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An ethological analysis of the communicative behaviour of infant and preschool hearing impaired children McAlpine, Linda Marjorie 1979

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AN ETHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOUR OF INFANT AND PRESCHOOL HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN by LINDA MARJORIE MCALPINE B.A., American U n i v e r s i t y of B e i r u t , 1968 B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of New Brunswick, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n 1 THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY 1979 c l Linda M a r j o r i e McAlpine, 1979 In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of th i s thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department Of Education  The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date August 4, 1979 D E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 1 E Abstract A review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed a p a u c i t y of research on the communicative behaviour of hearing impaired i n f a n t and preschool c h i l d r e n . The aim of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to provide d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p -t i v e data on communicative behaviour from which hypotheses could be generated. A second aim was to t e s t the e f f i c a c y of Woodward's Method i n observing hearing impaired c h i l d r e n . Woodward (1977), devised a video-taped Method of a n a l y z i n g observations which used e t h o l o g i c a l elements to code behaviour. Behaviour l a s t i n g as l i t t l e as 1/60 of a second could be detected w i t h the equipment used. The Method's procedure f o r re c o r d i n g data permitted a r e l i a b l e means of i n f e r r i n g Jakobson's (1960) s i x Communication Functions, P i a g e t i a n stages of c o g n i t i v e development and P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g -u r a t i o n s . The Method was used to s e q u e n t i a l l y record observations of the communicative behaviour of three hearing impaired i n f a n t and preschool g i r l s who were videotaped i n t h e i r homes as they played and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h people. Comparisons to the behaviour of the two normally hearing i n f a n t s i n Woodward's study were made. No g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s could be made from the comparisons because of the l i m i t e d sample s i z e i n both s t u d i e s . Comparisons were only made f o r the purpose of generating hypotheses. The a n a l y s i s revealed that these three g i r l s used many of the same Elements of Behaviour to communicate a message as the two normally hearing i n f a n t s i n the Woodward study. Two exceptions were noted. The three c h i l d r e n i n the sample spent more time attempting to communicate i n general than the hearing babies and i n p a r t i c u l a r , they used more P h a t i c communication. Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g which arose from the recording of the P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s was that the three c h i l d r e n i n the sample appeared to have the same "thought r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s " as t h e i r hearing peers. The Method a l s o provided a procedure i i f o r r e c o r d i n g anecdotal data. Information from these data, i n a d d i t i o n to the f i n d i n g s from the a n a l y s i s , generated numerous hypotheses and questions which When submitted to more s c i e n t i f i c s c r u t i n y w i l l help i n supplying needed data i n t h i s r e l a t i v e l y unexplored area. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE PAGE LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x i i i ACKNCTOED3EMENI5 xiv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Background and Rationale 2 Method for Analysis and Observation ; 3 Purpose of the Study 5 Limitations 5 Definitions 6 II RELATED LITERATURE 10 Introduction 10 Studies of Communicative Behaviour i n the Hearing Impaired Child 10 Studies of O^mmunicative "Patterns" 10 Comparative Studies of Ccranunicative Behaviour i n Hearing Impaired Children and Hearing Children 12 Communication and Cognitive Development 15 Cognitive Development of Children who are Hearing Impaired... 16 Studies of the Language and Oarrmunication Development of Infant and Preschool Hearing Impaired Children 18 Studies of Communication Categories and Ethological Studies.. 21 iv CHAPTER PAGE Communication Categories 21 Ethological Studies 24 Summary 27 in::, .METHODS AND PROCEDURE 30 INTRODUCTION 30 SUBJECTS 30 PREPARATION OF THE DATA 33 Procedures for Recording Raw Data 33 Procedure for Dubbing the Time Signal 36 Procedure for Acccmodating Poor Synchronization 37 CODING PROCEDURES 38 Videotape Record Log 38 Primary Ceding 41 Auditory Sequence 41 Visual Sequence 4 2 Activity Sequence 44 Secondary Coding 45 Rel i a b i l i t y of the Coding 46 ANALYSIS OF DATA 47 EQUIPMENT 48 Equipment for Recording and Replaying of Data 48 Equipment for Dubbing on the Time Signal 57 v CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION 54 INTRODUCTION 54 RELIABILITY OF THE METHOD 55 Source of Low Re l i a b i l i t y 56 Privileged Information 56 Coding Inaccuracy 57 Poor Technical Quality of the Raw Data 57 Vulnerability of Short Term Items 58 Underestimation of Agreement by REL 58 Rel i a b i l i t y of Coding Elements of Environment 59 Rel i a b i l i t y of Coding Elements of Behaviour 59 Rel i a b i l i t y of Coding Inferential Codes 73 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 74 Occurrences of Ccmmunication Functions and Elements of Behaviour 77 Associated Elements of Behaviour 78 Behaviours that Co-Occur with Elements of Behaviour (Combinations or "Patterns") 88 Occurrences of the Piagetian Stages of Cognitive Development... 118 Piagetian Configuraton 121 v i CHAPTER PAGE SUMMARY 121 V IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 124 imTODUCTION 124 B1PLICATIONS 125 Implications from the Anecdotal Data and Analysis 125 Nonverbal Behaviour and Gestures 125 Amount of Crjmmunication 126 Patterns of Cfcaimunication 127 Reception of Message . 128 Effects of Sound Environment 129 Communication with Others i n the Environment 130 Implications from the Findings on Ctommunicaton 131 Implications from Findings Related to Piagetian Stages of Cognitive Development 132 STRENGTHS OF THE METHOD 133 Advantages of the Method. 133 Procedures for Observing and Recording 133 Allowance for Reanalysis of Data 134 Reliabi l i t y of Definitions 135 Controlled Coding Bias 136 v i i CHAPTER s PAGE Further Advantages of the Method 136 Uses of the Method 138 Suitability for Development Studies 139 Suitability as a Training Tool 139 Suitability as a C l i n i c a l Tool 140 LIMITATIONS OF THE METHOD AND STUDY -141 HYPOTHESES ARISING FROM THE STUDY 142 LITERATURE CITED 150 APPENDIX I ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENT 157 APPENDIX II ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOUR 160 APPENDIX III COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS.. 178 APPENDIX IV FUNCTIONAL DEFINITIONS OF PIAGETIAN STAGES 180 APPENDIX V OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF PIAGETIAN STAGES 184 APPENDIX VI DEFINITIONS OF PIAGETIAN CXXFIGURATIONS 187 APPENDIX VII PROGRAM PAT 188 APPENDIX VIII PROGRAM REL 192 APPENDIX IX PROGRAM INF 200 v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE III 1 Observation Schedule - 31 IV 1 Reliability of Coding: Categories of Elements of Environment—1 61 IV 2 Reliability of Coding: Categories of Elements of Environment—2. 62 IV 3 Reliability of Coding: Categories of Elements of Behaviour of Head 63 IV 4 Reliability of Coding: Categories of Elements of Behaviour of Limbs 64 IV 5 Reliability of Coding: Vocal Elements and Special Codes 65 IV 6 Reliability of Cciding: Selected Elements of Behaviour -Face 1 66 IV 7 Reliability of Coding: Selected Elements of Behaviour -Face 2 67 IV 8 Reliability of Coding: Selected Elements of Behaviour -Gestures and Manipulations 68 IV 9 Reliability of Coding: Inferential Codes 70 IV 10 Reliability when Code Ignored - Incidence 71 IV 11 Reliability when Code Ignored - Incidence (cont.) -72 IV 12 Occurrence: Referential, (Donative, Expressive, Phatic, Poetic, Metalingual Communication and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) 74 IV 13 Occurrence and Co-Occurrence: Vocalization, "Looking at People", and Speech 76 ix TABLE PAGE IV 14 Occurrence: Normal Face, Smile, Wide Eyes, Play Face, Eyebrow Flash, Blink, Low Frown, Mouth Open, Lips Firm, and Pursed Lips » 79 IV 15 Occurrence: Special Codes 80 IV 16 Occurrence: Point, Hold Out, Immobile and Signing 81 IV 17 Joint Occurrence: Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), Play Face(PF), Normal Face (NF), Lips Firm (IS), Low Frown (LN), Puzzled Look (PZ) , Pursed Lips (PX), and (jcarimunication as a Group (CF) , .84 IV 18 Joint Occurrence: Vocalization (V0), "Looking at People" (L), Vocalization or "Looking at People" ( V 0 U l/V0/\L) / Vocalization and "Looking at People" (V0/^L), Point (P0), Hold Out (H0), and Communication Functions as a Group(CF) 85 TV 19 Joint Occurrence: Normal Face (NL) , Smile (ZL) , Wide Eyes (WE) , Play Face (PF), Eyebrow Flash (EF), and Communication Function as a Group (CF) 86 IV 20 Joint Occurrence: Signed Word (OH), Mouthed Word(MD) and Ccranunication Functions as a Group (CF) 87 TV 21 Contingent Occurrence of Vocalization (V0), "Looking at People" (L), Vocalization of "Looking at people" ( V 0 U L / V 0 A L ) , Vocalization and "Looking at People" (V0AL) and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) 89 x TABLE PAGE IV\ Contingent Occurrence of Smile(ZL), Wide Eyes(WE), Play Face(PF), Normal(NL), Lips Firm(LS), Low Frown(LN), Puzzled Look(PZ), Pursed Lips(PX) Given Ccmmunication Functions as a Group (CF) 90 IV 23 Contingent Occurrence of Signed Word(QH), Mouthed Word(MD) and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) 91 IV 24 Contingent Occurrence of Communication Functions as a Group(CF) Given Vocalization(V0), "Looking at People"(L), Point(P0), and Hold Out (H0) 92 IV 25 Contingent Occurrence of Communication Functions as a Group(CF) Given Smile(ZL), Wide Eyes(WE), Play Face(PF), Lips Firm(LS), Low Frown (LN) , Puzzled Look(PZ) , and Pursed Lips(PX) 93 IV 26 Apparent Positive or Apparent Negative Association: Communication Funtions as a Group(CF) and Selected Elements of Behaviour (EB) 95 XV 27 Apparent Positive or Apparent Negative Association: Referential Communication(RF) and Selected Elements of Behaviour (EB) 99 IV 28 Apparent Positive or Apparent Negative Association: Conative Ccmmunicaticn(CN) and Selected Elements of Behaviour (EB) 102 IV 29 Apparent Positive or Apparent Negative Association: Expressive Communication(EX) and Selected Elements of Behaviour (EB) J-05 x i TABLE PAGE IV 30 Apparent Positive or Negative Association: Phatic Ccrannunication (PJ) and Selected Elements of Behaviour (EB) 108 IV 31 Frequency of Data: Occurrence of Item Codes 117 IV 32 Occurrence: Piagetian Stages 119 IV 33 Occurrence: Piagetian Configuration—Imitation, Delayed Imitation, Symbolic Play, and Motor Representation 120 x i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Example of a Videotape Record Log 40 2 Example of a Cross Tabulation1:, Referential Ccraraunication(RF) and "Looking at People" (L) 49 i 3 Diagram of Equipment used to Dub Time Signal onto the Raw Data.... 52 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o t h a n k my Committee C h a i r m a n , D r . E m i l y G o e t z , f o r h e r t i m e , h e r s u p p o r t , and b e l i e f t h a t t h i s s t u d y c o u l d be done. I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k t h e o t h e r members o f t h e Committee, D r . P e r r y L e s l i e f o r f o c u s s i n g my a t t e n t i o n on t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s and c u r t a i l i n g my sermons a n d D r . B u f f O l d r i d g e f o r p i c k i n g up t h e t h r e a d s and t y i n g them t o g e t h e r . Many t h a n k s go t o D r . P a t Woodward f o r a l l o w i n g me t o u s e h e r Method and most o f a l l f o r h e r e n c o u r a g e m e n t , e n t h u s i a s m and i n s p i r a t i o n . T hanks go a l s o t o Norm Lew f o r h i s a c c u r a c y and h i s a b i l i t y t o s u p p l y humour t o an o t h e r w i s e t e d i o u s t a s k . My t h a n k s a l s o go t o B e t h F o r b e s f o r p r o v i d i n g me t h e w h e r e w i t h a l l t o s e t o u t i n t h i s e n d e a v o u r . I owe a d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o D r . C. D. McLean o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C h i l d r e n ' s D i a g n o s t i c C e n t r e . W i t h o u t h e r c o - o p e r a t i o n t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n o t have b e e n p o s s i b l e . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k t h e p a r e n t s o f S, H, and C f o r a l l o w i n g me t o come t o t h e i r homes. I e s p e c i a l l y want t o t h a n k S, H, and C f o r a l t h o u g h t h e y were b e f o r e me on t h e s c r e e n f o r many h o u r s , t h e y were a l w a y s f a s c i n a t i n g . xiv Thanks go t o I a n F r a n k s f o r d o i n g w i t h o u t h i s e q u i p m e n t f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e and t o P a u l D a r q u i n f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e n e e d e d and p r e -v e n t i n g me f r o m d e s t r o y i n g d a t a . A n o t h e r p e r s o n t o whom t h a n k s a r e due i s L e w i s V a r g a who s p e n t many l o n g h o u r s u n t a n g l i n g c o m p u t e r p r o b l e m s and f o r d e s i g n i n g a c c u r a t e , i n f o r m a t i v e p r o -grams . S p e c i a l t h a n k s goes t o C h e r y l Brown f o r p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r and s o l a c e . L a s t l y I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my c o l l e g u e s i n t h e H u t s f o r t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s h i p and good c h e e r t h r o u g h many a l o n g e v e n i n g . xv 1 CHAPTER I I N T R O D U C T I O N B a c k g r o u n d and R a t i o n a l e A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s i n h e a r i n g im-p a i r e d i n f a n t s and p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r e v e a l s t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s h a v e n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y s p e c i f i e d ( M u l h o l l a n d , 1967; Q u i g l e y , 1 9 6 9 ) . The n e e d f o r more d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s seems c r i t i c a l as i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o a c q u i r e l a n g u a g e p e a k s somewhere between t h e a g e s o f one and f o u r y e a r s ( L e n n e b e r g , 1967; M c N e i l l , 1966; Moores, 1970; M y k l e b u s t , 1 9 5 4 ) . I n d e e d , Q u i g l e y (1966) has s t a t e d t h a t more r e s e a r c h on l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n t h i s age r a n g e , b e c a u s e i t i s " t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t a r e a f o r l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e s e a r c h w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n " ( Q u i g l e y , 1966, p . 1 5 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t a l s o seems t o be t h e most n e g l e c t e d ( Q u i g l e y , 1966; S c h l e s i n g e r and Meadow, 1 9 7 2 ) . S u c c e s s f u l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e d e a f i s r o o t e d i n t h e a r e a o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t and c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( L e w i s , 1968; S i l v e r m a n , 1 9 6 9 ) . Thus a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e 2 l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y i f we a r e t o p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e method f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d c o n v e n t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n l e v e l s i n c h i l d r e n who a r e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . B r a s e l and Q u i g l e y (19 7 7 ) , t h r o u g h t h e i r s t u d y o f p a r e n t and c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s , f o u n d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e amount and t y p e o f communica-t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s w i t h t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l and i n f a n t y e a r s h a d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e e v e n t u a l l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h t h e c h i l d a t t a i n e d . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s a p p e a r e d t o h a v e a c r u c i a l i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n a b i l i t i e s . Moores (1 9 7 0 ) , S a r a c h a n - D e i l y and L o v e (19 74) and S t r e n g , K r e t s c h m e r and K r e t s c h m e r (1978) c o n c u r r e d . Moores (1970) e v e n went as f a r as t o s t a t e t h a t "any p r o g r a m t h a t i s i n i t i a t e d a f t e r t h e age o f f i v e , no m a t t e r what methods a r e u s e d , i s doomed t o f a i l u r e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e a f c h i l d r e n " (p.43) . More r e c e n t r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d on t h e i n f a n t and p r e s c h o o l y e a r s b y L i n g and L i n g (1974, 1 9 7 6 ) . They u s e d a c h e c k l i s t t o r e c o r d t h e f r e q u e n c y a n d t y p e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r r i n g between t h e m o t h e r and t h e i n f a n t o r p r e s c h o o l h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d i n t h e home. T h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l d a t a a b o u t t h e 3 s t a g e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . However, d e s c r i p t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f t y p e s o r c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e n o t a d d r e s s e d b y t h e a u t h o r s . D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e t y p e s and c a t e g o r i e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s w o u l d seem n e c e s s a r y and i m p o r t a n t . T h e s e d a t a w o u l d h e l p p r o v i d e i d e a s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . C e r t a i n l y , t h e y w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s l i m body o f d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t e a r l y c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d . Methods f o r A n a l y s i s a n d O b s e r v a t i o n B o t h p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s n e e d t o know what b e h a v i o u r s o c c u r d u r i n g t h e i n f a n t and p r e s c h o o l y e a r s s o t h e y c a n b e -come more s e n s i t i v e t o e a r l y a t t e m p t s t o communicate. T h i s e x a m i n e r h a s made an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e may be s u b t l e , p r e v i o u s l y u n d e t e c t e d c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s e x h i b i t e d by t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n f a n t o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d . A w a r e n e s s o f s u c h d e v e l o p i n g b e h a v i o u r s i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t i m u l a t e g e n e r a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r s . I t w o u l d seem, t h e n , t h a t a method f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r w h i c h p r o d u c e s a maximum amount o f d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n i s n e e d e d so t h a t s m a l l e r u n i t s o f b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be d e s c r i b e d . S uch a c o m p r e h e n s i v e model f o r o b s e r v i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f h e a r i n g i n f a n t s i n t h e home was d e v i s e d by Woodward (19 7 7 ) . U s i n g e t h o l o g i s t s ' (McGrew, 1972; T i n b e r g e n , 1951, 1972) work a s a f o u n d a t i o n ; Woodward has d e v e l o p e d a v i d e o t a p e d 4 Method f o r e t h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f i n f a n t s ' p r e s p e e c h b e h a v i o u r i n s t o p f r a m e , s i x t h o f a s e c o n d s e g m e n t s . She u s e s n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g i n f a n t s f o r h e r s t u d y . Woodward's Method, w h i l e t i m e c o n s u m i n g , h a s b e e n -c h o s e n f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e i t y i e l d s a maximum amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a u s e f u l f e a t u r e i n an a r e a where t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d a t a . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a s t a n d a r d i z e d way t o a n a l y z e c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r t h a t p e r m i t s e x p l o r a t o r y c o m p a r i s o n s between t h i s sample and Woodward's e v e n t h o u g h t h e s a m p l e s a r e s m a l l . Woodward's Method f o c u s s e s on t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v e d c a t e g o r i e s ; 1. E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o u r , as d e f i n e d by e t h o l o g i s t s ( B r a n n i g a n a n d Humphries, 1972; G r a n t , 1 9 6 9 ) ; 2. C o m m u n i c a t i o n F u n c t i o n s , as d e f i n e d b y J a k o b s o n (1960) ; 3. C o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e d e f i n e d E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o u r and C o m m u n i c a t i o n F u n c t i o n s ; and 4. S u b s t a g e s o f t h e s e n s o r i m o t o r p e r i o d o f c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t ( P i a g e t , 1 9 5 2 ) . T h i s e x a m i n e r has u s e d Woodward's c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h i s s t u d y t o g e n e r a t e d a t a d e s c r i b i n g h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i n f a n t s ' and p r e s c h o o l h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r s i n an e x p l o r a t o r y a t t e m p t t o answer t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d b e l o w . 1. How do t h e y a t t e m p t t o communicate - what n o n v e r b a l 5 behaviours do they employ? 2 . How much time do they spend attempting t o communicate? 3. How does the amount o f time spent i n communicating compare w i t h the amount o f time spent by the h e a r i n g c h i l d ? 4. Can p a t t e r n s of behaviour used t o communicate a message by h y p o t h e s i z e d . I f so, how do they r e l a t e t o p a t t e r n s o f communication o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ? 5. Is the message communicated by the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e c e i v e d or noted? Purpose o f the Study The i n t e n t o f the study i s t o generate d e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l data o f communicative behaviour i n a b e g i n n i n g attempt to h e l p parents and educators l e a r n more about how the c h i l d communicates. The examiner has employed Woodward's Method both because i t i s comprehensive, and to t e s t i t s e f f i c a c y w i t h h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . Woodward's c a t e g o r i e s have been used i n order t o m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f methodology between the two s t u d i e s . L i m i t a t i o n s The sample s i z e i s s m a l l because of the coding time r e q u i r e d by the Method and l i m i t e d access to the p o p u l a t i o n . The s m a l l sample i n t h i s study and t h a t o f Woodward's 6 l i m i t s any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from the a n a l y s i s and from com-p a r i s o n s w i t h Woodward's sample. The a n a l y s i s can o n l y a l l o w s p e c u l a t i o n s o r f o r m u l a t i o n o f hypotheses from what i s observed t o be o c c u r r i n g w i t h these s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n . D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s have been adopted f o r the study. Elements o f Behaviour: These are e t h o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d u n i t s o f non-verbal and v e r b a l behaviour. (For more complete d e f i n i t i o n s o f each Element, see Appendix II.) Elements of Environment: These are coded d e s c r i p t i o n s o f u n i t s of the environment w i t h i n which the o b s e r v a t i o n s take p l a c e . (For more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n , see Appendix I.) Communication F u n c t i o n s : T h i s study concerns i t s e l f w i t h the s i x f u n c t i o n s o f communication d e f i n e d by Jakobson (1960); R e f e r e n t i a l , E x p r e s s i v e , Conative, M e t a l i n g u a l and P h a t i c . (For f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s , see pages and Appendix I I I . ) Combinations o f Elements o f Behaviour and Communication  F u n c t i o n s : These are s t a t i s t i c a l l y d e f i n e d as having an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y o f j o i n t o c c u r r e n c e . (See Chapter 3, Page Communication; Communication i s the " s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , o p i n i o n s , thoughts, i d e a s , or f e e l i n g s by two o 7 o r more i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r s a t i s f a c t o r y c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o o c c u r , b o t h p a r t n e r s a l r e a d y must s h a r e a common s y s t e m o r d e v i s e on s o t h a t e a c h c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e o t h e r ' s i n t e n t ( L i n g a n d L i n g , 1978, p . 2 3 ) . T h e s e t e r m s a r e commonly u s e d when r e f e r r i n g t o t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . H e a r i n g I m p a i r e d : C o n f u s i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y a r i s e s when d e f i n i n g t h e t e r m s d e a f and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . Moores (1978) u s e s t h e t e r m d e a f t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a s e v e r e t o p r o f o u n d h e a r i n g l o s s . The t e r m s d e a f and h a r d o f h e a r i n g h a v e b e e n r e d e f i n e d b y a c o m m i t t e e s e t up f o r t h a t p u r p o s e ( F r i s n a , 1 9 7 5 ) . The r e p o r t s u b -m i t t e d b y t h e c o m m i t t e e h a s b e e n a d o p t e d b y t h e C o n f e r e n c e o f E x e c u t i v e s o f A m e r i c a n S c h o o l s f o r t h e D e a f . I t p u t s f o r t h t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : A d e a f p e r s o n i s one whose h e a r i n g d i s a b i l i t y p r e c l u d e s s u c c e s s f u l p r o c e s s i n g o f l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h a u d i t i o n , w i t h o r w i t h o u t a h e a r i n g a i d . A h a r d o f h e a r i n g p e r s o n i s one who, g e n e r a l l y w i t h t h e u s e o f a h e a r i n g a i d , has r e s i d u a l h e a r i n g s u f f i c i e n t t o e n a b l e s u c c e s s f u l p r o c e s s i n g o f l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h a u d i t i o n . They s u g g e s t t h e u s e o f t h e g e n e r i c t e r m h e a r i n g  i m p a i r e d t o i n c l u d e b o t h d e a f and h a r d o f h e a r i n g p e r s o n s . T h i s e x a m i n e r h a s c h o s e n t o u s e t h e t e r m h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t s 8 may f a l l i n t o e i t h e r c a t e g o r y . The c o m m i t t e e a l s o s e t s o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . M i l d H e a r i n g L o s s : 24-54 dB. C h i l d r e n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s p e e c h and h e a r i n g a s s i s t a n c e . M o d e r a t e H e a r i n g L o s s : 55-69 dB. T h e s e c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s p e e c h , h e a r i n g a n d l a n g u a g e a s s i s t a n c e . S e v e r e H e a r i n g L o s s : 70-89 dB. T h e s e c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s p e e c h , h e a r i n g , l a n g u a g e an d e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . P r o f o u n d H e a r i n g L o s s : 90 dB. T h e s e c h i l d r e n g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s c h o o l p l a c e m e n t f o r s p e e c h , h e a r i n g , l a n g u a g e an d e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e . ( C l a r k e and L e s l i e , i n p r e s s ) . An a u d i o l o g i c a l method u s e d i n t e s t i n g y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n i s t h e f r e e - f i e l d method. Toy n o i s e makers w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r e m e a s u r e d on a s o u n d l e v e l m e t e r a r e u s e d . The c h i l d ' s r e a c t i o n s t o e a c h s o u n d p r e s e n t e d a r e o b s e r v e d and compared t o t h o s e l i s t e d on t h e I n d e x o f A u d i t o r y B e h a v i o u r ( M c C o n n e l l , 1 9 6 7 ) . T r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s l o o k f o r s u c h r e s p o n s e s as e y e - b l i n k s and h e a d t u r n i n g t o w a r d s s o u n d . ( N o r t h e r n and Downs, 1 9 7 4 ) . O r a l and T o t a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e b o t h p h i l o s o p h i e s f r o m w h i c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r t e a c h i n g t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d have 9 been d e r i v e d . The two p h i l o s o p h i e s of o r a l and t o t a l  communication are d e f i n e d as: O r a l P h i l o s o p h y : "Speech i s r e c o g n i z e d by s o c i e t y as the u n i v e r s a l mode o f communication: ... deaf c h i l d r e n who develop speech communication p r o f i c i e n c y d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d u l t i m a t e l y have more o p t i o n s open to them f o r e d u c a t i o n and f u l l e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y than those who do not develop speech communication s k i l l s ..." ( F l i n t , 1975). T o t a l Communication P h i l o s o p h y : "The r i g h t o f a deaf c h i l d t o l e a r n t o use a l l forms o f communication to develop language competence. T h i s i n c l u d e s the f u l l spectrum o f c h i l d d e v i s e d g e s t u r e s , speech, formal s i g n s , f i n g e r s p e l l i n g , speech-reading, r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . To every deaf c h i l d s h ould a l s o be p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n to use any remnant o f r e s i d u a l h e a r i n g he may have by employing the b e s t p o s s i b l e e l e c t r o n i c equipment f o r a m p l i f i e d sound." (Denton, 1969). 10 CHAPTER TWO RELATED L ITERATURE INTRODUCTION The c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r the study i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s Chapter. F i r s t , the a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h on communi-c a t i v e behaviour w i t h h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n i s surveyed, f o l l o w e d by a review o f the comparative s t u d i e s and h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . Next, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between communi-c a t i v e behaviour and c o g n i t i v e development i s d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , communication and e t h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s are reviewed to s u b s t a n t i a t e the need f o r u s i n g a more comprehensive method t o analyze the communicative behaviour o f h e a r i n g impaired i n f a n t s and p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . STUDIES OF COMMUNICATIVE BEHAVIOUR IN THE HEARING IMPAIRED CHILD Stu d i e s o f Communicative " P a t t e r n s " In a l o n g i t u d i n a l study, Lewis (1968) c o n s t r u c t e d an i n v e n t o r y o f s o c i a l and emotional terms i n an attempt t o determine what e f f e c t development of t h a t vocabulary would have on the p e r s o n a l i t y o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . He examined the c o r r e l a t i o n between vocabulary and p e r s o n a l i t y 11 and f o u n d s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t v o c a b u l a r y d e -v e l o p m e n t i n f l u e n c e d p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e v e r s e h y p o t h e s i s was a l s o s u p p o r t e d , i n t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p -ment a p p e a r e d t o a f f e c t v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s s t u d y , L e w i s made t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n who were h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d h a v e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . P a t t e r n s o f communica-t i o n f o r h i m i n c l u d e d g e s t u r e s , s i g n i n g , l i p r e a d i n g , f i n g e r -s p e l l i n g , s p e a k i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . L e w i s s t a t e d h i s b e l i e f i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f g e s t u r e s p . 194. He c o n s i d e r e d g e s t u r e s t o be p o t e n t i a l s y m b o l s . H i s m a i n f o c u s was on t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o he d i d n o t d e s c r i b e t h e p a t t e r n s . However, t h e s t u d y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t e r m , c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s , i m p l y i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h phenomena. L e w i s a l s o m easured t h e d e v e l o p i n g v o c a b u l a r y o f e m o t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , r a t e d b y t h e i r t e a c h e r s . He compared t h e s e d a t a w i t h t h o s e f o r t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n r a i s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n p a t t e r n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n between g r o u p s . A t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s f i r s t f o c u s s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s a n d c o m p a r i s o n s o f v o c a l i z a t i o n s , i n p a r t i -c u l a r , o f b a b b l i n g . Numerous a u t h o r s have r e p o r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who a r e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d b a b b l e j u s t as h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n do ( L e n n e b e r g , 1967; M a v i l y a , 1970; M e r l e a u P o n t y , 1950; M y k l e b u s t , 1966; S h e e t s , 1971, T e r v o o r t , 1964; 12 Van R i p e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . I t i s a f t e r t h e b a b b l i n g s t a g e t h a t a gap i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o c c u r s . The n e x t p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h t h e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n was s t u d i e d seems t o be a f t e r t h e c h i l d h a s e n t e r e d s c h o o l . The p r e d o m i n a n t age g r o u p s t u d i e d i s t h e s e v e n t o t w e l v e y e a r o l d s ( G r o h t , 1958; H a r r i s , 1968; Lehman, 1971; L e w i s , 196 8; T e r v o o r t , 1 9 7 5 ) . V e r y o f t e n t h e s t u d i e s compared t h e l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n (Ivemey, 1976; Q u i g l e y , 1974; R u s s e l l , Q u i g l e y and Power, 1976; S a r a c h a n - D e i l y a n d L o v e , 1974; T o b i n and W i l c o x , 19 7 4 ) . C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d i e s o f C o m m u n i c a t i v e B e h a v i o u r i n H e a r i n g  I m p a i r e d and H e a r i n g C h i l d r e n Simmons (1971) e x a m i n e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n s o f l a n g u a g e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n g r o w t h . She s t a t e d t h a t h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n f o l l o w e d t h e same u n i v e r s a l de-v e l o p m e n t a l s t e p s as h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ( p . 2 9 1 ) . The s t a t e -ment was b a s e d on h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d sample compared t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d by L e w i s (196 3 ) . I t i s Simmons* e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n and h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e . However, she d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s c r i b e t h e de-v e l o p m e n t a l s t e p s p r e c e d i n g t h e u s e o f s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s . 