t r i b u t e  p r e d i c t i o n of BI.  In F i s h b e i n ' s  component may  s i g n i f i c a n t l y and  model  i n future  c o n s i s t e n t l y to  I t i s also possible that  an  specific  the  106 v a r i a b l e s such as or  'achievement a n x i e t y ' ,  'need achievement'  'academic i n t e r e s t ' , might be r e q u i r e d  educational situations  [Khan  specifically in  (31)] and t h a t o t h e r  v a r i a b l e s might be r e q u i r e d i n o t h e r  specific  situations.  The q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance o f the type of p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e p r e d i c t i n g BI may all  ( a t t i t u d i n a l o r normative) used i n  be answered by r e f e r e n c e to T a b l e XI.  For  three a c t i v i t i e s , normative b e l i e f s outweighed the  a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e by a l a r g e margin, a l t h o u g h the v a l u e o f the a t t i t u d i n a l beta c o e f f i c i e n t i n c r e a s e d from nonsignificance and  .240  (.054NS) i n A c t i v i t y 1, to .164  (p <<  .01) f o r A c t i v i t i e s  T h i s i n c r e a s e i n the weight o f A  (p <  .01)  2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . , from A c t i v i t y 1 to  clC "t  A c t i v i t y 3 shows up v e r y d i s t i n c t l y i n terms o f p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l v a r i a n c e  (Table X I I ) , but i s d i f f i c u l t  to e x p l a i n .  Perhaps i t depends on the degree to which s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e each a c t i v i t y as c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r achievement i n the l e c t u r e module concerned w i t h environmental and assessment.  I t i s p o s s i b l e that A c t i v i t y 1 (attending a  f r e e lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , and A c t i v i t y  technological  "Environment i n the Balance")  2 ( s i g n i n g up to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about a  l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment) were p e r c e i v e d by s t u d e n t s as having few p o s i t i v e achievement consequences, resulting i n A  . h a v i n g l i t t l e r e l a t i v e importance i n the  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f BI.  On the o t h e r hand, A c t i v i t y 3 (the  107 p i c k i n g up o f a s e t o f i n f o r m a t i o n  materials  and r e a d i n g  l i s t on p o l l u t i o n and technology) appears t o have had i n s t r u c t i o n a l v a l u e which may have been p e r c e i v e d  by s t u d e n t s  as having b e n e f i c i a l consequences, i f performed.  This  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would be i n l i n e w i t h F i s h b e i n ' s ization of A  being, i n part,  conceptual-  a f u n c t i o n o f b e l i e f s about  ac "C the p r o b a b i l i t y o f an a c t r e s u l t i n g i n c e r t a i n consequences. The  l a r g e amount o f v a r i a n c e  (Table XII) accounted  f o r by NBp, compared t o the amount accounted f o r by a l l s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s combined,might be a s i t u a t i o n a l effect.  Situations  i n v o l v i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n might be  expected to show a g r e a t e r  combined weight i n measures o f  s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s .  T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y s h o u l d perhaps  be  i n v e s t i g a t e d more thoroughly i n f u t u r e  studies.  From a  s t r i c t l y a p p l i c a t i v e p o i n t o f view r e t a i n i n g both the p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f v a r i a b l e and the s o c i a l normative belief variables point  7.4  i n the model seems a d v i s a b l e  until  this  is clarified.  The P r e d i c t i o n of Behavior Low BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s  (Table  IX) and low m u l t i p l e  c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s  (Table  XIII) on  b e h a v i o r made the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p r e d i c t o r v a r i a n c e s i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r extremely d i f f i c u l t . s i x to n i n e t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l v a r i a n c e  The e i g h t y unaccounted  f o r might, i n p a r t , be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the f a c t o r s  discussed  108 i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s , namely, the time  interval  between the measurement o f BI and the o b s e r v a t i o n o f B, the degree o f v o l i t i o n a l c o n t r o l t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l had over h i s b e h a v i o r i n the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , and the s p e c i f i c i t y o f the measure o f BI t o the b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n . p o s s i b i l i t i e s are d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r below.  These  The o b s e r v a t i o n  was made t h a t the magnitude o f the beta c o e f f i c i e n t s g i v e n i n Table X I I I ( i n the r e g r e s s i o n on b e h a v i o r ) , d i d n o t correspond  t o the rank order o f b e t a c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the  case o f a BI c r i t e r i o n  (Table X I ) .  a t i o n s were low i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s ,  Since the BI-B c o r r e l i t was t o be expected  t h a t the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s would show d i f f e r e n t  relative  w e i g h t i n g i n the r e g r e s s i o n on b e h a v i o r than i n the r e g r e s s i o n on b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n . While  the r e l a t i v e l y long time i n t e r v a l between  measures o f BI and measures o f B may have had some e f f e c t i n r e d u c i n g the o v e r a l l BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n v a l u e s , i t does riot appear to have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n these correlations for different activities  (Table I X ) .  Activity  1 (the movie, "Environment i n the B a l a n c e " ) , f o r example, had  to be attended on February  ment o f the model v a r i a b l e s . been completed  immediately  up to February 11. Activities A c t i v i t y 1.  11, f o u r days a f t e r the a s s e s s Activities  2 and 3 c o u l d have  a f t e r the assessment  (February 7 ) ,  On the b a s i s o f time i n t e r v a l  alone,  2 and 3 should have h i g h e r BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s Such was not the c a s e .  than  The BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n  109 f o r a c t i v i t y 1 was Activities  2 and  .280  and  the BI-B  3 were 111NS  and  correlations for  .268  respectively.  Further-  more, A c t i v i t y 5 ( c o n t a c t i n g the l e c t u r e r about a s s i s t i n g i n a summer l a n d f i l l  l e a c h i n g experiment) c o u l d have been  performed between February 7 and of twenty-two days  29, a p o s s i b l e time i n t e r v a l  ( i n c l u d i n g weekends), and  produced the h i g h e s t BI-B  correlation  yet t h i s  (.339, p <  activity  .01).  C o n s t r a i n t s on student v o l i t i o n c o u l d have played some p a r t i n the s i z e of the BI-B 1 and  4  (the two  correlations in Activities  lunch-hour m o v i e s ) .  A few days a f t e r  showing of the A c t i v i t y 4 movie, "The l e a r n e d t h a t one a t i o n " ) was as  "The  being  of a popular  Time of Man",  B.B.C. movie s e r i e s  i t was ("Civiliz-  shown on campus a t e x a c t l y the same time  Time o f Man".  i n i t i a l l y expressed  Some of the P h y s i c s  115  the b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n of  students  " C i v i l i z a t i o n " , r e s u l t i n g i n the BI-B A c t i v i t y 4 b e i n g v e r y low  correlation for  degree which ' n o n - s p e c i f i c i t y o f BI assessment  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s unknown.  methodological authors  seeing  (.142NS).  to the b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n ' played BI-B  who  performing  A c t i v i t y 4 might have changed t h e i r minds i n f a v o r of  The  the  a part i n reducing  In the absence o f any  g u i d e l i n e s i n the assessment o f BI  have used s e v e r a l methods), BI assessment  items were formulated  the rigorous  (several questionnaire  on the b a s i s on methods used i n the  m a j o r i t y of p a s t s t u d i e s , keeping any  r e f e r e n c e to  b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n as s p e c i f i c as p o s s i b l e .  the  110 The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e BI-B  correlation for Activity  5 gave r i s e to some s p e c u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g performance of behavior and as an i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r .  the  observed  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f m o t i v a t i o n A c t i v i t y 5 was  the o n l y  where the l e c t u r e r mentioned the p o s s i b i l i t y of being p a i d on a summer job b a s i s .  Could  activity  students  t h i s added i n c e n t i v e  have i n c r e a s e d the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f the performance o f Activity 5  ( c o n t a c t i n g the l e c t u r e r about a s s i s t i n g i n a  summer l a n d f i l l having  little  l e s s important such as  l e a c h i n g experiment)?  social interaction,  'motivation to comply' i s  than some o t h e r unknown m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e  'pay m o t i v a t i o n ' ,  'entertainment  Perhaps i n s i t u a t i o n s  'achievement m o t i v a t i o n ' ,  m o t i v a t i o n ' , or some g e n e r a l form o f combined  motivation variable.  For example,  'entertainment  motivation'  might be a v a r i a b l e to c o n s i d e r when d e a l i n g w i t h movie-going behavior. F i n a l l y , i n attempting in  to e x p l a i n the e r r o r v a r i a n c e  the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, i t  must again be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s study d i d not employ the laboratory-type of r e l i a b i l i t y the o t h e r s t u d i e s . practice t r i a l s .  c o n t r o l s employed i n most of  There were no r e p l i c a t i v e b e h a v i o r s , or  There were no post  factum  measures o f  b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s or s e l f - r e p o r t s of b e h a v i o r .  The  between the measures of BI and  was  the performance of B  time  s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o n g e r than i n s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g game s i t u a t i o n s . A l s o , the s u b j e c t s , themselves were somewhat n e g a t i v e i n t h e i r  Ill r e a c t i o n to the instrument used i n a s s e s s i n g  the v a r i a b l e s .  Another f a c t o r which a l s o may have a t t e n u a t e d the BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s was a probable measurement e f f e c t . discussed  7.5  The o b s e r v a t i o n  Intention  i n Predicting  was reduced to n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e  when BI was h e l d  correl-  (Table  XIV)  constant  XV), tended to correspond w i t h the f i n d i n g s of A j z e n  Fishbein  (10) and D e v r i e s and A j z e n  thus tends t o lend intervening ables.  Behavior  t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  a t i o n between b e h a v i o r and a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e  and  subject  i n d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 7.6 below.  . The Role o f B e h a v i o r a l  (Table  This  strength  (8). This  result  t o the theory t h a t BI i s an  v a r i a b l e between b e h a v i o r and the p r e d i c t o r  vari-  A c c o r d i n g to t h e o r y , t h e assessment o f BI o r i t s  p r e d i c t o r s must t h e r e f o r e  be c o n s i d e r e d t o be necessary f o r  the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r . The tendency f o r n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between b e h a v i o r and  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s t o become more n e g a t i v e when BI was  held constant  (Table  XV), a l s o tends to. show t h a t the a d d i t i o n  of a measure of BI w i l l ations  influence behavior-predictor  i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n ,  correl-  t h a t i s , the a d d i t i o n o f  a measure o f BI enhances the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r .  112 7.6  Measurement E f f e c t The problem posed by the r e s u l t s o f the x  2  tests i s  how to i n t e r p r e t the apparent presence o f a measurement  effect  (of the type d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , s e c t i o n 5.5) i n some a c t i v i t i e s b u t not i n o t h e r s . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n may be the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the measuring instrument  w i t h r e s p e c t t o the number o f items  used i n a s s e s s i n g each o f the v a r i a b l e s .  However, the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the items f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3 (see Appendix C) appear t o be v e r y s l i g h t , the main d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g an e x t r a i t e m  (Number 1 i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e )  a s s e s s i n g BI f o r A c t i v i t y 1. d i s c a r d e d i n the f i n a l  was used i n  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r i t e m was  a n a l y s i s of the d a t a .  A l l other  used f o r the assessment o f v a r i a b l e s were v i r t u a l l y f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1 through 3.  that  later items  identical  This s i m i l a r i t y of questionnaire  items used i n the assessment of v a r i a b l e s f o r the f i r s t three a c t i v i t i e s would appear to negate the p o s s i b i l i t y the q u e s t i o n n a i r e composition  that  c o u l d account f o r the d i f f e r -  ences i n measuring e f f e c t i n d i c a t e d by the x  2  tests f o r 2 A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3. Furthermore, a s i g n i f i c a n t x indication o f measurement e f f e c t was o b t a i n e d f o r A c t i v i t y 4, and a non2 significant x  i n d i c a t i o n was obtained  y e t the o n l y v a r i a b l e assessed two a c t i v i t i e s was B I . i n some cases  f o r A c t i v i t y 5, and  by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  f o r these  I t might t h e r e f o r e be i n f e r r e d  that  the assessment o f o n l y one v a r i a b l e (BI), o r  even the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i s s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e r i s e t o a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement  effect!  113 If  such i s the case, the p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r a l  s i t u a t i o n may  be p o s t u l a t e d as p l a y i n g a r o l e i n the  d i f f e r e n c e s i n degree o f measuring e f f e c t .  observed  Some s p e c u l a t i o n  must a g a i n be c a l l e d upon i n order to p r o v i d e a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f an i n t e r a c t i o n between s i t u a t i o n and measurement e f f e c t .  I f a student's response  to a b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n  assessment item i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  p e r c e i v e d by  the  student as a commitment to perform p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ,  then,  whether d r not he c a r r i e d out t h i s commitment might have depended on the student's p e r c e p t i o n o f what the p o s s i b l e consequences would be i f he f u l f i l l e d ment. filling  The  or changed h i s commit-  student's p e r c e p t i o n of the consequences o f  ful-  a commitment, i n t u r n , might have depended upon h i s  p e r c e p t i o n o f the nature o f the a c t i v i t y t o be performed fulfilment If  o f h i s commitment. the student viewed the consequences of  a n e g a t i v e commitment  fulfilling  ( i . e . , h i s i n t e n t i o n not to go to a  movie) as p o t e n t i a l l y bad,  then he would perform  a c t i v i t y , even ' a g a i n s t h i s w i l l ' intention).  in  the  (or a g a i n s t h i s b e h a v i o r a l  T h i s b e h a v i o r , i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o r i g i n a l  BI, might be i n t e r p r e t e d as having a r i s e n from a newly a c q u i r e d BI, and c o u l d g i v e r i s e to a low BI-B  correlation  as w e l l as a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t . If  the student, on the o t h e r hand, viewed the  consequences of f u l f i l l i n g  h i s commitment as  then he would probably perform  the a c t i v i t y  unimportant, in  accordance  w i t h h i s assessed b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n and no measurement  114  e f f e c t should a r i s e .  A l s o , i f students perform  i n accordance w i t h t h e i r assessed should  an a c t i v i t y  BI, h i g h BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s  result. T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n appears to work f a i r l y  but n o t a l l o f the a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s study.  w e l l f o r most,  The s p e c i f i c  r e a s o n i n g f o r each case i s g i v e n below. In the case o f A c t i v i t y 1 ('to a t t e n d a f r e e l u n c h hour movie e n t i t l e d  "Environment i n the Balance".  . . ' ) , the  2 marginal  x  probability  level  (p < .02), i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  degree o f measurement e f f e c t was low, b u t n o t n e g l i g i b l e . T h i s may have been due to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f some feeling a responsibility  students  to c a r r y o u t the a c t i v i t y even though  they had made a BI response  (commitment) i n d i c a t i n g  they d i d n ' t i n t e n d t o go t o the movie.  that  This behavior, i n -  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o r i g i n a l BI, might have been i n i t i a t e d by the assessment o f the o r i g i n a l BI.  The students may have  contemplated the motives o f the i n s t r u c t o r particular  BI q u e s t i o n .  asking  that  They may a l s o have f e l t a s t r o n g  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t m a t e r i a l from the movie c o u l d appear on some examination The  x  2  i n the near f u t u r e .  result  (.072NS) f o r A c t i v i t y 2 (.'to s i g n up  to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n  sampling  experiment . . .') . i n d i c a t e d t h a t the measurement e f f e c t f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y was n e g l i g i b l e .  Students  may have p e r -  c e i v e d t h i s a c t i v i t y as b e i n g o f such a v o l u n t a r y and  so u n r e l a t e d to t h e i r s c h o o l work  nature,  (the words 'no  obligation to participate* were used in the description of the experiment), that whether or not the BI commitment was honored was of little consequence. The low BI-B correlation (r_._ = .111NS) might be interpreted as a possible 131/13  change of BI having occurred as a result of the students having a weak original BI (or commitment). The highly probable (p < .005) measurement effect for Activity 3 ('to pick up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology') might be interpreted in the following way: the students thought that the reading list and information materials might be advantageous for examination purposes, and therefore felt compelled to perform the activity, even though their original BI commitment indicated otherwise. Activity 4 ('the attendance of a free lunch-hour movie entitled "The Time of Man" . . .') also resulted in a 2  large measuring effect (x = 9.49, p < .005). Why the measurement effect was greater for this activity than for Activity 1 (also a lunch-hour movie) is not known, but there are some possible explanations. One confounding factor was the concurrent showing of the B.B.C. series "Civilization". However, a more likely possibility was the emphasis placed on seeing "The Time of Man" by the lecturer—after the assessment of BI. This may have caused some of the students who did not intend to carry out Activity 4 to change their BI and perform Activity 4, fearing the consequences of what  116 might happen i f they  fulfilled  t h e i r negative  BI (commit-  ment) and d i d n o t see the movie. The  n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t f o r A c t i v i t y  5 ('to c o n t a c t Dr. Phelps i n o r d e r about a s s i s t i n g the summer l a n d f i l l  to o b t a i n  information  leaching experiment ) 1  may be e x p l a i n a b l e i n a manner s i m i l a r to the l a c k o f measurement e f f e c t i n A c t i v i t y 2.  The BI response f o r A c t i v i t y 5  may have been p e r c e i v e d by the student  as c o n s t i t u t i n g  o n l y a weak commitment because o f the v o l u n t a r y , a b l e nature  of t h i s a c t i v i t y .  non-examin-  The students were n o t under  any  compulsion t o perform t h i s a c t i v i t y because i t p e r t a i n e d  to  an experiment t h a t would be c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g the summer  months, a f t e r t h e i r completion  o f the P h y s i c s 115 c o u r s e .  In the above d i s c u s s i o n o f the measurement e f f e c t , the assessment o f B I , a c t i n g as a commitment, has been post u l a t e d to be a major source  of t h i s e f f e c t .  The f a c t  that  a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t a n c e o f measurement e f f e c t was a l s o found i n the case o f the placebo  instrument  indicates that  the assessment o f other v a r i a b l e s may have a s i m i l a r The  effect.  above remarks must t h e r e f o r e be taken as h i g h l y s p e c u l a -  t i v e and n o t e x c l u s i v e o f other a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s . I t might be worthwhile, however, f o r some f u t u r e study t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e d u c i n g  the measurement  e f f e c t by e l i m i n a t i n g the d i r e c t assessment of BI, by a s s e s s i n g o n l y the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s .  