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An application of Fishbein's attitude theory to the prediction of free-choice student behaviors in a.. Abramson, Kenneth Herbert 1972

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AN APPLICATION OF FISHBEIN'S ATTITUDE THEORY TO THE PREDICTION OF FREE-CHOICE STUDENT BEHAVIORS IN A FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY PHYSICS COURSE by KENNETH H. ABRAMSON B.Sc, University of British Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197 2 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date •7 ii ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to forecast the actual performance of five extracurricular educational activities by 128 first year university Physics students using Fishbein's model for the prediction of behavior and behavioral intention. The effectiveness of achievement measures and measures of attitude toward various instructional objects in the prediction of behavior and behavioral intention was also investigated. Consideration of Fishbein's model led to the investigation of several specific problems: (a) the relation ship between variables internal to and those external to the model; (b) the relationship between behavior, behavioral intention, and the attitudinal and normative variables of the model; (c) the accuracy with which behavioral intention and behavior could be predicted, and the relative importance of the predictors in the prediction equation; (d) the use of behavioral intention measures as predictors of behavior in specific educational situations; and (e) the detection of possible measurement effects. A Likert attitude scale was used to obtain measures of attitude toward fourteen different aspects of Physics and Physics instruction. Estimates of Grade 12 Mathematics and Grade 12 Physics achievement were obtained from self-reports. Fishbein's model was applied to measures of : students' attitudes toward performing each activity (A ), ac u their social normative beliefs (NB ), personal normative s beliefs (NB ), motivation to comply with certain referents P (Mc ), and behavioral intention (BI). Behavioral intentions were also predicted for three of the voluntary activities/ using measures of A . , NB and NB as predictor variables. The measures of normative beliefs were taken with respect to the referents: self, closest friends, parents, majority of the class, lecturer, and religious group. The model for predicting behavioral intention was given by Fishbein in the form of a multiple regression equation, where the criterion variable is BI and the predictor variables are A . and the summation (over all referents) of NB multiplied clC "C S by Mc . Most of the obtained results tended to agree with expectations based on Fishbein's theory. Variables external to the model were, for the most part, poorly correlated with behavioral intention and with overt behavior (B) unless they were significantly correlated with at least one of the predictors given in the model. Statistically significant correlations were consistently found between measures of BI and NB . A_ ., and the normative belief with respect to students' 'best friends'. The magnitudes of correlations between measures of BI and the other social normative beliefs varied considerably across activities, several correlations iv reaching statistical significance. Correlations between B and measures of BI were generally low, although three out of five were significantly greater than zero. Correlations between behavior and the predictor variables were also small, and were frequently not statistically significant. High multiple correlations obtained in the prediction of BI in dicated predictive validity of the predictor variables. In all predictions of BI, NB^ had, by far, the greatest weight as a predictor. Beta weights of A ,, and NB varied greatly ac t s across activities. Low multiple correlations were obtained in the prediction of behavior from the predictor variables, substantiating the low product moment correlations obtained between BI and B. The observation that significant positive correlations between behavior and the predictor variables were reduced to nonsignificance when behavioral intention was held constant, tended to substantiate the theoretical ex pectation that BI is an intervening variable between behavior and the predictor variables. An unexpected result was the detection of significant measurement effects in the pre diction of voluntary performance of three activities. These 2 effects were substantiated by means of x tests of the independence of behavioral responses obtained under different measurement conditions: administration of the research instrument, a placebo instrument, and no instrument. It was concluded that with the application of Fish bein's theory, the prediction of behavioral intention with V respect to performing free-choice activities in an educational setting could be made with considerably^better than chance accuracy. The prediction of actual performance of the activities from measures of behavioral intention, however, posed serious difficulties. It was recommended that the possibility of measurement effects influencing the prediction of behavior be given careful consideration in future educational applications of the model. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 1. Background to the Study 2. Statement of the General Problem 3 3. Need for the Study . . 4 4. Definition of Terms Used .......... 6 5. Specific Problems Investigated 8 6. Limitations of the Study 12 II. CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 15 1. The Psychological Context 12. The Educational Context 46 3. Summary 5III. METHOD OF THE STUDY 60 1. Pilot Study: Relevant Referent Groups ... 60 2. Population and Samples 63 3. Experimental Procedures .......... 64 4. Instruments 67 5. Methods of Analysis ............ 75 IV. RESULTS 78 1. The Relationship between Variables Internal to and those External to the Fishbein Model 78 2. The Relationship between Variables- g-j Internal to the Model 3. The Prediction of Behavioral Intention ... 89 4. The Prediction of Behavior 93 5. The Role of Behavioral Intention in Predicting Behavior 9 5 6. Measurement Effect 5 vii CHAPTER PAGE 7. Discussion of Results 10° 8. Summary H7 V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY . 122 1. Recapitulation of.the Problem 122 2. Conclusions 123 3. Implications and Recommendations for Educational Application 126 4. Recommendations for Further Research . . . 131 LITERATURE CITED 13APPENDIX A. PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE ON REFERENT GROUPS. . 141 B. STUDENT RESPONSES TO VARIOUS REFERENTS IN THE PILOT STUDY . 143 C. RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE 145 D. RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE .... 152 E. PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE 160 F. BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS RECEIVING THE PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE 166 G. LIST OF FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES 168 H. ACTIVITY 1 ATTENDANCE SURVEY TICKET 170 I. ACTIVITIES CHECK-LIST 172 J. PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE. . . 174 K. STUDENT RESPONSES TO PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE • 185 L. ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE . 202 M. STUDENT RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE 207 viii APPENDIX PAGE N. x2 CONTINGENCY TABLES—RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT 218 0. X2 CONTINGENCY TABLES—PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT . 221 P. x2 CONTINGENCY TABLES—RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT 224 Q. x2 CONTINGENCY TABLES (CORRECTED FOR ABSENTEES) —RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT. . . 227 ix LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) AND A , NB , NB , NB (Mc ), AND g dut p t> to t> 26 II. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDES TOWARD OBJECTS EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL (A ) AND VARIABLES IN THE MODEL 30 III. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A . , AND NB OR NB (Mc ) 31 clC XI S S S IV. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A , NB / NB / AND NB (Mc ) ON BI . . . . . . .P 36 s' s s V. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A . , NB AND NB (Mc ) ON B s s act' s 40 VI. PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS AND PARTIAL CORRELATIONS (BI HELD CONSTANT) BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR/ B, AND THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A . AND NB 41 act s VII. VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL 61 VIII. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL AND VARIABLES INTERNAL TO THE MODEL (N = 89) 80 IX. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR AND CRITERION VARIABLES (N = 128) 85 X. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR VARIABLES ... 87 XI. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIORAL INTENTION 90 XII. PERCENT OF TOTAL VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR BY EACH PREDICTOR VARIABLE IN THE PRE DICTION OF BEHAVIORAL INTENTION . . . . 92 X TABLE PAGE XIII. STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIOR 94 XIV. PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES . 96 XV. PARTIAL CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, HOLDING BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) CONSTANT 9? XVI. CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVITIES, FROM THE RECEIVING OF A QUESTIONNAIRE 98 xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For his dedicated and invaluable direction, I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. W. Boldt. Thanks are also accorded to Dr. S.F. Foster for his extremely useful advice throughout the study. I am grateful to Dr. D.L. Livesey of the Physics Department for his help in arranging the experimental situation, and to Dr. D.H. Phelps of the Faculty of Applied Science for his kind cooperation and participation in the experiment. Acknowledgements are also due to Miss S. Jackson and Mr. J.K. Siu for their help with the computer work. Last, but not least, I wish to thank my wife, Jana, for her encouragement and assistance. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION While many educators are engaged in assessing the attitudes of students towards various aspects of instruction, psychologists are engaged in a major controversy about the assumed relationship between the attitude of a person toward an attitude object and his behavioral response with respect to the object. Recent theory concerning predicting overt behavior from measures of attitude and normative beliefs in well defined situations appears promising but has never been fully applied in an educational context. 1. Background to the Study Among the reasons given for current revisions of science courses is the concern for course improvement, student disinterest and declining enrollment. These concerns are reflected in a number of studies (1,2,3,4). The studies relate the decline of student enrollment to possible student disenchantment with science and technology (generally) and also to student dissatisfaction with physical science courses. A decreasing enrollment trend in physics is clearly evident at the University of British Columbia. The U.B.C. Physics Department Task Force Report (5) states in its 2 introduction/ that: The reduction in student demand for education in pure Physics at U.B.C./ is not a new phenomenon. It is a trend that has been going on for at least eight years. In order to meet the problems of declining enrollment and possible student dissatisfaction with physics courses, the Physics Department Task Force made the following recommen dation (5) : . . . as an experiment in the 1971/72 year, the second term of one section of Physics 115 be organized as sets of lectures on topical subjects given by several faculty members; and that, if this experiment is successful, other sections of Physics 105, 110, and 115 adopt this modular approach. Some of the lecturers participating in this experiment offered a choice of optional or extracurricular learning activities. One such lecture module dealt with physics applied to problems of general social concern and was a two week (four lectures) module entitled "The Physics in Environ mental and Technological Assessment.1 Among the intended outcomes of this module, as expressed by the lecturer, was the goal of student involvement in activities dealing with environmental pollution and the conservation of natural resources. The extracurricular activities included partici pation in a number of voluntary activities, ranging from attending lunch-hour movies and picking up optional reading 3 material, to taking part in actual pollution data-collecting experiments. In this context, an individual's attitude toward participating in socially relevant extracurricular activities, and his perceived personal and social normative beliefs concerning the performance of these acts, are postulated to be good predictors of expressed plans to participate(behavioral intention) and actual participation in the activities (overt behavior). Fishbein's theory (6), which relates overt behavior and behavioral intentions, to attitudinal and normative variables, seems particularly appropriate for an empirical test of this hypothesis. 2. Statement of the General Problem The major problem of this study is to investigate the general hypothesis that if a Physics 115 student's attitudinal and normative position with respect to performing a free-choice learning task can be determined, then his expressed intention of performing the task, and his actual performance of the task, may be predicted with better than chance accuracy. This general hypothesis may be stated in the form of a regression equation proposed by Fishbein (6). The equation constitutes a theoretical model for the prediction of be havioral intention and corresponding overt behavior : n B - BI = [A + [ I NB. (Mc.)]w. (1.0) act o . , ill 4 where: B is the individual's overt behavior, i.e., his actual performance of some specified task BI is his behavioral intention or his intention to perform the task in a given situation A is the individual's attitude toward the act of performing the specified task, in the given situation NB. is a specific normative belief, i.e., the individ ual's belief concerning what he should do in this situation, depending on his perception of what he is expected to do by a specific person or group (referent group "i") Mc. is the individual's motivation to comply with what he believes is expected of him by referent group "i" n is the number of referent persons or groups 03 and to, are standardized regression coefficients. 3. Need for the Study Fishbein's theory represents an important recent development in attitude research. The theory, however, has only been applied under rather carefully controlled conditions often utilizing contrived situations. There is therefore the need for extending the range of applicability of the theory and to determine how well the theory works in less restricted conditions. The particular concern of this study is the applica tion of the model to an educational problem. One known study, Devries and Ajzen (10), applied the model in part to an educational situation. For educational purposes the study was somewhat incomplete in that no direct observation of behavior was undertaken nor was the instructor used as a referent in assessing the normative beliefs of the students. The present study is therefore a more extensive application of Fishbein's theory in an educational context. Apart from its use in extending the model's range of application, the present study may provide educators with a useful means of assessing students1 behavioral tendencies. A common approach to the problem of assessing students' behavioral tendencies has been the practice of assessing students' attitudes toward objects such as instructional methods, subjects, course changes, and concepts. This pro cedure has been generally disappointing in terms of pre dicting actual behavior with respect to these objects (See Chapter II, section 1). Fishbein's model might provide a useful alternative to the above approach. The criterion variable of the model is behavioral intention. From the point of view of evaluating learning activities, the theory has shown measures of behavioral intention to predict certain behaviors with better than chance accuracy. Information of this nature might enable an instructor to select learning activities having a maximum potential for class participation. With regard to devising new teaching strategies, the model is potentially capable of 6 indicating the relative importance of the variables most influential in predicting behavioral intention (and thus indirectly, most influential in predicting behavior), namely, an individual's attitude toward an act and his normative beliefs with respect to the performance of the act. If the most influential of these predictors can be determined, the instructor might be able to influence overt participatory learning behaviors through the results of successful efforts to modify students' attitudes toward participating in specific learning activities and students * normative beliefs concern ing those activities. 4. Definition of Terms Used 4.1 Behavior or Act Behavior or act is to be interpreted in the context of equation (1.0) as an individual's specific, overt, volitional, and observed behavior in a specified situation arranged by the experimenter. If the behavioral activity is to attend a particular educational movie under specified conditions, then the measure of a student's behavior in this case would be whether or not the student has been observed attending that particular movie under the specified conditions. The methods used for observing student behavior are described in Chapter III. 4 .2 Behavioral Intention (BI) This term refers to a statement of an individual's intention to perform a specific act in a given situation. Operationally, behavioral intention is measured by means of the individual's response to questionnaire items dealing with the intent to perform a certain act under specified conditions An assumption implicit in this measure is that the behavioral intention indicated will remain unchanged over time, at least until the act has been performed. 4.3 Attitude Toward the Act (A ) —ac u This study will follow Fishbein (6) in adopting Thurstone's one-dimensional conceptualization of attitude as "the amount of affect1 for or against a psychological object" (p. 478). In equation (1.0) the psychological object referred to is the performance of a specific act. Operationally, the amount of affect for or against a psychological object is assessed by means of a person's response to questionnaire items indicating favorableness or unfavorableness toward performing a specific act in a given situation. 4.4 Normative Belief (NB) Fishbein (6) considers a belief to be a hypothesis concerning the probability that an (attitude) object has a specific relationship with some other object, value, concept, 1'Affect' is used by Fishbein (6) to refer to the evaluative component of beliefs concerning the attitude object 8 or goal. In keeping with this, a normative belief is defined as the strength of an individual's opinion, concerning what a certain normative referent person or group expects him to do. This referent can be personal (himself) or social (others). The strength of a particular normative belief is measured by means of the individual's response to a questionnaire item in which he indicates the extent to which he agrees with the stated expectations of a particular referent person or group. 4.5 Motivation to Comply (Mc) This term may be defined as the degree of an individ ual's desire to comply with what he believes others expect of him. Operationally, a person's motivation to comply with the expectation of others is measured by his response to a questionnaire item in which he indicates the extent to which he agrees with a statement of compliance with the expectations of a particular person or group. 5. Specific Problems Investigated The following specific problems were investigated: 5.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and  those External to the Fishbein Model To what extent are variables external to, or not specified by the Fishbein model, related to each of the 9 variables in the model, for each extracurricular activity? The- external variables examined were attitudes toward: Physics in general, Physics 115, class instruction, the lecturer, the. textbook, the subject matter of the course, assignments, examinations, the laboratory, and various pro posed topics for the course (nuclear energy, the environment, classical (Newtonian) Physics, the human body, and electro magnetic theory and propulsion), and two non-attitudinal variables, Grade 12 Mathematics and Grade 12 Physics marks. According to Ajzen and Fishbein (7), any variables external .to the; model will be unrelated to behavioral intentions and. to overt behavior unless they are significantly related- to at least one of the predictors given by the model. 5.2 The Relationship between Variables Internal to the  Model To what, extent are behavioral intention, BI, and behavior, B, related to A ., NB. , Mc. , NB.(Mc), and ac *c x x xx n Z NB.(Mc.) for each of the extracurricular activities? i=l 1 1 According to the theory, both B and BI are a function of A . and of the relevant NB.(Mc.) product, although doubt acr> x x has recently been cast on the predictive value of Mc^ by Devries and Ajzen (8) and by Ajzen and Fishbein (9,10) . Further', according to Ajzen and Fishbein (10) , A n act should be related to £ NB.(Mc.) because both terms contain i-1 1 1 a common factor (see Chapter II, section 1.3 for a detailed explanation)• 10 5.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention/ BI (a) How accurately can the behavioral intention, BI, with respect to each extra-curricular activity be predicted from A . and the sum of the relevant n normative products, I NB.(Mc.)? i=l 1 (b) Which of the two variables, attitudinal or normative, is the best predictor of BI in each different behavioral situation? Investigations of Fishbein's model (7,8,9,10) indicate that the regression weights of the predictors in the model are statistically significant and also that BI can be predicted n from A-,-J- and E NB. (Mc. ) with an accuracy considerably better i—l ^" than chance. The theory also implies that the regression weights may vary, depending on the type of act, the situation under which the act is carried out, and on individual differences between the subjects with respect to their prior learning history. 5.4 The Role of Behavioral Intention in Predicting Behavior n To what extent are A . and E NB.(Mc.) related to act i=l 1 1 the performance of the act, B, i.e., actually carrying out each extracurricular activity? In a recent reformulation of the theory, Ajzen and Fishbein (10) indicated that the effects of A . and act n Z NB.(Mc.) on behavior are assumed to be mediated by BI, i=l 1 1 11 that is, that BI is an intervening variable between B and n u LA . 3 + t l NB. (Mc.)]w : o act i=l The prediction of behavioral intentions is there fore, according to the theory, a necessary as well as sufficient condition for the prediction of overt behavior, (p. 469) If this is the case, partialling out the effect of BI should result in a reduction in the correlations of B with A„ . and B with NB. (Mc.) . ac *c xx 5.5 Measurement Effect To what extent do measurements on the components of Fishbein's model influence students' behavioral responses toward the extracurricular activities? If measurement influences B, then, according to the model, this effect must be related to one of the variables of the model. In the educational context of this study, it was hoped that participation in extracurricular activities would come about as a result of classroom instruction and not as a result of beliefs aroused by the measurement instrument or its use. 12 6. Limitations of the Study There are a number of limitations which are important with respect to the generality and the interpretation of the study. Firstly, the expectation of a relationship between the predictors leads to the expectation of an attenuating effect on the multiple correlation values obtained through multiple regression analysis. Although complex mathematical procedures are available for the minimization of this effect, the present application of Fishbein's theory will adhere to the standardized multiple regression technique used in all previous investigations of the theory. This will enable direct comparisons to be easily made with studies related to the theory. Related to the use of multiple regression analysis is the specificity of the situation and the population to which the results may be generalized. It has already been mentioned that the model is particularly sensitive to situational conditions and individual differences. The results obtained from the analysis must, therefore, describe only the particular sample of Physics 115 students from Section 1 who were permitted to participate in the experimental extra curricular activities. Since the students of both Physics 115 Sections used little else than timetabling considerations in selecting one Section or the other for attendance, Section 13 1 is expected to be roughly comparable to Section 2 for the purpose of this study. Therefore, the results could likely be generalized to the entire Physics 115 population. Al though the results of the study apply only to the population sampled, the theory is quite general in its application to various situations. It is the general applicability of the theory that the present study attempted to indicate. Finally, a limitation that should be raised is the problem of obtaining valid and reliable measures on the variables of Fishbein's model. The predictive validity of the measures could be estimated by the magnitude of the multiple correlations of the predictors on BI. Predictive validity could also be checked by the degree to which measures on the variables agreed with the relationship expected on the basis of the theory. The additional question of construct validity is discussed in Chapter II. Reliability of the instrument used in the present study, must be judged indirectly from the predictive validity of the obtained results. Test-retest measures of reliability would be difficult to obtain under the conditions of this study, because the research instrument and measures of behavior were components in an actual, non-replicative behavioral situation; i.e., a student would not be inclined to complete the research instrument twice, attend the same movie twice, or repeat any of the behavioral activities. This problem points to a need for some method for estimating the reliability of 14 instruments of this kind. While it is possible to obtain a reliability measure for the A . attitude scale, the high clC "C reliability of Likert type measures on this variable is well established, whereas the reliability and stability of measures of behavioral intentions and normative beliefs are not generally known. Furthermore, the limited reliability of a single act, single dichotomous observation of behavior will probably tend to reduce the correlations of observed behavior with measures of behavioral intention. Further details concerning the validity and reliabil ity of the instruments used are given in Chapter III. 15 CHAPTER II CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 1. The Psychological Context A major concern among social scientists has been the lack of empirical support for a strong relationship between measurements on change attitude change and subsequent behavior. Cohen (11), for example, reflects this concern as follows: Until experimental research demonstrates that attitude change has consequences for subsequent behavior, we cannot be certain that our pro cedures for inducing change do anything more than cause cognitive realignments; perhaps we cannot even be certain that the concept of attitude has critical significance for psychology. The Dulany and Fishbein theories of attitude are seen by the present author as being significant attempts to systematically resolve the attitude-behavior prediction problem. 1.1 The Problem of Predicting Behavior from Attitudes Psychologists have offered varied opinions about possible sources of difficulty in predicting behavior from measures of attitude. De Fleur and Westie (12) point to the problematic concept of attitude itself. Attitude has often been described as a latent intervening variable between a 16 stimulus and the behavioral response. They suggest dropping the idea that an individual's behavior is somehow shaped, guided or mediated by an unobservable variable. As a replace ment for the latent variable notion of attitude, they would adopt a concept of attitude more closely tied to observable behavior. In a review of fifteen studies designed to specific ally assess the relationship between measures of attitude and behavior, Tittle and Hill (13) concluded that the degree of observed correspondence between attitude and behavior is a function of (a) the measurement techniques employed, (b) the degree to which the criterion behavior constitutes action within the individuals' common range of experience, and (c) the degree to which the behavioral situation occurred repetitively in the life experience of the individual. Con cerning the effectiveness of common attitude measures used . in predicting behavior, Tittle and Hill ranked the Likert scale as the best predictor of behavior; the Guttman scale ranked second, a self-rating scale, third, the Semantic Differential, fourth, and Thurstone scales, last of^ the five. The superiority of the Likert scale in this instance was attributed, at least in part, to its greater reliability, the amount of self-reference contained in the scale, and to an apparent intensity factor operating in the summated rating procedure used in its scoring. Likert scales frequently contain a larger number of self-referent items (items con-17 taining the personal pronouns "I" or "me") than the other scales and are therefore expected to elicit more specific responses. The intensity factor comes into the Likert scoring procedure by a summation of the strengths of a subject's opinions about the attitude object. Irrespective of these findings, the authors conclude, It is clear that attitude measurement alone, as examined herein, is not totally adequate as a predictor of behavior. Wicker's (14) review of thirty-three studies found attitude-behavior correlations ranging from .01 to .86, and summarized the results as followss Taken as a whole, these studies suggest that it is considerably more likely that attitudes will be unrelated or only slightly related to overt behaviors than that attitudes will be closely related to actions. Product-moment correlation coefficients relating the two kinds of responses are rarely above .30, and often are near zero. Wicker also pointed to the need for systematic re search in order to operationalize and to test the significance of the many factors which have been offered as post hoo explanations for the attitude-behavior inconsistency. These explanations have included both personal (i.e., individual difference or 'intrapersonal1) and situational (environmental or 'extrapersonal') factors. Drawing from many previous studies, Wicker lists the personal factors having some influence on the attitude-behavior relationship as: other 18 competing attitudes, competing motives, and verbal, intellec tual, and social abilities. Situational factors are postu lated to be: actual or considered presence of certain people, social norms and role requirements, available alternative behaviors, specificity of attitude objects, unforeseen extraneous events, and expected and/or actual consequences of various acts. In regard to the attitude-behavior problem Wicker (14) advises, Should consistency not be demonstrated, the alternatives would seem to acknowledge that one's research deals only with verbal behavior, or to abandon the attitude concept in favor of directly studying overt behavior. Ehrlich (16) states the attitude-behavior problem in the form of a more general question: Under what conditions, how, and to what degree do aspects of social structure and aspects of personality determine interpersonal behavior? 1.2 Dulany1s Approach to the Problem In an early (1939) attempt to relate variables con tributing to variation in overt behavior, Lewin (17) suggested the functional relationship: B = f (P, E) , ....(2.0) where 19 B is a particular behavior P is the developmental state and character of a person E is an individual's particular psychological environment and f is an unspecified mathematical function. The postulated relationship between a person's behavior and his psychological environment might be considered anticipatory to both Dulany's and Fishbein's models if one can consider 'social environment' to be at least a subset of 'psychological environment'. Dulany (18), going somewhat further, generated the following equations: BH = (RHd) (RHs) . . . .(2.1) and B - BI = [(RHd) (RSv)]w2 + [(BH) (MC)]w3, . . .(2.2) where BH is the individual's 'behavioral hypothesis' or his expectation as to what he is supposed to do in the situation RHd is a 'hypothesis of the distribution of rein forcement' or the subject's belief that the response will lead to certain consequences RHs is a 'hypothesis of the significance of a reinforcer* or the subject's hypothesis that the occurrence of a particular reinforcement (or consequence) signifies that he has done what he was supposed to do (or expected to do) B is the subject's overt verbal behavior 20 BI is the subject's specific 'behavioral inten tion' or intent to try to make a particular response or class of similar responses RSv is the 'subjective value of a reinforcer' or the subject's evaluation of the reinforcement or consequences, i.e., favorable or unfavorable MC is the subject's 'motivation to comply' with or his desire to carry out his expectation (BH) as to what he is supposed to do in the situation W2 and w^ are standardized regression coefficients or beta weights determined empirically for a group of subjects and taking any value between -1.00 and 1.00. The equation (2.2) will be of major importance in the subsequent discussions of the Fishbein equation, but the importance of equation (2.1) should also be noted. By the simple substitution of (RHd) (RHs) for (BH) in equation (2.2), the following equation is obtained: B a BI = [(RHd) (RSv)]w2 + [(RHd) (RHs) (MC)]w3 . . .