13 McConnell (1971) s u b s t a n t i a t e d Simmons' o b s e r v a t i o n s of the developmental p a t t e r n s of communication w i t h those of h i s own. In an a r t i c l e on the psychology o f communica-t i o n , he s t a t e d t h a t d u r i n g the p r e l i n g u a l y e a r s , communication o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n developed i n the same manner as the h e a r i n g c h i l d . He noted through h i s e xperiences i n a N a s h v i l l e parent t r a i n i n g program t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the development o f communication between the groups became apparent a t age three when the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ' s attempts to communicate became l e s s f r e -quent. For the m a j o r i t y o f these c h i l d r e n the e f f i c i e n c y o f communication a l s o appeared to develop a t a slower r a t e than i n h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . In a d i s c u s s i o n o f these f i n d i n g s McConnell supported the importance o f e a r l y development t o l a t e r communicative s k i l l s i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . His recommendations, however, were based on p r e v i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n s of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . One might q u e s t i o n McConnell*s assumption t h a t s t r a t e g i e s drawn from normally h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n would be e f f e c t i v e w i t h h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . McConnell d i d not t e s t h i s assumption. The f a c t t h a t McConnell sub-s t a n t i a t e d Simmons' o b s e r v a t i o n s o f developmental communica-t i o n p a t t e r n s i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n as w e l l as the importance to communication o f experiences i n the f i r s t y ears o f l i f e i s germane to t h i s study. Both Simmons and McConnell a l s o advocated the importance o f environment on 14 t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S a r a c h a n - D e i l y and L o v e (1974) compared t h e u n d e r -l y i n g g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s t r u c t u r e s o f p r e t e e n c h i l d r e n who h a d n o r m a l h e a r i n g w i t h t h o s e who were h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . A c u r s o r y o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s u l t s i m p l i e s a l i n g u i s t i c s u p e r i o r i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . T h ey s t a t e t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y b u t , c i t i n g L e n n e b e r g (196 7) and Moores (19 7 0 ) , t h e y p r e s e n t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r e s c h o o l e x -p e r i e n c e s e x i s t b etween t h e two g r o u p s . S a r a c h a n - D e i l y and L o v e d i d n o t c o n j e c t u r e as t o what t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e . B e f o r e we h y p o t h e s i z e a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , i t w o u l d seem n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e t h e body o f d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a a b o u t p r e s c h o o l c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . S i m m o n s - M a r t i n (1976) i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . U s i n g h e r e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t e p s i n h e a r i n g and h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n , s h e has f o r m u l a t e d an a u d i t o r y g l o b a l t e c h n i q u e u s i n g g r a m m a t i c a l e x p a n s i o n and m o d e l l i n g . The t e c h n i q u e has b e e n u s e d i n a h o m e l i k e s e t t i n g where b o t h p a r e n t s a n d p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . H e r i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t s w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e g i v e s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r p r e s c h o o l i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t h e r r e s u l t s a r e due, i n p a r t , t o t h e u s e o f a h o m e l i k e e n v i r o n m e n t . 15 Both the Sarachan-Deily and Love (1974) and the Simmons-Martin work g i v e evidence of the need f o r more d e t a i l e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l data d u r i n g the p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . The Simmons-Martin work i n t r o d u c e s a new f a c t o r t o be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d , t h a t o f environment. Environment i s d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . COMMUNICATION AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Another component which i n f l u e n c e s communicative Behaviour i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n i s the l e v e l o f c o g n i t i v e development. Many authors p o i n t out a r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the development o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s and communication development (Bruner, 1968; S i n c l a i r De Zwart, 1971; Vygotsky, 1962). Consequently c o g n i t i v e development i s , n e c e s s a r i l y , a r e l e v a n t f a c t o r t o be c o n s i d e r e d along w i t h the environmental f a c t o r . F u r t h e r support f o r i n -c l u d i n g an o b s e r v a t i o n a l measure of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n communication s t u d i e s comes from Brown (19 73) . He s t a t e s , " I t i s my impression t h a t f i r s t meanings are an e x t e n s i o n o f the k i n d o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t Jean P i a g e t c a l l s s e n s o r i -motor." (Brown, 1973, p.198). Mehrabian and W i l l i a m s expand: ... i f a c h i l d uses non v e r b a l media f o r communication p r i o r t o h i s use of a language, then i t would seem t h a t , from among h i s p r e - v e r b a l r e p e t o i r e o f behaviours, those 16 which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a b i l i t y s h ould be the b e s t p r e d i c t o r s of h i s subsequent speed i n a c q u i r i n g language. (Mehrabian and W i l l i a m s , 1971, p.114) In the s t u d i e s comparing the language usage o f c h i l d r e n who are h e a r i n g impaired w i t h t h a t of h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n (see pp.12-15), i t i s g e n e r a l l y found t h a t the a b i l i t y o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n to convey a p p r o p r i a t e symbols, or to r e p r e s e n t t h e i r thoughts to o t h e r s i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l manner i s not as s o p h i s t i c a t e d as t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s . I f we are t o l e a r n why t h i s i s t r u e , i t would seem we should look more c l o s e l y a t the c o g n i t i v e development o f the c h i l d who i s h e a r i n g impaired d u r i n g the sensorimotor p e r i o d . T h i s has been suggested by Brown (1973) and Mehrabian and W i l l i a m s (1971). In p a r t i c u l a r , i t seems we should look a t the r o l e p l a y e d by non-verbal media i n the c h i l d ' s attempt to communicate d u r i n g the sensorimotor p e r i o d . For the most complete and a u t h o r i t a -t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the sensorimotor p e r i o d , the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o P i a g e t (1952). D e f i n i t i o n s o f the stages and substages o f c o g n i t i v e development used i n t h i s study are i n Appendices IV and V. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WHO ARE HEARING IMPAIRED Researchers have found t h a t the most f r u i t f u l means of a s c e r t a i n i n g and subsequently, s t u d y i n g the c o g n i t i v e 17 d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n who a r e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d i s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f P i a g e t i a n t a s k s (Bradshaw, 1964; D i h o f f and Chapman, 1975; F u r t h , 1966, 1973; O l e r o n , 1953, 1 9 5 7 ) . B o t h O l e r o n a n d F u r t h were p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g o f c h i l d r e n a g e d s i x t o e i g h t y e a r s ; b o t h u s e d o n l y p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l a n d c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l t a s k s . I t seems t h a t u n t i l r e c e n t l y P i a g e t i a n t a s k s h a v e n o t b e e n u s e d t o s t u d y t h e c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e s e n s o r i m o t o r p e r i o d . Y e t i t i s what happens d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y s t a g e w h i c h c o u l d be c r u c i a l t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n de-v e l o p m e n t i n h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n . D i h o f f a n d Chapman (1975) d e v e l o p e d a n o n v e r b a l P i a g e t i a n - t y p e a s s e s s m e n t f o r t h e p r e - o p e r a t i o n a l h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d . They f o u n d t h a t t h e c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p -ment o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n two t o f i v e y e a r s o f age was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f h e a r i n g p e e r s . The a s s e s s m e n t i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l s e n s o r i m o t o r t a s k s a n d a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h o s e t a s k s . T h i s a p p e a r e d t o be t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t t o u s e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s f o r s t u d y i n g c o g n i t i v e d e -v e l o p m e n t i n h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e s e n s o r i -motor p e r i o d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s were o n l y a b y p r o d u c t o f t h e s t u d y w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o v e r i f y t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e d i s c u s s i o n was c o n f i n e d t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t a s k s and t h e r a t i o n a l e 18 f o r those t a s k s . D i s c u s s i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t u a l responses was not i n c l u d e d . Streng, Kretschmer and Kretschmer (1978) pre s e n t e d steps o f language a c q u i s i t i o n i n a s u c c i n c t model by p u t t i n g grammatical s t r u c t u r e s i n t o a P i a g e t i a n framework. They l i n k e d v a r i o u s grammatical a c q u i s i t i o n to age l e v e l s t h a t correspond w i t h P i a g e t ' s stages o f c o g n i t i v e de-velopment. The model d e t a i l e d p r o g r e s s i o n from simple grammatical sentences to more complex ones. In t h i s way, the authors r e l a t e d the development of communication s k i l l s t o P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development. However, as w i t h the D i h o f f and Chapman study, d i s c u s s i o n was c o n f i n e d t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t a s k s . In s p i t e of the progress made by s t u d y i n g communication d u r i n g the sensorimotor p e r i o d , t h e r e i s s t i l l a need f o r d e s c r i b i n g the nonverbal media used by the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d t o communicate. A l s o d e s c r i p t i o n of communication develop-ment d u r i n g the sensorimotor p e r i o d i s needed i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e the body of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h a t area. STUDIES OF THE LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION DEVELOPMENT OF INFANT AND PRESCHOOL HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , there have been few s t u d i e s which have examined the a c q u i s i t i o n of communication s k i l l s by the i n f a n t o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d who i s h e a r i n g impaired. One was conducted by M u l h o l l a n d (196 7). She r e p o r t e d the speech r e a d i n g development o f one c h i l d from t e n months 19 u n t i l two y e a r s . The c h i l d was o n l y seen d u r i n g h o u r l y therapy s e s s i o n s o u t s i d e the home. Mulholland's work l e d her t o formulate g u i d e l i n e s f o r day c l a s s e s f o r the h e a r i n g impaired (Mulholland and F e l l e n d o r f , 1968). The s t r e n g t h o f Mulholland's work was t h a t i t presented d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f de v e l o p i n g communication d u r i n g the pr e s c h o o l y e a r s . I t was l i m i t e d by the f a c t t h a t Mulholland's c o n c e n t r a t i o n was o n l y on a s m a l l segment o f the c h i l d ' s t o t a l environment. C a l v e r t and S i l v e r -man (1975), Sheets (1971) and Moores (1978) s t a t e d t h a t the t o t a l environment w i t h i n which communication develops should become a focus f o r r e s e a r c h . The home comprises a major p a r t o f t h a t t o t a l environment and as such must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p l a n n i n g o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . A c c o r d i n g l y , L i n g and L i n g (1974) study normal i n f a n t s i n t h e i r home environment. T h e i r observers used a c h e c k l i s t o f e i g h t media f o r communication i n order t o examine the frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g between mother and c h i l d . The e i g h t media i n v e s t i g a t e d were v o c a l behaviour, v e r b a l behaviour, eye c o n t a c t , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , body p o s t u r e , a c t i o n , demonstration and g e s t u r e . The c h e c k l i s t allowed the observers t o r e c o r d the frequency o f the communicative i n t e r a c t i o n s o r t h e i r i n t e n t . L i n g and L i n g wished t o a s c e r t a i n whether age, sex o r p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y were f a c t o r s i n determining the amount o f communication between mother and c h i l d . They found t h a t i n 20 c h i l d t o mother i n t e r a c t i o n s t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o age, sex o r p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y . However, i n the case o f mother t o c h i l d i n t e r a c -t i o n s , the r e s u l t s were d i f f e r e n t . Mothers communicated v e r b a l l y w i t h f i r s t born c h i l d r e n t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than w i t h l a s t born c h i l d r e n . Up t o the age of nine months, h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n used more v o c a l i z a t i o n s , eye co n t a c t and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n t o communicate. A f t e r the age o f nine months, these modes were used l e s s f r e q u e n t l y and the v e r b a l i z a t i o n mode began to dominate. Other L i n g and L i n g (1976) r e s e a r c h employed the same method t o observe and r e c o r d the amount and type o f communication between mothers and h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . In c o n t r a s t t o the pr e v i o u s study, i t was found t h a t mothers of h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n used v e r b a l communica-t i o n l e s s f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . These mothers r e l i e d more on eye c o n t a c t and a c t i o n t o communicate. When compared t o h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , i t was found t h a t c h i l d r e n who are he a r i n g impaired, l i k e t h e i r mothers, used more eye c o n t a c t and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n . On the b a s i s o f t h i s f i n d i n g , L i n g and L i n g (1976) t r a i n e d mothers o f h e a r i n g impaired babies to use more v e r b a l communication. P r e v e r b a l communication, i . e . word approximations and s p e e c h - l i k e s y l l a b l e s , i n -creased s i g n i f i c a n t l y . A l i m i t a t i o n o f the L i n g and L i n g method i s t h e i r method f o r r e c o r d i n g which i s cumbersome. At l e a s t two 21 observers must be p h y s i c a l l y p r e s e n t , each m a n i p u l a t i n g a c l i p b o a r d and stopwatch. T h i s method c o u l d be more d i s t r a c t i n g t o the s u b j e c t s than one observer w i t h a videotape r e c o r d e r . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f the study i s t h a t communication i s analyzed i n one second b i t s chosen a t s y s t e m a t i c i n t e r v a l s so t h a t p e r t i n e n t p i e c e s o f data may not have been observed and t h e r e f o r e l o s t t o a n a l y s i s . The s t r e n g t h o f the study l i e s i n t h a t i t appears t o be the f i r s t attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e both v e r b a l and nonverbal communication o f the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d w i t h i n the home. L i n g and L i n g have used the i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e i r study as a b a s i s f o r a p a r e n t a l t r a i n i n g procedure. As s t a t e d above, the t r a i n i n g procedure produced p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on the m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s and a l s o had p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ' s communica-t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t the informa-t i o n r e s u l t e d i n an e f f e c t i v e program. The i m p l i c a t i o n , i n t u r n , g i v e s support to the c o n j e c t u r e o f f u r t h e r need f o r more d e s c r i p t i v e data. STUDIES OF COMMUNICATION CATEGORIES AND ETHOLOGICAL STUDIES Communication C a t e g o r i e s In a review o f the l i t e r a t u r e , Tweedie (1974) found no procedure r e p o r t e d f o r d e s c r i b i n g communicative behaviour i n c h i l d r e n . He d i d , however, f i n d a procedure f o r e v a l u -a t i n g communicative behaviour developed by C u r t i s and 22 Donlon (1971). They developed the T e l e d i a g n o s t i c P r o t o c o l , which was a s c a l e f o r r e c o r d i n g behaviour l e v e l s o f c h i l d r e n who were both deaf and b l i n d . T h i s instrument used videotape i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f communication i n e i g h t unique s i t u a t i o n s . The e i g h t s i t u a t i o n s were: 1. Un s t r u c t u r e d o b s e r v a t i o n 2. Task o r i e n t a t i o n 3. I n t e r p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n 4. Stimulus o r i e n t a t i o n 5. A c t i v i t y o f d a i l y l i v i n g I : e a t i n g 6. A c t i v i t y o f d a i l y l i v i n g I I : washing 7. Formal l e a r n i n g experience 8. Informal s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . A behaviour r a t i n g form was completed f o r each s i t u a -t i o n . The form used a f i v e p o i n t s c a l l i n g procedure t o r a t e the f u n c t i o n of e i g h t communication m o d a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h r e e systems o f communication: the r e c e p t i v e , the r e f e r e n t and the e x p r e s s i v e . Tweedie's o b j e c t i v e was t o t r a i n speech p a t h o l o g i s t s t o observe communication i n c h i l d r e n who are deaf and b l i n d . The performance o f the c h i l d r e n was, t h e r e f o r e , not d i s c u s s e d . The major f i n d i n g f o r him was t h a t the P r o t o c o l enhanced the development of o b s e r v a t i o n s k i l l s . L i k e L i n g and L i n g (1974, 1976), Tweedie does not d i s c u s s the s i t u a t i o n o r the communication m o d a l i t i e s i n d e t a i l . S t i l l Tweedie's r e s e a r c h i s p e r t i n e n t t o the pr e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f o r f o u r reasons. F i r s t , i t examines 23 communication i n terms of i t s f u n c t i o n s . Second, the r e -search examines communication w i t h i n the " t o t a l environment" ( C a l v e r t and Silverman, 1975) of the c h i l d . In Tweedie's case, however, the " t o t a l environment" i s an i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i r d , Tweedie's aim i s to enhance the o b s e r v a t i o n of communication s k i l l s . F o u rth, data are c o l l e c t e d by means of a vi d e o t a p e . A l l f o u r o f these v a r i a b l e s have been i n -cluded i n the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . D i e b o l d , C u r t i s and DuBose (1978) compare the use o f the C u r t i s and Donlon P r o t o c o l w i t h use of developmental s c a l e s f o r a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n who are deaf and b l i n d . While they f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the two s c a l e s , they b e l i e v e the use of both s c a l e s would produce a more comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n ' s t o t a l develop-ment. Both the D i e b o l d , C u r t i s and DuBose e v a l u a t i o n and Tweedie's work are l i m i t e d by the minimal d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n which communication o c c u r s . The importance o f the D i e b o l d , C u r t i s and DuBose work f o r t h i s study i s the authors' use o f a s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l t o o l t o d e s c r i b e the communication i n terms of developmental s t e p s . Both the Tweedie and the D i e b o l d , C u r t i s and DuBose i n v e s t i g a t i o n are important because they i n t r o d u c e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f v i d e o t a p i n g communicative behaviour i n the t o t a l environment. Another means f o r s t u d y i n g communication i n terms o f i t s f u n c t i o n s i s suggested by M i l l e r (1964) , Weir (1966), 24 and Bloom (1970) . These s i x f u n c t i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y -proposed by Jakobson (1960). They are comprised of the t h r e e suggested by K a r l Buhler (19 33): the e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n , the c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n and the r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n . The e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i s communication about the addressor o r exclamatory remarks. The c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n i s communication d i r e c t i n g the addressee or i m p e r a t i v e r e -marks and the r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i s communication d e s c r i b i n g the environment. These t h r e e f u n c t i o n s are i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h three more: p o e t i c communication, p h a t i c communication and m e t a l i n g u a l communication. P o e t i c communication i s communication f o r the p l e a s u r e i t g i v e s o n e s e l f . P h a t i c communication i s communication used t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h the addressee and m e t a l i n g u a l i s communication f o r p r a c t i c e . More d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n s appear i n Appendix I I I . I n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s i x communication f u n c t i o n s i n a method f o r o b s e r v i n g the communication of h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n would overcome some of the de-f i c t s o f the P r o t o c o l used by Tweedie (1974) and D i e b o l d , C u r t i s and DuBose (1978). Such a d e s c r i p t i o n would s t a n d a r d i z e the procedure and make the assessment of commun-i c a t i v e behaviour more r e l i a b l e . E t h o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s In h i s book on c h i l d r e n ' s speech, Hopper (19 73) d i s c u s s e d the importance o f determining what s p e c i f i c 25 a s p e c t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a r e i n v o l v e d i n s h a p i n g c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r . He p r o p o s e d f i v e c a t e g o r i e s f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e p e o p l e p r e s e n t ; what was s a i d b e f o r e ; t h e t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n ; t h e t a s k t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s b e i n g u s e d t o a c c o m p l i s h ; and t h e t i m e s and p l a c e s i n w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r s . U s i n g t h e s e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s w o u l d c l a r i f y t h e g e n e r a l t e r m e n v i r o n m e n t . C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t e r m w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o a more r e l i a b l e and i n f o r m a t i v e d a t a b a s e . E t h o l o g y , t h e s t u d y o f b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n i t s own e n v i r o n m e n t , p r o v i d e s a means by w h i c h t h e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r and t h e f i v e s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o u t l i n e b y Hopper c a n be o b s e r v e d and r e p o r t e d . I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , e t h o l o g i s t s h a v e d e f i n e d t h e E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o u r w h i c h combine t o r e p r e s e n t t o t a l o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o u r ( B l u r t o n J o n e s , 1972; B r a n n i g a n and Humphries, 1972; G r a n t , 1969; McGrew, 1972; a n d T i n b e r g e n and T i n b e r g e n , 1 9 7 2 ) . Woodward (1977) r e -c o r d s t h e e t h o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o u r ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I ) t o d e t e r m i n e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r . She i s a b l e t o o b s e r v e t h e s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e p r e - s p e e c h b e h a v i o u r o f i n f a n t s b y c o d i n g E l e m e n t s o f E n -v i r o n m e n t . The c o d e d E l e m e n t s p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e n s o r y e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n o c c u r s . To d e s c r i b e how c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p s w i t h i n t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d a s a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , a method o f o b s e r v a t i o n w o u l d n e e d t o i n c l u d e a c o m p o s i t e 26 d e s c r i p t i o n o f the nonverbal media as suggested by Mehrabian and W i l l i a m s (1971), the p a t t e r n s o f behaviour as d e f i n e d by e t h o l o g i s t s ( B l u r t o n Jones, 1972; e t a l . ) , the s i t u a -t i o n a l f a c t o r s (Hopper, 1973), communication f u n c t i o n s (Jakobson, 1960) and the sensorimotor data d e s c r i b e d by Brown (19 73). A l s o , i n o r d e r to be e t h o l o g i c a l l y sound, the method must i n c l u d e c a t e g o r i e s f o r d e s c r i b i n g the environment ( C a l v e r t and Silverman, 1975 and Moores, 1978) . Woodward's Method permits a l l of these o b s e r v a t i o n s . The Method i s , f i r s t , a refinement o f e t h o l o g i s t s ' p r o-cedures. Her a n a l y s i s of Elements o f Behaviour encompasses the nonverbal media suggested by Mehrabian and W i l l i a m s (1971) and the p a t t e r n s o f behaviour d e f i n e d by e t h o l o g i s t s ( B l u r t o n Jones, e t a l . ) . Her Elements o f Environment d e s c r i b e Hopper's s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Woodward's i n -f e r e n t i a l codes i n c o r p o r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Jakobson's s i x communication f u n c t i o n s , as w e l l as the P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development as suggested by Brown (19 73). Woodward's Method allowed her t o observe and analyze the behaviour o f h e a r i n g i n f a n t s d u r i n g the sensorimotor p e r i o d . She recorded the behaviour of the i n f a n t s p l a y i n g a t home on a videotape and l a t e r dubbed i n time, e n a b l i n g her t o determine sequences o f behaviour. Using e t h o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d Elements o f Behaviour i n the primary o r o b j e c t i v e coding, she was a b l e t o r e l i a b l y i n f e r the 27 presence o f the s i x Communication Functions (Jakobson, 1960) i n the behaviour o f the two i n f a n t s observed from e i g h t through s i x t e e n months of age. Her r e s u l t s confirmed the P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development t h a t normally accompany those b e h a v i o u r s . Woodward's Method of observa-t i o n and r e c o r d i n g appears t o be a v i a b l e approach t o the study o f the development o f communication i n i n f a n t and p r e s c h o o l h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . SUMMARY In the f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s Chapter evidence was presented f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f communication p a t t e r n s i n the behaviour o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n (Lewis, 1968; McConnell, 1971; Simmons, 1971). The development of these communication p a t t e r n s proceeded i n stages (McConnell, 1971; Mulholland, 196 7; Simmons, 1971). There was a rec o g n i z e d need t o d e s c r i b e the d e v e l o p i n g communicative behaviour i n the f i r s t years o f l i f e of the h e a r i n g im-p a i r e d c h i l d (McConnell, 1971; Sarachan-Deily and Love, 1974) . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f such a need would seem p a r t i -c u l a r l y important when c o n s i d e r i n g the proven b e n e f i t s o f p r e s c h o o l i n t e r v e n t i o n on the d e v e l o p i n g communication of the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d (Simmons-Martin, 19 76). Next, c o n s i d e r a t i o n was gi v e n to the need t o determine c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . The v i a b i l i t y o f P i a g e t i a n t a s k s f o r measuring l e v e l o f c o g n i t i v e development was 28 e v i d e n c e d by t h e work o f D i h o f f a n d Chapman, 1975; F u r t h , 1966, 1973; a n d O l e r o n , 1953, 1957. I n t h e s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s , a c a s e was made f o r i n -c l u d i n g d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l a b o u t c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r s and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r ( C a l v e r t and S i l v e r m a n , 1975; M c C o n n e l l , 1971; M o o r e s , 1978; Simmons, 1 9 7 1 ) . E a r l i e r a t t e m p t s a t d e s c r i p t i v e d e t a i l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t ( M u l h o l l a n d , 1967) h a v e b e e n r e s t r i c t e d by u s i n g t h e a r t i f i c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c l i n i c as a r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g . The L i n g s (19 74, 19 76) p r e s e n t e d a method f o r s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d i n t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f l i f e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e method c o u l d be u n w i e l d y t o u s e . An a l t e r n a t i v e was p r o p o s e d by T w e e d i e (19 74) and D i e b o l d , C u r t i s a n d DuBose ( 1 9 7 8 ) . R a t h e r t h a n u s i n g cumbersome s t o p w a t c h e s a n d c h a r t s , a v i d e o t a p e r e c o r d e r was u s e d . T h i s p e r m i t t e d r e l a t i v e l y u n o b t r u s i v e , u n i n t e r r u p t e d r e -c o r d i n g o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The r e p l a y f e a t u r e o f t h e method p r o d u c e d more a c c u r a t e a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e l e s s o f t h e d a t a were l o s t t o t h e o b s e r v e r . The work o f D i e b o l d , C u r t i s and DuBose, L i n g and L i n g , a n d T w e e d i e p r e s e n t e d o n l y s c a n t d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e y o u ng h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d . I n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n Woodward's Method was s u g g e s t e d as a p o t e n t i a l v e h i c l e f o r e n c o m p a s s i n g a l l t h e above f e a t u r e s . Woodward (1977) co m b i n e d t h e u s e o f e t h o l o g i c a l 29 c a t e g o r i e s (McGrew, 1972; Tinbergen, 1951, 1972) and communication f u n c t i o n s (Jakobson, 1960) and P i a g e t i a n l e v e l s o f c o g n i t i v e development i n a v i d e o t a p e d a n a l y s i s o f communicative behaviour. The Method seemed f e a s i b l e f o r a study of the communicative behaviour o f p r e s c h o o l and i n f a n t h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r n a t u r a l environment because i t would p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n needed i n areas o f communication i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . T h i s Chapter, then has presented a t h e o r e t i c a l framework which supports the use o f a comprehensive a n a l y t i c a l system such as Woodward's i n attempting to generate d e s c r i p t i v e data on the communicative behaviour i n i n f a n t and p r e s c h o o l h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . 30 CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES INTRODUCTION T h i s Chapter i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study and the method f o r v i d e o t a p i n g c h i l d - f a m i l y i n t e r -a c t i o n s w i t h i n the home. Procedures f o r r e c o r d i n g and a n a l y z i n g the observed behaviour are presented along w i t h a d e t a i l e d l i s t o f necessary equipment. SUBJECTS The sample s i z e was l i m i t e d f o r two major reasons. The f i r s t was the low i n c i d e n c e o f diagnosed h e a r i n g i m p a i r -ment i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n . The second was the i n i t i a l l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n from the l o c a l agencies concerned w i t h the h e a r i n g impaired. A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f demographic data has been completed by a r e s e a r c h team o f the S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n Depart-ment a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (1979)'. T h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e are a t l e a s t 90 c h i l d r e n , aged 0-5 y e a r s , i n the P r o v i n c e who are h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d . T h i s i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e f i g u r e as h e a r i n g impairment i s not r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . Often these c h i l d r e n are diagnosed as m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d or a u t i s t i c . S c r e e n i n g o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n 31 i s not o f t e n p o s s i b l e due to the expense i n v o l v e d , the l a c k o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h e s t a b l i s h -i n g r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s . Although, r e c e n t l y more a u d i o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g i s b e i n g done by the r e g i o n a l h e a l t h u n i t s i n B. C. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n ded t o use a sample of a t l e a s t s i x s u b j e c t s . The sample used had o n l y t h r e e s u b j e c t s . The reduced sample s i z e was due, as s t a t e d , to the i n i t i a l l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n from the l o c a l agencies concerned w i t h the h e a r i n g impaired. The main reason f o r t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e to h e l p i n c o n t a c t i n g p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s was t h e i r d e s i r e t o maintain the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and p r i v a c y of t h e i r p a t i e n t s or members. In B r i t i s h Columbia much o f the a u d i o m e t r i c t e s t i n g of young c h i l d r e n has been done a t the Vancouver. C h i l d r e n ' s D i a g n o s t i c Centre. A t the s u g g e s t i o n o f a c o - o p e r a t i v e g e n e r a l p r a c t i o n e r , the D i a g n o s t i c Centre was approached t o h e l p i n l o c a t i n g v o l u n t e e r parents who would a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d r e n to a c t as s u b j e c t s . A l e t t e r was sent out by the p e d i a t r i c i a n i n the Centre t o parents o f c h i l d r e n who had been diagnosed as h e a r i n g impaired by the Centre. The study was e x p l a i n e d i n the l e t t e r which s t a t e d a r e q u e s t f o r v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s . Three mothers responded. A l l three c h i l d r e n were females; S, C, and H. C(C-A 2-0) was born w i t h a h e a r i n g impairment. She was diagnosed a t the Centre w i t h i n the f i r s t y ear of l i f e as having a profound h e a r i n g l o s s (see p.8). The d i a g n o s i s 32 was done u s i n g f r e e - f i e l d a u d i o m e t r i c t e s t i n g (see p . 