117 8.  Summary  Most of the observed r e s u l t s tended to be i n terms of the F i s h b e i n model and concepts.  Several  a c c o r d i n g to the  theory i n order to c l a r i f y  The  Relationship  External The  the  interpreted the s p e c i f i c theory  situation.  between V a r i a b l e s  I n t e r n a l to and  Those  to the F i s h b e i n Model  c o r r e l a t i o n s of v a r i a b l e s  with variables  theoretical  i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s  to an a c t u a l e d u c a t i o n a l  8.1  i t s associated  r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d and  problems i n v e s t i g a t e d  explainable  external  to the model  i n t e r n a l to the model tended to agree w i t h  theory, namely, t h a t any  should be u n r e l a t e d  variables  to b e h a v i o r a l  external  i n t e n t i o n and  to the model to  overt  b e h a v i o r u n l e s s they are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to a t l e a s t one  o f the p r e d i c t o r s g i v e n i n the model.  observed i n s t a n c e s variables  out o f a p o s s i b l e  correlated  negatively)  102,  There were nine where  external  s i g n i f i c a n t l y (both p o s i t i v e l y and  w i t h B or BI.  A l l o f these cases but  three  (Table V I I I , A c t i v i t y 3) a l s o showed s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the e x t e r n a l predictor variable.  The  v a r i a b l e and  be  t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g chance a l o n e .  one  three cases t h a t d i d not  to agree w i t h theory, c o u l d  by  at l e a s t  accounted f o r by  appear  the  statis-  significant correlations  118 8•2  The R e l a t i o n s h i p  between V a r i a b l e s  Internal  to the  Model Significant correlations  (Table  IX) were  found between measures o f BI and the p r e d i c t o r •NB , A . and NB, . p' act 1  consistently  variables  The magnitudes o f c o r r e l a t i o n s between ^  measures of BI and the o t h e r s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s NBj.) v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y  between a c t i v i t i e s ,  several  (NB to 2  reaching  significance. Correlations  between b e h a v i o r and measures o f be-  h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s were d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r  than zero  low, a l t h o u g h t h r e e  (p < .01) .  Correspond-  i n g l y , c o r r e l a t i o n s between b e h a v i o r and measures o f the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were a l s o s m a l l , and  frequently  insignificant. The m a j o r i t y  o f normative b e l i e f s were found to be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y and r a t h e r (Table  X).  h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r  The c o r r e l a t i o n between measures of A  s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s  (NB  1  to NB^)  . and  tended to be low and  o f t e n n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t the c o r r e l a t i o n between measures of A  . and NB  was always r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e  ( = .50) and  p  3. C "C.  significant. C o r r e l a t i o n s o f measures o f the p r e d i c t o r  variables  w i t h BI tended to be l a r g e r than c o r r e l a t i o n s of the same predictor variables with B  (Table I X ) .  119 8.3  The P r e d i c t i o n of B e h a v i o r a l  Intention  M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .710, .797 and .739 were o b t a i n e d f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavioral  i n t e n t i o n from measures o f the  specified predictor variables.  The amounts o f t o t a l  variance  (in the p r e d i c t i o n of BI) accounted f o r by the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were  .50, .63 and  respectively, leaving  .55 f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1 t o 3  about f o r t y to f i f t y p e r c e n t unaccounted  for. The p r e d i c t o r term showing the l a r g e s t b e t a i e n t was.the normative, r a t h e r (Table  XI).  variable with A  8.4  than the a t t i t u d i n a l  (NB^) was observed to have the g r e a t e s t . and NB,  weight,  t r a i l i n g f a r behind.  The P r e d i c t i o n o f Behavior found to be  l e s s a c c u r a t e than the p r e d i c t i o n o f  intention.  consider-  behavioral  M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f measures o f the p r e -  d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s on B were o n l y .376  term  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f  The p r e d i c t i o n o f behavior was ably  coeffic-  .331  (p < .05), .210NS, and  (p < .01) f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  accounting f o r only variance  four  to f o u r t e e n  i n the p r e d i c t i o n  equation.  p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l  120 8.5  The Role o f B e h a v i o r a l  Intention i n Predicting  Behavior The o b s e r v a t i o n  t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l -  a t i o n between b e h a v i o r and a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e  (Table XIV)  was reduced to n o n - s i g n i f i c a n c e when BI was p a r t i a l l e d o u t (Table XV) tended t o agree w i t h the theory  t h a t BI i s an  i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e between b e h a v i o r and the p r e d i c t o r variables.  According  to A j z e n and F i s h b e i n  (10), the p r e -  d i c t i o n o f BI i s t h e r e f o r e a n e c e s s a r y , as w e l l as s u f f i c i e n t , c o n d i t i o n f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f o v e r t b e h a v i o r .  8.6  Measurement E f f e c t s 2 X  t e s t s o f independence i n the performance o f the  e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s under r e s e a r c h  instrument and no  instrument c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n the d e t e c t i o n o f a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t i n A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and 4 (Table X V I ) . The assessment o f BI and the p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n have been p o s t u l a t e d  as p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t o r s to the o c c u r -  rence o f the type o f measurement e f f e c t found by t h i s BI was l i k e n e d to a commitment,  study.  the degree o f commitment  p o s s i b l y d e t e r m i n i n g the degree o f the measurement e f f e c t when n e g a t i v e  BI s (low p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f i n t e n t i o n ) a r e h e l d  by i n d i v i d u a l s i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The measurement e f f e c t may have some importance i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f B from B I .  I f B i s , to a g r e a t  degree,  i n f l u e n c e d by a p a r t i c u l a r measuring not be expected to be p r e d i c t a b l e  instrument, then B would  from a measure of BI a l o n e .  The BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p should t h e r e f o r e be much lower i n the presence of a s i g n i f i c a n t measuring e f f e c t .  122  CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY  1.  R e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f the Problem  The major problem o f t h i s study was the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i f a P h y s i c s 115 s t u d e n t ' s a t t i t u d i n a l and normative  p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to p e r f o r m i n g  a f r e e - c h o i c e l e a r n i n g task can be determined, i n t e n t i o n o f performing  then h i s  the task, and h i s a c t u a l performance  of the task; may be p r e d i c t e d w i t h b e t t e r than chance a c c u r a c y . This p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n and o v e r t b e h a v i o r might be accomplished  by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s theory  (6) to the e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l program i n s t i t u t e d by the P h y s i c s Department. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s l e d to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c problems: (a) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s internal  to and those e x t e r n a l to the F i s h b e i n ' s  model; (b) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o r , measured b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , and the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f the model;  (c) a n a l y s i s o f the accuracy o f the p r e d i c t i o n o f behavioral intention  and  behavior  and  123 the r e l a t i v e importance of the p r e d i c t o r s i n the p r e d i c t i o n ; (d) a n a l y s i s of b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n measures as p r e d i c t o r s o f o v e r t behavior situations;  i n s p e c i f i c educational  and  (e) the d e t e c t i o n of p o s s i b l e measurement e f f e c t s .  2.  Conclusions  The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s b e i n ' s theory  t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h -  to f r e e - c h o i c e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s would a c c o r d  b e t t e r than chance accuracy  i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l  i n t e n t i o n and o v e r t b e h a v i o r appeared to be s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n the case o f b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , b u t was the case o f behavior p r e d i c t i o n . chance accuracy was  problematic i n  N e v e r t h e l e s s , b e t t e r than  o b t a i n e d f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f  behavior  i n two o u t of the three a c t i v i t i e s f o r which the  full  complement o f model v a r i a b l e s were a s s e s s e d , and  i n three  o u t o f f i v e a c t i v i t i e s when b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n was predictor  the o n l y  considered.  A n a l y s i s of the s p e c i f i c problems tended to i n d i c a t e t h a t the measuring i n s t r u m e n t d e v i s e d f o r use i n the  free-  c h o i c e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s of t h i s study, o b t a i n e d measures of v a r i a b l e s e q u i v a l e n t i n most r e l a t i o n a l  characteristics,  to the v a r i a b l e s assessed by F i s h b e i n and h i s co-workers i n past studies.  The assessed v a r i a b l e s e x h i b i t e d r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s t h a t l a r g e l y agreed w i t h those g i v e n i n F i s h b e i n ' s theory.  124 , One r e s u l t n o t observed i n p a s t s t u d i e s was a s i g n i f i cant measurement e f f e c t i n c e r t a i n of the f r e e - c h o i c e situations.  This e f f e c t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be d e t r i m e n t a l to  the p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e p o t e n t i a l l y l i m i t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the F i s h b e i n model i n an e d u c a t i o n a l  context.  S p e c i f i c t o the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d  i n this  study, i t may be apparent t h a t measures o f b e h a v i o r a l  intention  alone would n o t g i v e a P h y s i c s  information  for  instructor sufficient  a c c u r a t e l y choosing a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t s t u d e n t s would perform  i n accordance w i t h t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s .  I t i s suggested  that  t h i s problem may be due, i n p a r t , t o measurement e f f e c t s , to d i f f e r e n c e s between the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n and the s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n used i n the assessment o f the b e h a v i o r a l or to changes i n b e h a v i o r a l  intention,  i n t e n t i o n brought about by the  many p o s s i b l e competing a c t i v i t i e s c o n s t a n t l y emerging i n student environments. On the o t h e r hand, the model p r o v i d e d chance p r e d i c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r i n three  better  than  f i f t h s to two t h i r d s  of the s i t u a t i o n s examined i n t h i s study, o r a t l e a s t s i x t y percent  o f the time, an achievement t h a t would p r o b a b l y be  difficult  to accomplish by means of guesswork o r chance.  Furthermore, the model p r o v i d e s systematic  an i n s t r u c t o r w i t h a  means f o r b e h a v i o r p r e d i c t i o n and p r o v i d e s  mation concerning  the nature of some o f the v a r i a b l e s  appear to i n f l u e n c e b e h a v i o r .  inforthat  The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r  125 w i t h b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study,  f o r example,  might i n d i c a t e to a P h y s i c s i n s t r u c t o r , t h a t A c t i v i t i e s 3, and  5 e l i c i t e d b e h a v i o r responses  t h a t are more i n  w i t h student i n t e n t i o n s than the responses and  4.  1, accordance  in Activities  2  A comparison o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c -  i e n t s i n the r e g r e s s i o n on b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n and behavior  suggests  on  t h a t f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3, the v a r i a b l e  t h a t i s most i n f l u e n t i a l i n p r e d i c t i n g BI and B i s the measure of the p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f . to the p r e d i c t i o n appear to be due a c t and  Small c o n t r i b u t i o n s  to the a t t i t u d e toward  the s o c i a l normative b e l i e f concerning  best friends.  The c o n t r i b u t i o n of A  the  students'  . to the p r e d i c t i o n o f  BI a l s o appears to i n c r e a s e w i t h s a l i e n c e .  I f the  instructor  i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e f f e c t i n g b e h a v i o r changes i n P h y s i c s  115  s t u d e n t s , he should c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  modifying  s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l normative b e l i e f s c o n c e r n i n g  the  modifying  activities,  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward performing  and m o d i f y i n g  the  activities,  t h e i r s o c i a l normative b e l i e f w i t h r e s p e c t to  t h e i r best f r i e n d s .  S i m i l a r l y , i f the i n s t r u c t o r i s i n t e r e s t e d  i n matching h i s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y to the b e l i e f systems of h i s P h y s i c s 115  s t u d e n t s , he should somehow work p e r s o n a l  normative b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e toward the a c t , and normative b e l i e f s curriculum.  (with r e s p e c t to  social  'closest friends') into  the  126 3.  I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r E d u c a t i o n a l A p p l i c a t i o n In view of the above d i s c u s s i o n , the a p p l i c a t i o n and  refinement  of F i s h b e i n ' s model i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h  worthy o f s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . the presented implications  3.1  be  i n the theory  and  r e s u l t s of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , are a number o f t h a t c o u l d g e n e r a l l y have important  for educational p r a c t i c e . now  Inherent  appears  Some o f these  consequences  implications w i l l  examined.  The  F i s h b e i n Model versus  T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches to  A t t i t u d e Measurement The  t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e toward v a r i o u s  e d u c a t i o n a l and  i n s t r u c t i o n a l objects  toward P h y s i c s i n g e n e r a l , P h y s i c s 115,  ( f o r example, a t t i t u d e method o f c l a s s  i n s t r u c t i o n , the l e c t u r e r , the textbook, the s u b j e c t matter, assignments, examinations, and  s p e c i f i c t o p i c s ) showed  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s with behavior  few  or b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n .  Those a t t i t u d e s t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to  behavior  o r b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , were almost always r e l a t e d to of the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f the t h e o r y . to imply  T h i s would  one tend  t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e are poor  p r e d i c t o r s of educational behavior  and  theory should be c o n s i d e r e d  attempts to r e l a t e  i n any  a t t i t u d e s and o v e r t b e h a v i o r .  that Fishbein's  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the assessment  of a t t i t u d e s toward an a c t , s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s ,  p e r s o n a l normative  b e l i e f s and b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , would  probably g i v e educators a more a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n of the means of e f f e c t i n g b e h a v i o r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n , than would the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s commonly  used.  3.2  Behavior  The M o d i f i c a t i o n o f  S i n c e b e h a v i o r and b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n were seen to be a f u n c t i o n of a t t i t u d e toward the a c t and v a r i o u s b e l i e f s , an educator  normative  should b e s t be a b l e to e f f e c t a s t r e n g t h e n -  i n g o r weakening o f s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s and b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s by o p e r a t i n g on  (attempting to s t r e n g t h e n o r weaken)  the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s having the g r e a t e s t importance weights) i n the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . v a r i a b l e s have been i d e n t i f i e d ,  Once these  the problem  becomes one of s e l e c t i n g the treatments  (beta  influential  immediately  by which a teacher  can i n f l u e n c e d e s i r e d changes i n these v a r i a b l e s over a reasonable p e r i o d of time.  Can  the teacher i n f l u e n c e A  by making students aware o f , or by a c t u a l l y  manipulating  the probable consequences o f t h e i r s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s ? s o c i a l normative  .,  b e l i e f s be m o d i f i e d by p l a c i n g  Can  students  i n d i r e c t contact with relevant referents i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , by engaging  students i n r o l e p l a y i n g o r s i m u l a -  t i o n games, or by conducting c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s about relevant referents? normative  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p e r s o n a l  b e l i e f i s not y e t c l e a r i n the theory, but perhaps  128 this variable could be influenced by placing students into guided introspective situations, for example, encouraging students to analyze their own mistakes, evaluate their own achievement, or to justify their own position (or an opposite position) in debate. Educational research into the efficacy and the methodology of effecting changes in the predictor variables is strongly recommended. 3.3 Specificity of Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, Intentions and Behavior Teachers should expect students to exhibit different attitudes toward an act and normative beliefs in even minimally different situations. Applications of the Fishbein model have shown that the weights and polarities of the predictor variables vary considerably between situations. Since behavioral intention and behavior have also been found to be specific with respect to the situation, behavior and behavioral intention cannot empirically be expected to remain constant from one situation to another, unless both situations are virtually identical. 3.4 Generalization in the Prediction of Behavior and Behavioral Intention The results of the pilot study indicated that the relevance of the referent groups used in assessing the various  129 normative beliefs, varies with respect to the particular population sampled. The relative importance of the predictor variables is therefore specific to the population sampled. While this factor did not appear to be critical in the present study, populations having vastly different characteristics such as ability, interests, cultural background, or socioeconomic background would be expected to exhibit different relative weightings for the predictor variables. A teacher might therefore be required to treat one group of students very differently from another group, when attempting to effect a behavior change through attempts to modify characteristics represented by the predictor variables. 3.5 Measurement Effects and the Nature of the Situation Since significant measurement effects were found for certain activities in the present study, the behavior of students in specific educational situations may, in part, result from an attempt to assess one or more variables of the Fishbein model. If measurement effects play a large role in the determination of educational behavior, then the accuracy of behavior prediction may be considerably reduced. The detection of these effects, however, may give educators a useful indication of the extent of psychological threat or volitional constraint on students, posed by the testing situation and/or the educational situation. It is  130 therefore any  recommended t h a t these e f f e c t s be monitored i n  f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s of the F i s h b e i n model to  educational  research. Furthermore, measurement e f f e c t s might a c t u a l l y u s e f u l i n producing d e s i r e d  b e h a v i o r changes.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  can  influence  If  be  the  student b e h a v i o r s  i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , as some r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e , then simulated d e v i c e s of a s i m i l a r nature might also influence  student b e h a v i o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  of the e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by  Irrespective  this possibility,  any  p o s s i b l e u s e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n s of such e f f e c t s should be  fully  investigated.  