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An application of Fishbein's attitude theory to the prediction of free-choice student behaviors in a.. 1972

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AN APPLICATION OF FISHBEIN'S ATTITUDE THEORY TO THE PREDICTION OF FREE-CHOICE STUDENT BEHAVIORS IN A FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY PHYSICS COURSE by KENNETH H. ABRAMSON B.Sc, Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Faculty of EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197 2 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date •7 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to forecast the actual performance of f i v e e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r educational a c t i v i t i e s by 128 f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y Physics students using Fishbein's model for the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior and behavioral i n t e n t i o n . The effectiveness of achievement measures and measures of attitude toward various i n s t r u c t i o n a l objects i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior and behavioral i n t e n t i o n was also investigated. Consideration of Fishbein's model led to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of several s p e c i f i c problems: (a) the r e l a t i o n - ship between variables i n t e r n a l to and those external to the model; (b) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between behavior, behavioral i n t e n t i o n , and the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative variables of the model; (c) the accuracy with which behavioral i n t e n t i o n and behavior could be predicted, and the r e l a t i v e importance of the predictors i n the p r e d i c t i o n equation; (d) the use of behavioral i n t e n t i o n measures as predictors of behavior i n s p e c i f i c educational s i t u a t i o n s ; and (e) the detection of possible measurement e f f e c t s . A L i k e r t a ttitude scale was used to obtain measures of a t t i t u d e toward fourteen d i f f e r e n t aspects of Physics and Physics i n s t r u c t i o n . Estimates of Grade 12 Mathematics and Grade 12 Physics achievement were obtained from s e l f - reports. Fishbein's model was applied to measures of : students' attitudes toward performing each a c t i v i t y (A ), ac u t h e i r s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (NB ), personal normative s b e l i e f s (NB ), motivation to comply with c e r t a i n referents P (Mc ), and behavioral i n t e n t i o n (BI). Behavioral intentions were also predicted for three of the voluntary a c t i v i t i e s / using measures of A . , NB and NB as predictor v a r i a b l e s . The measures of normative b e l i e f s were taken with respect to the referents: s e l f , c l o s e s t f r i e n d s , parents, majority of the c l a s s , l e c t u r e r , and r e l i g i o u s group. The model for p r e d i c t i n g behavioral i n t e n t i o n was given by Fishbein i n the form of a multiple regression equation, where the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e i s BI and the predictor v a r i a b l e s are A . and the summation (over a l l referents) of NB m u l t i p l i e d clC "C S by Mc . Most of the obtained r e s u l t s tended to agree with expectations based on Fishbein's theory. Variables external to the model were, for the most part, poorly correlated with behavioral i n t e n t i o n and with overt behavior (B) unless they were s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with at l e a s t one of the predictors given i n the model. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were co n s i s t e n t l y found between measures of BI and NB . A_ ., and the normative b e l i e f with respect to students' 'best f r i e n d s ' . The magnitudes of c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures of BI and the other s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s varied considerably across a c t i v i t i e s , several c o r r e l a t i o n s i v reaching s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Correlations between B and measures of BI were generally low, although three out of f i v e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than zero. Correlations between behavior and the predictor variables were also small, and were frequently not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . High multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained i n the p r e d i c t i o n of BI i n - dicated p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the predictor v a r i a b l e s . In a l l predictions of BI, NB^ had, by f a r , the greatest weight as a pred i c t o r . Beta weights of A ,, and NB varied greatly ac t s across a c t i v i t i e s . Low multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained i n the pr e d i c t i o n of behavior from the predictor v a r i a b l e s , substantiating the low product moment co r r e l a t i o n s obtained between BI and B. The observation that s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between behavior and the predictor variables were reduced to nonsignificance when behavioral i n t e n t i o n was held constant, tended to substantiate the t h e o r e t i c a l ex- pectation that BI i s an intervening v a r i a b l e between behavior and the predictor v a r i a b l e s . An unexpected r e s u l t was the detection of s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t s i n the pre- d i c t i o n of voluntary performance of three a c t i v i t i e s . These 2 e f f e c t s were substantiated by means of x tests of the independence of behavioral responses obtained under d i f f e r e n t measurement conditions: administration of the research instrument, a placebo instrument, and no instrument. I t was concluded that with the a p p l i c a t i o n of F i s h - bein's theory, the pre d i c t i o n of behavioral i n t e n t i o n with V respect to performing free-choice a c t i v i t i e s i n an educational s e t t i n g could be made with considerably^better than chance accuracy. The p r e d i c t i o n of actual performance of the a c t i v i t i e s from measures of behavioral i n t e n t i o n , however, posed serious d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t was recommended that the p o s s i b i l i t y of measurement e f f e c t s i n f l u e n c i n g the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior be given c a r e f u l consideration i n future educational a p p l i c a t i o n s of the model. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 1. Background to the Study 2. Statement of the General Problem 3 3. Need for the Study . . 4 4. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. S p e c i f i c Problems Investigated 8 6. Limitations of the Study 12 I I . CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 15 1. The Psychological Context 15 2. The Educational Context 46 3. Summary 56 I I I . METHOD OF THE STUDY 60 1. P i l o t Study: Relevant Referent Groups . . . 60 2. Population and Samples 63 3. Experimental Procedures . . . . . . . . . . 64 4. Instruments 67 5. Methods of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 IV. RESULTS 78 1. The Relationship between Variables Internal to and those External to the Fishbein Model 78 2. The Relationship between Variables- g-j Internal to the Model 3. The Prediction of Behavioral Intention . . . 89 4. The Prediction of Behavior 93 5. The Role of Behavioral Intention i n Predicting Behavior 9 5 6. Measurement E f f e c t 95 v i i CHAPTER PAGE 7. Discussion of Results 10° 8. Summary H 7 V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY . 122 1. Recapitulation of.the Problem 122 2. Conclusions 123 3. Implications and Recommendations for Educational A p p l i c a t i o n 126 4. Recommendations for Further Research . . . 131 LITERATURE CITED 136 APPENDIX A. PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE ON REFERENT GROUPS. . 141 B. STUDENT RESPONSES TO VARIOUS REFERENTS IN THE PILOT STUDY . 143 C. RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE 145 D. RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . 152 E. PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE 160 F. BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS RECEIVING THE PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE 166 G. LIST OF FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES 168 H. ACTIVITY 1 ATTENDANCE SURVEY TICKET 170 I. ACTIVITIES CHECK-LIST 172 J . PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE. . . 174 K. STUDENT RESPONSES TO PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE • 185 L. ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE . 202 M. STUDENT RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE 207 v i i i APPENDIX PAGE N. x 2 CONTINGENCY TABLES—RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT 218 0. X 2 CONTINGENCY TABLES—PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT . 221 P. x 2 CONTINGENCY TABLES—RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT 224 Q. x 2 CONTINGENCY TABLES (CORRECTED FOR ABSENTEES) —RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT. . . 227 i x LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) AND A , NB , NB , NB (Mc ), AND g d u t p t> to t> 26 I I . CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDES TOWARD OBJECTS EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL (A ) AND VARIABLES IN THE MODEL 3 0 I I I . CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A . , AND NB OR NB (Mc ) 3 1 c l C XI S S S IV. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A , NB / NB / AND NB (Mc ) ON BI . . . . . . . P 3 6 s' s s V. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A . , NB AND NB (Mc ) ON B s s act' s 4 0 VI. PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS AND PARTIAL CORRELATIONS (BI HELD CONSTANT) BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR/ B, AND THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A . AND NB 4 1 act s VII. VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL 6 1 VIII. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL AND VARIABLES INTERNAL TO THE MODEL (N = 8 9 ) 8 0 IX. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR AND CRITERION VARIABLES (N = 1 2 8 ) 8 5 X. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR VARIABLES . . . 8 7 XI. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIORAL INTENTION 9 0 XII. PERCENT OF TOTAL VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR BY EACH PREDICTOR VARIABLE IN THE PRE- DICTION OF BEHAVIORAL INTENTION . . . . 9 2 X TABLE PAGE XIII. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIOR 9 4 XIV. PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES . 9 6 XV. PARTIAL CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, HOLDING BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) CONSTANT 9 ? XVI. CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVITIES, FROM THE RECEIVING OF A QUESTIONNAIRE 9 8 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For his dedicated and invaluable d i r e c t i o n , I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. W. Boldt. Thanks are also accorded to Dr. S.F. Foster f o r his extremely useful advice throughout the study. I am gr a t e f u l to Dr. D.L. Livesey of the Physics Department for his help i n arranging the experimental s i t u a t i o n , and to Dr. D.H. Phelps of the Faculty of Applied Science f o r his kind cooperation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the experiment. Acknowledgements are also due to Miss S. Jackson and Mr. J.K. Siu for t h e i r help with the computer work. Last, but not l e a s t , I wish to thank my wife, Jana, for her encouragement and assistance. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION While many educators are engaged i n assessing the attitudes of students towards various aspects of i n s t r u c t i o n , psychologists are engaged i n a major controversy about the assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p between the attitude of a person toward an attitude object and h i s behavioral response with respect to the object. Recent theory concerning p r e d i c t i n g overt behavior from measures of att i t u d e and normative b e l i e f s i n well defined si t u a t i o n s appears promising but has never been f u l l y applied i n an educational context. 1. Background to the Study Among the reasons given for current r e v i s i o n s of science courses i s the concern for course improvement, student d i s i n t e r e s t and d e c l i n i n g enrollment. These concerns are r e f l e c t e d i n a number of studies (1,2,3,4). The studies r e l a t e the decline of student enrollment to possible student disenchantment with science and technology (generally) and also to student d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with physical science courses. A decreasing enrollment trend i n physics i s c l e a r l y evident a t the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The U.B.C. Physics Department Task Force Report (5) states i n i t s 2 introduction/ that: The reduction i n student demand for education i n pure Physics at U.B.C./ i s not a new phenomenon. I t i s a trend that has been going on f o r at l e a s t eight years. In order to meet the problems of d e c l i n i n g enrollment and possible student d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with physics courses, the Physics Department Task Force made the following recommen- dation (5) : . . . as an experiment i n the 1971/72 year, the second term of one section of Physics 115 be organized as sets of lectures on t o p i c a l subjects given by several f a c u l t y members; and that, i f th i s experiment i s successful, other sections of Physics 105, 110, and 115 adopt t h i s modular approach. Some of the lect u r e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s experiment offered a choice of optional or e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r learning a c t i v i t i e s . One such lecture module dealt with physics applied to problems of general s o c i a l concern and was a two week (four lectures) module e n t i t l e d "The Physics i n Environ- mental and Technological Assessment. 1 Among the intended outcomes of thi s module, as expressed by the l e c t u r e r , was the goal of student involvement i n a c t i v i t i e s dealing with environmental p o l l u t i o n and the conservation of natural resources. The e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s included p a r t i c i - pation i n a number of voluntary a c t i v i t i e s , ranging from attending lunch-hour movies and picking up optional reading 3 material, to taking part i n actual p o l l u t i o n d a t a - c o l l e c t i n g experiments. In t h i s context, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e toward p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l l y relevant e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , and his perceived personal and s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s concerning the performance of these acts, are postulated to be good predictors of expressed plans to p a r t i c i p a t e ( b e h a v i o r a l intention) and actual p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s (overt behavior). Fishbein's theory (6), which r e l a t e s overt behavior and behavioral intentions, to a t t i t u d i n a l and normative variables, seems p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate f o r an empirical t e s t of t h i s hypothesis. 2. Statement of the General Problem The major problem of t h i s study i s to investigate the general hypothesis that i f a Physics 115 student's a t t i t u d i n a l and normative p o s i t i o n with respect to performing a f r e e - choice learning task can be determined, then his expressed inte n t i o n of performing the task, and h i s actual performance of the task, may be predicted with better than chance accuracy. This general hypothesis may be stated i n the form of a regression equation proposed by Fishbein (6). The equation constitutes a t h e o r e t i c a l model for the p r e d i c t i o n of be- havioral i n t e n t i o n and corresponding overt behavior : n B - BI = [A + [ I NB. (Mc.)]w. (1.0) act o . , i l l 4 where: B i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s overt behavior, i . e . , his actual performance of some s p e c i f i e d task BI i s his behavioral i n t e n t i o n or his i n t e n t i o n to perform the task i n a given s i t u a t i o n A i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a ttitude toward the act of performing the s p e c i f i e d task, i n the given s i t u a t i o n NB. i s a s p e c i f i c normative b e l i e f , i . e . , the i n d i v i d - ual's b e l i e f concerning what he should do i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , depending on h i s perception of what he i s expected to do by a s p e c i f i c person or group (referent group " i " ) Mc. i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s motivation to comply with what he believes i s expected of him by referent group " i " n i s the number of referent persons or groups 03 and to , are standardized regression c o e f f i c i e n t s . 3. Need for the Study Fishbein's theory represents an important recent development i n attitude research. The theory, however, has only been applied under rather c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d conditions often u t i l i z i n g contrived s i t u a t i o n s . There i s therefore the need for extending the range of a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the theory and to determine how well the theory works i n l e s s r e s t r i c t e d conditions. The p a r t i c u l a r concern of t h i s study i s the a p p l i c a - t i o n of the model to an educational problem. One known study, Devries and Ajzen (10), applied the model in part to an educational situation. For educational purposes the study was somewhat incomplete in that no direct observation of behavior was undertaken nor was the instructor used as a referent in assessing the normative beliefs of the students. The present study is therefore a more extensive application of Fishbein's theory in an educational context. Apart from its use in extending the model's range of application, the present study may provide educators with a useful means of assessing students1 behavioral tendencies. A common approach to the problem of assessing students' behavioral tendencies has been the practice of assessing students' attitudes toward objects such as instructional methods, subjects, course changes, and concepts. This pro- cedure has been generally disappointing in terms of pre- dicting actual behavior with respect to these objects (See Chapter II, section 1 ) . Fishbein's model might provide a useful alternative to the above approach. The criterion variable of the model is behavioral intention. From the point of view of evaluating learning activities, the theory has shown measures of behavioral intention to predict certain behaviors with better than chance accuracy. Information of this nature might enable an instructor to select learning activities having a maximum potential for class participation. With regard to devising new teaching strategies, the model is potentially capable of 6 i n d i c a t i n g the r e l a t i v e importance of the variables most i n f l u e n t i a l i n predicting behavioral int e n t i o n (and thus i n d i r e c t l y , most i n f l u e n t i a l i n predicting behavior), namely, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s attitude toward an act and h i s normative b e l i e f s with respect to the performance of the act. I f the most i n f l u e n t i a l of these predictors can be determined, the i n s t r u c t o r might be able to influence overt p a r t i c i p a t o r y learning behaviors through the r e s u l t s of successful e f f o r t s to modify students' attitudes toward p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p e c i f i c learning a c t i v i t i e s and students * normative b e l i e f s concern- ing those a c t i v i t i e s . 4. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Used 4.1 Behavior or Act Behavior or act i s to be interpreted i n the context of equation (1.0) as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p e c i f i c , overt, v o l i t i o n a l , and observed behavior i n a s p e c i f i e d s i t u a t i o n arranged by the experimenter. I f the behavioral a c t i v i t y i s to attend a p a r t i c u l a r educational movie under s p e c i f i e d conditions, then the measure of a student's behavior i n t h i s case would be whether or not the student has been observed attending that p a r t i c u l a r movie under the s p e c i f i e d conditions. The methods used for observing student behavior are described i n Chapter I I I . 4 .2 Behavioral Intention (BI) This term ref e r s to a statement of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s int e n t i o n to perform a s p e c i f i c act i n a given s i t u a t i o n . Operationally, behavioral i n t e n t i o n i s measured by means of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response to questionnaire items dealing with the intent to perform a c e r t a i n act under s p e c i f i e d conditions An assumption i m p l i c i t i n t h i s measure i s that the behavioral i n t e n t i o n indicated w i l l remain unchanged over time, at l e a s t u n t i l the act has been performed. 4.3 Attitude Toward the Act (A ) —ac u This study w i l l follow Fishbein (6) i n adopting Thurstone's one-dimensional conceptualization of att i t u d e as "the amount of a f f e c t 1 f o r or against a psychological object" (p. 478). In equation (1.0) the psychological object r e f e r r e d to i s the performance of a s p e c i f i c act. Operationally, the amount of a f f e c t f o r or against a psychological object i s assessed by means of a person's response to questionnaire items i n d i c a t i n g favorableness or unfavorableness toward performing a s p e c i f i c act i n a given s i t u a t i o n . 4.4 Normative B e l i e f (NB) Fishbein (6) considers a b e l i e f to be a hypothesis concerning the p r o b a b i l i t y that an (attitude) object has a s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p with some other object, value, concept, 1 ' A f f e c t ' i s used by Fishbein (6) to r e f e r to the evaluative component of b e l i e f s concerning the at t i t u d e object 8 or goal. In keeping with t h i s , a normative b e l i e f i s defined as the strength of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s opinion, concerning what a c e r t a i n normative referent person or group expects him to do. This referent can be personal (himself) or s o c i a l (others). The strength of a p a r t i c u l a r normative b e l i e f i s measured by means of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response to a questionnaire item i n which he indicates the extent to which he agrees with the stated expectations of a p a r t i c u l a r referent person or group. 4.5 Motivation to Comply (Mc) This term may be defined as the degree of an i n d i v i d - ual's desire to comply with what he believes others expect of him. Operationally, a person's motivation to comply with the expectation of others i s measured by h i s response to a questionnaire item i n which he indicates the extent to which he agrees with a statement of compliance with the expectations of a p a r t i c u l a r person or group. 5. S p e c i f i c Problems Investigated The following s p e c i f i c problems were investigated: 5.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and those External to the Fishbein Model To what extent are variables external to, or not s p e c i f i e d by the Fishbein model, related to each of the 9 variables i n the model, for each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ? The- external variables examined were attitudes toward: Physics i n general, Physics 115, class i n s t r u c t i o n , the le c t u r e r , the. textbook, the subject matter of the course, assignments, examinations, the laboratory, and various pro- posed topics f o r the course (nuclear energy, the environment, c l a s s i c a l (Newtonian) Physics, the human body, and e l e c t r o - magnetic theory and propulsion), and two non-attitudinal v a r i a b l e s , Grade 12 Mathematics and Grade 12 Physics marks. According to Ajzen and Fishbein (7), any variables external .to the; model w i l l be unrelated to behavioral intentions and. to overt behavior unless they are s i g n i f i c a n t l y related- to at l e a s t one of the predictors given by the model. 5.2 The Relationship between Variables Internal to the Model To what, extent are behavioral i n t e n t i o n , BI, and behavior, B, r e l a t e d to A ., NB. , Mc. , NB.(Mc), and ac *c x x x x n Z NB.(Mc.) for each of the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? i = l 1 1 According to the theory, both B and BI are a function of A . and of the relevant NB.(Mc.) product, although doubt acr> x x has recently been cast on the pr e d i c t i v e value of Mc^ by Devries and Ajzen (8) and by Ajzen and Fishbein (9,10) . Further', according to Ajzen and Fishbein (10) , A n a c t should be re l a t e d to £ NB.(Mc.) because both terms contain i-1 1 1 a common fact o r (see Chapter I I , section 1.3 f o r a d e t a i l e d explanation)• 10 5.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention/ BI (a) How accurately can the behavioral i n t e n t i o n , BI, with respect to each e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y be predicted from A . and the sum of the relevant n normative products, I NB.(Mc.)? i= l 1 (b) Which of the two v a r i a b l e s , a t t i t u d i n a l or normative, i s the best predictor of BI i n each d i f f e r e n t behavioral situation? Investigations of Fishbein's model (7,8,9,10) indicate that the regression weights of the predictors i n the model are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and also that BI can be predicted n from A - , - J - and E NB. (Mc. ) with an accuracy considerably better i — l "̂ than chance. The theory also implies that the regression weights may vary, depending on the type of act, the s i t u a t i o n under which the act i s c a r r i e d out, and on i n d i v i d u a l differences between the subjects with respect to t h e i r p r i o r learning h i s t o r y . 5.4 The Role of Behavioral Intention i n Predicting Behavior n To what extent are A . and E NB.(Mc.) rel a t e d to act i = l 1 1 the performance of the act, B, i . e . , a c t u a l l y carrying out each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ? In a recent reformulation of the theory, Ajzen and Fishbein (10) indicated that the e f f e c t s of A . and act n Z NB.(Mc.) on behavior are assumed to be mediated by BI, i = l 1 1 11 that i s , that BI i s an intervening v a r i a b l e between B and n u LA . 3 + t l NB. (Mc.)]w : o act i = l The pr e d i c t i o n of behavioral intentions i s there- fore, according to the theory, a necessary as well as s u f f i c i e n t condition f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of overt behavior, (p. 469) If t h i s i s the case, p a r t i a l l i n g out the e f f e c t of BI should r e s u l t i n a reduction i n the c o r r e l a t i o n s of B with A „ . and B with NB. (Mc.) . ac *c x x 5.5 Measurement E f f e c t To what extent do measurements on the components of Fishbein's model influence students' behavioral responses toward the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? I f measurement influences B, then, according to the model, t h i s e f f e c t must be related to one of the va r i a b l e s of the model. In the educational context of t h i s study, i t was hoped that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s would come about as a r e s u l t of classroom i n s t r u c t i o n and not as a r e s u l t of b e l i e f s aroused by the measurement instrument or i t s use. 12 6. Limitations of the Study There are a number of l i m i t a t i o n s which are important with respect to the generality and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the study. F i r s t l y , the expectation of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the predictors leads to the expectation of an attenuating e f f e c t on the multiple c o r r e l a t i o n values obtained through multiple regression a n a l y s i s . Although complex mathematical procedures are available for the minimization of t h i s e f f e c t , the present a p p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's theory w i l l adhere to the standardized multiple regression technique used i n a l l previous investigations of the theory. This w i l l enable d i r e c t comparisons to be e a s i l y made with studies r e l a t e d to the theory. Related to the use of multiple regression analysis i s the s p e c i f i c i t y of the s i t u a t i o n and the population to which the r e s u l t s may be generalized. I t has already been mentioned that the model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to s i t u a t i o n a l conditions and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e s u l t s obtained from the analysis must, therefore, describe only the p a r t i c u l a r sample of Physics 115 students from Section 1 who were permitted to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the experimental extra- c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Since the students of both Physics 115 Sections used l i t t l e else than timetabling considerations i n s e l e c t i n g one Section or the other f o r attendance, Section 13 1 i s expected to be roughly comparable to Section 2 f o r the purpose of t h i s study. Therefore, the r e s u l t s could l i k e l y be generalized to the en t i r e Physics 115 population. A l - though the r e s u l t s of the study apply only to the population sampled, the theory i s quite general i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to various s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s the general a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the theory that the present study attempted to i n d i c a t e . F i n a l l y , a l i m i t a t i o n that should be raised i s the problem of obtaining v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measures on the variables of Fishbein's model. The p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the measures could be estimated by the magnitude of the multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s of the predictors on BI. Pr e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y could also be checked by the degree to which measures on the variables agreed with the r e l a t i o n s h i p expected on the basis of the theory. The addit i o n a l question of construct v a l i d i t y i s discussed i n Chapter I I . R e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument used i n the present study, must be judged i n d i r e c t l y from the pr e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the obtained r e s u l t s . Test- r e t e s t measures of r e l i a b i l i t y would be d i f f i c u l t to obtain under the conditions of t h i s study, because the research instrument and measures of behavior were components i n an actual, non-replicative behavioral s i t u a t i o n ; i . e . , a student would not be i n c l i n e d to complete the research instrument twice, attend the same movie twice, or repeat any of the behavioral a c t i v i t i e s . This problem points to a need for some method for estimating the r e l i a b i l i t y of 14 instruments of t h i s kind. While i t i s possible to obtain a r e l i a b i l i t y measure for the A . attitude scale, the high c l C "C r e l i a b i l i t y of L i k e r t type measures on t h i s v a r i able i s well established, whereas the r e l i a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y of measures of behavioral intentions and normative b e l i e f s are not generally known. Furthermore, the l i m i t e d r e l i a b i l i t y of a single act, single dichotomous observation of behavior w i l l probably tend to reduce the c o r r e l a t i o n s of observed behavior with measures of behavioral i n t e n t i o n . Further d e t a i l s concerning the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l - i t y of the instruments used are given i n Chapter I I I . 15 CHAPTER I I CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 1. The Psychological Context A major concern among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s has been the lack of empirical support for a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between measurements on change a t t i t u d e change and subsequent behavior. Cohen (11), for example, r e f l e c t s t h i s concern as follows: U n t i l experimental research demonstrates that attitude change has consequences f o r subsequent behavior, we cannot be c e r t a i n that our pro- cedures for inducing change do anything more than cause cognitive realignments; perhaps we cannot even be c e r t a i n that the concept of att i t u d e has c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for psychology. The Dulany and Fishbein theories of att i t u d e are seen by the present author as being s i g n i f i c a n t attempts to systematically resolve the attitude-behavior p r e d i c t i o n problem. 1.1 The Problem of Predicting Behavior from Attitudes Psychologists have offered varied opinions about possible sources of d i f f i c u l t y i n predicting behavior from measures of a t t i t u d e . De Fleur and Westie (12) point to the problematic concept of at t i t u d e i t s e l f . Attitude has often been described as a la t e n t intervening v a r i a b l e between a 16 stimulus and the behavioral response. They suggest dropping the idea that an in d i v i d u a l ' s behavior i s somehow shaped, guided or mediated by an unobservable v a r i a b l e . As a replace- ment for the la t e n t variable notion of at t i t u d e , they would adopt a concept of attitude more c l o s e l y t i e d to observable behavior. In a review of f i f t e e n studies designed to s p e c i f i c - a l l y assess the r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures of att i t u d e and behavior, T i t t l e and H i l l (13) concluded that the degree of observed correspondence between attitude and behavior i s a function of (a) the measurement techniques employed, (b) the degree to which the c r i t e r i o n behavior constitutes action within the i n d i v i d u a l s ' common range of experience, and (c) the degree to which the behavioral s i t u a t i o n occurred r e p e t i t i v e l y i n the l i f e experience of the i n d i v i d u a l . Con- cerning the effectiveness of common atti t u d e measures used . i n p r e dicting behavior, T i t t l e and H i l l ranked the L i k e r t scale as the best predictor of behavior; the Guttman scale ranked second, a s e l f - r a t i n g scale, t h i r d , the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l , fourth, and Thurstone scales, l a s t of^ the f i v e . The s u p e r i o r i t y of the L i k e r t scale i n t h i s instance was att r i b u t e d , at l e a s t i n part, to i t s greater r e l i a b i l i t y , the amount of self-reference contained i n the scale, and to an apparent i n t e n s i t y factor operating i n the summated r a t i n g procedure used i n i t s scoring. L i k e r t scales frequently contain a larger number of s e l f - r e f e r e n t items (items con- 17 taining the personal pronouns " I " or "me") than the other scales and are therefore expected to e l i c i t more s p e c i f i c responses. The i n t e n s i t y factor comes into the L i k e r t scoring procedure by a summation of the strengths of a subject's opinions about the attitude object. Irrespective of these findings, the authors conclude, I t i s c l e a r that attitude measurement alone, as examined herein, i s not t o t a l l y adequate as a predictor of behavior. Wicker's (14) review of t h i r t y - t h r e e studies found attitude-behavior c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging from .01 to .86, and summarized the r e s u l t s as followss Taken as a whole, these studies suggest that i t i s considerably more l i k e l y that attitudes w i l l be unrelated or only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to overt behaviors than that attitudes w i l l be c l o s e l y re l a t e d to actions. Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r e l a t i n g the two kinds of responses are r a r e l y above .30, and often are near zero. Wicker also pointed to the need for systematic r e - search i n order to operationalize and to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the many factors which have been offered as post hoo explanations for the attitude-behavior inconsistency. These explanations have included both personal ( i . e . , i n d i v i d u a l difference or 'intrapersonal 1) and s i t u a t i o n a l (environmental or 'extrapersonal') f a c t o r s . Drawing from many previous studies, Wicker l i s t s the personal factors having some influence on the attitude-behavior r e l a t i o n s h i p as: other 18 competing at t i t u d e s , competing motives, and verbal, i n t e l l e c - t u a l , and s o c i a l a b i l i t i e s . S i t u a t i o n a l factors are postu- lated to be: actual or considered presence of c e r t a i n people, s o c i a l norms and r o l e requirements, a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e behaviors, s p e c i f i c i t y of attitude objects, unforeseen extraneous events, and expected and/or actual consequences of various acts. In regard to the attitude-behavior problem Wicker (14) advises, Should consistency not be demonstrated, the a l t e r n a t i v e s would seem to acknowledge that one's research deals only with verbal behavior, or to abandon the attitude concept i n favor of d i r e c t l y studying overt behavior. E h r l i c h (16) states the attitude-behavior problem i n the form of a more general question: Under what conditions, how, and to what degree do aspects of s o c i a l structure and aspects of personality determine interpersonal behavior? 1.2 Dulany 1s Approach to the Problem In an early (1939) attempt to r e l a t e variables con- t r i b u t i n g to v a r i a t i o n i n overt behavior, Lewin (17) suggested the functional r e l a t i o n s h i p : B = f (P, E) , . . . . ( 2 . 0 ) where 19 B i s a p a r t i c u l a r behavior P i s the developmental state and character of a person E i s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c u l a r psychological environment and f i s an unspecified mathematical function. The postulated r e l a t i o n s h i p between a person's behavior and his psychological environment might be considered anticipatory to both Dulany's and Fishbein's models i f one can consider 'social environment' to be at l e a s t a subset of 'psychological environment'. Dulany (18), going somewhat further, generated the following equations: BH = (RHd) (RHs) . . . .(2.1) and B - BI = [(RHd) (RSv)]w 2 + [(BH) (MC)]w3, . . .(2.2) where BH i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s 'behavioral hypothesis' or h i s expectation as to what he i s supposed to do i n the s i t u a t i o n RHd i s a 'hypothesis of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e i n - forcement' or the subject's b e l i e f that the response w i l l lead to c e r t a i n consequences RHs i s a 'hypothesis of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r e i n f o r c e r * or the subject's hypothesis that the occurrence of a p a r t i c u l a r reinforcement (or consequence) s i g n i f i e s that he has done what he was supposed to do (or expected to do) B i s the subject's overt verbal behavior 20 BI i s the subject's s p e c i f i c 'behavioral inten- t i o n ' or intent to t r y to make a p a r t i c u l a r response or c l a s s of s i m i l a r responses RSv i s the 'subjective value of a r e i n f o r c e r ' or the subject's evaluation of the reinforcement or consequences, i . e . , favorable or unfavorable MC i s the subject's 'motivation to comply' with or his desire to carry out h i s expectation (BH) as to what he i s supposed to do i n the s i t u a t i o n W2 and ŵ  are standardized regression c o e f f i c i e n t s or beta weights determined e m p i r i c a l l y f o r a group of subjects and taking any value between -1.00 and 1.00. The equation (2.2) w i l l be of major importance i n the subsequent discussions of the Fishbein equation, but the importance of equation (2.1) should also be noted. By the simple s u b s t i t u t i o n of (RHd) (RHs) for (BH) i n equation (2.2), the following equation i s obtained: B a BI = [(RHd) (RSv)]w 2 + [(RHd) (RHs) (MC)]w3 . . .