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Assessing crime victims' coping needs Krakow, Nathan 1990

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ASSESSING CRIME VICTIMS' COPING NEEDS By NATHAN KRAKOW Diploma, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology)  We accept  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 ©Nathan  Krakow, 1990  In  presenting this  degree  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written, permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT  There to  i s mounting  evidence that p s y c h o l o g i c a l  criminal victimization  longerlasting, originally  c a n be  f a r more s e v e r e , much  and r e c o v e r y l e s s c o m p l e t e  thought.  The p l i g h t  t h a n had  been  of crime v i c t i m s i s o f t e n  compounded by a s u s p e c t i b i l i t y t o a aggravation of t h e i r d i s t r e s s ,  1  second wound ,  or  1  a r i s i n g from the n e g l e c t or  m i s t r e a t m e n t by t h o s e whom v i c t i m s r e l y There  reactions  on f o r s u p p o r t .  i s , a t t h e same t i m e , e v i d e n c e t h a t b o t h t h e  justice  system  criminal  and t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n h a v e  been i l l - e q u i p p e d t o a d e q u a t e l y t e n d t o t h e needs o f p o p u l a t i o n . Despite a growing victimization  counselling  criminology), there i s a lack  i n t e g r a t i o n of v i c t i m i z a t i o n - r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h both and w i t h i n t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s . As a r e s u l t , c r i m e v i c t i m s and t h e i r i n the l i t e r a t u r e In  families  those  of  across  counselling  find insufficient  guidance  for intervening with this population.  the a f t e r m a t h of t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e , v i c t i m s need t o  r e g a i n what was safety, trust,  a b r u p t l y t a k e n from them  an a s s e s s m e n t  (i.e.,  a sense  agency, s e l f - e s t e e m , i n t i m a c y , a sense  w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l ) . To f a c i l i t a t e of crime v i c t i m s '  post-trauma  distinguishes victims'  of  of the  counselling,  c o p i n g needs i s p r e s e n t e d i n  t h e c o n t e x t o f an i n t e r v e n t i v e f r a m e w o r k . The  victims'  this  research interest i n  (e.g., s o c i a l psychology,  psychology, psychiatry,  often  framework  i d e n t i f i e d needs a c c o r d i n g t o  i n t e r m e d i a t e v s . l o n g - t e r m c o p i n g needs,  (1)  (2) what  iii  v i c t i m s n e e d f r o m o t h e r s v s . what t h e y c a n do f o r themselves, distinctions  and  (3) what v i c t i m s n e e d f r o m whom. T h e s e  serve to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e crime  adjustment processes. Furthermore,  victims'  these d i s t i n c t i o n s  r e q u i r e an i n t e g r a t i o n o f an o t h e r w i s e d i v e r s e v i c t i m i z a t i o n literature.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  CHAPTER 1  1  INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  1  The e m e r g e n c e o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n s t u d i e s  5  Statement o f t h e problem  6  Objectives  8  of t h e study  Contributions Definitions  of t h e study  10  of terms  12  L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e study  17  CHAPTER I I  19  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  19  THE PLIGHT OF CRIME VICTIMS  19  Society's  20  response t o v i c t i m s of crime  R e a s o n s f o r c o n c e r n , what t h e r e s e a r c h  shows  24  Crime v i c t i m s and t h e mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n  25  Experiencing  32  criminal victimization  Symptomology o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n Post-traumatic  stress disorder  "Victim stress disorder'  Victims'  of crime v i c t i m s  responses t o d i f f e r e n t crimes  Vulnerability  factors  Individual vulnerability Vulnerable  populations  38 40  What i t means t o be t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e Common e x p e r i e n c e s  34  41 42 49 52  factors  52 54  The i n t e r p e r s o n a l  reverberations  of crime  The p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t  55 60  The a d j u s t m e n t t r a j e c t o r y  61  Defining  63  Coping with Cognitive Social  successful  coping  victimization  66  adaptation  66  support  Explaining  75  reactions  to criminal victimization  CHAPTER I I I  83 93  A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CRIME V I C T I M S ' COPING NEEDS  93  Crime v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs  97  A need f o r p e r s o n a l  safety  99  A need t o t r u s t  103  A need f o r esteem  106  A need f o r i n t i m a c y  109  A need f o r agency  112  A need t o p e r c e i v e  t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l  Other r e l a t e d needs Directions Conclusion  f o r future  116 118  research  119 122  Appendix I  12 6  Appendix I I  127  REFERENCES  128  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY  Introduction Human f u n c t i o n i n g o f t e n d e p e n d s on c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e not r e a d i l y apparent. in  In fact, t h e r o l e o f these  s u s t a i n i n g everyday  life  conditions  may o n l y come t o l i g h t  t h e y have been d i s r u p t e d by abnormal  after  events and t h e  c o n s e q u e n c e s known. O u r k n o w l e d g e o f n o r m a l  brain  f u n c t i o n i n g h a s , f o r example, been c o n s i d e r a b l y advanced by the study o f performance individuals (see  (e.g., l e f t  deficits hemisphere  S p r i n g e r & Deutsch,  attachment  of brain  1981).  damaged  language  The c r i t i c a l  specialization) role of  i n i n f a n t d e v e l o p m e n t was o n l y made  a f t e r t h i s p r o c e s s was i m p e d e d a n d t h e a d v e r s e observed  apparent effects  (Damon, 1983) . E x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e l i f e  experiences  such as b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a crime can p r o f o u n d l y d i s r u p t one's l i f e .  A study o f v i c t i m s '  r e a c t i o n s t o such events can  e l a b o r a t e o u r knowledge o f o r d i n a r i l y  * invisible  1  p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes that support d a i l y  functioning.  Specifically,  certain  i t can provide i n s i g h t s  unquestioned assumptions themselves  or beliefs  into  individuals hold  about  and t h e i r w o r l d t h a t a r e o f t e n s h a t t e r e d o r  a c t i v a t e d by c r i s e s  such as c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n  B u l m a n , 1 9 8 9 ; McCann e t a l . , r o l e o f these assumptions  (Janoff-  1988). An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e  i ndaily  life  can, i n t u r n ,  help  2  to f a c i l i t a t e  t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f t h o s e who h a v e s u f f e r e d  harmful experiences,  such  •>  B e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e c a n be among t h e most traumatic  life  events  (Bard  & S a n g r e y , 1986; D a v i s &  F r i e d m a n , 1985; F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1979; G r e e n b e r g , Ruback & Westcott,  1983; R e i f f ,  with circumstances  1979). Crime c o n f r o n t s  t h a t c a n be e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s t r e s s f u l .  C r i m e v i c t i m s may l o s e t r e a s u r e d p o s s e s s i o n s .  They may  d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e i r homes a r e n o t s a f e a g a i n s t intrusion. Victims  i t s victims  can face a t h r e a t t o t h e i r  hostile lives,  and  r e a l i z e t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s n o r a l o v e d one against  attack.  seriously brutally fragility  Some may be p h y s i c a l l y a s s a u l t e d a n d  i n j u r e d . V i o l e n t crime, confront of l i f e ,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , can  i t s v i c t i m s and t h e i r  w i t h one's l i m i t e d c o n t r o l , and t h e  a r b i t r a r i n e s s of v i c t i m i z i n g events In t h e aftermath  (Downing,  of the crime,  offense  and o f f e n d e r - o r i e n t e d  1988).  victims often f a i l to  r e c e i v e needed s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e the  l o v e d ones w i t h t h e  (Rieff,  1 9 7 9 ) . Once i n  criminal justice  system,  v i c t i m s o f t e n f e e l reduced t o o b j e c t s by which t h e system p u r s u e s a c o n v i c t i o n . I n t h e wake o f s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s , v i c t i m s can s u f f e r acutely impaired for  psychosocial  an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e a n d f a c e c o p i n g  major p r o p o r t i o n s  functioning  tasks of  ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n , Madden & T i m k o ,  T h e r e i s an i n s i d i o u s n e s s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e crime that i s uniquely  crime  1983). of violent  d i s t u r b i n g . U n l i k e one who h a s b e e n  involved i n a natural disaster or accident,  the crime v i c t i m  3  is  confronted  by t h e f a c t t h a t  d e l i b e r a t e harm w h i c h may  (Janoff-Bulman,  be c i r c u m s c r i b e d  imaginings.  held  community,  justice,  and  them  1985a)—the dimensions of  o n l y by t h e v i c t i m ' s  I n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f human-induced  previously  tenable  someone i n t e n d s  assumptions about t h e s e l f , and one's f u t u r e  worse  violence,  others,  are often  no  longer  (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e , 1983). A c c o r d i n g t o F i s c h e r  Wertz  ( 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e c r i m e v i c t i m i s , as a r e s u l t ,  compelled: " . . . d e s p i t e p e r s o n a l r e s i s t a n c e , t o f a c e one's f e l l o w as p r e d a t o r a n d o n e s e l f as p r e y , e v e n when a l l t h e w h i l e a n t i c i p a t i n g consequences, p l a n n i n g , a c t i n g and l o o k i n g t o o t h e r s f o r a s s i s t a n c e . These e f f o r t s t o l i t t l e a v a i l , one e x p e r i e n c e s s e p a r a t e n e s s , helplessness i n the face of the c a l l o u s , i n s e n s i t i v e , o f t e n anonymous enemy" P r o f o u n d d i s r u p t i o n s t o one's s e l f - c o n c e p t , relationships with typically  others,  and i n one's l i f e  in  t o one's general  e n s u e i n t h e wake o f h u m a n - i n d u c e d v i c t i m i z a t i o n .  A c c o r d i n g t o McCann, S a k h e i m a n d A b r a h a m s o n has been v i c t i m i z e d w i l l  ( 1 9 8 8 ) , one  who  never again experience the  i n n o c e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n who  has n o t been t h e o b j e c t  of  violence. Psychological potentially  reactions  of crime v i c t i m s point  t o the  d i s r u p t i v e n a t u r e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n as  w e l l as t o i t s complex p s y c h o l o g y . A s e e m i n g l y m i n o r c r i m e can  b r i n g on i n t e n s e  Sangrey,  distress to i t s victims  1986). A f t e r a v i o l e n t a s s a u l t ,  some v i c t i m s  continue t o r e l i v e the crime through recurrent, flashbacks  (Frederick,  (Bard &  intrusive  1987). In h o s t a g e - t a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s ,  4  some v i c t i m s i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r c a p t o r s hostility  towards p o t e n t i a l rescuers  Syndrome)  (Ochberg,  The the  (i.e.,  psychological  Stockholm  impact o f crime o f t e n extends beyond through his/her  as w e l l a s t h e c o m m u n i t y a t l a r g e . T h i s reactions  with  1988).  v i c t i m and can r e v e r b e r a t e  intense  and r e a c t  social  i s evident  milieu  i nthe  crime v i c t i m s can evoke i n o t h e r s .  W i t n e s s e s t o a c r i m e and t h e l o v e d ones o f v i c t i m s c a n t h e m s e l v e s be p r o f o u n d l y Also,  others  traumatized  (Frederick,  1987).  are often uncomfortable i n the presence of  c r i m e v i c t i m s and f r e q u e n t l y  a v o i d them o r b l a m e t h e m f o r  h a v i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r own m i s f o r t u n e  ( C o a t e s , Wortman,  & A b b e y , 1 9 7 9 ) . M e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , whom v i c t i m s have t u r n e d  t o f o rhelp,  have t h e m s e l v e s o f t e n  s i m i l a r l y t o this population The contexts Rieff,  metaphor  reacted  (Downing, 1 9 8 8 ; Symonds,  'invisible'  1980).  has been used i n v a r i o u s  t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e p l i g h t of crime v i c t i m s  (e.g.,  1 9 7 9 ) . On one h a n d , i t was t o e m p h a s i z e v i c t i m s '  disenfranchised  status: the h i s t o r i c disregard  v i c t i m s by s o c i e t y 1 9 8 4 ) . On t h e o t h e r overlooked  (American P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Association,  h a n d , i t was t o h i g h l i g h t t h e f r e q u e n t l y  psychological  i n j u r y o f crime, t h e sense o f  v i o l a t i o n crime v i c t i m s endure  (Bard  & Sangrey, 1986).  many c r i m e v i c t i m s h a v e s t r u g g l e d t o r e m a i n "invisible', to conceal  of crime  often at great  t h e i r traumatic  psychological  Also,  socially  cost,  i n efforts  e x p e r i e n c e out o f g u i l t and  5  shame, a n d t o a v o i d a s w e l l t h e s o c i a l d e r o g a t i o n t h a t v i c t i m s must o f t e n e n d u r e The  (Coates e t a l . ,  crime  1979).  emergence o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n s t u d i e s The  last  the p l i g h t veterans,  decade has w i t n e s s e d a h e i g h t e n e d concern f o r  o f a h o s t o f v i c t i m i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s ( e . g . , combat incest surviviors,  rape v i c t i m s ) .  T h i s has been  p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e i n c r e a s e i n r e s e a r c h on s p e c i f i c v i c t i m groups,  a s w e l l a s on t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f  victimization.  Interest  r e f l e c t e d i n a growing  i n the experience of victims i s also l i t e r a t u r e and t h e o r e t i c a l  d e v e l o p m e n t on t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n  (i.e.,  social  s u p p o r t , s t r e s s and c o p i n g , c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n ) (see Janoff-Bulman  & Frieze,  1983; K e s s l e r , P r i c e ,  1985b; S i l v e r  & Wortman,  & Wortman,  1980).  A survey o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a host o f theoretical psychology  i n t e r e s t s i n t h e study of v i c t i m i z a t i o n .  Social  h a s f o c u s e d on i s s u e s s u c h a s common  psychological reactions of victims across a d i v e r s i t y of harmful l i f e disasters,  events  (e.g., major i l l n e s s ,  accidents)  (see Janoff-Bulman  T a y l o r , Wood & L i c h t m a n , about v i c t i m s and t h e i r (Coates e t a l . ,  1979),  1983),  crime,  natural  & F r i e z e , 1983;  t h e a t t r i b u t i o n s o t h e r s make  implications for victims'  coping  the r o l e of s o c i a l support i n  a l l e v i a t i n g the distress of unfortunate life-events & Lehman, 1 9 8 5 ) , help  (Wortman  and circumstances under which v i c t i m s  (Fisher, Goff, Nadler & Chinsky,  p s y c h i a t r y has concerned  1988).  seek  The f i e l d o f  i t s e l f w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  6  physiological  symptoms o f t r a u m a a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  r e l a t e d t h e r a p i e s . The A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n (1980) h a s , i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e , f o r m u l a t e d category, the  the 'post-traumatic  a new  s t r e s s d i s o r d e r ' t o encompass  c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f symptoms o f d i s t r e s s t h a t  unusually of t h i s  traumatic  original  life  experiences.  formulation  diagnostic  follow  A subsequent r e v i s i o n  (APA, 1987: F r e d e r i c k ,  1987)  shows a t r e n d t o w a r d e x p a n d e d d i a g n o s t i c a n d i n c l u s i o n criteria. distinct study  Criminology  has, i n recent  years,  s u b - d i s c i p l i n e , v i c t i m o l o g y , whose f o c u s  o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a r m e d by i l l e g a l  Initially  spawned a  victimology  controversial  limited itself  acts  i s the  (Karmen,  1984).  t o t h e somewhat  i n q u i r y i n t o how c r i m e v i c t i m s  may  i n a d v e r t e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r own v i c t i m i z a t i o n . recently,  v i c t i m o l o g y has committed i t s e l f  crime v i c t i m s ' readjustment. criminology social  In t h i s  has j o i n e d w i t h o t h e r  and m e d i c a l  sciences  More  t o the study  sense, t h e f i e l d  disciplines  i n a common g o a l  of  of  i n both the of ameliorating  crime v i c t i m s ' s u f f e r i n g . Statement of t h e problem There i s mounting evidence t h a t  psychological  r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n c a n be f a r more much l o n g e r  lasting,  and r e c o v e r y  been o r i g i n a l l y thought 1984;  Silver  severe,  l e s s complete than had  (Meyer & T a y l o r ,  1986; S a l e s  & Wortman, 1980) . T h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s  et a l . ,  are  compounded b y c r i m e v i c t i m s ' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n a r i s i n g from t h e n e g l e c t  o r m a l t r e a t m e n t by  7  those v i c t i m s r e l y on f o r support, stigma toward t h i s p o p u l a t i o n  as w e l l as a s o c i a l  (Coates e t a l . , 1979; Symonds,  1980). The s u f f e r i n g of many crime v i c t i m s has been exacerbated as w e l l by the f a c t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s v i c t i m s have h i s t o r i c a l l y turned t o f o r h e l p or redress  (e.g., mental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s , s o c i a l  the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system) have f r e q u e n t l y been equipped t o adequately tend t o t h e i r needs Reiff,  agencies, ill-  (APA, 1984;  1979; Ochberg, 1988; Young, 1988)..The American  P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Task Force on the V i c t i m s o f Crime and V i o l e n c e  (APA, 1984) found a g e n e r a l  lack of  knowledge of v i c t i m i z a t i o n among mental h e a l t h professionals,  and has c a l l e d f o r the development o f  i d e n t i f i a b l e c l i n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n working with  victims  based on r e s e a r c h . The  development of s u i t a b l e c o u n s e l l i n g approaches f o r  crime v i c t i m s has been hindered  t o an extent by i n s u f f i c i e n t  t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g research across  f i n d i n g s both  and w i t h i n the v a r i e d d i s c i p l i n e s r e l a t e d t o  v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Despite  a growing r e s e a r c h  interest i n  v i c t i m i z a t i o n , t h e r e has been l i m i t e d d i a l o g u e w e l l as within)  the v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s s t u d y i n g  the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. unequivocally victims  across (as  For instance,  some  researchers  s t r e s s the importance of s o c i a l support f o r  ( F i g l e y , 1986; Sales et a l . , 1984), while  have found t h a t many support providers  aspects of  others  attempts o f w e l l - i n t e n d e d  are o f t e n p e r c e i v e d by v i c t i m s as u n h e l p f u l  8  (Lehman, E l l a r d , has  l i m i t e d the  critical  had  s c o p e o f i n q u i r y . As  to the  populations  & Wortman, 1 9 8 6 ) . T h i s  l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n  a result,  issues  a d j u s t m e n t o f c r i m e v i c t i m s and  have not  been s u f f i c i e n t l y  other  researched.  victim  This  has  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r those i n t e r v e n i n g with crime v i c t i m s .  Downing  (1988) f o u n d t h a t c r i m e v i c t i m s e r v i c e s  lack conceptual organize  frameworks from which t o d e f i n e g o a l s  of the study  study  c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h what i t means t o be  v i c t i m o f a c r i m e and an e v e n t .  and  interventions.  Objectives The  generally  how  one  copes i n the  aftermath  I t i s undertaken f o r the purpose of  interventions with t h i s population.  of  such  informing  These i n t e r v e n t i o n s  refer to e i t h e r d i r e c t counselling with t h i s population, c o n s u l t i n g t o t h o s e who interventive  the  i n t e r a c t with crime v i c t i m s .  framework f o r a s s e s s i n g  crime v i c t i m s '  or  An coping  needs i s d e v e l o p e d which d e l i n e a t e s v i c t i m s ' adjustment goals  and  and  counselling,  how this  i n t o p r o c e s s and l o n g - t e r m need trustworthiness victimization, (or  t h e y may  For the purposes  v i c t i m s ' coping  outcome c o u n s e l l i n g g o a l s . F o r ( o r outcome g o a l ) of others,  may  In other  identification  achieved.  framework o r d e r s  process goal)  alliance.  be  be met,  i n the  i n p a r t , by  an  a the  one's need  therapeutic  abstract to  ways t o meet them.  in  intermediate  framework goes beyond  of v i c t i m s ' needs i n t h e  d e l i n e a t i o n of concrete  example,  course of  o f an e m p a t h i c , n o n - j u d g m e n t a l words, t h e  needs  of a r e s t o r e d f a i t h  shattered  of  the the  9  T h i s study i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a knowledge base f o r counsellors to f a c i l i t a t e  the g e n e r a t i o n of informed  c l i n i c a l hypotheses  criminally victimized clients,  to  about  e l a b o r a t e c o u n s e l l o r s ' empathic  understanding of the  c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. V a r i o u s t h e o r i s t s Kohut, 1971;  Rogers,  empathy t o the c l i e n t  1961)  and  (e.g.,  have argued t h a t the conveying of  i s c r i t i c a l t o the t h e r a p e u t i c  p r o c e s s . Given the p s y c h o l o g i c a l complexity of r e a c t i o n s t o criminal victimization, facilitate  a needs assessment would h o p e f u l l y  the accuracy and depth of c o u n s e l l o r s '  empathic  understanding. In of  i t s l i t e r a t u r e review, t h i s study draws on a  range  t o p i c s t h a t bear on the experience of c r i m i n a l  v i c t i m i z a t i o n and subsequent  adjustment.  In doing so, i s s u e s  t h a t are o r d i n a r i l y addressed independently i n the l i t e r a t u r e are c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r . For example, t h i s study surveys v i c t i m s ' own and t h e i r r o l e i n adjustment--a i n the post-trauma  coping r e s o u r c e s  t o p i c c o n s p i c u o u s l y absence  therapy l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s i s s u e i s  subsequently d i s c u s s e d i n the context of i n t e r v e n t i o n s with v i c t i m s t h a t accommodate v i c t i m s ' indigenous coping strategies. to  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the study i n t e n d s t o c o n t r i b u t e  needed t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n an otherwise d i v e r s e  victimization  literature.  F o l l o w i n g the assessment of crime v i c t i m s ' needs, d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h are c o n s i d e r e d . Given the need f o r g r e a t e r t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of v i c t i m i z a t i o n  10  research, t h i s study i d e n t i f i e s c e r t a i n i n t e g r a t i v e  research  questions that  victims'  could  e l a b o r a t e our  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  c o p i n g . Areas of p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l been a l l u d e d  to  Contributions  i n the  of the  investigation  have  literature.  study  This study p r o v i d e s a comprehensive assessment crime v i c t i m s '  c o p i n g needs t o a s s i s t m e n t a l  practitioners in identifying intervention victims this  as  w e l l as  a means o f a c h i e v i n g  s t u d y accommodates t h e  reactions,  and  achieve t h i s ,  hence the  of  victims'  v a r i a n c e i n c o p i n g needs.  a framework i s d e v e l o p e d t o o r g a n i z e  such frameworks are  To victims'  i n t e g r a t i v e as b e a r on  e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . As out,  crime  them. F u r t h e r m o r e ,  f r o m v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s whose f i n d i n g s  points  health  goals for  wide v a r i a b i l i t y  c o p i n g needs. T h i s framework i s a l s o  of  i t draws  the  Downing  notably lacking  (1988) in  victim  services. The  framework used t o d e l i n e a t e  needs i s i n t e r v e n t i v e implications. victimized  i n scope, w i t h  I t s f o c u s i s not  crime v i c t i m s ' developmental  merely the  return  individuals to a previous state  of  Rather i t emphasizes i n d i v i d u a l growth i n the misfortune.  It defines victims'  range of experiences t h a t  coping  of  functioning. face  of  a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s as  f a c i l i t a t e the  a  development of  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f o n e s e l f and  the  G u i d a n o , 1988;  undifferentiated  views of the  Melito, s e l f and  1988). R e l a t i v e l y one's w o r l d are  world  more  c h a l l e n g e d or  (see  affirmed  11  by the v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . Coping, as d e l i n e a t e d i n the assessment framework, o f t e n i n v o l v e s the e l a b o r a t i o n one's b a s i c conceptual event i n an adaptive  system t o i n t e g r a t e the  of  traumatic  manner.  T h i s study p u l l s t o g e t h e r  a rather diverse  literature  i n a f i e l d t h a t i s as yet somewhat fragmentary i n i t s consideration process.  of the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience and  In doing so, the study helps t o capture  the  coping  the  experience of c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n i t s m u l t i p l e dimensions  (e.g.,  i t s phenomenology, symptomology,  i m p l i c a t i o n s ) . Various  social  d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t have c o n t r i b u t e d  our understanding of c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n are  to  identified  i n t h i s study. In drawing from these d i s c i p l i n e s , the  study  underscores the need f o r a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach t o the  study and treatment of crime v i c t i m s and  i n t e g r a t i o n i n theory  and  for  greater  research.  In t h i s study, a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o the c r i t i c a l for  need  informed i n t e r v e n t i o n with crime v i c t i m s and t h e i r z  f a m i l i e s , given the high r i s k to v i c t i m s from n e g l e c t  or  inadequate treatment by mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s i s i n accord  with concerns expressed i n the The  Psychological Association's Crime and V i o l e n c e In s t u d y i n g l e a r n of the  (APA,  Task Force on the V i c t i m s  of  1984).  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  impact of v i o l e n c e not  the human s p i r i t .  American  Crime can  i n j u r i e s of crime,  we  only to the body but  to  s t r i p away the essence of what  i n d i v i d u a l s need to f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s  (e.g.,  a  12  sense o f p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y , a c o n t r o l over one's body, a f a i t h i n t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of one's environment,  as w e l l as  a b e l i e f i n t h e t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s o f o t h e r s ) . Knowledge of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact of crime can h e l p us understand t h e sense o f v i o l a t i o n t h a t ensues from other forms of humaninduced v i c t i m i z a t i o n ,  i n c l u d i n g seemingly  "lesser' offenses  (e.g., wrongful d i s m i s s a l , sexual harrassment). I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l encourage  consideration of "victim  c o u n s e l l i n g ' as a needed s p e c i a l t y i n t h e f i e l d o f C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology. Douce harmful l i f e  (1988) argues t h a t v i c t i m s of  events are c o u n s e l l o r s ' "hidden  clients",  c o n s t i t u t i n g a v a s t l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of e x i s t i n g c l i e n t e l e than may be r e a l i z e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Douce, t h e i r "invisibility' tendency  stems from both c l i e n t s ' and c o u n s e l l o r s '  t o d i s c o u n t v i c t i m i z i n g experiences as sources o f  c u r r e n t problems.  Due t o l a c k of knowledge, c o u n s e l l o r s may  not r e c o g n i z e s i g n s of v i c t i m i z a t i o n , nor f a i l v i c t i m i z a t i o n h i s t o r y i n t h e i r assessment.  to include a  The American  P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Task Force on t h e V i c t i m s o f Crime and V i o l e n c e (APA, 1984) has recommended t h a t to  training  work with v i c t i m s be a p a r t of t h e graduate and p o s t -  graduate c u r r i c u l a i n psychology. D e f i n i t i o n s o f terms Although c o n c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s of p r i n c i p a l terms are needed t o convey meaning with c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n , they do not always  s u f f i c e . Some extended d e f i n i t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e  p r e s e n t e d t o o f f e r a f u l l e r sense o f important  concepts.  13  The who  has  illegal  term  "crime v i c t i m ' ,  suffered directly acts of another.  in this  study, r e f e r s to  as a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e n t i o n a l Increasing evidence of the  t r a u m a s u f f e r e d by w i t n e s s e s t o c r i m e and victims effectively  Frederick, of  this  1987;  (e.g., Bard & Sangrey,  Greenberg  s t u d y , however,  & Ruback, 1984).  "crime v i c t i m '  In  severe  i n fact,  1986;  For the  purposes  refers only to the  primary or d i r e c t v i c t i m of a crime. Others secondary  are c o n s i d e r e d  victims. this  study,  "victim'  r e f e r s t o one  who  has  suffered  harm i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s l a r g e l y b e y o n d h i s / h e r c o n t r o l . is,  and  l o v e d ones o f  e x p a n d s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f who,  i s v i c t i m i z e d by c r i m e  one  however, a c e r t a i n d i s c o m f o r t w i t h t h e t e r m  among some r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , Karmen, 1984; 1 9 8 8 ) . A euphemism, " s u r v i v o r ' ,  "victim'  McCann e t a l . ,  i s often preferred for i t s  c o n n o t a t i o n o f o p t i m i s m and t r a n s c e n d e n c e ; w h e r e a s can denote  h e l p l e s s n e s s and  There  s u b m i s s i o n . The  term  "victim'  "victim' i s  d e l i b e r a t e l y used here t o emphasize the s u f f e r i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as t h e u n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y v i c t i m i z i n g event. A l s o , the term  of the  "victim' unequivocally  r e l i e v e s the i n d i v i d u a l of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y victimization.  for his/her  T h i s i s a needed d i s t i n c t i o n g i v e n the  prevalence of a s o c i a l  stigma towards  stigma often manifests i t s e l f  or a v o i d a b i l i t y .  c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be  This  i n others blaming v i c t i m s ' f o r  t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e by c h a l l e n g i n g t h e uncontrollability  crime v i c t i m s .  crime's W h i l e a c r i m e may,  facilitated  by a v i c t i m ' s  under poor  14  judgement  (e.g., h i t c h h i k i n g ) ,  that a v i c t i m subsequently  t h i s does not n e g a t e t h e  loses c o n t r o l to the  d u r i n g the commission of a crime.  fact  another  B r i c k m a n e t a l . (1982)  have a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the onset  o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n and  responsibility  s u b s e q u e n t a d j u s t m e n t . W h i l e i n d i v i d u a l s may preventing their victimization, the process Taylor,  of t h e i r  recovery  t h e y may  be  (see S i l v e r  one's be  helpless in  very a c t i v e i n  & Wortman,  1 9 8 3 ) . Thus, t h e t e r m " v i c t i m ' n e e d n o t  perpetual  rhetorical  and be  terms  lack explanatory  r e s e a r c h . C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d be  of t h e i r s t r u g g l e . (e.g.,  for  power f o r t h e p u r p o s e s  wary o f t h e i r  l a r g e r s o c i e t y , p o s s i b l y expressed  of c e r t a i n extreme l i f e In  the v i c t i m i z a t i o n  suddenly  otherwise 1986;  full  negative  literature, "innocent  a crime  criminal  Janoff-Bulman,  to import  victim is  by-stander'  whose  d i s r u p t e d as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h  alien  in  events.  t y p i c a l l y p o r t r a y e d as an is  i n an a v e r s i o n  " v i c t i m ' t h a t convey the  of  own  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to v i c t i m - s t i g m a t i z i n g b e l i e f s prevalent  t e r m s s u c h as  as  therapeuticallyuseful i n exhorting  terms t h a t possess r h e t o r i c a l u t i l i t y  c o u n s e l l i n g ) may  of  f o r e x p l a n a t o r y p u r p o s e s . Terms s u c h  "victims' to appreciate heroic aspects  the  a  helplessness.  " s u r v i v o r ' may  But  1980;  connote  A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made b e t w e e n t h e u s e for  for  sub-culture  1983;  Lerner  (e.g., Bard  & Miller,  life  an & Sangrey,  1978) . T h i s  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s n o t e w o r t h y , as c e r t a i n t h e o r i e s o f  15  p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s to negative  life  events  crime) e x p l a i n trauma as a s h a t t e r i n g of an "innocence'  (e.g.,  law-abiding  b e l i e s the  stereotypic  earnest,  naive  and  f a c t t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l number of  crime v i c t i m s do not n e c e s s a r i l y f a l l is  apparent  Janoff-Bulman, 1983). T h i s  view of crime v i c t i m s as m i d d l e - c l a s s ,  (e.g.,  i n t h i s category. I t  reasonable t h e r e f o r e to ask to what extent  theories  e x p l a i n i n g r e a c t i o n s to v i c t i m i z a t i o n r e f l e c t the p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s t h a t have been a c c e s s i b l e to  researchers.  A "second wound' or "second i n j u r y ' r e f e r s t o a r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s from the p e r c e i v e d and  r e j e c t i o n by  l a c k of expected support from the very people  i n s t i t u t i o n s v i c t i m s depend on f o r help and  and  support.  r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n i s thought t o cause an e x a c e r b a t i o n prolonging  This and  of symptoms of d i s t r e s s (Symonds, 1980) .  Readjustment or adjustment r e f e r s to the p r o c e s s of g r a d u a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t a t e of normal  psychosocial  f u n c t i o n i n g , r e l a t i v e l y f r e e of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l of d i s t r e s s . The from "recovery' process. is  term "adjustment' must be  completely i n t e g r a t e d and  d i s t r e s s are no perspective,  distinguished  which i s the end p o i n t of an  In a s t a t e of "recovery',  longer  experience  symptoms of  experienced. From a developmental  adjustment may  view of o n e s e l f and  adjustment  the t r a u m a t i c  event-related  symptoms  r e s u l t i n a more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  one's world.  Some crime c a t e g o r i e s  such as  "burglary"  and  "robbery  r e q u i r e d e f i n i t i o n as the d i s t i n c t i o n between them may  not  1  16  always be c l e a r . Robbery r e f e r s t o the "unlawful t a k i n g or attempted  t a k i n g of p r o p e r t y t h a t i s i n the  p o s s e s s i o n of another,  immediate  by f o r c e or t h r e a t of f o r c e . "  B u r g l a r y , on the other hand, r e f e r s t o an "unlawful e n t r y of any  f i x e d s t r u c t u r e . . . with or without  f o r c e , with i n t e n t t o  commit a f e l o n y , or a l a r c e n y " . In a b u r g l a r y , the v i c t i m i s not p r e s e n t ; whereas i n a robbery,  the v i c t i m i s present  (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) . The term  "need' i n the context of t h i s study r e f e r s t o  crime v i c t i m s ' coping needs: t h a t i s , what v i c t i m s of crime need t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l readjustment  i n the  aftermath of a t r a u m a t i c l i f e event. T h i s c o n c e p t i o n of need f i t s York's  (1982) d e f i n i t i o n  (i.e.,  [that which i s ]  " . . . r e q u i r e d t o i n s u r e t h a t . , [crime v i c t i m s ] are able t o f u n c t i o n at an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l i n [ t h e i r ] v a r i o u s domains of  living"). The term  "needs assessment' i s d e r i v e d from the  of human s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g and i s o r d i n a r i l y concerned  field with  the p r e v a l e n c e of a c e r t a i n s o c i a l problem i n the community, as w e l l as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t a r g e t s of a c t i o n  (York,  1984). However, the extent of c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n the community i s not at i s s u e here. T h i s study concerns  itself  r a t h e r with the q u a l i t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or assessment of crime v i c t i m s ' coping needs. L o g i c a l l y , what these needs are must precede assessment of t h e i r p e r v a s i v e n e s s .  any  a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  quantitative  17  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the study T h i s study p r o v i d e s  no o r i g i n a l e m p i r i c a l data, but  r e l i e s on the use of anecdotal d e r i v e d from secondary sources. claims  r e p o r t s of crime v i c t i m s As a r e s u l t , no independent  can be made f o r t h e i r v a l i d i t y or g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . T h i s study r e s t r i c t s i t s e l f t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f  s  stranger-to- stranger  doubt have r e l e v a n c e  1  crime, although i s s u e s addressed no  f o r circumstances where the v i c t i m and  o f f e n d e r have been p r e v i o u s l y acquainted a s s a u l t , sexual  domestic  abuse).  T h i s study focuses coping  (e.g.,  p r i m a r i l y on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  needs o f crime v i c t i m s . Consequently, i t excludes  d i r e c t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other n o n - p s y c h o l o g i c a l necessities  (e.g.,  r e s t i t u t i o n , medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ) . The  study, i n t h i s sense, does not p r o v i d e compilation aftermath  coping  an  exhaustive  of what v i c t i m s need i n order t o cope i n the  of being  criminally victimized.  Many review a r t i c l e s c i t e d i n t h i s study r e l y l a r g e l y on s t u d i e s o f rape v i c t i m s i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of the e f f e c t s of v i o l e n t crime. Conclusions t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d t o the extent  i n t h i s study are  t o which the r e a c t i o n s t o  sexual a s s a u l t are g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o the e f f e c t s o f other crimes.  A major impetus t o the emerging concern f o r v i c t i m s  of crime has been the f e m i n i s t movement and i t s r a i s i n g t o p u b l i c awareness the i n c i d e n t of v i o l e n c e toward women (Sales et a l . , 1984). T h i s has spawned an a r r a y of support and  advocacy s e r v i c e s f o r rape v i c t i m s and b a t t e r e d wives,  18  as w e l l a s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h on t h e s e Reactions  populations.  and adjustment t o o t h e r forms o f crime  t h e o t h e r hand, r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y attention  (Sorenson & G o l d i n g ,  h o w e v e r , r e s e a r c h on c r i m e  little  1 9 9 0 ) . More  h a v e , on  research recently,  v i c t i m s h a s e x t e n d e d somewhat t o  the e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s o f f e n s e s . F o r example, Sorenson & Golding types,  (1990) f o u n d t h a t c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f a l l frequencies  higher r i s k  and t a r g e t s a r e l i k e l y t o p l a c e p e o p l e  f o r depression  and s u i c i d e .  at  19  CHAPTER  II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  THE  PLIGHT OF CRIME V I C T I M S  B e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e can c o n s t i t u t e a sudden and p r o f o u n d d i s r u p t i o n o f e v e r y d a y  life,  negative p s y c h o l o g i c a l response that enduring 1984).  (Figley,  1986;  often producing a  i s both intense  McCann e t a l . ,  1988;  and  Sales et a l . ,  I n F i g l e y ' s v i e w , an e v e n t i s t r o u b l i n g t o t h e  degree  t h a t i t i s s u d d e n , d a n g e r o u s and o v e r w h e l m i n g — a t t r i b u t e s that often typify b e i n g i n danger, of  criminal victimization.  that i s , a fear of i n j u r y t o or  o n e s e l f o r a l o v e d one,  element  of a c r i s i s  i s t h e most  (Figely,  itself  The  inability  highly distressing,  temporary  life  which o f t e n reduces v i c t i m s t o a immobility.  t r a n s i t i o n s u s u a l l y a l l o w some t i m e f o r  s t r a t e g i e s . But non-normative suddenly, with l i t t l e  values, attitudes  o r no w a r n i n g , o f f e r i n g criminal  a n o v e l e x p e r i e n c e f o r most i n d i v i d u a l s ,  o r d i n a r i l y have l i t t l e  and  events can o c c u r v e r y  time f o r preparedness. Furthermore,  such a s i t u a t i o n  invariably  t o manage s u c h a t h r e a t i s  a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f new  is  trauma-producing  i t i s almost  s t a t e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and  Normative  destruction  1986) . When an e v e n t i s b o t h  sudden i n o n s e t and dangerous, overwhelming.  The p e r c e p t i o n o f  insufficient victimization  who  would  i n t h e i r c o p i n g r e p e r t o i r e t o manage  (Sales et a l . ,  1984). B a r d and  Sangrey  (1986) h a v e a r g u e d t h a t b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e i s  20  always a shock d e s p i t e preparation,  any m e a s u r e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a s one c a n n o t m a i n t a i n  v i g i l e n c e . According  t o some r e s e a r c h e r s  Bulman & F r i e z e , 1983; P e r l o f f , not  been v i c t i m i z e d tend  being  less vulnerable  result,  an e x p e r i e n c e  illusion  a constant  often evoking  state of  (e.g.,  Janoff-  1 9 8 3 ) , i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e  to hold a protective i l l u s i o n of  t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n than others. o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n can s h a t t e r  As a this  a new a n d u n f a m i l i a r s e n s e o f  v u l n e r a b i l i t y t h a t c a n be p r o f o u n d l y d i s t r e s s i n g . " I n e v e r t h o u g h t i t c o u l d h a p p e n t o me. I was v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e l i v i n g on t h i s s t r e e t . I f i g u r e d i t was s a f e here--my f r i e n d s a r e h e r e a n d t h i s i s my home. A n d you j u s t d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t someone's g o i n g t o come i n l i k e t h a t a n d t a k e y o u r t h i n g s . I t may h a p p e n on some o t h e r s t r e e t , b u t n o t i n my h o u s e , n o t on my s t r e e t . " V i c t i m of a burglary Society's  (Bard  & S a n g r e y , 1986)  response t o v i c t i m s of crime  In recent  years,  t h e p l i g h t o f crime v i c t i m s has  become o f i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n , a s p a r t o f a g e n e r a l l y heightened p u b l i c s e n s i t i v i t y t o the f a t e of a host of victimized populations  (e.g.,  incest, wife-battering)  (Karmen, 1 9 8 4 ) . The " d i s c o v e r y '  o f crime v i c t i m s has  r a i s e t o awareness t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r i e s this population,  as w e l l as t h e i r n e g l e c t  s u f f e r e d by  and maltreatment,  o f t e n a t t h e hands o f t h e v e r y  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h e y have t u r n e d  t o f o rhelp  Herrington,  1 9 8 5 ; Karmen,  D e s g a g n e , 1 9 8 4 ; Young,  1984; S a l e s  1988).  helped  (APA, 1 9 8 4 ;  e t a l . , 1984; W e i l e r  &  21  T h i s a t t e n t i o n t o crime v i c t i m s has a l s o brought t o light  society's vastly disproportionate interest  a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s f o r c r i m i n a l s , victims  (APA,  1984;  Kahn, 1985).  i n and  i n contrast to t h e i r  In comparison t o monies  devoted t o the apprehension, p r o s e c u t i o n , i n c a r c e r a t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and study of c r i m i n a l s , the  compensation,  funds a l l o c a t e d t o  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and study of crime v i c t i m s  has been r e l a t i v e l y m i n i s c u l e (APA, h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n , Kahn  1984). W i t h i n the mental  (1985) found t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s not  only l a c k the t r a i n i n g t o work with crime v i c t i m s , but are more l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o c r i m i n a l s . Of the numerous c r i m e - r e l a t e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n psychology f o r e n s i c psychology, c o r r e c t i o n a l psychology,  (i.e.,  legal  p s y c h o l o g y ) , the i n t e r e s t i n crime v i c t i m s as evidenced by e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e has been q u i t e sparse  (APA,  1984).  The  t o p i c s of a g g r e s s i o n and v i o l e n c e have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e research i n t e r e s t  i n psychology, but t h e i r t a r g e t s ,  i n the  form of crime v i c t i m s , have not. In t h i s sense, psychology has m i r r o r e d s o c i e t y ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n and f a s c i n a t i o n with the  p e r p e t r a t o r s of crime. The Departments of J u s t i c e of both Canada and the  U n i t e d S t a t e s have f o r m a l l y acknowledged t h a t the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e systems  i n North America have been l a r g e l y remiss i n  t h e i r response t o the needs of crime v i c t i m s (Herrington, 1985;  W e i l e r & Desgagne, 1984). The U.S.  Department of  J u s t i c e , P r e s i d e n t ' s Task Force on V i c t i m s of Crime (Herrington, 1985)  concluded t h a t v i c t i m s ,  i n the course of  22  trying all  to rebuild  their  l i v e s and secure l e g a l  t o o often encountered  their  r e d r e s s , have  a system t h a t i s i n s e n s i t i v e t o  needs. Once i n t h e c r i m i n a l  justice  system,  v i c t i m s were  often  compelled t o r e l i v e t h e i r traumatic experience  through  r e p e a t e d p o l i c e q u e s t i o n i n g a n d numerous c o u r t  appearances,  o f t e n w i t h o u t s u p p o r t . Crime v i c t i m s were f r e q u e n t l y uninformed  kept  o f t h e progress o f t h e i r case, w h i l e expected t o  be c o n t i n u a l l y convenience.  a v a i l a b l e t o give evidence at the court's  I n a d d i t i o n , many v i c t i m s s u f f e r e d l o s s o f  p r o p e r t y a n d wages. A c c o r d i n g t o B a r d and Sangrey  (1986), p o l i c e  and p r o s e c u t o r s o f t e n have d i f f i c u l t y victims'  sense  to  apprehend  empathizing w i t h crime  o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  p o l i c e and p r o s e c u t o r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p u n i s h c r i m i n a l s ,  officers  Given  t o p r e v e n t crime, and  the notion of feeling  h e l p l e s s i n t h e face of crime i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e i r r e a s o n f o r b e i n g , a n d h e n c e e m o t i o n a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g . I t may t h u s be e a s i e r t o f i n d t h e v i c t i m those working i n the c r i m i n a l  somehow c u l p a b l e .  justice  system  often  Also, develop  an e x p e r t i s e i n i d e n t i f y i n g p e r s o n s who f e e l g u i l t y .  Crime  v i c t i m s who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g s e l f - b l a m e a n d g u i l t may b e m i s p e r c e i v e d a s h a v i n g some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Bard and Sangrey  argue  case, that v i c t i m s "surrendered  f o rthe crime.  that the opposite i s t y p i c a l l y the  f e e l g u i l t y f o rhaving, i n fact,  responsibility".  23  A f t e r the i n i t i a l often f i n d themselves demeaned, i s o l a t e d , j u d i c i a l process  impact  of the crime i t s e l f ,  i n a system  i n which they  and mere i m p l i m e n t s o f an  victims  feel  impersonal  ( H e r r i n g t o n , 1985). A l t h o u g h ,  victim  s e r v i c e s h a v e b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e f o r some t i m e , t h e i r purpose  primary  has been t o p r e p a r e c r i m e v i c t i m s t o p r o v i d e  testimony f o r the p r o s e c u t i o n of c r i m i n a l s .  Only  recently  have t h e s e s e r v i c e s begun t o c o n s i d e r v i c t i m s ' needs i n their  own  right  (Downing, 1 9 8 8 ) .  Greenberg  h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t many v i c t i m s may to  police  fail  and Ruback  to report crimes  f o r f e a r o f i n c u r r i n g a d d i t i o n a l harm f r o m  involvement  i n the c r i m i n a l  authors consider well  (1984)  j u s t i c e system,  a fear  an  the  founded.  S o c i e t y ' s inadequate response t o crime v i c t i m s i s r e f l e c t e d i n a n d p e r p e t u a t e d by t h e m e d i a ' s p o r t r a y a l c r i m e . T h e s e d e p i c t i o n s t e n d t o f o c u s on t h e  of  dramatic  a s p e c t s o f c r i m e and p o l i c e w o r k , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y  little  e m p h a s i s on v i c t i m s '  1986).  Media  coverage  violent of  experience  (Bard & Sangrey,  t y p i c a l l y h i g h l i g h t s t h e more  c r i m e s , whose e f f e c t s a r e o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s  t h e more o b s e r v a b l e p h y s i c a l i n j u r i e s  B a r d and  Sangrey  essentially  violent,  e x t e r n a l . As a r e s u l t ,  seemingly  whose e f f e c t s  the p u b l i c  underestimate the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t o l l c r i m e and  and p r o p e r t y l o s s .  argue t h a t t h i s c r e a t e s a m i s p e r c e p t i o n  t h a t c r i m e i s , by d e f i n i t i o n ,  violent  sensational  to victims  "minor' o f f e n s e s .  are  may from  non-  24  R e a s o n s f o r c o n c e r n , what t h e r e s e a r c h  shows  R e s e a r c h on t h e i m p a c t o f c r i m e on i t s v i c t i m s a s l e d to d i s t u r b i n g conclusions.  C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n has been  found t o produce severe p s y c h o l o g i c a l immediate and i n t h e l o n g - t e r m  consequences,  both  (APA, 1984; B u r g e s s &  Holmstrom, 1979; D a v i s & F r i e d m a n , 1985). A l s o , t h e psychological more s e r i o u s loss,  injuries  sustained  and e n d u r i n g t h a n b o d i l y i n j u r y o r  t h e more v i s i b l e  consequences of crime 1985). L o n g i t u d i n a l (e.g.,  rape),  recovery  a n d more e a s i l y  (APA, 1984; F r i e z e , 1987;  research  found that  eventual  and H a r r e l l  review, noted the persistence  i n victims of sexual  of eventual  recovery.  Herrington,  with v i c t i m s of v i o l e n t crime  have been o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c . W i r t z  distress"  property  recognized  suggests t h a t assumptions about  (1987), i n t h e i r  claims  b y c r i m e v i c t i m s c a n be f a r  of a "core of  assault, despite  earlier  Burgess and Holmstrom  a substantial minority  o f rape v i c t i m s  (1979) continued  t o e x p e r i e n c e d i s t r e s s 4 t o 6 y e a r s a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t . Some theorists  (e.g.,  Sales  e t a l . , 1984) h a v e , a s a r e s u l t ,  begun t o speak i n s t e a d o f " r e a d j u s t m e n t ' t h a t perhaps span a l i f e  time  . Among c a t a s t r o p h i c l i f e - e v e n t s ,  t h o s e o f d e l i b e r a t e human d e s i g n incur psychological s e v e r e and l o n g e r Janoff-Bulman, current  i n j u r i e s that  lasting"  (e.g.,  rape, a s s a u l t ) ,  " . . ( s e e m t o be) more  (APA, 1980; F r e d e r i c k ,  1980;  1985a). There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t o suggest  research  psychological  f o r some may  f i n d i n g s may u n d e r r e p r e s e n t t h e s e v e r i t y o f  reactions  t o crime. According  t o Meyer and  25  Taylor  (1986) , r e p e a t e d a s s e s s m e n t  research sexual Crime  may  adverse p s y c h o l o g i c a l  victims  and t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h  i s a general  c o m m u n i t y , and,  treatment received helpers  acknowledgement i n t h e  (APA,  at times, adversely  from both u n t r a i n e d  1984;  contact  with various  distress.  professional  Ochberg,  (Young, field  1988). Ochberg  for patronizing  avoided t r a d i t i o n a l mental  or exacerbation  field  (1988) and  I n O c h b e r g ' s v i e w , many c r i m e health of a  o f t h e i r symptoms o f  has b e e n a r e s i s t a n c e  to provide  within (APA,  services to victims  1988).  The p o o r t r e a t m e n t r e c e i v e d  by c r i m e v i c t i m s  h a n d s o f m e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s , as w e l l as reluctance  1988;  to spare themselves the p o s s i b i l i t y  mental h e a l t h  the  where v i c t i m s h a v e r e c a l l e d f e e l i n g  In a d d i t i o n , there  Downing,  a f f e c t e d by  often  stigmatizing i t s clients.  revictimization,  mental  m e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s has  c r i t i c i z e s the mental h e a l t h  professionals  by t h e  their  and m i s u n d e r s t o o d  v i c t i m s have w i s e l y  literature  indicate that  been c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e , mistreated  and  C o a t e s e t a l . , 1979;  Young, 1 9 8 8 ) . R e p o r t s by c r i m e v i c t i m s  1984;  to  profession  c r i m e v i c t i m s have not been w e l l - s e r v e d  health  the  reactions  assault.  There that  lessen  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  at the  a  t o t r e a t them, has b e e n a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t ,  to  l i m i t e d knowledge of t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f c r i m i n a l victimization, biases  as w e l l as t o c e r t a i n h a r m f u l i d e o l o g i c a l  w i t h i n the f i e l d  (Downing,  1988) . Young  (1988)  found  26  mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s  t o be  l a r g e l y ignorant  of  impact of trauma, p a r t i c u l a r l y " c r i m i n a l l y - i n d u c e d on  the  lives  (e.g.,  of i t s v i c t i m s . Recently,  Frederick,  c r i t i c i z e d the misattribute  1987;  Karmen, 1984;  mental health  several  trauma",  researchers  O c h b e r g , 1988)  community f o r t e n d i n g  crime v i c t i m s ' intense  psychological  distress  have  that  and  normal  have to  t o p r e - t r a u m a m a l a d a p t a t i o n . These r e s e a r c h e r s v i c t i m s ' symptoms o f d i s t r e s s a r e  the  argued  understandable responses to e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s t r e s s f u l events. According to  (Frederick,  1987):  "The p e r v a s i v e and c o n t i n u i n g w o r r y and d i s c o u r a g e m e n t t h e v i c t i m may f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y a r e n o t symptoms o f c l i n i c a l d e p r e s s i o n or a b o r d e r l i n e s t a t e but are normal emotional e x p r e s s i o n s under the e x i s t i n g conditions." C o a t e s e t a l . , (1979) f o u n d " v i c t i m - b l a m i n g ' among m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s  biases  i n t h e i r treatment  v i c t i m s . A c c o r d i n g to Coates et a l . , mental  of  health  p r a c t i t i o n e r s have t e n d e d t o over-emphasize v i c t i m s ' responsibility helpers  have o f t e n  victims'  as  In t h e i r view,  f o u n d i t more e x p e d i e n t t o f o c u s  than to address the  less controllable external a result, felt  r o l e o f more  to manipulation.  important  f a c t o r s . Crime v i c t i m s  have,  blamed f o r t h e i r p l i g h t , at a p a r t i c u l a r  t i m e when t h e y f e l t p o w e r l e s s , v u l n e r a b l e , G r e e n b e r g and  Ruback  victims p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptible a f t e r the  on  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r problems because of t h e i r  accessibility, but  for their difficulties.  c r i m e when t h e y a r e  and  were amenable  (1984) c o n s i d e r  to s o c i a l  influence  v e r y d i s t r e s s e d and  crime shortly  confused.  27  Some t h e o r i s t s ( e . g . , 1989) be  Bowlby, 1988; P r i l l e l t e n s k y ,  have argued t h a t m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t e n d t o  i d e o l o g i c a l l y biased toward  interpretations of c l i e n t s '  "pathologizing'  reactions to real  life  events.  P r i l l e l t e n s k y has c r i t i z e d psychology f o r i t s "personblaming" conceptions his  This  arises, i n  v i e w , f r o m p s y c h o l o g y ' s a p r i o r i commitment t o an  "acontextual' is  o f human d i f f i c u l t i e s .  view o f the i n d i v i d u a l ,  examined without  factors  (i.e.,  social  to P r i l l e l t e n s k y , distress arising considered  sufficient  consideration of external  and h i s t o r i c a l  this  where human b e h a v i o u r  influences).  According  l e a d s t o a " d e f e c t ' model i n which  from u n f o r t u n a t e  life  experiences  are  signs of preexisting v u l n e r a b i l i t y within the  individual.  Bowlby views p s y c h i a t r y as g r e a t l y r e m i s s i n i t s  traditional  reluctance t o a t t r i b u t e psychopathology t o r e a l -  life  events,  historical  p a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n c e . Bowlby t r a c e s t h e  roots  of childhood  of t h i s b i a s t o Freud's  seduction  to h i spatients' imagination  t h a n t o a c t u a l abuse by o t h e r s . ideological biases  (mis) a t t r i b u t i o n  The e x t e n t  rather  t o which  contribute t o a misconception  and mis-  t r e a t m e n t o f crime v i c t i m s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e development o f c l i n i c a l itself  expertise i n this  area,  as i d e o l o g y  can d e f i n e and c o n s t r a i n t h e scope o f a l t e r n a t e  theoretical The  considerations.  i n a p p r o p r i a t e responses o f mental  practitioners to victimized clients to the unique countertransference  health  a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e as w e l l  r e a c t i o n s evoked i n  28  c o u n s e l l o r s by v i c t i m s o f human-induced trauma  (Janoff-  B u l m a n & T i m k o , 1 9 8 5 ; McCann e t a l . , 1988; W i l s o n , Counsellors  who t e n d t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n  exposed t o events t h a t brutal,  are profoundly  1989).  are v i c a r i o u s l y  unjust,  degrading,  d e l i b e r a t e l y c r u e l and l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g . I n  l i s t e n i n g empathically  t o such experiences,  themselves unavoidably faced  counsellors are  with the r e a l i t y  that  life is  not  a l w a y s c o n t r o l l a b l e a n d t h a t a l l humans a r e v u l n e r a b l e  and  mortal.  As a r e s u l t ,  t h o s e c o u n s e l l i n g v i c t i m s o f human-  induced trauma a r e s u s p e c t i b l e t o a secondary  traumatization  (Downing, 1988; McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . I n e f f o r t s t o s h i e l d themselves from t h i s p a i n f u l experience, blame t h e i r v i c t i m - c l i e n t s ,  counsellors  may  inappropriately insulate  themselves from t h e i r c l i e n t s '  experience,  o r a v o i d them  (Downing, 1 9 8 8 ) . A l t e r n a t e l y , a c o u n s e l l o r may o v e r - i d e n t i f y with  a traumatized  rescuer 1988; issues  role. Various  Wilson,  a n d i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y assume a  researchers  (e.g.,  1989) h a v e a r g u e d t h a t  McCann e t a l . ,  countertranference  i n t e r f e r e with the creation of strong  alliance Wilson  client  critical  t o e f f e c t i v e work w i t h t r a u m a v i c t i m s .  (1989) c o n s i d e r s  countertranference Revictimization,  therapeutic  t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n o f  the cornerstone of post-trauma  therapy.  t h e ' s e c o n d wound'  T h e r e c a n be n e g a t i v e  s o c i a l consequences t o being  crime v i c t i m a r i s i n g from r e a c t i o n s  of others,  often  v i c t i m s may c o u n t on f o r s u p p o r t . C r i m e v i c t i m s encounter i n d i f f e r e n c e , h o s t i l i t y ,  derogation  a  those  frequently  and r e j e c t i o n  29  following their result,  i n i t i a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . V i c t i m s must, as a  o f t e n cope s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e i r trauma and t h e  aversive reactions of others. This issue i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h o s e who h a v e b e e n c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d ,  given this  p o p u l a t i o n ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o a "second wounding' o r r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s from t h e p e r c e i v e d r e j e c t i o n , or  c a l l o u s t r e a t m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y b y t h o s e whom v i c t i m s  t u r n t o f o r h e l p and support justice  (i.e.,  police,  t h e crime  system, mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s )  O c h b e r g , 1 9 8 8 ; Symonds, 1 9 8 0 ) . "second i n j u r y '  I n Symonds'  (Karmen, 1 9 8 4 ;  (1980) v i e w ,  this  c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o d e l a y e d and  p e r s i s t e n t d i s t r e s s r e s p o n s e s . Karmen  (1984), f o r example,  r e g a r d s t h e p e r i o d i c c a l l o u s t r e a t m e n t o f c r i m e v i c t i m s by police officers--often the f i r s t -as a form o f p o l i c e  t o a r r i v e a t a crime  "brutality'.  scene-  I n Karmen's o p i n i o n , t h e  manner i n w h i c h p o l i c e o f f i c e r s r e s p o n d t o v i c t i m s i n d i s t r e s s c a n have a c r i t i c a l  i m p a c t on v i c t i m s '  rate of  adjustment. The  "secondary wounding' o f crime v i c t i m s c a n a r i s e  f r o m an i n t e r a c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h t h e v i c t i m a n d t h o s e whom v i c t i m s r e l y on f o r h e l p . A c c o r d i n g t o Symonds  (1980), t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y  o f crime v i c t i m s t o a  " s e c o n d wound' i s r o o t e d i n t h e v i c t i m ' s h a v i n g b e e n r e n d e r e d p o w e r l e s s by t h e c r i m i n a l .  In the aftermath of the  crime, v i c t i m s o f t e n expect o t h e r s (e.g., p o l i c e ) , these feelings of helplessness.  Immediately  t o reduce  following the  c r i m e , v i c t i m s may h a r b o u r s u c h e x p e c t a t i o n s b u t a r e o f t e n  30  too  s u b m i s s i v e t o e x p r e s s them o p e n l y . The f a i l u r e o f o t h e r s  (e.g., p o l i c e , h o s p i t a l p e r s o n n e l ) , t o respond t o these u n s p o k e n e x p e c t a t i o n s may helplessness, the  exacerbate victims'  w h i c h , i n Symonds'  view, often  " s e c o n d i n j u r i e s ' . The o v e r w h e l m i n g f e a r  e x p e r i e n c e d by v i c t i m s  o f c r i m e may  d e p e n d e n c y on p r o f e s s i o n a l become o v e r l y - s e n s i t i z e d misperceive ordinary  helpers.  precipitates often  lead to a c l i n g i n g As a r e s u l t , v i c t i m s  to interpersonal  professional  sense o f  distance  may  and  c o n d u c t as i n d i f f e r e n c e  or  rejection. Police  o f f i c e r s , emergency r e s p o n s e w o r k e r s ,  p e r s o n n e l a n d o t h e r s who  are involved  in crisis  hospital  work  i n e v i t a b l y d e v e l o p a measure o f e m o t i o n a l i n s u l a t i o n so as to  function  without d i s t r e s s  able t o respond t o v i c t i m s t h e y n e e d , o t h e r s who i n t h e i r manner victims.  with  the nurturing  and c o m f o r t i n g  a r e u n u s u a l l y d e t a c h e d and  c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d q u i t e  Those i n v o l v e d  officers,  (Symonds, 1 9 8 0 ) . W h i l e some a r e  are frequently  in crisis  impersonal  negatively  work, n o t a b l y  police  d e m o r a l i z e d and e m o t i o n a l l y  d e p l e t e d by t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e  of the i n s t i t u t i o n s they  for  and s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s  may  t h e m s e l v e s f e e l v i c t i m i z e d and t h u s have l i t t l e  o f f e r crime  t o w a r d them. A s a r e s u l t ,  work they  left to  victims.  A c c o r d i n g t o Symonds  (1980), a p r i n c i p a l  f a c t o r t o a " s e c o n d i n j u r y ' i s some c r i m e misdirected  by  pursuit  injured pride.  victims'  of a symbolic reparation  Some v i c t i m s  contributing  for their  f e e l l e t down b y s o c i e t y f o r  31  h a v i n g f a i l e d t o p r o t e c t them b o t h f r o m d a n g e r a n d ensuing h u m i l i a t i o n of the experience. H o s t i l i t y f e e l i n g s o f b e t r a y a l may representating society  The  Rather  (e.g., Coates  Taylor et a l . ,  of  et a l . ,  1983)  r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m s are u s u a l l y h o s t i l e and  not  i n c e r t a i n human-service p r o f e s s i o n s .  Various researchers 1978;  thus  crime v i c t i m s are  i t i s an i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i m e n s i o n  Miller,  as  s e n s e o f i n j u s t i c e and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n .  negative r e a c t i o n s toward  l i m i t e d to those  seen  Such i n o r d i n a t e  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s a r e u n l i k e l y t o be met, compounding v i c t i m s '  the  rooted i n  t h e n be d i r e c t e d t o t h o s e (e.g., p o l i c e ) .  from  victimization. 1979;  Lerner  &  maintain that observers'  ambivalent  and  often  rejecting.  " I remember f e e l i n g b a d l y f o r a l o n g t i m e t h a t I w o u l d l o o k a t h e r and I w o u l d t h i n k . . t h a t ' s t h e woman I know who's b e e n r a p e d . I f e l t i t was a r e a l i n j u s t i c e t o h e r t h a t she h a d t o c a r r y t h i s b u r d e n . . . T h e r e ' s s t i l l t h a t c e r t a i n a u r a o f b e i n g . . I t h i n k o f i t as t a r n i s h e d . Y o u r ' e n o t q u i t e w h o l e and p u r e anymore and p e o p l e remember t h a t . And i t s so u n j u s t . . . B u t I f o u n d t h o s e f e e l i n g s i n myself." C l o s e f r i e n d of a rape v i c t i m L e r n e r and M i l l e r  (Bard & Sangrey,  (1978) p r o p o s e t h a t o b s e r v e r s  to f i n d v i c t i m s t h r e a t e n i n g i f the source v i c t i m i z a t i o n appears r a n d o m — e s p e c i a l l y s e v e r e and u n r e l e n t i n g . T h i s a p p a r e n t  of  event  i f i t s effects  r a n d o m n e s s may  they are motivated to e x p l a i n the  so as t o m i n i m i z e  o b s e r v e r s can  their  own  tend  the  i n observers a f e a r of s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to a s i m i l a r a result,  1986).  are  evoke  fate.  As  victimizing  vulnerability.  If  somehow b l a m e v i c t i m s ' p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r  or  32  character flaws f o r t h e i r fate, linked to a controllable By b l a m i n g t h e v i c t i m ,  t h e v i c t i m i z i n g event can  be  c a u s e , and i t s r a n d o m n e s s r e d u c e d .  o b s e r v e r s can m a i n t a i n a b e l i e f i n a  " j u s t - w o r l d ' where m i s f o r t u n e i s s e e n as o n l y b e f a l l i n g t h e c a r e l e s s o r t h e " u n v i r t u o u s ' , t h a t i s , where b a d t h i n g s not  do  happen t o good p e o p l e .  Experiencing criminal  victimization  The v a r i e d t h e o r e t i c a l  explanations of reactions to  victimization  t o an e x t e n t r e f l e c t t h e c o n f l i c t i n g  philosophical  a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t have been r e c u r r e n t i n  psychology throughout i t s b r i e f h i s t o r y .  Certain  h o l d i n g the view of the e m p i r i c i s t  (1623-1704),  individuals theorists  as p a s s i v e l y  Locke  theorists,  s h a p e d by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s .  (e.g., F r e d e r i c k ,  1987;  Ochberg,  1988)  see  Such  have  emphasized the impact of e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i i n the victimization  e x p e r i e n c e , and h a v e a r g u e d t h a t  intense  p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s of crime v i c t i m s are normal responses t o abnormal e v e n t s . Others, i n t h e t r a d i t i o n of Kant of  ( 1 7 2 4 - 1 8 0 4 ) , h a v e t a k e n t h e v i e w o f humans as c a p a b l e  c r e a t i n g o r d e r and m e a n i n g  theorists 1979;  i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . Such  (e.g., Bard & Sangrey,  F i s c h e r & Wertz,  J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1983; McCann e t a l . , 1988)  emphasized t h e p e r s o n a l meaning victim  i t evokes.  (1978) , t h e f i e l d  t e n d e d t o o s c i l l a t e between  have  g i v e n t o t h e e v e n t by t h e  i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e trauma A c c o r d i n g t o Buss  "the  1986;  o f p s y c h o l o g y has  two b a s i c p a r a d i g m s :  person constructs r e a l i t y ' ( K a n t ) ,  and  (a) t h a t  (b) t h a t  "reality  33  constructs the person (Locke). 1  Buss a t t r i b u t e s  this  o s c i l l a t i o n to a continual reaction against the of  either position.  O v e r e m p h a s i s o f one h a s l e d t o a  reassertion of the other behaviourism  inadequacy  (e.g., from  structuralism to  t o c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y ) . T h i s o s c i l l a t i o n has  been e v i d e n t i n t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . Some t h e o r i s t s 1987;  Ochberg, 1988),  reacting against  (e.g., F r e d e r i c k ,  clinicians'  overemphasis of the p r e d i s p o s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e v i c t i m t o d i s t r e s s have argued the v i c t i m  that the experience of being  of a crime i s s u f f i c i e n t  in itself  t o produce  i n t e n s e a n d e n d u r i n g d i s t r e s s . A t t h e same t i m e , (e.g., S i l v e r variability of  & Wortman, 1980) h a v e n o t e d t h e w i d e  i n victim reactions,  t h e e x t e r n a l event Buss  itself  others  i s mediated  (1978) a r g u e s  from t h i s  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e impact by o t h e r  that psychology  factors.  must  liberate  repeated t h e o r e t i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n .  proposes  a "dialectical  limited,  encapsulated views  He  revolution' to transcend the that result  f r o m a mere  transformation of the subject-object r e l a t i o n s h i p . A understanding theoretical  of the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience requires a  s y n t h e s i s as p r o p o s e d  Criminal victimization e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y negative l i f e of  evoking extreme d i s t r e s s .  shape v i c t i m s '  full  by  Buss.  i s i n a category of events  c a p a b l e by  themselves  E x t e r n a l aspects of the crime  r e a c t i o n s (e.g., rape  i s universally  e x p e r i e n c e d a s t r a u m a t i c ) . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e c r i m e i s  34  experienced subjectively by  the  v i c t i m . The  be  s e e n as  external  (1)  d e t e r m i n e d by  must  reactions  the  the  event  To  an  i n t e r a c t i o n of  understand the  internal  psychological  can  and  impact  of  consider: to being c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d crime  symptoms o f (2)  m e a n i n g i s i m p o s e d on  experience of c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n  factors.  c r i m e , we  and  and  distress,  p e r s o n a l or s y m b o l i c meaning of the  crime f o r  the  victim, (3)  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  crime that  exacerbate  victims'  distress, (4)  (5)  the  impact of the  and  i t s consequences f o r v i c t i m s '  i n d i v i d u a l and higher risk  c r i m e on  the  Frieze,  usually  reactions  i m m e d i a t e and first,  again  victims  victims,  and  to  crime, p r i m a r i l y  intense are  typically  overcome  f e a r , p a r t i c u l a r l y of  (McCann e t  responses to being  have been found t o  with  1980).  are criminally  a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . Among r o b b e r y and  such r e a c t i o n s  &  being  Frederick,  sadness, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , h e l p l e s s n e s s initial  violent  (Janoff-Bulman  ( D a v i s & F r i e d m a n , 1985;  commonly r e p o r t e d as victimized  a  victimization  shock, heightened a n x i e t y  Depression,  for  adjustment.  initial  1983). At  victimized  adjustment,  aftermath  Symptomology o f c r i m i n a l  crime, are  relationships  f o r c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n a n d / o r a more  p r o c e s s of  Victims'  social  population vulnerability factors  severe psychological (6)  victims'  l a s t up  burglary to  4  35  months a f t e r t h e e v e n t respect  (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). Loss o f s e l f -  and s e l f - i d e n t i t y  are often  immediate e f f e c t s o f  c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , u s u a l l y as a r e s u l t o f v i c t i m s suddenly f i n d i n g themselves p o w e r l e s s and out o f c o n t r o l (McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . D i s t u r b e d concentration, irritability reactions  or nightmares,  nervousness, d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  i n but not e x c l u s i v e  of v i o l e n t crime. C r i m i n a l immediately impact s o c i a l  functioning,  (Bard & Sangrey,  After the i n i t i a l victims generally  often  fear reactions  of crime  precautionary  & F r i e d m a n , 1 9 8 5 ) . However,  f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and h e l p l e s s n e s s o f t e n become i n t e n s i f i e d  resulting i n  1986).  crisis,  (Davis  to victims  i s o l a t e d and f e a r f u l o f  decrease over time, but  behaviours p e r s i s t  fears  spells,  v i c t i m i z a t i o n can a l s o  v i c t i m s b e c o m i n g more s o c i a l l y  anxiety  crying  poor  a n d f e e l i n g d a z e d a r e a l s o common. T h e s e  a r e more e v i d e n t  l e a v i n g home  sleep  (Krupnick  can remain and  & Horowitz,  o f t e n p e r s i s t s , and i s u s u a l l y e v i d e n t  1 9 8 0 ) . An i n victims'  o f b e i n g a l o n e o r i n t h e d a r k , as w e l l as i n p a r a n o i d  t h o u g h t s and a s u s p i c i o n violence,  of strangers.  Among v i c t i m s o f  a fear of a recurrence of crime  frequently  remains. D e p r e s s i o n and sadness can p e r s i s t , e s p e c i a l l y among r a p e v i c t i m s victims gradually vigour  (McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . A l t h o u g h some become l e s s d e p r e s s e d , f a t i g u e ,  a n d s u i c i d a l t h o u g h t s may e n d u r e  Common r e s p o n s e s t h a t eating d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  (Ellis,  l a s t beyond t h e c r i s i s a low t h r e s h o l d  decreased  1983).  period  f o r crying,  rape  include  inability  36  to  h a n d l e anger, h o p e l e s s n e s s , g u i l t , shame and f e e l i n g s o f  low s e l f - w o r t h . Among rape v i c t i m s , d e c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m o f t e n t a k e s t h e form o f s e l f - b l a m e ( K i l p a t r i c k , Veronen, & B e s t , 1985). D i s t u r b e d s l e e p f r e q u e n t l y c o n t i n u e s , as may r e c u r r i n g n i g h t m a r e s . Among v i c t i m s o f v i o l e n c e , f r e q u e n t themes t o n i g h t m a r e s a r e p o w e r l e s s n e s s and f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g t r a p p e d . Mood swings, from sadness t o e l a t i o n o r from  guilt  and s e l f - p i t y t o a d e s i r e f o r r e t a l i a t i o n a r e o f t e n e v i d e n t i n crime v i c t i m s f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l c r i s i s Sangrey,  (Bard &  1986) .  Outrage i s a common r e a c t i o n t o b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a v i o l e n t c r i m e . Rape v i c t i m s , f o r example, r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e d anger and h o s t i l i t y up t o a year f o l l o w i n g t h e assault  (McCann e t a l . ,  1988). T h i s outrage can t u r n i n t o an  "impotent r a g e ' , w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f one's anger u s u a l l y no l o n g e r a c c e s s i b l e . As a r e s u l t , i t may i n i t i a l l y be d i s p l a c e d onto emergency response p e r s o n n e l (e.g., p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ) . Those whom v i c t i m s depend on f o r c a r e and protection  (e.g., f r i e n d s and f a m i l y ) may a l s o become  t a r g e t s o f t h i s i n t e n s e anger. B a r d and Sangrey (1986) view t h e v i c t i m ' s tendency t o a s c r i b e blame as an attempt t o f i n d a m e a n i n g f u l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e event, and hence, a d a p t i v e . However, i n t e n s e anger d i r e c t e d a t l o v e d ones can s e r i o u s l y erode v i c t i m s ' p r i m a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s of  s u p p o r t . F o r v i c t i m s who have d i f f i c u l t y e x p r e s s i n g  anger, o u t r a g e may be i n w a r d l y d i r e c t e d and t u r n e d i n t o s e l f - b l a m e , o r become r e p r e s s e d (Krupnick & H o r o w i t z ,  1980).  37  The  impaired  social  functioning  p e r s i s t s beyond the  initial  from s o c i a l  i s common among r a p e v i c t i m s ,  life-style al.,  contact and  jobs i n the  severity  year f o l l o w i n g the  experience d i f f i c u l t y  t o get  report  a diminished  impaired  sexual  victims.  This  arousal,  decreased sexual sexual  l o s s and  explainable may  relations  with and  include  women. Not  and  a  reluctance  surprizingly,  i n a f e a r o f sex  r e s p o n s i v i t y and  or  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  (McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . to  criminal  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n e v i d e n c e d by  h y s t e r i a m a n i f e s t e d by  memory  screaming  v i c t i m ' s t h i n k i n g becomes  " n e r v o u s b r e a k d o w n s ' , and  1988).  victims  a higher  and  are  not  psychosis  highly  i s a temporary l o s s of  Among c r i m e v i c t i m s , o n l y  McCann,  also  i s v e r y common among r a p e  c o m p l e t e d rape have r e p o r t e d  a l . , 1985;  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They  more a c u t e r e a c t i o n s  o r where t h e r e  lost  a s s a u l t because of  t r u s t i n men  s u i c i d e attempts than non-victims et  r e s t r i c t e d (McCann e t  n e u r o l o g i c a l l y . I n some e x t r e m e c a s e s ,  reality.  defined  whose  c r y i n g o r f e e l i n g s o f numbness t h a t  o c c u r where t h e  irrational,  withdrawal  1 9 8 3 ) . Rape v i c t i m s  often manifests i t s e l f  confusion,  uncontrollable  and  functioning  L e s s common and victimization  (Ellis,  i n intimate  c l o s e t o b o t h men  current  often  study of rape v i c t i m s , almost h a l f  of t h e i r r e a c t i o n s  frequently  A reduced or  a c t i v i t i e s become q u i t e  1 9 8 8 ) . I n one  their  crisis.  of crime v i c t i m s  contact  of  incidence  attempted of  of s u i c i d a l thoughts ( F r i e z e , 1987;  selfand  Kilpatrick  38  The  symptoms o f d i s t r e s s t h a t e n s u e f r o m c r i m i n a l  v i c t i m i z a t i o n can times,  be  of such s e v e r i t y t h a t t h e y have,  mimicked c l i n i c a l p r o f i l e s  disorders,  and  of major p s y c h i a t r i c  have l e d t o v i c t i m s b e i n g  inappropriately treated  (Frederick,  Frederick,  acute traumatic  particularly  misdiagnosed  1987). A c c o r d i n g reactions  have  the p e r s i s t e n t  and  reactions.  a v o i d a n c e have r e s e m b l e d p a r a n o i d  f e e l i n g s o f a n g e r , r e s e n t m e n t and  e x h i b i t e d by  some v i c t i m s h a v e , a t t i m e s ,  c l i n i c i a n s the presence of a p e r s o n a l i t y In the  continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n , there  e i t h e r the  inability  p h a s e , o r by  being  responses  for a considerably  i n d i v i d u a l s are  now  Stress Disorder' Post-traumatic In l a s t  stress  can  1980;  crisis  acute  more  chronic  p e r i o d of time.  t o have  a  These  "Post-Traumatic  B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986) .  disorder  formulated  (PTSD) t o d e s c r i b e  ensue i n the  d i s r u p t i v e and  initial  by  decade, the American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n  (1980; 1 9 8 7 ) , has disorder"  (APA,  severe  r e s p o n s e . Such i n d i v i d u a l s  longer  considered  to  i s characterized  h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o s u f f e r more a c u t e and reactions  to  disorder.  suddenly cast back i n t o the crisis  The  suggested  t o proceed beyond the  symptomatic phase of the  phobias  impulsiveness  is a particularly  t h o u g h uncommon s t r e s s r e a c t i o n . T h i s  and to  resembled b o r d e r l i n e psychoses, while  lingering  at  a "Post-traumatic  stress  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  trauma  wake o f e v e n t s t h a t  are  that  unusually  l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g (see A p p e n d i x I ) . Though  the  39  conception  o f t h e d i s o r d e r was o r i g i n a l l y b a s e d on  populations veterans),  other  than crime v i c t i m s  (e.g.,  combat  i t has s i n c e been found t o d e s c r i b e  c e r t a i n acute  reactions t o criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n (Frederick,  1987). I n a  survey o f female v i c t i m s o f v i o l e n t crime, Saunders, and  Kilpatrick  criteria  (1990) f o u n d t h a t  Arata  2 7 . 8 % met t h e d i a g n o s t i c  f o r PTSD.  PTSD i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e p e r s i s t e n c e  of acute  symptoms o f d i s t r e s s , o r i t s d e l a y e d e m e r g e n c e a t some period  a f t e r the crime  (APA, 1 9 8 0 ; B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986) .  C r i m e v i c t i m s who s u f f e r f r o m PTSD may c o n t i n u e the  to relive  crime e i t h e r through p e r s i s t e n t , i n t r u s i v e r e c o l l e c t i o n s  or r e c u r r e n t  n i g h t m a r e s o f t h e i n c i d e n t . Some v i c t i m s a r e  s u d d e n l y overcome w i t h t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e c r i m e i s actually recurring. Victims  may f e e l e s t r a n g e d f r o m  loved  o n e s o r f r o m t h e m s e l v e s , o r may l o s e i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were o n c e i m p o r t a n t t o them. They may a l s o show constricted a f f e c t . Disturbed concentrating  sleep  and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  may p e r s i s t i n a c u t e f o r m , o r r e e m e r g e  u n e x p e c t e d l y s o m e t i m e a f t e r t h e c r i m e . Memory i m p a i r m e n t c a n o c c u r a s w e l l . An e x a g g e r a t e d s t a r t l e r e s p o n s e may a l s o be evident. resulting  Daily activities i n a heightening  v i c t i m may, a s a r e s u l t , that  c a n evoke memories o f t h e c r i m e , of fear, anxiety  o r a n g e r . The  have t o d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d  r e c a l l the crime. The f o r m u l a t i o n  community gave f o r m a l  o f t h e PTSD b y t h e p s y c h i a t r i c r e c o g n i t i o n t o the adverse  stimuli  40  psychological  impact o f r e a l - l i f e events. T h i s was a  s i g n i f i c a n t development given the mental h e a l t h h i s t o r y of m i s - a t t r i b u t i n g intense to s t r e s s f u l l i f e  community's  and prolonged  reactions  events t o pre-trauma p e r s o n a l i t y  deficits  (Ochberg, 1988; Young, 1988). With the category of PTSD and its  diagnostic c r i t e r i a ,  v i c t i m s of h i g h l y d i s r u p t i v e and  u n c o n t r o l l a b l e l i f e events c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from d i s t r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s with o v e r l a p p i n g  other  symptomology.  'Victim stress disorder' While the f o r m u l a t i o n  o f the P o s t - t r a u m a t i c  stress  d i s o r d e r i s a major development i n understanding the psychological  impact of traumatic  limited u t i l i t y  events, i t i s s t i l l o f  i n d e s c r i b i n g the experience of c r i m i n a l  v i c t i m i z a t i o n . PTSD does not as y e t encompass the f u l l of p s y c h o l o g i c a l nor  range  r e a c t i o n s s u f f e r e d by most crime v i c t i m s ,  a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the degree o f s e v e r i t y o f t h e i r  symptoms of d i s t r e s s . A p s y c h i a t r i c d i a g n o s i s d e s p i t e a recent  r e v i s i o n ( F r e d e r i c k , 1987) , as c u r r e n t l y  formulated, a p p l i e s only t o the more s e v e r e l y Ochberg  of PTSD,  traumatized.  (1988) has proposed a sub-category o f the PTSD, t h a t  describes  l e s s extreme forms o f t r a u m a t i z a t i o n  and the  p a r t i c u l a r symptoms of d i s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by v i c t i m s o f crime. Ochberg's ' V i c t i m s t r e s s d i s o r d e r ' describes  (see Appendix II)  the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l responses t o  c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n that  "may or may not ( n e c e s s a r i l y )  reach the t h r e s h o l d of PTSD".  41  What i t means t o b e t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e Various researchers  (e.g., Bard  Fischer  & W e r t z , 1979; J a n o f f - B u l m a n ,  Frieze,  1 9 8 3 ; Karmen, 1984; K r u p n i c k  & Sangrey, 1986; 1985; J a n o f f - B u l m a n  &  & H o r o w i t z , 1980;  McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ; W e r t z , 1985) h a v e c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o the subjective principal  experience of criminal  factor  i n understanding  v i c t i m i z a t i o n as a  victims'  t r a u m a . The  p e r s o n a l meaning o f b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d  may e x p l a i n  acute emotional  crime, but also the  reactions  intense distress  often  to violent  evoked by a p p a r e n t l y  not only  "minor'  offenses. The  experience of criminal  v i c t i m i z a t i o n can i n i t i a l l y  d e p e n d on w h e t h e r one c o n s i d e r s o n e s e l f a c r i m e v i c t i m .  To  be t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e , one must l a b e l t h e e v e n t i n question a criminal individuals situations  a c t . G r e e n b e r g e t a l . (1983) f o u n d  t e n d t o r e l y on h i g h l y rather  incompleted  auto t h e f t s  law,  of a criminal  crime v i c t i m s  having eluded The critical  whether  F o r example, attempted b u t  or burglaries  as c r i m e s b y i n d i v i d u a l s , definition  personal definitions of  than l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s t o a s c e r t a i n  they are, i n f a c t , crime v i c t i m s .  that  are often  not viewed  even though t h e y f i t t h e l e g a l a c t . A s a r e s u l t , some who a r e , b y  may p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s  as a c t u a l l y  victimization.  p e r s o n a l meaning g i v e n t o t h e c r i m e c a n be i n shaping  i t ' semotional  aftermath f o r the victim.  F o r e x a m p l e , one whose c a r i s s t o l e n  may, i n f a c t , b e  r e l i e v e d t o be r i d o f a " l e m o n ' , w h i l e ,  a t t h e same t i m e ,  42  compensated  f o r i t s ' l o s s ' b y an i n s u r a n c e company. S u c h  c a s u a l r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m e a r e however u n t y p i c a l  (Karmen,  1 9 8 4 ) . To a n o t h e r , t h e t h e f t o f o n e ' s a u t o c a n c r e a t e a major d i s r u p t i o n o f r o u t i n e and evoke  a deep s e n s e o f l o s s .  "We r e a l l y l o v e d t h e c a r , y o u know. I t was o u r f i r s t c a r , t h e one we g o t r i g h t a f t e r we w e r e m a r r i e d , a n d i t h a d t a k e n u s e v e r y w h e r e — t o s c h o o l , t o w o r k , on o u r v a c a t i o n s , e v e r y w h e r e . A n d t h e n s u d d e n l y i t was gone. We h a d t o a s k p e o p l e t o t a k e u s t o t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e . . . . . . . T h e r e was no way t o g e t t o one o f my j o b s w i t h o u t a c a r , s o I was g e t t i n g r i d e s f r o m f r i e n d s , b u t I w o u l d have t o q u i t t h a t j o b i f t h e y hadn't found t h e c a r . " V i c t i m o f an a u t o t h e f t  ( B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986)  R e s e a r c h e r s have been p a r t i c u l a r l y  s t r u c k by t h e e x t e n t t o  which p r o p e r t y l o s s can emotionally (Davis & Friedman, The  impact crime  victims  1985).  notion that individuals'  experience of external  e v e n t s i s m e d i a t e d by a t t r i b u t i o n s o f meaning would a variability  of response t o s i m i l a r  of o u r c u r r e n t knowledge  stimuli.  of individuals'  suggest  However, much  reactions to  v i c t i m i z i n g e v e n t s f o c u s e s on common r e s p o n s e s among victims.  T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o t h e n o m o t h e t h i c r e s e a r c h  tradition  i n p s y c h o l o g y w h i c h f o c u s e s on d i s c o v e r i n g g e n e r a l  laws from t h e study o f group d i f f e r e n c e s  (McCann e t a l . ,  1 9 8 8 ) . A t t h e same t i m e , e v i d e n c e o f common r e s p o n s e s among victims  s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c h n e g a t i v e e v e n t s i m p a c t common  psychological processes. Common e x p e r i e n c e s o f c r i m e To many v i c t i m s , personal violation  victims  t h e impact o f crime i s f e l t  (Bard & Sangrey,  as a  1 9 8 6 ; Karmen, 1984) . A  43  sense of v i o l a t i o n i s , i n Bard and  Sangrey's view,  the  u n d e r l y i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r y common t o most crimes. c o n s t i t u t e s a d e s e c r a t i o n of the s e l f ,  It  i n which v i c t i m s  "wounded i n the very essence of themselves, the c e n t r e which every person i n t e g r a t e s l i f e " considers  are from  . Karmen (1984)  the s e v e r i t y of the crime v i c t i m ' s i n i t i a l  crisis  r e a c t i o n t o be i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to "the degree t o which the s e l f was v i o l a t e d " . "You f e e l s t r i p p e d naked. You f e e l as i f someone has exposed you t o t a l l y . . . Your'e powerless... V i o l a t i o n i s an a d u l t way to e x p l a i n t h a t , but i t i s n ' t an a d u l t response. I t ' s reminiscent of the k i n d of h e l p l e s s n e s s t h a t goes back t o e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . And I t h i n k t h a t ' s what makes i t so c r u c i a l l y p a i n f u l . Because you can't f i g h t back." V i c t i m of a purse s n a t c h i n g The  (Bard & Sangrey,  1986)  more v i o l e n t crimes t y p i c a l l y evoke a g r e a t e r sense of  personal  v i o l a t i o n and  of d i s t r e s s (APA,  a corresponding  1984). An experience  i n t e n s i t y of symptoms of p e r s o n a l  violation  i s i m p l i e d i n the c a t e g o r i e s of v i c t i m responses t h a t comprise Ochberg's  (1988) proposed " V i c t i m s t r e s s d i s o r d e r '  ( i . e . , profound h u m i l i a t i o n , f e e l i n g dehumanized, a sense of defilement,  s e l f - l o a t h i n g , despair,  and  obsession  vengeance)'. Such r e a c t i o n s are suggest an one's most i n n e r  with  "assault' against  self.  Being the v i c t i m of a crime can be a shocking of one's v u l n e r a b i l i t y ,  and  of one's m o r t a l i t y . Although  most are c e r t a i n l y aware of the prevalence community, i n d i v i d u a l s t y p i c a l l y maintain " i l l u s i o n of p e r s o n a l  reminder  of crime i n t h e i r a protective  i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y ' , by m i n i m i z i n g  the  44  p r o b a b i l i t y of themselves being v i c t i m i z e d Frieze,  (Janoff-Bulman &  1 9 8 3 ) . The p r e v a l e n c e o f an i l l u s i o n  invulnerability  of  i n which i n d i v i d u a l s underestimate the  l i k e l i h o o d of t h e i r experiencing harmful events accidents, disease, natural disasters), recognized Taylor,  "it An  has been w i d e l y  ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; Lehman &  1987;  Perloff,  1983;  T a y l o r & Brown, 1 9 8 8 ) .  e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e commonly-held that  (e.g.,  c a n ' t happen t o 'illusion  It is  (usually implicit)  belief  me".  of i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y '  i s considered  a d a p t i v e as i t p r o t e c t s one a g a i n s t t h e s t r e s s a n d  anxiety  associated with potential threats  1988).  ( T a y l o r & Brown,  W h i l e such i l l u s i o n s can promote a sense o f mastery well-being,  G r e e n b e r g e t a l . (1983)  and  h a v e a r g u e d t h a t one  may  c o n s e q u e n t l y be u n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g criminally  victimized.  " . . . I always thought i t happened t o everybody e l s e . . . t h a t i t j u s t h a p p e n e d on t e l e v i s i o n . I n a way y o u f e e l t h a t i t ' s n e v e r g o i n g t o happen t o you, y o u r house. I n one way y o u t h i n k t h a t y o u r h o u s e c a n be r o b b e d any time but i n t h e back of your mind i t ' s v i c e v e r s a — m y h o u s e won't be r o b b e d ; i t ' s somebody e l s e ' s h o u s e t h a t ' s g o i n g t o be b r o k e n i n t o . " V i c t i m of a b u r g l a r y A f t e r becoming environment  ( F i s c h e r & Wertz,  t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e , one's  i s no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e d as  controllable,  1979).  o r s a f e . As a r e s u l t ,  predictable,  v i c t i m s are  overcome w i t h f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y recurrence of the crime  often  and f e a r o f a  (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e ,  1983).  Crime v i c t i m s are c o n f r o n t e d not o n l y w i t h t h e r e a l i t y  of  45  crime i t s e l f ,  but a l s o with i t s f r i g h t e n i n g  t h a t of a h o s t i l e world i n which malevolent prepared t o i n f l i c t  implications— others are  d e l i b e r a t e harm. A c c o r d i n g t o  (Fischer &  Wertz, 1979): "As l i f e goes on, the v i c t i m f i n d s h i m / h e r s e l f p e r v a s i v e l y attuned t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of v i c t i m i z a t i o n — t h r o u g h a c o n t i n u e d sense of reduced agency, of the p r e d a t o r y o t h e r . . . " An  i l l u s i o n of i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y ,  Bulman and F r i e z e assumption  according to Janoff-  (1983) , i s r o o t e d i n a s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e  t h a t events i n one's world are e s s e n t i a l l y  understandable,  o r d e r l y , and,  to a f a i r  degree,  c o n t r o l l a b l e . Such b e l i e f s presuppose t h a t one n e g a t i v e occurrences  (e.g., through b e i n g  c a u t i o u s ) . Lerner and M i l l e r  can  prevent  sufficiently  (1978) have proposed  a "just-  world' h y p o t h e s i s i n which i n d i v i d u a l s m a i n t a i n a f a i t h i n a world where j u s t i c e u l t i m a t e l y p r e v a i l s , where one's v i r t u e (through the e x e r c i z e of sound judgement) w i l l p r o t e c t them against misfortune. F a i t h i n a "just-world", according to Lerner and M i l l e r ,  enables one  "to c o n f r o n t the p h y s i c a l  environment as i f i t were o r d e r l y " . Events  like  and  criminal  v i c t i m i z a t i o n can be p r o f o u n d l y d i s t r e s s i n g i n t h a t they c h a l l e n g e one with the f r i g h t e n i n g r e a l i t y t h a t the may  not be  j u s t nor ordered a f t e r a l l ,  happen t o good people', controllable.  world  where "bad t h i n g s can  and t h a t e v i l may  not  be  46 " I t h i n k i f you grow up t h e way I d i d — i n v e r y m i d d l e c l a s s c i r c u m s t a n c e s — n o m a t t e r what y o u r e a d i t ' s v e r y h a r d t o b e l i e v e someone w a n t s t o do a n y t h i n g b a d t o t o y o u . E s p e c i a l l y s i n c e y o u r ' e a g o o d p e r s o n and y o u go t o a l l t h e r i g h t c o n c e r t s and r e a d a l l t h e r i g h t b o o k s . You d o n ' t d e s e r v e i t . " V i c t i m of a pickpocket The  belief that justice w i l l prevail  p e r c e i v i n g o n e ' s w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l . can  (Bard & Sangrey,  seriously  i s basic to  A personal  violation  c h a l l e n g e one's p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d  o r d e r e d on m e a n i n g f u l  principles,  as  and t h e r e f o r e be  profoundly d e m o r a l i z i n g . V i c t i m s of crime o f t e n  experience  an i n t e n s e i n d i g n a t i o n a t t h e v e r y i n j u s t i c e o f a when a c t u a l m o n e t a r y l o s s may,  1986)  i n f a c t , be  crime,  quite small.  " I t ' s r e a l l y u n f a i r t h a t y o u work f o r s o m e t h i n g , like t h i s l a w n mower was n o t h i n g o f v a l u e r e a l l y , b u t you work h a r d f o r i t and somebody t a k e s i t away f r o m y o u when y o u ' r e a b o u t t o e n j o y i t o r c o n t i n u e t o e n j o y i t . " V i c t i m of a b u r g l a r y Crime v i c t i m s ' act  outrage  (Greenberg  at the i n e q u i t y of the  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s e a r c h t h a t has  importance  et a l .  1983)  criminal  shown t h e  o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' need t o p e r c e i v e f a i r  outcomes i n  t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , and t h e d i s t r e s s t h a t e n s u e s from e x p e r i e n c e s of i n e q u i t a b l e treatment 1983).  (Greenberg  R e v e n g e f a n t a s i e s among c r i m e v i c t i m s o f t e n  an i n t e n s e d e s i r e t o r e c t i f y t h e p e r c e i v e d  et a l . , suggest  injustice.  " I h a d f a n t a s i e s f o r weeks a f t e r w a r d o f r u n n i n g i n t o one o f t h e m on t h e s t r e e t and t h e i r n o t s e e i n g me a n d j u s t k i l l i n g t h e m . . . G r a b b i n g one o f t h e m f r o m b e h i n d and c h o k i n g h i m . . . a n d m a k i n g him f e e l h e l p l e s s . . . . " V i c t i m of a robbery The  (Bard & Sangrey,  experience of being the c r i m i n a l l y  f r e q u e n t l y c o m p e l s one  1986)  victimized  t o t r y t o make s e n s e o f t h e e v e n t ,  to  47  " r e o r g a n i z e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r l d t h a t has chaotic"  (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e ,  a n e e d t o e x p l a i n n o t m e r e l y why h a p p e n e d , b u t why  1983).  become  Often v i c t i m s  the u n f o r t u n a t e event  i t happened t o them i n p a r t i c u l a r  B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) .  feel  "Why  me?"  is a  (Janoff-  frequently  a s k e d q u e s t i o n i n an a t t e m p t t o a t t r i b u t e t h e c r i m e t o some understandable reason, to render the world  comprehensible  and p r e d i c t a b l e a g a i n . Most i n d i v i d u a l s p r i o r t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n assumptions  t h a t they are b a s i c a l l y worthy,  decent  Janoff-Bulman  (Bard & Sangrey,  1983).  