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The early identification and relative incidence of academic underachievement : a follow-up study of.. 1982

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THE EARLY IDENT IF ICAT ION AND RELAT IVE INCIDENCE OF ACADEMIC UNDERACHIEVEMENT: A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF AVERAGE, BRIGHT AND INTELLECTUALLY SUPERIOR KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN by SUSAN BETH WETSTEIN-KROFT B . A . , YORK UN IVERS ITY , 1978 A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e o f MASTER OF ARTS i n The F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ( S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s , t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a J une 1982 © Susan B e t h W e t s t e i n - K r o f t , 1 982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my - d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Ma l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D a t e JULY 6 1982 i i A b s t r a c t In t h i s s t u d y , t he i n v e s t i g a t o r e x a m i n e d w h e t h e r a p a t t e r n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as e a r l y a s t h e f i r s t g r a d e . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n e d whe the r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s ; and w h e t h e r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more o f t e n among an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( IQ 120+) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) or A v e r a g e ( IQ 80-109 ) g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n e d whe the r t he n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e i s h i g h e r among a g r o u p o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r n o r m a l l y a c h i e v i n g p e e r s . One h u n d r e d and two g r a d e one c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a d m i n i s t e r e d the W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y . A l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n mode l was a p p l i e d t o t he d a t a i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y d i s c r e p a n c i e s be tween IQ and a c h i e v e m e n t . I f a s t u d e n t ' s p r e d i c t e d a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e d i f f e r e d f rom h i s o b s e r v e d s c o r e by - 1 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e i n two o r more s u b j e c t a r e a s , h e / s h e was i d e n t i f i e d a s an u n d e r a c h i e v e r . In a l l , 20% of t h e s a m p l e were i d e n t i f i e d as u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . M o r e o v e r , u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r r e d w i t h e q u a l f r e q u e n c y i n m a l e s and f e m a l e s and was e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , u n d e r a c h i e v e r s were no t f o u n d t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om a c h i e v e r s i n t h e i r n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s .v L i s t o f F i g u r e s : v i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v i i i CHAPTER I : THE PROBLEM 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o b l e m 7 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s 7 D e f i n i t i o n o f Te rms 9 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t he S t u d y 10 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE L ITERATURE 12 I s s u e s i n t h e O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n and S e l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s i n U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t R e s e a r c h 12 T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h R e l a t e d t o t h e A b i l i t y a n d A c h i e v e m e n t P a t t e r n s o f t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r 16 Summary 20 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 21 P o p u l a t i o n 21 Sample 22 S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e P e r k s ' s t u d y 22 R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e F o l l o w - u p s t u d y 23 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 25 A n a l y s i s o f t h e D a t a 35 i v Summary 36 CHAPTER I V : RESEARCH FINDINGS 37 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s 37 R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s 45 H y p o t h e s i s One 48 H y p o t h e s i s Two 51 H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e 53 H y p o t h e s i s F o u r 54 H y p o t h e s i s F i v e 56 H y p o t h e s i s S i x 58 Summary . 59 CHAPTER V : D ISCUSS ION, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 60 R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s 60 Summary 65 C o n c l u s i o n s 67 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n 68 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 70 Summary 71 REFERENCES 7 2 V L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e 1. A C o m p a r i s o n o f IQ D i s t r i b u t i o n s be tween P e r k s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s t u d y and t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n 24 2. C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e R e a d i n g T e s t s 31 3. C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e M a t h e m a t i c s T e s t s 32 4 . C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e W r i t t e n Language T e s t s 32 5. C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e W-J G e n e r a l Know ledge w i t h P IAT G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n 33 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s A c c o r d i n g t o W e c h s l e r ' s A b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s 38 7. Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t he P r e d i c t o r G r o u p 40 8. Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e S t u d y G r o u p 40 9. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween IQ and A c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s f o r t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p 44 10 . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween IQ and A c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s f o r t he S t u d y G r o u p 45 1 1 . P a r a m e t e r s u s e d t o B u i l d t h e R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s i n e a c h a r e a o f A c h i e v e m e n t 46 12. R e s u l t s o f t h e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d v i i n S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e 47 13 . R e s u l t s o f t h e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s r e p o r t e d i n S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e c o n t i n u e d 48 14. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s : V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ w i t h t h e W-J A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s 50 15 . A c o m p a r i s o n o f WPPSI IQ and R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t 51 16. I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e S t u d y Sample 53 17 . I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t A c r o s s T h r e e A b i l i t y G r o u p i n g s 54 18. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between F u l l S c a l e IQ S c o r e and A r e a o f A c h i e v e m e n t 56 19 . I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n M a l e s and F e m a l e s 57 2 0 . I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n M a l e s and F e m a l e s A c r o s s F o u r A b i l i t y G r o u p i n g s 58 2 1 . C o m p a r i s o n o f Mean P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s 59 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e A C o m p a r i s o n o f C o r r e l a t i o n be tween The P r e d i c t o r and S t u d y C o e f f i c i e n t s G r o u p s . 42 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t he p r o j e c t was p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a g r a n t f r o m t h e E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o f B . C . I w i s h t o t h a n k the members o f my c o m m i t t e e , D r . B u f f O l d r i d g e , D r . E m i l y G o e t z and D r . H a r o l d R a t z l a f f f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t and t h e i r s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I wou ld a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t McBurney and t h e p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s , s e c r e t a r i e s , and c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e . I wou ld l i k e t o t hank my p a r e n t s who t a u g h t me t o be c u r i o u s . I wou ld e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank my h u s b a n d Ed f o r j u s t a b o u t e v e r y t h i n g . 1 CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM T h i s s t u d y i s a f o l l o w - u p i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o P e r k s ' d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , i n p r o g r e s s ) . In P e r k s ' s t u d y , 160 a v e r a g e and above a v e r a g e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t were a s s e s s e d on t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g t e r m o f 1981 . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a s s e s s e d t h e R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and G e n e r a l Know ledge a c h i e v e m e n t o f 102 members o f P e r k s ' s amp l e one y e a r l a t e r , d u r i n g t h e 1982 s p r i n g t e r m o f t h e i r g r a d e one y e a r . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o n s e t o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t has i t s g e n e s i s i n t h e e a r l y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y e a r s ( W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . Y e t , most s t u d i e s o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t have c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e a d o l e s c e n t and a d u l t s u b j e c t i n h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e when the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n a r e r e d u c e d ( T e r m a n , 1947 ; B a r r e t t , 1957; G o l d b e r g , 1958; Shaw & M c C u e n , 1 9 6 0 ) . T h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s a g r e e t h a t e a r l i e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m i s c r i t i c a l i f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d how u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t d e v e l o p s and i f we a r e t o f i n d e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n ( P r i n g l e , 1970 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r p r o p o s e d t o examine t he i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y e a r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r a s k e d whe the r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r , 2 b r i g h t and a v e r a g e c h i l d r e n c a n be i d e n t i f i e d a s e a r l y a s t h e f i r s t g r a d e and w h e t h e r i t s i n c i d e n c e i s u n i f o r m a c r o s s t h e s e t h r e e i d e n t i f i e d g r o u p s . C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n has been d e v o t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o f t h e s e s t u d i e s have been f a u l t y i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e i r d e s i g n and i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h s e r v e d t o d e f i n e t he p r o b l e m ( T h o r n d i k e , 1963 ; L a v i n , 1 9 6 5 ) . One o f t h e ma jo r d i f f i c u l t i e s s tems f rom t h e use o f t h e t e r m " a c a d e m i c u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t " (Shaw, 1 9 6 1 ) . T h i s t e r m e v o l v e d i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e a d i s c r e p a n c y be tween a c t u a l and p r e d i c t e d a c h i e v e m e n t . Howeve r , r e s e a r c h e r s d i s a g r e e on t h e method f o r s e l e c t i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e r s and i n d i s c e r n i n g what t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y s h o u l d be b e f o r e u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t e x i s t s ( F a r q u h a r & P a y n e , 1964; R u t t e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n v e s t i g a t o r s have d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e i s s u e s . E v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by T h o r n d i k e ( 1 9 6 3 ) ; F a r q u h a r and P a y n e , ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; A n n e s l e y , Odhner and C h a n s k y (1970) a n a l y z e d the v a r i o u s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . T h e s e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s i d e n t i f i e d as u n d e r a c h i e v e r s v a r i e d w i t h t h e me thod o f s e l e c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , an o v e r s e l e c t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s were i d e n t i f i e d a t t he u p p e r ends o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s may have been i n c o r r e c t l y l a b e l l e d u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . Of t h e me thods s u r v e y e d , t h e r e g r e s s i o n mode l i d e n t i f i e d t h e a d e q u a t e a c h i e v e r s most o f t e n and t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e r w i t h g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e . T h e s e a u t h o r s s u p p o r t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e l i n e a r 3 r e g r e s s i o n p r e d i c t i o n u s i n g - 1 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e f o r t he s e l e c t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . T h e r e f o r e t h i s method has been a d o p t e d f o r u se i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S e v e r a l o f t he me thods u s e d t o s e l e c t u n d e r a c h i e v e r s were b a s e d on i n c o r r e c t a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t . One o f t he ma jo r t h e o r e t i c a l w e a k n e s s e s i n p a s t r e s e a r c h was t he a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a one t o one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e e x i s t s be tween a p t i t u d e and a c h i e v e m e n t ( T h o r n d i k e , 1963 ; R u t t e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . B a s e d on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i t was r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t a c h i l d o f h i g h a b i l i t y t o be c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y h i g h i n a c h i e v e m e n t . Howeve r , t h i s a s s u m p t i o n f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t . R e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t r e f e r s t o t h e " l i k e l i h o o d t h a t f o r any s e t of o b s e r v a t i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l s , s u c h a s t h e i r s c o r e s on a p t i t u d e and t h e i r s c h o o l g r a d e s , an e x t r e m e s c o r e on one measu re t e n d s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l e s s e x t r e m e s c o r e on t h e s e c o n d m e a s u r e " ( L a v i n , 1965 p 2 6 ) . As T h o r n d i k e (1963) p o i n t s o u t , " a f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t has r e n d e r e d q u e s t i o n a b l e , i f no t m e a n i n g l e s s , much o f t h e r e s e a r c h on u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t " (p 1 3 ) . In t he p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n t r o l l e d f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f r e g r e s s i o n by d e f i n i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t as a " d i s c r e p a n c y o f a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t f r om t h e p r e d i c t e d v a l u e , p r e d i c t e d upon the b a s i s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n be tween a p t i t u d e and a c h i e v e m e n t " ( T h o r n d i k e , 1963 , p. 1 3 ) . A t p r e s e n t , t he p r e c i s e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s unknown. P r i n g l e (1970) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o f i n d 4 e f f e c t i v e means f o r r e m e d i a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f a i l u r e i n t he i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r , t h e f i r s t s t e p i s t o e s t a b l i s h " t h e s i z e o f t he p r o b l e m so t h a t p l a n s c a n be made f o r o v e r c o m i n g i t " ( p . 1 2 6 ) . Gowan (1964) has h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f 15 p e r c e n t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s " n o r m a l " and t h a t " i f t h e r a t e g o e s h i g h e r t h a n t h i s , t h e r e may be l o c a l o r s c h o o l f a c t o r s w h i c h s h o u l d be c o r r e c t e d " ( p . 2 9 5 ) . The c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r e x a m i n e d t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n a g r o u p of f i r s t g r a d e r s . The r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d whe the r t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s g r e a t e r t h a n 15 p e r c e n t i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d . A n o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l weakness i n t he u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s t h e f a i l u r e t o c o n t r o l f o r a b i l i t y . U n d e r a c h i e v e r s a r e t r e a t e d a s a homogeneous g r o u p and u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t as the same phenomenon r e g a r d l e s s o f a b i l i t y l e v e l ( L a v i n , 1965 ; D a v i s 1 9 5 9 ) . P a s t s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h be tween the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r f r o m t h e b r i g h t and a v e r a g e a b i l i t y u n d e r a c h i e v e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y l e v e l s c an o n l y be e s t i m a t e d . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n t r o l l e d f o r t he v a r i a b l e o f a b i l i t y by g r o u p i n g s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o W e c h s l e r ' s I n t e l l i g e n c e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The r e s e a r c h e r a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y among an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r , B r i g h t o r A v e r a g e g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . I f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r p o p u l a t i o n as t h e 5 l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s , t h e n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween IQ and a c h i e v e m e n t s h o u l d be l o w e r f o r t h i s g r o u p t h a n e i t h e r t h e b r i g h t o r a v e r a g e g r o u p . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r e x a m i n e d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween IQ and a c h i e v e m e n t s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h g r o u p . One o f t h e few c o n s i s t e n t and u n i v e r s a l l y a g r e e d upon f i n d i n g s i s t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s (Shaw, 1961 ; T e i g l a n d e t a l . 1966) T h i s r e s e a r c h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t and a s k e d w h e t h e r the i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n m a l e s t h a n f e m a l e s . V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n has been d e v o t e d t o t h e a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s (Norman, C l a r k & B e s s e m e r , 1 9 6 2 ) . G a l l a g h e r (1966) r e a s o n s t h a t : S i n c e T e r m a n ' s l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i t has g e n e r a l l y been a c c e p t e d t h a t g i f t e d s t u d e n t s w i l l show s u p e r i o r i t y t o t h e a v e r a g e c h i l d i n a l m o s t any m e a s u r a b l e d i m e n s i o n , whe the r p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t or s o c i a l o r e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t ( p . 1 3 1 ) . Howeve r , t h e work o f No rman , e t a l ( 1 9 6 2 ) , s u g g e s t s t h a t r e l a t i v e t o h i s a c h i e v i n g p e e r s , t he i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r d e m o n s t r a t e s a g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y i n n o n - v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g t h a n v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s . N o n - v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s a r e no t as h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s c h o o l s u c c e s s as v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s , and may have an i n f l u e n c e on t h e e t i o l o g y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t (Gowan, 1 9 6 4 ) . The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t t e m p t e d t o r e p l i c a t e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s and a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween the v e r b a l and non v e r b a l IQ s c o r e s o f t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e r 6 and h i s a d e q u a t e l y a c h i e v i n g p e e r s on t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI ) . The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l B a t t e r y (Woodcock , 1978) " i s a s e t o f w i d e - a g e - r a n g e , i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s t h a t measu re c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e s , a c h i e v e m e n t and i n t e r e s t s " ( M a n u a l , p . 1 ) . The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n T e s t s o f A c h i e v e m e n t w a s ' t h e c r i t e r i o n measu re i n t h i s s t u d y . Woodcock (1978) r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s c o r r e l a t i n g t h e A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Howeve r , t h e r e a r e no known s t u d i e s w h i c h exam ine t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l s c a l e IQ s c o r e s w i t h t h e f o u r a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y : R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n Language and G e n e r a l K n o w l e d g e . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y t he r e s e a r c h e r e x a m i n e d whe the r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and the f o u r a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t he W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n B a t t e r y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o and m e r i t s i t s u s e as a measu re o f e a r l y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . 7 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y The ma jo r o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e t o answer t he f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1 . A r e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and t h e R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and G e n e r a l Know ledge a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s f r o m t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o ? 2. I s t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f g r a d e one c h i l d r e n g r e a t e r t h a n 15%? 3. Does t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y i n any one o f an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r , B r i g h t o r A v e r a g e g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s ? 4 . I s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t h e same f o r an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r , B r i g h t o r A v e r a g e g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s ? 5. Is t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t h i g h e r f o r m a l e s t h a n f o r f e m a l e s ? 6 . A r e t he n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e s o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e f o r a c h i e v e r s ? S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s w i l l be t e s t e d : The .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was t he c r i t e r i o n f o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . 1. The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and t h e R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L anguage and G e n e r a l Know ledge a c h i e v e m e n t 8 c l u s t e r s o f t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y do no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n a g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . 2. The i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f g r a d e one s t u d e n t s d o e s n o t e x c e e d 15% . 3. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o r f r e q u e n c y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( IQ 12 0+ ) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) o r A v e r a g e ( IQ 80-109) g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . 4. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween WPPSI F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and e a c h o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t he W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n , n a m e l y , R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n Language and G e n e r a l Know ledge f o r an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( 120+ ) , B r i g h t (110- 119) and A v e r a g e ( IQ 80-109) g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . 5. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o r f r e q u e n c y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . 6. T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e mean WPPSI P e r f o r m a n c e or n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e o f an a c h i e v i n g and u n d e r a c h i e v i n g g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . 9 D e f i n i t i o n o f Te rms The i n t e l l i g e n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o u t l i n e d by W e c h s l e r (1967) have been a d o p t e d f o r u se i n t h i s s t u d y . They a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r . The I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r s t u d e n t i s d e f i n e d as one who a c h i e v e s a F u l l S c a l e s c o r e o f 120 and above on t he W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) B r i g h t N o r m a l . The I n t e l l e c t u a l l y B r i g h t N o r m a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e o f 110-119 on t h e W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) A v e r a g e . The I n t e l l e c t u a l l y A v e r a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a WPPSI F u l l S c a l e s c o r e be tween 9 0 - 1 0 9 . D u l l N o r m a l . The I n t e l l e c t u a l l y D u l l No rma l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a WPPSI F u l l S c a l e s c o r e o f 8 0 - 8 9 . N o t e : Due t o t h e s m a l l number of c h i l d r e n i n t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were c o m b i n e d w i t h i n t h e a v e r a g e a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s d e f i n e d as a d i s c r e p a n c y o f - 1 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e , o r m o r e , be tween a c t u a l and p r e d i c t e d a c h i e v e m e n t . U n d e r a c h i e v e r . A s t u d e n t was s e l e c t e d as an u n d e r a c h i e v e r i f two o r more o f h i s a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s were - 1 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d e r r o r s o f e s t i m a t e , o r m o r e , be low p r e d i c t e d . 10 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y P a s t r e s e a r c h e r s have s t u d i e d t h e p r o b l e m o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n t he a d o l e s c e n t and a d u l t t h r o u g h t h e r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f s c h o o l r e c o r d s (Shaw & M c C u e n , 1960 ; B a r r e t t , 1 9 5 7 ) . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t " t h i s ( t he j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l ) i s no t when t h e p r o b l e m b e g i n s , i t i s m e r e l y t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h i t becomes b l i n d i n g l y e v i d e n t . " ( T o r r a n c e , 1967 , p. 1 2 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c l u d e d w i t h a ' p l e a ' f o r t he e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t " t h e r e a r e few s t u d i e s t o i n d i c a t e a t what p o i n t i n t h e s c h o o l y e a r s t h i s p r o b l e m b e g i n s " ( F o x , 1971 , p . 4 2 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a d d r e s s e d t h i s n e e d . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s i s unknown. P a s t r e s e a r c h e r s have e s t i m a t e d t h a t anywhere be tween 15 and 70 p e r c e n t o f a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n u n d e r a c h i e v e ( W h i t m o r e , 1980 ; P r i n g l e , 1970 ; Gowan, 1 9 6 4 ) . M o r e o v e r , r e s e a r c h e r s have f a i l e d t o e x a m i n e whe the r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t r e l a t i v e t o s t u d e n t s o f a v e r a g e a b i l i t y . A know ledge o f t he r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among s t u d e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y l e v e l s ha s two i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i r s t , as L a v i n (1965) p o i n t s o u t , " f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t a t h i g h l e v e l s o f a b i l i t y may be d i f f e r e n t o r o p e r a t e d i f f e r e n t l y f r om t h o s e c a u s i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t a t medium o r low l e v e l s o f a b i l i t y " ( p . 3 0 ) . S e c o n d , i f d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t a t d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y l e v e l s , as L a v i n 11 (1965) s u g g e s t s , t h e n programmes of i n t e r v e n t i o n c a n be d e s i g n e d w h i c h meet t h e n e e d s o f e a c h g r o u p more e f f e c t i v e l y . As y e t , q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n c i d e n c e and r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t r e m a i n u n a n s w e r e d . 1 2 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE L ITERATURE The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d two a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t . The f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n c e r n s i s s u e s i n t he o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e r . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s t he t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t he a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r . I s s u e s i n t he o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i n u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t r e s e a r c h The r e s e a r c h d e f i n i t i o n and s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t he d i s c r e p a n t a c h i e v e r a r e t h e " f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e s " i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t ( P i p p e r t & A r c h e r , 1 9 6 3 ) . T h e s e i s s u e s a r e no t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , bu t f u n c t i o n i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y . O n e ' s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r who i s s e l e c t e d as an u n d e r a c h i e v e r . An a r t i f i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n has been drawn between t h e two i s s u e s i n o r d e r t o h i g h l i g h t t he i m p l i c a t i o n s o f e a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . I s s u e s i n t h e D e f i n i t i o n o f - U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . In t he r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , c o n s e n s u a l a g r e e m e n t e x i s t s c o n c e r n i n g the " a b s t r a c t " d e f i n i t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t r e f e r s t o an " i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m i n g u n d e r t h e l e v e l a t w h i c h he seems c a p a b l e " ( W h i t m o r e , 1980 , p. 1 6 7 ) . Howeve r , r e s e a r c h e r s d i s a g r e e on a method f o r o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g a d e f i n i t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . P a r t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s b e c a u s e " v e r y few c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m e x a c t l y a t 1 3 t h e l e v e l e x p e c t e d . Mos t have s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s somewhat above o r be low e x p e c t a t i o n " ( R u t t e r , 1975, p. 2 7 0 ) . The r e s e a r c h e r must t h e n answer two q u e s t i o n s . What i s t h e e x p e c t e d a c h i e v e m e n t f o r any c h i l d a n d how s h o u l d i t be e s t i m a t e d ? What i s r e g a r d e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y be low e x p e c t a t i o n ? ( i b i d , p. 2 7 1 ) . R e s e a r c h e r s have a n s w e r e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s d i f f e r e n t l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , e f f o r t s t o c o m p a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f r e l a t e d s t u d i e s a r e hampered by m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . In t h e s e c t i o n t o f o l l o w , a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f how i n d i v i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s have a p p r o a c h e d t h e s e i s s u e s i s p r e s e n t e d . T h e o r e t i c a l A s s u m p t i o n s i n t h e D e f i n i t i o n o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . The c o n c e p t o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t e v o l v e d i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e a d e v i a t i o n f r o m e x p e c t e d a c h i e v e m e n t . In t h i s c o n t e x t one a s k s , what i s t h e e x p e c t e d a c h i e v e m e n t f o r any c h i l d and how s h o u l d i t be p r e d i c t e d ? ( R u t t e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . F o r a c h i l d o f a v e r a g e a b i l i t y , a d e q u a t e a c h i e v e m e n t i s e a s i l y a s s e s s e d i f he can h a n d l e t h e c u r r i c u l u m a t h i s g r a d e l e v e l . " T h u s a t e n y e a r o l d c h i l d o f a v e r a g e a b i l i t y who i s i n t he f i f t h g r a d e can be c r e d i t e d w i t h d o i n g r e a s o n a b l y e f f e c t i v e work i f he c a n p e r f o r m a d e q u a t e l y t h o s e t a s k s e x p e c t e d o f an a v e r a g e f i f t h g r a d e r " (Gowan, 1964, p. 3 4 ) . H o w e v e r , what s t a n d a r d s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e c h i l d o f above a v e r a g e a b i l i t y ? What l e v e l o f a t t a i n m e n t s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d o f t h i s c h i l d and how s h o u l d i t be c a l c u l a t e d ? F o r a l o n g t i m e e d u c a t o r s a p p r o a c h e d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s by c o m p a r i n g t h e c h i l d ' s m e n t a l age w i t h h i s e d u c a t i o n a l age ( R u t t e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h r e s u l t e d i n t he c a l c u l a t i o n o f an 1 4 A c h i e v e m e n t Q u o t i e n t . The A c h i e v e m e n t Q u o t i e n t was d e r i v e d by o b t a i n i n g an age s c o r e f rom an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t and d i v i d i n g i t by a m e n t a l age s c o r e o b t a i n e d f r o m an IQ t e s t (Gowan, 1 9 6 0 ) . As s u c h , i f a t e n y e a r o l d boy w i t h a m e n t a l age o f t h i r t e e n a c h i e v e s a r e a d i n g s c o r e w h i c h p l a c e s h im a t t h e t w e l v e y e a r l e v e l , he was l a b e l l e d an u n d e r a c h i e v e r . T h i s a p p r o a c h has c h a r a c t e r i z e d much o f t he r e s e a r c h on a c a d e m i c p r e d i c t i o n . Howeve r , i t i s b a s e d on a f a l l a c i o u s a s s u m p t i o n r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e m e n t and has l e d t o s e r i o u s e r r o r ( R u t t e r , 1975 ; J o h n s o n , 1 9 4 2 ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s b a s e d on t h e f a l l a c i o u s a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a p e r f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t ( R u t t e r , 1975 ; A n n e s l e y e t . a l . , 1 9 7 0 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween i n t e l l i g e n c e and a c h i e v e m e n t i s l e s s t han u n i t y . T h i s c an be a c c o u n t e d f o r , i n p a r t , by t h e e f f e c t s o f r e g r e s s i o n . A c h i l d w i t h a h i g h IQ s c o r e w i l l g e n e r a l l y no t be as h i g h on an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t . C o n v e r s e l y , a r e t a r d e d c h i l d w i l l p e r f o r m h i g h e r on an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t t h a n on an a b i l i t y t e s t . T h i s phenomenon , o r i g i n a l l y d o c u m e n t e d by G a l t o n i s c a l l e d ' r e g r e s s i o n t o t h e m e a n ' . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s as f o l l o w s : o b s e r v e d s c o r e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by two f a c t o r s , t he t r u e s c o r e and measurement e r r o r . We assume t h a t measurement e r r o r i s random - t h a t no s y s t e m a t i c f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e e r r o r i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n i s i n v o l v e d . T h u s , i f a p e r s o n s c o r e s h i g h on one m e a s u r e , t h i s w i l l be d u e , i n p a r t t o t h e e r r o r c o m p o n e n t . H o w e v e r , i f e r r o r i s r a n d o m , t h i s componen t i s no t l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e h i s s c o r e i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n on t h e s e c o n d m e a s u r e . 15 C o n s e q u e n t l y , he w i l l t e n d t o be l e s s e x t r e m e on t h e s e c o n d s c o r e . A p p l i e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , t h i s wou ld mean t h a t a s t u d e n t who o b t a i n e d a v e r y h i g h a p t i t u d e s c o r e w o u l d p r o b a b l y be l e s s e x t r e m e on a measu re o f a c h i e v e m e n t . . . ( L a v i n , 1965, p. 2 7 ) . I f we now r e c o n s i d e r t he boy whose r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t a p p e a r e d be low e x p e c t a t i o n by t h e d e v i a t i o n m e t h o d , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t a r e a d i n g s c o r e o f t w e l v e y e a r s i s commensu ra t e w i t h h i s a b i l i t i e s when r e g r e s s i o n i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . A c c o r d i n g t o T h o r n d i k e (1963) " t h e f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t ha s r e n d e r e d q u e s t i o n a b l e i f n o t m e a n i n g l e s s , much o f t h e r e s e a r c h on a c h i e v e m e n t " ( p . 1 3 ) . T h u s , T h o r n d i k e (1963) e m p h a s i z e s t he n e c e s s i t y f o r d e f i n i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t as t h e d i s c r e p a n c y o f a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t f r o m a p r e d i c t e d v a l u e by e m p l o y i n g a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . As he s a y s : . . . We must p r e d i c t a c h i e v e m e n t f r o m a p t i t u d e , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e known c o r r e l a t i o n be tween t h e a p t i t u d e measu re and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e . The p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n o r r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n t e l l s us t h e a v e r a g e or t y p i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s a t any g i v e n a p t i t u d e l e v e l . T h i s p r e d i c t e d v a l u e i s an u n b i a s e d e s t i m a t e o f a c h i e v e m e n t , and a t any a p t i t u d e l e v e l p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e d i s c r e p a n c i e s be tween p r e d i c t e d and a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t a r e e q u a l l y l i k e l y and the a v e r a g e d i f f e r e n c e i s z e r o . . . ( p . 4 5 ) . T h i s s e c t i o n has e x a m i n e d t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v m e n t . I t was p o i n t e d ou t t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s b a s e d on a d e v i a t i o n f r o m e x p e c t a n c y . M e t h o d s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n were p r e s e n t e d . The 1 6 s u p e r i o r i t y o f t he r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r p r e d i c t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t f r o m a p t i t u d e was recommended and t h e r e f o r e has been a d o p t e d f o r use i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I s s u e s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . E v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by T h o r n d i k e ( 1 9 6 3 ) ; F a r q u h a r and Payne ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; A n n e s l e y e t a l . (1970) a n a l y z e d and c o m p a r e d t h e v a r i o u s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . The s e l e c t i o n methods were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s . E a c h method was a p p l i e d t o t h e same s amp l e o f s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s an e x t r e m e r a n g e i n t h e number o f i n d i v i d u a l s i d e n t i f i e d as u n d e r a c h i e v e r s d e p e n d i n g on t h e t e c h n i q u e u s e d ( F a r q u h a r & P a y n e , 1 9 6 4 ) . A n n e s l e y , e t a l (1970) c o n c l u d e t h a t many p u p i l s have been i n c o r r e c t l y l a b e l l e d a s u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . They r e p o r t t h a t t he r e g r e s s i o n mode l i d e n t i f i e d t he g r e a t e s t number o f a d e q u a t e a c h i e v e r s . ( A n n e s l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 0 ) . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , T h o r n d i k e ( 1 9 6 3 ) , F a r q u h a r & Payne (1964) recommend the s u p e r i o r i t y o f t he l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n p r e d i c t i o n m o d e l u s i n g - 1 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e a s t h e l i m i t s o f d i s c r e p a n c y f o r s e l e c t i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . T h e o r y and R e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t h e A b i l i t y and A c h i e v e m e n t P a t t e r n s o f t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r U n d e r a c h i e v e r Wh i tmore (1980) r e f e r s t o t h e p r o b l e m o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t as a " p e r s i s t e n t " and " c o n t i n u o u s l y n e g l e c t e d " p r o b l e m i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t . She e s t i m a t e s t h a t 70% of a l l g i f t e d s t u d e n t s i n Amer i ca 'n s c h o o l s u n d e r a c h i e v e 17 p. 1 6 5 ) . New l and (1976) p o i n t s o u t : F o r d e c a d e s , i n f o r m a t i o n has been amassed w h i c h d e p i c t e d c l e a r l y t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t he g i f t e d a r e e d u c a t i o n a l l y r e t a r d e d i n l i g h t o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s . No c o n d i t i o n i s more c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d by t h o s e c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t h e f i e l d o f t h e g i f t e d . . . . ( p . 3 3 3 ) . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t " n e g l e c t " s tems f rom e a r l y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r and t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . T e r m a n ' s G e n e t i c S t u d i e s o f G e n i u s (1930) d i s s p e l l e d p r e v i o u s l y h e l d b e l i e f s t h a t g e n i u s e s were p s y c h o t i c and t h a t c h i l d p r o d i g i e s bu rn ou t by a d o l e s c e n c e . T h i s m y t h o l o g y was r e p l a c e d w i t h a new s t e r e o t y p e . The new myth was b a s e d on an o v e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of Te rmans f i n d i n g s and a s s e r t e d " i f y ou f i n d someone who i s s u p e r i o r on one t y p e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l t a s k , you can e x p e c t t h a t p e r s o n t o be above a v e r a g e o r s u p e r i o r on a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g o t h e r m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s " ( W h i t m o r e , 1980 , p. 13) . A b e l i e f i n t h e o v e r a l l s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r r e m a i n e d u n c h a l l e n g e d u n t i l t h e m id 1 9 5 0 ' s . The s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l o f t he 1 9 5 0 ' s b r o u g h t t h e e d u c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r unde r c l o s e r s c r u t i n y . The R u s s i a n l a u n c h i n g o f S p u t n i k i n 1957 b r o u g h t t h e A m e r i c a n t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y i n t o q u e s t i o n . " The n a t i o n became c o n s c i e n c e - s t r i c k e n o v e r i t s f a i l u r e t o p r o d u c e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h l e v e l manpower t o meet t h e t h r e a t o f i t s i d e o l o g i c a l a n d c o l d war a d v e r s a r y " ( Tannenbaum, 1972 , p. 2 2 ) . A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y i n t o t he p r o b l e m of u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t p e a k e d d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d e c a d e , t h e i d e a t h a t 18 " i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a b l e c h i l d r e n may i n t h e i r s c h o o l w o r k no t r e a c h the l e v e l o f t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l o r f a i l t o a c h i e v e even the l e v e l o f t he m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r own age g r o u p . . . h a s been p a r t i c u l a r l y s l ow i n g a i n i n g a c c e p t a n c e " ( P r i n g l e , 1970 , p. 105) . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f r e s e a r c h amassed f o c u s i n g on t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t and a d u l t u n d e r a c h i e v e r . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t he u n d e r a c h i e v e r w i t h h i s o v e r a c h i e v i n g p e e r s was a p o p u l a r r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m . I t i s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e r s have low s e l f - c o n c e p t s and p o o r o v e r a l l a d j u s t m e n t p a t t e r n s ( G a l l a g h e r , 1966 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n has been d e v o t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g when t h e p a t t e r n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t b e g i n s ( F o x , 1971 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . One s u c h s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by Shaw & McCuen ( i 9 6 0 ) t r a c e d the o n s e t o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n b r i g h t ( IQ 110+) h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t he o n s e t o f t he u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n began i n g r a d e t h r e e f o r b o y s and i n g r a d e s i x f o r g i r l s . Once b e g u n , u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t r e m a i n e d a p e r s i s t e n t p r o b l e m w h i c h w o r s e n e d w i t h e a c h s c h o o l y e a r . T h i s l e d Shaw and McCuen ( i 9 6 0 ) t o c o n c l u d e t h a t " s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t b e g i n s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b o t h p r e v e n t i v e and r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s w h i c h may be u n d e r t a k e n " ( p . 1 0 3 ) . D e s p i t e more r e c e n t c o n c e r n w i t h e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e r e a r e v e r y few s t u d i e s t o i n d i c a t e a t what p o i n t i n s c h o o l t h i s p r o b l e m b e g i n s " ( F o x , 1971 , p. 4 2 ; 19 W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n has been d e v o t e d t o t h e e a r l y a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r . A s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by Norman e t a l . ( 1 9 6 2 ) , c o m p a r e d the a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f 215 " g i f t e d " (IQ> 130) g r a d e s i x c h i l d r e n . U s i n g t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n t a l M a t u r i t y (CTMM) t h e y f o u n d t h a t t h e u n d e r a c h i e v i n g " g i f t e d " s t u d e n t had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 l ) h i g h e r n o n - l a n g u a g e t h a n l a n g u a g e IQ s c o r e . T h i s was t r u e o f b o t h t h e ma le and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . T h e s e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r n o n - l a n g u a g e IQ s c o r e i n t he " n o n a c h i e v e r " may r e f l e c t t h e i r " i n t e r e s t s as w e l l a s , o r r a t h e r t h a n , one o f a d j u s t m e n t " ( p . 1 2 3 ) . A n o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r comments t h a t : The h i g h n o n - v e r b a l s c o r e s f o r t h e non- a c h i e v e r s may mean t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m p e n a l i z e s them f o r p o o r work i n s p e l l i n g and m e c h a n i c s , and t h a t a d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m a p p e a l i n g t o s p a c i a l , n u m e r i c a l and o t h e r n o n - v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s m i g h t i m p r o v e t h e p r o b l e m of u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . T h u s , t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c h i e v e m e n t , v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and n o n - v e r b a l IQ seems t o be t h e c o n v e r s e o f t h a t be tween a c h i e v e m e n t , v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y . The t h i r d v a r i a b l e i s a n e g a t i v e f a c t o r i n t he f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p , bu t a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n t h e s e c o n d . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a w i d e r - s p e c t r u m c u r r i c u l u m , l i k e a w i d e r - s p e c t r u m t e s t i n g programme m i g h t do much t o remove t h e p r o b l e m o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t (Gowan, 1964 , p. 3 0 4 - 5 ) . Shaw (1961) a s s e r t s t h a t one o f t h e few c o n s i s t e n t and u n i v e r s a l l y a g r e e d f i n d i n g s i s t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s p r i m a r i l y a ma le p r o b l e m (p . 2 2 ) . I t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t 20 m a l e s ou tnumber f e m a l e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s by an a v e r a g e o f 3:1 (Shaw, 1961 , T i e g l a n d e t a l . 1 9 6 6 ) . Gowan (1964) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f ma le u n d e r a c h i e v e r s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : t h e s l o w e r m a t u r a t i o n a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f b o y s ; t h e g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t i e s boys have w i t h r e a d i n g ; t he g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y o f a d j u s t i n g t o t h e ma le r o l e i n ou r c u l t u r e ; t h e l e s s e r d e g r e e o f c o n f o r m i t y demanded by b o y s ; t he f a c t t h a t more i s o f t e n e x p e c t e d o f b o y s i n t h e s e n s e o f i n c r e a s e d c o l l e g e g o i n g , e n t r a n c e t o p r o f e s s i o n s and t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f f e m a l e t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l ( p . 2 9 9 ) . Summary In t h i s s e c t i o n , t he l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r was r e v i e w e d . I t was p o i n t e d ou t t h a t e a r l y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r c h i l d hampered a r e c o g n i t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . I t was f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d t h a t v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d t o d e s c r i b e t he e a r l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . 21 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY In t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e p o p u l a t i o n , s a m p l e , r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and d a t a a n a l y s i s a r e d e s c r i b e d . P o p u l a t i o n T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a . The S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e S u r r e y A r e a and i n c l u d e s t he c i t y o f W h i t e Rock and t h e D o u g l a s and B a r n s t o n I s l a n d s ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e g i o n a l I n d e x , 1 9 7 8 ) . The S u r r e y A r e a i s c o n s i d e r e d s i m i l a r t o R i c h m o n d and D e l t a i n t h a t i t s u p p o r t s b o t h a g r i c u l t u r a l and r e s i d e n t i a l l i f e s t y l e s . R e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e a r e a s o f C l o v e r d a l e and W h i t e Rock w h i l e t h e low l y i n g a r e a s a r e p r i m a r i l y a g r i c u l t u r a l . The l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e t he m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f wood p r o d u c t s , f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , t o u r i s m and c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . The p o p u l a t i o n o f S u r r e y i s r e p r e s e n t e d by many e t h n i c g r o u p s i n c l u d i n g B r i t i s h , F r e n c h , Ge rman , I t a l i a n and S c a n d i n a v i a n p e o p l e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 62% o f t he l a b o u r f o r c e a r e e m p l o y e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , f i s h i n g , m i n e s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 38% o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e a r e e m p l o y e d i n f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , r e a l e s t a t e , p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d e f e n c e , c o m m u n i t y , b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e g i o n a l I n d e x , 1 9 7 8 ) . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t 3 6 , S u r r e y has 62 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ; 8 j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ; 4 s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ; and 3 22 j u n i o r - s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . T h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y 9 ,224 c h i l d r e n a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l and 2 ,474 c h i l d r e n a r e i n t h e f i r s t g r a d e ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , May , 1982, D i s t r i c t O f f i c e ) . In t he c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , 102 g r a d e one c h i l d r e n (40 b o y s and 62 g i r l s ) f r o m 25 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . The c h i l d r e n were be tween 6-3 and 7-3 y e a r s o f a g e . Sample As t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a f o l l o w - u p t o P e r k s ' d o c t o r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and due t o t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t he two s a m p l e s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f P e r k s ' s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w e d by t he s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t he c u r r e n t s t u d y . S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e P e r k s ' s t u d y . P e r k s ' r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d 25 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . L e t t e r s o f p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t were s e n t home w i t h a l l t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n t h e s e 25 s c h o o l s . P e n d i n g p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t , t h e c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d on t h e Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t ( V K T ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r d i v i d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n i n t o two g r o u p s . The f i r s t g r o u p , d e s i g n a t e d the " A v e r a g e A b i l i t y " G r o u p i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d be tween 85-115 on t h e V K T . The s e c o n d g r o u p , d e s i g n a t e d " A c a d e m i c a l l y - A b l e " i n c l u d e d t h o s e c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d be tween 118-155 on t h e V K T . F o l l o w i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e , 80 c h i l d r e n f r o m the " A v e r a g e A b i l i t y " g r o u p and 125 c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e " A c a d e m i c a l l y A b l e " g r o u p were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t he n e x t s t a g e o f t h e s t u d y . The 23 n e x t s t a g e o f the s t u d y i n v o l v e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t he W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) t o t h e 205 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e F o l l o w - u p S t u d y 1. F o l l o w i n g t h e c o n s e n t f r om t h e D e p u t y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s o f f i c e o f t he S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , P e r k s ' r e l e a s e d t h e names and s c h o o l s o f t he p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h e r r e s e a r c h s t u d y t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . No o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t he c h i l d r e n was r e l e a s e d . 2. E a c h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l was c o n t a c t e d and a s k e d whe the r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s of P e r k ' s s t u d y were e n r o l l e d i n g r a d e one a t t h e same s c h o o l . 3. A l i s t o f c h i l d r e n c u r r e n t l y i n a t t e n d a n c e a t t he same s c h o o l was c o m p i l e d . T h i r t y c h i l d r e n f r o m P e r k s ' s amp le o f 160 had moved t o d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s and were t h e r e f o r e no t i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . 4. In a l l , 130 l e t t e r s of p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n were drawn up r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r c h i l d ' s c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t he f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . P e r m i s s i o n was r e c e i v e d f rom 102 p a r e n t s . A l l 102 c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d . A p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r c h i l d r e n f rom e a c h o f t h e 25 s c h o o l s were i n c l u d e d i n t he s a m p l e . 5. T e s t i n g on t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y commenced i n Ma r ch 1982 and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A p r i l 1982 . One h u n d r e d and two c h i l d r e n , 40 b o y s and 62 g i r l s were i n d i v i d u a l l y t e s t e d on t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y by t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r and two t r a i n e d r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s . 24 6. Once t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was c o m p l e t e d , P e r k s r e l e a s e d t h e WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e s e same c h i l d r e n one y e a r e a r l i e r . The c h i l d r e n were t h e n g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r F u l l S c a l e s c o r e on t h e WPPSI. The g r o u p s were f o r m e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h W e c h s l e r ' s (1967) I n t e l l i g e n c e C l a s s i c a t i o n s . T a b l e 1 c o m p a r e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u b j e c t s f a l l i n g i n t o t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s i n P e r k s ' s t u d y and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . T a b l e 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f IQ s c o r e s : Sample c o m p a r i s o n s be tween P e r k s ' s t u d y and t h e f o l l o w - u p s t u d y I n t e l 1 i g e n c e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Number o f C h i l d r e n P e r k s ' s t u d y F o l l o w - u p S t u d y P e r c e n t a g e V e r y S u p e r i o r (130+) 21 S u p e r i o r (120-129 ) 36 B r i g h t N o r m a l (110-119) 49 A v e r a g e (90-109 ) 47 Low A v e r a g e (80-89) 7 1 3 28 31 26 4 61 77 63 55 57 T o t a l s 160 1 02 7. The s c o r i n g o f t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n was v e r i f i e d by a n o t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t . N i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t v e r i f i c a t i o n was o b t a i n e d . 8. In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s , t h e s u b j e c t s were 25 then d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b - g r o u p s . Through the SPSS computer programme Range, a p p r o x i m a t e l y , 1/3 of the c h i l d r e n i n each of the a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s were randomly s e l e c t e d . These 34 c h i l d r e n are i d e n t i f i e d throughout the s e c t i o n s to f o l l o w as the " P r e d i c t o r G r o u p " . The r e m a i n i n g 68 s u b j e c t s are d e s i g n a t e d the "Study g r o u p " . The P r e d i c t o r Group was s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r to b u i l d the parameters f o r the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t i n g v a l u e s were then a p p l i e d to the Study G r o u p . In s t r u m e n t a t ion The Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (Vane, 1968) The Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t (Vane, 1968) was d e v e l o p e d i n order to " e v a l u a t e the i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic p o t e n t i a l and b e h a v i o r adjustment of young c h i l d r e n " (Vane, 1968, p . 12). The Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n Test (VKT) was the p r e l i m i n a r y group s c r e e n i n g ins t rument used i n the P e r k s ' s t u d y . In her d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n p r o p o s a l , P e r k s ' o u t l i n e d her reasons f o r s e l e c t i n g the Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n Test as the s c r e e n i n g ins t rument i n her s tudy ( i b i d ) . They were as f o l l o w s : The t h r e e s u b t e s t s ( v o c a b u l a r y , p e r c e p t u a l - motor , and draw a man) d e a l w-ith f a c t o r s which have been found to be good i n d i c a t o r s of s c h o o l s u c c e s s ; the s c o r i n g system of the VKT c o v e r s a wide range of s c o r e s (two s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s below the mean to four s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s above the mean); d i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are p r e c i s e ; g u i d e l i n e s to a i d i n the s c o r i n g of the VKT are s t a t e d c l e a r l y ; s c o r i n g can be completed r a p i d l y ; t e a c h e r s are a b l e to a d m i n i s t e r the VKT (p. 7) . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the s c a l e . The VKT i s composed of t h r e e p a r t s , a P e r c e p t u a l - M o t o r s u b t e s t , a Draw-A-Man s u b t e s t and a 26 V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t . The f i r s t two s u b t e s t s c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a g r o u p . S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . The VKT was s t a n d a r d i z e d on a samp le o f 50 b o y s and 50 g i r l s a t h a l f y e a r i n t e r v a l s ' r a n g i n g i n age f rom .4 1/2 t o 6 y e a r s . F o u r h u n d r e d c h i l d r e n c o m p r i s e d the e n t i r e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n samp le ( V a n e , 1 9 6 8 ) . The u r b a n - r u r a l r a t i o of t h e s a m p l e ; p r o p o r t i o n o f b l a c k t o w h i t e s u b j e c t s and s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e 1960 c e n s u s f i g u r e s f o r t h e 4 1/2 t o 6 y e a r age g r o u p . The e n t i r e samp le was drawn f rom New Y o r k and New J e r s e y and i s no t c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . R e l i a b i l i t y . Vane (1968) c o n d u c t e d two s t u d i e s i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e V K T . The f i r s t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d w i t h 14 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n w i t h an i n t e r v a l o f one week be tween t h e two t e s t i n g s . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 9 7 . The s e c o n d s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d w i t h 36 c h i l d r e n w i t h a t e s t - r e t e s t i n t e r v a l o f 5 m o n t h s . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was . 8 8 . Powers (1977) computed t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r two g r o u p s . The f i r s t g r o u p c o n t a i n e d 140 p r e - k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . The t e s t - r e t e s t i n t e r v a l was s e v e n m o n t h s . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was .65 f o r t h e VKT F u l l s c a l e . G r o u p two c o n t a i n e d 150 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . The t e s t - r e t e s t i n t e r v a l was 10 m o n t h s . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h i s g r o u p was .68 w i t h t h e F u l l V K T . " T h u s t he VKT seems t o have c o m p a r a b l e s t a b i l i t y o v e r a s e v e n - m o n t h r e t e s t p e r i o d " ( Powe r s , 1977 , p. 3 5 ) . 27 V a l i d i t y Vane (1968) c o r r e l a t e d t h e VKT w i t h t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t Form L-M f o r two s e p a r a t e s a m p l e s e a c h c o n t a i n i n g 212 c h i l d r e n . The VKT c o r r e l a t e d .76 w i t h t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t i n b o t h s a m p l e s . Powers (1974) a s s e s s e d t he p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e VKT w i t h g r a d e one a c h i e v e m e n t . She f o u n d t h a t t he VKT v o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d .47 w i t h t he S t a n f o r d V o c a b u l a r y A c h i e v e m e n t s u b t e s t . The VKT c o r r e l a t e d .53 w i t h t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s . " A l t h o u g h most o f t he c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d were s i g n i f i c a n t , t he VKT d o e s no t a p p e a r t o have s u f f i c i e n t v a l i d i t y f o r use i n a s s e s s m e n t and programme p l a n n i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n " ( P o w e r s , 1974 , p . 1 0 0 3 ) . W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ( W e c h s l e r , 1967) The W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t d e s i g n e d f o r c h i l d r e n between 4 and 6 1/2 y e a r s o f a g e . The WPPSI i s t h e p r e d i c t o r measu re i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . The WPPSI was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 100 boys and 100 g i r l s a t s i x h a l f y e a r age i n t e r v a l s r a n g i n g f r o m 4 t o 6 1/2 y e a r s . T w e l v e h u n d r e d c h i l d r e n c o m p r i s e d t h e e n t i r e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e . The 1960 U . S . c e n s u s d a t a was u s e d t o s e l e c t a n o r m a t i v e s amp le r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n by g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e ; c o l o u r and f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ( W e c h s l e r , 1967, p. 1 3 - 1 4 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were c o m p u t e d f o r t h e V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and c o r r e l a t e d by t he Spearman-Brown F o r m u l a . The r e l i a b i l i t y 28 c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e . 9 4 , . 9 3 , and .96 r e s p e c t i v e l y ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y . C o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t h e WPPSI and S t a n f o r d - B i n e t Form L-M r ange f r o m .33 t o .92 f o r t h e V e r b a l S c a l e ; f r o m .33 t o .88 f o r t h e P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e and f rom .44 t o .92 f o r t h e F u l l S c a l e . ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t he WPPSI and the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t a r e l o w e r f o r g i f t e d s a m p l e s ( i b i d ) . The WPPSI i s c o n s i d e r e d a more d i f f i c u l t t e s t t h a n t he S t a n f o r d - B i n e t . D i s c r e p a n c i e s be tween the two t e s t s i n c r e a s e s w i t h t he i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e c h i l d . The b r i g h t e r t h e c h i l d , t h e more d i s c r e p a n t t h e s c o r e s become i n f a v o u r o f t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ( R e l l a s , 1968 ; Zimmerman & Woo-Sam, 1 9 7 0 ) . F u l l S c a l e s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d .35 w i t h Word Know ledge and .30 w i t h Word A n a l y s i s . P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y . K r e b s (1969) e x a m i n e d t he p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e WPPSI f o r p r e d i c t i n g f i r s t g r a d e r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . S e v e n t y g r a d e one c h i l d r e n , s t r a t i f i e d f o r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were t e s t e d on t he WPPSI. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d on t he r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s u b t e s t s o f t h e S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t . The F u l l S c a l e WPPSI s c o r e c o r r e l a t e d .66 w i t h r e a d i n g i n t he l o w e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p and .40 i n t h e uppe r s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . Kaufman (1973) c o r r e l a t e d t h e WPPSI w i t h t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s . T h i r t y - o n e s u b j e c t s be tween 6 and 6 1/2 y e a r s o f age c o m p r i s e d t h e s a m p l e . The WPPSI F u l l S c a l e s c o r e c o r r e l a t e d .35 w i t h Word K n o w l e d g e , . 30 w i t h Word A n a l y s i s , . 