(2.3) The appearance of (RHd) in both predictor terms of the above equation leads to the expectation that both predictor terms are correlated. Dulany's approach showed considerable promise in that personal and situational factors were accounted for in the predictor variables of the regression equation. Personal factors are implicit,in (RSv) and (MC), while (RHd), (RHs), and (BH) appear to be predominantly situational. The significance of Dulany's theory to the attitude-behavior 21 problem is also apparent in its systematic, yet flexible framework of regression analysis which is open to the addition of new terms. The results of Dulany's 1964 and 1965 validation studies of the prediction of verbal behavior may be examined in Tables I, III, and IV. The multiple correlation, 'R' between the criterion BI and the two predictor terms (RHd) (RSv) and (BH) (MC) was .88 and the product-moment correlation between BI and B was .94, indicating considerable support for the theory. Although 77.4 percent of the variance of BI was accounted for by the predictor terms, 22.6 percent remained unaccounted for. Dulany suggests that this amount of 'error' variance probably results from the use of standard multiple regression analysis in which the multiple correlation is probably attenuated by the use of beta weights that are estimates of 'average' weights for the group of subjects. The standard multiple regression technique is necessary because no other satisfactory method of obtaining estimates of the weights for individuals has been found. 1.3 Fishbein's Approach to the Problem While Dulany's theory was developed in the context of verbal behavior, Fishbein's (6) extension of the theory is postulated to apply to overt verbal or non-verbal behavior in social situations. It is this generality that makes Fishbein's theory potentially useful in many educational situations. In order to examine the similarity of constructs used in the two theories, it is first necessary to review Fishbein's approach to determining attitudes toward an object. According to Fishbein (6), an individual's attitude toward any psychological object (AQ) can be expressed as follows: m A. = V* B. a. o .-— J 3 3=1 . . . .(2.4) where B . a . m is the attitude toward some object 'o' is the strength of belief j about 'o', i.e., the probability that 'o' is related to some other object, Xj is the evaluative aspect of Bj, i.e., the subject's evaluation of the related object, xj is the number of beliefs. Reformulated in terms of attitudes toward performing a specific act, AQ becomes Aact/ Bj refers to a belief about the probability that the behavior (act) will result in a certain consequence, x^, and a., is the subject's evaluation of that consequence. It is important to note the specificity of the behavior (act) and the behavioral situation in the Fishbein equation. A . cannot be replaced by a 23 general attitude term such as an attitude toward any object or person. m If E B . a . is now substituted for A .in equation j=l 3 ^ act (1.0) and if the mathematical format of the resulting equation is put into a form similar to Dulany's equation, (2.2), the following result is obtained: B - BI = [(B_.) (aj)]WQ + [(NB) (Mc)]w1 ... .(2.5) compared with equation (2.2): B « BI = [(RHd) (RSv)]w2 + [(BH) (MC) ]w^ .. . . .(2.2) a correspondence between the variables of Fishbein's equation, (2.5), and those in Dulany's equation, (2.2), becomes apparent. Fishbein has reconceptualized the first predictor term of Dulany's equation (RHd) (RSv), that is, the expec tation of certain consequences and the evaluation of those consequences, as the attitude toward a specific act, (A„. m or E B. a.). Dulany's 'behavioral hypothesis', (BH), has j=l 3 3 become Fishbein's 'normative beliefs', (NB), a term that appears to be conceptually similar to Dulany's term. Fish bein's 'motivation to comply', (Mc), has remained essentially identical to Dulany's conceptualization (6). The major conceptual change that Fishbein has made is the replacement of Dulany's (RHd) (RSv) predictor term by 24 an attitudinal component (A .) which can be measured by such widely used attitude measuring instruments as the Guttman scale, the Likert scale, Semantic Differential scales and Thurstone scales. This reconceptualization is important in that it reinstates attitude, in part, as a predictor of behavior and suggests that behavior prediction from attitudes in the past had failed because measures of attitudes toward general objects were used instead of measures of attitudes toward specific behavioral acts. In its present form the Fishbein approach is seen to have the following advantages over traditional attitude-behavior correlation studies involving attitudes toward objects: (a) personal factors such as competing attitudes, past experiences, beliefs and motivation are taken into account in the variables A . and Mc; aC "D (b) situational factors such as social normative beliefs (NBs), alternative behaviors (through evaluation of the consequences) and group dynamics (different referent groups) are also considered in the equation; (c) the attitude-behavior relationship has become con sistent with observations and situation-specific in that there is not necessarily a high correlation between A . and behavior. The magnitude of this 25 relationship depends, in part, on the weight determined for the attitudinal term, and on the close matching of BI with the behavioral situation. Fishbein's approach has been demonstrated to pre dict some behaviors reasonably well. Table I shows that the correlation of BI with B ranges between .211 and .970, the average (by Fisher's Z-transformation of r) of all reported values (r) is about .71. A more detailed examination of Fishbein's approach leads to a number of interesting results that are pertinent to the present study. First, any variables external to the model are con sidered to be unrelated to behavioral intention, and thus to overt behavior, unless they are related to at least one of the predictors, A__. or NB(Mc), given by the model (7). In-eluded in this 'external variable' category are attitudes toward objects (AQ) . A student's attitude toward his teacher, for example, is postulated to be related to school behavior, if, and only if, it is significantly related to one of the model's predictors and if that predictor is weighted by a significant beta coefficient. In Fishbein's (19) words, . . . even though a traditional measure of attitude may be correlated with one of the two components, it will still be unrelated to behavior if that component carries little or no weight in the deter mination of behavioral intentions and thus behavior per se. TABLE I CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) AND A NB , NB , NB (Mc ), and B p' s' s s Study Situation N BI-Aact BI-NBp BI-NB s BI-NBS (Mcs) BI-B Dulany, 1964 (18) verbal 108 .40 .86 .94 Fishbein, 1966 (36 ) males females total 21 14 35 .518* .918 .767 .843 .759 .810 .394NS .676 • .447 Ajzen & Fishbein, 1969 (9) party exhibit watching T.V. concert poker French movie discussion novel 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 .523 .670 .567 .665 .668 .640 .669 .538 .815 .630 .662 .713 .767 .782 .702 .543 .587 .437 .439 .598 .591 .499 .678 .513 Mc dropped B not measured Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (10) Game 1, coop. individual competitive total Game 2, coop. individual competitive total 32 32 32 96 32 32 32 96 .370* .710 .883 .754 .253NS .673 .866 .735 NB p dropped .752 I .780 .733 .838 .579 .677 .741 .786 Mc dropped .571 .758 .765 .847 not reported not reported not reported .841 TABLE I (continued) Study Situation N BI-A _ act BI-NB P BI-NB s BI-NB (Mcsf BI-B Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (37) risk 56 .778 .414 Mc dropped B not measured Fishbein et al . 1970 (20T pretest commun. compliance postest commun. compliance 144 144 144 144 .599 .573 .681 .739 .666 .493 .786 .608 .690 .211 .883 .502 Hornik, 1970 (38) GRIT RPM HAWK total 30 30 30 90 .854 .800 .380* .799 .695 .650 .114NS .597 .970 .858 .521 .861 Devries & Ajzen, 1971 (8) cheat copy allow to copy 146 146 146 .459 .546 .526 .474 .534 .652 Mc dropped .593 .583 .781 Ajzen, 1971 (32) cooperation competition total 36 36 216 .562 .550 .747 .834 .247NS .529 .578 .528 .822 Darroch, 1971 (35) picture release 107 .675 .537 .462a aAverage value over all cases Note: All correlations are significant at a = .01 except * = significant at a = .05, NS = non-significant 28 TABLE I (continued) Abbreviations: N = Number of subjects BI = Behavioral intention A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Personal normative belief P NB = Social normative beliefs (summed over referents) s Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) s B = Behavior 29 Evidence for the importance of the equation's attitudinal and normative components in behavior prediction is presented, in Table II. Ajzen and Fishbein (9) have also reported.that when the effects of the predictor terms are held constant, the partial correlations between AQ and behavior in most cases are low and nonsignificant. Secondly, some correlation is expected between the predictor variables of Fishbein's model. Few results on the correlation between predictor terms have been reported. Table III discloses the results of three studies, with Dulany's (18) reported correlation between (RHd)(RSv) and (BH)(MC) included for comparison. It may be recalled from equation. (2.1) that Dulany postulated BH to be equal to the product.of RHd and RHs. In terms of Fishbein's equation, this means that NB^, Fishbein's adaptation of Dulany's BH, also contains a component of the A . term. With regard to clG "C the hypothesized relationship between A__, and NB, Ajzen aCu and Fishbein (10) state, It should be noted that Dulany's (1967) theory of propositional control would lead us to expect at least some correlation between these two predictors since they are conceived to be partly determined by the same factor. A correlation should therefore be found between A„ . act n and NB. or between A . and Z NB.(Mc.). This result is l act i i supported by the few results shown in Table III. The relationship between A . and NB. might be interpreted as an TABLE II CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ATTITUDES TOWARD OBJECTS EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL (A ) AND VARIABLES IN THE MODEL Study Situation A -BI o A -A . o act A -NB o s A -NB (Mc ) OSS Attitude Object Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (10) Game 1 Game 2 .256* .091NS .237* .091NS .354 .239* .262* .015NS other player Fishbein et al., 1970 (20T Communicative Compliance -.024NS .262 -.003NS .279 .059NS .418 .037NS .163NS two group-members Hornik, 1970 (38 ) GRIT RPM HAWK .780 .730 -.117NS .771 .763 -.085NS .779 .718 -.015NS .684 .741 .012NS other player Ajzen, 1971 (32) risk .265 .242* .257* .241* other player Darroch, 1971 (35) photo releases with confederates having different color and/or sex .212* .248* ..HONS .088NS .390 .415 .118NS .142NS .300 .306 .082NS .148NS .233* .334 .109NS .143NS Negroes Note: Correlations are significant at a = .01 except for * = significant at a = .05 and NS = non-significant Abbreviations: AQ = Attitude toward an object that may be found in the behavioral situation B = Behavior BI = Behavioral intention A ' = Attitude toward the act act NBg = Social normative beliefs(summed over referents) Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) CO o 31 TABLE III CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A AND NB OR NB (Mc ) act' s s s Aact Study Situation N Aact"NBs NB (Mc ) Dulany, 1964 (18) verbal 108 .26 Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, coop. 32 .199NS 1970 (10) individual 32 .647 competitive 32 .587 total 96 .627 Game 2, coop. 32 .024NS individual 32 .601 competitive 32 .662 total 96 .614 Devries & Ajzen, cheat 146 .361 1971 (8) copy 146 .394 allow to copy 14 6 .398 Ajzen, 1971 (32) unspecified by 216 .546 author Note: All correlations are significant at a = .01 except for NS = non-significant Abbreviations: N = Number of subjects A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Social normative beliefs (summed over referents) s Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) indication of the degree to which the subject perceives his attitude toward a particular act (in part, his beliefs about the consequences of performing the act) as being dependent on the expectations of particular referent persons or groups. Another relationship to consider in detail is the BI-B correlation. The interpretation of this relationship has been premised upon the assumption that "... the BI selected by the experimenter is appropriate for the particular behavior under study" (9). Several factors are held to be of importance in influencing the appropriateness of BI to B: (a) the measure of BI must be highly specific in its reference to a particular behavior (10), i.e., the behavioral situation must be essentially identical to the situation referred to in the measure of BI; (b) the time between the measurement of BI and the observation of B must be minimized in order to prevent the possibility of a change in BI; (c) the behavior must be, as far as possible, under volitional control by the subject; for example, if a student has indicated a low behavioral intention toward seeing an educational movie, and then is told that he will be examined on it, there is a good chance that the student's intention will change, and that he will, in fact, see the movie (note that the time factor in (b) enters into this change of BI). A good discussion of the above points is to be found in an article by Fishbein (19). He states that the average correlation between BI and B taken over several (seven) studies is about .70. An average using Fisher's Z-transfor-mation of r worked out to .71. One counter-example should be noted—the pre-test compliance BI-B relationship. The correlation reported in Fishbein et al. (20) was .211 (p < .01), although the beta coefficients were moderate (.432 and .248/ p < .01) and significant. The multiple correlation of the predictors on BI was .608 (p < .01). Fishbein et al. (20) explain that: . . . pre-test measures of intentions may not be the most appropriate measure for predicting behavior over a series of trials. A post-test measure of the compliance BI-B relationship yielded a correlation of only .502 (p < .01) leading Fishbein et al. (20) to the conclusion that communicative behavior was more stable than compliance behavior and that some types of behavior are considerably more difficult to predict than others. Although pre-test and post-test measures are obtain able over a series of trials under ideal experimental conditions/ such may not be the case in 'one-shot', practical applications of the theory. A potentially useful and general approach to the prediction of behavior has been suggested by Burhans (15): . . . 'behavioral intention', while probably a useful construct for simplifying research meth odology, is also probably further removed from overt behavior than Fishbein has indicated. Dropping the concept of 'behavioral intention' and focusing on the utility of Fishbein's model for directly predicting overt behavior would seem the more fruitful approach. While the present author does not propose to go to the extreme of completely dropping the behavioral intention term, its role in the prediction of behavior will be more carefully examined in the following paragraphs. Fishbein et al. (20) have stated that under ideal circumstances a person's overt volitional behavior is expected to be perfectly determined by his behavioral intentions. In many situations, however, a person's volitional overt behavior may be only a small fraction of his total overt behavior. Ajzen and Fishbein (10) have pointed out that a person's total overt behavior (volitional and non-volitional) may be influenced by variables not considered by the present model, variables such as: 'habit' and 'feasibility'. The existence of these variables was suggested by Dulany's (18) use of 'H' for habitual or non-intentional overt behavior. If, in a hypothetical one-shot application of Fishbein's theory, a subject is faced with the performance of a particular task (behavior) that he has often performed in the past, then it would not be unreasonable to expect him to perform that 35 task in a stereotyped manner, based on the habituation of his experiences with previous similar tasks, rather than accord ing to his behavioral intention. The BI-B correlation would be small because behavior in this hypothetical case is mostly non-intentional (habit), and therefore cannot be predicted from the terms in the Fishbein equation. The subject, however, may still profess to have a strong behavioral intention and this BI may still have a high multiple correlation with A . n and Z NB.(Mc.). i=l 1 1 This hypothetical habituated behavior could possibly provide one explanation for the anomalous results for the pre-test compliance behavior case reported by Fishbein et al. (20) (Tables I and IV). It is equally likely that one of the other previously mentioned factors influencing the BI-B relationship could have occurred (although the time factor appears to have been minimized). The result reported by Fishbein et al. (20), where the relatively low (r = .211) BI-B relationship did not reflect the relatively high (R = .608) multiple correlation n of A . and I NB.(Mc.) on BI, indicates that a high multiple correlation of the predictor variables on BI does not necessar ily result in a good prediction of actual behavior. The prediction of actual behavior is seen to occur with good accuracy only if BI and B are highly correlated. Another indicator of accuracy in the prediction of behavior is obtainable from the regression of the predictor TABLE IV STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF A NB , NB , AND NB (Mc ) ON BI act p s s s Beta Coefficients Study Situation N act NB P NB s NB (Mc ) s s R Dulany, 1964 (18) verbal 108 .19t i .81 .8.8 Fishbein, 1966 (36) males 21 -.148NS .947 .850 females 14 .757 .232* .935 total 35 .374 .535 .849 Carlson, 1968 (33) average over 49 .832 .105* .910 thirty behavioral intentions Ajzen & Fishbein, party 100 .077NS .714* .083* Mc .819 1969 (9) dropped exhibit 100 .440* .275* .128* .724 TV show 100 .255* .423* .180* .709 concert 100 .303* .376* .249* .787 poker 100 .227* .502* .158* .794 French movie 100 .190* .649* .191* .794 discussion 100 .252* .335* .300* .779 novel 100 .292* .268* .323* .684 Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, coop. 32 .229NS NBp .707 Mc .785 1970 (10) individual. 32 .353* dropped .552 dropped .852 competitive 32 .691 .327 .922 total 96 .378 .601 .888 Game 2, coop. 32 .239NS .573 .626 individual. 32 .416 .427 .754 competitive 32 .669 .298 .894 total 96 .405 .539 .849 co cn TABLE IV (continued) Study Situation N Beta Coefficients R Aact NB P NB s NB (Mc ) s s Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970 (37) risk 56 .748 .139NS Mc dropped .793 Fishbein et al., 1970 (20T pretest commun. pretest compliance po s te s t commun• postest compliance 144 144 144 144 .295 .432 .253 .585 .478 .248 .607 .255 .70 4 .608 .806 .765 Hornik, 1970 (38) GRIT RPM HAWK total 30 30 30 90 .757 .714 .371* .712 .131NS .116NS .061NS .134NS .859 .804 .385NS .806 Devries & Ajzen, 1971 (8) cheat copy allow to copy 146 146 146 .331 .398 .317 ' .354 .378 .526 Mc dropped .566 .647 .714 Ajzen, 1971 (32) cooperation competition total 36 36 216 .112NS .541 .529 .768 .225NS .399 .839 .594 .818 Darroch, 1971 (35) photo release 107 .629 (avera ge) .049NS (average) .681 (average) Note: All beta coefficients and multiple correlations are significant at a = .01 except * = reported significant at a = .05 NS = non-significant t = significance level not reported CO 38 TABLE IV (continued) Abbreviations: BI = Behavioral intention N = Number of subjects A ^ = Attitude toward the act act NB = Personal normative belief P NB = Social normative beliefs (summed over referents) s Mc = Motivation to comply (summed over referents) s J-R = Multiple correlation of the predictors on BI 39 variables on behavior (Table V). Some mention should be made of the role that BI plays in the prediction of behavior. BI is theorized to be an intervening variable between B and the two predictor terms, n A , and £ NB.(Mc.). The correlation of B with these two act . , 11 i=l terms is therefore expected to be less than the correlation of BI with the same predictors. This attenuation is likely due to the non-perfect descriptive matching of a verbally assessed BI with the actual behavioral situation. Only two studies could be found (Table VI) that reported the correlation of B with each of the predictor terms. A com parison of these correlations to those between BI and the predictor terms (Table I) tends to substantiate that BI is an intervening variable between B and the predictor terms. This hypothesis is further strengthened by the fact that the correlations between B and the predictors are seen (Table VI) to be reduced to non-significance when the variance attribu table to BI is partialled out. This implies that the Fishbein model cannot be claimed to be a theory for the prediction of behavior per se, but that the theory can lead to good behavior prediction if the behavioral intention criterion is appropriately selected to match the behavioral situation. In terms of educational practice, these results would imply that particular school behaviors may be predicted by assessing the appropriate behavioral intentions and that any change in behavior would be expected to be accompanied by a similar TABLE V STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS, MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF Aact, NBS AND NB (Mc ) ON B, AND PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF B WITH BI s s Beta Coefficients Study Situation N act NB s NB (Mc ) s s R rB,BI Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, cooperative 32 .223NS .438 Mc .529 .571 1970(10) individual. 32 .270NS .302NS dropped .519 .758 competition 32 .664 .186NS .788 .765 total 96 .331 .478 .732 .847 Game 2, total 96 .419 .464 .793 .841 Fishbein et al., pretest, commun. 144 .619 .690 1970 (20T pretest, compliance 144 .356 .211 postest, commun. 144 .199 .621 .774 .883 postest, compliance 144 .311 .351 .593 .502 Note: All beta coefficients, correlations and multiple correlations are significant at a = .01 except where NS = non-significant. Abbreviations: N act NB„ s Mc s B BI R rB,BI Number of subjects Attitude toward the act Social normative beliefs (summed over referents) Motivation to comply (summed over referents) Behavior Behavioral intention Multiple correlation of the predictors on behavior Product moment correlation of B with BI 41 TABLE VI PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS AND PARTIAL CORRELATIONS (BI HELD CONSTANT) BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOR, B, AND THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, A_. AND NB r r p Study Situation B-A , act B-NB s B-A . act B-NB S Ajzen & Fishbein, Game 1, coop. .310NS .482 1970 (10) individual. .465 .477 competitive .773 .576 total .631 .685 -.023NS -.083NS Game 2, coop. .272NS .4 21 individual. .506 .546 competitive .734 .655 total .703 .721 .233* .178NS Devries & Ajzen, cheat .370 .159 .137NS -.161NS 1971 (8) copy others .425 .216 .157NS -.138NS allow to copy .457 .535 .097NS .055NS Note: All correlations are significant at ex = .01 except * = significant at a = .01 NS = non-significant Abbreviations: B = Behavior A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Social normative beliefs (summed over referents) s BI = Behavioral intention r = product moment correlation r = partial correlation (BI held constant) change in these intentions. Given that a particular behav ioral intention is linearly related to an attitudinal term and a normative term in Fishbein's model, a change of behavior would also be expected to be accompanied by a change n in the value of A , I NB.(Mc.) or both of these predictor ace ^ ^ r x terms. Turning to the problem of predictive validity, it was indicated in Chapter I that the regression weights of the predictors in the Fishbein equation have been found to be statistically significant and that high reported values of n multiple correlation for A and Z NB.(Mc.) on BI indicated that BI can be predicted with an accuracy considerably better than chance. Fishbein (19) reports that the average multiple correlation between the two components of the theory and behavioral intentions is about .80 (based on nine studies). A close look at the literature, however, revealed the necessity for caution in accepting the claim for reasonably high predictive validity. Table IV indicates that five studies out of the eleven reported in the table had modified the normative predictor term by dropping Mc. Although this variation in the model's normative term would seem to raise some serious questions about the validity of the model, the inclusion of measures of NB does lead to significantly better predictions of BI than would be obtained by assessing A alone. The problem with the normative predictor appears to be one of adequately measuring it. 43 The importance of assessing the social environment in order to predict overt behavior was recognized long before either Dulany's or Fishbein's work (recall Lewin's equation 2.0). In their study on verbal attitudes and overt acts, DeFleur and Westie (21) found that sixty reference groups were influential in the decision-making of forty-six subjects regarding the signing of photographic releases. They further conclude, Thus, analysis of the beliefs of an individual about the attitudes, norms, and values held by his reference groups, significant others, voluntary organizations, peer groups, and the like may be essential for better prediction of individual lines of action with the use of verbal scales. This would represent a more distinctly sociological approach. Concerning the problem of obtaining measures of the normative predictor, Fishbein et al. (20) points out the apparent crude state of this measure: As to normative beliefs, it seemed reasonable to assume that the relevant referents for the subject were (a) his two partners and (b) the experimenter. They further state that, In the absence of any specific theory, we felt that a simple summation of the perceived expec tations of these three referents would provide an adequate estimate of the normative component. This sum was denoted ENB(Mc). Measures of the 'motivation to comply'(Mc) factor of the normative component have caused similar concerns, as illustrated by Ajzen and Fishbein (10): Research to this date has indicated relatively little variance in this measure, and thus the results obtained with normative beliefs alone were as good or better than those obtained when NB was multiplied by Mc. . . . In the same study, Ajzen and Fishbein have noted that in many situations personal normative beliefs may serve mainly as an alternative measure of behavioral intentions. In their recent review of research on the model, Ajzen and Fishbein (7) make the following points concerning the normative component of the model: (a) normative beliefs may be considered to be a part of the belief system that determines A . ; e.g., •* act ^ ' one of the consequences of performing a given act is that it may please or displease relevant refer ence individuals or groups; (b) one possible method for entering the normative beliefs concerning relevant reference groups into the theoretical model is in a stepwise manner, with each normative term given its own beta coefficient; e.g., B = BI = tAact]coo+ [NB1(Mc1) ]CJ1+[NB2 (Mc2) 3 0^ + ... + [NBn (Mcn) ] con . . . .(2.6) (c) an alternative method of entering the normative predictor terms into the equation is to form a 45 general normative term by summing over all relevant referents; e.g., n B = BI = [A^,]u + [ I NB. (Mc. )]w, . . . .(1.0) (d) the motivation to comply, Mc, may be conceptualized in more than one way; e.g., a person's motivation to comply generally with a reference group, and a person's motivation to comply with the specific expectation of that referent group. Ajzen and Fishbein (7) have indicated that they favor the general conception. They further say that when Mc is measured specific to the behavior, it indicated little more than a measure of weight co^ (in (c)) which is also behavior-specific. Finally, a few observations should be made concerning the size of the beta regression coefficients (Wq and u^). These statistically determined weights provide an estimate of the relative degree to which the attitudinal and normative predictor terms influence the prediction of behavioral intentions. In a psychological sense, these weights determine to what degree a person's attitude toward the performance of the behavior, and to what degree his social or personal normative beliefs, will influence his intention to carry out the behavior (and, ideally, will thus influence his actual behavior). 46 These empirically determined weights have been found to depend upon three main factors: (a) the type of behavior being considered, (b) the behavioral situation or specific conditions under which the behavior is to be enacted, and (c) the individual, i.e., the 'personality' of the individual or the characteristics of the individual who considers performing the behavior. Examples of how these three factors affect beta weights are reported in Table IV. A detailed description of examples appears in Ajzen and Fishbein (7). 2. The Educational Context Generally, attitudinal studies in education have resembled attitudinal studies in psychology. Varied uses of the term 'attitude' are evident and unwarranted assumptions about the attitude-behavior relationship are prevalent. An indication of the varying educational views of -'attitude' is given by Krathwohl et al. (22) in their Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Often when we use the term 'attitude' we imply that the individual is valuing, either positively or negatively, some behavior, phenomenon, or object. But the term 'attitude' is also used to denote quite general sets toward phenomena as well as an orientation toward them. 47 Mager (23), for example, calls 'attitude* "a general tendency of an individual to act in a certain way under certain conditions," thus coming very close to Fishbein's definition of a behavioral intention. Other authors have used 'attitude' as a term specific to a discipline. A 'scientific attitude', as defined by Moore and Sutman (24), is "an opinion or position taken with respect to a psychological object in the field of science." Irrespective of how the concept should be used, 'attitude' has recently become an important element in many formulations of educational objectives. The following are but a few examples of 'attitude' as an educational objectives Blackwood (25) : Develop appreciations for the attitudes about the environment. . . . Illinois Curriculum Program (27): To help children develop proper attitudes toward science and the world of technology. ... Dunfee (26): We can assume that the chief purpose of education in the United States is to help children and young people acquire those understandings, attitudes and skills which happy and useful citizens of a democratic society need. ... Mager (23): ... a universal objective of instruction— the intent to send students away from in struction with at least as favorable an attitude toward the subjects taught as they had when they first arrived. Morrison (28): That complex thing which we call motivation or attitude, the affective side of learning, is perhaps above all the human attribute which we hope to evoke. 48 2.1 Educational Research on the Attitude-behavior Relation ship The assumption implicit in the above educational objectives appears to be that positive attitudes toward school subjects or school instruction will lead to effective learn ing behavior on the part of students. Thus, Andersen (29) hypothesizes: If the student's attitude toward the subject is not at a high level, then the probability that he could perform the congruent cognitive task is greatly diminished. The lack of empirical evidence to support this hypothesis has been demonstrated in the previous discussion of the attitude-behavior problem. It was pointed out that the relationship between an individual's attitude and his behavior will be consistent and high only when his attitude has been assessed with respect to a specific act or behavior, under specific conditions (6). In the educational context, this finding has been repeatedly demonstrated by low (typically < .30) or inconsistant correlations between measures of attitude and variables such as: IQ scores, achievement scores, and aptitude scores (see A. Rothman (30) and S. Khan (31)) . Nevertheless, general attitude instruments are frequently used to assess student 'attitudes' toward courses or course changes. Positive student attitudes are assumed 49 to indicate a good learning situation, while negative attitudes are assumed to imply a need for course improvement. While these assumptions cannot be supported by past psycho logical research in the attitudinal domain, the possibility of identifying a relationship between attitudes toward specific learning acts and variables specific to the learning process needs to be investigated. At the present time, based on its success in the psychological context, the application of Fishbein's theory to the prediction of student behavior from specific attitudinal and normative predictor variables would appear to be promising course of action for educational researchers to take. 2.2 The Applicability of Fishbein's Approach to Education Up to the present time (1972), studies on Fishbein's approach have been mainly concerned with validation. Burhans (15), in assessing Fishbein's studies, concluded that . . . the few—though highly successful studies that he has conducted which employ his model have been concerned with very specific and limited kinds of behavior. . . . Much empirical research is needed to test the efficacy of his model in predicting behavioral intentions and behavior under a wide range of circumstances and with a wide range of classes of behavior. In past studies, serious limitations have been imposed on experimental conditions in order to minimize experimental error. These limitations would be difficult or impossible to attain in a typical educational setting. The following 50 discussion is intended to assess the importance of the ex perimental restriction with respect to the educational context of the present study. 