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Assessing crime victims' coping needs 1990

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ASSESSING CRIME VICTIMS' COPING NEEDS By NATHAN KRAKOW Diploma, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 B.A., Simon Fraser University, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 © N a t h a n Krakow, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written, permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT There i s mounting e v i d e n c e t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can be f a r more s e v e r e , much l o n g e r l a s t i n g , and r e c o v e r y l e s s complete t h a n had been o r i g i n a l l y t h o u g h t . The p l i g h t o f c r i m e v i c t i m s i s o f t e n compounded by a s u s p e c t i b i l i t y t o a 1 second wound 1, o r a g g r a v a t i o n o f t h e i r d i s t r e s s , a r i s i n g from t h e n e g l e c t o r m i s t r e a t m e n t by t h o s e whom v i c t i m s r e l y on f o r s u p p o r t . There i s , a t t h e same t i m e , e v i d e n c e t h a t b o t h t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system and t h e mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n have o f t e n been i l l - e q u i p p e d t o a d e q u a t e l y t e n d t o t h e needs o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . D e s p i t e a growing r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n v i c t i m i z a t i o n (e.g., s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y , p s y c h i a t r y , c r i m i n o l o g y ) , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n - r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h b o t h a c r o s s and w i t h i n t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s . As a r e s u l t , t h o s e c o u n s e l l i n g c r i m e v i c t i m s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s f i n d i n s u f f i c i e n t g u i d a n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . In t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e , v i c t i m s need t o r e g a i n what was a b r u p t l y t a k e n from them ( i . e . , a sense o f s a f e t y , t r u s t , agency, s e l f - e s t e e m , i n t i m a c y , a sense o f t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l ) . To f a c i l i t a t e p o s t - t r a u m a c o u n s e l l i n g , an assessment o f crime v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f an i n t e r v e n t i v e framework. The framework d i s t i n g u i s h e s v i c t i m s ' i d e n t i f i e d needs a c c o r d i n g t o (1) v i c t i m s ' i n t e r m e d i a t e v s . l o n g - t e r m c o p i n g needs, (2) what i i i v i c t i m s need from o t h e r s v s . what t h e y can do f o r t h e m s e l v e s , and (3) what v i c t i m s need from whom. These d i s t i n c t i o n s s e r v e t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e c r i m e v i c t i m s ' a djustment p r o c e s s e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s r e q u i r e an i n t e g r a t i o n o f an o t h e r w i s e d i v e r s e v i c t i m i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 The emergence o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n s t u d i e s 5 Statement o f t h e problem 6 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y 8 C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y 10 D e f i n i t i o n s of terms 12 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y 17 CHAPTER I I 19 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 19 THE PLIGHT OF CRIME VICTIMS 19 S o c i e t y ' s r e s ponse t o v i c t i m s o f cr i m e 20 Reasons f o r c o n c e r n , what t h e r e s e a r c h shows 24 Crime v i c t i m s and t h e mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n 25 E x p e r i e n c i n g c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n 32 Symptomology o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n 34 P o s t - t r a u m a t i c s t r e s s d i s o r d e r 38 " V i c t i m s t r e s s d i s o r d e r ' 40 What i t means t o be t h e v i c t i m o f a cr i m e 41 Common e x p e r i e n c e s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s 42 V i c t i m s ' r e s p o n s e s t o d i f f e r e n t c r i m e s 49 V u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s 52 I n d i v i d u a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s 52 V u l n e r a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s 54 The i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e v e r b e r a t i o n s o f c r i m e 55 The p r o c e s s o f adjustment 60 The adjustment t r a j e c t o r y 61 D e f i n i n g s u c c e s s f u l c o p i n g 63 Co p i n g w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n 66 C o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n 66 S o c i a l s u p p o r t 75 E x p l a i n i n g r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n 83 CHAPTER I I I 93 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CRIME VICTIMS' COPING NEEDS 93 Crime v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs 97 A need f o r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y 99 A need t o t r u s t 103 A need f o r esteem 106 A need f o r i n t i m a c y 109 A need f o r agency 112 A need t o p e r c e i v e t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l 116 Other r e l a t e d needs 118 D i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h 119 C o n c l u s i o n 122 Appendix I 12 6 Appendix I I 127 REFERENCES 128 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n Human f u n c t i o n i n g o f t e n depends on c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e not r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . I n f a c t , t h e r o l e o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i n s u s t a i n i n g everyday l i f e may o n l y come t o l i g h t a f t e r t h e y have been d i s r u p t e d by abnormal e v e n t s and t h e consequences known. Our knowledge o f normal b r a i n f u n c t i o n i n g has, f o r example, been c o n s i d e r a b l y advanced by t h e s t u d y o f performance d e f i c i t s o f b r a i n damaged i n d i v i d u a l s (e.g., l e f t hemisphere language s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ) (see S p r i n g e r & Deutsch, 1981). The c r i t i c a l r o l e o f attachment i n i n f a n t development was o n l y made apparent a f t e r t h i s p r o c e s s was impeded and t h e ad v e r s e e f f e c t s o b s e r v e d (Damon, 1983) . E x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s such as b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a cri m e can p r o f o u n d l y d i s r u p t one's l i f e . A s t u d y o f v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s t o such e v e n t s can e l a b o r a t e our knowledge o f o r d i n a r i l y * i n v i s i b l e 1 p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t s u p p o r t d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t can p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o c e r t a i n u n q u e s t i o n e d assumptions o r b e l i e f s i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d about t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r w o r l d t h a t a r e o f t e n s h a t t e r e d o r a c t i v a t e d by c r i s e s such as c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n ( J a n o f f - Bulman, 1989; McCann e t a l . , 1988). An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s e assumptions i n d a i l y l i f e can, i n t u r n , h e l p 2 t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e adjustment o f t h o s e who have s u f f e r e d such h a r m f u l e x p e r i e n c e s , •> B e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a cr i m e can be among t h e most t r a u m a t i c l i f e e v e n t s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; D a v i s & Friedman, 1985; F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1979; Greenberg, Ruback & W e s t c o t t , 1983; R e i f f , 1979). Crime c o n f r o n t s i t s v i c t i m s w i t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t can be e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s t r e s s f u l . Crime v i c t i m s may l o s e t r e a s u r e d p o s s e s s i o n s . They may d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e i r homes a r e not s a f e a g a i n s t h o s t i l e i n t r u s i o n . V i c t i m s can f a c e a t h r e a t t o t h e i r l i v e s , and r e a l i z e t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s nor a l o v e d one a g a i n s t a t t a c k . Some may be p h y s i c a l l y a s s a u l t e d and s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d . V i o l e n t c r i m e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , can b r u t a l l y c o n f r o n t i t s v i c t i m s and t h e i r l o v e d ones w i t h t h e f r a g i l i t y o f l i f e , w i t h one's l i m i t e d c o n t r o l , and t h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f v i c t i m i z i n g e v e n t s (Downing, 1988). I n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e c r i m e , v i c t i m s o f t e n f a i l t o r e c e i v e needed s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e ( R i e f f , 1979). Once i n t h e o f f e n s e and o f f e n d e r - o r i e n t e d c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system, v i c t i m s o f t e n f e e l r e d u c e d t o o b j e c t s by which t h e system p u r s u e s a c o n v i c t i o n . I n t h e wake o f such e x p e r i e n c e s , c r i m e v i c t i m s can s u f f e r a c u t e l y i m p a i r e d p s y c h o s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g f o r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e and f a c e c o p i n g t a s k s o f major p r o p o r t i o n s ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n , Madden & Timko, 1983). There i s an i n s i d i o u s n e s s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f v i o l e n t c r i m e t h a t i s u n i q u e l y d i s t u r b i n g . U n l i k e one who has been i n v o l v e d i n a n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r o r a c c i d e n t , t h e c r i m e v i c t i m 3 i s c o n f r o n t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t someone i n t e n d s them d e l i b e r a t e harm (J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1 9 8 5 a )— t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f which may be c i r c u m s c r i b e d o n l y by t h e v i c t i m ' s worse i m a g i n i n g s . I n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f human-induced v i o l e n c e , p r e v i o u s l y h e l d assumptions about t h e s e l f , o t h e r s , community, j u s t i c e , and one's f u t u r e a r e o f t e n no l o n g e r t e n a b l e ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). A c c o r d i n g t o F i s c h e r and Wertz (1979), t h e c r i m e v i c t i m i s , as a r e s u l t , c o m p e l l e d : " . . . d e s p i t e p e r s o n a l r e s i s t a n c e , t o f a c e one's f e l l o w as p r e d a t o r and o n e s e l f as p r e y , even when a l l t h e w h i l e a n t i c i p a t i n g consequences, p l a n n i n g , a c t i n g and l o o k i n g t o o t h e r s f o r a s s i s t a n c e . These e f f o r t s t o l i t t l e a v a i l , one e x p e r i e n c e s s e p a r a t e n e s s , h e l p l e s s n e s s i n t h e f a c e o f t h e c a l l o u s , i n s e n s i t i v e , o f t e n anonymous enemy" P r o f o u n d d i s r u p t i o n s t o one's s e l f - c o n c e p t , t o one's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s , and i n one's l i f e i n g e n e r a l t y p i c a l l y ensue i n t h e wake o f human-induced v i c t i m i z a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o McCann, Sakheim and Abrahamson (1988), one who has been v i c t i m i z e d w i l l n e ver a g a i n e x p e r i e n c e t h e i n n o c e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n who has not been t h e o b j e c t o f v i o l e n c e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s p o i n t t o t h e p o t e n t i a l l y d i s r u p t i v e n a t u r e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n as w e l l as t o i t s complex p s y c h o l o g y . A s e e m i n g l y minor c r i m e can b r i n g on i n t e n s e d i s t r e s s t o i t s v i c t i m s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). A f t e r a v i o l e n t a s s a u l t , some v i c t i m s c o n t i n u e t o r e l i v e t h e c r i m e t h r o u g h r e c u r r e n t , i n t r u s i v e f l a s h b a c k s ( F r e d e r i c k , 1987). In h o s t a g e - t a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s , 4 some v i c t i m s i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r c a p t o r s and r e a c t w i t h h o s t i l i t y towards p o t e n t i a l r e s c u e r s ( i . e . , S t o c kholm Syndrome) (Ochberg, 1988). The p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact o f cr i m e o f t e n e x t e n d s beyond t h e v i c t i m and can r e v e r b e r a t e t h r o u g h h i s / h e r s o c i a l m i l i e u as w e l l as t h e community a t l a r g e . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e i n t e n s e r e a c t i o n s c rime v i c t i m s can evoke i n o t h e r s . W i t n e s s e s t o a cr i m e and t h e l o v e d ones o f v i c t i m s can t h e m s e l v e s be p r o f o u n d l y t r a u m a t i z e d ( F r e d e r i c k , 1987). A l s o , o t h e r s a r e o f t e n u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f c r i m e v i c t i m s and f r e q u e n t l y a v o i d them o r blame them f o r h a v i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r own m i s f o r t u n e (Coates, Wortman, & Abbey, 1979). M e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , whom v i c t i m s have t u r n e d t o f o r h e l p , have t h e m s e l v e s o f t e n r e a c t e d s i m i l a r l y t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n (Downing, 1988; Symonds, 1980). The metaphor ' i n v i s i b l e ' has been used i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e p l i g h t o f c r i m e v i c t i m s (e.g., R i e f f , 1979). On one hand, i t was t o emphasize v i c t i m s ' d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d s t a t u s : t h e h i s t o r i c d i s r e g a r d o f c r i m e v i c t i m s by s o c i e t y (American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1984). On t h e o t h e r hand, i t was t o h i g h l i g h t t h e f r e q u e n t l y o v e r l o o k e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r y o f c r i m e , t h e sense o f v i o l a t i o n c r i m e v i c t i m s endure (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). A l s o , many c r i m e v i c t i m s have s t r u g g l e d t o remain s o c i a l l y " i n v i s i b l e ' , o f t e n a t g r e a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t , i n e f f o r t s t o c o n c e a l t h e i r t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e out o f g u i l t and 5 shame, and t o a v o i d as w e l l t h e s o c i a l d e r o g a t i o n t h a t c r i m e v i c t i m s must o f t e n endure (Coates e t a l . , 1979). The emergence o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n s t u d i e s The l a s t decade has w i t n e s s e d a h e i g h t e n e d c o n c e r n f o r t h e p l i g h t o f a h o s t o f v i c t i m i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s (e.g., combat v e t e r a n s , i n c e s t s u r v i v i o r s , rape v i c t i m s ) . T h i s has been p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e i n c r e a s e i n r e s e a r c h on s p e c i f i c v i c t i m groups, as w e l l as on t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . I n t e r e s t i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f v i c t i m s i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n a growing l i t e r a t u r e and t h e o r e t i c a l development on t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n ( i . e . , s o c i a l s u p p o r t , s t r e s s and c o p i n g , c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n ) (see Ja n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983; K e s s l e r , P r i c e , & Wortman, 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). A s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a h o s t o f t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e s t u d y o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y has f o c u s e d on i s s u e s such as common p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s o f v i c t i m s a c r o s s a d i v e r s i t y o f h a r m f u l l i f e e v e n t s (e.g., major i l l n e s s , c r i m e , n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s , a c c i d e n t s ) (see J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983; T a y l o r , Wood & Li c h t m a n , 1983), t h e a t t r i b u t i o n s o t h e r s make about v i c t i m s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g (Coates e t a l . , 1979), t h e r o l e o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n a l l e v i a t i n g t h e d i s t r e s s o f u n f o r t u n a t e l i f e - e v e n t s (Wortman & Lehman, 1985), and c i r c u m s t a n c e s under w h i c h v i c t i m s seek h e l p ( F i s h e r , G o f f , N a d l e r & C h i n s k y , 1988). The f i e l d o f p s y c h i a t r y has con c e r n e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and 6 p h y s i o l o g i c a l symptoms o f trauma and t h e development o f r e l a t e d t h e r a p i e s . The American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n (1980) has, i n t h e l a s t decade, f o r m u l a t e d a new d i a g n o s t i c c a t e g o r y , t h e ' p o s t - t r a u m a t i c s t r e s s d i s o r d e r ' t o encompass t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f symptoms o f d i s t r e s s t h a t f o l l o w u n u s u a l l y t r a u m a t i c l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . A subsequent r e v i s i o n o f t h i s o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n (APA, 1987: F r e d e r i c k , 1987) shows a t r e n d t o w a r d expanded d i a g n o s t i c and i n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a . C r i m i n o l o g y has, i n r e c e n t y e a r s , spawned a d i s t i n c t s u b - d i s c i p l i n e , v i c t i m o l o g y , whose f o c u s i s t h e st u d y o f i n d i v i d u a l s harmed by i l l e g a l a c t s (Karmen, 1984). I n i t i a l l y v i c t i m o l o g y l i m i t e d i t s e l f t o t h e somewhat c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n q u i r y i n t o how c r i m e v i c t i m s may i n a d v e r t e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r own v i c t i m i z a t i o n . More r e c e n t l y , v i c t i m o l o g y has committed i t s e l f t o t h e s t u d y o f cr i m e v i c t i m s ' r e a d j u s t m e n t . In t h i s sense, t h e f i e l d o f c r i m i n o l o g y has j o i n e d w i t h o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s i n b o t h t h e s o c i a l and m e d i c a l s c i e n c e s i n a common g o a l o f a m e l i o r a t i n g c r i m e v i c t i m s ' s u f f e r i n g . Statement o f t h e problem There i s mounting e v i d e n c e t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can be f a r more s e v e r e , much l o n g e r l a s t i n g , and r e c o v e r y l e s s complete t h a n had been o r i g i n a l l y t h ought (Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) . These d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e compounded by c r i m e v i c t i m s ' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n a r i s i n g from t h e n e g l e c t o r m a l t r e a t m e n t by 7 those victims r e l y on for support, as well as a s o c i a l stigma toward t h i s population (Coates et a l . , 1979; Symonds, 1980). The suf f e r i n g of many crime victims has been exacerbated as well by the fact that professions and i n s t i t u t i o n s victims have h i s t o r i c a l l y turned to for help or redress (e.g., mental health p r a c t i t i o n e r s , s o c i a l agencies, the criminal j u s t i c e system) have frequently been i l l - equipped to adequately tend to t h e i r needs (APA, 1984; Reif f , 1979; Ochberg, 1988; Young, 1988)..The American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Victims of Crime and Violence (APA, 1984) found a general lack of knowledge of v i c t i m i z a t i o n among mental health professionals, and has c a l l e d for the development of i d e n t i f i a b l e c l i n i c a l expertise i n working with victims based on research. The development of suitable counselling approaches for crime victims has been hindered to an extent by i n s u f f i c i e n t t h e o r e t i c a l integration of e x i s t i n g research findings both across and within the varied d i s c i p l i n e s related to vi c t i m i z a t i o n . Despite a growing research i n t e r e s t i n vi c t i m i z a t i o n , there has been l i m i t e d dialogue across (as well as within) the various d i s c i p l i n e s studying aspects of the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. For instance, some researchers unequivocally stress the importance of s o c i a l support for victims (Figley, 1986; Sales et a l . , 1984), while others have found that many support attempts of well-intended providers are often perceived by victims as unhelpful 8 (Lehman, E l l a r d , & Wortman, 1986). T h i s l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n has l i m i t e d t h e scope of i n q u i r y . As a r e s u l t , i s s u e s c r i t i c a l t o t h e adjustment o f c r i m e v i c t i m s and o t h e r v i c t i m p o p u l a t i o n s have not been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e s e a r c h e d . T h i s has had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h o s e i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h c r i m e v i c t i m s . Downing (1988) found t h a t c r i m e v i c t i m s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y l a c k c o n c e p t u a l frameworks from which t o d e f i n e g o a l s and o r g a n i z e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y The s t u d y c o ncerns i t s e l f w i t h what i t means t o be t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e and how one copes i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f such an e v e n t . I t i s u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h e purpose of i n f o r m i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . These i n t e r v e n t i o n s r e f e r t o e i t h e r d i r e c t c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , or c o n s u l t i n g t o t h o s e who i n t e r a c t w i t h c r i m e v i c t i m s . An i n t e r v e n t i v e framework f o r a s s e s s i n g c r i m e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs i s d e v e l o p e d which d e l i n e a t e s v i c t i m s ' adjustment g o a l s and and how t h e y may be a c h i e v e d . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , t h i s framework o r d e r s v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs i n t o p r o c e s s and outcome c o u n s e l l i n g g o a l s . F o r example, a l o n g - t e r m need (or outcome goal) o f a r e s t o r e d f a i t h i n t h e t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s o f o t h e r s , s h a t t e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n , may be met, i n p a r t , by an i n t e r m e d i a t e need (or p r o c e s s g o a l ) o f an empathic, non-judgmental t h e r a p e u t i c a l l i a n c e . In o t h e r words, t h e framework goes beyond t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v i c t i m s ' needs i n t h e a b s t r a c t t o t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f c o n c r e t e ways t o meet them. 9 This study i s intended to provide a knowledge base for counsellors to f a c i l i t a t e the generation of informed c l i n i c a l hypotheses about cr i m i n a l l y victimized c l i e n t s , and to elaborate counsellors' empathic understanding of the criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. Various t h e o r i s t s (e.g., Kohut, 1971; Rogers, 1961) have argued that the conveying of empathy to the c l i e n t i s c r i t i c a l to the therapeutic process. Given the psychological complexity of reactions to criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n , a needs assessment would hopefully f a c i l i t a t e the accuracy and depth of counsellors' empathic understanding. In i t s l i t e r a t u r e review, t h i s study draws on a range of topics that bear on the experience of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n and subsequent adjustment. In doing so, issues that are o r d i n a r i l y addressed independently i n the l i t e r a t u r e are considered i n r e l a t i o n to each other. For example, t h i s study surveys victims' own coping resources and t h e i r role i n adjustment--a topic conspicuously absence in the post-trauma therapy l i t e r a t u r e . This issue i s subsequently discussed i n the context of interventions with victims that accommodate victims' indigenous coping strategies. In t h i s respect, the study intends to contribute to needed t h e o r e t i c a l integration i n an otherwise diverse v i c t i m i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . Following the assessment of crime victims' needs, dire c t i o n s for future research are considered. Given the need for greater t h e o r e t i c a l integration of v i c t i m i z a t i o n 10 r e s e a r c h , t h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e s c e r t a i n i n t e g r a t i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t h a t c o u l d e l a b o r a t e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g . A r e a s of p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n have been a l l u d e d t o i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s a comprehensive assessment o f c r i m e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs t o a s s i s t m ental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n g o a l s f o r c r i m e v i c t i m s as w e l l as a means of a c h i e v i n g them. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s s t u d y accommodates t h e wide v a r i a b i l i t y o f v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s , and hence t h e v a r i a n c e i n c o p i n g needs. To a c h i e v e t h i s , a framework i s d e v e l o p e d t o o r g a n i z e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs. T h i s framework i s a l s o i n t e g r a t i v e as i t draws from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s whose f i n d i n g s b e a r on t h e e x p e r i e n c e of c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . As Downing (1988) p o i n t s o u t , such frameworks a r e n o t a b l y l a c k i n g i n v i c t i m s e r v i c e s . The framework used t o d e l i n e a t e c r i m e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs i s i n t e r v e n t i v e i n scope, w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t s f o c u s i s not m erely t h e r e t u r n o f v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o a p r e v i o u s s t a t e o f f u n c t i o n i n g . R a t h e r i t emphasizes i n d i v i d u a l growth i n t h e f a c e o f m i s f o r t u n e . I t d e f i n e s v i c t i m s ' adjustment p r o c e s s as a range o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e t h e development of more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f o n e s e l f and t h e w o r l d (see Guidano, 1988; M e l i t o , 1988). R e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v i e w s o f t h e s e l f and one's w o r l d a r e c h a l l e n g e d o r a f f i r m e d 11 by the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience. Coping, as delineated i n the assessment framework, often involves the elaboration of one's basic conceptual system to integrate the traumatic event i n an adaptive manner. This study p u l l s together a rather diverse l i t e r a t u r e in a f i e l d that i s as yet somewhat fragmentary i n i t s consideration of the v i c t i m i z a t i o n experience and the coping process. In doing so, the study helps to capture the experience of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n i t s multiple dimensions (e.g., i t s phenomenology, symptomology, s o c i a l implications). Various d i s c i p l i n e s that have contributed to our understanding of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d in t h i s study. In drawing from these d i s c i p l i n e s , the study underscores the need for a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach to the study and treatment of crime victims and for greater integration i n theory and research. In t h i s study, attention i s drawn to the c r i t i c a l need for informed intervention with crime victims and t h e i r z families, given the high r i s k to victims from neglect or inadequate treatment by mental health professionals. This i s in accord with concerns expressed i n the The American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Victims of Crime and Violence (APA, 1984). In studying the psychological i n j u r i e s of crime, we learn of the impact of violence not only to the body but to the human s p i r i t . Crime can s t r i p away the essence of what individu a l s need to function i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s (e.g., a 12 sense of personal security, a control over one's body, a f a i t h i n the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of one's environment, as well as a b e l i e f i n the trustworthiness of others). Knowledge of the psychological impact of crime can help us understand the sense of v i o l a t i o n that ensues from other forms of human- induced v i c t i m i z a t i o n , including seemingly "lesser' offenses (e.g., wrongful dismissal, sexual harrassment). It i s hoped that t h i s study w i l l encourage consideration of "victim counselling' as a needed specialty i n the f i e l d of Counselling Psychology. Douce (1988) argues that victims of harmful l i f e events are counsellors' "hidden c l i e n t s " , c o n s t i t u t i n g a vastly greater proportion of e x i s t i n g c l i e n t e l e than may be re a l i z e d . According to Douce, t h e i r " i n v i s i b i l i t y ' stems from both c l i e n t s ' and counsellors' tendency to discount v i c t i m i z i n g experiences as sources of current problems. Due to lack of knowledge, counsellors may not recognize signs of vi c t i m i z a t i o n , nor f a i l to include a vi c t i m i z a t i o n history i n t h e i r assessment. The American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Victims of Crime and Violence (APA, 1984) has recommended that t r a i n i n g to work with victims be a part of the graduate and post- graduate c u r r i c u l a i n psychology. D e f i n i t i o n s of terms Although concise d e f i n i t i o n s of p r i n c i p a l terms are needed to convey meaning with c l a r i t y and precision, they do not always s u f f i c e . Some extended d e f i n i t i o n s are therefore presented to of f e r a f u l l e r sense of important concepts. 13 The term "crime v i c t i m ' , i n t h i s s t u d y , r e f e r s t o one who has s u f f e r e d d i r e c t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e n t i o n a l and i l l e g a l a c t s o f a n o t h e r . I n c r e a s i n g e v i d e n c e o f t h e s e v e r e trauma s u f f e r e d by w i t n e s s e s t o c r i m e and l o v e d ones of v i c t i m s e f f e c t i v e l y expands t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f who, i n f a c t , i s v i c t i m i z e d by c r i m e (e.g., B a r d & Sangrey, 1986; F r e d e r i c k , 1987; Greenberg & Ruback, 1984). F o r t h e purposes of t h i s s t u d y , however, "crime v i c t i m ' r e f e r s o n l y t o t h e p r i m a r y or d i r e c t v i c t i m o f a c r i m e . Others are c o n s i d e r e d s e c o n d a r y v i c t i m s . I n t h i s s t u d y , " v i c t i m ' r e f e r s t o one who has s u f f e r e d harm i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s l a r g e l y beyond h i s / h e r c o n t r o l . There i s , however, a c e r t a i n d i s c o m f o r t w i t h t h e term " v i c t i m ' among some r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., Karmen, 1984; McCann e t a l . , 1988). A euphemism, " s u r v i v o r ' , i s o f t e n p r e f e r r e d f o r i t s c o n n o t a t i o n o f o p t i m i s m and t r a n s c e n d e n c e ; whereas " v i c t i m ' can denote h e l p l e s s n e s s and s u b m i s s i o n . The term " v i c t i m ' i s d e l i b e r a t e l y used here t o emphasize t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as t h e u n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f t h e v i c t i m i z i n g e v e n t . A l s o , t h e term " v i c t i m ' u n e q u i v o c a l l y r e l i e v e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s / h e r v i c t i m i z a t i o n . T h i s i s a needed d i s t i n c t i o n g i v e n t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f a s o c i a l s t i g m a towards c r i m e v i c t i m s . T h i s s t i g m a o f t e n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n o t h e r s b l a m i n g v i c t i m s ' f o r t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e by c h a l l e n g i n g t h e c r i m e ' s u n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o r a v o i d a b i l i t y . W h i l e a c r i m e may, under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be f a c i l i t a t e d by a v i c t i m ' s poor 14 judgement (e.g., h i t c h h i k i n g ) , t h i s does not negate t h e f a c t t h a t a v i c t i m s u b s e q u e n t l y l o s e s c o n t r o l t o t h e a n o t h e r d u r i n g t h e commission o f a c r i m e . Brickman e t a l . (1982) have a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d between r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e onset o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y one's subsequent a d j u s t m e n t . W h i l e i n d i v i d u a l s may be h e l p l e s s i n p r e v e n t i n g t h e i r v i c t i m i z a t i o n , t h e y may be v e r y a c t i v e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e i r r e c o v e r y (see S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980; T a y l o r , 1983). Thus, t h e t erm " v i c t i m ' need not connote a p e r p e t u a l h e l p l e s s n e s s . A d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between t h e use o f terms f o r r h e t o r i c a l and f o r e x p l a n a t o r y p u r p o s e s . Terms such as " s u r v i v o r ' may be t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y u s e f u l i n e x h o r t i n g " v i c t i m s ' t o a p p r e c i a t e h e r o i c a s p e c t s o f t h e i r s t r u g g l e . But terms t h a t p o s s e s s r h e t o r i c a l u t i l i t y (e.g., f o r c o u n s e l l i n g ) may l a c k e x p l a n a t o r y power f o r t h e p urposes o f r e s e a r c h . C o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d be wary o f t h e i r own s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o v i c t i m - s t i g m a t i z i n g b e l i e f s p r e v a l e n t i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y , p o s s i b l y e x p r e s s e d i n an a v e r s i o n t o terms such as " v i c t i m ' t h a t convey t h e f u l l n e g a t i v e i m p o r t o f c e r t a i n extreme l i f e e v e n t s . In t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , a c r i m e v i c t i m i s t y p i c a l l y p o r t r a y e d as an " i n n o c e n t b y - s t a n d e r ' whose l i f e i s s u d d e n l y d i s r u p t e d as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h an o t h e r w i s e a l i e n c r i m i n a l s u b - c u l t u r e (e.g., B a r d & Sangrey, 1986; J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1983; L e r n e r & M i l l e r , 1978) . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s n oteworthy, as c e r t a i n t h e o r i e s o f 15 psychological reactions to negative l i f e events (e.g., crime) explain trauma as a shattering of an apparent "innocence' (e.g., Janoff-Bulman, 1983). This stereotypic view of crime victims as middle-class, earnest, naive and law-abiding b e l i e s the fact that a substantial number of crime victims do not necessarily f a l l i n t h i s category. It i s reasonable therefore to ask to what extent theories explaining reactions to v i c t i m i z a t i o n r e f l e c t the p a r t i c u l a r subjects that have been accessible to researchers. A "second wound' or "second injury' refers to a r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n that results from the perceived r e j e c t i o n by and lack of expected support from the very people and i n s t i t u t i o n s victims depend on for help and support. This r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n i s thought to cause an exacerbation and prolonging of symptoms of d i s t r e s s (Symonds, 1980) . Readjustment or adjustment refers to the process of gradually e s t a b l i s h i n g a state of normal psychosocial functioning, r e l a t i v e l y free of the psychological symptoms of d i s t r e s s . The term "adjustment' must be distinguished from "recovery' which i s the end point of an adjustment process. In a state of "recovery', the traumatic experience i s completely integrated and event-related symptoms of d i s t r e s s are no longer experienced. From a developmental perspective, adjustment may r e s u l t i n a more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d view of oneself and one's world. Some crime categories such as "burglary" and "robbery 1 require d e f i n i t i o n as the d i s t i n c t i o n between them may not 16 always be clear. Robbery refers to the "unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that i s i n the immediate possession of another, by force or threat of force." Burglary, on the other hand, refers to an "unlawful entry of any f i x e d structure... with or without force, with intent to commit a felony, or a larceny". In a burglary, the v i c t i m i s not present; whereas i n a robbery, the victim i s present (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) . The term "need' i n the context of t h i s study refers to crime victims' coping needs: that i s , what victims of crime need to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r psychological readjustment i n the aftermath of a traumatic l i f e event. This conception of need f i t s York's (1982) d e f i n i t i o n ( i . e . , [that which is] "...required to insure that., [crime victims] are able to function at an acceptable l e v e l i n [their] various domains of l i v i n g " ) . The term "needs assessment' i s derived from the f i e l d of human service planning and i s o r d i n a r i l y concerned with the prevalence of a certain s o c i a l problem i n the community, as well as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of targets of action (York, 1984). However, the extent of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n the community i s not at issue here. This study concerns i t s e l f rather with the q u a l i t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or assessment of crime victims' coping needs. Logical l y , a determination of what these needs are must precede any quantitative assessment of t h e i r pervasiveness. 17 Limitations of the study This study provides no o r i g i n a l empirical data, but r e l i e s on the use of anecdotal reports of crime victims derived from secondary sources. As a res u l t , no independent claims can be made for t h e i r v a l i d i t y or g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . This study r e s t r i c t s i t s e l f to a discussion of sstranger-to- stranger 1 crime, although issues addressed no doubt have relevance for circumstances where the victim and offender have been previously acquainted (e.g., domestic assault, sexual abuse). This study focuses primarily on the psychological coping needs of crime victims. Consequently, i t excludes di r e c t consideration of other non-psychological coping necessities (e.g., r e s t i t u t i o n , medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ) . The study, i n t h i s sense, does not provide an exhaustive compilation of what victims need i n order to cope i n the aftermath of being c r i m i n a l l y victimized. Many review a r t i c l e s c i t e d i n t h i s study r e l y l a r g e l y on studies of rape victims i n t h e i r discussions of the eff e c t s of vio l e n t crime. Conclusions i n t h i s study are therefore l i m i t e d to the extent to which the reactions to sexual assault are generalizable to the e f f e c t s of other crimes. A major impetus to the emerging concern for victims of crime has been the feminist movement and i t s r a i s i n g to public awareness the incident of violence toward women (Sales et a l . , 1984). This has spawned an array of support and advocacy services for rape victims and battered wives, 18 as w e l l as c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h on t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s . R e a c t i o n s and adjustment t o o t h e r forms o f cr i m e have, on t h e o t h e r hand, r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n (Sorenson & G o l d i n g , 1990). More r e c e n t l y , however, r e s e a r c h on cr i m e v i c t i m s has ext e n d e d somewhat t o t h e e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s o f f e n s e s . F o r example, Sorenson & G o l d i n g (1990) found t h a t c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f a l l t y p e s , f r e q u e n c i e s and t a r g e t s a r e l i k e l y t o p l a c e p e o p l e a t h i g h e r r i s k f o r d e p r e s s i o n and s u i c i d e . 19 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE THE PLIGHT OF CRIME VICTIMS B e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e can c o n s t i t u t e a sudden and p r o f o u n d d i s r u p t i o n o f everyday l i f e , o f t e n p r o d u c i n g a n e g a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l response t h a t i s b o t h i n t e n s e and e n d u r i n g ( F i g l e y , 1986; McCann e t a l . , 1988; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984). I n F i g l e y ' s view, an event i s t r o u b l i n g t o t h e degree t h a t i t i s sudden, dangerous and o v e r w h e l m i n g — a t t r i b u t e s t h a t o f t e n t y p i f y c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The p e r c e p t i o n o f b e i n g i n danger, t h a t i s , a f e a r o f i n j u r y t o or d e s t r u c t i o n o f o n e s e l f or a l o v e d one, i s t h e most t r a u m a - p r o d u c i n g element o f a c r i s i s ( F i g e l y , 1986) . When an event i s b o t h sudden i n onset and dangerous, i t i s almost i n v a r i a b l y overwhelming. The i n a b i l i t y t o manage such a t h r e a t i s i t s e l f h i g h l y d i s t r e s s i n g , which o f t e n reduces v i c t i m s t o a temporary s t a t e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and i m m o b i l i t y . N ormative l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s u s u a l l y a l l o w some t i m e f o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f new v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and s t r a t e g i e s . But non-normative e v e n t s can o c c u r v e r y s u d d e n l y , w i t h l i t t l e o r no w a r n i n g , o f f e r i n g i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r p r e p a r e d n e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n i s a n o v e l e x p e r i e n c e f o r most i n d i v i d u a l s , who would o r d i n a r i l y have l i t t l e i n t h e i r c o p i n g r e p e r t o i r e t o manage such a s i t u a t i o n ( S a l e s e t a l . , 1984). B a r d and Sangrey (1986) have argued t h a t b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e i s 20 always a shock d e s p i t e any measure o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n , as one cannot m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f v i g i l e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o some r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., J a n o f f - Bulman & F r i e z e , 1983; P e r l o f f , 1983), i n d i v i d u a l s who have not been v i c t i m i z e d t e n d t o h o l d a p r o t e c t i v e i l l u s i o n o f b e i n g l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a n o t h e r s . As a r e s u l t , an e x p e r i e n c e o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n can s h a t t e r t h i s i l l u s i o n o f t e n e v o k i n g a new and u n f a m i l i a r sense o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y t h a t can be p r o f o u n d l y d i s t r e s s i n g . " I n e v e r thought i t c o u l d happen t o me. I was v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e l i v i n g on t h i s s t r e e t . I f i g u r e d i t was s a f e here--my f r i e n d s a re here and t h i s i s my home. And you j u s t don't t h i n k t h a t someone's g o i n g t o come i n l i k e t h a t and t a k e your t h i n g s . I t may happen on some o t h e r s t r e e t , but not i n my house, not on my s t r e e t . " V i c t i m of a b u r g l a r y (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) S o c i e t y ' s r e s ponse t o v i c t i m s o f cr i m e I n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e p l i g h t o f crime v i c t i m s has become o f i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n , as p a r t o f a g e n e r a l l y h e i g h t e n e d p u b l i c s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e f a t e o f a h o s t o f v i c t i m i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s (e.g., i n c e s t , w i f e - b a t t e r i n g ) (Karmen, 1984). The " d i s c o v e r y ' o f cr i m e v i c t i m s has h e l p e d r a i s e t o awareness t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r i e s s u f f e r e d by t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e i r n e g l e c t and m a l t r e a t m e n t , o f t e n a t t h e hands o f t h e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h e y have t u r n e d t o f o r h e l p (APA, 1984; H e r r i n g t o n , 1985; Karmen, 1984; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; W e i l e r & Desgagne, 1984; Young, 1988). 21 This attention to crime victims has also brought to l i g h t society's vastly disproportionate inte r e s t i n and a l l o c a t i o n of resources for criminals, i n contrast to t h e i r victims (APA, 1984; Kahn, 1985). In comparison to monies devoted to the apprehension, prosecution, incarceration, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and study of criminals, funds allocated to the compensation, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and study of crime victims has been r e l a t i v e l y miniscule (APA, 1984). Within the mental health profession, Kahn (1985) found that p r a c t i t i o n e r s not only lack the t r a i n i n g to work with crime victims, but are more l i k e l y to provide services to criminals. Of the numerous crime-related s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s i n psychology ( i . e . , forensic psychology, correctional psychology, le g a l psychology), the interest i n crime victims as evidenced by e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e has been quite sparse (APA, 1984). The topics of aggression and violence have received considerable research inte r e s t i n psychology, but t h e i r targets, i n the form of crime victims, have not. In t h i s sense, psychology has mirrored society's preoccupation and fascination with the perpetrators of crime. The Departments of Justice of both Canada and the United States have formally acknowledged that the criminal j u s t i c e systems i n North America have been larg e l y remiss i n t h e i r response to the needs of crime victims (Herrington, 1985; Weiler & Desgagne, 1984). The U.S. Department of Justice, President's Task Force on Victims of Crime (Herrington, 1985) concluded that victims, i n the course of 22 t r y i n g t o r e b u i l d t h e i r l i v e s and s e c u r e l e g a l r e d r e s s , have a l l t o o o f t e n e n c o u n t e r e d a system t h a t i s i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i r needs. Once i n t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system, v i c t i m s were o f t e n c o m p e l l e d t o r e l i v e t h e i r t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d p o l i c e q u e s t i o n i n g and numerous c o u r t appearances, o f t e n w i t h o u t s u p p o r t . Crime v i c t i m s were f r e q u e n t l y kept u n i n f o r m e d o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e i r case, w h i l e e x p e c t e d t o be c o n t i n u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o g i v e e v i d e n c e a t t h e c o u r t ' s c o n v e n i e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , many v i c t i m s s u f f e r e d l o s s o f p r o p e r t y and wages. A c c o r d i n g t o B a r d and Sangrey (1986), p o l i c e o f f i c e r s and p r o s e c u t o r s o f t e n have d i f f i c u l t y e m p a t h i z i n g w i t h c r i m e v i c t i m s ' sense o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and v u l n e r a b i l i t y . G i v e n p o l i c e and p r o s e c u t o r s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r e v e n t c r i m e , and t o apprehend and p u n i s h c r i m i n a l s , t h e n o t i o n o f f e e l i n g h e l p l e s s i n t h e f a c e o f cr i m e i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e i r r e a s o n f o r b e i n g , and hence e m o t i o n a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g . I t may t h u s be e a s i e r t o f i n d t h e v i c t i m somehow c u l p a b l e . A l s o , t h o s e w o r k i n g i n t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system o f t e n d e v e l o p an e x p e r t i s e i n i d e n t i f y i n g p e r s o n s who f e e l g u i l t y . Crime v i c t i m s who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g s e l f - b l a m e and g u i l t may be m i s p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c r i m e . B a r d and Sangrey argue t h a t t h e o p p o s i t e i s t y p i c a l l y t h e case , t h a t v i c t i m s f e e l g u i l t y f o r h a v i n g , i n f a c t , " s u r r e n d e r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " . 23 A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l impact o f t h e c r i m e i t s e l f , v i c t i m s o f t e n f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a system i n which t h e y f e e l demeaned, i s o l a t e d , and mere i m p l i m e n t s o f an i m p e r s o n a l j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s ( H e r r i n g t o n , 1985). A l t h o u g h , v i c t i m s e r v i c e s have been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r some t i m e , t h e i r p r i m a r y purpose has been t o p r e p a r e c r i m e v i c t i m s t o p r o v i d e t e s t i m o n y f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f c r i m i n a l s . Only r e c e n t l y have t h e s e s e r v i c e s begun t o c o n s i d e r v i c t i m s ' needs i n t h e i r own r i g h t (Downing, 1988). Greenberg and Ruback (1984) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t many v i c t i m s may f a i l t o r e p o r t c r i m e s t o p o l i c e f o r f e a r o f i n c u r r i n g a d d i t i o n a l harm from an i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system, a f e a r t h e a u t h o r s c o n s i d e r w e l l founded. S o c i e t y ' s i n a d e q u a t e response t o c r i m e v i c t i m s i s r e f l e c t e d i n and p e r p e t u a t e d by t h e media's p o r t r a y a l o f c r i m e . These d e p i c t i o n s t e n d t o f o c u s on t h e d r a m a t i c a s p e c t s o f c r i m e and p o l i c e w o r k , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e emphasis on v i c t i m s ' e x p e r i e n c e (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). Media coverage t y p i c a l l y h i g h l i g h t s t h e more s e n s a t i o n a l v i o l e n t c r i m e s , whose e f f e c t s are o f t e n d e s c r i b e d i n terms of t h e more o b s e r v a b l e p h y s i c a l i n j u r i e s and p r o p e r t y l o s s . B a r d and Sangrey argue t h a t t h i s c r e a t e s a m i s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t c r i m e i s , by d e f i n i t i o n , v i o l e n t , whose e f f e c t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y e x t e r n a l . As a r e s u l t , t h e p u b l i c may u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l t o l l t o v i c t i m s from non- v i o l e n t c r i m e and s e e m i n g l y "minor' o f f e n s e s . 