3.6  The  F i s h b e i n Model and The  C u r r i c u l u m Development  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s  e n t e r i n t o the p r e d i c t i o n o f a group's e d u c a t i o n a l may  give curriculum  approach to  a s p e c t s of course c o n t e n t to the  of the c l a s s .  i n g ' than the i n d i s c r i m i n a n t  I f , as was  discussed  o f the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , t e a c h e r s would  w i l l i n g to match t h e i r t e a c h i n g systems o f the  regression  'more i n t e r e s t -  a d d i t i o n o f a t t i t u d i n a l and  v a l u e - l a d e n concepts to s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  belief  needs  T h i s might be a more v i a b l e  'humanizing' o r making a course  i n s e c t i o n 3.2  behavior,  d e v e l o p e r s a method f o r t a i l o r i n g some  of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l o f the m a j o r i t y  that  students  be  s t r a t e g i e s to the dominant (as i n d i c a t e d by  a n a l y s i s ) , then t h e r e may  be  the  multiple  a possibility  for  131 developing  curricula containing  'contingency  programs',  i . e . , a l t e r n a t i v e t e a c h i n g programs t h a t the teacher  could  use  the  i n order  to i n f l u e n c e one,  dominant p r e d i c t o r s . i s not a d v o c a t i n g  The  o r any  combination of  author wishes to s t r e s s t h a t he  t h i s scheme as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r e x i s t i n g  programs, but i s o n l y p o i n t i n g to a p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n f o r further research.  This c a u t i o n i s prompted by the  t h a t i f teachers were to completely study  tailor  toward dominant student b e l i e f s and  notion  the courses  of  a t t i t u d e s , students  might s u f f e r a l a c k of p e r s o n a l growth i n other  important  areas. Perhaps F i s h b e i n ' s model c o u l d be educators, o f one  from a p o i n t o f view o f an a t t i t u d i n a l  4. The  Weil  (47).  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r  Research  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Context S e v e r a l o f the problems encountered i n the  a p p l i c a t i o n of F i s h b e i n ' s model to an e d u c a t i o n a l pointed  component  or another t e a c h i n g models as d i s c u s s e d i n a r e c e n t  book by B. Joyce and M.  4.1  i n v e s t i g a t e d by  to needs f o r more r e s e a r c h i n the areas of  instrumentation  present situation validation,  and c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n .  In the a r e a o f v a l i d a t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y of a m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e other  than Mc  e n t e r i n g i n t o the  r e g r e s s i o n should be i n v e s t i g a t e d , and measures o f  other  132 v a r i a b l e s such as v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n s , and behavior might a l s o be considered.''" the way  i n which Mc  a l s o be c l a r i f i e d normative b e l i e f  conditioned  The v a l i d i t y o f Mc  i s entered i n t o the normative term  as should (NB  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  or should  personal  ).  P The o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p a s t s t u d i e s have used v a r i o u s methods f o r the assessment of the v a r i a b l e s g i v e n i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation  tends to s u b s t a n t i a t e F i s h b e i n ' s  t h a t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s not a c r i t i c a l However, T i t t l e and H i l l  (13)  suggested  f a c t o r i n the  (6) c l a i m theory.  the s u p e r i o r i t y o f  a L i k e r t - t y p e a t t i t u d e s c a l e over the S e m a n t i c - D i f f e r e n t i a l instrument  i n p r e d i c t i n g behavior.  The  instrument  has been used by C a r l s o n  (33), and A j z e n  Fishbein tion of  (9) who  (10, 32)  BI.  and  a l s o have used a percentage of i n t e n t ques-  and  p r o b a b i l i t y s c a l e (8) f o r the assessment  Perhaps a comparative study o f assessment  would c l a r i f y A  Behavioral-Differential  techniques  the q u e s t i o n of whether some measures o f B,  ., NB and Mc  y i e l d b e t t e r p r e d i c t i o n s of b e h a v i o r  BI,  than  others. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s the method used i n ^"In a r e c e n t paper, Maehr and Sjogren (48) propose the use of A t k i n s o n ' s (49) theory of achievement m o t i v a t i o n as a f i r s t step toward a theory of academic m o t i v a t i o n . The theory i s e s s e n t i a l l y based on a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n having three p r e d i c t o r terms t h a t are used i n a l i n e a r combination f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of T a — a n a c t i v e impulse to undertake a p a r t i c u l a r achievement-oriented a c t i v i t y . In e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s a v a r i a b l e such as 'achievement m o t i v a t i o n might c o n c e i v a b l y f u n c t i o n ( i n a p r e d i c t i o n model) i n a manner s i m i l a r to 'motiv a t i o n to comply (with an experimenter) i n a l a b o r a t o r y situation. 1  1  133 analyzing  the o b t a i n e d d a t a .  Standard m u l t i p l e  a n a l y s i s was s a i d to a t t e n u a t e m u l t i p l e  regression  c o r r e l a t i o n values  when there a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the predictor variables. s u i t e d to r e g r e s s i o n  This  technique i s t h e r e f o r e  primarily  equations i n v o l v i n g independent v a r i a b l e s .  C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , however, takes  predictor  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n i n t o account and can a l s o be used to t r e a t multiple  criteria  as m u l t i p l e  (50). The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y o f u s i n g  B and BI  c r i t e r i a and a c c o u n t i n g f o r the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s  between the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s by means o f c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Cross-validation over v a r i o u s research.  of measures d e r i v e d  from the theory  p o p u l a t i o n s i s another area r e q u i r i n g  further  S p e c i f i c a l l y , more should be done i n the areas o f  anthropology  (i.e., c u l t u r a l differences)  and s o c i o l o g y .  Of  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o educators would be a study i n v o l v i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s  model over v a r i o u s  age l e v e l s ,  from primary grades through u n i v e r s i t y . F i n a l l y , a need f o r some method o f e s t i m a t i n g the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y o f the type o f i n s t r u ment used i n t h i s study, was i n d i c a t e d by the l a c k o f such t.  information  i n t h i s and p a s t s t u d i e s  and the number o f s -  r:  assumptions t h a t had to be made c o n c e r n i n g the p r e d i c t i v e t.  v a l i d i t y o f the model  (see Chapter I , s e c t i o n 6 ) .  134 4.2  The E d u c a t i o n a l Context The  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a p p l y i n g F i s h b e i n ' s model i n  e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s have r a i s e d  some i n t e r e s t i n g  prospects  for educational research. One p o s s i b i l i t y mentioned was to use the F i s h b e i n model r a t h e r than s o l e l y  t r a d i t i o n a l approaches t o a t t i t u d e  measurements f o r assessment of behavior t e n d e n c i e s i n students. Another area r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h would be behavior m o d i f i c a t i o n . used  to modify  normative  What t e a c h i n g methodologies  c o u l d be  student a t t i t u d e s toward an a c t o r to modify  b e l i e f s i n order to p o s s i b l y e f f e c t a change o f  behavior i n educational s i t u a t i o n s  (see s e c t i o n 3.6 o f the  present chapter)? Can F i s h b e i n ' s model be used  to assess  student  i n t e n t i o n s , b e l i e f s and i n f l u e n t i a l r e f e r e n t groups c o n c e r n i n g troublesome  b e h a v i o r a l s i t u a t i o n s o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m  ( f o r example: drug b e h a v i o r , sex b e h a v i o r , smoking b e h a v i o r and v a r i o u s d e s t r u c t i v e types o f b e h a v i o r ) ?  Fishbein's  study on sexual b e h a v i o r i n u n i v e r s i t y students that limited  (36) i n d i c a t e s  (but p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l ) r e s u l t s may be o b t a i n e d  even from self r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o r .  The model might e v e n t u a l l y  p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g students on such problems. F i n a l l y , although a p r e v i o u s study by A j z e n and Fishbein  (10) i n v e s t i g a t e d measurement e f f e c t s , the p r e s e n t  study appears  t o be the o n l y a p p l i c a t i o n o f F i s h b e i n ' s model  i n which a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t has been d e t e c t e d .  Are e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s other s i t u a t i o n s ? the  more prone t o t h i s e f f e c t  Can t h i s e f f e c t be reduced by a v o i d i n g  d i r e c t assessment of BI?  interpretation recommended.  than  Research i n t o  the mechanism,  o f , and r e d u c t i o n o f t h i s e f f e c t i s s t r o n g l y  LITERATURE CITED  McNarry,L.R., and O ' F a r r e l l , S.O. Student a t t i t u d e s towards s c i e n c e and technology. P h y s i c s i n Canada, 1971, 27 , 73-77 .. Welch, W.W. High s c h o o l p h y s i c s e n r o l l m e n t s . Today, 1967, 20_, 9-13.  Physics  Welch, W.W., and Walberg, H.J. 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Moore, R.W., and Sutman, F.X. The development, f i e l d t e s t and v a l i d a t i o n o f an i n v e n t o r y of s c i e n t i f i c attitudes. J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e Teaching, 1970, 7, 85-94.  25.  Blackwood, P.E. S c i e n c e t e a c h i n g i n the elementary s c h o o l : A survey of p r a c t i c e s . J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e Teaching, 1965, 3_, 177-197 .  26.  Dunfee, M. Elementary s c h o o l s c i e n c e : A guide to c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . Washington, D . C : A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development, NEA, 1967, p. 1.  27.  I l l i n o i s C u r r i c u l u m Program. S t r e n g t h e n i n g s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g i n elementary s c h o o l s . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : O f f i c e of the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1960, p. 13.  28.  M o r r i s o n , P. Experimenters i n the Schoolroom, ESI Q u a r t e r l y Report, W i n t e r - S p r i n g 1964, 63-67. (Published by E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s I n c o r p o r a t e d , Watertown, M a s s a c h u s e t t s ) .  29.  Andersen, H.O. Developing f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward science. The S c i e n c e Teacher. Nov. 1971, 38, 41-45.  30.  Rothman, A . I . Responses to s c i e n c e Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l i n s t r u m e n t freshman P h y s i c s and Chemistry. i n Science Teaching, 1967-68, 5_,  31.  Khan, S.B. A f f e c t i v e c o r r e l a t e s of academic achievement, J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1969 , 6_0, 216221.  32.  A j z e n , I . A t t i t u d i n a l v s . normative messages: An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of p e r s u a s i v e communications on b e h a v i o r . Sociometry, 1971, 34, 263-280.  concepts on a and achievement i n J o u r n a l o f Research 168-173 .  139 33.  C a r l s o n , A.R. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n , a t t i t u d e toward the b e h a v i o r , and normative b e l i e f s about the b e h a v i o r . Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Champaign, 1968,  34.  Gerard, H.B. D e v i a t i o n , c o n f o r m i t y , and commitment. In I.D. S t e i n e r , and M. F i s h b e i n (Eds.), C u r r e n t s t u d i e s i n s o c i a l psychology . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1965, 263-277.  35.  Darroch, R.K. A t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s and p e r c e i v e d group norms as p r e d i c t o r s o f b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s and b e h a v i o r i n the s i g n i n g o f photographic r e l e a s e s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1971. C i t e d i n r e f e r e n c e ( 7 ) .  36.  F i s h b e i n , M. Sexual b e h a v i o r and p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t r o l , 1966. A study c i t e d i n r e f e r e n c e ( 7 ) .  37.  A j z e n , I . , and F i s h b e i n , M. A t t i t u d e s and normative b e l i e f s as f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i n t e n t i o n s i n hypothetical situations involving r i s k . Cited i n r e f e r e n c e (7) .  38.  Hornik, J.A. Two approaches to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o o p e r a t i v e b e h a v i o r i n an expanded P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma game. Unpublished Master's l e v e l paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1970. C i t e d i n r e f e r e n c e (7),  39.  Rapoport, H. and Chammah, A.M. P r i s o n e r ' s Dilemma: A Study on c o n f l i c t and c o o p e r a t i o n . Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1965.  40.  Osgood, C.E., S u c i , G.J., and Tannenbaum, P.H. The measurement o f meaning. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1957.  41.  Edwards, A.L. Techniques o f a t t i t u d e s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n , New York: Appleton, Century, C r o f t s , 1957, p. 167.  42.  Page, G.G. A study o f student a t t i t u d e toward two contrasting Physics laboratory designs. Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1968.  43.  T r i a n d i s , H.C. E x p l o r a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f the b e h a v i o r a l component o f s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, 1964, 68, 4204~30 .  140 B j e r r i n g , J.H., and Seagreaves, P. UBC TRIP T r i a n g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n package. Program manual by the Computing Centre, U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1972. U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. Computing C e n t r e , G. Starkey plementor), UBC BMD02R Stepwise R e g r e s s i o n . Implemented from the UCLA BMD Package. G a r r e t t , H.E. 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New York: John Wiley, 1969.  A P P E N D I X  PILOT  STUDY  QUESTIONNAIRE  A  ON  REFERENT  GROUPS  142 (your name i s not required) Listed below are some people or groups whose opinions you might f e e l are important f o r you to consider when i t comes to making decisions about p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n ed u c a t i onal_ act i vi t i es_ a part, from coursev/orkc  For example  r  some a c t i v i t i e s may involve your  going to an educational lunch-hour movie«.. o r your possible p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an environment conservation elubc. e t c ,  DIRECTIONS; Please Indicate the importance o f the opinions o f the following persons or groups  f  by c i r c l i n g the number corresponding to the  p a r t i c u l a r degree of importance that you f e e l i s appropriate f o r each person or groupo Person or Group • 1 - lour 2  Very Important UnInsigni= Important Neutral o r important ficanfc Undecided I 2 3 k 5  Jfcrents  Your Relatives  1  2  1  2  3  4  3  4  5  3 - Tour beat friend(s)  1  2  3  4  Tour l e c t u r e r ( s )  1  2  3  4  5  5  Yourself  1  2  3  4  5  6  Majority of class 3  4  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  members  1  7? Society i n general  1  8, S c i e n t i f i c community  1  9- University community  1  10.  2 2 2 2  4  5  Religious group o r church  1  2  3  4  5  11,.  Club members  1  2  3  4  5  12«  Other (specify 1  2  3  4  5  143  A P P E N D I X  P E R C E N T OF  STUDENT  IMPORTANT"  B  R E S P O N S E TO  "IMPORTANT"  AND  "VERY  C A T E G O R I E S FOR V A R I O U S R E F E R E N T S ,  FOR  TWO  SETS OF  STUDENTS  PRELIMINARY DATA PERCENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO "IMPORTANT" AND "VERY IMPORTANT" CATEGORIES FOR VARIOUS REFERENTS, FOR TWO SETS OF STUDENTS a  Referent  % Response Educ. 3 21 Students (N = 64)  % Response PH. 115 Students (N = 50)  100  100  Your b e s t f r i e n d ( s )  62  66  Your l e c t u r e r ( s )  39  46  Your p a r e n t s  39  54  Religious  group o r church  25  16  M a j o r i t y o f c l a s s members  22  20  Society  16  28  11  30  Yourself  i n general  Club members Scientific  community  9  46  University  community  9  32  Relatives  6  16  Others  8  0  a  (combined)  T h e Spearman rank c o r r e l a t i o n ( c o r r e c t e d f o r t i e s ) between the two s e t s o f student responses was found to be 0.882 (p < .001)  A P P E N D I X  C  RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE  Part A  Follow-up A c t i v i t y No.  1  To attend a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d "Environment i n the Balance" on Friday, February 11 at 12:30 P.M. i n the Kebb Theatre, t h i s B r i t i s h colour f i l m presents an e f f e c t i v e all-round study of the impact of technology on the environment. Please indicate your thoughts about seeing t h i s movie: 1. I intend to see t h i s movie only i f I have nothing else to do. Strongly agree l Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree Strongly disagree 5 mr  —  2 . 1 intend to see t h i s movie. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided 3  Disagree J±  Strongly disagree 5  3. I intend to see t h i s movie only i f I have time. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e ^  Strongly disagree 5  4. My closest friends would expect me to see the movie. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y _2 Undecided^ U n l i k e l y H i g h l y u n l i k e l y 5 5. My parents would expect me to see the movie. Highly l i k e l y J L L i k e l y _ J Undecided^ U n l i k e l y J ^  Highly u n l i k e l y 5  6. The majority of the c l a s s would expect me to see the movie. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided__2 Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5 %  7. Dr. Phelps would expect me to see the movie. Highly l i k e l y _ _ l L i k e l y 2 Undecided_J, Unlikely 4  Highly u n l i k e l y 5  8„ My r e l i g i o u s group would expect me to see the movie. Highly l i k e l y _ _ l Likely_2 Undecided^J U n l i k e l y J ^ Highly u n l i k e l y 5 9. I would expect myself to see the movie. Highly l i k e l y J L Likely_j2 Undecided_J Unlikely 4  Highly u n l i k e l y 5  10. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my closest f r i e n d s expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 11. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J3 . Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 12. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think the majority of the class expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_J Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 13. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do. Strongly agree_l AgreeJ^ Undecided_J D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y disagree 5 14. Concerning my seeing the group expects me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree__2  movie, I want to do what I think my Undecided_J  Disagree^  religious  Strongly disagree 5  15. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I would expect myself to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 U n d e c i d e d ^ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  - 3 -  148  16. Attending t h i s movie would be a good thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 17. Attending t h i s movie would be a boring thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 18. Attending t h i s movie would be a useful thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 19. Attending t h i s movie would be a bad thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_J2 Undecided J3 . Disagree_Jj. Strongly disagree 5 20. Attending t h i s movie would be a pleasant thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree_J^ Undecided "} D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly disagree 5 21. Attending t h i s movie would be a useless thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 2 2. Attending t h i s movie would be an i n t e r e s t i n g thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree^j2 Undecided J3. Disagree 4, Strongly disagree 5 i  23. Attending t h i s movie would be an unpleasant thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 i  Part B  Follow-up A c t i v i t y No.  2  . To sign up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment. You w i l l also receive information on how you may p a r t i c i p a t e i n the experiment i f you wish. Sign the l i s t on the front counter of the Physics O f f i c e (Hennings 3 2 3 ) by Friday, Feb. 11, i n order to receive t h i s information (no o b l i gation to a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e ) . Please i n d i c a t e your thoughts about signing up to receive information about t h i s experiment: 2 4. I intend to sign up to receive t h i s information only i f I have time. Strongly agree__l Agree__2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly disagree 5 2 5 . I intend to sign up to receive t h i s information. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided 3, D i s a g r e e ^  Strongly disagree 5  26. My closest f r i e n d s would expect me to sign up f o r t h i s information, Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely__2 U n d e c i d e d ^ Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5 27.  