8 ) . J u s t p r i o r t o the t a p i n g , she had been accepted t o a t t e n d the p r e s c h o o l c l a s s sponsored by the l o c a l s o c i e t y o f parents o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . The a s s o c i a t i o n favoured the O r a l Approach t o communication (see p. 9 ) . However, when communicating w i t h C, Mother had chosen t o use the T o t a l Communication Approach (see p. 9 ) . Both Mother and Father had taken numerous courses i n both the O r a l and T o t a l Communication approaches. C. was an o n l y c h i l d . S(C-A 1-9) was the o n l y g i r l i n a f a m i l y which i n c l u d e d two o l d e r b r o t h e r s . Mother b e l i e v e d S l o s t her h e a r i n g around the age o f e i g h t to ten months a t which time she was diagnosed a t the D i a g n o s t i c Centre as having a severe t o profound hear-i n g l o s s (see p. 8). Di a g n o s i s was made u s i n g the f r e e -f i e l d method o f aud i o m e t r i c t e s t i n g (see p. 8 ) . Mother, the p r i n c i p a l communicator wi t h S, had been u s i n g the O r a l Approach (see p. 9) f o r the p a s t few months t o communicate as advocated by the l o c a l p a r e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n . She had been t r a i n e d through c l a s s e s sponsored by the s o c i e t y . In the autumn, she was t o a t t e n d the same c l a s s as C. H(C-A 2-11), the youngest i n a f a m i l y o f t h r e e g i r l s , l o s t her h e a r i n g through i l l n e s s a t one and a h a l f y e ars o f age. By t h a t time she had a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d s e v e r a l words. S h o r t l y a f t e r her i l l n e s s , she was diagnosed by the Centre as having a profound h e a r i n g l o s s (see p. 8) u s i n g the f r e e -f i e l d a u d i o m e t r i c t e s t (see p. 8 ) . During the p r e v i o u s year 33 she had attended the p r e s c h o o l c l a s s t o which C and S would be going i n the f a l l . Her mother had a l s o been t r a i n e d through the s o c e i t y ' s program to use the o r a l method o f communication (see p. 9 ) . For the p a s t year she had been u s i n g the method e x c l u s i v e l y t o communicate w i t h H. A l l the c h i l d r e n have been f i t t e d w i t h h e a r i n g a i d s upon d i a g n o s i s o f h e a r i n g impairment, but the use of the h e a r i n g a i d s i s not c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s s u b j e c t s . The author had chosen to tape the s u b j e c t s without t h e i r h e a r i n g a i d s . T h i s d e c i s i o n on the p a r t o f the author s t i l l does not a l l o w f o r the assumption of constancy a c r o s s s u b j e c t s , as each s u b j e c t may respond d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h o r without h e a r i n g a i d s . H i s subsequently videotaped wearing her h e a r i n g a i d . T h i s t a p i n g i s done a f t e r the data f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study are complete. The r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d i n the l a s t chapter. None of the c h i l d r e n appear to have o r are diagnosed as having any handicap o t h e r than h e a r i n g impairment. PREPARATION OF THE DATA Procedures f o r Recording Raw Data C a l v e r t and Silverman (19 75) s t a t e d t h a t the most important f a c t o r i n the development o f communication w i t h i n the p r e s c h o o l h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d was the environment (p.50). For t h i s reason a l l videotapes were recorded w i t h -i n the s u b j e c t s ' homes. A t the time of t a p i n g , a l l c h i l d r e n 34 seemed to be h e a l t h y and comfortable. The normal home a c t i v i t y o f each c h i l d , u s u a l l y an u n s t r u c t u r e d p l a y p e r i o d , was recorded f o r approximately t e n to f i f t e e n continuous minutes on videotape taken on two separate o c c a s i o n s , once i n the morning around 9:30 and once i n the a f t e r n o o n around 2:30, j u s t a f t e r nap time (see Table I I I 1). The s p e c i f i c times were chosen to e l i m i n a t e the v a r i a b l e of f a t i g u e and account f o r any p o s s i b l e changes i n r o u t i n e between morning and a f t e r n o o n a c t i v i t i e s o f the f a m i l y . The order i n which the s u b j e c t s were v i d e o -taped was e s t a b l i s h e d a t random. Table I I I 1 O b s e r v a t i o n Schedule Observation Time Date S I PM J u l y 22, 1975 S I I AM J u l y 24, 19 75 C I AM J u l y 22, 19 75 C I I PM J u l y 28, 19 75 H I PM J u l y 25, 1975 H I I AM August 15, 1975 The time which e l a p s e d between each videotaped s e s s i o n was kept t o a minimum, ranging from two to s i x days. T h i s was done t o e l i m i n a t e the v a r i a b l e o f m a t u r a t i o n a l changes. 35 In the case of H the time between videotaped s e s s i o n s was longer due to the f a m i l y ' s sudden d e c i s i o n t o go on v a c a t i o n . .Before the f i r s t s e s s i o n each parent was n o t i f i e d t h a t the t a p i n g would be focussed on normal household r o u t i n e ; on whatever the c h i l d happened to be doing normally a t the time o f the v i d e o t a p i n g . The o n l y request was t h a t the c h i l d not wear her h e a r i n g a i d because each s u b j e c t ' s f a m i l i a r i t y and experience w i t h the apparatus was extremely d i f f e r e n t . Recording d i d not b e g i n immediately d u r i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n . T h i s allowed the s u b j e c t s t o become accustomed to the equipment and the observer t o reduce the contaminant e f f e c t o f the observer (Webb, Campbell, Schwartz and S e c h r e s t , 1966, p.113). S and C seemed to pay no a t t e n t i o n t o the equipment. H seemed i n i t i a l l y conscious o f i t . She would look i n t o the camera and g i g g l e . However a f t e r t h a t i n i t i a l p e r i o d , she appeared t o i g n o r e i t s presence when she became i n v o l v e d i n p l a y o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h her f a m i l y . The r e c o r d i n g began wherever the s u b j e c t happened to be a t the moment the o b s e r v e r was ready to b e g i n . N e i t h e r the c h i l d nor others p r e s e n t i n the room knew when the a c t u a l r e c o r d i n g began or ended. The c h i l d r e n were taped w h i l e p l a y i n g w i t h whomever happened to be i n the room wi t h them a t the time o f t a p i n g , i . e . , Mother, s i b l i n g s , o r b a b y s i t t e r . Other s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t e d o n l y on m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n or c h i l d - t h e r a p i s t i n t e r a c t i o n s (Ling and L i n g , 1974, 19 76; 36 Mulholland, 1967). T h i s appears t o be the f i r s t study which examined the p r e s c h o o l h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ' s communication w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l o t h e r than Mother i n h i s o r her n a t u r a l environment. As i t r e q u i r e d from one t o as many as f o u r hours t o code 15 seconds o f videotaped data, o n l y a few minutes of a c t i v i t y were recorded. Another reason t h a t o n l y a few minutes o f o b s e r v a t i o n was recorded was the v a s t amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from o n l y a few minutes of o b s e r v a t i o n (Woodward, 1977). A continuous videotaped r e c o r d i n g o f each o b s e r v a t i o n was made i n keeping w i t h e t h o l o g i c a l procedures (McGrew, 1972). The camera o p e r a t o r attempted a t a l l times t o keep a l l p a r t s o f the c h i l d ' s body i n view and to fa c e the s u b j e c t w h i l e t a p i n g . I f t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , p r e f e r e n c e was give n to the r e c o r d i n g o f the behaviour o f the fa c e and hands. From each t e n minutes o f tape recorded, a continuous f i v e minute segment was randomly chosen t o be analyzed. Procedure f o r Dubbing the Time S i g n a l A time s i g n a l was i n t r o d u c e d onto the raw data tapes b e f o r e coding i n or d e r to r e c o r d the d u r a t i o n an Element o f Behaviour, a sequence o f behaviours and to al l o w comparisons o f the Elements as to t h e i r co-occurrence. The time s i g n a l was a s m a l l p i c t u r e , showing the minutes, seconds and s i x t h s o f a second, dubbed on to the raw data tape. The p i c t u r e was a s i x t e e n m i l l i m e t e r animated f i l m showing a changing row 37 o f f o u r white numbers a g a i n s t a b l a c k background. The f i l m was p r o j e c t e d onto a screen o r white w a l l recorded by a t e l e v i s i o n camera connected t o a s p e c i a l e f f e c t s generator which superimposed the p i c t u r e onto the raw data vi d e o t a p e running i n r e a l time. T h i s was recorded onto a separate tape which then d e p i c t e d the time s i g n a l on the data. Procedure f o r Accommodating Poor S y n c h r o n i z a t i o n C's data tape had to be t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y . I t had been taped i n a room w i t h l a r g e p i c t u r e windows. Sun s h i n i n g through swaying t r e e branches caused a c o n t i n u i n g f l u c t u a t i o n o f l i g h t . The p o r t a b l e videotape r e c o r d e r was a b l e t o adapt to the f l u c t u a t i n g l i g h t w h i l e r e c o r d i n g so t h a t p l a y back was u n a f f e c t e d . Problems arose when an attempt was made to super-impose the time s i g n a l onto the recorded d a t a . S y n c h r o n i z a t i o n of s i g n a l s 1 c o u l d not be achieved. In o r d e r t o overcome t h i s problem a second t e l e v i s i o n camera was used. I t was connected to the f i r s t camera and the videotape r e c o r d e r by means o f a machine c a l l e d a sw i t c h e r (see p . 5 1 ). The second camera was focussed on t o a l a r g e monitor d e p i c t i n g the o r i g i n a l data. In t h i s way s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f the time s i g n a l and the data s i g n a l s was achieved. The data were not as c l e a r l y v i s i b l e as when the time s i g n a l was superimposed onto the o r i g i n a l data but a l l the data were " v i s i b l e . S y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f s i g n a l s — l a c k of "synch" causes a jumpy p i c t u r e w i t h the e f f e c t t h a t some o f the data are l o s t . 38 CODING PROCEDURES The coder was concerned w i t h seven major v a r i a b l e s : Time, Elements of Environment, Elements o f Behaviour, A c t i v i t y U n i t s , Communication F u n c t i o n s , P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development and P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n (see Appendices I - V I ) . These f i r s t f o u r v a r i a b l e s ; Time, Elements of En-vironment, Elements o f Behaviour, and A c t i v i t y U n i t s , com-p r i s e d the primary coding o r o b j e c t i v e c o d i n g . Elements o f Environment i n c l u d e d : what was i n the c h i l d ' s f i e l d o f v i s i o n ; what was i n the c h i l d ' s sound environment, i . e . , v o i c e s , t e l e v i s i o n , o b j e c t s dropping; and o b j e c t s w i t h i n the c h i l d ' s touch. Elements o f Behaviour i n c l u d e d : f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s and v o c a l i z a t i o n s , movements o f the head, manipulations and gestures o f the arms, gross motor move-ments and locomotion on the p a r t o f the c h i l d . A c t i v i t y U n i t s were a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n s o f recorded a c t i o n s . Secondary o r i n f e r e n t i a l c oding was composed of the remaining t h r e e v a r i a b l e s : Communication F u n c t i o n s , P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development and P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Videotape Record Log The Videotape Record Log was a standard F o r t r a n sheet which was m o d i f i e d t o f a c i l i t a t e both the coding procedure and key punching. Two sheets o f the l o g were used f o r each F i g u r e 1. Example o f a Videotape Record Log CODFR: _UMJE_ "QUIH i J . • t i OOPo OodA OO.LO 041 |i 00 ill aollH obi |5 oozi 0 . O 3 P 0.03.?. 00.50 Q051 00.53 O.Qb.3 P0.1.2J 0 0 . 9 0U.5 01 z c 10 I Z 4 0\HZ\ .O.iV-5 .0L7P J.. E A T . Jictcoirr. K9 C A . 0 •l I < > •I . u . N i ; f ! r r r .c:s s© IHV LMHnEflT STJM'Mi.k -i-. J . ! ! 1 I i . L-£T I.MULJJS R M A -1 1 LJ.J ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOUR DATE :__ PAGE OBS. TAPE A C E L >]'»< e e C:S HEAD. • J'. J» r 1RIEH TATlrtfVOCAl — 1 PiX ill 1,0 e V.9 .0.1-M/G IF. FT. T 1 if M/G RT 1/ « > He u 7< 0 POS 'S.I G.ROS I ' l l I UE 4-LOi.Q I .III i f -1 1-. L : i 1 OF AU I COM. :' is -i V o "1 I I -t - -u I ION - i -1 i 1 4-p STAGE ;ofe! cot, F,.G I n IDENTIfJCAJJOH •« » 1 r? 1 <"» u I ! 1 .1 i. i ' i 4 r r J-4-! i O 41 page of data. The second sheet was used f o r w r i t t e n anecdotes and d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a u d i t o r y d ata. Primary Coding Before the process o f primary coding was begun, the coder viewed the sequence o f data i n r e a l time. T h i s g e n e r a l viewing was made to f a m i l i a r i z e the coders w i t h a c t i o n s , the environment and the sounds w i t h i n the en-vironment. A l i s t was made o f the persons and o b j e c t s w i t h i n the environment o f the s u b j e c t s . Those persons o r o b j e c t s not p r e v i o u s l y coded were each g i v e n a unique two l e t t e r o r two d i g i t code. These p l u s o t h e r codes were w r i t t e n on a g e n e r a l l i s t , a l p h a b e t i c a l l y arranged, a l o n g w i t h a v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n and the time and o b s e r v a t i o n i n which they were f i r s t seen. Codes from t h i s g e n e r a l l i s t were used to d e s c r i b e the environment. Once t h i s procedure was completed, three separate viewings were conducted i n order t o complete the primary c o d i n g sequence. F i r s t an a u d i t o r y sequence was coded, then a v i s u a l and l a t e r an a c t i v i t y sequence was done. A u d i t o r y Sequence. F i r s t the coder p l a y e d the f i f t e e n to t h i r t y second segment o f tape t o be analyzed and recorded n o t i n g the s t a r t i n g and f i n i s h i n g time o f a l l sounds. The dubbed time s i g n a l was used t o make the n o t a t i o n s . I f th e r e were two simultaneous sounds, the one judged t o have the most d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the s u b j e c t and the one to which she attended, was given p r e f e r e n c e . The exact content was 42 d e s c r i b e d . I f a v o c a l i z a t i o n was not a r e c o g n i z a b l e word, i t was recorded p h o n e t i c a l l y . The exact time of the s t a r t and f i n i s h was confirmed by s t o p p i n g the r e c o r d e r . The data were then coded as f o l l o w s : 1. Sounds o r i g i n a t i n g from the v o c a l apparatus of the s u b j e c t were recorded i n the V o c a l column (see Appendix and F i g . 1 ) . 2. Sounds from the environment were recorded i n two c o l u m n s — t h e Element o f Environment column and Ear; Source and Content, u s i n g codes from the ge n e r a l code l i s t (Appendix I ) . V i s u a l Data Sequence. A f t e r completing an a u d i t o r y sequence, the coder r e p l a y e d the same segment i n r e a l time. T h i s s t e p was necessary t o enable n o t a t i o n o f continuous a c t i o n s such as nods and b l i n k s which can o n l y be r e c o g n i z e d when viewed i n r e a l time. The v i s u a l data sequence completed columns 1 t o 58. The coder began by s t o p p i n g the tape a t time "0:00:0". The time was recorded on the f i r s t l i n e o f the V.T.R. l o g . A l l the remaining columns i n the f i r s t row from "Mouth" to "Locomotion" were then f i l l e d i n w i t h the observed be-havi o u r s . The Elements o f Behaviour were grouped i n t o n ine c a t e g o r i e s , s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d from those o u t l i n e d by McGrew (1972). They were p l a c e d i n columns marked "Face", "Head", " O r i e n t a t i o n " , " V ocal", " M a n i p u l a t i o n and Gesture 43 R i g h t " ( r i g h t h a n d s i d e o f t h e b o d y ) , " P o s t u r e and L e g " , " G r o s s " (motor movement) and " L o c o m o t i o n " . " F a c e " was d i v i d e d between t h e two E l e m e n t o f B e h a v i o u r c o l u m n s . One was u s e d t o r e c o r d t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e u p p e r h a l f o f t h e f a c e and t h e o t h e r was u s e d f o r t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e f a c e . R e a s o n a b l e i n f e r e n c e s were made f r o m a v a i l a b l e c o n t e x t w i t h i n e a c h t a p e , s o t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l l p a r t s o f t h e i n f a n t ' s body o r e n v i r o n m e n t were n o t a l w a y s p r e s e n t , i n t h e d a t a , "ND" (no d a t a ) was n o t a l w a y s r e c o r d e d . F o r i n s t a n c e i f an i n f a n t c r a w l s a l o n g b e h i n d a s t o o l w i t h o n l y h i s b a c k v i s i b l e , " S u p p o r t " was r e c o r d e d f o r t h e M a n i p u l a t i o n / G e s t u r e columns e v e n t h o u g h t h e c o d e r d o e s n o t a c t u a l l y s e e hands and k n e e s do t h i s m o m e n t a r i l y . S i m i l a r l y , i f an i n f a n t l o o k s r i g h t and t h e camera h a s r e c e n t l y r e c o r d e d m o t h e r : "Mother" i s r e c o r d e d i n t h e "Eye" c o l u m n , e t c . (Woodward, 1977, p . 4 7 ) . E a c h new E l e m e n t was c o d e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f i t s a p p e a r a n c e . * The columns f o r E l e m e n t s o f E n v i r o n m e n t were d i v i d e d 44 i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s ; "Mouth", "Ear: Source and Content", "Stimulus L e f t " and "Stimulus R i g h t " . "Mouth" c o n t a i n e d codes f o r o b j e c t s which were seen i n the c h i l d ' s mouth. "Ear: Source and Content" c o n t a i n e d codes f o r the source of sound and the type o f sound. The c a t e g o r i e s "Stimulus L e f t " and "Stimulus Right" c o n t a i n e d codes f o r what was i n the hand and where i t was p l a c e d o r the l o c a t i o n o f the f o o t . Next, the coder ran the tape forward i n slow motion u n t i l a d i f f e r e n t Element o f Behaviour o r environment change o c c u r r e d . The tape was then stopped. In the next row o f the V.T.R. l o g the change p l u s the time i t o c c u r r e d was recorded. (The end o f any r e c o r d e d item was always the s t a r t time f o r the next.) C o n t i n u i n g behaviour was i n d i c a t e d by a v e r t i c a l l i n e through the c e l l s i n which i t was o c c u r r i n g (see F i g u r e 1 ) . The coder continued t h i s procedure u n t i l the t e n to f i f t e e n seconds o f data were coded. Information from the a u d i t o r y data was i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h the v i s u a l data as i t o c c u r r e d i n the time sequence. A c t i v i t y Sequence. T h i s was an a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n . One A c t i v i t y U n i t would continue from the b e g i n n i n g o f a new o r i e n t a t i o n o f the head to the next change i n the o r i e n t a t i o n o f the head. The code "Look", "L0", was the cue. In columns 59-61, an A c t i v i t y U n i t was g i v e n a number code (see F i g u r e 1). The f i r s t was numbered 01, the second, 02 and so on, as needed. On the second sheet, a t t a c h e d t o each page of the V.T.R. l o g , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the 45 behaviour o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the u n i t was g i v e n , "looks a t mother", " p o i n t s to l i g h t " or "looks a t b a l l and r o l l s i t across f l o o r " . T h i s sequence a l s o p r o v i d e d a good review o f the p r e v i o u s c o d i n g . The review h e l p e d t o e l i m i n a t e i n a c c u r a c i e s i n c o d i n g . Secondary Coding; The secondary coding r e q u i r e d the coder t o i n f e r P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development, P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and f u n c t i o n s of communication. Inferences were made by comparing o b s e r v a t i o n s to the de-f i n i t i o n s found i n Appendices. I t was begun o n l y a f t e r the primary coding had been completed. Except f o r the a u d i t o r y coding sequence, the procedure f o r primary coding was f o l l o w e d . Columns 62-67 were a l l o t t e d t o Communication F u n c t i o n s . Two segments of columns were s e t a s i d e , as o f t e n a communication serves two f u n c t i o n s . To e l i m i n a t e c o n f u s i o n and to s t a n d a r d i z e the procedure, the f u n c t i o n " R e f e r e n t i a l " always appeared i n column 63-64. The o t h e r f i v e f u n c t i o n s were noted i n columns 66-67. ( D e f i n i t i o n s f o r a l l codes are found i n Appendix I I I ) . Columns 68-70 were assig n e d to P i a g e t i a n stages c o g n i t i v e development (see Appendices IV and V ) . Columns 71-72 were a l l o t t e d t o P i a g e t i a n C o n f i g u r a t i o n s (see Appendix V I ) . The Communication Fu n c t i o n s were coded i n one v i e w i n g . The P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development and P i a g e t i a n 46 c o n f i g u r a t i o n s were each coded s e p a r a t e l y d u r i n g two o t h e r subsequent viewings. R e l i a b i l i t y of the Coding Two t r a i n e d r a t e r s , o t h e r than the i n v e s t i g a t o r , were each g i v e n two t h i r t y second segments of data t o recode i n o r d e r to determine the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the o r i g i n a l c o d i n g . These segments were randomly chosen, each from a d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . Program Rel (see Appendix VIII) was c r e a t e d t o compare the coding o f the same raw data by two r a t e r s . The two measures o f r e l i a b i l i t y used i n the a n a l y s i s were: the d u r a t i o n of agreement and the i n c i d e n c e o f d u r a t i o n . Both measures of r e l i a b i l i t y were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the formula s e t out by McGrew (19 72, p. 24). D u r a t i o n o f Agreement: T h i s measure o f r e l i a b i l i t y g i v e s the percentage o f time o f agreement t h a t both r a t e r s (A and B) r e c o r d the same s p e c i f i c code. The measure i s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g formula: D u r a t i o n o f Agreement (A + B)  D u r a t i o n o f Agreem"t(A+B)+Duration seen by A only+Duration seen by B o n l y S t a t e d more c l e a r l y , the formula r e s u l t s i n the p r o p o r t i o n t o t o t a l d u r a t i o n seen by e i t h e r Rater A o r Rater B o r both: 47 D u r a t i o n o f Agreements A and B Du r a t i o n of Agreements A and/or B Incidence o f Agreement: T h i s measure of r e l i a b i l i t y g i v e s the percentage o f items coded i d e n t i c a l l y by two r a t e r s . I t i s c a l c u l a t e d by f i n d i n g the p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l number of coded o b s e r v a t i o n s which are r e c o r d e d by r a t e r s A and B. Number o f Items Coded I d e n t i c a l l y by A and B Number o f Items Coded by A and/or B The t o t a l number o f coded o b s e r v a t i o n i s the number of s t a r t times f o r each code. Items coded a t s t a r t times w i t h i n 3/6 o f a second o f each o t h e r are c o n s i d e r e d i d e n t i c a l . ANALYSIS OF DATA A s p e c i a l l y m o d i f i e d MVTAB program,INF (see Appendix IX) was used t o c r o s s t a b u l a t e data codes. The r e s u l t i n g c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s were then hand c a l c u l a t e d t o estimate the c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t y o f j o i n t occurrence of data codes (see F i g u r e 2 ). The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s was based on the concept o f independent events: " I f , f o r two events, A and B, p(A B) i s not equal to p(A)p(B) then A and B are s a i d t o be a s s o c i a t e d o r dependent" (Hays, 1 9 7 3 , p.1 1 8 ) . The a n a l y s i s a l s o p r o v i d e d the median d u r a t i o n of the a c t u a l observed c o n t i n g e n t occurrence of an event i n a g i v e n d u r a t i o n of another event. The median was chosen as opposed 48 to the mean as a measure o f tendency because i t i s l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o the extreme v a r i a b i l i t y which o c c u r r e d i n some of the data. From the data, an estimate o f c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t y c o u l d be d e r i v e d : I f two events are independent then p(B/A) = p ( B ) . In the a n a l y s i s each s u b j e c t i s cons i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y because homogeniety can not be assumed. EQUIPMENT Equipment f o r Recording and Replaying o f Data P o r t a b l e T e l e v i s i o n Camera and Videotape Recorder A Sony 1/2 i n c h r e e l p o r t a b l e t e l e v i s i o n , camera and videotape r e c o r d e r w i t h b u i l t i n d i r e c t i o n a l microphone and 1:7 zoom l e n s attachment was used i n data c o l l e c t i o n . B r i g h t and as con s t a n t as p o s s i b l e l i g h t i n g i s necessary t o i n s u r e t h a t v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s c l e a r . Magnetic Tapes: Memorex, heavy duty, 1/2 i n c h , 30 minute.jreel v i d e o t a p e was used. Videotape Recorder (V.T.R.): A Sanyo " J a v e l i n " , 1/2 i n c h V.T.R. was used t o e d i t o r analyze the d a t a . The J a v e l i n i s capable o f p r o d u c t i o n s i x t y slow o r stop frames per second. Tape p l a y e d on t h i s machine can be p l a y e d i n r e a l time, slowed t o 10 frames per second, hand turned t o produce 10 frames f o r each o n e - s i x t h o f a second o r h e l d i n stop motion. Monitor: A Shibaden 8" scre e n s t u d i o monitor was used. The p i c t u r e was r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y a p a r t i c u l a r 49 F i g u r e 2. Example o f a Cross T a b u l a t i o n : R e f e r e n t i a l Communication F u n c t i o n (RF) and "Looking a t People (L)(Woodward, 1977, p.113) 50 BIVARIATE TABLE OF RF + L TOTAL PERCENTAGE ZERO - 1 0 1 0 70.27 14.17 84.44 1 10.78 s- 4.78a 15.56 71.05 T ^ Vl.8.95 17.99 b 4.78 15.56 = 30.72% RFflL RF contingent occur-rence of " l o o k i n g at people", given r e f e r e n t i a l communication. A.78 _ _ RFAL 2g 95 - £ j - — j — - = contingent occur-rence of r e f e r -e n t i a l communica-t i o n given " l o o k i n g at people" D u r a t i o n of RF L as percentage of t o t a l time of o b s e r v a t i o n . T o t a l time of o b s e r v a t i o n i n 1/6 seconds. 51 p i e c e o f data, the tape was r e p l a y e d on a Sony 11" s c r e e n s t u d i o monitor. Headphones; These were needed when the Shibaden monitor was used as i t had no b u i l t i n speaker. They were not necessary w i t h the Sony monitor because i t had b u i l t i n speakers but the headphones were used w i t h i t d u r i n g an a u d i t o r y run i n o r d e r to focus the sound. Equipment f o r Dubbing the Time S i g n a l Videotape Recorder (V.T.R.). Two 1/2 i n c h Panasonic V.T.R.'s (NV3020 and NV3130) were used f o r playback and r e c o r d i n g . P r o j e c t o r : A B e l l and Howell " S p e c i a l i s t " 16 m i l l i m e t e r p r o j e c t o r was used to p r o j e c t the time s i g n a l onto the w a l l o r D a L i t e s c r e e n . Cameras: Two Panasonic WV341P cameras were used. One taped the p r o j e c t e d time s i g n a l . The o t h e r was used i f necessary t o tape the p l a y back on the monitor. Monitor: A Sony 17" T r i n i t r o n was chosen because i t gave the most a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e . Switcher: A Panasonic VY922 was used t o superimpose the recorded time s i g n a l onto the recorded data. The equipment was s e t up as shown i n F i g u r e 3. F i g u r e 3. Diagram o f Equipment used to Dub Time S i g n a l onto the Raw Data Vide" Out Audio Out 16 mm P r o j e c t o i Sony 17" T r i n i t r o n Monitor Panasonic WV341P Panasonic VY922 Switcher B e l l and Howell S p e c i a l i s t Screen Camera 2 Da-Lite Video In Audio In Panasonic NV3130 o o gure 3 . .54 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION INTRODUCTION The i n t e n t o f t h i s study i s to r e p o r t the v i d e o t a p e d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of behaviour, communication and c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g proposed by Woodward (1977) (see p.4). In order to do so, the f o l l o w i n g analyses have been conducted. F i r s t the occurrences of the s i x Communication F u n c t i o n s and the Elements o f Behaviour are r e c o r d e d . The observed occurrences are then used to examine the combinations of the s i x Communication F u n c t i o n s and the Elements o f Behaviour which are r e p o r t e d i n the next s e c t i o n as the co-occurrence o f the two c a t e g o r i e s . In the l a s t s e c t i o n the observed occurrences of the P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development are l i s t e d . A comparison of the r e s u l t s w i t h those o b t a i n e d by Woodward i s i n c l u d e d i n each o f the s u b - s e c t i o n s . The reader should note t h a t comparisons have been made w i t h Woodward's f i n d i n g s o n l y t o a i d i n g e n e r a t i n g hypotheses f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . As e x p l a i n e d on page 6, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from or between samples i s i m p o s s i b l e due to t h e i r s m a l l s i z e . 55 The major s e c t i o n s are proceeded by a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the Method. RELIABILITY OF THE METHOD As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , two t r a i n e d coders recorded randomly chosen segments o f tape (seep. 46). The tape r e s u l t s were then t a b u l a t e d by means of a s p e c i a l l y c r e a t e d computer program, REL (see Appendix V I I I ) , which u t i l i z e d McGrew's formula f o r d e r i v i n g the D u r a t i o n of Agreement and the Incidence o f Agreement (see pp.46-47) (McGrew, 1972, p.24). The l e v e l o f accepted r e l i a b i l i t y f o r agree-ment i n the r e c o r d i n g o f the o b j e c t i v e Elements o f Behaviour and the Elements o f Environment was s e t a t 70% as advocated by McGrew (1972, p.24) and f o l l o w e d by Woodward (1977, p.89). The l e v e l o f accepted r e l i a b i l i t y o f the s u b j e c t i v e coding; A c t i v i t y U n i t s , P i a g e t i a n Stages of C o g n i t i v e Development and P i a g e t i a n C o n f i g u r a t i o n was a r b i t r a r i l y s e t lower, a t 60% by Woodward (1977, p. 89). Her r a t i o n a l e f o r a c c e p t i n g a lower l e v e l o f a c c e p t i b i l i t y f o r i n f e r e n t i a l coding was based on the f a c t t h a t the s m a l l e r the amount o f i n f e r e n c e r e q u i r e d o f a r a t e r , the g r e a t e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t he o r she would be a b l e t o make acc u r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the data (Woodward, 1977, p. 89). Woodward noted t h a t when the r e l i a b i l i t y formula used i n the study was a p p l i e d , the l e v e l o f chance c a r i e d w i t h the number o f p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e . Hence a r e s u l t 56 of 50% d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e chance agreement (Woodward, 19 77, p. 89). For example, i n some cases where a Communication F u n c t i o n was to be s e l e c t e d from f o u r major p o s s i b i l i t i e s , the r e s u l t a n t l e v e l of chance would be 14.29%. T h i s f i g u r e was c a l c u l a t e d by e n t e r i n g the chance t h a t coder A, i n agreement w i t h coder B, chose f u n c t i o n W (25%) w i t h the chance t h a t o n l y coder A saw f u n c t i o n W (75%) and the chance t h a t o n l y coder B chose f u n c t i o n W (75%) i n t o the formula: Number of Agreements (A + B)  No.of Agreement (A+B) + No.seen by A o n l y + No.seen by B o n l y Sources o f Low R e l i a b i l i t y P r i v i l e g e d I n formation. One source o f b i a s which c o u l d p o s s i b l y have l e d to low r e l i a b i l i t y was the coder's o r r a t e r ' s p r i v i l e g e d i n f o r m a t i o n . P r i v i l e g e d i n f o r m a t i o n was d e r i v e d from the coder's p r e v i o u s experience w i t h the s u b j e c t . In t h i s study the f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the s u b j e c t came through the f a c t t h a t the coder was a l s o the person i n v o l v e d i n t a p i n g the segments to be used as samples. The p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n was whether the coder c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d the r u l e s s e t down f o r the primary o r o b j e c t i v e c o d i n g . T h i s q u e s t i o n was answered by s c r u t i n i z i n g the l e v e l o f agreement w i t h the person who recorded, f o r the recoder had no p r i o r knowledge o f the s u b j e c t . 57 In a d d i t i o n to the b i a s o f p r i v i l e g e d i n f o r m a t i o n there were f o u r o t h e r p o s s i b l e sources o f low r e l i a b i l i t y d i s c u s s e d by Woodward (1977): coding i n a c c u r a c y , poor t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t y o f the raw data, the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f s h o r t term items and the underestimation o f agreements by REL. Coding Inaccuracy. Three s k i l l s were r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to code the g r e a t e s t degree of accuracy: t e c h n i c a l com-petence w i t h the equipment used; f a m i l i a r i t y and p r e f e r a b l y memory o f the 140 Elements o f Behaviour, f a m i l i a r i t y o f the uncounted Elements of Environment and the 28 i n f e r e n t i a l c o ding d e f i n i t i o n s used, and s e n s i t i z e d p e r c e p t i o n o f the v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y data on the vi d e o t a p e . A th r e e t o f o u r week p e r i o d was r e q u i r e d t o t r a i n a coder. I t was found by Woodward (1977) t h a t accuracy o f coding improved w i t h time and e x p e r i e n c e . Due to unforeseen circumstances i n the case of the p r e s e n t study, a ye a r e l a p s e d between the r e c o d e r s 1 p r e v i o u s coding experience and the r e c o d i n g o f the p r e s e n t data. T h i s l a p s e i n time may have contaminated r e s u l t s o f r e l i a b i l i t y e stimates o f cod i n g . Poor T e c h n i c a l Q u a l i t y o f the Raw Data. U n c e r t a i n t i e s about how to code c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n arose from data i n inadequate focus o r poor s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n . 58 i n p a r t i c u l a r , the l a t t e r o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the t a p i n g o f C's data due to the f l i c k e r i n g l i g h t . In the coding o f the sounds, environmental n o i s e s equal to v o i c e s i g n a l l e v e l s caused f u r t h e r u n c e r t a i n t i e s . V u l n e r a b i l i t y o f Short Term Items. Hutt r e p o r t s e l i m i n a t i n g items w i t h d u r a t i o n s o f 1.5 seconds o r l e s s by combining them w i t h subsequent o b s e r v a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e the r e l i a b i l i t y (Hutt and Hutt, 1970, p.50). In the p r e s e n t study some items had d u r a t i o n s o f o n l y 1/6 of a second, thereby l o w e r i n g the chance f o r agreement between the two coders. A second problem r e p o r t e d by Woodward (19 77) was t h a t the percentages r e p o r t e d i n t a b u l a t i o n s by the computer program REL,masked the we i g h t i n g o f the f i n d i n g s . For example, a 2/6 second item w i t h 50% agreement had a 1/6 second chance o f e r r o r w h i l e a two second item w i t h 50% agreement had a one second e r r o r - 6 times as much - y e t both c o n t r i b u t e d the same value to the f i n d i n g s . T h i s caused the r e l i a b i l i t y o f s h o r t term items t o be under-est i m a t e d . Underestimation o f Agreement by REL. The computer program, REL, compared the data column by column and code by code. In the study done by Woodward (19 77) some of the data were coded i n o p t i o n a l columns. In some wh i l e two coders had agreed on a s p e c i f i c 59 code, each recorded the code i n a d i f f e r e n t column. The computer d i d not t a b u l a t e t h i s as an agreement so t h a t there was an underestimation o f the amount o f agreement. T h i s problem was e l i m i n a t e d i n the p r e s e n t study by having no o p t i o n a l columns. R e l i a b i l i t y o f Coding Elements o f Environment The average i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r a l l e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s o f the Elements o f Environment seen i n the randomly chosen samples was 68.66% f o r agreement on the i n c i d e n c e or s t a r t time o f an item and 78.81% f o r agreement on the d u r a t i o n o f the code. An average o f 46.88% w i t h a range from 25% to 75% of the samples i n each category exceeded the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f 70% agreement on s t a r t times. An average o f 59.38% w i t h a range from 25% t o 100% of the sampled items i n each category exceeded the a c c e p t -a b l e l e v e l o f agreement f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the code (see Tables IV 1-2). R e l i a b i l i t y o f Coding Elements o f Behaviour The average i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the t e n c a t e g o r i e s of the Elements o f Behaviour was l e s s , 55.68% f o r i n c i d e n c e o f s t a r t s and 6 8.73% f o r d u r a t i o n . An average of 32.50% o f the samples exceeded the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f agreement f o r i n c i d e n c e o f s t a r t times and an average o f 45% exceeded the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l f o r d u r a t i o n (see T a b l e s IV 3-4). 60 The a v e r a g e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r c o d i n g b e h a v i o u r o f t h e L imbs ( i n c i d e n c e , 55.56%; d u r a t i o n , 67.86%) was h i g h e r t h a n f o r c o d i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f B e h a v i o u r o f t h e Head ( i n c i d e n c e , 44.87%; d u r a t i o n , 66.85%) ( T a b l e s I V 3-^4). As e x p e c t e d when t h e r e were f e w e r c o d e s f r o m w h i c h t o c h o o s e , e . g . f r o m t h e c a t e g o r y , V o c a l B e h a v i o u r , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y was b e t t e r , w i t h 79.15% a g r e e m e n t on i n c i d e n c e and 9 3.22% f o r d u r a t i o n ( T a b l e I V 5 ) . The l o w e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o c c u r r e d f o r s p e c i f i c c o d e s where t h e a v e r a g e i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y was 49.5% f o r i n c i d e n c e a n d 48.33% f o r d u r a -t i o n ( T a b l e I V 5 - 8 ) . E l e m e n t s t h a t were f o u n d t o h a v e an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f r e l i a b i l i t y w ere: O r i e n t a t i o n , V o c a l E l e m e n t s , M a n i p u l a t i o n s a n d G e s t u r e s , P o s t u r e a n d L e g s , and L o c o -m o t i o n ( T a b l e I V 3 - 4 ) . The o c c a s i o n a l l y low r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e E l e m e n t , S m i l e , r e f l e c t e d t h e y e a r ' s l a p s e b etween r e c o d i n g s . The sample 2S was t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n . I t h a d b e e n r e c o d e d o n l y s e v e r a l months a f t e r t h e r e c o d e r ' s l a s t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o d i n g . The l e v e l o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r S m i l e i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n 2C was 94.59% f o r i n c i d e n c e and 100% f o r d u r a -t i o n . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t S m i l e c o u l d , b e r e c o r d e d r e l i a b l y ( T a b l e I V 6 ) . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e new c o d e , L i p s F o r w a r d , was 100% f o r i n c i d e n c e and 100% f o r d u r a t i o n ( T a b l e I V 7 ) . A n o t h e r new c o d e , QH ( v e r t i c a l TABLE IV 1 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Categories of Elements of Environment - 1 (Where Subject Looks) (Sound) (Sound) Mouth Eye Ear - Source Ear - Content Obs. Incidence % S t a r t s Duration % Time Incidence % S t a r t s Duration % Time Incidence % S t a r t s Duration % Time Incidence % S t a r t s Duration % Time IS 00.00 97.35 54.24 50.00 80.00 92.31 80.00 91.76 2S 100.00 99.99 63.24 67.58 68.12 67.58 57.97 63.19 2C 66.67 89.56 48.93 48.35 75.00 64.29 70.00 62.64 2H 50.00 99.40 78.38 89.01 47.75 40.66 43.75 38.46 X 54.17 93.30 61.20 63.74 67.72 66.21 62.90 64.01 % > 70%* 25.00 100.00 25.00 25.00 50.00 25.00 50.00 25.00 Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p.55 ) TABLE IV 2 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Categories of Elements of Environment - 2 St i m u l u s - L e f t 1 Stimulus-Left 2 Stimulus-Right 1 Stimulus-Right 2 ( l o c a t i o n ( l o c a t i o n ( l o c a t i o n ( l o c a t i o n of the Hand) of the Foot of the Hand of the Foot) Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Obs. % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time IS 41.67 56.04 100.00 99.99 62.50 91.76 100.00 99.99 2S 73.33 93.41 100.00 99.99 51.61 56.04 100.00 99.99 2C 78.57 45.05 100.00 99.99 57.14 88.46 100.00 99.99 2H 30.76 51.65 66.67 87.36 84.21 96.15 66.67 98.90 X 56.08 61.54 91.67 96.83 63.87 83.10 91.67 99.72 % > 70* 50.00 25.00 75.00 100.00 25.00 75.00 75.00 100.00 Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Coding of Categories of Elements of Environment Incidence 68.66% Duration 78.81% Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (P. 55) TABLE IV 3 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Categories of Elements of Behaviour of the Head F a c i a l Elements - I F a c i a l Elements - I I Head Elements O r i e n t a t i o n Vocal Elements I n c i - Dura-dence t i o n Obs. % S t a r t s % Time I n c i - Dura-dence t i o n % S t a r t s % Time I n c i - Dura-dence t i o n % S t a r t s % Time I n c i - Dura-dence t i o n % S t a r t s % Time I n c i - Dura-dence t i o n % S t a r t s % Time IS 57.45 77.47 2S 72.41 52.20 2C 46.67 38.46 2H 34.29 51.10 46.15 67.03 48.28 53.85 51.61 32.97 24.24 48.35 16.67 84.62 73.68 61.54 42.86 68.13 61.29 77.47 22.22 95.60 68.18 78.02 36.00 34.07 55.26 77.47 83.33 95.60 71.43 93.41 100.00 95.05 96.15 54.55 X 52.71 54.81 42.57 50.55 29.44 70.61 64.60 73.63 87.73 84.65 %>70% 25.00 25.00 00.00 00.00 00.00 50.00 25.00 75.00 100.00 75.00 Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Coding Categories of Behaviour of the Head Incidence 44.87% Duration 66.85% Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p. 55) TABLE IV 4 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Categories of Elements of Behaviour of the Limbs Manipulations and Manipulations and Posture Gross Locomotor Gestures- -Left Gestures- -Right and Leg Movement Elements Obs. I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time IS 32.43 11.54 35.26 19.78 28.51 68.13 31.25 68.13 100.00 100.00 2S 80.00 92.31 73.07 67.58 00.00 68.13 77.77 90.66 100.00 100.00 2C 22.64 19.23 35.29 57.14 50.00 89.01 40.00 72.53 100.00 100.00 2H 36.36 17.03 100.00 100.00 13.33 68.13 50.00 32.41 57.14 84.06 X 46.33 42.86 69.45 61.13 22.96 73.35 49.76 65.93 89.29 96.02 !>70%* :25.00 25.00 50.00 25.00 00.00 25.00 25.00 50.00 75.00 100.00 Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Coding Categories of Behaviour of the Limbs Incidence 55.56% Duration 67.86% Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Coding Categories of Elements of Behaviour - Head and Limbs Incidence 55.48% Duration 68.73% Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p. 55) TABLE IV 5 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Vocal Elements and S p e c i a l Code • V o c a l i z a t i o n s A l l Vocal Elements S p e c i a l Hand Movement Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Incidence Duration Obs. % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time IS 77.78 80.00 95.60 83.33 2S 66.67 25.00 71.43 93.41 100.00 97.44 2C 40.00 100.00 95.05 100.00 2H 12.50 40.00 54.54 96.15 X 49.24 61.25 79.15 93.22 100.00 97.44 % > 70%* 25.00 50.00 75.00 100.00 Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Coding Vocal Elements and S p e c i a l Code Incidence 76.13% Duration 83.97% * Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p..55 ) TABLE IV 6 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Selected Elements of Behaviour - Face 1 Smile Wide Eyes Pla y Face Normal Face Obs I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time IS 00.00 00.00 21.05 66.67 00.00 00.00 46.67 50.00 2S 94.59 100.00 00.00 00.00 50.00 23.08 10.29 40.00 2C 53.85 100.00 00.00 00.00 - - 36.36 17.24 2H - - - - - - 00.00 00.00 X 49.15 66.67 7.02 22.22 25.00 11.54 23.33 26.81 % > 70%* 25.00 50.00 00.00 00.00 00.00 00.00 00.00 00.00 Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the Coding of Selected Elements of Behaviour - Face Incidence 40.40% Duration 50.05% Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p. 55) TABLE IV 7 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Selected Elements of Behaviour - Face L i p s Forward Low Frown 'Purseel L ip I S B l i n k I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura- I n c i - Dura-dence t i o n dence t i o n dence t i o n dence t i o n Obs. % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time % S t a r t s % Time IS 100.00 100.00 - - - 30.77 61.54 2S - - - - - 50.00 84.00 2C - - - - - 37.50 80.00 2H 100.00 100.00 - - - 33.33 66.67 X 100.00 100.00 - - - 37.90 73.05 % > 70%* 100.00 100.00 — — 00.00 50.00 Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (P. 55) TABLE IV 8 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : Selected Elements of Behaviour - Gestures and Manipulations A l l Manipulatxons » . . . - ! , _ n u n „ . ^  , _ Automanipulate Reach Grasp Poxnt and Gestures Obs. I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time I n c i -dence % S t a r t s Dura-t i o n % Time 1S1* 32.43 11.54 66.67 19.57 00.00 00.00 40.00 00.00 - -ISr 35.29 19.78 - - 00.00 00.00 28.71 25.33 - -2S1 80.00 92.31 100.00 42.86 - - - - 66.67 100.00 2Sr 73.07 67.58 57.14 23.08 80.00 40.91 50.00 12.50 - -2C1 22.64 19.23 - - 00.00 00.00 40.00 21.05 - -2Cr 35.39 57.14 - - 00.00 00.00 66.67 78.99 - -2H1 36.36 17.03 - - 66.67 50.00 50.00 00.00 - -2Hr 45.00 14.33 00.00 00.00 100.00 62.50 36.36 45.80 - -X 45.01 37.37 55.95 21.38 35.24 21.92 44.11 26.24 66.67 100.00 %>70%* 25.00 13.00 13.00 00.00 25.00 o o . o o • 00.00 13.00 _ Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Coding the Selected Elements of Behaviour - Gestures and Manipulation Incidence 49.40% Duration 41.38% k Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (P. 69 c l a p p i n g ) , had the r e l i a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f 100% f o r i n c i d e n c e and 97.44% d u r a t i o n (Table IV 5 ) . The d e f i n i t i o n o f L i p s Forward and the s p e c i a l hand movement, QH, had been s t u d i e d j u s t b e f o r e the r e c o d i n g was begun ( f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f new codes, see p. 135). The above two i n s t a n c e s g i v e c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t these s p e c i f i c Elements can be r e l i a b l y coded. In view of the above f i n d i n g s , the i n t e r c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the c a t e g o r i e s f o r the Elements of Be-ha v i o u r and Elements of Environment c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was supported by l o o k i n g a t the h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s when s p e c i f i c codes were ig n o r e d (Tables IV 10-11). The l e v e l o f agreement f o r the s p e c i f i c codes, except L i p s Forward, B l i n k and P o i n t , was not a c c e p t a b l e . The f i n d i n g s o f low r e l i a b i l i t y were probably a l s o due to the e l a p s e d year between the time the two recoders had l a s t coded and the time they recoded the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. They were n e c e s s a r i l y not as f a m i l i a r w i t h the s p e c i f i c codes as they had been. T h i s s p e c u l a -t i o n was c o r r o b o r a t e d when one reviewed the r e s u l t s o f Woodward's study. Her r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s f o r the s p e c i f i c codes were an average o f 80.98% f o r i n c i d e n c e o f s t a r t times and an average of 69.09% f o r d u r a t i o n . Both were a t an ac c e p t a b l e l e v e l (Woodward, 1977, pp.94-97). T h i s f i n d i n g gave evidence f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e l i a b l y coding E l e -ments o f Behaviour. TABLE IV 9 R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding : I n f e r e n t i a l Codes Obs. A c t i v i t y U n i t Communication Function 1 Communication Function 2 P i a g e t i a n Stages P i a g e t i a n C o n f i g u r a t i o n IS 100.00 73.08 55.49 100.00 100.00 2S 100.00 95.05 93.95 99.45 100.00 2C 100.00 84.62 51.09 100.00 100.00 2H 100.00 97.80 74.73 100.00 100.00 X 100.00 87.64 68.54 99.86 100.00 % > 70%* 100.00 100.00 50.00 100.00 100.00 Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r I n f e r e n t i a l Coding 91.29% Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p. 55) o TABLE IV 10 R e l i a b i l i t y when Code Ignored - Incidence Ear Ear Stimulus Stimulus Stimulus Stimulus Obs. Mouth Eye Source Content L e f t - 1 L e f t - 2 Right-1 Right-2 Face-1 Face-2 IS 100.00 98.31 100.00 100.00 91.67 100.00 93.75 100.00 93.62 92.31 2S 100.00 95.59 97.10 97.10 100.00 100.00 96.77 100.00 98.28 100.00 2C 50.00 100.00 87.50 87.50 100.00 100.00 85.71 100.00 93.33 100.00 2H 91.67 91.49 97.50 97.50 100.00 88.89 100.00 100.00 94.29 96.97 X 85.42 95.35 95.53 95.53 97.92 97.22 94.06 100.00 94.88 97.32 % > 70%* 75.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Average R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Coding Categories when Codes Ignored 95.74% F i g u r e s represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p. 55 ) TABLE IV 11 R e l i a b i l i t y When Code Ignored - Incidence (cont'd) Obs. Head Sight Vocal M/G/L M/G+R Post-Leg Gross Loc IS 91.67 97.37 83.33 94.59 88.24 100.00 90.62 100.00 2S 92.86 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 2C 77.78 95.45 100.00 100.00 93.06 100.00 100.00 100.00 2H 100.00 89.47 100.00 96.97 95.00 93.33 100.00 95.24 X 90.58 95.57 95.83 97.82 93.83 98.33 97.66 98.81 % > 70%* 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100. Figures represent the percent of observations which meet the acceptable l e v e l of r e l i a b i l i t y (p. 55) 73 Though the average r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the s p e c i f i c codes was g e n e r a l l y not a c c e p t a b l e , the f o l l o w i n g Elements were coded r e l i a b l y d u r i n g a t l e a s t one o b s e r v a t i o n : M a n i p u l a t i o n s and Gestures, Automanipulate, Reach, Grasp, V o c a l i z a t i o n s , V e r t i c a l C l a p p i n g , Smile and Wide Eyes (Tables IV 5, 7, 8). R e l i a b i l i t y of Coding I n f e r e n t i a l Codes F u r t h e r support f o r the c o n t e n t i o n o f r e l i a b i l i t y came from a p e r u s a l o f the r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s f o r the i n f e r e n t i a l or secondary c o d i n g . Woodward (19 77) s t a t e d t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y r e s u l t s f o r the secondary coding d i d not reach an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s f i n d -i n g , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o the coding of the I n f e r e n t i a l c a t e g o r i e s i n the p r e s e n t study. The d e f i n i -t i o n s (Appendices III-V) were s c r u p u l o u s l y s t u d i e d . Consequently the average r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the i n f e r e n t i a l coding was 91.2% which i s above the a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of agreement (Table IV 9 ) . In summary, i t can be assumed from the above i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y i s a c c e p t a b l e f o r most c a t e g o r i e s . The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a c c e p t a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y f o r some o f the Elements o f Behaviour, i . e . , Head Elements, O r i e n t a t i o n , V o c a l Elements, M a n i p u l a t i o n s and Gestures, Posture and Leg, and Locomotor Elements (Tables IV 3-5) have a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s o f 74 r e l i a b i l i t y . Most o f the c a t e g o r i e s o f Elements of Environment, except f o r Eye, Ear, and placement of the l e f t hand (though a l l were i n the 60% range), are a l s o r e l i a b l y coded. In a d d i t i o n , the f o u r i n f e r e n t i a l c a t e -g o r i e s have l e v e l s o f r e l i a b i l i t y which are a c c e p t a b l e . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f the s e l e c t e d s p e c i f i c codes i s not. Those s p e c i f i c which are r e l i a b l y coded are L i p s Forward, B l i n k , and P o i n t . ANALYSIS OF DATA Fi n d i n g s about the occurrences of the Communication Functions and i n i d i v i d u a l Elements o f Behaviour, the j o i n t o ccurrences o f them both and apparent a s s o c i a t i o n s between them are r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In the f i s t sub-s e c t i o n the d u r a t i o n s o f occurrence o f the Communication Fu n c t i o n s and those i n d i v i d u a l Elements o f Behaviour most f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them are g i v e n (Tables IV 12-16). In the next s u b s e c t i o n the d u r a t i o n s o f the j o i n t occurrences of the Communication Functions w i t h s e l e c t e d Elements of Behaviour are presented (Tables IV 17-20). In a l l cases the d u r a t i o n s are expressed as a percentage of the f i v e minute o b s e r v a t i o n time. The t h i r d s u b s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s l i s t s o f the c o n t i n g e n t occurrence o r Communication F u n c t i o n s as a group w i t h s e l e c t e d Elements o f Behaviour. The c o n t i n g e n t occurrences are i n the form o f data on the d u r a t i o n o f the j o i n t TABLE IV 12 Occurrence : R e f e r e n t i a l , Conative, E x p r e s s i v e , P h a t i c Communication Functions as a , P o e t i c , M e t a l i n g u a l Group (CF) Communication and Duration of Occurrence , as a Percentage of Observation Time Obs. R e f e r e n t i a l Conative Expressive P h a t i c P o e t i c M e t a l i n g u a l A l l CF IS 19.37 3.16 38.12 3.94 00.00 00.00 52.55 2S 24.81 11.21 32.63 18.31 1.61 00.00 67.04 1C 8.34 00.68 9.09 11.19 00.00 00.00 24.66 2C 3.83 5.05 7.71 13.43 00.00 00.00 25.03 IH 30.41 3.94 35.85 2.83 00.00 00.00 50.28 2H 6.55 4.22 12.72 15.16 1.28 00.00 35.42 L n TABLE IV 13 Occurrence and Co-Occurrence : V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking at People" and Speech Duration of Occurrence as a Percent of Observation Time Looking at V o c a l i z a t i o n Speech V o c a l i z a t i o n Obs. V o c a l i z a t i o n Speech People and Looking and Looking or Looking IS 8.10 00.00 60.77 5.72 00.00 63.15 2S 30.08 00.00 38.51 11.54 00.00 57.05 1C 9.02 00.00 12.98 3.09 00.00 18.91 2C 4.22 00.00 19.87 00.61 00.00 23.47 IH 1.66 00.00 39.07 00.06 00.00 40.68 2H 4.83 00.17 41.48 00.83 00.11 45.47 77 occurrence o f codes expressed as a percentage o f the d u r a t i o n o f one or the o t h e r . For example, the r a t i o LflCF r e p r e s e n t s the c o n t i n g e n t occurrence o f the CF Element of Behaviour, Smile (ZL), w i t h Communication Fun c t i o n s as a group (CF) (Tables IV 21-25). In the f o u r t h s u b s e c t i o n the f i n d i n g s o f p o s i t i v e o r negative a s s o c i a t i o n s o f Communication F u n c t i o n s and s e l e c t e d Elements of Behaviour are reviewed. The f i g u r e s presented i n the t a b l e s t o be found i n s u b s e c t i o n s , s u b s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above are m u l t i v a r i a t e data d e r i v e d by the procedure d e s c r i b e d on pages In the f i n a l s u b s e c t i o n are f i n d i n g s on the occurrences o f the P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development and the P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s (Tables IV 32,33). The s u b s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e mainly a r e p o r t o f the f i n d i n g s . Any d i s c u s s i o n i s o n l y t o c l a r i f y the f i n d i n g s . The major d i s c u s s i o n o f the f i n d i n g s i s t o be found i n Chapter IV. Again the reader i s c a u t i o n e d t h a t any com-p a r i s o n s made t o Woodward's study are s t r i c t l y f o r the purpose o f g e n e r a t i n g hypotheses. No g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made. Occurrence of the Communication Fu n c t i o n s and Elements  of Behaviour F i v e Communication Functions are i d e n t i f i e d i n the samples. The s i x t h , M e t a l i n g u a l , does not occur . I t i s 78 i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i t s f u n c t i o n i s to p r a c t i c e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o r gestures and/or i m i t a t e a model. The Communication F u n c t i o n , P o e t i c , o n l y occurs i n two samples, 2S and 2H, and o n l y f o r 1.61% and 1.28%, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f the time. The f o u r remaining Communica-t i o n F u n ctions occur i n each o f the s i x samples. Communication i s coded as happening i n a range from 24.66% to 52.55% (Table IV 12) o f the f i v e minute observa-t i o n i n t e r v a l . The range r e p o r t e d by Woodward w i t h the two h e a r i n g babies i s 9.22% to 34.60% of the f i v e minute o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l (Woodward, 1977, p.116). A scan of Table IV 12 leads one t o hypothesize t h a t the type of Communication F u n c t i o n most commonly observed i s Ex-p r e s s i v e w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l and P h a t i c f o l l o w i n g . In the Woodward study, as the c h i l d r e n approach age one and a h a l f y e a r s , the amount o f P h a t i c communication decreases. In the l a s t t hree samples taken i n her study, i t ranges from 4.57% o f the time t o 7.50%. In the p r e s e n t study, a l l c h i l d r e n are o l d e r than one and a h a l f y e a r s . P h a t i c communication ranges from 2.83% to 18.31%. A s s o c i a t e d Elements of Behaviour. One o f the f o c a l p o i n t s o f the study was the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the a s s o c i a t i o n of c e r t a i n Elements o f Behaviour w i t h the Communication F u n c t i o n s . Those Elements chose f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n were: V o c a l i z a t i o n ; the f a c i a l Elements TABLE IV 14 Occurrence : Normal Face, Smile, Wide Eyes, Pl a y Face, Eyebrow F l a s h , B l i n k , Low Frown, Mouth Open, L i p s Firm, and Pursed L i p s Normal Wide Play Eyebrow Low Mouth L i p s Pursed Obs. Face Smile Eyes Face Fl a s h B l i n k Frown Open Firm L i p s IS 00.39 13.5 22.81 3.05 00.00 2.61 00.44 67.72 00.44 2S 1.83 28.75 7.10 00.50 00.00 3.83 00.00 56.80 00.22 00.33 1C 7.62 00.12 00.83 00.00 00.00 1.22 1.22 64.51 1.17 00.39 2C 3.05 3.27 1.28 00.39 00.00 1.33 00.00 90.62 00.06 00.29 IH 24.64 13.60 7.99 1.72 00.22 1.72 3.44 21.10 00.28 00.17 2H 11.33 5.11 7.22 00.00 00.11 1.79 1.28 16.15 00.22 5.98 TABLE IV 15 Occurrence : S p e c i a l Codes Duration of Occurrence as a Percentage of Observation Time  Obs. Pursed L i p s Puzzled Look Mouthed Word Signed Word IS - 16.89 00.27 2S 00.33 - 2.33 1C 00.29 - - 3.56 2C - - - 1.67 IH 00.17 - - -2H 5.98 - 2.51 TABLE IV 16 Occurrence : : P o i n t , Hold Out, Immobile and Signing Obs. Po i n t Hold Out Immobile Signing IS 10.84 00.00 45.44 -2S 1.33 3.22 3.72 -1C 00.00 00.00 11.23 3.80 2C 00.00 00.00 7.22 2.70 IH 1.17 00.28 11.55 -2H 2.39 00.28 00.00 -82 of Normal Face, Smile, Wide Eyes, P l a y Face, Low Frown, L i p s Firm, Pursed L i p s ; and the gestures o f Hold Out, P o i n t , and Signed Word. The s e l e c t e d Elements o f Behaviour were chosen f o r two reasons. A t a b u l a t i o n of the f r e -quencies o f occurrences o f a l l observed behaviour was made be f o r e the a n a l y s i s was begun. The s e l e c t e d Elements were a l s o those most o f t e n chosen f o r examination by e t h o l o g i s t s ( B l u r t o n Jones, 19 72; Brannigan and Humphries, 19 72; Grant, 1969; McGrew, 1972). (The d e f i n i t i o n s f o r these codes appear i n Appendix II.) The v a r i a b l e , "Looking a t People", i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d i n the a n a l y s i s . I t i s d e f i n e d as the co-occurrence o f the Elements: Look, Gaze, o r Gaze F i x a t e and the person coded i n the eye s t i m u l u s column (Figure 1) i . e . , Mother, o r B a b y s i t t e r . V o c a l i z a t i o n . The range of occurrence f o r V o c a l i z a t i o n i s from 1.66% to 30.08% of the time (Table IV 13). For the babies i n the Woodward study i t i s 1.33% to 14.54%. "Looking a t People". Occurrence o f the Element ranges from 12.98% to 60.77% o f the o b s e r v a t i o n time (Table IV 13). As w i t h P h a t i c communication i n Woodward's study, the percentage o f time spent "Looking a t People" d i m i n i s h e s over time such t h a t i n the l a s t t hree o b s e r v a t i o n s the amount o f time engaged i n "Looking a t People" ranges from 10.36% to 32.11% (Woodward, 1977, p.119). Here aga i n , i t would appear t h a t the h e a r i n g impaired 83 c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y s p e n d more t i m e m a i n t a i n i n g v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h p o t e n t i a l c o m m u n i c a t o r s t h a n i n t h e n o r m a l l y h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i n Woodward's s t u d y . F a c i a l E l e m e n t s . The r a n g e s f o r t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f d u r a t i o n o f t h e o b s e r v e d F a c i a l E l e m e n t s a r e : N o r m a l F a c e , 0.39%-24.64%; S m i l e , 0.12%-28.75%, Wide E y e s , 0.83%-22.81%; P l a y F a c e , 0.00%-3.05%; B l i n k , 1.22%-3.83%; Low Frown, 0.00%-3.44%; Mouth Open, 16.15%-90.26% ; P u r s e d L i p s , 0.17%-5.98%. The code, Eyebrow F l a s h , was u n i q u e t o s u b j e c t H w h i l e t h e c o d e , P u z z l e d L o o k , was u n i q u e t o s u b j e c t S. The c o d e , Mouthed Word, o c c u r r e d i n b o t h o b s e r v a t i o n s o f S and i n o n l y one o f H's. I t d i d n o t o c c u r i n e i t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n o f C. The g e s t u r e c o d e , S i g n e d Word, was u n i q u e t o C ( T a b l e s I V 1 4 - 1 5 ) . The most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g c o d e s a p p e a r t o be Mouth Open, f o l l o w e d b y S m i l e , N o r m a l F a c e a n d Wide E y e s . I n Woodward's s t u d y , S m i l e , Normal F a c e a n d Wide E y e s a l s o a p p e a r t o o c c u r t h e most f r e q u e n t l y (Woodward, 19 77, p.122) . G e s t u r e s . The r a n g e s f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s e l e c t e d g e s t u r e s w e r e : P o i n t , 0 . 0 0 % - 1 0 . 3 4 % ; H o l d Out,0.00%-3.22%; and t h e TABLE IV 17 J o i n t Occurrence : Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), Play Face (PF), Normal Face (NL), L i p s Firm (LS), Low Frown (LN), Puzzled Look (PZ), Pursed L i p s (PX) and Communication as a Group (CF) Duration, of J o i n t Occurrence as a Percentage of the Observation Time Obs. ZLOCF WErvCF PFnCF NLr\CF LSriCF LNA CF PZACF P X O C F IS 13.10 1.90 2.70 00.20 00.80 5.60 16.90 -2S 28.60 6.80 00.50 00.90 - - - 00.30 1C 00.10 00.80 - 00.90 2.10 1.20 - 00.10 2C 3.30 1.30 00.40 00.40 - - -IH 13.60 7.20 2.90 4.90 - 3.40 - 00.20 2H 5.10 3.50 3.60 3.40 1.20 — 2.60 0 0 TABLE IV 18 J o i n t Occurrence : V o c a l i z a t i o n (V0), "Looking at People" ( L ) , V o c a l i z a t i o n or "Looking at People" (V0UL/V0OL) , V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at People" (V0AL), P o i n t (P0), Hold Out (H0) and Communication Functions as A Group (CF) Duration of J o i n t Occurrence as a Percent of Observation Time Obs. V0ACF L A C F (V0UL/V0AL)ACF V0ACF P0ACF H0OCF IS 7.38 34.07 36.79 5.49 10.84 00.00 2S 30.08 37.07 55.60 11.54 1.33 3.22 1C 8.28 12.05 17.24 3.09 - -2C 4.16 18.09 21.64 00.61 - 1.00 IH 1.66 33.91 35.52 00.06 1.17 00.28 2H 4.83 23.10 26.93 00.83 2.39 00.28 TABLE IV 19 J o i n t Occurrence : Normal Face (NL), Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), Play Face (PF), Eyebrow Fl a s h (EF) and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) Obs. Duration of J o i n t Occurrence as a Percentage of Observation Time NLACF ZLACF WEACF EFACF PFACF IS 00.17 9.10 00.61 00.00 1.89 2S 24.81 10.60 3.44 00.00 00.28 1C 00.00 00.12 00.00 00.00 00.00 2C 00.00 00.22 00.00 00.00 00.17 IH 4.61 9.32 5.05 00.17 1.72 2H 00.44 1.44 00.50 00.00 00.00 00 87 TABLE IV 20 J o i n t Occurrence : Signed Word (QH), Mouthed Word (MD) and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) Duration of J o i n t Occurrence as a % of Observation Time Obs QHnCF MDP CF IS 4.26 2S 2.66 1C 00.28 2C 2.33 88 special code, Signed Word, 2.7%-3.8% (Table IV 16). In Woodward's study, the gestures, Point and Hold Out, also occurred infrequently with Point occurring more frequently (Woodward, 1977,p.123). Behaviour that Co-occur with Communication Functions as A Group The data i n Table IV 17 - Table IV 20 represent the percentage of the f i v e minute observation that the Specified Element of Behaviour occurs at the same time as the t o t a l group of Communication Function. Data i n these tables are used to calculate the contingent occurrences (Table IV 21-25). Tables reporting the occurrences and the j o i n t occurrences form the basis for cal c u l a t i n g the contingent p r o b a b i l i t i e s . These p r o b a b i l i t i e s , i n accordance with Hay's l o g i c (see pp. 47-48), are used to determine i f a pos i t i v e or negative association exists between an Element of Behaviour and a sp e c i f i e d Communication Function. Pearson's Chi-square Test of Association with Yates' Correction was calculated by the MVTAB program. Use of t h i s s t a t i s t i c to test association was o r i g i n a l l y rejected because i t was thought that one of i t s assumptions would be violat e d . The assumption was that a c r i t e r i o n of a minimum expected frequency of 10 i n the c e l l s has been met (Hays, 1963, p. 597). It was hypothesized that the short observa-. tion time would r e s u l t i n many of the values i n the c e l l s TABLE IV 21 Contingent Occurrence of V o c a l i z a t i o n (V0), "Looking at People" ( L ) , V o c a l i z a t i o n or "Looking at People" (V0UL/V0OL), V o c a l i z a t i o n and "Looking at People" (V0r\L) and Communication, given Communication Functions as a Group (CF) Contingent Occurrence of Elements i n CF as % of Duration of CF V0QCF LOCF (V0 L/L/V0OL)r\CF V0ALOCF Obs. CF CF CF CF IS 14.04 66.43 70.00 10.45 2S 44.87 55.30 82.94 17.21 1C 33.58 48.86 69.91 12.53 2C 16.62 72.27 86.46 2.44 IH 3.30 67.44 70.64 00.00 TABLE IV 22 Contingent Occurrence of Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), Play Face (PF), Normal Face (NL) , L i p s Firm ( L ) , Low Frown (LN), Puzzled Look (PZ), Pursed L i p s (PX). Given Communica-t i o n Functions as a Group (CF). Contingent Occurrence of Elements as a Percentag ;e of Duration of Each ZL/\CF WEACF PFA CF NLA CF LSrvCF LNA CF PZn CF PXOCF Obs. CF CF CF CF CF CF CF CF IS 25.00 22.80 5.10 00.30 1.50 10.70 32.20 -2S 42.69 10.15 00.75 1.13 - - - 00.45 1C 00.50 3.60 - 4.10 9.50 5.40 - 00.50 2C 13.20 5.20 1.60 1.60 1.60 - - -IH 27.04 14.31 5.77 9.74 - 6.76 - 00.40 2H 14.40 9.90 10.20 0.60 3.40 _ 7.40 91 TABLE IV 23 Contingent Occurrence of Signed Word ( Q H ) , Mouthed Word (MD) and Communication Functions as a Group (CF) Duration of J o i n t Occurrence as a % of Observation Time  Q H O C F MDQ C F Obs. C F C F IS 100.00 2S 100.00 1C 100.00 2C 100.00 TABLE IV 24 Contingent Occurrence of Communication Functions as a Group (CF) Given V o c a l i z a t i o n (V0), "Looking at People" ( L ) 3 Point (P0), and Hold Out (H0) Contingent Occurrence of CF i n Elements as a Percentage of Duration of Each V0ACF LOCF (V0L/L/V0r>L)nCF V0ALOCF P0ACF H0ft CF Obs. V0 L V0 L V0 L P0 H0 IS 91.11 •; 57.12 58.26 95.98 100.00 -2S 100.00 96.26 97.48 100.00 100.00 100.00 1C 91.80 92.84 91.17 100.00 - -2C 98.58 91.04 92.20 100.00 -. 100.00 IH 100.00 86.79 87.32 100.00 100.00 100.00 2H 90.89 55.69 59.23 67.47 100.00 100.00 V D M TABLE IV 25 Contingent Occurrence of Communication Functions as a Group (CF), Given Smile (ZL), Wide Eyes (WE), P l a y Face (PF) , Normal Face (NL), Lips; Firm (LS), Low Frown (LN), Puzzled Look (PZ), and Pursed L i p s (PX) Contingent Occurrence of CF i n Elements as a Percentage of the Duration of Each Obs. Z L A C F .-"..••CF WEnCF jGF P F A C F C F L N A C F CF LSnCF C F LN/1CF C F P Z / Y C F CF p x n c F C F IS 100.00 8.30 96.40 50.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 -2S 99.31 95.77 100.00 50.00 - - 100.00 1C 100.00 100.00 - 13.40 100.00 100.00 - 33.33 2C 100.00 100.00 100.00 12.90 - - - -IH 100.00 198.63 100.00 19.84 - 100.00 - 100.00 2H 100.00 74.50 _ 32.40 66.70 92.30 _ 43.30 i£> LO 94 not exceeding the c r i t e r i o n o f t e n . A p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s was conducted i n o r d e r to determine the v a l i d i t y o f t h a t h y p o t h e s i s . I t was found t h a t the hypothesis was indeed i n v a l i d . In many cases the c r i t e r i o n was s a t i s f i e d . The c e l l s i n n e a r l y one hundred o f the b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s exceeded 10. S i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .001 l e v e l was chosen because o f the l a r g e number o f time u n i t s . The r e s u l t s o f P e a r s o n 1 s Chi-square T e s t s u b s t a n t i a t e d the f i n d i n g s of the c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t i e s . The r e s u l t s are p r e -sented i n Tables IV 26-30. Comparisons i n d i c a t i n g apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n (the p r o b a b i l i t y o f an Element o f Behaviour or Communication F u n c t i o n i s l e s s than the p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e i r c o n t i n g e n t occurrence) are found i n the l e f t column and comparisons i n d i c a t i n g an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n (the p r o b a b i l i t y of occurrence of an Element o f Behaviour or Communication F u n c t i o n i s more than the p r o b a b i l i t y of t h e i r c o n t i n g e n t occurrence) are shown i n the r i g h t column. Examination o f Table IV 26 shows t h a t the Elements o f Behaviour ( V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking a t People", Smile, Wide Eyes, L i p s Firm, P l a y Face, Low Frown, Signed Words, Mcmthed Words, Pursed L i p s , P o i n t and P u z z l e d Look) are a p p a r e n t l y p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Communication F u n c t i o n s as a group. There are s e v e r a l e x c e p t i o n s . There i s an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Normal Face and Communication F u n c t i o n s as a group. There i s a l s o an 95 Table IV 26 Apparent P o s i t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n of Apparent Negative A s s o c i a t i o n : Communication Functions as a Group (CF) and Selected Elements of Behaviour (EB) Elements of Behviour P o s i t i v e l y A s s o ciated w i t h CF: p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) ^ p(contingent occurence) Obs. p. (CFXp(CF/EB) P(EB)< | p(EB/CF) Elements of Behaviour N e g a t i v e l y Associated . w i t h CF: p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) ^ p(contingent occurrence) p(CF)>p(CF/EB) p(EB)>p(EB/CF) V o c a l i z a t i o n * IS .536 .911 .081 .140 2S .670 1.000 .301 .449 1C .247 .918 .090 .336 2C .250 .986 .042 .166 IH .503 1.000 .017 .033 2H .354 .909 .048 .124 IS .526 .574 .608 .664 2S .670 .963 .385 .553 1C .247 .928 .130 .489 2C .250 . .910 .199 .723 IH .503 .868 .391 .674 2H .354 .557 .415 .652 "Looking at People" * Smile * IS .526 1.000 .131 .250 2S .670 .993 .288 .427 1C .247 1.000 .001 .005 2C .250 1.000 .033 .132 IH .503 1.000 .136 .270 2H .353 1.000 .051 .144 Wide Eyes * IS .525 .083 .228 .036+ 2S .670 .958 .071 .102 1C .247 1.000 .008 .036 2C .250 1.000 .013 .052 IH .503 .983 .080 .143 2H .353 .745 .047 .099 L i p s Firm * IS .525 1.000 .004 .015 2S - - - -1C .247 1.000 .021 .095 2C - - - -IH . - - -2H . 353 .667 .051 .096 Table IV 26 (can't) Elements of Behaviour Posi t ively Elements of Behaviour Negatively Associated Associated with CF: p(occurrence)< with CF: p(occurrence) > p(contingent occurrence) p(contingent occurrence) Obs. p(CF)<p(CF/EB) p(EB)< p(EB/CF) p(CF) ^ p(CF/EB) p(GF)7- p(EB/CF) Play Face *  IS .525 .964 .028 .051 2S .670 1.000 .005 .008 1C - - • J - • -2C .250 1.000 .004 .016 IH .503 1.000 .017 .058 2H — — — — Normal Face * IS .525 .500 .004 .003 2S .670 :.500 . .018 .011 1C .247 .134 .067 .041 2C .250 .129 .031 .016 IH .503 .198 .246 .097 2H .353 .324 .111 .102 Low Frown IS .525 1.000 .056 .107 2S - - -.. -1C .247 1.000 .012 .054 2C - - - -IH .503 1.000 .034 .068 2H .353 .923 .013 .034 Pursed Lips IS . - - - • -2S .670 1.000 .003 .005 1C .242 .333 .003 .005 2C - - - -IE .503 1.000 .002 .004 2H .353 .433 .060 .074 Point IS 2S 1C 2C IH 2H .525 .670 .503 .353 1.000 1.000 •1.000 1.000 .108 .013 .012 .024 .206 .019 .024 .068 Signed Word * 1C .247 .868 .038 .194 2C .250 .926 .027 .100 Table IV 26 (con't) Elements of Behaviour Positively Associated with CF: p(occurrence) <L p(oontingent occurrence) Obs. p (CF)^ p (CF/EB) p (EB) < p (EB/CF) Elements of Behaviour Negatively Associated with CF: p (occurrence) p?. p (contingent occurrence) p (CF) ^  p (CF/EB) p(CF)>p (EB/CF) Puzzled Look * IS .525 1.000 .169 .322 2S - - - -1C - - - -2C - - - -IH - - - -2H - - - -Mouthed Word + IS .525 1.000 .003 .006 2S .670 .565 .023 .019 * Association i s significant at the .001 level + Did not meet the assumptions of Pearson's Chi-Square 98 apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Communication Functions as a group and Wide Eyes i n the case of IS and Mouthed Words i n the case of 2S. A s s o c i a t i o n o f these two Elements w i t h the Communication Functions was not s i g n i f i -c ant as determined by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f Pearson's Chi-Square T e s t o f A s s o c i a t i o n . These r e s u l t s may have o c c u r r e d f o r two o t h e r reasons. When the data i n the l a t t e r two are a l s o examined, there seems t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o b a b i l i t y o f occurrence o f the Element o f Behaviour and the c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h a t Element (Table IV 26) which may imply no a s s o c i a t i o n . The r e s u l t s may a l s o have been contaminated by the low r e l i a b i l i t y of Wide Eyes i n the study. Woodward has an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f r e l i a b i l i t y f o r Wide Eyes and she has s i m i l a r r e s u l t s (Woodward, 1977,pp.114-135). Va r i a n c e s i n the r e s u l t s emerge when each Communication F u n c t i o n i s examined as a separate e n t i t y . Using frequency of occurrence d u r i n g the taped samples as a b a s i s , f o u r Communication Functions have been chosen f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s : R e f e r e n t i a l , Conative, E x p r e s s i v e , and P h a t i c . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , the remaining data are examined by con-s i d e r i n g each of the s e l e c t e d Elements o f Behaviour (Tables IV 27-30) as they compare w i t h r e s u l t s found by Woodward (19 77). T h i s i s done, as s t a t e d b e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o gene-r a t e p o s s i b l e hypotheses. Table TV 27 99 Apparent Positive Association or Apparent Negative Association: Referential Ccranimication. (RF) and Selected Elements of Behaviour (EB) Elements of Behaviour Positively Elements of Behaviour Negatively Associated Associated with RF: p (occurrence) < with RF: p(occurrence) > . p(contingent occurrence) p(contingent occurrence) Obs. p(RF)<p(RF/EB) p(EB)< p(EB/RF) p(RF)> p(RF/EB) p(EB) >p (EB/RF) Vocalization * IS .194 .420 • 081o .176 2S .248 .700 .300 .847 1C .083 .802 .081 .867 2C .038 .667 .042 .739 IH .304 .176 .017 .010 + 2H .063 .289 .045 .206 "Looking at People" * IS .194 .215 .608 .679 2S .248 .299 .385 .464 1C .083 .239 .117 .373.. 2C .038 .055 .199 .289 IH .304 .637 .391 .820 2H .063 .091 . 