24 Reasons f o r c o n c e r n , what t h e r e s e a r c h shows R e s e a r c h on t h e impact o f c r i m e on i t s v i c t i m s as l e d t o d i s t u r b i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n has been found t o produce s e v e r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences, b o t h immediate and i n t h e l o n g - t e r m (APA, 1984; Burgess & Holmstrom, 1979; D a v i s & Friedman, 1985). A l s o , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r i e s s u s t a i n e d by c r i m e v i c t i m s can be f a r more s e r i o u s and e n d u r i n g t h a n b o d i l y i n j u r y o r p r o p e r t y l o s s , t h e more v i s i b l e and more e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d consequences o f c r i m e (APA, 1984; F r i e z e , 1987; H e r r i n g t o n , 1985). L o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h w i t h v i c t i m s o f v i o l e n t c r i m e (e.g., r a p e ) , s u g g e s t s t h a t assumptions about e v e n t u a l r e c o v e r y have been o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c . W i r t z and H a r r e l l (1987), i n t h e i r r e v i e w , n o t e d t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f a "c o r e o f d i s t r e s s " i n v i c t i m s o f s e x u a l a s s a u l t , d e s p i t e e a r l i e r c l a i m s o f e v e n t u a l r e c o v e r y . Burgess and Holmstrom (1979) found t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y o f rape v i c t i m s c o n t i n u e d t o e x p e r i e n c e d i s t r e s s 4 t o 6 y e a r s a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t . Some t h e o r i s t s (e.g., S a l e s e t a l . , 1984) have, as a r e s u l t , begun t o speak i n s t e a d o f " r e a d j u s t m e n t ' t h a t f o r some may perhaps span a l i f e t i m e . Among c a t a s t r o p h i c l i f e - e v e n t s , t h o s e o f d e l i b e r a t e human d e s i g n (e.g., rape, a s s a u l t ) , i n c u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r i e s t h a t "..(seem t o be) more s e v e r e and l o n g e r l a s t i n g " (APA, 1980; F r e d e r i c k , 1980; J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1985a). There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t o suggest c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s may u n d e r r e p r e s e n t t h e s e v e r i t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m e . A c c o r d i n g t o Meyer and 25 T a y l o r (1986) , r e p e a t e d assessment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h may l e s s e n a d v e r s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o s e x u a l a s s a u l t . Crime v i c t i m s and t h e mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n There i s a g e n e r a l acknowledgement i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t c r i m e v i c t i m s have not been w e l l - s e r v e d by t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h community, and, a t t i m e s , a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by t h e t r e a t m e n t r e c e i v e d from b o t h u n t r a i n e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s ( A P A , 1984; Coates e t a l . , 1979; Ochberg, 1988; Young, 1988). R e p o r t s by crime v i c t i m s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h v a r i o u s m ental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s has o f t e n been c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e , where v i c t i m s have r e c a l l e d f e e l i n g m i s t r e a t e d and m i s u n d e r s t o o d (Young, 1988). Ochberg (1988) c r i t i c i z e s t h e mental h e a l t h f i e l d f o r p a t r o n i z i n g and s t i g m a t i z i n g i t s c l i e n t s . In Ochberg's view, many c r i m e v i c t i m s have w i s e l y a v o i d e d t r a d i t i o n a l m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o s p a r e t h e m s e l v e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n , o r e x a c e r b a t i o n o f t h e i r symptoms o f d i s t r e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e has been a r e s i s t a n c e w i t h i n t h e m ental h e a l t h f i e l d t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o v i c t i m s ( A P A , 1984; Downing, 1988). The poor t r e a t m e n t r e c e i v e d by c r i m e v i c t i m s a t t h e hands o f mental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s , as w e l l as a r e l u c t a n c e t o t r e a t them, has been a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o l i m i t e d knowledge of t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , as w e l l as t o c e r t a i n h a r m f u l i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s e s w i t h i n t h e f i e l d (Downing, 1988) . Young (1988) found 26 m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o be l a r g e l y i g n o r a n t o f t h e impact of trauma, p a r t i c u l a r l y " c r i m i n a l l y - i n d u c e d trauma", on t h e l i v e s o f i t s v i c t i m s . R e c e n t l y , s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., F r e d e r i c k , 1987; Karmen, 1984; Ochberg, 1988) have c r i t i c i z e d t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h community f o r t e n d i n g t o m i s a t t r i b u t e c r i m e v i c t i m s ' i n t e n s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s t o p r e - t r a u m a m a l a d a p t a t i o n . These r e s e a r c h e r s have argued t h a t v i c t i m s ' symptoms of d i s t r e s s a r e normal and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e r e s p o n s e s t o e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s t r e s s f u l e v e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o ( F r e d e r i c k , 1987): "The p e r v a s i v e and c o n t i n u i n g worry and discouragement t h e v i c t i m may f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y are not symptoms o f c l i n i c a l d e p r e s s i o n or a b o r d e r l i n e s t a t e but a r e normal e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s under t h e e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . " Coates e t a l . , (1979) found " v i c t i m - b l a m i n g ' b i a s e s among mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f v i c t i m s . A c c o r d i n g t o Coates e t a l . , m ental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s have t e n d e d t o over-emphasize v i c t i m s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . In t h e i r view, h e l p e r s have o f t e n found i t more e x p e d i e n t t o f o c u s on v i c t i m s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r problems because o f t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t h a n t o a d d ress t h e r o l e o f more i m p o r t a n t but l e s s c o n t r o l l a b l e e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . Crime v i c t i m s have, as a r e s u l t , f e l t blamed f o r t h e i r p l i g h t , a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e when t h e y f e l t p o w e r l e s s , v u l n e r a b l e , and were amenable t o m a n i p u l a t i o n . Greenberg and Ruback (1984) c o n s i d e r c r i m e v i c t i m s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e c r i m e when t h e y are v e r y d i s t r e s s e d and c o n f u s e d . 27 Some t h e o r i s t s (e.g., Bowlby, 1988; P r i l l e l t e n s k y , 1989) have argued t h a t m ental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t e n d t o be i d e o l o g i c a l l y b i a s e d t o w a r d " p a t h o l o g i z i n g ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f c l i e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t o r e a l l i f e e v e n t s . P r i l l e l t e n s k y has c r i t i z e d p s y c h o l o g y f o r i t s " p e r s o n - b l a m i n g " c o n c e p t i o n s o f human d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h i s a r i s e s , i n h i s v iew, from p s y c h o l o g y ' s a p r i o r i commitment t o an " a c o n t e x t u a l ' view o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , where human b e h a v i o u r i s examined w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s ( i . e . , s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s ) . A c c o r d i n g t o P r i l l e l t e n s k y , t h i s l e a d s t o a " d e f e c t ' model i n which d i s t r e s s a r i s i n g from u n f o r t u n a t e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s i g n s o f p r e e x i s t i n g v u l n e r a b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Bowlby views p s y c h i a t r y as g r e a t l y r e m i s s i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r e l u c t a n c e t o a t t r i b u t e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y t o r e a l - l i f e e v e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n c e . Bowlby t r a c e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s o f t h i s b i a s t o Freud's (mis) a t t r i b u t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d s e d u c t i o n t o h i s p a t i e n t s ' i m a g i n a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t o a c t u a l abuse by o t h e r s . The e x t e n t t o which i d e o l o g i c a l b i a s e s c o n t r i b u t e t o a m i s c o n c e p t i o n and m i s - t r e a t m e n t o f cr i m e v i c t i m s has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e development o f c l i n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n t h i s a r e a , as i d e o l o g y i t s e l f can d e f i n e and c o n s t r a i n t h e scope o f a l t e r n a t e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s o f mental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o v i c t i m i z e d c l i e n t s a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e as w e l l t o t h e unique c o u n t e r t r a n s f e r e n c e r e a c t i o n s evoked i n 28 c o u n s e l l o r s by v i c t i m s o f human-induced trauma ( J a n o f f - Bulman & Timko, 1985; McCann e t a l . , 1988; W i l s o n , 1989). C o u n s e l l o r s who t e n d t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n a r e v i c a r i o u s l y exposed t o e v e n t s t h a t a r e p r o f o u n d l y u n j u s t , d e g r a d i n g , b r u t a l , d e l i b e r a t e l y c r u e l and l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g . I n l i s t e n i n g e m p a t h i c a l l y t o such e x p e r i e n c e s , c o u n s e l l o r s a re t h e m s e l v e s u n a v o i d a b l y f a c e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y t h a t l i f e i s not always c o n t r o l l a b l e and t h a t a l l humans a r e v u l n e r a b l e and m o r t a l . As a r e s u l t , t h o s e c o u n s e l l i n g v i c t i m s o f human- i n d u c e d trauma a r e s u s p e c t i b l e t o a secondary t r a u m a t i z a t i o n (Downing, 1988; McCann e t a l . , 1988). In e f f o r t s t o s h i e l d t h e m s e l v e s from t h i s p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e , c o u n s e l l o r s may blame t h e i r v i c t i m - c l i e n t s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n s u l a t e t h e m s e l v e s from t h e i r c l i e n t s ' e x p e r i e n c e , o r a v o i d them (Downing, 1988). A l t e r n a t e l y , a c o u n s e l l o r may o v e r - i d e n t i f y w i t h a t r a u m a t i z e d c l i e n t and i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y assume a r e s c u e r r o l e . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., McCann e t a l . , 1988; W i l s o n , 1989) have argued t h a t c o u n t e r t r a n f e r e n c e i s s u e s i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f s t r o n g t h e r a p e u t i c a l l i a n c e c r i t i c a l t o e f f e c t i v e work w i t h trauma v i c t i m s . W i l s o n (1989) c o n s i d e r s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n and r e s o l u t i o n o f c o u n t e r t r a n f e r e n c e t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f p o s t - t r a u m a t h e r a p y . R e v i c t i m i z a t i o n , t h e 'second wound' There can be n e g a t i v e s o c i a l consequences t o b e i n g a c r i m e v i c t i m a r i s i n g from r e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s , o f t e n t h o s e v i c t i m s may count on f o r s u p p o r t . Crime v i c t i m s f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r i n d i f f e r e n c e , h o s t i l i t y , d e r o g a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n 29 f o l l o w i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . V i c t i m s must, as a r e s u l t , o f t e n cope s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e i r trauma and t h e a v e r s i v e r e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s . T h i s i s s u e i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h o s e who have been c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d , g i v e n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o a "second wounding' o r r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s from t h e p e r c e i v e d r e j e c t i o n , o r c a l l o u s t r e a t m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h o s e whom v i c t i m s t u r n t o f o r h e l p and s u p p o r t ( i . e . , p o l i c e , t h e cr i m e j u s t i c e system, m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s ) (Karmen, 1984; Ochberg, 1988; Symonds, 1980). I n Symonds' (1980) view, t h i s "second i n j u r y ' c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o d e l a y e d and p e r s i s t e n t d i s t r e s s r e s p o n s e s . Karmen (1984), f o r example, r e g a r d s t h e p e r i o d i c c a l l o u s t r e a t m e n t o f c r i m e v i c t i m s by p o l i c e o f f i c e r s - - o f t e n t h e f i r s t t o a r r i v e a t a cr i m e scene- -as a form o f p o l i c e " b r u t a l i t y ' . I n Karmen's o p i n i o n , t h e manner i n which p o l i c e o f f i c e r s r e s p ond t o v i c t i m s i n d i s t r e s s can have a c r i t i c a l impact on v i c t i m s ' r a t e o f adj u s t m e n t . The "secondary wounding' o f cr i m e v i c t i m s can a r i s e from an i n t e r a c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h t h e v i c t i m and t h o s e whom v i c t i m s r e l y on f o r h e l p . A c c o r d i n g t o Symonds (1980), t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f c r i m e v i c t i m s t o a "second wound' i s r o o t e d i n t h e v i c t i m ' s h a v i n g been r e n d e r e d p o w e r l e s s by t h e c r i m i n a l . I n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e c r i m e , v i c t i m s o f t e n e x p e c t o t h e r s (e.g., p o l i c e ) , t o reduce t h e s e f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s . Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h e cr i m e , v i c t i m s may har b o u r such e x p e c t a t i o n s b u t a r e o f t e n 30 t o o s u b m i s s i v e t o e x p r e s s them o p e n l y . The f a i l u r e o f o t h e r s (e.g., p o l i c e , h o s p i t a l p e r s o n n e l ) , t o respond t o t h e s e unspoken e x p e c t a t i o n s may e x a c e r b a t e v i c t i m s ' sense o f h e l p l e s s n e s s , which, i n Symonds' view, o f t e n p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e "second i n j u r i e s ' . The overwhelming f e a r o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e d by v i c t i m s o f c r i m e may l e a d t o a c l i n g i n g dependency on p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s . As a r e s u l t , v i c t i m s may become o v e r l y - s e n s i t i z e d t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s t a n c e and m i s p e r c e i v e o r d i n a r y p r o f e s s i o n a l conduct as i n d i f f e r e n c e o r r e j e c t i o n . P o l i c e o f f i c e r s , emergency response w o r k e r s , h o s p i t a l p e r s o n n e l and o t h e r s who a r e i n v o l v e d i n c r i s i s work i n e v i t a b l y d e v e l o p a measure o f e m o t i o n a l i n s u l a t i o n so as t o f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t d i s t r e s s (Symonds, 1980). W h i l e some a r e a b l e t o respond t o v i c t i m s w i t h t h e n u r t u r i n g and c o m f o r t i n g t h e y need, o t h e r s who are u n u s u a l l y d e t a c h e d and i m p e r s o n a l i n t h e i r manner can be e x p e r i e n c e d q u i t e n e g a t i v e l y by v i c t i m s . Those i n v o l v e d i n c r i s i s work, n o t a b l y p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , a r e f r e q u e n t l y d e m o r a l i z e d and e m o t i o n a l l y d e p l e t e d by t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e y work f o r and s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s t oward them. As a r e s u l t , t h e y may t h e m s e l v e s f e e l v i c t i m i z e d and t h u s have l i t t l e l e f t t o o f f e r c r i m e v i c t i m s . A c c o r d i n g t o Symonds (1980), a p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o a "second i n j u r y ' i s some cr i m e v i c t i m s ' m i s d i r e c t e d p u r s u i t o f a s y m b o l i c r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r i n j u r e d p r i d e . Some v i c t i m s f e e l l e t down by s o c i e t y f o r 31 h a v i n g f a i l e d t o p r o t e c t them b o t h from danger and from t h e e n s u i n g h u m i l i a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . H o s t i l i t y r o o t e d i n f e e l i n g s o f b e t r a y a l may t h e n be d i r e c t e d t o t h o s e seen as r e p r e s e n t a t i n g s o c i e t y (e.g., p o l i c e ) . Such i n o r d i n a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s are u n l i k e l y t o be met, t