2.2.1. Post faoturn measures of behavioral intentions . The first restriction in question is the point at which the measure of behavior (B) has been taken in the studies referred to in the tables. In only two of the published studies, Ajzen and Fishbein (10), and Ajzen (32), have the behavioral intentions (BI) and the predictor variables A , and ENB(Mc) c3.CC been measured prior to the measure of behavior (B). All other published studies, except for Ajzen and Fishbein (9) where no measure of behavior was taken, indicate a post factum measure of BI, that is, the behavior has been performed and measured before the other variables have been assessed. Furthermore, Devries and Ajzen (8) utilized self-reported estimates of students' past cheating behaviors whereas Ajzen and Fishbein (9,37) and Carlson (33) utilized hypothetical behavioral situations with no provision made for the performance or observation of actual behavior. The two unpublished studies by Fishbein (36) and Darroch (35) that used pre factum measures of BI, showed noticeably reduced BI-B correlations (Table I). An implication of post factum measures of behavioral intentions has been suggested previously by Gerard) (34). He suggested that a subject may bring his intentions into line with his actual behavior. If this is so, the studies utilizing post factum measures of BI, A . and INB(Mc) would 51 be expected to 'predict' behavior and behavioral intentions with better accuracy than the studies that measured behavior after the predictors were assessed. Tables I and IV indicate that this is not always the case, although, the effect may be small and might be masked by experimental error. In the present study the word 'predict' is used in the sense of correlating measures of behavior with measures of behavioral intentions that are taken prior to the measure of behavior. An attempt was made to predict students* performance of optional educational activities from prior assessment of their behavioral intentions toward performing the specified activities. The assessment of behavioral intentions and predictor variables, in the present study, was carried out prior to the performance of the behavior because an instructor would probably want to predict student behavior ahead of time. Information of this kind was seen as potentially useful for planning the types of activities that would be most likely carried out by the students. 2.2.2 Practice and repetitive trials. Another re striction evident in past studies of the model is the use of practice trials of the behavior in order to bolster the behavioral reliability and behavior-behavioral intention correlation stability. Dulany (18) measured behavior during the last twenty of one hundred trials, and measured behavioral intentions after the full one hundred trials. Ajzen and Fishbein (10) gave subjects eight practice trials during a Prisoner's Dilemma game (see Rapoport and Chammah (40)). These were followed by a questionnaire and ten more trials during which the behavior measure was taken. Similarly, practice or repetit ious trials were used in studies by Fishbein et al. (20), and Ajzen (32) . Two studies that did not utilize practice trials, Darroch (35), and Fishbein (36) , are seen (Table I) to have noticeably lower BI-B correlations than the values reported in the other studies (r = .462 and .447 for the Darroch and Fishbein studies, respectively). These low BI-B correlations, however, may be partly the result of the relatively long BI-B time element present in both studies (discussed below). The present application of the model is directed toward educational behaviors which cannot be predicted re petitively or performed repetitively. Consequently, some attenuation of the BI-B correlation might be expected in the present study because of the reduction of behavioral reliability which might have been enhanced by repetitive behavioral activities. 2.2.3 BI-B time element. One further advantage gained by the use of game-like situations in past studies, was the minimization of the crucial time between the measure of BI and the performance of B. This time was typically about an hour (10) . The studies by Darroch (35) and Fishbein 53 (36) were the only reported attempts to measure behavioral phenomena separated from the measure of behavioral intentions by a time greater than a few hours. Darroch obtained measures of behavioral intention and the predictor variables about one month in advance of the observed behavior/ and was still able to obtain a moderate, average BI-B correlation of .462 (p < .01). Fishbein assessed behavioral intentions at the beginning of a semester, and obtained self-reports of premarital sexual behavior at the end of the semester, obtain ing BI-B correlations of .676 (p < .01) for females and .394 (NS) for males (Table I). As was discussed in 2.2.2, these BI-B correlations were noticeably lower than those reported in other studies, but the smaller values of these correlations could, in part, be caused by the non-repetitive behaviors that were assessed and the time interval over which BI might have changed. The present study has provided various educational behaviors which could be performed either immediately after or up to two and one-half weeks after the measurement of the predictor variables. Accordingly, it might be reasonable to expect higher BI-B correlations in the case of activities performed close to the time of the measurement of the pre dictor variables. This factor will be examined in the discussion of results in Chapter IV. 54 2.2.4 Relevant referents. The problem of the normative predictor term has already been mentioned. It should perhaps be further stressed that in the past, the question of ascertaining the referent groups relevant to the individual, has depended largely on the type of behavioral situation in which the subject has been placed. The game situations in the majority of the previously-reported studies have usually required the experimenter to assess normative beliefs with respect to only a small number of referents (typically one to three). Dulany (18) used only one referent— the experimenter. Ajzen and Fishbein (9) used "my friends" as the only referent upon which the social normative belief, NB was based. Ajzen and Fishbein (10), and Ajzen (32) have s also used one referent, "my partner" in their Prisoner's Dilemma game situations. Fishbein et at. (20) summed over three referents, "member 1", "member 2", and "the experimenter", in order to arrive at a general social normative term, ZNB(Mc). In an educational situation, Devries and Ajzen (8) found that a sum of four normative beliefs referent to classmates, the subject's church, family, and friends, predicted behavioral intentions significantly. The normative belief concerning the subject's friends (FrNB ) was, however, a better predictor than was ZNB in two of the three behavior situations. It s is also interesting to note that no professor or instructor was used as a referent, even though this particular study was concerned with a definite instructional situation. 55 The importance of the instructor as a referent was explored in the present study, as were other referents such as: 'Closest friends', 'parents', 'the majority of the class', 'my religious group', and 'I, myself' as a personal referent. The use of these particular referents was based on a pre-experimental survey of their possible relevance (described in Chapter III). 2.2.5 Subjects. All of the reported studies used undergraduate students as subjects. Fishbein et al. (20), and Ajzen (32), further state that these students were drawn from introductory Psychology courses, and that they partici pated in the Psychology experiments as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course. It is not known whether these facts have played any important role in determining the results in the game situations tested. However, these results might be expected to be somewhat better than the results that would be obtained by using subjects selected from a discipline other than psychology. It is possible that Psychology students who are playing psychological games for course credit may be biased in favor of the behavior or the test instrument and may thus exhibit a greater motivation toward and reliability in performing the activity. Similarly, in an instructional situation, any bias of the subjects toward the behavioral activities or the test instrument may be crucial. The instrument is presumably 56 attempting to assess the genuine attitudes and intentions of students toward specific instructional activities, rather than their responses biased by a motivation to fulfil course requirements, to obtain higher marks, to avoid failure, or to please the instructor. Subjects for the present study were students in an introductory physics course. These students were not expected to have a positive bias toward the questionnaire, but some precautions were taken in order to control this factor. It was expressed to the students that the activities " were entirely voluntary and in no way counted toward course credit. Also, a control group was used which did not receive the research instrument but which was acquainted with the voluntary activities in the same ways as the experimental group. The use of this control group permitted an estimate of the influence of the questionnaire on the performance of behavior by the subjects. 3. Summary Research has been unable to produce a consistent relationship between general measures of attitudes toward an object and the behavior of individuals with respect to the attitude object. Some authors (12) have suggested that the concept of attitude requires refinement. Others (13) have observed that some of the difficulty lies in the measuring 57 instrument used. Still others (14) have held that the difficulty has been in operationalizing the assessment of personal and situational factors associated with various behavioral situations. Dulany (18) made an important approach to the problem by formulating a regression equation that accounted for both personal and situational variables in the prediction of verbal behavior. The operationalization of these variables led to a good prediction of behavioral intention and his multiple correlation of the predictor terms on behavioral intention equalled .8 8. The prediction of verbal behavior was also quite successful to the extent that the correlation between behavioral intention and verbal behavior was found to be .94. Fishbein (6) extended Dulany's theory to the pre diction of non-verbal, overt behavior in social situations. The generality of this extended model is seen to be most relevant in terms of the social setting of the modern-day educational situation. Fishbein also reconceptualized Dulany's predictors in terms of an attitudinal component and normative component, thus reinstating attitude as a predictor of behavior. Significantly, Fishbein pointed out a solution to the problem of behavior prediction from measures of attitude: the necessity for measuring attitudes toward performing a specific act, as opposed to measuring attitudes toward some general attitude object. 58 Recent research (7) on Fishbein's theory has indicated that the normative term is still problematic in its operational-ization. Specifically, the 'motivation to comply' factor has been of little value in the prediction of behavioral inten tion or behavior. In spite of these difficulties, addition of the normative term has resulted in significantly better predictions of behavior and intention than would be obtained by assessing the attitudinal term alone. Educational research in the area of attitudes has, in general, reflected the problems indicated by psychological studies of the attitude-behavior problem. The definition of 'attitude' varies considerably from application to application. Consequently, the various conceptualizations of 'attitude' have led to a number of assumptions in educational practice, few which have been supported by research. It would thus seem logical to attempt to apply Fishbein's theory to educational situations in the hope that some of the attitude-behavior confusion in the educational context might be partially resolved. Applications of Fishbein's model have been limited in the scope of behavioral situations that have been investi gated. This limitation has resulted, in part, from validation studies that required a maximization of behavioral reliability by means of repetitive behaviors in game-like situations. Other restrictive experimental conditions used in the valida ting studies involved: assessing the predictor terms after the performance of the behavior, utilizing repeated practice  trials of actual behavior before obtaining measures of B, BI, A . and ZNB.Mc.,' and limiting the time between the assess-ment of BP and the performance of the behavior to about one hour. These typical experimental restrictions would be unacceptable in educational practice and would have to be dropped, probably at the expense of some of the reliability and stability of the measures. While the correlations in the present study are expected to be lower than those reported elsewhere (because of fewer experimental restrictions) the literature has indicated that useful predictive results may still be obtainable. 60 CHAPTER III METHOD OF THE STUDY The previous chapters indicated the possible useful ness of applying Fishbein's theory to more varied true-to-life, and less restrictive situations. In doing so it is to be expected that a certain amount of predictive validity has to be sacrificed. Some factors contributing to the loss of predictive validity are, (a) a lack of repetition of behavior, (b) the use of pre factum measures of behavioral intention as opposed to post factum measures of behavioral intention , and (c) relatively long periods of time between the measure of the behavioral intention and the performance of the behavior. Aside from these differences in the application of Fishbein's theory and some alterations in the type of measuring instrument used in previous studies, the methods employed in this study are an attempt to carefully apply Fishbein's theory to an educational situation. 1. Pilot Study: Relevant Referent Groups The literature gives few guidelines for the selection of relevant normative referent groups to be used in the Fishbein model. Since the normative component of the model is dependent upon the subjects' perceptions of the expectations 61 of relevant referent persons or groups, an exploratory refer ent group questionnaire (Appendix A) was devised in order to obtain an indication of the relative importance to the subjects of the study of various individuals and groups with respect to performing educational extra-curricular activities. This information was used in selecting only the most relevant referent groups for inclusion in the research instrument used for obtaining measures on the Fishbein variables. The referent group questionnaire was administered to four different sections of Education 321 students, 64 students, in all. Education 321 is a Science Methods course for third year Education students. The students in this course were selected because of the unavailability of Physics 115 students at the time that the research instrument was under develop ment. As a check on the differences between the responses of Education students and the Physics 115 students, the referent group questionnaire was tried on some of the students from Physics 115 that were made available for this purpose shortly before the research instrument was administered. The referent questionnaire was administered to fifty Physics 115 students from Section 2 (the class not taking the modular lecture program). Appendix B shows the referents ranked according to percent of student responses to the 'Important' and 'Very Important' categories of the referent questionnaire. As might be expected, four of the strongest referents for both groups of students were: 'self, 'best f riend (s) ' , 'lecturer', and 'parents', the order of rank being slightly different from one group of students to the other. 'Parents' appeared as a slightly stronger referent than 'lecturer* for the Physics 115 students, whereas the reverse was true for the Education 321 students (this referent order may have depended on such factors as age, years of schooling and academic interests). Below the first four highest ranking referents, notable differences in the rank order of the remaining referents became apparent. The Science Education students surprisingly ranked 'religious group or church' as fifth and 'scientific community' as ninth, whereas the Physics students ranked 'scientific community' as fifth and 'religious group or church' as tenth. Education students ranked 'majority of class members' sixth, whereas Physics students ranked this referent ninth. While these differences in ranking point toward some differences in normative beliefs between groups of students in different disciplines, the- overall Spearman rank correl ation (corrected for ties) between the two sets of student responses was found to be .88 (p < .001) . Although the referents included in the research instrument were chosen on the basis of the rankings of Education students, the four highest ranking referents were the same for both Educa tion and Physics 115 groups and were therefore included in the research questionnaire. The use of 'religious group or church' and 'majority of class members' in the final questionnaire instead of the referents, 'scientific community' and "university community* (more appropriate for Physics 115 students) were not expected to affect the weighting of the normative term of the Fishbein model to any significant degree because of their relative unimportance to the subjects. Nevertheless, the pilot study results do indicate the need for some care in the selection of referents for specific groups of subjects in specific situations. 2. Population and Samples The subjects constituted a sample of 199 Physics 115 students'* from a population of 318 students in Section 1 of Physics 115. Approximately ninety-six percent were generally between eighteen and nineteen years old and had two years of high school physics. All Physics 115 students intended to pursue studies in disciplines other than Physics (e.g., Bio sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics, Medicine, etc.) The male/-female ratio was about 6.75. Of the 199 questionnaires returned, a total of 185 were usable in the analyses of data. Student's in Sections 1 and 2 were not randomly assigned to either Section. The choice of Sections was based primarily on timetable considerations. it is tacitly assumed that any sampling bias that occurred in the placement of students in the two Sections is of little importance in the present study. 64 These 185 questionnaires consisted of 128 questionnaires used to obtain measures on the Fishbein variables (Appendix C), and 57 questionnaires constituting a kind of placebo used to investigate the possibility of measurement instrument effect (Appendix E). 3 . Experimental Procedure The lecture module entitled, "The Physics in Environ mental and Technological Assessment" consisted of a series of four lectures during the regular Physics 115 lecture times, given by a member of the Faculty of Applied Science. Students were told in the first lecture that some voluntary follow-up activities were being arranged for them to do because the block of lectures relating Physics and environmental problems was of such short duration. In the second lecture, the students were briefly told about each extracurricular activity, and that the exact details of these activities would be made available to them in the next lecture. In the third lecture, all students picked up a detailed list of the voluntary follow-up activities for the block of lectures on 'The Physics in Environmental and Tech nological Assessment' (Appendix G). These sheets were also available during the fourth (last) lecture for any students who were absent during the third lecture. The shuffled placebo and research questionnaires were administered by the author and three Physics 115 laboratory instructors 2 toward the end of the third lecture. The five 'voluntary' activities used in the present study were as follows: (see Appendix G for detailed activity descriptions): Activity 1: to attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance"; Activity 2: to sign up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment and how you may participate in it if you wish; Activity 3: to pick up an assortment of information material and list of supplementary readings on Pollution and Technology; Activity 4: to attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "The Time of Man"; Activity 5: to contact the lecturer in order to obtain information about assisting some professors in doing research on the leaching of landfills (dumps) . In order to obtain a direct (dichotomous) measure of behavior for Activity 1 (attending the movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance"), attendance survey slips requesting the student's Physics course number, lecture 2 It should be noted that an error in administration of the instruments reduced the number of research question naires distributed by about fifty. While this loss in data was regrettable, a reasonably large number of subjects (N = 128)were retained for the study. 66 Section number, name and registration number (Appendix H) were filled out by all students as they entered the theatre. With the exception of Activity 4 (attending a movie entitled, "The Time of Man"), the performance of the activities was ascertained by secretaries checking off the names of participating students on a class list, or by the students, themselves, signing their names on lists provided. The participation of Physics 115 students in Activity 4 could not be checked directly because this movie had been thrown open to the entire campus, and the large number of people expected to attend would have made the survey ticket method impossible to use. In order to obtain behavior data for Activity 4, and also check on the data collected from the other activities, an 'Activities Check list' (Appendix I) was administered to all students during their lecture on the day after the Activity 4 movie. This check-list asked students to check off each activity that they had participated in up to that date. Two valuable pieces of information were gained by comparing the student completed check-lists to the directly observed behaviors. Firstly, several students who had participated in Activity 1 were not recorded by the direct attendance survey because they had arrived in the theatre during a non-Physics 115 lecture, well in advance of the attendance survey (this was confirmed by telephoning several of the students in question). Secondly, three students were found to have checked-off several activities which they were not observed to perform (according to the direct observations). Their questionnaires were subsequently identified, and eliminated from the final analysis as questionable data. 4. Instruments Measures on the Fishbein variables, BI, A NB., and Mc^ were built into a five part research questionnaire (Appendix C) each of the five parts dealing with a student behavioral intention to perform one of the extracurricular activities. Only Parts A to C (concerning Activities 1 to 3) attempted to measure all of the Fishbein variables. Because of the limitations of answering time (and probably student patience), only behavioral intentions were measured in Parts D and E (Activities 4 and 5). The research questionnaire utilized a 5-choice bi polar scale format because of the Physics 115 instructor's preference for the Likert-type instrument, and because of the availability of IBM 5-category multiple-choice response sheets (IBM Document No. 505) that could be automatically transferred onto computer data cards via the IBM Model 1232 Optical Scanner. Although Osgood et al. (40) have presented some incidental empirical evidence (p. 85) that a 7-choice scale appears to be optimal for use with college students, the probable gains of this scale over a 5-choice scale were 68 judged to be inconsequential. The Semantic-Differential scales commonly used by Ajzen and Fishbein in the measurement of A , were transformed clC "C. into Likert-type attitude measures. Two Likert items result ed from each bipolar Semantic-Differential scale. According to Osgood (40) and Edwards (41) correl ations between Likert, Thurstone, and Semantic-Differential measures of attitude are typically about .90. With respect to the prediction of behavior, however, Tittle and Hill (13) suggested that the Likert scale may be slightly superior to the others (see Chapter II, section 1.1). 4.1 Variables External to the Fishbein Model Variables external to the model were assessed by means of two Likert-type instruments (Appendix J and L). The merg ing of external variable data with the data for variables internal to the model reduced the number of usable cases to a total of 89 from the original 128. Seventeen different sets of subscales constituted both instruments. Responses to specific items were summed for each different subscale. The external variables described in Chapter I, that included the 'Physics Evaluation Study* questionnaire items (Appendix J) and the 'Attitude Toward the Physics Laboratory' question naire (Appendix L), are shown in Table VII. The latter ('Attitude Toward the Physics Laboratory') questionnaire originated in a study by G. Page (42). TABLE VII VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL External Variable Abbreviation Questionnaire Itemsa Attitude toward physics in general A , Aphys A"5  Aclass AProf Atext Asm Aasgn ^exams Anuc AcpV 29 - 38 Attitude toward Physics 115 39 - 49 Attitude toward class instruction 50 - 59 Attitude toward the lecturer 60 - 69 Attitude toward the textbook 70 - 73 Attitude toward the subject matter 74 - 78 Attitude toward the assignments 79-84 Attitude toward examinations 85 - 94 Attitude toward the topic 'Nuclear Energy1 the topic 'Environment' 95, 106 Attitude toward 99, 104 Attitude toward the topic 'Classical Physics' 96, 101, 102, 107 Attitude toward the topic 'The Human Body' ^od 100, 103 Attitude toward the topic 'Propulsion and Electromagnetic Theory1 pr&em 97, 98, 105, 108 Attitude toward the Physics 115 laboratory session Alab Part B, 1 - 26 (see footnote) Physics 12 achievement PHiMA12 3 Mathematics 12 achievement 6 Combined Physics 12 and Math achievement 3, 6 All questionnaire items are taken from the 'Physics Evaluation Study' questionnaire (Appendix J) , except in the case of Aia_. Items for the assessment of A_A_3 were taken from the 'Attitude Toward the Physics Laboratory' questionnaire (Appendix L). VO 70 4.2 Variables Internal to the Model The measures on the variables in the Fishbein model included in the research questionnaire were based on the kinds of measures typically used by Fishbein et al. , on the basis of ideas drawn from Fishbein's theory, and on the basis of critical comments made by trial subjects on a set of trial questionnaire items. 4.2.1 Behavioral intention (BI). The behavioral intention measure consists of from one to three items per activity. Each item has five response categories varying from 'strongly agree1 to 'strongly disagree', indicating the intention of the student toward performing a certain voluntary act (or behavioral activity). In discussing the Triandis Behavioral Differential instrument (43) , Fishbein (6) states, While the correlations between attitude and the different types of behavioral intentions vary considerably, the correlation between attitude and the sum of the behavioral intentions tends to be quite stable and high (r = .70) . (p. 481) With this in mind, one conclusive BI item, "I intend to .", and one or two conditional items, "I intend to only if I have nothing else to do," and "I intend to only if I have time," were used in the questionnaire. It was hoped that the summation of these BI items would give a more reliable measure of BI than a single BI item. For comparison, each BI item was tested in a separate regression analysis. Example item: I intend to see this movie. Strongly agree 1_ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree _ Strongly disagree 5_ . 4.2.2 Attitude toward the act (A_ .). Six to eight ————— —ac t.— Likert-type attitude items, indicating the subject's evaluative beliefs about the consequences of performing the act, were used to assess A .. The items concerning 'interesting' act 3 and 'boring' were omitted from the assessment of A__, in aC u Activities 2 and 3 because they were not very meaningful to trial subjects in the context of describing these activities. Examples: Attending this movie would be a good thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5_ Attending this movie would be a boring thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1_ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5_ 4.2.3 Normative beliefs about specific referents  (NB^). The measure of NB^ consisted of six items, each con cerning a different referent group, and indicating the subject's belief concerning what the referent expected him 72 .to do, or what. ne felt he "should" do with respect to the particular behavioral activity. The referent groups used in assessing the six normative beliefs were: 'Closest friends', 'parents1.., 1majority of the class1, 'the lecturer'', 'religious group*, and 'myself, corresponding to NB^, NB2* NB3, NB4, NB^ and ISB^ respectively. Examples s My closest friends would expect me to see this mcvie. Highly likely 1_ likely 2_ Undecided 3_ Unlikely 4_ HigiuLy unlikely 5_ . My parents -would expect me to see this mo-vie. Highly likely 1 Iiikely 2 Undecided 3_ Unlikely 4 Hignly unlikely 5_ . 4.2.4 Motivation to comply (Mc^). Six items, each coneeming a different referent group, and indicating the subject's desire to comply with what he believed was expected of him (NB^), constituted the measure of Mc^. Examples s Concerning my seeing this movie, I want to do what I think my closest friends expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5 . 73 Concerning my seeing this movie, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1^ Agree 2_ Undecided 3_ Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree. 5_ . 3 4.2.5 .Behavior or act (B).. The five behavioral activities, were selected from about twice that number of possible;, activities, on the basis of student appeal and sev eral criteria implicit in the model. Firstly, the tasks selected were different from each other with, regard to the type of behavior elicited. This method of task selection was employed in order to appeal to a greater;overall number of students and elicit a wider variance in their: responses. Secondly, in an educational context, participation in extracurricular activities was a hoped for outcome of instruction. The activities chosen, therefore, were related to the goals of instruction. Thirdly, there had to be a way of directly, or at least indirectly recording the actual behavioral responses of the. subjects, unobtrusively, in order to avoid any suspicion that performance of the tasks was really not voluntary. In the case of such indirect methods as self-reporting, there had to be also some method for checking on 3 Note that behavior, as measured, was a dichotomous variable, while behavioral intentions, attitude toward the act, and normative beliefs were measured as continuous variables.. Hence, any reported correlations between measures of behavior and measures of the other variables will be point-bis erial. the honesty of the subjects. In this study, all behavioral activities except Activity 4 ("The Time of Man") were directly observed and it was relatively easy to check the subjects' self-reported 'activities check lists' against the direct observations of activities 1 to 4. Only about 1 1/2% of the subjects returned questionable check lists, and this provided a method for screening out these respon dents' questionnaire responses as being potentially unreliable Fourthly, according to the model, the BI-B time interval must be minimized, and thus the performance of the task had to be possible as soon after the measure of BI as possible. If this condition was not fulfilled, the original BI may have been replaced by an alternative with a resulting decrease in the relation between BI and B. Under conditions of long time intervals between measures of BI and B, BI may cease to be an accurate predictor of B. Finally, all behavior tasks had to be independent of each other with respect to the location in which each activity was executed. This diminished the possibility of a subject performing another task because it was conveniently in the same location. 75 5. Methods of Analysis The analyses were carried out by means of an IBM 360/67 computer, utilizing the applicable subroutines of the UBC-TRIP (44) and BMD 02R (45) regression programs. The specific research questions investigated and the methods of analysis used are described below. Commonly accepted a-levels in educational research (a = .05 or .01) were used to suggest whether or not the results were statistically significant.^ 5.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and  Those External to the Fishbein Model To what extent are certain attitudinal and non-attitudinal variables, external to, or not specified by the Fishbein model, related to each of the variables in the model, for each extracurricular activity? Pearson product-moment correlations between each of the external variables and B, BI, A ., ZBI, ZNB., EMc., and ZNB^(Mc^) were computed for each behavioral activity. 4 From a practical standpoint, it is probably useful, for the purpose of comparison, to know that the probability of a Type I error (rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true) is greater than or less than commonly accepted probabil ities (a-levels) in educational research or studies along similar lines. To arbitrarily set an a priori a-level and then to accept the null hypothesis if the value of the test statistic does not reach the critical value corresponding to the predetermined a-level, would be more appropriate to validation procedures than to the applicative context of the present study. 76 5.2 The Relationship between Variables Internal to the  Model To what extent are BI, IBI, and B related to A ., clC t NB., Mc, NB.(Mc), and INB.(Mc) for each of the extra-curricular activities? Computation of a product-moment correlation matrix was performed for all variables internal to the model, for each behavioral activity. 5.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention (a) How accurately can the behavioral intention with respect to each extracurricular activity be pre dicted from A . and the sum of the relevant norma-act tive products, ENB^(Mc^)? (b) Which of the two predictor variables, attitudinal or normative, is the best predictor of BI in each different behavioral situation? Multiple correlation coefficients of [A . + ZNB.