(2.3) The appearance of (RHd) i n both predictor terms of the above equation leads to the expectation that both predictor terms are c o r r e l a t e d . Dulany's approach showed considerable promise i n that personal and s i t u a t i o n a l factors were accounted for i n the predictor variables of the regression equation. Personal factors are i m p l i c i t , i n (RSv) and (MC), while (RHd), (RHs), and (BH) appear to be predominantly s i t u a t i o n a l . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of Dulany's theory to the attitude-behavior 21 problem i s also apparent i n i t s systematic, yet f l e x i b l e framework of regression analysis which i s open to the addition of new terms. The r e s u l t s of Dulany's 1964 and 1965 v a l i d a t i o n studies of the p r e d i c t i o n of verbal behavior may be examined i n Tables I, I I I , and IV. The multiple c o r r e l a t i o n , 'R' between the c r i t e r i o n BI and the two predictor terms (RHd) (RSv) and (BH) (MC) was .88 and the product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n between BI and B was .94, i n d i c a t i n g considerable support for the theory. Although 77.4 percent of the variance of BI was accounted for by the predictor terms, 22.6 percent remained unaccounted f o r . Dulany suggests that t h i s amount of 'error' variance probably r e s u l t s from the use of standard multiple regression analysis i n which the multiple c o r r e l a t i o n i s probably attenuated by the use of beta weights that are estimates of 'average' weights f o r the group of subjects. The standard multiple regression technique i s necessary because no other s a t i s f a c t o r y method of obtaining estimates of the weights for i n d i v i d u a l s has been found. 1.3 Fishbein's Approach to the Problem While Dulany's theory was developed i n the context of verbal behavior, Fishbein's (6) extension of the theory i s postulated to apply to overt verbal or non-verbal behavior i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s t h i s generality that makes Fishbein's theory potentially useful in many educational situations. In order to examine the similarity of constructs used in the two theories, it is first necessary to review Fishbein's approach to determining attitudes toward an object. According to Fishbein (6) , an individual's attitude toward any psychological object (AQ) can be expressed as follows: m A. = V * B. a. o .-— J 3 3=1 . . . . ( 2 .4 ) where B . a . m is the attitude toward some object 'o' is the strength of belief j about 'o', i.e., the probability that 'o' is related to some other object, Xj is the evaluative aspect of Bj, i.e., the subject's evaluation of the related object, x j is the number of beliefs. Reformulated in terms of attitudes toward performing a specific act, AQ becomes A a c t / B j refers to a belief about the probability that the behavior (act) will result in a certain consequence, x ,̂ and a., is the subject's evaluation of that consequence. It is important to note the specificity of the behavior (act) and the behavioral situation in the Fishbein equation. A . cannot be replaced by a 23 general attitude term such as an attitude toward any object or person. m If E B . a . i s now substituted for A . i n equation j=l 3 ^ a c t (1.0) and i f the mathematical format of the r e s u l t i n g equation i s put into a form s i m i l a r to Dulany's equation, (2.2), the following r e s u l t i s obtained: B - BI = [(B_.) (a j)]W Q + [(NB) (Mc)]w1 . . . .(2.5) compared with equation (2.2): B « BI = [(RHd) (RSv)]w 2 + [(BH) (MC) ]w^ .. . . .(2.2) a correspondence between the variables of Fishbein's equation, (2.5), and those i n Dulany's equation, (2.2), becomes apparent. Fishbein has reconceptualized the f i r s t predictor term of Dulany's equation (RHd) (RSv), that i s , the expec- t a t i o n of c e r t a i n consequences and the evaluation of those consequences, as the at t i t u d e toward a s p e c i f i c act, (A„. m or E B. a.). Dulany's 'behavioral hypothesis', (BH), has j=l 3 3 become Fishbein's 'normative b e l i e f s ' , (NB), a term that appears to be conceptually s i m i l a r to Dulany's term. F i s h - bein's 'motivation to comply', (Mc), has remained e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l to Dulany's conceptualization (6). The major conceptual change that Fishbein has made i s the replacement of Dulany's (RHd) (RSv) predictor term by 24 an a t t i t u d i n a l component (A .) which can be measured by such widely used attitude measuring instruments as the Guttman scale, the L i k e r t scale, Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scales and Thurstone scales. This reconceptualization i s important i n that i t reinstates a t t i t u d e , i n part, as a predictor of behavior and suggests that behavior p r e d i c t i o n from att i t u d e s i n the past had f a i l e d because measures of attitudes toward general objects were used instead of measures of attitudes toward s p e c i f i c behavioral acts. In i t s present form the Fishbein approach i s seen to have the following advantages over t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e - behavior c o r r e l a t i o n studies involving attitudes toward objects: (a) personal factors such as competing a t t i t u d e s , past experiences, b e l i e f s and motivation are taken into account i n the variables A . and Mc; a C "D (b) s i t u a t i o n a l factors such as s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (NBs), a l t e r n a t i v e behaviors (through evaluation of the consequences) and group dynamics ( d i f f e r e n t referent groups) are also considered i n the equation; (c) the attitude-behavior r e l a t i o n s h i p has become con- s i s t e n t with observations and s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c i n that there i s not necessarily a high c o r r e l a t i o n between A . and behavior. The magnitude of t h i s 25 r e l a t i o n s h i p depends, i n part, on the weight determined for the a t t i t u d i n a l term, and on the close matching of BI with the behavioral s i t u a t i o n . Fishbein's approach has been demonstrated to pre- d i c t some behaviors reasonably w e l l . Table I shows that the c o r r e l a t i o n of BI with B ranges between .211 and .970, the average (by Fisher's Z-transformation of r) of a l l reported values (r) i s about .71. A more de t a i l e d examination of Fishbein's approach leads to a number of i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s that are pertinent to the present study. F i r s t , any variables external to the model are con- sidered to be unrelated to behavioral i n t e n t i o n , and thus to overt behavior, unless they are r e l a t e d to at l e a s t one of the predictors, A__. or NB(Mc), given by the model (7). In- eluded i n t h i s 'external v a r i a b l e ' category are attitudes toward objects (A Q) . A student's attitude toward h i s teacher, for example, i s postulated to be re l a t e d to school behavior, i f , and only i f , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to one of the model's predictors and i f that predictor i s weighted by a s i g n i f i c a n t beta c o e f f i c i e n t . In Fishbein's (19) words, . . . even though a t r a d i t i o n a l measure of at t i t u d e may be correlated with one of the two components, i t w i l l s t i l l be unrelated to behavior i f that component c a r r i e s l i t t l e or no weight i n the deter- mination of behavioral intentions and thus behavior per se. TABLE I CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) AND A NB , NB , NB (Mc ), and B p' s' s s Study Situation N B I - A a c t BI-NB p BI-NB s BI-NBS (Mcs) BI-B Dulany, 1964 (18) verbal 108 .40 .86 .94 Fishbein, 1966 (36 ) males females t o t a l 21 14 35 .518* .918 .767 .843 .759 .810 .394NS .676 • .447 Ajzen & Fishbein, 1969 (9) party exhibit watching T.V. concert poker French movie discussion novel 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 .523 .670 .567 .665 .668 .640 .669 .538 .815 .630 .662 .713 .767 .782 .702 .543 .587 .437 .439 .598 .591 .499 .678 .513 Mc dropped B not measured Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (10) Game 1, coop. in d i v i d u a l competitive t o t a l Game 2, coop. i n d i v i d u a l competitive t o t a l 32 32 32 96 32 32 32 96 .370* .710 .883 .754 .253NS .673 .866 .735 NB p dropped .752 I .780 .733 .838 .579 .677 .741 .786 Mc dropped .571 .758 .765 .847 not reported not reported not reported .841 TABLE I (continued) Study Situation N BI-A _ act BI-NB P BI-NB s BI-NB (Mc sf BI-B Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (37) r i s k 56 .778 .414 Mc dropped B not measured Fishbein et a l . 1970 (20T pretest commun. compliance postest commun. compliance 144 144 144 144 .599 .573 .681 .739 .666 .493 .786 .608 .690 .211 .883 .502 Hornik, 1970 (38) GRIT RPM HAWK t o t a l 30 30 30 90 .854 .800 .380* .799 .695 .650 .114NS .597 .970 .858 .521 .861 Devries & Ajzen, 1971 (8) cheat copy allow to copy 146 146 146 .459 .546 .526 .474 .534 .652 Mc dropped .593 .583 .781 Ajzen, 1971 (32) cooperation competition t o t a l 36 36 216 .562 .550 .747 .834 .247NS .529 .578 .528 .822 Darroch, 1971 (35) picture release 107 .675 .537 .462a a A v e r a g e v a l u e o v e r a l l cases Note: A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .01 except * = s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05 , NS = n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t 28 TABLE I (continued) Abbreviations: N = Number of subjects BI = Behavioral i n t e n t i o n A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Personal normative b e l i e f P NB = Soc i a l normative b e l i e f s (summed over referents) s Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) s B = Behavior 29 Evidence for the importance of the equation's a t t i t u d i n a l and normative components i n behavior p r e d i c t i o n i s presented, i n Table I I . Ajzen and Fishbein ( 9 ) have also reported.that when the e f f e c t s of the predictor terms are held constant, the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between AQ and behavior i n most cases are low and nonsi g n i f i c a n t . Secondly, some c o r r e l a t i o n i s expected between the predictor variables of Fishbein's model. Few r e s u l t s on the c o r r e l a t i o n between predictor terms have been reported. Table III di s c l o s e s the r e s u l t s of three studies, with Dulany's ( 1 8 ) reported c o r r e l a t i o n between (RHd)(RSv) and (BH)(MC) included for comparison. I t may be r e c a l l e d from equation. ( 2 . 1 ) that Dulany postulated BH to be equal to the product.of RHd and RHs. In terms of Fishbein's equation, t h i s means that N B ^ , Fishbein's adaptation of Dulany's BH, also contains a component of the A . term. With regard to clG "C the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between A__, and NB, Ajzen a C u and Fishbein ( 1 0 ) state, I t should be noted that Dulany's ( 1 9 6 7 ) theory of propositional control would lead us to expect at l e a s t some c o r r e l a t i o n between these two predictors since they are conceived to be p a r t l y determined by the same f a c t o r . A c o r r e l a t i o n should therefore be found between A„ . act n and NB. or between A . and Z NB.(Mc.). This r e s u l t i s l act i i supported by the few r e s u l t s shown i n Table I I I . The rel a t i o n s h i p between A . and NB. might be interpreted as an TABLE II CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDES TOWARD OBJECTS EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL (A ) AND VARIABLES IN THE MODEL Study Situation A -BI o A -A . o act A -NB o s A -NB (Mc ) O S S Attitude Object Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (10) Game 1 Game 2 .256* .091NS .237* .091NS .354 .239* .262* .015NS other player Fishbein et a l . , 1970 (20T Communicative Compliance -.024NS .262 -.003NS .279 .059NS .418 .037NS .163NS two group- members Hornik, 1970 (38 ) GRIT RPM HAWK .780 .730 -.117NS .771 .763 -.085NS .779 .718 -.015NS .684 .741 .012NS other player Ajzen, 1971 (32) r i s k .265 .242* .257* .241* other player Darroch, 1971 (35) photo releases with confederates having d i f f e r e n t color and/or sex .212* .248* ..HONS .088NS .390 .415 .118NS .142NS .300 .306 .082NS .148NS .233* .334 .109NS .143NS Negroes Note: Correlations are s i g n i f i c a n t at a = .01 except for * = s i g n i f i c a n t at a = .05 and NS = non-significant Abbreviations: A Q = Attitude toward an object that may be found i n the behavioral s i t u a t i o n B = Behavior BI = Behavioral intention A ' = Attitude toward the act act NBg = Social normative beliefs(summed over referents) Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) CO o 31 TABLE III CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A AND NB OR NB (Mc ) act' s s s A a c t Study Si t u a t i o n N A a c t " N B s NB (Mc ) Dulany, 1964 (18) verbal 108 .26 Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, coop. 32 .199NS 1970 (10) in d i v i d u a l 32 .647 competitive 32 .587 t o t a l 96 .627 Game 2, coop. 32 .024NS i n d i v i d u a l 32 .601 competitive 32 .662 t o t a l 96 .614 Devries & Ajzen, cheat 146 .361 1971 (8) copy 146 .394 allow to copy 14 6 .398 Ajzen, 1971 (32) unspecified by 216 .546 author Note: A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t at a = .01 except for NS = non-significant Abbreviations: N = Number of subjects A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = So c i a l normative b e l i e f s (summed over referents) s Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) i n d i c a t i o n of the degree to which the subject perceives h i s attitude toward a p a r t i c u l a r act (in part, his b e l i e f s about the consequences of performing the act) as being dependent on the expectations of p a r t i c u l a r referent persons or groups. Another r e l a t i o n s h i p to consider i n d e t a i l i s the BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been premised upon the assumption that " . . . the BI selected by the experimenter i s appropriate f o r the p a r t i c u l a r behavior under study" (9). Several factors are held to be of importance i n influencing the appropriateness of BI to B: (a) the measure of BI must be highly s p e c i f i c i n i t s reference to a p a r t i c u l a r behavior (10), i . e . , the behavioral s i t u a t i o n must be e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l to the s i t u a t i o n referred to i n the measure of BI; (b) the time between the measurement of BI and the observation of B must be minimized i n order to prevent the p o s s i b i l i t y of a change i n BI; (c) the behavior must be, as f a r as possible, under v o l i t i o n a l control by the subject; for example, i f a student has indicated a low behavioral i n t e n t i o n toward seeing an educational movie, and then i s t o l d that he w i l l be examined on i t , there i s a good chance that the student's intention w i l l change, and that he w i l l , i n f a c t , see the movie (note that the time factor i n (b) enters into t h i s change of BI). A good discussion of the above points i s to be found i n an a r t i c l e by Fishbein (19). He states that the average c o r r e l a t i o n between BI and B taken over several (seven) studies i s about .70. An average using Fisher's Z-transfor- mation of r worked out to .71. One counter-example should be noted—the pre-test compliance BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c o r r e l a t i o n reported i n Fishbein et al. (20) was .211 (p < .01), although the beta c o e f f i c i e n t s were moderate (.432 and .248/ p < .01) and s i g n i f i c a n t . The multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of the predictors on BI was .608 (p < .01). Fishbein et al. (20) explain that: . . . pre-test measures of intentions may not be the most appropriate measure for p r e d i c t i n g behavior over a series of t r i a l s . A post-test measure of the compliance BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p yielded a c o r r e l a t i o n of only .502 (p < .01) leading Fishbein et al. (20) to the conclusion that communicative behavior was more stable than compliance behavior and that some types of behavior are considerably more d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t than others. Although pre-test and post-test measures are obtain- able over a series of t r i a l s under i d e a l experimental conditions/ such may not be the case i n 'one-shot', p r a c t i c a l applications of the theory. A p o t e n t i a l l y useful and general approach to the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior has been suggested by Burhans (15): . . . 'behavioral i n t e n t i o n ' , while probably a useful construct for simplifying research meth- odology, i s also probably further removed from overt behavior than Fishbein has indicated. Dropping the concept of 'behavioral i n t e n t i o n ' and focusing on the u t i l i t y of Fishbein's model for d i r e c t l y predicting overt behavior would seem the more f r u i t f u l approach. While the present author does not propose to go to the extreme of completely dropping the behavioral i n t e n t i o n term, i t s r o l e i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior w i l l be more c a r e f u l l y examined i n the following paragraphs. Fishbein et a l . (20) have stated that under i d e a l circumstances a person's overt v o l i t i o n a l behavior i s expected to be p e r f e c t l y determined by his behavioral i n t e n t i o n s . In many s i t u a t i o n s , however, a person's v o l i t i o n a l overt behavior may be only a small f r a c t i o n of his t o t a l overt behavior. Ajzen and Fishbein (10) have pointed out that a person's t o t a l overt behavior ( v o l i t i o n a l and non-volitional) may be influenced by variables not considered by the present model, variables such as: 'habit' and ' f e a s i b i l i t y ' . The existence of these variables was suggested by Dulany's (18) use of 'H' fo r habitual or non-intentional overt behavior. I f , i n a hypothetical one-shot a p p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's theory, a subject i s faced with the performance of a p a r t i c u l a r task (behavior) that he has often performed i n the past, then i t would not be unreasonable to expect him to perform that 3 5 task i n a stereotyped manner, based on the habituation of h i s experiences with previous s i m i l a r tasks, rather than accord- ing to his behavioral i n t e n t i o n . The BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n would be small because behavior i n t h i s hypothetical case i s mostly non-intentional (habit), and therefore cannot be predicted from the terms i n the Fishbein equation. The subject, however, may s t i l l profess to have a strong behavioral i n t e n t i o n and t h i s BI may s t i l l have a high multiple c o r r e l a t i o n with A . n and Z NB.(Mc.). i= l 1 1 This hypothetical habituated behavior could possibly provide one explanation f o r the anomalous r e s u l t s for the pre-test compliance behavior case reported by Fishbein et a l . (20) (Tables I and IV). I t i s equally l i k e l y that one of the other previously mentioned factors influencing the BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p could have occurred (although the time factor appears to have been minimized). The r e s u l t reported by Fishbein et a l . (20), where the r e l a t i v e l y low (r = .211) BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p did not r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e l y high (R = .608) multiple c o r r e l a t i o n n of A . and I NB.(Mc.) on BI, indicates that a high multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of the predictor variables on BI does not necessar- i l y r e s u l t i n a good p r e d i c t i o n of actual behavior. The p r e d i c t i o n of actual behavior i s seen to occur with good accuracy only i f BI and B are highly c o r r e l a t e d . Another i n d i c a t o r of accuracy i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior i s obtainable from the regression of the predictor TABLE IV STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A NB , NB , AND NB (Mc ) ON BI act p s s s Beta Coe f f i c i e n t s Study Situation N act NB P NB s NB (Mc ) s s R Dulany, 1964 (18) verbal 108 .19t i .81 .8.8 Fishbein, 1966 (36) males 21 -.148NS .947 .850 females 14 .757 .232* .935 t o t a l 35 .374 .535 .849 Carlson, 1968 (33) average over 49 .832 .105* .910 t h i r t y behavioral intentions Ajzen & Fishbein, party 100 .077NS .714* .083* Mc .819 1969 (9) dropped exhibit 100 .440* .275* .128* .724 TV show 100 .255* .423* .180* .709 concert 100 .303* .376* .249* .787 poker 100 .227* .502* .158* .794 French movie 100 .190* .649* .191* .794 discussion 100 .252* .335* .300* .779 novel 100 .292* .268* .323* .684 Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, coop. 32 .229NS NBp .707 Mc .785 1970 (10) in d i v i d u a l . 32 .353* dropped .552 dropped .852 competitive 32 .691 .327 .922 t o t a l 96 .378 .601 .888 Game 2, coop. 32 .239NS .573 .626 i n d i v i d u a l . 32 .416 .427 .754 competitive 32 .669 .298 .894 t o t a l 96 .405 .539 .849 co cn TABLE IV (continued) Study Situation N Beta Coefficients R A a c t NB P NB s NB (Mc ) s s Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (37) r i s k 56 .748 .139NS Mc dropped .793 Fishbein et a l . , 1970 (20T pretest commun. pretest compliance po s te s t commun• postest compliance 144 144 144 144 .295 .432 .253 .585 .478 .248 .607 .255 .70 4 .608 .806 .765 Hornik, 1970 (38) GRIT RPM HAWK to t a l 30 30 30 90 .757 .714 .371* .712 .131NS .116NS .061NS .134NS .859 .804 .385NS .806 Devries & Ajzen, 1971 (8) cheat copy allow to copy 146 146 146 .331 .398 .317 ' .354 .378 .526 Mc dropped .566 .647 .714 Ajzen, 1971 (32) cooperation competition t o t a l 36 36 216 .112NS .541 .529 .768 .225NS .399 .839 .594 .818 Darroch, 1971 (35) photo release 107 .629 (avera ge) .049NS (average) .681 (average) Note: A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s and multiple correlations are s i g n i f i c a n t at a = .01 except * = reported s i g n i f i c a n t at a = .05 NS = non-significant t = sign i f i c a n c e l e v e l not reported CO 38 TABLE IV (continued) Abbreviations: BI = Behavioral i n t e n t i o n N = Number of subjects A ^ = Attitude toward the act act NB = Personal normative b e l i e f P NB = So c i a l normative b e l i e f s (summed over referents) s Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) s J- R = Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of the predictors on BI 39 variables on behavior (Table V). Some mention should be made of the r o l e that BI plays i n the pr e d i c t i o n of behavior. BI i s theorized to be an intervening variable between B and the two predictor terms, n A , and £ NB.(Mc.). The c o r r e l a t i o n of B with these two act . , 1 1 i = l terms i s therefore expected to be less than the c o r r e l a t i o n of BI with the same pred i c t o r s . This attenuation i s l i k e l y due to the non-perfect d e s c r i p t i v e matching of a v e r b a l l y assessed BI with the actual behavioral s i t u a t i o n . Only two studies could be found (Table VI) that reported the c o r r e l a t i o n of B with each of the predictor terms. A com- parison of these c o r r e l a t i o n s to those between BI and the predictor terms (Table I) tends to substantiate that BI i s an intervening v a r i a b l e between B and the predictor terms. This hypothesis i s further strengthened by the f a c t that the co r r e l a t i o n s between B and the predictors are seen (Table VI) to be reduced to non-significance when the variance a t t r i b u - table to BI i s p a r t i a l l e d out. This implies that the Fishbein model cannot be claimed to be a theory for the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior per se, but that the theory can lead to good behavior p r e d i c t i o n i f the behavioral i n t e n t i o n c r i t e r i o n i s appropriately selected to match the behavioral s i t u a t i o n . In terms of educational p r a c t i c e , these r e s u l t s would imply that p a r t i c u l a r school behaviors may be predicted by assessing the appropriate behavioral intentions and that any change i n behavior would be expected to be accompanied by a s i m i l a r TABLE V STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS, MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF Aact, NB S AND NB (Mc ) ON B, AND PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF B WITH BI s s Beta Coefficients Study Situation N act NB s NB (Mc ) s s R rB,BI Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, cooperative 32 .223NS .438 Mc .529 .571 1970(10) i n d i v i d u a l . 32 .270NS .302NS dropped .519 .758 competition 32 .664 .186NS .788 .765 t o t a l 96 .331 .478 .732 .847 Game 2, t o t a l 96 .419 .464 .793 .841 Fishbein et a l . , pretest, commun. 144 .619 .690 1970 (20T pretest, compliance 144 .356 .211 postest, commun. 144 .199 .621 .774 .883 postest, compliance 144 .311 .351 .593 .502 Note: A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s , correlations and multiple correlations are s i g n i f i c a n t at a = .01 except where NS = non-significant. Abbreviations: N act NB„ s Mc s B BI R rB,BI Number of subjects Attitude toward the act Social normative b e l i e f s (summed over referents) Motivation to comply (summed over referents) Behavior Behavioral intention Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of the predictors on behavior Product moment correlation of B with BI 41 TABLE VI PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS AND PARTIAL CORRELATIONS (BI HELD CONSTANT) BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR, B, AND THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A _ . AND NB r r p Study Si t u a t i o n B-A , act B-NB s B-A . act B-NB S Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, coop. .310NS .482 1970 (10) i n d i v i d u a l . .465 .477 competitive .773 .576 t o t a l .631 .685 -.023NS -.083NS Game 2, coop. .272NS .4 21 i n d i v i d u a l . .506 .546 competitive .734 .655 t o t a l .703 .721 .233* .178NS Devries & Ajzen, cheat .370 .159 .137NS -.161NS 1971 (8) copy others .425 .216 .157NS -.138NS allow to copy .457 .535 .097NS .055NS Note: A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t ex = .01 except * = s i g n i f i c a n t at a = .01 NS = non-significant Abbreviations: B = Behavior A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = So c i a l normative b e l i e f s (summed over referents) s BI = Behavioral i n t e n t i o n r = product moment c o r r e l a t i o n r = p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n (BI held constant) change i n these intentions. Given that a p a r t i c u l a r behav- i o r a l intention i s l i n e a r l y related to an a t t i t u d i n a l term and a normative term i n Fishbein's model, a change of behavior would also be expected to be accompanied by a change n i n the value of A , I NB.(Mc.) or both of these predictor ace ^ ^ r x terms. Turning to the problem of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y , i t was indicated i n Chapter I that the regression weights of the predictors i n the Fishbein equation have been found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and that high reported values of n multiple c o r r e l a t i o n for A and Z NB.(Mc.) on BI indicated that BI can be predicted with an accuracy considerably better than chance. Fishbein (19) reports that the average multiple c o r r e l a t i o n between the two components of the theory and behavioral intentions i s about .80 (based on nine s t u d i e s ) . A close look at the l i t e r a t u r e , however, revealed the necessity for caution i n accepting the claim f o r reasonably high p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . Table IV indicates that f i v e studies out of the eleven reported i n the table had modified the normative predictor term by dropping Mc. Although t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n the model's normative term would seem to r a i s e some serious questions about the v a l i d i t y of the model, the i n c l u s i o n of measures of NB does lead to s i g n i f i c a n t l y better predictions of BI than would be obtained by assessing A alone. The problem with the normative predictor appears to be one of adequately measuring i t . 43 The importance of assessing the s o c i a l environment i n order to predict overt behavior was recognized long before either Dulany's or Fishbein's work ( r e c a l l Lewin's equation 2.0). In t h e i r study on verbal attitudes and overt acts, DeFleur and Westie (21) found that s i x t y reference groups were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the decision-making of f o r t y - s i x subjects regarding the signing of photographic releases. They further conclude, Thus, analysis of the b e l i e f s of an i n d i v i d u a l about the a t t i t u d e s , norms, and values held by h i s reference groups, s i g n i f i c a n t others, voluntary organizations, peer groups, and the l i k e may be e s s e n t i a l for better p r e d i c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s of action with the use of verbal scales. This would represent a more d i s t i n c t l y s o c i o l o g i c a l approach. Concerning the problem of obtaining measures of the normative predictor, Fishbein et al. (20) points out the apparent crude state of t h i s measure: As to normative b e l i e f s , i t seemed reasonable to assume that the relevant referents for the subject were (a) h i s two partners and (b) the experimenter. They further state that, In the absence of any s p e c i f i c theory, we f e l t that a simple summation of the perceived expec- tations of these three referents would provide an adequate estimate of the normative component. This sum was denoted ENB(Mc). Measures of the 'motivation to comply'(Mc) factor of the normative component have caused s i m i l a r concerns, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Ajzen and Fishbein (10): Research to t h i s date has indicated r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e variance i n t h i s measure, and thus the re s u l t s obtained with normative b e l i e f s alone were as good or better than those obtained when NB was m u l t i p l i e d by Mc. . . . In the same study, Ajzen and Fishbein have noted that i n many sit u a t i o n s personal normative b e l i e f s may serve mainly as an al t e r n a t i v e measure of behavioral in t e n t i o n s . In t h e i r recent review of research on the model, Ajzen and Fishbein (7) make the following points concerning the normative component of the model: (a) normative b e l i e f s may be considered to be a part of the b e l i e f system that determines A . ; e.g., •* act ^ ' one of the consequences of performing a given act i s that i t may please or displease relevant r e f e r - ence i n d i v i d u a l s or groups; (b) one possible method for entering the normative b e l i e f s concerning relevant reference groups into the t h e o r e t i c a l model i s i n a stepwise manner, with each normative term given i t s own beta c o e f f i c i e n t ; e.g., B = BI = t A a c t ] c o o + [NB 1(Mc 1) ] C J 1 + [ N B 2 (Mc2) 3 0^ + ... + [NBn (Mcn) ] con . . . .(2.6) (c) an a l t e r n a t i v e method of entering the normative predictor terms into the equation i s to form a 45 general normative term by summing over a l l relevant referents; e.g., n B = BI = [ A ^ , ] u + [ I NB. (Mc. )]w, . . . .(1.0) (d) the motivation to comply, Mc, may be conceptualized i n more than one way; e.g., a person's motivation to comply generally with a reference group, and a person's motivation to comply with the s p e c i f i c expectation of that referent group. Ajzen and Fishbein (7) have indicated that they favor the general conception. They further say that when Mc i s measured s p e c i f i c to the behavior, i t indicated l i t t l e more than a measure of weight c o ^ (in (c)) which i s also b e h a v i o r - s p e c i f i c . F i n a l l y , a few observations should be made concerning the si z e of the beta regression c o e f f i c i e n t s (Wq and u^). These s t a t i s t i c a l l y determined weights provide an estimate of the r e l a t i v e degree to which the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative predictor terms influence the p r e d i c t i o n of behavioral intentions. In a psychological sense, these weights determine to what degree a person's a t t i t u d e toward the performance of the behavior, and to what degree his s o c i a l or personal normative b e l i e f s , w i l l influence h i s intention to carry out the behavior (and, i d e a l l y , w i l l thus influence h i s actual behavior). 46 These e m p i r i c a l l y determined weights have been found to depend upon three main fa c t o r s : (a) the type of behavior being considered, (b) the behavioral s i t u a t i o n or s p e c i f i c conditions under which the behavior i s to be enacted, and (c) the i n d i v i d u a l , i . e . , the 'personality' of the i n d i v i d u a l or the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n d i v i d u a l who considers performing the behavior. Examples of how these three factors a f f e c t beta weights are reported i n Table IV. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of examples appears i n Ajzen and Fishbein ( 7 ) . 2. The Educational Context Generally, a t t i t u d i n a l studies i n education have resembled a t t i t u d i n a l studies i n psychology. Varied uses of the term 'attitude' are evident and unwarranted assumptions about the attitude-behavior r e l a t i o n s h i p are prevalent. An i n d i c a t i o n of the varying educational views of - 'attitude' i s given by Krathwohl et al. (22) i n t h e i r Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Often when we use the term 'attitude' we imply that the i n d i v i d u a l i s valuing, eit h e r p o s i t i v e l y or negatively, some behavior, phenomenon, or object. But the term 'attitude' i s also used to denote quite general sets toward phenomena as well as an o r i e n t a t i o n toward them. 47 Mager (23), for example, c a l l s 'attitude* "a general tendency of an i n d i v i d u a l to act i n a c e r t a i n way under c e r t a i n conditions," thus coming very close to Fishbein's d e f i n i t i o n of a behavioral i n t e n t i o n . Other authors have used 'attitude' as a term s p e c i f i c to a d i s c i p l i n e . A ' s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e ' , as defined by Moore and Sutman (24), i s "an opinion or p o s i t i o n taken with respect to a psychological object i n the f i e l d of science." Irrespective of how the concept should be used, 'attitude' has recently become an important element i n many formulations of educational object i v e s . The following are but a few examples of 'attitude' as an educational objectives Blackwood (25) : Develop appreciations for the attitudes about the environment. . . . I l l i n o i s Curriculum Program (27): To help c h i l d r e n develop proper attitudes toward science and the world of technology. . . . Dunfee (26): We can assume that the chief purpose of education i n the United States i s to help c h i l d r e n and young people acquire those understandings, attitudes and s k i l l s which happy and u s e f u l c i t i z e n s of a democratic society need. . . . Mager (23): . . . a universal objective of i n s t r u c t i o n — the intent to send students away from i n - s t r u c t i o n with at l e a s t as favorable an attitude toward the subjects taught as they had when they f i r s t a r r i v e d . Morrison (28): That complex thing which we c a l l motivation or a t t i t u d e , the a f f e c t i v e side of learning, i s perhaps above a l l the human a t t r i b u t e which we hope to evoke. 4 8 2.1 Educational Research on the Attitude-behavior Relation- s h i p The assumption i m p l i c i t i n the above educational objectives appears to be that p o s i t i v e attitudes toward school subjects or school i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l lead to e f f e c t i v e l e a r n - ing behavior on the part of students. Thus, Andersen (29) hypothesizes: If the student's a t t i t u d e toward the subject i s not at a high l e v e l , then the p r o b a b i l i t y that he could perform the congruent cognitive task i s greatly diminished. The lack of empirical evidence to support t h i s hypothesis has been demonstrated i n the previous discussion of the attitude-behavior problem. I t was pointed out that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s attitude and h i s behavior w i l l be consistent and high only when his attitude has been assessed with respect to a s p e c i f i c act or behavior, under s p e c i f i c conditions (6). In the educational context, t h i s f i n d i n g has been repeatedly demonstrated by low ( t y p i c a l l y < .30) or inconsistant c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures of attitude and variables such as: IQ scores, achievement scores, and aptitude scores (see A. Rothman (30) and S. Khan (31)) . Nevertheless, general attitude instruments are frequently used to assess student 'attitudes' toward courses or course changes. Po s i t i v e student attitudes are assumed 49 to indicate a good learning s i t u a t i o n , while negative attitudes are assumed to imply a need f o r course improvement. While these assumptions cannot be supported by past psycho- l o g i c a l research i n the a t t i t u d i n a l domain, the p o s s i b i l i t y of i d e n t i f y i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between attitudes toward s p e c i f i c learning acts and variables s p e c i f i c to the learning process needs to be investigated. At the present time, based on i t s success i n the psychological context, the a p p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's theory to the p r e d i c t i o n of student behavior from s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d i n a l and normative predictor variables would appear to be promising course of action for educational researchers to take. 2.2 The A p p l i c a b i l i t y of Fishbein's Approach to Education Up to the present time (1972), studies on Fishbein's approach have been mainly concerned with v a l i d a t i o n . Burhans (15), i n assessing Fishbein's studies, concluded that . . . the few—though highly successful studies that he has conducted which employ his model have been concerned with very s p e c i f i c and l i m i t e d kinds of behavior. . . . Much empirical research i s needed to t e s t the e f f i c a c y of his model i n predicting behavioral intentions and behavior under a wide range of circumstances and with a wide range of classes of behavior. In past studies, serious l i m i t a t i o n s have been imposed on experimental conditions i n order to minimize experimental error. These l i m i t a t i o n s would be d i f f i c u l t or impossible to a t t a i n i n a t y p i c a l educational s e t t i n g . The following 50 discussion i s intended to assess the importance of the ex- perimental r e s t r i c t i o n with respect to the educational context of the present study. 