36 w i t h R e a d i n g , .30 w i t h M a t h e m a t i c s and .37 w i t h t he t o t a l R e a d i n g and t o t a l raw s c o r e . The l a t t e r two c o r r e l a t i o n s were 29 s i g n i f i c a n t a t t he .05 l e v e l . O l d r i d g e and A l l i s o n (1968) c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e WPPSI i s a c a r e f u l l y d e v e l o p e d and w e l l s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u m e n t o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t w a r r a n t s w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e . . . " ( p . 3 4 8 ) . The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l B a t t e r y : P a r t Two T e s t s o f A c h i e v e m e n t The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l B a t t e r y i s " a s e t o f w ide r a n g e , i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s t h a t measu re c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e s , a c h i e v e m e n t and i n t e r e s t " (Woodcock , 1978, p. 1 ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B a t t e r y . The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l B a t t e r y (Woodcock , 1978) c o n t a i n s 27 s u b t e s t s w h i c h a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s . P a r t one c o n s i s t s o f 12 s u b t e s t s f o c u s i n g on the a s s e s s m e n t o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . P a r t Two, T e s t s o f A c h i e v e m e n t c o n t a i n s 10 s u b t e s t s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s f o u r a r e a s o f s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t , R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L anguage and G e n e r a l K n o w l e d g e . P a r t T h r e e o f t he B a t t e r y c o n t a i n s 5 s u b t e s t s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s p r e f e r e n c e f o r s c h o l a s t i c and n o n s c h o l a s t i c a c t i v i t i e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n of t he A c h i e v e m e n t S u b t e s t s . The Woodcock- J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y (1978) i s t he c r i t e r i o n measu re i n t h i s s t u d y . The A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y c o n s i s t s o f 10 s u b t e s t s w h i c h c o m b i n e t o f o rm f o u r a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s , R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L anguage and G e n e r a l K n o w l e d g e . The R e a d i n g c l u s t e r i s made up o f t h r e e s u b t e s t s ; L e t t e r - W o r d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Word A t t a c k and P a s s a g e C o m p r e h e n s i o n . The 30 M a t h e m a t i c s c l u s t e r i s composed of two s u b t e s t s , C a l c u l a t i o n and A p p l i e d P r o b l e m s . The t h i r d c l u s t e r i s W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and c o n t a i n s two s u b t e s t s , D i c t a t i o n a n d P r o o f i n g . The f o u r t h c l u s t e r i s G e n e r a l K n o w l e d g e . I t i s made up o f t h r e e s u b t e s t s , S c i e n c e , S o c i a l S t u d i e s and H u m a n i t i e s . S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . The n o r m i n g s a m p l e was s t r a t i f i e d by a g e , r a c e , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n a n d t y p e o f c o m m u n i t y . The p r o p o r t i o n s o f e a c h a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e 1970 and 1976 U . S . c e n s u s d a t a . N o r m a t i v e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f rom 4 ,732 s u b j e c t s r a n g i n g f rom 3 t o 65 y e a r s o f age f rom 49 c o m m u n i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . N o r m a t i v e d a t a were u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h G r a d e and Age E q u i v a l e n c i e s , P e r c e n t i l e R a n k s , E x p e c t e d G r a d e S c o r e s and Range T a b l e s . R e l i a b i 1 i t y . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t he i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s r a n g e f rom .81 t o . 9 5 . " T h e t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the B a t t e r y as r e p o r t e d by Woodcock (1978) a p p e a r t o be a d e q u a t e " ( Y s s e l d y k e , A l g o z z i n e , & S h i n n , 1 9 8 1 ) . V a 1 i d i t y . Woodcock (1978) r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e n o r m i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . He r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f f o u r t y p e s o f v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s : t h e c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t i e s ( p r e d i c t i v e and c o n c u r r e n t ) ; c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . In t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d . In o r d e r t o a s s e s s t he c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t he f o u r W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s , 83 t h i r d g r a d e c h i l d r e n and 82 f i f t h g r a d e c h i l d r e n f rom 12 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e 31 A n o k a - H e n n e p i n ( M i n n e s o t a ) S c h o o l D i s t r i c t were c o m p a r e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s : The Iowa T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s , Fo rm 5 ( H i e r o n y m o u s & L i n d q u i s t , 1 9 7 1 ) ; Keymath D i a g n o s t i c A r i t h m e t i c T e s t ( C o n n o l l y , N a t c h t m a n & P r i t c h e t t , 1 9 7 1 ) ; Peabody I n d i v i d u a l A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t (Dunn & M a r k w a r d t , 1 9 7 0 ) ; Wide Range A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t ( J a s t a k , B i j o u & J a s t a k , 1 9 6 5 ) ; Woodcock R e a d i n g M a s t e r y T e s t s (Woodcock , 1973) and the W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n P s y c h o - E d u c a t i o n a l B a t t e r y (Woodcock , 1 9 7 8 ) . T a b l e s 2-5 summar i ze t he c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d be tween t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t he Woodcock- J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y and e a c h o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d i n s t r u m e n t s . T a b l e 2 C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t he R e a d i n g T e s t s (WRMT) N IOWA P IAT WRAT WOODCOCK-READING G r a d e 3 Sample W-J R e a d i n g A c h 83 .81 .91 .89 .92 G r a d e 5 Sample W-J R e a d i n g A c h 86 .76 .75 .84 .87 32 T a b l e 3 C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t he M a t h e m a t i c s T e s t s N IOWA KEYMATH P IAT WRAT G r a d e 3 Sample W-J M a t h e m a t i c s 83 .62 .82 . 70 .46 G r a d e 5 Sample W-J M a t h e m a t i c s 86 .77 .80 . 69 .78 T a b l e 4 C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t he W r i t t e n L anguage T e s t s N IOWA P IAT WRAT G r a d e 3 Sample W-J W r i t t e n Language 83 .84 .78 .83 G r a d e 5 Samp le W-J W r i t t e n Language 86 .80 .76 .71 33 T a b l e 5 C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e W-J Know ledge w i t h P i a t G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n N P IAT-GENERAL INFORMATION G r a d e 2 Sample W-J G e n e r a l Know ledge 83 .72 G r a d e 5 Sample W-J G e n e r a l Know ledge 86 .68 The r e s u l t s o f t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r o f t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y c o r r e l a t e s .75 t o .92 w i t h o t h e r commonly u s e d i n s t r u m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t . The W r i t t e n Language A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r c o r r e l a t e s be tween .71 and .84 w i t h o t h e r t e s t s o f W r i t t e n L anguage A c h i e v e m e n t . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 4 . The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n G e n e r a l Know ledge A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r c o r r e l a t e s .72 w i t h t h e G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e Peabody I n d i v i d u a l A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t . " I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e B a t t e r y c o m p a r e s w e l l w i t h and i s i n f a c t s u p e r i o r i n most i n s t a n c e s t o t he i n s t r u m e n t s p r e s e n t l y u s e d i n p s y c h o e d u c t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s " (Woodcock , 1976 , p. 1 5 7 ) . S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s . Woodcock (1978) has p r o v i d e d a v a r i e t y o f s c o r i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r t e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h i s s t u d y , e a c h s u b j e c t ' s c l u s t e r s c o r e was c o n v e r t e d i n t o i t ' s age s c o r e 34 e q u i v a l e n t . The age s c o r e r e f l e c t s " t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n t e rms o f t h e age l e v e l i n t he n o r m i n g samp le a t w h i c h t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e i s t he same as t he s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e " (Woodcock , 1978 , p. 63) The s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e was t h e n c o n v e r t e d t o a p e r c e n t i l e r a n k . The p e r c e n t i l e r ank i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r c e n t a g e of s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e l e c t e d segment o f t h e n o r m i n g samp le who had s c o r e s t h e same a s o r l o w e r t h a n the s u b j e c t s c l u s t e r s c o r e " (Woodcock , 1978 , p. 6 3 ) . F i n a l l y , t h e s u b j e c t s p e r c e n t i l e r ank i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r a c h i e v e m e n t a r e a s was c o n v e r t e d t o a s t a n d a r d s c o r e e q u i v a l e n t b a s e d on a mean of 100 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 15. T a b l e s f o r c o n v e r t i n g p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s i n t o t h e i r s t a n d a r d s c o r e e q u i v a l e n t s a r e p r o v i d e d i n t he t e s t m a t e r i a l s . T h i s s t e p was t a k e n i n o r d e r t o p l a c e the a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s on t he same s c a l e o f m e a s u r e m e n t . R e a s o n s f o r t he s e l e c t i o n o f t he W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y was s e l e c t e d as t he c r i t e r i o n measu re i n t h i s s t u d y f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . They a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. The t e n a c h i e v e m e n t s u b t e s t s p r o v i d e a b r o a d s a m p l i n g o f c o n t e n t i n s e v e r a l a r e a s o f a c h i e v e m e n t (Woodcock , 1 9 7 8 ) . 2. The t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a p p e a r t o be a d e q u a t e ( Y s s e l d y k e , A l g o z z i n e & S h i n n , 1 9 8 1 ) . 3. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t b a t t e r y t a k e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 m i n u t e s and s u s t a i n s t he a t t e n t i o n o f young c h i l d r e n . 4. D i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t he B a t t e r y a r e 35 c l e a r and p r e c i s e . 5. The B a t t e r y has a p p r o p r i a t e b a s a l s and accommodates the h i g h c e i l i n g a t t a i n e d by I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n . 36 A n a l y s i s o f t h e D a t a T h i s s t u d y was b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f p r e d i c t i o n , t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f a c r i t e r i o n measu re ( a c h i e v e m e n t ) f r om a p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e ( i n t e l l i g e n c e ) . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n c o r p o r a t e s b o t h t he t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n p r e d i c t i o n ( see c h a p t e r 2 ) . F o u r t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d f o r t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . They were as f o l l o w s : D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s e c t i o n o u t l i n i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s , t h e 102 s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b g r o u p s , t he P r e d i c t o r G r o u p and t h e S t u d y G r o u p . The P r e d i c t o r G r o u p c o n t a i n e d 34 c h i l d r e n r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e SPSS c o m p u t e r programme R a n g e . The S t u d y G r o u p c o n t a i n e d the r e m a i n i n g 68 c h i l d r e n . P e a r s o n ' s C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t . In o r d e r t o b u i l d t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t h e f o u r r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s , t h e means , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s be tween WPPSI F u l l S c a l e S c o r e s and t h e f o u r A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s f r o m t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n were e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p . T h e s e v a l u e s were a p p l i e d t o t he r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s . A r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was t h e n c o n d u c t e d on the S t u d y G r o u p . The p r e d i c t e d and o b t a i n e d s c o r e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s were c h a r t e d . The p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e d i s c r e p a n c i e s be tween t h e s e s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d . I f t he c h i l d ' s p r e d i c t e d s c o r e e x c e e d e d h i s o b t a i n e d s c o r e by one s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e i n a t l e a s t 37 two s u b j e c t a r e a s , s/he was i d e n t i f i e d as an u n d e r a c h i e v e r . I n f e r e n t i a l S t a t i s t i c s C h i S q u a r e S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t . The C h i S q u a r e G o o d n e s s - o f - F i t T e s t and t h e C h i S q u a r e S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t o f A s s o c i a t i o n were a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h sex r e s p e c t i v e l y . t - T e s t s . The a p p r o p r i a t e t - t e s t s were a p p l i e d t o t he d a t a t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In a d d i t i o n , t - t e s t s were a l s o u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t h e mean WPPSI P e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o f a c h i e v e r s . Summary C h a p t e r t h r e e began w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n f rom w h i c h t h e s t u d y samp le was d r a w n , f o l l o w e d by an o u t l i n e o f t he s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t h e P e r k s ' s t u d y and t h e r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s e m p l o y e d i n t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d . The c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e p l a n f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t he r e s u l t s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . 38 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH F INDINGS The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s was o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d the t h r e e s t a g e s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s . In t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n , t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s (means , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ) w h i c h b u i l t t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d . In the n e x t s e c t i o n t h e d a t a r e s u l t i n g f rom t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d . The f i n a l s e c t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s and s t a t e m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r o n e . A r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s i s p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w e d by t he method o f a n a l y s i s and t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s S u b j e c t s . One h u n d r e d and two s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g 25 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t he S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . T h e r e were 40 boys and 62 g i r l s i n t h e s t u d y . The c h i l d r e n r a n g e d i n age f r o m 6-3 t o 7-3 y e a r s . The I .Q . d i s t r i b u t i o n r a n g e d f rom a WPPSI F u l l S c a l e I .Q . s c o r e o f 78 t o 144. The R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s r a n g e d be tween 81 and 135 ; M a t h e m a t i c s A c h i e v e m e n t r a n g e d be tween 83 and 135 ; W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e be tween 84 and 135 ; and G e n e r a l Know ledge A c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s r a n g e d be tween 75 and 135 . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s was no t c o l l e c t e d b e c a u s e D i s t r i c t p o l i c y p r e v e n t e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r f r o m g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 39 S e l e c t i o n o f t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p . In o r d e r t o d e v e l o p the p a r a m e t e r s f o r t he r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , a s t r a t i f i e d random samp le o f 34 c a s e s ( t he P r e d i c t o r G r o u p ) were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e e n t i r e s amp le o f 102 s u b j e c t s u s i n g t h e SPSS c o m p u t e r p rog ramme , R a n g e . In o r d e r t o r a n d o m l y s e l e c t t h e s e 34 c a s e s , the e n t i r e s amp le was g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o W e c h s l e r ' s (1967) a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6. T a b l e 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s i n t h e P r e d i c t o r and S t u d y G r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o W e c h s l e r ' s (1967) A b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n A b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n N P r e d i c t o r G r o u p S t u d y G r o u p V e r y S u p e r i o r (130+) 1 3 4 •9 S u p e r i o r (120-129 ) 28 9 19 B r i g h t (110-119) 31 1 0 21 A v e r a g e (90-109) 26 9 1 6 D u l l No rma l 4 1 3 T o t a l s 1 02 34 68 The P r e d i c t o r G r o u p r e p r e s e n t s o n e - t h i r d o f t he e n t i r e s a m p l e . As T a b l e 6 i l l u s t r a t e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t he 40 s u b j e c t s w i t h i n e a c h a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p . S i x t y - e i g h t s u b j e c t s c o m p r i s e d t h e S t u d y G r o u p . S u b s a m p l e C o m p a r i s o n s The f i r s t s t a g e s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d on d e s c r i b i n g t h e two s u b s a m p l e s i n t e r m s of t h e i r means , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s be tween the I .Q . and A c h i e v e m e n t m e a s u r e s . T h e s e v a l u e s were o b t a i n e d f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e means , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s be tween t h e s u b g r o u p s was drawn i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f r o m the P r e d i c t o r G r o u p a p p r o x i m a t e d t h o s e o f t h e S t u d y G r o u p . S e c o n d , t he v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p were n e e d e d i n o r d e r t o b u i l d t he p a r a m e t e r s f o r t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . T h e s e v a l u e s were t h e n a p p l i e d t o t he S t u d y G r o u p . T a b l e s 7 and 8 i l l u s t r a t e t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e P r e d i c t o r and S t u d y G r o u p s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t he P r e d i c t o r G r o u p r e a s o n a b l y a p p r o x i m a t e t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e S t u d y G r o u p . 41 T a b l e 7 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p N=34 V a r i a b l e Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n F u l l S c a l e IQ 1 14 .44 1 3 .76 R e a d i n g 1 12 .76 1 4 . 3 6 M a t h e m a t i c s 103 .38 13.31 W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e 108 .47 1 3 .79 G e n e r a l Know ledge 106.11 1 4 . 7 9 T a b l e 8 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n f o r t he S t u d y G r o u p N=68 V a r i a b l e Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n F u l l S c a l e IQ 115 .94 1 2 .98 R e a d i n g 1 1 3 . 1 9 13 .17 Mathemat i c s 103 .13 1 0 . 8 9 W r i t t e n L anguage 106 .82 1 3 . 5 0 G e n e r a l Know ledge 104 .98 1 3 .36 F i g u r e 1 c o m p a r e s t he c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p t o t he v a l u e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e S t u d y 42 G r o u p . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s and W r i t t e n L anguage were s i m i l a r . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t be tween G e n e r a l Know ledge and WPPSI f u l l S c a l e IQ d i f f e r s by 17 p o i n t s be tween the P r e d i c t o r and S t u d y G r o u p s . The d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e l i m i t s . F i g u r e 1 A C o m p a r i s o n o f P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s be tween t h e P r e d i c t o r and S t u d y G r o u p s 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 C o r r e l a t i on 40 be tween 35 IQ and 30 A c h i e v e m e n t 25 20 1 5 10 R e a d i n g M a t h e m a t i c s W r i t t e n G e n e r a l L anguage Know l edge A c h i e v e m e n t C l u s t e r s • F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e w i t h A c h i e v e m e n t - S t u d y G r o u p ° F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e w i t h A c h i e v e m e n t - P r e d i c t o r G r o u p 44 T a b l e s 9 and 10 i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and G e n e r a l Know ledge f o r t he P r e d i c t o r and S t u d y G r o u p s r e s p e c t i v e l y . W i t h i n t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p , t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d w i t h W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e . W r i t t e n Language c o r r e l a t e d .86 w i t h R e a d i n g , . 76 w i t h M a t h e m a t i c s , and .70 w i t h G e n e r a l K n o w l e d g e . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om 0 (p < .01 ) . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t he S t u d y G r o u p , t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were be tween W r i t t e n Language and R e a d i n g ( . 8 0 ) ; and M a t h e m a t i c s and R e a d i n g ( . 7 1 ) . G e n e r a l Know ledge c o r r e l a t e d .57 w i t h W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m 0 (p < . 0 0 1 ) . 45 T a b l e 9 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween IQ and A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s f o r t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p (N=34) F u l l S c a l e R e a d i n g M a t h e m a t i c s W r i t t e n G e n e r a l IQ L a n g u a g e Know ledge F u l l S c a l e IQ .51 .65 .60 .80 R e a d i n g .65 .86 .57 M a t h e m a t i c s .76 .58 W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e .70 G e n e r a l Know ledge p < .01 46 T a b l e 10 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween IQ and A c h i e v e m e n t S c o r e s f o r t h e S t u d y G r o u p N=68 F u l l S c a l e IQ R e a d i n g Ma th W r i t L a n g G e n e r a l Know ledge F u l l S c a l e IQ .49 .51 .51 .60 R e a d i n g .71 .80 .58 M a t h e m a t i c s .62 .47 W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e .57 G e n e r a l Know ledge p < .001 R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s The c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween WPPSI F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e and R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e , and G e n e r a l Know ledge o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e P r e d i c t o r G r o u p were t h e n u s e d t o b u i l d t he p a r a m e t e r s f o r t he r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . F o u r r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d . One f o r e a c h a r e a o f a c h i e v e m e n t . The p a r a m e t e r s f o r e a c h r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 11 . 47 T a b l e 11 P a r a m e t e r s U s e d t o B u i l d t h e R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s i n e a c h A r e a o f A c h i e v e m e n t S t a n d a r d S l o p e I n t e r c e p t E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e R e a d i n g 0 .537 5 1 . 3 3 12.51 M a t h e m a t i c s 0 .634 3 0 . 8 5 10.21 W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e 0 .607 3 9 . 0 3 11 .14 G e n e r a l Know ledge 0 .862 7 .46 8 .96 R e s u l t s o f t he R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12. I f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y be tween t h e s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d s c o r e d i f f e r e d f r o m h i s p r e d i c t e d s c o r e by - 1 . 0 0 s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e , t h e n h e / s h e was i d e n t i f i e d a s an u n d e r a c h i e v e r i n t h a t s u b j e c t a r e a . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 20% o f t he S t u d y G r o u p were f o u n d t o be u n d e r a c h i e v i n g i n a t l e a s t two s u b j e c t a r e a s . U n d e r a c h i e v e r s a r e i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k . 48 T a b l e 12 R e s u l t s of the R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s Repor ted i n Standard E r r o r s of E s t i m a t e S u b - Reading Mathematics W r i t t e n Lang G e n . Knowledge F u l l S c a l e j e c t A c h i e v e Achievement Achievement Achievement IQ Score 1 - . 1 0 .26 .68 .93 78 2 - . 1 5 - 1 . 1 2 * - . 4 0 .22 83 3 0 .91 1 .92 1 .03 85 4 - . 3 5 .09 - . 1 5 - .71 95 5 - 1 . 0 4 * - . 6 8 - . 6 7 - . 44 98 6 - . 0 4 . 1 4 - . 2 8 - . 9 8 99 7 .28 .43 - . 3 7 - .31 99 8 . 1 1 - . 2 8 - 1 . 2 9 * .50 101 9 .47 .24 - . 3 5 - .71 102 10 1 .03 1 .03 .63 1 .07 102 1 1 .79 1 .42 1 . 53 2; 30 102 1 2 .99 1 .36 .49 .64 103 1 3 - . 5 0 .39 - 1.38* - 1 . 4 3 * 1 06 1 4 .22 . 1 9 - . 6 6 - 1 . 8 8 * 106 1 5 - . 3 8 - . 3 6 -.81 2.49 1.07 1 6 - . 9 4 - . 6 5 -1 .79* - . 9 7 107 1 7 - . 5 4 .03 -1 .25* 1 .93 107 18 - . 6 3 - . 2 9 .70 .06 1 07 19 - 1 . 5 9 * - . 7 8 - . 74 - 1 . 0 5 * 109 20 - 1 . 5 1 * - . 4 9 - 2 . 4 4 * .06 109 21 1 .65 .24 1 .09 - . 4 3 1 1 0 22 - . 4 3 1 .02 .56 - . 0 3 1 1 0 23 - . 4 3 1 .1 2 - . 9 7 - . 3 7 1 1 0 24 . 08 - .41 - . 4 9 1.21 1 1 1 25 .92 . 1 1 .63 .45 1 1 2 26 .64 .64 .30 .24 1 1 3 27 .08 1.13 - . 24 .35 1 1 3 28 - 2 . 5 2 * - 1 . 2 9 * - 1 . 9 1 * - 1 . 6 4 * 1 1 4 29 1 .47 1 .46 .97 1.81 1 1 4 30 .07 .81 .28 - 2 . 3 0 * 1 1 5 31 . 1 9 - . 1 4 - 1 . 1 2 * -1 .39 1 1 5 32 - . 5 7 - . 0 7 - 1 . 8 7 * - 1 . 1 8 * 1 16 33 - . 3 7 - . 9 2 - . 7 6 .28 1 16 34 - . 0 5 - 1 . 4 1 * .23 - . 0 5 1 1 6 35 .58 - . 0 6 .39 - 1 . 0 2 * 1 18 36 1 .62 .23 1 .29 .54 1 18 37 - . 3 8 - . 0 6 - 1 . 3 2 * - . 5 8 118 38 - . 4 2 - 1 . 3 0 * - . 3 8 .78 119 39 1 .26 1 . 44 .07 .22 1 19 40 .62 .36 .69 . 1 1 119 41 - . 2 6 - .91 - 1 . 3 7 * .22 119 49 T a b l e 13 R e s u l t s o f t h e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s R e p o r t e d i n S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e ( c o n t i n u e d ) 42 - . 4 6 - 1 . 4 6 * - . 4 4 - 2 . 0 0 * 1 20 43 .74 - . 3 0 .28 - . 5 5 1 20 44 .58 - . 3 8 .73 - . 3 2 1 20 45 .93 .73 .76 .36 121 44 . 89 1.16 1 . 34 . 1 5 1 23 47 .33 - . 9 0 - . 1 9 .93 1 22 48 - . 4 3 .21 .21 1 . 40 1 23 49 1 . 32 .97 1 .80 - . 8 0 1 25 50 1 . 00 . 19 . 1 9 - 1 . 1 4 * 1 25 51 - . 4 8 . 1 2 - 1 . 7 5 - . 9 0 1 26 52 - 1 . 2 8 * - 1 . 5 4 * -1 .66 - . 5 7 1 26 53 .04 - . 4 3 .26 .23 1 27 54 . 1 2 - 1 . 6 0 * - 1 . 8 1 * - 2 . 7 8 * 1 27 55 .12 1 .63 .26 - 1 . 7 8 * 127 56 .68 . 36 -.01 - . 6 6 1 27 57 - . 3 6 . 53 .35 - . 6 6 1 27 58 - 2 . 1 6 * - 2 . 4 5 * - 2 . 2 2 * -1 . 3 2 * 1 28 59 - . 0 5 - 2 . 4 1 * .96 - . 8 5 1 29 60 - 1 . 4 9 * - 1 . 3 4 * - 1 . 1 1 * - 3 . 4 2 * 1 29 61 -1 . 53 .61 - 2 . 2 4 - . 9 5 1 30 62 1 . 06 . 50 .40 .85 131 63 - . 4 2 - 1 . 7 2 * - . 5 5 1 . 53 1 32 64 .94 .21 .95 . 34 1 34 65 - . 9 8 -1 . 5 5 * - . 4 8 - 1 . 6 7 * 1 34 66 .81 . 52 -.11 .61 1 37 67 - 2 . 1 2 * - . 7 5 -1 .44 -3.81 1 40 68 .59 - . 4 8 .88 .57 1 42 * i n d i c a t e s u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t H y p o t h e s i s One The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and the R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L anguage and G e n e r a l Know ledge a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t he W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y a r e no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om z e r o i n a g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . Me thod o f A n a l y s i s . P e a r s o n ' s p r o d u c t moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( r ) was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and 50 t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m z e r o . D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s . T a b l e 14 p r e s e n t s t he c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s w i t h t h e f o u r a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t h e Woodcock- J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y f o r t h e e n t i r e s a m p l e . The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were be tween t h e WPPSI V e r b a l IQ s c o r e and G e n e r a l Know ledge ( . 69 ) c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by WPPSI F u l l S c a l e IQ and G e n e r a l Know ledge ( . 6 7 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ and t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m z e r o (p < . 0 1 ) . T a b l e 15 c o m p a r e s t h e r e s u l t s o f p a s t s t u d i e s c o r r e l a t i n g WPPSI IQ s c o r e s w i t h o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o p a s t s t u d i e s . 51 T a b l e 14 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s : V e r b a l P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ S c o r e s w i t h t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s N=102 A c h i e v e m e n t A r e a IQ S u b t e s t s R e a d i n g Ma th W r i t t e n Lang G . Know ledge V e r b a l . 4 3 * . 5 0 * . 4 7 * . 6 9 * P e r f o r m a n c e . 4 6 * , 4 9 * . 4 7 * . 4 7 * F u l l S c a l e . 5 0 * . 5 7 * . 5 4 * . 6 7 * * p < .05 52 T a b l e 15 A C o m p a r i s o n o f WPPSI IQs and R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t A c r o s s S t u d i e s S t u d y and R e a d i n g T e s t V e r b a l IQ Per f o r m a n c e IQ F u l l S c a l e IQ W h i t e & J a c o b s , 1979 . 5 4 * * . 5 1 * * . 5 8 * * G r a y O r a l R e a d i n g F e s h b a c h e t a l 1975 . 4 7 * * . 4 4 * * . 3 8 * * G a t e s M a c G i n i t e L i e b l i c h & S h i n a r 1975 . 5 7 * * . 6 1 * * . 6 3 * * I s r a e l i O b j e c t i v e T e s t s o f S c h o o l A c h i e v e m e n t i n R e a d i n g P l a n t S o u t h e r n 1968 .59 * * . 5 5 * * . 4 3 * * S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t Kaufman 1973 . 3 6 * M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t K r o f t , P e r k s 1982 . 4 3 * . 46* . 5 0 * W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y * p < .05 * * p < .01 N o t e . F rom " T h e P r e d i c t i o n o f F i r s t - G r a d e R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t f r o m WPPSI s c o r e s o f P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n " by D. R. W h i t e 53 and E. J a c o b s , P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s . 1979 , j _6 , 129 . H y p o t h e s i s Two: The i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f g r a d e one s t u d e n t s d o e s not e x c e e d 15%. M e t h o d o f A n a l y s i s . The C h i S q u a r e G o o d n e s s - o f - F i t T e s t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t e x c e e d e d t h e e x p e c t e d number o f 15 p e r c e n t . D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s . The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 17 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d . Twenty p e r c e n t o f t h e s amp le were i d e n t i f i e d as u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . T h i s f i n d i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t he .05 l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 54 T a b l e 16 I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e S t u d y Sample (N=68) U n d e r a c h i e v e r s N o r m a l & O v e r a c h i e v e r s T o t a l 14 54 68 T e s t R e s u l t s : x 2 = 6.71 (p < .05 ) H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p=.05 ) i n t h e i n c i d e n c e or f r e q u e n c y of u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( IQ 120+) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) and A v e r a g e ( IQ 80-109 ) g r o u p of f i r s t g r a d e r s (p = . 0 5 ) . Me thod of A n a l y s i s The C h i S q u a r e G o o d n e s s - o f - F i t T e s t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n any one g r o u p . D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 17 s u p p o r t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he number o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s a c r o s s t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s . 55 T a b l e 17 I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t a c r o s s T h r e e A b i l i t y G r o u p i n g s A v e r a g e B r i g h t S u p e r i o r T o t a l U n d e r a c h i e v e r 10 9 13 32 T e s t R e s u l t : x2 = .81 (p > .05 ) H y p o t h e s i s F o u r T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween WPPSI F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and e a c h o f t he a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n , n a m e l y , R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L anguage and G e n e r a l Know ledge f o r an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( IQ 120+) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) and A v e r a g e ( IQ 80- 109) g r o u p of f i r s t g r a d e r s . M e t h o d o f A n a l y s i s The a p p r o p r i a t e t - t e s t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween IQ and A c h i e v e m e n t a c r o s s t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s f o r t he A c h i e v e m e n t a r e a s shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o . D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s An a n a l y s i s o f t he d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e 56 c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween IQ and M a t h e m a t i c s i n t h e A v e r a g e and S u p e r i o r a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s , t ( . 9 5 ) = 2 . 4 1 , p_ < . 0 5 . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e d a t a a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t he c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween IQ and G e n e r a l Know ledge a c r o s s t he t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s t ( . 9 5 ) = 7 . 2 5 , £ < .05 and t ( . 9 5 ) = 1 .45 , p > 1.64 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d f o r M a t h e m a t i c s and R e a d i n g . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s s u p p o r t e d f o r b o t h W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and G e n e r a l K n o w l e d g e . T h i s m i x e d f i n d i n g t e n d s t o s u p p o r t t h e r e s u l t s o f h y p o t h e s i s t h r e e , n a m e l y , t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t he a b i l i t y r a n g e s . 57 T a b l e 18 R e l a t i o n s h i p be tween F u l l S c a l e IQ S c o r e and A r e a o f A c h i e v e m e n t A c r o s s t h r e e A b i l i t y G r o u p i n g s (n= l02 ) A c h i e v e m e n t A r e a A b i l i t y G r o u p i n g R e a d i n g M a t h e m a t i c s W r i t t e n Lang Know ledge A v e r a g e ( IQ 85-109) .13 . 5 7 * * * .024 . 5 0 * * N=3 1 B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) . 3 3 * .04 .17 . 4 1 * N=30 S u p e r i o r d Q 120-144) .11 . 2 7 * .20 . 3 2 * N = 41 * p_ < .05 * * p < .01 * * * p < .001 H y p o t h e s i s F i v e T h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he i n c i d e n c e o r f r e q u e n c y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . Me thod o f A n a l y s i s . The C h i S q u a r e S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t 58 o f A s s o c i a t i o n was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n boys o r g i r l s . D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s . The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 19 s u p p o r t t he a c c e p t a n c e o f t he n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t be tween m a l e s and f e m a l e s . T a b l e 19 I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n M a l e s and F e m a l e s M a l e s F e m a l e s T o t a l U n d e r a c h i e v e r s 8 6 14 T e s t R e s u l t : x 2 •= .28 (p > .05 ) T a b l e 20 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e number o f ma le and f e m a l e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s i n e a c h a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g . U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t was e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a c r o s s a l l a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g s . 59 T a b l e 20 I n c i d e n c e o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n M a l e s and F e m a l e s a c r o s s F o u r A b i l i t y L e v e l s A b i l i t y L e v e l N M a l e U n d e r a c h i e v e r s F ema l e U n d e r a c h i e v e r s V e r y S u p e r i o r 8 (130+) S u p e r i o r 19 (120-129 ) B r i g h t 21 (110-119 ) A v e r a g e 20 (90-109) T o t a l 68 8 6 H y p o t h e s i s S i x T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean WPPSI P e r f o r m a n c e or n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e be tween an A c h i e v i n g and U n d e r a c h i e v i n g g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . M e t h o d of A n a l y s i s . A t - t e s t was c o n d u c t e d on t h e mean P e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o f A c h i e v i n g and U n d e r a c h i e v i n g g r o u p s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t h e y were 60 s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 1 . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween the mean p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e o f A c h i e v e r s and U n d e r a c h i e v e r s . 61 T a b l e 21 C o m p a r i s o n o f Mean P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s ( t - t e s t ) N Mean P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e A c h i e v e r s 54 114 .83 U n d e r a c h i e v e r s 14 121 .93 T e s t R e s u l t : t = .08 (p > .05 ) Summary C h a p t e r f o u r began w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s ( s a m p l e , means , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ) u s e d t o b u i l d t h e p a r a m e t e r s f o r t he r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t he r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s were p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w e d by a r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . 62 CHAPTER V : D ISCUSS ION, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h i s p a p e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n f o c u s e s on a d i s c u s s i o n o f t he r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . The n e x t s e c t i o n s u m m a r i z e s t h e o b j e c t i v e s and r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s t he l i m i t a t i o n s o f t he s t u d y , c o n c l u s i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s H y p o t h e s i s O n e . The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and t h e R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and G e n e r a l Know ledge a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y a r e no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o i n a g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s R e s u l t . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween WPPSI IQ s c o r e s and t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o . D i s c u s s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s . No r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s have e x a m i n e d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t he W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y s c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) and the W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d were c o m p a r a b l e t o o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f e a r l y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t (Wh i t e & J a c o b s , 1 9 7 9 ; F e s h b a c h , 1 9 7 5 ) . The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n has two a d v a n t a g e s o v e r o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f e a r l y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t . F i r s t , t he t e s t c o v e r s a w ide age r a n g e and a c c o m o d a t e s a h i g h c e i l i n g . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a d v a n t a g e o u s when a s s e s s i n g t h e e a r l y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t o f 63 i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n s i n c e t h e s e c h i l d r e n may p e r f o r m s e v e r a l y e a r s b e y o n d t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t a r e a s ( T e r m a n , 1947 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . In a d d i t i o n , t h e t e s t c o v e r s a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f s c h o l a s t i c „ a c h i e v e m e n t . P a s t s t u d i e s (Woo-Sam & Z immerman, 1973 ; Kau fman , 1973 ; F e s h b a c h , 1975) have a c h i e v e d t h e i r h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l IQ S c o r e s and R e a d i n g ( . 5 9 ) . In t he p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l IQ and G e n e r a l Know ledge ( . 6 9 ) . Howeve r , few t e s t s o f e a r l y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t a s s e s s g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t one o f t h e e a r l y i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n i s t h e i r " r e m a r k a b l e memory f o r f a c t s and e v e n t s and an a m a z i n g r e p e r t o i r e o f know l edge i n one or more a r e a s o f e x p e r t i s e on s p e c i a l t o p i c s " ( W h i t m o r e , 1980 , p. 65- 6 6 ) , i t wou ld seem u s e f u l t o o b t a i n an i n d e x of t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t . The W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r s t o be a v a l u a b l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e e a r l y s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t o f s u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n due t o i t s h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e WPPSI, i t s h i g h c e i l i n g and b r o a d r a n g e o f c o n t e n t a r e a s . H y p o t h e s i s two . The i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f g r a d e one s t u d e n t s d o e s no t e x c e e d 15%. R e s u l t . The N u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h a t 20% o f t he samp le were u n d e r a c h i e v i n g i n a t l e a s t two s u b j e c t a r e a s , x 2 (65) = 6 . 7 1 , p_ < . 0 5 . D i s c u s s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e an 64 i n d i c a t i o n o f b o t h when the p a t t e r n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t b e g i n s and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t e x i s t s a t t h e g r a d e one l e v e l . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e s u l t s l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f Shaw & McCuen ( i 9 6 0 ) t h a t " t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o u n d e r a c h i e v e a c a d e m i c a l l y i s p r e s e n t when the u n d e r a c h i e v e r e n t e r s s c h o o l " ( p . 1 0 6 ) . A know ledge o f t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e p r o b l e m w i l l a l e r t e d u c a t o r s t o t h e n e e d f o r t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . As s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have s t r e s s e d , t h e e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n and r e m e d i a t i o n o f t he u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n i s c r i t i c a l " b e f o r e t h e y become t o o w e l l a d a p t e d t o t h e i r own p o o r work and s t u d y p a t t e r n s " ( O ' S h e a , 1970 , p. 2 5 7 , G o l d b e r g , 1958 ; Shaw & M c C u e n , 1960 ; P r i n g l e , 1970 ; W h i t m o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) . H y p o t h e s i s t h r e e . T h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e o r f r e q u e n c y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( IQ 120+) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) and A v e r a g e ( IQ 80-109) g r o u p of f i r s t g r a d e r s (p = . 0 5 ) . R e s u l t The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d . The i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t d i d no t o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y g r o u p i n g , x 2 (65) = . 8 1 , p < . 0 5 . D i s c u s s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s A l t h o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y among s t u d e n t s o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s , no known s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o c o n f i r m t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The e v i d e n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n a g r o u p o f g r a d e one s t u d e n t s 65 i s no t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a b i l i t y . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f L a v i n (1965) and T h o r n d i k e ( 1 9 6 3 ) . In t h e i r r e v i e w o f t he i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o s e l e c t u n d e r a c h i e v e r s t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s comment t h a t t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s i d e n t i f i e d a t t h e u p p e r end o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e d i s t r i b u t i o n may be due t o a s t a t i s t i c a l a r t i f a c t , and the f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t s o f r e g r e s s i o n . The f a i l u r e o f p a s t r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n s i d e r a r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t may have i n c o r r e c t l y m a g n i f i e d t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t a p p e a r s t o u n d e r a c h i e v e . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f p a s t r e s e a r c h e r s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d t h e need f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f t he l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n mode l as t h e s t a n d a r d method f o r i d e n t i f y i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e r s ( F a r q u h a r & P a y n e , 1964 ; A n n e s l e y , e t a l . , 1970 ; P i p p e r t & A r c h e r , 1963 ; T h o r n d i k e , 1963 ; D a v i s , 1959; R u t t e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . H y p o t h e s i s f o u r . T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween WPPSI F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and e a c h o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n , n a m e l y , R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and G e n e r a l Know ledge f o r an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( I Q 1 2 0 + ) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) and A v e r a g e (80-109) g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . R e s u l t . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d f o r M a t h e m a t i c s and R e a d i n g , t ( . 9 5 ) = 2 . 4 1 . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t he n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s s u p p o r t e d f o r W r i t t e n L anguage and G e n e r a l K n o w l e d g e , t ( . 9 5 ) = 1 . 4 5 . D i s c u s s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s l e n d f u r t h e r 66 s u p p o r t t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r h y p o t h e s i s t h r e e . I f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n a g r o u p o f I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s , t h e n one m i g h t e x p e c t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t o be u n i f o r m l y l owe r f o r t h i s g r o u p . Howeve r , s i n c e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s were f o u n d w i t h e q u a l f r e q u e n c y t h r o u g h o u t t h e a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between IQ and a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p do no t f o rm a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n , t h a t i s t h e y were no t c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h o r l o w . H y p o t h e s i s f i v e . T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n c i d e n c e or f r e q u e n c y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p of f i r s t g r a d e r s . R e s u l t s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s s u p p o r t e d . The i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r r e d w i t h e q u a l f r e q u e n c y i n m a l e s and f e m a l e s , x 2 (65) = . 2 8 , p > . 0 5 . D i s c u s s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d i s a g r e e w i t h t h o s e o f p a s t r e s e a r c h e r s (Shaw, 1961 ; Gowan, 1 9 6 4 ) . Gowan (1964) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f ma le u n d e r a c h i e v e r s may be p a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by " t h e f a c t t h a t more i s e x p e c t e d o f boys i n t he s e n s e o f i n c r e a s e d c o l l e g e g o i n g and e n t r a n c e t o p r o f e s s i o n s ( p . 2 9 9 ) . The f a i l u r e o f t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y a g r e a t e r number o f ma le u n d e r a c h i e v e r s may r e f l e c t c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f e m a l e s . I t may be t h a t f e m a l e s and m a l e s a r e now e q u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e p r e s s u r e s o f a c h i e v e m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e n o t i o n t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s p r i m a r i l y a ma le p r o b l e m (Shaw, 1961) s h o u l d be r e c o n s i d e r e d i n 67 l i g h t o f t h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d . H y p o t h e s i s s i x . T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean WPPSI P e r f o r m a n c e o r n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e be tween an A c h i e v i n g and U n d e r a c h i e v i n g g r o u p of f i r s t g r a d e r s . R e s u l t . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d . T h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean P e r f o r m a n c e IQ s c o r e s o f a c h i e v i n g and u n d e r a c h i e v i n g g r o u p o f g r a d e one s t u d e n t s , t (65) = . 0 8 , p_ > . 0 5 . D i s c u s s i o n and i m p l i c a t i o n s . C o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f Norman , C l a r k e & B e s s e m e r , ( 1 9 6 2 ) , t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r f a i l e d t o d i s c o v e r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e P e r f o r m a n c e IQ s c o r e s o f u n d e r a c h i e v i n g and a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s . One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e f a i l u r e t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s f i n d i n g may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h samp le as w e l l as the use o f d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s t o c o n d u c t t h e r e s e a r c h . Summary The c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o l l o w e d up P e r k s ' d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n p r o j e c t e n t i t l e d " T h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f A c a d e m i c a l l y A b l e K i n d e r g a r t e n C h i l d r e n " ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i s s e r t a t i o n i n p r o g r e s s ) . In t he f o l l o w - u p s t u d y t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d w h e t h e r a p a t t e r n o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as e a r l y as t h e f i r s t g r a d e and i f so t o what e x t e n t d o e s t he p r o b l e m e x i s t ? In a d d i t i o n , u s i n g a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s m o d e l t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a t t e m p t e d t o r e p l i c a t e t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s and c o n f i r m the h y p o t h e s i s o f p a s t r e s e a r c h e r s . To t h i s e n d , t he r e s e a r c h e r s o u g h t t o r e p l i c a t e 68 w h e t h e r a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f m a l e s and f e m a l e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s w o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d and whe the r u n d e r a c h i e v e r s d e m o n s t r a t e a h i g h e r n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r a d e q u a t e l y a c h i e v i n g p e e r s . The r e s e a r c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o c o n f i r m t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t he i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y among c h i l d r e n o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p e e r s . H y p o t h e s e s . S i x n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d . E a c h h y p o t h e s i s , f o l l o w e d by i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g i s l i s t e d b e l o w . 