(Mc.) ] with BI were computed for each behavioral activity. Also computed were the standardized regression coefficients for the A . and individual NB(Mc.) terms of the equation. The percent variance accounted for by each individual predictor was also computed by taking the product of the beta coefficient of each predictor and the correlation of the predictor with the criterion variable, BI. 77 5.4 The Role of Behavioral Intention in Predicting  Behavior To what extent are A . and ENB.(Mc.) related to B, dCt X X the performance of the act, i.e., actually carrying out each extracurricular activity? A computation of the product-moment correlations between B and A ., and between B and ZNB.(Mc.) was carried 3.C u XX out for the first three behavioral activities. Partial correlations of A . with B, and NB. (Mc.) ac t ' 11 with B holding BI constant, were also computed and the statistical significance of the results indicated. 5.5 Measurement Effect To what extent do measurements on the components of Fishbein's model influence students' behavioral responses toward the extracurricular activities? 2 X -tests of the relationship between the type of instrument completed by the students, and frequencies of their behavioral responses was computed, using two by two contingency tables, and using Yates' correction for small cell frequencies (Appendices N to Q) . 78 CHAPTER IV RESULTS During the course of the analysis of data, two results predicted in Chapter II became readily apparent: (a) the Mc factor tended to attenuate correlations between the normative component of the model and the criterion variables, and (b) the first and third BI items in each part of the question naire did not give the high correlations and multiple correlations with the predictor variables that were obtained by using the non-conditional BI2 item (see Chapter III, section 4.2.1). For these reasons, the majority of the results shown in this chapter will omit measurements on Mc, BI.^, BI^ and ZBI. Measurements on BI2 will be taken as the sole measure ment on BI, and measurements on NB^, NB2, NB^, NB^, NB^ and NB will take the place of measures on Fishbein's normative * n predictor term, Z NB.Mc. i=l 1 1 1. The Relationship between Variables Internal to the Fishbein  Model and those External to the Model (N = 89) According to the theory, any variables external to the model should be unrelated to behavioral intention and to overt behavior, unless they are also significantly"^ related to at least one of the predictors given in the model (7). Table VIII shows the correlations between several variables external to the model and variables internal to the model. All correlations are typically low (r < .35). In only five instances out of eighty-five (Activities 1 to 5), was behavior significantly (statistically) correlated with an external variable, two of these cases at the p < ,01 level and the other three at the p < .05 level. Behavioral intentions correlated with the external variables in thirteen instances, five at the p < .01 level of probability and eight at the p < .05 level. Curiously, the external variable, Anuc' attitu<^e toward the topic 'Nuclear Energy', correlated significantly with behavioral intentions for Activities 1, 3, 4, and 5. Also, a marginal significance trend was shown in the correlation of a^^ (Attitude toward the topic 'The Human Body') with BI for activities 1, 2 and 4 (the critical value of the correlation coefficient with N = 89, was 0.210 at a = .05). Although the correlations of external variables with variables internal to the model tended to be low, the adher ence of these correlations to the theory was checked in the first three activities. ^"A 'significant' correlation, for this chapter, will refer to a correlation that is statistically different from zero correlation at the .05 level (two tailed test). TABLE VIII CORRELATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES EXTERNAL TO THE MODEL AND VARIABLES INTERNAL TO THE MODEL a Activity li attending a froo lunch-hour movie.entitled, "Environment in the Balance" B OI Vt ND1 NB2 NB3 NB4 NB5 NBp *pi>y» AP115 .054 .188 .259" -.065 .087 .061 .017 .059 .246* .135 .103 .159 -.018 -.034 .080 -.171 .079 .043 Acla»o .122 .009 .085 -.072 -.148 .110 .165 -.006 -.017 AproJ Atoxt .118 .150 .345t .022 .039 .102 -.208 -.075 .117 .128 .028 .137 -.058 -.073 -.026 .002 .005 .000 Aoci\ -.170 .096 .092 .014 .059 -.022 .074 .056 .055 align Aaxim« -.051 -.057 .087 -.157 -.014 -.047 -.281t -.231* -.051 -.002 -.089 -.215* -.134 .030 -.079 -.014 .036 -.1B4 Anuc .042 .309t .247" .174 .001 -.196 -.151 -.004 .339t Aonv -.025 .161 -.049 .112 .201 .102 .064 .150 .246* ACP Abod .081 -.007 .040 -.113 .059 .064 .144 .074 .118 .176 .224* -.015 .238* .074 .189 -.071 .086 .097 Apr*am lab .050 .011 .112 .099 .034 -.027 .176 -.151 .177 -.063 .051 .114 -.148 -.029 .072 -.178 -.081 .023 PH12 .030 .000 -.094 -.086 -.022 -.090 -.153 -.237* .033 HAJJ -.034 -.028 -.123 .088 -.014 .008 -.028 -.007 -.013 -.005 -.018 -.128 .009 -.020 -.043 -.099 -.130 .009 Activity 2i signing up to roceivo information about a local pollution sampling experiment B BI Aact ND2 N!l3 N04 ND5 NO P phys .121 .096 .153 .022 - .027 .100 .097 .023 .205 AP115 .014 .004 .067 -.085 .052 .091 -.197 .036 .032 "class -.145 -.132 .025 -.026 -.047 .030 -.091 .068 -.104 prof -.124 .000 .287t -.061 -.025 .046 -.142 .026 .019 Atoxt -.030 .054 .047 .032 -.008 .082 .020 .075 .092 A sm -.002 .076 .221* .027 .012 .076 .048 -.046 .071 A asgn .062 -.174 .051 -.170 -.185 -.126 -.296t -.211 -.028 A oxoma -.093 -.260* -.192 -.116 .064 -.143 -.072 -.048 -.260* A nuc .095 .125 .135 -.079 -.152 -.161 -.011 -.126 .142 A onv -.060 -.120 -.165 .053 .254* .122 .051 -.159 -.157 A cp Abod -.001 .014 .002 -.046 .005 -.019 .097 .108 .009 -.026 .205 .145 .152 .134 .123 -.138 .231* .177 A , prfcom .240* .158 .014 .103 .103 .015 .131 -.093 .317t lab -.127 -.016 -.022 -.093 .000 .068 -.144 -.094 .050 P,l12 .007 -.236* -.226* -.067 -.194 -.025 -.103 -.225* -.073 MA12 .092 - .096 -.061 .106 -.027 .069 -.026 -.076 .017 PMtMAjj .061 -.186 -.159 .031 -.121 ,300t -.071 -.167 -.028 Activity 3i picking up a sot Technology  of information motarials and reading list on Pollution and "phys AP115 class Aprof onv Acp Abod Apr*om Al«b PHU HA, "12 P1UMA 12 .278t .180 .154 .097 .294t .038 .117 .078 .081 .076 .087 .003 .020 .153 .030 .137 .102 BI .209 .082 .090 .183 .145 .169 .008 .064 .308t -.014 -.033 .086 .218* -.034 -.187 -.055 -.135 act .076 .113 .113 .315t .103 .162 -.037 -.125 .045 .030 -.015 -.019 -.071 -.147 -.149 -.017 -.091 NB -.094 -.159 -.0 26 -.024 -.04 2 -.094 -.243* -.102 -.196 -.018 .113 .140 .069 -.034 -.064 .024 -.019 NB., -.081 -.043 .003 .021 -.011 .027 -.212* -.044 -.228* .088 .114 .133 .043 -.047 -.195 -.063 -.144 NB .000 -.043 .127 .105 .026 .122 -.140 -.091 -.249' -.008 .002 .024 .042 .039 -.119 -.023 -.07 8 NB„ .085 -.078 .062 .016 -.033 .211* -.184 .100 -.085 .038 .101 .111 -.012 -.163 -.104 .107 .012 NB, .031 .097 .129 .015 -.021 -.061 -.147 .073 -.107 -.108 .079 .182 -.126 .028 -.136 -.024 NB„ .190 .150 .173 .268* -.044 .113 .028 .027 .293t .002 .164 .12S .067 .070 -.007 -.044 -.031 Activity 4i attending.a froo lunch-hour movio ontitled, "Tho Time of Man" phyB AP115 AclaBB Apro£ oxams A nuc A env Acp Abod Aprtom Alab PH12 ""12 PlltMA, .013 .126 .108 .052 .004 -.115 -.007 .068 -.187 -.075 .122 .114 .086 .133 -.065 -.132 -.118 BI .138 .083 .050 .383t .072 .062 .113 .086 .226* .118 .336t .211* .192 .081 .137 .007 .070 Activity 5i contacting tlio lecturer to obtain information about aBuist-ing the summor landfill leaching experiment B BI . 101 .021 -.113 -.039 -.161 -.224' -.204 -.114 -.022 .025 -.212* .066 -.005 -.093 -.124 -.149 .200 .260* -.191 .012 .016 -.057 .156 .141 .211* .288t -.045 .039 .141 -.003 .158 .013 .174 .007 00 o 81 TABLE VIII (continued) correlations have been rounded off to three significant figures and are not significant except where noted otherwise. (N = 89) *P < .05 +p < .01 Abbreviations: phys ^115 Aclass prof a text A sm A asgn exams Anuc A env A cp ^od A. pr&em "lab PH12 MA12 PH&MA B BI A . act NB 12 Attitude toward physics in general Attitude toward Physics 115 Attitude toward class instruction Attitude toward the lecturer Attitude toward the textbook Attitude toward the subject matter Attitude toward assignments Attitude toward examinations Attitude toward the topic, 'Nuclear Energy' Attitude toward the topic, Attitude toward the topic, Attitude toward the topic, 'Environment' 'Classical Physics' 'The Human Body' 'Propulsion and Attitude toward the topic, Electromagnetic Theory' Attitude toward the Physics 115 laboratory session Physics 12 marks Math 12 marks Combined Physics 12 and Math 12 marks Behavior Behavioral intention Attitude toward the act Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself.' . 82 In Activity 1, it was found that the correlations of BI with Anuc and Aj^ were .309 (p < .01) and .224 (p < .05) respectively. In accordance with the theory, &nuc also correlated significantly with predictors NB (r = .339, p < .01) and A ' (r = .247, p < .05), and Aj^ correlated with NB^ (r = .238, p < .05). The significant correlations under Activity 2 also show a similar tendency to conform to the theory. Attitude toward examinations (A ), and Physics 12 marks (PH,0) exams J 1-showed correlations of -.260 (p < .05) and -.236 (p < .05) respectively with BI. 'A 1 also showed a correlation of exams -.260 with NB , while 'PH,-' showed a correlation of -.226 p 1_ with A . and -.225 with NB,. The .240 (p < .05) correlation cl C *C D of B with A r (attitude toward the topic 'Propulsion and pr&em c Electromagnetic Theory') was accompanied by a correlation of .317 (p < .01) between A r and NB . c pr&em p This tendency to conform with the theory was not without some difficulty, as shown by the results for Activity 3 (Table VIII). While A tended to conform to 1 nuc theory by exhibiting correlations of .308 (p < .01), -.228 (p < .05), -249 (p < .05) and .293 (p < .01) with BI, NB_, NB^ and NB^ respectively, three other external variables did not conform. The attitude toward Physics in general (A ^ ), showed correlations of .278 (p < .01) and .209 (p < .06) with B and BI respectively, but did not correlate significantly with any of the predictor variables (although the correlation 83 of Ap^yg with NBp was associated with a probability value of p < .07 5) . The attitude toward the textbook (Atext) showed a correlation of .294 (p < .01) with B, but no statistically significant correlation occurred with any of the predictor variables. Similarly, A £ showed a marginally significant .218 (p - .05) correlation with BI, but did not correlate significantly with any predictor. Activity 5 produced two marginally significant (p = .05) correlations of external variables with behavior, and Activities 4 and 5 combined gave seven significant correlations between the external variables and BI. Since predictor variables were not assessed for Activities 4 and 5, adherence to the theory could not be checked for these correlations. 2. The Relationship between Variables Internal to the Model (N = 128) On the basis of theory, statistically significant product moment correlations were expected to occur between the criterion variables (BI and B), between the criterion and each of the predictor variables separately, and between the attitudinal and relevant normative predictor variables. Since separate, but similar normative predictor terms were used in the stepwise regression analysis, some significant correlations between these terms were also expected. 84 Tables IX and X summarize these correlations for each of the activities (note that A . and NB. were not ac *c i assessed in Activities 4 or 5). Significant correlations were found in Activities 1, 2 and 3, between BI and the predictor variables, NB , A . and NB.. Correlations c P act i between B and the predictor variables, however, were small and often insignificant. A check of the BI-B relationship also revealed low correlations (non-significant in the cases of Activity 2 and Activity 4). Activity 3 showed a negative correlation of -.273 (p < .01) between B and NB^ (normative belief with respect to the lecturer) although the correlation of BI with NB4 was almost zero (.020NS). Correlations between the predictor variables (Table X) indicated that the majority of normative beliefs were significantly and rather highly related to each other. Aacf however, was not very highly correlated with normative beliefs, with the exception of the personal normative belief, NB . The correlation of A . with NB was about .50 for all p ac t p activities analyzed. It is interesting to note that the A ^-NB- correlation in all three activities was consistently act 3 higher than the correlation of A . with any other social normative belief. In summary, the students* personal normative beliefs, attitudes toward the act, and normative beliefs with respect to 'closest friends', appeared to be most closely related to TABLE IX CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR AND CRITERION VARIABLES a Predictor Variable Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 BI B BI B BI B B B A ^ .383 .206* .483 -.068NS . .498 .105NS act NB^ .385 .253 .368 .002NS .185* -.145NS NB2 .192* .118NS .210* -.009NS .111NS -.142NS NB3 .236 .186* .303 .007NS .160NS -.154NS NB4 -.029NS -.039NS .107NS -.032NS .020NS -.257 NB .182* .080NS .326 -.074NS .080NS -.107NS NB r> .692 .267 .771 .114NS .677 .180* ir BI 1.000 .280 1.000 .111NS 1.000 .268 .142NS .339 aAll correlations have been rounded off to three significant figures and are significant at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) * p < .05 Abbreviations: NS = Not significant BI = Behavioral intention B = Behavior A ^ = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself CO Ul 86 TABLEIX (continued) Activity 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" Activity 2 = signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment Activity 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology Activity 4 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "The Time of Man" Activity 5 = contacting the lecturer to obtain information about assisting the summer landfill leaching experiment 87 TABLE X CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PREDICTOR VARIABLES 3 NB1 NB2 NB3 NB4 NB5 NB P act Activity 1 NB^ 1 .000 .398 .550 .082NS .339 .408 .223* NB2 1 .000 .636 .245 .470 .268 .100NS NB3 1 .000 .241 .500 .357 .227* NB4 1 .000 .310 .074NS .086NS NB5 1 .000 .252 .125NS NB P 1 .000 .505 Activity 2 NBX 1 .000 .642 .697 .113NS .519 .344 .125NS NB2 1 .000 .600 .287 .496 .248 .138NS NB3 1 .000 .250 .516 .366 .247 NB4 1 .000 .212* .172NS .168NS NB5 1 .000 .330 .273 NB P 1 .000 .483 Activity 3 NB1 1 .000 .687 .680 .146NS .454 .178* .06 2NS NB2 1 .000 .702 .209* .449 .208* .150NS NB3 1 .000 .186* .487 .084NS .166NS NB4 1 .000 .269 .151NS .126NS NB5 1 .000 .164NS .001NS NB P 1 .000 .450 All correlations have been rounded off to three significant figures and are significant at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) * p < .05 88 TABLE X (continued) Abbreviations: NS = Not significant A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself Activity 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" Activity 2 = signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling•experiment Activity 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology 89 the behavioral intention in each activity. The other social normative beliefs tended to be somewhat less related to BI (generally having correlations of r < .25). The BI-B relationship tended to be low, but significant in Activities 1, 3 and 5, ranging between r = .27 and r = .34. The BI-B correlations for activities 2 and 4 were r = .111NS and r = .14 2NS respectively. Correlations of the predictor variables with BI tended to be larger than correlations of the same predictor variables with B. Fifty percent of the variables internal to the model correlated significantly with behavior or behavioral intention (in Activities 1 to 3), compared to a nine percent figure for significant correl ations of the external variables with B or BI. 3. The Prediction of Behavioral Intention (N = 128) Table XI shows the beta weights of the predictor variables and the multiple correlation of these variables with behavioral intention. The large multiple correlations obtained tend to indicate that behavioral intention can be predicted to a high degree of accuracy by the use of attitude toward the act and various relevant normative beliefs as predictors. The beta weight of A , for Activity 1 was found cLC t to be non-significant, indicating that normative beliefs, specifically NB^ and NB^ were the variables responsible in the prediction of BI for this activity. Activities 2 and 3 showed significant beta weights for A ., indicating that TABLE XI STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIORAL INTENTION a Activity act NB^ NB2 NB3 NB4 NB5 NB P R 1 .054NS .157 .025NS -.095NS -.085NS •026NS .627 .710 2 .164 .219 -.068NS -.109NS -.023NS .043NS .666 .797 3 .240 .131NS -.228 .178 -.096NS -.038NS .608 .739 aAll beta coefficients and multiple correlations have been rounded off to three significant figures and are significant at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) Abbreviations: R = Multiple correlation of predictors on behavioral NS = Not significant intention A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative beliefs with respect to: - (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself Activity 1 = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" Activity 2 = signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment Activity 3 = picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology o attitude toward the act as well as the relevant normative beliefs were important considerations in the prediction of behavioral intentions for those two activities. The only social normative belief found to be significant was NB^ the normative belief with respect to 'closest friends'. The NB1 beta weight was insignificant in Activity 3, but NB2 (the normative belief with respect to 'parents') was seen to have a significant negative beta coefficient, and NB^ (the normative belief with respect to 'majority of the class') had a significant positive weighting. The largest beta weight in.all three activities was that of the personal normative belief (NB^) which appeared to be the major con tributor to the prediction of BI in each activity. The quantities of total variance in the prediction of BI accounted for by the predictor variables were .50, .63 and .55 for Activities 1, 2 and 3 respectively, leaving about forty to fifty percent unaccounted for. Table XII shows the percent of total variance accounted for by each predictor variable in the prediction of BI. NB^ accounted for the largest portion of the predictable variance in each activity, with A . and NB, contending for the next largest quantity of variance. TABLE XII PERCENT OF TOTAL VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR BY EACH PREDICTOR VARIABLE IN THE PREDICTION OF BEHAVIORAL INTENTION a Activity A , % act NB]_% NB2% NB3% NB4% NB5% NBp% R2% 1 2.05 6.06 0.48 -2.25 0.25 0.48 43.39 50.47 2 7.94 8.07 -1.42 -3.29 - .24 1.40 51.30 63.48 3 11.93 2.43 -2.54 2.85 - .20 - .30 41.17 54 .67 aAlthough figures are given to two decimal places, these last two decimal places are not significant (N = 128). Percentages ± 5% are not significant. Abbreviations: A . = Attitude toward the act act NB = Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3)'majority of the class', (4)'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself R = Multiple correlation of predictors on behavioral intention attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance" signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment picking up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology VD IO Activity 1 = Activity 2 = Activity 3 = 4. The Prediction of Behavior (N = 128) The prediction of behavior was found to be consider ably less accurate than the prediction of behavioral intention. The beta coefficients and multiple correlations of the pre dictor variables with behavior are shown in Table XIII. The portion of total variance accounted for by the predictor variables in the prediction of behavior was found to be only .11, .04 and .14 for Activities 1, 2 and 3 respectively, leaving eighty-six to ninety-six percent of the variance unaccounted for. This poor prediction of behavior was also indicated by the low BI-B correlations shown in Table IX. Although the beta weights of the predictors in the regression on B (Table XIII) were in most instances insignificant, they presented an interesting deviation from the pattern shown in the prediction of BI. A . did not . ac *c carry a significant weight for any activity, and NB was P significant only in Activities 2 and 3. The only instance of a significantly weighted social normative belief came in Activity 3, with NB^ (the normative belief with respect to the lecturer). The beta weight for NB^ was negative and greater than the weight of NB^. Such was not the case in the regression on BI, where NB^ had a small, non-significant weight, and NB was highly significant (p < .001). TABLE XIII STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS AND MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS OF THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON BEHAVIOR a Activity A ^ act NB1 NB2 NB3 NB, 4 NBC D NB P R 1 .093NS .155NS <.01NS .059NS -.077NS -.028NS .149NS .331* 2 -.146NS -.034NS .018NS .043NS -.034NS -.114NS .220 .210NS 3 .061NS -.092NS -.064NS -.036NS -.282 .014NS .234 .376 All beta coefficients and multiple correlations have been rounded off to three significant figures and are significant at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) p < .05 Abbreviations: Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 = NS A . act NB -R = Not significant = Attitude toward the act = Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself' = Multiple correlation of predictors on behavior = attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance"' signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment picking up a set of information materials and reading.list on Pollution and Technology vo 95 5. The Role of Behavioral Intention  in Predicting Behavior (N = 128) The results given in Tables XIII and XIV tend to support the hypothesis that BI is an intervening variable between overt behavior and the predictors of the Fishbein model. Each of the significant positive correlations between behavior and a predictor variable (Table XIV) was reduced to non-significance when the effect of BI was partialled out (Table XV). The negative product moment correlations given in Table XIV increased in value in the negative direction when BI was held constant (Table XV). Some non-significant negative product correlations became significant in the partial correlation matrix (Table XV). 6. Measurement Effect In order to investigate measurement effects on actual 2 performance of the extracurricular activities, a x test of independence was carried out for each activity. The 2x2 contingency tables used in these analyses are shown in Appendices N, 0, P and Q. 2 The values of x (corrected for small cell frequencies) obtained for each activity, comparing the effect of the re search instrument to the effect of the placebo instrument are given in Table XVI. The possible presence of a measurement effect in Activity 3 led to the speculation that the placebo instrument TABLE XIV PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES a Behavior A 4-act NB^ NB2 NB3 NB4 NBC D NB P BI Bl .206* .253 .119NS .188* -.040NS .081NS .267 .280 B2 -.068NS .003NS -.010NS .008NS -.032NS -.074NS .114NS .111NS B3 .108NS -.149NS -.146NS -.159NS -.273 -.114NS .192* .268 aAll correlations have been rounded off to three significant figures and are significant at p =.01 except where noted otherwise (N = 128); slight differences between the correla tions shown in this table and those shown in Table X are due to different rounding errors between computer programs. p < .05 Abbreviations: NS act NB BI = Not significant = Attitude toward the act = Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious, group', (p) 'myself' = Behavioral intention = The performance (or non-performance)of Activity 1 = The performance (or non-performance)of Activity 2 = The performance (or non-performance)of Activity 3 TABLE XV PARTIAL CORRELATIONS OF BEHAVIOR WITH THE PREDICTOR VARIABLES, HOLDING BEHAVIORAL INTENTION (BI) CONSTANT a Behavior A . act NB^ NB2 NB3 NB4 NBC 0 NB P Bl .111NS .164NS .069NS .131NS -.033NS .031NS .106NS B2 -.140NS -.043NS -.035NS -.028NS -.032NS -.118NS .044NS B3 -.032NS -.211* -.184* -.212* -.289 -.14 2NS .012NS aAll correlations have been rounded off to three significant figures and are significant at p = .01 except where noted otherwise. (N = 128) p < .05 Abbreviations: NS Aact NB B] B, B. Not significant Attitude toward the act Normative beliefs with respect to: (1) 'Closest friends', (2) 'parents', (3) 'majority of the class', (4) 'lecturer', (5) 'religious group', (p) 'myself The performance (or non-performance) of Activity 1 The performance (or non-performance) of Activity 2 The performance (or non-performance) of Activity 3 VO TABLE XVI CHI-SQUARE TESTS OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVITIES, FROM THE RECEIVING OF A QUESTIONNAIRE** Activity Research vs placebo questionnaire Placebo vs no questionnaire Research vs no questionnaire Research vs no questionnaire (absentees corrected) 2 X P< 2 X P< 2 X P< 2 X P< 1 .64 .50 5.78 .02 16.66 .001 6 .23 .02 2 .04 .90 _* _* 1.04 .50 .07 .80 3 3.53 .10 _* _* 15.08 .001 8.52 .005 4 .53 .50 7.94 .005 21.33 .001 9.49 .005 5 .005 .95 1.36 .25 3.93 .05 1.24 .30 p is the probability of obtaining a x value greater than or equal to the corresponding tabled value, for one degree of freedom, given the null hypothesis H^ H^ is the hypothesis that the performance of an activity is independent from receiving a questionnaire * 2 cell frequencies were too small for an accurate calculation of x ** complete contingency tables are shown in Appendices N, 0, P and Q VD CO itself might produce some measurement effect and thus mask the measurement effect of the research instrument. This possibility was checked out by utilizing the students who 2 received no instrument at all, as a control group. x tests comparing the behavior performance (or non-performance) of the students who received the placebo instrument, to the responses of those who received no instrument were carried out. Although cell frequencies were too small 2 2 for computation of x in Activities 2 and 3, the x values obtained for Activities 1, 4 and 5 are shown under the 'Placebo vs no questionnaire1 column of Table XVI. The contingency tables used in these calculations are given in Appendix 0. 2 Another series of x tests was conducted, comparing the behavior responses of the students who received the research instrument to the responses of those who received no instrument (Appendix P). The results are given in Table XVI. Measurement effect is apparently considerable for Activities 1, 3 and 4, marginal in Activity 5, and non significant in Activity 2. One possible confounding factor should be mentioned; included in the group of students who received no measuring instrument were the absentees. No record of the exact number of absentees per lecture was kept, but a rough estimate by the professor in charge of Section 1 placed the number of daily absentees at an average of fifty. Assuming the worst case, i.e., that the same fifty students 2 were absent for the entire lecture series, x values were 2 recalculated (Appendix Q) and gave the result shown in 2 Table XVI. The fact that x values for Activities 1, 3 and 4 were still significant after being corrected for absentees would lend support to the existence of the measurement effect in at least these three activities. 7 . Discussion of Results The results indicate that Fishbein's model can be usefully applied in an educational situation. Problems in application of the theory noted in the literature and a few problems more specific to the present study became apparent. These problems are pointed out in the sections below, but not accounted for. The present study attempted to collect information about the applicability of Fishbein's theory to classroom practice and not information accounting for deviations from theory. 2 Correction for absentees (N = 50) was accomplished by subtracting fifty from the group of 132 students who received no questionnaire at all (there was no way of telling if those students were present or absent during the assessment lecture period except by behavior performance, since they did not turn in response sheets). From each contingency table given in Appendix P, fifty has been subtracted from the cell representing the number of students in the no instrument group who did not perform the behavior. This subtraction resulted in the contingency tables given in Appendix Q. 101 7.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and  those External to the Fishbein Model For Activity 3, the correlations (Table VIII) that appear not to conform with the theory were the correlations of attitude toward the textbook (Atex4-) with behavior (r = .294, p < .01), and attitude toward the topic 'Propul sion and Electromagnetic Theory' (Apr£em) with behavioral intention (r = .218, p < .05). Neither of these measures on attitude correlated significantly with any of the predictor variables. The Activity 3 correlation of A . with B (r = .278, phys p < .01) might be interpreted with respect to the possibility of statistical fluctuation and the marginal significance of the correlation of A , with BI. The critical values for phys the correlation coefficient (N = 89) are r = .274 (p = .01) and r = .210 (p = .05) . The correlation of Aphvs with BI may be, within statistical fluctuation, considered marginally significant at the .05 level (r = .209) . The correlation of Aphyg with NBp was previously shown to be r = .190, p < .075. Given the almost significant size of these correlations, plus the highly significant value of the beta coefficient for NBp in Activity 3 (Table XI), the correlations of the external variable A , „ with the internal variable BI tends phys to conform to expectations based upon the theory, i.e., that any variables external to the model will be unrelated to 102 behavior and to behavioral intention, unless they can be shown to be statistically related to at least one of the predictors given in the model (7). 7.2 The Relationship among Variables Internal to the Model The correlations of the predictor variables with BI (Table IX) tended to substantiate the theory that BI is a function of A . and of the relevant normative beliefs. The act observation that all significant correlations between BI and each normative belief were considerably reduced when each normative belief term was multiplied by its respective Mc variable, supports the conjecture (8, 9, 10) that the predictive value of Mc as measured is in serious doubt. Suggestions concerning this variable are made in the present chapter, section 7.4, and Chapter V, section 4.1. The result that all significant correlations of the predictor variables with B were smaller than the correspond ing correlations of the predictors with BI, (Table IX), is consistent with the theory that BI is an intervening variable between B and the predictor terms, but this effect could 3 also have been due to method variance. The negative relation-Since behavior was assessed in a different manner than the other variables, it is possible that variance due to differences in method could account for the observation that behavioral intention consistently correlates more highly with the predictor variables than does behavior. Ajzen and Fishbein (10), however, have shown that variance due to method was not responsible for a similar effect observed in their work (p. 484). 103 ship between social normative beliefs and B in Activity 3 suggests that normative beliefs may actually shift polarity in the interval between the assessment of BI and the performance of the behavior. This, too is consistent with theory, in that behavioral intentions may change over time, or that the actual behavioral situation may not correspond with the individual's expectation of the behavioral situation. The low obtained BI-B correlations suggest the possibility that in these particular activities, the actual behavioral situations were not adequately described in the assessment of behavioral intentions, or that BI had changed considerably over a period of time. These possibilities suggest a need for determining the stability of a BI measure and also a need for procedures with which to estimate BI-B correspondence. The consistently high (r = .48) correlations (Table X) between NB and A . suggests that these two predictor p ciC u variables may have a component in common with each other. This specualtion is in accordance with Dulany's RHd variable which occurred in both the attitudinal and in the normative predictor variables of equation (2.3). Further, correlations between NB and BI (r - .71) tend to indicate that in Activities P 1 to 3, NB was not quite an alternative measure of BI as Ajzen and Fishbein (10) had found previously. This finding was further substantiated by the relative magnitudes of the beta coefficients of other predictor variables (Table XI). 104 The high (r = .65) correlations between NB2 and NB^ for Activities 1 to 3 indicate the possibility of a common component or similarity between these two predictors. This result may also be applied to NB^ and NB2 (r - .58) , NB^ and NB5 (r = .50) , NB2 and NB^ (r = .47) , and NB^ and NB^ (r * .44) . 7.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention Although the predictor variables accounted for at least fifty percent of the total variance in the prediction of BI (Table XII), forty to fifty percent was unaccounted for. This "error" variance may be speculatively explained by several possible attenuating factors. One factor might be the inherent reliability of the scales used in the measuring instrument. The reliability of the scales used was not 4 determined directly because of practical limitations. A more important factor may have been the construct validity of the items in the instrument. The problems involved in developing valid measures on the various normative beliefs, relevant referents, the motivation to comply (Mc) variable, and the personal normative belief have been previously discussed. In the case of this particular study, 4 * . These practical limitations were discussed in Chapter I, section 6. 