2.2.1. Post faoturn measures of behavioral intentions . The f i r s t r e s t r i c t i o n i n question i s the point at which the measure of behavior (B) has been taken i n the studies referred to i n the tables. In only two of the published studies, Ajzen and Fishbein (10), and Ajzen (32), have the behavioral intentions (BI) and the predictor variables A , and ENB(Mc) c3.CC been measured p r i o r to the measure of behavior (B). A l l other published studies, except f o r Ajzen and Fishbein (9) where no measure of behavior was taken, indicate a post factum measure of BI, that i s , the behavior has been performed and measured before the other variables have been assessed. Furthermore, Devries and Ajzen (8) u t i l i z e d self-reported estimates of students' past cheating behaviors whereas Ajzen and Fishbein (9,37) and Carlson (33) u t i l i z e d hypothetical behavioral si t u a t i o n s with no provision made for the performance or observation of actual behavior. The two unpublished studies by Fishbein (36) and Darroch (35) that used pre factum measures of BI, showed noticeably reduced BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s (Table I ) . An implication of post factum measures of behavioral intentions has been suggested previously by Gerard) (34). He suggested that a subject may bring his intentions into l i n e with h i s actual behavior. I f t h i s i s so, the studies u t i l i z i n g post factum measures of BI, A . and INB(Mc) would 51 be expected to 'predict' behavior and behavioral intentions with better accuracy than the studies that measured behavior a f t e r the predictors were assessed. Tables I and IV indicate that t h i s i s not always the case, although, the e f f e c t may be small and might be masked by experimental e r r o r . In the present study the word 'predict' i s used i n the sense of c o r r e l a t i n g measures of behavior with measures of behavioral intentions that are taken p r i o r to the measure of behavior. An attempt was made to p r e d i c t students* performance of optional educational a c t i v i t i e s from p r i o r assessment of t h e i r behavioral intentions toward performing the s p e c i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s . The assessment of behavioral intentions and predictor v a r i a b l e s , i n the present study, was c a r r i e d out p r i o r to the performance of the behavior because an i n s t r u c t o r would probably want to p r e d i c t student behavior ahead of time. Information of t h i s kind was seen as p o t e n t i a l l y useful f o r planning the types of a c t i v i t i e s that would be most l i k e l y c a r r i e d out by the students. 2.2.2 Practice and r e p e t i t i v e t r i a l s . Another r e - s t r i c t i o n evident i n past studies of the model i s the use of practice t r i a l s of the behavior i n order to b o l s t e r the behavioral r e l i a b i l i t y and behavior-behavioral i n t e n t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n s t a b i l i t y . Dulany (18) measured behavior during the l a s t twenty of one hundred t r i a l s , and measured behavioral intentions a f t e r the f u l l one hundred t r i a l s . Ajzen and Fishbein (10) gave subjects eight practice t r i a l s during a Prisoner's Dilemma game (see Rapoport and Chammah (40)). These were followed by a questionnaire and ten more t r i a l s during which the behavior measure was taken. S i m i l a r l y , practice or r e p e t i t - ious t r i a l s were used i n studies by Fishbein e t al. (20), and Ajzen (32) . Two studies that did not u t i l i z e practice t r i a l s , Darroch (35), and Fishbein (36) , are seen (Table I) to have noticeably lower BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s than the values reported i n the other studies (r = .462 and .447 f o r the Darroch and Fishbein studies, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . These low BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s , however, may be p a r t l y the r e s u l t of the r e l a t i v e l y long BI-B time element present i n both studies (discussed below). The present a p p l i c a t i o n of the model i s directed toward educational behaviors which cannot be predicted r e - p e t i t i v e l y or performed r e p e t i t i v e l y . Consequently, some attenuation of the BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n might be expected i n the present study because of the reduction of behavioral r e l i a b i l i t y which might have been enhanced by r e p e t i t i v e behavioral a c t i v i t i e s . 2.2.3 BI-B time element. One further advantage gained by the use of game-like s i t u a t i o n s i n past studies, was the minimization of the c r u c i a l time between the measure of BI and the performance of B. This time was t y p i c a l l y about an hour (10) . The studies by Darroch (35) and Fishbein 53 (36) were the only reported attempts to measure behavioral phenomena separated from the measure of behavioral intentions by a time greater than a few hours. Darroch obtained measures of behavioral intention and the predictor variables about one month i n advance of the observed behavior/ and was s t i l l able to obtain a moderate, average BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n of .462 (p < .01). Fishbein assessed behavioral intentions at the beginning of a semester, and obtained s e l f - r e p o r t s of premarital sexual behavior at the end of the semester, obtain- ing BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s of .676 (p < .01) for females and .394 (NS) f o r males (Table I ) . As was discussed i n 2.2.2, these BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s were noticeably lower than those reported i n other studies, but the smaller values of these c o r r e l a t i o n s could, i n part, be caused by the non-repetitive behaviors that were assessed and the time i n t e r v a l over which BI might have changed. The present study has provided various educational behaviors which could be performed either immediately a f t e r or up to two and one-half weeks afte r the measurement of the predictor v a r i a b l e s . Accordingly, i t might be reasonable to expect higher BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the case of a c t i v i t i e s performed close to the time of the measurement of the pre- d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . This factor w i l l be examined i n the discussion of r e s u l t s i n Chapter IV. 54 2.2.4 Relevant r e f e r e n t s . The problem of the normative predictor term has already been mentioned. I t should perhaps be further stressed that i n the past, the question of ascertaining the referent groups relevant to the i n d i v i d u a l , has depended l a r g e l y on the type of behavioral s i t u a t i o n i n which the subject has been placed. The game sit u a t i o n s i n the majority of the previously-reported studies have usually required the experimenter to assess normative b e l i e f s with respect to only a small number of referents ( t y p i c a l l y one to three). Dulany (18) used only one r e f e r e n t — the experimenter. Ajzen and Fishbein (9) used "my fr i e n d s " as the only referent upon which the s o c i a l normative b e l i e f , NB was based. Ajzen and Fishbein (10), and Ajzen (32) have s also used one referent, "my partner" i n t h e i r Prisoner's Dilemma game s i t u a t i o n s . Fishbein et at. (20) summed over three referents, "member 1", "member 2", and "the experimenter", i n order to ar r i v e at a general s o c i a l normative term, ZNB(Mc). In an educational s i t u a t i o n , Devries and Ajzen (8) found that a sum of four normative b e l i e f s referent to classmates, the subject's church, family, and frien d s , predicted behavioral intentions s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The normative b e l i e f concerning the subject's friends (FrNB ) was, however, a better predictor than was ZNB i n two of the three behavior s i t u a t i o n s . I t s i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that no professor or i n s t r u c t o r was used as a referent, even though t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study was concerned with a d e f i n i t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . 55 The importance of the i n s t r u c t o r as a referent was explored i n the present study, as were other referents such as: 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , 'parents', 'the majority of the c l a s s ' , 'my r e l i g i o u s group', and 'I, myself' as a personal referent. The use of these p a r t i c u l a r referents was based on a pre- experimental survey of t h e i r possible relevance (described i n Chapter I I I ) . 2.2.5 Subjects. A l l of the reported studies used undergraduate students as subjects. Fishbein et al. (20), and Ajzen (32), further state that these students were drawn from introductory Psychology courses, and that they p a r t i c i - pated i n the Psychology experiments as a p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for the course. I t i s not known whether these facts have played any important r o l e i n determining the r e s u l t s i n the game situations tested. However, these r e s u l t s might be expected to be somewhat better than the r e s u l t s that would be obtained by using subjects selected from a d i s c i p l i n e other than psychology. I t i s possible that Psychology students who are playing psychological games fo r course c r e d i t may be biased i n favor of the behavior or the te s t instrument and may thus e x h i b i t a greater motivation toward and r e l i a b i l i t y i n performing the a c t i v i t y . S i m i l a r l y , i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , any bias of the subjects toward the behavioral a c t i v i t i e s or the t e s t instrument may be c r u c i a l . The instrument i s presumably 56 attempting to assess the genuine attitudes and intentions of students toward s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , rather than th e i r responses biased by a motivation to f u l f i l course requirements, to obtain higher marks, to avoid f a i l u r e , or to please the i n s t r u c t o r . Subjects for the present study were students i n an introductory physics course. These students were not expected to have a p o s i t i v e bias toward the questionnaire, but some precautions were taken i n order to control t h i s f a c t o r . I t was expressed to the students that the a c t i v i t i e s " were e n t i r e l y voluntary and i n no way counted toward course c r e d i t . Also, a control group was used which d i d not receive the research instrument but which was acquainted with the voluntary a c t i v i t i e s i n the same ways as the experimental group. The use of t h i s control group permitted an estimate of the influence of the questionnaire on the performance of behavior by the subjects. 3. Summary Research has been unable to produce a consistent r e l a t i o n s h i p between general measures of attitudes toward an object and the behavior of in d i v i d u a l s with respect to the attitude object. Some authors (12) have suggested that the concept of attitude requires refinement. Others (13) have observed that some of the d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the measuring 57 instrument used. Still others (14) have held that the difficulty has been in operationalizing the assessment of personal and situational factors associated with various behavioral situations. Dulany (18) made an important approach to the problem by formulating a regression equation that accounted for both personal and situational variables in the prediction of verbal behavior. The operationalization of these variables led to a good prediction of behavioral intention and his multiple correlation of the predictor terms on behavioral intention equalled .8 8. The prediction of verbal behavior was also quite successful to the extent that the correlation between behavioral intention and verbal behavior was found to be .94. Fishbein (6) extended Dulany's theory to the pre- diction of non-verbal, overt behavior in social situations. The generality of this extended model is seen to be most relevant in terms of the social setting of the modern-day educational situation. Fishbein also reconceptualized Dulany's predictors in terms of an attitudinal component and normative component, thus reinstating attitude as a predictor of behavior. Significantly, Fishbein pointed out a solution to the problem of behavior prediction from measures of attitude: the necessity for measuring attitudes toward performing a specific act, as opposed to measuring attitudes toward some general attitude object. 58 Recent research (7) on Fishbein's theory has indicated that the normative term is still problematic in its operational- ization. Specifically, the 'motivation to comply' factor has been of little value in the prediction of behavioral inten- tion or behavior. In spite of these difficulties, addition of the normative term has resulted in significantly better predictions of behavior and intention than would be obtained by assessing the attitudinal term alone. Educational research in the area of attitudes has, in general, reflected the problems indicated by psychological studies of the attitude-behavior problem. The definition of 'attitude' varies considerably from application to application. Consequently, the various conceptualizations of 'attitude' have led to a number of assumptions in educational practice, few which have been supported by research. It would thus seem logical to attempt to apply Fishbein's theory to educational situations in the hope that some of the attitude-behavior confusion in the educational context might be partially resolved. Applications of Fishbein's model have been limited in the scope of behavioral situations that have been investi- gated. This limitation has resulted, in part, from validation studies that required a maximization of behavioral reliability by means of repetitive behaviors in game-like situations. Other restrictive experimental conditions used in the valida- ting studies involved: assessing the predictor terms after the performance of the behavior, u t i l i z i n g repeated p r a c t i c e t r i a l s of actual behavior before obtaining measures of B, BI, A . and ZNB.Mc.,' and l i m i t i n g the time between the assess- ment of BP and the performance of the behavior to about one hour. These t y p i c a l experimental r e s t r i c t i o n s would be unacceptable i n educational practice and would have to be dropped, probably at the expense of some of the r e l i a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y of the measures. While the co r r e l a t i o n s i n the present study are expected to be lower than those reported elsewhere (because of fewer experimental r e s t r i c t i o n s ) the l i t e r a t u r e has indicated that useful p r e d i c t i v e r e s u l t s may s t i l l be obtainable. 6 0 CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE STUDY The previous chapters indicated the possible useful- ness of applying Fishbein's theory to more varied true-to- life, and less restrictive situations. In doing so it is to be expected that a certain amount of predictive validity has to be sacrificed. Some factors contributing to the loss of predictive validity are, (a) a lack of repetition of behavior, (b) the use of pre factum measures of behavioral intention as opposed to post factum measures of behavioral intention , and (c) relatively long periods of time between the measure of the behavioral intention and the performance of the behavior. Aside from these differences in the application of Fishbein's theory and some alterations in the type of measuring instrument used in previous studies, the methods employed in this study are an attempt to carefully apply Fishbein's theory to an educational situation. 1. Pilot Study: Relevant Referent Groups The literature gives few guidelines for the selection of relevant normative referent groups to be used in the Fishbein model. Since the normative component of the model is dependent upon the subjects' perceptions of the expectations 61 of relevant referent persons or groups, an exploratory r e f e r - ent group questionnaire (Appendix A) was devised i n order to obtain an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance to the subjects of the study of various i n d i v i d u a l s and groups with respect to performing educational e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . This information was used i n selecting only the most relevant referent groups for i n c l u s i o n i n the research instrument used for obtaining measures on the Fishbein v a r i a b l e s . The referent group questionnaire was administered to four d i f f e r e n t sections of Education 321 students, 64 students, i n a l l . Education 321 i s a Science Methods course for t h i r d year Education students. The students i n t h i s course were selected because of the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of Physics 115 students at the time that the research instrument was under develop- ment. As a check on the differences between the responses of Education students and the Physics 115 students, the referent group questionnaire was t r i e d on some of the students from Physics 115 that were made ava i l a b l e for t h i s purpose shortly before the research instrument was administered. The referent questionnaire was administered to f i f t y Physics 115 students from Section 2 (the c l a s s not taking the modular lecture program). Appendix B shows the referents ranked according to percent of student responses to the 'Important' and 'Very Important' categories of the referent questionnaire. As might be expected, four of the strongest referents for both groups of students were: ' s e l f , 'best f riend (s) ' , 'lecturer', and 'parents', the order of rank being s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from one group of students to the other. 'Parents' appeared as a s l i g h t l y stronger referent than 'lecturer* f o r the Physics 115 students, whereas the reverse was true for the Education 321 students (this referent order may have depended on such factors as age, years of schooling and academic i n t e r e s t s ) . Below the f i r s t four highest ranking referents, notable differences i n the rank order of the remaining referents became apparent. The Science Education students s u r p r i s i n g l y ranked 'r e l i g i o u s group or church' as f i f t h and ' s c i e n t i f i c community' as ninth, whereas the Physics students ranked ' s c i e n t i f i c community' as f i f t h and ' r e l i g i o u s group or church' as tenth. Education students ranked 'majority of cl a s s members' s i x t h , whereas Physics students ranked t h i s referent ninth. While these differences i n ranking point toward some differences i n normative b e l i e f s between groups of students i n d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s , the- o v e r a l l Spearman rank c o r r e l - ation (corrected for ties) between the two sets of student responses was found to be .88 (p < .001) . Although the referents included i n the research instrument were chosen on the basis of the rankings of Education students, the four highest ranking referents were the same for both Educa- t i o n and Physics 115 groups and were therefore included i n the research questionnaire. The use of ' r e l i g i o u s group or church' and 'majority of c l a s s members' i n the f i n a l questionnaire instead of the referents, ' s c i e n t i f i c community' and "university community* (more appropriate f o r Physics 115 students) were not expected to a f f e c t the weighting of the normative term of the Fishbein model to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e unimportance to the subjects. Nevertheless, the p i l o t study r e s u l t s do indicate the need for some care i n the s e l e c t i o n of referents f o r s p e c i f i c groups of subjects i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . 2. Population and Samples The subjects constituted a sample of 199 Physics 115 students'* from a population of 318 students i n Section 1 of Physics 115. Approximately ninety-six percent were generally between eighteen and nineteen years old and had two years of high school physics. A l l Physics 115 students intended to pursue studies i n d i s c i p l i n e s other than Physics (e.g., Bio- sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics, Medicine, etc.) The male/- female r a t i o was about 6.75. Of the 199 questionnaires returned, a t o t a l of 185 were usable i n the analyses of data. Student's i n Sections 1 and 2 were not randomly assigned to eithe r Section. The choice of Sections was based primarily on timetable considerations. i t i s t a c i t l y assumed that any sampling bias that occurred i n the placement of students i n the two Sections i s of l i t t l e importance i n the present study. 6 4 These 185 questionnaires consisted of 128 questionnaires used to obtain measures on the Fishbein variables (Appendix C), and 57 questionnaires c o n s t i t u t i n g a kind of placebo used to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of measurement instrument e f f e c t (Appendix E). 3 . Experimental Procedure The lecture module e n t i t l e d , "The Physics i n Environ- mental and Technological Assessment" consisted of a serie s of four lectures during the regular Physics 115 lecture times, given by a member of the Faculty of Applied Science. Students were t o l d i n the f i r s t l ecture that some voluntary follow-up a c t i v i t i e s were being arranged for them to do because the block of lectures r e l a t i n g Physics and environmental problems was of such short duration. In the second le c t u r e , the students were b r i e f l y t o l d about each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , and that the exact d e t a i l s of these a c t i v i t i e s would be made availab l e to them i n the next l e c t u r e . In the t h i r d l e c t u r e , a l l students picked up a deta i l e d l i s t of the voluntary follow-up a c t i v i t i e s f o r the block of lectures on 'The Physics i n Environmental and Tech- nol o g i c a l Assessment' (Appendix G). These sheets were also avai l a b l e during the fourth (last) l e cture for any students who were absent during the t h i r d l e c t u r e . The shuffled placebo and research questionnaires were administered by the author and three Physics 115 laboratory i n s t r u c t o r s 2 toward the end of the t h i r d l e c t u r e . The f i v e 'voluntary' a c t i v i t i e s used i n the present study were as follows: (see Appendix G for d e t a i l e d a c t i v i t y d e s c r i p t i o n s ) : A c t i v i t y 1: to attend a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance"; A c t i v i t y 2: to sign up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment and how you may p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t i f you wish; A c t i v i t y 3: to pick up an assortment of information material and l i s t of supplementary readings on P o l l u t i o n and Technology; A c t i v i t y 4: to attend a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "The Time of Man"; A c t i v i t y 5: to contact the l e c t u r e r i n order to obtain information about a s s i s t i n g some professors i n doing research on the leaching of l a n d f i l l s (dumps) . In order to obtain a d i r e c t (dichotomous) measure of behavior for A c t i v i t y 1 (attending the movie e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance"), attendance survey s l i p s requesting the student's Physics course number, lecture 2 I t should be noted that an error i n administration of the instruments reduced the number of research question- naires d i s t r i b u t e d by about f i f t y . While t h i s loss i n data was regrettable, a reasonably large number of subjects (N = 128)were retained for the study. 66 Section number, name and r e g i s t r a t i o n number (Appendix H) were f i l l e d out by a l l students as they entered the theatre. With the exception of A c t i v i t y 4 (attending a movie e n t i t l e d , "The Time of Man"), the performance of the a c t i v i t i e s was ascertained by secretaries checking o f f the names of p a r t i c i p a t i n g students on a class l i s t , or by the students, themselves, signing t h e i r names on l i s t s provided. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Physics 115 students i n A c t i v i t y 4 could not be checked d i r e c t l y because t h i s movie had been thrown open to the en t i r e campus, and the large number of people expected to attend would have made the survey t i c k e t method impossible to use. In order to obtain behavior data for A c t i v i t y 4, and also check on the data c o l l e c t e d from the other a c t i v i t i e s , an ' A c t i v i t i e s Check- l i s t ' (Appendix I) was administered to a l l students during t h e i r lecture on the day a f t e r the A c t i v i t y 4 movie. This c h e c k - l i s t asked students to check o f f each a c t i v i t y that they had pa r t i c i p a t e d i n up to that date. Two valuable pieces of information were gained by comparing the student completed c h e c k - l i s t s to the d i r e c t l y observed behaviors. F i r s t l y , several students who had parti c i p a t e d i n A c t i v i t y 1 were not recorded by the d i r e c t attendance survey because they had arrived i n the theatre during a non-Physics 115 lec t u r e , well i n advance of the attendance survey (this was confirmed by telephoning several of the students i n question). Secondly, three students were found to have checked-off several a c t i v i t i e s which they were not observed to perform (according to the d i r e c t observations). Their questionnaires were subsequently i d e n t i f i e d , and eliminated from the f i n a l analysis as questionable data. 4. Instruments Measures on the Fishbein v a r i a b l e s , BI, A NB., and Mc^ were b u i l t into a f i v e part research questionnaire (Appendix C) each of the f i v e parts dealing with a student behavioral in t e n t i o n to perform one of the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Only Parts A to C (concerning A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3) attempted to measure a l l of the Fishbein v a r i a b l e s . Because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of answering time (and probably student patience), only behavioral intentions were measured i n Parts D and E ( A c t i v i t i e s 4 and 5). The research questionnaire u t i l i z e d a 5-choice b i - polar scale format because of the Physics 115 i n s t r u c t o r ' s preference f o r the Likert-type instrument, and because of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of IBM 5-category multiple-choice response sheets (IBM Document No. 505) that could be automatically transferred onto computer data cards v i a the IBM Model 1232 O p t i c a l Scanner. Although Osgood et al. (40) have presented some in c i d e n t a l empirical evidence (p. 85) that a 7-choice scale appears to be optimal for use with college students, the probable gains of t h i s scale over a 5-choice scale were 68 judged to be inconsequential. The Semantic-Differential scales commonly used by Ajzen and Fishbein i n the measurement of A , were transformed c l C "C. into Likert-type attitude measures. Two L i k e r t items r e s u l t - ed from each bipolar Semantic-Differential scale. According to Osgood (40) and Edwards (41) c o r r e l - ations between L i k e r t , Thurstone, and Semantic-Differential measures of attitude are t y p i c a l l y about .90. With respect to the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior, however, T i t t l e and H i l l (13) suggested that the L i k e r t scale may be s l i g h t l y superior to the others (see Chapter I I , s e c t i o n 1.1). 4.1 Variables External to the Fishbein Model Variables external to the model were assessed by means of two Likert-type instruments (Appendix J and L). The merg- ing of external variable data with the data f o r variables i n t e r n a l to the model reduced the number of usable cases to a t o t a l of 89 from the o r i g i n a l 128. Seventeen d i f f e r e n t sets of subscales constituted both instruments. Responses to s p e c i f i c items were summed for each d i f f e r e n t subscale. The external variables described i n Chapter I, that included the 'Physics Evaluation Study* questionnaire items (Appendix J) and the 'Attitude Toward the Physics Laboratory' question- naire (Appendix L ) , are shown i n Table VII. The l a t t e r ('Attitude Toward the Physics Laboratory') questionnaire originated i n a study by G. Page (42). TABLE VII VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL External Variable Abbreviation Questionnaire Items a Attitude toward physics i n general A , Aphys A " 5 A c l a s s A P r o f A t e x t Asm Aasgn ^exams Anuc A c p V 29 - 38 Attitude toward Physics 115 39 - 49 Attitude toward class i n s t r u c t i o n 50 - 59 Attitude toward the lecturer 60 - 69 Attitude toward the textbook 70 - 73 Attitude toward the subject matter 74 - 78 Attitude toward the assignments 7 9 - 8 4 Attitude toward examinations 85 - 94 Attitude toward the topic 'Nuclear Energy 1 the topic 'Environment' 95, 106 Attitude toward 99, 104 Attitude toward the topic ' C l a s s i c a l Physics' 96, 101, 102, 107 Attitude toward the topic 'The Human Body' ^ o d 100, 103 Attitude toward the topic 'Propulsion and Electromagnetic Theory 1 pr&em 97, 98, 105, 108 Attitude toward the Physics 115 laboratory session A l a b Part B, 1 - 26 (see footnote) Physics 12 achievement P H i M A 1 2 3 Mathematics 12 achievement 6 Combined Physics 12 and Math achievement 3, 6 A l l questionnaire items are taken from the 'Physics Evaluation Study' questionnaire (Appendix J) , except i n the case of A i a _ . Items for the assessment of A_ A _3 were taken from the 'Attitude Toward the Physics Laboratory' questionnaire (Appendix L ) . V O 70 4.2 Variables Internal to the Model The measures on the variables i n the Fishbein model included i n the research questionnaire were based on the kinds of measures t y p i c a l l y used by Fishbein et al. , on the basis of ideas drawn from Fishbein's theory, and on the basis of c r i t i c a l comments made by t r i a l subjects on a set of t r i a l questionnaire items. 4.2.1 Behavioral intention (BI). The behavioral int e n t i o n measure consists of from one to three items per a c t i v i t y . Each item has f i v e response categories varying from 'strongly agree 1 to 'strongly disagree', i n d i c a t i n g the inten t i o n of the student toward performing a c e r t a i n voluntary act (or behavioral a c t i v i t y ) . In discussing the Triandis Behavioral D i f f e r e n t i a l instrument (43) , Fishbein (6) states, While the cor r e l a t i o n s between a t t i t u d e and the d i f f e r e n t types of behavioral intentions vary considerably, the c o r r e l a t i o n between at t i t u d e and the sum of the behavioral intentions tends to be quite stable and high (r = .70) . (p. 481) With t h i s i n mind, one conclusive BI item, "I intend to .", and one or two conditional items, "I intend to only i f I have nothing else to do," and "I intend to only i f I have time," were used i n the questionnaire. I t was hoped that the summation of these BI items would give a more r e l i a b l e measure of BI than a single BI item. For comparison, each BI item was tested i n a separate regression a n a l y s i s . Example item: I intend to see t h i s movie. Strongly agree 1_ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree _ Strongly disagree 5_ . 4.2.2 Attitude toward the act (A_ . ) . Six to eight ————— —ac t.— Likert-type a t t i t u d e items, i n d i c a t i n g the subject's evaluative b e l i e f s about the consequences of performing the act, were used to assess A .. The items concerning ' i n t e r e s t i n g ' act 3 and 'boring' were omitted from the assessment of A__, i n a C u A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3 because they were not very meaningful to t r i a l subjects i n the context of describing these a c t i v i t i e s . Examples: Attending t h i s movie would be a good thing f o r me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5_ Attending t h i s movie would be a boring thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1_ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5_ 4.2.3 Normative b e l i e f s about s p e c i f i c referents (NB^). The measure of NB^ consisted of six items, each con- cerning a d i f f e r e n t referent group, and i n d i c a t i n g the subject's b e l i e f concerning what the referent expected him 72 .to do, or what. ne f e l t he "should" do with respect to the p a r t i c u l a r behavioral a c t i v i t y . The referent groups used i n assessing the s i x normative b e l i e f s were: 'Closest f r i e n d s ' , 'parents1.., 1majority of the c l a s s 1 , 'the lecturer'', ' r e l i g i o u s group*, and 'myself, corresponding to NB^, NB2* NB3, NB4, NB^ and ISB^ r e s p e c t i v e l y . Examples s My c l o s e s t friends would expect me to see t h i s mcvie. Highly l i k e l y 1_ l i k e l y 2_ Undecided 3_ U n l i k e l y 4_ HigiuLy u n l i k e l y 5_ . My parents -would expect me to see t h i s mo-vie. Highly l i k e l y 1 Iiikely 2 Undecided 3_ U n l i k e l y 4 Hignly u n l i k e l y 5_ . 4.2.4 Motivation to comply (Mc^). Six items, each coneeming a d i f f e r e n t r e f e r e n t group, and i n d i c a t i n g the subject's desire to comply with what he believed was expected of him (NB^), constituted the measure of Mc^. Examples s Concerning my seeing t h i s movie, I want to do what I think my c l o s e s t friends expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5 . 73 Concerning my seeing t h i s movie, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1̂  Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree. 5_ . 3 4.2.5 .Behavior or act (B).. The f i v e behavioral a c t i v i t i e s , were selected from about twice that number of possible;, a c t i v i t i e s , on the basis of student appeal and sev- e r a l c r i t e r i a i m p l i c i t i n the model. F i r s t l y , the tasks selected were d i f f e r e n t from each other with, regard to the type of behavior e l i c i t e d . This method o f task s e l e c t i o n was employed i n order to appeal to a g r e a t e r ; o v e r a l l number of students and e l i c i t a wider variance i n their: responses. Secondly, i n an educational context, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was a hoped fo r outcome of i n s t r u c t i o n . The a c t i v i t i e s chosen, therefore, were r e l a t e d to the goals o f i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i r d l y , there had to be a way of d i r e c t l y , or at l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y recording the actual behavioral responses of the. subjects, unobtrusively, i n order to avoid any suspicion that performance of the tasks was r e a l l y not voluntary. In the case of such i n d i r e c t methods as s e l f - reporting, there had to be also some method for checking on 3 Note that behavior, as measured, was a dichotomous v a r i a b l e , while behavioral intentions, a t t i t u d e toward the act, and normative b e l i e f s were measured as continuous variables.. Hence, any reported c o r r e l a t i o n s between measures of behavior and measures of the other variables w i l l be point- b i s e r i a l . the honesty of the subjects. In t h i s study, a l l behavioral a c t i v i t i e s except A c t i v i t y 4 ("The Time of Man") were d i r e c t l y observed and i t was r e l a t i v e l y easy to check the subjects' self-reported ' a c t i v i t i e s check l i s t s ' against the d i r e c t observations of a c t i v i t i e s 1 to 4. Only about 1 1/2% of the subjects returned questionable check l i s t s , and t h i s provided a method for screening out these respon- dents' questionnaire responses as being p o t e n t i a l l y u n r e l i a b l e Fourthly, according to the model, the BI-B time i n t e r v a l must be minimized, and thus the performance of the task had to be possible as soon a f t e r the measure of BI as possib l e . If t h i s condition was not f u l f i l l e d , the o r i g i n a l BI may have been replaced by an a l t e r n a t i v e with a r e s u l t i n g decrease i n the r e l a t i o n between BI and B. Under conditions of long time i n t e r v a l s between measures of BI and B, BI may cease to be an accurate predictor of B. F i n a l l y , a l l behavior tasks had to be independent of each other with respect to the l o c a t i o n i n which each a c t i v i t y was executed. This diminished the p o s s i b i l i t y of a subject performing another task because i t was conveniently i n the same l o c a t i o n . 75 5. Methods of Analysis The analyses were c a r r i e d out by means of an IBM 360/67 computer, u t i l i z i n g the applicable subroutines of the UBC-TRIP (44) and BMD 02R (45) regression programs. The s p e c i f i c research questions investigated and the methods of analysis used are described below. Commonly accepted a-levels i n educational research (a = .05 or .01) were used to suggest whether or not the r e s u l t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . ^ 5.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and Those External to the Fishbein Model To what extent are c e r t a i n a t t i t u d i n a l and non- a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s , external to, or not s p e c i f i e d by the Fishbein model, rel a t e d to each of the variables i n the model, fo r each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ? Pearson product-moment cor r e l a t i o n s between each of the external variables and B, BI, A ., ZBI, ZNB., EMc., and ZNB^(Mc^) were computed for each behavioral a c t i v i t y . 4 From a p r a c t i c a l standpoint, i t i s probably u s e f u l , for the purpose of comparison, to know that the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Type I error (rejecting a n u l l hypothesis when i t i s true) i s greater than or less than commonly accepted probabil- i t i e s (a-levels) i n educational research or studies along s i m i l a r l i n e s . To a r b i t r a r i l y set an a p r i o r i a - l e v e l and then to accept the n u l l hypothesis i f the value of the t e s t s t a t i s t i c does not reach the c r i t i c a l value corresponding to the predetermined a - l e v e l , would be more appropriate to v a l i d a t i o n procedures than to the a p p l i c a t i v e context of the present study. 76 5.2 The Relationship between Variables Internal to the Model To what extent are BI, IBI, and B related to A ., c l C t NB., Mc, NB.(Mc), and INB.(Mc) f o r each of the extra- c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? Computation of a product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n matrix was performed f o r a l l variables i n t e r n a l to the model, for each behavioral a c t i v i t y . 5.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention (a) How accurately can the behavioral i n t e n t i o n with respect to each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y be pre- dicted from A . and the sum of the relevant norma- act t i v e products, ENB^(Mc^)? (b) Which of the two predictor v a r i a b l e s , a t t i t u d i n a l or normative, i s the best predictor of BI i n each d i f f e r e n t behavioral situation? M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of [A . + ZNB.(Mc.) ] with BI were computed for each behavioral a c t i v i t y . Also computed were the standardized regression c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the A . and i n d i v i d u a l NB(Mc.) terms of the equation. The percent variance accounted for by each i n d i v i d u a l predictor was also computed by taking the product of the beta c o e f f i c i e n t of each predictor and the c o r r e l a t i o n of the predictor with the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , BI. 77 5.4 The Role of Behavioral Intention i n Predicting Behavior To what extent are A . and ENB.(Mc.) re l a t e d to B, d C t X X the performance of the act, i . e . , a c t u a l l y carrying out each e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ? A computation of the product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between B and A ., and between B and ZNB.(Mc.) was c a r r i e d 3.C u X X out for the f i r s t three behavioral a c t i v i t i e s . P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s of A . with B, and NB. (Mc.) ac t ' 1 1 with B holding BI constant, were also computed and the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s u l t s indicated. 