417 .603 Smile * IS .194 .215 .608 .679 2S .248 .369 .288 .427 1C .083 1.000 .001 .014 2C .038 .067 .033 .057 IH .304 .684 .136 .305 2H .063 .294 .051 .238 Wide Eyes * IS .194 .032 .228 .027 2S .248 .485 .071 .139 1C - - - -2C - - - -IH .304 .589 .080 .141 2H .063 .106 .072 .079 100 Table IV 27 (cont'd) Elements of Behavior Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated with RF: p (occurrence)< with RF: p (occurrence)> p (contingent occurrence) p (contingent occurrence) Obs. p(RF)<p(RF/EB) p(EB)<p(EB/RF) p (RF)> p (RF/EB) p(EB)>p(EB/RF) Play Face * IS .194 .620 .031 .098 2S .248 .560 .005 .011 1C - - - -2C .038 .436 .004 .044 IH .304 .586 .017 .056 2H _ Normal Face * IS .193 .500 .004 .100 2S .248 .000 .018 .000 1C .083 .000 .076 .000 2C .038 .000 .031 .000 IH .304 .187 .246 .152 2H .063 . .009 . ...113 .016 Lips Firm + IS .194 1.000 .004 .023 2S .248 .000 .002 .000 1C .083 1.000 .012 .140 2C .038 .153 .001 .016 IH - - -2H .063 .196 .002 .159 Low Frown * IS .194 .125 .006 .005 2H - - - -1C .083 .000 .012 .000 2C - - - -IH .304 .118 .034 .014 2H .063 .159 .013 .032+ 1 0 1 T a b l e I V 27 ( c o n t ' d ) Elements of Behavior Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated with RF: pv(oc(^urrence)< with RF.: p (cxx^irrence)^ p (contingent occurrence) p (contingent occurrence) O b s . p(RF) <p(RF/EB) p(EB) <p(EB/RF) p(RF)> p(RF/EB) p(EB) >p(EB/RF) P u r s e d L i p s .+ I S - - - -2S . 2 4 8 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 4 1C . 0 8 3 . 3 3 3 . 0 0 3 . 0 1 3 2C - - - -I H . 3 0 4 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 3 2H . 0 6 3 . 2 1 7 . 0 6 0 . 2 0 6 P o i n t * I S . 1 9 4 1 . 0 0 0 . 1 0 8 . 5 6 0 2 S . 2 4 8 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 1C - - - -2C - - - -I H . 3 0 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 2 . 0 0 0 2H . 0 6 3 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 2 4 . 3 8 1 - M o u t h e d W o r d s + I S . 1 9 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 2 S . 2 4 8 . 4 7 8 . 0 2 3 . 0 4 4 S i g n e d W o r d s + 1C . 0 8 3 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 3 8 . 5 0 7 2C . 0 3 8 . 5 2 6 . 0 2 7 . 7 4 1 * A s s o c i a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 0 1 l e v e l + D i d n o t m e e t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f x 2 1 0 2 T a b l e I V 28 A p p a r e n t P o s i t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o r A p p a r e n t N e g a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n : C o n a t i v e C c m m u r d c a t i o n (CN) a n d S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r . (EB) E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r P o s i t i v e l y E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r N e g a t i v e l y A s s o c i a t e d A s s o c i a t e d w i t h C N : p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) < w i t h C N : p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) ^ p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) O b s . p ( C N ) < p ( C N / E B ) p ( E B ) < p (EB/CN) p ( C N ) > p ( C N / E B ) p (EB) > p (EB/CN) V o c a l i z a t i o n * I S . 0 3 2 . 2 9 6 . 0 8 1 . 7 5 0 2S . 1 1 2 . 1 8 0 . 3 0 0 . 4 8 2 1C 2C . 0 3 1 . 2 6 2 . 0 4 2 . 3 5 5 I H . 0 3 9 . 7 6 4 . 0 1 7 . 3 3 3 2H . 0 4 2 . 3 1 1 . 0 4 5 . 3 3 3 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 8 1 . 0 0 0 " L o o k i n g a t P e o p l e " + I S . 0 3 2 . 0 2 3 . 6 0 8 . 4 3 8 2 S . 1 1 2 . 1 0 9 . 3 8 5 . 3 7 5 1C 2C I H 2H . 0 0 6 . 0 3 7 . 0 8 1 . 5 0 0 . 0 3 1 . 0 5 5 . 1 9 9 . 3 5 5 . 0 3 9 . 0 4 6 . 3 9 1 . 5 0 0 . 0 4 2 . 0 5 6 . 4 1 7 . 5 7 1 . S m i l e I S . 0 3 2 . 0 0 0 . 1 3 2 . 0 0 0 2S . 1 1 2 . 2 5 7 . 2 2 8 . 6 6 1 1C . 0 0 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 2C . 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 3 3 . 0 0 0 I H . 0 3 9 . 0 0 0 . 1 3 6 . 0 0 0 2H . 0 4 2 .nnn . 0 5 1 nnn W i d e E y e s * I S . 0 3 2 . 0 2 6 . 2 2 8 . 1 8 8 2S . 1 1 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 7 1 . 0 0 0 1C . 0 0 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 0 2C . 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 I H . 0 3 9 . 0 0 0 . 0 8 0 . 0 0 0 2H . 0 4 2 .nnn . 0 5 1 .nnn 103: T a b l e I V 2 8 ( c o n t ' d ) E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r P o s i t i v e l y E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r N e g a t i v e l y A s s o c i a t e d A s s o c i a t e d w i t h C N : p ( o c c u r r e n c eX w i t h C N : p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) O b s . p ( C N ) < p ( C N / E 3 ) p ( E B ) < p ( E B / C N ) : p (CN) > p (CN/EB) p (EB) ^ p (EB/CN) L i p s F i r m + I S . 0 3 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 0 2S . 1 1 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 1C . 0 0 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 2C - - - -I H - - - -2H . 0 4 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 0 P l a y F a c e + I S . 0 3 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 2S . 1 1 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 . 0 0 0 1C - - - -2C . 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 0 I H . 0 3 9 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 7 . 0 0 0 2H — Low. F r o w n . + I S . 0 3 2 . 0 3 6 . 0 3 1 . 0 6 3 2 S - - - -1C . 0 0 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 2 . 0 0 0 2 C -I H . 0 3 9 . 0 2 9 . 0 3 4 . 0 2 6 2H . 0 4 2 . 1 5 4 . . 0 1 3 . 0 4 8 N o r m a l F a c e . + I S . 0 3 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 0 2 S . 1 1 2 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 8 . 0 0 0 1C . 0 0 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 7 6 . 0 0 0 2C . 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 I H . 0 3 9 . 0 5 2 . 2 4 7 . 0 0 5 2H . 0 4 2 . 0 6 3 . 1 1 3 . . 1 6 7 . 104 Table TV 28 (cont'd) Elements of Behavior Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated with CN: p (occurrence)< with CN: p (occurrence)^ p (contingent occurrence) p (contingent occurrence) Obs. p(CN)<p(CN/EB) p(EB)<p(EB/CN) p(CN) > p(CN/EB) p(EB)> p(EB/CN) Pursed Lips + IS -2S .112 .000 .003 .000 1C .006 .000 .003 .000 2C -IH .039 .000 .002 .000 2H .042 .154 .060 .048 Point + IS .039 .000 .108 .000 2S .112 1.000 .013 .012 1C - - - -2C - - - -IH .039 1.000 .012 .308 2H .042 .000 .024 .000 Mouthed Words + IS .032 1.000 .003 .094 2S .112 .043 .023 .009 Signed Words . .+. 1C .006 .000 .038 .000 2C .031 .129 .027 .148 •* Association i s . significant at ...the .001 level + Did not meet the- assumptions•of 105 Table IV 29 Apparent Positive or Apparent Negative Association: Expressive Ccranunication (EX) and Selected Elements of Behavior (EB) Elements of Behavior Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated with EX: p (occurrence)^ with EX: p (occurrence)^ p (contingent occurrence) p (contingent occurrence) Obs. p(EX)<s p(EX/EB) p(EB)<p(EB/EX) p (EX) > p (EX/EB) p (EB) } (EB/EX) Vocalization * IS .081 .210 .081 .045 2S .326 .613 .300 .564 1C .084 .248 .117 .345 2C .077 .500 .042 .273 IH .359 .059 .017 .003 2H .128 .222 .045 .078 "Looking at People" * IS .381 .413 .608 .659 2S .326 .434 .385 .512 1C .084 .531 .081 .512 2C .077 .216 .199 .558 IH .359 .611 .391 .666 2H .128 .144 .417 .469 Smile * IS .381 .977 .136 .336 2S .326 .726 .288 .641 1C - - - -2C .077 .970 .033 .416 IH .359 .985 .136 .373 2H .128 .902 .051 .360 Wide Eyes * IS .381 .026 .228 .016 2S .326 .789 .071 .172 1C .084 .000 .008 .000 + 2C .077 1.000 .013 .169 IH .359 .904 .080 .184 2H .128 .475 .047 .148 . 1 0 6 Table IV 29 (cont'd) Elements of Behavior Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated with EX: p (occurrenceX with EX: P (occurrence)^ p (contingent occurrence) p (contingent occurrence) Obs. p(EX)<p(EX/EB) p (EBK p (EB/EX) p(EX) > p(EX/EB) p (EB) > p (EB/EX) Lips Firm * IS .381 1.000 .004 .021 2S .326 1.000 .002 .009 1C .084 1.000 .012 .250 2C - - - -IH - - - -2H .128 .216 .002 . .086 Play Face * IS .381 .393 .028 .030 2S .326 1.000 .005 .015 1C - - - -2C .077 1.000 .004 .052 IH .059 1.000 .017 .088 2H Normal Face , * I S . 0 3 9 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 4 . 0 0 0 2 S . 3 2 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 8 . 0 0 0 1C . 0 8 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 6 7 . 0 0 0 2C . 0 7 7 . 0 0 0 . 0 3 1 . 0 0 0 I H . 3 5 9 . 1 2 6 . 2 4 6 . 0 8 6 2 H . 1 2 8 . 0 0 0 . . 1 1 1 . 0 0 0 Low Frown * I S . 3 8 1 . 9 6 4 . 0 5 6 . 1 4 2 2S - - - -1C . 0 8 4 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 2 . 1 4 3 2 C - - - -I H . 3 5 9 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 3 4 . 0 9 5 2 H . 1 2 8 . 6 9 2 . 0 1 3 ...070 -10 7 Table IV 29 (cont'd) Elements of Behavior Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated with EX: p (occurrence)K with EX: p (occurrence)^ p (contingent occurrence) p (contingent occurrence) Obs. p (EX) <p (EX/EB) p(EB)<p (EB/EX) p (EX) > p (EX/EB) p(EB)> p(EB/EX) Pursed Lips . + IS - - - -2S .326 1.000 .003 .009 1C .084 .000 .003 .000 2C - - -IH .359 1.000 .002 .006 2H .128 .110 .060 .055 Point * IS .039 .000 .108 .000 2S .326 .000 .013 .000 1C - - -2C - - -IH .059 .000 .012 .000 2H .128 .458 .024 .086 Signed Words .+ 1C .084 .737 .038 .341 2C .077 .704 .027 .247 Mouthed Words .+ .... IS .039 .000 .003 .000 2S .326 .391 .023 .028 * Association i s significant at the .001 level + Did not meet the assumptions of x 2 1 0 8 T a b l e I V 30 A p p a r e n t P o s i t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o r A p p a r e n t N e g a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n : P h a t i c C o m m u n i c a t i o n . ( P J ) a n d S e l e c t e d E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r (EB) E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r P o s i t i v e l y E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r N e g a t i v e l y A s s o c i a t e d A s s o c i a t e d w i t h P J : p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) ^ w i t h P J : p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) ^ p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) O b s . p ( P J ) < p ( P J / E B ) p ( E B ) < p ( E B / P J ) p ( P J ) > p ( P J / E B ) p (EB) > p ( E B / P J ) V o c a l i z a t i o n + I S . 0 0 3 . 0 7 7 . 0 3 9 . 0 3 7 2S . 1 8 3 . 0 7 7 . 3 0 0 . 1 2 6 1C . 1 0 1 . 0 6 2 . 0 8 1 . 0 5 0 2C . 1 3 4 . 0 7 1 . 0 4 2 . 0 2 2 I H . 0 2 8 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 7 . 0 0 0 2H . 1 5 3 . 0 2 2 . 0 4 5 . 0 0 6 " L o o k i n g a t P e o p l e " * I S . 0 3 9 . 0 6 3 . 6 0 8 . 9 7 4 2 S ;• . 1 8 3 . 3 7 7 . 3 8 5 . 7 9 2 1 C . 1 0 1 . 6 4 1 . 1 1 7 . 7 4 3 2C . 1 3 4 . 6 2 8 . 1 9 9 . 9 3 3 I H . 0 2 8 . 0 7 2 . 0 1 7 1 . 0 0 0 2 H . 1 5 3 . 3 2 9 . 4 1 7 . 8 9 5 . S m i l e * I S . 0 3 9 . 0 1 5 . 1 3 2 . 0 5 1 2 S . 1 8 3 . 0 0 0 . 2 8 9 . 0 0 0 1C . 1 0 1 . 1 1 8 . 0 0 1 . 0 4 7 + 2C . 1 3 4 . 0 3 3 . 0 3 3 . 0 0 7 I H . 0 2 8 . 0 1 5 . 1 3 6 . 0 7 1 2 H . 1 5 3 . 1 1 8 . 0 5 1 . 0 5 0 W i d e E y e s * I S . 0 3 9 . 0 3 1 . 2 2 8 . 1 8 0 + 2 S . 1 8 3 . 1 6 9 . 0 7 1 . 0 6 6 + 1C . 1 0 1 . 3 1 9 . 0 0 8 . 0 9 8 2C . 1 3 4 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 + I H . 0 2 8 . 0 8 2 . 0 7 3 . 2 1 4 2H . 1 5 3 . 3 1 9 . 0 7 2 . 0 9 8 . 109 Table IV 30 (cont'd) Elements of Behavior Positively Elements of Behavior Negatively Associated Associated with PJ: p (occurrence)K. with PJ: p (occurrence)^ p (contingent occurrence) p (contingent occurrence) Obs. p(PJ)< p(PJ/EB) p(EB)< p(EB/PJ) p(PJ)> p(PJ/EB) p(EB)> p(EB/PJ) . Play Face + IS .039 .607 .028 .436 2S .183 .000 .005 .000 1G -2C .134 .000 .004 .000 IH .359 .000 .017 .000 ,2H - - - -Normal Face * IS .039 .000- .004 .000 2S .183 .500 .018 .049 1C .101 .134 .076 .089 2C .134 .129 .031 .030 IH .359 .004 .246 .036 2H .153 .189 .113 .137 Lips Firm * IS .039 .000 .004 .000 2S .183 .000 .002 .000 1C .101 .000 .002 .000 2C IH 2H .153 . .412 .003 .137 Low Frown + IS .039 .000 .056 .000 2S -1C -2C -IH -2H .153 .000 .034 .000 T a b l e I V 30 ( c o n t ' d ) 1 1 1 0 E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r P o s i t i v e l y E l e m e n t s o f B e h a v i o r N e g a t i v e l y A s s o c i a t e d A s s o c i a t e d w i t h P J : p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) ^ w i t h P J : p ( o c c u r r e n c e ) ^ p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) p ( c o n t i n g e n t o c c u r r e n c e ) O b s . p ( P J ) < p ( P J / E B ) p ( E B ) < p ( E B / P J ) p ( P J ) > p ( P J / E B ) p ( E B ) > p ( E B / P J ) P u r s e d L i p s .+ I S - - - -2S . 1 8 3 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 1C . 1 0 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 2C - - - -I H - - - -2H . 0 0 2 . 0 5 9 . 1 5 3 1 5 0 . P o i n t + I S . 3 8 1 . 6 0 2 . 1 0 8 . 1 7 1 2 S . 3 2 6 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 1C - - - -2C - - - -I H . 3 5 9 . 0 0 0 . 0 1 2 . 0 0 0 2H . 0 1 3 . 0 0 0 . 0 2 4 . 0 0 0 M o u t h e d W o r d s + I S . 0 3 9 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 3 . 0 0 0 2 S . 1 8 3 . 1 3 0 . 0 2 3 . 0 1 6 S i g n e d W o r d s + 1C . 1 0 1 . 0 5 3 . 0 3 8 . 0 2 0 2C . 1 3 4 . 0 3 7 . 0 2 7 . 0 0 7 * A s s o c i a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 0 1 l e v e l + D i d n o t m e e t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f y? I l l V o c a l i z a t i o n , On the whole, V o c a l i z a t i o n has apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l , Conative,and E x p r e s s i v e Communication. There are s e v e r a l e x c e p t i o n s . In the case o f IH, V o c a l i z a t i o n has apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e Communication (Tables IV 27,29). Mainly, her v o c a l i z a t i o n s have a Conative F u n c t i o n . For example, i n one i n s t a n c e she i s t r y i n g to get a toy from her mother. In the case o f IS there i s an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between E x p r e s s i v e Communication and V o c a l i z a t i o n . In t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o b s e r v a t i o n , V o c a l i z a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Conative and R e f e r e n t i a l communication. T h i s f i n d i n g may be the cause of the apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h E x p r e s s i v e communication (Tables IV 27-29). Examination of the a n e c d o t a l data s u p p l i e d by the a u d i t o r y sequence (pp.41-42) shows S v o c a l i z e s i n an attempt to have her mother t u r n o f f the l i g h t ( C o n a t i v e ) , to j o i n i n her b r o t h e r ' s p l a y and to show her mother a toy ( R e f e r e n t i a l ) . In the case of 1C where th e r e was an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Conative communication and V o c a l i z a t i o n (Table IV 28), the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o b a b i l i t y o f the two was minimal, i m p l y i n g no a s s o c i a t i o n . The most n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n to the apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between each o f the Communication F u n c t i o n s and V o c a l i z a t i o n s i s the apparent negative a s s o c i a t i o n between V o c a l i z a t i o n s and P h a t i c communication (Table IV 30). T h i s i s probably because P h a t i c communication i s more o f t e n 112 accomplished through v i s u a l c o n t a c t . Woodward (19 77) f i n d s s i m i l a r r e s u l t s , i n c l u d i n g an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between P h a t i c communication and V o c a l i z a t i o n . "Looking a t People". "Looking a t People" has an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l , C onative, E x p r e s s i v e and P h a t i c communication (Tables 27-30). The on l y e x c e p t i o n occurs i n both s u b j e c t S's samples where Conative communication i s n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "Looking a t People" (Table IV 28). A p e r u s a l o f the an e c d o t a l data shows t h a t i n both cases when Conative communication o c c u r s , S looks a t the o b j e c t r a t h e r than a t the person. For example, when she wants her mother t o t u r n o f f the l i g h t , she looks a t the l i g h t . Woodward's o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o the t r e n d o f apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n the case o f s u b j e c t P where E x p r e s s i v e communication i s ap p a r e n t l y n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "Looking a t People". Examination o f her data i n d i c a t e s a minimal d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o b a b i l i t y o f occurrence o f "Looking a t People" and the c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t y o f the two (Woodward, 1977, p. 153). Normal Face. F o r the most p a r t there i s an apparent negative a s s o c i a t i o n between the Element, Normal Face, and the Communication F u n c t i o n s , R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e . T h i s c o u l d be a r e s u l t o f the low r e l i a b i l i t y o f coding 113 Normal Face. However, i n the Woodward study, Normal Face i s coded r e l i a b l y and she has the same r e s u l t s as those r e p o r t e d here. As wit h Woodward's r e s u l t s (1977) ,;(PP- 150, 156), v a r i a t i o n s o c c u r w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l samples i n P h a t i c and Conative communication (Tables IV 28, 30). There i s no c l e a r c u t t r e n d , perhaps because o f the nature o f the types o f communication. Smile. Smile has an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e communication, as w e l l as an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Conative and P h a t i c communication. The o n l y n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s o b s e r v a t i o n 2S where th e r e i s an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Smile w i t h Conative communication (Table IV 28). In t h a t sample, S sm i l e s as she reaches out f o r the d o l l her mother i s h o l d i n g . Woodward's r e s u l t s show more d e v i a t i o n s . There i s an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h E x p r e s s i v e and P h a t i c communication. The l a t t e r c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o the f a c t t h a t i n the case o f the h e a r i n g b a b i e s , P h a t i c communication i s not as c r u c i a l to the maintenance o f communication. Hearing impaired c h i l d r e n seem t o need t o make a more conscious e f f o r t to ma i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h the addressee. As i n the pr e s e n t study, Woodward r e p o r t s an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Smile and Conative communication. A comparison o f Smile and R e f e r e n t i a l communication (Table IV 27) shows no trends because i n one case the c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t y was very s m a l l and i n the 114 o t h e r , there were i n s u f f i c i e n t data upon which t o make a comparison. P l a y Face. P l a y Face has an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e communication (Tables IV 27, 29) and an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Conative and P h a t i c communication (Tables IV 28, 30) w i t h the notable e x c e p t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n IS. In t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n , P l a y Face has an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h P h a t i c communication. In o b s e r v a t i o n IS, P l a y Face i s one of a v a r i e t y o f attempts S makes t o a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n o f her mother. In Woodward's study, P l a y Face has an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h E x p r e s s i v e communication. There are no o t h e r apparent trends i n t h a t study because of i n s u f f i f i c e n t data. The r e s u l t s may a l s o have been confounded by the f a c t t h a t i n t h i s study P l a y Face has a low r e l i a b i l i t y . Again, i n the Woodward study, P l a y Face i s coded r e l i a b l y . Wide Eyes. There i s an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Wide Eyes and R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e communica-t i o n (Tables IV 27, 29). The noted e x c e p t i o n i s seen i n both o b s e r v a t i o n s of S where th e r e i s an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e communication. I t i s , perhaps, because S would have Wide Eyes when simply l o o k i n g a t something. There i s an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Wide Eyes and Conative communication 115 (Table IV 28). When t h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n , as 2 measured by Pearson's x , between Wide Eyes and P h a t i c communication, the a s s o c i a t i o n i s p o s i t i v e . The r e s u l t s are the same i n Woodward's study. Her r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h P h a t i c communication (Woodward, 1977, p. 156). There i s one d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e s u l t s o f the two s t u d i e s which can be seen when comparing Wide Eyes and R e f e r e n t i a l communication. In Woodward's study, there i s an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Wide Eyes (Woodward, 1977, p. 146). The r e s u l t s c o u l d be due to the low r e l i a b i l i t y o f coding Wide Eyes. An a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s i s : Hearing impaired c h i l d r e n use Wide Eyes i n a d i f f e r e n t manner then h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n do. L i p s Firm. The f a c i a l Element, L i p s Firm, appears t o have an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e communication (Tables IV 27, 29) and an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Conative and P h a t i c communication (Tables IV 28, 30). The o n l y n o table e x c e p t i o n i s i n o b s e r v a t i o n 2H (Table IV 30) when L i p s F i r m i s recoded. H i s t r y i n g t o c a t c h her mother's a t t e n t i o n . The o n l y o t h e r exceptions occur when the p r o b a b i l i t y o f occurrence of L i p s F i r m i s very s m a l l , i . e . , 2S (Tables IV 27, 29). Woodward's study does not i n c l u d e the Element, L i p s Firm. 116 Low Frown, The o n l y apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n f o r Low Frown i s w i t h E x p r e s s i v e communication (Table IV 29) . Low Frown i s n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the oth e r t h r e e forms o f Communication F u n c t i o n s , P h a t i c , Conative and R e f e r e n t i a l (Tables IV 27, 28, 30). Exce p t i o n s occur o n l y when the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o b a b i l i t y o f occurrence and the co n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t y i s minimal. Low Frown i s not observed i n the Woodward study. Pursed L i p s . There i s an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between Pursed L i p s and R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e communication (Tables IV 27, 29). Pursed L i p s occurs most f r e q u e n t l y i n o b s e r v a t i o n 2H. In t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , Pursed L i p s i s a l s o p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Conative communica-t i o n (Table IV 28) and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E x p r e s s i v e communication. The l a t t e r i s a r e s u l t o f the former. In the o t h e r i n s t a n c e , Pursed L i p s has an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Conative and P h a t i c communication. The code, Pursed L i p s , i s unique t o t h i s study. P o i n t . When the type o f communication i s e i t h e r R e f e r e n t i a l o r Conative, the c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t P o i n t occurs a t the same time i s e i t h e r 100% o r 0%. Wood-ward (1977) i n d i c a t e s the same r e s u l t s . The reason f o r t h i s r e s u l t may have been because P o i n t i s used t o e i t h e r designate something o r a c t as a command. Thus, when i t i s coded as one, i t cannot be the o t h e r . TABLE IV 31 Frequency of Data : Occurrence of Item Codes Communication Functions Vocal Elements F a c i a l and Other Elements of Behaviour Obs. RF CN EX PJ PW ME V0 WD MP NL ZL WE PF CS BK LN LS LF PX PZ IS 2S 1C 2C IH 2H 13 10 13 3 9 16 43 10 34 25 17 2 19 17 10 12 21 9 18 11 26 23 13 49 22 15 6 10 2 5 12 3 13 9 34 18 1 4 2 1 20 11 17 42 10 18 5 2 1 7 4 4 3 1 1 1 45 64 22 24 31 26 1 1 1 23 1 1 4 1 2 6 2 9 14 1 1 8 .Mouthed Words. The use o f Mouthed Word i s s p e c i a l to S and H. The o n l y a s s o c i a t i o n noted i s t h a t i t has an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h P h a t i c communication (Table IV 3 0 ) . Signed Words. T h i s Element i s unique to s u b j e c t C. I t i s found to have an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h R e f e r e n t i a l and E x p r e s s i v e communication (Tables IV 2 7 , 2 9 ) and an apparent n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n with P h a t i c communication (Table IV 3 0 ) . These are p r e d i c t a b l e r e s u l t s because the purpose of the s i g n i n g i s to r e f e r to something or express something. Occurrences of P i a g e t i a n Stages of C o g n i t i v e Development For the most p a r t , a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n were o p e r a t i n g a t substage s i x of the sensorimotor p e r i o d . H, who had j u s t turned three, e x h i b i t e d some behaviour which was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the next c o g n i t i v e stage, or the p r e o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l (Table IV 3 2 ) . These r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the c o g n i t i v e development of t h e i r h e a r i n g peers (Piaget, 1 9 5 2 , 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 6 7 ) . Judging from the observed f i n d i n g s , i t would seem a t l e a s t f i v e of the Communication Fu n c t i o n s were a s s o c i a t e d with the s i x t h substage of the sensorimotor p e r i o d . TABLE IV 32 Occurrence: P i a g e t i a n Stages Duration as a Percentage of Observation Time Obs. Stage 5 Stage 6 Stage 7 IS - 100.00 2S - 100.00 1C - 100.00 2C 50.47 49.53 IH 27.32 30.87 41.81 2H - 100.00 TABLE IV 33 Occurrence: P i a g e t i a n C o n f i g u r a t i o n - I m i t a t i o n , Delayed I m i t a t i o n , Symbolic P l a y , and Motor Representation 1C 2C 2H Duration of Occurrence as a Percentage of Observation Time Delayed Symbolic Motor I m i t a t i o n I m i t a t i o n P l a y Representation IS - 00.39 2S 2.37 00.22 17.55 1.39 IH - 1.22 ts) O 121 P i a g e t i a n C o n f i g u r a t i o n The f o u r aspects o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n examined are I m i t a t i o n , Delayed I m i t a t i o n , Symbolic P l a y and Motor Repre s e n t a t i o n . In order t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the Wood-ward study, the d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the c o n f i g u r a t i o n s she uses i n the study have been a p p l i e d (see Appendix V ) . P i a g e t (1967) sees these f o u r aspects o f c o n f i g u r a t i o n as types o f p e r s o n a l symbols which p l a y an important r o l e i n the "genesis o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " . He continues by s t a t i n g t h a t " i t can be argued t h a t the source o f thought i s t o be sought i n symbolic f u n c t i o n " ( P i a g e t , 1967, p. 91). I f t h i s i s the case, then i t f o l l o w s t h a t we can g a i n i n s i g h t s i n t o the thought o f the young p r e s c h o o l c h i l d who i s h e a r i n g impaired by watching f o r P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which might appear i n the c h i l d ' s behaviour and s u b m i t t i n g the observed c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t o a n a l y s i s . In the pr e s e n t samples, P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are observed. The c o n f i g u r a t i o n , Motor R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s seen i n three o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s , IS, 2S, and IH and what i s more noteworthy i s t h a t i n o b s e r v a t i o n 2S a l l f o u r types are observed (see Table IV 33). SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS I t was observed t h a t f i v e Communication F u n c t i o n s : R e f e r e n t i a l , Conative, E x p r e s s i v e , P h a t i c and P o e t i c , o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the s i x samples. The s i x t h , M e t a l i n g u a l d i d not occur . When compared w i t h the h e a r i n g babies i n 122 Woodward's study, i t was noted t h a t the t h r e e c h i l d r e n engaged i n more P h a t i c communication. I t was a l s o observed t h a t s e v e r a l Elements o f Behaviour co-occurred w i t h f o u r of the Communication F u n c t i o n s . R e s u l t s u t i l i z i n g c o n t i n g e n t p r o b a b i l i t i e s i n d i c a t e d on apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between: R e f e r e n t i a l communication and: V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking a t People", Smile, P l a y Face, Wide Eyes, L i p s Firm, Pursed L i p s , P o i n t , Signed Words; E x p r e s s i v e communication and: V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking a t People", Smile, P l a y Face, Wide Eyes, L i p s Firm, Low Frown, Pursed L i p s , Signed Words; Conative communication and: V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking a t People", P o i n t ; P h a t i c communication and: "Looking a t People". The l a t t e r was the o n l y f i n d i n g of a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t d i f f e r e d from the r e s u l t s Woodward (19 77) o b t a i n e d when ob s e r v i n g babies w i t h normal h e a r i n g . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e s u l t s were apparent when examining the amount o f P h a t i c communication which was g r e a t e r i n the h e a r i n g im-p a i r e d sample than the observed i n the h e a r i n g b a b i e s . Another major d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e s u l t s between Wood-ward's study and the p r e s e n t one was the f i n d i n g of a g r e a t e r frequency o f attempts to communicate i n the l a t t e r group. The occurrence o f the P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development showed the t h r e e c h i l d r e n t o be f u n c t i o n i n g a t l e v e l s o f development c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s . 123 An i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was the occurrence o f a l l f o u r P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ; I m i t a t i o n , Delayed I m i t a t i o n , Symbolic P l a y and Motor Re p r e s e n t a t i o n i n one of the samples. T h i s Chapter has i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c a t e g o r i e s presented on page 4. While the Method d i d p r o v i d e i n -formation on the ge n e r a l q u e s t i o n s posed on pages 4-5, time and the scope o f the pr e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n would not permit a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the Elements needed f o r the answers. However, the an e c d o t a l data p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of s p e c u l a t i v e answers t o those q u e s t i o n s i n Chapter V. In the p r e s e n t study s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s cannot be drawn because o f the sm a l l sample. The o n l y statements t h a t can be made are, t h a t i n the case o f these p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n , the above f i n d i n g s were observed. From these o b s e r v a t i o n s , hypotheses can be made which then can be submitted t o more r i g o r o u s s t a t i s t i c a l s c r u t i n y f o r f u r t h e r v e r i f i c a t i o n . 124 CHAPTER V IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION T h i s study was conceived and conducted t o extend the i n f o r m a t i o n on modes and development o f communicative behaviours i n the h e a r i n g impaired i n f a n t and p r e s c h o o l c h i l d . The o b s e r v a t i o n a l method used i n the study p e r m i t t e d a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the f u n c t i o n s o f communication and the behaviours t h a t co-occur w i t h those f u n c t i o n s (Tables IV 25-30). I t a l s o p e r m i t t e d an examina-t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Communication F u n c t i o n s and P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development ( P i a g e t , 1952, 1966, 1967). T h i s Chapter begins w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the i m p l i c a -t i o n s a r i s i n g from the study. The i m p l i c a t i o n s have been d e r i v e d from f o u r s o u r c e s : the analyses o f data, a n e c d o t a l data, f i n d i n g s on communication and f i n d i n g s on the P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development. The second s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n o f the s t r e n g t h s o f the Method. In the l a s t s e c t i o n the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study and the Method are addressed. 