h u s compounding v i c t i m s ' sense of i n j u s t i c e and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n . The n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s toward c r i m e v i c t i m s a r e not l i m i t e d t o t h o s e i n c e r t a i n human-service p r o f e s s i o n s . R a t h e r i t i s an i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i m e n s i o n o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., Coates e t a l . , 1979; L e r n e r & M i l l e r , 1978; T a y l o r e t a l . , 1983) m a i n t a i n t h a t o b s e r v e r s ' r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m s are u s u a l l y a m b i v a l e n t and o f t e n h o s t i l e and r e j e c t i n g . " I remember f e e l i n g b a d l y f o r a l o n g t i m e t h a t I would l o o k a t h e r and I would t h i n k . . t h a t ' s t h e woman I know who's been raped. I f e l t i t was a r e a l i n j u s t i c e t o h e r t h a t she had t o c a r r y t h i s burden... There's s t i l l t h a t c e r t a i n a u r a o f b e i n g . . I t h i n k o f i t as t a r n i s h e d . Your'e not q u i t e whole and pure anymore and p e o p l e remember t h a t . And i t s so u n j u s t . . . B u t I found t h o s e f e e l i n g s i n m y s e l f . " C l o s e f r i e n d o f a rape v i c t i m (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). L e r n e r and M i l l e r (1978) propose t h a t o b s e r v e r s t e n d t o f i n d v i c t i m s t h r e a t e n i n g i f t h e s o u r c e o f t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n appears r a n d o m — e s p e c i a l l y i f i t s e f f e c t s a r e s e v e r e and u n r e l e n t i n g . T h i s apparent randomness may evoke i n o b s e r v e r s a f e a r o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a s i m i l a r f a t e . As a r e s u l t , t h e y a r e m o t i v a t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e v i c t i m i z i n g event so as t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r own v u l n e r a b i l i t y . I f o b s e r v e r s can somehow blame v i c t i m s ' p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o u r o r 32 c h a r a c t e r f l a w s f o r t h e i r f a t e , t h e v i c t i m i z i n g event can be l i n k e d t o a c o n t r o l l a b l e cause, and i t s randomness red u c e d . By b l a m i n g t h e v i c t i m , o b s e r v e r s can m a i n t a i n a b e l i e f i n a " j u s t - w o r l d ' where m i s f o r t u n e i s seen as o n l y b e f a l l i n g t h e c a r e l e s s o r t h e " u n v i r t u o u s ' , t h a t i s , where bad t h i n g s do not happen t o good p e o p l e . E x p e r i e n c i n g c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n The v a r i e d t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n t o an e x t e n t r e f l e c t t h e c o n f l i c t i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions t h a t have been r e c u r r e n t i n p s y c h o l o g y t h r o u g h o u t i t s b r i e f h i s t o r y . C e r t a i n t h e o r i s t s , h o l d i n g t h e view o f t h e e m p i r i c i s t Locke (1623-1704), see i n d i v i d u a l s as p a s s i v e l y shaped by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . Such t h e o r i s t s (e.g., F r e d e r i c k , 1987; Ochberg, 1988) have emphasized t h e impact o f e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i i n t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e , and have argued t h a t i n t e n s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s a r e normal r e s p o n s e s t o abnormal e v e n t s . O t h e r s , i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f Kant (1724-1804), have t a k e n t h e view o f humans as c a p a b l e o f c r e a t i n g o r d e r and meaning i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . Such t h e o r i s t s (e.g., B a r d & Sangrey, 1986; F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1979; J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1983; McCann e t a l . , 1988) have emphasized t h e p e r s o n a l meaning g i v e n t o t h e event by t h e v i c t i m i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e trauma i t evokes. A c c o r d i n g t o Buss (1978) , t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y has t e n d e d t o o s c i l l a t e between two b a s i c paradigms: (a) t h a t "the p e r s o n c o n s t r u c t s r e a l i t y ' ( K a n t ) , and (b) t h a t " r e a l i t y 33 c o n s t r u c t s t h e p e r s o n 1 ( L o c k e ) . Buss a t t r i b u t e s t h i s o s c i l l a t i o n t o a c o n t i n u a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e inadequacy of e i t h e r p o s i t i o n . Overemphasis o f one has l e d t o a r e a s s e r t i o n o f t h e o t h e r (e.g., from s t r u c t u r a l i s m t o b e h a v i o u r i s m t o c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g y ) . T h i s o s c i l l a t i o n has been e v i d e n t i n t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . Some t h e o r i s t s (e.g., F r e d e r i c k , 1987; Ochberg, 1988), r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t c l i n i c i a n s ' o veremphasis o f t h e p r e d i s p o s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v i c t i m t o d i s t r e s s have argued t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a cr i m e i s s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f t o produce i n t e n s e and e n d u r i n g d i s t r e s s . A t t h e same t i m e , o t h e r s (e.g., S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) have n o t e d t h e wide v a r i a b i l i t y i n v i c t i m r e a c t i o n s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e impact of t h e e x t e r n a l event i s medi a t e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s . Buss (1978) argues t h a t p s y c h o l o g y must l i b e r a t e i t s e l f from t h i s r e p e a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n . He pr o p o s e s a " d i a l e c t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n ' t o t r a n s c e n d t h e l i m i t e d , e n c a p s u l a t e d views t h a t r e s u l t from a mere t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t - o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . A f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e r e q u i r e s a t h e o r e t i c a l s y n t h e s i s as pr o p o s e d by Buss. C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n i s i n a c a t e g o r y o f e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y n e g a t i v e l i f e e v e n t s c a p a b l e by t h e m s e l v e s of e v o k i n g extreme d i s t r e s s . E x t e r n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c r i m e shape v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s (e.g., rape i s u n i v e r s a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d as t r a u m a t i c ) . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e c r i m e i s 34 e x p e r i e n c e d s u b j e c t i v e l y and meaning i s imposed on t h e event by t h e v i c t i m . The e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can be seen as d e t e r m i n e d by an i n t e r a c t i o n o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact of c r i m e , we must c o n s i d e r : (1) r e a c t i o n s t o b e i n g c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d c r i m e and symptoms of d i s t r e s s , (2) t h e p e r s o n a l o r s y m b o l i c meaning o f t h e c r i m e f o r t h e v i c t i m , (3) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c r i m e t h a t e x a c e r b a t e v i c t i m s ' d i s t r e s s , (4) t h e impact o f t h e c r i m e on v i c t i m s ' s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i t s consequences f o r v i c t i m s ' a d j u s t m e n t , (5) i n d i v i d u a l and p o p u l a t i o n v u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s f o r a h i g h e r r i s k f o r c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n and/or a more s e v e r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a f t e r m a t h (6) t h e p r o c e s s of a d j ustment. Symptomology o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n V i c t i m s ' i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m e , p r i m a r i l y v i o l e n t c r i m e , a r e u s u a l l y immediate and i n t e n s e ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). At f i r s t , v i c t i m s are t y p i c a l l y overcome w i t h shock, h e i g h t e n e d a n x i e t y and f e a r , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d a g a i n (Davis & Friedman, 1985; F r e d e r i c k , 1980). D e p r e s s i o n , sadness, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , h e l p l e s s n e s s a r e commonly r e p o r t e d as i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e s t o b e i n g c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Among r o b b e r y and b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s , such r e a c t i o n s have been found t o l a s t up t o 4 35 months a f t e r t h e event (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). Loss o f s e l f - r e s p e c t and s e l f - i d e n t i t y a r e o f t e n immediate e f f e c t s o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , u s u a l l y as a r e s u l t o f v i c t i m s s u d d e n l y f i n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s p o w e r l e s s and out o f c o n t r o l (McCann e t a l . , 1988). D i s t u r b e d s l e e p o r n i g h t m a r e s , poor c o n c e n t r a t i o n , n e r v o u s n e s s , d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , c r y i n g s p e l l s , i r r i t a b i l i t y and f e e l i n g dazed are a l s o common. These r e a c t i o n s a r e more e v i d e n t i n but not e x c l u s i v e t o v i c t i m s o f v i o l e n t c r i m e . C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can a l s o i m m e d i a t e l y impact s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n v i c t i m s becoming more s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and f e a r f u l o f l e a v i n g home (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l c r i s i s , f e a r r e a c t i o n s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s g e n e r a l l y d e c r e a s e over t i m e , but p r e c a u t i o n a r y b e h a v i o u r s p e r s i s t (Davis & Friedman, 1985). However, f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and h e l p l e s s n e s s can remain and o f t e n become i n t e n s i f i e d ( K r u p n i c k & H o r o w i t z , 1980). An a n x i e t y o f t e n p e r s i s t s , and i s u s u a l l y e v i d e n t i n v i c t i m s ' f e a r s o f b e i n g a l o n e o r i n t h e dark, as w e l l as i n p a r a n o i d t h o u g h t s and a s u s p i c i o n o f s t r a n g e r s . Among v i c t i m s o f v i o l e n c e , a f e a r o f a r e c u r r e n c e o f c r i m e f r e q u e n t l y r e m a i n s . D e p r e s s i o n and sadness can p e r s i s t , e s p e c i a l l y among rape v i c t i m s (McCann e t a l . , 1988). A l t h o u g h some rape v i c t i m s g r a d u a l l y become l e s s d e p r e s s e d , f a t i g u e , d e c r e a s e d v i g o u r and s u i c i d a l t h o u g h t s may endure ( E l l i s , 1983). Common r e s p o n s e s t h a t l a s t beyond t h e c r i s i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e e a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , a low t h r e s h o l d f o r c r y i n g , i n a b i l i t y 36 to handle anger, hopelessness, g u i l t , shame and f e e l i n g s of low s e l f - w o r t h . Among rape v i c t i m s , decreased self-esteem o f t e n takes the form of self-blame ( K i l p a t r i c k , Veronen, & Best, 1985). Disturbed sleep f r e q u e n t l y continues, as may r e c u r r i n g nightmares. Among v i c t i m s of v i o l e n c e , frequent themes t o nightmares are powerlessness and f e e l i n g s of being trapped. Mood swings, from sadness to e l a t i o n or from g u i l t and s e l f - p i t y to a d e s i r e f o r r e t a l i a t i o n are o f t e n evident i n crime v i c t i m s f o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a l c r i s i s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) . Outrage i s a common r e a c t i o n t o being the v i c t i m of a v i o l e n t crime. Rape v i c t i m s , f o r example, reported an increa s e d anger and h o s t i l i t y up to a year f o l l o w i n g the a s s a u l t (McCann et a l . , 1988). This outrage can t u r n i n t o an "impotent rage', w i t h the object of one's anger u s u a l l y no longer a c c e s s i b l e . As a r e s u l t , i t may i n i t i a l l y be d i s p l a c e d onto emergency response personnel (e.g., p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ) . Those whom v i c t i m s depend on f o r care and p r o t e c t i o n (e.g., f r i e n d s and family) may a l s o become t a r g e t s of t h i s intense anger. Bard and Sangrey (1986) view the v i c t i m ' s tendency t o a s c r i b e blame as an attempt t o f i n d a meaningful e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the event, and hence, adaptive. However, intense anger d i r e c t e d at loved ones can s e r i o u s l y erode v i c t i m s ' primary r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p o t e n t i a l sources of support. For v i c t i m s who have d i f f i c u l t y expressing anger, outrage may be inwardly d i r e c t e d and turned i n t o self-blame, or become repressed (Krupnick & Horowitz, 1980). 37 The i m p a i r e d s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f c r i m e v i c t i m s o f t e n p e r s i s t s beyond t h e i n i t i a l c r i s i s . A r e d u c e d o r w i t h d r a w a l from s o c i a l c o n t a c t i s common among rape v i c t i m s , whose l i f e - s t y l e and a c t i v i t i e s become q u i t e r e s t r i c t e d (McCann e t a l . , 1988). I n one s t u d y o f rape v i c t i m s , a lmost h a l f l o s t t h e i r j o b s i n t h e y e a r f o l l o w i n g t h e a s s a u l t because o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n s ( E l l i s , 1983). Rape v i c t i m s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t a d i m i n i s h e d t r u s t i n men and a r e l u c t a n c e t o get c l o s e t o b o t h men and women. Not s u r p r i z i n g l y , i m p a i r e d s e x u a l f u n c t i o n i n g i s v e r y common among rape v i c t i m s . T h i s o f t e n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n a f e a r o f sex or a r o u s a l , d e c r e a s e d s e x u a l r e s p o n s i v i t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c u r r e n t s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Less common and more a c u t e r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n c l u d e d i s o r i e n t a t i o n e v i d e n c e d by memory l o s s and c o n f u s i o n , h y s t e r i a m a n i f e s t e d by s c r e a m i n g and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e c r y i n g or f e e l i n g s o f numbness t h a t a r e not e x p l a i n a b l e n e u r o l o g i c a l l y . In some extreme c a s e s , p s y c h o s i s may o c c u r where t h e v i c t i m ' s t h i n k i n g becomes h i g h l y i r r a t i o n a l , o r where t h e r e i s a temporary l o s s o f c o n t a c t w i t h r e a l i t y . Among cr i m e v i c t i m s , o n l y v i c t i m s o f a t t e m p t e d and c o m p l e t e d rape have r e p o r t e d a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f s e l f - d e f i n e d "nervous breakdowns', and o f s u i c i d a l t h o u g h t s and s u i c i d e a t t e m p t s t h a n n o n - v i c t i m s ( F r i e z e , 1987; K i l p a t r i c k e t a l . , 1985; McCann, 1988). 