5.5 Measurement E f f e c t To what extent do measurements on the components of Fishbein's model influence students' behavioral responses toward the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ? 2 X -tests of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the type of instrument completed by the students, and frequencies of t h e i r behavioral responses was computed, using two by two contingency tables, and using Yates' correc t i o n for small c e l l frequencies (Appendices N to Q) . 78 CHAPTER IV RESULTS During the course of the analysis of data, two r e s u l t s predicted i n Chapter II became r e a d i l y apparent: (a) the Mc factor tended to attenuate c o r r e l a t i o n s between the normative component of the model and the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s , and (b) the f i r s t and t h i r d BI items i n each part of the question- naire did not give the high c o r r e l a t i o n s and multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s with the predictor variables that were obtained by using the non-conditional B I 2 item (see Chapter I I I , section 4.2.1). For these reasons, the majority of the r e s u l t s shown i n t h i s chapter w i l l omit measurements on Mc, BI.^, BI^ and ZBI. Measurements on B I 2 w i l l be taken as the sole measure- ment on BI, and measurements on NB^, NB2, NB^, NB^, NB^ and NB w i l l take the place of measures on Fishbein's normative * n predictor term, Z NB.Mc. i= l 1 1 1. The Relationship between Variables Internal to the Fishbein Model and those External to the Model (N = 89) According to the theory, any variables external to the model should be unrelated to behavioral i n t e n t i o n and to overt behavior, unless they are also s i g n i f i c a n t l y " ^ r e l a t e d to at l e a s t one of the predictors given i n the model (7). Table VIII shows the co r r e l a t i o n s between several variables external to the model and variables i n t e r n a l to the model. A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s are t y p i c a l l y low (r < .35). In only f i v e instances out of eig h t y - f i v e ( A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 5), was behavior s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) correlated with an external v a r i a b l e , two of these cases at the p < ,01 l e v e l and the other three at the p < .05 l e v e l . Behavioral intentions correlated with the external variables i n t h i r t e e n instances, f i v e at the p < .01 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y and eight at the p < .05 l e v e l . Curiously, the external v a r i a b l e , Anuc' a t t i t u < ^ e toward the topic 'Nuclear Energy', correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with behavioral intentions for A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3, 4, and 5. Also, a marginal s i g n i f i c a n c e trend was shown i n the c o r r e l a t i o n of a ^ ^ (Attitude toward the topic 'The Human Body') with BI for a c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 4 (the c r i t i c a l value of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t with N = 89, was 0.210 at a = .05). Although the c o r r e l a t i o n s of external variables with variables i n t e r n a l to the model tended to be low, the adher- ence of these c o r r e l a t i o n s to the theory was checked i n the f i r s t three a c t i v i t i e s . "̂A ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' c o r r e l a t i o n , for t h i s chapter, w i l l r e f e r to a c o r r e l a t i o n that i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from zero c o r r e l a t i o n at the .05 l e v e l (two t a i l e d t e s t ) . TABLE VIII CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL AND VARIABLES INTERNAL TO THE MODEL a A c t i v i t y l i attending a froo lunch-hour m o v i e . e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance" B OI V t ND1 NB 2 NB 3 NB 4 NB 5 NB p *pi>y» AP115 .054 .188 .259" -.065 .087 .061 .017 .059 .246* .135 .103 .159 -.018 -.034 .080 -.171 .079 .043 Acla»o .122 .009 .085 -.072 -.148 .110 .165 -.006 -.017 A p r o J A t o x t .118 .150 .345t .022 .039 .102 -.208 -.075 .117 .128 .028 .137 -.058 -.073 -.026 .002 .005 .000 Aoci\ -.170 .096 .092 .014 .059 -.022 .074 .056 .055 align Aaxim« -.051 -.057 .087 -.157 -.014 -.047 -.281t -.231* -.051 -.002 -.089 -.215* -.134 .030 -.079 -.014 .036 -.1B4 Anuc .042 .309t .247" .174 .001 -.196 -.151 -.004 .339t Aonv -.025 .161 -.049 .112 .201 .102 .064 .150 .246* A C P Abod .081 -.007 .040 -.113 .059 .064 .144 .074 .118 .176 .224* -.015 .238* .074 .189 -.071 .086 .097 Apr*am lab .050 .011 .112 .099 .034 -.027 .176 -.151 .177 -.063 .051 .114 -.148 -.029 .072 -.178 -.081 .023 P H 1 2 .030 .000 -.094 -.086 -.022 -.090 -.153 -.237* .033 H A J J -.034 -.028 -.123 .088 -.014 .008 -.028 -.007 -.013 -.005 -.018 -.128 .009 -.020 -.043 -.099 -.130 .009 A c t i v i t y 2i signing up to roceivo information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment B BI A a c t ND2 N!l 3 N 0 4 ND5 NO P phys .121 .096 .153 .022 - .027 .100 .097 .023 .205 AP115 .014 .004 .067 -.085 .052 .091 -.197 .036 .032 " c l a s s -.145 -.132 .025 -.026 -.047 .030 -.091 .068 -.104 prof -.124 .000 .287t -.061 -.025 .046 -.142 .026 .019 A t o x t -.030 .054 .047 .032 -.008 .082 .020 .075 .092 A sm -.002 .076 .221* .027 .012 .076 .048 -.046 .071 A asgn .062 -.174 .051 -.170 -.185 -.126 -.296t -.211 -.028 A oxoma -.093 -.260* -.192 -.116 .064 -.143 -.072 -.048 -.260* A nuc .095 .125 .135 -.079 -.152 -.161 -.011 -.126 .142 A onv -.060 -.120 -.165 .053 .254* .122 .051 -.159 -.157 A cp Abod -.001 .014 .002 -.046 .005 -.019 .097 .108 .009 -.026 .205 .145 .152 .134 .123 -.138 .231* .177 A ,prfcom .240* .158 .014 .103 .103 .015 .131 -.093 .317t lab -.127 -.016 -.022 -.093 .000 .068 -.144 -.094 .050 P , l12 .007 -.236* -.226* -.067 -.194 -.025 -.103 -.225* -.073 MA 1 2 .092 - .096 -.061 .106 -.027 .069 -.026 -.076 .017 PMtMAjj .061 -.186 -.159 .031 -.121 ,300t -.071 -.167 -.028 A c t i v i t y 3i pick i n g up a sot Technology of information motarials and reading l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and "phys AP115 c l a s s A p r o f onv A c p Abod Apr*om Al«b P H U HA, "12 P1UMA 12 .278t .180 .154 .097 .294t .038 .117 .078 .081 .076 .087 .003 .020 .153 .030 .137 .102 BI .209 .082 .090 .183 .145 .169 .008 .064 .308t -.014 -.033 .086 .218* -.034 -.187 -.055 -.135 act .076 .113 .113 .315t .103 .162 -.037 -.125 .045 .030 -.015 -.019 -.071 -.147 -.149 -.017 -.091 NB -.094 -.159 -.0 26 -.024 -.04 2 -.094 -.243* -.102 -.196 -.018 .113 .140 .069 -.034 -.064 .024 -.019 NB., -.081 -.043 .003 .021 -.011 .027 -.212* -.044 -.228* .088 .114 .133 .043 -.047 -.195 -.063 -.144 NB .000 -.043 .127 .105 .026 .122 -.140 -.091 -.249' -.008 .002 .024 .042 .039 -.119 -.023 -.07 8 NB„ .085 -.078 .062 .016 -.033 .211* -.184 .100 -.085 .038 .101 .111 -.012 -.163 -.104 .107 .012 NB, .031 .097 .129 .015 -.021 -.061 -.147 .073 -.107 -.108 .079 .182 -.126 .028 -.136 -.024 NB„ .190 .150 .173 .268* -.044 .113 .028 .027 .293t .002 .164 .12S .067 .070 -.007 -.044 -.031 A c t i v i t y 4i attending.a froo lunch-hour movio o n t i t l e d , "Tho Time of Man" phyB AP115 AclaBB Apro£ oxams A nuc A env A c p Abod Aprtom A l a b P H 1 2 ""12 PlltMA, .013 .126 .108 .052 .004 -.115 -.007 .068 -.187 -.075 .122 .114 .086 .133 -.065 -.132 -.118 BI .138 .083 .050 .383t .072 .062 .113 .086 .226* .118 .336t .211* .192 .081 .137 .007 .070 A c t i v i t y 5i contacting tlio l e c t u r e r to obt a i n information about a B u i s t - ing the summor l a n d f i l l leaching experiment B BI . 101 .021 -.113 -.039 -.161 -.224' -.204 -.114 -.022 .025 -.212* .066 -.005 -.093 -.124 -.149 .200 .260* -.191 .012 .016 -.057 .156 .141 .211* .288t -.045 .039 .141 -.003 .158 .013 .174 .007 00 o 81 TABLE VIII (continued) correlations have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and are not s i g n i f i c a n t except where noted otherwise. (N = 89) *P < .05 +p < .01 Abbreviations: phys ^115 A c l a s s prof a text A sm A asgn exams Anuc A env A cp ^ o d A. pr&em "lab PH 1 2 MA 1 2 PH&MA B BI A . act NB 12 Attitude toward physics i n general Attitude toward Physics 115 Attitude toward class i n s t r u c t i o n Attitude toward the le c t u r e r Attitude toward the textbook Attitude toward the subject matter Attitude toward assignments Attitude toward examinations Attitude toward the topic, 'Nuclear Energy' Attitude toward the topic, Attitude toward the topic, Attitude toward the topic, 'Environment' ' C l a s s i c a l Physics' 'The Human Body' 'Propulsion and Attitude toward the topic, Electromagnetic Theory' Attitude toward the Physics 115 laboratory session Physics 12 marks Math 12 marks Combined Physics 12 and Math 12 marks Behavior Behavioral in t e n t i o n Attitude toward the act Normative b e l i e f s with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the c l a s s ' , (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'r e l i g i o u s group', (p) 'myself.' . 82 In A c t i v i t y 1, i t was found that the c o r r e l a t i o n s of BI with A n u c and A j ^ were .309 (p < .01) and .224 (p < .05) res p e c t i v e l y . In accordance with the theory, & n u c also correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with predictors NB (r = .339, p < .01) and A ' (r = .247, p < .05), and A j ^ correlated with NB^ (r = .238, p < .05). The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s under A c t i v i t y 2 also show a s i m i l a r tendency to conform to the theory. Attitude toward examinations (A ), and Physics 12 marks (PH,0) exams J 1- showed c o r r e l a t i o n s of -.260 (p < .05) and -.236 (p < .05) respectively with BI. 'A 1 also showed a c o r r e l a t i o n of exams -.260 with NB , while 'PH,-' showed a c o r r e l a t i o n of -.226 p 1_ with A . and -.225 with NB,. The .240 (p < .05) c o r r e l a t i o n cl C *C D of B with A r (attitude toward the topic 'Propulsion and pr&em c Electromagnetic Theory') was accompanied by a c o r r e l a t i o n of .317 (p < .01) between A r and NB . c pr&em p This tendency to conform with the theory was not without some d i f f i c u l t y , as shown by the r e s u l t s for A c t i v i t y 3 (Table V I I I ) . While A tended to conform to 1 nuc theory by exhi b i t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s of .308 (p < .01), -.228 (p < .05), -249 (p < .05) and .293 (p < .01) with BI, NB_, NB^ and NB^ respectively, three other external variables did not conform. The att i t u d e toward Physics i n general (A ̂  ), showed c o r r e l a t i o n s of .278 (p < .01) and .209 (p < .06) with B and BI respectively, but did not cor r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with any of the predictor variables (although the c o r r e l a t i o n 83 of Ap^yg with NBp was associated with a p r o b a b i l i t y value of p < .07 5) . The attitude toward the textbook ( A t e x t ) showed a c o r r e l a t i o n of .294 (p < .01) with B, but no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n occurred with any of the predictor v a r i a b l e s . S i m i l a r l y , A £ showed a marginally s i g n i f i c a n t .218 (p - .05) c o r r e l a t i o n with BI, but did not co r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with any pred i c t o r . A c t i v i t y 5 produced two marginally s i g n i f i c a n t (p = .05) co r r e l a t i o n s of external variables with behavior, and A c t i v i t i e s 4 and 5 combined gave seven s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the external variables and BI. Since predictor variables were not assessed for A c t i v i t i e s 4 and 5, adherence to the theory could not be checked for these c o r r e l a t i o n s . 2. The Relationship between Variables Internal to the Model (N = 128) On the basis of theory, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t product moment co r r e l a t i o n s were expected to occur between the c r i t e r i o n variables (BI and B), between the c r i t e r i o n and each of the predictor variables separately, and between the a t t i t u d i n a l and relevant normative predictor v a r i a b l e s . Since separate, but s i m i l a r normative predictor terms were used i n the stepwise regression analysis, some s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between these terms were also expected. 84 Tables IX and X summarize these c o r r e l a t i o n s for each of the a c t i v i t i e s (note that A . and NB. were not ac *c i assessed i n A c t i v i t i e s 4 or 5). S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found i n A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3, between BI and the predictor v a r i a b l e s , NB , A . and NB.. Correlations c P act i between B and the predictor v a r i a b l e s , however, were small and often i n s i g n i f i c a n t . A check of the BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p also revealed low co r r e l a t i o n s (non-significant i n the cases of A c t i v i t y 2 and A c t i v i t y 4). A c t i v i t y 3 showed a negative c o r r e l a t i o n of -.273 (p < .01) between B and NB^ (normative b e l i e f with respect to the lecturer) although the c o r r e l a t i o n of BI with NB4 was almost zero (.020NS). Correlations between the predictor variables (Table X) indicated that the majority of normative b e l i e f s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and rather highly related to each other. A a c f however, was not very highly correlated with normative b e l i e f s , with the exception of the personal normative b e l i e f , NB . The c o r r e l a t i o n of A . with NB was about .50 for a l l p ac t p a c t i v i t i e s analyzed. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the A ^-NB- c o r r e l a t i o n i n a l l three a c t i v i t i e s was con s i s t e n t l y act 3 higher than the c o r r e l a t i o n of A . with any other s o c i a l normative b e l i e f . In summary, the students* personal normative b e l i e f s , attitudes toward the act, and normative b e l i e f s with respect to 'closest f r i e n d s ' , appeared to be most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to TABLE IX CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR AND CRITERION VARIABLES a Predictor Variable A c t i v i t y 1 A c t i v i t y 2 A c t i v i t y 3 A c t i v i t y 4 A c t i v i t y 5 BI B BI B BI B B B A ^ .383 .206* .483 -.068NS . .498 .105NS act NB^ .385 .253 .368 .002NS .185* -.145NS N B 2 .192* .118NS .210* -.009NS .111NS -.142NS N B 3 .236 .186* .303 .007NS .160NS -.154NS NB4 -.029NS -.039NS .107NS -.032NS .020NS -.257 NB .182* .080NS .326 -.074NS .080NS -.107NS NB r> .692 .267 .771 .114NS .677 .180* ir BI 1.000 .280 1.000 .111NS 1.000 .268 .142NS .339 a A l l c orrelations have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and are s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) * p < .05 Abbreviations: NS = Not s i g n i f i c a n t BI = Behavioral intention B = Behavior A ^ = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative b e l i e f s with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself CO Ul 8 6 TABLEIX (continued) Activity 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" Activity 2 = signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment Activity 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology Activity 4 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "The Time of Man" Activity 5 = contacting the lecturer to obtain information about assisting the summer landfill leaching experiment 87 TABLE X CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR VARIABLES 3 NB 1 NB 2 NB3 NB4 NB5 NB P act A c t i v i t y 1 NB^ 1 .000 .398 .550 .082NS .339 .408 .223* NB 2 1 .000 .636 .245 .470 .268 .100NS NB3 1 .000 .241 .500 .357 .227* NB4 1 .000 .310 .074NS .086NS NB 5 1 .000 .252 .125NS NB P 1 .000 .505 A c t i v i t y 2 NBX 1 .000 .642 .697 .113NS .519 .344 .125NS NB 2 1 .000 .600 .287 .496 .248 .138NS NB3 1 .000 .250 .516 .366 .247 NB4 1 .000 .212* .172NS .168NS NB5 1 .000 .330 .273 NB P 1 .000 .483 A c t i v i t y 3 NB 1 1 .000 .687 .680 .146NS .454 .178* .06 2NS NB 2 1 .000 .702 .209* .449 .208* .150NS NB3 1 .000 .186* .487 .084NS .166NS NB4 1 .000 .269 .151NS .126NS NB 5 1 .000 .164NS .001NS NB P 1 .000 .450 A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and are s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) * p < .05 88 TABLE X (continued) Abbreviations: NS = Not significant A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself Activity 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" Activity 2 = signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling•experiment Activity 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology 89 the behavioral i n t e n t i o n i n each a c t i v i t y . The other s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s tended to be somewhat less r e l a t e d to BI (generally having co r r e l a t i o n s of r < .25). The BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p tended to be low, but s i g n i f i c a n t i n A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and 5, ranging between r = .27 and r = .34. The BI-B corr e l a t i o n s for a c t i v i t i e s 2 and 4 were r = .111NS and r = .14 2NS res p e c t i v e l y . Correlations of the predictor variables with BI tended to be larger than c o r r e l a t i o n s of the same predictor variables with B. F i f t y percent of the variables i n t e r n a l to the model correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with behavior or behavioral i n t e n t i o n (in A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3), compared to a nine percent fig u r e for s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l - ations of the external variables with B or BI. 3. The Prediction of Behavioral Intention (N = 128) Table XI shows the beta weights of the predictor variables and the multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of these variables with behavioral i n t e n t i o n . The large multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained tend to indicate that behavioral i n t e n t i o n can be predicted to a high degree of accuracy by the use of att i t u d e toward the act and various relevant normative b e l i e f s as predictors. The beta weight of A , for A c t i v i t y 1 was found c L C t to be non-significant, i n d i c a t i n g that normative b e l i e f s , s p e c i f i c a l l y NB^ and NB^ were the variables responsible i n the p r e d i c t i o n of BI for t h i s a c t i v i t y . A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3 showed s i g n i f i c a n t beta weights for A ., i n d i c a t i n g that TABLE X I STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIORAL INTENTION a A c t i v i t y act NB^ NB2 NB3 NB4 NB5 NB P R 1 .054NS .157 .025NS -.095NS -.085NS •026NS .627 .710 2 .164 .219 -.068NS -.109NS -.023NS .043NS .666 .797 3 .240 .131NS -.228 .178 -.096NS -.038NS .608 .739 a A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s and multiple correlations have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and are s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) Abbreviations: R = Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of predictors on behavioral NS = Not s i g n i f i c a n t intention A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative b e l i e f s with respect to: - (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the clas s ' , (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself A c t i v i t y 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance" A c t i v i t y 2 = signing up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment A c t i v i t y 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and Technology o attitude toward the act as well as the relevant normative b e l i e f s were important considerations i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavioral intentions for those two a c t i v i t i e s . The only s o c i a l normative b e l i e f found to be s i g n i f i c a n t was NB^ the normative b e l i e f with respect to 'closest f r i e n d s ' . The NB 1 beta weight was i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n A c t i v i t y 3, but NB2 (the normative b e l i e f with respect to 'parents') was seen to have a s i g n i f i c a n t negative beta c o e f f i c i e n t , and NB^ (the normative b e l i e f with respect to 'majority of the class') had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e weighting. The l a r g e s t beta weight i n . a l l three a c t i v i t i e s was that of the personal normative b e l i e f (NB^) which appeared to be the major con- t r i b u t o r to the p r e d i c t i o n of BI i n each a c t i v i t y . The quantities of t o t a l variance i n the p r e d i c t i o n of BI accounted for by the predictor variables were .50, .63 and .55 f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 respectively, leaving about f o r t y to f i f t y percent unaccounted f o r . Table XII shows the percent of t o t a l variance accounted for by each predictor v a r i a b l e i n the p r e d i c t i o n of BI. NB^ accounted f o r the l a r g e s t portion of the predictable variance i n each a c t i v i t y , with A . and NB, contending for the next l a r g e s t quantity of variance. TABLE XII PERCENT OF TOTAL VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR BY EACH PREDICTOR VARIABLE IN THE PREDICTION OF BEHAVIORAL INTENTION a A c t i v i t y A , % act NB]_% NB2% NB3% NB4% NB5% NBp% R 2% 1 2.05 6.06 0.48 -2.25 0.25 0.48 43.39 50.47 2 7.94 8.07 -1.42 -3.29 - .24 1.40 51.30 63.48 3 11.93 2.43 -2.54 2.85 - .20 - .30 41.17 54 .67 aAlthough figures are given to two decimal places, these l a s t two decimal places are not s i g n i f i c a n t (N = 128). Percentages ± 5% are not s i g n i f i c a n t . Abbreviations: A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative b e l i e f s with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3)'majority of the class', (4)'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself R = Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of predictors on behavioral intention attending a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance" signing up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment picking up a set of information materials and reading l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and Technology VD IO A c t i v i t y 1 = A c t i v i t y 2 = A c t i v i t y 3 = 4. The Prediction of Behavior (N = 128) The p r e d i c t i o n of behavior was found to be consider- ably less accurate than the p r e d i c t i o n of behavioral i n t e n t i o n . The beta c o e f f i c i e n t s and multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s of the pre- d i c t o r variables with behavior are shown i n Table XIII. The portion of t o t a l variance accounted for by the predictor variables i n the pr e d i c t i o n of behavior was found to be only .11, .04 and .14 for A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y , leaving eighty-six to ninety-six percent of the variance unaccounted f o r . This poor pr e d i c t i o n of behavior was also indicated by the low BI-B cor r e l a t i o n s shown i n Table IX. Although the beta weights of the predictors i n the regression on B (Table XIII) were i n most instances i n s i g n i f i c a n t , they presented an i n t e r e s t i n g deviation from the pattern shown i n the pr e d i c t i o n of BI. A . d i d not . ac *c carry a s i g n i f i c a n t weight f o r any a c t i v i t y , and NB was P s i g n i f i c a n t only i n A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3. The only instance of a s i g n i f i c a n t l y weighted s o c i a l normative b e l i e f came i n A c t i v i t y 3, with NB^ (the normative b e l i e f with respect to the l e c t u r e r ) . The beta weight for NB^ was negative and greater than the weight of NB^. Such was not the case i n the regression on BI, where NB^ had a small, non-significant weight, and NB was highly s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .001). TABLE XIII STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIOR a A c t i v i t y A ^ act NB1 NB2 NB3 NB, 4 NBC D NB P R 1 .093NS .155NS <.01NS .059NS -.077NS -.028NS .149NS .331* 2 -.146NS -.034NS .018NS .043NS -.034NS -.114NS .220 .210NS 3 .061NS -.092NS -.064NS -.036NS -.282 .014NS .234 .376 A l l beta c o e f f i c i e n t s and multiple correlations have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and are s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) p < .05 Abbreviations: A c t i v i t y 1 A c t i v i t y 2 A c t i v i t y 3 = NS A . act NB - R = Not s i g n i f i c a n t = Attitude toward the act = Normative b e l i e f s with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the cl a s s ' , (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself' = Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n of predictors on behavior = attending a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance"' signing up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment picking up a set of information materials and r e a d i n g . l i s t on P o l l u t i o n and Technology vo 95 5. The Role of Behavioral Intention i n Predicting Behavior (N = 128) The r e s u l t s given i n Tables XIII and XIV tend to support the hypothesis that BI i s an intervening v a r i a b l e between overt behavior and the predictors of the Fishbein model. Each of the s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between behavior and a predictor variable (Table XIV) was reduced to non-significance when the e f f e c t of BI was p a r t i a l l e d out (Table XV). The negative product moment co r r e l a t i o n s given i n Table XIV increased i n value i n the negative d i r e c t i o n when BI was held constant (Table XV). Some non-significant negative product c o r r e l a t i o n s became s i g n i f i c a n t i n the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n matrix (Table XV). 6. Measurement E f f e c t In order to investigate measurement e f f e c t s on actual 2 performance of the e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a x t e s t of independence was ca r r i e d out for each a c t i v i t y . The 2 x 2 contingency tables used i n these analyses are shown i n Appendices N, 0, P and Q. 2 The values of x (corrected f o r small c e l l frequencies) obtained for each a c t i v i t y , comparing the e f f e c t of the r e - search instrument to the e f f e c t of the placebo instrument are given i n Table XVI. The possible presence of a measurement e f f e c t i n A c t i v i t y 3 led to the speculation that the placebo instrument TABLE XIV PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES a Behavior A 4- act NB^ NB2 NB3 NB4 NBC D NB P BI B l .206* .253 .119NS .188* -.040NS .081NS .267 .280 B2 -.068NS .003NS -.010NS .008NS -.032NS -.074NS .114NS .111NS B3 .108NS -.149NS -.146NS -.159NS -.273 -.114NS .192* .268 a A l l correlations have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and are s i g n i f i c a n t at p =.01 except where noted otherwise (N = 128); s l i g h t differences between the c o r r e l a - tions shown i n thi s table and those shown i n Table X are due to d i f f e r e n t rounding errors between computer programs. p < .05 Abbreviations: NS act NB BI = Not s i g n i f i c a n t = Attitude toward the act = Normative b e l i e f s with respect to: (1) 'Closest fr i e n d s ' , (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the cl a s s ' , (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious, group', (p) 'myself' = Behavioral intention = The performance (or non-performance)of A c t i v i t y 1 = The performance (or non-performance)of A c t i v i t y 2 = The performance (or non-performance)of A c t i v i t y 3 TABLE XV PARTIAL CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, HOLDING BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) CONSTANT a Behavior A . act NB^ NB2 NB3 NB4 NBC 0 NB P B l .111NS .164NS .069NS .131NS -.033NS .031NS .106NS B2 -.140NS -.043NS -.035NS -.028NS -.032NS -.118NS .044NS B3 -.032NS -.211* -.184* -.212* -.289 -.14 2NS .012NS a A l l correlations have been rounded o f f to three s i g n i f i c a n t figures and are s i g n i f i c a n t at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) p < .05 Abbreviations: NS A a c t NB B] B, B. Not s i g n i f i c a n t Attitude toward the act Normative b e l i e f s with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself The performance (or non-performance) of A c t i v i t y 1 The performance (or non-performance) of A c t i v i t y 2 The performance (or non-performance) of A c t i v i t y 3 VO TABLE XVI CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVITIES, FROM THE RECEIVING OF A QUESTIONNAIRE** A c t i v i t y Research vs placebo questionnaire Placebo vs no questionnaire Research vs no questionnaire Research vs no questionnaire (absentees corrected) 2 X P< 2 X P< 2 X P< 2 X P< 1 .64 .50 5.78 .02 16.66 .001 6 .23 .02 2 .04 .90 _* _* 1.04 .50 .07 .80 3 3.53 .10 _* _* 15.08 .001 8.52 .005 4 .53 .50 7.94 .005 21.33 .001 9.49 .005 5 .005 .95 1.36 .25 3.93 .05 1.24 .30 p i s the p r o b a b i l i t y of obtaining a x value greater than or equal to the corresponding tabled value, for one degree of freedom, given the n u l l hypothesis H^ H^ i s the hypothesis that the performance of an a c t i v i t y i s independent from receiving a questionnaire * 2 c e l l frequencies were too small for an accurate c a l c u l a t i o n of x ** complete contingency tables are shown i n Appendices N, 0, P and Q V D C O i t s e l f might produce some measurement e f f e c t and thus mask the measurement e f f e c t of the research instrument. This p o s s i b i l i t y was checked out by u t i l i z i n g the students who 2 received no instrument at a l l , as a c o n t r o l group. x tests comparing the behavior performance (or non-performance) of the students who received the placebo instrument, to the responses of those who received no instrument were c a r r i e d out. Although c e l l frequencies were too small 2 2 for computation of x i n A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3, the x values obtained for A c t i v i t i e s 1, 4 and 5 are shown under the 'Placebo vs no questionnaire 1 column of Table XVI. The contingency tables used i n these c a l c u l a t i o n s are given i n Appendix 0 . 2 Another series of x tests was conducted, comparing the behavior responses of the students who received the research instrument to the responses of those who received no instrument (Appendix P). The r e s u l t s are given i n Table XVI. Measurement e f f e c t i s apparently considerable for A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and 4, marginal i n A c t i v i t y 5, and non- s i g n i f i c a n t i n A c t i v i t y 2. One possible confounding fa c t o r should be mentioned; included i n the group of students who received no measuring instrument were the absentees. No record of the exact number of absentees per lecture was kept, but a rough estimate by the professor i n charge of Section 1 placed the number of d a i l y absentees at an average of f i f t y . Assuming the worst case, i . e . , that the same f i f t y students 2 were absent for the enti r e lecture s e r i e s , x values were 2 recalculated (Appendix Q) and gave the r e s u l t shown i n 2 Table XVI. The f a c t that x values f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and 4 were s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t a f t e r being corrected for absentees would lend support to the existence of the measurement e f f e c t i n at l e a s t these three a c t i v i t i e s . 7 . Discussion of Results The r e s u l t s indicate that Fishbein's model can be u s e f u l l y applied i n an educational s i t u a t i o n . Problems i n ap p l i c a t i o n of the theory noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e and a few problems more s p e c i f i c to the present study became apparent. These problems are pointed out i n the sections below, but not accounted f o r . The present study attempted to c o l l e c t information about the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Fishbein's theory to classroom practice and not information accounting f o r deviations from theory. 2 Correction for absentees (N = 50) was accomplished by subtracting f i f t y from the group of 132 students who received no questionnaire at a l l (there was no way of t e l l i n g i f those students were present or absent during the assessment lecture period except by behavior performance, since they did not turn i n response sheets). From each contingency table given i n Appendix P, f i f t y has been subtracted from the c e l l representing the number of students i n the no instrument group who did not perform the behavior. This subtraction resulted i n the contingency tables given i n Appendix Q. 101 7.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and those External to the Fishbein Model For A c t i v i t y 3, the c o r r e l a t i o n s (Table VIII) that appear not to conform with the theory were the c o r r e l a t i o n s of attitude toward the textbook (Atex4-) with behavior (r = .294, p < .01), and attitude toward the topic 'Propul- sion and Electromagnetic Theory' ( Ap r£ e m) with behavioral i n t e n t i o n (r = .218, p < .05). Neither of these measures on attitude correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with any of the predictor v a r i a b l e s . The A c t i v i t y 3 c o r r e l a t i o n of A . with B (r = .278, phys p < .01) might be interpreted with respect to the p o s s i b i l i t y of s t a t i s t i c a l f l u c t u a t i o n and the marginal s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o r r e l a t i o n of A , with BI. The c r i t i c a l values f o r phys the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t (N = 89) are r = .274 (p = .01) and r = .210 (p = .05) . The c o r r e l a t i o n of A p h v s with BI may be, within s t a t i s t i c a l f l u c t u a t i o n , considered marginally s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l (r = .209) . The c o r r e l a t i o n of Aphyg with NBp was previously shown to be r = .190, p < .075. Given the almost s i g n i f i c a n t s i z e of these c o r r e l a t i o n s , plus the highly s i g n i f i c a n t value of the beta c o e f f i c i e n t for NBp i n A c t i v i t y 3 (Table XI), the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the external variable A , „ with the i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e BI tends phys to conform to expectations based upon the theory, i . e . , that any variables external to the model w i l l be unrelated to 102 behavior and to behavioral intention, unless they can be shown to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to at l e a s t one of the predictors given i n the model (7). 7.2 The Relationship among Variables Internal to the Model The co r r e l a t i o n s of the predictor variables with BI (Table IX) tended to substantiate the theory that BI i s a function of A . and of the relevant normative b e l i e f s . The act observation that a l l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between BI and each normative b e l i e f were considerably reduced when each normative b e l i e f term was m u l t i p l i e d by i t s respective Mc va r i a b l e , supports the conjecture (8, 9, 10) that the pr e d i c t i v e value of Mc as measured i s i n serious doubt. Suggestions concerning t h i s v a r i a b l e are made i n the present chapter, sec t i o n 7.4, and Chapter V, section 4.1. The r e s u l t that a l l s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s of the predictor variables with B were smaller than the correspond- ing c o r r e l a t i o n s of the predictors with BI, (Table IX), i s consistent with the theory that BI i s an intervening v a r i a b l e between B and the predictor terms, but t h i s e f f e c t could 3 also have been due to method variance. The negative r e l a t i o n - Since behavior was assessed i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than the other va r i a b l e s , i t i s possible that variance due to differences i n method could account for the observation that behavioral intention c o n s i s t e n t l y correlates more highly with the predictor variables than does behavior. Ajzen and Fishbein (10), however, have shown that variance due to method was not responsible for a s i m i l a r e f f e c t observed i n t h e i r work (p. 484). 103 ship between s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s and B i n A c t i v i t y 3 suggests that normative b e l i e f s may a c t u a l l y s h i f t p o l a r i t y i n the i n t e r v a l between the assessment of BI and the performance of the behavior. This, too i s consistent with theory, i n that behavioral intentions may change over time, or that the actual behavioral s i t u a t i o n may not correspond with the i n d i v i d u a l ' s expectation of the behavioral s i t u a t i o n . The low obtained BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y that i n these p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , the actual behavioral s i t u a t i o n s were not adequately described i n the assessment of behavioral intentions, or that BI had changed considerably over a period of time. These p o s s i b i l i t i e s suggest a need for determining the s t a b i l i t y of a BI measure and also a need for procedures with which to estimate BI-B correspondence. The consistently high (r = .48) c o r r e l a t i o n s (Table X) between NB and A . suggests that these two predictor p ciC u variables may have a component i n common with each other. This specualtion i s i n accordance with Dulany's RHd v a r i a b l e which occurred i n both the a t t i t u d i n a l and i n the normative predictor variables of equation (2.3). Further, c o r r e l a t i o n s between NB and BI (r - .71) tend to indicate that i n A c t i v i t i e s P 1 to 3, NB was not quite an a l t e r n a t i v e measure of BI as Ajzen and Fishbein (10) had found previously. This f i n d i n g was further substantiated by the r e l a t i v e magnitudes of the beta c o e f f i c i e n t s of other predictor variables (Table XI). 104 The high (r = .65) c o r r e l a t i o n s between NB 2 and NB^ for A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3 indicate the p o s s i b i l i t y of a common component or s i m i l a r i t y between these two p r e d i c t o r s . This r e s u l t may also be applied to NB^ and NB2 (r - .58) , NB^ and NB5 (r = .50) , NB2 and NB^ (r = .47) , and NB^ and NB^ (r * .44) . 7.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention Although the predictor variables accounted f o r at l e a s t f i f t y percent of the t o t a l variance i n the p r e d i c t i o n of BI (Table XII), f o r t y to f i f t y percent was unaccounted fo r . This "error" variance may be speculatively explained by several possible attenuating f a c t o r s . One factor might be the inherent r e l i a b i l i t y of the scales used i n the measuring instrument. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the scales used was not 4 determined d i r e c t l y because of p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . A more important factor may have been the construct v a l i d i t y of the items i n the instrument. The problems involved i n developing v a l i d measures on the various normative b e l i e f s , relevant referents, the motivation to comply (Mc) v a r i a b l e , and the personal normative b e l i e f have been previously discussed. In the case of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, 4 * . These p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s were discussed i n Chapter I, s e c t i o n 6. 