My parents would expect me to sign up f o r t h i s information. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided_J Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5  28. The majority of the c l a s s would expect me to sign up f o r t h i s i n formation. Highly l i k e l y J L L i k e l y 2 Undecided_2 U n l i k e l y J i Highly u n l i k e ly 5 29. Dr. Phelps would expect me to sign up f o r t h i s information. Highly l i k e l y J L Likely_2 Undecided_J Unlikelyjj. Highly u n l i k e l y 5  -4-  14 9  30. My r e l i g i o u s group would expect me to sign up f o r t h i s information. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y _ 2 Undecided^ UnlikelyJ± Highly u n l i k e l y 5 3 1 . I would expect myself to sign up f o r t h i s information. Highly l i k e l y J L L i k e l y _ 2 Undecided_3 Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 3 2 . Concerning signing up to receive t h i s information, I want to do what I think my closest f r i e n d s expect me to do. Strongly agree__1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y disagree 5, 3 3 . Concerning signing up to receive t h i s information, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided } Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 4 . Concerning signing up to receive t h i s information, I want to do what I think the majority of the c l a s s expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 5 . Concerning signing up to receive t h i s information, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do." Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 6 . Concerning signing up to receive t h i s information, I want to do what I think my r e l i g i o u s group would expect me to do; Strongly agree^l Agree _2 Undecided__J3 Disagree_Jj. Strongly disagree_J>__ 3 7 . Concerning signing up to receive t h i s information, I want to do v/hat I would oxpect myself to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_3 Disagree Strongly disagree 5 3 3. ;  Signing up f o r t h i s information about the p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment would be a good thing f o r me to- do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 U n d e c i d e d ^ D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y disagree 5  3!9. Signing up f o r t h i s information would be a useful thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly disagree 5 4 0 . Signing up f o r t h i s information would be a bad thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided_J D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly disagree 5 4 1 . Signing up f o r t h i s information would be a pleasant thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided_J5 Disagree__4 Strongly disagree_5_ 42.  Signing up f o r t h i s information would be a useless thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided 3 DisagreeJ% Strongly disagree 5  4 3 . Signing up f o r t h i s information would be an unpleasant thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree_2 Undecided_J Disagree^Strongly disagree 5  - 5 -  Part G  150  Follow-up A c t i v i t y Mo. 3  To pick up a set of information materials and reading l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and Technology. These materials may be picked up (one set per student) from Hebb 1 1 (the Physics Lab. Office) up to F r i d a y February 1 1 . }  Please indicate your thoughts about picking up t h i s set of P o l l u t i o n information materials: 44.  I intend to pick up t h i s set of P o l l u t i o n information materials only i f I have time. .Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  45.  I intend to pick up t h i s set of P o l l u t i o n information materials. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_J3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  46.  My closest f r i e n d s would expect me to pick up t h i s set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5  4 7 . My parents would expect me to pick up t h i s set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5 48.  The majority of the c l a s s would expect me to pick up t h i s set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5  49.  Dr. Phelps would expect me to pick up t h i s set of P o l l u t i o n i n f o r mation materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided_3 Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5  5 0 . My r e l i g i o u s group would expect me to pick up t h i s set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly u n l i k e l y 5 51.  I would expect myself to pick up t h i s set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 L i k e l y 2 Undecided 3 U n l i k e l y ^ Highly u n l i k e l y 5  5 2 . Concerning picking up t h i s set of materials, I want to do what I think my c l o s e s t f r i e n d s expect me to do. " Strongly agree_l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5 3 . Concerning picking up t h i s set of materials, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5 4 . Concerning picking up t h i s set of materials, I want to do what I think the majority of the c l a s s expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_j2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly disagree ' 5 55.  Concerning picking up t h i s set of materials, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly disagree 5  56.  Concerning picking up t h i s set of materials, I want to do what I think my r e l i g i o u s group would expect me to do. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_  -6-  5 7 . Concerning picking up t h i s set of materials, I want to do what I expect myself to do. Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4 Strongly disagree 5 5 3 . Picking up t h i s set o f P o l l u t i o n information materials would be a good thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4 Strongly disagree 5 5 9 . Picking up t h i s set of materials would be a u s e f u l thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 60.  Picking up t h i s set of materials would be a bad thing f o r me t o do. Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly d i s a g r e e ^  6 1 . Picking up t h i s set of materials would be a pleasant thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree___l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 62.  Picking up t h i s set of materials would be a useless thing f o r me t o do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided J> Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  63.  Picking up t h i s set of materials would be an unpleasant thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided^JS Disagree 4 Strongly disagree $ Part D  Follow-up A c t i v i t y No. 4  To attend a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d "The Time of Man" on Wed., Feb. 16 at 1 2 : 3 0 P.M. i n the Hebb Theatre. This f i l m examines man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s environment, where he i s headed - and why. Please indicate your thoughts about seeing t h i s movie: 64.  I intend to see t h i s movie only i f I" have nothing else t o do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  S5 . I intend to see t h i s movie. Strongly agree_l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Part E  Disagree  4  Strongly  disagree_5_  Follow-up A c t i v i t y No. 5  To contact Dr. Phelps ( C i v i l Engineering Rm. 4 4 4 ) i n order to obtain information about a s s i s t i n g the summer l a n d f i l l leaching experiment, (contact Dr. Phelps before the end of February). Please indicate your thoughts about t h i s a c t i v i t y : 66.  I intend to contact Dr. Phelps f o r information concerning t h i s summer project. Strongly agree_l Agree_2 U n d e c i d e d ^ D i s a g r e e ^ Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ HA¥E YOU GIVEN YOUR NAME AND IDENTIFICATION NUMBER CORRECTLY AT THE TOP OF THE ANSWER SHEET?  A P P E N D I X  D  RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE  RESPONSES TO THE  RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE  NOTE. 1. 8EHAVI OR IS CODED IN THE LAST 5 RESPONSES IN EACH CASE. l=6EHAVIOR NOT PERFORMED, 5=REHAVlOR WAS PERFORMED. 2. P O L A R I T I E S OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSED FOR SUMMATION IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 2, 4 - 1 6 1 8 , 2 0 , 2 5-39,41,45-59,61 ,65,66. 1  STUDENT NUMBER 1567718 1755719 2236719  2439719 2442713 2459717 2465714 2466712 2498715 2502714 2515716 2532711 2535714 2541712 2580710  RESPONSES TO  ITEMS  3321 115 3 333313 3 3 334 34344322251 11115133333333311151 311121333333343211111 414121211111115453444442222121 21333352433330000000 0C0CC00CCCCCC0C011111 315111511555335515511155111151 11111535515131224411 143443333244423111111 222121532451335434444443212143 15511355554332311153 155113533333313111111 244222 43422 2 2 34 44444444442 2243 42 2 2 232444 4 4 4442 224 3 42 2 22344444 4 4 2 4 2 5 1 1 5 1 2 322 22 4243 344244424 4444 3 322 242 32 2 3 3244 3434 33 3 2 2242 32 3 3 324444343153111 11 543243433111115454545451433333 41111154453532333333 311111444535555311151 5 32 244404221105 5 5 4 4 4 2 4 4 5 3 3 2 2 2 0 32 2 2 2 0 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 30 32222044443244 3411151 3 4 4 1 5 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 4 4 2 4 4 2 4 2 32 222232 21213253442423322232 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1151 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 55211121 22211153432434412121 522121544545544151511 44 22225 141211155 54 54 5553211141 31211154444552312141 412111544545554311511 45243 355522 222 5 5545455 52422134 32211243444344542233 53222244444 4 4 5 5 3 5 1 5 5 1 43 2 3444342 34 3244 4444444 2 334424 34444344444442444443 44 444 3 34444 4 42 44 1 1115 2322 32 5332 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 32 53 42 32 2 344443444 4 3335 3 423223444434433311111 332 243 553111315444 5344433252 55 3 1 113154453 5444 2 5455  153  2584712  411141544535433211111 232 12131211 11154444 34442 311111 31 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 0 0 C C 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 4 4 1 5 5 51  2587715  5313311141111355445 3 3341211111 31111143333331311111 311111533333355351111  2603710  5 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 2 53 3 3 5 3 51111155553130G000C0 CCC0C00C00C0055511111  2604718  544242444222225334434345422232 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 5 3 3 4 5 4 2 24 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 34 4 4 5 5 5 1 1  26 2 0 7 1 4  111131511111311424414115521131 4 11 1 1 1 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 1 1 5 1 1 111 444111114111114444444444311141 3111 1 1 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 3 1 1 1 3 1 31 11 1 1 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 332232534111314434432 3 32333343 31111134443533324342 32 2 2 3 1 3 4 4 4 2 4 3 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 444 142434111135434 4 34443311153 411113544434344 12153  2643716  2 661718  2670 719  2684 710  27 3 0 7 1 1  2746 717  27 57 7 1 4  411111444434454351511 24 3 4 3 3 4 4 5 2 1 4 54 5 5 3 4 3 2 3 5 4 2 5 5 1 3 5 5 53125455554444541354 5 5 2 4 54 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 1 5 4 5 1 1 1 5 242331414111114434434332433143 41111144443432433141 411111444434324111111 551322535222225454555551322243 32 2 24 2 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 2 4 2 2 2 4 3 42 22 3 2 4 4 4 5 3 5 5 0 C 0 5 1 1 5 1 3 32 2 4 3 5 5 4 3 4 1 4 3 5 5 2 4 4 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 54 32332335542241322253 324223344224312111111  2791713  13112153414220C3C3243343233111 11422303304334113143 314223444434313111111  2796712  444111214211215444545455211121 22211153432434412121 5 2 2 1 2 1 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 1 5 1 5 11  28 0 3 7 1 6  2 32 3 3 3 4 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 32 3 2 2 2 4 3 344 3444 334 3432 3 2 3243 34 4 2 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 5 1 1 5 1 44 2 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 54 4 4 5 4 52 5 5 5 4 4 4 55 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 54 4 5 5 1 1 5 1  28 3 0 7 1 9  2831717  244222314222224434434332322232 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 32 22 32 422222444334323251111  28 3 7 7 1 4  3 4 3 1 1 1 5 1 4 1 1 1 11 5 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 CCOOOOOOOOCCCOCCCOCO C O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 1 1 111  2840718  444124534111115434434432211151 11122255553542211151  28 5 9 7 1 8  28 7 7 7 1 0  111111555535344111151 2 2 3 1 4 2 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 22 3 5 3 4 2 3 5 5 245342424242 3 54444 444442222421115511111 4423 3 3434121135433 334433322243 31211354443432322143 4 12113544434 324311111  28 8 0 7 1 4  33212151311 1115445545454111 11111153342325111151 111111534322244211111  2 885713  433222222222224434443442322222 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 32 2 2 2 2 222222442333343211111 3 3 4 1 1 1 5 5 2 4 3 3 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 1 3 2 4 2 53 4 3 3 34 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 2 3 1 5 4 43 3 3 5 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 . 3 4 1 3 3 3 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 3 33 3 3 3 3 33333333443330COC000 C G O C O O O O O O O C O O O O l l 111 342433534444445434434442444454 44445444444442444444 4444 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 555 1 5 5 4 5 4 3 3 2 3 3 5 2 3 3 3 2 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 33 3 3 4 3 33 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 32 4 C C 0 0 0 CCOCC0000000024355511 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 2 2 1 2 2 5 4 4 4 5444 54433333 42 22 2 2 5 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3  2892 719  290 2716  2911717  2920718  2951713  29 5 2 7 1 1  2954717  2961712  2962710  298 2718  2991719  299 5 710  3003712  151  4 2 2 2 22 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 2 34 3 3 3 4 2 4 3 4 3 5 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 32 3 2 3 34 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 34 3 4 3 42 32 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 3 1 5 1 1 1 242122415111315554545452411121 4 2 2 2 2 1 4 4 4 4 2 4 44 5 2 3 3 2 1 532121555555555311551 34 2 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 3 5 3 34 4 4 2 4 4 3 44 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 434 3 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 1 1 1 11 242 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11111111111115111111 111111111111113311155 222233434111215315545454212141 31111154454442411131 311111544545523551111 14122141311 1114333533334211131 11111143333434411131 411111443433424211111 431232434111115555545442213143 31 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 1 3 3 4 3 411111444434455111111 23 3 2 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 2 2 2 4 4 344 3 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 2 4 3 32 32 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 244 44 422222444434313311111  3C05717  2 2 2 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 34 4 1 1 1 3 3 411 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 3 3 4 11111444444423111111  3010717  4 4 4 1 122 3 3 1 1 2 2 35 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 1 3 3 31212344344343322133  312223433433333311111 3 3 1 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 3 3 3 1 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 4 32334 35 3 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 34 34 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 i l l 302 3710 4 3 2 2 3 2 4 3 3 2 2 2 22 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 43 324 342 4 2 2 22 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 222 32 3 4 3 2 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 42 11 111 3025715 432111433222234333434334222243 32222343333433322233 322223433434333311111 304 7 7 19 124121412112314224424342211141 21114142441241221214 121123142214431211511 30 7 4 7 1 3 212111511111115111512111llllDl 11111111151121111151 111111511511511115111 3079712 5 4 3 2 4 3 5 342 2 2 224 4 444 434 42 3 2 4 3 4 2 42 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 3 422222444444444211111 308 2 7 1 6 4 4 2 4 3 3 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 53 3 3 3 343 311 11144454553333333 311111444545524351111 3086 717 122 2 2 2 3 22 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 444 3 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 32 22 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 34 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3098712 44212151323222 3434434333323242 32 3 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 2 3 2 4 2 42 32 2 2 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 2 5 1 5 1 1 3 1 1 8 718 4 4 0 42 2 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 1 4 1 31111143343442422121 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 1 1 111 3133717 3 3 2 2 32 3 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 3 2 22222244433443322222 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 4 32 32 5 1 5 5 1 3147717 242223434111135444444442322333 311 1 1 3 5 3 4 4 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 411113543434444211111 3152717 24 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 32 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 4 3 32 3 342 3 3 32 2 2 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 3 1 1 111 3168713 23222233 3222235332 535353322233 32222352151555111133 111133511221433311111 3 203718 44445444411 1114444545454444444 51 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5111115445355555111U 3236718 2 32 24 3 5 1 3 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 3 4 3 5 1 32222143333332323351 322222433333333211151 3238714 3 5 3 3 4 1 5 4 5 1 2 2 1 1 5 4 2 3 4 24 3 22 3 2 3 1 5 1 311333333333 U 3 1 1 1 5 2 311333133333324511111 3240710 34 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2121324 344344 32222 2 2 222222444434432211111 3241718444111114111114333434332411111 31111143333442411111 3020716  3248713 3271715 32 75 7 1 6 3277712 3 2 8 9 717 3294717 3 34 2 7 1 4 34 97 7 1 6 3 6 0 8 718 3617719 3666716  3 6 9 4 718 3 7 C 5 712 3 74 0 7 1 9 375 3712 3 769718 3797719 38 7 6 7 1 1 3894714  4 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 31 1 1 5 1 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 33 32 2 2 2 2 3222224333333 3322222 422222433333333311111 44 22 2 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 5 3 4 3 4 4 4 34 2 4 2 2 2 4 3 22224343242424422243 422223444424244251551 2 4 ? 1 2 1 5 2 4 1 2 1 1 1 5 4 344 354 4 2 3 1 1 1 2 1 31111144343432311131 311111442434344411151 24 2 3 5 3 4 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 5 3 33 3 3 33 33 33 3 33 3 30 2 5 4 3 33 33333333333 33445 11111 3 4 2 1 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 4 3 33 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 4 2 4 3 22 32 2 2 4 4 4 3 2 4 32 3 2 22 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 11 2 4 1 2 32 534 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 3 5 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 4 3 22222344443430CC0000 O0 0 0 O O O O O 0 C 0 C O 0 O 1 1 1 5 1 242132 5331111144444343 33311353 31111144443433311353 311111444432333311151 1 1 4 3 32 4 3 4 2 2 4 4 2 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 2 32 3 5 3 2 3 4 4 2 3 3 4 5 24 34 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 2 243420444232324311111 42 42 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 42 22 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 32 22 22 2 2 1 1 2 1 5 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 3 5 1 1 1 11 22 3 1 2 2 4 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 3 1 11111153333332411441 111111544545532211111 4 3 4 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 54445 34444 51113 3 51212254453452311100 411122444515555411151 33 32 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 333 3 33 3 0 3 3 2 2 2 4 23222224333333432224 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 32 1 1 1 5 1 5 4 2 1 2 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 4 344 4 3 4 2 2 1 2 1 41111154443443422121 411111534434455411151 1 4 5 2 3 2 4 3 4 1 2 1 2 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 1 2 333 51222255555551511111 51 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 1 1 5 1 1 3 3 32 32 4 4 3 2 4 3 3 44 4 4 4 4 344 32 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 34 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 32 3 3 4 3 4 4 4343444444 34332311111 42 2 2 3 4 5 3 5 1 2 2 22 5 5 5 4 4 2 5 5 4 2 4 3 3 3 4 3 42222244443444233343 212222233423425211111 4 4 2 3 3 3 5 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 5 5 3 5 3 3 2 5 3 3 3 53 41111125543532533353 311111255535325451151 34 2 4 3 3 5 3 4 2 2 1 2 2 4 5 4 4 4 4 1 4 3 0 C C C 0 0 0 CCCC0OOOOOCOCO0GCOOO CC0CCOOOOOCOO44 5 1 1 111 232333433222234444444442333333 22 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 32 344 3  3990710 4130712 4134714 5015714 5214697 5 8 50714 58 7 7717 5964713 5974712 597 6 717 6092712 6100713 6 10 1711 6271712 6308712 6320717 6 36 4715 6392716 6402713  323343454444432311111 44 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 342 32 2241 31111143333334422241 41114442 2443444351111 342443434433433334344430233343 34 43 3 343204 4 23 3 33242 432433334242342311111 324122412443235434433333333353 33332 354444343 322343 2 3 323 3444434444 2 11 151 544141304 LI 130 4 5 3 4 5 3 5 3 4 4 4 1 1 1 2 0 211 1204544 34 4 4411110 4 1 1 1 2 0 4 4 4 4 3 4 54 4411 111 44 33 34524333 334 4 343434 3 2333343 333 33334433 3 32 33 3 343 33333344434 3 3 34351151 232242433122225434333332324243 32 22 2244333 332 3 24243 322222443333323111111 4 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 321251 3111115334333 000 00 00 C0 0000OOO0C0CCCO51151 3 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 4 4 3 4 4 324 34422121 4 1 2 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 22121 4 2 2 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 34 55 551 2 3 2 3 3 2 4 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 5 4 3 5 5 34442 3432 32 33212 14432324140C000 OOOOCOOOOOCOOOOOlllll 3 5 1 5 1 3 3 4 4 4 5 3 2 1 4 5 1 5 335111554242 31242545533322233331 142225153155503511111 454222515111115555545440500051 51111154151555511111 111111111515551555551 3422 23434222 