experience of being the v i c t i m of a crime  p r o f o u n d l y c h a l l e n g e such assumptions. faced w i t h the r e a l i t y  & Frieze,  Crime v i c t i m s  B a r d and  control  as weak,  needy, f r i g h t e n e d and out o f c o n t r o l . A c c o r d i n g t o Sangrey  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , o n e ' s s e n s e o f autonomy i s  essential to psychological functioning, sense  are  1 9 8 3 ) . D u r i n g a c r i m e and i t s  aftermath, v i c t i m s frequently experience themselves helpless,  can  o f t h e i r h e l p l e s s n e s s and  p o w e r l e s s n e s s when c o n f r o n t e d by f o r c e s b e y o n d t h e i r (Peterson & Seligman,  under  and  autonomous The  1986;  function  and  i t is this  very  o f autonomy t h a t i s p r o f o u n d l y t h r e a t e n e d d u r i n g  criminal The  victimization. challenge t o crime v i c t i m s '  self-esteem i s  f r e q u e n t l y e x a c e r b a t e d by f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t  and  shame,  common among v i c t i m s o f c r i m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n t Victims often feel guilty  crime.  f o r having neither prevented  the  c r i m e , n o r h a v i n g made more e f f o r t t o do s o . F e e l i n g s o f  48  g u i l t o f t e n e x t e n d t o t h e f a t e o f o t h e r s who were v i c t i m i z e d at t h e same t i m e . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n t e n s e f e e l i n g s o f s o l i d a r i t y may d e v e l o p among f e l l o w v i c t i m s . B e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a crime can be d e e p l y  humiliating.  V i c t i m s have, by d e f i n i t i o n , been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o t e c t i n g themselves  a g a i n s t b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d , and have, i n e f f e c t ,  been ' d e f e a t e d ' by t h e c r i m i n a l . O f t e n such f e e l i n g s a r e r e i n f o r c e d by s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e crime v i c t i m as a 'loser'  (Bard & Sangrey,  1986).  " I j u s t hate t o t h i n k o f m y s e l f as a v i c t i m . I t ' s l i k e when I l o s t my j o b - - I hadn't done a n y t h i n g wrong. But i t was so e m b a r r a s s i n g t o have t o t e l l p e o p l e t h a t I had l o s t my j o b . and when t h i s happened, I f e l t t h e same way. I t was l i k e a g u i l t y s e c r e t . I d i d n ' t want t o t a l k about i t . " V i c t i m o f a robbery  (Bard & Sangrey, 1986)  Among v i c t i m s o f c e r t a i n c r i m e s , f e e l i n g o f shame a r e l i k e l y t o be q u i t e pronounced. Rape v i c t i m s o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e a sense o f d e f i l e m e n t , o f t e n a r e v u l s i o n towards t h e s e l f t h a t may m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a d e s i r e t o be s e p a r a t e d one's own body (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; Ochberg,  from  1988).  V i c t i m s may, as a r e s u l t , t r y t o a v o i d s i t u a t i o n s t h a t can evoke such f e e l i n g s . K r u p n i c k and Horowitz  (1980) a t t r i b u t e  the d i f f i c u l t i e s researchers o f t e n report i n having v i c t i m s consent t o i n t e r v i e w s , o r even i n engaging  rape rape  v i c t i m s f o r t h e r a p y t o t h i s sense o f p r o f o u n d shame. Even among v i c t i m s o f l e s s e r o f f e n c e s , some f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t and shame a r e p r e s e n t as w e l l , and t h i s may r e s u l t i n a d i f f u s e sense o f embarrassment o r unease.  49  C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y evokes f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g somehow d e v i a n t . V i c t i m s o f crime o f t e n f e e l  singled  out f o r m i s f o r t u n e , and t h e r e b y s e t a p a r t from o t h e r s , They may a t t r i b u t e t h e i r v i c t i m i z a t i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r flaws  (Janoff-Bulman  & F r i e z e , 1983). Such f e e l i n g s o f  deviancy, according t o Taylor et al.(1983), u s u a l l y leads t o l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m and t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f o n e s e l f w i t h o t h e r s t i g m a t i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s . The a v e r s i o n and p i t y  these  i n d i v i d u a l s may have p r e v i o u s l y f e l t f o r o t h e r v i c t i m groups,  t h e y may now a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e i r own v i c t i m i z a t i o n .  V i c t i m s ' responses  to different  crimes  G e n e r a l l y , crimes t h a t a r e more l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g and t h o s e t h a t impact more suddenly  i n c u r t h e most s e v e r e trauma  ( F i g e l y , 1986; F r e d e r i c k , 1987; F r i e z e , 1987). A l s o , v i c t i m s who s u s t a i n p h y s i c a l i n j u r i e s u s u a l l y s u f f e r more psychological effects  adverse  (Davis & Friedman, 1985; S a l e s e t a l . ,  1984). A t t h e same t i m e , v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s can v a r y w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l sense o f v i o l a t i o n evoked by t h e c r i m e , independent o f p h y s i c a l i n j u r y  (Karmen, 1984).  The meaning o f b e i n g c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d i s o f t e n r e l a t e d t o t h e type o f crime and i t s c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Those  whose homes have been b u r g l a r i z e d t e n d t o r e p o r t f e e l i n g p e r s o n a l l y i n v a d e d and v e r y f e a r f u l a t t h e l o s s o f s e c u r i t y , o f t e n independent o f t h e amount a c t u a l l y t a k e n . Most had c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r homes t o be " p l a c e s o f r e f u g e and s a f e t y , s h e l t e r s from t h e dangerous o u t s i d e " (Bard & Sangrey, 1986), and f e l t a c u t e l y t h i s t h r e a t t o t h e i r  sanctuary.  50  " I f e e l l i k e t h e y know a b o u t me. They p i c k e d t h r o u g h my w h o l e l i f e . When I saw (my p e r s o n a l ) p a p e r s t h r o w n a l l o v e r , I t h o u g h t : "Who's b e e n rummaging a r o u n d i n my l i f e ? ' . . . . Y o u t h i n k your house i s impregnable, ...and y o u f i n d t h a t i t i s n ' t l i k e t h a t a t a l l . Someone c a n e a s i l y g e t i n i f t h e y want t o . " Victim of a break-in  (Bard & Sangrey,  1986).  One's home i s t y p i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e self  (Karmen, 1984) , a n d a b r e a k - i n c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d  violation  o f one's p e r s o n a l  V i c t i m s of purse realization  t h a t they  as a  boundaries.  s n a t c h i n g a r e o f t e n s t u c k by t h e c a n be v i c t i m i z e d i n b r o a d  daylight i n  p u b l i c p l a c e s , s e t t i n g s i n which they had p r e v i o u s l y f e l t secure.  G r e e n b e r g e t a l . (1983) s u g g e s t  experiences serious  that  such  a l e r t v i c t i m s t o t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l t y t o more  crimes.  " I t was an a w a r e n e s s o f my v u l n e r a b i l i t y . I f t h o s e 1 5 y e a r o l d s c o u l d l o o k me i n t h e e y e s a n d s t e a l my w a l l e t , c o u l d my l i f e be n e x t ? " V i c t i m o f a purse  snatching  (Greenberg  et a l . ,  1983)  R o b b e r y i n v o l v e s an a c t u a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e criminal  i n which v i c t i m s are d i r e c t l y threatened  violence. their  In a robbery,  with  victims are forced t o relinquish  s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l autonomy a n d c o n t r o l t o o t h e r s  intentions are predatory,  whose  and p o s s i b l y d e s t r u c t i v e (Bard &  S a n g r e y , 1 9 8 6 ; Karmen, 1 9 8 4 ) . R o b b e r y v i c t i m s t y p i c a l l y experience  an u t t e r h e l p l e s s n e s s i n t h e f a c e o f a d i r e c t  t h r e a t t o t h e i r body, t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y  and t h e i r  valued possessions.  sense o f  impotence i s f e l t  I f a weapon i s u s e d , t h e i r  more a c u t e l y . I f a s s a u l t e d , t h e v i c t i m  51  fears left and  losing his/her with  life.  I f i n j u r e d , the  v i c t i m can  a more e n d u r i n g r e m i n d e r o f h i s / h e r  v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n the  robbery v i c t i m s ,  i n the  face  o f t h r e a t by  aftermath of the  be  powerlessness  a n o t h e r . Some  crime, s u f f e r  the  h u m i l i a t i o n of h a v i n g been unable t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s & Sangrey,  1986).  Rape i s an  experience of t e r r i f y i n g  throughout which the survivors  are  victim fears  then only  b r u t a l i z e d and  set  f o r her  d e g r a d e d . The  1 9 8 2 ) . I n B a r d and v i o l a t i o n of the  o f c o n t r o l and  autonomy b u t  (body) s p a c e , t h e the  self"  own  (1986) v i e w , r a p e c o n s t i t u t e s  s u f f e r s an and  with  v i c t i m . An  intimacy  u n s p e a k a b l e shame o f t e n  f i n d i t too  and  the  and  frequently  assault  seducing the  r a p i s t . Despite the  only  inner  a s s o c i a t i o n between s e x u a l  the  victims  extent of t h e i r  difficult often  f a c t that the  degrade, there  activity,  degrading  e n s u e s , where  too  of  is brutally  to  i s an  activity  even  reluctant  f o r f e a r of b e i n g accused of  i s t o v i o l a t e and  cultural  and  c r i m e i t s e l f . Rape v i c t i m s a r e  d i s c l o s e the  rapist  love,  p a i n f u l to d i s c l o s e the  sense of v i o l a t i o n ,  only  not  " i n t r u s i o n of  a  most p r i v a t e r e p o s i t o r y  t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a means o f s u b j u g a t i n g  report  i s exceeded  rape v i c t i m i s deprived  most s a c r e d  associated  sexually  (Feinauer,  ( B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986) . I n r a p e , s e x u a l  previously  often  i n which  body  s e l f of a magnitude t h a t The  life,  rape v i c t i m i s e f f e c t i v e l y  Sangrey's  a c t u a l l o s s of l i f e .  dimension  f r e e a f t e r h a v i n g been  robbed of a sense of c o n t r o l over her  by  (Bard  actually  i n t e n t of enduring and  to  the  52  gratification being  (Bard  & S a n g r e y , 1 9 8 6 ) . Rape v i c t i m s ' f e a r s  blamed f o r encouraging the  w e l l founded  a s s a u l t are  ( C o a t e s e t a l . , 1979;  T h o s e who  have l o s t  a loved  Frieze, one  unfortunately  1987).  through homicide,  even w i t n e s s e d i t , e x p e r i e n c e a sense of shock violation,  with profound psychological  S a n g r e y , 1 9 8 6 ) . The t h e i r own  having t h e i r  life  the  extinguished  i s f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d by  malicious  and  reprecussions  real possibility  nature of the  of  without warning.  u n e x p e c t e d l o s s o f a l o v e d one, with,  or  (Bard  s u r v i v o r s are themselves confronted  m o r t a l i t y , and  difficult the  very  of  with  suddenly The  i n i t s e l f to  willful  &  cope  and  act  "My m o t h e r s a i d , " I f he h a d b e e n s i c k o r h i t by a c a r , t h e m maybe I c o u l d a c c e p t i t . B u t t h e y s t o l e h i m f r o m me." And I f e l t t h a t she h i t i t r i g h t on t h e h e a d . B e c a u s e i t ' s n o t so much t h a t he's d e a d - - i t ' s how he d i e d . Someone t o o k him, w i t h no more t h o u g h t t h a n i f t h e y were t a k i n g a pack o f c i g a r e t t e s . I f a p e r s o n d i e s o f a h e a r t a t t a c k , o r w h a t e v e r , you g r i e v e , b u t i n t i m e i t h e a l s . You remember t h e g o o d t h i n g s . B u t h e r e t h e l a s t t h i n g you remember i s t h a t he was k i l l e d by someone who d i d n ' t e v e n know h i m " . Survivor Vulnerability  of a homicide v i c t i m  victimized  & Sangrey,  1986).  factors  Individual vulnerability The  (Bard  wide v a r i a n c e i s due,  that predate the  factors i n reactions to being c r i m i n a l l y  i n p a r t , to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  crime. Sales  e t a l . (1984) f o u n d  v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r i n g p r e - r a p e f u n c t i o n i n g were p r e d i c t o r s of post-rape r e a c t i o n s . A l s o , psychiatric difficulties  predisposed  victim  that  strong  a history  of  c r i m e v i c t i m s t o a more  53  severe p s y c h o l o g i c a l  aftermath  (APA, 1 9 8 0 ; M e y e r & T a y l o r ,  1986;  Sales  e t a l . , 1984). Sales  e t a l . (1984) a l s o  that  sexual  assault victims with  severe p r e e x i s t i n g  "biosocial  1  psychosis),  problems  (e.g.,  were l i k e l y  drug abuse,  alcoholism,  t o e x p e r i e n c e symptoms o f d i s t r e s s  f o r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e a f t e r an a s s a u l t . illness  Physical  as w e l l as p r i o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n s were a l s o f o u n d t o  a g g r a v a t e women's r e a c t i o n s t o s e x u a l Taylor,  found  1 9 8 6 ) . S i l v e r a n d Wortman  found t h e presence of other l i m i t v i c t i m s ' coping  life  assault  (Meyer &  (1980), i n t h e i r  review,  stressors to generally  abilities.  P e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s have been f o u n d t o a f f e c t c r i m e victims'  trauma  (APA, 1 9 8 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g  Horowitz  (1980) , v i c t i m s w i t h p r e - e x i s t i n g n e u r o s i s  developmental problems a r e subject Hymer  (1984) c o n s i d e r s  t o K r u p n i c k and  t o more s e v e r e  and  reactions.  t h e adequacy o f t h e v i c t i m ' s  development o f a sense o f s e l f p r i o r t o t h e crime t h e b a s i s f o r o n e ' s r e s i l i e n c y t o i t s a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . Hymer h a s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as v u l n e r a b i l i t y c o n f l i c t s with  respect  factors unresolved  t o f e e l i n g s o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s and  frustration that  a r e evoked by b e i n g  Also, those with  low s e l f - e s t e e m  the v i c t i m of a crime.  often maintain  compensatory unconscious e x p e c t a t i o n control"  inner  a  o f "omnipotence and  (APA, 1 9 8 4 ) . S u c h c r i m e v i c t i m s a r e , a s a r e s u l t ,  e x t r e m e l y d i s t r e s s e d by a c o n f r o n t a t i o n vulnerability.  This  lowered self-image  with t h e i r  experience frequently  leads  actual  t o an e v e n  a f t e r t h e c r i m e as t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o  54  justify their  f a i l u r e t o prevent  of subjugation particularly (Krupnick  One's  experience  t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n d u r i n g a c r i m e may a l s o b e  difficult  & Horowitz,  Vulnerable  t h e crime.  f o r one w i t h f e a r s o f d e p e n d e n c y 1980) .  populations  C e r t a i n groups a r e e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e effects of criminal victimization.  The p o o r , t h e i l l -  educated, t h e unemployed, e t h n i c and r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s , and i n n e r c i t y d w e l l e r s seem t h e most a d v e r s e l y crime  a f f e c t e d by  (Karmen, 1 9 8 4 ; S a l e s e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l  consequences o f crime such as a n x i e t y ,  self-blame,  n e r v o u s n e s s , a n g e r , shame a n d s l e e p d i f f i c u l t i e s  found  t o b e more s e v e r e  a n d more e n d u r i n g  Davis  (1985) h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t women a r e more  and Freeman  f o r these  were  populations.  n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d b y c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a n men. Some p o p u l a t i o n s  are e s p e c i a l l y vulnerable t o being  criminally victimized (i.e., handicapped, t h e e l d e r l y ,  c h i l d r e n , and s o c i a l l y  groups such as homosexuals) deaf, and those  t h e p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y  (Karmen, 1 9 8 4 ) . The b l i n d , t h e  confined t o wheelchairs  defend themselves against  inexperience  and innocence,  exploitation  (Bard & Sangrey,  elderly,  are less able t o  a t t a c k . Young c h i l d r e n a r e  v u l n e r a b l e because o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e  The  stigmatized  fearlessness,  w h i c h e x p o s e s them t o 1986).  whose p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s a r e r e d u c e d ,  s u f f e r t h e e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a t t a c k s more, a n d a r e s l o w e r t o h e a l when i n j u r e d . A w a r e n e s s o f t h e i r  limited  55  capabilities  adds c o n s i d e r a b l y t o t h e f e a r e x p e r i e n c e d  the e l d e r l y .  The e l d e r l y a r e a l s o more l i k e l y  enduring  trauma i f v i c t i m i z e d .  t h a t e l d e r l y rape  to suffer  S a l e s e t a l . (1984)  v i c t i m s were l i k e l y  found  be t r a u m a t i z e d f o r  much l o n g e r p e r i o d r e l a t i v e t o y o u n g e r Some v u l n e r a b l e g r o u p s s u c h  by  victims.  as t h e p h y s i c a l l y and  m e n t a l l y handicapped, c h i l d r e n and t h e e l d e r l y a r e a b l e t o garner  c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c sympathy i f c r i m i n a l l y  victimized. regarded and  Crimes a g a i n s t such groups a r e g e n e r a l l y  as e s p e c i a l l y h e i n o u s .  As a r e s u l t ,  o t h e r s may be u n u s u a l l y f o r t h c o m i n g  a s s i s t a n c e f o r members o f t h e s e g r o u p s  police  i n both  officers  support  and  (Bard & Sangrey,  1 9 8 6 ) . G e n e r o u s e x p r e s s i o n o f p u b l i c c o m p a s s i o n i n t h e wake of a traumatic experience  may h e l p t o l e s s e n t h e v i c t i m ' s  sense o f d e m o r a l i z a t i o n and v i o l a t i o n . Other groups such vulnerable, t o both  as homosexuals a r e doubly  criminal victimization  and i t s e f f e c t s  ( B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986; S a l e s e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . H o m o s e x u a l s a r e o f t e n t h e o b j e c t s of harrassment, homicide. to  t h r e a t s , a s s a u l t and even  As a s t i g m i t i z e d group, t h e y  r e c e i v e needed support  through  are also less  likely  the criminal-justice  s y s t e m o r from t h e l a r g e r community. Such d i s r e g a r d f o r their plight experience The  o n l y deepens t h e i r  of violation  ( B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986) .  i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e v e r b e r a t i o n s of crime I t has been suggested  is,  sense o f i s o l a t i o n and  i n effect,  t h a t an a s s a u l t on an i n d i v i d u a l  an a s s a u l t on h i s / h e r f a m i l y  (Feinauer,  56  1982). Most v i c t i m s are p a r t  of family  o f c r i m e do n o t l i v e  i n i s o l a t i o n , but  a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The t r a u m a o f  c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n c a n , as a r e s u l t , e x t e n d beyond t h e p r i m a r y v i c t i m and r e v e r b e r a t e  through his/her  social  n e t w o r k . The f a m i l i e s a n d f r i e n d s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s c a n t h e m s e l v e s be s e v e r e l y loved  traumatized  by t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f a  o n e - - a n d , a t t i m e s , e v e n more a d v e r s e l y  primary v i c t i m  ( F i g l e y , 1986; F r e d e r i c k ,  Ruback, 1984). F i g l e y  (1986) c o n s i d e r s  than the  1987; G r e e n b e r g &  the love  a n d empathy  b e t w e e n f a m i l y members, t h e i r c r i t i c a l a t t r i b u t e a n d strength,  t o a l s o be t h e i r " a c h i l l e s h e e l " ,  them v u l n e r a b l e  t o the s u f f e r i n g of loved  as i t r e n d e r s  ones. Even  m i n o r c r i m e s , t h o s e h a v i n g someone i n t h e i r s o c i a l c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d a r e t h e m s e l v e s more l i k e l y vulnerable  t o being v i c t i m i z e d themselves  Frederick  with  network  to feel  (APA, 1 9 8 4 ) .  (1987), i n a proposed r e v i s i o n t o t h e  inclusion criteria  f o r a diagnosis  o f PTSD, h a s now  added  t h o s e " s e c o n d a r y ' v i c t i m s who h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d a " s e r i o u s t h r e a t o r harm t o o n e ' s c h i l d r e n , s p o u s e , o r o t h e r c l o s e r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . . . o r (witnessed) a n o t h e r p e r s o n who h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n , o r i s b e i n g s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d o r k i l l e d a s t h e r e s u l t o f an accident or physical violence". P r i m a r y c r i m e v i c t i m s may, t h e r e f o r e , only  have t o endure n o t  the emotional aftermath of the crime i t s e l f , but a l s o  witness i t s psychological i n t e n s i f i e s the victim's  toll  on l o v e d  suffering  ones--which  (Herrington,  Some f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t s , i n r e c o g n i z i n g adverse e f f e c t of undesirable  life  often  1985).  the p o t e n t i a l l y  e v e n t s on f a m i l i e s , h a v e  57  attempted to i d e n t i f y p a r t i c u l a r v u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s . Bowen has  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , i n an  coined  the  a n a l y s i s of f a m i l y  can  "aftershocks'  occur i n the  of s e r i o u s  extended family.  life  "Aftershocks'  the  psychological  i n f a m i l y members i n t h e  difficulties  and  argued that effect  enduring character  t h e y can  anyone i n t h e  dysfunctional  f a m i l i e s , who  wake  years l a t e r ,  adversely  and  s y s t e m . I n Bowen's v i e w , t e n d t o deny t h e  c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f an effect family  in fact,  Herrington, ability  (Sales notably  functioning  d e t e r i o r a t e under the  1985). This  t o c o p e as t h e  a critical  for  extent of t h e i r  can  and  family  strain  negatively  to  sexual  and  relationships  (Feinauer,  1982;  effect victims'  c r i m e s , by  play  adjustment  t h e i r very  a s s a u l t , present major coping  both victims  can  q u a l i t y of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s  e t a l . , 1984.) C e r t a i n  nature,  difficulties  t h e i r f a m i l i e s , where t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n r a i s e c o n f l i c t i n g emotions i n other  f a m i l y members, i m p e d i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y victim.  individual  r o l e i n crime v i c t i m s ' long-term  o f a f a m i l y member c a n  the  and  "aftershocks'. The  may,  of  the  e m o t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y were p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e such  in  and/or  of such " a f t e r s h o c k s '  emerge m o n t h s and family  are,  emergence of p h y s i c a l  a h i g h l y d i s r u p t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . Bowen e m p h a s i z e d  an  events  Bowen's v i e w , e v i d e n c e d by  pervasive  death,  t e r m " e m o t i o n a l s h o c k wave" t o r e f e r t o  network of emotional that  reaction to  to o f f e r support  to  58  The rape o f a f a m i l y member can b r i n g about profound disruptions  i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y  f u n c t i o n i n g at a time when mutual support and empathy i s most needed  (Feinauer, 1982; M i l l e r , W i l l i a m s ,  1982). Sexual a s s a u l t evokes such i n t e n s e and rage i n l o v e d ones t h a t  & Bernstein,  f e a r i n the v i c t i m  i t can g r e a t l y h i n d e r t h e i r  a b i l i t y t o be empathic t o the o t h e r . In the aftermath o f a sexual a s s a u l t , safety,  female v i c t i m s are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h  s e c u r i t y , and emotional support; whereas male f a m i l y  members and l o v e r s may be become obssessed w i t h revenge and retribution  (Frieze,  1987).  A c c o r d i n g t o F e i n a u e r (1982), f a t h e r s and b r o t h e r s of female rape v i c t i m s may f i n d themselves i n a s t a t e o f conflict  i d e n t i f y i n g both with the v i c t i m and the  perpetrator.  F a t h e r s o f t e n r e a c t t o the rape o f a daughter  by becoming o v e r l y - p r o t e c t i v e , p a r t i a l l y out of g u i l t f o r not  having p r e v e n t e d the a s s a u l t ,  the  attacker  and out o f anger both at  and at the daughter f o r f i n d i n g themselves i n a  p o s i t i o n o f inadequacy. The rape of a daughter may a l s o  stir  up i n the f a t h e r a complexity of f e e l i n g s about h i s own s e x u a l i t y t h a t can impede him from b e i n g adequately s u p p o r t i v e t o h i s daughter a f t e r the rape. A c c o r d i n g t o Feinauer, l a c k o f support from an important male f i g u r e , such as a f a t h e r , can s e r i o u s l y impede a rape  victim's  adjustment. For a d u l t rape v i c t i m s  i n marital relationships, a  host o f m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t s and sexual problems o f t e n emerge  59  a n d may  p e r s i s t f o r long periods  1982). Communication impaired  between  of time  marital partners  i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f r a p e . The v i c t i m  indicates a strong  d e s i r e t o not d i s c u s s  about t h e a s s a u l t .  The  how  (Miller et a l . , i s often often  nor even  spouse i s t h e n l e f t  think  uncertain  t h e v i c t i m i s f e e l i n g o r a s t o what she n e e d s  Spouses guilt,  a r e , as a r e s u l t , l e f t knowing t h e i r p a r t n e r  from him.  c o n f u s e d and l a d e n  with  i s distressed yet reluctant to  b u r d e n t h e v i c t i m w i t h t h e i r own  feelings  1 9 8 2 ) . O v e r t i m e , t h e v i c t i m may  feel  on h e r p a r t n e r  about  a n d t h e s p o u s e may  ( M i l l e r et a l . ,  increasingly  dependent  t r y t o be a s s u p p o r t i v e  as  possible. The  spouse's a b i l i t y  o f t h e v i c t i m may  to continue to tend to the  be g r a d u a l l y  e r o d e d by h i s own  trauma, the p r e s s u r e s of e x t e r n a l  emotion  c o m m i t m e n t s and t h e o n -  going s e v e r i t y of the victim's emotional reactions. a n g e r may  surface  empathically  impeding h i s a b i l i t y  t o t h e v i c t i m . The  o r r e t r i b u t i o n may  itself.  dependency  resentment  spouse's d e s i r e  also r e c a l l the violence  on h e r p a r t n e r  f o r revenge  of the rape victim's  also  be  f o r a s p o u s e o r l o v e r t o be  supportive  i f the v i c t i m i s expressing  t o w a r d men  i n general  1987).  f o r her  can l e a d t o a mutual  ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . I t may  particularly difficult  (Frieze,  t o respond  I n t i m e , t h e l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and t h e  increased  His  c a u s e t h e v i c t i m t o be be f e a r f u l  s p o u s e . H i s a n g e r may  needs  negative  feelings  and showing d i s i n t e r e s t i n sex  60  The p r o c e s s  of adjustment  Challenging  t r a d i t i o n a l views of adjustment  Two m a j o r f i n d i n g s h a v e f r a m e d o u r e m e r g i n g k n o w l e d g e of crime v i c t i m s ' adjustment process. evidence of the p o t e n t i a l l y the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r i e s 1984; the  severe  These a r e  and e n d u r i n g  considerable v a r i a b i l i t y  Silver  including criminal  ( B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1 9 8 6 ; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984;  & Wortman, 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s  process  1 9 8 6 ) , as w e l l a s  i n how i n d i v i d u a l s c o p e w i t h a  of threatening life-events,  victimization  suggests that the adjustment  o f c r i m e v i c t i m s c a n be more a r d u o u s a n d somewhat  more i d i o s y n c r a t i c t h a n h a d b e e n o r i g i n a l l y These f i n d i n g s have c h a l l e n g e d theoretical and  thought.  previously held  assumptions that adjustment i s both i n e v i t a b l e  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o g r e s s i v e  various  character of  s u f f e r e d b y c r i m e v i c t i m s (APA,  S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; M e y e r & T a y l o r ,  diversity  accumulating  stage  models o f c o p i n g  steps,  as p r o p o s e d b y  (e.g., Kubler-Ross,  1969).  Such models have t y p i c a l l y  d e s c r i b e d an o r d e r l y s e q u e n c e o f  stages  recovery  al.,  leading to eventual  1984; S i l v e r  Silver  & Wortman  or acceptance  & Wortman, 1980; W i r t z (1980),  extreme v a r i a b i l i t y  i n their extensive  of response t o l i f e  evidence of successive  & Harrell,  stages  of coping.  response has g e n e r a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e factors that influence victims'  crises  1987). found  a n d no c l e a r  This variance i n  research  coping.  review,  (Sales et  interest  into  61  The  adjustment  trajectory  Traditionally,  t h e o r e t i c a l models of response  c r i s e s h a v e d e s c r i b e d an a c u t e b u t c r i s i s p h a s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by and  short-lived  to  life  initial  anxiety, phobias,  and  s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h the i n t e n s i t y of  mental  victims'  r e a c t i o n s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e n o v e l t y and m a g n i t u d e o f stressor  (Sales et a l . , 1984). A f t e r the  problem-solving to  be  o r r e s o l u t i o n p h a s e was  f o l l o w e d by e v e n t u a l and  initial thought  crisis,  f r a m e and Various  complete recovery, u s u a l l y  Harrell, did  not  challenged both the  a d j u s t m e n t t r a j e c t o r y p r o p o s e d by t h e s e  reseachers 1987)  ( e . g . , S a l e s e t a l . , 1984;  with  timemodels.  Wirtz  &  found t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y of v i c t i m s  achieve  c o m p l e t e r e c o v e r y and  symptoms o f d i s t r e s s y e a r s the process  a  t o emerge,  w i t h i n s e v e r a l months. L o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h , n o t a b l y v i c t i m s o f s e x u a l a s s a u l t , has  the  continued to  a f t e r the a s s a u l t .  of adjustment d i d not  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r o g r e s s i o n toward  a p p e a r t o be  exhibit  Furthermore, a  a relatively  symptom-free  state. S a l e s e t a l . (1984),  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  l o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a , h a v e p r o p o s e d a more c o m p l e x of rape  victims'  own trajectory  a d j u s t m e n t t h a n have p r e v i o u s models  coping. L i k e other r e s e a r c h e r s , Sales et a l . found o f an  initial  of  evidence  c r i s i s p h a s e o f l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n f o l l o w e d by  g r a d u a l d i m i n i s h i n g o f symptoms, g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f p r o g r e s s i v e r e t u r n t o n o r m a l c y . However, a r e a c t i v a t i o n symptoms o f d i s t r e s s was  found beyond the six-month  a a  of  period,  62  though l e s s severe than before.  Sales  e t a l . a l s o found  symptom r e a c t i v a t i o n t y p i c a l l y  coincided with victims'  resumption of a previous  of social  level  et a l . suggest t h a t behavioural occur before this  functioning.  " n o r m a l i z a t i o n ' may  the v i c t i m i s emotionally  that  Sales  often  ready. As a r e s u l t ,  " n o r m a l i z a t i o n ' may come a b o u t a t t h e e x p e n s e o f  symptom e l e v a t i o n . Some r e s e a r c h e r s  (e.g.,  B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986) h a v e  come t o v i e w some f o r m o f r e g r e s s i o n a s an i n e v i t a b l e p a r t of rape v i c t i m s ' adjustment. A f t e r p e r i o d s confident  of feeling  about t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o cope, rape v i c t i m s  often  f i n d t h e m s e l v e s s u d d e n l y overcome by f e e l i n g s o f helplessness  and a n x i e t y  ( F r i e z e , 1987). A l t h o u g h  these  s h i f t s may be p a r t o f v i c t i m s ' n o r m a l r e a d j u s t m e n t , t h e a p p a r e n t s e t b a c k c a n be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s c o u r a g i n g a n d f r i g h t e n i n g t o v i c t i m s , who b e g i n ever  t o doubt whether t h e y  will  recover. C o a t e s e t a l . (1979) s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s  oscillating  a d j u s t m e n t p a t t e r n may n o t be i n t r i n s i c t o t h e v i c t i m b u t a response t o being  n e g a t i v e l y r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s .  to Coates e t a l . , v i c t i m s o f t e n face a c o n f l i c t personal  and s o c i a l  adjustment. A c t i o n s  v i c t i m s t o c o p e more e f f e c t i v e l y negative others.  