105 Chapter III indicated that the referent groups, ' s c i e n t i f i c community' and '.university community', might have been more relevant to Physics 115 students than ' r e l i g i o u s group* and 'majority of the c l a s s " , the referents that were a c t u a l l y used. Associated with the problem of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y are the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the predictors with each other. The f a c t that a number of predictor variables were highly r e l a t e d to each other necessarily resulted i n some s t a t i s t i c a l attenu- ation of the multiple c o r r e l a t i o n values i n the multiple regression analysis (46). Response bias was l a r g e l y an unexpected occurrence which may have negatively affected student response r e l i a b i l - i t y . Several students were heard to make negative remarks about the questionnaire during the course of i t s completion. In addition, three response sheets that were handed i n appeared to have been purposely s p o i l e d . A t o t a l of fourteen response sheets were v i s u a l l y rejected as being p o t e n t i a l l y u n r e l i a b l e , but i t i s possible that others escaped detection. F i n a l l y , the p o s s i b i l i t y that some unknown facto r s might be important predictors of BI should not be excluded. Dulany's (18) o r i g i n a l t h e o r e t i c a l framework maintained an openness to the addition of new terms. In Fishbein's model i t i s possible that a motivational component may i n future be found to contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y to the pre d i c t i o n of BI. I t i s also possible that s p e c i f i c 106 variables such as 'achievement anxiety', 'need achievement' or 'academic i n t e r e s t ' , might be required s p e c i f i c a l l y i n educational si t u a t i o n s [Khan (31)] and that other s p e c i f i c variables might be required i n other s i t u a t i o n s . The question of the r e l a t i v e importance of the type of predictor v a r i a b l e ( a t t i t u d i n a l or normative) used i n predicting BI may be answered by reference to Table XI. For a l l three a c t i v i t i e s , normative b e l i e f s outweighed the a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i able by a large margin, although the value of the a t t i t u d i n a l beta c o e f f i c i e n t increased from non- s i g n i f i c a n c e (.054NS) i n A c t i v i t y 1, to .164 (p < .01) and .240 (p << .01) for A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . This increase i n the weight of A , from A c t i v i t y 1 to clC "t A c t i v i t y 3 shows up very d i s t i n c t l y i n terms of percent of the t o t a l variance (Table XII), but i s d i f f i c u l t to explain. Perhaps i t depends on the degree to which students perceive each a c t i v i t y as contributing to t h e i r achievement i n the lecture module concerned with environmental and technological assessment. I t i s possible that A c t i v i t y 1 (attending a free lunch-hour movie e n t i t l e d , "Environment i n the Balance") and A c t i v i t y 2 (signing up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment) were perceived by students as having few p o s i t i v e achievement consequences, r e s u l t i n g i n A . having l i t t l e r e l a t i v e importance i n the determination of BI. On the other hand, A c t i v i t y 3 (the 107 picking up of a set of information materials and reading l i s t on p o l l u t i o n and technology) appears to have had i n s t r u c t i o n a l value which may have been perceived by students as having b e n e f i c i a l consequences, i f performed. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would be i n l i n e with Fishbein's conceptual- i z a t i o n of A being, i n part, a function of b e l i e f s about ac "C the p r o b a b i l i t y of an act r e s u l t i n g i n c e r t a i n consequences. The large amount of variance (Table XII) accounted for by NBp, compared to the amount accounted for by a l l s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s combined,might be a s i t u a t i o n a l e f f e c t . Situations involving s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n might be expected to show a greater combined weight i n measures of s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s . This p o s s i b i l i t y should perhaps be investigated more thoroughly i n future studies. From a s t r i c t l y a p p l i c a t i v e point of view ret a i n i n g both the personal normative b e l i e f v a r i a b l e and the s o c i a l normative b e l i e f variables i n the model seems advisable u n t i l t h i s point i s c l a r i f i e d . 7.4 The Prediction of Behavior Low BI-B co r r e l a t i o n s (Table IX) and low multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s of the predictor variables (Table XIII) on behavior made the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of predictor variances i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior extremely d i f f i c u l t . The eighty- six to ninety-six percent of the t o t a l variance unaccounted for might, i n part, be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the factors discussed 108 i n connection with other studies, namely, the time i n t e r v a l between the measurement of BI and the observation of B, the degree of v o l i t i o n a l control that the i n d i v i d u a l had over his behavior i n the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , and the s p e c i f i c - i t y of the measure of BI to the behavioral s i t u a t i o n . These p o s s i b i l i t i e s are discussed in order below. The observation was made that the magnitude of the beta c o e f f i c i e n t s given i n Table X I I I ( i n the regression on behavior), did not correspond to the rank order of beta c o e f f i c i e n t s i n the case of a BI c r i t e r i o n (Table XI). Since the BI-B c o r r e l - ations were low i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s , i t was to be expected that the predictor variables would show d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i v e weighting i n the regression on behavior than i n the regression on behavioral i n t e n t i o n . While the r e l a t i v e l y long time i n t e r v a l between measures of BI and measures of B may have had some e f f e c t i n reducing the o v e r a l l BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n values, i t does riot appear to have contributed to the differences i n these c o r r e l a t i o n s for d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s (Table IX). A c t i v i t y 1 (the movie, "Environment i n the Balance"), for example, had to be attended on February 11, four days afte r the assess- ment of the model v a r i a b l e s . A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3 could have been completed immediately a f t e r the assessment (February 7), up to February 11. On the basis of time i n t e r v a l alone, A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3 should have higher BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s than A c t i v i t y 1. Such was not the case. The BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n 109 for a c t i v i t y 1 was .280 and the BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s for A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 3 were 111NS and .268 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Further- more, A c t i v i t y 5 (contacting the l e c t u r e r about a s s i s t i n g i n a summer l a n d f i l l leaching experiment) could have been performed between February 7 and 29, a possible time i n t e r v a l of twenty-two days (including weekends), and yet t h i s a c t i v i t y produced the highest BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n (.339, p < .01). Constraints on student v o l i t i o n could have played some part i n the size of the BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s i n A c t i v i t i e s 1 and 4 (the two lunch-hour movies). A few days afte r the showing of the A c t i v i t y 4 movie, "The Time of Man", i t was learned that one of a popular B.B.C. movie seri e s ( " C i v i l i z - ation") was being shown on campus at exactly the same time as "The Time of Man". Some of the Physics 115 students who i n i t i a l l y expressed the behavioral intention of performing A c t i v i t y 4 might have changed t h e i r minds i n favor of seeing " C i v i l i z a t i o n " , r e s u l t i n g i n the BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n for A c t i v i t y 4 being very low (.142NS). The degree which 'non-specificity of BI assessment to the behavioral s i t u a t i o n ' played a part i n reducing the BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s unknown. In the absence of any rigorous methodological guidelines i n the assessment of BI (several authors have used several methods), BI assessment questionnaire items were formulated on the basis on methods used i n the majority of past studies, keeping any reference to the behavioral s i t u a t i o n as s p e c i f i c as possible. 110 The r e l a t i v e l y large BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n for A c t i v i t y 5 gave r i s e to some speculation concerning the observed performance of behavior and the p o s s i b i l i t y of motivation as an influencing f a c t o r . A c t i v i t y 5 was the only a c t i v i t y where the lecturer mentioned the p o s s i b i l i t y of students being paid on a summer job basis. Could t h i s added incentive have increased the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the performance of A c t i v i t y 5 (contacting the lecturer about a s s i s t i n g i n a summer l a n d f i l l leaching experiment)? Perhaps i n situations having l i t t l e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , 'motivation to comply' i s l e s s important than some other unknown motivational v a r i a b l e such as 'pay motivation', 'achievement motivation', 'entertainment motivation', or some general form of combined motivation v a r i a b l e . For example, 'entertainment motivation' might be a variable to consider when dealing with movie-going behavior. F i n a l l y , i n attempting to explain the error variance i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, i t must again be stressed that t h i s study did not employ the laboratory-type of r e l i a b i l i t y controls employed i n most of the other studies. There were no r e p l i c a t i v e behaviors, or practice t r i a l s . There were no post factum measures of behavioral intentions or s e l f - r e p o r t s of behavior. The time between the measures of BI and the performance of B was s u b s t a n t i a l l y longer than i n studies u t i l i z i n g game s i t u a t i o n s . Also, the subjects, themselves were somewhat negative i n t h e i r I l l reaction to the instrument used i n assessing the v a r i a b l e s . Another factor which also may have attenuated the BI-B correlations was a probable measurement e f f e c t . This subject discussed i n d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 7.6 below. 7.5 . The Role of Behavioral Intention i n Predicting Behavior The observation that any s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l - ation between behavior and a predictor v a r i a b l e (Table XIV) was reduced to non-significance when BI was held constant (Table XV), tended to correspond with the findings of Ajzen and Fishbein (10) and Devries and Ajzen (8). This r e s u l t thus tends to lend strength to the theory that BI i s an intervening v a r i a b l e between behavior and the predictor v a r i - ables. According to theory,the assessment of BI or i t s predictors must therefore be considered to be necessary f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior. The tendency for negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between behavior and predictor variables to become more negative when BI was held constant (Table XV), also tends to. show that the addition of a measure of BI w i l l influence behavior-predictor c o r r e l - ations i n the p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n , that i s , the addition of a measure of BI enhances the pr e d i c t i o n of behavior. 112 7.6 Measurement E f f e c t 2 The problem posed by the r e s u l t s of the x tests i s how to i n t e r p r e t the apparent presence of a measurement e f f e c t (of the type described i n Chapter I I I , section 5.5) i n some a c t i v i t i e s but not i n others. One possible explanation may be the differences i n the measuring instrument with respect to the number of items used i n assessing each of the v a r i a b l e s . However, the differences i n the items for A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3 (see Appendix C) appear to be very s l i g h t , the main difference being that an extra item (Number 1 i n the questionnaire) was used i n assessing BI for A c t i v i t y 1. This p a r t i c u l a r item was l a t e r discarded i n the f i n a l analysis of the data. A l l other items used for the assessment of variables were v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l for A c t i v i t i e s 1 through 3. This s i m i l a r i t y of questionnaire items used i n the assessment of variables f o r the f i r s t three a c t i v i t i e s would appear to negate the p o s s i b i l i t y that the questionnaire composition could account for the d i f f e r - 2 ences i n measuring e f f e c t indicated by the x tests f o r 2 A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3. Furthermore, a s i g n i f i c a n t x i n d i c a t i o n of measurement e f f e c t was obtained for A c t i v i t y 4, and a non- 2 s i g n i f i c a n t x i n d i c a t i o n was obtained f o r A c t i v i t y 5, and yet the only variable assessed by the questionnaire for these two a c t i v i t i e s was BI. I t might therefore be i n f e r r e d that i n some cases the assessment of only one variable (BI), or even the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a questionnaire, i s s u f f i c i e n t to give r i s e to a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t ! 113 If such i s the case, the p a r t i c u l a r behavioral s i t u a t i o n may be postulated as playing a r o l e i n the observed differences i n degree of measuring e f f e c t . Some speculation must again be c a l l e d upon i n order to provide a p l a u s i b l e explanation of an i n t e r a c t i o n between s i t u a t i o n and measure- ment e f f e c t . If a student's response to a behavioral i n t e n t i o n assessment item i n the questionnaire was perceived by the student as a commitment to perform p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , then, whether dr not he c a r r i e d out t h i s commitment might have depended on the student's perception of what the possible consequences would be i f he f u l f i l l e d or changed his commit- ment. The student's perception of the consequences of f u l - f i l l i n g a commitment, i n turn, might have depended upon his perception of the nature of the a c t i v i t y to be performed i n f u l f i l m e n t of his commitment. If the student viewed the consequences of f u l f i l l i n g a negative commitment ( i . e . , his int e n t i o n not to go to a movie) as p o t e n t i a l l y bad, then he would perform the a c t i v i t y , even 'against h i s w i l l ' (or against his behavioral i n t e n t i o n ) . This behavior, inconsistent with the o r i g i n a l BI, might be interpreted as having arisen from a newly acquired BI, and could give r i s e to a low BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n as well as a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t . If the student, on the other hand, viewed the consequences of f u l f i l l i n g h i s commitment as unimportant, then he would probably perform the a c t i v i t y i n accordance with his assessed behavioral intention and no measurement 114 e f f e c t should a r i s e . Also, i f students perform an a c t i v i t y i n accordance with t h e i r assessed BI, high BI-B c o r r e l a t i o n s should r e s u l t . This explanation appears to work f a i r l y well f o r most, but not a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s study. The s p e c i f i c reasoning f o r each case i s given below. In the case of A c t i v i t y 1 ('to attend a free lunch- hour movie e n t i t l e d "Environment i n the Balance". . . ' ) , the 2 marginal x p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l (p < .02), indicated that the degree of measurement e f f e c t was low, but not n e g l i g i b l e . This may have been due to the p o s s i b i l i t y of some students f e e l i n g a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to carry out the a c t i v i t y even though they had made a BI response (commitment) i n d i c a t i n g that they didn't intend to go to the movie. This behavior, i n - consistent with the o r i g i n a l BI, might have been i n i t i a t e d by the assessment of the o r i g i n a l BI. The students may have contemplated the motives of the i n s t r u c t o r asking that p a r t i c u l a r BI question. They may also have f e l t a strong p o s s i b i l i t y that material from the movie could appear on some examination i n the near future. The x 2 r e s u l t (.072NS) for A c t i v i t y 2 (.'to sign up to receive information about a l o c a l p o l l u t i o n sampling experiment . . .') .indicated that the measurement e f f e c t for t h i s a c t i v i t y was n e g l i g i b l e . Students may have per- ceived t h i s a c t i v i t y as being of such a voluntary nature, and so unrelated to t h e i r school work (the words 'no obligation to participate* were used in the description of the experiment), that whether or not the BI commitment was honored was of little consequence. The low BI-B correl- ation (r_._ = .111NS) might be interpreted as a possible 131/13 change of BI having occurred as a result of the students having a weak original BI (or commitment). The highly probable (p < .005) measurement effect for Activity 3 ('to pick up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology') might be interpreted in the following way: the students thought that the reading list and information materials might be advantag- eous for examination purposes, and therefore felt compelled to perform the activity, even though their original BI commit- ment indicated otherwise. Activity 4 ('the attendance of a free lunch-hour movie entitled "The Time of Man" . . .') also resulted in a 2 large measuring effect (x = 9.49, p < .005). Why the measurement effect was greater for this activity than for Activity 1 (also a lunch-hour movie) is not known, but there are some possible explanations. One confounding factor was the concurrent showing of the B.B.C. series "Civilization". However, a more likely possibility was the emphasis placed on seeing "The Time of Man" by the lecturer—after the assessment of BI. This may have caused some of the students who did not intend to carry out Activity 4 to change their BI and perform Activity 4, fearing the consequences of what 116 might happen i f they f u l f i l l e d t h e i r negative BI (commit- ment) and did not see the movie. The non-significant measurement e f f e c t for A c t i v i t y 5 ('to contact Dr. Phelps i n order to obtain information about a s s i s t i n g the summer l a n d f i l l leaching experiment 1) may be explainable i n a manner si m i l a r to the lack of measure- ment e f f e c t i n A c t i v i t y 2. The BI response for A c t i v i t y 5 may have been perceived by the student as c o n s t i t u t i n g only a weak commitment because of the voluntary, non-examin- able nature of t h i s a c t i v i t y . The students were not under any compulsion to perform t h i s a c t i v i t y because i t pertained to an experiment that would be c a r r i e d out during the summer months, afte r t h e i r completion of the Physics 115 course. In the above discussion of the measurement e f f e c t , the assessment of BI, acting as a commitment, has been pos- tulated to be a major source of t h i s e f f e c t . The f a c t that a highly s i g n i f i c a n t instance of measurement e f f e c t was also found i n the case of the placebo instrument indicates that the assessment of other variables may have a si m i l a r e f f e c t . The above remarks must therefore be taken as highly specula- t i v e and not exclusive of other a l t e r n a t i v e explanations. I t might be worthwhile, however, for some future study to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of reducing the measurement e f f e c t by eliminating the d i r e c t assessment of BI, by assessing only the predictor v a r i a b l e s . 117 8. Summary Most of the observed r e s u l t s tended to be explainable i n terms of the Fishbein model and i t s associated t h e o r e t i c a l concepts. Several r e s u l t s were obtained and interpreted according to the theory i n order to c l a r i f y the s p e c i f i c problems investigated i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's theory to an actual educational s i t u a t i o n . 8.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and Those External to the Fishbein Model The c o r r e l a t i o n s of variables external to the model with variables i n t e r n a l to the model tended to agree with the theory, namely, that any variables external to the model should be unrelated to behavioral i n t e n t i o n and to overt behavior unless they are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to at l e a s t one of the predictors given i n the model. There were nine observed instances out of a possible 102, where external variables correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y (both p o s i t i v e l y and negatively) with B or BI. A l l of these cases but three (Table VIII, A c t i v i t y 3) also showed s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a - tions between the external variable and at l e a s t one predictor v a r i a b l e . The three cases that did not appear to agree with theory, could be accounted for by the s t a t i s - t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y of obtaining s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s by chance alone. 118 8 • 2 The Relationship between Variables Internal to the Model S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s (Table IX) were co n s i s t e n t l y found between measures of BI and the predictor variables •NB , A . and NB, . The magnitudes of c o r r e l a t i o n s between p' act 1 ^ measures of BI and the other s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (NB2 to NBj.) varied considerably between a c t i v i t i e s , several reaching s i g n i f i c a n c e . Correlations between behavior and measures of be- ha v i o r a l intentions were disappointingly low, although three were s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than zero (p < .01) . Correspond- in g l y , c orrelations between behavior and measures of the predictor variables were also small, and frequently i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The majority of normative b e l i e f s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and rather highly r e l a t e d to each other (Table X). The c o r r e l a t i o n between measures of A . and s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (NB1 to NB^) tended to be low and often non-significant, but the c o r r e l a t i o n between measures of A . and NB was always r e l a t i v e l y large ( = .50) and 3. C "C. p s i g n i f i c a n t . Correlations of measures of the predictor variables with BI tended to be larger than c o r r e l a t i o n s of the same predictor variables with B (Table IX). 119 8.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s of .710, .797 and .739 were obtained for A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 res p e c t i v e l y , i n the predic t i o n of behavioral i n t e n t i o n from measures of the sp e c i f i e d predictor v a r i a b l e s . The amounts of t o t a l variance (in the pr e d i c t i o n of BI) accounted for by the predictor variables were .50, .63 and .55 f o r A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3 resp e c t i v e l y , leaving about f o r t y to f i f t y percent unaccounted f o r . The predictor term showing the l a r g e s t beta c o e f f i c - i e n t was.the normative, rather than the a t t i t u d i n a l term (Table XI). S p e c i f i c a l l y , the personal normative b e l i e f v a r i a b l e (NB^) was observed to have the greatest weight, with A . and NB, t r a i l i n g f a r behind. 8.4 The Prediction of Behavior The predi c t i o n of behavior was found to be consider- ably less accurate than the pr e d i c t i o n of behavioral i n t e n t i o n . Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n s of measures of the pre- d i c t o r variables on B were only .331 (p < .05), .210NS, and .376 (p < .01) for A c t i v i t i e s 1, 2 and 3 res p e c t i v e l y , accounting for only four to fourteen percent of the t o t a l variance i n the predi c t i o n equation. 120 8.5 The Role of Behavioral Intention i n Predicting Behavior The observation that any s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l - ation between behavior and a predictor v a r i a b l e (Table XIV) was reduced to non-significance when BI was p a r t i a l l e d out (Table XV) tended to agree with the theory that BI i s an intervening variable between behavior and the predictor v a r i a b l e s . According to Ajzen and Fishbein (10), the pre- d i c t i o n of BI i s therefore a necessary, as well as s u f f i c - i e n t , condition for the pr e d i c t i o n of overt behavior. 8.6 Measurement E f f e c t s 2 X tests of independence i n the performance of the ex t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s under research instrument and no instrument conditions resulted i n the detection of a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t i n A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3 and 4 (Table XVI). The assessment of BI and the p a r t i c u l a r behavioral s i t u a t i o n have been postulated as possible contributors to the occur- rence of the type of measurement e f f e c t found by t h i s study. BI was likened to a commitment, the degree of commitment possibly determining the degree of the measurement e f f e c t when negative BI s (low p r o b a b i l i t i e s of intention) are held by i n d i v i d u a l s i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The measurement e f f e c t may have some importance i n the p r e d i c t i o n of B from BI. If B i s , to a great degree, influenced by a p a r t i c u l a r measuring instrument, then B would not be expected to be predictable from a measure of BI alone. The BI-B r e l a t i o n s h i p should therefore be much lower i n the presence of a s i g n i f i c a n t measuring e f f e c t . 122 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY 1. Recapitulation of the Problem The major problem of thi s study was the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the general hypothesis that i f a Physics 115 student's a t t i t u d i n a l and normative p o s i t i o n with respect to performing a free-choice learning task can be determined, then his intent i o n of performing the task, and his actual performance of the task; may be predicted with better than chance accuracy. This pre d i c t i o n of behavioral int e n t i o n and overt behavior might be accomplished by the ap p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's theory (6) to the educational s i t u a t i o n provided i n the experimental program i n s t i t u t e d by the Physics Department. Consideration of thi s general hypothesis led to the inv e s t i g a t i o n of the following s p e c i f i c problems: (a) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between variables i n t e r n a l to and those external to the Fishbein's model; (b) determination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between behavior, measured behavioral intention, and the a t t i t u d i n a l and normative predictor variables of the model; (c) analysis of the accuracy of the pr e d i c t i o n of behavioral intention and behavior and 123 the r e l a t i v e importance of the predictors i n the prediction; (d) analysis of behavioral intention measures as predictors of overt behavior i n s p e c i f i c educational s i t u a t i o n s ; and (e) the detection of possible measurement e f f e c t s . 2. Conclusions The general hypothesis that the a p p l i c a t i o n of F i s h - bein's theory to free-choice learning si t u a t i o n s would accord better than chance accuracy i n the p r e d i c t i o n of behavioral inte n t i o n and overt behavior appeared to be substantiated i n the case of behavioral intention, but was problematic i n the case of behavior p r e d i c t i o n . Nevertheless, better than chance accuracy was obtained for the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior i n two out of the three a c t i v i t i e s for which the f u l l complement of model variables were assessed, and i n three out of f i v e a c t i v i t i e s when behavioral i n t e n t i o n was the only predictor considered. Analysis of the s p e c i f i c problems tended to indicate that the measuring instrument devised for use i n the f r e e - choice learning situations of this study, obtained measures of variables equivalent i n most r e l a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , to the variables assessed by Fishbein and his co-workers i n past studies. The assessed variables exhibited r e l a t i o n - ships that l a r g e l y agreed with those given i n Fishbein's theory. 124 , One r e s u l t not observed i n past studies was a s i g n i f i - cant measurement e f f e c t i n c e r t a i n of the free-choice s i t u a t i o n s . This e f f e c t could possibly be detrimental to the pre d i c t i o n of behavior i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s and there- fore p o t e n t i a l l y l i m i t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the Fishbein model i n an educational context. S p e c i f i c to the learning a c t i v i t i e s described i n t h i s study, i t may be apparent that measures of behavioral i n t e n t i o n alone would not give a Physics i n s t r u c t o r s u f f i c i e n t information for accurately choosing a c t i v i t i e s that students would perform i n accordance with t h e i r intentions. I t i s suggested that t h i s problem may be due, i n part, to measurement e f f e c t s , to differences between the actual s i t u a t i o n and the s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n used i n the assessment of the behavioral i n t e n t i o n , or to changes i n behavioral i n t e n t i o n brought about by the many possible competing a c t i v i t i e s constantly emerging i n student environments. On the other hand, the model provided better than chance predictions of behavior i n three f i f t h s to two thirds of the situ a t i o n s examined i n this study, or at l e a s t s i x t y percent of the time, an achievement that would probably be d i f f i c u l t to accomplish by means of guesswork or chance. Furthermore, the model provides an i n s t r u c t o r with a systematic means for behavior p r e d i c t i o n and provides i n f o r - mation concerning the nature of some of the variables that appear to influence behavior. The co r r e l a t i o n s of behavior 125 with behavioral intentions obtained i n t h i s study, for example, might indicate to a Physics i n s t r u c t o r , that A c t i v i t i e s 1, 3, and 5 e l i c i t e d behavior responses that are more i n accordance with student intentions than the responses i n A c t i v i t i e s 2 and 4. A comparison of the standardized regression c o e f f i c - ients i n the regression on behavioral int e n t i o n and on behavior suggests that for A c t i v i t i e s 1 to 3, the v a r i a b l e that i s most i n f l u e n t i a l i n predicting BI and B i s the measure of the personal normative b e l i e f . Small contributions to the pred i c t i o n appear to be due to the attitude toward the act and the s o c i a l normative b e l i e f concerning students' best f r i e n d s . The contribution of A . to the p r e d i c t i o n of BI also appears to increase with salience. If the i n s t r u c t o r i s interested i n e f f e c t i n g behavior changes i n Physics 115 students, he should consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of modifying students' personal normative b e l i e f s concerning the a c t i v i t i e s , modifying t h e i r attitudes toward performing the a c t i v i t i e s , and modifying t h e i r s o c i a l normative b e l i e f with respect to t h e i r best f r i e n d s . S i m i l a r l y , i f the i n s t r u c t o r i s interested i n matching his teaching strategy to the b e l i e f systems of his Physics 115 students, he should somehow work personal normative b e l i e f s , a ttitude toward the act, and s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s (with respect to 'closest friends') into the curriculum. 126 3. Implications and Recommendations for Educational Application In view of the above discussion, the a p p l i c a t i o n and refinement of Fishbein's model i n educational research appears worthy of serious consideration. Inherent i n the theory and the presented r e s u l t s of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , are a number of implications that could generally have important consequences for educational p r a c t i c e . Some of these implications w i l l now be examined. 3.1 The Fishbein Model versus T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches to Attitude Measurement The t r a d i t i o n a l measures of a t t i t u d e toward various educational and i n s t r u c t i o n a l objects (for example, at t i t u d e toward Physics i n general, Physics 115, method of class i n s t r u c t i o n , the l e c t u r e r , the textbook, the subject matter, assignments, examinations, and s p e c i f i c topics) showed few s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s with behavior or behavioral i n t e n t i o n . Those attitudes that were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to behavior or behavioral intention, were almost always r e l a t e d to one of the predictor variables of the theory. This would tend to imply that t r a d i t i o n a l measures of attitude are poor predictors of educational behavior and that Fishbein's theory should be considered i n any attempts to r e l a t e attitudes and overt behavior. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the assessment of attitudes toward an act, s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s , personal normative b e l i e f s and behavioral intention, would probably give educators a more accurate i n d i c a t i o n of the means of e f f e c t i n g behavioral modification, than would the attitude scales commonly used. 3.2 The Modification of Behavior Since behavior and behavioral intention were seen to be a function of attitude toward the act and various normative b e l i e f s , an educator should best be able to e f f e c t a strengthen- ing or weakening o f s p e c i f i c behaviors and behavioral inten- tions by operating on (attempting to strengthen or weaken) the predictor variables having the greatest importance (beta weights) i n the regression equation. Once these i n f l u e n t i a l v ariables have been i d e n t i f i e d , the problem immediately becomes one of s e l e c t i n g the treatments by which a teacher can influence desired changes i n these variables over a reasonable period of time. Can the teacher influence A ., by making students aware of, or by a c t u a l l y manipulating the probable consequences of th e i r s p e c i f i c behaviors? Can s o c i a l normative b e l i e f s be modified by placing students i n d i r e c t contact with relevant referents i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , by engaging students i n r o l e playing or simula- t i o n games, or by conducting counselling sessions about relevant referents? The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the personal normative b e l i e f i s not yet cl e a r i n the theory, but perhaps 128 this variable could be influenced by placing students into guided introspective situations, for example, encouraging students to analyze their own mistakes, evaluate their own achievement, or to justify their own position (or an opposite position) in debate. Educational research into the efficacy and the methodology of effecting changes in the predictor variables is strongly recommended. 3.3 Specificity of Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, Intentions and Behavior Teachers should expect students to exhibit different attitudes toward an act and normative beliefs in even minim- ally different situations. Applications of the Fishbein model have shown that the weights and polarities of the predictor variables vary considerably between situations. Since behavioral intention and behavior have also been found to be specific with respect to the situation, behavior and be- havioral intention cannot empirically be expected to remain constant from one situation to another, unless both situations are virtually identical. 3.4 Generalization in the Prediction of Behavior and Behav- ioral Intention The results of the pilot study indicated that the relevance of the referent groups used in assessing the various 129 normative beliefs, varies with respect to the particular population sampled. The relative importance of the predictor variables is therefore specific to the population sampled. While this factor did not appear to be critical in the present study, populations having vastly different character- istics such as ability, interests, cultural background, or socioeconomic background would be expected to exhibit different relative weightings for the predictor variables. A teacher might therefore be required to treat one group of students very differently from another group, when attempting to effect a behavior change through attempts to modify characteristics represented by the predictor variables. 3.5 Measurement Effects and the Nature of the Situation Since significant measurement effects were found for certain activities in the present study, the behavior of students in specific educational situations may, in part, result from an attempt to assess one or more variables of the Fishbein model. If measurement effects play a large role in the determination of educational behavior, then the accuracy of behavior prediction may be considerably reduced. The detection of these effects, however, may give educators a useful indication of the extent of psychological threat or volitional constraint on students, posed by the testing situation and/or the educational situation. It is 130 therefore recommended that these e f f e c t s be monitored i n any future applications of the Fishbein model to educational research. Furthermore, measurement ef f e c t s might a c t u a l l y be useful i n producing desired behavior changes. If the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a questionnaire can influence student behaviors i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , as some r e s u l t s of t h i s study in d i c a t e , then simulated devices of a s i m i l a r nature might also influence student behavior s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Irrespective of the e t h i c a l questions raised by t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , any possible useful applications of such e f f e c t s should be f u l l y investigated. 3.6 The Fishbein Model and Curriculum Development The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the relevant variables that enter into the p r e d i c t i o n of a group's educational behavior, may give curriculum developers a method for t a i l o r i n g some of the psychological aspects of course content to the needs of the majority of the c l a s s . This might be a more vi a b l e approach to 'humanizing' or making a course 'more i n t e r e s t - ing' than the indiscriminant addition of a t t i t u d i n a l and value-laden concepts to subject matter. I f , as was discussed i n section 3.2 of the present chapter, teachers would be w i l l i n g to match t h e i r teaching strategies to the dominant b e l i e f systems of the students (as indicated by the multiple regression a n a l y s i s ) , then there may be a p o s s i b i l i t y for 131 developing c u r r i c u l a containing 'contingency programs', i . e . , a l t e r n a t i v e teaching programs that the teacher could use i n order to influence one, or any combination of the dominant predictors. The author wishes to stress that he i s not advocating t h i s scheme as a substitute for e x i s t i n g programs, but i s only pointing to a possible d i r e c t i o n f o r further research. This caution i s prompted by the notion that i f teachers were to completely t a i l o r the courses of study toward dominant student b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s , students might s u f f e r a lack of personal growth i n other important areas. Perhaps Fishbein's model could be investigated by educators, from a point of view of an a t t i t u d i n a l component of one or another teaching models as discussed i n a recent book by B. Joyce and M. Weil (47). 