21444 4 3444 404 32 2 33 322223434334424 344 34 344344324232232311111 1 4 2 2 3 1 5 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 5 344444434413253 3222 225443343132 324 3 4 2 2 2 2 2 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 1 4 5 11111 342222414222 314434545453 311341 31123134443443312341 3122 3 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 1 1 111 2 4 2 1 3 2 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3344 343 3422 3 2 33 22222243442423233233 222222433223213311111 34 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 3 4 4 3 34 34 413141 41 11114444244 24 3 3331 411111434433334411111 55234 34 3 5 2 2 2 2 3 5 4 4 4 5 353 544 32 333 42 2223544 5354452233 3 5222235445 35454 35 1151 4422335 3411133544444444 3 333343 22222343344442322233 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 11 454344535121325554545452333353 41213354454554433353  512142544435445451511 3 3 2 1 1 1 5 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 335351 31111153333332331151 311111533333343311111 6 509715 3 33111311122214 31342 222 3211131 11112133342323211131 122222333423232211111 6511711 3333335333 3 3 1 1 3 5 2 5 5 2 5 1 2 3 3 3 4 3 33 32121335554543335353 312213355545432151111 6 594717 332222504122404 44454544 2 32 2250 42 2 2 3054454 55 2 32 32 5 0 423230555555523211111 6606719 33 330000242 3 5 4 1 4 2 1 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 321132443 3 333444222 22 3 3222 34334 30 0051151 676 8 717 44244 304422 2 224 4444442 2 2444454 444 1124444334343 4353 422222444444444351151 6774715 332432523142 4224 444 344 344444 52 4343424444 3443444452 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 4 4 4 34434311111 6784714 154311515111115551555551511151 51111155555551511151 511111555555555511111 6794713 232 2224342222343 33 33 3343 322243 42 22 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 4 3 422 2244343 33334211111 6797716 242 2 545443 5 34 34 4 444 344 4 2434 343 434 24 33444 34 33 4 34343 434343444434 344 355151 68 08711 2 3 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 4 5 35442423243 41222344453532311143 4010010000C0 00 0011111 6819718 4 4 4 1 1 1 5 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 5 4 5 35354411151 51111153334334411151 511111543333344251111 6848717 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 34253 533224 3 3244 42 4 3 3543 32 32034242 33 542443443222214311111 6900716 3 3 2 1 3 1 5 5 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 3444244 44313155 4111 1144443232311 155 311111444434323211111 7141716 141411314111515445545442411111 4111 1144444441411131 411111544444414511111 7424716 2 32 3 33 5 342424244 343 3 34 31322242 32324243433332333343 3 3 3 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 111 7834716 4 4 3 4 5 5 5 3 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 444442444 54 3 44444444444443444443 44 444 4445444434 551151 7917719 33222242 32242244 444444 433224 42 32222 14444444332224 I 3 2 2 2 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3311111 EXECUTION TERMINATED 64 86716  SSIG $  159  A P P E N D I X  E  PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE  Physics 11$ Reassessment  o f Student Opinions About the Course  A Note t o the Student: The purpose o f t h i s questionnaire i s to see whether or not your opinions about the course have changed since the f i r s t term. Please forgive the i n t r u s i o n , but there r e a l l y i s no other way f o r us to obtain a v a l i d estimation o f your opinions. As before, your responses to t h i s quest i o n n a i r e w i l l i n no way count toward or a f f e c t any marks f o r the course. By indicating your honest response to each statement, you w i l l be helping us to decide whether or not our e f f o r t s i n modifying the course have been i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . D i r e c t i o n s : USE ONLY PENCIL 1. Please PRINT your name and r e g i s t r a t i o n number (seven d i g i t s ) on the PRINTED ANSWER SHEET. Give your r e g i s t r a t i o n number both i n numerical form and by blackening the appropriate spaces. 2. Indicate your response to each statement by blackening the appropriate spaces on the PRINTED ANSWER SHEET. Blacken only ONE of the f i v e small-numbered spaces indicated f o r each statement. 3 . When you have f i n i s h e d , hand i n t h i s booklet and your answer sheet. Place your completed answer sheet on the front counter, under the alphabetic l e t t e r corresponding t o the f i r s t l e t t e r of your surname.  ft!PTEt Begin at question number 29 on the printed answer sheet and leave numbers 1 to 28 blank.  I  -  7HY3IC3 IN  -  6  -  162  GENERAL  DO NG? WRITE IN THIS BOOKLET. Use the answer sheet. 2'9.  Physics i s something everyone should know something about.  Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 3 0 . Physics i s worthless. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2  Strongly disagree 5  Undecided 3 Disagree  4  Undecided 3 Disagree  4. Strongly disagree 5  3 1 . Physics i s a dehumanizing subject. . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4 . Strongly disagree 5 3^.  Physics i s enjoyable. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2  Undecided 3 Disagree  3 3 . Physics i s a fascinating subject. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  5  4 Strongly disagree 5  34.  Physics i s f a r too d i f f i c u l t f o r most students. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree, 4-., Strongly disagree 5  35.  Physics i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y stimulating. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  3 6 . Fhysics i s boring. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2  4  Strongly disagree 5  Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  3 7 . Physics i s related to everyday things. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree J  4 Strongly disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  P h y s i c s i s unrelated to problems that r e a l l y matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 . II 39'.  PHYSICS 1 1 5 COURSE  Physics 115 i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  4 0 ' . Physics 115 i s nothing more than a review of Physics 12. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 41.  Fhysics 115 i s a challenging course. Strongly a g r e e _ l _ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  42.  Physics 115 i s i r r e l e v a n t to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  43.  Fhysics 115 i s a boring course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  44. P b v s i c s 115 i s more worthwhile than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agrec__2_ Undecided_2__ Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  4  Strongly disagree 5  45;. Physics 115 i s relevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagreeJL.  -  .46 1  7  -  163  '  P h y s i c s 115 should o n l y be taken by students who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming p h y s i c i s t s . S t r o n g l y agree__l^ Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5  47. F h y s i c s 115 i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r most s t u d e n t s . S t r o n g l y a g r e e ^ l ^ Agree 2 _ Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  n  4&  P h y s i c s 115 i s f r u s t r a t i n g because s t u d e n t s do not know what i s e x p e c t e d o f them. s t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, D i s a ^ e e ^ A S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5\ T  i -  0  U> \ P h y s i c s 115 i s a v a l u a b l e c o u r s e S t r o n g l y agree, 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 III  -  Disagree  4  Strongly  d i s a g r e e. 5  INSTRUCTION IN LECTURES  50.  L e c t u r e s s h o u l d o n l y be g i v e n by i n s t r u c t o r s who a r e f i r s t - r a t e physicists. S t r o n g l y a g r e e ^ l _ Agree. 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5  55  , The niethod o f t e a c h i n g used i n l e c t u r e s does not a l l o w f o r enoush student p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o s u i t me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 agree, 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5  52.,  L e c t u r e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e more up-to-date t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e _ J _  5> . I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s h e l p s t o make t h e important i d e a s c l e a r t o me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2. Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 5Jf , I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s i s o f g r e a t h e l p t o me i n s o l v i n g p h y s i c s problems. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e _ 4 _ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e J L . 55,. 5*6.  I n s t r u c t i o n i n lectures i s too f a s t . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2, Undecided 3  Disagree  4  Strongly  disagree_J_  Instruction i n class i s boring. S t r o n g l y agree 1_ A £ T e e 2 Undecided. 3. D i s a g r e e  4  Strongly  disagree^.  57 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s encourages s t u d e n t s t o express t h e i r own viewpoints. S t r o n g l y a g r e e ! . Agree 2 Undecided_3_ Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree_5__ 5 8 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n c l a s s s h o u l d be more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . S t r o n g l y agree, 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 59 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s i s ~ood. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  Disagree  4  Strongly  disagree_J_  -  TV  -  3 _  164  LECTURER  60. The l e c t u r e r knows h i s s u b j e c t vie 11. o t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  61. The l e c t u r e r ' s e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e u n c l e a r . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5  62. The l e c t u r e r has t h e a b i l i t y t o h o l d the i n t e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 63. The l e c t u r e r i s one o f the L e s t t h i n g s about t h e c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 64. The l e c t u r e r i s i n c o n s i d e r a t e toward s t u d e n t s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5  65. The l e c t u r e r ' s pace i s t o o f a s t . S t r o n g l y agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3  Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  The l e c t u r e r r e v i e w s c o u r s e m a t e r i a l a d e q u a t e l y . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5  6 7 . The l e c t u r e r has a r i g i d t e a c h i n g s t y l e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5  ^B. The l e c t u r e r a c t s a.- i f t e a c h i n g i s a c h o r e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5  66.  69.  The l e c t u r e r makes me d i s l i k e p h y s i c s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c l d s d 3 D i s a g r e e 4 V_  7P.  -  Strongly disagree 5  VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE COURSE  The t e x t b o o k i s easy t o u n d e r s t a n d . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 r -  Disagree 4  Strongly disagree  5,  7 1 . The t e x t b o o k i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e i n t h e c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5  7 2 . The t e x t b o o k does not e x p l a i n t h i n g s a d e q u a t e l y . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3_. D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5  73. 74. 75. 76.  The t e x t b o o k i s w e l l w r i t t e n . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  The s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t h e c o u r s e i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d . S t r o n g l y a g r e s 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the c o u r s e i s e x c e l l e n t . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4  disagree_J5_  Strongly disagree 5  The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e c o u r s e s h o u l d be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o things that r e a l l y matter. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5  - 9 77. 78.  -  165  The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the course i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree. 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e  2_  The s u b j e c t matter o f the course i s a v a l u a b l e a s s e t t o my e d u c a t i c n . S t r o n g l y agree l Agree 2_ Undecided__J_ Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ^ _ rr  r  79.  The o u t s i d e readings i n the course are too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y di3agree_J_  60.  The assignments are r e a s o n a b l e i n l e n g t h . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, DisagreeJL*_ S t r o n g l y  31 .| The assignments a r e too d i f f i c u l t f o r ir.e.. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree Z _ Undecided 3, D i s a g r e e  4  Strongly  disagree_J>_ disagree_J>_  S2.. xhe assignments s h o u l d d e a l with more p r a c t i c a l problems S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2. Undecided 3 D i s c g r e e _ 4 _ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ^ $3 . The assignments are a worthwhile p a r t o f the c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecidcl_JI__ D i s a g r s e _ J ^ S t r o n g l y 34/. Outside  readings  S t r o n g l y agree 1 VI 35'.  i n the course Agree 2  disa^ree^T^  should b a increased.  Undec ided _3_ D i s a ^ r a e ^ J ^ Strcng3.y d i s a g r e e <  J_  EXAMINATIONS  The exams p r o v i d e a good l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J_ D i s a ^ r e e J ^ S t r o n g l y disagraej?..  26 . The exams emphasise marks too njuch. S t r o n g l y agree_l__ Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d ^ , PiSf-grep ^  Strongly  dis2gvse_J>_  27 . Exams are too l o n g t o complete on titno. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 I5is2gr-?e_4_ S t r o n g l y r.  disagree.^.  •.SS.. The exams c o v e r a f a i r sample o f the m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d i n the c o u r s e , i, S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. D i s & g r s e _ A _ S t r o : \ g l y d i s a g r e e _ j ; _ ,S9.. The exams are g e n e r a l l y very poor. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree_2_ U n d e c i d e d ^ Disagree_4_ S t r o n g l y •9G",. The exams are marked f a i r l y . S t r o n g l y a g r e e d Agree 2 Ui'.decided 3  Disagree  91' , The examinations are too S t r o n g l y a g r e e _ l _ Agree 2  DisagreeJ^  difficult. Undecided 3  92.. The exams s t r e s s n e r o o r i z a t i o n too much. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 S i s a g r a g  4  4  disagreej>„  Strongly  disagree^  Strongly  disagree_5_  Strongly disagrceJJ_^  93, The examinations r e a l l y make me t h i n k . S t r o n g l y agree I Agree 2 Undecided 3. risa.^ree 4  Strongly  disagree^.  94 . Exams are not g i v e n o f t e n enough. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  Strongly  disagree^  Disagree  4  166  A P P E N D I X  BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS RECEIVING  F  THE PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE  BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS - PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE STUDENT NUMBER ACT1 5948716 0 2475713 0 7395718 0 2476711 0 2485712 1 2486710 0 2938710 0 2496719 0 3736717 0 2497717 I 6871719 1 2512713 0 2514719 0 3409703 0 2582716 0 6781710 1 7433717 0 5231717 0 2986719 1 6253719 0 7737711 1 3013711 0 7069719 0 6560718 0 3026713 0 6685713 0 7631716 0 2671717 0 6553705 0 6802714 0 6809719 0 2702710 0 3085719 0 3089711 1 3102712 0 3112711 0 2756716 0 6324718 0 3122710 0 3 134715 0 277371 1 1 6830715 0 2779718 0 2807717 0 3824711 0 3172715 1 2838712 0 2846715 0 6348718 0 1707710 0 5078704 0 6949715 0 3200714 0 6090716 1 6611719 0 3220712 1 7227713 1  BEHAVIOUR RESPONSE ACT2 ACT 3 ACT4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 c 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0> 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  ACT05  0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 I  167  168  A P P E N D I X  6  LIST OF FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES  Voluntary Follow-up A c t i v i t i e s f o r the Bl*ck of Lectures on "THE  PHYSICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND  169  TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT"  1.  You may attend a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d "Environment i n the B alance" on Friday, February 11 at 12:30 P.M. i n the Hebb Theatre. T h i s B r i t i s h colour f i l m presents an e f f e c t i v e all-round study of the impact of technology on the environment. I t v i v i d l y documents how g e o l o g i c a l , topographical, and s o c i a l development have helped t o shape the environment, and discusses the problems of i n d u s t r i a l expansion, population growth and p o l l u t i o n .  2«  You may sign up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n samp l i n g experiment and how you may p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t i f you wish. T h i s i s an experimental project which w i l l be c o l l e c t i n g data on p a r t i c u l a r p o l l u t a n t s over the e n t i r e Greater Vancouver region. T h i s information W i l l be used i n a major study i n v o l v i n g U.B.C., the C i t y of Vancouver, the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t the P r o v i n c i a l Government and the Federal Government. I f you are i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c e i v i n g information about t h i s p r o j e c t , please sign the l i s t on the front counter of the Physics O f f i c e (Hennings 323/325) by Friday, February 11. Signing t h i s l i s t does not obligate you . t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the project; you w i l l receive information about the project and how you may p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t i f you wish. ?  3»  You may pick up an assortment of information material and l i s t of supplementary readings on P o l l u t i o n and Technology. This information m a t e r i a l may be picked up (one set per student; ) from Hebb 11 (the Physics Lab. Office) up to Friday, February 11.  4*  You may attend a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d "The Time of Man" on Wednesday, February 16 at 12:30 P.M. sharp 1 i n the Hebb Theatre." T h i s i s a feature length (50 min.) CBS colour documentary,"produced i n cooperation with the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y . I t examines man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s environment, where he i s headed— and why. "The Time of Man" i s a b r i l l i a n t exposition of the basic meaning of the word "environment". By examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f various animal species to t h e i r environments, and examining the c u l t u r e s of p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s , leading a u t h o r i t i e s reconstruct m i l l i o n a o f years of evolution. Man may w e l l l e a r n to c o n t r o l h i s future by studying h i s past. For example: * Dr. Margaret Mead r e v i s i t s her Manus f r i e n d s * Dr. Jane Goodall discusses chimpanzee behavior * Dr. C. Lavett Smith t a l k s about f i s h communities * Dr. Ray Capman Andrews i s shown discovering dinosaur e g g s * Dr. Malcolm McKenna r e l a t e s the s t o r i e s of ants and dinosaurs * Dr. Harry Shapiro studies the evolution of populations * Dr. C o l i n Turnbull v i s i t s the pygmies and the Ik. The Time of Man's message i s simple and powerful - i f man's time on e a r t h i s to be endless, he must maintain the environment that sustains him.  5. You may obtain information about a s s i s t i n g some professors i n doing research on the leaching of l a n d f i l l s (dumps). This possible summer job involves handling and sorting municipal s o l i d waste (garbage, etc) and placing i t i n storage tanks. I f interested, contact D. Phelps, Room kMfr, C i v i l Engineering B u i l d i n g sometime between now and the end of "February.  A P P E N D I X  H  ACTIVITY 1 ATTENDANCE SURVEY TICKET  Environment i n the Balance  C i r c l e the P h y s i c s c ourse you are t a k i n g P  105  P  110  P  115  P  120  Other  (specify)  Lecture Section  Name  R e g i s t r a t i o n number ( 7 digits)  A P P E N D I X  I  ACTIVITIES CHECK-LIST  173  Physics 1 1 5 A c t i v i t i e s Check-list NAME  REGISTR. NO. Please check o f f each of the follow-up a c t i v i t i e s that you have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , so f a r . Do not check o f f those that you haven't p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , even i f you intend to do so i n the near f u t u r e . We just want to know the extent of your use of these a c t i v i t i e s up to t h i s date.  [ 1  I 1  —  1  —  1  I 1.  Saw the lunch-hour movie "Environment i n the Balance" on Friday, Feb. 1 1 .  I2.  Signed up ( i n Physics Office) to receive information about the l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment.  I j 3. '—'  Picked up the assortment of information material and l i s t of readings (from Physics Lab O f f i c e , Hebb 1 1 ) .  j |4. '—'  Saw the lunch-hour movie "The Time of yesterday (V/ed., Feb. 1 6 ) .  I I 5. '—'  Contacted D. Phelps to f i n d out about a s s i s t i n g a research team studying leaching of l a n d f i l l s .  Man"  At the end of t h i s lecture, please leave t h i s checkl i s t on the front counter, under the alphabetic l e t t e r corresponding to the f i r s t l e t t e r of your surname.  