1. The c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween WPPSI V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e and F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and t h e R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n Language and G e n e r a l Know l edge a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n A c h i e v e m e n t B a t t e r y a r e no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om z e r o i n a g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . ( R e j e c t e d , p < . 0 5 ) . 2. The i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f g r a d e one s t u d e n t s d o e s no t e x c e e d 15%. ( R e j e c t e d , p < . 0 5 ) . 3. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e o r f r e q u e n c y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among an I n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( IQ 120+) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) and A v e r a g e (80-109) g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s (p = .05 ) ( A c c e p t e d , p > .05 ) . 4. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween WPPSI F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e s and e a c h o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s o f t he W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n , n a m e l y , R e a d i n g , M a t h e m a t i c s , W r i t t e n L a n g u a g e and G e n e r a l 69 Know ledge f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y S u p e r i o r ( IQ 120+) , B r i g h t ( IQ 110-119) and A v e r a g e ( IQ 80-109) g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . ( P a r t i a l l y R e j e c t e d , p_ > . 0 5 , P a r t i a l l y A c c e p t e d , p < . 0 5 ) . 5. T h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n c i d e n c e o r f r e q u e n c y o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t among a g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . ( S u p p o r t e d , p_ < . 0 5 ) . 6. T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean WPPSI P e r f o r m a n c e o r n o n - v e r b a l IQ s c o r e be tween an A c h i e v i n g and U n d e r a c h i e v i n g g r o u p o f f i r s t g r a d e r s . ( S u p p o r t e d , p < . 0 5 ) . C o n c l u s i o n s M a j o r f i n d i n g s . In t h i s s t u d y , t he r e s e a r c h e r has c o n f i r m e d t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f p a s t i n v e s t i g a t o r s t h a t t h e o n s e t o f t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t a s e a r l y a s t h e f i r s t g r a d e . M o r e o v e r , 20 % o f t h e c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d were f o u n d t o be u n d e r a c h i e v i n g i n a t l e a s t two s u b j e c t a r e a s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d c h a l l e n g e s t he f i n d i n g s o f p a s t r e s e a r c h . S h a w ' s (1961) a s s e r t i o n t h a t " t h e most u n i v e r s a l l y a g r e e d f i n d i n g i s t h a t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a ma le p r o b l e m " (p . 22) was no t s u p p o r t e d by t he c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . More s t r i k i n g p e r h a p s i s t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r t o d i s c o v e r a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n c h i l d r e n o f s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r p e e r s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s L a v i n ' s (1965) a s s e r t i o n t h a t i n s t u d i e s w h i c h f a i l t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f r e g r e s s i o n " s t u d e n t s o f v e r y h i g h a b i l i t y w i l l be o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e r g r o u p " ( p . 2 7 ) . One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e 70 number o f u n d e r a c h i e v e r s i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s i s due i n l a r g e measu re t o a s t a t i s t i c a l a r t i f a c t b o r n o f f a u l t y d e s i g n and s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o i d e n t i f y u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r f o u n d t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t he i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h samp le was r e s t r i c t e d t o s u b j e c t s who a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s . T h i s may have b i a s e d t h e s amp le t o w a r d s i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n f rom f a m i l i e s where a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i s v a l u e d and e n c o u r a g e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Shaw ( 1 9 6 1 ) , " u n d e r a c h i e v e r s t e n d t o come f r o m homes where t h e p a r e n t s have l e s s e d u c a t i o n t h a n a c h i e v e r s . . . and t h e i r v a l u e s t e n d t o be e i t h e r n e u t r a l o r n e g a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n w h i l e t he p a r e n t s o f a c h i e v e r s t e n d t o v a l u e e d u c a t i o n p o s i t i v e l y " ( p . 2 2 ) . One m i g h t s p e c u l a t e t h a t p a r e n t s who c o n s e n t e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t v a l u e e d u c a t i o n p o s i t i v e l y . Unde r i d e a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , P e r k s ' e n t i r e s amp le o f 160 c h i l d r e n w o u l d have been i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w - u p s t u d y i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h i n a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n . L a v i n (1965) s u g g e s t s t h a t " a b i l i t y and s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e a r e more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d f o r f e m a l e s t h a n f o r m a l e s . " Due t o t h e l i m i t e d s a m p l e s i z e , t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d no t a n a l y z e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween IQ and a c h i e v e m e n t f o r boys and g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y . A c c o r d i n g t o L a v i n ( i b i d ) , " t h i s means t h a t 71 when m a l e s and f e m a l e s a r e no t s e p a r a t e d i n a n a l y s i s , t h e m a g n i t u d e o f c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween a b i l i t y and s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e t r u e l e v e l f o r t he s e x e s s e p a r a t e l y " ( p . 4 4 ) . I f t h e s amp le s i z e i n t h e c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n were l a r g e r , s e p a r a t e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s i n e a c h o f t he f o u r a c h i e v e m e n t a r e a s wou ld have been c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r e a c h s e x , y i e l d i n g a t o t a l o f e i g h t r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h wou ld s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e t he a c c u r a c y i n i d e n t i f y i n g t he i n c i d e n c e o f ma le and f e m a l e u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . In h e r programme f o r " g i f t e d " u n d e r a c h i e v e r s , Wh i tmore (1980) comments t h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n may be c a u s e d by d e l a y s i n t he d e v e l o p m e n t of v i s u a l - m o t o r p e r c e p t i o n , d i r e c t i o n a l i t y and d o m i n a n c e . " T h e s e p h y s i c a l , m a t u r a t i o n a l d e f i c i t s , w h i c h may i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e m a s t e r y o f b a s i c s k i l l s i n t h e p r i m a r y g r a d e s a r e t he most common and s u b t l e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t may c o n t r i b u t e t o e a r l y f a i l u r e e x p e r i e n c e s " ( p . 1 8 4 ) . T h e s e d a t a f a i l t o d i s t i n g u i s h be tween t h e c h i l d who u n d e r a c h i e v e s due to- d e l a y s i n d e v e l o p m e n t f rom t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e r whose m a t u r a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s commensu ra t e w i t h h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e . The c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was f u r t h e r l i m i t e d i n t h a t o n l y one v a r i a b l e ( IQ) was u s e d t o p r e d i c t a c h i e v e m e n t . The v a r i a b l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s o n l y one f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . The p r e d i c t i v e power o f t he s t u d y w o u l d have been i n c r e a s e d i f n o n i n t e l l e c t i v e . v a r i a b l e s s u c h as s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l , 72 m o t i v a t i o n a l and f a m i l i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were u s e d i n t he p r e d i c t i o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I t wou ld be o f v a l u e f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o c o n t i n u e f o l l o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n and t o a s s e s s t h e e a r l y s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l and m o t i v a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . In a d d i t i o n , i t wou ld be o f i n t e r e s t t o examine w h e t h e r t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n m a l e s a r e d i f f e r e n t or o p e r a t e d i f f e r e n t l y f r om t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n f e m a l e s ( L a v i n , 1 9 6 5 ) . F u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t o r s may d e v e l o p s e v e r a l p rogrammes of i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as u n d e r a c h i e v e r s and a s s e s s t he d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e a c h . I t wou ld be o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r t o f o l l o w the a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e same c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s whe the r t h e r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e o f u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t r e m a i n s e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t he a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n o v e r t i m e o r w h e t h e r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t b e g i n s t o p r e d o m i n a t e w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y l e v e l . F u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t o r s m i g h t examine whe the r s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e t o u n d e r a c h i e v e i n t h e same s u b j e c t a r e a s o r w h e t h e r u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t becomes more w i d e s p r e a d and w o r s e n s i n s e v e r i t y i n s u c c e s s i v e s c h o o l y e a r s . Summary C h a p t e r f i v e began w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s and e x a m i n e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f e a c h f i n d i n g . The c h a p t e r c o n t i n u e d w i t h a summary o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n 73 and c o n c l u d e d w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 74 REFERENCES A n n e s l e y , F . , O d h n e r , F . , M a d o f f , E . , & C h a n s k y , N. I d e n t i f y i n g t h e f i r s t g r a d e u n d e r a c h i e v e r . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1 9 7 0 , . 6 3 , 4 5 9 - 4 6 2 . A s b u r y , C . S e l e c t e d f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g o v e r and u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n young s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n . Rev iew o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1974, 4 4 ( 4 ) , 4 0 9 - 4 2 7 . B a r r e t t , H. 0 . An I n t e n s i v e S t u d y o f T h i r t y - t w o G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1957 , 3 6 , 192- 194. B i r c h , J . W. , & R e y n o l d s , M. C . The G i f t e d : Rev iew o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1963 , 3_3 (1 ) , 8 3 - 9 8 . B u s h , W. J . , & M a t t s o n , B. D. Wise T e s t p a t t e r n s and u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1973 , 6 ( 4 ) , 2 5 1 - 2 5 6 . D a v i s , W. E. P r o b l e m s o l v i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o f o v e r and u n d e r a c h i e v e r s . ( D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n v e r , 1 9 5 9 ) . D ' H e u r l e , E. A . , M e l l i n g e r , J . C , H a g g a r d , E. A . P e r s o n a l i t y , i n t e l l e c t u a l and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s i n g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . P s y c h o l o g y M o n o g r a p h , 1959 , 7_3 ( 1 3 ) , 1-28. D u l l e s , R. J . The My th o f U n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y , 1961 , 3 5 ( 3 ) , 121-122 . F a r q u h a r , W. W., & P a y n e , D. A . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n o f t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n s e l e c t i n g unde r and o v e r a c h i e v e r s . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1964, 4 2 , 8 7 4 - 8 8 4 . F e s h b a c h , S . , A d e l m a n , H . , & F u l l e r , W. The p r e d i c t i o n o f r e a d i n g and r e l a t e d a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , D e n v e r , 1975 . F o x , A . E . K i n d e r g a r t e n : F o r g o t t e n y e a r f o r t h e g i f t e d ? The G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 1971 , 4 3 - 4 9 . G a l l a g h e r , J . J . , & L u c i t o , L. J . I n t e l l e c t u a l p a t t e r n s o f g i f t e d c o m p a r e d w i t h a v e r a g e and r e t a r d e d . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1961 , 2 7 , 4 7 9 - 4 8 2 . G a l l a g h e r , J a m e s , J . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . A r e s e a r c h summary, 1966 . In W. B. B a rbe & J . S. R e n z u l l i ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n o f t he G i f t e d . New Y o r k : I r v i n g t o n P u b l i s h e r s I n c . , 1975 . 75 G o l d b e r g , M. L. R e c e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e t a l e n t e d . 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A c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n : A c o m p a r a t i v e a p p r o a c h . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1978, 6 1 8 - 6 1 9 . N e w l a n d , E . T . The G i f t e d i n S o c i o e d u c a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1976 . Norman , R. D . , C l a r k , B. P . , B e s s e m e r , D. W. A g e , s e x , I .Q . and a c h i e v e m e n t p a t t e r n s i n a c h i e v i n g and n o n a c h i e v i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 1962 , 116-123 . O l d r i d g e , 0 . A . , & A l l i s o n , E. E. Rev iew o f t he W e c h s l e r P r e s c h o o l and P r i m a r y S c a l e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI) J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t , 1968 , 5, 3 4 7 - 3 4 8 . O ' S h e a , A . Low a c h i e v e m e n t syndrome among b r i g h t j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l b o y s . The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1970 , 76 6 3 ( 6 ) 2 5 6 - 2 6 2 . P e r k s , B. A . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f A c a d e m i c a l l y - A b l e K i n d e r g a r t e n C h i l d r e n . D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h P r o p o s a l , 1 9 8 1 . P i p p e r t , R., & A r c h e r , S. N. A c o m p a r i s o n o f two methods o f c l a s s i f y i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s e l e c t e d c r i t e r i a . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 3 , 4J_, 7 8 8 - 791 . P o w e r s , S. M. The v a l i d i t y o f t h e Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t i n p r e d i c t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t g r a d e . E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t . 1 9 7 4 , 3_4, 1 0 0 3 - 1 0 0 7 . P o w e r s , S. M. The Vane K i n d e r g a r t e n T e s t : T e m p o r a l s t a b i l i t y and a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t b e h a v i o u r a l c r i t e r i a . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1 9 7 7 , _ U , p. 3 4 - 6 . P r i n g l e , M. L. A b l e M i s f i t s . The N a t i o n a l B u r e a u f o r C o - o p e r a t i o n i n C h i l d C a r e , 1 9 7 0 . R e l l a s , A . The use o f t h e WPPSI i n t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 1 9 6 9 , 2 0 , 117-119. R u s c h i v a l , L . M . , & Way, G . J . The WPPSI and t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t : A v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y u s i n g g i f t e d p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 7 1 , 3 7 ( 1 ) . R u t t e r , M. H e l p i n g T r o u b l e d C h i l d r e n . 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