4. Recommendations for Further Research 4.1 The Psychological Context Several of the problems encountered i n the present a p p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's model to an educational s i t u a t i o n pointed to needs for more research i n the areas of v a l i d a t i o n , instrumentation and c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n . In the area of v a l i d a t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y of a motivational variable other than Mc entering into the regression should be investigated, and measures of other 132 variables such as values, t r a d i t i o n s , and conditioned behavior might also be considered.''" The v a l i d i t y of Mc or the way i n which Mc i s entered into the normative term should also be c l a r i f i e d as should the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the personal normative b e l i e f (NB ). P The observation that past studies have used various methods for the assessment of the variables given i n the regression equation tends to substantiate Fishbein's (6) claim that instrumentation i s not a c r i t i c a l factor i n the theory. However, T i t t l e and H i l l (13) suggested the s u p e r i o r i t y of a Likert-type attitude scale over the Semantic-Differential instrument i n predicting behavior. The B e h a v i o r a l - D i f f e r e n t i a l instrument has been used by Carlson (33), and Ajzen and Fishbein (9) who also have used a percentage of intent ques- t i o n (10, 32) and p r o b a b i l i t y scale (8) for the assessment of BI. Perhaps a comparative study of assessment techniques would c l a r i f y the question of whether some measures of B, BI, A ., NB and Mc y i e l d better predictions of behavior than others. Associated with instrumentation i s the method used i n ^"In a recent paper, Maehr and Sjogren (48) propose the use of Atkinson's (49) theory of achievement motivation as a f i r s t step toward a theory of academic motivation. The theory i s e s s e n t i a l l y based on a multiple regression equation having three predictor terms that are used i n a l i n e a r combination for the p r e d i c t i o n of T a — a n active impulse to undertake a p a r t i c - ular achievement-oriented a c t i v i t y . In educational settings a variable such as 'achievement motivation 1 might conceivably function (in a p r e d i c t i o n model) i n a manner s i m i l a r to 'moti- vation to comply 1 (with an experimenter) i n a laboratory s i t u a t i o n . 133 analyzing the obtained data. Standard multiple regression analysis was said to attenuate multiple c o r r e l a t i o n values when there are s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the predictor v a r i a b l e s . This technique i s therefore p r i m a r i l y suited to regression equations involving independent v a r i a b l e s . Canonical c o r r e l a t i o n analysis, however, takes predictor i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n into account and can also be used to t r e a t multiple c r i t e r i a (50). The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of using B and BI as multiple c r i t e r i a and accounting for the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the predictor variables by means of canonical c o r r e l a t i o n analysis should be investigated. Cross-validation of measures derived from the theory over various populations i s another area requiring further research. S p e c i f i c a l l y , more should be done i n the areas of anthropology ( i . e . , c u l t u r a l differences) and sociology. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to educators would be a study involving the a p p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's model over various age l e v e l s , from primary grades through u n i v e r s i t y . F i n a l l y , a need for some method of estimating the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y of the type of i n s t r u - ment used i n this study, was indicated by the lack of such t. information i n t h i s and past studies and the number of s - r: assumptions that had to be made concerning the pr e d i c t i v e t. v a l i d i t y of the model (see Chapter I, se c t i o n 6). 134 4.2 The Educational Context The implications of applying Fishbein's model i n educational situations have raised some i n t e r e s t i n g prospects for educational research. One p o s s i b i l i t y mentioned was to use the Fishbein model rather than s o l e l y t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to at t i t u d e measurements for assessment of behavior tendencies i n students. Another area requiring considerable research would be behavior modification. What teaching methodologies could be used to modify student attitudes toward an act or to modify normative b e l i e f s i n order to possibly e f f e c t a change of behavior i n educational si t u a t i o n s (see s e c t i o n 3.6 of the present chapter)? Can Fishbein's model be used to assess student intentions, b e l i e f s and i n f l u e n t i a l referent groups concern- ing troublesome behavioral situations outside the classroom (for example: drug behavior, sex behavior, smoking behavior and various destructive types of behavior)? Fishbein's study on sexual behavior i n u n i v e r s i t y students (36) indicates that l i m i t e d (but p o t e n t i a l l y useful) r e s u l t s may be obtained even from self reported behavior. The model might eventually provide a basis for counselling students on such problems. F i n a l l y , although a previous study by Ajzen and Fishbein (10) investigated measurement e f f e c t s , the present study appears to be the only a p p l i c a t i o n of Fishbein's model i n which a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement e f f e c t has been detected. Are educational si t u a t i o n s more prone to t h i s e f f e c t than other situations? Can t h i s e f f e c t be reduced by avoiding the d i r e c t assessment of BI? Research into the mechanism, in t e r p r e t a t i o n of, and reduction of t h i s e f f e c t i s strongly recommended. LITERATURE CITED McNarry,L.R., and O ' F a r r e l l , S.O. Student attitudes towards science and technology. Physics i n Canada, 1971, 27 , 73-77 .. Welch, W.W. High school physics enrollments. Physics Today, 1967, 20_, 9-13. Welch, W.W., and Walberg, H.J. Are the attitudes of teachers related to d e c l i n i n g percentage enrollments i n physics? Science Education, 1967, 51_, 436-442. Welch, W.W., and Walberg, H.J. A design for curriculum evaluation. Science Education, 1968, 52_, 10-16. Curzon, F.L., Matthews, P.W., McMillan, J.M., Morris, R.N., and Riggin, M.T. A study of the programs and educational a c t i v i t i e s of the Physics Department. Unpublished task force report, University of B.C. Physics Department, Vancouver, 1971, personal communication. Fishbein, M. Attitude and the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior. In M. Fishbein (Ed.), Readings i n attitude theory and measurement. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1967, 477-492. Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. A t t i t u d i n a l and normative variables as predictors of s p e c i f i c behaviors: A review of research generated by a t h e o r e t i c a l model. Unpublished manuscript, University of I l l i n o i s , Champaign, 1971, personal communication. Devries, D.L., and Ajzen, I. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of attitudes and normative b e l i e f s to cheating i n col l e g e . Journal of S o c i a l Psychology, 1971, 8_3 , 199-207 . Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. The p r e d i c t i o n of behavioral intentions i n a choice s i t u a t i o n . Journal of Experi- mental So c i a l Psychology, 1969, 5_, 400-416 . Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. The p r e d i c t i o n of behavior from a t t i t u d i n a l and normative v a r i a b l e s . Journal of Experimental S o c i a l Psychology, 1970, 6_, 466-487 . 137 11. Cohen, A.R. Attitude change and s o c i a l influence. New York: Basic Books Inc., 1964, p. 138. 12. DeFleur, M.L., and Westie, F.R. Attitude as a s c i e n t i f i c concept. S o c i a l Forces, 1963, 4 2 , 17-31. 13. T i t t l e , C.R., and H i l l , R.J. Attitude measurement and pre d i c t i o n of behavior: an evaluation of conditions and measurement techniques. Sociometry, 1967 , 30, 199-213. 14. Wicker, A.W. Attitudes versus actions: the r e l a t i o n - ship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to a t t i t u d e objects. Journal of S o c i a l Issues, 1969, 25, 41-78. 15. Burhans, D.T., J r . The attitude-behavior discrepancy problem: r e v i s i t e d . Quarterly Journal of Speech, 1971, 57_, 418-428 . 16. E h r l i c h , H.J. Attitudes, behavior and the intervening v a r i a b l e s , American S o c i o l o g i s t , 1969, 4_, 29-34 . 17. Lewin, K. F i e l d theory i n s o c i a l science. New York: Harper, 1951, 238-240. 18. Dulany, D.E. Awareness, rules and p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t r o l : A confrontation with S-R behavior theory, In D. Horton and T. Dixon (Eds.), Verbal behavior and S-R behavior theory. New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1968, 340-387. 19. Fishbein, M. The p r e d i c t i o n of behaviors from a t t i t u d - i n a l v a r i a b l e s . A preliminary d r a f t of a paper to appear i n K.K. Sereno and C D . Mortensen (Eds.), Advances i n communications research, New York: Harper & Row, 197 2. Permission to quote secured. 20. Fishbein, M., Ajzen, I., Landy, E., and Anderson, L.R. A t t i t u d i n a l v ariables and behavior: Three empirical studies and a t h e o r e t i c a l r e a n a l y s i s . Technical Report No. 70-9, Seattle: University of Washington, 1970. (Available i n micro-fiche from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, S p r i n g f i e l d , VA. 22151, Accession No. AD 715369). 21. DeFleur, M.L., and Westie, F.R. Verbal attitudes and overt acts: An experiment on the salience of a t t i t u d e s . American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1958, 23, 667-673 . 138 22. Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., and Bertram, B.M. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The c l a s s i f i c a - t i o n of educational goals—Handbook I I : A f f e c t i v e domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc. ~, 1964 , p. 140. 23. Mager, R.F. Developing attitude toward learning. Palo A l t o , C a l i f . : Fearon Publishers, 1968. 24. Moore, R.W., and Sutman, F.X. The development, f i e l d t e s t and v a l i d a t i o n of an inventory of s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s . Journal of Research i n Science Teaching, 1970, 7, 85-94. 25. Blackwood, P.E. Science teaching i n the elementary school: A survey of p r a c t i c e s . Journal of Research i n Science Teaching, 1965, 3_, 177-197 . 26. Dunfee, M. Elementary school science: A guide to current research. Washington, D.C: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, NEA, 1967, p. 1. 27. I l l i n o i s Curriculum Program. Strengthening science teaching i n elementary schools. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : O f f i c e of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1960, p. 13. 28. Morrison, P. Experimenters i n the Schoolroom, ESI Quarterly Report, Winter-Spring 1964, 63-67. (Published by Education Services Incorporated, Watertown, Massachusetts). 29. Andersen, H.O. Developing favorable attitudes toward science. The Science Teacher. Nov. 1971, 38, 41-45. 30. Rothman, A.I. Responses to science concepts on a Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l instrument and achievement i n freshman Physics and Chemistry. Journal of Research i n Science Teaching, 1967-68, 5_, 168-173 . 31. Khan, S.B. A f f e c t i v e correlates of academic achievement, Journal of Educational Psychology, 1969 , 6_0, 216- 221. 32. Ajzen, I. A t t i t u d i n a l vs. normative messages: An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of persuasive communications on behavior. Sociometry, 1971, 34, 263-280. 139 33. Carlson, A.R. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a behavioral intention, attitude toward the behavior, and normative b e l i e f s about the behavior. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of I l l i n o i s , Champaign, 1968, 34. Gerard, H.B. Deviation, conformity, and commitment. In I.D. Steiner, and M. Fishbein (Eds.), Current studies i n s o c i a l psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965, 263-277. 35. Darroch, R.K. A t t i t u d i n a l variables and perceived group norms as predictors of behavioral intentions and behavior i n the signing of photographic releases. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of I l l i n o i s , 1971. Cited i n reference (7). 36. Fishbein, M. Sexual behavior and propositional c o n t r o l , 1966. A study c i t e d i n reference (7). 37. Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. Attitudes and normative b e l i e f s as factors influencing intentions i n hypothetical s i t u a t i o n s involving r i s k . Cited i n reference (7) . 38. Hornik, J.A. Two approaches to i n d i v i d u a l differences i n cooperative behavior i n an expanded Prisoner's Dilemma game. Unpublished Master's l e v e l paper, University of I l l i n o i s , 1970. Cited i n reference (7), 39. Rapoport, H. and Chammah, A.M. Prisoner's Dilemma: A Study on c o n f l i c t and cooperation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965. 40. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., and Tannenbaum, P.H. The measurement of meaning. Urbana: Univ e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1957. 41. Edwards, A.L. Techniques of att i t u d e scale construction, New York: Appleton, Century, Cr o f t s , 1957, p. 167. 42. Page, G.G. A study of student attitude toward two contrasting Physics laboratory designs. Unpublished Master's thesis, University of B.C., 1968. 43. Triandis, H.C. Exploratory factor analyses of the behavioral component of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . Journal of Abnormal and Soc i a l Psychology, 1964, 68, 420- 4~30 . 140 Bjerring, J.H., and Seagreaves, P. UBC TRIP Triangular regression package. Program manual by the Computing Centre, University of B.C., 1972. University of B.C. Computing Centre, G. Starkey (im- plementor), UBC BMD02R Stepwise Regression. Implemented from the UCLA BMD Package. Garrett, H.E. S t a t i s t i c s i n psychology and education. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1966. Joyce, B., and Weil, M. Models of teaching. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972. Maehr, M.L., and Sjogren, D.D. Atkinson's theory of achievement motivation: f i r s t step toward a theory of academic motivation? Review of Educational Research, 1971, 41, 143-161. Atkinson, J.W. Motivational determinants of r i s k - t a k i n g behavior. Psychological Review, 1957, 64_, 359-373 . Wonnacott, T.H., and Wonnacott, R.J. Introductory s t a t i s t i c s . New York: John Wiley, 1969. A P P E N D I X A P I L O T S T U D Y Q U E S T I O N N A I R E ON R E F E R E N T GROUPS 142 (your name i s not required) Listed below are some people or groups whose opinions you might feel are important for you to consider when i t comes to making decisions about participating in ed u c a t i onal_ act i vi t i es_ a part, from coursev/orkc For exampler some a c t i v i t i e s may involve your going to an educational lunch-hour movie«.. or your possible participation in an environment conservation elubc. etc, DIRECTIONS; Please Indicate the importance of the opinions of the following persons or groupsf by c i r c l i n g the number corresponding to the particular degree of importance that you feel i s appropriate for each person or groupo Person or Group Very Important Un- Insigni= Important Neutral or important ficanfc Undecided • I 2 3 k 5 1- lour Jfcrents 1 2 3 4 2 Your Relatives 1 2 3 4 5 3 - Tour beat friend(s) 1 2 3 4 5 4 Tour lecturer(s) 1 2 3 4 5 5 Yourself 1 2 3 4 5 6 Majority of class members 1 2 3 4 5 7? Society in general 1 2 3 4 5 8, S c i e n t i f i c community 1 2 3 4 5 9- University community 1 2 3 4 5 1 0 . Religious group or church 1 2 3 4 5 11,. Club members 1 2 3 4 5 12« Other (specify 1 2 3 4 5 143 A P P E N D I X B PERCENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO "IMPORTANT" AND "VERY IMPORTANT" CATEGORIES FOR VARIOUS REFERENTS, FOR TWO SETS OF STUDENTS PRELIMINARY DATA PERCENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO "IMPORTANT" AND "VERY IMPORTANT" CATEGORIES FOR VARIOUS REFERENTS, FOR TWO SETS OF STUDENTS a Referent % Response Educ. 3 21 Students (N = 64) % Response PH. 115 Students (N = 50) Yourself 100 100 Your best friend(s) 62 66 Your lecturer(s) 39 46 Your parents 39 54 Religious group or church 25 16 Majority of class members 22 20 Society i n general 16 28 Club members 11 30 S c i e n t i f i c community 9 46 Univer s i t y community 9 32 Relatives 6 16 Others (combined) 8 0 aThe Spearman rank c o r r e l a t i o n (corrected for ties) between the two sets of student responses was found to be 0.882 (p < .001) A P P E N D I X C RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE Part A Follow-up Activity No. 1 To attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "Environment in the Balance" on Friday, February 11 at 12:30 P.M. in the Kebb Theatre, this B r i t i s h colour film presents an effective all-round study of the impact of technology on the environment. Please indicate your thoughts about seeing this movie: 1. I intend to see this movie only i f I have nothing else to do. Strongly agree m rl Agree—2 Undecided 3, Disagree Strongly disagree 5 2.1 intend to see this movie. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided 3 Disagree J± Strongly disagree 5 3. I intend to see this movie only i f I have time. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 4. My closest friends would expect me to see the movie. Highly li k e l y 1 Likely _2 Undecided^ U n l i k e l y H i g h l y unlikely 5 5. My parents would expect me to see the movie. Highly likelyJL Likely_J Undecided^ UnlikelyJ^ Highly unlikely 5 6. The majority of the class would expect me to see the movie. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided__2 % Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 7. Dr. Phelps would expect me to see the movie. Highly likely__l Likely 2 Undecided_J, Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 8„ My religious group would expect me to see the movie. Highly likely__l Likely_2 Undecided^J UnlikelyJ^ Highly unlikely 5 9. I would expect myself to see the movie. Highly likelyJL Likely_j2 Undecided_J Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 10. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my closest friends expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 11. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J3 . Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 12. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think the majority of the class expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_J Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 13. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do. Strongly agree_l AgreeJ^ Undecided_J D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y disagree 5 14. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my religious group expects me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided_J Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 15. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I would expect myself to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided^ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 - 3 - 148 16. Attending this movie would be a good thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 17. Attending this movie would be a boring thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 18. Attending this movie would be a useful thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 19. Attending this movie would be a bad thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_J2 Undecided J3 . Disagree_Jj. Strongly disagree 5 20. Attending t h i s movie would be a pleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree_J^ Undecided "} Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 21. Attending this movie would be a useless thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 2 2. Attending this movie would be an interesting thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree^j2 Undecidedi J3. Disagree 4, Strongly disagree 5 23. Attending this movie would be an unpleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2i Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 Part B Follow-up Activity No. 2 . To sign up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment. You w i l l also receive information on how you may participate in the experiment i f you wish. Sign the l i s t on the front counter of the Physics Office (Hennings 3 2 3 ) by Friday, Feb. 11, in order to receive this information (no o b l i - gation to actually participate). Please indicate your thoughts about signing up to receive information about this experiment: 2 4. I intend to sign up to receive this information only i f I have time. Strongly agree__l Agree__2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 2 5 . I intend to sign up to receive this information. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided 3, Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 26. My closest friends would expect me to sign up for this information, Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely__2 Undecided^ Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 2 7 . My parents would expect me to sign up for this information. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided_J Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 28. The majority of the class would expect me to sign up for this i n - formation. Highly likelyJL Likely 2 Undecided_2 UnlikelyJi Highly unlikely 5 29. Dr. Phelps would expect me to sign up for this information. Highly likelyJL Likely_2 Undecided_J Unlikelyjj. Highly unlikely 5 - 4 - 14 9 30. My religious group would expect me to sign up for this information. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely_2 Undecided^ UnlikelyJ± Highly unlikely 5 3 1 . I would expect myself to sign up for this information. Highly likelyJL Likely_2 Undecided_3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 3 2 . Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think my closest friends expect me to do. Strongly agree__1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y disagree 5, 3 3 . Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided } Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 4 . Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think the majority of the class expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 5 . Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do." Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 6 . Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think my religious group would expect me to do; Strongly agree^l Agree _2 Undecided__J3 Disagree_Jj. Strongly disagree_J>__ 3 7 . Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do v/hat I would oxpect myself to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_3 Disagree Strongly disagree 5 3 ; 3. Signing up for this information about the pollution sampling experi-ment would be a good thing for me to- do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided^ D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y disagree 5 3!9. Signing up for this information would be a useful thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 4 0 . Signing up for this information would be a bad thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided_J Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 4 1 . Signing up for this information would be a pleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided_J5 Disagree__4 Strongly disagree_5_ 4 2 . Signing up for this information would be a useless thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided 3 DisagreeJ% Strongly disagree 5 4 3 . Signing up for this information would be an unpleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree_2 Undecided_J Disagree^- Strongly disagree 5 - 5 - 150 Part G Follow-up Activity Mo. 3 To pick up a set of information materials and reading l i s t on Pollution and Technology. These materials may be picked up (one set per student) from Hebb 1 1 (the Physics Lab. Office) up to Friday } February 1 1 . Please indicate your thoughts about picking up this set of Pollution information materials: 4 4 . I intend to pick up this set of Pollution information materials only i f I have time. . - Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 5 . I intend to pick up this set of Pollution information materials. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_J3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 6 . My closest friends would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 4 7 . My parents would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 4 8 . The majority of the class would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 4 9 . Dr. Phelps would expect me to pick up this set of Pollution infor- mation materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided_3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 5 0 . My religious group would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 5 1 . I would expect myself to pick up this set of materials. Highly l i k e l y 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 U n l i k e l y ^ Highly unlikely 5 5 2 . Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think my closest friends expect me to do. " Strongly agree_l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5 3 . Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5 4 . Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think the majority of the class expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_j2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree ' 5 5 5 . Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 5 6 . Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think my religious group would expect me to do. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ - 6 - 5 7 . Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I expect myself to do. - Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4 Strongly disagree 5 5 3 . Picking up this set of Pollution information materials would be a good thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4 Strongly disagree 5 5 9 . Picking up this set of materials would be a useful thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 0 . Picking up this set of materials would be a bad thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree^ 6 1 . Picking up this set of materials would be a pleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree___l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 2 . Picking up this set of materials would be a useless thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided J> Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 3 . Picking up this set of materials would be an unpleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided^JS Disagree 4 Strongly disagree $ Part D Follow-up Activity No. 4 To attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "The Time of Man" on Wed., Feb. 16 at 1 2 : 3 0 P.M. in the Hebb Theatre. This film examines man's relationship with his environment, where he i s headed - and why. Please indicate your thoughts about seeing this movie: 6 4 . I intend to see this movie only i f I" have nothing else to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 S5 . I intend to see this movie. Strongly agree_l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ Part E Follow-up Activity No. 5 To contact Dr. Phelps ( C i v i l Engineering Rm. 4 4 4 ) in order to obtain information about assisting the summer l a n d f i l l leaching experiment, (contact Dr. Phelps before the end of February). Please indicate your thoughts about this activity: 6 6 . I intend to contact Dr. Phelps for information concerning this summer project. Strongly agree_l Agree_2 Undecided^ Disagree^ Strongly disagree^ HA¥E YOU GIVEN YOUR NAME AND IDENTIFICATION NUMBER CORRECTLY AT THE TOP OF THE ANSWER SHEET? A P P E N D I X D RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE 153 NOTE. 1. 8EHAVI OR IS CODED IN THE LAST 5 RESPONSES IN EACH CASE. l=6EHAVIOR NOT PERFORMED, 5=REHAVlOR WAS PERFORMED. 2. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSED FOR SUMMATION IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 2, 4-16 118,20,2 5-39,41,45-59,61 ,65,66. STUDENT NUMBER 1567718 1755719 2236719 2439719 2442713 2459717 2465714 2466712 2498715 2502714 2515716 2532711 2535714 2541712 2580710 RESPONSES TO ITEMS 3321 115 3 333313 3 3 334 34344322251 11115133333333311151 311121333333343211111 414121211111115453444442222121 21333352433330000000 0C0CC00CCCCCC0C011111 315111511555335515511155111151 11111535515131224411 143443333244423111111 222121532451335434444443212143 15511355554332311153 155113533333313111111 244222 43422 2 2 34 44444444442 2243 42 2 2 232444 4 4 4442 224 3 42 2 22344444 4424251151 2 322 22 4243 344244424 4444 3 322 242 32 2 3 3244 3434 33 3 2 2242 32 3 3 324444343153111 11 543243433111115454545451433333 41111154453532333333 311111444535555311151 5 32 244404221105 554442445332220 32 2220444442413222 30 32222044443244 3411151 3441523131213244244242 32 222232 21213253442423322232 31223134422223331 1151 4441111141111144445454 55211121 22211153432434412121 522121544545544151511 44 22225 141211155 54 54 5553211141 31211154444552312141 412111544545554311511 45243 355522 222 5 5545455 52422134 32211243444344542233 53222244444 4455351551 43 2 3444342 34 3244 4444444 2 334424 34444344444442444443 44 444 3 34444 4 42 44 1 1115 2322 32 5332 3223333333333442 32 53 42 32 2 344443444 4 3335 3 423223444434433311111 332 243 553111315444 5344433252 55 3 1 113154453 5444 2 5455 4 1 1 1 4 1 5 4 4 5 3 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 8 4 7 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 31 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 0 0 C C 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 0 0 3 4 4 1 5 5 51 2 5 8 7 7 1 5 5 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 3 5 5 4 4 5 3 3 3 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 5 1 1 1 1 2 6 0 3 7 1 0 5 5 5 2 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 2 53 3 3 5 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 3 1 3 0 G 0 0 0 C 0 C C C 0 C 0 0 C 0 0 C 0 0 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 2 6 0 4 7 1 8 5 4 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 5 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 5 4 2 2 2 3 2 42 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 5 3 3 4 5 4 2 24 24 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 34 4 4 5 5 5 1 1 26 2 0 7 1 4 1 1 1 1 3 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 4 2 4 4 1 4 1 1 5 5 2 1 1 3 1 4 11 1 1 1 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 1 1 131 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 1 1 5 1 1 111 2 6 4 3 7 1 6 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 4 2 3 3 4 3 1 1 1 3 1 31 11 1 1 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 5 4 111111 2 6 6 1 7 1 8 3 3 2 2 3 2 5 3 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 4 4 3 5 3 3 3 2 4 3 4 2 32 22 3 1 3 4 4 4 2 4 3 2 4 2 11111 2 6 7 0 7 1 9 4 4 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 3 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 5 3 4 1 1 1 1 3 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 1 2 1 5 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 4 3 5 1 5 1 1 2 6 8 4 7 1 0 24 3 4 3 3 4 4 5 2 1 4 54 5 534 3 2 3 5 4 2 5 5 1 3 5 5 5 3 1 2 5 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 4 1 3 5 4 55 24 54 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 1 5 4 5 1 1 1 5 27 3 0 7 1 1 2 4 2 3 3 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 3 3 1 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 3 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 7 4 6 7 1 7 5 5 1 3 2 2 5 3 5 2 2 2 2 2 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 32 2 24 2 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 2 4 2 2 2 4 3 42 22 3 2 4 4 4 5 3 5 5 0 C 0 5 1 1 5 1 27 57 7 1 4 3 32 2 4 3 5 5 4 3 4 1 4 3 5 5 2 4 4 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 54 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 5 5 4 2 2 4 1 3 2 2 2 5 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 7 9 1 7 1 3 1 3 1 1 2 1 5 3 4 1 4 2 2 0 C 3 C 3 2 4 3 3 4 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 2 3 0 3 3 0 4 3 3 4 1 1 3 1 4 3 3 1 4 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 7 9 6 7 1 2 4 4 4 1 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 2 1 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 5 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 5 3 4 3 2 4 3 4 4 1 2 1 2 1 5 2 2 1 2 1 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 1 5 1 5 11 28 0 3 7 1 6 2 32 3 3 3 4 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 344 32 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 334 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 34 4 2 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 4 324 3 5 1 1 5 1 28 3 0 7 1 9 44 2 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 54 4 4 5 4 52 5 5 5 4 4 4 55 5 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 4 54 4 5 5 1 1 5 1 2 8 3 1 7 1 7 2 4 4 2 2 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 32 22 32 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 5 1 1 1 1 28 3 7 7 1 4 3 4 3 1 1 1 5 1 4 1 1 1 11 5 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 C C O O O O O O O O C C C O C C C O C O C O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 1 1 111 2 8 4 0 7 1 8 4 4 4 1 2 4 5 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 3 5 4 2 2 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 3 5 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 5 1 28 5 9 7 1 8 2 2 3 1 4 2 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 5 3 2 4 3 2 2 2 22 3 5 3 4 2 3 5 5 2 4 5 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 28 7 7 7 1 0 4 4 2 3 3 3 4 3 4 1 2 1 1 3 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 1 2 1 1 3 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 2 1 4 3 4 1 2 1 1 3 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 28 8 0 7 1 4 3 3 2 1 2 1 5 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 1 1 1 151 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 3 4 2 3 2 5 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 4 3 2 2 2 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 8 5 7 1 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 32 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 32 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 9 2 7 1 9 3 3 4 1 1 1 5 5 2 4 3 3 4 3 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 1 3 2 4 2 53 43 3 34 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 2 3 1 5 4 43 3 3 5 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 . 2 9 0 2 7 1 6 3 4 1 3 3 3 5 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 44 4 4 4 4 4 3 33 33 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 0 C O C 0 0 0 C G O C O O O O O O O C O O O O l l 111 2 9 1 1 7 1 7 3 4 2 4 3 3 5 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 5 5 5 1 5 5 2 9 2 0 7 1 8 4 5 4 3 3 2 3 3 5 2 3 332 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 33 33 43 33 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 32 4 C C 0 0 0 C C O C C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 3 5 5 5 1 1 2 9 5 1 7 1 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 2 2 1 2 2 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 42 22 2 2 5 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 2 22 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 29 5 2 7 1 1 34 2 34 33 3 4 2 4 34 3 5 43 34 3 33 33 3 2 2 2 3 3 32 3 2 3 34 3 3 3 3 3 334 34 3 4 3 4 2 32 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 3 1 5 1 1 1 2 9 5 4 7 1 7 2 4 2 1 2 2 4 1 5 1 1 1 3 1 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 2 4 1 1 1 2 1 4 2 2 2 2 1 4 4 4 4 2 4 44 5 2 3 3 2 1 5 3 2 1 2 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 1 1 5 5 1 2 9 6 1 7 1 2 34 2 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 5 3 5 3 34 4 4 2 4 4 3 44 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 434 3 4 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 2 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 3 4 3 3 4 3 111 11 2 9 6 2 7 1 0 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 5 5 2 9 8 2 7 1 8 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 1 1 1 2 1 5 3 1 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 2 1 2 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 5 4 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 2 3 5 5 1 1 1 1 2 9 9 1 7 1 9 1 4 1 2 2 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 4 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 9 9 5 7 1 0 4 3 1 2 3 2 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 4 2 2 1 3 1 4 3 31 111 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 1 3 3 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 3 7 1 2 23 3 2 4 4 4 3 4 2 4 2 224 4 344 3 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 2 4 3 32 32 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 3 244 44 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 C 0 5 7 1 7 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 33 3 3 3 3 34 4 1 1 1 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 1 0 7 1 7 4 4 4 1 122 3 3 1 1 2 2 35 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3020716 3 3 1 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 3 3 3 1 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 4 32334 35 3422 34334 3433334 34 34 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 i l l 302 3710 43223243322 2 22 54444 444 43 324 342 422 22 244444442 3 222 32 343222 54444444 42 11 111 3025715 4 3 2 1 1 1 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 304 7 7 19 1 2 4 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 4 2 2 4 4 2 4 3 4 2 2 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 4 2 4 4 1 2 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 4 2 2 1 4 4 3 1 2 1 1 5 1 1 30 74713 2 1 2 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 5 1 2 1 1 1 l l l l D l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 111111511511511115111 3079712 543 2435 342 2 2 224 4 444 434 42 324342 42 222 244444443424 243 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 308 2716 44243 3 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 53 333 343 311 1 1 1 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 5 4 5 5 2 4 3 5 1 1 1 1 3086 717 122 222 3 22 2 2 2224 4 444 344442222 32 22 2 2 2243443 33222 2222 2222224 344 34 4222 11111 3098712 4 4 2 1 2 1 5 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 4 2 32 322234 3434 344 2 3242 42 32 22344434 324251511 3118 718 440 42 2 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 1 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 2 4 2 2 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4211 111 3133717 3 322 32 31222 22243 333 3 3344222232 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 4 3 4 32 32 51551 3147717 2 4 2 2 2 3 4 3 4 1 1 1 1 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 311 1 1 3 5 3 4 4 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 1 1 1 1 3 5 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 3152717 24 2 2 224333 32 2 244444 3544 3 32 3 342 3 3 32 2 244343 3 3243 3343 4 3 3 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 2 3311 111 3168713 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3222235332 535353322233 3 2 2 2 2 3 5 2 1 5 1 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 5 1 1 2 2 1 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 203718 44445444411 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 51 11114444 4454544444 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 U 3236718 2 32 24 3513222 22 3 3 3333 3 3 34234351 3 2 2 2 2 1 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 5 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 5 1 3238714 353 3 4 1 5 4 5 1 2 2 1 1 5 4 2 3 4 24 3 22 323151 311333333333 U 3 1 1 1 5 2 3 1 1 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 3240710 34 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3222122 2121324 344344 32222 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 4 1 7 1 8 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 4111 11433434444 31 1151 3248713 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 5 3 333333 33 32 2222 3222224333333 3322222 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3271715 44 22 2 243422 2435 343444 34 242 2 243 2 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 2 4 2 4 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 3 4 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 4 2 5 1 5 5 1 32 75 716 2 4 ? 