affect), In t h e i r  review,  between  t h a t may  enable  the expression  frequently result i n their  who show t h e i r e m o t i o n a l others  (e.g.,  According  of  r e j e c t i o n by  Coates e t a l . found t h a t  victims  p a i n a r e l i k e l y t o be p e r c e i v e d  as m a l a d j u s t e d and hence avoided;  by  w h e r e a s v i c t i m s who  63  seem t o be coping w e l l  (i.e.,  " h e r o i c ' v i c t i m s ) , are more  l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e sympathy and o f f e r s o f h e l p . theorists  (e.g., Coates e t a l . , 1979; Lerner  Various  & M i l l e r , 1978;  S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) have argued t h a t observers f e e l threatened  often  i n t h e presence of v i c t i m s , as t h e r e a l i t y  of v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f t e n evokes observers' v u l n e r a b i l i t y . As a r e s u l t , observers  sense o f t h e i r own  o f t e n a v o i d or even  blame v i c t i m s f o r t h e i r f a t e . Coates e t a l . concluded t h a t those v i c t i m s who most need support  may be l e a s t l i k e l y t o  r e c e i v e i t . As a r e s u l t , v i c t i m s may t r y t o i n c r e a s e s o c i a l acceptance by c o n c e a l i n g t h e i r d i s t r e s s ,  their  a t a cost t o  t h e i r emotional adjustment. V i c t i m s may t h e r e f o r e be caught between t h e emotional c o s t s of premature normalization isolation. Wirtz  and t h e o f t e n worse a l t e r n a t i v e o f s o c i a l  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  & Harrell,  (e.g., Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986;  1987) found t h a t crime v i c t i m s who remained  at home and withdrew from others the most p o o r l y  as a means o f coping  conventional  coping assumptions about t h e coping  have been i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a l l e n g e d by r e s e a r c h APA,  were  adjusted.  Defining successful As  behavioural  process  f i n d i n g s (see  1984; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980), a  n o t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e coping s e l f - e v i d e n t . The r e s e a r c h  has become l e s s  suggests t h a t coping  processes  may be more complex than had been p r e v i o u s l y thought. Maintaining  a t o l e r a b l e l e v e l o f s t r e s s had been  considered  fundamental t o adjustment. However, i n t e n s e d i s t r e s s i n t h e  64  short-term the  h a s b e e n f o u n d t o be more e f f e c t i v e i n m o b i l i z i n g  victim to initiate  addition,  coping  those maintaining  e f f o r t s (APA, 1 9 8 4 ) . I n  a positive self-concept  m i d s t o f a c r i s i s — p r e v i o u s l y deemed a h a l l m a r k  i n the  of  s u c c e s s f u l c o p i n g — w e r e f o u n d l e s s l i k e l y t o engage i n needed coping threatened  e f f o r t s t h a n t h o s e who  ( S i l v e r & Wortman,  felt their  self-esteem  1980).  K e s s l e r e t a l . (1985b) h a v e q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l i d i t y measures o f adjustment t h a t  fail  to consider i n t e r a c t i o n a l  a s p e c t s o f a d j u s t m e n t . They a r g u e t h a t with  a life  c r i s i s by a d o p t i n g  own d i s t r e s s o r m a i n t a i n of others.  As a r e s u l t ,  assess only social  conventional  and  who  strategies.  f u n c t i o n i n g had a l s o  been  Sales  The n o t i o n  t o have  i n t h e l o n g - t e r m t h a n t h o s e who  d e l a y e d t h e i r r e t u r n t o normal  traditional  et a l .  resumed a p r i o r  a p p e a r e d t o be d o i n g w e l l were more l i k e l y  (i.e.,  that  a c t i v i t y w i t h i n s i x months a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t  adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s  world  at t h e expense  an i n d i c a t o r o f s u c c e s s f u l c o p i n g .  of s o c i a l  their  measures o f c o p i n g  (1984) f o u n d h o w e v e r t h a t r a p e v i c t i m s who level  reduce  not r e v e a l the broader  i n c u r r e d by s u c h c o p i n g  Resumption of s o c i a l considered  self-concept  t h e p r i m a r y v i c t i m may  costs  some i n d i v i d u a l s c o p e  strategies that  their  of  had  functioning.  of a r e a l i s t i c  view of oneself  and o f one's  r e a l i t y - t e s t i n g ) has been c e n t r a l t o c o n c e p t i o n s o f m e n t a l h e a l t h and a d j u s t m e n t . I t  would f o l l o w t h a t  a realistic  v i c t i m i z a t i o n would f a c i l i t a t e  evaluation coping.  o f one's  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  have  65  argued however t h a t v i c t i m i z a t i o n may, "realistic  i n f a c t , be  view of the  1  found that  c e r t a i n a p p r a i s a l s about  one's  more a d a p t i v e  than  a  c r i m e . S c h e p p e l e and  Bart  (1983)  r a p e v i c t i m s who  attributed their assault  h a v i n g f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a s i t u a t i o n t h e y had b e f o r e h a n d t o be  t h o u g h t t h e y had  circumstances.  S c h e p p e l e and  been i n o t h e r w i s e  Bart  s t r e s s the  s u b j e c t i v e nature of these a p p r a i s a l s  had  previously considered  initially  Victims  who  considered  perceived  d a n g e r o u s may can  home) may notion  safe  largely whereas  one  h i t c h h i k i n g "safe',  i n a place  therefore  be  s i t u a t i o n s . T h o s e who  c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y had  (e.g.,  distress  another  i t as p o t e n t i a l l y h a z a r d o u s ) .  were a s s a u l t e d  v i c t i m i z a t i o n s can safe  known  dangerous e x p e r i e n c e d l e s s i n t e n s e  t h a n t h o s e who  v i c t i m had  to  t h e y had  believe that  a v o i d e d by  future  r e s t r i c t i n g oneself  s u f f e r e d an  assault  p r e v i o u s l y v i e w e d as  f e e l more v u l n e r a b l e  previously  to  in  safe  to future attacks,  (e.g., as  at  their  o f a what c o n s t i t u t e s a s e c u r e e n v i r o n m e n t has  been  shattered. A principal difficulty  in defining effective  f o l l l o w i n g c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n has n o r m a t i v e d a t a on how events  (APA,  1984;  been the  individuals ordinarily  Silver  i t has  & Wortman, 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s  t r a u m a e v o k e d by Victims  l e d to frequent  of  respond to  m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e Specifically,  lack  coping  has  such  led to  coping.  underestimations  of  the  e v e n t s s u c h as c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n .  with unrelenting  d i s t r e s s were o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d  by  66  o b s e r v e r s a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o be i n h e r e n t l y maladaptive  ( C o a t e s e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) . W i t h e m e r g i n g d a t a on t h e  psychological  aftermath of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n , victims  may be v i e w e d more p o s i t i v e l y , difficulties  a s more  and t h e i r  enduring  normal.  Coping with v i c t i m i z a t i o n R e s e a r c h w i t h t h o s e who h a v e s u f f e r e d life  e v e n t s shows t h a t  a substantial majority  o v e r c o m e t h e i r d i s t r e s s , a n d do s o w i t h o u t intervention Taylor  the provision of social  identified ability events  professional  and e v i d e n c e o f t h e wide  i n how i n d i v i d u a l s c o p e , h a v e l e d t o  i n t o v i c t i m s ' own a d a p t i v e and  effectively  ( K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980;  e t a l . , 1983). T h i s ,  variability  catastrophic  as c r i t i c a l  t o withstand  processes.  research  Cognitive  adaptation  s u p p o r t have been c o n s i s t e n t l y  post-event v a r i a b l e s i n v i c t i m s '  the adverse e f f e c t s of unfortunate  (APA, 1984; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r  1 9 8 0 ) . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s t h a t  life  & Wortman,  appear t o p r o t e c t  one  from t h e f u l l  its  d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s , have h e l d t h e p r o m i s e o f a b a s i s  for  interventions with traumatized  Cognitive  impact of harmful events, o r  populations.  adaptation  The " s e l f - h e a l i n g ' c a p a b i l i t i e s resources  or inner  Wortman  eventually  coping  o f many i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e s u f f e r e d  h a r m f u l e v e n t s c a n be q u i t e f o r m i d a b l e . and  ameliorate  (1980), a m a j o r i t y report  extremely  According  of victims of l i f e  a q u a l i t y of l i f e  to Silver crises  e q u a l t o , o r even  67  exceeding that of t h e i r p r e - v i c t i m i z a t i o n state increased  self-knowledge,  reordering of priorities,  r e e v a l u a t i o n o f one's l i f e ) . a follow-up  study  and a  Burgess and H o l s t r o m  (1979), i n  o f r a p e v i c t i m s , f o u n d t h a t t h o s e who h a d  used c o g n i t i v e coping  s t r a t e g i e s s u c h as f i n d i n g a  meaningful explanation the  (e.g.,  f o r t h e event, or minimizing  f a s t e s t t o recover;  i t , were  w h e r e a s t h o s e who h a d n o t u s e d  such  s t r a t e g i e s w e r e u n r e c o v e r e d 4-6 y e a r s a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t . Numerous t h e o r i s t s ( e . g . , Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; Taylor  & Brown,  F i g l e y , 1986; J a n o f f - B u l m a n &  Taylor,  1983; T a y l o r  e t a l . , 1983;  1988) h a v e i d e n t i f i e d c o g n i t i v e " s e l f - h e l p '  s t r a t e g i e s used by v i c t i m s . T a y l o r has p r o p o s e d a t h e o r y  (1983),  i n particular,  of cognitive adaptation  e v e n t s t h a t i n v o l v e s t h r e e p r i n c i p a l themes: for  meaning i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e ,  to threatening (1) a  search  (2) an a t t e m p t t o r e g a i n  m a s t e r y over t h e event i n p a r t i c u l a r and o v e r one's more g e n e r a l l y , a n d (3) an e f f o r t t o r e s t o r e through self-enhancing  self-esteem  Similarly,  Figley  (1986)  has p r o p o s e d t h a t v i c t i m s o f c a t a s t r o p h i c l i f e  events  engage  in  evaluations.  life  a c o g n i t i v e s t r u g g l e t o attempt t o answer f o u r  questions,  (1) What h a p p e n e d t o me?  (3) Why d i d I a c t a s I d i d ? catastrophe?  (4)  The s e a r c h  and  (2) How d i d i t h a p p e n ?  What w i l l  I do i n a n o t h e r  I n t h e F i g l e y ' s view, v i c t i m s ' a b i l i t y  m e a n i n g l y answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s  particularly  basic  will  lessen t h e i r  to distress.  f o r meaning i n one's m i s f o r t u n e i s  relevant t o crime v i c t i m s . According  t o Bard  S a n g r e y (1986) , humans h a v e , t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r h i s t o r y ,  68  confronted  evil  and  have a c c o r d i n g l y f o r c e s and  felt  developed b e l i e f s to account f o r harmful  constructed  explanations  a need t o e x p l a i n i t . I n d i v i d u a l s  r i t u a l s t o a p p e a s e them.  r e - e s t a b l i s h e d one's sense of c o n t r o l  p r o v i d i n g a r e a s o n f o r o n e ' s t r a u m a . I t may need t o e x p l a i n the to the be  Such  s u f f e r i n g of the  development of r e l i g i o n ;  meaningfully  explained.  be  innocent  argued that gave  and  Frankl  (1963) has  to avoid pain.  however, c r i m e v i c t i m s are explanations  s o c i e t i e s h a v e no  argued  (Bard  & S a n g r e y , 1 9 8 6 ) . As  sense of t h r e a t e n i n g  t o be  acceptable.  underlying  impetus  that  need  to  In a s e c u l a r s o c i e t y ,  less likely  intellectually  a  where human s u f f e r i n g c o u l d  humans' n e e d f o r m e a n i n g i s more b a s i c t h a n t h e maximize pleasure  by  find  Also,  religious  secular  t r a d i t i o n s to explain s u f f e r i n g  a result,  the burden of  events tends to f a l l  on t h e  making  individual  victim. Criminal victimization, u n c o n t r o l l a b l e nature, world  can  i t s unpredictable  abruptly  reduce the  t o c h a o s . One's v i e w o f t h e w o r l d  severely challenged.  This provides  v i c t i m s t o u n d e r s t a n d and is  by  once a g a i n  sense of c o n t r o l over the  a great  reorganize  c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and  and  and  victims's  the  s e l f may  be  impetus f o r  t h e i r world  so t h a t i t  o r d e r l y , so as t o r e g a i n  e v e n t and  one's l i f e  a  (Janoff-  B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . A t t h e  same t i m e ,  crime  victims'  attempt t o  reintegrate  the  search  f o r meaning can  violated self,  to reduce the  from a fragmented s e l f  (Bard  be  an  dissonance that r e s u l t s  & Sangrey, 1986). This  search  69  for  meaning i n v o l v e s s p e c i f i c a l l y  the  e v e n t : why i t h a p p e n e d a n d what i m p a c t i t h a s h a d ?  (Figley,  1986; T a y l o r ,  The  an e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d  1983).  s e a r c h f o r meaning i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f one's  m i s f o r t u n e i s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d by t h e a t t r i b u t i o n a l  question,  what c a u s e d t h e e v e n t t o h a p p e n ? , o r "why me?", a s v i c t i m s often feel  s i n g l e d out (Coates & Winston,  1983; J a n o f f -  B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . D e s p i t e a g e n e r a l  awareness  t h a t c r i m e o c c u r s , v i c t i m s must a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h e y i t o c c u r r e d t o them and n o t o t h e r s .  I t i s the apparent  r a n d o m n e s s o f t h e e v e n t t h a t c a n be most t r o u b l i n g , inability  t o p r e d i c t or c o n t r o l threatening events  h e l p l e s s n e s s and f e a r .  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s  as t h e evokes  s e a r c h f o r an  e x p l a n a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y a d d r e s s a much d e e p e r q u e s t i o n , d o e s my l i f e The at the  mean now?  (Taylor,  1983).  search f o r a causal a t t r i b u t i o n  f o r the crime i s  t h e h e a r t o f an d e s i r e t o g a i n a s e n s e o f m a s t e r y e v e n t , and o v e r one's l i f e  Perceptions or i l l u s i o n s  invulnerability  (i.e.,  over  g e n e r a l l y . Foremost, t h e  v i c t i m must c o n t e n d w i t h t h e b l u n t a w a r e n e s s vulnerability.  what  of his/her  of personal  " i t won't h a p p e n t o me")  d e e p l y shaken by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i m i n a l  are often  victimization  ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . V i c t i m s a r e t h e r e f o r e m o t i v a t e d t o f i n d ways o f r e s t o r i n g a s e n s e o f t h e i r invulnerability.  own  E f f o r t s a t m a s t e r y c e n t e r on t h e q u e s t i o n s ,  How c a n I k e e p t h i s  o r a s i m i l a r event from happening  a n d what c a n I do t o manage i t now? The v i c t i m  again?  seeks t o  70  a s s e r t c o n t r o l and overcome f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and f e a r by t r y i n g t o understand  t h e event  so as t o r e c a p t u r e a  sense o f t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f one's e n v i r o n m e n t  (Bard &  S a n g r e y , 1986) . Various researchers Frazier,  (e.g., Bard  1990; J a n o f f - B u l m a n  & Sangrey, 1986;  & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; J a n o f f -  Bulman, 1979; Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986; M i l l e r O c h b e r g , 1988) h a v e n o t e d crime—as  theorists  a common t e n d e n c y among v i c t i m s o f  w e l l as o f o t h e r n e g a t i v e l i f e  exaggarate  their  events—to  own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h  (e.g., Janoff-Bulman  Janoff-Bulman,  & P o r t e r , 1983;  s e l f - b l a m e . Some  & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ;  1979) h a v e c h a l l e n g e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  notion  t h a t s e l f - b l a m e among v i c t i m s i s n e c e s s a r i l y h a r m f u l a n d inappropriate.  They h a v e s u g g e s t e d  circumstances,  s e l f - b l a m e a t t r i b u t i o n s b y v i c t i m s may b e  adaptive. Clearly,  the criminal  t h a t , under  certain  i s t h e cause o f t h e crime,  b u t t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t  or satisfactory  f o r crime v i c t i m s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). S e l f - b l a m e v i c t i m s may be s e e n a s a t t e m p t s  t o e x p l a i n why t h e e v e n t  o c c u r r e d t o them i n p a r t i c u l a r by e x a m i n i n g i n t h e v i c t i m i z i n g event. Sangrey's  (1986) v i e w ,  order t o the world,  t h e i r own r o l e  Such e x p l a n a t i o n s , i n B a r d and  a r e intended t o r e s t o r e a sense o f  and can r e f l e c t  one's f u t u r e v u l n e r a b i l i t y . negative  among  a d e s i r e t o minimize one's b e h a v i o u r  fora  o u t c o m e , one c a n m a i n t a i n p r e e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s  about  the c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y  In blaming  of events.  71  J a n o f f - B u l m a n and the  literature  on  self-blame  r e l a t i o n s h i p to coping inconsistent results. reconcile this  Lang-Gunn  a t t r i b u t i o n s and  The  authors  self-blame  perceived deficient outcome  Behavioural o n e ' s own  have a t t e m p t e d  i n c o n s i s t e n c y by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  Characterological  and  (e.g.,  self-blame,  "I'm  found  to  between  self-blame.  r e f e r s to the blaming  enduring  of  their  across v a r i o u s v i c t i m groups,  c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l and b e h a v i o u r a l  negative  (in press), i n a review  aspects  of the  of  self  f o r the  a poor judge of c h a r a c t e r " ) .  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e f e r s t o  blaming  behaviour.  " . . . I was n o t c a r e f u l e n o u g h b e c a u s e I h a d i n f a c t l e f t t h e window o p e n . . . I h a d n ' t b o t h e r e d t o p u t l o c k s on t h e w i n d o w s . T h a t was s o m e t h i n g I d i d n ' t t h i n k was n e c e s s a r y t o do r i g h t away. My g u e s s i s t h a t [ t h e u n l o c k e d window] was a p r e t t y open i n v i t a t i o n t o t h i s guy....I take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h a t . " Burglary victim Janoff-Bulman b l a m e has their  different  a belief of the  (1979) p r o p o s e s t h a t e a c h t y p e  self-blame  and p e r s o n a l  i s considered  i n f u t u r e c o n t r o l by  self.  One  may  prevent  a l t e r i n g one's b e h a v i o u r , Characterological  1986)  of  self-  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v i c t i m s ' a p p r a i s a l of  future vulnerability  Behavioural  (Bard & Sangrey,  c o n t r o l over  adaptive  as  aspects  f r o m r e c u r r i n g by  (e.g., not walk alone  self-blame  i t implies  f o c u s i n g on c h a n g e a b l e a crime  events.  at  i s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  night). viewed  as m a l a d a p t i v e  as i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a r s h  self-  criticism,  s e l f - e s t e e m and p e r c e p t i o n s  helplessness  low  (Peterson & Seligman,  of  1984) . U n l i k e b e h a v i o u r a l  self-blame,  72  c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - b l a m e t e n d s t o f o c u s on t h e p a s t one's d e s e r v e d n e s s Characterological inevitability  (or r a t h e r t h e l a c k  thereof).  self-blame implies a pessimistic  about  invulnerability  f u t u r e e v e n t s and p r e c l u d e s a sense  and c o n t r o l  p r e s s ; Meyer & T a y l o r ,  1986)  of  ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n  1986).  Other r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., F r a z i e r , Taylor,  and  1990;  Meyer  and  have c h a l l e n g e d t h e p r o p o s e d a d a p t i v e v a l u e o f  behavioural self-blame.  In s t u d i e s of rape v i c t i m s ,  they  f o u n d t h a t b o t h b e h a v i o u r a l and c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - b l a m e were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o o r p o s t - r a p e a d j u s t m e n t . s o c i e t a l b l a m e was Taylor,  not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h adjustment  1986). F r a z i e r  b l a m e was  Only  (1990)  (Meyer  found t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l  r e l a t e d t o past a v o i d a b i l i t y but not w i t h  avoidability  and  selffuture  (as h a d b e e n a r g u e d by J a n o f f - B u l m a n ) . M e y e r  a n d T a y l o r s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f s e l f - b l a m e on a d j u s t m e n t may  d e p e n d on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t h r e a t e n i n g  event  and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v i c t i m . A c c e p t a n c e o f b l a m e must be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e m e a n i n g i t h a s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ,  and may  f a c t o r s as g e n d e r ,  be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y  a f f e c t e d by  s o c i a l power and c u l t u r e . A r a p e  who  a c c e p t s blame f o r h e r m i s f o r t u n e , a b l e i t  may  a l s o be y i e l d i n g t o s o c i e t a l b e l i e f s  v i c t i m s who  blamed  c h a r a c t e r as w e l l .  (1990)  victim  behavioural,  about  r a p e as a  " v i c t i m - i n d u c e d ' phenomenon a n d c o n c o m i t a n t b e l i e f s women's p o w e r l e s s n e s s . F r a z i e r  such  about  f o u n d t h a t most  t h e i r b e h a v i o u r u s u a l l y blamed  rape  their  Consequently, behavioural self-blame  among m a l e b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s a n d among f e m a l e r a p e v i c t i m s may h a v e d i f f e r e n t  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r adjustment.  Considerations  of the adaptive  a l s o be p l a c e d  i n some h i s t o r i c a l  found that although degree, they  role of self-blame context.  should  Frazier  (1990)  many v i c t i m s b l a m e t h e m s e l v e s t o some  seem t o b l a m e o t h e r  f a c t o r s more. I n t h e  i n t e r v e n i n g decade between t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f J a n o f f Bulman's  (1979) s e l f - b l a m e  findings,  hypothesis  and F r a z i e r ' s  (1990)  t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s o f rape have been s u b j e c t t o  considerable  challenges, p a r t i c u l a r l y  movement. No d o u b t , s h i f t i n g  from t h e f e m i n i s t  s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s would have  i n f l u e n c e d t h e c a s u a l a t t r i b u t i o n s o f rape v i c t i m s from i n t e r n a l t o more e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . Cognitive adaptation  i n the aftermath  o f t e n o r i e n t e d toward self-enhancement Taylor,  conceivable  e v e n when t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e a r s no  responsibility  (Janoff-Bulman  f o rthe victimizing  i n v o l v e f i n d i n g ways t o r e s t o r e o n e ' s  perception  they  self-esteem.  o f t e n i n c l u d e ways t o m i n i m i z e t h e  o f o n e s e l f as a v i c t i m .  experiencing  event  & F r i e z e , 1 9 8 3 ) . Many i n t r a p s y c h i c c o p i n g  Specifically,  consider  (Gibbons, 1986;  1983; T a y l o r e t a l . , 1983). V i c t i m i z a t i o n t e n d s t o  erode self-esteem  efforts  of a c r i s i s i s  T a y l o r e t a l . argue  o n e s e l f as a v i c t i m and b e l i e v i n g t h a t  that  others  one t o b e a v i c t i m a r e b o t h a v e r s i v e .  Victimization,  particularly  produce l o s s of self-esteem, as w e l l a s e m o t i o n a l  c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , can control,  s t a t u s , and p r o p e r t y  trauma and p h y s i c a l i n j u r y . L a b e l l i n g  74  o n e s e l f a v i c t i m can evoke t h e s u f f e r i n g and sense o f l o s s associated with v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Also, having c o m p e l s one t o i d e n t i f y w i t h s t i g m a t i z e d I n d i v i d u a l s may they  may  victimize"  populations.  react to the s e l f with a s i m i l a r  have p r e v i o u s l y f e l t  thus motivated  been v i c t i m i z e d  to construe  aversion  f o r other v i c t i m s . Victims are  their  situation  s o a s t o "de-  themselves.  T a y l o r e t a l . , (1983) h a v e i d e n t i f i e d f i v e  processes  o f s e l e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f o n e s e l f and one's s i t u a t i o n  by  w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s t r y t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r v i c t i m s t a t u s . These include:  (1) downward c o m p a r i s o n s  more f a v o u r a b l y (2) s e l e c t i v e l y advantaged, "It  viewing  oneself  when c o m p a r e d w i t h l e s s f o r t u n a t e o t h e r s ) , f o c u s i n g on a t t r i b u t e s t h a t make one  (3) c r e a t i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l , w o r s e w o r l d s  c o u l d have been w o r s e " ) ,  v i c t i m i z i n g experience, standards  (i.e.,  and  feel (i.e.,  (4) c o n s t r u i n g b e n e f i t f r o m t h e (5) m a n u f a c t u r i n g  normative  o f a d j u s t m e n t t h a t make o n e ' s a d j u s t m e n t  seem  exceptional. Self-enhancing misfortune,  c o g n i t i o n s i n t h e wake o f o n e ' s  though they  can p r o v i d e  a sense o f meaning,  a n d / o r i n c r e a s e o n e ' s s e n s e o f m a s t e r y , c a n be "illusions', process  as t h e y  to reality.  o f downward c o m p a r i s o n , f o r e x a m p l e , v i c t i m s  assume t h e y  are coping  when s u c h o t h e r s comparison these  need not correspond  considered  b e t t e r than imagined s i m i l a r  In the often others,  are t y p i c a l l y not a c c e s s i b l e f o r a c t u a l  ( T a y l o r , 1983) . To v i c t i m s , t h e t r u t h f u l n e s s o f  self-enhancing  cognitions i s subordinated  to their  75  adaptive to  f u n c t i o n . The n o t i o n t h a t i l l u s i o n s  p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g runs counter  conceptions  reality  s e l f - d e c e p t i o n . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , h o w e v e r , some ( e . g . , T a y l o r , 1983; T a y l o r & Brown,  argued f o r the adaptive value or u n r e a l i s t i c p o s i t i v e t h r e a t e n i n g events, support  to traditional  of mental h e a l t h which favour accurate  t e s t i n g over researchers  are b e n e f i c a l  beliefs  1988)  of certain p o s i t i v e  have  illusions,  s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s i n the face of  i n s o f a r as t h e y  enhance  self-esteem,  i n one's e f f i c a c y and p e r m i t  an  optimistic  v i e w o f t h e f u t u r e . T a y l o r a n d Brown a c k n o w l e d g e c e r t a i n potential  liabilities  of such i l l u s i o n s  (e.g.,  their  v u l n e r a b i l i t y to disconfirmation, ignoring of l e g i t i m a t e risks). to  They a r g u e h o w e v e r t h a t t h e a b i l i t y  develop  and m a i n t a i n p o s i t i v e  human r e s o u r c e Social  illusions  t h a t s h o u l d n o t be  of i n d i v i d u a l s i s a valuable  discounted.  support When i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n d i s t r e s s t h e y  t e n d t o show a  p a r t i c u l a r n e e d f o r t h e s o l a c e o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Furthermore, there i s considerable evidence  that  close  social ties  seem t o l e s s e n t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f a r a n g e o f  distressing  life  events  (Coates  e t a l . , 1979; F i g l e y ,  1986;  H o l a h a n & Moos, 1986; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1 9 8 0 ) . I n l o n g i t u d i n a l  studies of those  suffered p a r t i c u l a r misfortunes  (e.g.,  widowhood) , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y be an i m p o r t a n t 1985b). S o c i a l  of s o c i a l  p r e d i c t o r of adaptation isolation  who  have  unemployment, support  was  found t o  (Kessler et a l . ,  a n d s e p a r a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r  hand,  76  w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d o f i l l n e s s deterioration  (Coates e t a l . ,  1979). With r e s p e c t t o  of crime, there i s accumulating evidence that family,  friends,  criminal  j u s t i c e system  1986;  Horowitz,  & Frieze,  Sales et a l . ,  1984;  1983;  valued  i n the  s o c i a l networks  (see F i g l e y ,  1986;  1988).  Social their  Such  i n m o b i l i z i n g support f o r v i c t i m i z e d  populations within their Gottlieb,  vital  Krupnick &  Symonds, 1 9 8 0 ) .  f i n d i n g s have l e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t therapeutic potential  the  of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n (Bard &  Janoff-Bulman  1980;  from  and t h e c o m m u n i t y a t l a r g e a r e  to the long-term adjustment Sangrey,  victims  support  t h e h e l p i n g and l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s ,  and  s u p p o r t i s t h o u g h t t o h e l p v i c t i m s by  enhancing  s e l f - e s t e e m t h r o u g h f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g c a r e d f o r and (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e ,  provide opportunities to talk emotions.  Social  1983).  Supportive others  about t h e event  can  or t o vent  s u p p o r t can i n c l u d e not o n l y e m o t i o n a l  support but a l s o companionship,  advice, informational  a s s i s t a n c e , h e l p w i t h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , and t a n g i b l e a i d (Figley,  1986;  Janoff-Bulman  & Frieze,  Despite indications that social  1983;  Thoits,  support can  1986).  facilitate  t h e c o p i n g p r o c e s s , an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y b a s e d m e r e l y u r g i n g members o f v i c t i m s ' may  s o c i a l networks  i n c e r t a i n circumstances prove  on  t o be s u p p o r t i v e  simplistic  and  i l l -  c o n c e i v e d . There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l  s u p p o r t a n d c o p i n g i s c o m p l e x and  a n d as y e t i n s u f f i c i e n t l y  reciprocal,  understood. Various researchers  77  (e.g.,  Monroe & S t e i n e r ,  maintain social  that the  spurious. social  be  s u p p o r t and  1980)  research  renders i t vulnerable  to  on  alternate  argued t h a t the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n  s u p p o r t and  There are  variable,  coping  I t can  between s o c i a l  ^ S i l v e r & Wortman,  c o r r e l a t i o n a l nature of the  s u p p o r t and  explanations.  1986;  coping  i s , t o some d e g r e e ,  i n d i c a t i o n s that the coping  may  a l s o be  a s s o c i a t i o n between  a f u n c t i o n of a  third  the p e r s o n a l i t y of the v i c t i m , which appears  to  i n f l u e n c e one's a b i l i t y  t o b e n e f i t from support. Sandler  Lakey  individuals with external  (1982) f o u n d t h a t  control b e l i e f s received  greater  s u p p o r t , but  the  b u f f e r i n g b e n e f i t s o f s u p p o r t were s i g n i f i c a n t internal  locus  support dimensions  variance  (e.g.,  in psychological  personality underlying  and  Wortman  DeLongis  i n d i v i d u a l s may  social  (1981),  several  69%  the  of  the  perception  They c o n c l u d e d  the  of  that  significant  (1980) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e  l a c k s o c i a l c o m p e t e n c e and  engaging i n s o c i a l l y  difficult.  disorder, while  a minor r o l e .  for  dimension.  may  Coyne and  only  psychological  predicted  r a t h e r t h a n s u p p o r t was  Silver  by  personality,  found that neuroticism  support adequacy p l a y e d  adjusted  i n t e r a c t i o n s of  of  stress-  i n d i v i d u a l s . A l s o , Henderson et a l .  i n a l a r g e - s c a l e s t u d y on t h e  disorder),  locus  and  inappropriate  may  alienate  others  actions. According  (1986), h i g h l y s t r e s s e d or  ordinarily  poorly  disturbed  find close relationships  I n d i v i d u a l s i n d i s t r e s s may  r e l a t i o n s h i p s more n e g a t i v e l y  also  judge  their  (Kessler et a l . ,  to  78  1985b),  o r u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e t o them  ( S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) . T h e r e personality  i s also evidence  influences the a v a i l a b i l i t y  e t a l . (1979) f o u n d t h a t v i c t i m s who  that  of support.  appear  Coates  t o be c o p i n g  w e l l were more l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e s u p p o r t ; w h e r e a s t h o s e seemed t o be c o p i n g p o o r l y were more l i k e l y Thus, measures o f s o c i a l  s u p p o r t may  who  t o be a v o i d e d .  a c t u a l l y t a p more  complex a s p e c t s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s between s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s and  r e c i p i e n t s t h a n was  intended i n the o r i g i n a l  social  s u p p o r t m o d e l . S a l e s e t a l . (1984) h a v e a r g u e d t h a t  most  i n d i c a t o r s o f f a m i l y support a r e not " c l e a n " measures o f post-victimization  support but a r e a complex b l e n d i n g o f  p r e e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and " c r i s i s - c o n t i n g e n t " V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s ( e . g . , Coyne & D e L o n g i s , et a l . ,  1985b; Monroe  & Steiner,  1986;  1986; S i l v e r  1980) h a v e a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t  of s o c i a l  y e t t o o v a g u e l y d e f i n e d and i t s mechanisms  support. Kessler  & Wortman, s u p p o r t i s as  not  sufficiently  understood t o form a b a s i s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h v i c t i m s . There  are l i m i t s  as w e l l t o t h e b e n e f i t s o f  s u p p o r t . C o y n e , Wortman a n d Lehman c u r v i l i n e a r model i n which  social  (1988) h a v e p r o p o s e d  individuals  a  function best at  m o d e r a t e l e v e l s o f i n v o l v e m e n t by s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s .  