38 The symptoms o f d i s t r e s s t h a t ensue from c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can be o f such s e v e r i t y t h a t t h e y have, a t t i m e s , mimicked c l i n i c a l p r o f i l e s o f major p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s , and have l e d t o v i c t i m s b e i n g m i s d i a g n o s e d and i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y t r e a t e d ( F r e d e r i c k , 1987). A c c o r d i n g t o F r e d e r i c k , p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e t r a u m a t i c r e a c t i o n s have r e s e m b l e d b o r d e r l i n e p s y c h o s e s , w h i l e t h e p e r s i s t e n t p h o b i a s and a v o i d a n c e have rese m b l e d p a r a n o i d r e a c t i o n s . The l i n g e r i n g f e e l i n g s o f anger, resentment and i m p u l s i v e n e s s e x h i b i t e d by some v i c t i m s have, a t t i m e s , s u g g e s t e d t o c l i n i c i a n s t h e p r e s e n c e of a p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r . I n t h e continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , t h e r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r e though uncommon s t r e s s r e a c t i o n . T h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e i t h e r t h e i n a b i l i t y t o p r o c e e d beyond t h e i n i t i a l c r i s i s phase, or by b e i n g s u d d e n l y c a s t back i n t o t h e a c u t e symptomatic phase o f t h e c r i s i s r e s p o n s e . Such i n d i v i d u a l s have been found t o s u f f e r more a c u t e and more c h r o n i c r e a c t i o n s f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . These i n d i v i d u a l s a r e now c o n s i d e r e d t o have a " P o s t - T r a u m a t i c S t r e s s D i s o r d e r ' (APA, 1980; B a r d & Sangrey, 1986) . P o s t - t r a u m a t i c s t r e s s d i s o r d e r I n l a s t decade, t h e American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n (1980; 1987), has f o r m u l a t e d a " P o s t - t r a u m a t i c s t r e s s d i s o r d e r " (PTSD) t o d e s c r i b e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l trauma t h a t can ensue i n t h e wake of e v e n t s t h a t are u n u s u a l l y d i s r u p t i v e and l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g (see Appendix I ) . Though t h e 39 c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e d i s o r d e r was o r i g i n a l l y b a sed on p o p u l a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n c r i m e v i c t i m s (e.g., combat v e t e r a n s ) , i t has s i n c e been found t o d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n a c u t e r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n ( F r e d e r i c k , 1987). I n a s u r v e y o f female v i c t i m s o f v i o l e n t c r i m e , Saunders, A r a t a and K i l p a t r i c k (1990) found t h a t 27.8% met t h e d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i a f o r PTSD. PTSD i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f a c u t e symptoms o f d i s t r e s s , o r i t s d e l a y e d emergence a t some p e r i o d a f t e r t h e cr i m e (APA, 1980; B a r d & Sangrey, 1986) . Crime v i c t i m s who s u f f e r from PTSD may c o n t i n u e t o r e l i v e t h e c r i m e e i t h e r t h r o u g h p e r s i s t e n t , i n t r u s i v e r e c o l l e c t i o n s or r e c u r r e n t n i g h t m a r e s o f t h e i n c i d e n t . Some v i c t i m s a r e su d d e n l y overcome w i t h t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e c r i m e i s a c t u a l l y r e c u r r i n g . V i c t i m s may f e e l e s t r a n g e d from l o v e d ones o r from t h e m s e l v e s , o r may l o s e i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were once i m p o r t a n t t o them. They may a l s o show c o n s t r i c t e d a f f e c t . D i s t u r b e d s l e e p and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g may p e r s i s t i n a c u t e form, o r reemerge u n e x p e c t e d l y sometime a f t e r t h e c r i m e . Memory impairment can o c c u r as w e l l . An e x a g g e r a t e d s t a r t l e r e s p onse may a l s o be e v i d e n t . D a i l y a c t i v i t i e s can evoke memories o f t h e c r i m e , r e s u l t i n g i n a h e i g h t e n i n g o f f e a r , a n x i e t y o r anger. The v i c t i m may, as a r e s u l t , have t o d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d s t i m u l i t h a t r e c a l l t h e c r i m e . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e PTSD by t h e p s y c h i a t r i c community gave f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e ad v e r s e 40 psychological impact of r e a l - l i f e events. This was a s i g n i f i c a n t development given the mental health community's hist o r y of mis-attributing intense and prolonged reactions to s t r e s s f u l l i f e events to pre-trauma personality d e f i c i t s (Ochberg, 1988; Young, 1988). With the category of PTSD and i t s diagnostic c r i t e r i a , victims of highly disruptive and uncontrollable l i f e events could be distinguished from other distressed i n d i v i d u a l s with overlapping symptomology. 'Victim stress disorder' While the formulation of the Post-traumatic stress disorder i s a major development i n understanding the psychological impact of traumatic events, i t i s s t i l l of li m i t e d u t i l i t y i n describing the experience of criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n . PTSD does not as yet encompass the f u l l range of psychological reactions suffered by most crime victims, nor accurately r e f l e c t the degree of severity of t h e i r symptoms of d i s t r e s s . A p s y c h i a t r i c diagnosis of PTSD, despite a recent r e v i s i o n (Frederick, 1987) , as currently formulated, applies only to the more severely traumatized. Ochberg (1988) has proposed a sub-category of the PTSD, that describes less extreme forms of traumatization and the p a r t i c u l a r symptoms of dis t r e s s experienced by victims of crime. Ochberg's 'Victim stress disorder' (see Appendix II) describes the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of psychological responses to criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n that "may or may not (necessarily) reach the threshold of PTSD". 41 What i t means t o be t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., B a r d & Sangrey, 1986; F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1979; J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1985; J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983; Karmen, 1984; K r u p n i c k & H o r o w i t z , 1980; McCann e t a l . , 1988; Wertz, 1985) have c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n as a p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g v i c t i m s ' trauma. The p e r s o n a l meaning o f b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d may e x p l a i n not o n l y a c u t e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s t o v i o l e n t c r i m e , but a l s o t h e i n t e n s e d i s t r e s s o f t e n evoked by a p p a r e n t l y "minor' o f f e n s e s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can i n i t i a l l y depend on whether one c o n s i d e r s o n e s e l f a cr i m e v i c t i m . To be t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e , one must l a b e l t h e event i n q u e s t i o n a c r i m i n a l a c t . Greenberg e t a l . (1983) found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d t o r e l y on h i g h l y p e r s o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e y a r e , i n f a c t , c rime v i c t i m s . F o r example, a t t e m p t e d but i n c o m p l e t e d auto t h e f t s o r b u r g l a r i e s a r e o f t e n not vie w e d as c r i m e s by i n d i v i d u a l s , even though t h e y f i t t h e l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n o f a c r i m i n a l a c t . As a r e s u l t , some who a r e , by law, c r i m e v i c t i m s may p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as a c t u a l l y h a v i n g e l u d e d v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The p e r s o n a l meaning g i v e n t o t h e cr i m e can be c r i t i c a l i n s h a p i n g i t ' s e m o t i o n a l a f t e r m a t h f o r t h e v i c t i m . F o r example, one whose c a r i s s t o l e n may, i n f a c t , be r e l i e v e d t o be r i d o f a "lemon', w h i l e , a t t h e same t i m e , 42 compensated f o r i t s ' l o s s ' by an i n s u r a n c e company. Such c a s u a l r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m e a re however u n t y p i c a l (Karmen, 1984). To a n o t h e r , t h e t h e f t o f one's auto can c r e a t e a major d i s r u p t i o n o f r o u t i n e and evoke a deep sense o f l o s s . "We r e a l l y l o v e d t h e c a r , you know. I t was our f i r s t c a r , t h e one we got r i g h t a f t e r we were m a r r i e d , and i t had t a k e n us e v e r y w h e r e — t o s c h o o l , t o work, on our v a c a t i o n s , everywhere. And t h e n s u d d e n l y i t was gone. We had t o ask p e o p l e t o t a k e us t o t h e g r o c e r y s t o r e . . . ....There was no way t o get t o one o f my j o b s w i t h o u t a c a r , so I was g e t t i n g r i d e s from f r i e n d s , but I would have t o q u i t t h a t j o b i f t h e y hadn't found t h e c a r . " V i c t i m o f an auto t h e f t (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) R e s e a r c h e r s have been p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r u c k by t h e e x t e n t t o which p r o p e r t y l o s s can e m o t i o n a l l y impact c r i m e v i c t i m s (Davis & Friedman, 1985). The n o t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f e x t e r n a l e v e n t s i s m e d i a t e d by a t t r i b u t i o n s o f meaning would suggest a v a r i a b i l i t y o f response t o s i m i l a r s t i m u l i . However, much of our c u r r e n t knowledge o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z i n g e v e n t s f o c u s e s on common r e s p o n s e s among v i c t i m s . T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o t h e no m o t h e t h i c r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n i n p s y c h o l o g y which f o c u s e s on d i s c o v e r i n g g e n e r a l laws from t h e s t u d y o f group d i f f e r e n c e s (McCann e t a l . , 1988). At t h e same t i m e , e v i d e n c e o f common r e s p o n s e s among v i c t i m s s u g g e s t s t h a t such n e g a t i v e e v e n t s impact common p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Common e x p e r i e n c e s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s To many v i c t i m s , t h e impact o f c r i m e i s f e l t as a p e r s o n a l v i o l a t i o n (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; Karmen, 1984) . A 43 sense of v i o l a t i o n i s , i n Bard and Sangrey's view, the underlying psychological injury common to most crimes. It constitutes a desecration of the s e l f , i n which victims are "wounded i n the very essence of themselves, the centre from which every person integrates l i f e " . Karmen (1984) considers the severity of the crime victim's i n i t i a l c r i s i s reaction to be i n d i r e c t proportion to "the degree to which the s e l f was v i o l a t e d " . "You f e e l stripped naked. You f e e l as i f someone has exposed you t o t a l l y . . . Your'e powerless... V i o l a t i o n i s an adult way to explain that, but i t i s n ' t an adult response. It's reminiscent of the kind of helplessness that goes back to early childhood. And I think that's what makes i t so c r u c i a l l y p a i n f u l . Because you can't f i g h t back." Victim of a purse snatching (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) The more violent crimes t y p i c a l l y evoke a greater sense of personal v i o l a t i o n and a corresponding i n t e n s i t y of symptoms of d i s t r e s s (APA, 1984). An experience of personal v i o l a t i o n i s implied i n the categories of victim responses that comprise Ochberg's (1988) proposed "Victim stress disorder' ( i . e . , profound humiliation, f e e l i n g dehumanized, a sense of defilement, s e l f - l o a t h i n g , despair, and obsession with vengeance)'. Such reactions are suggest an "assault' against one's most inner s e l f . Being the victim of a crime can be a shocking reminder of one's v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and of one's mortality. Although most are c e r t a i n l y aware of the prevalence of crime i n t h e i r community, indivi d u a l s t y p i c a l l y maintain a protective " i l l u s i o n of personal i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y ' , by minimizing the 44 p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). The p r e v a l e n c e o f an i l l u s i o n o f i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n which i n d i v i d u a l s u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c i n g h a r m f u l e v e n t s (e.g., a c c i d e n t s , d i s e a s e , n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s ) , has been w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; Lehman & T a y l o r , 1987; P e r l o f f , 1983; T a y l o r & Brown, 1988). I t i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e commonly-held ( u s u a l l y i m p l i c i t ) b e l i e f t h a t " i t c a n ' t happen t o me". An ' i l l u s i o n o f i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y ' i s c o n s i d e r e d a d a p t i v e as i t p r o t e c t s one a g a i n s t t h e s t r e s s and a n x i e t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t s ( T a y l o r & Brown, 1988). W h i l e such i l l u s i o n s can promote a sense o f mastery and w e l l - b e i n g , Greenberg e t a l . (1983) have argued t h a t one may c o n s e q u e n t l y be u n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d . " . . . I always thought i t happened t o everybody e l s e . . . t h a t i t j u s t happened on t e l e v i s i o n . I n a way you f e e l t h a t i t ' s n e ver g o i n g t o happen t o you, your house. I n one way you t h i n k t h a t your house can be robbed any t i m e but i n t h e back o f your mind i t ' s v i c e v e r s a — m y house won't be robbed; i t ' s somebody e l s e ' s house t h a t ' s g o i n g t o be b r o k e n i n t o . " V i c t i m o f a b u r g l a r y ( F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1979). A f t e r becoming t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e , one's environment i s no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e d as p r e d i c t a b l e , c o n t r o l l a b l e , o r s a f e . As a r e s u l t , v i c t i m s a r e o f t e n overcome w i t h f e e l i n g s o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and f e a r o f a r e c u r r e n c e o f t h e c r i m e ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). Crime v i c t i m s a r e c o n f r o n t e d not o n l y w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f 45 crime i t s e l f , but also with i t s frightening i m p l i c a t i o n s — that of a h o s t i l e world i n which malevolent others are prepared to i n f l i c t deliberate harm. According to (Fischer & Wertz, 1979): "As l i f e goes on, the victim finds him/herself pervasively attuned to the p o s s i b i l i t y of v i c t i m i z a t i o n — t h r o u g h a continued sense of reduced agency, of the predatory other..." An i l l u s i o n of i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y , according to Janoff- Bulman and Frieze (1983) , i s rooted i n a s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e assumption that events i n one's world are e s s e n t i a l l y understandable, orderly, and, to a f a i r degree, co n t r o l l a b l e . Such b e l i e f s presuppose that one can prevent negative occurrences (e.g., through being s u f f i c i e n t l y cautious) . Lerner and M i l l e r (1978) have proposed a " ju s t - world' hypothesis i n which individuals maintain a f a i t h i n a world where j u s t i c e ultimately p r e v a i l s , where one's vi r t u e (through the exercize of sound judgement) w i l l protect them against misfortune. Faith i n a "just-world", according to Lerner and M i l l e r , enables one "to confront the physical and environment as i f i t were orderly". Events l i k e criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n can be profoundly d i s t r e s s i n g i n that they challenge one with the frightening r e a l i t y that the world may not be just nor ordered aft e r a l l , where "bad things can happen to good people', and that e v i l may not be c o n t r o l l a b l e . 46 " I t h i n k i f you grow up t h e way I d i d — i n v e r y m i d d l e c l a s s c i r c u m s t a n c e s — n o m a t t e r what you r e a d i t ' s v e r y h a r d t o b e l i e v e someone wants t o do a n y t h i n g bad t o t o you. E s p e c i a l l y s i n c e your'e a good p e r s o n and you go t o a l l t h e r i g h t c o n c e r t s and r e a d a l l t h e r i g h t books. You don't d e s e r v e i t . " V i c t i m o f a p i c k p o c k e t (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) The b e l i e f t h a t j u s t i c e w i l l p r e v a i l i s b a s i c t o p e r c e i v i n g one's w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l . A p e r s o n a l v i o l a t i o n can s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e one's p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d as o r d e r e d on m e a n i n g f u l p r i n c i p l e s , and t h e r e f o r e be p r o f o u n d l y d e m o r a l i z i n g . V i c t i m s o f c r i m e o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e an i n t e n s e i n d i g n a t i o n a t t h e v e r y i n j u s t i c e o f a c r i m e , when a c t u a l monetary l o s s may, i n f a c t , be q u i t e s m a l l . " I t ' s r e a l l y u n f a i r t h a t you work f o r something, l i k e t h i s lawn mower was n o t h i n g o f v a l u e r e a l l y , but you work h a r d f o r i t and somebody t a k e s i t away from you when you're about t o e n j o y i t o r c o n t i n u e t o e n j o y i t . " V i c t i m o f a b u r g l a r y (Greenberg e t a l . 