125 IMPLICATIONS I m p l i c a t i o n s from A n a l y s i s and Anecdotal Data In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the study, f i v e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s were posed (pp. 4-5). The f i r s t q u e s t i o n was "How do h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n attempt to communicate?' Nonverbal Behaviour and Gestures. The Method of a n a l y s i s produced i n f o r m a t i o n about behaviours which co-o c c u r r e d w i t h the Communication F u n c t i o n s (Tables IV 25-30). R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n used f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , g e s t u r e s , body posture and v o c a l i z a t i o n s as w e l l as v e r b a l i z a t i o n s to communicate a message. I t was shown t h a t the f a c i a l Elements (Smile, Wide Eyes, P l a y Face, Low Frown, Pursed L i p s , Mouthed Words, "Looking a t People", P u z z l e d Look) and the gestures (Point and Signed Word) co-o c c u r r e d w i t h the Communication F u n c t i o n s . These Elements were s e l e c t e d f o r reasons d e s c r i b e d on page 82. D i s c u s s i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n of gestures w i t h communication was l i m i t e d t o o n l y a few Elements f o r the same reasons. There were a t l e a s t one hundred f i f t y Elements i n the Method from which they were s e l e c t e d . In f u t u r e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s more a t t e n t i o n should be d i r e c t e d to gestures and body posture i n o r d e r to produce a more comprehensive l i s t o f Elements of Behaviour t h a t co-occur w i t h communication. For example, S had a way of c l a p p i n g her hands v e r t i c a l l y which her mother i n t e r p r e t e d as an e x p r e s s i o n o f d e l i g h t . H's stamping 126 of her f o o t was i n t e r p r e t e d by her mother t o mean t h a t H was angry. N e i t h e r o f these gestures were among those s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s . T h i s f i n d i n g demonstrated t h a t the a n a l y s i s of the s e l e c t e d Elements of Behaviour o n l y p a r t i a l l y d e s c r i b e d the communicative behaviour. In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a more comprehensive answer t o the q u e s t i o n o f what comprised communicative behaviour, two o t h e r q u e s t i o n s must be answered. F i r s t , what are the o t h e r f a c i a l Elements which communicate a message? Second, what are the o t h e r gestures o r body po s t u r e s which send messages? A survey o f a l a r g e r sample o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n should be made to determine whether the s e l e c t e d Elements c o n s t i t u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n communicative behaviours i n t h a t p o p u l a t i o n . A r e p e t o i r e o f communicative behaviours i n c l u d i n g behaviours o t h e r than those p r e s e n t l y s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s c o u l d then be formulated from the survey which would serve as a guide t o the development o f communication. Amount o f Communication. The second and t h i r d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n the f i r s t chapter d e a l t w i t h amount of communication: How much time does the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d spend attempting t o communicate and How does the amount compare w i t h t h a t spent by h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ? The a n a l y s i s produced percentages o f occurrences o f communica-t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the f i g u r e s , the s u b j e c t s communicated from 24.66% to 52.55% o f the time. These percentages were 127 g r e a t e r than those found by Woodward (1977) f o r her two normally h e a r i n g i n f a n t s . The h y p o t h e s i s generated from t h i s comparison was: Young h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n attempt to communicate more f r e q u e n t l y than t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s . A p o s s i b l e reason f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n the frequency of communicative behaviours found i n the two s t u d i e s c o u l d be due to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n age. The two c h i l d r e n i n Wood-ward's study were younger than those i n t h i s study. How-ever, o b s e r v a t i o n s from her study would seemingly negate the h y p o t h e s i s . Woodward noted t h a t the amount of communica-t i o n remained about the same from o b s e r v a t i o n to o b s e r v a t i o n over an e i g h t month p e r i o d . The c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f age on communication would r e q u i r e another l o n g i t u d i n a l study conducted w i t h h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . Another q u e s t i o n arose from t h i s f i n d i n g . Would the amount of time spent communicating as they grow o l d e r decrease as McConnell (1971) speculated? P a t t e r n s o f Communication. The a n a l y s i s o f the j o i n t o ccurrences of behaviour and communication showed t h a t there was an apparent p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between: R e f e r e n t i a l communication and: V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Look-i n g a t People", Smile, P l a y Face, Wide Eyes, L i p s Firm, Pursed L i p s and Signed Words; E x p r e s s i v e communication and: V o c a l i z a t i o n , Smile, 128 "Looking a t People", P l a y Face, Wide Eyes, L i p s Firm, Low Frown, Pursed L i p s and Signed Words; Conative communication and: V o c a l i z a t i o n , "Looking a t People", P o i n t ; P h a t i c communication and: "Looking a t People". Groupings o f Elements which co-occurred w i t h communica-t i o n were not i n v e s t i g a t e d because of the time needed to analyze the data. However, the data have been coded and would permit a r e a n a l y s i s i n terms of a s c e r t a i n i n g more d e s c r i p t i v e p a t t e r n s o f behaviour. As mentioned b e f o r e , the Elements examined were chosen from a p o o l o f e t h o l o g i c a l codes. The o b s e r v a t i o n o f a l a r g e r sample o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n would i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t o t h e r Elements might occ u r . Hypotheses o f a s s o c i a t i o n between those Elements and communication c o u l d then be t e s t e d . These r e s u l t s c o u l d p r o v i d e a more complete p i c t u r e of the r e p e t o i r e o f communicative behaviours. Reception o f the Message. Lewis (196 8) maintains t h a t i f we are f a c i l i t a t e the development o f the communication o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n , we must encourage and respond t o any attempts to communicate (p. 194). Anecdotal i n f o r m a t i o n from two o b s e r v a t i o n s o f S support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . In the f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n , S made nine attempts to communicate w i t h her mother. She used g e s t u r e s , Mouthed Words and V o c a l i z a t i o n s . On two o f the o c c a s i o n s , the messages were m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . In the o t h e r seven, they were 129 not d e t e c t e d . Consequently i t seemed t h a t S began to i g n o r e mother's attempts t o communicate w i t h her. In the second o b s e r v a t i o n , Mother was more r e s p o n s i v e to S's attempts. The r e s u l t was t h a t the percentage of time spent v o c a l i z i n g i n c r e a s e d from 8.10% i n the f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n t o 30.08% i n the second (Table IV 12). The hypothesis which i s generated from t h i s f i n d i n g i s : Response t o any attempt to communicate i n c r e a s e s the amount o f communication and i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n c r e a s e s the amount o f v o c a l i z a t i o n s . E f f e c t s o f the Sound Environment. The Method used i n t h i s study p e r m i t t e d r e l i a b l e coding o f the Elements o f Environment. The Elements i n c l u d e d the people p r e s e n t , the sounds, and the o b j e c t s . Again, because of the time f a c t o r , the e f f e c t s of the Elements o f Environment were not a n a l y z e d . However, a review of the a n e c d o t a l data i n d i c a t e d some d e f i n i t e e f f e c t s on communicative behaviour. The e f f e c t s were obvious i n the second o b s e r v a t i o n of S. The presence of a d o l l p r e c i p i t a t e d v o c a l i z a t i o n . S i m i t a t e d Mother. She even i m i t a t e d Mother's exaggerated movements o f the mouth. A l l t h ree c h i l d r e n were observed to r a t t l e t h e i r t o y s . C shook her toy basket and c o n t i n u a l l y wound up a toy whose f u n c t i o n was t o produce n o i s e . H shook a cardboard box w i t h p l a s t i c p i e c e s i n i t . Then she p l a y e d w i t h a toy which made a mooing sound. In both cases she appeared to be t e a s i n g her mother. S turned once when her name was c a l l e d 130 and C turned i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a dog b a r k i n g . These l a s t two o b s e r v a t i o n s were o n l y made upon r e p l a y i n g o f the data tape. A l l these o b s e r v a t i o n s suggest t h a t environmental sound may, indeed, have an i n f l u e n c e on the communicative behaviour o f these s u b j e c t s . These o b s e r v a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n two hypotheses. The f i r s t was: The sounds i n the environment a f f e c t the communicative behaviour o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . The second was: The o b j e c t s i n the environment a f f e c t the communicative behaviour i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . Communication w i t h o t h e r s i n the Environment. As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h i s study seems t o be the f i r s t attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n ' s communicative i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s o t h e r than Mother. S made s e v e r a l attempts t o communicate w i t h her b r o t h e r . Her attempts were i g n o r e d o r m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . Consequently, she stopped t r y i n g . Her messages t o the observer were acknowledged w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t both her v o c a l i z a t i o n s and gestures i n c r e a s e d . In the second o b s e r v a t i o n , the b a b y s i t t e r was re s p o n s i v e t o S's attempts t o communicate. Noting that,Mother p a t t e r n e d her behaviour on t h a t o f the b a b y s i t t e r . As s t a t e d b e f o r e (p. 129), when t h i s happened the amount o f v o c a l i z a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d . Observations o f H show t h a t she sent messages t o her grandmother and s i s t e r s as much as she d i d to her mother. 131 These o b s e r v a t i o n s l e a d t o the s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t people o t h e r than Mother have an e f f e c t on the amount o f communica-t i o n and so must be c o n s i d e r e d i n any s t u d i e s of communication. I m p l i c a t i o n s from the F i n d i n g s on Communication One o f the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study was t h a t the three h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n used the same Elements o f Be-h a v i o u r t o serve the same Communication F u n c t i o n as d i d the two normally h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i n the Woodward study. T h i s f i n d i n g would seem t o support the c o n t e n t i o n o f Lewis (1968), McConnell (1971), and Simmons (19 71) t h a t a h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d has the same p a t t e r n s o f communication as a h e a r i n g c h i l d . Another f i n d i n g was t h a t the three c h i l d r e n i n the study had a h i g h e r percentage o f P h a t i c communication, o r communication used to c o n t a c t the intended r e c e i v e r of the message. T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n agreement wi t h L i n g and L i n g ' s (19 76) r e s u l t s . The h y p o t h e s i s from these f i n d i n g s i s : N o t i c e o f P h a t i c Communication i n c r e a s e s the chance f o r s u c c e s s f u l communication, a d e f i n i t e r e i n f o r c e m e n t f o r communication. Another hypothesis i s generated from the f i n d i n g o f i n c r e a s e d P h a t i c communication: The removal o f a u d i t o r y s t i m u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s the amount o f P h a t i c communication. Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g came from examination o f the a n e c d o t a l data. C always v o c a l i z e d when s i g n i n g a word. The Element, Mouthed Word, never appears i n e i t h e r o f her 132 o b s e r v a t i o n s . Mouthed Words appeared i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the two o t h e r s u b j e c t s . The mothers o f both these s u b j e c t s used o n l y the O r a l P h i l o s o p h y approach when communicating w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The hypothesis" which arose from t h i s f i n d i n g was: Mouthed Word i s an Element o f Behaviour, unique t o h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n whose p r i n c i p l e communicators use o n l y speech t o communicate w i t h them. I m p l i c a t i o n s from F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d t o P i a g e t i a n Stages of C o g n i t i v e Development Another f i n d i n g from t h i s study which would be e x c i t i n g to pursue i s t h a t the s u b j e c t s appeared t o de-monstrate thought r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o those o f h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n as evidenced by the observed P i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . P i a g e t i a n tasks have been used by Oleron (1957), F u r t h (1966, 1973) and D i h o f f and Chapman (1975) t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the thought processes o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n who are h e a r i n g impaired. None seems t o have used P i a g e t i a n a n a l y s i s t o examine the thought processes o f the younger h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d . The videotaped r e c o r d i n g used i n t h i s study permits a P i a g e t i a n a n a l y s i s o f the c h i l d ' s observed behaviour. P i a g e t i a n a n a l y s i s o f both the stages o f c o g n i t i v e development and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c o u l d p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the c o g n i t i v e development o f the c h i l d who i s h e a r i n g impaired. Such i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d p r o v i d e a more e x t e n s i v e f o u n d a t i o n o f data on which to b u i l d more e f f e c t i v e r e s e a r c h and 133 e d u c a t i o n a l programs. STRENGTHS OF THE METHOD Advantages of the Method The s t r e n g t h o f the study comes from the Method's i n t e g r a t e d m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to the a n a l y s i s of the communicative behaviour i n c h i l d r e n . I t has been demonstrated by Woodward (1977) t h a t an abundant p o o l o f u s e f u l informa-t i o n r e s u l t e d from the Method's a n a l y s i s . F a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e t o the power of Woodward's Method are the procedures f o r o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g ; i t s allowance f o r r e a n a l y s i s o f data; i t s r e l i a b l e d e f i n i t i o n s and i t s s t r u c t u r e d and r e l i a b l e procedure f o r i n f e r e n t i a l coding; i t s c o n t r o l l e d coding b i a s ; i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r developmental s t u d i e s ; i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a t r a i n i n g t o o l and i t s s u i t a b i l i t y as a c l i n i c a l t o o l . Procedures f o r Observing and Recording. L i n g and L i n g (19 76) noted t h a t the presence o f the observers had an apparent e f f e c t on the behaviour o f the mother and c h i l d observed. Very l i t t l e i f any negative behaviour was noted. T h i s was not so i n the p r e s e n t study. In one sample of H's, a temper tantrum was recorded. In Woodward's study s u b t l e a c t s o f negative a g g r e s s i o n by an o l d e r b r o t h e r toward h i s younger b r o t h e r were c o n s i s t e n t l y recorded over the months of o b s e r v a t i o n s o f behaviour. Perhaps the n e c e s s i t y f o r c l i p b o a r d s , stopwatches, r u l e r s and pens used by two 134 observers i n the L i n g and L i n g study h i n d e r e d t h e i r anonimity. A r e s u l t i n g advantage of v i d e o t a p i n g was t h a t a f t e r a b r i e f time, the observer seemed t o become u n o b t r u s i v e , thereby, l e s s e n i n g observer e f f e c t s on reco r d e d behaviour. V i d e o t a p i n g seems t o have f u r t h e r advantages. The raw data can be viewed and analyzed r e p e a t e d l y . P o i n t s r e q u i r i n g c l o s e r s c r u t i n y can be r e p l a y e d , h e l d i n stop motion o r viewed a t v a r y i n g speeds f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Momentary a c t i o n s which are not immediately p e r c e i v e d be-cause o f t h e i r b r e v i t y can be d i s c o v e r e d through r e p l a y . Very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s l o s t . A m i c r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s o f the data was a l s o p o s s i b l e because data were videotaped. Such an a n a l y s i s was con-ducted i n t h i s study. A c t i o n l a s t i n g 1/60 o f a second c o u l d be examined. Allowance f o r Preanalysis o f Data. Another advantage of the three step procedure f o r codi n g behaviour (pp. 41-45) and r e c o r d i n g a n e c d o t a l data onto a f o r t r a n sheet i s t h a t r e a n a l y s i s and new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the data can be made from e x i s t i n g data. For example t o compare r e s u l t s w i t h the L i n g and L i n g (1976) study, an a n a l y s i s o f the amount and type o f communication used by the mothers c o u l d be made from data recorded f o r t h i s study. R e a n a l y s i s would on l y r e q u i r e making a d a p t a t i o n s t o the computer program which produces the t a b u l a t i o n s and the b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s . A more d e t a i l e d 135 P i a g e t i a n a n a l y s i s c o u l d a l s o be completed i n t h i s way, u s i n g o n l y data from t h i s study. R e l i a b i l i t y o f D e f i n i t i o n s . The e t h o l o g i c a l codes used i n the r e c o r d i n g o f behaviour i n the pr e s e n t study have been shown t o be extremely r e l i a b l e (McGrew, 19 72 and Woodward, 1977). In t h i s study, r e l i a b l e i n f e r e n c e s c o u l d be made because o f proven r e l i a b i l i t y o f the i n f e r e n t i a l codes. R e l i a b l e coding r e s u l t s i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f more a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f behaviour. In t h i s study, s e v e r a l new codes were added t o those used by Woodward i n or d e r t o i n c r e a s e the accuracy o f d e s c r i p t i o n s . The f i r s t , Pursed L i p s (PX) was f i r s t noted by Grant (1969) and l a t e r by Woodward (19 77). The code was needed t o d e s c r i b e a behaviour o f the face which was observed i n the behaviour o f both S and H. The second a d d i t i o n a l code, L i p s Forward (LS) was noted by Grant (1969) and Brannigan and Humphries (1972). The behaviour was f i r s t seen i n the second o b s e r v a t i o n o f S. The t h i r d a d d i t i o n a l code, Mouthed Word (MD) and the f o u r t h , Signed Word (QH), were needed t o d e s c r i b e the s u b j e c t s ' mode o f communicating a word. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Mouthed Word d i d not occur i n the r e l i a b i l i t y samples. Signed Word o n l y appeared f o r l i t t l e more than a second i n the r e l i a b i l i t y sample so the r e l i a b i l i t y was not h i g h , 13.64% f o r d u r a t i o n and 50% f o r i n c i d e n c e . There c o u l d be s e v e r a l o t h e r reasons f o r t h i s low r e l i a b i l i t y . One c o u l d be t h a t the recoder was not as f a m i l i a r w i t h Ameslan and so coded 136 the movement as simply, Move Upper (MU). The two o t h e r codes mentioned above, Pursed L i p s and L i p s Forward were found t o be r e l i a b l e (Table IV 7 ). A d d i t i o n a l codes which were needed t o more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e behaviour are de-f i n e d i n Appendix I I . A review o f the t a b l e s on R e l i a b i l i t y i n Chapter IV support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n f e r e n t i a l codes can be r e l i a b l e . T h i s f a c t o r can p r o v i d e power to d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Communication Functions and P i a g e t i a n stages o f c o g n i t i v e development. The r e l i a b i l i t y o f coding would l e n d support to the use o f videotaped a n a l y s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g l e v e l s o f c o g n i t i v e de-velopment i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . C o n t r o l l e d Coding B i a s . The e f f e c t of p r i v i l e g e d i n f o r m a t i o n (p. 56) was i n v e s t i g a t e d by examining the r e l i a b i l i t y o f coding the Elements o f Environment. I t was found t h a t t h i s c o u l d be done r e l i a b l y (see Tables IV 1 ^ 2 ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t w i t h t h i s Method, the p r i v i l e g e d i n f o r m a t i o n b i a s i s minimal. F u r t h e r Advantages o f the Method. In o r d e r to d i s c u s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s necessary to review the L i n g and L i n g (1976) study (pp. 1 9 - 2 1 ) i n some d e t a i l 137 I t appears t h a t the f i r s t attempt t o study modes o f communication w i t h i n the home environment of the h e a r i n g impaired p r e s c h o o l c h i l d was made by L i n g and L i n g . I t was an e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h a t f i f t y c h i l d r e n ranging i n age from one month to t h r e e years were observed. T h i s was a f a i r l y l a r g e sample c o n s i d e r i n g the r e s t r i c t e d p o p u l a t i o n . T r a i n e d observers used a c h e c k l i s t of a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l modes to r e c o r d attempts t o communicate. L i n g and L i n g c o n s i d e r e d v i s u a l modes t o i n c l u d e ; eye c o n t a c t , g e s t u r e s , a c t i o n s , demonstrations and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . The authors were concerned w i t h the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g on the amount and mode o f intercommunication between mother and c h i l d . I t was found t h a t the primary means of communica-t i n g was through the v i s u a l mode w i t h eye c o n t a c t h aving p a r t i c u l a r importance. The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a -t i o n support t h i s f i n d i n g (Table IV 12). The major con-c l u s i o n of the L i n g and L i n g paper was t h a t when mothers were t r a i n e d to v e r b a l i z e more, the r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t on the c h i l d r e n ' s communication was an i n c r e a s e d amount of v o c a l i z a -t i o n and v e r b a l i z a t i o n . T h i s meant t h e i r communication de-velopment more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h a t o f Woodward's hear-i n g c h i l d r e n . Without t r a i n i n g , the aforementioned developments d i d not o c c u r . The h y p o t h e s i s generated from t h i s f i n d i n g was: Parents t r a i n e d t o v e r b a l i z e more have the e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g v o c a l i z a t i o n and v e r b a l i z a t i o n i n 138 t h e i r h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d . Data from t h i s study i n d i c a t e d a correspondence i n the modes and development o f communicative Behaviour between the p r e s c h o o l h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d and h i s h e a r i n g peer. A l l t hree mothers had undergone t r a i n i n g g i v e n by the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n f o r parents of the h e a r i n g impaired which s t r e s s e d v e r b a l communication. One h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g c o u l d have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some of the r e s u l t s from t h i s study which were s i m i l a r to those found w i t h L i n g and L i n g ' s t r a i n e d mothers. In the p r e s e n t study, the mothers* communications were recorded s e q u e n t i a l l y through codes and a n e c d o t a l notes. T h i s type of r e c o r d i n g would al l o w r e a n a l y s i s o f the data t o more c l o s e l y examine the amount and mode of communication employed by the mothers. Such an a n a l y s i s would permit the r e s e a r c h e r t o determine whether the r e s u l t s concur w i t h those found by L i n g and L i n g . I f t h i s were, indeed, the case, then t h e r e would be support f o r the h y p o t h e s i s : T r a i n i n g of the parents has a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on the amount and modes o f communicative behaviour of h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . Uses of the Method The three major uses o f the Method are i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o developmental s t u d i e s , f o r t r a i n i n g and as a c l i n i c a l t o o l 139 S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Developmental S t u d i e s . The advantage of the Method i n a developmental study i s t h a t i t does not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the everyday i n t e r a c t i o n o f the c h i l d and h i s environment. As a r e s u l t o f t h i s f e a t u r e , more a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c h i l d ' s changing and d e v e l o p i n g r e a c t i o n s can be p o r t r a y e d . S u i t a b i l i t y as a T r a i n i n g T o o l . Videotapes of i n t e r -communication are i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the t r a i n i n g and de-v e l o p i n g o f s e n s i t i v i t y i n p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s has a l r e a d y been demonstrated by Tweedie (19 74). Such a s e n s i t i z e d approach to o b s e r v a t i o n i s needed by p a r e n t s , teachers and t h e r a p i s t s when working w i t h the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d . One o f the most v a l u a b l e r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t study was a d i s c o v e r y made by S's parents w h i l e viewing the tape. When i n i t i a l l y c o ntacted, S's mother made the statement, "You are welcome to come but I'm a f r a i d my daughter won't be o f much use. She doesn't communicate y e t " . The tapes of the two s e s s i o n s were r e p l a y e d f o r the parents and v a r i o u s aspects o f communication were p o i n t e d out. The parents noted S's f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , her mouthed words and her gestures f o r such t h i n g s as i n d i c a t i n g a cookie or t u r n i n g o f f the l i g h t . The f a t h e r , l o o k i n g i n c r e d u l o u s , s a i d , "But she must have been doing t h i s a l l along, we j u s t haven't seen i t ! " The parents r e a l i z e d t h a t she had a c t u a l l y been communicating but they had not been aware o f i t . T h i s i n s t a n c e proves the Method's worth i n the 140 t r a i n i n g not o n l y w i t h t h e r a p i s t s and educators but w i t h p a r e n t s , as w e l l . The Method can a l s o serve as a v e h i c l e f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between the p a r e n t s , t h e r a p i s t s and educators. Co-operation between h e l p e r s and parents can o n l y add s t r e n g t h to a program which i s designed to f a c i l i t a t e development o f e f f i c i e n t communication. S u i t a b i l i t y as a C l i n i c a l T o o l . Tinbergen and Tinbergen (1972) found t h a t an e t h o l o g i c a l approach to the o b s e r v a t i o n o f a u t i s t i c c h i l d r e n produced i n s i g h t s i n t o t h i s r e l a t i v e l y unexplored syndrome. The p r e s e n t author d i s c o v e r e d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about the e f f e c t o f body po s t u r e on i n t e r -communication between a c h i l d l a b e l l e d " a u t i s t i c " and the t h e r a p i s t (McAlpine, 1975) by u s i n g the Method t o analyze the i n t e r a c t i o n between them. A d i a g n o s i s o f " a u t i s t i c " i s s t i l l a p u z z l e without a s o l u t i o n . The Method has the c a p a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e i n -formation which c o u l d h e l p f u r n i s h a key to more u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n gained through t h i s method o f o b s e r v a t i o n would not o n l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the understanding of the a u t i s t i c o r h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d . Any a t y p i c a l c h i l d who i s an enigma c o u l d be s t u d i e d u s i n g the Method to analyze development. The author has noted a f t e r completion of the a n a l y s i s o f the data f o r t h i s study, t h a t she has had an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f communicative behaviour. T h i s i n c r e a s e d awareness has helped the author i n her own work w i t h 141 c h i l d r e n who are h e a r i n g impaired or nonverbal s e v e r e l y p h y s i c a l l y handicapped. She has been ab l e t o demonstrate u s i n g the Method t h a t these c h i l d r e n who were p r e v i o u s l y diagnosed as " s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d " were i n a c t u a l i t y " i n t e l l i g e n t " . LIMITATIONS OF THE METHOD AND STUDY The Method i s time consuming and the c o d i n g i s e x a c t i n g and t e d i o u s . As s t a t e d b e f o r e , i t takes from one to f o u r hours t o analyze 15 seconds o f data (p.36). The coder must have a g r e a t d e a l o f p a t i e n c e . A f u r t h e r drawback, because of the time element, i s t h a t a l i m i t e d number o f s u b j e c t s can be s t u d i e d a t one time. The Method i s a l s o c o s t l y because o f the time r e q u i r e d and the equipment t h a t i s needed. One weakness i n the study was the examiner's r e q u e s t t h a t s u b j e c t s not wear t h e i r h e a r i n g a i d s . As d i s c u s s e d b e f o r e (p. 33) a more f r u i t f u l approach would have been to have the c h i l d r e n f o l l o w t h e i r normal custom o f e i t h e r wearing o r not wearing the a i d . The l a s t o b s e r v a t i o n of H supported t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . A f t e r the sample had been videotaped, a videotape o f the s u b j e c t wearing her a i d was done. I t was observed t h a t as soon as the a i d was put on, the amount o f v o c a l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h i s author has noted the same phenomenon i n her work w i t h h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g , t o determine i f there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n v o c a l i z a t i o n 142 when an a i d i s worn. The hyp o t h e s i s i s : The wearing o f a h e a r i n g a i d i n c r e a s e s v o c a l i z a t i o n i n the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s study i s the low r e l i -a b i l i t y o f some of the coding. I t has been shown (p. 69), t h a t the Elements can be r e l i a b l y coded. In t h i s , however, some were not. T h i s was e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f the year's l a p s e between recodings (p. 57). HYPOTHESES AND QUESTIONS ARISING FROM THE STUDY The hypotheses and q u e s t i o n s about communicative behaviour which have a r i s e n from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n have come from two sources; the a n a l y s i s which i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV and the a n e c d o t a l data which i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V. For purposes o f c l a r i t y and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , they have been grouped to g e t h e r i n t o the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : F u n ctions o f Communication, Communication and Environment, Communication and Elements of Behaviour, Frequency o f Communication, Responses and Communication, T r a i n i n g and Communication. The l a s t s e c t i o n p o s t u l a t e s hypotheses concerning the Method. A. Functions o f Communication. F i v e o f the s i x Communication Functions were observed i n the sample o b s e r v a t i o n s . When the r e s u l t s from t h i s study were com-pared t o those found by Woodward (19 77), the f i n d i n g s were 143 s i m i l a r except those f o r two o f the f u n c t i o n s / P h a t i c and M e t a l i n g u a l . The hypotheses and q u e s t i o n s which were d e r i v e d from the v a r i a t i o n s a r e : Hypotheses H ^ l : Hearing impaired c h i l d r e n engage i n more P h a t i c communication than normally h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . H^2: Removal o f a u d i t o r y s t i m u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d the amount o f P h a t i c communication. H^3: Increased response on the p a r t o f the addressee t o P h a t i c communication s t i m u l a t e s communicative behaviour. Questions Q A1: Is the Communication F u n c t i o n , M e t a l i n g u a l , observed i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n ? B. Environment and Communication. The importance o f environment has been maintained by s e v e r a l authors ( C a l v e r t and Silverman, 1975; Moores, 1978; Sheets, 1971; Simmons-M a r t i n , 19 76). The Method p e r m i t t e d a n a l y s i s o f the environment. The a n a l y s i s gave r i s e t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Questions Q _ l : What e f f e c t s do sounds i n the environment B have on communicative behaviour o f the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ? 144 Q_2: What e f f e c t s do o b j e c t s i n the environment have on the communicative behaviour o f h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n ? Q B3: How v a l i d i s the assumption t h a t Mother i s the p r i n c i p a l communicator? Q B4: What e f f e c t s do d i f f e r e n t times o f the day ot h e r than those s t u d i e d here have on communica-t i v e behaviour on the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ? Q B5: What e f f e c t s do s i t u a t i o n s o t h e r than those s t u d i e d here have on communicative behaviour o f the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ? C. Communication and Elements o f Behaviour. A n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f Elements o f Behaviour and Communication Fu n c t i o n s was conducted i n an attempt to p r o v i d e needed d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n on communicative behaviour. A n e c d o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the data. These two sources produced s e v e r a l hypotheses and q u e s t i o n s : Hypotheses H c l : The same Elements o f Behaviour are observed i n h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n t o co-occur w i t h the same Communication Functions as i n normally h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . H c2: In h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n more f a c i a l Elements can be observed t o co-occur w i t h P h a t i c communication than i n normally h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . 145 H c3: The Element, Mouthed Word, i s unique t o h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n whose mothers use o n l y the O r a l P h i l o s o p h y approach to communi-ca t e w i t h them. H^4: Hearing impaired c h i l d r e n use the Element, Wide Eyes, d i f f e r e n t l y than normally h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . Questions Q c l : Are o t h e r Elements o f Behaviour a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Communication Func t i o n s ? Q c2: What oth e r gestures or body p o s t u r e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , are used by h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n t o communicate a message? Q c3: Can combinations o f Elements of Behaviour be found t h a t co-occur w i t h each of the Communica-t i o n F unctions? Q c4: I f such combinations o f Elements e x i s t , what are they? Q c5: Are these combinations unique to the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ? D. Frequency of Communication. The Method 1s a n a l y s i s o f observed behaviour p e r m i t t e d f r e q u e n c i e s of occurrences t o be recorded. These f i n d i n g s gave r i s e t o the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses and q u e s t i o n s : 146 Hypotheses H D1: In the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d the amount o f time spent attempting to communicate decreases as they grow o l d e r i n comparison t o the amount spent by the h e a r i n g c h i l d . H D2: Young h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n attempt t o communicate more f r e q u e n t l y than t h e i r h e a r i n g peers. Hp3: The wearing o f a h e a r i n g a i d i n c r e a s e d v o c a l i z a t i o n s . Questions Q D1: Does maturation i n f l u e n c e the amount and type o f communication? E. Responses t o Communication. A v a l u a b l e outcome o f t h i s study was t h a t a s e t of parents became aware of t h e i r c h i l d ' s attempts to communicate. The a n a l y s i s and a n e c d o t a l data r a i s e d o t h e r q u e s t i o n s about the e f f e c t s o f responses as w e l l as generated s e v e r a l hypotheses. They were as f o l l o w s : Hypotheses H„l: Acknowledgement of any type o f communicative behaviour i n c r e a s e s v o c a l i z a t i o n s and v e r b a l i z a t i o n s . 147 Questions Q E1: What types of responses i n c r e a s e communication frequency? Q E2: What types o f responses have the most p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on d e s i r e d communicative behaviour? Q E3: What e f f e c t does the response o f people o t h e r than Mother have on the amount and type o f communication? Q E4: What e f f e c t does an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f communicative behaviour have on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s attempts to communicate w i t h the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d ? F. T r a i n i n g and Communication. The L i n g and L i n g (1976) work r e v e a l e d t h a t the t r a i n i n g o f parents had an apparent p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the communicative behaviour of t h e i r h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . The e f f e c t s o f the p o s t a n a l y s i s s e s s i o n w i t h S*s parents supported t h i s f i n d i n g . T h i s f i n d i n g engendered the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses: Hypotheses H p l : S p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g of the parents i n methods o f communication has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the communication development o f t h e i r c h i l d . H p2: The type o f t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d by parents o r t h e r a p i s t s a f f e c t s the communication media used by h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n . 148 G. The Method. I t has been demonstrated t h a t the Method was a comprehensive means of p r o v i d i n g d e s c r i p t i v e data i n a r e l a t i v e l y unexplored a r e a . The Method, i t s e l f , generated these hypotheses: Hypotheses H _ l : The videotaped Method i s a u s e f u l t o o l i n t r a i n i n g programs f o r p a r e n t s , f a m i l y and t h e r a p i s t s o f the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d . Hg2: The v i d e o t a p ed Method i s a r e l i a b l e t o o l f o r a s s e s s i n g the l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g o f the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d . HQ3: I n s i g h t s i n t o the "thought r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s " of h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d r e n be gained through the Method's a n a l y s i s o f E i a g e t i a n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s observed i n t h e i r behaviour. Another h y p o t h e s i s which arose from the a n a l y s i s and r e l e v a n t to the l a s t hypotheses i s : The "thought r e -p r e s e n t a t i o n s " of the h e a r i n g impaired c h i l d are s i m i l a r t o those o f t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s . A long term o b j e c t i v e o f the answering of such q u e s t i o n s would be to form the b a s i s of a developmental c h e c k l i s t . T h i s c h e c k l i s t would serve as a d i a g n o s t i c and p e r s p e c t i v e t o o l f o r working w i t h not o n l y the h e a r i n g impaired but any a t y p i c a l c h i l d . A task a n a l y t i c approach would f a c i l i t a t e the formation o f a soundly based and e f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l program. T h i s study has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the body of data on 149 the communicative behaviour o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the sensorimotor p e r i o d . These data have suggested answers t o the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s posed on page f o u r and p o i n t e d toward f u t u r e r e s e a r c h needs. F i n a l l y , the study has shown the Method's u s e f u l l n e s s i n g e n e r a t i n g data and hypotheses i n areas which have been r e l a t i v e l y unexplored, i n s p i t e o f the c o s t i n time and money. LITERATURE CITED 150 B i r d w h i s t e l l , R. K i n e s i c s and context. 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Unpublished d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. 157 APPENDIX I DEFINITIONS OF ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENT C's Environment 01 Fun Box (small cardboard box) f i l l e d w i t h l i t t l e ' p l a s t i c toys (Obs. I I , 0:00:0). 02 Basket f i l l e d w i t h sm a l l p l a s t i c toys (Obs. I I , 0:00:0). 03 Small p l a s t i c b a l l with a b e l l i n s i d e (Obs.II,0:00:0). 04 A Weevil (small p l a s t i c d o l l w i t h rounded bottom) (Obs.11,0:13:0). 05 Small p l a s t i c toy (Obs.II,0:29:2). 06 Small p l a s t i c c a r (Obs.II,0:31:3). 07 Weevil p i e c e o f f u r n i t u r e (Obs.II,0:55:5). 08 Weevil c a r (Obs.II,1:10:5). 