They  found evidence t h a t e x c e s s i v e emotional involvement  (e.g.,  overprotection,  i n t r u s i v e n e s s and u n s o l i c i t e d a d v i c e ) ,  e x a c e r b a t e and p e r p e t u a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  can  of r e c i p i e n t s .  The o v e r p r o t e c t i v e o r i n t r u s i v e  involvement of family  members c a n d i s c o u r a g e v i c t i m s '  autonomy  a n d become a  major  79  source  o f s t r e s s f o r v i c t i m s . A c c o r d i n g t o Coyne a n d  DeLongis  (1986), t h e s t r e s s f u l  circumstances  about t h e g r e a t e s t need f o r support under which  emotional  more l i k e l y  t o occur.  The  seem t o b e t h e v e r y  overinvolvement  benefits of social  u n i v e r s a l . H o l a h a n a n d Moos  that bring  support  b y f a m i l y members i s  appear n o t t o be  (1986) f o u n d  sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n  the p r o t e c t i v e or s t r e s s - b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t of s o c i a l While  f a m i l y support  avoidance  was an i m p o r t a n t  attempts  s o u r c e . Coyne a n d D e L o n g i s support  from  friends),  sources  f o r men. A l s o ,  seems d e p e n d e n t on i t s  (1986) r e p o r t e v i d e n c e  o t h e r than a spouse  (i.e.,  for  that  relatives,  d i d n o t compensate f o r an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  i n p r o t e c t i n g women f r o m d e p r e s s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , Taylor  support.  r e s o u r c e f o r women,  c o p i n g was somewhat more i m p o r t a n t  the b e n e f i t o f support  ones  marriage Dakof and  (1990) f o u n d t h a t i n t i m a t e o t h e r s w e r e more v a l u e d  t h e i r emotional  r a t h e r than i n f o r m a t i o n a l o r t a n g i b l e  s u p p o r t ; whereas p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s i m i l a r valued for t h e i r  informational role.  o t h e r s w e r e more  Coyne a n d D e L o n g i s  (198 6) m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e n o t i o n t h a t v a r i o u s  support  providers are not interchangeable brings into question the u s e f u l n e s s o f a g e n e r i c view o f s o c i a l One  support.  instance o f the n o n - i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f support  p r o v i d e r s r e l a t e s t o a p a r t i c u l a r c o p i n g need o f v i c t i m s , that  i s , t o overcome f e e l i n g s o f d e v i a n c y . A c c o r d i n g t o  Coates  and Winston  (1983) , t h o s e who h a v e b e e n  victimized  o f t e n seek t o e v a l u a t e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e i r  80  emotional reactions  out o f a need t o r e g a i n  n o r m a l c y . Such o p p o r t u n i t i e s  a sense o f  a r e , however, n o t u s u a l l y  available i n i n t e r a c t i o n s with non-victims. f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g somehow d e v i a n t depression.  For this  As a r e s u l t ,  may e n s u e , l e a d i n g t o  reason, v i c t i m s often  of t h e i r normality  among s i m i l a r o t h e r s .  have o f t e n p r o v i d e d  such o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  seek v a l i d a t i o n  Peer support  In a study o f group  p e e r s u p p o r t among r a p e v i c t i m s , C o a t e s a n d W i n s t o n found that  f e e l i n g s of deviancy tended t o d e c l i n e  group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h a t were g e n e r a l l y  declines  (1983)  after  i n negative  affect  f o u n d i n groups f a c i l i t a t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  The n o m o t h e t i c a p p r o a c h o f s t u d y i n g however, o b s c u r e t h e f a c t t h a t adjusted  groups  group d i f f e r e n c e s  a small minority  may,  of poorly  v i c t i m s may a c t u a l l y h a v e t h e i r s e n s e o f d e v i a n c y  c o n f i r m e d i f o t h e r g r o u p members a p p e a r , i n f a c t , t o be better  adjusted.  victims  Also,  the e f f o r t s of poorly  at self-enhancing  comparison which r e l i e s  cognitions  functioning  such as s o c i a l  on i m a g i n a r y norms may b e i m p e d e d i n  such circumstances. Furthermore, exposure t o s i m i l a r others whose d i s t r e s s i s e n d u r i n g may d a s h an o n e ' s h o p e s f o r a quick  recovery.  Such i s s u e s  w o u l d have t o be c o n s i d e r e d  group d e s i g n f o r a crime v i c t i m s ' peer support  group.  T h e r e a p p e a r t o be c e r t a i n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s l i t e r a t u r e on t h e r o l e o f s o c i a l family  support,  in a  i n the  support, p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n v i c t i m s ' adjustment process.  Figley  ( 1 9 8 6 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , o f f e r s an u n q u a l i f i e d e n d o r s e m e n t o f the  role of family  support i n v i c t i m s ' recovery.  Figley  81  characterizes the nature  of f a m i l y support  as a c t i v e ,  engaging and u n r e s e r v e d l y t h e r a p e u t i c . A c c o r d i n g t o F i g l e y : " t h e f a m i l y may h e l p t h e v i c t i m r e s o l v e t h e t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e and c o n f l i c t s t h r o u g h e i t h e r p a s s i v e o r a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t , ( i . e . , m u t u a l o r ones i d e d s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ) , c o n f r o n t a t i v e o r nonc o n f r o n t a t i v e by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e v i c t i m t o t a l k about what i s t r o u b l i n g h i m / h e r , a n d b y c l a r i f y i n g i n s i g h t s , c o r r e c t i n g d i s t o r t i o n s , p l a c i n g b l a m e a n d c r e d i t more o b j e c t i v e l y , a n d o f f e r i n g o r s u p p o r t i n g new a n d more " g e n e r o u s ' o r a c c u r a t e p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e e v e n t t h a t was o r i g i n a l l y t r a u m a t i c . I n t h i s p r o c e s s t h e v i c t i m w i l l f i n d answers t o q u e s t i o n s f a c e d by a l l c a t a s t r o p h e victims." O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s p r e s e n t more t e m p e r e d v i e w s o f t h e f a m i l y ' s support found  r o l e . Lehman, E l l a r d a n d Wortman  t h a t more " a c t i v e '  support  attempts  such  as  (1986) giving  a d v i c e o r o f f e r i n g a new p e r s p e c t i v e were o f t e n p e r c e i v e d b y recipients  a s u n h e l p f u l a n d i n t r u s i v e . On t h e o t h e r  more " p a s s i v e " f o r m s o f s u p p o r t  such  p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o v e n t  hand,  as j u s t b e i n g t h e r e , o r  feelings,  were g e n e r a l l y  c o n s i d e r e d more h e l p f u l b y r e c i p i e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Wortman and  Lehman  (1985), b o t h  f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l h e l p e r s a r e not  a l w a y s a w a r e o f t h e s p e c i f i c n e e d s o f v i c t i m s a n d may, the best  of intentions,  t h a t can prove harmful  o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e and support to victims.  v i c t i m t o " g e t on w i t h t h e i r l i f e ' do  s o may d i s c o u r a g e  the victim  with  i n ways  F o r example, u r g i n g a before they  a r e ready t o  from t h e necessary  v e n t i l a t i o n of negative feelings,  thereby c u r t a i l i n g  communication and h e i g h t e n i n g t h e v i c t i m ' s sense o f isolation.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  Pagel, E r d l y & Becker,  ( e . g . , Coyne & D e l o n g i s , 1 9 8 6 ;  1987) h a v e a r g u e d t h a t b e l o n g i n g t o a  82  s o c i a l network can e n t a i l  c e r t a i n c o s t s , and  consider i t  t h e r e f o r e m i s l e a d i n g t o measure s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s by t h e i r p o s i t i v e  exclusively  aspects. Pagel et a l . found t h a t n e g a t i v e  o r u p s e t t i n g a s p e c t s o f s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s were, i n f a c t , p r e d i c t i v e of the onset  o f d e p r e s s i o n and  more  network  s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n were i t s h e l p f u l a s p e c t s . More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o e l u c i d a t e the r o l e of s o c i a l networks i n a d a p t a t i o n , t o d i s c e r n what f o r m o f s u p p o r t u n d e r what c i r c u m s t a n c e s , The  and who  p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l  i s appropriate,  should provide i t .  support  can,  over time,  entail  c o s t s b o t h f o r t h e r e c i p i e n t and t h e p r o v i d e r . A c c o r d i n g Coyne e t a l . ( 1 9 8 8 ) , b e i n g t h e r e c i p i e n t o f h e l p c a n t h a t one  i s not  able to care f o r themselves,  which  t h e o n e ' s s e l f - e s t e e m . R e c i p i e n t s o f s u p p o r t may uneasy about the l a c k of r e c i p r o c i t y  in their  with the p r o v i d e r . A l s o , signs of s t r a i n evoke f e e l i n g s of g u i l t  and  caregiver, resentful al.  who  may  imply  may  erode  become  relationship  i n the p r o v i d e r  shame i n t h e r e c i p i e n t . A t  same t i m e , p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t  can t a k e i t s t o l l  to  on  can  the  the  e v e n t u a l l y become e m o t i o n a l l y d r a i n e d  and  i f t h e v i c t i m ' s c o n d i t i o n i s u n r e l e n t i n g . Coyne e t  suggest  that recipients,  t h e p r o v i d e r , may  s e n s i n g t h e b u r d e n i n c u r r e d by  f e e l p r e s s u r e d t o show f a l s e  signs of  improvement. A c c o r d i n g t o K e s s l e r e t a l . (1985a), i n c u r r e d by b e i n g a s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h o s e who  m o b i l i z e support  the  taken  costs into  for victimized  p o p u l a t i o n s . Given the i n t e r a c t i o n a l nature of the  support  provider/recipient  the  relationship,  costs incurred to  83  support p r o v i d e r can, i n t u r n , n e g a t i v e l y impact t h e victims' their  adjustment i n s o f a r as i t erodes t h e b a s i s o f t h e  source of support.  Explaining reactions to criminal  victimization  To a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o victimization, of  victims'  one must a c c o u n t f o r t h e n a t u r e a n d s e v e r i t y  r e a c t i o n s as w e l l as t h e wide v a r i a b i l i t y o f  r e s p o n s e among v i c t i m s . Much h a s b e e n made o f c o m m o n l y - h e l d assumptions i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d about t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r world that enable d a i l y  functioning  personal invulnerability, meaningful),  (e.g., a sense o f  p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d as  a n d t h e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t o f h a r m f u l e v e n t s on  these b e l i e f s  (see J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e ,  1983; J a n o f f -  B u l m a n , 1989) . E x p l a i n i n g r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n  on t h e  b a s i s o f a s h a t t e r i n g o f such b e l i e f s does n o t i n i t s e l f a c c o u n t f o r t h e v a r i a n c e i n i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e . A more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d view of t a c i t b e l i e f individual variability  systems t h a t  i s n e e d e d . An e l a b o r a t e d  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how p e r s o n a l b e l i e f traumatic l i f e (i.e.,  explains  systems  interact  e v e n t s may a l s o e x p l a i n s u b s e q u e n t  why some v i c t i m s e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e  s t r a t e g i e s and/or,  elicit  and b e n e f i t  with  coping  cognitive coping  from s o c i a l support,  and o t h e r s n o t ) . According t o Janoff-Bulman  (1989), n e g a t i v e  psychological reactions to victimization result  from t h e  d i s r u p t i v e i m p a c t o f h a r m f u l e v e n t s on v i c t i m s '  "assumptive  w o r l d s " . J a n o f f - B u l m a n h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e commonly h e l d  84  " v u l n e r a b i l i t y - r e l e v a n t " assumptions as core elements of i n d i v i d u a l s ' conceptual systems:  (1) p e r c e i v e d  of the world,  of the world,  worthiness  (2) meaningfulness  benevolence and  (3)  of the s e l f . These assumptions are thought  to  c o n s t i t u t e the h i g h e s t - o r d e r schema, or f o u n d a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l s ' c o n c e p t u a l system  ( i . e . , the b a s i s on which  other b e l i e f s r e s t ) . Traumatic  occurrences such as  victimization,  i n Janoff-Bulman s 1  v a l i d i t y of these assumptions.  The  criminal  view, c h a l l e n g e the i n a b i l i t y to r e c o n c i l e  the c a t a s t r o p h i c event with one's p r e - e x i s i t i n g b e l i e f s  can  t h e r e f o r e t h r e a t e n one's e n t i r e conceptual system. J a n o f f Bulman argues  t h a t the v i c t i m ' s coping t a s k i s t o somehow  i n t e g r a t e the n e g a t i v e experience with one's p r i o r assumptions. fit  V i c t i m s must i n t e r p r e t the new  t h e i r o l d assumptions,  data so as t o  or r e v i s e t h e i r assumptions i n  order t o prevent the breakdown of one's c o n c e p t u a l system, to enable one t o p e r c e i v e the world as not  completely  threatening. Janoff-Bulman  a t t r i b u t e s the trauma of v i c t i m i z a t i o n  e x c l u s i v e l y t o the impact is,  of c r i t i c a l  "anomalous data", t h a t  data incongruent with p r i o r b e l i e f s about the s e l f  o t h e r s . T h i s suggests t h a t v i c t i m s ' a p r i o r i b e l i e f s the s e l f and others are e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e  and  about  (and s u b j e c t t o  " d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t ' ) . T h e r e i n l i e s a problem with t h i s model as an e x p l a n a t o r y framework f o r v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s . By i m p l i c a t i o n , those who  h o l d more n e g a t i v e or p e s s i m i s t i c a  p r i o r i b e l i e f s would experience a v i c t i m i z i n g event  as  less  85  traumatic,  as t h e e v e n t i s more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  expectations. initially  their  I n t h e l o g i c of Janoff-Bulman's model,  one  who  p e r c e i v e s t h e w o r l d as l a r g e l y m a l e v o l e n t a n d i s  l a c k i n g i n s e l f - e s t e e m would t h e r e f o r e face l e s s of a c o p i n g t a s k . E v i d e n c e o f t h e more s e v e r e a n d e n d u r i n g i m p a c t h u m a n - i n d u c e d v i c t i m i z a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h neurosis, (APA,  developmental problems,  1984;  Hymer, 1984;  pre-existing  and p s y c h i a t r i c  i n fact,  c h a l l e n g e s . A comprehensive v i c t i m i z a t i o n must a c c o u n t h a r m f u l e v e n t s w h i c h may assumptions.  pessimistic  face greater coping  theory of reactions  to  f o r the n e g a t i v e impact  of  affirm pre-existing negative  J a n o f f - B u l m a n ' s model a t t e m p t s t o  reactions to victimization  explain  i n a manner t h a t e x e m p l i f i e s  l i m i t e d a s p e c t o f schema t h e o r y from e x p e r i e n c e t h a t cannot e x i s t i n g schemas).  Wilson,  (Sorenson & G o l d i n g ,  1990) , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h o s e w i t h more n e g a t i v e o r a p r i o r i b e l i e f s may,  histories  K r u p n i c k & H o r o w i t z , 1980;  1989) , as w e l l as p r i o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n s  of  where a r o u s a l  r e a d i l y be a s s i m i l a t e d  Evidently,  n e g a t i v e l y a r o u s i n g as w e l l ,  (i.e.,  c o n f i r m i n g d a t a can though t h i s  a  ensues  into be  i s not adequately  explained. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i n support of model i s t h a t n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s about w o r l d may  be k e p t f r o m f u l l  awareness  Janoff-Bulman's  the s e l f  and  by c e r t a i n  mechanisms w h i c h a l l o w f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a s s u m p t i o n s . A v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e may  one's defence  positive s t r i p away n o t  o n l y these s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e assumptions but a l s o the  defences  86  that maintained the  them, r e s u l t i n g i n v i c t i m s h a v i n g  f u l l - b l o w n import  way,  those  with negative  "disillusionment but  of these  1  negative  beliefs.  c o r e b e l i e f s may  a k i n to those  to In  w i t h more p o s i t i v e b e l i e f s  McCann e t a l . (1988) p r e s e n t  (see APA,  negative  beliefs  identified  on  adaptation.  trust,  experiences s e l f and life  others.  events,  integrated.  negative  and  later  victimization,  will  of  life  their  the life  self  four  and both  implications for  considered.  experiences,  such  compared w i t h e x i s t i n g  either challenging positive beliefs, beliefs.  from  e a c h schema c a t e g o r y ,  f u n c t i o n i n g are  be  intimacy  schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e  schemas and  Individuals' negative  negative  i n t e r p r e t e d and  then i n f l u e n c e future  p o w e r , e s t e e m , and  r e l a t e d to others. Within  adaptation  are  the  I n t h e i r m o d e l , McCann e t a l . e x a m i n e schemas  p e r s p e c t i v e s . There are  p o s i t i v e and  life  subsequent  p a r t i c u l a r psychological adaptation  about s a f e t y , t r u s t ,  those  In t h e i r model,  T h e s e schemas t h e n a f f e c t how  i n d i v i d u a l to v i c t i m i z a t i o n w i l l experiences.  safety,  a r e a s f o r m schemas a b o u t  s u c h as v i c t i m i z a t i o n , The  interpersonal  victimization:  intimacy.  r e l a t e d to these  individual  McCann e t a l . h a v e  i m p a c t e d by  p o w e r , e s t e e m , and  of  impact of p r e e x i s t i n g  f i v e a r e a s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t are  1984).  a comprehensive model  r e a c t i o n s to v i c t i m i z a t i o n that accounts f o r both the  this  undergo a  w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r consequences  d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e and  bear  as schemas,  or c o n f i r m i n g  latent  87  In t h e area of s a f e t y , f o r example, i n d i v i d u a l s positive feel  s a f e t y schemas r e l a t e d  to the s e l f w i l l  confident i n their self-protective  their prior experience positive  success  i n keeping  of c r i m i n a l  v i c t i m i z a t i o n may  "self-safety"  typically  abilities,  themselves  safe.  given  An  challenge  schemas. A d i s c r e p a n c y  such  between  p r e v i o u s l y h e l d b e l i e f s about one's i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n  may,  actions that affirm  one's p o s i t i v e  the s e l f  negative  i n some i n s t a n c e s , be  be  self-safety  schemas. F o r e x a m p l e , women who  are  secure  (i.e.,  o n e ' s own  a r e no  t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y  home), may  be  1983). N e g a t i v e subsequent l i f e  self-safety  themselves  f r o m d a n g e r may  experiences,  T h o s e who fail  by  b e l i e v e they to take  c o n f i r m and  (i.e.,  themselves  adversely  creating selfcannot p r o t e c t  self-protective  increase the p r o b a b i l i t y  w h i c h may  schemas  (see S c h e p p e l e &  schemas may  experiences  prophecies.  m e a s u r e s . T h i s may  especially  longer able to protect  fulfilling  safety  a  develop  a r e t h u s v u l n e r a b l e t o f u t u r e harm)  effect  to  t o r e s t o r e p r e v i o u s schemas and  b e l i e f s that they  Bart,  by  t h e o t h e r hand,  susceptible to acquiring negative self-safety  and  overcome  unable  sexually assaulted i n circumstances thought  and  s a f e t y schemas r e l a t e d  ( e . g . , i n c r e a s e d p r e c a u t i o n s ) . On  v i c t i m may  with  entrench  of harmful negative  life self-  schemas. A c c o r d i n g t o McCann e t a l . , n e g a t i v e  self-safety  schemas t e n d t o e v o k e c h r o n i c a n x i e t y , i n t r u s i v e d a n g e r , and  fears related  thoughts  to future victimization.  They  of are  88  also l i k e l y to result  i n unusually heightened  responses  s i t u a t i o n s t h a t r e s e m b l e t h e o r i g i n a l t r a u m a . By t h o s e w i t h more p o s i t i v e  self-safety  p e r c e i v e t h e same s t i m u l i view,  schemas r e l a t e d t o s a f e t y , t r u s t ,  experience. of  The  contrast,  schemas w i l l  likely  not  as t h r e a t e n i n g . I n McCann e t a l . ' s  a v i c t i m ' s a b i l i t y to generate  intimacy f a c i l i t a t e s  to  or restore  positive  power, esteem,  and  the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the t r a u m a t i c  inability  t o do s o i m p e d e s t h e  integration  t h e t r a u m a t i c e v e n t . McCann e t a l . a r g u e t h a t t h e  victim's  inability  to adequately process t h r e a t e n i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e g a t e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o a c t i v e memory where it  i s continually  reintroduced into consciousness. This i s  i n v a r i a b l y a c c o m p a n i e d by  i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s . As  result,  s u c h as d e n i a l and  defense processes  n u m b i n g may  emerge t o p r e v e n t t h e p e r s o n  a  emotional  from b e i n g  overwhelmed. S a f e t y schemas r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s r e f e r t o t h e i n the r e l a t i v e benevolent  or malevolent  o t h e r s . Those w i t h a p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s may, original  intentions safety  after victimization,  had  of  schema  qualify  their  schema t o a c c e p t t h a t some b u t n o t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s  a r e h a r m f u l . A c c o r d i n g t o McCann e t a l . , 1988, who  belief  e x p e r i e n c e d o t h e r s as d a n g e r o u s e a r l y  c h i l d abuse),  o r f o r whom t h i s  in life  (e.g.,  i s a c u l t u r a l norm, a r e most  l i k e l y t o have t h e s e n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s  c o n s o l i d a t e d when t h e y  a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y harmed t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t o t h e r s . To one  individuals  a c t i o n s of  with a previously negative safety  schema  89  r e l a t e d to others, the experience  o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n may  to confirm that the world i s , i n f a c t ,  serve  a dangerous p l a c e  and  t h a t e v e r y o n e i s a p o t e n t i a l p r e d a t o r . McCann e t a l . n o t e s t h a t some v i c t i m s w i t h p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s may misfortune  and  be u n a b l e  t o r e c o n c i l e them w i t h  find their prior beliefs  benevolence of others s u b s t a n t i a l l y E s t e e m o f t h e s e l f and  s a f e t y schemas  about  the  altered.  of others are both  to the e f f e c t s of v i c t i m i z a t i o n  vulnerable  (McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) .  P o s i t i v e e s t e e m schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f r e f e r t o i n o n e ' s w o r t h and v a l u e . Those who experience  a profound  self-esteem. Negative  and  their  are v i c t i m i z e d  sometimes e n d u r i n g  beliefs may  impact  to  e s t e e m schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e  their  self  r e s u l t i n g f r o m v i c t i m i z a t i o n c a n emerge as a b e l i e f t h a t self  i s bad,  o r w o r t h l e s s and  d e s e r v i n g of s u f f e r i n g .  the  In  McCann e t a l . ' s v i e w ,  experiences  v i o l a t i o n to the s e l f  (e.g., c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n )  more l i k e l y  i n n e g a t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m schemas. Those  who  to result  undergo degrading  can e x p e r i e n c e  an  or h u m i l i a t i n g forms of  case,  are  victimization  i n c o n g r u i t y between the event  previously held positive this  that constitute a  and  schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f .  a s t a t e o f a r o u s a l may  continue u n t i l  In  these  schemas a r e a l t e r e d o r r e s t o r e d t o r e s o l v e t h e i n c o n g r u i t y (e.g., through  c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s t h a t b o l s t e r one's  e s t e e m ) . On  t h e o t h e r hand, e x p e r i e n c e s  degradation  may  of v i o l a t i o n  confirm preexisting t a c i t b e l i e f s  badness or unworthiness  of the s e l f .  In t h i s  case,  selfor  about  the  negative  90  self-esteem  schemas a r e a c t i v a t e d a n d s o l i d i f i e d b y o n e ' s  misfortune. Negative  e s t e e m schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f t h a t a r e  c o n s i s t e n t l y a f f i r m e d by l i f e victimization)  experience  (e.g.,  are l i k e l y t o lead t o depression,  guilt,  shame, a n d p o s s i b l y t o s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s et  a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . An e x p e r i e n c e  and that  of fragmentation  i n t e n s e s e l f - l o a t h i n g may r e s u l t  of the self  i n a c t i o n s by v i c t i m s  s y m b o l i c a l l y destroy p a r t s of t h e bad s e l f  mutilation, utterly  danger-seeking).  f l a w e d o r damaged,  (e.g., substance  abuse),  I f the self  experience people  a profound  life  or s u i c i d a l tendencies  r e f l e c t i n g a sense o f one's f u n d a m e n t a l  (e.g.,  style  may emerge,  worthlessness.  the actions of others  downward s h i f t  may  i n their estimation of  (McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h o s e w i t h p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e  schemas r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s may, a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r experience, people  self-  i s p e r c e i v e d as  a self-destructive  T h o s e who a r e h a r m e d t h r o u g h  (McCann  modify t h e i r b e l i e f s t o accept  that only  negative some  are malevolent.  "I u s e d t o t r u s t p e o p l e b u t I had a b a d t h i n g happen t o m e — I was r a p e d — s o when t h i s h a p p e n e d , I k e p t t h i n k i n g a b o u t i t a n d t h a t i t c o u l d h a p p e n a g a i n , o r t o my d a u g h t e r s , a n d maybe t h i s t i m e I w o u l d n ' t b e s o l u c k y . I mean I was b e a t a n d b r u i s e d , b u t y o u c o u l d b e killed." Rape v i c t i m However, u n s u p p o r t i v e others  or indifferent  (Wertz,  1985).  responses of  f o l l o w i n g o n e ' s v i c t i m i z a t i o n may l e a d t o g e n e r a l i z e d  views of people  as b a s i c a l l y u n c a r i n g .  Individuals with  previously negative  beliefs  a b o u t o t h e r s may  c o n s o l i d a t i o n of such b e l i e f s induced others  victimization.  world.  i n the aftermath  Extremely  t h a t a r e u n r e l e n t i n g may  c o n t e m p t , b i t t e r n e s s and  undergo  negative  o f a human-  schemas a b o u t  lead to chronic  cynicism toward others  Those h o l d i n g such b e l i e f s ,  according  anger, and  may  they  a r e t o o d i s c r e p a n t w i t h e x i s t i n g s c h e m a s . As  r e a c t t o genuine a c t s of c a r i n g w i t h cyncism  s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s may  lead to social  In t h e i r extreme, these  isolation,  profound despair  and  a n t i s o c i a l behaviour,  (1989).  elements missing  as w e l l  to i n the  of v u l n e r a b i l i t y )  only to  and  a harmful  experience, t h a t one  vulnerable).  fact  In o t h e r words, i t i s t h e v e r y  I t seems t h e r e f o r e , t h a t  and  severly traumatized—possibly,  because they  is feeling a  individual  developmental problems,  psychiatric difficulties  but,  of  v u l n e r a b l e t h a t i s t h r e a t e n i n g , even i f i t c o n f i r m s  w i t h a h i s t o r y of neurosis,  a  (e.g.,  more i m p o r t a n t l y , t o i t s i m p l i c a t i o n ( i . e . ,  victimizations,  work  1  between a p r e v i o u s l y h e l d assumption  previously held belief.  as  McCann e t a l . s m o d e l a t t r i b u t e s  the t r a u m a t i z i n g e f f e c t of v i c t i m i z a t i o n not discrepancy  can  l o s s of meaning.  seems t o p r o v i d e  of Janoff-Bulman  result,  schemas  McCann e t a l . ' s (1988) m o d e l o f r e a c t i o n s victimization  a  as  deprive themselves of n u r t u r i n g  contacts with others.  illusion  the  t o McCann e t  al.,  to  a  prior  a r e o f t e n more may  have  p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e schemas r e l a t e d t o s a f e t y , t r u s t ,  fewer power  e s t e e m , and  i n t i m a c y as r e s o u r c e s t o c o u n t e r t h e  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r unfortunate  experience.  negative  93  CHAPTER III A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CRIME VICTIMS' COPING NEEDS  Introduction Those who counsel crime v i c t i m s , or who a c t on t h e i r behalf, The  need a conceptual framework t o guide  American P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Victims  Association's  o f Crime and V i o l e n c e ,  i n noting  interventions.  Task Force on the the complexity o f  crime v i c t i m s ' needs, has c a l l e d f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s  with  v i c t i m s based, whenever p o s s i b l e , on theory and r e s e a r c h (APA,  1984). Given the d i v e r s i t y of c u r r e n t  research  t h e o r i e s and  findings related to criminal victimization, a  i n t e g r a t i v e framework i s needed t o l o g i c a l l y order t h i s extensive  knowledge base.  A needs assessment can be used t o m e a n i n g f u l l y o r g a n i z e theory and r e s e a r c h  findings related to criminal  v i c t i m i z a t i o n . A conceptual framework f o r a s s e s s i n g  crime  v i c t i m s ' coping needs i s t h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t e d f o r the purpose of f a c i l i t a t i n g Specifically,  i n t e r v e n t i o n s with t h i s  population.  the framework draws from theory and r e s e a r c h  t o i d e n t i f y what crime v i c t i m s need i n order t o cope, and how these needs may be met. In t h i s framework, categories  o f needs are d e l i n e a t e d  for interventions  are considered.  several  and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s These c a t e g o r i c a l  d i s t i n c t i o n s are made i n order t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e  victims'  adjustment p r o c e s s e s , as w e l l as c o u n s e l l i n g with t h i s  94  population.  Basically,  t h e framework a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e  "what n e e d s t o be done' a n d "who f a c i l i t a t e v i c t i m s ' coping. framework  should  do w h a t ' t o  In i t s organization, the  differentiates:  (A) v i c t i m s ' i n t e r m e d i a t e  and l o n g - t e r m c o p i n g  (B) what v i c t i m s n e e d f r o m o t h e r s do f o r t h e m s e l v e s ,  versus  needs,  what t h e y n e e d t o  and  (C) what v i c t i m s n e e d f r o m whom. The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n v i c t i m s ' i n t e r m e d i a t e long-term coping  needs i s a k i n t o a d i f f e r e n c e  p r o c e s s a n d outcome  goals  and  between  i n counselling. Intermediate  r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o what v i c t i m s n e e d o t h e r s  needs  t o do f o r  them as w e l l a s t o what v i c t i m s n e e d t o do f o r t h e m s e l v e s t o achieve  c e r t a i n c o p i n g - r e l a t e d outcomes. F o r example,  v i c t i m s may  "need' t o r e g a i n a p p r o p r i a t e  b e n e v o l e n c e and s e c u r i t y o f o t h e r s suspicion,  experience  of the responsiveness  social  facilitate  (i.e.,  and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s  institutions  (e.g.,  intermediate  i t . C e r t a i n actions of those i n a s w e l l as i n r e l e v a n t  the courts)  and  professions  can h e l p t o r e s t o r e v i c t i m s '  f a i l u r e t o do so may  of  c a n be deemed a  goal, the product of  s o c i a l m i l i e u , community,  (e.g., mental health) Their  fear,  A sense of t r u s t  reestablishing trust  l o n g - t e r m n e e d o r outcome a c t i v i t i e s that  i n the  sought; r a t h e r i t ensues from a p r i o r  o t h e r s . As a r e s u l t ,  victims'  t o overcome  i s o l a t i o n and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n .  c a n n o t be d i r e c t l y  trust  crime  f u r t h e r erode v i c t i m s '  "second i n j u r y ' ) . V i c t i m s t h e r e f o r e  trust. trust  "need' o t h e r s  to  95  behave i n a t r u s t - e n g e n d e r i n g ability  to trust.  intermediate  n e e d s . The  healing'  own  typically  has  brought to l i g h t the resources,  indigenous  important by  on  stress  & Wortman, 1983;  with victims should  take  perhaps should  do  and  best  influential  Taylor,  forms of  A t t e m p t s by  1983).  