1983) Crime v i c t i m s ' o u t r a g e a t t h e i n e q u i t y o f t h e c r i m i n a l a c t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s e a r c h t h a t has shown t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' need t o p e r c e i v e f a i r outcomes i n t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , and t h e d i s t r e s s t h a t ensues from e x p e r i e n c e s o f i n e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t (Greenberg e t a l . , 1983). Revenge f a n t a s i e s among cr i m e v i c t i m s o f t e n suggest an i n t e n s e d e s i r e t o r e c t i f y t h e p e r c e i v e d i n j u s t i c e . " I had f a n t a s i e s f o r weeks a f t e r w a r d o f r u n n i n g i n t o one o f them on t h e s t r e e t and t h e i r not s e e i n g me and j u s t k i l l i n g them...Grabbing one o f them from b e h i n d and c h o k i n g him...and making him f e e l h e l p l e s s . . . . " V i c t i m o f a r o b b e r y (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) The e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g t h e c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d f r e q u e n t l y compels one t o t r y t o make sense o f t h e e v e n t , t o 47 " r e o r g a n i z e and u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r l d t h a t has become c h a o t i c " ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). O f t e n v i c t i m s f e e l a need t o e x p l a i n not m e r e l y why t h e u n f o r t u n a t e event happened, but why i t happened t o them i n p a r t i c u l a r ( J a n o f f - Bulman & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . "Why me?" i s a f r e q u e n t l y a s k e d q u e s t i o n i n an attempt t o a t t r i b u t e t h e c r i m e t o some u n d e r s t a n d a b l e r e a s o n , t o r e n d e r t h e w o r l d c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and p r e d i c t a b l e a g a i n . Most i n d i v i d u a l s p r i o r t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n f u n c t i o n under assumptions t h a t t h e y are b a s i c a l l y worthy, decent and autonomous (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). The e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e can p r o f o u n d l y c h a l l e n g e such a s s u m p t i o n s . Crime v i c t i m s a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e i r h e l p l e s s n e s s and p o w e r l e s s n e s s when c o n f r o n t e d by f o r c e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l ( P e t e r s o n & Seligman, 1983). D u r i n g a c r i m e and i t s a f t e r m a t h , v i c t i m s f r e q u e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e t h e m s e l v e s as weak, h e l p l e s s , needy, f r i g h t e n e d and out o f c o n t r o l . A c c o r d i n g t o B a r d and Sangrey (1986), one's sense o f autonomy i s e s s e n t i a l t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g , and i t i s t h i s v e r y sense o f autonomy t h a t i s p r o f o u n d l y t h r e a t e n e d d u r i n g c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The c h a l l e n g e t o c r i m e v i c t i m s ' s e l f - e s t e e m i s f r e q u e n t l y e x a c e r b a t e d by f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t and shame, common among v i c t i m s o f c r i m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n t c r i m e . V i c t i m s o f t e n f e e l g u i l t y f o r h a v i n g n e i t h e r p r e v e n t e d t h e c r i m e , nor h a v i n g made more e f f o r t t o do so. F e e l i n g s o f 48 g u i l t o f t e n extend t o the f a t e of others who were v i c t i m i z e d at the same time. On the other hand, intense f e e l i n g s of s o l i d a r i t y may develop among f e l l o w v i c t i m s . Being the v i c t i m of a crime can be deeply h u m i l i a t i n g . V i c t i m s have, by d e f i n i t i o n , been unsuccessful i n p r o t e c t i n g themselves against being v i c t i m i z e d , and have, i n e f f e c t , been 'defeated' by the c r i m i n a l . Often such f e e l i n g s are r e i n f o r c e d by s o c i a l perceptions of the crime v i c t i m as a ' l o s e r ' (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). "I j u s t hate to t h i n k of myself as a v i c t i m . I t ' s l i k e when I l o s t my job--I hadn't done anything wrong. But i t was so embarrassing t o have t o t e l l people t h a t I had l o s t my job. and when t h i s happened, I f e l t the same way. I t was l i k e a g u i l t y s e c r e t . I didn't want t o t a l k about i t . " V i c t i m of a robbery (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) Among v i c t i m s of c e r t a i n crimes, f e e l i n g of shame are l i k e l y t o be q u i t e pronounced. Rape v i c t i m s o f t e n experience a sense of defilement, o f t e n a r e v u l s i o n towards the s e l f t h a t may manifest i t s e l f i n a d e s i r e t o be separated from one's own body (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; Ochberg, 1988). V i c t i m s may, as a r e s u l t , t r y to avoid s i t u a t i o n s t h a t can evoke such f e e l i n g s . Krupnick and Horowitz (1980) a t t r i b u t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s researchers o f t e n report i n having rape v i c t i m s consent t o i n t e r v i e w s , or even i n engaging rape v i c t i m s f o r therapy t o t h i s sense of profound shame. Even among v i c t i m s of l e s s e r offences, some f e e l i n g s of g u i l t and shame are present as w e l l , and t h i s may r e s u l t i n a d i f f u s e sense of embarrassment or unease. 49 C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y evokes f e e l i n g s of being somehow deviant. V i c t i m s of crime o f t e n f e e l s i n g l e d out f o r misfortune, and thereby set apart from others, They may a t t r i b u t e t h e i r v i c t i m i z a t i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r c haracter flaws (Janoff-Bulman & F r i e z e , 1983). Such f e e l i n g s of deviancy, according t o Taylor et al.(1983), u s u a l l y leads to l o s s of self-esteem and the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of oneself w i t h other s t i g m a t i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s . The aversion and p i t y these i n d i v i d u a l s may have p r e v i o u s l y f e l t f o r other v i c t i m groups, they may now a s s o c i a t e with t h e i r own v i c t i m i z a t i o n . V i c t i m s ' responses to d i f f e r e n t crimes Generally, crimes that are more l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g and those t h a t impact more suddenly i n c u r the most severe trauma ( F i g e l y , 1986; F r e d e r i c k , 1987; F r i e z e , 1987). A l s o , v i c t i m s who s u s t a i n p h y s i c a l i n j u r i e s u s u a l l y s u f f e r more adverse p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s (Davis & Friedman, 1985; Sales et a l . , 1984). At the same time, v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s can vary with the personal sense of v i o l a t i o n evoked by the crime, independent of p h y s i c a l i n j u r y (Karmen, 1984). The meaning of being c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d i s o f t e n r e l a t e d to the type of crime and i t s circumstances. Those whose homes have been b u r g l a r i z e d tend t o report f e e l i n g p e r s o n a l l y invaded and very f e a r f u l at the l o s s of s e c u r i t y , o f t e n independent of the amount a c t u a l l y taken. Most had considered t h e i r homes to be "places of refuge and s a f e t y , s h e l t e r s from the dangerous o u t s i d e " (Bard & Sangrey, 1986), and f e l t a c u t e l y t h i s t h r e a t t o t h e i r sanctuary. 50 " I f e e l l i k e t h e y know about me. They p i c k e d t h r o u g h my whole l i f e . When I saw (my p e r s o n a l ) p a p e r s thrown a l l o v e r , I t h o u g h t : "Who's been rummaging around i n my l i f e ? ' . . . . Y o u t h i n k your house i s im p r e g n a b l e , ...and you f i n d t h a t i t i s n ' t l i k e t h a t a t a l l . Someone can e a s i l y get i n i f t h e y want t o . " V i c t i m o f a b r e a k - i n (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). One's home i s t y p i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e l f (Karmen, 1984) , and a b r e a k - i n can be e x p e r i e n c e d as a v i o l a t i o n o f one's p e r s o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . V i c t i m s o f p u r s e s n a t c h i n g a r e o f t e n s t u c k by t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e y can be v i c t i m i z e d i n b r o a d d a y l i g h t i n p u b l i c p l a c e s , s e t t i n g s i n which t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y f e l t s e c u r e . Greenberg e t a l . (1983) suggest t h a t such e x p e r i e n c e s a l e r t v i c t i m s t o t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l t y t o more s e r i o u s c r i m e s . " I t was an awareness o f my v u l n e r a b i l i t y . I f t h o s e 15- ye a r o l d s c o u l d l o o k me i n t h e eyes and s t e a l my w a l l e t , c o u l d my l i f e be n e x t ? " V i c t i m o f a p u r s e s n a t c h i n g (Greenberg e t a l . , 1983) Robbery i n v o l v e s an a c t u a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e c r i m i n a l i n whi c h v i c t i m s a r e d i r e c t l y t h r e a t e n e d w i t h v i o l e n c e . I n a r o b b e r y , v i c t i m s a r e f o r c e d t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r sense o f p e r s o n a l autonomy and c o n t r o l t o o t h e r s whose i n t e n t i o n s a r e p r e d a t o r y , and p o s s i b l y d e s t r u c t i v e (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; Karmen, 1984). Robbery v i c t i m s t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e an u t t e r h e l p l e s s n e s s i n t h e f a c e o f a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o t h e i r body, t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y and t h e i r v a l u e d p o s s e s s i o n s . I f a weapon i s used, t h e i r sense o f impotence i s f e l t more a c u t e l y . I f a s s a u l t e d , t h e v i c t i m 51 f e a r s l o s i n g h i s / h e r l i f e . I f i n j u r e d , t h e v i c t i m can be l e f t w i t h a more e n d u r i n g r e m i n d e r of h i s / h e r p o w e r l e s s n e s s and v u l n e r a b i l i t y i n t h e f a c e o f t h r e a t by a n o t h e r . Some r o b b e r y v i c t i m s , i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e c r i m e , s u f f e r t h e h u m i l i a t i o n o f h a v i n g been u n a b l e t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). Rape i s an e x p e r i e n c e o f t e r r i f y i n g d i m e n s i o n t h r o u g h o u t w h i c h t h e v i c t i m f e a r s f o r h e r l i f e , i n w hich s u r v i v o r s a r e t h e n o n l y s e t f r e e a f t e r h a v i n g been s e x u a l l y b r u t a l i z e d and degraded. The rape v i c t i m i s e f f e c t i v e l y robbed o f a sense of c o n t r o l o v er her own body ( F e i n a u e r , 1982). In B a r d and Sangrey's (1986) view, rape c o n s t i t u t e s a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e s e l f o f a magnitude t h a t i s exceeded o n l y by a c t u a l l o s s o f l i f e . The rape v i c t i m i s d e p r i v e d not o n l y o f c o n t r o l and autonomy but s u f f e r s an " i n t r u s i o n o f i n n e r (body) space, t h e most s a c r e d and most p r i v a t e r e p o s i t o r y o f t h e s e l f " (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) . In r a pe, s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t i m a c y and l o v e , i s b r u t a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a means o f s u b j u g a t i n g and d e g r a d i n g t h e v i c t i m . An u n s p e a k a b l e shame o f t e n ensues, where v i c t i m s o f t e n f i n d i t t o o p a i n f u l t o d i s c l o s e t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r sense o f v i o l a t i o n , and f r e q u e n t l y t o o d i f f i c u l t t o even r e p o r t t h e c r i m e i t s e l f . Rape v i c t i m s a r e o f t e n r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c l o s e t h e a s s a u l t f o r f e a r o f b e i n g a c c u s e d of a c t u a l l y s e d u c i n g t h e r a p i s t . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n t e n t o f t h e r a p i s t i s t o v i o l a t e and degrade, t h e r e i s an e n d u r i n g c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n between s e x u a l a c t i v i t y and 52 g r a t i f i c a t i o n (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). Rape v i c t i m s ' f e a r s o f b e i n g blamed f o r e n c o u r a g i n g t h e a s s a u l t a r e u n f o r t u n a t e l y w e l l founded (Coates e t a l . , 1979; F r i e z e , 1987). Those who have l o s t a l o v e d one t h r o u g h h o m i c i d e , or even w i t n e s s e d i t , e x p e r i e n c e a sense o f shock and v i o l a t i o n , w i t h p r o f o u n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e p r e c u s s i o n s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). The s u r v i v o r s a r e t h e m s e l v e s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e i r own m o r t a l i t y , and t h e r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u d d e n l y h a v i n g t h e i r l i f e e x t i n g u i s h e d w i t h o u t w a r n i n g . The u n e x p e c t e d l o s s o f a l o v e d one, d i f f i c u l t i n i t s e l f t o cope w i t h , i s f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d by t h e v e r y w i l l f u l and m a l i c i o u s n a t u r e of t h e a c t "My mother s a i d , " I f he had been s i c k o r h i t by a c a r , them maybe I c o u l d a c c e p t i t . But t h e y s t o l e him from me." And I f e l t t h a t she h i t i t r i g h t on t h e head. Because i t ' s not so much t h a t he's d e a d - - i t ' s how he d i e d . Someone took him, w i t h no more tho u g h t t h a n i f t h e y were t a k i n g a pack o f c i g a r e t t e s . I f a p e r s o n d i e s o f a h e a r t a t t a c k , or whatever, you g r i e v e , but i n t i m e i t h e a l s . You remember t h e good t h i n g s . But here t h e l a s t t h i n g you remember i s t h a t he was k i l l e d by someone who d i d n ' t even know him". S u r v i v o r o f a h o m i c i d e v i c t i m (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). V u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s I n d i v i d u a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s The wide v a r i a n c e i n r e a c t i o n s t o b e i n g c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d i s due, i n p a r t , t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v i c t i m t h a t p r e d a t e t h e c r i m e . S a l e s e t a l . (1984) found t h a t v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r i n g p r e - r a p e f u n c t i o n i n g were s t r o n g p r e d i c t o r s o f p o s t - r a p e r e a c t i o n s . A l s o , a h i s t o r y o f p s y c h i a t r i c d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e d i s p o s e d c r i m e v i c t i m s t o a more 53 s e v e r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a f t e r m a t h (APA, 1980; Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984). S a l e s e t a l . (1984) a l s o f o u n d t h a t s e x u a l a s s a u l t v i c t i m s w i t h s e v e r e p r e e x i s t i n g " b i o s o c i a l 1 problems (e.g., d r ug abuse, a l c o h o l i s m , p s y c h o s i s ) , were l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e symptoms o f d i s t r e s s f o r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e a f t e r an a s s a u l t . P h y s i c a l i l l n e s s as w e l l as p r i o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n s were a l s o found t o a g g r a v a t e women's r e a c t i o n s t o s e x u a l a s s a u l t (Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986). S i l v e r and Wortman (1980), i n t h e i r r e v i e w , f o u n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r l i f e s t r e s s o r s t o g e n e r a l l y l i m i t v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g a b i l i t i e s . P e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s have been found t o a f f e c t c r i m e v i c t i m s ' trauma (APA, 1984). A c c o r d i n g t o K r u p n i c k and H o r o w i t z (1980) , v i c t i m s w i t h p r e - e x i s t i n g n e u r o s i s and d e v e l o p m e n t a l problems a r e s u b j e c t t o more s e v e r e r e a c t i o n s . Hymer (1984) c o n s i d e r s t h e adequacy o f t h e v i c t i m ' s development o f a sense o f s e l f p r i o r t o t h e cr i m e t h e b a s i s f o r one's r e s i l i e n c y t o i t s a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . Hymer has a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as v u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s u n r e s o l v e d i n n e r c o n f l i c t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o f e e l i n g s o f p o w e r l e s s n e s s and f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t a r e evoked by b e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e . A l s o , t h o s e w i t h low s e l f - e s t e e m o f t e n m a i n t a i n a compensatory u n c o n s c i o u s e x p e c t a t i o n o f "omnipotence and c o n t r o l " (APA, 1984). Such c r i m e v i c t i m s a r e , as a r e s u l t , e x t r e m e l y d i s t r e s s e d by a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r a c t u a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e f r e q u e n t l y l e a d s t o an even l o w e r e d s e l f - i m a g e a f t e r t h e c r i m e as t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o 54 j u s t i f y t h e i r f a i l u r e t o p r e v e n t t h e c r i m e . One's e x p e r i e n c e o f s u b j u g a t i o n t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n d u r i n g a c r i m e may a l s o be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r one w i t h f e a r s o f dependency ( K r u p n i c k & H o r o w i t z , 1980) . V u l n e r a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s C e r t a i n groups a r e e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The poor, t h e i l l - e d u c a t e d , t h e unemployed, e t h n i c and r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s , and i n n e r c i t y d w e l l e r s seem t h e most a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by cr i m e (Karmen, 1984; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984). The p s y c h o l o g i c a l consequences o f crime such as a n x i e t y , s e l f - b l a m e , n e r v o u s n e s s , anger, shame and s l e e p d i f f i c u l t i e s were found t o be more s e v e r e and more e n d u r i n g f o r t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s . D a v i s and Freeman (1985) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t women a r e more n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a