09 Medium c y l i n d r i c a l Tupperware c o n t a i n e r f i l l e d w i t h sma l l p l a s t i c toys (Obs.II,2:18:3). 10 Weevil d o l l c a r r i a g e (Obs.II,4:27:5). 11 Wind-up toy a i r p l a n e (Obs.I,0•00:0). 12 A p i c t u r e book of animals (Obs.I, 0:07:2). 13 A purse (Obs.I, 3:32:5). 14 A medium-sized notebook (Obs.I, 3:37:3). 15 A l i t t l e book (Obs.I, 4:11:3). 16 A l i t t l e notebook (Obs.I, 4:18:0). 17 Purse w i t h a d o l l ' s f ace (Obs.I, 4:32:4). 158 S's Environment RO S's b r o t h e r (Obs.I, 0:03:1). 01 Lamp near the window (Obs.I, 0:03:1). 02 Lamp i n the corner (Obs.I, 0:56:0). 03 C h a i r i n the corner (Obs.I, 1:25:2). 04 P i e c e s from P l a y schoolhouse (Obs.I, 1:29:1). 05 D r i n k i n g cup wit h l e t t e r s on i t I (Obs.I, 1:32:0). 06 P l a s t i c l e t t e r s from schoolhouse toy (Obs.I, 1:32:0). 07 White s w i v e l c h a i r i n the k i t c h e n (Obs.II, 0:00:0) 1. 08 Karen Magnussen d o l l (Obs.II, 0:00:0). 09 Comb (Obs.II, 0:00:0). 10 P i e c e s of cake (Obs.II, 2:51:0). 11 K i t c h e n t a b l e (Obs.II, 3:0:2). 12 P i e c e of paper (Obs.II, 4:33:0). 13 P e n c i l (Obs.II, 4:33:0). 14 Pink dress (Obs.I, 0:00:0). BR B a b y s i t t e r (Obs.II, 0:00:0). H's Environment 01 P l a s t i c b a l l e j e c t o r (Obs.I, 0:38:0). 02 P l a s t i c p i n g pong b a l l (Obs.I, 0:00:0). 03 Playroom s o f a (Obs.I, 0:00:0). 04 Toys on the f l o o r (Obs.I, 2:51:2). 05 Toy t h a t makes a "mooing" sound (Obs.I, 3:24:5). 06 Box of p l a s t i c toys i n c l u d i n g bowling p i n shapes which f i t i n t o nut shapes to g i v e them s t a b i l i t y (Obs.I, 4:7:3) . 07 Bowling p i n (Obs.I, 4:34:1). 159 08 N u t - l i k e shape t o f i t on t o bowling p i n (Obs. 1, 4:34:1) 09 A c y l i n d r i c a l shape (Obs.I, 4:34:2). 10 P i e c e o f Large p l a s t i c beads (Obs.I, 4:34:2). 11 A c h a i n r i n g (Obs.II, 0:00:0). 12 A s t r i p e d c o f f e e mug (Obs.II, 0:00:0). 13 End t a b l e i n the l i v i n g r o o m (Obs.II, 1:29:2). 14 Large rag d o l l w i t h y e l l o w woolen h a i r (Obs.II, 2:51:1). 15 A baby d o l l (Obs.II, 4:15:5). GI S's s i s t e r (Obs.I, 0:20:4). AL H's s i s t e r (Obs.II, 0:00:0). AN H's s i s t e r v o c a l i z i n g and p l a y i n g w i t h toys (Obs.II, 0:00 :0)?. WW Window (sound o f c h i l d r e n on b i c y c l e s ) ( O b s . I I , 0 : 0 1 : 5 ) . GM H's grandmother (obs.II, -O:25:2). CL Observer I I (Obs.II, 2:32:1). Codes Common to the Environment o f a l l Three C h i l d r e n MA Mother OB Observer 160 APPENDIX I I D E F I N I T I O N S OF E L E M E N T S OF B E H A V I O U R Negative Codes ND Data Not A v a i l a b l e - Data not c l e a r l y seen or heard by T.V. r e p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be coded "ND" i n the a p p r o p r i a t e column — e.g. dropped toy. N0 I f no a c t i v i t y i s presented f o r a c e l l . UN U n c l a s s i f i a b l e - Data not c l a s s i f i a b l e by the d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n w i l l be coded "UN" i n the a p p r o p r i a t e column. F a c i a l P a t t e r n s : "...behaviour p a t t e r n s i n v o l v i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the f a c e . " BK B l i n k - "Rapid s u c c e s s i v e lowering and r a i s i n g of the e y e l i d s ; s i n g l y or i n s h o r t repeated s e r i e s u s u a l l y fewer than f i v e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.42).. BT Bared Teeth - " L i p s are r e t r a c t e d : t e e t h are v i s i b l e and u s u a l l y clenched; mouth c o r n e r s are u s u a l l y down" lower l i p may have a sguared appearance." (McGrew, 1972, p.38). CS Chew L i p s - "One or both l i p s may be r o l l e d i n t o the mouth and the t e e t h pressed a g a i n s t them. E i t h e r the t e e t h or l i p s or both may move i n o p p o s i t i o n to each o t h e r , or the e x p r e s s i o n may be s t a t i c . " (McGrew, 1972, p.53). DF Red Face - "Reddening of the f a c i a l s k i n , " u s u a l l y on the cheeks and forehead. (McGrew, 1972, p.49). EC Eyes C l o s e d - " E y e l i d s brought together more than momentarily (as compared w i t h b l i n k ) . " (McGrew, 1972, p.43) . EF Eyebrow F l a s h - "Rapid r a i s i n g of the eyebrows which remain e l e v a t e d f o r one s i x t h of a second, f o l l o w e d by r a p i d lowering to the normal p o s i t i o n ; s i n g l y or i n s h o r t s e r i e s . " (McGrew, 1972, p.43). LF L i p s F irm - L i p s pressed t o g e t h e r , no frown. 161 LN Low Frown - "Eyebrows lowered and brought c l o s e t o gether, u s u a l l y w i t h o n l y a sm a l l amount of v e r t i c a l furrowing; mouth i s normal or the l i p s may be compressed i n t o a s t r a i g h t l i n e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.45). M0 Mouth Open - " L i p s are separated." (McGrew, 1972, p.45). NE Narrow Eyes - " E y e l i d s are brought c l o s e r together than normal." (McGrew, 1972, p.46). NF G r i n Face - " L i p s are spread wide and the mouth corn e r s are r e t r a c t e d ; both rows of t e e t h are v i s i b l e and u s u a l l y c l o s e together; ... f l e e t i n g . " (McGrew, 1972, p.44). NL Normal Face - " L i p s are u s u a l l y together and r e l a x e d ; brow and cheeks are smooth and unwrinkled; eyebrows and e y e l i d s are i n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n ; g e n e r a l muscle tone i s r e l a x e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p.46). NW Nose Wrinkle - "The s k i n of the nose i s moved upward, producing w r i n k l i n g across the b r i d g e of the nose; the n o s t r i l s are f l a r e d . " (McGrew. 1972,p.47). PE Pucker Face - "Forehead i s w r i n k l e d both v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y ; brows are brought together and the inn e r ends r a i s e d ; the nose i s w r i n k l e d ; the eyes are c l o s e d or p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d ; mouth i s o f t e n open. The face i n g e n e r a l looks 'screwed up'." (McGrew, 1972., p.49) . PF P l a y Face - "The mouth i s open wide and the mouth corn e r s are turned up 1 the t e e t h are covered by the l i p s or o n l y p a r t l y v i s i b l e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.47). PT Pout - "The lower l i p or both l i p s p r o trude forward, with the former c u r l i n g down; the mouth i s opened s l i g h t l y . " (McGrew, 1972, p.48). TM Twist Mouth - "The l i p s are pressed together, pushed out i n the c e n t r e , then t w i s t e d on one s i d e . . . . In a p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s t h i s element was shown to i n d i c a t e an ambivalent s i t u a t i o n between approach and avoidance." (Grant, 1969, p.529.) WE Wide Eyes - "Eyebrows are r a i s e d and h e l d , pro-ducing an arched appearance; forehead i s h o r i z o n t a l l y w r i n k l e d ; the d i s t a n c e between upper and lower e y e l i d s i s i n c r e a s e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p.51). 162 ZL Smile - "Mouth i s p a r t i a l l y opened and the mouth corn e r s turned up; the eyes are p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d ; the t e e t h are covered by the l i p s or o n l y p a r t i a l l y v i s i b l e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.50). I I . Head P a t t e r n s : "... behaviour p a t t e r n s i n v o l v i n g s t r u c t u r e of the head and neck." BI B i t e - "Upper and lower rows of t e e t h are brought r a p i d l y and f o r c e f u l l y t o g e t h e r , u s u a l l y w i t h the l i p s r e t r a c t e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p.52). BW Blow - " A i r i s e x p e l l e d from the mouth through the pursed l i p s ; cheeks are p u f f e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p.53). CF Chew Food or Objects - Movement of t e e t h or gums a g a i n s t o b j e c t s or food by repeated opening and c l o s i n g lower jaw. CI Chin In - "The neck i s f l e x e d , moving the head forward on the a t l a s v e r t a b r a , so t h a t the c h i n i s moved toward the ch e s t , and the face i s kept approximately v e r t i c a l . " (McGrew, 1972, p.54). CG Cough - " A i r i s e x p e l l e d suddenly and n o i s i l y through the g l o t t i s . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970,p.210). CY Cry - "Tears are s e c r e t e d accompanied by loud v o c a l i z a t i o n s and reddening o f the f a c e " . (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.210). DK Duck - "Head i s moved downward and foreward a t the a t l a n t o o c c i p i t a l j o i n t , o f t e n r e p e a t e d l y . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, page 210). FT Face Thrust - "The head i s moved r a p i d l y forward so t h a t the face i s v e r t i c a l and the c h i n ' j u t s ' up and out." (McGrew. 1972, p.54). GT Gr i n d Teeth - "The t e e t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y the molars ( s i d e - t o - s i d e ) and i n c i s o r s (backward-and-forward) are drawn acr o s s each other i n f o r c e f u l o p p o s i t i o n . " (McGrew, 1972, p.56). HB Heavy B r e a t h i n g - The br e a t h i s i n h a l e d and ex-hal e d a u d i b l y and r e p e a t e d l y ; mouth open or c l o s e d . 163 HN Head Nod - "The head i s moved forward and back-ward on the condyles r e s t i n g on the a t l a s v e r t e b r a , r e s u l t i n g i n the face moving down and up. The down-up sequence may be e x h i b i t e d once or repeated." (McGrew, 1972, p.57). HS Head Shake - "The head i s r o t a t e d upon the a x i s v e r t e b r a , always a t l e a s t once to one s i d e and then immediately back agai n i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , but o f t e n t h i s i s repeated s e v e r a l times. The arc covered v a r i e s from 180° to an almost imperceptable sideways head f l i c k . " (McGrew, 1972, p.58). HT Head T i l t - "Head i s moved sideways to an angle of approximately 45© so t h a t the ear i s c l o s e r to the shoulder." (McGrew, 1972, p.59). KS K i s s - "The s l i g h t l y protruded l i p s are brought i n t o c o n t a c t with another person's body s u r f a c e or an o b j e c t by moving the head forward (and o f t e n l e a n i n g forward)." (McGrew, 1972, p.59). LK L i c k - "The extended tongue i s drawn a c r o s s the s u r f a c e of a body p a r t or an o b j e c t , l e a v i n g a t r a i l of s a l i v a . Movements may be s i n g l e or repeated, and they may range from b r i e f motions u s i n g o n l y the tongue's t i p to f u l l l a p p i n g . " (McGrew, 1972, p.61) . MH Mouth - "The moving l i p s and gums c o n t a c t an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t or body p a r t . A small o b j e c t being mouthed i s o f t e n h e l d i n the hand, but a l a r g e o b j e c t , f o r example, pram handle, may be mouthed d i r e c t l y . " (McGrew, 1972, p.63). RS Rooting and Sucking - Head pushing and/or sucking i n response to touch near or i n the mouth. SP S p i t - " S a l i v a i s p r o p e l l e d from the p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d mouth by e x p l o s i v e l y e x h a l i n g . A v a r i a n t , accompanied by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 'raspberry sound' i n v o l v e s p r o l o n g i n g the e x h a l a t i o n w h i l e a l l o w i n g the l i p s to v i b r a t e , thus producing a spray of s a l i v a . " (McGrew, 1972, p.63). SW Swallow - " P e r i s t a l t i c c o n t r a c t i o n s of the esophagous produce movements of the o v e r l y i n g neck muscles." (McGrew, 1972, p.64). SZ Sneeze - " A i r i s exhaled form the nose and mouth with sudden i n v o l u n t a r y e x p l o s i v e a c t i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.210). 164 T0 Tongue Out - "The tongue protrudes between the l i p s , t h i s may range from o n l y the t i p v i s i b l e between l i p s pressed together to maximal e x t e n s i o n with the l i p s drawn back and separated. The tongue may p o i n t h o r i z o n t a l l y or be curved up or down over the l i p s . " (McGrew, 1972, p.64). YN Yawn - "Mouth i s open wide, o f t e n exposing both rows of t e e t h , f o l l o w e d by a slow, high-volume i n h a l a t i o n and e x h a l a t i o n . " I I I . O r i e n t a t i o n P a t t e r n s : ... these items were p a r t of McGrew's Head P a t t e r n s , but have been separated i n t o an a d d i t i o n a l sequence f o r g r e a t e r c l a r i t y i n coding the data onto the VTR Log. GF Gaze F i x e d - "The eyes are o r i e n t e d to the eyes of another i n d i v i d u a l , t h i s u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n prolonged (more than 3 seconds) eye c o n t a c t (mutual s t a r i n g v i s - a - v i s ) . The head i s u s u a l l y s l i g h t l y lowered and forward, and the face i s approximately p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the l i n e of regard (which i s u s u a l l y h o r i z o n t a l ) . " (McGrew, 1972, p.55)... may be i n t e r r u p t e d by b l i n k s ) . GL Glance - "A r a p i d head movement which o r i e n t e d the face i s f o l l o w e d by another head movement w i t h i n 3 seconds r e o r i e n t i n g the f a c e . " (McGrew, 1972,p.56). L0 Look - "The head i s moved, r e - o r i e n t i n g the f a c e , and t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s maintained f o r a t l e a s t 3 seconds." (McGrew, 1972, p.62). (... t u r n i s used i f t o r s o i s r e - o r i e n t e d ) . IV. V o c a l P a t t e r n s : : . these items were p a r t of McGrew's Head P a t t e r n s , but have been separated i n t o an a d d i t i o n a l sequence f o r g r e a t e r c l a r i t y i n coding the data onto the VTR Log. UW U n i n t e l l i g i b l e V0 V o c a l i z e - " A i r moving through the l a r y n x produces sound which i s m o d i f i e d by the b u c c a l anatomy b e f o r e being emitted through the mouth." (McGrew, 1972, p.66) LA Laugh - "The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound i s produced by a s e r i e s of s h o r t , r a p i d l y repeated, spasmodic, e x p i r a t o r movements through the open mouth." (McGrew, 19 72, p.60). WD V e r b a l i z e - o n e word 165 WS V e r b a l i z e - t w o words or more V. M a n i p u l a t i o n : Behaviour p a t t e r n s re "What o b j e c t s are manipulated and how; t h i s i n c l u d e s moving o b j e c t w i t h the hands or the f e e t . " (Hutt, 1970, p.34). VI. Gestures: ... b o d i l y movements which do not b r i n g the c h i l d i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h s e l e c t e d p a r t s of the environment." (Hutt, 1970, p.34). AM Automanipulate ( f i n g e r and fumble) - F i n g e r i n g i s "the use of the f i n g e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y thumb and f o r e f i n g e r , to manipulate p a r t of one's body." Fumbling i s " s i m i l a r movements d i r e c t e d t o a s m a l l o b j e c t or to a l i m i t e d aspect of a l a r g e o b j e c t . The movements are s l i g h t , r e p e t i t i v e , sometimes ste r e o t y p e d , and appear to f u n c t i o n o n l y super-f i c i a l l y ; t h a t , i s , automanipulative s c r a t c h i n g appears not to r e l i e v e i t c h i n g , p i c k i n g appears not to remove o b j e c t s . " (McGrew, 1972, p.69). BE Beat - "An overarm blow w i t h the palm or palm s i d e of the l i g h t l y clenched f i s t ; the arm i s s h a r p l y bent a t the elbow and r a i s e d to a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n then brought down wit h g r e a t f o r c e on the opponent, h i t t i n g any p a r t of him t h a t gets i n the way." (McGrew, 1972, p.70). BN Beckon - "From a p o s i t i o n i n which the arm i s h e l d approximately v e r t i c a l l y i n f r o n t of the body, the arm i s f l e x e d a t the w r i s t and elbow, moving i t toward the body, palm preceding and f i n g e r s t o g e t h e r . I t may be repeated two or three times i n and out". (McGrew, 1972, p.72). B0 B e a t — O b j e c t - "An overarm blow with an o b j e c t h e l d i n the hand." (McGrew, 1972, p.70-71). C0 Combine - Objects h e l d i n each hand are brought together. CP Clap Hands - "The arms are h e l d i n f r o n t of the body, between w a i s t and shoulder l e v e l , and brought r a p i d l y and f o r e c f u l l y t o g e t h e r . The repeated movement produces a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound."- (McGrew, 1972, p.72). DP Dip - "To lower an o b j e c t i n t o a f l u i d q u i c k l y ' and then r a i s e i t q u i c k l y by arm e x t e n s i o n and f l e x i o n . " (McGrew, i n Hutt, 1970, p.211). 166 DR Drop - "By hand and f i n g e r e x t e n s i o n (with s m a l l o b j e c t s ) abd arm e x t e n s i o n (with l a r g e r o b j e c t s ) an o b j e c t i s r e l e a s e d without imparting f o r c e to i t ; i t s movement i s s o l e l y a consequence of g r a v i t y . " (McGrew, 1972, p.73). DS D i g i t Suck - "The l i p s are c l o s e d around a d i g i t which i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the mouth." (McGrew, 1972, p.73) . EI Beat-Incomplete - "An overarm 'blow' with palm s i d e of the l i g h t l y clenched f i s t ; the arm i s s h a r p l y bent a t the elbow and r a i s e d to a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n then brought down w i t h g r e a t f o r c e without making c o n t a c t or r a i s e d o n l y without making c o n t a c t . " (McGrew, 19 72, p.72). FI F i s t - "The f i n g e r s of the hand are maximally f l e x e d and the thumb may be i n s i d e or o u t s i d e the clenched f i n g e r s . Often the arm i s extended v e r t i c a l l y downward, sometimes r i g i d l y . " (McGrew, 1972, p.74). FR Forearm Raise - "The forearm i s r a i s e d to a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n over i n f r o n t of the head; the elbow i s p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d a t approximately 90°." (McGrew, 1972, p.75). FS Forearm Sweep - "The arm i s extended h o r i z o n t a l l y or o b l i q u e l y (hand down) between w a i s t and shoulder l e v e l , away from the body. The forearm precedes and the hand i s open when c o n t a c t occurs w i t h another person (or o b j e c t ) . " (McGrew, 1972, p.75). GR Grasp - "To take h o l d of an o b j e c t by hand and f i n g e r f l e x i o n without p i c k i n g i t up." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.211), or to m a i n t a i n h o l d pick-up or t r a n s f e r . HC Hand Cover - "Open, p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d hand moves to the head, where the bunched f i n g e r s and palm are h e l d c l o s e to or i n c o n t a c t w i t h the eyes, ears, nose, and/or mouth." (McGrew, 1972, p.76). HH Hold Hands - "Two persons grasp each o t h e r ' s hand, palm to palm, u s u a l l y w h i l e f a c i n g the same d i r e c t i o n , h o l d i n g i n s i d e hands." (McGrew, 1972, p.77). HK Hand on Back - "The open palm i s p l a c e d on another c h i l d ' s back, u s u a l l y a t the bottom of the shoulder b l a d e s . The a c t o r stands or walks a t the r e a c t o r ' s s i d e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.77). 167 H0 Hold Out - "The arm i s extended h o r i z o n t a l l y forward, f i n g e r s p a r t i a l l y extended and to g e t h e r , and u s u a l l y c l a s p i n g an o b j e c t with the palm s i d e up." (McGrew, 1972, p.78), or w i t h l a r g e r o b j e c t , an approximation of t h i s . KN Knock - "The knuckles of the f i r s t are brought s h a r p l y i n t o c o n t a c t with the o b j e c t or person by forward e x t e n s i o n of the forearm a t the elbow. The movement occurs i n s h o r t bouts of repeated r a p p i n g , and a sharp, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n o i s e r e s u l t s . " (McGrew, 1972, p.780). LI L i f t - "To r a i s e an o b j e c t by elbow f l e x i o n o n l y . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.212). LR Lower - "To lower an o b j e c t by elbow e x t e n s i o n only. (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.212). MU Move Upper Limb - "Miscellaneous movement of the arm." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.212). MT Manipulate - "To move the hands i n continuous f l e x i o n and e x t e n s i o n w h i l e i n c o n t a c t w i t h an o b j e c t . (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.211). ... w i t h some e f f e c t on the o b j e c t (see AM Automanipulate). PA Pat - "The forearm i s r a p i d l y and r e p e a t e d l y f l e x e d and extended so t h a t the hand i s moved v e r t i c a l l y , palmar s i d e down w i t h i n a s i x - i n c h r a d i u s . The w r i s t f l e x i o n s and extensions r e s u l t i n l i g h t c o n t a c t s onto the s u r f a c e of an o b j e c t or another person." (McGrew, 1972, p.79)—may have o b j e c t i n hand. PD Put Down - To move an o b j e c t to a l o c a t i o n below shoulder l e v e l u s u a l l y w i t h a s i n g l y continuous arm or arm and trunk e x t e n s i o n downward. PH Punch - "The arm i s moved r a p i d l y from an approximately h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n a t the s i d e , forward approximately 180° (or u n t i l contact) i n a s i d e arm motion. The arm i s h e l d p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d ; the f i r s t i s t i g h t l y clenched; and the knuckle s i d e of the hand precedes." (McGrew, 1972, p.81). PI Pinch - "The thumb and index f i n g e r are f o r e a b l y opposed with an o b j e c t or p a r t of another's body i n between." (McGrew, 1972, p.79). PK P i c k - "To probe an o b j e c t w i t h the f i n g e r s or wit h a p o i n t e d instrument u s i n g a l t e r n a t e f l e x i o n and ext e n s i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.211). 168 PL P u l l - "The arms are f l e x e d toward the body, u s u a l l y the c h e s t , thus drawing an o b j e c t or person toward the body or v i c e v e r s a . " (McGrew, 1972, p.80), one arm or both. P0 P o i n t - "The arm i s f u l l y extended, u s u a l l y h o r i z o n t a l l y , and o r i e n t e d to a s t i m u l u s , w i t h palm inward and v e r t i c a l , or downward and h o r i z o n t a l . The index f i n g e r i s extended and the other d i g i t s p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d , but l e s s commonly the e n t i r e hand may be extended. The favoured hand i s u s u a l l y used, and an o b j e c t , f o r example a s t i c k , may f u n c t i o n as a ' p o i n t e r ' . " (McGrew, 1972, p.80). PR Pour - "To t i p an o b j e c t w i t h s l i g h t arm movements and u s u a l l y with w r i s t r o t a t i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.213).. ' PS Push - "The arms are extended forward, u s u a l l y i n p a r a l l e l and h o r i z o n t a l , w i t h the w r i s t s f l e x e d and the v e r t i c a l p r e c e d i n g . Force i s g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d to an o b j e c t or person." (McGrew, 1972, p.82), one ::. arm or both. PU P i c k Up - "To l i f t an o b j e c t by arm e x t e n s i o n alone or by arm and trunk e x t e n s i o n immediately a f t e r g r a s p i n g i t , i n a continuous motion." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, pp.213-214). RB Rub - "To move the arm with pressure over an o b j e c t , u s u a l l y by r a p i d a l t e r n a t i o n of elbow e x t e n s i o n and f l e x i o n , but o f t e n a s i n g l e , f l i c k i n g motion." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.213). RE Reach - "The arm i s extended h o r i z o n t a l l y , up. down and sideways, f i n g e r s p a r t i a l l y extended and separated with the palmar s i d e u s u a l l y down. I t i s o f t e n d i r e c t e d to an o b j e c t or person and f o l l o w e d by g r a s p i n g and p i c k i n g up. An incomplete r e a c h i n g i n t e n t i o n movement, i n which the arm i s h e l d p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d w i t h g r a s p i n g hand (palm v e r t i c a l ) o r i e n t e d toward the o b j e c t or person a l s o o c c u r s . " (McGrew, 1972, p.83). RM Remove - "To move the arm out of a c o n t a i n e r by elbow f l e x i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.212). R0 R o l l (object) - "To move an o b j e c t by arm e x t e n s i o n (usually) by t u r n i n g i t over, o f t e n r e p e a t e d l y and around i t s main a x i s . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, pp.211-213). 169 RP Repel - "The arms are sp a s m o d i c a l l y extended away from and i n f r o n t of the body, not n e c e s s a r i l y h o r i z o n t a l l y , hands open and palm f i r s t . The movements are u s u a l l y r a p i d l y repeated and accompanied by negative e x p l e t i v e s . " (McGrew. 1972, p.83). SC S c r a t c h - "The f i n g e r n a i l s are raked a c r o s s the s u r f a c e , u s u a l l y another c h i l d ' s s k i n ; the f i n g e r s are locked i n p a r t i a l f l e x i o n and u s u a l l y separated." (McGrew, 1972, p.84). SH Shake - "The arms are f l e x e d and extended i n r a p i d a l t e r n a t i o n w h i l e the hands grasp another person. Or the forearm moves, r a p i d l y up and down or back and f o r t h w h i l e h o l d i n g a small o b j e c t . " (McGrew, 1972, p.84), or without a sma l l o b j e c t . SK Scoop - "To move the arm (hand leading) down, h o r i z o n t a l l y , and up agai n i n a small U-shaped motion; d u r i n g the h o r i z o n t a l p a r t the hand i s immersed i n the l o o s e m a t e r i a l . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.214). SN Snatch - " A f t e r g r a s p i n g a small o b j e c t , the arm i s suddenly f l e x e d , thereby p u l l i n g the o b j e c t away from another i n d i v i d u a l and toward the a c t o r ' s body or above the head." (McGrew, 1972, p.85). SQ Squeeze - "To apply f o r c e t o an o b j e c t by f l e x i n g the f i n g e r s around i t . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.211). SU Support - Hand, or arm used as p o s t u r a l support. TC Touch - "To move the arm l i g h t l y and momentarily i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h an o b j e c t by a r a p i d e x t e n s i o n and f l e x i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.213). TI T i c k l e - "The separated f i n g e r s are moved i n a repeated, r a p i d w i g g l i n g motion a g a i n s t another person's body s u r f a c e . " (McGrew. 1972, p.86). TN T r a n s f e r - "To move an o b j e c t from one hand to another." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p. 214).. TT Twist - "To move an o b j e c t by a l t e r n a t e d abduction of the shoulder and w r i s t . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.214) . TW Throw - "The forearm i s extended forward, and wi t h palm down, above shoulder h e i g h t l e v e l and u s u a l l y overhead, i m p a r t i n g f o r c e to a r e l e a s e d o b j e c t . Or the forearm i s extended forward, hand wi t h palm up below shoulder l e v e l (and u s u a l l y below the w a i s t ) , imparting f o r c e to a r e l e a s e d object."(McGrew,1972, p.85). 170 WV Wave - "The arm i s h e l d away from and i n f r o n t of the body, forearm approximately v e r t i c a l and palm forward, and i s moved r e p e a t e d l y from s i d e to s i d e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.87). Or the hand i s moved up and down by e x t e n s i o n and f l e x i o n of the w r i s t . ZH Smooth - "To move an o b j e c t , u s u a l l y the palmar s i d e of the hand, l i g h t l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y along the s u r f a c e of the m a t e r i a l , by elbow f l e x i o n or ex t e n s i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.214). ZM S p e c i a l i z e d M a n i p u l a t i o n - "To manipulate an o b j e c t i n a manner a p p r o p r i a t e l y unique to t h a t o b j e c t , i . e . as d e f i n e d by t h a t o b j e c t ' s f u n c t i o n , e.g., s c i s s o r s , p l i e r s . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.211). The attempt a t s p e c i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n need not be completely s u c c e s s f u l . Posture and Leg P a t t e r n s : ... behaviour p a t t e r n s which i n v o l v e l e g movements and s t a t i c body p o s i t i o n or movements which change the body's p o s i t i o n . " (McGrew, 1972, p.72). CH Crouch - "The knees are f l e x e d so t h a t the trunk and head are lowered from a standing posture and/or the back i s f l e x e d w i t h the same r e s u l t s from a s i t t i n g p o s t u r e . In extreme cr o u c h i n g , the c h e s t and upper l e g s are brought together so t h a t the head approaches the knees. The arms may be f l e x e d around the trunk or i n extreme cases, f l e x e d over and around the head and neck. The neck may be f l e x e d w i t h the face h o r i z o n t a l and down. Crouching may a l s o be combined w i t h locomotion." (McGrew, 1972, p.88) . IM Immobile - "Gross movement of the trunk, limbs, and head ceased f o r a t l e a s t three seconds. Often the gaze i s f i x e d . The f i n g e r s may continue to move, o f t e n i n automanipulation, but the movements are r e s t r a i n e d and inc o n s p i c u o u s . Immobility may occur i n any posture but most commonly w h i l e standing or s i t t i n g . " (McGrew, 19 72, p.89). KI Kick-Incomplete - "... p a r t i a l l e g e x t e n s i o n without completing the movement or without making p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t . The h a l t e d f o o t i s r e - f l e x e d to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n or moved backwards and lowered to the ground." (McGrew, 1972, p.90). KK Kick - "To extend one l e g suddenly, u s u a l l y making f o r c e f u l c o n t a c t between an o b j e c t and the toe w h i l e the other leg 1 remains on the s u b s t r a t e . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.212). Or w h i l e s i t t i n g or l y i n g , one or both l e g s r a p i d l y extending and f l e x i n g u s u a l l y 171 making c o n t a c t w i t h the f l o o r . KL Kneel - "The trunk i s lowered and t i l t e d forward by h i p and knee f l e x i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n i t s r e s t i n g on the knees (one or both) and f e e t (both). A f t e r assuming the posture, the trunk may be u p r i g h t or maximally f l e x e d a t the hops w i t h the head v e r t i c a l and f a c i n g forward or h o r i z o n t a l and f a c i n g down." (McGrew, 1972, p.91). LD L i e Down - "The l e g s are f u l l y f l e x e d a t the knees, then the arms are extended toward the ground and the trunk i s t i l t e d sideways; from the r e s u l t i n g seated p o s i t i o n the trunk i s f u r t h e r t i l t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a sideways r e c l i n i n g posture w i t h the main body a x i s h o r i z o n t a l t o the ground. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the l e g s are f u l l y f l e x e d , then the trunk i s t i l t e d forward i n t o a k n e e l i n g p o s i t i o n , then the trunk and arms are extended f u r t h e r forward i n t o a p r o n e - r e c l i n i n g posture. From a seated p o s i t i o n , the trunk i s ex-tended e i t h e r sideways (preceded by extended arms) or backwards (not so Preceded)." (McGrew, 1972, p.91). LY L i e - "To m a i n t a i n a h o r i z o n t a l posture e i t h e r prone, supine, or on the s i d e . " ML Move Lower Limb - "Miscellaneous movements of the l e g . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.212). PC P l a y Crouch - "A s p e c i a l i z e d v e r s i o n of crouch e x i s t s : Head and trunk are e r e c t , the l e g s are s l i g h t l y f l e x e d , the f e e t are wider a p a r t than shoulder-width, the arms are p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d and h e l d out from the trunk, the shoulders may be hunched." (McGrew, 1972, p.92). RL R o l l ( S e l f ) - R e v o l u t i o n of the body from s i d e to s i d e or prone to supine; or c i v e v e r s a . SA Stamp - "The l e g i s r a p i d l y extended, f o r c e f u l l y moving the f o o t down and u s u a l l y v e r t i c a l l y , s o l e f i r s t , onto an o b j e c t ; the other l e g remains as a body support. T h i s f o l l o w s an i n i t i a l l e g f l e x i n g a t the knee which v e r t i c a l l y r a i s e s the f o o t . " (McGrew, 1972, p.94). SI S i t - "The trunk i s lowered by h i p and knew f l e x i o n ; the r e s u l t i s t h a t the body r e s t s p r i m a r i l y on the b u t t o c k s . While seated the l e g s may be extended h o r i z o n t a l l y , p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d w i t h o n l y the f e e t on the ground, or dangled. The neck i s h e l d extended w i t h the head u p r i g h t . S i t t i n g may be maintained d u r i n g locomotion, f o r example, when the b u t t o c k s 172 are scooted along the ground." Or, s t a r t i n g from a l y i n g p o s i t i o n , the trunk i s r a i s e d to achieve the same p o s i t i o n . Or "a posture combining s i t t i n g and c r o u c h i n g " i s achieved. (McGrew. 1972, p.93). (Incomplete s i t t i n g a c t i o n i s coded "c r o u c h " ) . ST Stand Up - The trunk i s r a i s e d by e x t e n s i o n of the h i p s , knees, and back; the r e s u l t i n g posture i s u p r i g h t w i t h both f e e t s u p p o r t i n g the body's weight, about a shoulders width a p a r t . The arms u s u a l l y hang f r e e . V I I I . Gross: ... behaviour p a t t e r n s which i n c l u d e simultaneous trunk, limb, and head movements." (McGrew, 1972, p.95). DE Dependent Posture - C h i l d ' s posture i s a d j u s t e d by or he i s p i c k e d up or c a r r i e d by another person. T h i s item i s not an element of behaviour, but i s t e c h n i c a l l y necessary i n order to m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i t y i n c oding. DQ D i s e q u i l i b r i u m - "Various r i g h t i n g movements f o l l o w i n g l o s s of balance." FA F a l l - "The body suddenly and v i o l e n t l y moves down from an u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n to a h o r i z o n t a l one, u s u a l l y onto the ground. During f a l l i n g , the body u s u a l l y t w i s t s and the limbs f l a i l without p a t t e r n , but u s u a l l y l a n d i n g on the buttocks or hands and knees. The hands o f t e n move ahead or i n f r o n t of the head when f a l l i n g forward. I n v o l u n t a r y or v o l u n t a r y f a l l s occur and the l a t t e r sometimes c o n s i s t s of a c t i v i t y 'throwing' the body toward another i n d i v i d u a l . (McGrew, 1972, p.97). FC P h y s i c a l Contact - "This category i n c l u d e s amorphous, unstereotyped, u n s t r u c t u r e d t a c t i l e c o n t a c t between people. I t ranges from f i n g e r - t i p touching to standing surrounded by j o s t l i n g peers i n a l i n e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.101). FH F l i n c h - "The shoulders are f l e x e d , the f a c e moves p a r t i a l l y down and back, the arms are f l e x e d toward the shoulders, the trunk leans away." (McGrew, 1972, p.97). HG Hug - "The arms are moved h o r i z o n t a l l y forward from a widespread p o s i t i o n toward each other and around an o b j e c t , thereby e n c i r c l i n g i t . During the move-ment the arms are p a r t i a l l y f l e x e d , and the hands and f i n g e r s are extended ... hugging may be d i r e c t e d toward inanimate o b j e c t s or toward people." (McGrew, 1972, p.98). 173 LB Lean Backward - "The trunk i s extended a t the h i p s so t h a t the head and shoulders move backward. I t r e s u l t s i n the trunk being moved from a f l e x e d forward p o s i t i o n to u p r i g h t or to a maximal f l e x i o n with the trunk t i l t i n g backward. I t i s u s u a l l y o r i e n t e d away from another person." (McGrew, 1972, p.100). LE Lean - "To apply f o r c e to an o b j e c t by s h i f t i n g the body weight a g a i n s t i t and moving the limb and trunk j o i n t s i n c o o r d i n a t i o n . " (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.214). LW Lean Forward - "The u p r i g h t trunk i s f l e x e d a t the h i p s . s o t h a t the head and shoulders are moved forward. I t i s u s u a l l y d i r e c t e d toward another i n d i v i d u a l . " (McGrew, 1972, p.100). MV Move - "To move the limbs and trunk i n an amorphous, u n s t r u c t u r e d manner." (McGrew i n Hutt, 1970, p.214). RK Rock - "The trunk i s moved backward and forward (hip e x t e n s i o n and f l e x i o n ) or sideways (hip adduction and abduction) w i t h r e p e t i t i v e , rhythmic movement. The trunk i s approximately u p r i g h t i n s i t t i n g or standing posture." (McGrew, 1972, p.102). SG Shrug - "The shoulders are q u i c k l y f l e x e d and extended i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n . The body i s u p r i g h t and o f t e n i n locomotion. The p a t t e r n i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o f l i n c h i n g . " (McGrew, 1972, p.103). TL Turn L e f t - "See TR f o r Turn Right." TR Turn Right - "The trunk i s p a r t i a l l y r o t a t e d , u s u a l l y i n a s i n g l e , continuous motion. When seated, the c h i l d ' s shoulders are r o t a t e d although the buttocks may remain unmoved. While s t a n d i n g , the c h i l d ' s , s h o u l d e r s , and b u t t o c k s , and ( u s u a l l y ) f e e t are r o t a t e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p.104). (Look i s used i f on l y the neck i s t u r n e d ) . WR Wrestle - "The behaviour p a t t e r n i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e because of i t ' s complex combination of motor p a t t e r n s and extreme v a r i a b i l i t y . In g e n e r a l , w r e s t l i n g i s gross body movement by two or more c h i l d r e n w h i l e grappled i n p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t . " (McGrew, 1972, p.105). ZS S t r e t c h - "The trunk, limbs, and head are maximally extended, e i t h e r i n i s o l a t i o n or combinations. The r e s u l t i n g postures may be prolonged and appear d i s t o r t e d . " (McGrew, 1972, p.104). 