events  Interventions  i n t o a c c o u n t what v i c t i m s ' c a n  f o r t h e m s e l v e s . O t h e r s may  play  This  a  r o l e i n v i c t i m s ' adjustment, but  others  the  for  to d i r e c t t h i s process—though  n e g a t i v e l y r e c e i v e d by  victims  well-  (see Wortman  1985). f r a m e w o r k a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s "what i s h e l p f u l  f r o m whom'. A l t h o u g h s o c i a l is positively Sales  and  h a v e t o emanate f r o m t h e v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l .  i n t e n d e d - - m a y be & Lehman,  and  cognitive  a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h e meaning of one's e x p e r i e n c e , e x a m p l e , may  this  r o l e of v i c t i m s '  t h a t emerge i n r e s p o n s e t o t h r e a t e n i n g  Silver  "self-  of v i c t i m s ' needs.  r e f e r t o the  as m a n i f e s t e d  so.  what  v i c t i m s ' own  Social psychological research  adaptation  direct  versus  s t r a t e g i e s u s e d , p e r h a p s e v e n u n w i t t i n g l y , by  coping  (see  intermediate  r a t i o n a l e f o r doing  c a p a c i t i e s into a conception  population. coping  the  f o r themselves incorporates  These i n n e r r e s o u r c e s coping  d e l i n e a t i o n of  i s s u e o f what v i c t i m s n e e d o f o t h e r s  t h e y must do  an  a basis f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s with crime v i c t i m s ;  whereas l o n g - t e r m needs p r o v i d e The  to regain  Such b e h a v i o u r s d e f i n e v i c t i m s '  coping  needs p r o v i d e s  manner i n o r d e r  support  (i.e.,  family  support)  a s s o c i a t e d with crime v i c t i m s ' adjustment  e t a l . , 1983), v i c t i m s have d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s  (see of  96  different  support providers  expectations functions,  vary  and  according  the  (Dakof & T a y l o r ,  1990).  to providers' perceived  example, a p o l i c e o f f i c e r a t t e n d i n g  s c e n e may  perceived  individual  by  s u f f e r e d by  p o l i c e o f f i c e r may  commitment t o u p h o l d i n g An  indifferent  on t h e  other  t o be  i t s citizenry.  reassuring to  l a t t e r may  emotional,  instrumental  support,  coping current  research  crime v i c t i m s are not  by  specific  and  theory.  identified,  The  how  by  should  be  incompleteness needs be  of  of  met  is  framework i s  a need t o act g i v e n  s u g g e s t e d by  a  crime v i c t i m s '  the p l i g h t of  needs c a t e g o r i e s t h a t c o m p r i s e  framework's s t r u c t u r e are  As  needs of v i c t i m s .  t h e s e n e e d s may of t h i s  of  sources.  While c e r t a i n coping  formulation  motivated  this population.  here d e s p i t e the  the  social  i s s u e o f who  framework f o r a s s e s s i n g  a l w a y s c l e a r . The  nevertheless  met  i n meeting p a r t i c u l a r coping  needs i s p r e s e n t e d  can  victims  needs  information,  framework a d d r e s s e s the  A conceptual  may,  precipitate a  victims  this  security.  institutions  (Karmen, 1 9 8 4 ) . C e r t a i n c o p i n g  result,  society's  f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Whereas  be p r o f o u n d l y  c o m p a r i s o n ) a p p e a r t o be b e s t  society's  a police officer  demoralization (e.g.,  crime  A  j u s t i c e and  that societal  adjustment, the  by  an  s y m b o l i c a l l y convey  r e l i e d on  may  a  as e x e m p l i f y i n g  o r c a l l o u s r e s p o n s e by  former experience facilitate  m e r e l y as  p r i n c i p l e s of  hand, i m p l y  u l t i m a t e l y not  and  v i c t i m s not  source of assurance but  response to i n j u s t i c e supportive  role  symbolism a s c r i b e d t o t h e i r r o l e s  v i c t i m s . For be  These  current  the  literature  on  97  c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n and support,  be u s e d n o t o n l y t o b a s e  a l s o to generate  itself  conceptual  indicate  potential  inquiry.  Crime v i c t i m s ' The  social  interventions,  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , as t h e  o r d e r i n g o f n e e d s c a t e g o r i e s may areas of  (e.g.,  c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n ) . A framework o f t h e k i n d  p r e s e n t e d h e r e may but  related topics  c o p i n g needs  c o p i n g n e e d s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s r e f e r t o what v i c t i m s  n e e d i n o r d e r t o resume o r assume a n o r m a l l e v e l functioning.  T h i s i s , i n a sense,  Victimized individuals, may  victimization 1980).  level  a minimal e x p e c t a t i o n .  i n the course  achieve a q u a l i t y of l i f e  of t h e i r  exceeding  (1985),  adjustment,  one's p r e -  o f f u n c t i o n i n g (See S i l v e r  A c c o r d i n g t o Wertz  of  "every  & Wortman,  (crime)  victims'  t a s k i s t o r e e s t a b l i s h t h e w o r l d as h e ( s h e ) p r e f e r s i t f o r him(her)self."  Specifically,  safe again, to t r u s t and  this  can  i n c l u d e a need t o  i n o t h e r s , t o view  o n e s e l f as  c o m p e t e n t , and t o e x p e r i e n c e o n e ' s w o r l d as  and m e a n i n g f u l - - t h e  benevolent  n e e d s o f t e n assume e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i m e n s i o n s  s u s t a i n one's e v e r y d a y v i c t i m s may  f u n c t i o n i n g . As  f i n d themselves  psychological  needs.  suddenly  these  i n t h e wake o f a  human-induced trauma. C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can normally i n v o l v e d i n meeting  What  what  i n d i v i d u a l s o r d i n a r i l y n e e d t o f u n c t i o n . However,  processes  positive  very opposite of v i c t i m i z a t i o n .  v i c t i m s need i n o r d e r t o cope i s e s s e n t i a l l y  disrupt  b a s i c needs t h a t a result,  unable  feel  t o met  crime basic  98  Humans' b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s w o r t h y , t o be beliefs  i n d i v i d u a l s develop  insupportable  Janoff-Bulman, belief  over time  1989;  about themselves  events  do n o t  (see J a n o f f - B u l m a n  render  & Frieze,  i n o n e ' s w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l  may  be  (Janoff-Bulman,  as m e a n i n g f u l variability  process  of a human-induced trauma  light  adaptive  o f one's m i s f o r t u n e .  reactions to harmful  v a r i a n c e i n c o p i n g n e e d s . As  of e s t a b l i s h i n g adaptive b e l i e f s  the  world  The  events  suggests  a result,  the  following  be h i g h l y s p e c i f i c t o t h e  individual.  T h o s e whose p o s i t i v e b e l i e f s w e r e s t r a i n e d may face a d i f f e r e n t  Meeting  1985b). A c o p i n g need f o r v i c t i m s  in victims'  v i c t i m i z a t i o n may  the  deriving  a "need' t o o n c e a g a i n e x p e r i e n c e  i n the  a corresponding  these 1983;  s e e n as  i n v o l v e s the b u i l d i n g or r e b u i l d i n g of c e r t a i n  t h e r e f o r e be  and  o n e ' s w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l .  t h e s e needs i n the a f t e r m a t h  may  by  McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . F o r e x a m p l e ,  from a need t o e x p e r i e n c e  beliefs  safe,  i n c o n t r o l ) are s u s t a i n e d , i n l a r g e p a r t ,  o t h e r s — t o the extent that l i f e beliefs  (e.g., t o f e e l  coping task than those w i t h  n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s t h a t were c o n s o l i d a t e d by  therefore preexisting  one's  victimization. Crime v i c t i m s ' interrelated. meaningful  may  c o p i n g needs are not d i s c r e t e  but  F o r example, t h e p e r c e p t i o n of one's w o r l d presuppose t h e m e e t i n g o f o t h e r needs  a p e r c e p t i o n o f o t h e r s as t r u s t w o r t h y ) . The o t h e r s as s a f e and  t r u s t w o r t h y may  community, w h i c h can,  experience  evoke a sense  as  (e.g., of  of  i n t u r n , g i v e a sense of meaning t o  99  one's l i f e . be  C o n s e q u e n t l y , many o f v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g  addressed The  simultaneously.  coping  exhaustive.  needs o f v i c t i m s p r e s e n t e d here a r e n o t  This  i s d u e , i n p a r t , t o t h e n a t u r e o f human  n e e d s . W h i l e many n e e d s a r e a r g u a b l y s e l f - e v i d e n t feel  safe, t o t r u s t ) ,  believe  n e e d s may  others  may be l e s s s o ( e . g . ,  (e.g., t o a need t o  i n a j u s t - w o r l d ' ) . I n d i v i d u a l s may o p e r a t e on t a c i t v  beliefs that  o u t c o m e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d on t h e b a s i s o f  p r i n c i p l e s o f j u s t i c e and/or p e r s o n a l awareness t h a t  deservedness  such b e l i e f s guide e x p e c t a t i o n s .  without  Human n e e d s  a r e t y p i c a l l y made a p p a r e n t b y c o n s e q u e n c e s t o f u n c t i o n i n g that  r e s u l t from t h e i r not being  from s i g n s  met. Needs a r e i n f e r r e d  of d i s t r e s s or discomfort  which suggest  that  c e r t a i n r e q u i s i t e s f o r functioning are not i n place. identification  Their  o f t e n d e p e n d s on i n d i v i d u a l s ' a b i l i t y t o  a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r n e e d s . The d e l i n e a t i o n o f human n e e d s relies  on ( a n d i s l i m i t e d by) o n e ' s a b i l i t y  t h e s e needs. This cultural  conceptualize  p r o c e s s i s i n v a r i a b l y shaped by s o c i o -  a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f n e e d s . One c a n n o t  assume t h a t  a l l human n e e d s a r e r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e a n d  easily defined.  A t y p i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s may y e t b r i n g t o l i g h t  c e r t a i n human n e e d s whose e x i s t e n c e immediately  safety  need f o r p e r s o n a l  human n e e d s  may o t h e r w i s e n o t b e  apparent.  A need f o r p e r s o n a l The  to  s a f e t y i s among t h e most b a s i c o f  (Maslow, 1 9 7 0 ) . I t i s a n e e d met, i n p a r t , b y  commonly-held t a c i t b e l i e f s i n one's  invulnerability  100  (Janoff-Bulman & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; P e r l o f f , b e l i e f s allow one  t o proceed r e l a t i v e l y f r e e of the  s t r e s s , a n x i e t y and  l o v e d ones, and/or  Traumatic events t h a t render t h i s  untenable c a s t l i g h t on i n t r a p s y c h i c processes o r d i n a r i l y enable i n d i v i d u a l s t o f e e l One again  who  intense  f e a r t h a t c o u l d ensue from a p e r c e i v e d  r i s k t o one's p h y s i c a l i n t e g r i t y , possessions.  1983). Such  perception that  safe.  has been c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d needs t o once  f e e l safe to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . V i c t i m s '  safety  needs must r e c e i v e immediate a t t e n t i o n f o l l o w i n g the Young  (1988) urges t h a t v i c t i m s at the  stage" be made t o f e e l as safe and  crime.  "emergency-response  secure  as p o s s i b l e .  The  environment must over time show t h a t the v i c t i m s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h y p e r v i g i l a n c e i s no ( F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1979). Others  longer  (i.e.,  one's f a m i l y ,  network, the community at large) must be s e n s i t i v e and s a f e t y and  responsive  respond  necessary social  particularly  to v i c t i m s ' heightened need f o r  accordingly.  Evidence of a safe and h e l p f u l community w i l l generate i n crime v i c t i m s the p e r c e p t i o n s  hopefully  of a s e c u r i t y i n  others.  Such a c t i o n s would help t o b u i l d or r e b u i l d a more  general  sense of s o c i a l harmony and  security often  shattered  i n the wake of a crime. The  safety-engendering  a c t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r others  assume unique importance. A c t i o n s of the p o l i c e and criminal  j u s t i c e system are p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l .  can  the Victims'  p o s i t i v e a p p r a i s a l s of t h e i r e f f o r t s to apprehend, c o n v i c t  101  and  i n c a r c e r a t e t h e c r i m i n a l c a n b r i n g on f e e l i n g s o f  relative  s a f e t y from f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Furthermore, i t  may r e s t o r e an e r o d e d s e n s e o f s o c i a l  order.  " I t h i n k i t ' s good t h a t t h e p o l i c e a r e i n v o l v e d so t h a t t h e y c a n l e t k i d s know what p o s s i b l y c o u l d h a p p e n t o them i n t h e f u t u r e . . . " Victim of a burglary The r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s  ( W e r t z , 1985)  (i.e.,  spouses,  f a m i l y members) c a n h a v e a p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l i z i n g e f f e c t . (see Coyne & D e L o n g i s ,  1986; S a l e s  e t a l . , 1983).  "I'm a l o t more c a r e f u l now. My h u s b a n d m e e t s me i n t h e p a r k i n g l o t e v e r y n i g h t a n d I p i t y a n y o n e who t r i e s anything." Victim of assault  (Wertz,  1985).  Mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s can c o n t r i b u t e not only t o victims'  s e n s e o f s a f e t y among o t h e r s ,  own e m o t i o n a l t u r b u l e n c e . establishment particularly strong and  of a safe critical  therapeutic  According "holding'  but also with  t o Wilson  therapeutic  t o the c o u n s e l l i n g of crime v i c t i m s . A  a l l i a n c e that enables bonding,  interventions with t h i s population  maladaptive b e l i e f s .  clients  and g e n t l e  challenging  A therapeutic  with  Also, frequently  of victims'  a l l i a n c e i n which t h e  f e e l s secure would l e s s e n t h e r i s k f e e l i n g v i o l a t e d once  support  associated  as w e l l as i n t r u s i v e t h o u g h t s .  involve the gradual  client  (1989), t h e  environment i s  t r u s t i s needed t o r e s o l v e d i f f i c u l t i e s  denial/avoidance  one's  again.  of victimized  102  Others should, behaviours  a t t h e same t i m e ,  avoid engaging i n  i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f v i c t i m s t h a t may e v o k e  f e e l i n g s o f t h r e a t associated with t h e crime. expressions in  F o r example,  o f i n t e n s e anger toward t h e p e r p e t r a t o r ,  though  a p p a r e n t s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e v i c t i m , may s t i r up f o r t h e  v i c t i m r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e v i o l e n c e of t h e crime. I n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n a sense t h e f i n a l own  arbiters of their  s a f e t y , f o r b e t t e r o r w o r s e . V i c t i m s must b e a b l e t o  i n t e g r a t e t h e p o s i t i v e response o f others invulnerability.  and e s t a b l i s h a  sense o f t h e i r  relative  victimization,  t h i s v i e w might be o f a w o r l d t h a t i s n e i t h e r  wholly benevolent nor malevolent, neither completely  reassured  negative  by t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s  The  take needed p r e c a u t i o n s subjectiveness  critical  Some  of others. assured  t o avoid future  Others,  and n e g l e c t  victimization.  o f one's sense o f s a f e t y p o i n t s t o t h e  r o l e o f v i c t i m s ' own c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n i n  adjustment  (e.g.,  s e l e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ) . Some v i c t i m s may b e  able t o redefine or appraise  their victimization  so a s t o m i n i m i z e a s e n s e o f r i s k O t h e r s may, a s a r e s u l t ,  of future  safety precautions  experience  victimization.  be l i m i t e d i n what t h e y  u l t i m a t e l y do f o r v i c t i m s . T h e r e a r e ,  own,  vulnerable.  s a f e t y schemas may b e o n l y  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , may f e e l t o o r e a d i l y to  one's  as w e l l as a s e l f t h a t i s  invulnerable nor t o t a l l y  victims with profoundly minimally  Following  may  f o r example, c e r t a i n  w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s must i n i t i a t e  t h a t o t h e r s may be u n a b l e t o do f o r t h e m  on t h e i r  (e.g.,  obtain  an u n l i s t e d p h o n e n u m b e r ) . The b u i l d i n g o r r e b u i l d i n g o f a  103  belief  i n one's r e l a t i v e  s a f e t y c a n be a l o n g - t e r m  process,  a culmination of the intermediate e f f o r t s of a v a r i e t y actors,  of  i n c l u d i n g the v i c t i m .  A need t o t r u s t C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e need t o f e e l trust.  Perceptions  s a f e i s a need t o  o f o n e ' s s a f e t y d e p e n d on a t r u s t i n  one's s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s hazardous s i t u a t i o n s ) ,  (e.g., t o a c c u r a t e l y  assess  as w e l l as i n t h e s a f e t y o f o t h e r s .  McCann e t a l . (1988) h a v e i d e n t i f i e d t r u s t "vulnerability-relevant"  as a  a s s u m p t i o n . Those who  have s u f f e r e d  h u m a n - i n d u c e d harm  (e.g., c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n )  loss of t r u s t both  i n t h e m s e l v e s and i n o t h e r s . I n d i v i d u a l s  who  had p r e v i o u s l y f e l t  a n d j u d g m e n t s may if  their  c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r own  find a trust  i n oneself profoundly  i n one's a b i l i t y  p r o t e c t i v e c h o i c e s can l e a d t o great a n x i e t y , c o n f u s i o n and p a r a l y s i s .  diminished  being  (McCann  A r e s t o r a t i o n of t r u s t  excessive  Individuals with greatly (e.g..,  others.  i n oneself i s c r i t i c a l  v i c t i m s . Confidence  to the  i n one's a b i l i t y  a c c u r a t e l y a p p r a i s e p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous s i t u a t i o n s r e s t o r e a sense of p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f u t u r e Establishing trust that results  self-  be u n i q u e l y v u l n e r a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y t o  i n v a l i d a t e d by p o w e r f u l  adjustment of crime  shaken  t o make  self-trust pre-dating a victimization  e a r l y c h i l d a b u s e ) may  a  perceptions  j u d g m e n t s f a i l e d t o p r o t e c t them f r o m harm  et a l . , 1988). Loss of f a i t h  caution,  risk  to  helps  victimization.  i n o n e s e l f c a n be a l o n g - t e r m  process  from a c t i o n s o f b o t h t h e v i c t i m and h i s / h e r  104  social milieu.  Being  supported  by o t h e r s i n t h e v a l i d i t y o f  one's p r e f e r e n c e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and good judgments c a n h e l p v i c t i m s t o i n c r e a s e s e l f - t r u s t . A t t h e same t i m e ,  others,  notably mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , should avoid  giving  advice too readily,  p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s o l i c i t e d advice, or  intervening too actively, developing  faith  a s t h i s may i n t e f e r e w i t h v i c t i m s  i n t h e i r own j u d g m e n t s  (McCann e t a l . ,  1 9 8 8 ) . I t i s a s y e t u n c l e a r how d i f f e r i n g  sources  (e.g., spouse, mental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r ,  similar  of support other)  w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d b y v i c t i m s i n t h i s p r o c e s s . Dakof and T a y l o r t o v a l u e a form o f support expected  (1990) f o u n d t h a t v i c t i m s a p p e a r t h a t corresponds  with the  r o l e of t h e p r o v i d e r . This would suggest, f o r  example, t h a t v a l i d a t i o n o f one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g traumatic experience  by a s i m i l a r o t h e r  (i.e.,  v i c t i m ) may be most c r e d i b l e t o a v i c t i m . thus play a uniquely important build  of their another  crime  Similar others  may  role i n helping victims'  self-trust. Interpersonal trust  i s fragile  a s u f f e r i n g h u m a n - i n d u c e d harm v i c t i m s have t o account  and e a s i l y e r o d e d  (McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) .  after Crime  f o r actions of others that are  g r o s s l y u n f a i r and m a l i c i o u s . T h i s can l e a d t o a g e n e r a l distrust  i n people,  r e s u l t i n g from e i t h e r a d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  i n o t h e r s , o r a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f one's n e g a t i v e  expectations.  " I was s c a r e d t o d e a t h when my h u s b a n d w o u l d l e a v e t h e h o u s e . . . I am r e a l l y s u s p i c i o u s o f e v e r y b o d y . . . e v e n when t h e p o l i c e c a l l e d y e s t e r d a y a n d he s a y s t h i s g u y ' s [research i n t e r v i e w e r ] going t o c a l l you. I s a i d w e l l , I d o n ' t know...I went t o p i e c e s . "  105  Robbery v i c t i m An results  e n t r e n c h e d and  pervasive  f r o m a f a i l u r e by t h o s e  adequately injury ).  distrust  a p e r c e i v e d b e t r a y a l by  those  erode one's sense of s o c i a l  needs  others one  often  to  (i.e., second N  reconcile him/herself  e x i s t e n c e of c e r t a i n predatory  1979).  of others  v i c t i m s c o u n t on  respond to t h e i r support A c r i m e v i c t i m may  1  ( F i s c h e r & Wertz,  (i.e.,  otherwise  to  criminals), d e p e n d e d on  Burglary victim  With the  p r o t e c t i v e , h e l p f u l community  experience  resume s o c i a l  of others'  one  can  has  some p r o t e c t i o n f r o m harm and  e v i d e n t l y t o t r u s t not i n the support  availability (e.g.,  only i n the they  1985)  enables and  trustworthiness,  functioning with a confidence  of those  may  $5,0.00 I got  (Wertz,  v i c t i m s ' t o overcome m i s t r u s t , anger, b i t t e r n e s s isolation.  but  fabric.  "The i n s u r a n c e company r o b b e d me a g a i n . We l o s t w o r t h o f s t u f f and t h e y o n l y p a i d $2,100. H e l l , robbed t w i c e . "  A responsive,  the  betrayal. Victims  that need  s a f e t y of o t h e r s but r e l y on  for help  spouse, f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , neighbours,  one  also  and police).  "We moved o u t o f t h a t b a d n e i g h b o u r h o o d and now we h a v e p e o p l e who c a r e a r o u n d u s . One l a d y w a l k s h e r dog and makes s u r e e v e r y t h i n g l o o k s s t r a i g h t . We're c l o s e r t o o u r n e i g h b o u r s now and I d o u b t any one c o u l d g e t away with anything here." Robbery v i c t i m  (Wertz,  V i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s must, i n t h e end, ability others others,  t o i n t e g r a t e t h e h e l p f u l and so as t o t r u s t .  possess  responsive  Those w i t h a s o l i d i f i e d  and/or a profound i n a b i l i t y t o t r u s t  1985) an  efforts  of  distrust  of  one's  own  j u d g m e n t s may f i n d t h e s u p p o r t i v e e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s t o o d i s c r e p a n t w i t h t h e i r own c o n c e p t u a l  systems. As a r e s u l t ,  s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s may be o n l y m a r g i n a l l y i m p a c t e d b y o t h e r s ' best  supportive  efforts.  A need f o r esteem A paradox of t h e c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience i s the  l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m by t h o s e  Objectively,  crime  wronged. S t i l l , fall and  v i c t i m i z e d by o t h e r s .  v i c t i m s d i d no w r o n g b u t w e r e t h e m s e l v e s  an onus o f s e l f - i m p o s e d  on t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h e c o u r s e i t s aftermath,  c u l p a b i l i t y tends t of being  victimized  i n d i v i d u a l s often experience  themselves  as weak, h e l p l e s s , n e e d y , f r i g h t e n e d a n d p o w e r l e s s face o f f o r c e s beyond t h e i r  c o n t r o l (Krupnick  &  Horowitz,  1 9 8 0 ) . A s s u m p t i o n s o f o n e ' s s e n s e o f a g e n c y c a n be rendered  self-esteem b e l i e v e they  events  and, a t t i m e s ,  lasting effects to their  (McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . Some v i c t i m s may come t o a r e somehow r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v i l  acts, or are  and d e s e r v i n g o f s u f f e r i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y  activate pre-existing beliefs  unworthiness. guilt,  suddenly  a s no l o n g e r t e n a b l e . V i c t i m s may, a s a r e s u l t ,  s u f f e r profound  worthless  i n the  This can r e s u l t  and p o s s i b l y s u i c i d a l  i f these  about one's badness o r  i n profound  depression,  tendencies.  V i c t i m s need t o r e s t o r e o r g a i n a sense o f t h e i r worth and v a l u e  a s human b e i n g s .  r o l e i n t h i s process critical  by b e i n g  shame  Others can p l a y a  responsive,  own  critical  a f f i r m i n g , non-  a n d a c c u r a t e l y e m p a t h i c . The r o l e o f s i g n i f i c a n t  107  o t h e r s o r s p o u s e s may regard  be p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l  (Coyne & D e l o n g i s ,  1986;  in this  D a k o f & T a y l o r , 1990) .  "My h u s b a n d h e l p e d a l o t . I f I h a d t o go t h r o u g h i t a l o n e , I w o u l d n ' t h a v e made i t , " c a u s e i t h e l p s t o c r y l i k e a b a b y and y o u n e e d t h e c o m f o r t , t h e arms, t h e a f f e c t i o n . My h u s b a n d u s e d t o be t h e h a r d t y p e , b u t he r e a l l y t u r n e d s o f t , l i k e " d o n ' t w o r r y I'm h e r e . " You r e a l l y n e e d somebody t o h e l p y o u t h r o u g h i t , somebody to t a l k t o . " V i c t i m of a s s a u l t (Wertz, Contact in  with similar  o t h e r s c a n be p a r t i c u l a r l y  o v e r c o m i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f one's d e v i a n c y  Winston,  beneficial  (see C o a t e s  1 9 8 3 ) . Lehman e t a l . (1986) a l s o f o u n d  consistently  reported contact with similar  1985)  and  that victims  others  as  helpful. C r i m e v i c t i m s w i t h d i m i n i s h e d s e l f - e s t e e m may especially devalued. own  sensitive Negative  t o b e i n g blamed, c r i t i c i z e d  or c r i t i c a l  s e l f - c r i t i c i s m s . Others  r e m a r k s may  remarks t o v i c t i m s ,  behaviours  t h a t may  but  be n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d by  m i s f o r t u n e may  own  fate.  Mental  particular,  s h o u l d be  orientation  shapes t h e i r  may  evoke  victims'  a l s o seemingly  p o p u l a t i o n . F o r example, c a s u a l i n q u i r i e s  for their  or  s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e a v o i d not  derogatory  i n t h e i r own  be  be  neutral  this  into victims'  c o n s t r u e d by v i c t i m s as  style  be p e r c e i v e d by v i c t i m i z e d  their  blame  theoretical  o f q u e s t i o n i n g , and clients  how  may  imply that victims'  are rooted i n c e r t a i n  this  (see C o a t e s e t a l . ,  1979). For example, e x t e n s i v e q u e s t i o n s about events  difficulties  role  health professions, in  aware o f how  d a t i n g the v i c t i m i z a t i o n  only  character  pre-  coping  deficiencies.  108  A l s o , v i c t i m s with a p r o f o u n d l y n e g a t i v e view of the may  self  f i n d c o n s i d e r a b l e c a r i n g or c l o s e n e s s by a t h e r a p i s t  or  o t h e r s too f r i g h t e n i n g to be a s s i m i l a t e d (McCann et a l . (1988).  I t may  evoke f e a r s of b e i n g hurt or of b e t r a y a l  a s s o c i a t e d with e a r l i e r trauma experiences  (e.g., c h i l d abuse).  can a c t i v a t e a d e f e n s i v e avoidance,  too d i s c r e p a n t with the one's  as they  role in  d e v e l o p i n g p o s i t i v e s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s . The use of  and new  cognitive strategies  l e a r n i n g (e.g., a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g ) are (Burgess  &  both  Holstrom,  Janoff-Bulman, 1985b). Furthermore, t o b e n e f i t from  esteem-enhancing p o t e n t i a l of s o c i a l support, to  self-  (e.g., s e l e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n )  a s s o c i a t e d with more e f f e c t i v e coping 1979;  are  self-schemas.  V i c t i m s themselves can assume a c r i t i c a l  enhancing  Such  seek i t out and be able to m e a n i n g f u l l y  one's conceptual  one may  have  integrate i t into  system.  In the aftermath  of a human-induced v i o l a t i o n ,  i n d i v i d u a l s need to be able to h o l d others i n esteem t o d e r i v e b e n e f i t from the h e a l i n g p r o p e r t i e s of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Being degraded or v i o l a t e d by another profoundly  l e s s e n v i c t i m s ' e s t i m a t i o n of people,  can  l e a d i n g to  g e n e r a l i z e d b e l i e f s t h a t others are m a l i c i o u s , p r e d a t o r y i n d i f f e r e n t . T h i s can r e s u l t i n d e m o r a l i z a t i o n and i n a s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e withdrawal  from o t h e r s . I t i s v i t a l t h a t  v i c t i m s of human-induced harm experience  others  s u p p o r t i v e , r e s p o n s i v e and c a r i n g . Reactions  as  of others  f o l l o w i n g one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n can determine whether a  or  109  negative  estimation  of others  a generalized devaluation.  i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y s e l e c t i v e or  I t may  that v i c t i m service personnel  t h e r e f o r e be e s s e n t i a l  and  mental  p r a c t i t i o n e r s address "second i n j u r y " v i c t i m s have been l e f t problematic  on t h e i r own  r e a c t i o n s of others  health  issues. Previously,  to deal with  (Downing,  Those w i t h p e r v a s i v e l y n e g a t i v e  the  1988).  views of others  devalue the benevolent e f f o r t s of support p r o v i d e r s e t a l . , 1988). Such i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d and  to expect  betrayal, consistent with t h e i r negative  others.  This population  commitment on t h e p a r t these negative  may  insincerity  schemas  of h e l p e r s  to gradually  same t i m e ,  of success.  with  perhaps  Support p r o v i d e r s  should  protective  f u n c t i o n of such g e n e r a l i z e d negative  a l s o u n d e r s t a n d and  M e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s may  play  respect  a vital  challenging these maladaptive b e l i e f s , w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n this  Kohut in  the  to  this  selfbeliefs.  role in  assuming v i c t i m s  are  process.  intimacy  Intimacy others.  of  overcome  population  A need f o r  (McCann  t h e r e f o r e need s u b s t a n t i a l  b e l i e f s - - a t the  limited expectations  often  I t can  i s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t o f as a c o n n e c t e d n e s s r e f e r as w e l l t o r e l a t e d n e s s  (1971) has  described  early childhood  the  inner resources  which nourish the  s t r u c t u r e s e n a b l e one  t o be  empty. S e l f - s o o t h i n g and  to  self.  alone without  oneself. that  develop  These i n n e r feeling  o f a s t a b l e and  self-  lonely  s e l f - c a l m i n g c a p a c i t i e s can,  Kohut's view, form a c r i t i c a l p a r t  to  or  in  cohesive  110  self.  In t h e absence o f such i n n e r r e s o u r c e s , one may  experience a self-estrangement which can r e s u l t  i n anxiety,  dread and d e s p a i r . I n d i v i d u a l s who been v i c t i m i z e d may vary i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m a r s h a l l s e l f - c a l m i n g c a p a c i t i e s i n time o f s t r e s s . Those with a p r i o r h i s t o r y o f drawing support  from  the s e l f may be l e s s t r a u m a t i z e d g i v e n an e x p e c t a t i o n o f a c c e s s i n g such r e s o u r c e s once again  (McCann et a l . , 1988).  C e r t a i n forms of v i c t i m i z a t i o n may, however, be so overwhelming and i n t e n s e t h a t p r e e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a l may become d e p l e t e d . As a r e s u l t , v i c t i m s may  resources  feel  overwhelmed by unmanageable l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y without the hope o f b e i n g able t o manage these  feelings.  V i c t i m s with n e g a t i v e s e l f - i n t i m a c y schemas may experience a profound  i n a b i l i t y t o comfort  and calm the  s e l f . T h i s can l e a d t o a f e a r of being alone, as w e l l as a sense of i n n e r emptiness or dread  (McCann et a l . , 1988). I f  such i n d i v i d u a l s experience p a i n f u l memories or emotions when alone, i t may r e s u l t  i n a f e a r of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n or  p a n i c . They may, as a r e s u l t , sources o f comfort medications,  look c o n t i n u a l l y t o e x t e r n a l  such as drugs,  alcohol,  food,  or sex (Wilson, 1989) .  Those who have been v i c t i m i z e d need t o r e s t o r e or develop a c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - i n t i m a c y , t h a t i s , the a b i l i t y t o draw on i n n e r resources t o soothe and comfort the s e l f i n times of d i s t r e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o Kohut  (1971),  such i n n e r  r e s o u r c e s a r e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d through  Ill  the  internalization  This  of a responsive  internalization  relationship. victims'  and e m p a t h i c  can occur subsequently i n a  S u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s may  therefore  and s o o t h i n g . (i.e.,  regard  (Coyne & D e L o n g i s ,  spouse) can p l a y a c r i t i c a l  are profoundly  lacking  i n providers  role  may  particularly  e v e n t u a l l y becoming d e p l e t e d  therefore play  affects  contacts  self-alienation.  