105 Chapter III indicated that the referent groups, 'scientific community' and '.university community', might have been more relevant to Physics 115 students than 'religious group* and 'majority of the class", the referents that were actually used. Associated with the problem of predictive validity are the correlations of the predictors with each other. The fact that a number of predictor variables were highly related to each other necessarily resulted in some statistical attenu ation of the multiple correlation values in the multiple regression analysis (46). Response bias was largely an unexpected occurrence which may have negatively affected student response reliabil ity. Several students were heard to make negative remarks about the questionnaire during the course of its completion. In addition, three response sheets that were handed in appeared to have been purposely spoiled. A total of fourteen response sheets were visually rejected as being potentially unreliable, but it is possible that others escaped detection. Finally, the possibility that some unknown factors might be important predictors of BI should not be excluded. Dulany's (18) original theoretical framework maintained an openness to the addition of new terms. In Fishbein's model it is possible that a motivational component may in future be found to contribute significantly and consistently to the prediction of BI. It is also possible that specific 106 variables such as 'achievement anxiety', 'need achievement' or 'academic interest', might be required specifically in educational situations [Khan (31)] and that other specific variables might be required in other situations. The question of the relative importance of the type of predictor variable (attitudinal or normative) used in predicting BI may be answered by reference to Table XI. For all three activities, normative beliefs outweighed the attitudinal variable by a large margin, although the value of the attitudinal beta coefficient increased from non-significance (.054NS) in Activity 1, to .164 (p < .01) and .240 (p << .01) for Activities 2 and 3 respectively. This increase in the weight of A , from Activity 1 to clC "t Activity 3 shows up very distinctly in terms of percent of the total variance (Table XII), but is difficult to explain. Perhaps it depends on the degree to which students perceive each activity as contributing to their achievement in the lecture module concerned with environmental and technological assessment. It is possible that Activity 1 (attending a free lunch-hour movie entitled, "Environment in the Balance") and Activity 2 (signing up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment) were perceived by students as having few positive achievement consequences, resulting in A . having little relative importance in the determination of BI. On the other hand, Activity 3 (the 107 picking up of a set of information materials and reading list on pollution and technology) appears to have had instructional value which may have been perceived by students as having beneficial consequences, if performed. This interpretation would be in line with Fishbein's conceptual ization of A being, in part, a function of beliefs about ac "C the probability of an act resulting in certain consequences. The large amount of variance (Table XII) accounted for by NBp, compared to the amount accounted for by all social normative beliefs combined,might be a situational effect. Situations involving social interaction might be expected to show a greater combined weight in measures of social normative beliefs. This possibility should perhaps be investigated more thoroughly in future studies. From a strictly applicative point of view retaining both the personal normative belief variable and the social normative belief variables in the model seems advisable until this point is clarified. 7.4 The Prediction of Behavior Low BI-B correlations (Table IX) and low multiple correlations of the predictor variables (Table XIII) on behavior made the interpretation of predictor variances in the prediction of behavior extremely difficult. The eighty-six to ninety-six percent of the total variance unaccounted for might, in part, be attributable to the factors discussed 108 in connection with other studies, namely, the time interval between the measurement of BI and the observation of B, the degree of volitional control that the individual had over his behavior in the specific situation, and the specific ity of the measure of BI to the behavioral situation. These possibilities are discussed in order below. The observation was made that the magnitude of the beta coefficients given in Table XIII(in the regression on behavior), did not correspond to the rank order of beta coefficients in the case of a BI criterion (Table XI). Since the BI-B correl ations were low in all activities, it was to be expected that the predictor variables would show different relative weighting in the regression on behavior than in the regression on behavioral intention. While the relatively long time interval between measures of BI and measures of B may have had some effect in reducing the overall BI-B correlation values, it does riot appear to have contributed to the differences in these correlations for different activities (Table IX). Activity 1 (the movie, "Environment in the Balance"), for example, had to be attended on February 11, four days after the assess ment of the model variables. Activities 2 and 3 could have been completed immediately after the assessment (February 7), up to February 11. On the basis of time interval alone, Activities 2 and 3 should have higher BI-B correlations than Activity 1. Such was not the case. The BI-B correlation 109 for activity 1 was .280 and the BI-B correlations for Activities 2 and 3 were 111NS and .268 respectively. Further more, Activity 5 (contacting the lecturer about assisting in a summer landfill leaching experiment) could have been performed between February 7 and 29, a possible time interval of twenty-two days (including weekends), and yet this activity produced the highest BI-B correlation (.339, p < .01). Constraints on student volition could have played some part in the size of the BI-B correlations in Activities 1 and 4 (the two lunch-hour movies). A few days after the showing of the Activity 4 movie, "The Time of Man", it was learned that one of a popular B.B.C. movie series ("Civiliz ation") was being shown on campus at exactly the same time as "The Time of Man". Some of the Physics 115 students who initially expressed the behavioral intention of performing Activity 4 might have changed their minds in favor of seeing "Civilization", resulting in the BI-B correlation for Activity 4 being very low (.142NS). The degree which 'non-specificity of BI assessment to the behavioral situation' played a part in reducing the BI-B relationships is unknown. In the absence of any rigorous methodological guidelines in the assessment of BI (several authors have used several methods), BI assessment questionnaire items were formulated on the basis on methods used in the majority of past studies, keeping any reference to the behavioral situation as specific as possible. 110 The relatively large BI-B correlation for Activity 5 gave rise to some speculation concerning the observed performance of behavior and the possibility of motivation as an influencing factor. Activity 5 was the only activity where the lecturer mentioned the possibility of students being paid on a summer job basis. Could this added incentive have increased the predictability of the performance of Activity 5 (contacting the lecturer about assisting in a summer landfill leaching experiment)? Perhaps in situations having little social interaction, 'motivation to comply' is less important than some other unknown motivational variable such as 'pay motivation', 'achievement motivation', 'entertainment motivation', or some general form of combined motivation variable. For example, 'entertainment motivation' might be a variable to consider when dealing with movie-going behavior. Finally, in attempting to explain the error variance in the prediction of behavior in this particular study, it must again be stressed that this study did not employ the laboratory-type of reliability controls employed in most of the other studies. There were no replicative behaviors, or practice trials. There were no post factum measures of behavioral intentions or self-reports of behavior. The time between the measures of BI and the performance of B was substantially longer than in studies utilizing game situations. Also, the subjects, themselves were somewhat negative in their Ill reaction to the instrument used in assessing the variables. Another factor which also may have attenuated the BI-B correlations was a probable measurement effect. This subject discussed in detail in section 7.6 below. 7.5 . The Role of Behavioral Intention in Predicting Behavior The observation that any significant positive correl ation between behavior and a predictor variable (Table XIV) was reduced to non-significance when BI was held constant (Table XV), tended to correspond with the findings of Ajzen and Fishbein (10) and Devries and Ajzen (8). This result thus tends to lend strength to the theory that BI is an intervening variable between behavior and the predictor vari ables. According to theory,the assessment of BI or its predictors must therefore be considered to be necessary for the prediction of behavior. The tendency for negative correlations between behavior and predictor variables to become more negative when BI was held constant (Table XV), also tends to. show that the addition of a measure of BI will influence behavior-predictor correl ations in the positive direction, that is, the addition of a measure of BI enhances the prediction of behavior. 112 7.6 Measurement Effect 2 The problem posed by the results of the x tests is how to interpret the apparent presence of a measurement effect (of the type described in Chapter III, section 5.5) in some activities but not in others. One possible explanation may be the differences in the measuring instrument with respect to the number of items used in assessing each of the variables. However, the differences in the items for Activities 1 to 3 (see Appendix C) appear to be very slight, the main difference being that an extra item (Number 1 in the questionnaire) was used in assessing BI for Activity 1. This particular item was later discarded in the final analysis of the data. All other items used for the assessment of variables were virtually identical for Activities 1 through 3. This similarity of questionnaire items used in the assessment of variables for the first three activities would appear to negate the possibility that the questionnaire composition could account for the differ-2 ences in measuring effect indicated by the x tests for 2 Activities 1 to 3. Furthermore, a significant x indication of measurement effect was obtained for Activity 4, and a non-2 significant x indication was obtained for Activity 5, and yet the only variable assessed by the questionnaire for these two activities was BI. It might therefore be inferred that in some cases the assessment of only one variable (BI), or even the distribution of a questionnaire, is sufficient to give rise to a significant measurement effect! 113 If such is the case, the particular behavioral situation may be postulated as playing a role in the observed differences in degree of measuring effect. Some speculation must again be called upon in order to provide a plausible explanation of an interaction between situation and measure ment effect. If a student's response to a behavioral intention assessment item in the questionnaire was perceived by the student as a commitment to perform particular activity, then, whether dr not he carried out this commitment might have depended on the student's perception of what the possible consequences would be if he fulfilled or changed his commit ment. The student's perception of the consequences of ful filling a commitment, in turn, might have depended upon his perception of the nature of the activity to be performed in fulfilment of his commitment. If the student viewed the consequences of fulfilling a negative commitment (i.e., his intention not to go to a movie) as potentially bad, then he would perform the activity, even 'against his will' (or against his behavioral intention). This behavior, inconsistent with the original BI, might be interpreted as having arisen from a newly acquired BI, and could give rise to a low BI-B correlation as well as a significant measurement effect. If the student, on the other hand, viewed the consequences of fulfilling his commitment as unimportant, then he would probably perform the activity in accordance with his assessed behavioral intention and no measurement 114 effect should arise. Also, if students perform an activity in accordance with their assessed BI, high BI-B correlations should result. This explanation appears to work fairly well for most, but not all of the activities in this study. The specific reasoning for each case is given below. In the case of Activity 1 ('to attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "Environment in the Balance". . .'), the 2 marginal x probability level (p < .02), indicated that the degree of measurement effect was low, but not negligible. This may have been due to the possibility of some students feeling a responsibility to carry out the activity even though they had made a BI response (commitment) indicating that they didn't intend to go to the movie. This behavior, in consistent with the original BI, might have been initiated by the assessment of the original BI. The students may have contemplated the motives of the instructor asking that particular BI question. They may also have felt a strong possibility that material from the movie could appear on some examination in the near future. The x2 result (.072NS) for Activity 2 (.'to sign up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment . . .') .indicated that the measurement effect for this activity was negligible. Students may have per ceived this activity as being of such a voluntary nature, and so unrelated to their school work (the words 'no obligation to participate* were used in the description of the experiment), that whether or not the BI commitment was honored was of little consequence. The low BI-B correl ation (r_._ = .111NS) might be interpreted as a possible 131/13 change of BI having occurred as a result of the students having a weak original BI (or commitment). The highly probable (p < .005) measurement effect for Activity 3 ('to pick up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology') might be interpreted in the following way: the students thought that the reading list and information materials might be advantag eous for examination purposes, and therefore felt compelled to perform the activity, even though their original BI commit ment indicated otherwise. Activity 4 ('the attendance of a free lunch-hour movie entitled "The Time of Man" . . .') also resulted in a 2 large measuring effect (x = 9.49, p < .005). Why the measurement effect was greater for this activity than for Activity 1 (also a lunch-hour movie) is not known, but there are some possible explanations. One confounding factor was the concurrent showing of the B.B.C. series "Civilization". However, a more likely possibility was the emphasis placed on seeing "The Time of Man" by the lecturer—after the assessment of BI. This may have caused some of the students who did not intend to carry out Activity 4 to change their BI and perform Activity 4, fearing the consequences of what 116 might happen if they fulfilled their negative BI (commit ment) and did not see the movie. The non-significant measurement effect for Activity 5 ('to contact Dr. Phelps in order to obtain information about assisting the summer landfill leaching experiment1) may be explainable in a manner similar to the lack of measure ment effect in Activity 2. The BI response for Activity 5 may have been perceived by the student as constituting only a weak commitment because of the voluntary, non-examin-able nature of this activity. The students were not under any compulsion to perform this activity because it pertained to an experiment that would be carried out during the summer months, after their completion of the Physics 115 course. In the above discussion of the measurement effect, the assessment of BI, acting as a commitment, has been pos tulated to be a major source of this effect. The fact that a highly significant instance of measurement effect was also found in the case of the placebo instrument indicates that the assessment of other variables may have a similar effect. The above remarks must therefore be taken as highly specula tive and not exclusive of other alternative explanations. It might be worthwhile, however, for some future study to investigate the possibility of reducing the measurement effect by eliminating the direct assessment of BI, by assessing only the predictor variables. 117 8. Summary Most of the observed results tended to be explainable in terms of the Fishbein model and its associated theoretical concepts. Several results were obtained and interpreted according to the theory in order to clarify the specific problems investigated in the application of Fishbein's theory to an actual educational situation. 8.1 The Relationship between Variables Internal to and Those  External to the Fishbein Model The correlations of variables external to the model with variables internal to the model tended to agree with the theory, namely, that any variables external to the model should be unrelated to behavioral intention and to overt behavior unless they are significantly related to at least one of the predictors given in the model. There were nine observed instances out of a possible 102, where external variables correlated significantly (both positively and negatively) with B or BI. All of these cases but three (Table VIII, Activity 3) also showed significant correla tions between the external variable and at least one predictor variable. The three cases that did not appear to agree with theory, could be accounted for by the statis tical probability of obtaining significant correlations by chance alone. 118 8 • 2 The Relationship between Variables Internal to the  Model Significant correlations (Table IX) were consistently found between measures of BI and the predictor variables •NB , A . and NB, . The magnitudes of correlations between p' act 1 ^ measures of BI and the other social normative beliefs (NB2 to NBj.) varied considerably between activities, several reaching significance. Correlations between behavior and measures of be havioral intentions were disappointingly low, although three were significantly greater than zero (p < .01) . Correspond ingly, correlations between behavior and measures of the predictor variables were also small, and frequently insignificant. The majority of normative beliefs were found to be significantly and rather highly related to each other (Table X). The correlation between measures of A . and social normative beliefs (NB1 to NB^) tended to be low and often non-significant, but the correlation between measures of A . and NB was always relatively large ( = .50) and 3. C "C. p significant. Correlations of measures of the predictor variables with BI tended to be larger than correlations of the same predictor variables with B (Table IX). 119 8.3 The Prediction of Behavioral Intention Multiple correlations of .710, .797 and .739 were obtained for Activities 1, 2 and 3 respectively, in the prediction of behavioral intention from measures of the specified predictor variables. The amounts of total variance (in the prediction of BI) accounted for by the predictor variables were .50, .63 and .55 for Activities 1 to 3 respectively, leaving about forty to fifty percent unaccounted for. The predictor term showing the largest beta coeffic ient was.the normative, rather than the attitudinal term (Table XI). Specifically, the personal normative belief variable (NB^) was observed to have the greatest weight, with A . and NB, trailing far behind. 8.4 The Prediction of Behavior The prediction of behavior was found to be consider ably less accurate than the prediction of behavioral intention. Multiple correlations of measures of the pre dictor variables on B were only .331 (p < .05), .210NS, and .376 (p < .01) for Activities 1, 2 and 3 respectively, accounting for only four to fourteen percent of the total variance in the prediction equation. 120 8.5 The Role of Behavioral Intention in Predicting  Behavior The observation that any significant positive correl ation between behavior and a predictor variable (Table XIV) was reduced to non-significance when BI was partialled out (Table XV) tended to agree with the theory that BI is an intervening variable between behavior and the predictor variables. According to Ajzen and Fishbein (10), the pre diction of BI is therefore a necessary, as well as suffic ient, condition for the prediction of overt behavior. 8.6 Measurement Effects 2 X tests of independence in the performance of the extracurricular activities under research instrument and no instrument conditions resulted in the detection of a significant measurement effect in Activities 1, 3 and 4 (Table XVI). The assessment of BI and the particular behavioral situation have been postulated as possible contributors to the occur rence of the type of measurement effect found by this study. BI was likened to a commitment, the degree of commitment possibly determining the degree of the measurement effect when negative BI s (low probabilities of intention) are held by individuals in specific situations. The measurement effect may have some importance in the prediction of B from BI. If B is, to a great degree, influenced by a particular measuring instrument, then B would not be expected to be predictable from a measure of BI alone. The BI-B relationship should therefore be much lower in the presence of a significant measuring effect. 122 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND SUMMARY 1. Recapitulation of the Problem The major problem of this study was the investigation of the general hypothesis that if a Physics 115 student's attitudinal and normative position with respect to performing a free-choice learning task can be determined, then his intention of performing the task, and his actual performance of the task; may be predicted with better than chance accuracy. This prediction of behavioral intention and overt behavior might be accomplished by the application of Fishbein's theory (6) to the educational situation provided in the experimental program instituted by the Physics Department. Consideration of this general hypothesis led to the investigation of the following specific problems: (a) identification of the relationship between variables internal to and those external to the Fishbein's model; (b) determination of the relationship between behavior, measured behavioral intention, and the attitudinal and normative predictor variables of the model; (c) analysis of the accuracy of the prediction of behavioral intention and behavior and 123 the relative importance of the predictors in the prediction; (d) analysis of behavioral intention measures as predictors of overt behavior in specific educational situations; and (e) the detection of possible measurement effects. 2. Conclusions The general hypothesis that the application of Fish bein's theory to free-choice learning situations would accord better than chance accuracy in the prediction of behavioral intention and overt behavior appeared to be substantiated in the case of behavioral intention, but was problematic in the case of behavior prediction. Nevertheless, better than chance accuracy was obtained for the prediction of behavior in two out of the three activities for which the full complement of model variables were assessed, and in three out of five activities when behavioral intention was the only predictor considered. Analysis of the specific problems tended to indicate that the measuring instrument devised for use in the free-choice learning situations of this study, obtained measures of variables equivalent in most relational characteristics, to the variables assessed by Fishbein and his co-workers in past studies. The assessed variables exhibited relation ships that largely agreed with those given in Fishbein's theory. 124 , One result not observed in past studies was a signifi cant measurement effect in certain of the free-choice situations. This effect could possibly be detrimental to the prediction of behavior in certain situations and there fore potentially limit the applicability of the Fishbein model in an educational context. Specific to the learning activities described in this study, it may be apparent that measures of behavioral intention alone would not give a Physics instructor sufficient information for accurately choosing activities that students would perform in accordance with their intentions. It is suggested that this problem may be due, in part, to measurement effects, to differences between the actual situation and the situation description used in the assessment of the behavioral intention, or to changes in behavioral intention brought about by the many possible competing activities constantly emerging in student environments. On the other hand, the model provided better than chance predictions of behavior in three fifths to two thirds of the situations examined in this study, or at least sixty percent of the time, an achievement that would probably be difficult to accomplish by means of guesswork or chance. Furthermore, the model provides an instructor with a systematic means for behavior prediction and provides infor mation concerning the nature of some of the variables that appear to influence behavior. The correlations of behavior 125 with behavioral intentions obtained in this study, for example, might indicate to a Physics instructor, that Activities 1, 3, and 5 elicited behavior responses that are more in accordance with student intentions than the responses in Activities 2 and 4. A comparison of the standardized regression coeffic ients in the regression on behavioral intention and on behavior suggests that for Activities 1 to 3, the variable that is most influential in predicting BI and B is the measure of the personal normative belief. Small contributions to the prediction appear to be due to the attitude toward the act and the social normative belief concerning students' best friends. The contribution of A . to the prediction of BI also appears to increase with salience. If the instructor is interested in effecting behavior changes in Physics 115 students, he should consider the possibility of modifying students' personal normative beliefs concerning the activities, modifying their attitudes toward performing the activities, and modifying their social normative belief with respect to their best friends. Similarly, if the instructor is interested in matching his teaching strategy to the belief systems of his Physics 115 students, he should somehow work personal normative beliefs, attitude toward the act, and social normative beliefs (with respect to 'closest friends') into the curriculum. 126 3. Implications and Recommendations for Educational Application In view of the above discussion, the application and refinement of Fishbein's model in educational research appears worthy of serious consideration. Inherent in the theory and the presented results of its application, are a number of implications that could generally have important consequences for educational practice. Some of these implications will now be examined. 3.1 The Fishbein Model versus Traditional Approaches to  Attitude Measurement The traditional measures of attitude toward various educational and instructional objects (for example, attitude toward Physics in general, Physics 115, method of class instruction, the lecturer, the textbook, the subject matter, assignments, examinations, and specific topics) showed few significant correlations with behavior or behavioral intention. Those attitudes that were significantly related to behavior or behavioral intention, were almost always related to one of the predictor variables of the theory. This would tend to imply that traditional measures of attitude are poor predictors of educational behavior and that Fishbein's theory should be considered in any attempts to relate attitudes and overt behavior. Specifically, the assessment of attitudes toward an act, social normative beliefs, personal normative beliefs and behavioral intention, would probably give educators a more accurate indication of the means of effecting behavioral modification, than would the attitude scales commonly used. 3.2 The Modification of Behavior Since behavior and behavioral intention were seen to be a function of attitude toward the act and various normative beliefs, an educator should best be able to effect a strengthen ing or weakening of specific behaviors and behavioral inten tions by operating on (attempting to strengthen or weaken) the predictor variables having the greatest importance (beta weights) in the regression equation. Once these influential variables have been identified, the problem immediately becomes one of selecting the treatments by which a teacher can influence desired changes in these variables over a reasonable period of time. Can the teacher influence A ., by making students aware of, or by actually manipulating the probable consequences of their specific behaviors? Can social normative beliefs be modified by placing students in direct contact with relevant referents in certain situations, by engaging students in role playing or simula tion games, or by conducting counselling sessions about relevant referents? The interpretation of the personal normative belief is not yet clear in the theory, but perhaps 128 this variable could be influenced by placing students into guided introspective situations, for example, encouraging students to analyze their own mistakes, evaluate their own achievement, or to justify their own position (or an opposite position) in debate. Educational research into the efficacy and the methodology of effecting changes in the predictor variables is strongly recommended. 3.3 Specificity of Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, Intentions  and Behavior Teachers should expect students to exhibit different attitudes toward an act and normative beliefs in even minim ally different situations. Applications of the Fishbein model have shown that the weights and polarities of the predictor variables vary considerably between situations. Since behavioral intention and behavior have also been found to be specific with respect to the situation, behavior and be havioral intention cannot empirically be expected to remain constant from one situation to another, unless both situations are virtually identical. 3.4 Generalization in the Prediction of Behavior and Behav ioral Intention The results of the pilot study indicated that the relevance of the referent groups used in assessing the various 129 normative beliefs, varies with respect to the particular population sampled. The relative importance of the predictor variables is therefore specific to the population sampled. While this factor did not appear to be critical in the present study, populations having vastly different character istics such as ability, interests, cultural background, or socioeconomic background would be expected to exhibit different relative weightings for the predictor variables. A teacher might therefore be required to treat one group of students very differently from another group, when attempting to effect a behavior change through attempts to modify characteristics represented by the predictor variables. 3.5 Measurement Effects and the Nature of the Situation Since significant measurement effects were found for certain activities in the present study, the behavior of students in specific educational situations may, in part, result from an attempt to assess one or more variables of the Fishbein model. If measurement effects play a large role in the determination of educational behavior, then the accuracy of behavior prediction may be considerably reduced. The detection of these effects, however, may give educators a useful indication of the extent of psychological threat or volitional constraint on students, posed by the testing situation and/or the educational situation. It is 130 therefore recommended that these effects be monitored in any future applications of the Fishbein model to educational research. Furthermore, measurement effects might actually be useful in producing desired behavior changes. If the distribution of a questionnaire can influence student behaviors in particular situations, as some results of this study indicate, then simulated devices of a similar nature might also influence student behavior significantly. Irrespective of the ethical questions raised by this possibility, any possible useful applications of such effects should be fully investigated. 3.6 The Fishbein Model and Curriculum Development The identification of the relevant variables that enter into the prediction of a group's educational behavior, may give curriculum developers a method for tailoring some of the psychological aspects of course content to the needs of the majority of the class. This might be a more viable approach to 'humanizing' or making a course 'more interest ing' than the indiscriminant addition of attitudinal and value-laden concepts to subject matter. If, as was discussed in section 3.2 of the present chapter, teachers would be willing to match their teaching strategies to the dominant belief systems of the students (as indicated by the multiple regression analysis), then there may be a possibility for 131 developing curricula containing 'contingency programs', i.e., alternative teaching programs that the teacher could use in order to influence one, or any combination of the dominant predictors. The author wishes to stress that he is not advocating this scheme as a substitute for existing programs, but is only pointing to a possible direction for further research. This caution is prompted by the notion that if teachers were to completely tailor the courses of study toward dominant student beliefs and attitudes, students might suffer a lack of personal growth in other important areas. Perhaps Fishbein's model could be investigated by educators, from a point of view of an attitudinal component of one or another teaching models as discussed in a recent book by B. Joyce and M. Weil (47). 