A P P E N D I X  J  PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE  175 Ph  115  "VALUATION  STUDY  Purpose: The purpose o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s • t o improve the Ph 115 c o u r s e . You, as a s t u d e n t , can be o f g r e a t h e l p by i n d i c a t i n g how you r e a l l y f e e l about v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the c o u r s e . T h i s booklet c o n t a i n s statements o f b e l i e f s some s t u d e n t s have e x p r e s s e d about the c o u r s e . We would l i k e t o know t o what e x t e n t you agree o r disagree w i t h these statements. T h i s i s not a t e s t . The answers you g i v e w i l l - n o t be used i n any way t o determine y o u r mark f o r t h i s o r any other course. The reason f o r a s k i n g you t o g i v e y o u r r e g i s t r a t i o n , number i s t h a t the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a r e q u i r e s y o u r r e g i s t r a t i o n number f o r various s o r t i n g procedures. Mote: Y o u r f r a n k and honest answer t o each q u e s t i o n w i l l h e l p to improve t h i s course. C a r e l e s s o r d i s h o n e s t answers r.av have the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t !  TURN TC NEXT  FAGE  -2  176  DIRECTIONS USE ONLY PENCIL On the printed answer sheet: a . F i l l i n a l l spaces on the top l i n e . On l i n e 2, opposite SCHOOL, p r i n t the name of the high school l a s t attended. Opposite CITY, p r i n t the name of the c i t y and province (abbreviate) i n which the high school l a s t attended was located. b . Leave the spaces f o r GRADE OR CLASS. INSTRUCTOR. NAME OF TEST and PAR ? (lines 2 and 3) blank. • Give your i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number (student r e g i s t r a t i o n number) bdtii i n numerical form (in the boxes below the red arrow) and by blackening the appropriate spaces. Your i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number consists of d i g i t s three t o nine of the number at the top of vour l i b r a r y / AKS card (i.e.Y^the group of seven d i g i t s ) . 1  Example: 50 -(1234560)- 2  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number i s 1234560. The number on the printed answer sheet would be indicated as shown below:  g 3  .A.  5  .A. .A~  6 O  :ICE M TIT! C AT I ON NUMBER •A. A. A. A.. _? t .A. _T_  .A. .A, o  A.  .A. .A. .A.  t f ,  4  A. A. A. A. .A. A, .A. A.. ••  7  c . Opposite the number cn the p r i n t e d answer sheet t h a t corresponds to the item number i n the questionnaire, BLACKEN one of the small-numbered answer spaces. Note that the items and answer spaces are numbered h o r i z o n t a l l y across t h e p r i n t e d answer sheet.  -3CGUR.SE INFORMATION  1  S l a c k e n one space f o r each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g 1. ? h 115 l e c t u r e s e c t i o n B r . L i v e s e y ( i>ec. 1) (1)  7  itens,  Dr. M c M i l l a n (2)  2. Y e a r o f h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n 1971 (1) " 1970 (2) 1969 (3) 3 . P h v s i c s 12 f i n a l mark A '(36-100/) (1) 3 (72-35/) none o f t h e s e (5_)  7  none o f t h e s e (5)  . 1963 ( 4 )  (2)  3+(65-71;;)  (3)  G o r C~(50-64'/;)  B i o l ^ e v 12 f i n a l n a r k A (36-100;.') (1) B (72-35/) none o f t h e s e "(5)  (2)  3 (65-7l/)  (3)  C o r G"(50-64;.') (4)  5. C h e m i s t r y 12 f i n a l n a r k A (36-1000) (1) B (72-55/) none o f t h e s e (5/  (2)  C + ( 6 5 - 7 l / ) (3)  C or C " ( 5 0 - 6 4 / ) ( 4 )  4.  6 . M a t h e m a t i c s 12 f i n a l n a r k A (56-100/) (1) B(72-55/) none o f t h e s e (5) 7.  +  (2)  G+(65-7l/) (3)  C o r G"(50-64/)(4)  Bow l o n g d i d y o u t a k e t o complete P h y s i c s 12? (Ghoose t h e answer w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s how Ion?- y o u t o ^ k . t » - c - ^ f n p l e ^ the course) 1 semester (1) l i - s e m e s t e r s [2] 2 semesters.. (2) 3 semesters (4) one s c h o o l y e a r (non-senester system) (5_)  £5 . ..ntended c o u r s e w o r k i n Mhv-sics honors i n p h y s i c s (1) major i n p h y s i c s (2) more t h a n one c o u r s e ' i n p h y s i c s (3.) Ph~ 115 o n l y (4) undeciHed (5_)  i  Items 9 - 1 2 c o n t a i n t u t o r i a l -roup numbers. w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o yjDur_ tjutoriaJL yrp\ip_jnuriber Be_ave a l l pt_her soace_s b l a n k .  9. T u t o r i a l -roup number 30 (1) 31 (2) 3 2 (3) 10. T u t o r i a l ~rour> number 35 (1) 3 6 "(2) 37 (}) 11.  33 (4)  34 (5)  (4)  39 (5_)  43 (4)  44 (5)  (4)  49 (5)  33  B u t o r i a l ^roun number  40 (1) 41 \2j 42 (3) 12. T u t o r i a l -rout) number 45 (1) 46 *(2) 47 (3)  45  B l a c k e n t h e one space ( l a b group number) .  FART C  178  Items 1 3 — 1 "It c o n t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s . B l a c k e n t h e one space w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o o u r J>ro_fessional g o a l . _Leave a l l o t h e r spaces bJLank. ' " " r  13.  a g r i c u l t u r e (1) a r c h i t e c t u r e (2) armed s e r v i c e s (3) s c i e n c e s (4) b u s i n e s s c: commerce (5.)  14.  c h e m i s t r y (1) e n g i n e e r i n g (5)  15.  f o r e s t r y (1) l i b r a r y (57  16.  lav; (1)  17.  pharmacy (1)  civil  s e r v i c e (2)  g e o l o g y (2)  mathematics (2)  e d u c a t i o n (4)  home economics (3.) m e d i c i n e (3)  p h y s i c s (2)  l i S . none o f t h e above (1)  d e n t i s t r y (2)  j o u r n a l i s m (4)  m i n i s t r y (4)  p h y s i c a l education  biological  (2)  music (5.)  s o c i a l work(4)  u n d e c i d e d (2)  IP.-.RT D Items 19 - 23 have t o do w i t h l a b o r a t o r y s c i e n c e c o u r s e s other thanFh 115. I n d i c a t e w h i c h o t h e r l a b o r a t o r y s c i e n c e c o u r s e s you_are_ tahjinj; t h i s y e a r by b l a c k e n i n g space ( I ) . Bo n o t blacken'' space \1) i f you a r e not t a k i n g a course i n t h a t " s c i e n c e i  1 9 . B i o l o g y , o r any o t h e r l i f e (1) ' 20.  C-hemistry (1)  21.  Engineering  science  (botany,  zoologv, e t c . )  2 2. Geology (1) " 2 3. None o f t h e above (1) P^RT_B Items 24 - 23 have t o do w i t h grade 12 s c i e n c e and mathematics c o u r s e s . I n d i c a t e w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n " grade 12 c o u r s e s you t o o k i n '~.igh s c h o o l by b l a c k e n i n g space T T ) . Bo not b l a c k e n space ( l l i f y o u d i d not t a k e t h e c o u r s e s l i s t e d . 2 4. P h y s i c s 12 (1) 2 5. B i o l o g y 12  -5-  179  P-..RT B - cont. 26. Chemistry 12 (1)  27. Mathematics 12 (1) 2S. None of the above (1) COURSE OPINIONS  DIRECTIONS  a , Indicate your opinion about each statement by completely BLACKENING one of the f i v e small-numbered spaces i n d i c a t e f o r each statement. b . The answer code i s as follows: Mark 1 i f SK  Mark  ss  2  if  Mark  I  if  aw5  if  Mark Mark E^campl^:  z  if  T he 7  I  !  3  4  5  That i s , the person was neutral or undecided about statement 7 . c . Mark only one space f o r each statement. I f you change your mind about an answer, erase i t completely and c l e a n l y . lake your new mark heavy; and dark. Indicate an answer f o r 3VERY statement i n this--part, d. WORK A3 QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. do, ask a .person i n charge.  I f you have any questions about what to  e. When you have f i n i s h e d , hand i n t' i s booklet and your*answer sheet. Place your f i n i s h e d answer sheet on the front counter, under the alphabetic l e t t e r corresponding to the f i r s t l e t t e r of '-'our surname.  - 6 I  7HY3IC3  -  NC? V/RITS IN' THIS  DO  IN  180  GENERAL  BOOKLET.  Use the answer sheet.  2 ) . Physics i s something everyone should know something about. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 0.  Physics i s worthless. Strongly agree 1 A^ree 2  31.  Undecided ?  Physics i s a dehumanizing subject. Strongly agree 1 Agres 2 Undecided. 3  3*2. Physics i s enjoyable, j Strongly agree 1 Agree 2  Undecided 3  "3 3. Physics i s a f a s c i n a t i n g subject. : Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 '3>k.  Disagree 4 . Strongly disagree $.. Disagree 4  Disagree 4 Strongly disagree  5  Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  Physics i s f a r too d i f f i c u l t f o r most students. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  3 5 . Physics i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y stimulating. I Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 "3^.  Strongly disagree 5  Fhysics i s boring. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2  Undecided 3  Disagree 4  Strongly disagree_5_ Strongly disagree 5  37.  physics i s related to evervday things. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree J>_ 3 ' 5 . Physics i s unrelated to problems that r e a l l y matter. •  Strongly agree 1, Agree 2 II  -  Undecided 3  DisagreeJ+_ Strongly disagreeJ>_  PHYSICS 1 1 5 COURSE  3 9 . Physics 115 i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than Fhysics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 40.  Strongly disagree 5  Physics 115 i s nothing more than a review of Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided..3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 t  41. Fhysics 115  M  i s a challenging course.  Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided.3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 2 . Physics 115 i s i r r e l e v a n t to the interests of the students. Btrongly agree 1 Agree_ 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree, 5 43.  Fhysics 115 i s a boring course. Strongly agree 1 Agree. 2 Undecided 3  Disagree 4  44. Phvsics 115 i s more worthwhile than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5. . Strongly disagree 5  45'. Physics 115 i s relevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  - 7 -  1 8 1  46- P h y s i c s 115 s h o u l d o n l y be taken by s t u d e n t s who a r e i n t e r e s t e d in becoming p h y s i c i s t s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 47.  P h y s i c s 115 i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r most s t u d e n t s . S t r o n g l y agree  4&  1  Agree 2  1  Undecided 3. D i s a g r e e 4  P h y s i c s 115 i s f r u s t r a t i n g because s t u d e n t s do not expected of them. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4  Strongly disagree 5 is  know what Strongly  disagree ?  Strongly  disagree .5  49 . P h y s i c s 115 i s a v a l u a b l e c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree, _1 III  '5Q-.  -  Agree 2  Undecided 3  Disagree  4  INSTRUCTION IN LECTURES  L e c t u r e s s h o u l d o n l y be g i v e n by i n s t r u c t o r s who a r e f i r s t - r a t e physicists. S t r o n g l y agree ,1 _ Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e _ 4 _ S t r o n g l y disagree  5-1.  The method o f t e a c h i n g used i n l e c t u r e s does not allow for enough student p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o s u i t me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y disagree  5?., L e c t u r e s should i n c l u d e more up-to-date S t r o n g l y agree 53.  55..  Agree 2  Undecided 3  teaching techniques. Disagree 4  Strongly  disagree ?  I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s h e l p s t o make t h e important i d e a s c l e a r t o me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y disa$ree_JL_  ' 5|+.  '.  1  5  I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s i s o f g r e a t h e l p t o me i n s o l v i n g physics problems. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e _4_ S t r o n g l y disagree  j  I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s i s too f a s t . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3  DisagreeJt_ Strongly  i  Instruction i n class i s boring, S t r o n g l y agree 1. Agree 2 Undecided 3  Disagree 4  Strongly  disagree_Ju disagree_jL  5i7 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s encourages s t u d e n t s t o express t h e i r own viewpoints. S t r o n g l y agree, 1. Agree_2_ U n d e c i d e d _ 3 _ D i s a g r e e J i _ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e _ S _ 5!8 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n c l a s s s h o u l d be more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . Strongly a g r e e _ l _ Agree_2_ Undecided_J_Disagree_4_ Strongly  disagree_JL  59 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n l e c t u r e s i s ~ood. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  disagree_J>_  D i s a g r e e J ^ Strongly  _s _ TV 60. 61.  -  LECTURER  The lecturer knows h i s subject w e l l . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  1  8  2  Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  The lecturer's explanations are unclear. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  62. The l e c t u r e r has the a b i l i t y to hold the interest of the c l a s s . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 63.  The lecturer i s one of the Lest things about the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  6 4 . The l e c t u r e r i s inconsiderate toward students. , . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 6 . 5 . The lecturer's pace i s too f a s t . Strongly agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3  Strongly disagree J> ,  4  Strongly disagree 5  6 ; 6 . The lecturer reviews course material adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 _ Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  6|7 . The lecturer has a r i g i d teaching s t y l e . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  6.8. The lecturer acts as i f teaching, i s a chore. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  Disagree  6 9 . . The lecturer makes me d i s l i k e physics. Strongly agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  Disagree  4  Strongly disagree_5_  7 1 . The textbook i s of l i t t l e value i n the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  72. The textbook does not explain things adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3__ Disagree 4  Strongly disagree 5  I  V_  ~  VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE COURSE  7 0 . The textbook i s easy to understand. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  73.  The textbook i s well written. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3  Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  74.  The subject matter i n the course i s well organized. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  75.  The subject matter of the course i s excellent. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree  4  Strongly disagree 5  7 6 . The subject matter of the course should be more c l o s e l y related to things that r e a l l y matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5  -  183  -  77.  The s u b j e c t n a t t e r o f the course i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5  73,  The s u b j e c t matter o f the course i s a v a l u a b l e a s s e t t o my e d u c a t i o n . S t r o n g l y a g r e e ^ l ^ Agree 2 Undecided_"3_ D i s a g r e e _ 4 _ S t r o n g l y disagree _j>_ <  79.  The o u t s i d e readings i n the course a r e too d i f f i c u l t f o r m3. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5  £ 0 . The assignments a r e r e a s o n a b l e i n l e n g t h . S t r o n g l y agree__l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4__ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 C l j. The assignments a r e too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e £2.  4.., S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5  The assignments s h o u l d d e a l with more p r a c t i c a l problems. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 . Undecided J l ^ Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ^ The assignments a r e a v;orth-while p a r t o f the c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree_l__ Agree 2 Undacidc-1 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y  disagree_J>_  Cu^side r e a d i n g s i n the c o u r s o s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d . S t r o n g l y a <?rec_i^ Agree 2 Undecided 3 risagrroe ^ _ S t r o n g l y  disagr-3e_J>__  l  VI 35  -  EXAMINATIONS  The exams p r o v i d e a good l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J_ D i s a g r e e , ^  Strongly  disagree_5_  86 j The exams emphasise marks t o o much. S t r o n g l y s g r e e _ l _ Agr&-3_j2_ Undecided_X_ D i s a g r e e  4  Strongly  disagree_~  Rxans a r e t o o l o n g t o complete on t i m e . S t r o n g l y £gree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e  4  Strongly  disagree_5_  vr  &7  CT  The exams c o v e r a f a i r sample o f the m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d i n the c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y a g r e e _ l _ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree_J5__ The  exams a r e g e n e r a l l y v e r y  poor.  t r o n g l y a g r e e J L _ A£Tee_2_ Undecided J S _ Disagree_4_ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e J L 90 , The exams a r e marked f a i r l y . .Strongly a g r e 3 _ l _ Agree 2 Undecided 3  Disagree  91 , The examinations a r e t o o d i f f i c u l t . S t r o n g l y ag,ree_l_ Agree_2_ Undecided 3  Disa^reeJ^  4  Strongly  dissgree_J_  Strongly  disagree_J5__  92. The exams s t r e s s memorisation too much. Strongly a g r e e _ l _ Agrcs_2_ UndecidedLj_ D i s a g r e e J ^ Strongly d i s a g r e e j ^ . 93. The examinations r e a l l y make me t h i n k . S t r o n g l y a g r e e _ l _ Ag;ree 2 Undocided 3 D i s a g r e e  4  Strongly  disagree_£_  94 . Exams a r e not g i v e n o f t e n enough. S t r o n g l y c . g r e e j ^ Agree_2_ Undecided 3 . D i s a g r e e  4  Strongly  disagree_5"_  -10-  VII  -  184  TOPICS  95. N u c l e a r energy i s a good t o p i c f o r t h e Fh 115 c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree_l_'Agree__2__ Undecided 3, Disagree__4_ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e _ J [ _ 96. There s h o u l d be l e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on c l a s s i c a l (Newtonian) p h y s i c s i n Fh 1 1 5 . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 9 7. The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c t h e o r y i s an i m p o r t a n t t o p i c f o r a f i r s t y e a r physics course. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y disagree___5__ 93.  ' P r o p u l s i o n systems' i s a t o p i c o f l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o s t u d e n t s i n Ph 115 S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e J f S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5.  99c T o p i c s such a s 'the e n v i r o n m e n t ' , ' p o l l u t i o n ' , ' r e c y c l i n g , and 'energy demand', a r e j u s t as i m p o r t a n t t o t h e Fh 115 c o u r s e a s a r e 'mechanics' and wave m o t i o n ' . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3_ D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5_ 1  1  100.  'The human b o d y S t r o n g l y agree 1  1  i s a t o p i c that i s not relevant t o f i r s t year physics. Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5__  1 0 1 . There s h o u l d be e l e c t r o n i c s i n c l u d e d i n Ph 1 1 5 . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 D i s a g r e e 4 102  k  S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5.  There s h o u l d be l e s s o p t i c s i n Ph 1 1 5 . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 D i s a g r e e 4 _ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5...  103-. 'The human body' i s a w o r t h w h i l e t o p i c t o i n c l u d e i n t h e Ph 115 c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 D i s a g r e e 4 _ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5_ 104. T o p i c s c e n t e r e d around ' p o l l u t i o n ' a n d 'the e n v i r o n m e n t ' s h o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n Ph. 1 1 5 . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 D i s a g r e e J+ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ^ . . •lGp. I t would be u s e f u l t o i n c l u d e some d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o p u l s i o n systems i n t h e Ph 115 c o u r s e . S t r o n g l y agree__1__ Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e 4_ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5 . 105. N u c l e a r energy i s n o t a u s e f u l t o p i c f o r Ph 115 s t u d e n t s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 _ D i s a g r e e 4 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5^.. 107. Ph 115 s h o u l d p l a c e t h e g r e a t e s t emphasis on ' m e c h a n i c s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 U n d e c i d e d 3 D i s a g r e e _ 4 _ . S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5... 1  LCo.  The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c t h e o r y i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o S t r o n g l y agree 1 jigree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a - r e e _ 4  HAVE. YOU  INDICATED  YOUR  IDENTIFICATION  NUMBER  Fh 115 s t u d e n t s . S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 5..  CORRECTLY?  185  A P P E N D I X  STUDENT RESPONSES TO STUDY  K  PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION  QUESTIONNAIRE  SR AC+WEBB:L130_LIB l=Bl.SR2 EXECUTIGN BEGINS RESPONSES TO PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE: NOTE. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSEO FOR SUMMATION IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 3 2,3 3,3 5,3 7,39,44,45,49,53,54,5 9,6 2,63, 66,70*73,74,75,78,80,83,85,88,90,93,95, 97, 101, 105. STUDENT RESPONSES TO I TENS NUMBER 1087717 2113241200CC30C020010001111044 4555455433344344553422 435432 44 54 2 5544554 3434 335445535 2434 3 44443 3 24434235223234 22255213000235CCOCCI COC1C01045 1 103712444454444324444 4 43 5 343 44 442 355 54 44423452 32 334444 244343 24 34344424 24334244223324 2225221400C1C0C03CC10001011044 1587708 33 344 343122 3 32 3144 3443424 3 344445 34444543343 3 224 3 534 344 3 3444443 34 34432423453343 21212133004000C200C10001111045 1642719 2 3 342244422 344 3443 2413 4243525555 55 55553111143242 344 2424244144242 42252251551152 21152 23500C2C0CC02C100C101102 5 20947.12 4 4 4444444 33 344 3 244 3422 44 4 4324454 4444445344 34 324 3444 35 24 344444343 42332343343434 2 2253235O040C0COO1C100C1011044 218 7714 4 334 3444 34 34444 444 3 44 3 224 42145 24 5 5443444244 4 3 34 4 444 24115443444 3 3 33332143343333 222551 400504CCCCO11000ICO1044 2370708 3 3244 41 42 342 342 24 42 2 444 344 3214444 45444551111422 42 344 54 54 34 24444 2 2 2433 1543453453 212111430003C5CC00010001 11 1044 24437 11 3 44 4 3242522 3453 5 54 4443444424 4444 44444443323244 44 444443414444.4444 41443442444443  244 771.2 211512 1500 1 OC5CCCCC 1000 1C 110 55 543334 3434444343423 24 33334233544 34433453323234444443435244533344 54432134144434 24 54718 21 15 321 5OO3CC000O2C100C1011045 35 354 5 35432 343 3 442 352 244 442 335 53 344 3344333 3 33354334242 32422 34111 44353244235423 246 0715 2 12C2 215004CCCCC02C10101011044 2432244222444224444242442422 3544 5 522455342 24 3244 344242 2244341442 45452343344424 247 3718 2 12 542 53002CCCC002C10C0111004 5 4445444354344545 54 42225544124543 24444442423332543424514455545541 43331443454443 247 7 719 2 1252 1550020040CCC010001011054 2443 3 3555432 35 3 4 354 3 344 34 31135 54 5 54345531335333 3342 24111444 54441 33331545553343 248 7718 212 52 114001CCCCC01C100C1011055 5 3443 35454 33 35 3 54242 334544334544 3444455 2432 3325 2 3453534344424443 34331433444433 2488716 2125 52 55002CCOC001C10001C01023 32 2222434452 3 32 2122 3 33 42 4 32 34433 24444441111222 2 22443444224342224 25242233242233 2490712 2124 13 14005CCOCO IOC 10001011055 5 3 34445 5443444 3 4 444 4 34 44 4 42 345 54 4 544 34422 334444 4444443 2144444345 44342343344443 2499713 214 552140030400 00011COO 1001044 3 3242444443344 34424 2524444 344 544 4444344111142244242 2141124341115 42441242254444 2 509719 2 1155113000205OCCOC10101001034 444445434324444 4 44 344444 54244544 255444442 3244 34 434 544344444445 34 44442254344445 2511715 21 2151550050300000110001101045 54 54344424 2 3 32 3443 2 3 3344432 3344 3 34434 4 4323 3 2 33 42 34334 3 32 44444342 42423434422444 2523710 211521 350010C0C0IOC 10001011044 333 3234424 33 23 34322232 33 332 3 332 3 2 3 324 344 222 2 324 3 34 3 2 33 3244344443 24333223233233 2526713 213512530002C5C000010001011044 4 44 44 44 35 3444 541444 32 2 454 3 2 34444 4 4 444 55 344 244 4 44 44 4 4544144244241 44452255445554 25 33719 22141 11 2002CC0000211C001C11044 14 34444 24222422444 24424353 24 44 34 4444444332243254244 34 54244 444434 54542242245124 2 537710 21112 15300010003C0110001111055 55444455 32 34 344 4444 134453311443 3 34 34 2 344 544 4 32 4 435515 3525 32 544 3 2 24231244243333  2 54 3718 2135 3414 34104CCCC0110001011044 44434342 242123443134414542152441 4442 5 3344211L331355 3444312242112 43351533554241 2548717 2 135221 30001C50CCCC10001011044 34 4434545334454443344 34544144544 34 4444423225334434544343544 543 44 34424243323324 2571719 21342 31500500020CC010101C11044 43 344443444 33244 32313244 342 3 3544 44344 44222233234334344 4234343243 32322344443343 257 371.5 223511530001050000110001011045 5444 54 552434434544 44 44 4454235554 44 5 4 34554444 3 355 54 5442 424 54443 3 2 43453345335424 2 576 718 212511130010050000010001011044 344 4 3444434343 3444 3 2 33 44442 34444 44 4 34 444 22 243 34 3344 243 42 444444 24 44232244243444 25927 15 213522550001000002010001011045 44 344444322 343 34443143 3 3 34434 544 34 4444444334 334 3344245 54 444545 3 2 52445341344434 2595718 213552530030050CC0010001001055 544444 55544 344 35 434252444 4344555 5543455 222 3432 4432 445 3 42 34424451 32331224243333 2596716 21255255OO5005GC00C10CO1C01O24 1444445354 33 55 3 54441444 54 4134545 55453551233 343443554433243444442 53533253233535 2617710 212111540002000300110001111055 334244254141432442 3142 5544235545 44445552 3432 32 41344442 2 2 443442 2 2 4231 1543542552 2619716 21 11 11150010C00 200C10001111045 43325443322 323 3432 3 5334352133444 5A443344343322543433534244343233 42433233233443 262 3718 2 12533140020050C00C10001011044 42 3 3 3444 544444 3442 3 23344 342 3 344 5 43 2 244412 3243 334343 34342 334332 33 43332343344443 26257 13 21 12 1255001003CC00C10001 111055 44 544543212442 34543 32 3 3244224544 54434444232322524443425244224421 42521433552445 262 6711 2 1 252215002005CC000100 01011044 444444342424 44344341444444 344444 44 4344524324.42 44 344444 4444444424 33342242344443 26 35712 2122325500030003001 10001CI1045 4434344445444444 444243 44 34244544 44 444444 3 324 344 4 44444 34 24444 3444 34324234223 333 2651719 21222352OO50C00CO211OOOIU1O45 544 444444434444 4444 2 334 3442 344 54 44 43445 3333434 4 344434344 3443444 2 34334344424443  188  268 57 17 211551340010000 3C0 110001011045 5432 3 32325 3 3 33 24 32 3 24 2424332 542 5 34 342 342 22 2 2 22 3 3 2442 22 44444 142 44 44231341343453 2696714 2115115500C2C0 03001 10001011055 44 545555444443 44444442 54 552255 5 5 555555524234 32 44 35 515 342444442 54 44441554554454 2699718 21110114005CC00300110001101045 4445455542 34 53455454445545224554 4 54 4455442 3444 44454444 21345 543 5 5 4444 1442454444 2706711 212521140030C00002C10001011044 4 334 244444 34444 555425 5 4444 244544 4 544 5552 34 34 444 334434542424 54354 34442233243334 2710713 212512 55 0003C0C220C10001C11055 4 4 44 44 45444 5 544 4 444 2444 34 4 34444 4 34 4444532334444 44 44442 44 434444 33 44442344444444 2715712 2 22 54111003CC00 020C10001011045 55543545 534444 525452124555115554 345 54241222442553442435155535551 51351115155524 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6927719 2 12 53315205004G0001100 01011054 4 443 3444443 444 4 4 334 24 344 44 344444 44444544 44434445 34 435344444 544 43 44443443443333 693 6 7 10 21 153 3 1200C0050000010001011055 5552455 542244444423142453432454 4 443343 54422222434442514244444242 42444244244434 697 3713 212521530002050000010001011045 5454445444 24 5245444244 44 44244555 34 424444 544 44 2444442425334444533 52345342324545  69 7670 5 2115111300010500COC10001011045 4 4 324 445 5544 444 3 344 3424 5442 35444 4443445222244 24 4 44425442143 342 43 22431243443234 7011711 211511150010CO00021100010110 54 3 343 32 45 323443 4 4324 133444 32 34444 444 44 44 32334344433334 43444443333 44332543543443 7024714 21211154000240C000110001111044 4 324 343 32123 32 3 442 343 3 34 342 34544 4 3 444442 222 32 35 2 54 4 342 12 5224442 4 44242442444442 70 64 710 21342212000405C000010001011045 24 44435 354 34453 4 324 3 35 54442 355 5 5 5 5445 5522334 44 4 3 34 24544345434432 23425553113323 7070717 2133 32 550030C00002 010001111045 54 44445455444 3 4 5444455554532 55 5 5 554545543334 3 34 4444553 444 5 544444 44344243544434 70 76714 214 54455000 ICO00021100010110 34 34 44 444 344 3 344 3442 32 34444 33 34444 444 3444 3444 4 33 3 3 344 44 3 42 443 3 344 3 42342343224433 7081714 214 523150020001000010001011044 32 34 344 3444344 3 4444143 4444244444 44 44 44422334 32 43 34 43434344434444 43332243244423 7146715 212023550010CC00020100 01011044 444 4 3424 3444 44 4 344 3454 4244344444 44 44444 32334 34 4 2 344 215 4 3444444 34 44244244223424 7164718 224344140020030COO 110001111055 544 44244434 344 344341515 5432 555 55 54444 5 33244 4 324 4244 2534124534344 34332242324223 7186711 21453353000305 CO00001001011044 42 242143342 423 3 443 3 3 334442 33 3444 4 54244322123 334 33444 344 3 44444334 33333333333333 7210719 2143 52120002C0 0 200 1100 01101055 55 524455 543 3144534 52424544424454 444245515224 3244 415152 5244445441 44432444444425 7218712 213522530020200CCOO100010 11045 5 5 54554544 3444 4 4444 2 33 4344244455 4443445444 244445444 343323 4334424 53444444334445 7297 716 21353215000 305 0000010001011055 55555554555455 5 3 3351315545 33 55 55 55 333552151342 5 55351513243334443 54535553523525 7 348717 21355233001020C000010001001055 4 3 444444424423 424442434344244455 4444355 32 33324443444 5442423344 34 32342351344313 7359714 212 0031300010020C0010 101001044 3223222 324 32 2422 22 2 322222312 3424 44214441111322243222434234433253 12332222253123  200  738371A 2145543500010500COC1000100 1044 22 322 3222432 32 22142 42 322 34 334444 44444452222322434442443344444222 322222522A2222 7 3 9071.9 21 3552540030500 COOO 1000 100 1045 444444555344444444 43434435134555 55444552224 4 344 4 344 343 53 5434433 3 42355443425424 7441710 222 52213004CC00001010101011014 4 3 344414244 444 2 2444 424 4444224445 5 544 34 54 344 4234 4 444 343 34 44444444 54.342355344444 7496714 21302 35400200C0002010101011055 45534554544454 35344443 5435345455 4 5 35 5 5 54444 4 42 5 5 54 4 344 5255 55 5444 5434 1324344443 7 566 714 21453 3130004000001010001011045 4 344 344344344 34443 3 33443 342 34534 3534244332 34 34 44344333334 4443343 23332243244334 766 8718 223022540000COO300110001011055 34 4 4 545 5443 54 34 554 3354 454 5445545 5 54345 5 3444 43 44 4 444443 22 3 3 34434 3 23442244244344 7721715 222 3 331500O440C00001O00U110 55 55 555554443454444512335545435555 554445545345435 5 54 5 35 3 2244455243 53332453444435 7907 710 21121135005000031OC10001111055 5 3 344 343342 3 3 34 542 3 321444 323 33 3 3 2443 343442331255445342412342 5442 54532444444444 EXECUTION TERMINATED $R SSLE:BC + WEBB:1130_LIB 1= FISH.RG EXECUTION BEGINS  A P P E N D I X  L  ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY  QUESTIONNAIRE  t  P h v s i c s 115 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. Please complete the spaces p r i n t e d answer sheet. 2.  203  i n the t o p l i n e o f the accompanying  On l i n e 2 opposite the word SCHOOL", p r i n t the name o f the h i g h s c h o o l you l a s t attended. Opposite CITY" p r i n t the c i t y and p r o vince ( a b b r e v i a t i o n ) i n which the i n d i c a t e d high s c h o o l was l o c a t e d (or the country i n which your high s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n took p l a c e , i f not i n Canada). 11  ;,  3. Leave the spaces f o r ""GRADS OR CLASS", ''INSTRUCTOR", "NA^E -OF TEST" and ''PART" ( l i n e s 2 and 3 o f answer sheet) blank, but g i v e your i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number both i n n u m e r i c a l form ( i n the spaces below the r e d arrow) and "by b l a c k e n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e spaces. 4. Note t h a t the items are numbered h o r i z o n t a l l y on the p r i n t e d answer sheet. PART A  Course  Information  P l e a s e respond t o each item. Do not i n d i c a t e more than one answer f o r each item except where i n d i c a t e d . 1. P h y s i c s 115 L e c t u r e S e c t i o n (1) S e c t i o n 1 (Dr. L i v e s e y )  (2)  S e c t i o n 2 (Dr. McMillan)  2 . T u t o r i a l group number (make one response t o each o f q u e s t i o n s (1) G 30 (2) G 31 (3) G 32 (4) G 33 (5) None o f t h e s e 3. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 34 (2) G 35 (3) G 36  (4) G 37  (5) None o f these  4. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 38 (2) G 39 (3) G 40  (4) G 41  (5) None o f these  5. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 42 (2) G 43 (3) G 44  (4) G 45  (5) None o f these  6. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 46 (2) G 47 (3) G 48  (4) G 4 9  (5) None o f these  7. Year o f h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n (1) 1971 (2) 1970 T3) 1969 (4) 1968  (5) None o f these  8. P h y s i c s 12 f i n a l mark  (1) A (86#-100£) (50f 5 -64Z)  (2) B (72#-85#)  (5) None o f these  9. B i o l o g y 12 f i n a l mark  (1) A (86#-100&) (50/-64/)  (2) B (72#-85#)  (5) None o f these  2to6)  (3) C < (65£-71#)  (4) C o r C-  (3) C- (65)o-7l/)  (4) C o r C-  PART A 10.  11.  cont.  204  Chemistrv 12 f i n a l mark (1) A ( 8 6 ^ - 1 0 0 / ) (2) B (723-85$) (50$-6Z$) (5) None o f these  (3)  Math 12 f i n a l mark (1) A (86^-100$) (2) 3 (72;"i-85^) (50fi-64/o) (5) None o f these  (3)  C^  (6555-71$)  (M  C or C-  (65$-71$)  (4)  C or C-  12.  D u r a t i o n of P h y s i c s 12 course (choose the answer which best d e s c r i b e s how long you took to do the course) (1) 1 semester (2) lh semesters (3) 2 semesters (4) 3 semesters (5) one s c h o o l year (non-semester system)  13.  Other l a b o r a t o r y s c i e n c e courses o t h e r than P h y s i c s 115 b e i n g taken t h i s year (you may i n d i c a t e more than one answer) (1) B i o l o g y (or any o t h e r l i f e - s c i e n c e ) (2) Chemistry (3) E n g i neering (4) Geology (5) Other'  14.  Intended coursework i n P h y s i c s (1) Major i n P h y s i c s (2) Honors i n P h y s i c s (4) undecided (5) Other  (3)  P h y s i c s 115  only  15.  P r o f e s s i o n a l o b j e c t i v e (make one resoonse t o each o f q u e s t i o n s 15 to 20) (1) a g r i c u l t u r e (2) a r c h i t e c t u r e (3) armed s e r v i c e s (4) b i o sciences (5) none o f these  16.  (1) (4)  17.  (1) e d u c a t i o n none o f these  18.  (1) home economics of these  19.  (1) mathematics these  20.  (1) (5)  21.  Grade 12 s c i e n c e and math courses taken i n h i g h s c h o o l (you may i n d i c a t e more than one answer) (1) P h y s i c s 12 (2) B i o l o g y 12 (3) Chemistry 12 (4) Math 12 (5) Other  b u s i n e s s & commerce (2) chemistry dentistry (5) none o f these (2)  engineering  (2)  (2)  (3)  journalism  medicine  pharmacy (2) p h y s i c s none o f these  (3)  (3)  (3)  forestry (3)  civil (4)  library  ministry  (4)  p h y s i c a l education  End o f P a r t A  service geology (4)  (5)  law  music (4)  (5)  (5)  none  none o f  s o c i a l work  PART B  ATTITUDE TOWARD THE  205  PHYSICS LABORATORY  The answers t o items i n t h i s p a r t a r e t o be completed on t h e second answer sheet p r o v i d e d . Only your name and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number a r e r e q u i r e d i n the spaces p r o v i d e d a t the top o f the answer .sheet. T h i s s c a l e r e p r e s e n t s a c o n t r o l l e d study t o determine the s u c c e s s o f the l a b o r a t o r y program as the student sees i t . The statements on the s c a l e r e p r e s e n t o p i n i o n s put f o r t h by p r e v i o u s p h y s i c s s t u d e n t s . You are p r e s e n t e d w i t h 5 response c a t e g o r i e s f o r each statement: ( 1 ) s t r o n g l y agree, ( 2 ) agree, ( 3 ) n e u t r a l , (k) d i s a g r e e , ( 5 ) s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . The numbers ( 1 ) t o ( 5 ) c o r r e s p o n d t o the numbers o f t h e b l a n k spaces found on the accompanying p r i n t e d answer s h e e t . Choose t h e response c a t e g o r y which b e s t expresses your degree o f agreement o r disagreement w i t h each statement. Your r e s p o n s e s ' t o t h e statements w i l l undergo a programmed s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and the r e s u l t s w i l l be used t o a i d i n r e d e s i g n i n g the p r e s e n t l a b o r a t o r y . NOTE: S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s by computer r e q u i r e s t h a t e v e r y statement be responded t o . I f you are undecided about t h e statement use response no. ( 3 ) . A l s o note t h a t the numbering system on the answer sheet, runs h o r i z o n t a l l y as opposed t o the v e r t i c a l numbering o f the statements i n • the s c a l e . 1.  In most i n s t a n c e s I f e e l the l a b s a i d me physics.  2 .  I f i n d t h a t most experiments a r e t o o  3.  The l a b t o me  i n my  understanding o f  difficult.  i s p r i m a r i l y a waste o f t i m e .  i+. I r e g a r d the l a b o r a t o r y as an extremely b e n e f i c i a l  activity.  5. I f i n d the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the l a b o r a t o r y manual c o n f u s i n g . 6.  I u s u a l l y f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o j u s t fumble my way  7.  I f e e l the l a b o r a t o r y i s e s s e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g  8. T h i s l a b o r a t o r y has k i l l e d my 9.  interest  through  experiments.  physics.  i n physics.  I t h i n k t o o much time i s demanded by the l a b o r a t o r y f o r the b e n e f i t that i s being derived.  10.  I f i n d the experiments assume we know more than we  1 1 .  I l i k e the l a b o r a t o r y because initiative.  12.  The l a b o r a t o r y o u t l i n e seems t o e x p l a i n i d e a s p r e v i o u s l y t o me.  actually  do.  i t offers opportunity f o r i n d i v i d u a l foreign  PART B  206  cont.  13. The laboratory's good and bad points balance each other. 1/f. I f e e l the need f o r a laboratory program, and am pleased with ours. 15. I hate the laboratory. 16. I have found no value i n the laboratory. 17. The laboratory to me i s synonymous with f r u s t r a t i o n . 18. I have found t h i s laboratory the most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of any of my courses. 19. I f i n d the time a l l o t t e d to prepare a write-up f o r handing i n i s ample. 20. I actually believe the experiments have taught me ideas of physics f a r better than books could.  some basic  21. I f e e l we are presented with apparatus too f a r beyond our l e v e l of understanding.  present  2 2 . I l i k e our laboratory because the experiments demand we think, rather than providing us with a step by step procedure. 2 3 . I believe the laboratory has value i n that i t stimulates interest i n physics. 2J+. My experience confusion.  my  i s that the laboratory i s a hopeless turmoil of  2 5 . V7ith reasonable e f f o r t , I regard the ideas presented laboratory well within my reach. 26. To me the laboratory i s more or less boring.  i n the  207  A P P E N D I X  STUDENT RESPONSES TO PHYSICS LABORATORY  M  ATTITUDE TOWARD THE QUESTIONNAIRE  RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PHYSICS LA3. QUESTIONNAIRE: NOTE. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSED FOR SUMMATION IM THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: I,4,7,lltl2,13,l4,18tl9,20»22,23,25  STUDENT RESPONSES TO ITEMS NUMBER 10557 LA 33 332 43422 3A3 3444 34 4 3 43424 1087717 44444455444 324 55 5 3455 34 5 54 1103711 4344 24344 2133434222 34 33433 1567 718 444 33444123 33 2444444444443 15 87 708 3432 343322243 343 32425 32443 164 2719 55551455521515554245543555 1755719 3432 32 2412 342 3 332 2444 334 3 3 1902717 54542435421324444244424344 203 3710 343 2 2 34424 3 44 3 3 331434 32 343 2094712 4444 3445434 343 544 34 4 3 34 444 2121167 42 32122311343 23 321544 33 324 218 7714 4 2 32 33441113131351445 33343 22 36719 55533553113133355151511531 2 342715 5 35433544 2 343 3 5 444 544 24443 2 3 70 708 44411143231121341124 321141 24 39719 3422222312132 2342 244321243 2440717 4 34 4344343 343 4444 2 344 2 3 43 3 2442713 4543443454234A 544253432443 2443711 44444244322 3434 23 344444442 2447 712 4454 3 3444 34 444452 22 34 44244 2452712 53553255553555555 55 55 54545 2454718 45435555455253555455525514 2 4 59717 34434444343324444344444444 2460715 4 34 32 4 3343 32444443444 33443 2464717 444 32 344424 34 4443 2 343 44434 2 465714 45533545444 344 545 2535 33544 246 7710 555515155115155 55 15 1515555 247 3 718 4 34424442 32 344 442 3445 34 324 2475713 43542435233424443234423444 2476711 5 4 543442424444554344444344 247 7 719 12223323121451 1 32 153221231 24 85712 4 44 4 344 544 3434 54 4 3 344 34 444 2486710 331223321322322 32133332 341 2487718 23432334244223341143443142 2490712 4 2431 13431353 3442 2 334 332 34 2496719 342 2444 3342 22 2223214422441  209  249 7 717 44522435131232555154153552 2498715 454254442 23 35 3 545 3555 34545 2499713 211111132 234211221424 32121 2502714 44444445232224444313433434 2509719 54 544 54 5442 22 4 544344545445 2511715 4443344 42433334 44 2444 44 4 44 2514719 5 344 344424 34 3 4445 2 344 4 3443 25 18710 445553333541255 55 5555 55 554 25 21714 4 34 32 344344 3 3 3443 3423 33434 2523710 43433333223433344243323342 2 524718 333315 33353 233334 22 343 3433 2526713 54 44444 5242 44 4444545524444 25 30715 34 544423513 33 3 342 325413 343 2 5 32711 43542455434544555435443535 2533719 4312132 3311132121111511241 2537 710 4 351343442332 2132 2534 33341 2 541712 53533535335553555 3 55 333353 2543718 42312233221222233244543342 2548 717 445 344442 3243 3 5443 555 44444 2 571719 43442334224244443445523434 257 3715 5 542 5 54 515242 4 5552 55524555 2576718 44432433423234544444433443  258 0710 25 8 2716 2584712 2586717 2587715 2587715 2592715 2 595718 2 596716 2603710 2604718 2617710 2620714 262 3718 2625713 2626711 263 5712 2640712 264 3716 2649713 2650711 26517 19 2661718 26707 19 2671717  443 3224455 343 3 444 2443 2 3343 4 2442 4443234 3 3 344444434244 55 553 5555 3 3515 5551535 55555 44 542 3451234 435 22 3 244 24424 55215551515142 555111132333 44421234132221332244432442 4 44 2442444 3 33 3 44414 45 3 3444 5444245513443 3 5544244 34545 44533445323 354 555543444544 5 2 252252215555222545255252 4 4424415444433444154424244 35223344241342343153532453 4442 2 44412242 2442141422 444 4 244134422453 3 5 52 3433 33 344 55 1355353 5535 355515 35 53 55 3 3342144 344 2 32 3443 2424 34 344 444442442 4 3444 544 2434 4 3444 3 332 233412 32 3 3 32 324412 3323 4444 344444 34 3 4 54444 4 3 34 445 34 13132 33 34 3 33 333 3 2 3432442 3333441414243 3434 242513454 4453444 554333455544554444 4 4 5 55355443242 5 555 34541545 5 4344 134444324334344 44 42223 4 3 342 3 343 32 34 3444 344 3 4444 3  2684710 2685717 2695716 2696714 2699718 2 70 2710 2706711 2714715 2715712 2717718 2719714 2722718 2726 719 27 30711 2733715 2739 712 2740710 2743714 2 746717 2 747715 27487 13 27 54711 27 55718 27 56716 27 57714 2761716 2 76 2714 2 765717 2767713 2779 718 2780716 2 784 718 2790715 2791713 2794717  23222 241132331423121522241 12222234253432344 15 1124332 33433 3443 34 334 44 3333433434 2422342314222234 3122431343 4 4 43444424 342 4 554 2444 3 344 3 4 5442 45224 3 3322332 34 534452 44433 32 5522 44 4 34 4 244434443 444 4 35454344 34545 3444 4344 5 5 344 2 34444444 4 442 3144 44445 2 44 334132 22 32 34 242332 2 2434 54 543414444344554344444444 455 34 555 44 34 55555 355555555 44 4 3342 32 2 344 3 4432 445 2 3443 2 2422222212 232 4432123 33 324 4 34 324344 3444 3 544 3444 344444 344 3434 2 24 4 33442 3444 4 3434 33221422131312232223332243 44 3 344442 43 3344 444 344 344 54 5 4442445 22 3 34 31521254 34444 343413442 2 5 33 2 535 2454 32 543 4 444135 52 3543 3 2 534 34443554 4 3452 24422 3 22 3442 2444 444 54 332222 241133221212334222 32 4555 344 543442 5 5534444 4444 5 3 3 3413 33223443434533413554 15111111111511111151531551 344 32 4442 2 3 22 3442 34442 2434 43434445433443554344433545 4454232544324 344324443442 5 4 444 34532 34234 4 333 442 43332 4 344 3445444444 4 444 544 44555 443444242414224452415434 54 4342 22 342 2 342 24442 54412442 44 324242133422143154223 322 5 3 544455 344424 5 544244 44 444  2796712 27 99 716 2802718 280 3716 2807717 2810711 2814713 2815710 2822716 2 8 24712 28 27 715 2828713 2831717 28 34711. 