1 2 1 5 2 4121115 4 344 354 42311121 3 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 1 1 1 3 1 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5 5 4 1 1 1 5 1 3694 718 33 32 22422222224 3 333 3 33 30332224 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 32 11151 37C5 712 5 4 2 1 2 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 4 344 43422121 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 2 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 3 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 4 1 1 1 5 1 3 74 0719 1 4 5 2 3 2 4 3 4 1 2 1 2 3 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 5 5 1 2 333 5 1 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 51 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 1 1 5 1 1 375 3712 3 3 32 32 44324 3 3 44 4 444 344 32 334344 3 34 344444434 32 3 34344 4343444444 34332311111 3 769718 42 2 234535122 22 5 554425542433343 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 2 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 3797719 4423335 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 5 5 3 5 3 3 2 5 3 3 3 53 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 5 4 3 5 3 2 5 3 3 3 5 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 5 5 3 5 3 2 5 4 5 1 1 5 1 38 76711 34 2433 5342 21224544441430CCC000 CCCC0OOOOOCOCO0GCOOO CC0CCOOOOOCOO44 5 1 1 111 3894714 2 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 22 22234444444 3 32 344 3 323343454444432311111 3990710 44 2333334111114434433 342 32 2241 31111143333334422241 41114442 2443444351111 4130712 342443434433433334344430233343 34 43 3 343204 4 23 3 33242 432433334242342311111 4134714 324122412443235434433333333353 33332 354444343 322343 2 3 323 3444434444 2 11 151 5015714 544141304 LI 130 4534535344411120 211 1204544 34 4 4411110 411120444434 54 4411 111 5214697 44 33 34524333 334 4 343434 3 2333343 333 33334433 3 32 33 3 343 33333344434 3 3 34351151 5 8 50714 232242433122225434333332324243 32 22 2244333 332 3 24243 322222443333323111111 58 7 7717 421123423111114544434344 321251 3111115334333 000 00 00 C0 0000OOO0C0CCCO51151 5964713 3422212141112144344 324 34422121 412121444434424 22121 4221214444344 3 34 55 551 5974712 2 323324231211154355 34442 3432 32 33212 14432324140C000 OOOOCOOOOOCOOOOOlllll 597 6 717 351513344453214515 335111554242 31242545533322233331 142225153155503511111 6092712 454222515111115555545440500051 51111154151555511111 111111111515551555551 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2 32 2250 42 2 2 3054454 55 2 32 32 5 0 423230555555523211111 6606719 33 330000242 3541421422343333334 3 321132443 3 333444222 22 3 3222 34334 30 0051151 676 8 717 44244 304422 2 224 4444442 2 2444454 444 1124444334343 4353 422222444444444351151 6774715 332432523142 4224 444 344 344444 52 4343424444 3443444452 4443424444 34434311111 6784714 154311515111115551555551511151 51111155555551511151 511111555555555511111 6794713 232 2224342222343 33 33 3343 322243 42 22 2344333332422243 422 2244343 33334211111 6797716 242 2 545443 5 34 34 4 444 344 4 2434 343 434 24 33444 34 33 4 34343 434343444434 344 355151 68 08711 2342224341222344545 35442423243 41222344453532311143 4010010000C0 00 0011111 6819718 4441115151111154545 35354411151 51111153334334411151 511111543333344251111 6848717 44334343444343 34253 533224 3 3244 42 4 3 3543 32 32034242 33 542443443222214311111 6900716 332131554111115 3444244 44313155 4111 1144443232311 155 311111444434323211111 7141716 141411314111515445545442411111 4111 1144444441411131 411111544444414511111 7424716 2 32 3 33 5 342424244 343 3 34 31322242 32324243433332333343 333242444433323311 111 7834716 4434555354444544 4 4 444442444 54 3 44444444444443444443 44 444 4445444434 551151 7917719 33222242 32242244 444444 433224 42 32222 14444444332224 I 32222144444443 3311111 EXECUTION TERMINATED 159 SSIG $ A P P E N D I X E PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE Physics 11$ Reassessment of Student Opinions About the Course A Note to the Student: The purpose of this questionnaire i s to see whether or not your opinions about the course have changed since the f i r s t term. Please forgive the intrusion, but there r e a l l y i s no other way for us to obtain a valid estimation of your opinions. As before, your responses to this ques- tionnaire w i l l in no way count toward or affect any marks f o r the course. By indicating your honest response to each statement, you w i l l be helping us to decide whether or not our efforts i n modifying the course have been in the right direction. Directions: USE ONLY PENCIL 1. Please PRINT your name and registration number (seven digits) on the PRINTED ANSWER SHEET. Give your registration number both in numerical form and by blackening the appropriate spaces. 2. Indicate your response to each statement by blackening the appropriate spaces on the PRINTED ANSWER SHEET. Blacken only ONE of the five small-numbered spaces indicated for each statement. 3 . When you have finished, hand in this booklet and your answer sheet. Place your completed answer sheet on the front counter, under the alphabetic l e t t e r correspond- ing to the f i r s t l e t t e r of your surname. ft!PTEt Begin at question number 29 on the printed answer sheet and leave numbers 1 to 28 blank. I - 7HY3IC3 IN G E N E R A L - 6 - 162 DO NG? WRITE IN THIS BOOKLET. Use the answer sheet. 2'9. Physics is something everyone should know something about. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 0 . Physics i s worthless. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4. Strongly disagree 5 3 1 . Physics i s a dehumanizing subject. . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4 . Strongly disagree 5 3 ^ . Physics i s enjoyable. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 3 . Physics is a fascinating subject. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 4 . Physics i s far too d i f f i c u l t for most students. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree, 4-., Strongly disagree 5 3 5 . Physics is intellectually stimulating. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 6 . Fhysics i s boring. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 7 . Physics is related to everyday things. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 J P h y s i c s is unrelated to problems that really matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 . II PHYSICS 1 1 5 COURSE 39'. Physics 115 is more i n t e r e s t i n g than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 0 ' . Physics 115 i s nothing more than a review of Physics 12. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 1 . Fhysics 115 i s a challenging course. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 2 . Physics 115 is irrelevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 3 . Fhysics 115 is a boring course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 44. Pbvsics 115 is more worthwhile than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agrec__2_ Undecided_2__ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 45;. Physics 115 i s relevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagreeJL. - 7 - ' 163 .46 Physics 115 should only be taken by students who are interested i n becoming p h y s i c i s t s . 1 Strongly agree__l^ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 47. Fhysics 115 i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r most students. Strongly a g r e e ^ l ^ Agree 2 _ Undecided 3n Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4& Physics 115 i s f r u s t r a t i n g because students do not know what i s expected of them. strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, T Disa^ee^A Strongly disagree 5\ i - 0 U> \ Physics 115 i s a valuable c o u r s e Strongly agree, 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree.5 I I I - INSTRUCTION IN LECTURES 50. Lectures should only be given by i n s t r u c t o r s who are f i r s t - r a t e p h y s i c i s t s . Strongly a g r e e ^ l _ Agree. 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 55 , The niethod of teaching used i n lectures does not allow f o r enoush student p a r t i c i p a t i o n to s u i t me. Strongly agree 1 agree, 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 52., Lectures should include more up-to-date teaching techniques. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J_ 5> . I n s t r u c t i o n i n lectures helps to make the important ideas c l e a r to me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2. Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5Jf , I n s t r u c t i o n i n lectures i s of great help to me in solv i n g physics problems. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4_ Strongly disagreeJL. 55,. In s t r u c t i o n i n lec t u r e s i s too f a s t . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2, Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J_ 5*6. I n s t r u c t i o n i n c l a s s i s boring. Strongly agree 1_ A£ T e e 2 Undecided. 3. Disagree 4 Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ . 57 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n lec t u r e s encourages students to express t h e i r own viewpoints. Strongly agree!. Agree 2 Undecided_3_ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5__ 5 8 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n cl a s s should be more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . Strongly agree, 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 59 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n lectures i s ~ood. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J_ - 3 _ TV - LECTURER 164 60. The l e c t u r e r knows h i s subject vie 11. o t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Str o n g l y disagree 5 61. The l e c t u r e r ' s explanations are u n c l e a r . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Str o n g l y disagree 5 62. The l e c t u r e r has the a b i l i t y to hold the i n t e r e s t of the c l a s s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 63. The l e c t u r e r i s one of the Lest thi n g s about the course. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 64. The l e c t u r e r i s i n c o n s i d e r a t e toward students. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 65. The l e c t u r e r ' s pace i s too f a s t . S t r o n g l y agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 66. The l e c t u r e r reviews course m a t e r i a l adequately. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 67. The l e c t u r e r has a r i g i d t e a c h i n g s t y l e . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 ^B. The l e c t u r e r a c t s a.- i f t e a c h i n g i s a chore. St r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 69. The l e c t u r e r makes me d i s l i k e p h y s i c s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecldsd 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 V_ - VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE COURSE 7P. The textbook i s easy to understand. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided - 3 r Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 , 7 1 . The textbook i s of l i t t l e value i n the course. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 7 2 . The textbook does not e x p l a i n t h i n g s adequately. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3_. Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 73 . The textbook i s w e l l w r i t t e n . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 7 4 . The subject matter i n the course i s w e l l organized. S t r o n g l y agres 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree_J5_ 7 5 . The subject matter of the course i s e x c e l l e n t . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 7 6. The subject matter of the course should be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to th i n g s t h a t r e a l l y matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 - 9 - 165 77. The subject matter of the course i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree. 4 Strongly disagree 2_ 78. The subject matter of the course i s a valuable asset to my educaticn. Strongly agree lrr Agree 2_ Undecided__J_ Disagree 4r Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ _ 79. The outside readings i n the course are too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly di3agree_J_ 60. The assignments are reasonable i n length. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, DisagreeJL*_ Strongly disagree_J>_ 31 .| The assignments are too d i f f i c u l t f o r ir.e.. Strongly agree 1 Agree Z _ Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J>_ S2.. xhe assignments should deal with more p r a c t i c a l problems - Strongly agree 1 Agree 2. Undecided 3 Discgree_4_ Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ $3 . The assignments are a worthwhile part of the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecidcl_JI__ Disagrse_J^ Strongly disa^ree^T^ 34/. Outside readings i n the course should b a increased. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undec ided <_3_ D i s a ^ r a e ^ J ^ Strcng3.y disagree J_ VI EXAMINATIONS 3 5 ' . The exams provide a good learn i n g experience. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J_ D i s a ^ r e e J ^ Strongly disagraej?.. 26 . The exams emphasise marks too njuch. Strongly agree_l__ Agree 2 Undecided^, PiSf-grep ^ Strongly dis2gvse_J>_ 27 . Exams are too long to complete on titno. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 I5is2gr-?e_4_ Strongly disagree.^. •.SS.. The exams cover a f a i r sample of the material studied i n the course, i, Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Dis&grse_A_Stro:\gly disagree_j;_ ,S9.. The exams are generally very poor. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ U n d e c i d e d ^ Disagree_4_ Strongly disagreej>„ •9G",. The exams are marked f a i r l y . Strongly a g r e e d Agree 2 Ui'.decided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ 91' , The examinations are too d i f f i c u l t . Strongly a g r e e _ l _ Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e J ^ Strongly disagree_5_ 92.. The exams s t r e s s neroorization too much. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Sisagrag 4 Strongly disagrceJJ_^ 93, The examinations r e a l l y make me think. Strongly agree I Agree 2 Undecided 3. risa.^ree 4 Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ . 94 . Exams are not given often enough. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ r. 166 A P P E N D I X F BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS RECEIVING THE PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS - PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE STUDENT BEHAVIOUR RESPONSE NUMBER ACT1 ACT2 ACT 3 ACT4 ACT5 5948716 0 0 0 0 0 2475713 0 0 0 0 0 7395718 0 0 0 0 0 2476711 0 0 0 0 0 2485712 1 0 c 1 1 2486710 0 0 0 0 0 2938710 0 0 0 0 0 2496719 0 0 0 0 0 3736717 0 0 0 0 0 2497717 I 0 0 I 0 6871719 1 0 0 0 0 2512713 0 0 0 0 0 2514719 0 0 0 0 0 3409703 0 0 0 0 0 2582716 0 0 0 0 0 6781710 1 0 0 0 0 7433717 0 0 0 0 0 5231717 0 0 0 0 0 2986719 1 0 0 1 1 6253719 0 0 0 0 0 7737711 1 0 c 1 0 3013711 0 0 0 0 0 7069719 0 0 0 1 0 6560718 0 0 0 0 0 3026713 0 0 0 0 0 6685713 0 0 0 0 0 7631716 0 1 0 0 0 2671717 0 0 0 0 0 6553705 0 0 0 0 0 6802714 0 0 0 0 0 6809719 0 0 0 0 0 2702710 0 0 0 1 0 3085719 0 0 0 0 0 3089711 1 0 0 1 0 3102712 0 0 0 0 0 3112711 0 0 0 0 0 2756716 0 0 0 0 0 6324718 0 0 0 0 0 3122710 0 0 0 1 0 3 134715 0 0 0 0 0 277371 1 1 1 1 0 0 6830715 0 0 0 0 0 2779718 0 0 0 0 0 2807717 0 0 0 1 0 3824711 0 0 > 0 0 0 3172715 1 0 0 1 0 2838712 0 0 1 0 0 2846715 0 0 0 0 0 6348718 0 c 0 0 0 1707710 0 0 0 0 0 5078704 0 0 0 0 0 6949715 0 0 0 1 I 3200714 0 0 0 0 0 6090716 1 0 0 0 0 6611719 0 0 0 0 0 3220712 1 0 0 0 0 7227713 1 0 0 1 I 167 168 A P P E N D I X 6 LIST OF FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES Voluntary Follow-up Act i v i t i e s for the Bl*ck of Lectures on 169 "THE PHYSICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT" 1. You may attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "Environment in the B alance" on Friday, February 11 at 12:30 P.M. in the Hebb Theatre. This B r i t i s h colour film presents an effective all-round study of the impact of technology on the environment. It vividly documents how geological, topographical, and social development have helped to shape the environment, and discusses the problems of industrial expansion, population growth and pollution. 2« You may sign up to receive information about a local pollution sam- pling experiment and how you may participate in i t i f you wish. This i s an experimental project which w i l l be collecting data on particular pollutants over the entire Greater Vancouver region. This information Will be used in a major study involving U.B.C., the City of Vancouver, the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ? the Provincial Government and the Federal Government. I f you are i n - terested in receiving information about this project, please sign the l i s t on the front counter of the Physics Office (Hennings 323/325) by Friday, February 11. Signing this l i s t does not obligate you . to participate in the project; you w i l l receive information about the project and how you may participate in i t i f you wish. 3 » You may pick up an assortment of information material and l i s t of supplementary readings on Pollution and Technology. This information material may be picked up (one set per student; ) from Hebb 11 (the Physics Lab. Office) up to Friday, February 11. 4* You may attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "The Time of Man" on Wednesday, February 16 at 12:30 P.M. sharp 1 in the Hebb Theatre." This i s a feature length (50 min.) CBS colour documentary,"produced i n cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History. It examines man's relationship with his environment, where he i s headed— and why. "The Time of Man" i s a b r i l l i a n t exposition of the basic meaning of the word "environment". By examining the relationships of various animal species to their environments, and examining the cultures of primitive tribes, leading authorities reconstruct milliona of years of evolution. Man may well learn to control his future by studying his past. For example: * Dr. Margaret Mead r e v i s i t s her Manus friends * Dr. Jane Goodall discusses chimpanzee behavior * Dr. C. Lavett Smith talks about f i s h communities * Dr. Ray Capman Andrews i s shown discovering dinosaur e g g s * Dr. Malcolm McKenna relates the stories of ants and dinosaurs * Dr. Harry Shapiro studies the evolution of populations * Dr. Colin Turnbull v i s i t s the pygmies and the Ik. The Time of Man's message is simple and powerful - i f man's time on earth i s to be endless, he must maintain the environment that sustains him. 5. You may obtain information about assisting some professors in doing research on the leaching of l a n d f i l l s (dumps). This possible summer job involves handling and sorting municipal solid waste (garbage, etc) and placing i t in storage tanks. I f interested, contact D. Phelps, Room kMfr, C i v i l Engineering Building sometime between now and the end of "February. A P P E N D I X H ACTIVITY 1 ATTENDANCE SURVEY TICKET Environment i n the Balance C i r c l e the Physics c ourse you are taking Lecture Section Name Registration number ( 7 digits) P 1 0 5 P 1 1 0 P 1 1 5 P 1 2 0 Other (specify) A P P E N D I X I ACTIVITIES CHECK-LIST 173 Physics 1 1 5 Activities Check-list NAME REGISTR. NO. Please check off each of the follow-up a c t i v i t i e s that you have participated in, so far. Do not check off those that you haven't participated i n , even i f you intend to do so in the near future. We just want to know the extent of your use of these a c t i v i t i e s up to this date. [ I 1 . Saw the lunch-hour movie "Environment in the 1 — 1 Balance" on Friday, Feb. 1 1 . I I2. Signed up (in Physics Office) to receive 1 — 1 information about the local pollution sampling experiment. I j 3. Picked up the assortment of information material '—' and l i s t of readings (from Physics Lab Office, Hebb 1 1 ) . j | 4 . Saw the lunch-hour movie "The Time of Man" '—' yesterday (V/ed., Feb. 1 6 ) . I I 5. Contacted D. Phelps to find out about assisting '—' a research team studying leaching of l a n d f i l l s . At the end of this lecture, please leave this check- l i s t on the front counter, under the alphabetic letter corresponding to the f i r s t letter of your surname. A P P E N D I X J PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE 175 Ph 115 "VALUATION STUDY Purpose: The purpose of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s • to improve the Ph 115 course. You, as a student, can be of great help by i n d i c a t i n g how you r e a l l y f e e l about various aspects of the course. This booklet contains statements of b e l i e f s some students have expressed about the course. We would l i k e t o know to what extent you agree or disagree w i t h these statements. This i s not a t e s t . The answers you give w i l l - n o t be used i n any way to determine your mark f o r t h i s o r any other course. The reason f o r asking you to give your r e g i s t r a t i o n , number i s that the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the data r e q u i r e s your r e g i s t r a t i o n number f o r various s o r t i n g procedures. Mote: Your frank and honest answer to each question w i l l help to improve t h i s course. Careless or dishonest answers r.av have the opposite e f f e c t ! TURN TC NEXT F A G E -2 176 DIRECTIONS USE ONLY PENCIL On the printed answer sheet: a. F i l l in a l l spaces on the top l i n e . On line 2, opposite SCHOOL, print the name of the high school last attended. Opposite CITY, print the name of the city and province (abbreviate) in which the high school last attended was located. b. Leave the spaces for GRADE OR CLASS. INSTRUCTOR. NAME OF TEST and PAR1? (lines 2 and 3) blank. • Give your identification number (student registration number) bdtii in numerical form (in the boxes below the red arrow) and by blackening the appropriate spaces. Your identification number consists of digits three to nine of the number at the top of vour l i b r a r y / AKS card (i.e.Y^the group of seven d i g i t s ) . Example: 50 -(1234560)- 2 The identification number i s 1234560. The number on the printed answer sheet would be indicated as shown below: g 3 5 6 O .A. .A. .A~ .A. .A, o :ICE •A. t M TIT! C AT I ON NUMBER A.. .A. .A. .A. .A. 4 t A. A. _? _ T _ A . f , 7 A. A. A. A. .A. A, .A. A.. • • c . Opposite the number cn the printed answer sheet that corresponds to the item number in the questionnaire, BLACKEN one of the small-numbered answer spaces. Note that the items and answer spaces are numbered horizontally across the printed answer sheet. -3- CGUR.SE INFORMATION 1 7 7 Slacken one space f o r each of the f o l l o w i n g i t e n s , 1. ?h 115 l e c t u r e s e c t i o n Br. L i v e s e y ( i>ec. 1) (1) Dr. M c M i l l a n (2) 2. Year of high school graduation 1971 (1) " 1970 (2) 1969 (3) . 1963 ( 4 ) none of these (5) 3. P h v s i c s 12 f i n a l mark A '(36-100/) (1) 3 (72-35/) (2) 3+(65-71;;) (3) G or C~(50-64'/;) none of these (5_) 4 . B i o l ^ e v 12 f i n a l nark A (36-100;.') (1) B (72-35/) (2) 3 + (65-7l/) (3) C or G"(50 - 6 4 ; . ' ) (4) none of these "(5) 5. Chemistry 12 f i n a l nark A (36-1000) (1) B (72-55/) (2) C+ ( 6 5-7l/) (3) C or C"(5 0 - 6 4 / ) ( 4 ) none of these (5/ 6. Mathematics 12 f i n a l nark A (56-100/) (1) B( 7 2-55/) (2) G+(65-7l/) (3) C or G"(50-64/)(4) none of these (5) 7 . Bow long d i d you take t o complete P h y s i c s 12? (Ghoose the answer which best de s c r i b e s how Ion?- you t o ^ k . t » -c - ^ fnp le^ the course) 1 semester (1) l i - semesters [2] 2 semesters.. (2) 3 semesters (4) one school year (non-senester system) (5_) £5 . ..ntended coursework i n Mhv-sics honors i n p h y s i c s (1) major i n p h y s i c s (2) more than one course ' i n p h y s i c s (3.) Ph~ 115 only (4) undeciHed (5_) Items 9 - 1 2 c o n t a i n t u t o r i a l -roup numbers. Blacken the one space which corresponds t o yjDur_ tjutoriaJL yrp\ip_jnuriber (lab group number) . i Be_ave a l l pt_her soace_s blank. 9. T u t o r i a l -roup number 30 (1) 31 (2) 3 2 (3) 33 (4) 34 (5) 10. T u t o r i a l ~rour> number 35 (1) 3 6 "(2) 37 (}) 3 3 ( 4 ) 39 (5_) 11. B u t o r i a l ^roun number 40 (1) 41 \2j 4 2 ( 3 ) 43 (4) 44 (5) 12. T u t o r i a l -rout) number 45 (1) 46 *(2) 47 (3) 4 5 (4) 49 (5) FART C 178 Items 1 3 — 1 "It c o n t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s . Blacken the one space which corresponds t o r o u r J>ro_fessional g o a l . _Leave a l l other spaces bJLank. ' " " 13. a g r i c u l t u r e (1) a r c h i t e c t u r e (2) armed s e r v i c e s (3) b i o l o g i c a l sciences (4) business c: commerce (5.) 14. chemistry (1) c i v i l s e r v i c e (2) d e n t i s t r y (2) education (4) engineering (5) 15. f o r e s t r y (1) geology (2) home economics (3.) j o u r n a l i s m (4) l i b r a r y (57 16. lav; (1) mathematics (2) medicine (3) m i n i s t r y (4) music (5.) 17. pharmacy (1) p h y s i c s (2) p h y s i c a l education (2) s o c i a l work(4) l i S . none of the above (1) undecided (2) IP.-.RT D Items 19 - 23 have t o do w i t h l a b o r a t o r y science courses other than- Fh 115. I n d i c a t e which other l a b o r a t o r y science courses you_are_ tahjinj; t h i s i year by bl a c k e n i n g space ( I ) . Bo not blacken'' space \1) i f you are not t a k i n g a course i n t h a t " s c i e n c e 19. B i o l o g y , or any other l i f e science (botany, zoologv, etc.) (1) ' 20. C-hemistry (1) 21. Engineering 2 2. Geology (1) " 2 3. None of the above (1) P^RT_B Items 24 - 23 have t o do w i t h grade 12 science and mathematics courses. I n d i c a t e which of the f o l l o w i n " grade 12 courses you took in '~.igh school by blackening space T T ) . Bo not blacken space ( l l i f you did not take the courses l i s t e d . 2 4. P h y s i c s 12 (1) 2 5. B i o l o g y 12 -5- 179 P-..RT B - cont. 26. Chemistry 12 (1) 27. Mathematics 12 (1) 2S. None of the above (1) COURSE OPINIONS DIRECTIONS a , Indicate your opinion about each statement by completely BLACKENING one of the five small-numbered spaces i n d i c a t e for each statement. b. The answer code is as follows: Mark 1 S K i f Mark 2 ss i f Mark I i f Mark z a i f Mark 5 w i f E^campl^: T he 7 I ! 3 4 5 That i s , the person was neutral or undecided about statement 7 . c. Mark only one space for each statement. If you change your mind about an answer, erase i t completely and cleanly. lake your new mark heavy; and dark. Indicate an answer for 3VERY statement in this--part, d. WORK A3 QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. If you have any questions about what to do, ask a .person in charge. e. When you have finished, hand in t' is booklet and your*answer sheet. Place your finished answer sheet on the front counter, under the alphabetic letter corresponding to the f i r s t letter of '-'our surname. - 6 - I - 7 H Y 3 I C 3 IN G E N E R A L 180 DO NC? V/RITS IN' THIS B O O K L E T. Use the answer sheet. 2 ) . Physics i s something everyone should know something about. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 0. Physics i s worthless. Strongly agree 1 A^ree 2 Undecided ? Disagree 4 . Strongly disagree $.. 3 1 . Physics i s a dehumanizing subject. Strongly agree 1 Agres 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3*2. Physics is enjoyable, j Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 "3 3. Physics i s a fascinating subject. : Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 '3>k. Physics i s far too d i f f i c u l t for most students. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 5 . Physics is intellectually stimulating. I Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ "3^. Fhysics is boring. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 37. physics is related to evervday things. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree J>_ 3 ' 5 . Physics is unrelated to problems that really matter. • Strongly agree 1, Agree 2 Undecided 3 DisagreeJ+_ Strongly disagreeJ>_ II - PHYSICS 1 1 5 COURSE 3 9 . Physics 115 i s more interesting than Fhysics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 0 . Physics 115 is nothing more than a review of Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided..3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree t5M 41. Fhysics 115 is a challenging course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided.3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4 2 . Physics 115 i s irrelevant to the interests of the students. Btrongly agree 1 Agree_ 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree, 5 4 3 . Fhysics 115 is a boring course. Strongly agree 1 Agree. 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5. . 44. Phvsics 115 is more worthwhile than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 45'. Physics 115 is relevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 - 7 - 1 8 1 46- Physics 115 should only be taken by students who are interested in becoming p h y s i c i s t s . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 47. Physics 115 i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r most students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 1 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4& Physics 115 i s f r u s t r a t i n g because students do not know what is expected of them. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree ? 49 . Physics 115 i s a valuable course. Strongly agree, _1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree .5 III - INSTRUCTION IN LECTURES '5Q-. Lectures should only be given by i n s t r u c t o r s who are first - r a t e p h y s i c i s t s . Strongly agree ,1 _ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree 5-1. The method of teaching used i n lectures does not allow for enough student p a r t i c i p a t i o n to s u i t me. Strongly agree 1 agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5?., Lectures should include more up-to-date teaching techniques. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree ? 53. I n s t r u c t i o n i n lectures helps to make the important ideas c l e a r to me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disa$ree_JL_ ' 5|+. I n s t r u c t i o n i n lectures i s of great help to me in s o l v i n g physics problems. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree _4_ Strongly disagree 55.. I n s t r u c t i o n i n le c t u r e s i s too f a s t . '. j Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3 DisagreeJt_ Strongly disagree_Ju I n s t r u c t i o n i n c l a s s i s boring, i Strongly agree 1. Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_ jL 5i7 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n le c t u r e s encourages students to express t h e i r own viewpoints. Strongly agree, 1. Agree_2_ Undecided_3_DisagreeJi_ Strongly disagree_S_ 5!8 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n class should be more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d . Strongly agree_l_ Agree_2_ Undecided_J_Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree_JL 59 . I n s t r u c t i o n i n lectures i s ~ood. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 D i s a g r e e J ^ Strongly disagree_J>_ _ s _ TV - LECTURER 1 8 2 6 0 . The lecturer knows his subject well. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 1 . The lecturer's explanations are unclear. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 62. The lecturer has the a b i l i t y to hold the interest of the class. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 3 . The lecturer is one of the Lest things about the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 4 . The lecturer is inconsiderate toward students. , . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree J> , 6 . 5 . The lecturer's pace is too fast. Strongly agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 ; 6 . The lecturer reviews course material adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 _ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6|7 . The lecturer has a r i g i d teaching style. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6.8. The lecturer acts as i f teaching, is a chore. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6 9 . . The lecturer makes me dislike physics. Strongly agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 I V_ ~ VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE COURSE 7 0 . The textbook is easy to understand. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ 71 . The textbook is of l i t t l e value in the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 72. The textbook does not explain things adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3__ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 7 3 . The textbook is well written. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 7 4 . The subject matter in the course is well organized. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 7 5 . The subject matter of the course is excellent. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 7 6 . The subject matter of the course should be more closely related to things that really matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 - - 183 77. The subject natter of the course i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 73, The subject matter of the course i s a valuable asset to my education. Strongly a g r e e ^ l ^ Agree 2 Undecided_"3_ Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree<_j>_ 79. The outside readings i n the course are too d i f f i c u l t f o r m3. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 £0. The assignments are reasonable i n length. Strongly agree__l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4__ Strongly disagree 5 C l j. The assignments are too d i f f i c u l t f o r me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4.., Strongly disagree 5 £2. 35 The assignments should deal with more p r a c t i c a l problems. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 . Undecided J l ^ Disagree 4 Strongly d i s a g r e e ^ The assignments are a v;orth-while part of the course. Strongly agree_l__ Agree 2 Undacidc-1 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J>_ Cu^side readings i n the courso should be increased. Strongly al<?rec_i^ Agree 2 Undecided 3 risagrroe ̂  _ Strongly disagr-3e_J>__ VI - EXAMINATIONS The exams provide a good l e a r n i n g experience. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J_ D i s a g r e e , ^ Strongly disagree_5_ 86 j The exams emphasise marks too much. v r &7 Strongly s g r e e _ l _ Agr&-3_j2_ Undecided_X_ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_~ C T Rxans are too long to complete on time. Strongly £gree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ The exams cover a f a i r sample of the material studied i n the course. Strongly a g r e e _ l _ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J5__ The exams are generally very poor. trongly agreeJL_ A£Tee_2_ Undecided J S _ Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree J L 90 , The exams are marked f a i r l y . .Strongly agre3_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly dissgree_J_ 91 , The examinations are too d i f f i c u l t . Strongly ag,ree_l_ Agree_2_ Undecided 3 D i s a ^ r e e J ^ Strongly disagree_J5__ 92. The exams s t r e s s memorisation too much. Strongly a g r e e _ l _ Agrcs_2_ UndecidedLj_ D i s a g r e e J ^ Strongly d i s a g r e e j ^ . 93. The examinations r e a l l y make me think. Strongly a g r e e _ l _ Ag;ree 2 Undocided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_£_ 94 . Exams are not given often enough. Strongly c . g r e e j ^ Agree_2_ Undecided 3 . Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5 "_ VII - TOPICS - 1 0 - 184 95. Nuclear energy i s a good t o p i c f o r the Fh 115 course. S t r o n g l y agree_l_'Agree__2__ Undecided 3, Disagree__4_ S t r o n g l y disagree_J[_ 96. There should be l e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on c l a s s i c a l (Newtonian) physics i n Fh 115. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5 9 7. The electromagnetic theory i s an important t o p i c f o r a f i r s t year physics course. St r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree___5__ 93. ' P r o p u l s i o n systems' i s a t o p i c of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o students i n Ph 115 S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree J f S t r o n g l y disagree 5. 99c Topics such as 'the environment', ' p o l l u t i o n ' , ' r e c y c l i n g 1 , and 'energy demand', are j u s t as important t o the Fh 115 course as are 'mechanics' and 1 wave motion'. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3_ Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5_ 100. 'The human body 1 i s a t o p i c t h a t i s not r e l e v a n t t o f i r s t year p h y s i c s . S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5__ 101. There should be e l e c t r o n i c s i n c l u d e d i n Ph 115. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5. 102 k There should be l e s s o p t i c s i n Ph 115. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 _ S t r o n g l y disagree 5... 103-. 'The human body' i s a worthwhile t o p i c to i n c l u d e i n the Ph 115 course. St r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 _ S t r o n g l y disagree 5_ 104. Topics centered around ' p o l l u t i o n ' and 'the environment' should not be i n c l u d e d i n Ph. 115. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree J+ S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ^ . . •lGp. I t would be u s e f u l to i n c l u d e some d i s c u s s i o n of p r o p u l s i o n systems i n the Ph 115 course. Strongly agree__1__ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4_ S t r o n g l y disagree 5 . 105. Nuclear energy i s not a u s e f u l t o p i c f o r Ph 115 students. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 _ Disagree 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5̂ .. 107. Ph 115 should place the g r e a t e s t emphasis on 'mechanics 1. S t r o n g l y agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree _ 4 _ . S t r o n g l y disagree 5... L C o . The electromagnetic theory i s of l i t t l e value t o Fh 115 students. S t r o n g l y agree 1 jigree 2 Undecided 3 Disa- r e e_ 4 S t r o n g l y disagree 5.. HAVE. YOU INDICATED YOUR IDENTIFICATION NUMBER CORRECTLY? 185 A P P E N D I X K STUDENT RESPONSES TO PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE SR AC+WEBB:L130_LIB l=Bl.SR2 EXECUTIGN BEGINS RESPONSES TO PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE: NOTE. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSEO FOR SUMMATION IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 3 2,3 3,3 5,3 7,39,44,45,49,53,54,5 9,6 2,63, 66,70*73,74,75,78,80,83,85,88,90,93,95, 97, 101, 105. STUDENT NUMBER 1087717 1 103712 1587708 1642719 20947.12 218 7714 2370708 24437 11 RESPONSES TO I TENS 2113241200CC30C020010001111044 4555455433344344553422 435432 44 54 2 5544554 3434 335445535 2434 3 44443 3 24434235223234 22255213000235CCOCCI COC1C01045 444454444324444 4 43 5 343 44 442 355 54 44423452 32 334444 244343 24 34344424 24334244223324 2225221400C1C0C03CC10001011044 33 344 343122 3 32 3144 3443424 3 344445 34444543343 3 224 3 534 344 3 3444443 34 34432423453343 21212133004000C200C10001111045 2 3 342244422 344 3443 2413 4243525555 55 55553111143242 344 2424244144242 42252251551152 21152 23500C2C0CC02C100C101102 5 4 4 4444444 33 344 3 244 3422 44 4 4324454 4444445344 34 324 3444 35 24 344444343 42332343343434 2 2253235O040C0COO1C100C1011044 4 334 3444 34 34444 444 3 44 3 224 42145 24 5 5443444244 4 3 34 4 444 24115443444 3 3 33332143343333 222551 1400504CCCCO11000ICO1044 3 3244 442 342 342 24 42 2 444 344 3214444 45444551111422 42 344 54 54 34 24444 2 2 2433 1543453453 212111430003C5CC00010001 11 1044 344 4 3242522 3453 5 54 4443444424 4444 44444443323244 44 444443414444.4444 41443442444443 244 771.2 211512 1500 1 OC5CCCCC 1000 1C 110 55 543334 3434444343423 24 33334233544 34433453323234444443435244533344 54432134144434 24 54718 21 15 321 5OO3CC000O2C100C1011045 35 354 5 35432 343 3 442 352 244 442 335 53 344 3344333 3 33354334242 32422 34111 44353244235423 246 0715 2 12C2 215004CCCCC02C10101011044 2432244222444224444242442422 3544 5 522455342 24 3244 344242 2244341442 45452343344424 247 3718 2 12 542 53002CCCC002C10C0111004 5 4445444354344545 54 42225544124543 24444442423332543424514455545541 43331443454443 247 7 719 2 1252 1550020040CCC010001011054 2443 3 3555432 35 3 4 354 3 344 34 31135 54 5 54345531335333 3342 24111444 54441 33331545553343 248 7718 212 52 114001CCCCC01C100C1011055 5 3443 35454 33 35 3 54242 334544334544 3444455 2432 3325 2 3453534344424443 34331433444433 2488716 2125 52 55002CCOC001C10001C01023 32 2222434452 3 32 2122 3 33 42 4 32 34433 24444441111222 2 22443444224342224 25242233242233 2490712 2124 13 14005CCOCO IOC 10001011055 5 3 34445 5443444 3 4 444 4 34 44 4 42 345 54 4 544 34422 334444 4444443 2144444345 44342343344443 2499713 214 552140030400 00011COO 1001044 3 3242444443344 34424 2524444 344 544 4444344111142244242 2141124341115 42441242254444 2 509719 2 1155113000205OCCOC10101001034 444445434324444 4 44 344444 54244544 255444442 3244 34 434 544344444445 34 44442254344445 2511715 21 2151550050300000110001101045 54 54344424 2 3 32 3443 2 3 3344432 3344 3 34434 4 4323 3 2 33 42 34334 3 32 44444342 42423434422444 2523710 211521 350010C0C0IOC 10001011044 333 3234424 33 23 34322232 33 332 3 332 3 2 3 324 344 222 2 324 3 34 3 2 33 3244344443 24333223233233 2526713 213512530002C5C000010001011044 4 44 44 44 35 3444 541444 32 2 454 3 2 34444 4 4 444 55 344 244 4 44 44 4 4544144244241 44452255445554 25 33719 22141 11 2002CC0000211C001C11044 14 34444 24222422444 24424353 24 44 34 4444444332243254244 34 54244 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4 443 3444443 444 4 4 334 24 344 44 344444 44444544 44434445 34 435344444 544 43 44443443443333 693 6 7 10 21 153 3 1200C0050000010001011055 5552455 542244444423142453432454 4 443343 54422222434442514244444242 42444244244434 697 3713 212521530002050000010001011045 5454445444 24 5245444244 44 44244555 34 424444 544 44 2444442425334444533 52345342324545 69 7670 5 2115111300010500COC10001011045 4 4 324 445 5544 444 3 344 3424 5442 35444 4443445222244 24 4 44425442143 342 43 22431243443234 7011711 211511150010CO00021100010110 54 3 343 32 45 323443 4 4324 133444 32 34444 444 44 44 32334344433334 43444443333 44332543543443 7024714 21211154000240C000110001111044 4 324 343 32123 32 3 442 343 3 34 342 34544 4 3 444442 222 32 35 2 54 4 342 12 5224442 4 44242442444442 70 64 710 21342212000405C000010001011045 24 44435 354 34453 4 324 3 35 54442 355 5 5 5 5445 5522334 44 4 3 34 24544345434432 23425553113323 7070717 2133 32 550030C00002 010001111045 54 44445455444 3 4 5444455554532 55 5 5 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53444444334445 7297 716 21353215000 305 0000010001011055 55555554555455 5 3 3351315545 33 55 55 55 333552151342 5 55351513243334443 54535553523525 7 348717 21355233001020C000010001001055 4 3 444444424423 424442434344244455 4444355 32 33324443444 5442423344 34 32342351344313 7359714 212 0031300010020C0010 101001044 3223222 324 32 2422 22 2 322222312 3424 44214441111322243222434234433253 12332222253123 200 738371A 2145543500010500COC1000100 1044 22 322 3222432 32 22142 42 322 34 334444 44444452222322434442443344444222 322222522A2222 7 3 9071.9 21 3552540030500 COOO 1000 100 1045 444444555344444444 43434435134555 55444552224 4 344 4 344 343 53 5434433 3 42355443425424 7441710 222 52213004CC00001010101011014 4 3 344414244 444 2 2444 424 4444224445 5 544 34 54 344 4234 4 444 343 34 44444444 54.342355344444 7496714 21302 35400200C0002010101011055 45534554544454 35344443 5435345455 4 5 35 5 5 54444 4 42 5 5 54 4 344 5255 55 5444 5434 1324344443 7 566 714 21453 3130004000001010001011045 4 344 344344344 34443 3 33443 342 34534 3534244332 34 34 44344333334 4443343 23332243244334 766 8718 223022540000COO300110001011055 34 4 4 545 5443 54 34 554 3354 454 5445545 5 54345 5 3444 43 44 4 444443 22 3 3 34434 3 23442244244344 7721715 222 3 331500O440C00001O00U110 55 55 555554443454444512335545435555 554445545345435 5 54 5 35 3 2244455243 53332453444435 7907 710 21121135005000031OC10001111055 5 3 344 343342 3 3 34 542 3 321444 323 33 3 3 2443 343442331255445342412342 5442 54532444444444 EXECUTION TERMINATED $R SSLE:BC + WEBB:1130_LIB 1= FISH.RG EXECUTION BEGINS A P P E N D I X L ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE t Phvsics 115 Questionnaire 203 1. Please complete the spaces i n the top l i n e of the accompanying printed answer sheet. 2 . On l i n e 2 opposite the word 11 SCHOOL", pri n t the name of the high school you l a s t attended. Opposite ;,CITY" print the c i t y and pro- vince (abbreviation) i n which the indicated high school was l o c a t e d (or the country i n which your high school education took place, i f not i n Canada). 3. Leave the spaces f o r ""GRADS OR CLASS", ''INSTRUCTOR", "NA^E -OF TEST" and ''PART" (l i n e s 2 and 3 of answer sheet) blank, but give your i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number both i n numerical form (in the spaces below the red arrow) and "by blackening the appropriate spaces. 4. Note that the items are numbered h o r i z o n t a l l y on the pr i n t e d answer sheet. PART A Course Information Please respond to each item. Do not indicate more than one answer for each item except where indicated. 1. Physics 115 Lecture Section (1) Section 1 (Dr. Livesey) (2) Section 2 (Dr. McMillan) 2. T u t o r i a l group number (make one response to each of questions 2 t o6 ) (1) G 30 (2) G 31 (3) G 32 (4) G 33 (5) None of these 3. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 34 (2) G 35 (3) G 36 (4) G 37 (5) None of these 4. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 38 (2) G 39 (3) G 40 (4) G 41 (5) None of these 5. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 42 (2) G 43 (3) G 44 (4) G 45 (5) None of these 6. T u t o r i a l group number (1) G 46 (2) G 47 (3) G 48 (4) G 49 (5) None of these 7. Year of high school graduation (1) 1971 (2) 1970 T3) 1969 (4) 1968 (5) None of these 8. Physics 12 f i n a l mark (1) A (86#-100£) (2) B (72#-85#) (50f 5 - 6 4 Z ) (5) None of these 9. Biology 12 f i n a l mark (1) A (86#-100&) (2) B (72#-85#) (50/-64/) (5) None of these (3) C < (65£-71#) (4) C or C- (3) C- (65)o-7l/) (4) C or C- PART A cont. 2 0 4 1 0 . Chemistrv 12 f i n a l mark (1) A ( 8 6 ^-100/ ) (2) B (723-85$) (3) Ĉ  (6555-71$) (M C or C- (50$-6Z$) (5) None of these 1 1 . Math 12 f i n a l mark (1) A (86^-100$) (2) 3 (72;"i-85^) (3) (65$-71$) (4) C or C- (50fi-64/o) (5) None of these 1 2 . Duration of Physics 12 course (choose the answer which best describes how long you took to do the course) (1) 1 semester (2) lh semesters (3) 2 semesters (4) 3 semesters (5) one school year (non-semester system) 1 3 . Other laboratory science courses other than Physics 115 being taken t h i s year (you may indicate more than one answer) (1) Biology (or any other l i f e - s c i e n c e ) (2) Chemistry (3) Engi- neering (4) Geology (5) Other' 1 4 . Intended coursework i n Physics (1) Major i n Physics (2) Honors i n Physics (3) Physics 115 only (4) undecided (5) Other 1 5 . Professional objective (make one resoonse to each of questions 15 to 20) (1) a g r i c u l t u r e (2) architecture (3) armed services (4) b i o - sciences (5) none of these 1 6 . (1) business & commerce (2) chemistry (3) c i v i l service (4) dentistry (5) none of these 1 7 . (1) education (2) engineering (3) f o r e s t r y (4) geology (5) none of these 1 8 . (1) home economics (2) journalism (3) l i b r a r y (4) law (5) none of these 1 9 . (1) mathematics (2) medicine (3) ministry (4) music (5) none of these 2 0 . (1) pharmacy (2) physics (3) physical education (4) s o c i a l work (5) none of these 2 1 . Grade 12 science and math courses taken i n high school (you may indicate more than one answer) (1) Physics 12 (2) Biology 12 (3) Chemistry 12 (4) Math 12 (5) Other End of Part A PART B ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY 205 The answers to items i n t h i s part are to be completed on the second answer sheet provided. Only your name and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number are required i n the spaces provided at the top of the answer .sheet. This scale represents a c o n t r o l l e d study to determine the success o f the laboratory program as the student sees i t . The statements on the s c a l e represent opinions put f o r t h by previous physics students. You are presented with 5 response categories f o r each statement: ( 1 ) strongly agree, ( 2 ) agree, ( 3 ) neutral, (k) disagree, ( 5 ) strongly disagree. The numbers ( 1 ) to ( 5 ) correspond to the numbers of the blank spaces found on the accompanying printed answer sheet. Choose the response category which best expresses your degree of agreement or disagreement with each statement. Your responses'to the statements w i l l undergo a programmed s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , and the r e s u l t s w i l l be used to a i d i n redesign- ing the present laboratory. NOTE: S t a t i s t i c a l analysis by computer requires that every statement be responded t o . I f you are undecided about the statement use response no. ( 3 ) . Also note that the numbering system on the answer sheet, runs h o r i z o n t a l l y as opposed to the v e r t i c a l numbering of the statements i n • the scale. 1 . In most instances I f e e l the labs a i d me i n my understanding of physics. 2 . I f i n d that most experiments are too d i f f i c u l t . 3 . The lab to me i s p r i m a r i l y a waste of time. i+. I regard the laboratory as an extremely b e n e f i c i a l a c t i v i t y . 5. I f i n d the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the laboratory manual confusing. 6. I usually f i n d i t necessary to just fumble my way through experiments. 7 . I f e e l the laboratory i s e s s e n t i a l f o r learning physics. 8. This laboratory has k i l l e d my i n t e r e s t i n physics. 9. I think too much time i s demanded by the laboratory f o r the b e n e f i t that i s being derived. 1 0 . I f i n d the experiments assume we know more than we a c t u a l l y do. 1 1 . I l i k e the laboratory because i t o f f e r s opportunity f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . 1 2 . The laboratory outline seems to explain ideas previously foreign to me. 206 PART B cont. 13. The laboratory's good and bad points balance each other. 1/f. I feel the need for a laboratory program, and am pleased with ours. 15. I hate the laboratory. 16. I have found no value in the laboratory. 17. The laboratory to me i s synonymous with frustration. 18. I have found this laboratory the most interesting aspect of any of my courses. 19. I find the time allotted to prepare a write-up for handing in i s ample. 20. I actually believe the experiments have taught me some basic ideas of physics far better than books could. 21. I feel we are presented with apparatus too far beyond our present level of understanding. 2 2 . I like our laboratory because the experiments demand we think, rather than providing us with a step by step procedure. 2 3 . I believe the laboratory has value in that i t stimulates my interest in physics. 2J+. My experience i s that the laboratory i s a hopeless turmoil of confusion. 2 5 . V7ith reasonable effort, I regard the ideas presented in the laboratory well within my reach. 26. To me the laboratory i s more or less boring. 207 A P P E N D I X M STUDENT RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PHYSICS LA3. QUESTIONNAIRE: NOTE. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSED FOR SUMMATION IM THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: I,4,7,lltl2,13,l4,18tl9,20»22,23,25 STUDENT RESPONSES TO ITEMS NUMBER 10557 LA 33 332 43422 3A3 3444 34 4 3 43424 1087717 44444455444 324 55 5 3455 34 5 54 1103711 4344 24344 2133434222 34 33433 1567 718 444 33444123 33 2444444444443 15 87 708 3432 343322243 343 32425 32443 164 2719 55551455521515554245543555 1755719 3432 32 2412 342 3 332 2444 334 3 3 1902717 54542435421324444244424344 203 3710 343 2 2 34424 3 44 3 3 331434 32 343 2094712 4444 3445434 343 544 34 4 3 34 444 2121167 42 32122311343 23 321544 33 324 218 7714 4 2 32 33441113131351445 33343 22 36719 55533553113133355151511531 2 342715 5 35433544 2 343 3 5 444 544 24443 2 3 70 708 44411143231121341124 321141 24 39719 3422222312132 2342 244321243 2440717 4 34 4344343 343 4444 2 344 2 3 43 3 2442713 4543443454234A 544253432443 2443711 44444244322 3434 23 344444442 2447 712 4454 3 3444 34 444452 22 34 44244 2452712 53553255553555555 55 55 54545 2454718 45435555455253555455525514 2 4 59717 34434444343324444344444444 2460715 4 34 32 4 3343 32444443444 33443 2464717 444 32 344424 34 4443 2 343 44434 2 465714 45533545444 344 545 2535 33544 246 7710 555515155115155 55 15 1515555 247 3 718 4 34424442 32 344 442 3445 34 324 2475713 43542435233424443234423444 2476711 5 4 543442424444554344444344 247 7 719 12223323121451 1 32 153221231 24 85712 4 44 4 344 544 3434 54 4 3 344 34 444 2486710 331223321322322 32133332 341 2487718 23432334244223341143443142 2490712 4 2431 13431353 3442 2 334 332 34 2496719 342 2444 3342 22 2223214422441 209 249 7 717 44522435131232555154153552 2498715 454254442 23 35 3 545 3555 34545 2499713 211111132 234211221424 32121 2502714 44444445232224444313433434 2509719 54 544 54 5442 22 4 544344545445 2511715 4443344 42433334 44 2444 44 4 44 2514719 5 344 344424 34 3 4445 2 344 4 3443 25 18710 445553333541255 55 5555 55 554 25 21714 4 34 32 344344 3 3 3443 3423 33434 2523710 43433333223433344243323342 2 524718 333315 33353 233334 22 343 3433 2526713 54 44444 5242 44 4444545524444 25 30715 34 544423513 33 3 342 325413 343 2 5 32711 43542455434544555435443535 2533719 4312132 3311132121111511241 2537 710 4 351343442332 2132 2534 33341 2 541712 53533535335553555 3 55 333353 2543718 42312233221222233244543342 2548 717 445 344442 3243 3 5443 555 44444 2 571719 43442334224244443445523434 257 3715 5 542 5 54 515242 4 5552 55524555 2576718 44432433423234544444433443 258 0710 443 3224455 343 3 444 2443 2 3343 25 8 2716 4 2442 4443234 3 3 344444434244 2584712 55 553 5555 3 3515 5551535 55555 2586717 44 542 3451234 435 22 3 244 24424 2587715 55215551515142 555111132333 2587715 44421234132221332244432442 2592715 4 44 2442444 3 33 3 44414 45 3 3444 2 595718 5444245513443 3 5544244 34545 2 596716 44533445323 354 555543444544 2603710 5 2 252252215555222545255252 2604718 4 4424415444433444154424244 2617710 35223344241342343153532453 2620714 4442 2 44412242 2442141422 444 262 3718 4 244134422453 3 5 52 3433 33 344 2625713 55 1355353 5535 355515 35 53 55 3 2626711 3342144 344 2 32 3443 2424 34 344 263 5712 444442442 4 3444 544 2434 4 3444 2640712 3 332 233412 32 3 3 32 324412 3323 264 3716 4444 344444 34 3 4 54444 4 3 34 445 2649713 34 13132 33 34 3 33 333 3 2 3432442 2650711 3333441414243 3434 242513454 26517 19 4453444 554333455544554444 4 2661718 4 5 55355443242 5 555 34541545 5 26707 19 4344 134444324334344 44 42223 2671717 4 3 342 3 343 32 34 3444 344 3 4444 3 2684710 23222 241132331423121522241 2685717 12222234253432344 15 1124332 2695716 33433 3443 34 334 44 3333433434 2696714 2422342314222234 3122431343 2699718 4 4 43444424 342 4 554 2444 3 344 3 2 70 2710 4 5442 45224 3 3322332 34 534452 2706711 44433 32 5522 44 4 34 4 244434443 2714715 444 4 35454344 34545 3444 4344 5 2715712 5 344 2 34444444 4 442 3144 44445 2717718 2 44 334132 22 32 34 242332 2 2434 2719714 54 543414444344554344444444 2722718 455 34 555 44 34 55555 355555555 2726 719 44 4 3342 32 2 344 3 4432 445 2 3443 27 30711 2 2422222212 232 4432123 33 324 2733715 4 34 324344 3444 3 544 3444 34444- 2739 712 4 344 3434 2 24 4 33442 3444 4 3434 2740710 33221422131312232223332243 2743714 44 3 344442 43 3344 444 344 344 54 2 746717 5 4442445 22 3 34 31521254 34444 2 747715 343413442 2 5 33 2 535 2454 32 543 27487 13 4 444135 52 3543 3 2 534 34443554 27 54711 4 3452 24422 3 22 3442 2444 444 54 27 55718 332222 241133221212334222 32 27 56716 4555 344 543442 5 5534444 4444 5 27 57714 3 3 3413 33223443434533413554 2761716 15111111111511111151531551 2 76 2714 344 32 4442 2 3 22 3442 34442 2434 2 765717 43434445433443554344433545 2767713 4454232544324 344324443442 5 2779 718 4 444 34532 34234 4 333 442 43332 2780716 4 344 3445444444 4 444 544 44555 2 784 718 443444242414224452415434 54 2790715 4342 22 342 2 342 24442 54412442 2791713 44 324242133422143154223 322 2794717 5 3 544455 344424 5 544244 44 444 210 2796712 44444554343444 554135442444 27 99 716 34 4 3443444 343 34 44 32 34 33434 2802718 44434434343424 4453455 4444 5 280 3716 444 3134542 3 344 5 54 3444 44444 2807717 42442445444244444244434443 2810711 442 244 332 32 32 3 324243422441 2814713 44442444323354 343143222422 2815710 3444433443133 3444144432441 2822716 411411421244441 114 54 244151 2 8 24712 33331334224333444343233334 28 27 715 3 342 2223322 332 332 2 33432 343 2828713 322222331134 33333 44 3 334343 2831717 34324444343443344244422443 28 34711. 44 3 3443424 343 34442424 32 352 28 37 714 3322342 32314212 32 331312421 2846715 55445535234443555343443444 2851715 31431233113 334322 11322324 3 2853711 555435544342345 54 4455 54554 2859718 44323445133432 44 4 243443443 2 865715 54143145335334555435444554 2871713 43544554243132444 124553444 2 8 77710 43533454313434555354343444 2879716 3 32224332 324 2 2 334242 3 32443 2880714 44422514143233444254523454 28 82 710 5 34434555 24234 5554 354 4444 5 268 3718 54534444 244244555444434542 2885713 43442444443324444244434444 2886711 424412533125332 31123211323 2892 719 3344 122 3 42 543334 142 2333233 2893717 3422 34221322222 3 3142422 341 2900710 55544555554233555 4455 54 555 2902716 444 3434544 344 4 444 3444 34444 2911717 4 344 34443 244 34443 3243 244 24 2914711 3 3322244222432 32 324122 3 331 2918712 42432343123333442233233432 2919710 44442454242222444344 4 24444 2920718 4 3543 4552 23334444 3442 33444 2926715 2 352222222 2 42 2 322 243 32 32 32 29 377 12 22111321132122 122 2424 32 244 29387 10 4443233444244444214 44 23 343 2939 718 4 34 333343 3242 3444 2444 34443 2942712 4 2 32 2 2 242 3 2334242 2 2 24 32 342 294771 1 2442443312122122322 34 24324 2950715 2 322332422222 3 3 34243 3 3 343 3 2951713 23213313121213333142432431 2952711 433 32 344323433444 344344 334 295 3719 4 3212141121311121141422221 295 8718 2 42 2 24343 2.3432 3343424 33 343 2959716 123 2 3253312533 433 3 333 3 3 333 2961712 44544445 2 3 34 3 44442424 24442 2962 710 444 355 34444 234545223443544 2965713 5454 3545 344234 554 3 545 43545 297 7718 4 4444 34444 4 44 3443 24444 4444 2982718 4544354435 314 3 5543324 33445 2986719 444 4 342444 344 3 444 344444444 298 8715 5454 3 55 544 2 3344 54 2 535 33 554 2989713 44312413124 442442123442443 2995710 4 3542 45422 3224 54 324444 3 334 3003711 4 34422 343 2 3 444 4 44 3444 34424 3004710 43332433233 43 3342344433343 3CC5717 344 3 34444 3 3 334443 244 4 3 344 3 3010717 4333242322 3 43 3 432 2233 34443 3012713 44244535424424545344444445 3013711 5 5445555551134455 2 32513 354 3014719 34432434322343444343232434 3015716 44542 4444 21223342244422443 302016 7 4 334 3444 3 3 34 3 2 443 2 543 4 344 3 3022712 44 442 4443 2 333 2444 2 444 3 3 44 5 3023710 522522521245552224552 44 2 52 212 302571.5 535333131 13353353155533353 3026713 15111135113533555331553553 3028719 5 3551553335 33 5331353555353 3044716 52252252224 4452224 541442 52 3046711 54544 54 44 43344 44 5233434443 3047 719 44434444444 24 4 5 55 3 544 4 3445 3048717 342 342 3414343 2 344 2 424 32441 3C49715 5 35444452 33443 552 3445 34435 3060 712 545444443434344444444 34554 3067717 4444424 545 3 35 5 555 3444 444 54 3071719 3 4442423133232344 24 25 33452 3074713 11111111111531111111311111 3075710 4444445532 3444444334432444 3079712 5 22 51252215555222455255252 3082 71.6 32 322 33323343 3 3433442 33343 3085719 3 3 32 3 24324 222 2 32 31424 32243 3036717 444 344 3 333 3 24 3 34 3 24343 3 343 308 7715 43312131135433342445532244 3088713 24 3 2432454232 2 3 331543 22423 3089711 35533553333353553135533555 3090719 344 345454 3 243 3 444254 5 33444 3098712 4442442444 3 34 34442545 33544 3099 710 4 5434543351232 345353513553 3102712 3 3 3421544423223 313533 32 223 3109717 5 344224432 34 343 52 444434444 3112711 3 342 342 33 3243 4 332 2 42243242 3114717 3 2221314131322 2 22143212 342 3118718 52241152114555222445254252 3120714 33222 34113122 3344242411442 3121712 43432 455 3444 34 4432 444444 54 3122710 4 44443 35434 544444 344444 444 3131711 5 3552 3553 35 3 35 3535 35 344454 3138716 24322324232233243152343444 3140712 53433244322434343244444333 3144714 4 3432445 224 443 343 3444 3443 3 3146719 4 44 3233442 244 4 345 2 525 42452 3147717 44543 34 4423444443 244334 344 31507 11 5444 3324433 3344443 5 54 33 3 53 3155710 553155525443322551 11333333 3160710 44544555344444444344434444 3166717 2 32 2224421343 3 2 321344 33332 3167715 44432254322434444124523442 3168713 4 544 3 35 544 3 354 5453 533 34455 3172715 244424554234434424445 34 4 43 3173713 42431342322222443244442433 3174711 54 33455 3341322 344 3333425 54 3177714 43 1132 3413423 3433243442244 3182714 444342 353 2143 3444254 3 33443 318 3712 43533455323323453444333521 3195716 43 3 3442 313233 2 3 33242442 343 3196 714 54442 435413434 54434 44 444 34 3202 7 10 5 3452 25 42 253434412444 44243 320 3 708 555524552234355 54 3 25 344 54 5 3205 713 44 4 3455444 3434 544 3444 4 3444 3209715 4 44 44 444441444544444434444 3210713 3 331551513113533315355355 3 32 11711 3 3 352 34422 3 343 443 252534442 3212719 334442231224233 43223443342 3213717 42 3313333 3 333 3 444 3 54 332443 3215712 4455 13454444335 54 4 35535245 3 216710 4 34 3244432 3 344 944 32 354422 3 32 187 16 4 44 44 444334 34444 4 344444444 3219714 35533555113353553 153333315 3219871 45554455555434555353234544 3220712 44442 344422442444 2 44443444 3221710 33 3222431135323 3 322333 3443 3228715 23212411141111111141421443 3 2 32717 44543544224432543253444553 323 3715 3 12231331 1131 13331 1 33 31335 32 36718 43543345 22 343 2 34444 24 34442 3238 714 4214 1141214554111454255151 3241718 4 2 4454443 3 323 3 444244434 344 3 24 3714 243 214242 2 244 2 344 344422 32 3 3248713 4 355 3344324 3445533555 35344 3257715 11111111111111111115511151 3271715 4 242 332 3222432 242 2 22 3 33441 3275716 4 33322441234444 43 344444444 3277 712 334423231322 3 3 555442524553 3289717 4443245432 3224443 3544 44443 3292711 34532444223434543344424445 3294717 4 333444444 334 3244155432442 3 342704 2 3223 22311232 22 322322 32134 34C9703 4432 332 2122 343432 2414 32 342 3497716 51242252114455 222445144252 3512712 53543454443334444345444445 3544715 4 34 32 444 32 3 334 44 33444 334 34 3607710 3442132322 3 32 2 3212 324 2242 3 3614716 22323332421335322433234334 3617719 3 34 3 344 324 344 34 442 344 33 343 3619715 54552455523334554345534445 3622719 5555445 5424 34 4555443335544 3629714 44 3 3444444 32 34 4443454 44444 363 3716 5334134122 2123 3 3 32 32212342 3666716 445 3 2345421132 555 3 54524 532 3694 718 34 33 3 324334 344 444 3 344 32 344 370 5712 4 4 442 44422 333 3 444 34444 3444 37 36 717 5455 34455 2 3 334 5 55 344334 544 3737715 444 34 3442 3 3 34 4 444 2444 44444 3 738713 44323524422443444242442424 37 39711 4 3 32434412 332 3 3342444 3 3443 3740 719 44 4 3215521342 344222442 3242 3 743713 4 34224432 232 2 2 343154 3 22332 3745718 25231553115121444 153513452 374 7 714 4 35 2133512433 355 3 254334555 3748712 444 32 34443 25 3 4 444 3 54 3 33444 375 3712 4444 333444 3 334444 3 433 344 34 3 755 717 4 342 24451324 2 3 54 54444 3 3 543 3760717 44432 33422 343 3343 3434 33344 3764709 4444344 544 4 434554 344544555 3768710 324222 3342333 34332224 24342 3769718 4 4342 4442 2442 2 443 244444442 213 3770716 23312223222433342 2 32 322 32 2 3781713 4 24 324442 2 242 3 2421342 222 31 37 97719 42 142241124 544 111454244151 3824711 4 34242444 244 3 3 4454 434 35 344 38 44521 3 2422122123322341115322125 3874716 423332331224422331232223 32 38 82 719 344 3422422 2 24 3 442 2444 34 24 3 3894714 2 343 3 34 32 2 3 344 3 33 3 332 3343 3 39 90710 44444444442242444222442444 4096715 454 44 44444443444 3 2 24543434 4119715 22 33442313332 2 3332424 33 343 4125712 4344 2 34 3424 2334 44 3 24 2 44 444 4130712 4 33 323442224 3 3 4442432 32 333 4134714 4 444 34443 32 44 44 44 244 4 24434 414 4713 343212 332 21532 2431334 32 341 42 37715 3 42 3433312 342 3 3 33 1532 33 333 4515716 44 4 4 443544 24 34 5 54 2434 34 544 5015714 32 32423422243 3 342154 333343 507 8704 44 54444544 342444 5344 5 34 544 5187711 5 45 52 25542 355 3 5542554 34444 5214697 4 34 3 343434 344 44432432 34343 5231717 24424 32 322 244 2 34 3 2424 32 344 541967 8 35 2 2441115 22 2 2 242142512 341 5 421683 54442355224234542251224444 5423710 444 3444444 44 42 342 2444 22443 5 599717 43444 345424 344 443 3444 33344 5732714 3222143311452 332222 3133253 57 7 7719 342 2 3435 331333534343433443 579 3716 2 3 32144414133 2442 2244 33 332 5 798715 442 2224422 24 42 3442 22442443 5 814710 54543455 3 32 444444 3444 24454 5818711 5 35533 3 53335 33333335 333 351 58 28710 4 4423141343 24 4 554 3443 44434 5831714 323 3242334 322 3442323323222 58 50714 24 54244542 344 35 53444454 344 5853718 4443 3 34443 3 2 34 4432 444 34443 5875711 44534545224334444334234434 5877717 4 5 4345 2544 34 244 44 2 444 23443 5891718 4 3442 433422 23 3443 2 524 33 343 5 396717 342 2 322 334 2 242 3231334 33342 5948716 4 344 44344 34 54 3 444244443444 5976717 553155545 5414 3 513451511115 5990718 44 44244544244 3 5432432 34 443 5999719 333224312332232411423 31441 6004717 5 5 542445524 3 34 553154522 552 6007 710 444 322 3422 3 23 3 332 24 3433442 6009716 4444 2 34542 2 444 442 344444444 6018717 4 444 44 3344 4 44 4 4 44 3444 33444 60 207 13 3 33 31344 132242 3432 2 24 2 3442 6026 710 4 34422443 3 3 24 3 444 24 34 33443 6037717 334 32 3242 23 33 34442 34 32 3434 60 52 716 4 342 34 2415 343 3 343112342 443 60 6 17 17 4 4 3254 14244 54 45551545335 52 6062715 2 34 3 33432 2 343 3 344 24 34 3 3443 608 371.1 24 3 24 32 34 13 22 2 344 24 24 324 32 6092 712 5224235 3315344 222444244242 6093710 44442 34 54243344443 34 434444 6 1007 13 443322344 4 33344443 3 3433444 6101711 3 32 3.114211333 3 243 343 3 3425 3 6145718 43441542123121321142222242 214 6148712 3432114434 31434422 414 33 342 6175715 55545 54 5444545555 3 54 545555 6176713 43432244424333424244444443 62017 19 5224225212 44 54 2214 442552 51 6264717 44443244443224 4 43344534344 6271712 4423243432 3443543453443544 62 78717 54554555555 22 5 5 555 45 545 545 62 8 9714 4444 243442 2 23 34431544 32434 6298715 444 34424443 3344̂ 3 3 43434434 6313712 32432232213 43 32 32 2422322 33 632 5716 44134 5412 314344432 44 4 2 3443 6347710 434343444233424442 33443344 6348718 41141152214544121454154141 6 3 59715 41434243313433443222443423 6364715 4 55445454434355 5434444 5 555 6395719 4 34 345345 34433 343144532333 64 17711 4 34 3 3344224 33 3 444222 3 22 333 6424717 2 24 3133413354 3 344 24424 3452 64 26712 444 34434145 544 344 254 5 43 3 53 64 32 710 4 34424 2 34 34 3444 43 344 44 3444 64 86716 4454454 544 3 324455343443545 6506711 5234 35544 343345 54 455432 22 3 6509715 4454232541333 3 554212413344 6511711 424 31144212 32 3 344242422442 6 519 714 4 44 3 2 24444 344 4 4 443444 33442 6540710 4444142453 3343444141434 551 6 544712 34 5 3445 52 2152 2 552134511534 655 3705 3 333 3333333514243 353215450 6 560718 4 343 244443353 3 442 3 4343242 3 6562714 5 355255521433 5552 5 355 35345 6569719 2 3214414133422 3232 334 14442 6 5947 07 4 354145432 2133 342134423334 6606 719 2234131332 223 2223 3232 3 3333 6611719 4 34422 33313 34 3 343 2 23132 323 66 52 713 44432 33424 3 3434 53 21443 3443 6710719 422 2124412242 214124342 2221 6724710 4343224432 33 3 34 44 344434443 6 7 32713 34422244433234543234433444 67 54717 44 334 22424 3 32 2 3443 535 22 5 52 675 8718 4 44 2 2 32434134 3 3422445 2 2 342 67 59716 2 5224351241322 323242422 342 6762710 5 3551553115355553355353535 6763718 444322 342 2 3 23 3 332 243 3 33442 676 7 7 19 3 33 32 3442 2 344 3443 3 34 3 33 334 6768717 4 354244422544 3 555424344424 6769715 333233424 2233344434244344 3 67 72 719 444425444 34234 44 4 344444443 6774715 545 32 5453432245552 34545 545 67 77 718 4454444534323 3 5 55344433534 6 780712 444322 54 32343544335 54 22442 6 781710 54524524341245544455554544 6782718 344355355533333 3 3313333 553 678 4714 422222 341234332 42 25 34 33 331 6785711 455 34 535554313355555553555 67 8 7717 444 3332233214 3442 244423 324 6788 715 45 53 325542 3 334 5544 545 44555 6793705 34221213122311233342411243 6794713 44443345222443444444444244 6796718 4444 344 34 34 24 3 444 244 3 244 3 3 6797 716 3242 22 33212 33 2 2 32 2444 33322 215 68017 16 34124111122222213144431142 680 2714 2322 32 34324443423333334342 6808711 4 45344355 4 3 4455543534 3 344 5 6810717 53352353224433343442434345 68 12713 5344225 32 224 3 3342 4451433 43 6813711 22222223233322243232332331 6819718 35541424223344442343333243 6824718 54 54 2445243443444345 534444 6827711 433354444442434442424334 54 68 30715 332213331233 32 333121242333 6839716 11111113133111131151331131 6849715 43432333232 34 3444242422443 68 52719 22331233123 43 33 32 23 32 32 2 32 6853717 4444442544 2224544444544455 68 55 712 24422 22 3122412 2421425 42 255 6 869713 5 354 2 345334 42 3 5554 24333 334 68 71719 3 244324 34 344332331533 222 34 6876718 3 2231143132 22 2 2 222444 34133 6899710 5 3 54244433 3 23 3 4 34 3 42242 22 3 6904718 45 3345453544445542245 33455 6909717 4 24 3133422 2 34 4 443 22 3 322421 6910715 445 34 3553444 344 444444 44 434 6912711 44 5 52445 2 33 444 344 3 344 44444 6913719 32321434223243131354232252 6924716 44322444442432244422334343 6927719 3 3 335333333151333133313355 6973713 5 4 5445445 3442 4 55 5444 544 545 6976716 444324 25332 334124242422442 7011711 4 333254312443 34423 24433443 7017718 434322443 3 34 34 4442444 33434 7024 714 433224343212334 44 2 34432433 705 5 700 34442153221243444211243443 7064710 42 3 3412 323 343 34431444 32 344 7069719 52241242114545 2 21444244242 70 70 707 4 344424421342 3 442 243444 343 707 6714 443 2124344 344 3 342 343143443 7081714 44 44 24443 33434 44324 3444444 709 3719 444 2442 324 3 22 3 444 2 4 24 22 442 7133715 2212 32213 4324 21124 232 22 232 7141716 4 444 2 2 342 2 2434 4442 4244432 5 7146715 24224424122342444222422442 7164718 4 244 3 244213 43 3 4 44 3444 4 3442 7186711 44 33443424 3 333 444 24 34 33442 7187719 5255235542342 4555444343544 7 210719 4 35 4445 534422 4 544 4244 44442 7215718 4344323323 3242443333234343 72187.12 5355343 54 34334555 444444 555 7225717 4 24 34 2 5442 355 3442 25434 3 435 7227713 545514553254355535 25 345545 7297716 5542 1255324 313453434454445 7308711 33433443432 3 34 33 3 3 34544433 7 310717 4 344 344444 4 4 34 5543442 44443 7 3487 17 4 3442 3442 2 3442 44222444 3424 7359714 2 141532 34 23 32 2221242322332 7383714 33222344113322221132422242 7 390709 32 2312354 32 44 4 44342 2234443 74 2 4716 4 3443 34 332 3444333422344333 7435712 244224 24 3 2 3332444224233442 7442718 535 54 525 54 3334 5 54 354 544 513 7496714 43412 32 2112 42124113 3 3212 34 216 7 566714 3 3 531355333 55 3 343 3 344 34444 7631716 55555345421435554353113454 7668 718 444 2444144 344 3 454 345444444 7721715 54452444445524555354 5444 54 7737711 4344442444 34544 54 4243 3344 5 7834716 445 5 545 52 24 5444442 324 5444 5 7907710 43 34134312434 3 432 3443 44 233 7917719 43334444424434443332444444 EXECUTION TERMINATED 218 A P P E N D I X N CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT 219 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT H^: performance of the a c t i v i t y and receiving the research instrument are independent of one another. A c t i v i t y 1 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 34 12 46 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 94 45 139 Totals 128 57 N 1 = 185 X 2 = .641 P(X 2 ^ .641 | 1 d.f., H d) < .50; accept H d at p ̂= .05 and p = .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 2 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 7 2 9 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 121 55 176 Totals 128 57 I ̂ = 185 X = .041 (Yates 1 correction applied) P(X ^ .041 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .90; accept H d at p = .05 and p = .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 220 A c t i v i t y 3 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 18 2 20 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 110 55 165 Totals 128 57 N = 185 2 X = 3.527 (Yates* correction applied) P(X 2 >. 3.527 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .10; r e j e c t H d at the .10 l e v e l , accept at .05 and .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 4 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 35 12 47 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 93 45 138 Totals 128 57 K 1 = 185 X 2 = .525 P(X 2 _> .525 | 1 d.f., H d) < .50; accept H d at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 5 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 11 4 15 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 117 53 170 Totals 128 57 is I I = 185 X = .005 (Yates 1 c o r r e c t i o n applied) P(X 2 >. .005 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .95; accept H d at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . ' A P P E N D I X 0 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT 222 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY. TABLES: PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT H^: performance of the a c t i v i t y and rec e i v i n g the placebo instrument are independent of one another. A c t i v i t y 1 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 12 10 22 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 45 122 167 Totals 57 132 N = 189 X =5.7 81 (Yates' c o r r e c t i o n applied) P(X 2 >. 5.781 | 1 d.f., H d) < .02; r e j e c t H d at the .02 l e v e l , accept H, at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 2 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 2 3 5 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 55 129 184 Totals 57 132 N = 189 Cannot compute accurate x because of small c e l l frequencies. 223 A c t i v i t y 3 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 2 1 3 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 55 131 186 Totals 57 132 N = 189 Cannot compute accurate x because of small c e l l frequencies. A c t i v i t y 4 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 12 8 20 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 45 124 169 Totals 57 132 N = 189 X = 7.938 (Yates' c o r r e c t i o n applied) P ( X 2 >. 7 .938 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .005; r e j e c t H d at the .005 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 5 B .eceived placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 4 3 7 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 53 129 182 Totals 57 132 N = 189 X = 1.359 (Yates' correction applied) P ( X 2 >. 1 .359 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .25, accept H d at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A P P E N D I X P CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT 225 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT H^: performance of the a c t i v i t y and receiving the research instrument are independent of one another. A c t i v i t y 1 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 34 44 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 94 122 216 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X 2 = 16.663 P(X 2 _> 16 .663 | 1 d.f., H d) < .001; r e j e c t H d at the .001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 2 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 7 3 10 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 121 129 250 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X = 1.035 (Yates' correction applied) P ( X 2 > 1.03 5 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .50; accept H d at the .05 and .01 le v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 226 Activity 3 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 18 1 19 Did not perform the activity 110 131 241 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X = 15.075 (Yates1 correction applied) P(X 2 >. 15.0.75 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .001; reject H d at the .001 level of significance. Activity 4 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 35 8 43 Did not perform the activity 93 124 217 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X 2 = 21.326 P(X 2 >. 21.326 | 1 d.f., H d) < .001; reject H d at the .001 level of significance. Activity 5 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 11 3 14 Did not perform the activity 117 129 246 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X = 3.931 (Yates* correction applied) P(X 2 >. 3.931 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .05; reject H d at the .05 level, accept H, at the .01 level of significance. A P P E N D I X Q CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY. TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT (corrected for absentees) 228 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT (corrected for absentees) H^: performance of the a c t i v i t y and receiving the research instrument are independent of one another. A c t i v i t y 1 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 34 10 44 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 94 72 166 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X 2 = 6.229 P(X 2 >. 6 .229 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .02; r e j e c t H d at the .02 l e v e l , accept H. at .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 2 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 7 3 10 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 121 79 200 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X = .072 (Yates 1 c o r r e c t i o n applied) P(X 2 > .072 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .80; accept H d at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 229 A c t i v i t y 3 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 18 1 19 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 110 81 191 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X = 8.518 (Yates 1 c o r r e c t i o n applied) P(X 2 >. 8.518 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .005; r e j e c t H d at the .005 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 4 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 35 8 43 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 93 74 167 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X 2 = 9.494 P(X 2 >. 9 .494 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .005; r e j e c t H d at the .005 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c t i v i t y 5 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the a c t i v i t y 11 3 14 Did not perform the a c t i v i t y 117 79 196 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X = 1.244 (Yates 1 c o r r e c t i o n applied) P(X 2 >_ 1 .244 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .30; accept H d at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .

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