4. Recommendations for Further Research 4.1 The Psychological Context Several of the problems encountered in the present application of Fishbein's model to an educational situation pointed to needs for more research in the areas of validation, instrumentation and cross-validation. In the area of validation, the possibility of a motivational variable other than Mc entering into the regression should be investigated, and measures of other 132 variables such as values, traditions, and conditioned behavior might also be considered.''" The validity of Mc or the way in which Mc is entered into the normative term should also be clarified as should the interpretation of the personal normative belief (NB ). P The observation that past studies have used various methods for the assessment of the variables given in the regression equation tends to substantiate Fishbein's (6) claim that instrumentation is not a critical factor in the theory. However, Tittle and Hill (13) suggested the superiority of a Likert-type attitude scale over the Semantic-Differential instrument in predicting behavior. The Behavioral-Differential instrument has been used by Carlson (33), and Ajzen and Fishbein (9) who also have used a percentage of intent ques tion (10, 32) and probability scale (8) for the assessment of BI. Perhaps a comparative study of assessment techniques would clarify the question of whether some measures of B, BI, A ., NB and Mc yield better predictions of behavior than others. Associated with instrumentation is the method used in ^"In a recent paper, Maehr and Sjogren (48) propose the use of Atkinson's (49) theory of achievement motivation as a first step toward a theory of academic motivation. The theory is essentially based on a multiple regression equation having three predictor terms that are used in a linear combination for the prediction of Ta—an active impulse to undertake a partic ular achievement-oriented activity. In educational settings a variable such as 'achievement motivation1 might conceivably function (in a prediction model) in a manner similar to 'moti vation to comply1 (with an experimenter) in a laboratory situation. 133 analyzing the obtained data. Standard multiple regression analysis was said to attenuate multiple correlation values when there are significant intercorrelations among the predictor variables. This technique is therefore primarily suited to regression equations involving independent variables. Canonical correlation analysis, however, takes predictor intercorrelation into account and can also be used to treat multiple criteria (50). The practicability of using B and BI as multiple criteria and accounting for the intercorrelations between the predictor variables by means of canonical correlation analysis should be investigated. Cross-validation of measures derived from the theory over various populations is another area requiring further research. Specifically, more should be done in the areas of anthropology (i.e., cultural differences) and sociology. Of particular interest to educators would be a study involving the application of Fishbein's model over various age levels, from primary grades through university. Finally, a need for some method of estimating the test-retest reliability and stability of the type of instru ment used in this study, was indicated by the lack of such t. information in this and past studies and the number of s-r: assumptions that had to be made concerning the predictive t. validity of the model (see Chapter I, section 6). 134 4.2 The Educational Context The implications of applying Fishbein's model in educational situations have raised some interesting prospects for educational research. One possibility mentioned was to use the Fishbein model rather than solely traditional approaches to attitude measurements for assessment of behavior tendencies in students. Another area requiring considerable research would be behavior modification. What teaching methodologies could be used to modify student attitudes toward an act or to modify normative beliefs in order to possibly effect a change of behavior in educational situations (see section 3.6 of the present chapter)? Can Fishbein's model be used to assess student intentions, beliefs and influential referent groups concern ing troublesome behavioral situations outside the classroom (for example: drug behavior, sex behavior, smoking behavior and various destructive types of behavior)? Fishbein's study on sexual behavior in university students (36) indicates that limited (but potentially useful) results may be obtained even from self reported behavior. The model might eventually provide a basis for counselling students on such problems. Finally, although a previous study by Ajzen and Fishbein (10) investigated measurement effects, the present study appears to be the only application of Fishbein's model in which a significant measurement effect has been detected. Are educational situations more prone to this effect than other situations? Can this effect be reduced by avoiding the direct assessment of BI? Research into the mechanism, interpretation of, and reduction of this effect is strongly recommended. LITERATURE CITED McNarry,L.R., and O'Farrell, S.O. Student attitudes towards science and technology. Physics in Canada, 1971, 27 , 73-77 .. Welch, W.W. High school physics enrollments. Physics  Today, 1967, 20_, 9-13. Welch, W.W., and Walberg, H.J. Are the attitudes of teachers related to declining percentage enrollments in physics? Science Education, 1967, 51_, 436-442. Welch, W.W., and Walberg, H.J. A design for curriculum evaluation. Science Education, 1968, 52_, 10-16. Curzon, F.L., Matthews, P.W., McMillan, J.M., Morris, R.N., and Riggin, M.T. A study of the programs and educational activities of the Physics Department. Unpublished task force report, University of B.C. Physics Department, Vancouver, 1971, personal communication. Fishbein, M. Attitude and the prediction of behavior. In M. Fishbein (Ed.), Readings in attitude theory  and measurement. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1967, 477-492. Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of specific behaviors: A review of research generated by a theoretical model. Unpublished manuscript, University of Illinois, Champaign, 1971, personal communication. Devries, D.L., and Ajzen, I. The relationship of attitudes and normative beliefs to cheating in college. Journal of Social Psychology, 1971, 8_3 , 199-207 . Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. The prediction of behavioral intentions in a choice situation. Journal of Experi mental Social Psychology, 1969, 5_, 400-416 . Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. The prediction of behavior from attitudinal and normative variables. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1970, 6_, 466-487 . 137 11. Cohen, A.R. Attitude change and social influence. New York: Basic Books Inc., 1964, p. 138. 12. DeFleur, M.L., and Westie, F.R. Attitude as a scientific concept. Social Forces, 1963, 4 2 , 17-31. 13. Tittle, C.R., and Hill, R.J. Attitude measurement and prediction of behavior: an evaluation of conditions and measurement techniques. Sociometry, 1967 , 30, 199-213. 14. Wicker, A.W. Attitudes versus actions: the relation ship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects. Journal of Social Issues, 1969, 25, 41-78. 15. Burhans, D.T., Jr. The attitude-behavior discrepancy problem: revisited. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 1971, 57_, 418-428 . 16. Ehrlich, H.J. Attitudes, behavior and the intervening variables, American Sociologist, 1969, 4_, 29-34 . 17. Lewin, K. Field theory in social science. New York: Harper, 1951, 238-240. 18. Dulany, D.E. Awareness, rules and propositional control: A confrontation with S-R behavior theory, In D. Horton and T. Dixon (Eds.), Verbal behavior  and S-R behavior theory. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1968, 340-387. 19. Fishbein, M. The prediction of behaviors from attitud inal variables. A preliminary draft of a paper to appear in K.K. Sereno and CD. Mortensen (Eds.), Advances in communications research, New York: Harper & Row, 197 2. Permission to quote secured. 20. Fishbein, M., Ajzen, I., Landy, E., and Anderson, L.R. Attitudinal variables and behavior: Three empirical studies and a theoretical reanalysis. Technical Report No. 70-9, Seattle: University of Washington, 1970. (Available in micro-fiche from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA. 22151, Accession No. AD 715369). 21. DeFleur, M.L., and Westie, F.R. Verbal attitudes and overt acts: An experiment on the salience of attitudes. American Sociological Review, 1958, 23, 667-673 . 138 22. Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., and Bertram, B.M. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classifica tion of educational goals—Handbook II: Affective  domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc. ~, 1964 , p. 140. 23. Mager, R.F. Developing attitude toward learning. Palo Alto, Calif.: Fearon Publishers, 1968. 24. Moore, R.W., and Sutman, F.X. The development, field test and validation of an inventory of scientific attitudes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1970, 7, 85-94. 25. Blackwood, P.E. Science teaching in the elementary school: A survey of practices. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1965, 3_, 177-197 . 26. Dunfee, M. Elementary school science: A guide to current research. Washington, D.C: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, NEA, 1967, p. 1. 27. Illinois Curriculum Program. Strengthening science teaching in elementary schools. Springfield, Illinois: Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1960, p. 13. 28. Morrison, P. Experimenters in the Schoolroom, ESI Quarterly Report, Winter-Spring 1964, 63-67. (Published by Education Services Incorporated, Watertown, Massachusetts). 29. Andersen, H.O. Developing favorable attitudes toward science. The Science Teacher. Nov. 1971, 38, 41-45. 30. Rothman, A.I. Responses to science concepts on a Semantic Differential instrument and achievement in freshman Physics and Chemistry. Journal of Research  in Science Teaching, 1967-68, 5_, 168-173 . 31. Khan, S.B. Affective correlates of academic achievement, Journal of Educational Psychology, 1969 , 6_0, 216-221. 32. Ajzen, I. Attitudinal vs. normative messages: An investigation of the differential effects of persuasive communications on behavior. Sociometry, 1971, 34, 263-280. 139 33. Carlson, A.R. The relationship between a behavioral intention, attitude toward the behavior, and normative beliefs about the behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Champaign, 1968, 34. Gerard, H.B. Deviation, conformity, and commitment. In I.D. Steiner, and M. Fishbein (Eds.), Current  studies in social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965, 263-277. 35. Darroch, R.K. Attitudinal variables and perceived group norms as predictors of behavioral intentions and behavior in the signing of photographic releases. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, 1971. Cited in reference (7). 36. Fishbein, M. Sexual behavior and propositional control, 1966. A study cited in reference (7). 37. Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. Attitudes and normative beliefs as factors influencing intentions in hypothetical situations involving risk. Cited in reference (7) . 38. Hornik, J.A. Two approaches to individual differences in cooperative behavior in an expanded Prisoner's Dilemma game. Unpublished Master's level paper, University of Illinois, 1970. Cited in reference (7), 39. Rapoport, H. and Chammah, A.M. Prisoner's Dilemma: A Study on conflict and cooperation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965. 40. Osgood, C.E., Suci, G.J., and Tannenbaum, P.H. The measurement of meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957. 41. Edwards, A.L. Techniques of attitude scale construction, New York: Appleton, Century, Crofts, 1957, p. 167. 42. Page, G.G. A study of student attitude toward two contrasting Physics laboratory designs. Unpublished Master's thesis, University of B.C., 1968. 43. Triandis, H.C. Exploratory factor analyses of the behavioral component of social attitudes. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1964, 68, 420-4~30 . 140 Bjerring, J.H., and Seagreaves, P. UBC TRIP Triangular regression package. Program manual by the Computing Centre, University of B.C., 1972. University of B.C. Computing Centre, G. Starkey (im-plementor), UBC BMD02R Stepwise Regression. Implemented from the UCLA BMD Package. Garrett, H.E. Statistics in psychology and education. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1966. Joyce, B., and Weil, M. Models of teaching. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972. Maehr, M.L., and Sjogren, D.D. Atkinson's theory of achievement motivation: first step toward a theory of academic motivation? Review of Educational  Research, 1971, 41, 143-161. Atkinson, J.W. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review, 1957, 64_, 359-373 . Wonnacott, T.H., and Wonnacott, R.J. Introductory  statistics. New York: John Wiley, 1969. APPENDIX A PILOT STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE ON REFERENT GROUPS 142 (your name is not required) Listed below are some people or groups whose opinions you might feel are important for you to consider when it comes to making decisions about participating in ed u c ati onal_ act i vi t i es_ a part, from coursev/orkc For exampler some activities may involve your going to an educational lunch-hour movie«.. or your possible participation in an environment conservation elubc. etc, DIRECTIONS; Please Indicate the importance of the opinions of the following persons or groupsf by circling the number corresponding to the particular degree of importance that you feel is appropriate for each person or groupo Person or Group Very Important Un- Insigni= Important Neutral or important ficanfc Undecided • I 2 3 k 5 1- lour Jfcrents 12 3 4 2 Your Relatives 1 2 3 4 5 3- Tour beat friend(s) 12 3 45 4 Tour lecturer(s) 12 3 4 5 5 Yourself 12 3 4 5 6 Majority of class members 1 2 3 4 5 7? Society in general 12 3 4 5 8, Scientific community 1 2 3 4 5 9- University community 12 3 4 5 10. Religious group or church 1 2 3 4 5 11,. Club members 1 2 3 4 5 12« Other (specify 1 2 3 4 5 143 APPENDIX B PERCENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO "IMPORTANT" AND "VERY IMPORTANT" CATEGORIES FOR VARIOUS REFERENTS, FOR TWO SETS OF STUDENTS PRELIMINARY DATA PERCENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE TO "IMPORTANT" AND "VERY IMPORTANT" CATEGORIES FOR VARIOUS REFERENTS, FOR TWO SETS OF STUDENTS a Referent % Response Educ. 3 21 Students (N = 64) % Response PH. 115 Students (N = 50) Yourself 100 100 Your best friend(s) 62 66 Your lecturer(s) 39 46 Your parents 39 54 Religious group or church 25 16 Majority of class members 22 20 Society in general 16 28 Club members 11 30 Scientific community 9 46 University community 9 32 Relatives 6 16 Others (combined) 8 0 aThe Spearman rank correlation (corrected for ties) between the two sets of student responses was found to be 0.882 (p < .001) APPENDIX C RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE Part A Follow-up Activity No. 1 To attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "Environment in the  Balance" on Friday, February 11 at 12:30 P.M. in the Kebb Theatre, this British colour film presents an effective all-round study of the impact of technology on the environment. Please indicate your thoughts about seeing this movie: 1. I intend to see this movie only if I have nothing else to do. Strongly agreemrl Agree—2 Undecided 3, Disagree Strongly disagree 5 2.1 intend to see this movie. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided 3 Disagree J± Strongly disagree 5 3. I intend to see this movie only if I have time. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 4. My closest friends would expect me to see the movie. Highly likely 1 Likely _2 Undecided^ UnlikelyHighly unlikely 5 5. My parents would expect me to see the movie. Highly likelyJL Likely_J Undecided^ UnlikelyJ^ Highly unlikely 5 6. The majority of the class would expect me to see the movie. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided__2 % Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 7. Dr. Phelps would expect me to see the movie. Highly likely__l Likely 2 Undecided_J, Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 8„ My religious group would expect me to see the movie. Highly likely__l Likely_2 Undecided^J UnlikelyJ^ Highly unlikely 5 9. I would expect myself to see the movie. Highly likelyJL Likely_j2 Undecided_J Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 10. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my closest friends expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 11. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J3 . Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 12. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think the majority of the class expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_J Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 13. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do. Strongly agree_l AgreeJ^ Undecided_J DisagreeStrongly disagree 5 14. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I think my religious group expects me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided_J Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 15. Concerning my seeing the movie, I want to do what I would expect myself to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided^ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 -3- 148 16. Attending this movie would be a good thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 17. Attending this movie would be a boring thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 18. Attending this movie would be a useful thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 19. Attending this movie would be a bad thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_J2 Undecided J3 . Disagree_Jj. Strongly disagree 5 20. Attending this movie would be a pleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree_J^ Undecided "} Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 21. Attending this movie would be a useless thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 2 2. Attending this movie would be an interesting thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree^j2 Undecidedi J3. Disagree 4, Strongly disagree 5 23. Attending this movie would be an unpleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2i Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 Part B Follow-up Activity No. 2 . To sign up to receive information about a local pollution sampling experiment. You will also receive information on how you may participate in the experiment if you wish. Sign the list on the front counter of the Physics Office (Hennings 323) by Friday, Feb. 11, in order to receive this information (no obli gation to actually participate). Please indicate your thoughts about signing up to receive information about this experiment: 2 4. I intend to sign up to receive this information only if I have time. Strongly agree__l Agree__2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 25. I intend to sign up to receive this information. Strongly agree_l Agree__2 Undecided 3, Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 26. My closest friends would expect me to sign up for this information, Highly likely 1 Likely__2 Undecided^ Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 27. My parents would expect me to sign up for this information. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided_J Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 28. The majority of the class would expect me to sign up for this in formation. Highly likelyJL Likely 2 Undecided_2 UnlikelyJi Highly unlikely 5 29. Dr. Phelps would expect me to sign up for this information. Highly likelyJL Likely_2 Undecided_J Unlikelyjj. Highly unlikely 5 -4- 14 9 30. My religious group would expect me to sign up for this information. Highly likely 1 Likely_2 Undecided^ UnlikelyJ± Highly unlikely 5 31. I would expect myself to sign up for this information. Highly likelyJL Likely_2 Undecided_3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 32. Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think my closest friends expect me to do. Strongly agree__1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 DisagreeStrongly disagree 5, 33. Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided } Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 4. Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think the majority of the class expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 35. Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do." Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 36. Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do what I think my religious group would expect me to do; Strongly agree^l Agree _2 Undecided__J3 Disagree_Jj. Strongly disagree_J>__ 37. Concerning signing up to receive this information, I want to do v/hat I would oxpect myself to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_3 Disagree Strongly disagree 5 3;3. Signing up for this information about the pollution sampling experi ment would be a good thing for me to- do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided^ DisagreeStrongly disagree 5 3!9. Signing up for this information would be a useful thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided_J Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 40. Signing up for this information would be a bad thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided_J Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 41. Signing up for this information would be a pleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided_J5 Disagree__4 Strongly disagree_5_ 42. Signing up for this information would be a useless thing for me to do. Strongly agree__l Agree_2 Undecided 3 DisagreeJ% Strongly disagree 5 43. Signing up for this information would be an unpleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree_2 Undecided_J Disagree^- Strongly disagree 5 -5- 150 Part G Follow-up Activity Mo. 3 To pick up a set of information materials and reading list on Pollution and Technology. These materials may be picked up (one set per student) from Hebb 11 (the Physics Lab. Office) up to Friday} February 11. Please indicate your thoughts about picking up this set of Pollution information materials: 44. I intend to pick up this set of Pollution information materials only if I have time. . -Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 45. I intend to pick up this set of Pollution information materials. Strongly agree 1 Agree__2 Undecided_J3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 46. My closest friends would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 47. My parents would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 48. The majority of the class would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 49. Dr. Phelps would expect me to pick up this set of Pollution infor mation materials. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided_3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 50. My religious group would expect me to pick up this set of materials. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely 4 Highly unlikely 5 51. I would expect myself to pick up this set of materials. Highly likely 1 Likely 2 Undecided 3 Unlikely^ Highly unlikely 5 52. Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think my closest friends expect me to do. " Strongly agree_l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5 3. Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think my parents would expect me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5 4. Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think the majority of the class expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_j2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree '5 55. Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think Dr. Phelps expects me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree 5 56. Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I think my religious group would expect me to do. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ -6-5 7. Concerning picking up this set of materials, I want to do what I expect myself to do. -Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4 Strongly disagree 5 53. Picking up this set of Pollution information materials would be a good thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4 Strongly disagree 5 5 9. Picking up this set of materials would be a useful thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 60. Picking up this set of materials would be a bad thing for me to do. Strongly agree_l Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree^ Strongly disagree^ 61. Picking up this set of materials would be a pleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree___l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 62. Picking up this set of materials would be a useless thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided J> Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 63. Picking up this set of materials would be an unpleasant thing for me to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided^JS Disagree 4 Strongly disagree $ Part D Follow-up Activity No. 4 To attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "The Time of Man" on Wed., Feb. 16 at 12:30 P.M. in the Hebb Theatre. This film examines man's relationship with his environment, where he is headed - and why. Please indicate your thoughts about seeing this movie: 64. I intend to see this movie only if I" have nothing else to do. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 S5 . I intend to see this movie. Strongly agree_l Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ Part E Follow-up Activity No. 5 To contact Dr. Phelps (Civil Engineering Rm. 444) in order to obtain information about assisting the summer landfill leaching experiment, (contact Dr. Phelps before the end of February). Please indicate your thoughts about this activity: 66. I intend to contact Dr. Phelps for information concerning this summer project. Strongly agree_l Agree_2 Undecided^ Disagree^ Strongly disagree^ HA¥E YOU GIVEN YOUR NAME AND IDENTIFICATION NUMBER CORRECTLY AT THE TOP OF THE ANSWER SHEET? APPENDIX D RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES TO THE RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE 153 NOTE. 1. 8EHAVI OR IS CODED IN THE LAST 5 RESPONSES IN EACH CASE. l=6EHAVIOR NOT PERFORMED, 5=REHAVlOR WAS PERFORMED. 2. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSED FOR SUMMATION IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 2, 4-16118,20,2 5-39,41,45-59,61 ,65,66. STUDENT NUMBER 1567718 1755719 2236719 2439719 2442713 2459717 2465714 2466712 2498715 2502714 2515716 2532711 2535714 2541712 2580710 RESPONSES TO ITEMS 3321 115 3 333313 3 3 334 34344322251 11115133333333311151 311121333333343211111 414121211111115453444442222121 21333352433330000000 0C0CC00CCCCCC0C011111 315111511555335515511155111151 11111535515131224411 143443333244423111111 222121532451335434444443212143 15511355554332311153 155113533333313111111 244222 43422 2 2 34 44444444442 2243 42 2 2 232444 4 4 4442 224 3 42 2 22344444 4424251151 2 322 22 4243 344244424 4444 3 322 242 32 2 3 3244 3434 33 3 2 2242 32 3 3 324444343153111 11 543243433111115454545451433333 41111154453532333333 311111444535555311151 5 32 244404221105 554442445332220 32 2220444442413222 30 32222044443244 3411151 3441523131213244244242 32 222232 21213253442423322232 31223134422223331 1151 4441111141111144445454 55211121 22211153432434412121 522121544545544151511 44 22225 141211155 54 54 5553211141 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719 444 142434111135434 4 34443311153 411113544434344 12153 411111444434454351511 2684 710 24 343 344 5214 54 5 534 3 2 35425 51355 53125455554444541354 55 24 54 55554431545111 5 27 30711 242331414111114434434332433143 41111144443432433141 411111444434324111111 2746 717 551322535222225454555551322243 32 2 24 2 53343 3424 2224 3 42 22 3244453 550C051151 27 57 714 3 32 24355434143 55244132 313332 54 32332335542241322253 324223344224312111111 2791713 13112153414220C3C3243343233111 11422303304334113143 314223444434313111111 2796712 444111214211215444545455211121 22211153432434412121 522121544545544 1515 11 28 03716 2 32 3 334 32444444 3 334 344 32 322243 344 3444 334 3432 3 2 3243 34 4244433434 324 351151 28 30719 44 24334544 4 444 5 4 54 4454 52 5 5 5444 55 54545 5454454 544444 444344554544 54 4551151 2831717 244222314222224434434332322232 32222 243433443 32 22 32 422222444334323251111 28 37714 34311151411 1 11 5545434330200020 CCOOOOOOOOCCCOCCCOCO CO0000000000044011 111 2840718 444124534111115434434432211151 11122255553542211151 111111555535344111151 28 59718 22314253222223 53243 222 22 3 5342 3 5 5 245342424242 3 54444 444442222421115511111 28 77710 4423 3 3434121135433 334433322243 31211354443432322143 4 12113544434 324311111 28 80714 33212151311 1115445545454111 151 11111153342325111151 111111534322244211111 2 8 85713 433222222222224434443442322222 32 2 2 2244443332 32 2222 222222442333343211111 2892 719 33411155 243 343 54433444 413242 53 43 3 34 3444343 3242 3154 43 3 353344444443311111. 290 2716 3413 3 3513333333 4 44 444443 33 33 33 33333333443330COC000 CGOCOOOOOOOCOOOOll 111 2911717 342433534444445434434442444454 44445444444442444444 4444 4444444442 3 555 155 2920718 4543 32335 2 3 332 5 5 5544444 243 33 33 43 33 3 344443 3 32 4CC000 CCOCC0000000024355511 2951713 454443335221225444 5444 54433333 42 22 2 2 5445 34444 33333 4222 22 544434444311111 29 52711 34 2 34 33 3424 34 3 5 43 34 3 33 33 322233 32 323 34 333 3 3 334 34 343 42 32 33444434424315111 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3222235332 535353322233 32222352151555111133 111133511221433311111 3 203718 44445444411 1114444545454444444 51 11114444 4454544444 5111115445355555111U 3236718 2 32 24 3513222 22 3 3 3333 3 3 34234351 32222143333332323351 322222433333333211151 3238714 353 3415451221154234 24 3 22 323151 311333333333 U311152 311333133333324511111 3240710 34 323233412121544444444 3222122 2121324 344344 32222 2 2 222222444434432211111 3241718444111114111114333434332411111 31111143333442411111 4111 11433434444 31 1151 3248713 233222314111215 3 333333 33 32 2222 3222224333333 3322222 422222433333333311111 3271715 44 22 2 243422 2435 343444 34 242 2 243 22224343242424422243 422223444424244251551 32 75 716 24?12152 4121115 4 344 354 42311121 31111144343432311131 311111442434344411151 3277712 24 23534242233333333333324453 33 3 3 33 33 33 3 33 3 30 2543 33 33333333333 33445 11111 3289 717 3421223342 3332 43 33 3 33433324243 22 32 2 2444324 32 3 2 22 33 333333333333333311 1 11 3294717 2412 32 534 222 3344224 35444224243 22222344443430CC0000 O0 00OOOOO0C0CO0O11151 3 34 2714 242132 5331111144444343 33311353 31111144443433311353 311111444432333311151 34 97 716 1143 32 43422442 3 443 3422 32 3 53234 42334 5 24 34 4 4 42333342 243420444232324311111 3608 718 42 42 2 22242 2 222 4444444442422 222 42 22 2254444242 32 22 22 221 1215444244335111 11 3617719 22 31224221121153333 3 3334111131 11111153333332411441 111111544545532211111 3666716 43411141411122 54445 34444 51113 3 51212254453452311100 411122444515555411151 3694 718 33 32 22422222224 3 333 3 33 30332224 23222224333333432224 23222224333333 32 11151 37C5 712 5421214141111154444 344 43422121 41111154443443422121 411111534434455411151 3 74 0719 145232434121235544545545512 333 51222255555551511111 51 1111555555545411511 375 3712 3 3 32 32 44324 3 3 44 4 444 344 32 334344 3 34 344444434 32 3 34344 4343444444 34332311111 3 769718 42 2 234535122 22 5 554425542433343 42222244443444233343 212222233423425211111 3797719 4423335 34111113535535332533 3 53 41111125543532533353 311111255535325451151 38 76711 34 2433 5342 21224544441430CCC000 CCCC0OOOOOCOCO0GCOOO CC0CCOOOOOCOO44 5 1 1 111 3894714 232333433222234444444442333333 22 22234444444 3 32 344 3 323343454444432311111 3990710 44 2333334111114434433 342 32 2241 31111143333334422241 41114442 2443444351111 4130712 342443434433433334344430233343 34 43 3 343204 4 23 3 33242 432433334242342311111 4134714 324122412443235434433333333353 33332 354444343 322343 2 3 323 3444434444 2 11 151 5015714 544141304 LI 130 4534535344411120 211 1204544 34 4 4411110 411120444434 54 4411 111 5214697 44 33 34524333 334 4 343434 3 2333343 333 33334433 3 32 33 3 343 33333344434 3 3 34351151 5 8 50714 232242433122225434333332324243 32 22 2244333 332 3 24243 322222443333323111111 58 7 7717 421123423111114544434344 321251 3111115334333 000 00 00 C0 0000OOO0C0CCCO51151 5964713 3422212141112144344 324 34422121 412121444434424 22121 4221214444344 3 34 55 551 5974712 2 323324231211154355 34442 3432 32 33212 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6 509715 3 33111311122214 31342 222 3211131 11112133342323211131 122222333423232211111 6511711 3333335333 3 31135255251233343 33 32121335554543335353 312213355545432151111 6 594717 332222504122404 44454544 2 32 2250 42 2 2 3054454 55 2 32 32 5 0 423230555555523211111 6606719 33 330000242 3541421422343333334 3 321132443 3 333444222 22 3 3222 34334 30 0051151 676 8 717 44244 304422 2 224 4444442 2 2444454 444 1124444334343 4353 422222444444444351151 6774715 332432523142 4224 444 344 344444 52 4343424444 3443444452 4443424444 34434311111 6784714 154311515111115551555551511151 51111155555551511151 511111555555555511111 6794713 232 2224342222343 33 33 3343 322243 42 22 2344333332422243 422 2244343 33334211111 6797716 242 2 545443 5 34 34 4 444 344 4 2434 343 434 24 33444 34 33 4 34343 434343444434 344 355151 68 08711 2342224341222344545 35442423243 41222344453532311143 4010010000C0 00 0011111 6819718 4441115151111154545 35354411151 51111153334334411151 511111543333344251111 6848717 44334343444343 34253 533224 3 3244 42 4 3 3543 32 32034242 33 542443443222214311111 6900716 332131554111115 3444244 44313155 4111 1144443232311 155 311111444434323211111 7141716 141411314111515445545442411111 4111 1144444441411131 411111544444414511111 7424716 2 32 3 33 5 342424244 343 3 34 31322242 32324243433332333343 333242444433323311 111 7834716 4434555354444544 4 4 444442444 54 3 44444444444443444443 44 444 4445444434 551151 7917719 33222242 32242244 444444 433224 42 32222 14444444332224 I 32222144444443 3311111 EXECUTION TERMINATED 159 SSIG $ APPENDIX E PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE Physics 11$ Reassessment of Student Opinions About the Course A Note to the Student: The purpose of this questionnaire is to see whether or not your opinions about the course have changed since the first term. Please forgive the intrusion, but there really is no other way for us to obtain a valid estimation of your opinions. As before, your responses to this ques tionnaire will in no way count toward or affect any marks for the course. By indicating your honest response to each statement, you will be helping us to decide whether or not our efforts in modifying the course have been in the right direction. Directions: USE ONLY PENCIL 1. Please PRINT your name and registration number (seven digits) on the PRINTED ANSWER SHEET. Give your registration number both in numerical form and by blackening the appropriate spaces. 