28 37 714 2846715 2851715  44444554343444 554135442444 34 4 3443444 343 34 44 32 34 33434 44434434343424 4453455 4444 5 444 3134542 3 344 5 54 3444 44444 42442445444244444244434443 442 244 332 32 32 3 324243422441 44442444323354 343143222422 3444433443133 3444144432441 411411421244441 114 54 244151 33331334224333444343233334 3 342 2223322 332 332 2 33432 343 322222331134 33333 44 3 334343 34324444343443344244422443 44 3 3443424 343 34442424 32 352 3322342 32314212 32 331312421 55445535234443555343443444 31431233113 334322 11322324 3  210  2853711 555435544342345 54 4455 54554 2859718 44323445133432 44 4 243443443 2 865715 54143145335334555435444554 2871713 43544554243132444 124553444 2 8 77710 43533454313434555354343444 2879716 3 32224332 324 2 2 334242 3 32443 2880714 44422514143233444254523454 28 82 710 5 34434555 24234 5554 354 4444 5 268 3718 54534444 244244555444434542 2885713 43442444443324444244434444 2886711 424412533125332 31123211323 2892 719 3344 122 3 42 543334 142 2333233 2893717 3422 34221322222 3 3142422 341 2900710 55544555554233555 4455 54 555 2902716 444 3434544 344 4 444 3444 34444 2911717 4 344 34443 244 34443 3243 244 24 2914711 3 3322244222432 32 324122 3 331 2918712 42432343123333442233233432 2919710 44442454242222444344 4 24444 2920718 4 3543 4552 23334444 3442 33444 2926715 2 352222222 2 42 2 322 243 32 32 32 29 377 12 22111321132122 122 2424 32 244 29387 10 4443233444244444214 44 23 343 2939 718 4 34 333343 3242 3444 2444 34443 2942712 4 2 32 2 2 242 3 2334242 2 2 24 32 342 294771 1 2442443312122122322 34 24324 2950715 2 322332422222 3 3 34243 3 3 343 3 2951713 23213313121213333142432431 2952711 433 32 344323433444 344344 334 295 3719 4 3212141121311121141422221 295 8718 2 42 2 24343 2.3432 3343424 33 343 2959716 123 2 3253312533 433 3 333 3 3 333 2961712 44544445 2 3 34 3 44442424 24442 2962 710 444 355 34444 234545223443544 2965713 5454 3545 344234 554 3 545 43545 297 7718 4 4444 34444 4 44 3443 24444 4444 2982718 4544354435 314 3 5543324 33445 2986719 444 4 342444 344 3 444 344444444 298 8715 5454 3 55 544 2 3344 54 2 535 33 554 2989713 44312413124 442442123442443 2995710 4 3542 45422 3224 54 324444 3 334 3003711 4 34422 343 2 3 444 4 44 3444 34424 3004710 43332433233 43 3342344433343  3CC5717 3010717 3012713 3013711 3014719 3015716 302016 7 3022712 3023710  344 3 34444 3 3 334443 244 4 3 344 3 4333242322 3 43 3 432 2233 34443 44244535424424545344444445 5 5445555551134455 2 32513 354 34432434322343444343232434 44542 4444 21223342244422443 4 334 3444 3 3 34 3 2 443 2 543 4 344 3 44 442 4443 2 333 2444 2 444 3 3 44 5 522522521245552224552 44 2 52  302571.5 3026713 3028719 3044716 3046711 3047 719 3048717 3C49715 3060 712 3067717 3071719 3074713 3075710 3079712 3082 71.6 3085719 3036717 308 7715 3088713 3089711 3090719 3098712 3099 710 3102712 3109717 3112711 3114717 3118718 3120714 3121712 3122710 3131711 3138716 3140712 3144714 3146719 3147717 31507 11 3155710 3160710 3166717 3167715 3168713 3172715 3173713 3174711 3177714 3182714 318 3712 3195716 3196 714 3202 7 10 320 3 708 3205 713  535333131 13353353155533353 15111135113533555331553553 5 3551553335 33 5331353555353 52252252224 4452224 541442 52 54544 54 44 43344 44 5233434443 44434444444 24 4 5 55 3 544 4 3445 342 342 3414343 2 344 2 424 32441 5 35444452 33443 552 3445 34435 545444443434344444444 34554 4444424 545 3 35 5 555 3444 444 54 3 4442423133232344 24 25 33452 11111111111531111111311111 4444445532 3444444334432444 5 22 51252215555222455255252 32 322 33323343 3 3433442 33343 3 3 32 3 24324 222 2 32 31424 32243 444 344 3 333 3 24 3 34 3 24343 3 343 43312131135433342445532244 24 3 2432454232 2 3 331543 22423 35533553333353553135533555 344 345454 3 243 3 444254 5 33444 4442442444 3 34 34442545 33544 4 5434543351232 345353513553 3 3 3421544423223 313533 32 223 5 344224432 34 343 52 444434444 3 342 342 33 3243 4 332 2 42243242 3 2221314131322 2 22143212 342 52241152114555222445254252 33222 34113122 3344242411442 43432 455 3444 34 4432 444444 54 4 44443 35434 544444 344444 444 5 3552 3553 35 3 35 3535 35 344454 24322324232233243152343444 53433244322434343244444333 4 3432445 224 443 343 3444 3443 3 4 44 3233442 244 4 345 2 525 42452 44543 34 4423444443 244334 344 5444 3324433 3344443 5 54 33 3 53 553155525443322551 11333333 44544555344444444344434444 2 32 2224421343 3 2 321344 33332 44432254322434444124523442 4 544 3 35 544 3 354 5453 533 34455 244424554234434424445 34 4 43 42431342322222443244442433 54 33455 3341322 344 3333425 54 43 1132 3413423 3433243442244 444342 353 2143 3444254 3 33443 43533455323323453444333521 43 3 3442 313233 2 3 33242442 343 54442 435413434 54434 44 444 34 5 3452 25 42 253434412444 44243 555524552234355 54 3 25 344 54 5 44 4 3455444 3434 544 3444 4 3444  212  3209715 4 44 44 444441444544444434444 3210713 3 331551513113533315355355 3 32 11711 3 3 352 34422 3 343 443 252534442 3212719 334442231224233 43223443342 3213717 42 3313333 3 333 3 444 3 54 332443 3215712 4455 13454444335 54 4 35535245 3 216710 4 34 3244432 3 344 944 32 354422 3 32 187 16 4 44 44 444334 34444 4 344444444 3219714 35533555113353553 153333315 3219871 45554455555434555353234544 3220712 44442 344422442444 2 44443444 3221710 33 3222431135323 3 322333 3443 3228715 23212411141111111141421443 3 2 32717 44543544224432543253444553 323 3715 3 12231331 1131 13331 1 33 31335 32 36718 43543345 22 343 2 34444 24 34442 3238 714 4214 1141214554111454255151 3241718 4 2 4454443 3 323 3 444244434 344 3 24 3714 243 214242 2 244 2 344 344422 32 3 3248713 4 355 3344324 3445533555 35344 3257715 11111111111111111115511151 3271715 4 242 332 3222432 242 2 22 3 33441 3275716 4 33322441234444 43 344444444 3277 712 334423231322 3 3 555442524553 3289717 4443245432 3224443 3544 44443 3292711 34532444223434543344424445 3294717 4 333444444 334 3244155432442 3 342704 2 3223 22311232 22 322322 32134 34C9703 4432 332 2122 343432 2414 32 342 3497716 51242252114455 222445144252 3512712 53543454443334444345444445 3544715 4 34 32 444 32 3 334 44 33444 334 34 3607710 3442132322 3 32 2 3212 324 2242 3 3614716 22323332421335322433234334 3617719 3 34 3 344 324 344 34 442 344 33 343 3619715 54552455523334554345534445 3622719 5555445 5424 34 4555443335544 3629714 44 3 3444444 32 34 4443454 44444 363 3716 5334134122 2123 3 3 32 32212342 3666716 445 3 2345421132 555 3 54524 532 3694 718 34 33 3 324334 344 444 3 344 32 344 370 5712 4 4 442 44422 333 3 444 34444 3444 37 36 717 5455 34455 2 3 334 5 55 344334 544 3737715 444 34 3442 3 3 34 4 444 2444 44444 3 738713 44323524422443444242442424 37 39711 4 3 32434412 332 3 3342444 3 3443 3740 719 44 4 3215521342 344222442 3242 3 743713 4 34224432 232 2 2 343154 3 22332 3745718 25231553115121444 153513452 374 7 714 4 35 2133512433 355 3 254334555 3748712 444 32 34443 25 3 4 444 3 54 3 33444 375 3712 4444 333444 3 334444 3 433 344 34 3 755 717 4 342 24451324 2 3 54 54444 3 3 543 3760717 44432 33422 343 3343 3434 33344 3764709 4444344 544 4 434554 344544555 3768710 324222 3342333 34332224 24342 3769718 4 4342 4442 2442 2 443 244444442  213  3770716 23312223222433342 2 32 322 32 2 3781713 4 24 324442 2 242 3 2421342 222 31 37 97719 42 142241124 544 111454244151 3824711 4 34242444 244 3 3 4454 434 35 344 38 44521 3 2422122123322341115322125 3874716 423332331224422331232223 32 38 82 719 344 3422422 2 24 3 442 2444 34 24 3 3894714 2 343 3 34 32 2 3 344 3 33 3 332 3343 3 39 90710 44444444442242444222442444 4096715 454 44 44444443444 3 2 24543434 4119715 22 33442313332 2 3332424 33 343 4125712 4344 2 34 3424 2334 44 3 24 2 44 444 4130712 4 33 323442224 3 3 4442432 32 333 4134714 4 444 34443 32 44 44 44 244 4 24434 414 4713 343212 332 21532 2431334 32 341 42 37715 3 42 3433312 342 3 3 33 1532 33 333 4515716 44 4 4 443544 24 34 5 54 2434 34 544 5015714 32 32423422243 3 342154 333343 507 8704 44 54444544 342444 5344 5 34 544 5187711 5 45 52 25542 355 3 5542554 34444 5214697 4 34 3 343434 344 44432432 34343 5231717 24424 32 322 244 2 34 3 2424 32 344 541967 8 35 2 2441115 22 2 2 242142512 341 5 421683 54442355224234542251224444 5423710 444 3444444 44 42 342 2444 22443 5 599717 43444 345424 344 443 3444 33344 5732714 3222143311452 332222 3133253 57 7 7719 342 2 3435 331333534343433443 579 3716 2 3 32144414133 2442 2244 33 332 5 798715 442 2224422 24 42 3442 22442443 5 814710 54543455 3 32 444444 3444 24454 5818711 5 35533 3 53335 33333335 333 351 58 28710 4 4423141343 24 4 554 3443 44434 5831714 323 3242334 322 3442323323222 58 50714 24 54244542 344 35 53444454 344 5853718 4443 3 34443 3 2 34 4432 444 34443 5875711 44534545224334444334234434 5877717 4 5 4345 2544 34 244 44 2 444 23443 5891718 4 3442 433422 23 3443 2 524 33 343 5 396717 342 2 322 334 2 242 3231334 33342 5948716 4 344 44344 34 54 3 444244443444 5976717 553155545 5414 3 513451511115 5990718 44 44244544244 3 5432432 34 443 5999719 333224312332232411423 31441 6004717 5 5 542445524 3 34 553154522 552 6007 710 444 322 3422 3 23 3 332 24 3433442 6009716 4444 2 34542 2 444 442 344444444 6018717 4 444 44 3344 4 44 4 4 44 3444 33444 60 207 13 3 33 31344 132242 3432 2 24 2 3442 6026 710 4 34422443 3 3 24 3 444 24 34 33443 6037717 334 32 3242 23 33 34442 34 32 3434 60 52 716 4 342 34 2415 343 3 343112342 443 60 6 17 17 4 4 3254 14244 54 45551545335 52 6062715 2 34 3 33432 2 343 3 344 24 34 3 3443 608 371.1 24 3 24 32 34 13 22 2 344 24 24 324 32 6092 712 5224235 3315344 222444244242 6093710 44442 34 54243344443 34 434444 6 1007 13 443322344 4 33344443 3 3433444 6101711 3 32 3.114211333 3 243 343 3 3425 3 6145718 43441542123121321142222242  214  6148712 3432114434 31434422 414 33 342 6175715 55545 54 5444545555 3 54 545555 6176713 43432244424333424244444443 62017 19 5224225212 44 54 2214 442552 51 6264717 44443244443224 4 43344534344 6271712 4423243432 3443543453443544 62 78717 54554555555 22 5 5 555 45 545 545 62 8 9714 4444 243442 2 23 34431544 32434 6298715 444 34424443 3344^3 3 43434434 6313712 32432232213 43 32 32 2422322 33 632 5716 44134 5412 314344432 44 4 2 3443 6347710 434343444233424442 33443344 6348718 41141152214544121454154141 6 3 59715 41434243313433443222443423 6364715 4 55445454434355 5434444 5 555 6395719 4 34 345345 34433 343144532333 64 17711 4 34 3 3344224 33 3 444222 3 22 333 6424717 2 24 3133413354 3 344 24424 3452 64 26712 444 34434145 544 344 254 5 43 3 53 64 32 710 4 34424 2 34 34 3444 43 344 44 3444 64 86716 4454454 544 3 324455343443545 6506711 5234 35544 343345 54 455432 22 3 6509715 4454232541333 3 554212413344 6511711 424 31144212 32 3 344242422442 6 519 714 4 44 3 2 24444 344 4 4 443444 33442 6540710 4444142453 3343444141434 551 6 544712 34 5 3445 52 2152 2 552134511534 655 3705 3 333 3333333514243 353215450 6 560718 4 343 244443353 3 442 3 4343242 3 6562714 5 355255521433 5552 5 355 35345 6569719 2 3214414133422 3232 334 14442 6 5947 07 4 354145432 2133 342134423334 6606 719 2234131332 223 2223 3232 3 3333 6611719 4 34422 33313 34 3 343 2 23132 323 66 52 713 44432 33424 3 3434 53 21443 3443 6710719 422 2124412242 214124342 2221 6724710 4343224432 33 3 34 44 344434443 6 7 32713 34422244433234543234433444 67 54717 44 334 22424 3 32 2 3443 535 22 5 52 675 8718 4 44 2 2 32434134 3 3422445 2 2 342 67 59716 2 5224351241322 323242422 342 6762710 5 3551553115355553355353535 6763718 444322 342 2 3 23 3 332 243 3 33442 676 7 7 19 3 33 32 3442 2 344 3443 3 34 3 33 334 6768717 4 354244422544 3 555424344424 6769715 333233424 2233344434244344 3 67 72 719 444425444 34234 44 4 344444443 6774715 545 32 5453432245552 34545 545 67 77 718 4454444534323 3 5 55344433534 6 780712 444322 54 32343544335 54 22442 6 781710 54524524341245544455554544 6782718 344355355533333 3 3313333 553 678 4714 422222 341234332 42 25 34 33 331 6785711 455 34 535554313355555553555 67 8 7717 444 3332233214 3442 244423 324 6788 715 45 53 325542 3 334 5544 545 44555 6793705 34221213122311233342411243 6794713 44443345222443444444444244 6796718 4444 344 34 34 24 3 444 244 3 244 3 3 6797 716 3242 22 33212 33 2 2 32 2444 33322  215  68017 16 680 2714 6808711 6810717 68 12713 6813711 6819718 6824718 6827711 68 30715 6839716 6849715 68 52719 6853717 68 55 712 6 869713 68 71719 6876718 6899710 6904718 6909717 6910715 6912711 6913719 6924716 6927719 6973713 6976716 7011711 7017718 7024 714 705 5 700 7064710 7069719 70 70 707 707 6714 7081714 709 3719 7133715 7141716 7146715 7164718 7186711 7187719 7 210719 7215718 72187.12 7225717 7227713 7297716 7308711 7 310717 7 3487 17 7359714 7383714 7 390709 74 2 4716 7435712 7442718 7496714  34124111122222213144431142 2322 32 34324443423333334342 4 45344355 4 3 4455543534 3 344 5 53352353224433343442434345 5344225 32 224 3 3342 4451433 43 22222223233322243232332331 35541424223344442343333243 54 54 2445243443444345 534444 433354444442434442424334 54 332213331233 32 333121242333 11111113133111131151331131 43432333232 34 3444242422443 22331233123 43 33 32 23 32 32 2 32 4444442544 2224544444544455 24422 22 3122412 2421425 42 255 5 354 2 345334 42 3 5554 24333 334 3 244324 34 344332331533 222 34 3 2231143132 22 2 2 222444 34133 5 3 54244433 3 23 3 4 34 3 42242 22 3 45 3345453544445542245 33455 4 24 3133422 2 34 4 443 22 3 322421 445 34 3553444 344 444444 44 434 44 5 52445 2 33 444 344 3 344 44444 32321434223243131354232252 44322444442432244422334343 3 3 335333333151333133313355 5 4 5445445 3442 4 55 5444 544 545 444324 25332 334124242422442 4 333254312443 34423 24433443 434322443 3 34 34 4442444 33434 433224343212334 44 2 34432433 34442153221243444211243443 42 3 3412 323 343 34431444 32 344 52241242114545 2 21444244242 4 344424421342 3 442 243444 343 443 2124344 344 3 342 343143443 44 44 24443 33434 44324 3444444 444 2442 324 3 22 3 444 2 4 24 22 442 2212 32213 4324 21124 232 22 232 4 444 2 2 342 2 2434 4442 4244432 5 24224424122342444222422442 4 244 3 244213 43 3 4 44 3444 4 3442 44 33443424 3 333 444 24 34 33442 5255235542342 4555444343544 4 35 4445 534422 4 544 4244 44442 4344323323 3242443333234343 5355343 54 34334555 444444 555 4 24 34 2 5442 355 3442 25434 3 435 545514553254355535 25 345545 5542 1255324 313453434454445 33433443432 3 34 33 3 3 34544433 4 344 344444 4 4 34 5543442 44443 4 3442 3442 2 3442 44222444 3424 2 141532 34 23 32 2221242322332 33222344113322221132422242 32 2312354 32 44 4 44342 2234443 4 3443 34 332 3444333422344333 244224 24 3 2 3332444224233442 535 54 525 54 3334 5 54 354 544 513 43412 32 2112 42124113 3 3212 34  216  7 566714 3 3 531355333 55 3 343 3 344 34444 7631716 55555345421435554353113454 7668 718 444 2444144 344 3 454 345444444 7721715 54452444445524555354 5444 54 7737711 4344442444 34544 54 4243 3344 5 7834716 445 5 545 52 24 5444442 324 5444 5 7907710 43 34134312434 3 432 3443 44 233 7917719 43334444424434443332444444 EXECUTION TERMINATED  218  A P P E N D I X  N  CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT  INSTRUMENT  219  CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT  H^:  performance  of the a c t i v i t y and r e c e i v i n g the  r e s e a r c h instrument a r e independent  of one  another. Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Received placebo instrument  Totals  Performed the activity  34  12  46  Did n o t perform the a c t i v i t y  94  45  139  Activity 1  X  57  128  Totals  N = 185  1  = .641  2  P(X  2  ^ .641 | 1 d . f . , H ) < .50; accept H d  d  a t p ^= .05 and  p = .01 l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Activity 2  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Performed the activity  Received placebo instrument 2  7  Did n o t perform the a c t i v i t y  121  55  Totals  128  57  X P(X  = .041 ( Y a t e s  1  correction  Totals  9 176 I^ = 185  applied)  ^ .041 | 1 d . f . , H ) < .90; accept H d  p = .01 l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  d  a t p = .05 and  220 Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Activity 3 Performed the activity  Received placebo instrument  Totals  2  18  20  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  110  55  165  Totals  128  57  N = 185  2 X  = 3.527 (Yates* c o r r e c t i o n a p p l i e d )  P(X  2  >. 3.527  | 1 d.f., H ) d  < .10; r e j e c t H  d  a t the .10 l e v e l ,  accept a t .05 and .01 l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Activity 4  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Received placebo instrument  Totals  Performed the activity  35  12  47  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  93  45  138  128  57  Totals X  K1 = 185  = .525  2  P(X  2  _> .525 | 1 d . f . , H ) d  < .50; a c c e p t H  d  a t the .05 and .01  levels of significance.  Activity 5  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Performed the activity  Received placebo instrument  Totals  11  4  15  Did n o t perform the a c t i v i t y  117  53  170  Totals  128  57  X  = .005 ( Y a t e s  P(X  2  1  isI = 185 I  c o r r e c t i o n applied)  >. .005 | 1 d . f . , H ) d  l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . '  < .95; a c c e p t H  d  a t the .05 and .01  A P P E N D I X  0  CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT  222 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY. TABLES: PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT  H^:  performance  o f the a c t i v i t y and r e c e i v i n g the  placebo instrument are independent  o f one  another.  Activity  1  Received placebo instrument  Received no instrument  Totals  Performed the activity  12  10  22  Did n o t perform the a c t i v i t y  45  122  167  Totals  57  132  N = 189  X  =5.7 81 (Yates' c o r r e c t i o n a p p l i e d )  P(X  2  >. 5.781 | 1 d . f . , H ) < .02; r e j e c t H d  a t the .02 l e v e l ,  d  a c c e p t H, a t the .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Activity  2  Received placebo instrument  Performed the activity  Received no instrument  Totals  2  3  5  Did n o t perform the a c t i v i t y  55  129  184  Totals  57  132  N = 189  Cannot compute a c c u r a t e x  because o f s m a l l c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s .  223  Activity  Received placebo instrument  3  Performed the activity  Received no instrument  Totals  2  1  3  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  55  131  186  Totals  57  132  Cannot compute a c c u r a t e x Activity  Received no instrument  Performed the activity  12  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  45  124  Totals  57  132  X  189  because o f s m a l l c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s .  Received placebo instrument  4  N =  Totals  8  20 169 N =  189  = 7.938 (Yates' c o r r e c t i o n a p p l i e d )  P(X  2  >. 7 .938  | 1 d.f., H ) d  < .005;  reject H  d  a t the  .005  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Activity  B.eceived placebo instrument  5  Performed the activity  Received no instrument  Totals  4  3  7  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  53  129  182  Totals  57  132  X  = 1.359  P(X  2  N =  189  (Yates' c o r r e c t i o n a p p l i e d )  >. 1 .359  | 1 d.f., H ) d  .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  < .25, a c c e p t H  d  a t the  .05  and  A P P E N D I X  P  CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO  INSTRUMENT  225 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT  H^:  performance  o f the a c t i v i t y and r e c e i v i n g the  r e s e a r c h instrument a r e independent  o f one  another.  Activity 1  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Received no instrument  Totals  Performed the activity  34  Did n o t perform the a c t i v i t y  94  122  216  128  132  N = 260  Totals  X  44  = 16.663  2  P(X  _> 16 .663 | 1 d . f . , H ) < .001; r e j e c t H  2  d  d  a t the .001 l e v e l  of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Activity 2  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Performed the activity  Received no instrument  Totals  7  3  10  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  121  129  250  Totals  128  132  N = 260  X  = 1.035 (Yates' c o r r e c t i o n a p p l i e d )  P(X  2  > 1.03 5 | 1 d . f . , H ) < .50; a c c e p t H  l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  d  d  a t the .05 and .01  226  Activity 3 Performed the activity Did not perform the activity Totals  Received research instrument  Received no instrument  18  1  19  110  131  241  128  132  (Yates correction applied) P(X >. 15.0.75 | 1 d.f., H ) < .001; reject of significance. X  d  Activity 4 Performed the activity Did not perform the activity Totals 2  Received research instrument  = 21.326  P(X  2  >. 21.326  N=  260  1  = 15.075 2  X  Totals  | 1  of significance. Activity 5 Performed the activity Did not perform the activity Totals  d.f.,  H  d  at the  Received no instrument  .001  level  Totals  35  8  43  93  124  217  128  132  H) d  < .001;  Received research instrument  reject  H  d  N= at the  Received no instrument  .001  260  level  Totals  11  3  14  117  129  246  128  132  N=  260  X = 3.931 (Yates* correction applied) P(X >. 3.931 | 1 d.f., H ) < .05; reject H at the .05 level, accept H, at the .01 level of significance. 2  d  d  A P P E N D I X  Q  CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY. TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO  INSTRUMENT  ( c o r r e c t e d f o r absentees)  228  CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT ( c o r r e c t e d f o r absentees)  H^:  performance  o f the a c t i v i t y and r e c e i v i n g the  r e s e a r c h instrument a r e independent  o f one  another.  Activity  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  1  Received no instrument  Totals  Performed the activity  34  10  Did n o t perform the a c t i v i t y  94  72  166  82  N = 210  128  Totals  X  44  = 6.229  2  P(X  2  >. 6 .229 | 1 d . f . , H ) < .02; r e j e c t H d  d  a t the .02 l e v e l ,  accept H. a t .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Activity  2  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Received no instrument  Totals  7  3  10  Performed the activity Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  121  79  200  Totals  128  82  N = 210  X  = .072 ( Y a t e s  P(X  2  1  c o r r e c t i o n applied)  > .072 | 1 d . f . , H ) < .80; accept H d  .01 l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  d  a t the .05 and  229 Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Activity 3 Performed the activity  Received no instrument  Totals  18  1  19  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  110  81  191  Totals  128  82  X  = 8.518  P(X  2  (Yates  >. 8.518  1  N =  210  c o r r e c t i o n applied)  | 1 d.f., H ) d  < .005;  reject H  a t the  d  .005  level  of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Received no instrument  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Activity 4  Totals  Performed the activity  35  8  43  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  93  74  167  128  82  Totals X  N =  210  = 9.494  2  P(X  2  >. 9 .494  | 1 d.f., H ) d  < .005;  reject H  a t the  d  .005  level  of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Received no instrument  Received r e s e a r c h instrument  Activity 5 Performed the activity  Totals  11  3  14  Did not perform the a c t i v i t y  117  79  196  Totals  128  82  X  = 1.244  P(X  2  >_ 1 .244  (Yates  1  N =  210  c o r r e c t i o n applied)  | 1 d.f., H )  l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  d  < .30;  accept H  d  a t the  .05 and  .01  

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