assume t h e p r i n c i p l e this  therapeutic  t o others  most b a s i c o f human n e e d s  adjunct  role,  c a l l s that  that are calming  result  and  negative  Furthermore, c l i n i c i a n s can r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  has been c o n s i d e r e d  (e.g., Maslow,  1 9 6 3 ) . I t i s a n e e d most a c u t e l y f e l t  l e s s e n one's r e s u l t i n g  after  a  stress.  distressing of  others  Expressions  concern, p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o v e n t i l a t e involvement i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s  one o f t h e  1971; E r i k s o n ,  ( C o a t e s e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) . The r e s p o n s i v e n e s s  greatly  ( s e e Coyne  population.  A relatedness  can  may  health  are u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t t o reduce the of t h i s  treating  a critical  who  i n a b i l i t y t o s o o t h e t h e s e l f . I n McCann e t  (1988) v i e w , b r i e f  soothing  1990).  i n self-calming capabilities  i n responding to the c r i s i s  from v i c t i m s '  significant  support t o those  e t a l . , 1988; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 a ) . M e n t a l practitioners  that are  in this  1986; D a k o f & T a y l o r ,  However, p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u a l e m o t i o n a l  event  faciltate  I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  others  al.'s  therapeutic  adjustment through h e a l i n g s o c i a l contacts  calming  result  parent.  of  feelings,  a n d t h e mere p r e s e n c e o f  a n o t h e r p e r s o n were f o u n d by v i c t i m i z e d  recipients  t o be  112  among t h e most h e l p f u l s u p p o r t 1986). At the  same t i m e ,  connected to others destroyed  by  the  attempts  (Lehman e t a l . ,  a b i l i t y t o be i n t i m a t e l y  is fragile  and  c a n be  e a s i l y damaged o r  o t h e r s ' h u r t f u l or unempathic responses  e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . I n i t s more e x t r e m e f o r m s , one  may  a b r e a k i n t h e i r c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h o t h e r human resulting  (McCann  experience beings,  i n a p r o f o u n d sense of meaninglessness  and  futility. To  e s t a b l i s h or r e s t o r e a v i c t i m ' s sense  of  c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h o t h e r s , h e / s h e must i d e a l l y one's s o c i a l network, the institutions same t i m e ,  community a t l a r g e ,  as e m p a t h i c , h e l p f u l and  those  who  consequently  may  and  T h o s e who  have been  c a r i n g of  and  may  others. by  react with  the hurt  profoundly  have e r e c t e d d e f e n s e s t o a v o i d f u t u r e  need p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  considerable  the  become d i s c o u r a g e d  apparent f r u i t l e s s n e s s of t h e i r e f f o r t s ,  traumatized  At  have s u f f e r e d human-induced trauma  S u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s may  disappointment.  social  responsive.  have a r e d u c e d c a p a c i t y t o i n t e g r a t e t h e  and  experience  of others,  as w e l l  hurt as  patience.  A need f o r agency Various  t h e o r i s t s ( e . g . , De  Charms, 1968;  Gecas,  1989)  have a r g u e d t h a t a c h i e v i n g c o n t r o l o r m a s t e r y o v e r one's e n v i r o n m e n t i s a p r i n c i p a l human m o t i v a t i o n . control, on  Loss  e s p e c i a l l y under adverse c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  intense d i s t r e s s leading to e f f o r t s to regain  (Strickland,  1989). A f a i l u r e t o p e r c e i v e  of can  bring  control,  one's e n v i r o n m e n t  113  as c o n t r o l l a b l e c a n h a v e p r o f o u n d l y n e g a t i v e A c c o r d i n g t o Abramson, S e l i g m a n , & T e a s d a l e  consequences. (1978), a  p e r c e p t i o n o f n o n c o n t i n g e n c y between one's e f f o r t s subsequent  outcome c a n e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t  maladaptive p a s s i v i t y , individuals  i n an  and  acutely  or "learned helplessness',  i n which  f e e l unable t o escape a v e r s i v e c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The p e s s i m i s m a n d h o p e l e s s n e s s t h a t e n s u e f r o m  learned  h e l p l e s s n e s s has been t h o u g h t t o cause d e p r e s s i o n (Strickland,  1989). H a v i n g c o n t r o l o f one's e n v i r o n m e n t i s  h i g h l y v a l u e d i n western s o c i e t y , which promotes s e l f - r e l i a n c e and achievement s e n s e o f e f f i c a c y may  mastery,  (Gecas, 1989). Those w i t h  e x p e r i e n c e themselves not merely i n  c o n t r o l , b u t as p e r s o n a l l y e x e m p l i f y i n g c u l t u r a l experience of a lack of c o n t r o l , doubly burden  one  ideals.  on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  Harmful l i f e  e v e n t s s u c h as c r i m i n a l  victimization  e v e n t s , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , i n t r o d u c e c h a o s The p e r c e p t i o n o f a g e n c y  asserting actual control  These  and  i n v o l v e s not  i n the present but  a s h a t t e r e d sense o f agency i n the future.  p o w e r l e s s n e s s become c e n t r a l 1988).  may  merely  also  e x p e c t a n c i e s f o r f u t u r e o c c u r r e n c e s . As a r e s u l t ,  al.,  may  expectations.  can p r o f o u n d l y t h r e a t e n one's sense o f c o n t r o l .  victimization  The  as a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g f a i l e d t o meet  perceived societal  uncertainty.  a  those  with  feel vulnerable to  Themes o f p o w e r  and  issues for victims  (McCann e t  114  In the  wake o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , a  l a c k o f c o n t r o l can e x p e r i e n c e d as  p e r v a d e one's b e i n g .  I t can  control  be  a f r i g h t e n i n g l a c k of c o n t r o l o v e r one's  e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y or r e a c t i v i t y . In the particularly  perceived  sexual  assault,  i t can  be  case of  felt  as  reactions  one's p e r s o n a l power  a lack  may  (McCann e t  particularly distressed  a l . , 1988). Those  f o l l o w i n g an  e x p e r i e n c e of i n t e n s e  to the  f e a r , g r i e f and  e v e n t s u c h as  threatening  as t h e y may  Self-protective overcontrol  avoiding  emotions a s s o c i a t e d  with  o t h e r hand, t h o s e w i t h  e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o n t r o l a sense of  Individuals to gain  control  who  emotions  anger can  (i.e.,  futility  reactions  unrealistically learned  o n e ' s l a c k o f a g e n c y can  mastery, or bound w i t h result  especially  and  such  of  as develop.  low  helplessness)  may  despair.  over aspects of t h e i r l i f e  weak, h e l p l e s s  related  have been c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d need  one's sense of c o n t r o l , or the  as  be  v u l n e r a b i l i t y may  and  h a v e , i n a s e n s e , b e e n t a k e n f r o m them. The  self  be  compound o n e ' s s e n s e o f b e i n g o u t  control.  with  with  uncontrollable,  t r a u m a t i c e v e n t . The  react  of  v a r y w i t h p r i o r b e l i e f s about  u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o n t r o l can  the  assault,  o v e r one's b o d i l y i n t e g r i t y .  Victims'  On  own  that  shattering  of  of b e l i e f s about  lead to maladaptive views of  and  lack thereof,  confirming  being,  inadequate. P e r c e p t i o n s of are,  one's s e l f - c o n c e p t .  i n t h i s respect,  the one's  intimately  A positive adaptation  can  i n a more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v i e w o f o n e ' s p o w e r and  self  115  t h a t i n v o l v e s expectancies  of f u t u r e c o n t r o l or mastery t h a t  are n e i t h e r extremely high nor Others  (e.g:,  the courts) may being  low.  family, friends, counsellors, p o l i c e ,  f a c i l i t a t e the empowerment of v i c t i m s  s e n s i t i v e and  responsive  to victims' e f f o r t s to  r e a s s e r t c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s .  Support p r o v i d e r s  avoid behaviours—although well-intended--that consider  by  victims  i n t r u s i v e (e.g., u n s o l i c i t e d a d v i c e ) , or  on t h e i r autonomy. A l s o , support  providers  should may  infringing  should  be  s e n s i t i v e t o v i c t i m s ' need f o r r e c i p r o c i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the p r o v i d e r . V i c t i m s need t o f e e l they can do t h i n g s f o r others,  d e s p i t e t h e i r own  that  heightened  needs. Symonds (1980) urges t h a t mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e s t o r e power to a v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l through an t h a t i s "non-challenging, In p a r t i c u l a r ,  non-contradictory  supportive".  Symonds recommends c o u n s e l l o r s seek p r i o r  consensus b e f o r e proceeding interview  and  approach  (e.g.,  "Do  with v a r i o u s phases of  you mind i f I ask you  the  an  following  question?"). V i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s can p l a y an important p a r t i n g a i n i n g or r e g a i n i n g a sense of agency through t h e i r cognitive adaptation  own  s t r a t e g i e s , as w e l l as through changes  i n behaviour. "Now, I've got a dog who barks l o u d whenever anyone comes near the house, and when he barks I get up and t u r n on the f l o o d l i g h t s I had i n s t a l l e d . " V i c t i m of vandalism  (Wertz,  1985)  116  A n e e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e w o r l d as Prior to victimization, personal invulnerability, t r u s t w o r t h y can The  one's e x p e r i e n c e o f agency,  o f w o r t h i n e s s , and o f o t h e r s  r e n d e r t h e w o r l d o r d e r l y and  w o r l d as a r e s u l t  accounted  meaningful  "makes s e n s e '  f o r . In a meaningful  and  as  comprehensible.  events  can  be  know what t o  expect  and why  p e r s o n a l harm o c c u r s . A c c o r d i n g t o L e r n e r and  Miller  (1978),  a p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l  as w e l l by  i s sustained  a t a c i t b e l i e f t h a t b e i n g g o o d and w o r t h y  p r o t e c t one not  w o r l d , we  of  a g a i n s t m i s f o r t u n e . The  o n l y c o n t r o l l a b l e but  what t h e y d e s e r v e .  world i s thereby  j u s t , where p e o p l e  Harmful  can  e v e n t s may  seen  as  g e n e r a l l y get  t h u s be p r e v e n t e d  not  o n l y by e x e r c i s i n g c a u t i o n , b u t by a l s o e x e m p l i f y i n g g o o d n e s s and their  decency. While  implicit  n a t u r e and  s u c h b e l i e f s may  appear n a i v e ,  self-protective function  r e n d e r t h e m somewhat i m p e r v i o u s  may  t o easy d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n .  Being the v i c t i m of a crime, e s p e c i a l l y a s e r i o u s crime, can ordered who  s h a t t e r one's view  ( B a r d & S a n g r e y , 1986;  had p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s  that these q u a l i t i e s result,  o f t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l l y Janoff-Bulman,  as g o o d and  c a u t i o u s may  Those find  f a i l e d t o p r o t e c t t h e m f r o m harm. As  t h e y can undergo a p r o f o u n d  l o s s o f m e a n i n g as  victimization contradicts prior beliefs o f j u s t i c e and t h e c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y  about t h e  of events.  v i c t i m s a r e g e n e r a l l y aware o f r e a s o n s c r i m e , why  1985b).  a  their  prevalence  Although  f o r the occurrence  of  i t h a p p e n e d t o them i n p a r t i c u l a r t e n d s t o become  t h e f o c u s of a s e a r c h f o r meaning  (Janoff-Bulman  & Lang-  117  Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . The q u e s t i o n "why me" can be u n d e r s t o o d as an attempt  t o counter the f r i g h t e n i n g a r b i t r a r i n e s s of the  crime and i t s e v o c a t i o n o f w o r l d t h a t has l o s t i t s o r d e r and predictability. Crime v i c t i m s need t o once a g a i n p e r c e i v e t h e i r w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l . A c r i t i c a l aspect o f t h i s i s t o make sense o f one's own n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e  ( S i l v e r & Wortman, 1 9 8 0 ) . The  v i c t i m i z i n g event must somehow be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o one's c o n c e p t u a l system i n a way t h a t r e s t o r e s a sense o f coherence t o one's l i f e , s e l f . E f f o r t s by o t h e r s  i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o one's fragmented (e.g., f a m i l y , n e i g h b o u r s ,  police,  t h e c o u r t s ) t h a t h e l p v i c t i m s r e g a i n a sense o f s a f e t y , agency, t r u s t and t h e benevolence o f o t h e r s can engender p e r c e p t i o n s o f one's w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l  d e s p i t e an  e x p e r i e n c e o f human-induced harm. "When t h e p o l i c e g o t our s t u f f back, I was so g r a t e f u l and s u r p r i s e d . There's some j u s t i c e i n t h e w o r l d a f t e r all". V i c t i m o f a b u r g l a r y (Wertz, 1985) R e g a i n i n g a sense o f meaning i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t r a p s y c h i c event, though t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s i n f l u e n c e t h i s p r o c e s s . I t i s an aspect o f c o p i n g t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i c t i m s ' i d i o c y n c r a t i c use o f c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e i r negative experience. V i c t i m s ' behaviours t h a t r e s u l t from t h i s p r o c e s s can be p u z z l i n g and appear c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e t o others  (e.g., s e l f - b l a m e , r e i n t e r p r e t i n g  one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t , d e n i a l ) (Bard & Sangrey, 1 9 8 6 ; Janoff-Bulman,  1989). I t i s important t h a t  118  o t h e r s , n o t a b l y f a m i l y members a n d m e n t a l professionals, of t h e i r  health  u n d e r s t a n d and r e s p e c t v i c t i m s '  mobilization  i n n e r r e s o u r c e s t o cope w i t h t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e .  A c c o r d i n g t o Wertz  (1985), "sense-making.... d i s p e l s t h e  shock, d i s b e l i e f and c o n f u s i o n , t h e uncanny i r r a t i o n a l i t y o f victimization,  b e s t o w i n g on i t i n c r e a s i n g l y  positive  features." Other r e l a t e d  needs  Other c o p i n g needs o f c r i m e v i c t i m s r e q u i r e  emphasis.  Though many h a v e b e e n a l l u d e d t o , t h e y s h o u l d be r e s t a t e d t o stress their need s o c i a l facilitate  important role  i n adjustment. Crime  support, p a r t i c u l a r l y their  victims  family support, t o  long-term adjustment.  In the context of  s u p p o r t , v i c t i m s n e e d t o f e e l u n d e r s t o o d . F a m i l y members, f r i e n d s , m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p o l i c e a n d o t h e r s who i n t e r a c t w i t h c r i m e v i c t i m s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be knowledgeable its  o f t h e impact o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n and  c o m p l e x p s y c h o l o g y s o t h e y may r e l a t e t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n  w i t h i n f o r m e d p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . V i c t i m s t h e m s e l v e s need i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e n a t u r e o f victimization  s o t h e y may know what t o e x p e c t i n t h e c o u r s e  o f t h e i r adjustment p r o c e s s . F o r example,  knowing  that  p e r i o d s o f h e i g h t e n e d d i s t r e s s may n o r m a l l y r e c u r a f t e r t h e initial  crisis  c a n h e l p one t o b e t t e r c o p e w i t h s u c h e v e n t s .  V i c t i m s n e e d t o f e e l n o r m a l , n o t m e r e l y a s an o u t c o m e o f adjustment, but w i t h i n the adjustment process V i c t i m s need,  as a r e s u l t ,  itself.  t h u s t o p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as  119  coping normally r e l a t i v e t o other victims. Also,  victims  need t o r e e x p e r i e n c e o r e x p e r i e n c e t h e w o r l d as b e n e v o l e n t where p e o p l e a r e b a s i c a l l y g o o d , k i n d , h e l p f u l a n d c a r i n g , and  w h e r e m i s f o r t u n e i s r e l a t i v e l y uncommon.  Furthermore,  crime v i c t i m s need t o e x p e r i e n c e j u s t i c e t h r o u g h t h e l e g a l s y s t e m s o t h e y may p e r c e i v e principles  o u t c o m e s t o be g o v e r n e d b y  of justice.  C r i m e v i c t i m s may n e e d f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d interventions  that  address issues  therapeutic  such as "second  injuries'  t o t h e m s e l v e s , as w e l l as t h e s e c o n d a r y v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f f a m i l y members. A p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l component c a n both victims  a n d f a m i l y members a s t o what t h e y  inform  may  a n t i c i p a t e i n wake o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Directions The evident  f o r future  research  impact of t h e c o g n i t i v e i n victimization studies.  "revolution' i s very Psychological  theories of  v i c t i m i z a t i o n a n d c o p i n g f o c u s on t h e e f f e c t o f h a r m f u l  life  e v e n t s on t a c i t b e l i e f s y s t e m s , a n d on t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f a d a p t i v e b e l i e f s i n t h e wake o f m i s f o r t u n e Bulman, 1989; T a y l o r , insufficient  (see J a n o f f -  1983). There h a s , however, been  i n t e g r a t i v e research  on t h e v a r i e d  r e l a t e d t o these cognitive processes. Cognitive by  victims  critical  (e.g.,  part  redefining the event),  o f a d j u s t m e n t , has n o t been  topics adaptation  considered  a  sufficiently  l i n k e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s ' c o n c e p t u a l systems. As a r e s u l t , cognitive adaptation process,  t e n d s t o be d e p i c t e d  and i t s c o g n i t i v e p r e c u r s o r s  a s an a u t o n o m o u s  as l a r g e l y m y s t e r i o u s .  120  I t w o u l d be  u s e f u l to understand the  one's t a c i t b e l i e f s strategies,  and  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  resulting cognitive  so t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s may  adaptation  be m o b i l i z e d  for  purposes of i n t e r v e n t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h p o o r l y  the  coping  v i c t i m s . Presumably, a c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g y would have t o logically  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h one's t a c i t b e l i e f s t o  intellectually  acceptable.  o n e ' s v i c t i m i z a t i o n was presupposes the belief  s  a  For  example, the  be  conclusion  t e s t i n g o f o n e ' s f a i t h by  acceptance of a transcendent  being,  i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o u t c o m e s b a s e d on  be  that  God' and  a  religious  p r i n c i p l e s . Whether t h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f e x i s t e d b e f o r e c r i m e o r emerged i n i t s a f t e r m a t h  w o u l d be  the  of t h e o r e t i c a l  interest. The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l  s u p p o r t and  adaptation  i s not  victimized  i n d i v i d u a l s suggests that the  e f f o r t s by  others  to d i r e c t l y  adaptation  (e.g.,  o f f e r i n g a philosophical perspective)  o f t e n be  perceived  adequately understood. Reports  cognitive  by  well-intended  influence victims' cognitive  v i c t i m s as u n h e l p f u l  (see Lehman e t a l . , 1 9 8 6 ) . A r e s e a r c h considered  i s t h a t v i c t i m s may  hypothesis  perceive  of coping.  For  h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e n i a l i s a f u n c t i o n a l and mechanism i n the  e v e n t , as  i t prevents  the  initial one  v i c t i m e n g a g i n g i n d e n i a l may  phase of a  from b e i n g therefore  to  be  as h e l p f u l a t y p e  e x a m p l e , J a n o f f - B u l m a n and  defensive  may  and i n t r u s i v e  support t h a t corresponds w i t h or upholds t h e i r way  of  particular Timko  (1987)  adaptive traumatic  overwhelmed. find unhelpful  A an  of  121  exhortation it  by a support p r o v i d e r  o f f your chest",  comment  like  t o " t a l k about i t and g e t  a s t h i s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h  " t r y not t o t h i n k  denial. A  a b o u t a b o u t " may be  perceived  as more h e l p f u l a s i t s u p p o r t s a n d v a l i d a t e s t h e v i c t i m ' s p a r t i c u l a r way o f c o p i n g . To a v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l who i s not  using  d e n i a l a s a way o f c o p i n g , a r e m a r k s u c h a s " t r y  not  to think  perceived  a b o u t a b o u t " may, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , be  as d i s c o u r a g i n g  ventilation.  This  needed d i s c u s s i o n  and e m o t i o n a l  i s s u e has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c o u n s e l l i n g  o f v i c t i m s . M e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s whose are  at variance  adaptation  with  a v i c t i m ' s p a r t i c u l a r mode o f c o g n i t i v e  may i n a d v e r t e n t l y  incur  p r e c i p i t a t e premature t e r m i n a t i o n it  w o u l d be i n a p p r o p r i a t e  "resistance of therapy.  f o r counsellors  f a m i l y members t o be s u p p o r t i v e their  1  or  Furthermore,  t o advise  victims'  i n t h e s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s o f o t h e r s has g i v e n those intervening  with  this population  helpful  some g u i d a n c e t o  (See D a k o f &  Taylor,  Lehman e t a l . , 1 9 8 6 ) . C r i m e v i c t i m s p e r s e h a v e n o t a s  yet been t h e s u b j e c t sex  own  efforts. R e s e a r c h on what v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d  1990;  victims'  w i t h o u t k n o w l e d g e o f how  s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s may e n h a n c e o r h i n d e r  coping  interventions  differences  noteworthy given relevant  t o t h i s type of i n q u i r y . In p a r t i c u l a r ,  i n p r e f e r e n c e s o f s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s w o u l d be evidence that  social  t o women's c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s  1986). Such r e s e a r c h direction to future  with  s u p p o r t may b e more ( s e e H o l o h a n & Moos,  crime v i c t i m s would not only  give  i n t e r v e n t i o n s , b u t a l s o show t h e e x t e n t  122  t o which f i n d i n g s about o t h e r v i c t i m i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o v i c t i m s of crime. Furthermore, provide a greater understanding  of crime  i t may  victims'  coping  processes. Phenomenological  r e s e a r c h on b e i n g  v i c t i m i z e d has p r o v i d e d r i c h experience time.  i n s i g h t s i n t o what t h e  means f o r t h e v i c t i m a n d how t h i s  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  providers  criminally  experience  changes  of intimate  over  support  (e.g., spouses) has been a l l u d e d t o i n t h i s  research. " I f e e l more s e c u r e . I n e v e r t h o u g h t my h u s b a n d w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o p i c k me up a f t e r work o r w a i t i n t h e p a r k i n g l o t f o r me when I come home, b u t now he d o e s . We've become c l o s e r . " Assault victim Given  the c r i t i c a l  adjustment, secondary  (Wertz,  r o l e of the f a m i l y i n crime  victims'  a s w e l l a s f a m i l y members' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y victimization,  i t w o u l d be i m p o r t a n t  t h e phenomenology o f b e i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t v i c t i m . Moreover, p a r a l l e l phenomenological experiences  to  between v i c t i m s and t h e i r  to a  understand  other t o a  crime  studies of the  o f b o t h v i c t i m and h i s / h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  could elaborate our understanding  1985)  other  of the transactions  significant  others over  time.  Conclusion C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n c a n c o n s t i t u t e an i n j u r y t o t h e most i n n e r r e c e s s e s o f o n e ' s b e i n g . B e y o n d t h e m a t e r i a l l o s s or p h y s i c a l i n j u r y , makes l i f e  i t c a n be an a s s a u l t a g a i n s t t h a t  t o l e r a b l e and m e a n i n g f u l :  which  a sense o f p e r s o n a l  123  safety, trust,  agency, self-esteem, community and j u s t i c e .  Being s u b j e c t e d t o the p r e d a t o r y i n t e n t i o n s and a c t i o n s of others can b r u t a l l y c o n f r o n t one with h i s / h e r own v u l n e r a b i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y . A sense o f profound  violation  can ensue. T h i s sense of v i o l a t i o n can be evoked as w e l l as by t h e d i s r u p t i o n or l o s s of p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s which over time become e x t e n t i o n s of o u r s e l v e s . A l s o v i o l a t e d are c e r t a i n s o c i a l covenants t h a t make p o s s i b l e a sense o f s o c i a l harmony and s o c i a l order. Crime r e v e a l s t h e f r a g i l i t y of  these covenants.  Despite a g e n e r a l awareness t h a t  malevolence e x i s t s , the experience s h a t t e r s i l l u s i o n s or defences from i t s u n s e t t l i n g The  impact  o f human-induced harm  t h a t o r d i n a r i l y s h i e l d one  reality.  of being c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d v a r i e s with  the s e v e r i t y of the crime as w e l l as t h e meaning i t has f o r v i c t i m . The experience  of being a crime v i c t i m  challenges  one's fundamental b e l i e f s t r u c t u r e s . Human-induced harm may s h a t t e r p o s i t i v e assumptions about o n e s e l f and one's world, or i t may a c t i v a t e a core of n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s t h a t may o r d i n a r i l y be kept to  from f u l l  a s s i m i l a t e t h i s harmful  awareness. The v i c t i m s t r u g g l e s  event t o r e g a i n a sense o f s e l f  and others t h a t would make l i f e t o l e r a b l e again. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y v u l n e r a b l e possess  fewer r e s o u r c e s t o  i n t e g r a t e t h i s n e g a t i v e experience. F o r them, d e e p l y - h e l d b e l i e f s o f unworthiness,  s e l f - l o a t h i n g , powerless and  emptiness may be b r u t a l l y evoked. With one's p s y c h o l o g i c a l  124  d e f e n s e s s t r i p p e d away, v i c t i m s may unrelenting  emotional  s u c c e s s f u l l y over time f o l l o w i n g  e v e n t s i s a commentary on  resourcefulness  the  o f humans. Some a c q u i r e  even enhances the  endurance  Many v i c t i m s  show r e m a r k a b l e i n g e n u i t y  ability  t o g i v e m e a n i n g t o t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e and  Crime i s a i n t e r p e r s o n a l another, a perpetrator. s e n s e . The  largely  a social  The  healing  Otherwise,  act--the  mirror  what was  opposite  are,  however, not  victimization.  The  shakes i l l u s i o n s  of our  own  be  or  our  own  of t h e i r story  mortality.  t o acknowledge l i m i t e d agency. brunt of  frailties,  s h u n n e d o r b l a m e d f o r t h e i r own  justice.  To  provide  the Crime  and  consequently  f a t e . Crime v i c t i m s  that,  The  our  c o n n e c t e d a g a i n t o a community t h a t u p h o l d s  s e c u r i t y and  safety,  professional  effects  v u l n e r a b i l i t y and  o f e v e n t s and  the  restored.  immune t o t h e  c o m p e l s us  t o a c c e p t our  the  one's sense o f  i n a personal  v i c t i m s must p e r i o d i c a l l y b e a r t h e unwillingness  is  of v i c t i m i z a t i o n .  v e r y p r e s e n c e o f v i c t i m s and  of crime v i c t i m s  uncontrollability  requires  s t r i p p e d away. T h r o u g h  m e a n i n g may  Those c l o s e t o v i c t i m s  to feel  i t  on.  i t is antisocial in its  c a r i n g of others,  w o r t h , t r u s t , a g e n c y and  be  carry  a s p e c t s o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s h a v e  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and  reality  i n s o f a r as  was  in their  process of adjustment or h e a l i n g  p o t e n t i a l to restore  capacity  act  that  o v e r what i t  before.  such  and  a perspective  q u a l i t y of t h e i r l i f e  fullest  an  turmoil.  T h a t most a d j u s t undesirable  f i n d themselves i n  others,  need  caring,  including  125  mental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s , own  vulnerability.  must i n v a r i a b l y  confront  their  126  Appendix I Post-traumatic  Stress Disorder  The D i a g n o s t i c and S t a t i s t i c a l Manual (DSM-III), and more r e c e n t l y t h e DSM-III-R, o f t h e American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n (1980/ 1987), d e s c r i b e s the c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f symptoms o f d i s t r e s s t h a t t y p i c a l l y f o l l o w u n u s u a l l y t r a u m a t i c , l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g experiences (e.g., earthquakes, m i l i t a r y combat, t o r t u r e , p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t , rape, and o f f e r s d i a g n o s t i c c r i t i e r i a f o r the d i s o r d e r ) . The P o s t - t r a u m a t i c s t r e s s d i s o r d e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the presence of t h r e e p r i n c i p a l dimensions: (1)  i n t r u s i v e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g of the trauma through r e c o l l e c t i o n s , dreams, or even t h e s e n s a t i o n t h a t t h e event i s r e o c c u r i n g ,  (2)  a numbing o f responsiveness t o , or d i m i n i s h e d involvement with the e x t e r n a l world, evidenced by g r e a t l y reduced i n t e r e s t i n important a c t i v i t i e s , f e e l i n g s of detachment or estrangement from o t h e r s , and restricted affect,  (3)  symptoms not evident p r i o r t o the t r a u m a t i c event, such as an exaggerated s t a r t l e response, s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e , memory impairment or d i f f i c u l t y c o n c e n t r a t i n g , g u i l t about s u r v i v i n g when others d i d not, or about what one d i d i n order t o s u r v i v e , and h y p e r s e n s i t i v i t y or avoidance o f t h a t which r e c a l l s or symbolizes t h e event.  The DSM-III a l s o l i s t s f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d with t h e P o s t t r a u m a t i c s t r e s s d i s o r d e r . Depression and a n x i e t y are common. I r r i t a b i l i t y or an u n p r e d i c t a b l e e x p l o s i v e a g g r e s s i o n with l i t t l e or no apparent p r o v o c a t i o n may a l s o be occur.  127  Appendix I I The  proposed "Victim Stress  Disorder':  (1)  Shame: d e e p e m b a r r a s s m e n t , o f t e n humiliation or m o r t i f i c a t i o n .  characterized  by  (2)  Self-Blame: exaggerated f e e l i n g s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e t r a u m a t i c e v e n t , w i t h g u i l t and remorse, d e s p i t e obvious evidence of innocence  (3)  S u b j u g a t i o n : f e e l i n g b e l i t t l e d , dehumanized, lowered i n dominance, p o w e r l e s s , as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e t r a u m a  (4)  M o r b i d H a t r e d : o b s e s s i o n s o f vengeance and preoccupation with hurting or humiliating the p e r p e t r a t o r , w i t h or without outburts o f anger o r rage  (5)  Paradoxical Gratitude: p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s toward the v i c t i m i z e r r a n g i n g from compassion t o r o m a n t i c l o v e , i n c l u d i n g attachment but not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The f e e l i n g s a r e u s u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d a s i r o n i c but profound g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e g i f t o f l i f e from one who h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e w i l l t o k i l l . ( a l s o known as p a t h o l o g i c a l t r a n s f e r e n c e a n d t h e " S t o c k h o l m syndrome".)  (6)  Defilement: f e e l i n g d i r t y , disgusted, disgusting, t a i n t e d , " l i k e s p o i l e d goods", and i n extreme c a s e s , r o t t e n and e v i l .  (7)  Sexual i n h i b i t i o n : l o s s of l i b i d o , reduced capacity f o r i n t i m a c y , more f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i r h s e x u a l assault.  (8)  Resignation: a s t a t e of broken w i l l or despair, often associated with r e p e t i t i v e v i c t i m i z a t i o n or prolonged e x p l o i t a t i o n , with markedly diminished i n t e r e s t i n past or f u t u r e  (9)  S e c o n d I n j u r y o r S e c o n d Wound: r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e , health, mental h e a l t h , and o t h e r systems.  (10)  S o c i o e c o n o m i c S t a t u s Downward D r i f t : R e d u c t i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t y o r l i f e - s t y l e , and i n c r e a s e d r i s k o f r e p e a t c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n due t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , and v o c a t i o n a l i m p a i r m e n t  128 REFERENCES A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . D i a g n o s t i c and s t a t i s t i c a l m a n u a l o f m e n t a l d i s o r d e r s (DSM I I I ) ( 3 r d ed.). 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