17.4. IX. Locomotion: "Locomotion c o n s i s t s of gross body movements p r o p e l l i n g the body from p o i n t to p o i n t i n space." (McGrew, 1972, p.106). BS Back, Back Step - "The body moves b i p e d a l l y backward a t a moderate r a t e , a l t e r n a t i n g l e g s d u r i n g each s t r i d e , so t h a t one f o o t i s p l a c e d f i r m l y on the ground b e f o r e l i f t i n g the o t h e r . The trunk may be u p r i g h t or t i l t e d backward. Back step i s one u n i t o f back." (McGrew, 1972, p.106) . CB Climb - "The f o r e l i m b s are a l t e r n a t e l y extended and f l e x e d , r e s u l t i n g i n approximately v e r t i c a l gross body movement on an o b j e c t or s u r f a c e . The l e g s u s u a l l y push w h i l e the arms p u l l , but i n descending, the arms may a l s o push a g a i n s t the s u r f a c e . " (McGrew, 1972, p.88). CE Chase - "The c h i l d runs with sudden d i r e c t i o n changes and v e e r i n g , f r e q u e n t speed changes, arms f l a i l i n g , quick h e a d - o r i e n t i n g movements. I t i s always d i r e c t e d to another, and the r e a c t o r u s u a l l y f l e e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from the chaser. The trunk u s u a l l y t i l t s forward." (McGrew, 1972, p.107). CL Crawl - "The body moves quadrupedally, u s u a l l y forward, w i t h the v e n t r a l s u r f a c e o f f the ground. V a r i o u s combinations of the limbs may touch the ground; palms forearms knees and t o e s , s o l e s . " (McGrew, 1972, p.108). CR Creep - The body moves forward, backwards, or i n r o t a t i o n w i t h the stomach i n c o n t a c t w i t h the ground, p r o p e l l e d by the limbs. FE F l e e - "The c h i l d runs with sudden d i r e c t i o n changes, v e e r i n g , f r e q u e n t speed changes, arms f l a i l i n g , quick glances over the s h o u l d e r s . I t i s u s u a l l y o r i e n t e d to o t h e r s , o f t e n o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with another's c h a s i n g . The trunk i s u s u a l l y t i l t e d forward." (McGrew, 1972, p.108). MI M i s c e l l a n e o u s Locomotion - "This category i n -clud e s extremely uncommon or a t y p i c a l locomotory behaviour p a t t e r n s , f o r example, locomotion which need not i n v o l v e any muscular movement ( s l i d i n g down an i n c l i n e d p l a n e ) . " (McGrew, 1972, p.110). 1 7 5 RN Run - "The body moves r a p i d l y forward, a l t e r n a t i n g l e g s d u r i n g each s t r i d e , so t h a t both f e e t are momentarily o f f the ground d u r i n g each s t r i d e . The trunk i s u p r i g h t or t i l t e d forward. Running movements may occur ... without locomotion..." (McGrew, 1972, p.111). S D S i d l e , S i d l e Step - "The body moves l a t e r a l l y a t a moderate r a t e by a l t e r n a t i n g l e g movements, two per s t r i d e . One f o o t i s p l a c e d i f r m l y to the s i d e b e f o r e l i f t i n g the other f o o t to be p l a c e d nearer i t . The trunk i s u p r i g h t or t i l t e d to the s i d e . S i d l e step i s one u n i t of S i d l e . The l e g i s moved l a t e r a l l y once, p l a c e d onto the ground, and p a r t of the body weight i s s h i f t e d onto i t . " (McGrew, 1972, p . I l l ) . SL Step L e f t - "A step i s one u n i t of walk. The l e g i s moved forward once, p l a c e d on the ground, and p a r t of the body weight i s s h i f t e d onto i t . The other l e g may be brought forward and p l a c e d b e s i d e the o t h e r . " (McGrew, 1972, p.112). SR Step Right - "See SL f o r Step L e f t . " WK Walk - "The body moves b i p e d a l l y forward a t a moderate r a t e , a l t e r n a t i n g l e g s d u r i n g each s t r i d e so t h a t one f o o t i s p l a c e d f i r m l y on the ground b e f o r e the other leaves the ground. The trunk i s u p r i g h t , and the arms swing forward and backward i n unison w i t h the o p p o s i t e l e g s . " (McGrew, 1972, p.112). ZU S h u f f l e - "While the trunk i s u p r i g h t , the f e e t are moved r e p e t i t i v e l y i n v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s ; together and apar t again, from h e e l to toe and back, from i n s i d e to o u t s i d e edge of the f o o t , p i v o t i n g on h e e l or toe, onto t i p t o e s and down aga i n . No locomotion occurs and no f u n c t i o n i s apparent, f o r example, other simultaneous behaviour appears u n a f f e c t e d whether f e e t are together or a p a r t . " (McGrew, 1972, p.92-93). Xa. U n c l a s s i f i a b l e s : - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r these Elements of Behaviour were not i n c l u d e d i n the o r i g i n a l s e t of d e f i n i t i o n s . Since these behaviours are repeated throughout the study, they have been assi g n e d s p e c i a l codes as s p e c i a l cases of "UN" — u n c l a s s i f i a b l e . These s p e c i a l codes f o r these behaviours w i l l a l l begin w i t h the l e t t e r Q. e.g. QA. 176 QA I n f a n t v a r i a n t of Pucker Face - forehead and nose w r i n k l e s don't show c l e a r l y i n i n f a n t , but brows r a i s e d a t in n e r end, mouth open, eyes p a r t i a l l y c l o s e r and "screwed up" face are p r e s e n t . QB - body i s supported on hands or forearms and knees (crawl posture) - o f t e n accompanied by r o c k i n g movement of h i p s . QC - body i s prone, arms and/or l e g s i n motion, o f t e n o f f the f l o o r . The t o r s o may r o l l from s i d e to s i d e or rock from c h e s t t o abdomen. QD - same as c r y , without v i s i b l e t e a r s . QE - body i s prone, but the c h e s t i s o f f the ground, and the arms are extended i n support. QF - body i s i n standing p o s i t i o n , the knees are f l e x e d and extended i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n w i t h a "bouncing" motion. 177 S U P P L E M E N T A R Y CODES LM Locomotion (miscellaneous) - "... Locomotion which may not i n v o l v e any muscular movement ( s l i d i n g down an i n c l i n e d plane)(McGrew, 1972, p.110). LS L i p s Forward - "The l i p s are a p a r t and pushed forward. The mouth i s open to some extent." (Grant, 1969, p.529). MD Mouthed Word - A word spoken without v o c a l i z a t i o n -o n l y a movement of the l i p s . ( F i r s t seen i n Obs. IS, 2:01:1). PX Pursed L i p s - "The l i p s are pressed together, then pushed out i n the c e n t r e . " (Grant, 1969, p.529). PZ Puzzled Look - "The eyebrows are drawn t o g e t h e r , . . . and they remain f l a t . (Grant, 1969, p.527). QG V e r t i c a l C l a p p i n g - A v e r t i c a l c l a p p i n g with the hands brushing together (looks l i k e MU, AM, MU i n a slow m o t i o n ) . ( F i r s t seen i n Obs. IS, 2:01:1). QH Signed Word - A manual s i g n from American Sign Language ( f i r s t seen i n Obs. 2C, 0:12:1). These gestures were re c o g n i z e d to be s i g n s by a person t r a i n e d i n the use of Ameslan. SB Suck - A sharp i n t a k e of b r e a t h through pursed l i p s . ( F i r s t seen i n Obs. 2H, 0:37:0). SX S p i l l - A gesture of the hand which causes something to run or f a l l out of a c o n t a i n e r . ( F i r s t seen i n Obs. 2C, 4:55:2). TB Twist Body - A t u r n i n g of the body a t the w a i s t to the l e f t or r i g h t . ( F i r s t seen i n Obs. 2C, 3:53:4). UT Untwist - A movement of the body i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n to the Twist Body. ( F i r s t seen i n Obs. 2C, 3:56:3). 178 APPENDIX I I I D E F I N I T I O N S OF C O M M U N I C A T I O N F U N C T I O N S RF R e f e r e n t i a l (environment) 1 CN Conative ( r e c e i v e r ) EX E x p r e s s i v e (sender) behaviour which f u n c t i o n s to denote o b j e c t s and a c t i o n s i n the environemnt — e.g. "That's a book", 2 + 2 = 4; or p o i n t i n g , s e a r c h i n g f o r , i n p a r t i c u l a r c o ntext. The o b j e c t or a c t i o n " r e f e r r e d " to must be pr e s e n t i n the o b s e r v a t i o n . behaviour which f u n c t i o n s to d i r e c t or persuade the r e c e i v e r — e.g. "Gimme", "No p a r k i n g " ; or r e a c h i n g f o r , i n p a r t i c u l a r contexts, behaviour which f u n c t i o n s to i d e n t i f y or express f e e l i n g s of the sender — e.g. "Ouch!", "I'm hungry"; t e e t h bared, s m i l e , i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s . Changes i n i n t o n a t i o n and s t r e s s of v o c a l i z a t i o n are i n d i c a t o r s as w e l l as are some Elements of Behaviour. ME M e t a l i n g u a l (code) behaviour which f u n c t i o n s to improve the shared understanding of the code used — e.g. i m i t a t i o n of a model, requests f o r de-f i n i t i o n , p r a c t i c e of p r o n u n c i a t i o n or g e s t u r e . l The p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the message c o n t r o l l e d by each Communication F u n c t i o n and the a b b r e v i a t e d l e t t e r codes used i n a n a l y s i s are g i v e n a t the l e f t . 179 PW P o e t i c - behaviour focussed on the message (message form) f o r i t s own sake, which f u n c t i o n s to modify the a f f e c t of sender or r e c e i v e r — e.g. a l l i t e r a t i o n , resonance, rhythmic sequences of v o i c e or body movement or a c t i o n s , r i t u a l , ceremony. PJ P h a t i c (channel) - behaviour which f u n c t i o n s to m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t between the sender and the r e c e i v e r — e.g. "Urn", " H e l l o " or waving, i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . The " r e c e i v e r " must appear i n the o b s e r v a t i o n . Coders sought to l i m i t i n f e r e n c e s about the "meaning" of the communication by c l a s s i f y i n g i t i n terms of t h e i r experienced d i s p o s i t i o n to a c t i n response to the videotaped behaviour of the s u b j e c t s . A d d i t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s are l i s t e d w ith the d e f i n i t i o n s . 180 APPENDIX IV F U N C T I O N A L D E F I N I T I O N S OF P I A G E T I A N S T A G E S AND S U B S T A G E S Approx Sub. P i a g e t Theory Object Concept Age Stage T h e o r e t i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n Observations 11-12 05z D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of con-cepts which are a c t i o n scheinas through " t e r t i a r y " c i r c u l a r r e -a c t i o n s . Summary: C h i l d takes i n t o account the se-quence of v i s i b l e displacements but d i s r e g a r d s the se-quence of i n v i s i b l e d isplacements. 11-12 D i s c o v e r y of new means. mos. (Accommodation and c o o r d i n a t i o n of schemas). I n t e n t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n of a c t i o n to study r e s u l t s to sensori-motor con-cepts - v a r i a t i o n of a c t i o n as a c t i o n and o b j e c t as o b j e c t - i n -t e r e s t i n n o v e l t y . Examples: A c t i v e search w i t h sequence of v i s i b l e displacements 1. L o c a t i o n of o b j e c t  with two v i s i b l e d i s -placements i n f a n t f i n d s toy i n second (or t h i r d ) demonstrated h i d i n g p l a c e . 2. L o c a t i o n of o b j e c t  w i t h one v i s i b l e and  one i n v i s i b l e d i s p l a c e -ment o n l y by t r i a l and e r r o r . A c t i v e search without t a k i n g i n t o D e f e r r e d i m i t a t i o n by account the sequence of end of p e r i o d . i n v i s i b l e displacements. 16-18 3. L o c a t i o n of o b j e c t mos. with~o~ne v i s i b l e and one i n v i s i b l e displacement i n f a n t immediately f i n d s toy a f t e r one i n v i s i b l e displacement JDe c a r i e , 1967, pp.28-63 2The stages are given i n l e t t e r and number code. 1 8 1 Approx, Age Sub. P l a y 3 Stage ( I n t e r a c t i o n with Objects)  Communication 3 ( I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h People) Observations Observed Responses Observed I n i t i a t i o n s 12-18 0 5 Summary: Experimentation to d i s c o v e r new p r o p e r t i e s i n o b j e c t s and events. Summary: "Representa-t i o n " r e l i a b l e but s t i l l t i e d to and p a r t of the immediate s i t u a t i o n . Summary: Great i n c r e a s e i n i n i t i a t e d communication. Examples: F i n d i n g out about o b j e c t s : L e t t i n g go. Throwing. R o l l i n g . R e t r i e v i n g . V a r y i n g p o s i t i o n s of o b j e c t s . F l o a t i n g . Pouring. E f f o r t to grasp, perform other opera-t i o n s e t c . "a p p r o p r i a t e " p l a y with s i m p l e s t t o y s . L i k e s p u l l i n g p u l l - t o y s . Makes marks with crayons on paper or t a b l e . P a r t i a l l y feeds s e l f . Enjoys p l a y i n the sand. Examples: Names common v i s i b l e ob-j e c t s on r e -quest. "Recognizes" p i c t u r e s i n book - pats them. Responds to gestur e s "come". Responds by p o i n t i n g e t c . to "Where" i s the...? f o r common ob-j e c t s and people v i s i b l e and i n v i s i b l e . P o i n t s to body p a r t s on r e -quest. L i k e s being read t o . More s y s t e -matic and exact i m i t a t i o n ex-p l o r i n g a c t i o n of model. Examples: Employs purpose-f u l g e s t u r e s to i n d i c a t e wants. Jargon phrases w i t h i n t e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . In-d i c a t e s wants with a few words. Gets h e l p of oth e r s through p u r p o s e f u l a c t i o n s . I n d i c a t e s 'joke' by shared laugh or p l a y f a c e to other person a f t e r a c t i o n has taken p l a c e . Performs ' t r a n s -g r e s s i o n s ' and then looks to see e f f e c t on a d u l t s . Teases. 3 Taken from Developmental Assessment - M. Mackie, P. Woodward (1973) unpublished. 182 Approx. Sub P i a g e t Theory Object Concept Age Stage T h e o r e t i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n Observations 18-24 0 6 F i r s t i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of schemas and s o l u t i o n of some problems by deduction. Beginning of t r u e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Summary: Repr e s e n t a t i o n of i n v i s i b l e d i s p l a c e -ments — o b j e c t permanence. Pe r s o n a l symbols seen i n : a. Symbolic P l a y b. D e f e r r e d I m i t a t i o n c. I n t e r n a l i z e d i m i t a t i o n (Images) Examples: 1. L o c a t i o n of  o b j e c t w i t h  a l t e r n a t e s i n g l e  v i s i b l e and i n -v i s i b l e d i s p l a c e -ments . Cause i s symbolized by 2. L o c a t i o n of obs e r v i n g e f f e c t and v i c e o b j e c t w i t h one v e r s a . v i s i b l e and th r e e i n v i s i b l e super-imposed d i s p l a c e -ments - e.g., toy to be found i s under a handker-c h i e f which i s under a hat which i s under a b l a n k e t . 3. L o c a t i o n of  o b j e c t w i t h one  v i s i b l e and two or  three s e q u e n t i a l  i n v i s i b l e d i s p l a c e -ments. 183 Approx. Sub. P l a y 3 Communication 3 Age Stage ( I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h ( I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h People) Objects)  Observations Observed Observed Responses I n i t i a t i o n s P a r t of the a c t i o n schema c o i n c i d e n t with model becomes index which l i n k s s i g n i f i e r ( c h i l d ' s a c t i o n ) and s i g n i -f i e d ( a d u l t a c t i o n ) must be simultane-o u s l y p r e s e n t thus p r e s e n t i n g i n a c t u a l l y the shared p r o p e r t i e s which are to be reproduced. 3 Taken from Developmental Assessment - M. Mackie, P. Woodward (1973) unpublished. 184 APPENDIX V O P E R A T I O N A L D E F I N I T I O N S ( O B J E C T C O N C E P T ) OF P I A G E T I A N S T A G E S Stage 1 Use of Ref l e x e s A c t i v i t y U n i t c o n s i s t s of one Element of Behaviour repeated without m o d i f i c a t i o n Stage 2 Primary C i r c u l a r Reactions A c t i v i t y U n i t c o n s i s t s of a r e p e t i t i o n of the Element "look" p a i r e d w i t h another Element of Behaviour, when both are i n f e r r e d to be a response to one Element of Environment (o b j e c t or person) St a t e 3A Second C i r c u l a r Reactions A c t i v i t y U n i t , or s e r i e s of A c t i v i t y U n i t s , c o n s i s t s of a r e p e t i t i o n of the element "look" p a i r e d w i t h another Element of Behaviour, when both are i n f e r r e d to be a response to a s e r i e s of two or more d i f f e r e n t Elements of En-vironment ( o b j e c t s or persons or d i f f e r e n t aspects o f one o b j e c t or person); or c o n s i s t s of the Element "look" p a i r e d w i t h a s e r i e s of two or more Elements of Behaviour when a l l are i n f e r r e d to be a response to one Elements of Environment (object or person) Stage 3B I n t e r r u p t e d Secondary C i r c u l a r Reactions A c t i v i t y U n i t as f o r Stage 3, but wi t h the b r i e f i n t e r r u p t i o n of another Element, o f t e n "glance" Stage 4A C o o r d i n a t i o n of Secondary Schemas A c t i v i t y U n i t c o n s i s t s of the Element "look" p a i r e d with a p u r p o s e f u l sequence or c o o r d i n a t e f u n c t i o n i n g o f more than two or three o t h e r Elements of Behaviour to o b t a i n an e f f e c t on one Element of Environment ( o b j e c t or person); or a s e r i e s of A c t i v i t y U n i t s c o n s i s t s of the 185 04 Stage 4A (continued) Stage 4B 05 Stage 5A Stage 5B 06 Stage 6A C o o r d i n a t i o n o f Secondary Schemas Element "look" p a i r e d with another Element of Behaviour to o b t a i n an  e f f e c t on a s e r i e s of not more than three d i f f e r e n t Elements of En-vironment ( o b j e c t s or persons or d i f f e r e n t aspects of o b j e c t s or persons) A c t i v e Search f o r Vanished Object A c t i v i t y U n i t c o n s i s t s of the Element "look" p a i r e d with a s e r i e s of Elements of Behaviour, each a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t Element of En-vironment, f o r the purpose of d i s -c o v e r i n g a hidden o b j e c t . T e r t i a r y C i r c u l a r Reactions A s e r i e s of A c t i v i t y U n i t s i n which more than three Elements of Behaviour and/or more than t h r e e Elements of Environment ( o b j e c t s or persons or aspects of o b j e c t s or persons) are i n t e n t i o n a l l y p a i r e d i n v a r i o u s ways to achieve new e f f e c t s and d i s c o v e r new p r o p e r t i e s . D i s c o v e r y of Vanished Object A f t e r  I n v i s i b l e Displacement A c t i v i t y U n i t or s e r i e s of A c t i v i t y U n i t s c o n s i s t s of the Element "look" p a i r e d with a s e r i e s o f Elements of Behaviour, each a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t Element of Environment (object) which serves to d i s c o v e r a hidden o b j e c t a f t e r one i n v i s i b l e displacement. Beginning of True R e p r e s e n t a t i o n A c t i v i t y U n i t or s e r i e s o f A c t i v i t y U n i t s c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of more than three Elements of Behaviour per-formed i n i m i t a t i o n of a new model without e x t e n s i v e t r i a l and e r r o r . 186 06 Stage 6B Representation of I n v i s i b l e Displacements A c t i v i t y Unit or series of A c t i v i t y Units consists of the Element "look" paired with a series of more than three Elements of Behaviour, each associated with a d i f f e r e n t Element of Environment (object) which serve to discover an object hidden by two or three sequential i n v i s i b l e d i s -placements . j3.7 Stage 7 Preoperational Level A c t i v i t y Unit or series of A c t i v i t y Units consists of the Element "look" paired with a series of three Elements of Behaviour and associated with the Elements, "word" or "words". 187 APPENDIX VI PIAGETIAN CONFIGURATIONS IN I m i t a t i o n - R e p e t i t i o n by the i n f a n t of an a c t i o n he has j u s t heard. T h i s i s recorded o n l y when the model occurs i n the o b s e r v a t i o n . DI D e f e r r e d I m i t a t i o n - " I m i t a t i o n t h a t occurs f o r the f i r s t time i n the absence of the model to which i t corresponds." (Piaget, 1967, p.90). T h i s i s recorded o n l y when model i s known to observer, and when the behaviour i s new. SY Symbolic P l a y - An Acted out " p e r s o n a l c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n not r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t or the a c t u a l " (Piaget, 1967, p.89). "Where one o b j e c t can stand f o r another and where sounds are i m i t a t e d . " ( S i n c l a i r , 1971, p.126) e.g., " p r e t e n d i n g " . MR Motor Repre s e n t a t i o n - "A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an a c t by a movement which i s not p a r t of the a c t " ( S i n c l a i r , 1971, p.125). P i a g e t d e s c r i b e s h i s daughter opening her mouth as a symbol of her wish to open a matchbox. APPENDIX VII PROGRAM PAT 56 3 102 SUBROUTINE ERR ( NREAD , NEP ROR) NERR0R=NERR0R+1 WRITE(6,56) NRE AD,NERROR FORMAT(' * * * * * * * * * ERROR AT RETURN EMD DIMENSION NCOD123 2NR0W(23),NRES(23) 3NTIMC(23),TEX(65) EQUIVALENCE (TEXT 189 CARD ,217) 20 0 ) , N F R G ( 2 3 f 2 0 0 } » NTOT( 23, 200) , NOLDC 23) ,NNEWl 23) , NVAR ( 23, 200) , T A X ( 5 0 ) , T E X T ( 5 , 2 3 ) 1,1) ,T E X ( 1 ) ) DATA NLANK/ i i NAAA/ • AU#'/ DATA TEX/'E L. • , • [ 3F E' ,' NV.-» , • — M« , OUTH' , r EL. ' OF C 1 •NV.-« , « » • E Y E 1 r E L . « OF E ' i «NV. , * EAR-' •SRCE' c EL. » OF E • , 'NV.-' , « EAR-' •CONT» » c E L . 1 OF E«, 'NV.-' ,»STIM« • - L - 1 ' c EL. « » OF C 1 , 'NV.-« , •STIM' •-L-2' » c EL. • •OF ~ f , • NV.-' , 'SUM' » •-R-1' r EL. « » 1 OF E • ,•NV.-1 ,•STIM« •-R-2' E L . » OF B' , 1 EH.-' , • — F A * •CE-1» r 5L. • •OF B' ,'EH.-* , « — F A ' •CE-2' c EL. ' • QF B« , ' EH.-« , 1 « •HEAD' r EL. • • OF B' ,'EH.-' , '-- S' ' I GHT * » C EL. ' 'OF B ' , * EH.-' , « V' •OCAL« / DATA T AX/ * EL. ' » 1 QF B' ,'EH.- 1 ,« M/G' i L i c EL. • » ' OF B' , 'EH.-« ,• M/G' » • R i C EL. » ' OF B' , 'EH.- 1 ,'POST' '-LEG' C EL. • » ' OF B« ,'EH.-' , • — G' •ROSS' c EL. • » •OF B» ,'EH.-' , « ' 'LOCO' » c F U N C ' T ION' ,• PER' ,'IODS' «-AU#' r COM' • F • ,'UNCT' ? • I ON 1 • 1« c COM 1 • F ' , 'UNCT' ,'ION 1 i 2 1 » c PI AG' » ' ET IA ' , ' N ST' ,•AGE- • F'JNC * r C ON F « •IGUR' , ' AT 10' , ' N CO •DING" / ( T E X T ( l , 1 4 ) , T A X ( i ) ) N E N D = 0 NERROR=0 NREAD=0 NTOT IM = 0 DO 1 1=1,23 NROW(I)=0 DO 1 J=L,200 NFRQ(I,J)=0 N T O T ( I , J » = 0 NVAR{It J ) — 0 CONTINUE REA0(5,2) NM,NS,N6S,N0LD NREAD=NREAD+1 FORMAT!I 1,12,11,23A3) IF (N0LD(19).NE.NLANK) NOLD(19)=NAAA NEWTIM=6*(NS+(60*NM))+N6S NOLTIM=NEWT!M DO 3 1=1,23 NT IMC I I)=NEWTIM IF ( MOLD { I) . EQ .NLANK )' CALL E RR ( NRE AD , NERROR) NRES(I ) = 1 NROW(I)=1 NCOO( I , 1 ) = NOLD(I) CONTINU c RE AD(5,2 ,END = 100) NM,NS,N6S,NNSW NREAD=NREAQ+1 1 0 1 IF (NNEWU9) .NE.NLANK) NNEH(19) = NAAA NEWTIM=6*(NS+(6 0*NM))+N6S NDIF=NEWTIM-NOLTIM IF (NOLTIM.GE.NEWTIM) CALL ERR{NREAD,NERROR) NTQT IM=NTOT I M+NDI F NOLTIM=NEWTIM DO 6 1=1,23 IF ( (NNEW( I ) .EQ.NLANK).AND. (NENO.EQ.O) ) GOTO 6 L=NRESI I) N F P Q (I ,L)=NFRQ(I,L) + 1 ND IF=NFWTIM-NTIMC(I) N T O T d ,L)=NTOTU,L)+NDIF NVARU ,L)=NVAR ( I,L)+N DIF*NDIF IF (NNEWd J.EQ.NLANKJ GOTO 6 LL=NROH(I) NLL = 0 DO 7 J=1,LL NIL L = NLL+ 1 IF ( NN E W ( I ) . E Q . N CO D ( I , J } ) GOTO 10 7 CONTINUE NLL=LL+1 NROW(I)=NLL NCODlI,NLL)=NNEW(I) 1 0 NR=S(I)=NLL NT IMC( I )=NEWTIM IF ( N E N Q . £ Q . 0 ) GOTO 6 NFRQ(IiNLL)=NFRQ(I ,NLL) + 1 N T O T ( I , N L U = NTOT(I, N L D + l N V AR ( I , N LL i = NV AR ( I , N L L ) + 1 6 CONTINUE IF (NENO.EQ.l) GOTO 103 GOTO 102 100 N £ N D = 1 N6S=N6S+1 GOTO 101 103 IF (NERROR.NE.0) GOTO 110 RTOTIM=NTOTIM RTQTIM=RTOTIM/6.G WRITE(6,57) RT OTIM 57 F O R M A T C l TOTAL TIME OF OBSERVATION = • ,F9.5,« S ECLiM DS ' ) DO 41 1=1,23 WRITE(6,51) ( T E X T ( J , I ) , J = l , 5) 51 FORMAT (' 6 RESULTS FOR COLUMN " « , 5 A 4 , , , " J WRITE(6,31) 31 FORMAT ( « + • , 2" » ) WRITE(6,32) 32 FORMATCO CODE TOTAL TIME ', 2'TIME RATIO IN % FREQUENCY COUNT AVERAGE T I M c « , 3' VARIANCE 1/) LL=NROW(I) DO 41 J=1,LL RTOT=NTOT(I,J) •RT0T=RT0T/6.0 FRG=NFRQ(I,J) AV E= RTOT/FRO RAT=100.0*RT0T/RT0TIM VAR=NVAR(I,J) VAR=VAR/{ 36. 0*FRQ) VAR=VAR-AVE*AVE WRIT5(6i53) N C O D I I , J ) » R T O T i R A T » F R Q , A V E f V A R 53 F O R M A T ( 1 5 X , A 3 , 7 X , 5 ( F 1 0 . 5 , 1 0 X ) ) 41 CONTINUE 191 110 STOP END WRITE(6,643) 643 FORMAT{«6 RESULTS FOR RATER 2 « ) WRITEJ 6,642J APPENDIX VIII PROGRAM REL SUBROUTINE AL A ( M10, KR C 0, N NO W , N N A W, NR RR, NT TT, N AND ) DIMENSION M23123),KRC0(23),NNOW(23),NNAWC23j I 9 3 DATA NLANK/« «/ KKR=0 NS SS=NRRR NX XX=NTTT DO 1 1=1,23 KRCO{I 1=0 M23(I )=NNOW(I) 1 CONTINUE 4 IF ((NSSS-MXXX).G7.3) GOTO 5 IF (NANQ.NE.O) GOTO 5 DO 7 1=1,23 IF (M23{I).EQ.NLANK) GOTO 7 IF {NNAW{I).EQ.M23( I ) ) KRC0(I)=1 7 CONTINUE READ(MIO,8,END=5) M360,M6,M1,M23 KKR=KK R+1 8 FORMAT(II,12,11,23A3) NSSS = 3 60*M360+6'»M6 + M1 GOTO 4 5 IF {KKR.EQ.O) GOTO 10 DO 6 I=1,KKR 6 BACKSPACE MIO 10 RETURN END SUBROUTINE E R R ( N E R R O R » N R E A D , N R U A D ) N E R R 0 R = N E R R 0 R +1 WRITE(6,56) NE RROR,NREAD,NRUAD -56 FORMAT(» * * * * * * * * IN PUT ERROR' ,17,' AT CARD • ,217) RETURN END DIMENSION NC0D(23,20 0),NFRQ(2 3 , 2 0 0 ) , N T O T ( 2 3 , 2 0 0 j , 2NR0W123) ,NRES(23) ,MOLD(23J,NNEW(23) ,NVAR{ 23, 200) , 3NTIMC(23) ,NTCMC(23),TEX(65),T AX{50)» T E X 7 (5,23) 4,NRUW(23) ,NURO(23,2 00) , NTUT ( 23 t 200.) ,NVURI 23,200J , 5NULD123),NTUMC(2?),NRUS(23),NCUO(23,200),NNUWl23), 6IMTT0T ( 23) , IN"!"C3D( 2 3 , 200 ) , INTSTO ( 23 ) , INTSCOt 23) , 7INTSCC(2 3,200) , NSCLAt 23,200) ,NSCL3{23 ,200),NLSTA(23) , 8NLST6(23),KRC0(23) DATA RRR/' + ^ + V C C Q * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * A * * * * * * * * * * * : * * : * * * * * C C C NCOD CODES FOR COLUMNS C NCUD C NFRQ FREQUENCY OF CODES C NURG C NTOT SUM OF CODE TIMES C NTUT C NVAR SUM OF SQUARES FOR THE SAME C NVUR C NTIMC LAST TIME FOR EACH COLUMN C NTUMC C NRE S LAST CODE POINTER FOR COLUMNS C N = US C 'MOLD LAST CODE READ IN FOR COLUMNS C NULC c c c c c c c c c c c c c •NEW COOE READ IN FOR COLUMNS 111 NNEW NNUW NROW NRUW NEND NUND I N T T O T T O T A L T I M E OF CODE AGREEMENT FOR C J L U INTCOD SAME AS A B O V E BUT FOR E A C H CODE i l l P AR 194 MAX - # OF COOES FOR COLUMNS • E N Q F I L E FOR RATER A I N T S T O S T A R T T I M E I N T S C O S T A R T T I M E I N T S C C S T A R T T I M E M S C L A L A S T START N S C L B C O I N C I D E N C E S R E G A R J L E S 3 OF C O I N C I D E N C E S WITH CONGRJF .N C O I N C I D E N C E S FOR E A C H CODE T I M E FOR E A C H CODE & C O L . •INS i T ELY COOES r C O O E S £ C O L . E Q U I V A L E N C E I T E X T ( 1 , 1 ) , T £ X ( 1 ) ) t(TEXT(1 , 1 4 ) ,TA> DATA N L A N K / * ' / t N A A A / 1 AU#« / DATA T E X / ' E L . ' , ' O F E ' , • N V . - « , ' — M ' • » O U T H ' , C • E L . • , ' O F =• , • N V . - • , ' ' t • E Y E ' C • E L . • , « O F E ' , • N V . - » ,« E A R - ' » • S R C E « r • S L . • , « OF E • t • N V . - • , • E A R - ' • C O N T ' t c • E L . ' , ' O F E * , ' NV . - ' , ' S T I M ' » • - L - 1 ' t c • E L . • , ' O F E ' » • N V - - * , ' S T I M « » • - L - 2 ' » c • E L . • , •OF E ' , • N V . - * , « S T I M « » • - R - 1 ' » r • E L . • , ' O F E * , • N V . - ' r « ST I M ' f • - R - 2 ' » C • E L . • t ' 0 F 8 ' , • E H . - ' , ' — F A ' » • C E - 1 ' » c • E L . • , ' O F 3 ' , • E H . - « , « — FA ' » • C E - 2 ' c • E L . • , ' O F B ' , • E H . - « , » ' » ' H E A O ' c ' E L . • , * OF B« , • E H . - • , • — S « » ' I G H T ' c • E L . • , ' OF B» , ' E H . - ' , • — V • O C A L ' / DATA T A X / ' E L . ' , ' O F B•» • E H . - ' , • M/G ' » • 1_. » C ' E L . ' , ' O F B ' , ' E H . - ' , • M / G ' » • R« » r ' E L . • , • O F B ' , ' E H . - ' , ' P O S T ' ' - L E G * » C • E L . ' , ' O F B • , • E H . - ' , ' — G« » • R O S S ' » C • E L . • , ' O F B « i • E H . - ' » ' • L O C O ' t r • F U N C » ' T I C N ' , • P E R ' , • I O O S ' • - A U * ' » c • C O M ' , ' . F« , • U N C T ' • ' ION » ' 1 ' » ' C O M ' , ' . F ' , • U N C T ' , « ION f • 2« » c « P I A G ' , ' E T I A ' , •N S T ' , • A G E - » « F U N C • C O N F ' , « I G U R ' , • A T I O ' , ' N CQ • D I N G ' / NE ND=0 N E R R 0 R = 0 NREAD=0 N S T A R T = 0 NUND=0 NRUAD=0 R E A D ( 4 , 1 1 1 ) N T O T I M F O R M A T ( 1 5 ) DO 1 1 = 1 , 2 3 I N T S C O { I ) = 0 I N T S T O ( I ) = 0 I N T T O T { I ) = 0 N R O W C I ) = 0 N R U W ( I ) = 0 DO 1 J = l , 2 0 0 N U R Q ( I , J ) = 0 N T U T I I , J ) = 0 N V U R ( I » J ) = 0 N S C L A { I , J ) = - 4 N S C L B ( I t J ) = - 4 I N T S C C ( I , J ) = 0 I N T C Q D t I , J )=0 NFRQ(I,J}=0 N T O T U , J ) = 0 NVARII,J)=0 1 CONTINUE READ(4,2) NM , NS,N6S »NOLO NR EA D=NREAD+1 NTIMA=6*(NS+(6Q*NM))+N6S IF (NOLD{19).NE.NL ANK) NOLO(19)=NAAA READ(5,2) NM,NS,N6S,NULD NRUAD=NRUAO+l NT IMB=6*(NS+(60*NM) )+N6S IF ( N U L D U 9 ) .NE.NLANK ) NUL D ( 19 ) =NAAA IF {NT IM A.N E- NT I MB) CALL ERR(NERPGR,NREAD,NRUADJ 2 F0RMAT(I1,I2,I1,23A3) NOLTA = NTI MA NOLTB=N TIMA NOLTIM=NTIMA DO 3 1=1,23 NTIMC(I)=NTIMA NTCMCiI)=NTIMA NTUMC(I)=NTI MA IF ( (NOLD( I ) .EQ.NLANK) .OR. ( N U L D ( I ) .EQ.NLANK) ) CALL 2 ERR(NERROR,NREAD,NRUAQ) NRES(I)=1 NRUS(I)=1 NROW(IJ =1 NRUW(I)=1 NCOD(I,1)=NOLD(T) NCUDU , 1) =NULD( I ) NSCLA{I,1) =NTI MA NSCL3(I,1)=NTIMB I NTS TO(I)=2 NFRQlI,1)=1 NURQ(I,1)=1 IF (NOLDt I) .E Q.NULD(I ) ) GOTO 901 GOTO 3 901 INTSCQ(I)=INTSCO(I)+2 INTSCC(I,1)=2 3 CONTINUE 1103 READ(5,2,END=105) NM,NS , N6S,NNUW NTIMB=6*(NS+(60*NM) ) + N6S NRUAD=NRUAD+1 912 IF (NNUW(19).NE.NLANK) NNUW(19)=NAAA IF (NOLTB.GT.NTIMB) CALL ERR(NERROR,NREAD,NRUAD) IF (NSTART.NE.O) GOTO 1107 NSTART=1 GOTO 1104 1107 IF (NT I MA.L E.NT I MB) GOTO 1101 1102 CALL ALA(4,KRC0,MNEW,NNUW,NTIMA,NTIMBtNEND) DO 1200 1=1,23 IF {(NNUW(I).EQ.NLANK).AND.(NUND.EQ.O)) GOTO 1200 L 2 = NRUS(I) L1=NRES(I) NDIF=NTIMB-NTUMC{I) N T U T ( I , L 2 ) = N T U T l I , L 2 ) + N D I F NVUR(I ,L2)=NVUR{I,L2)+NDIF*NDIF I c ( N C O D l I , L 1 ) . N E . N C U D ( I , L 2 ) ) GOTO 888 NDIF=NTIMB-NTCMC(I) INTTOT I I ) = INTTOT( I)+.MCIF INTCOO(I ,LI)=!NTCOD{!,L1)+NDIF 8 8 8 N T C M C U ) = N T I M B I F ( N N U W ( I ) . E Q . N L A N K ) GOTO 1 2 0 0 1 I F { ( ( N T I M B - N T I M C ( I ) > . G T . 3 ) . A N O . ( (NT I M A - N T 1MB) . G T . 3 ) ) G O T O 8 8 9 I N T S T O d ) = I N T S T D ( I ) + l 8 8 9 L L = N R U W ( T ) NL B=0 00 8 9 4 J = 1 , L L NL B=NLB+1 I F ( N N U W ( I ) . E Q . N C U 0 ( I , J ) ) GOTO 8 9 5 8 9 4 C O N T I N U E N L B = N L B + 1 N R U W ( I ) = N L 8 N C U D ( I , N L B ) = N N U W ( I ) 8 9 5 L L = N R O W ( I ) NL A=0 DO 8 9 0 J = 1 , L L NL A=NLA + i I F { N N U W I H . E 0 . N C O O ( I , J ) } GOTO 8 9 1 8 9 0 C O N T I N U E N L A = N L A + 1 N R O W ( I } = NLA N C Q O C I , N L A ) = N N U W { I ) GOTO 4 3 4 8 9 1 I F ( ( N T I M B - N S C L A ( I , N L A ) ) . L T . 4 ) GOTO 4 3 5 4 3 4 I F (KRCOm . N E . O ) GOTO 4 3 5 GOTO 8 9 2 4 3 5 ! N T S C O ( I ) = I N T S C O d ) + l 1 N"I"S CC ( I » NL A ) = I NT SCC ( I , N L A ) + 1 8 9 2 M S C L B ( I , N L 8 ) = N T 1 M B N R U S ( T ) = N L B N T U M C ( I ) = M T 1 M B N U R 0 ( I , N L B ) = N U R O ( I , N L B ) + 1 1 2 0 0 C O N T I N U E N 0 L T B = N T I M B I F ( N U N D . E Q . O ) GOTO 1 1 0 3 GOTO 1 0 3 1 0 5 NUND=1 NT I MB = N T O T I M DO 9 11 1 = 1 , 2 3 N N U W t I ) = N L A N K 9 1 1 C O N T I N U E GOTO 9 1 2 1 0 4 NEND=1 NT IMA = NTQT IM DO 9 1 3 1 = 1 , 2 3 N N E W ( I ) = N L A N K 9 1 3 C O N T I N U E GOTO 9 1 4 1 1 0 4 R E A D ( 4 , 2 , E N D = 1 0 4 ) N M , N S , N 6 S , N N E W N T I M A=6 * ( N S+(60 * N M ) ) + N 6 S NREAD=NREAD+1 9 1 4 I F ( N N E W ( 1 9 ) . N E . N L A N K ) N N E W ( 1 9 ) = N A A A I F ( N O L T A . G T . N T I MA) C A L L E R R ( N E R R O R , N R E A D , N R U A D ) I F (NT I M B . L T . N T I M A ) GOTO 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 C A L L A L A ( 5 , K R C 0 , N N U W , N N E W , N T I M 3 , N T I M A , N U N D ) DO 1 3 0 0 1 = 1 , 2 3 I F ( (NNEW( I ) . E Q . N L A N K ) . A N O . ( NE.MD. EQ . 0 ) ) GOTO 1 3 0 0 L 2 = N R U S ( I ) L 1 = N R E S ( I ) N O I F = ' J T I M A - N T I M C ( I ) N T O T ( I , L l ) = N T O T ( I , L 1 ) + N D I F NVAR(I, L 1)=N V AR{ I,LI)+NDIF*NDIF IF { N C O D { I , L 1 ) . N E . N C U D t I » L 2 ) ) GOTO 788 NDIF=NTIMA-NTCMC(I) I N T T O T ( I ) = I N T T O T ( l ) + N D I F INTCOD(I,L1) =INTCODU ,L1) *NDIF 788 NTCMC(I)=NTIMA IF ( NNEWtl } .EQ.NLANK) GOTO 1300 I F { ( ( N T IMA-NTUMC(IJJ.GT.3).AMD.( {NTIM8-NTIMA).GT.3)) GOT 3 789 I N T S T O ( I ) = I N T S T O ( I ) + 1 789 LL=NROW(I) NLA=0 DO 794 J=1,LL NLA=NLA+1 IF (NNEWlI).EQ.NCODtI,J)) GOTO 795 794 CONTINUE NLA=NLA+1 NROW(I) = NL A NCODlI,NLA)=NNEW(I) 795 LL=NRUW(I) NL B = 0 DO 790 J=1,LL NLB=NLB+1 IF ( NN~W(I).EQ.NCUDiI,J)) GOTO 791 79 0 CONTINUE GOTO 437 791 IF ( ( N T I M A - N S C L 3 ( I , N L 3 ) ) . L T . 4 ) G0 T0 436 437 IF ( K R C O t I ) . N E . O ) GOTO 436 GOTO 792 436 INTSCO(I)=INTSCO(I)+1 !NTSCC(I ,NLA) = !NTSCC{I,NLA)+1 792 NSCL A ( I , N L A ) = N T I MA NRES t l )=NL A NT IMC(I)=NTIMA N FRQ(I,NLA)=N F R Q ( I , N L A ) + 1 1300 CONTINUE NOLTA=NT IMA IF (NENO.EQ.O) GOTO 1104 IF {NUND.N".0) GOTO 1102 GOTO 1103 103 RT0TIM=NT3TIM-N0LTIM RT0TIM=RT0TIM/6.0 WRITE(6,57) RTOTIM 57 FORMAT { • 1 TOTAL TIME OF 03SERVATI0N =',F9.5,' SECJ.MDSM WRITE(6,640) 640 F O R M A T ! « 1 RESULTS FOR RATER I M WRITE(6,642) 642 F O R M A T ( • i ) DO 41 1=1,23 WRITE(6,51) ( T E X T ( J , I ) , J = l , 5 ) 51 FORMAT ( '6 RESULTS FOR COLUMN , " , 5 A 4 , " " ) WRITE(6,31) 31 FORM AT ( • + ' » 2' ' ) WRITEl6,32) 32 FORM AT CO CODE TOTAL TIME ', 2'TIME RATIO I.N % FREQUENCY COUNT AVERAGE TIMt ' , 3' VARIANCE'/) LL=NROW(I) DO 41 J=1,LL R T 0 T = N T O T ( I , J ) R T 0 T = R T 0 T / 6 . 0 198 F R Q = N F R Q ( I , J ) IF ( F R O . L T . 0 . 0 0 0 0 1 ) GOTO 41 A V E = R T O T / F R Q R A T = 1 0 0 . 0 * R T 0 T / R T 0 T I M V A R = N V A R ( I , J ) V A R = V A R / ( 3 6 . 0 * F R Q ) V A R = V A R - A V E * A V E W R I T E ( 6 , 5 3 ) N C 0 D ( I t J ) , R T O T , R A T , F R Q , A V E , V A R 53 F O R M A T ! 1 5 X , A 3 , 7 X , 5 ( F 1 0 , 5 , 1 O X ) ) 41 CONTINUE W R I T E ( 6 , 6 4 3 ) 643 FORMAT( * 1 R E S U L T S FOR RATER 2 ' ) W R I T E ( 6 , 6 4 2 ) DO 641 1=1,23 W R I T E ( 6 , 5 1 ) ( T E X T i J , I ) , J = l , 5 ) W R I T E ( 6 , 3 1 J W R I T E ( 6 , 3 2 ) LL=NRUW(I) DO 641 J = 1 , L L R T O T = N T U T ( I , J ) R T 0 T = R T 0 T / 6 . 0 F R Q = N U R Q ( I , J ) A V E = R T O T / F R Q R A T = 1 0 0 . 0 * R T 0 T / R T 0 T I M V A R = N V U R ( I , J ) V A R = V A R / ( 3 6 . 0 * F R Q ) V A R = V A R - A V E * A V E W R I T E ( 6 , 5 3 ) NCUO< I , J ) , R T O T , R A T f F R Q , A V E t V A R 641 C O N T I N U F W R I T E ( 6 , 6 4 4 ) 644 F O R M A T C l R E L I A B I L I T Y R E S U L T S ' ) W R I T E C 6 , 6 4 2 ) DO 646 1=1,23 W R I T E ( 6 , 6 4 7 ) ( T E X T ( J , I ) , J = l , 5 ) 647 F O R M A T ( • 6 * , 5 A 4 , 1 0 X , • TOTAL TIME OF AGREEMENT P E R C E N T A G E * , 1' START TIME C O I N C I D E N C E S PERCENTAGE SAMi W H c i C3DE I G N D . A V E = 0 . 0 L1=NR0W(I) DO 698 J = 1 , L 1 A V E = A V E + N F R Q ( I , J ) NL L= 0 KK K = NRUW{I) L 2 = N C 0 D ( I , J ) DO 690 K L K = 1 , K K K NL L = NLL +1 I F ( N C U D ( I , K L K ) . E Q . L 2 ) GOTO 691 690 CONTINUE GOTO 698 691 V A R = I N T C O D ( I , J ) S N U R = N T O T ( I t J J + N T U T l I , N L L ) - V A R V A R P = 1 0 0 . 0 * V A R / S N U R V A R = V A R / 6 . 0 SNIR=I NT S C C ( I , J ) F R Q = N F R Q ( I , J ) + N U R Q { I , N L L ) S*nRP= 1 0 0 . 0 * S N !R / F R Q W R I T E { 6 , 6 2 2 ) N C O D l I , J ) , V A R , V A R P , S N I R , S N I R P 622 F 0 R M A T ( 9 X , A 3 , 2 3 X , F 1 0 . 5 , 1 0 X , F 1 0 . 5 , 1 0 X , F 1 0 . 5 , 1 0 X , F 1 0 . 5 , 2 ( c l J . 5 ) ) 69 8 CONTINUE DO 696 J=1,KKK 696 AVE=AVE+NURQ(I,J) VAR=INTTOT{I) VAR=VAR/6.0 VARP=VAR*100.O/RTOTIM SNIR=I NT STO(I) FRQ=INTSCO(I) SNIRP=SNIR*100.O/AVE FRQP=FRQ*100.0/AVE WRITE<6,622) RRR,VAR,VARP , FRQ,FRQP,SNIR,SNIRP 646 CONTINUE STOP END APPENDIX IX PR0GRAT4 INF L0GICAL*1 NZER,K62(62),N0NE,K24(24) DIMENSION NEW(23),LIN(20),NUW(23),NCOD(24,24),NCOL(23) DATA NLANK/' • / , N Z E R / 1 0 • / , N O N E / • 1 • / , N I 9 / • A C T » / DATA K 6 2 / , 0 , , • l • , « 2 , , , 3 ' , « 4 • , • 5 , , • 6 , , , 7 , , , 3 , ,'9','A', ' B S ' C ' D ' . ' E ' . ' F S ' G S ' H ' . ' I S ' J S ' K S ' L ' , « M» , • N» , • 0» , ' P • , «Q» , «R • , • S* , «T» , •U' , • V 1 , ' W' , ' X' ,' Y ' , ' Z * »' _' »* ' , • 0' , ' . • , , ' (» , • • ' . ' l ' ! • , • $ • , • * • , « ) ' , « ; • , • - • , • - • , * / • i 1 , • , • % * f ' > • » ' ? •»*:•»*#•,«a•,» = •,•»»/ FORMAT(I 1»I 2,I 1,23A3,A4,A3) FORMAT(I 5 ) FORMAT(24A1) FORMAT{* HEADING « , A 4 , A 3 , ' GDATE. ' ) FORMAT(* CARD FILE=-7 W=24 •) FORMAT( 1 TABLES TOSNX SIZE=2X2 ') FORMAT(• END 1 ) F O R M A T ( 2 I 3 » 2 4 A 3 ) FORMAT (2613) FORMAT(20A4) NR=0 NR=NR+1 RE AD(4,33) 11,12,(NCOD(J,NR),J = 1,24) IF ( I l . E Q . O ) GOTO 36 IF ( Il.NE.NR) GOTO 300 NC0L(NR)=I2 GOTO 3 2 NR=NR+1 READ(4,34) 11 , I 2 , (NCOD(J , NR) , J = 1 , 24) IF ( I l . E Q . O ) GOTO 38 IF { II.NE.NR) GOTO 300 IF { ( I 2 . N E . 0 ) . A N D . ( I 2 . N E . - 1 ) ) GOT 0 300 NCGL( N R ) = 12 GOTO 37 READ(5,4) NT DT READ(5,1) N360,N6,N1,NUW,XX,YY WRITE( 3 ,13) WRITE(8,113) XX,YY WRITE(8,180) READ(4,35,END=39) LIN WRITE(8,35) LIN GOTO 40 WRITE(8,22) NR=NR-1 NUW(19)=N19 NT1=360*N360+6*N6+N1 DO 44 1=1,NR IF ( N C O L ( I ) ) 71,45,70 K=0 K24(I)=NZER M=NCOL(I) K = K+1 IF (NCOD(K,I).EQ.NLANK) GOTO 44 IF (NUW(M).EQ.NCODtK,I)) GOTO 47 GOTO 46 K24(I)=N0NF GOTO 44 K=0 K24(I)=N ZER K=K+1 IF (MCOO(K,I).EQ.O) GOTO 44 M = NCOD(K,I) IF (LCOMC(1,K24(M),NONE).EQ.O) GOTO 73 202 GOTO 72 73 K 2 4 m = N0NE GOTO 44 45 K = 0 K24(I)=NQNE 48 K = K + 1 IF (NCODIK,I).EQ.O) GOTO 44 M=NCOD(K,I) IF ( LCOMC ( 1, K24 { M) , NZER) .. EQ. 0 ) GOTO 49 GOTO 48 49 K24(I)-NZHR 44 CONTINUE 3 R E A D ( 5 t l t E N D = 1 0 0 ) N360,N6,N1,NEW NEW!19)=NLANK NT2=360*N360+N6*6*N1 NDIF=NT2-NTi+l NT1=NT2 K24(24)=K62(NDIF) WRITE(7,5) K24 DO 51 1=1,23 IF (NE W(I).EQ.NLANK) GOTO 51 NUW(I)=NEW(I) 51 CONTINUE GOTO 99 100 ND IF = NT0T-NT1 + I K 2 4 ( 2 4 ) = K 6 2 ( N D I C ) WRITE(7,5) K24 CALL CMDCSRUN *MVTA8 SCARDS=-3 » , 21) 300 STOP END 

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