2. Indicate your response to each statement by blackening the appropriate spaces on the PRINTED ANSWER SHEET. Blacken only ONE of the five small-numbered spaces indicated for each statement. 3. When you have finished, hand in this booklet and your answer sheet. Place your completed answer sheet on the front counter, under the alphabetic letter correspond ing to the first letter of your surname. ft!PTEt Begin at question number 29 on the printed answer sheet and leave numbers 1 to 28 blank. I - 7HY3IC3 IN GENERAL - 6 -162 DO NG? WRITE IN THIS BOOKLET. Use the answer sheet. 2'9. Physics is something everyone should know something about. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 0. Physics is worthless. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4. Strongly disagree 5 31. Physics is a dehumanizing subject. . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4. Strongly disagree 5 3^. Physics is enjoyable. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 3. Physics is a fascinating subject. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 34. Physics is far too difficult for most students. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree, 4-., Strongly disagree 5 35. Physics is intellectually stimulating. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 36. Fhysics is boring. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 7. Physics is related to everyday things. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 JPhysics is unrelated to problems that really matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5. II PHYSICS 115 COURSE 39'. Physics 115 is more interesting than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 40'. Physics 115 is nothing more than a review of Physics 12. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 41. Fhysics 115 is a challenging course. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 42. Physics 115 is irrelevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 43. Fhysics 115 is a boring course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 44. Pbvsics 115 is more worthwhile than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agrec__2_ Undecided_2__ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 45;. Physics 115 is relevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagreeJL. - 7 -' 163 .46 Physics 115 should only be taken by students who are interested in becoming physicists. 1 Strongly agree__l^ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 47. Fhysics 115 is too difficult for most students. Strongly agree^l^ Agree 2 _ Undecided 3n Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4& Physics 115 is frustrating because students do not know what is expected of them. strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, T Disa^ee^A Strongly disagree 5\ i - 0 U> \ Physics 115 is a valuable course Strongly agree, 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree.5 III - INSTRUCTION IN LECTURES 50. Lectures should only be given by instructors who are first-rate physicists. Strongly agree^l_ Agree. 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 55 , The niethod of teaching used in lectures does not allow for enoush student participation to suit me. Strongly agree 1 agree, 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 52., Lectures should include more up-to-date teaching techniques. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J_ 5> . Instruction in lectures helps to make the important ideas clear to me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2. Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5Jf , Instruction in lectures is of great help to me in solving physics problems. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4_ Strongly disagreeJL. 55,. Instruction in lectures is too fast. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2, Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J_ 5*6. Instruction in class is boring. Strongly agree 1_ A£Tee 2 Undecided. 3. Disagree 4 Strongly disagree^. 57 . Instruction in lectures encourages students to express their own viewpoints. Strongly agree!. Agree 2 Undecided_3_ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5__ 58 . Instruction in class should be more individualized. Strongly agree, 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 59 . Instruction in lectures is ~ood. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J_ - 3 _ TV - LECTURER 164 60. The lecturer knows his subject vie 11. otrongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 61. The lecturer's explanations are unclear. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 62. The lecturer has the ability to hold the interest of the class. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 63. The lecturer is one of the Lest things about the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 64. The lecturer is inconsiderate toward students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 65. The lecturer's pace is too fast. Strongly agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 66. The lecturer reviews course material adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 67. The lecturer has a rigid teaching style. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 ^B. The lecturer acts a.- if teaching is a chore. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 69. The lecturer makes me dislike physics. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecldsd 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 V_ - VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE COURSE 7P. The textbook is easy to understand. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided- 3r Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 , 71. The textbook is of little value in the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 72. The textbook does not explain things adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3_. Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 73. The textbook is well written. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 74. The subject matter in the course is well organized. Strongly agres 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J5_ 75. The subject matter of the course is excellent. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 76. The subject matter of the course should be more closely related to things that really matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 - 9 - 165 77. The subject matter of the course is too difficult for me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Disagree. 4 Strongly disagree 2_ 78. The subject matter of the course is a valuable asset to my educaticn. Strongly agree lrr Agree 2_ Undecided__J_ Disagree 4r Strongly disagree^ _ 79. The outside readings in the course are too difficult for me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly di3agree_J_ 60. The assignments are reasonable in length. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, DisagreeJL*_ Strongly disagree_J>_ 31 .| The assignments are too difficult for ir.e.. Strongly agree 1 Agree Z _ Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J>_ S2.. xhe assignments should deal with more practical problems -Strongly agree 1 Agree 2. Undecided 3 Discgree_4_ Strongly disagree^ $3 . The assignments are a worthwhile part of the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecidcl_JI__ Disagrse_J^ Strongly disa^ree^T^ 34/. Outside readings in the course should ba increased. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undec ided<_3_ Disa^rae^J^ Strcng3.y disagree J_ VI EXAMINATIONS 35'. The exams provide a good learning experience. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J_ Disa^reeJ^ Strongly disagraej?.. 26 . The exams emphasise marks too njuch. Strongly agree_l__ Agree 2 Undecided^, PiSf-grep ^ Strongly dis2gvse_J>_ 27 . Exams are too long to complete on titno. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 I5is2gr-?e_4_ Strongly disagree.^. •.SS.. The exams cover a fair sample of the material studied in the course, i, Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3. Dis&grse_A_Stro:\gly disagree_j;_ ,S9.. The exams are generally very poor. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided^ Disagree_4_ Strongly disagreej>„ •9G",. The exams are marked fairly. Strongly agreed Agree 2 Ui'.decided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree^ 91' , The examinations are too difficult. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 DisagreeJ^ Strongly disagree_5_ 92.. The exams stress neroorization too much. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Sisagrag 4 Strongly disagrceJJ_^ 93, The examinations really make me think. Strongly agree I Agree 2 Undecided 3. risa.^ree 4 Strongly disagree^. 94 . Exams are not given often enough. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree^ r. 166 APPENDIX F BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS RECEIVING THE PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS - PLACEBO QUESTIONNAIRE STUDENT BEHAVIOUR RESPONSE NUMBER ACT1 ACT2 ACT 3 ACT4 ACT5 5948716 0 0 0 0 0 2475713 0 0 0 0 0 7395718 0 0 0 0 0 2476711 0 0 0 0 0 2485712 1 0 c 1 1 2486710 0 0 0 0 0 2938710 0 0 0 0 0 2496719 0 0 0 0 0 3736717 0 0 0 0 0 2497717 I 0 0 I 0 6871719 1 0 0 0 0 2512713 0 0 0 0 0 2514719 0 0 0 0 0 3409703 0 0 0 0 0 2582716 0 0 0 0 0 6781710 1 0 0 0 0 7433717 0 0 0 0 0 5231717 0 0 0 0 0 2986719 1 0 0 1 1 6253719 0 0 0 0 0 7737711 1 0 c 1 0 3013711 0 0 0 0 0 7069719 0 0 0 1 0 6560718 0 0 0 0 0 3026713 0 0 0 0 0 6685713 0 0 0 0 0 7631716 0 1 0 0 0 2671717 0 0 0 0 0 6553705 0 0 0 0 0 6802714 0 0 0 0 0 6809719 0 0 0 0 0 2702710 0 0 0 1 0 3085719 0 0 0 0 0 3089711 1 0 0 1 0 3102712 0 0 0 0 0 3112711 0 0 0 0 0 2756716 0 0 0 0 0 6324718 0 0 0 0 0 3122710 0 0 0 1 0 3 134715 0 0 0 0 0 277371 1 1 1 1 0 0 6830715 0 0 0 0 0 2779718 0 0 0 0 0 2807717 0 0 0 1 0 3824711 0 0 > 0 0 0 3172715 1 0 0 1 0 2838712 0 0 1 0 0 2846715 0 0 0 0 0 6348718 0 c 0 0 0 1707710 0 0 0 0 0 5078704 0 0 0 0 0 6949715 0 0 0 1 I 3200714 0 0 0 0 0 6090716 1 0 0 0 0 6611719 0 0 0 0 0 3220712 1 0 0 0 0 7227713 1 0 0 1 I 167 168 APPENDIX 6 LIST OF FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES Voluntary Follow-up Activities for the Bl*ck of Lectures on 169 "THE PHYSICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT" 1. You may attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "Environment in the B alance" on Friday, February 11 at 12:30 P.M. in the Hebb Theatre. This British colour film presents an effective all-round study of the impact of technology on the environment. It vividly documents how geological, topographical, and social development have helped to shape the environment, and discusses the problems of industrial expansion, population growth and pollution. 2« You may sign up to receive information about a local pollution sam pling experiment and how you may participate in it if you wish. This is an experimental project which will be collecting data on particular pollutants over the entire Greater Vancouver region. This information Will be used in a major study involving U.B.C., the City of Vancouver, the Greater Vancouver Regional District? the Provincial Government and the Federal Government. If you are in terested in receiving information about this project, please sign the list on the front counter of the Physics Office (Hennings 323/325) by Friday, February 11. Signing this list does not obligate you . to participate in the project; you will receive information about the project and how you may participate in it if you wish. 3» You may pick up an assortment of information material and list of supplementary readings on Pollution and Technology. This information material may be picked up (one set per student; ) from Hebb 11 (the Physics Lab. Office) up to Friday, February 11. 4* You may attend a free lunch-hour movie entitled "The Time of Man" on Wednesday, February 16 at 12:30 P.M. sharp 1 in the Hebb Theatre." This is a feature length (50 min.) CBS colour documentary,"produced in cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History. It examines man's relationship with his environment, where he is headed— and why. "The Time of Man" is a brilliant exposition of the basic meaning of the word "environment". By examining the relationships of various animal species to their environments, and examining the cultures of primitive tribes, leading authorities reconstruct milliona of years of evolution. Man may well learn to control his future by studying his past. For example: * Dr. Margaret Mead revisits her Manus friends * Dr. Jane Goodall discusses chimpanzee behavior * Dr. C. Lavett Smith talks about fish communities * Dr. Ray Capman Andrews is shown discovering dinosaur eggs * Dr. Malcolm McKenna relates the stories of ants and dinosaurs * Dr. Harry Shapiro studies the evolution of populations * Dr. Colin Turnbull visits the pygmies and the Ik. The Time of Man's message is simple and powerful - if man's time on earth is to be endless, he must maintain the environment that sustains him. 5. You may obtain information about assisting some professors in doing research on the leaching of landfills (dumps). This possible summer job involves handling and sorting municipal solid waste (garbage, etc) and placing it in storage tanks. If interested, contact D. Phelps, Room kMfr, Civil Engineering Building sometime between now and the end of "February. APPENDIX H ACTIVITY 1 ATTENDANCE SURVEY TICKET Environment in the Balance Circle the Physics c ourse you are taking Lecture Section Name Registration number (7 digits) P 105 P 110 P 115 P 120 Other (specify) APPENDIX I ACTIVITIES CHECK-LIST 173 Physics 115 Activities Check-list NAME REGISTR. NO. Please check off each of the follow-up activities that you have participated in, so far. Do not check off those that you haven't participated in, even if you intend to do so in the near future. We just want to know the extent of your use of these activities up to this date. [ I 1. Saw the lunch-hour movie "Environment in the 1—1 Balance" on Friday, Feb. 11. I I2. Signed up (in Physics Office) to receive 1—1 information about the local pollution sampling experiment. I j 3. Picked up the assortment of information material '—' and list of readings (from Physics Lab Office, Hebb 11). j | 4. Saw the lunch-hour movie "The Time of Man" '—' yesterday (V/ed., Feb. 16). I I 5. Contacted D. Phelps to find out about assisting '—' a research team studying leaching of landfills. At the end of this lecture, please leave this check list on the front counter, under the alphabetic letter corresponding to the first letter of your surname. APPENDIX J PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE 175 Ph 115 "VALUATION STUDY Purpose: The purpose of this evaluation is • to improve the Ph 115 course. You, as a student, can be of great help by indicating how you really feel about various aspects of the course. This booklet contains statements of beliefs some students have expressed about the course. We would like to know to what extent you agree or disagree with these statements. This is not a test. The answers you give will-not be used in any way to determine your mark for this or any other course. The reason for asking you to give your registration, number is that the statistical analysis of the data requires your registration number for various sorting procedures. Mote: Your frank and honest answer to each question will help to improve this course. Careless or dishonest answers  r.av have the opposite effect! TURN TC NEXT FAGE -2 176 DIRECTIONS USE ONLY PENCIL On the printed answer sheet: a. Fill in all spaces on the top line. On line 2, opposite SCHOOL, print the name of the high school last attended. Opposite CITY, print the name of the city and province (abbreviate) in which the high school last attended was located. b. Leave the spaces for GRADE OR CLASS. INSTRUCTOR. NAME OF TEST and PAR1? (lines 2 and 3) blank. • Give your identification number (student registration number) bdtii in numerical form (in the boxes below the red arrow) and by blackening the appropriate spaces. Your identification number consists of digits three to nine of the number at the top of vour library/  AKS card (i.e.Y^the group of seven digits). Example: 50 -(1234560)- 2 The identification number is 1234560. The number on the printed answer sheet would be indicated as shown below: g 3 5 6 O .A. .A. .A~ .A. .A, o :ICE •A. t M TIT! C AT I ON NUMBER A.. .A. .A. .A. .A. 4 t A. A. _? _T_ A. f, 7 A. A. A. A. .A. A, .A. A.. • • c. Opposite the number cn the printed answer sheet that corresponds to the item number in the questionnaire, BLACKEN one of the small-numbered answer spaces. Note that the items and answer spaces are numbered horizontally across the printed answer sheet. -3-CGUR.SE INFORMATION 177 Slacken one space for each of the following itens, 1. ?h 115 lecture section Br. Livesey ( i>ec. 1) (1) Dr. McMillan (2) 2. Year of high school graduation 1971 (1) " 1970 (2) 1969 (3) . 1963 (4) none of these (5) 3. Phvsics 12 final mark A '(36-100/) (1) 3 (72-35/) (2) 3+(65-71;;) (3) G or C~(50-64'/;) none of these (5_) 4. Biol^ev 12 final nark A (36-100;.') (1) B (72-35/) (2) 3+(65-7l/) (3) C or G"(50-64;.') (4) none of these "(5) 5. Chemistry 12 final nark A (36-1000) (1) B (72-55/) (2) C+(65-7l/) (3) C or C"(50-64/)(4) none of these (5/ 6. Mathematics 12 final nark A (56-100/) (1) B(72-55/) (2) G+(65-7l/) (3) C or G"(50-64/)(4) none of these (5) 7. Bow long did you take to complete Physics 12? (Ghoose the answer which best describes how Ion?- you to^k. t» -c-^fnple^ the course) 1 semester (1) li- semesters [2] 2 semesters.. (2) 3 semesters (4) one school year (non-senester system) (5_) £5 . ..ntended coursework in Mhv-sics honors in physics (1) major in physics (2) more than one course ' in physics (3.) Ph~ 115 only (4) undeciHed (5_) Items 9-12 contain tutorial -roup numbers. Blacken the one space which corresponds to yjDur_ tjutoriaJL yrp\ip_jnuriber (lab group number) . i Be_ave all pt_her soace_s blank. 9. Tutorial -roup number 30 (1) 31 (2) 32 (3) 33 (4) 34 (5) 10. Tutorial ~rour> number 35 (1) 36 "(2) 37 (}) 33 (4) 39 (5_) 11. Butorial ^roun number 40 (1) 41 \2j 42 (3) 43 (4) 44 (5) 12. Tutorial -rout) number 45 (1) 46 *(2) 47 (3) 45 (4) 49 (5) FART C 178 Items 13—1 "It contain professional goals. Blacken the one space which corresponds to rour J>ro_fessional goal. _Leave all other spaces bJLank. ' "" 13. agriculture (1) architecture (2) armed services (3) biological sciences (4) business c: commerce (5.) 14. chemistry (1) civil service (2) dentistry (2) education (4) engineering (5) 15. forestry (1) geology (2) home economics (3.) journalism (4) library (57 16. lav; (1) mathematics (2) medicine (3) ministry (4) music (5.) 17. pharmacy (1) physics (2) physical education (2) social work(4) liS. none of the above (1) undecided (2) IP.-.RT D Items 19 - 23 have to do with laboratory science courses other than-Fh 115. Indicate which other laboratory science courses you_are_ tahjinj; thisi year by blackening space (I) . Bo not blacken'' space \1) if you are not taking a course in that"science 19. Biology, or any other life science (botany, zoologv, etc.) (1) ' 20. C-hemistry (1) 21. Engineering 2 2. Geology (1) " 2 3. None of the above (1) P^RT_B Items 24 - 23 have to do with grade 12 science and mathematics courses. Indicate which of the followin" grade 12 courses you took in '~.igh  school by blackening space TT). Bo not blacken space (ll if you did not take the courses listed. 2 4. Physics 12 (1) 2 5. Biology 12 -5- 179 P-..RT B - cont. 26. Chemistry 12 (1) 27. Mathematics 12 (1) 2S. None of the above (1) COURSE OPINIONS DIRECTIONS a , Indicate your opinion about each statement by completely BLACKENING one of the five small-numbered spaces indicate for each statement. b. The answer code is as follows: Mark 1 SK if Mark 2 ss if Mark I if Mark z a if Mark 5 w if E^campl^: T he 7 I ! 3 4 5 That is, the person was neutral or undecided about statement 7. c. Mark only one space for each statement. If you change your mind about an answer, erase it completely and cleanly. lake your new mark heavy; and dark. Indicate an answer for 3VERY statement in this--part, d. WORK A3 QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE. If you have any questions about what to do, ask a .person in charge. e. When you have finished, hand in t' is booklet and your*answer sheet. Place your finished answer sheet on the front counter, under the alphabetic letter corresponding to the first letter of '-'our surname. - 6 -I - 7HY3IC3 IN GENERAL 180 DO NC? V/RITS IN' THIS BOOKLET. Use the answer sheet. 2). Physics is something everyone should know something about. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3 0. Physics is worthless. Strongly agree 1 A^ree 2 Undecided ? Disagree 4. Strongly disagree $.. 31. Physics is a dehumanizing subject. Strongly agree 1 Agres 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 3*2. Physics is enjoyable, j Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 "3 3. Physics is a fascinating subject. : Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 '3>k. Physics is far too difficult for most students. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 35. Physics is intellectually stimulating. I Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ "3^. Fhysics is boring. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 37. physics is related to evervday things. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree J>_ 3'5. Physics is unrelated to problems that really matter. • Strongly agree 1, Agree 2 Undecided 3 DisagreeJ+_ Strongly disagreeJ>_ II - PHYSICS 115 COURSE 39. Physics 115 is more interesting than Fhysics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 40. Physics 115 is nothing more than a review of Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided..3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree t5M 41. Fhysics 115 is a challenging course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided.3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 42. Physics 115 is irrelevant to the interests of the students. Btrongly agree 1 Agree_ 2 Undecided. 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree, 5 43. Fhysics 115 is a boring course. Strongly agree 1 Agree. 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5. . 44. Phvsics 115 is more worthwhile than Physics 12. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 45'. Physics 115 is relevant to the interests of the students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 - 7 - 181 46- Physics 115 should only be taken by students who are interested in becoming physicists. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 47. Physics 115 is too difficult for most students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 21 Undecided 3. Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 4& Physics 115 is frustrating because students do not know what is expected of them. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree ? 49 . Physics 115 is a valuable course. Strongly agree, _1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree .5 III - INSTRUCTION IN LECTURES '5Q-. Lectures should only be given by instructors who are first-rate physicists. Strongly agree ,1 _ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree 5-1. The method of teaching used in lectures does not allow for enough student participation to suit me. Strongly agree 1 agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 5?., Lectures should include more up-to-date teaching techniques. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree ? 53. Instruction in lectures helps to make the important ideas clear to me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disa$ree_JL_ ' 5|+. Instruction in lectures is of great help to me in solving physics problems. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree _4_ Strongly disagree 55.. Instruction in lectures is too fast. '. j Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3 DisagreeJt_ Strongly disagree_Ju Instruction in class is boring, i Strongly agree 1. Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_jL 5i7 . Instruction in lectures encourages students to express their own viewpoints. Strongly agree, 1. Agree_2_ Undecided_3_DisagreeJi_ Strongly disagree_S_ 5!8 . Instruction in class should be more individualized. Strongly agree_l_ Agree_2_ Undecided_J_Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree_JL 59 . Instruction in lectures is ~ood. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 DisagreeJ^ Strongly disagree_J>_ _ s _ TV - LECTURER 182 60. The lecturer knows his subject well. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 61. The lecturer's explanations are unclear. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 62. The lecturer has the ability to hold the interest of the class. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 63. The lecturer is one of the Lest things about the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 64. The lecturer is inconsiderate toward students. , . Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3, Disagree 4 Strongly disagree J> , 6.5. The lecturer's pace is too fast. Strongly agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6;6. The lecturer reviews course material adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 _ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6|7 . The lecturer has a rigid teaching style. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 6.8. The lecturer acts as if teaching, is a chore. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 69.. The lecturer makes me dislike physics. Strongly agree i Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 I V_ ~ VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE COURSE 70. The textbook is easy to understand. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ 71. The textbook is of little value in the course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 72. The textbook does not explain things adequately. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3__ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 73. The textbook is well written. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 74. The subject matter in the course is well organized. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 75. The subject matter of the course is excellent. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 76. The subject matter of the course should be more closely related to things that really matter. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 - - 183 77. The subject natter of the course is too difficult for me. Strongly agree 1 Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 73, The subject matter of the course is a valuable asset to my education. Strongly agree^l^ Agree 2 Undecided_"3_ Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree<_j>_ 79. The outside readings in the course are too difficult for m3. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 £0. The assignments are reasonable in length. Strongly agree__l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree_4__ Strongly disagree 5 Cl j. The assignments are too difficult for me. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4.., Strongly disagree 5 £2. 35 The assignments should deal with more practical problems. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 . Undecided Jl^ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree^ The assignments are a v;orth-while part of the course. Strongly agree_l__ Agree 2 Undacidc-1 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J>_ Cu^side readings in the courso should be increased. Strongly al<?rec_i^ Agree 2 Undecided 3 risagrroe ^ __ Strongly disagr-3e_J>__ VI - EXAMINATIONS The exams provide a good learning experience. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided_J_ Disagree,^ Strongly disagree_5_ 86 j The exams emphasise marks too much. v r &7 Strongly sgree_l_ Agr&-3_j2_ Undecided_X_ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_~CT Rxans are too long to complete on time. Strongly £gree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5_ The exams cover a fair sample of the material studied in the course. Strongly agree_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_J5__ The exams are generally very poor. trongly agreeJL_ A£Tee_2_ Undecided JS_ Disagree_4_ Strongly disagree JL 90 , The exams are marked fairly. .Strongly agre3_l_ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly dissgree_J_ 91 , The examinations are too difficult. Strongly ag,ree_l_ Agree_2_ Undecided 3 Disa^reeJ^ Strongly disagree_J5__ 92. The exams stress memorisation too much. Strongly agree_l_ Agrcs_2_ UndecidedLj_ DisagreeJ^ Strongly disagreej^. 93. The examinations really make me think. Strongly agree_l_ Ag;ree 2 Undocided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_£_ 94 . Exams are not given often enough. Strongly c.greej^ Agree_2_ Undecided 3 . Disagree 4 Strongly disagree_5"_ VII - TOPICS -10-184 95. Nuclear energy is a good topic for the Fh 115 course. Strongly agree_l_'Agree__2__ Undecided 3, Disagree__4_ Strongly disagree_J[_ 96. There should be less concentration on classical (Newtonian) physics in Fh 115. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5 9 7. The electromagnetic theory is an important topic for a first year physics course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree___5__ 93. 'Propulsion systems' is a topic of little interest to students in Ph 115 Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree Jf Strongly disagree 5. 99c Topics such as 'the environment', 'pollution', 'recycling1, and 'energy demand', are just as important to the Fh 115 course as are 'mechanics' and 1 wave motion'. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3_ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5_ 100. 'The human body1 is a topic that is not relevant to first year physics. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5__ 101. There should be electronics included in Ph 115. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5. 102k There should be less optics in Ph 115. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5... 103-. 'The human body' is a worthwhile topic to include in the Ph 115 course. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5_ 104. Topics centered around 'pollution' and 'the environment' should not be included in Ph. 115. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree J+ Strongly disagree^.. •lGp. It would be useful to include some discussion of propulsion systems in the Ph 115 course. Strongly agree__1__ Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree 4_ Strongly disagree 5 . 105. Nuclear energy is not a useful topic for Ph 115 students. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 _ Disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5^.. 107. Ph 115 should place the greatest emphasis on 'mechanics1. Strongly agree 1 Agree 2 Undecided 3 Disagree _ 4_. Strongly disagree 5... LCo. The electromagnetic theory is of little value to Fh 115 students. Strongly agree 1 jigree 2 Undecided 3 Disa- ree_4 Strongly disagree 5.. HAVE. YOU INDICATED YOUR IDENTIFICATION NUMBER CORRECTLY? 185 APPENDIX K STUDENT RESPONSES TO PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE SR AC+WEBB:L130_LIB l=Bl.SR2 EXECUTIGN BEGINS RESPONSES TO PHYSICS 115 EVALUATION STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE: NOTE. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSEO FOR SUMMATION IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: 3 2,3 3,3 5,3 7,39,44,45,49,53,54,5 9,6 2,63, 66,70*73,74,75,78,80,83,85,88,90,93,95, 97, 101, 105. STUDENT NUMBER 1087717 1 103712 1587708 1642719 20947.12 218 7714 2370708 24437 11 RESPONSES TO I TENS 2113241200CC30C020010001111044 4555455433344344553422 435432 44 54 2 5544554 3434 335445535 2434 3 44443 3 24434235223234 22255213000235CCOCCI COC1C01045 444454444324444 4 43 5 343 44 442 355 54 44423452 32 334444 244343 24 34344424 24334244223324 2225221400C1C0C03CC10001011044 33 344 343122 3 32 3144 3443424 3 344445 34444543343 3 224 3 534 344 3 3444443 34 34432423453343 21212133004000C200C10001111045 2 3 342244422 344 3443 2413 4243525555 55 55553111143242 344 2424244144242 42252251551152 21152 23500C2C0CC02C100C101102 5 4 4 4444444 33 344 3 244 3422 44 4 4324454 4444445344 34 324 3444 35 24 344444343 42332343343434 2 2253235O040C0COO1C100C1011044 4 334 3444 34 34444 444 3 44 3 224 42145 24 5 5443444244 4 3 34 4 444 24115443444 3 3 33332143343333 222551 1400504CCCCO11000ICO1044 3 3244 442 342 342 24 42 2 444 344 3214444 45444551111422 42 344 54 54 34 24444 2 2 2433 1543453453 212111430003C5CC00010001 11 1044 344 4 3242522 3453 5 54 4443444424 4444 44444443323244 44 444443414444.4444 41443442444443 244 771.2 211512 1500 1 OC5CCCCC 1000 1C 110 55 543334 3434444343423 24 33334233544 34433453323234444443435244533344 54432134144434 24 54718 21 15 321 5OO3CC000O2C100C1011045 35 354 5 35432 343 3 442 352 244 442 335 53 344 3344333 3 33354334242 32422 34111 44353244235423 246 0715 2 12C2 215004CCCCC02C10101011044 2432244222444224444242442422 3544 5 522455342 24 3244 344242 2244341442 45452343344424 247 3718 2 12 542 53002CCCC002C10C0111004 5 4445444354344545 54 42225544124543 24444442423332543424514455545541 43331443454443 247 7 719 2 1252 1550020040CCC010001011054 2443 3 3555432 35 3 4 354 3 344 34 31135 54 5 54345531335333 3342 24111444 54441 33331545553343 248 7718 212 52 114001CCCCC01C100C1011055 5 3443 35454 33 35 3 54242 334544334544 3444455 2432 3325 2 3453534344424443 34331433444433 2488716 2125 52 55002CCOC001C10001C01023 32 2222434452 3 32 2122 3 33 42 4 32 34433 24444441111222 2 22443444224342224 25242233242233 2490712 2124 13 14005CCOCO IOC 10001011055 5 3 34445 5443444 3 4 444 4 34 44 4 42 345 54 4 544 34422 334444 4444443 2144444345 44342343344443 2499713 214 552140030400 00011COO 1001044 3 3242444443344 34424 2524444 344 544 4444344111142244242 2141124341115 42441242254444 2 509719 2 1155113000205OCCOC10101001034 444445434324444 4 44 344444 54244544 255444442 3244 34 434 544344444445 34 44442254344445 2511715 21 2151550050300000110001101045 54 54344424 2 3 32 3443 2 3 3344432 3344 3 34434 4 4323 3 2 33 42 34334 3 32 44444342 42423434422444 2523710 211521 350010C0C0IOC 10001011044 333 3234424 33 23 34322232 33 332 3 332 3 2 3 324 344 222 2 324 3 34 3 2 33 3244344443 24333223233233 2526713 213512530002C5C000010001011044 4 44 44 44 35 3444 541444 32 2 454 3 2 34444 4 4 444 55 344 244 4 44 44 4 4544144244241 44452255445554 25 33719 22141 11 2002CC0000211C001C11044 14 34444 24222422444 24424353 24 44 34 4444444332243254244 34 54244 444434 54542242245124 2 537710 21112 15300010003C0110001111055 55444455 32 34 344 4444 134453311443 3 34 34 2 344 544 4 32 4 435515 3525 32 544 3 2 24231244243333 2 54 3718 2135 3414 34104CCCC0110001011044 44434342 242123443134414542152441 4442 5 3344211L331355 3444312242112 43351533554241 2548717 2 135221 30001C50CCCC10001011044 34 4434545334454443344 34544144544 34 4444423225334434544343544 543 44 34424243323324 2571719 21342 31500500020CC010101C11044 43 344443444 33244 32313244 342 3 3544 44344 44222233234334344 4234343243 32322344443343 257 371.5 223511530001050000110001011045 5444 54 552434434544 44 44 4454235554 44 5 4 34554444 3 355 54 5442 424 54443 3 2 43453345335424 2 576 718 212511130010050000010001011044 344 4 3444434343 3444 3 2 33 44442 34444 44 4 34 444 22 243 34 3344 243 42 444444 24 44232244243444 25927 15 213522550001000002010001011045 44 344444322 343 34443143 3 3 34434 544 34 4444444334 334 3344245 54 444545 3 2 52445341344434 2595718 213552530030050CC0010001001055 544444 55544 344 35 434252444 4344555 5543455 222 3432 4432 445 3 42 34424451 32331224243333 2596716 21255255OO5005GC00C10CO1C01O24 1444445354 33 55 3 54441444 54 4134545 55453551233 343443554433243444442 53533253233535 2617710 212111540002000300110001111055 334244254141432442 3142 5544235545 44445552 3432 32 41344442 2 2 443442 2 2 4231 1543542552 2619716 21 11 11150010C00 200C10001111045 43325443322 323 3432 3 5334352133444 5A443344343322543433534244343233 42433233233443 262 3718 2 12533140020050C00C10001011044 42 3 3 3444 544444 3442 3 23344 342 3 344 5 43 2 244412 3243 334343 34342 334332 33 43332343344443 26257 13 21 12 1255001003CC00C10001 111055 44 544543212442 34543 32 3 3244224544 54434444232322524443425244224421 42521433552445 262 6711 2 1 252215002005CC000100 01011044 444444342424 44344341444444 344444 44 4344524324.42 44 344444 4444444424 33342242344443 26 35712 2122325500030003001 10001CI1045 4434344445444444 444243 44 34244544 44 444444 3 324 344 4 44444 34 24444 3444 34324234223 333 2651719 21222352OO50C00CO211OOOIU1O45 544 444444434444 4444 2 334 3442 344 54 44 43445 3333434 4 344434344 3443444 2 34334344424443 188 268 57 17 211551340010000 3C0 110001011045 5432 3 32325 3 3 33 24 32 3 24 2424332 542 5 34 342 342 22 2 2 22 3 3 2442 22 44444 142 44 44231341343453 2696714 2115115500C2C0 03001 10001011055 44 545555444443 44444442 54 552255 5 5 555555524234 32 44 35 515 342444442 54 44441554554454 2699718 21110114005CC00300110001101045 4445455542 34 53455454445545224554 4 54 4455442 3444 44454444 21345 543 5 5 4444 1442454444 2706711 212521140030C00002C10001011044 4 334 244444 34444 555425 5 4444 244544 4 544 5552 34 34 444 334434542424 54354 34442233243334 2710713 212512 55 0003C0C220C10001C11055 4 4 44 44 45444 5 544 4 444 2444 34 4 34444 4 34 4444532334444 44 44442 44 434444 33 44442344444444 2715712 2 22 54111003CC00 020C10001011045 55543545 534444 525452124555115554 345 54241222442553442435155535551 51351115155524 2717718 212511550020 CO0300110001011054 4424 24322 544434 4442453 42442 2454 5 4 5 444 552 32 232242 342242 214545 3242 32342442444353 2 740710 2112 12550010C00002010101111045 44444 3 34 3224 4 34 5434 433434422444 3 44 4 404444443 324434 33444444444434 44332533443444 2747715 2115111500C1C00002010001011054 44434454 324 343 34444 34 3 44 442 34444 45 44 4442 34342 3 5 43544424444444443 42443244234444 2 748713 21 151 115005.0000002110001011055 55555545544 55544 54 51235544355555 55555555424151553552515155555252 5255 1355355555 2 7 547 LI 212 54214004005COCCC100010U045 44 3445 2 354444 3 34 444 34 3 434412 3544 25342254 5444 34433531444342 44 4443 22434452243445 2 761716 2121121200C0CO0300 110001 111055 1444441 15424 44 24 444 5 14 42442155 54 544 4551111124413355 25 3154 3 541541 55551515555544 27627 14 2 1 3222140003CO 0200C10001111045 54 44 34 54434544454433555444435555 5554555544344354554 3544444543445 444542 15224444 276 5717 2 1252253002000 ICCO11C001C11 044 4 33 344444444444 443 3 3 3244 3412 3444 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554545543334 3 34 4444553 444 5 544444 44344243544434 70 76714 214 54455000 ICO00021100010110 34 34 44 444 344 3 344 3442 32 34444 33 34444 444 3444 3444 4 33 3 3 344 44 3 42 443 3 344 3 42342343224433 7081714 214 523150020001000010001011044 32 34 344 3444344 3 4444143 4444244444 44 44 44422334 32 43 34 43434344434444 43332243244423 7146715 212023550010CC00020100 01011044 444 4 3424 3444 44 4 344 3454 4244344444 44 44444 32334 34 4 2 344 215 4 3444444 34 44244244223424 7164718 224344140020030COO 110001111055 544 44244434 344 344341515 5432 555 55 54444 5 33244 4 324 4244 2534124534344 34332242324223 7186711 21453353000305 CO00001001011044 42 242143342 423 3 443 3 3 334442 33 3444 4 54244322123 334 33444 344 3 44444334 33333333333333 7210719 2143 52120002C0 0 200 1100 01101055 55 524455 543 3144534 52424544424454 444245515224 3244 415152 5244445441 44432444444425 7218712 213522530020200CCOO100010 11045 5 5 54554544 3444 4 4444 2 33 4344244455 4443445444 244445444 343323 4334424 53444444334445 7297 716 21353215000 305 0000010001011055 55555554555455 5 3 3351315545 33 55 55 55 333552151342 5 55351513243334443 54535553523525 7 348717 21355233001020C000010001001055 4 3 444444424423 424442434344244455 4444355 32 33324443444 5442423344 34 32342351344313 7359714 212 0031300010020C0010 101001044 3223222 324 32 2422 22 2 322222312 3424 44214441111322243222434234433253 12332222253123 200 738371A 2145543500010500COC1000100 1044 22 322 3222432 32 22142 42 322 34 334444 44444452222322434442443344444222 322222522A2222 7 3 9071.9 21 3552540030500 COOO 1000 100 1045 444444555344444444 43434435134555 55444552224 4 344 4 344 343 53 5434433 3 42355443425424 7441710 222 52213004CC00001010101011014 4 3 344414244 444 2 2444 424 4444224445 5 544 34 54 344 4234 4 444 343 34 44444444 54.342355344444 7496714 21302 35400200C0002010101011055 45534554544454 35344443 5435345455 4 5 35 5 5 54444 4 42 5 5 54 4 344 5255 55 5444 5434 1324344443 7 566 714 21453 3130004000001010001011045 4 344 344344344 34443 3 33443 342 34534 3534244332 34 34 44344333334 4443343 23332243244334 766 8718 223022540000COO300110001011055 34 4 4 545 5443 54 34 554 3354 454 5445545 5 54345 5 3444 43 44 4 444443 22 3 3 34434 3 23442244244344 7721715 222 3 331500O440C00001O00U110 55 55 555554443454444512335545435555 554445545345435 5 54 5 35 3 2244455243 53332453444435 7907 710 21121135005000031OC10001111055 5 3 344 343342 3 3 34 542 3 321444 323 33 3 3 2443 343442331255445342412342 5442 54532444444444 EXECUTION TERMINATED $R SSLE:BC + WEBB:1130_LIB 1= FISH.RG EXECUTION BEGINS APPENDIX L ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE t Phvsics 115 Questionnaire 203 1. Please complete the spaces in the top line of the accompanying printed answer sheet. 2. On line 2 opposite the word 11 SCHOOL", print the name of the high school you last attended. Opposite ;,CITY" print the city and pro vince (abbreviation) in which the indicated high school was located (or the country in which your high school education took place, if not in Canada). 3. Leave the spaces for ""GRADS OR CLASS", ''INSTRUCTOR", "NA^E -OF TEST" and ''PART" (lines 2 and 3 of answer sheet) blank, but give your  identification number both in numerical form (in the spaces below the red arrow) and "by blackening the appropriate spaces. 4. Note that the items are numbered horizontally on the printed answer sheet. PART A Course Information Please respond to each item. Do not indicate more than one answer for each item except where indicated. 1. Physics 115 Lecture Section (1) Section 1 (Dr. Livesey) (2) Section 2 (Dr. McMillan) 2. Tutorial group number (make one response to each of questions 2to6) (1) G 30 (2) G 31 (3) G 32 (4) G 33 (5) None of these 3. Tutorial group number (1) G 34 (2) G 35 (3) G 36 (4) G 37 (5) None of these 4. Tutorial group number (1) G 38 (2) G 39 (3) G 40 (4) G 41 (5) None of these 5. Tutorial group number (1) G 42 (2) G 43 (3) G 44 (4) G 45 (5) None of these 6. Tutorial group number (1) G 46 (2) G 47 (3) G 48 (4) G 49 (5) None of these 7. Year of high school graduation (1) 1971 (2) 1970 T3) 1969 (4) 1968 (5) None of these 8. Physics 12 final mark (1) A (86#-100£) (2) B (72#-85#) (50f5-64Z) (5) None of these 9. Biology 12 final mark (1) A (86#-100&) (2) B (72#-85#) (50/-64/) (5) None of these (3) C < (65£-71#) (4) C or C-(3) C- (65)o-7l/) (4) C or C-PART A cont. 204 10. Chemistrv 12 final mark (1) A (86^-100/) (2) B (723-85$) (3) C^ (6555-71$) (M C or C-(50$-6Z$) (5) None of these 11. Math 12 final mark (1) A (86^-100$) (2) 3 (72;"i-85^) (3) (65$-71$) (4) C or C-(50fi-64/o) (5) None of these 12. Duration of Physics 12 course (choose the answer which best describes how long you took to do the course) (1) 1 semester (2) lh semesters (3) 2 semesters (4) 3 semesters (5) one school year (non-semester system) 13. Other laboratory science courses other than Physics 115 being taken this year (you may indicate more than one answer) (1) Biology (or any other life-science) (2) Chemistry (3) Engi neering (4) Geology (5) Other' 14. Intended coursework in Physics (1) Major in Physics (2) Honors in Physics (3) Physics 115 only (4) undecided (5) Other 15. Professional objective (make one resoonse to each of questions 15 to 20) (1) agriculture (2) architecture (3) armed services (4) bio sciences (5) none of these 16. (1) business & commerce (2) chemistry (3) civil service (4) dentistry (5) none of these 17. (1) education (2) engineering (3) forestry (4) geology (5) none of these 18. (1) home economics (2) journalism (3) library (4) law (5) none of these 19. (1) mathematics (2) medicine (3) ministry (4) music (5) none of these 20. (1) pharmacy (2) physics (3) physical education (4) social work (5) none of these 21. Grade 12 science and math courses taken in high school (you may indicate more than one answer) (1) Physics 12 (2) Biology 12 (3) Chemistry 12 (4) Math 12 (5) Other End of Part A PART B ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY 205 The answers to items in this part are to be completed on the second answer sheet provided. Only your name and identification number are required in the spaces provided at the top of the answer .sheet. This scale represents a controlled study to determine the success of the laboratory program as the student sees it. The statements on the scale represent opinions put forth by previous physics students. You are presented with 5 response categories for each statement: (1) strongly agree, (2) agree, (3) neutral, (k) disagree, (5) strongly disagree. The numbers (1) to (5) correspond to the numbers of the blank spaces found on the accompanying printed answer sheet. Choose the response category which best expresses your degree of agreement or disagreement with each statement. Your responses'to the statements will undergo a programmed statistical analysis, and the results will be used to aid in redesign ing the present laboratory. NOTE: Statistical analysis by computer requires that every statement be responded to. If you are undecided about the statement use response no. (3). Also note that the numbering system on the answer sheet, runs horizontally as opposed to the vertical numbering of the statements in • the scale. 1. In most instances I feel the labs aid me in my understanding of physics. 2. I find that most experiments are too difficult. 3. The lab to me is primarily a waste of time. i+. I regard the laboratory as an extremely beneficial activity. 5. I find the instructions in the laboratory manual confusing. 6. I usually find it necessary to just fumble my way through experiments. 7. I feel the laboratory is essential for learning physics. 8. This laboratory has killed my interest in physics. 9. I think too much time is demanded by the laboratory for the benefit that is being derived. 10. I find the experiments assume we know more than we actually do. 11. I like the laboratory because it offers opportunity for individual initiative. 12. The laboratory outline seems to explain ideas previously foreign to me. 206 PART B cont. 13. The laboratory's good and bad points balance each other. 1/f. I feel the need for a laboratory program, and am pleased with ours. 15. I hate the laboratory. 16. I have found no value in the laboratory. 17. The laboratory to me is synonymous with frustration. 18. I have found this laboratory the most interesting aspect of any of my courses. 19. I find the time allotted to prepare a write-up for handing in is ample. 20. I actually believe the experiments have taught me some basic ideas of physics far better than books could. 21. I feel we are presented with apparatus too far beyond our present level of understanding. 22. I like our laboratory because the experiments demand we think, rather than providing us with a step by step procedure. 23. I believe the laboratory has value in that it stimulates my interest in physics. 2J+. My experience is that the laboratory is a hopeless turmoil of confusion. 25. V7ith reasonable effort, I regard the ideas presented in the laboratory well within my reach. 26. To me the laboratory is more or less boring. 207 APPENDIX M STUDENT RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARD THE PHYSICS LABORATORY QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PHYSICS LA3. QUESTIONNAIRE: NOTE. POLARITIES OF RESPONSES HAVE BEEN REVERSED FOR SUMMATION IM THE FOLLOWING ITEMS: I,4,7,lltl2,13,l4,18tl9,20»22,23,25 STUDENT RESPONSES TO ITEMS NUMBER 10557 LA 33 332 43422 3A3 3444 34 4 3 43424 1087717 44444455444 324 55 5 3455 34 5 54 1103711 4344 24344 2133434222 34 33433 1567 718 444 33444123 33 2444444444443 15 87 708 3432 343322243 343 32425 32443 164 2719 55551455521515554245543555 1755719 3432 32 2412 342 3 332 2444 334 3 3 1902717 54542435421324444244424344 203 3710 343 2 2 34424 3 44 3 3 331434 32 343 2094712 4444 3445434 343 544 34 4 3 34 444 2121167 42 32122311343 23 321544 33 324 218 7714 4 2 32 33441113131351445 33343 22 36719 55533553113133355151511531 2 342715 5 35433544 2 343 3 5 444 544 24443 2 3 70 708 44411143231121341124 321141 24 39719 3422222312132 2342 244321243 2440717 4 34 4344343 343 4444 2 344 2 3 43 3 2442713 4543443454234A 544253432443 2443711 44444244322 3434 23 344444442 2447 712 4454 3 3444 34 444452 22 34 44244 2452712 53553255553555555 55 55 54545 2454718 45435555455253555455525514 2 4 59717 34434444343324444344444444 2460715 4 34 32 4 3343 32444443444 33443 2464717 444 32 344424 34 4443 2 343 44434 2 465714 45533545444 344 545 2535 33544 246 7710 555515155115155 55 15 1515555 247 3 718 4 34424442 32 344 442 3445 34 324 2475713 43542435233424443234423444 2476711 5 4 543442424444554344444344 247 7 719 12223323121451 1 32 153221231 24 85712 4 44 4 344 544 3434 54 4 3 344 34 444 2486710 331223321322322 32133332 341 2487718 23432334244223341143443142 2490712 4 2431 13431353 3442 2 334 332 34 2496719 342 2444 3342 22 2223214422441 209 249 7 717 44522435131232555154153552 2498715 454254442 23 35 3 545 3555 34545 2499713 211111132 234211221424 32121 2502714 44444445232224444313433434 2509719 54 544 54 5442 22 4 544344545445 2511715 4443344 42433334 44 2444 44 4 44 2514719 5 344 344424 34 3 4445 2 344 4 3443 25 18710 445553333541255 55 5555 55 554 25 21714 4 34 32 344344 3 3 3443 3423 33434 2523710 43433333223433344243323342 2 524718 333315 33353 233334 22 343 3433 2526713 54 44444 5242 44 4444545524444 25 30715 34 544423513 33 3 342 325413 343 2 5 32711 43542455434544555435443535 2533719 4312132 3311132121111511241 2537 710 4 351343442332 2132 2534 33341 2 541712 53533535335553555 3 55 333353 2543718 42312233221222233244543342 2548 717 445 344442 3243 3 5443 555 44444 2 571719 43442334224244443445523434 257 3715 5 542 5 54 515242 4 5552 55524555 2576718 44432433423234544444433443 258 0710 443 3224455 343 3 444 2443 2 3343 25 8 2716 4 2442 4443234 3 3 344444434244 2584712 55 553 5555 3 3515 5551535 55555 2586717 44 542 3451234 435 22 3 244 24424 2587715 55215551515142 555111132333 2587715 44421234132221332244432442 2592715 4 44 2442444 3 33 3 44414 45 3 3444 2 595718 5444245513443 3 5544244 34545 2 596716 44533445323 354 555543444544 2603710 5 2 252252215555222545255252 2604718 4 4424415444433444154424244 2617710 35223344241342343153532453 2620714 4442 2 44412242 2442141422 444 262 3718 4 244134422453 3 5 52 3433 33 344 2625713 55 1355353 5535 355515 35 53 55 3 2626711 3342144 344 2 32 3443 2424 34 344 263 5712 444442442 4 3444 544 2434 4 3444 2640712 3 332 233412 32 3 3 32 324412 3323 264 3716 4444 344444 34 3 4 54444 4 3 34 445 2649713 34 13132 33 34 3 33 333 3 2 3432442 2650711 3333441414243 3434 242513454 26517 19 4453444 554333455544554444 4 2661718 4 5 55355443242 5 555 34541545 5 26707 19 4344 134444324334344 44 42223 2671717 4 3 342 3 343 32 34 3444 344 3 4444 3 2684710 23222 241132331423121522241 2685717 12222234253432344 15 1124332 2695716 33433 3443 34 334 44 3333433434 2696714 2422342314222234 3122431343 2699718 4 4 43444424 342 4 554 2444 3 344 3 2 70 2710 4 5442 45224 3 3322332 34 534452 2706711 44433 32 5522 44 4 34 4 244434443 2714715 444 4 35454344 34545 3444 4344 5 2715712 5 344 2 34444444 4 442 3144 44445 2717718 2 44 334132 22 32 34 242332 2 2434 2719714 54 543414444344554344444444 2722718 455 34 555 44 34 55555 355555555 2726 719 44 4 3342 32 2 344 3 4432 445 2 3443 27 30711 2 2422222212 232 4432123 33 324 2733715 4 34 324344 3444 3 544 3444 34444-2739 712 4 344 3434 2 24 4 33442 3444 4 3434 2740710 33221422131312232223332243 2743714 44 3 344442 43 3344 444 344 344 54 2 746717 5 4442445 22 3 34 31521254 34444 2 747715 343413442 2 5 33 2 535 2454 32 543 27487 13 4 444135 52 3543 3 2 534 34443554 27 54711 4 3452 24422 3 22 3442 2444 444 54 27 55718 332222 241133221212334222 32 27 56716 4555 344 543442 5 5534444 4444 5 27 57714 3 3 3413 33223443434533413554 2761716 15111111111511111151531551 2 76 2714 344 32 4442 2 3 22 3442 34442 2434 2 765717 43434445433443554344433545 2767713 4454232544324 344324443442 5 2779 718 4 444 34532 34234 4 333 442 43332 2780716 4 344 3445444444 4 444 544 44555 2 784 718 443444242414224452415434 54 2790715 4342 22 342 2 342 24442 54412442 2791713 44 324242133422143154223 322 2794717 5 3 544455 344424 5 544244 44 444 210 2796712 44444554343444 554135442444 27 99 716 34 4 3443444 343 34 44 32 34 33434 2802718 44434434343424 4453455 4444 5 280 3716 444 3134542 3 344 5 54 3444 44444 2807717 42442445444244444244434443 2810711 442 244 332 32 32 3 324243422441 2814713 44442444323354 343143222422 2815710 3444433443133 3444144432441 2822716 411411421244441 114 54 244151 2 8 24712 33331334224333444343233334 28 27 715 3 342 2223322 332 332 2 33432 343 2828713 322222331134 33333 44 3 334343 2831717 34324444343443344244422443 28 34711. 44 3 3443424 343 34442424 32 352 28 37 714 3322342 32314212 32 331312421 2846715 55445535234443555343443444 2851715 31431233113 334322 11322324 3 2853711 555435544342345 54 4455 54554 2859718 44323445133432 44 4 243443443 2 865715 54143145335334555435444554 2871713 43544554243132444 124553444 2 8 77710 43533454313434555354343444 2879716 3 32224332 324 2 2 334242 3 32443 2880714 44422514143233444254523454 28 82 710 5 34434555 24234 5554 354 4444 5 268 3718 54534444 244244555444434542 2885713 43442444443324444244434444 2886711 424412533125332 31123211323 2892 719 3344 122 3 42 543334 142 2333233 2893717 3422 34221322222 3 3142422 341 2900710 55544555554233555 4455 54 555 2902716 444 3434544 344 4 444 3444 34444 2911717 4 344 34443 244 34443 3243 244 24 2914711 3 3322244222432 32 324122 3 331 2918712 42432343123333442233233432 2919710 44442454242222444344 4 24444 2920718 4 3543 4552 23334444 3442 33444 2926715 2 352222222 2 42 2 322 243 32 32 32 29 377 12 22111321132122 122 2424 32 244 29387 10 4443233444244444214 44 23 343 2939 718 4 34 333343 3242 3444 2444 34443 2942712 4 2 32 2 2 242 3 2334242 2 2 24 32 342 294771 1 2442443312122122322 34 24324 2950715 2 322332422222 3 3 34243 3 3 343 3 2951713 23213313121213333142432431 2952711 433 32 344323433444 344344 334 295 3719 4 3212141121311121141422221 295 8718 2 42 2 24343 2.3432 3343424 33 343 2959716 123 2 3253312533 433 3 333 3 3 333 2961712 44544445 2 3 34 3 44442424 24442 2962 710 444 355 34444 234545223443544 2965713 5454 3545 344234 554 3 545 43545 297 7718 4 4444 34444 4 44 3443 24444 4444 2982718 4544354435 314 3 5543324 33445 2986719 444 4 342444 344 3 444 344444444 298 8715 5454 3 55 544 2 3344 54 2 535 33 554 2989713 44312413124 442442123442443 2995710 4 3542 45422 3224 54 324444 3 334 3003711 4 34422 343 2 3 444 4 44 3444 34424 3004710 43332433233 43 3342344433343 3CC5717 344 3 34444 3 3 334443 244 4 3 344 3 3010717 4333242322 3 43 3 432 2233 34443 3012713 44244535424424545344444445 3013711 5 5445555551134455 2 32513 354 3014719 34432434322343444343232434 3015716 44542 4444 21223342244422443 302016 7 4 334 3444 3 3 34 3 2 443 2 543 4 344 3 3022712 44 442 4443 2 333 2444 2 444 3 3 44 5 3023710 522522521245552224552 44 2 52 212 302571.5 535333131 13353353155533353 3026713 15111135113533555331553553 3028719 5 3551553335 33 5331353555353 3044716 52252252224 4452224 541442 52 3046711 54544 54 44 43344 44 5233434443 3047 719 44434444444 24 4 5 55 3 544 4 3445 3048717 342 342 3414343 2 344 2 424 32441 3C49715 5 35444452 33443 552 3445 34435 3060 712 545444443434344444444 34554 3067717 4444424 545 3 35 5 555 3444 444 54 3071719 3 4442423133232344 24 25 33452 3074713 11111111111531111111311111 3075710 4444445532 3444444334432444 3079712 5 22 51252215555222455255252 3082 71.6 32 322 33323343 3 3433442 33343 3085719 3 3 32 3 24324 222 2 32 31424 32243 3036717 444 344 3 333 3 24 3 34 3 24343 3 343 308 7715 43312131135433342445532244 3088713 24 3 2432454232 2 3 331543 22423 3089711 35533553333353553135533555 3090719 344 345454 3 243 3 444254 5 33444 3098712 4442442444 3 34 34442545 33544 3099 710 4 5434543351232 345353513553 3102712 3 3 3421544423223 313533 32 223 3109717 5 344224432 34 343 52 444434444 3112711 3 342 342 33 3243 4 332 2 42243242 3114717 3 2221314131322 2 22143212 342 3118718 52241152114555222445254252 3120714 33222 34113122 3344242411442 3121712 43432 455 3444 34 4432 444444 54 3122710 4 44443 35434 544444 344444 444 3131711 5 3552 3553 35 3 35 3535 35 344454 3138716 24322324232233243152343444 3140712 53433244322434343244444333 3144714 4 3432445 224 443 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22 2 2 242142512 341 5 421683 54442355224234542251224444 5423710 444 3444444 44 42 342 2444 22443 5 599717 43444 345424 344 443 3444 33344 5732714 3222143311452 332222 3133253 57 7 7719 342 2 3435 331333534343433443 579 3716 2 3 32144414133 2442 2244 33 332 5 798715 442 2224422 24 42 3442 22442443 5 814710 54543455 3 32 444444 3444 24454 5818711 5 35533 3 53335 33333335 333 351 58 28710 4 4423141343 24 4 554 3443 44434 5831714 323 3242334 322 3442323323222 58 50714 24 54244542 344 35 53444454 344 5853718 4443 3 34443 3 2 34 4432 444 34443 5875711 44534545224334444334234434 5877717 4 5 4345 2544 34 244 44 2 444 23443 5891718 4 3442 433422 23 3443 2 524 33 343 5 396717 342 2 322 334 2 242 3231334 33342 5948716 4 344 44344 34 54 3 444244443444 5976717 553155545 5414 3 513451511115 5990718 44 44244544244 3 5432432 34 443 5999719 333224312332232411423 31441 6004717 5 5 542445524 3 34 553154522 552 6007 710 444 322 3422 3 23 3 332 24 3433442 6009716 4444 2 34542 2 444 442 344444444 6018717 4 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434343444233424442 33443344 6348718 41141152214544121454154141 6 3 59715 41434243313433443222443423 6364715 4 55445454434355 5434444 5 555 6395719 4 34 345345 34433 343144532333 64 17711 4 34 3 3344224 33 3 444222 3 22 333 6424717 2 24 3133413354 3 344 24424 3452 64 26712 444 34434145 544 344 254 5 43 3 53 64 32 710 4 34424 2 34 34 3444 43 344 44 3444 64 86716 4454454 544 3 324455343443545 6506711 5234 35544 343345 54 455432 22 3 6509715 4454232541333 3 554212413344 6511711 424 31144212 32 3 344242422442 6 519 714 4 44 3 2 24444 344 4 4 443444 33442 6540710 4444142453 3343444141434 551 6 544712 34 5 3445 52 2152 2 552134511534 655 3705 3 333 3333333514243 353215450 6 560718 4 343 244443353 3 442 3 4343242 3 6562714 5 355255521433 5552 5 355 35345 6569719 2 3214414133422 3232 334 14442 6 5947 07 4 354145432 2133 342134423334 6606 719 2234131332 223 2223 3232 3 3333 6611719 4 34422 33313 34 3 343 2 23132 323 66 52 713 44432 33424 3 3434 53 21443 3443 6710719 422 2124412242 214124342 2221 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34124111122222213144431142 680 2714 2322 32 34324443423333334342 6808711 4 45344355 4 3 4455543534 3 344 5 6810717 53352353224433343442434345 68 12713 5344225 32 224 3 3342 4451433 43 6813711 22222223233322243232332331 6819718 35541424223344442343333243 6824718 54 54 2445243443444345 534444 6827711 433354444442434442424334 54 68 30715 332213331233 32 333121242333 6839716 11111113133111131151331131 6849715 43432333232 34 3444242422443 68 52719 22331233123 43 33 32 23 32 32 2 32 6853717 4444442544 2224544444544455 68 55 712 24422 22 3122412 2421425 42 255 6 869713 5 354 2 345334 42 3 5554 24333 334 68 71719 3 244324 34 344332331533 222 34 6876718 3 2231143132 22 2 2 222444 34133 6899710 5 3 54244433 3 23 3 4 34 3 42242 22 3 6904718 45 3345453544445542245 33455 6909717 4 24 3133422 2 34 4 443 22 3 322421 6910715 445 34 3553444 344 444444 44 434 6912711 44 5 52445 2 33 444 344 3 344 44444 6913719 32321434223243131354232252 6924716 44322444442432244422334343 6927719 3 3 335333333151333133313355 6973713 5 4 5445445 3442 4 55 5444 544 545 6976716 444324 25332 334124242422442 7011711 4 333254312443 34423 24433443 7017718 434322443 3 34 34 4442444 33434 7024 714 433224343212334 44 2 34432433 705 5 700 34442153221243444211243443 7064710 42 3 3412 323 343 34431444 32 344 7069719 52241242114545 2 21444244242 70 70 707 4 344424421342 3 442 243444 343 707 6714 443 2124344 344 3 342 343143443 7081714 44 44 24443 33434 44324 3444444 709 3719 444 2442 324 3 22 3 444 2 4 24 22 442 7133715 2212 32213 4324 21124 232 22 232 7141716 4 444 2 2 342 2 2434 4442 4244432 5 7146715 24224424122342444222422442 7164718 4 244 3 244213 43 3 4 44 3444 4 3442 7186711 44 33443424 3 333 444 24 34 33442 7187719 5255235542342 4555444343544 7 210719 4 35 4445 534422 4 544 4244 44442 7215718 4344323323 3242443333234343 72187.12 5355343 54 34334555 444444 555 7225717 4 24 34 2 5442 355 3442 25434 3 435 7227713 545514553254355535 25 345545 7297716 5542 1255324 313453434454445 7308711 33433443432 3 34 33 3 3 34544433 7 310717 4 344 344444 4 4 34 5543442 44443 7 3487 17 4 3442 3442 2 3442 44222444 3424 7359714 2 141532 34 23 32 2221242322332 7383714 33222344113322221132422242 7 390709 32 2312354 32 44 4 44342 2234443 74 2 4716 4 3443 34 332 3444333422344333 7435712 244224 24 3 2 3332444224233442 7442718 535 54 525 54 3334 5 54 354 544 513 7496714 43412 32 2112 42124113 3 3212 34 216 7 566714 3 3 531355333 55 3 343 3 344 34444 7631716 55555345421435554353113454 7668 718 444 2444144 344 3 454 345444444 7721715 54452444445524555354 5444 54 7737711 4344442444 34544 54 4243 3344 5 7834716 445 5 545 52 24 5444442 324 5444 5 7907710 43 34134312434 3 432 3443 44 233 7917719 43334444424434443332444444 EXECUTION TERMINATED 218 APPENDIX N CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT 219 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS PLACEBO INSTRUMENT H^: performance of the activity and receiving the research instrument are independent of one another. Activity 1 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the activity 34 12 46 Did not perform the activity 94 45 139 Totals 128 57 N 1 = 185 X2 = .641 P(X2 ^ .641 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .50; accept Hd at p ^= .05 and p = .01 levels of significance. Activity 2 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the activity 7 2 9 Did not perform the activity 121 55 176 Totals 128 57 I ^ = 185 X = .041 (Yates1 correction applied) P(X ^ .041 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .90; accept Hd at p = .05 and p = .01 levels of significance. 220 Activity 3 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the activity 18 2 20 Did not perform the activity 110 55 165 Totals 128 57 N = 185 2 X = 3.527 (Yates* correction applied) P(X2 >. 3.527 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .10; reject Hd at the .10 level, accept at .05 and .01 levels of significance. Activity 4 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the activity 35 12 47 Did not perform the activity 93 45 138 Totals 128 57 K 1 = 185 X2 = .525 P(X2 _> .525 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .50; accept Hd at the .05 and .01 levels of significance. Activity 5 Received research instrument Received placebo instrument Totals Performed the activity 11 4 15 Did not perform the activity 117 53 170 Totals 128 57 is I I = 185 X = .005 (Yates1 correction applied) P(X2 >. .005 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .95; accept Hd at the .05 and .01 levels of significance. ' APPENDIX 0 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT 222 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY. TABLES: PLACEBO INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT H^: performance of the activity and receiving the placebo instrument are independent of one another. Activity 1 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 12 10 22 Did not perform the activity 45 122 167 Totals 57 132 N = 189 X =5.7 81 (Yates' correction applied) P(X2 >. 5.781 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .02; reject Hd at the .02 level, accept H, at the .01 level of significance. Activity 2 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 2 3 5 Did not perform the activity 55 129 184 Totals 57 132 N = 189 Cannot compute accurate x because of small cell frequencies. 223 Activity 3 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 2 1 3 Did not perform the activity 55 131 186 Totals 57 132 N = 189 Cannot compute accurate x because of small cell frequencies. Activity 4 Received placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 12 8 20 Did not perform the activity 45 124 169 Totals 57 132 N = 189 X = 7.938 (Yates' correction applied) P(X2 >. 7 .938 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .005; reject Hd at the .005 level of significance. Activity 5 B .eceived placebo instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 4 3 7 Did not perform the activity 53 129 182 Totals 57 132 N = 189 X = 1.359 (Yates' correction applied) P(X2 >. 1 .359 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .25, accept Hd at the .05 and .01 levels of significance. APPENDIX P CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT 225 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT H^: performance of the activity and receiving the research instrument are independent of one another. Activity 1 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 34 44 Did not perform the activity 94 122 216 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X2 = 16.663 P(X2 _> 16 .663 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .001; reject Hd at the .001 level of significance. Activity 2 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 7 3 10 Did not perform the activity 121 129 250 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X = 1.035 (Yates' correction applied) P(X2 > 1.03 5 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .50; accept Hd at the .05 and .01 levels of significance. 226 Activity 3 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 18 1 19 Did not perform the activity 110 131 241 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X = 15.075 (Yates1 correction applied) P(X2 >. 15.0.75 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .001; reject Hd at the .001 level of significance. Activity 4 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 35 8 43 Did not perform the activity 93 124 217 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X2 = 21.326 P(X2 >. 21.326 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .001; reject Hd at the .001 level of significance. Activity 5 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 11 3 14 Did not perform the activity 117 129 246 Totals 128 132 N = 260 X = 3.931 (Yates* correction applied) P(X2 >. 3.931 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .05; reject Hd at the .05 level, accept H, at the .01 level of significance. APPENDIX Q CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY. TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT (corrected for absentees) 228 CHI-SQUARE CONTINGENCY TABLES: RESEARCH INSTRUMENT VERSUS NO INSTRUMENT (corrected for absentees) H^: performance of the activity and receiving the research instrument are independent of one another. Activity 1 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 34 10 44 Did not perform the activity 94 72 166 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X2 = 6.229 P(X2 >. 6 .229 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .02; reject Hd at the .02 level, accept H. at .01 level of significance. Activity 2 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 7 3 10 Did not perform the activity 121 79 200 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X = .072 (Yates1 correction applied) P(X2 > .072 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .80; accept Hd at the .05 and .01 levels of significance. 229 Activity 3 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 18 1 19 Did not perform the activity 110 81 191 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X = 8.518 (Yates1 correction applied) P(X2 >. 8.518 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .005; reject Hd at the .005 level of significance. Activity 4 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 35 8 43 Did not perform the activity 93 74 167 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X2 = 9.494 P(X2 >. 9 .494 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .005; reject Hd at the .005 level of significance. Activity 5 Received research instrument Received no instrument Totals Performed the activity 11 3 14 Did not perform the activity 117 79 196 Totals 128 82 N = 210 X = 1.244 (Yates1 correction applied) P(X2 >_ 1 .244 | 1 d.f., Hd) < .30; accept Hd at the .05 and .01 levels of significance. 

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