n men. Some p o p u l a t i o n s a r e e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e t o b e i n g c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d ( i . e . , t h e p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y h a ndicapped, t h e e l d e r l y , c h i l d r e n , and s o c i a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d groups such as homosexuals) (Karmen, 1984). The b l i n d , t h e deaf, and t h o s e c o n f i n e d t o w h e e l c h a i r s a r e l e s s a b l e t o de f e n d t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n s t a t t a c k . Young c h i l d r e n a r e v u l n e r a b l e because o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e f e a r l e s s n e s s , i n e x p e r i e n c e and in n o c e n c e , which exposes them t o e x p l o i t a t i o n (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). The e l d e r l y , whose p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s a r e reduced, s u f f e r t h e e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a t t a c k s more, and a r e s l o w e r t o h e a l when i n j u r e d . Awareness o f t h e i r l i m i t e d 55 c a p a b i l i t i e s adds c o n s i d e r a b l y t o t h e f e a r e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e e l d e r l y . The e l d e r l y a r e a l s o more l i k e l y t o s u f f e r e n d u r i n g trauma i f v i c t i m i z e d . S a l e s e t a l . (1984) found t h a t e l d e r l y rape v i c t i m s were l i k e l y be t r a u m a t i z e d f o r much l o n g e r p e r i o d r e l a t i v e t o younger v i c t i m s . Some v u l n e r a b l e groups such as t h e p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y handicapped, c h i l d r e n and t h e e l d e r l y a r e a b l e t o g a r n e r c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c sympathy i f c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d . Crimes a g a i n s t such groups are g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as e s p e c i a l l y h e i n o u s . As a r e s u l t , p o l i c e o f f i c e r s and o t h e r s may be u n u s u a l l y f o r t h c o m i n g i n b o t h s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e f o r members o f t h e s e groups (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). Generous e x p r e s s i o n o f p u b l i c compassion i n t h e wake o f a t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e may h e l p t o l e s s e n t h e v i c t i m ' s sense o f d e m o r a l i z a t i o n and v i o l a t i o n . O ther groups such as homosexuals a r e d o u b l y v u l n e r a b l e , t o b o t h c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n and i t s e f f e c t s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984). Homosexuals a r e o f t e n t h e o b j e c t s o f harr a s s m e n t , t h r e a t s , a s s a u l t and even h o m i c i d e . As a s t i g m i t i z e d group, t h e y a r e a l s o l e s s l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e needed s u p p o r t t h r o u g h t h e c r i m i n a l - j u s t i c e system o r from t h e l a r g e r community. Such d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e i r p l i g h t o n l y deepens t h e i r sense o f i s o l a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e o f v i o l a t i o n (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) . The i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e v e r b e r a t i o n s o f cr i m e I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t an a s s a u l t on an i n d i v i d u a l i s , i n e f f e c t , an a s s a u l t on h i s / h e r f a m i l y ( F e i n a u e r , 56 1982). Most v i c t i m s o f c r i m e do not l i v e i n i s o l a t i o n , but are p a r t o f f a m i l y and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The trauma o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can, as a r e s u l t , e x t e n d beyond t h e p r i m a r y v i c t i m and r e v e r b e r a t e t h r o u g h h i s / h e r s o c i a l network. The f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s can t h e m s e l v e s be s e v e r e l y t r a u m a t i z e d by t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f a l o v e d one--and, a t t i m e s , even more a d v e r s e l y t h a n t h e p r i m a r y v i c t i m ( F i g l e y , 1986; F r e d e r i c k , 1987; Greenberg & Ruback, 1984). F i g l e y (1986) c o n s i d e r s t h e l o v e and empathy between f a m i l y members, t h e i r c r i t i c a l a t t r i b u t e and s t r e n g t h , t o a l s o be t h e i r " a c h i l l e s h e e l " , as i t r e n d e r s them v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e s u f f e r i n g o f l o v e d ones. Even w i t h minor c r i m e s , t h o s e h a v i n g someone i n t h e i r s o c i a l network c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d a re t h e m s e l v e s more l i k e l y t o f e e l v u l n e r a b l e t o b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d t h e m s e l v e s (APA, 1984). F r e d e r i c k (1987), i n a pr o p o s e d r e v i s i o n t o t h e i n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a f o r a d i a g n o s i s o f PTSD, has now added t h o s e "secondary' v i c t i m s who have e x p e r i e n c e d a " s e r i o u s t h r e a t o r harm t o one's c h i l d r e n , spouse, o r o t h e r c l o s e r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . . . o r ( witnessed) a n o t h e r p e r s o n who has r e c e n t l y been, o r i s b e i n g s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d o r k i l l e d as t h e r e s u l t o f an a c c i d e n t o r p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e " . P r i m a r y c r i m e v i c t i m s may, t h e r e f o r e , have t o endure not o n l y t h e e m o t i o n a l a f t e r m a t h o f t h e c r i m e i t s e l f , b ut a l s o w i t n e s s i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l t o l l on l o v e d ones--which o f t e n i n t e n s i f i e s t h e v i c t i m ' s s u f f e r i n g ( H e r r i n g t o n , 1985). Some f a m i l y t h e r a p i s t s , i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l l y a d v e r s e e f f e c t o f u n d e s i r a b l e l i f e e v e n t s on f a m i l i e s , have 57 a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y p a r t i c u l a r v u l n e r a b i l i t y f a c t o r s . Bowen (1976), i n an a n a l y s i s o f f a m i l y r e a c t i o n t o d e a t h , has c o i n e d t h e t e rm " e m o t i o n a l shock wave" t o r e f e r t o an network o f e m o t i o n a l " a f t e r s h o c k s ' o f s e r i o u s l i f e e v e n t s t h a t can o c c u r i n t h e e xtended f a m i l y . " A f t e r s h o c k s ' a r e , i n Bowen's view, e v i d e n c e d by t h e emergence of p h y s i c a l and/or p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f a m i l y members i n t h e wake o f a h i g h l y d i s r u p t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . Bowen emphasized t h e p e r v a s i v e and e n d u r i n g c h a r a c t e r o f such " a f t e r s h o c k s ' and argued t h a t t h e y can emerge months and y e a r s l a t e r , and e f f e c t anyone i n t h e f a m i l y system. I n Bowen's view, d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l i e s , who t e n d t o deny t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r e m o t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y were p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o such " a f t e r s h o c k s ' . The c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l can a d v e r s e l y e f f e c t f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s may, i n f a c t , d e t e r i o r a t e under t h e s t r a i n ( F e i n a u e r , 1982; H e r r i n g t o n , 1985). T h i s can n e g a t i v e l y e f f e c t v i c t i m s ' a b i l i t y t o cope as t h e q u a l i t y o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s p l a y a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n c r i m e v i c t i m s ' l o n g - t e r m a d justment ( S a l e s e t a l . , 1984.) C e r t a i n c r i m e s , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , n o t a b l y s e x u a l a s s a u l t , p r e s e n t major c o p i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r b o t h v i c t i m s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , where t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f a f a m i l y member can r a i s e c o n f l i c t i n g emotions i n o t h e r f a m i l y members, impeding t h e i r a b i l i t y t o o f f e r s u p p o r t t o t h e v i c t i m . 58 The rape of a family member can bring about profound disruptions i n interpersonal relationships and family functioning at a time when mutual support and empathy i s most needed (Feinauer, 1982; M i l l e r , Williams, & Bernstein, 1982). Sexual assault evokes such intense fear i n the vic t i m and rage i n loved ones that i t can greatly hinder t h e i r a b i l i t y to be empathic to the other. In the aftermath of a sexual assault, female victims are primarily concerned with safety, security, and emotional support; whereas male family members and lovers may be become obssessed with revenge and r e t r i b u t i o n (Frieze, 1987). According to Feinauer (1982), fathers and brothers of female rape victims may f i n d themselves i n a state of c o n f l i c t i d e n t i f y i n g both with the victim and the perpetrator. Fathers often react to the rape of a daughter by becoming overly-protective, p a r t i a l l y out of g u i l t for not having prevented the assault, and out of anger both at the attacker and at the daughter for finding themselves i n a po s i t i o n of inadequacy. The rape of a daughter may also s t i r up i n the father a complexity of feelings about his own sexuality that can impede him from being adequately supportive to his daughter aft e r the rape. According to Feinauer, lack of support from an important male figure, such as a father, can seriously impede a rape victim's adjustment. For adult rape victims i n marital relationships, a host of marital c o n f l i c t s and sexual problems often emerge 59 and may p e r s i s t f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1982). Communication between m a r i t a l p a r t n e r s i s o f t e n i m p a i r e d i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f rape. The v i c t i m o f t e n i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o not d i s c u s s nor even t h i n k about t h e a s s a u l t . The spouse i s t h e n l e f t u n c e r t a i n about how t h e v i c t i m i s f e e l i n g o r as t o what she needs from him. Spouses a r e , as a r e s u l t , l e f t c o n f u s e d and l a d e n w i t h g u i l t , knowing t h e i r p a r t n e r i s d i s t r e s s e d y e t r e l u c t a n t t o burden t h e v i c t i m w i t h t h e i r own f e e l i n g s ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1982). Over t i m e , t h e v i c t i m may f e e l i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent on h e r p a r t n e r and t h e spouse may t r y t o be as s u p p o r t i v e as p o s s i b l e . The spouse's a b i l i t y t o c o n t i n u e t o t e n d t o t h e needs of t h e v i c t i m may be g r a d u a l l y e roded by h i s own emotion trauma, t h e p r e s s u r e s o f e x t e r n a l commitments and t h e on- g o i n g s e v e r i t y o f t h e v i c t i m ' s e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s . H i s anger may s u r f a c e impeding h i s a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d e m p a t h i c a l l y t o t h e v i c t i m . The spouse's d e s i r e f o r revenge or r e t r i b u t i o n may cause t h e v i c t i m t o be be f e a r f u l f o r h e r spouse. H i s anger may a l s o r e c a l l t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e rape i t s e l f . I n t i m e , t h e l a c k o f communication and t h e v i c t i m ' s i n c r e a s e d dependency on h e r p a r t n e r can l e a d t o a mutual resentment ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1982). I t may a l s o be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t f o r a spouse o r l o v e r t o be s u p p o r t i v e i f t h e v i c t i m i s e x p r e s s i n g n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d men i n g e n e r a l and showing d i s i n t e r e s t i n sex ( F r i e z e , 1987). 60 The p r o c e s s o f adjustment C h a l l e n g i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v iews o f adjustment Two major f i n d i n g s have framed our emerging knowledge o f c r i m e v i c t i m s ' adjustment p r o c e s s . These a r e a c c u m u l a t i n g e v i d e n c e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l l y s e v e r e and e n d u r i n g c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r i e s s u f f e r e d by c r i m e v i c t i m s (APA, 1984; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986), as w e l l as t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n how i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f t h r e a t e n i n g l i f e - e v e n t s , i n c l u d i n g c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e adjustment p r o c e s s o f c r i m e v i c t i m s can be more arduous and somewhat more i d i o s y n c r a t i c t h a n had been o r i g i n a l l y t h o u g h t . These f i n d i n g s have c h a l l e n g e d p r e v i o u s l y h e l d t h e o r e t i c a l a ssumptions t h a t adjustment i s b o t h i n e v i t a b l e and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p s , as p r o p o s e d by v a r i o u s s t a g e models o f c o p i n g (e.g., K u b l e r - R o s s , 1969). Such models have t y p i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d an o r d e r l y sequence o f s t a g e s l e a d i n g t o e v e n t u a l r e c o v e r y o r a c c e p t a n c e ( S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980; W i r t z & H a r r e l l , 1987). S i l v e r & Wortman (1980), i n t h e i r e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w , found extreme v a r i a b i l i t y o f response t o l i f e c r i s e s and no c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f c o p i n g . T h i s v a r i a n c e i n response has g e n e r a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n t o f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g . 61 The adjustment t r a j e c t o r y T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e o r e t i c a l models of response t o l i f e c r i s e s have d e s c r i b e d an a c u t e but s h o r t - l i v e d i n i t i a l c r i s i s phase c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n x i e t y , p h o b i a s , and m e n t a l and s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h t h e i n t e n s i t y o f v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e n o v e l t y and magnitude o f t h e s t r e s s o r ( S a l e s e t a l . , 1984). A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l c r i s i s , a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o r r e s o l u t i o n phase was t h o u g h t t o emerge, t o be f o l l o w e d by e v e n t u a l and complete r e c o v e r y , u s u a l l y w i t h i n s e v e r a l months. L o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h , n o t a b l y w i t h v i c t i m s o f s e x u a l a s s a u l t , has c h a l l e n g e d b o t h t h e t i m e - frame and adjustment t r a j e c t o r y p r o p o s e d by t h e s e models. V a r i o u s r e s e a c h e r s (e.g., S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; W i r t z & H a r r e l l , 1987) found t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y o f v i c t i m s d i d not a c h i e v e complete r e c o v e r y and c o n t i n u e d t o e x h i b i t symptoms o f d i s t r e s s y e a r s a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p r o c e s s o f adjustment d i d not appear t o be a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r o g r e s s i o n t o w a r d a r e l a t i v e l y symptom-free s t a t e . S a l e s e t a l . (1984), on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r own l o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a , have p r o p o s e d a more complex t r a j e c t o r y o f rape v i c t i m s ' adjustment t h a n have p r e v i o u s models o f c o p i n g . L i k e o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , S a l e s e t a l . found e v i d e n c e o f an i n i t i a l c r i s i s phase o f l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n f o l l o w e d by a g r a d u a l d i m i n i s h i n g o f symptoms, g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a p r o g r e s s i v e r e t u r n t o normalcy. However, a r e a c t i v a t i o n o f symptoms of d i s t r e s s was found beyond t h e s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d , 62 though l e s s s e v e r e t h a n b e f o r e . S a l e s e t a l . a l s o f o u n d t h a t symptom r e a c t i v a t i o n t y p i c a l l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h v i c t i m s ' r e s u m p t i o n o f a p r e v i o u s l e v e l o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . S a l e s e t a l . suggest t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l " n o r m a l i z a t i o n ' may o f t e n o c c u r b e f o r e t h e v i c t i m i s e m o t i o n a l l y ready. As a r e s u l t , t h i s " n o r m a l i z a t i o n ' may come about a t t h e expense o f symptom e l e v a t i o n . Some r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., B a r d & Sangrey, 1986) have come t o view some form o f r e g r e s s i o n as an i n e v i t a b l e p a r t o f rape v i c t i m s ' a d justment. A f t e r p e r i o d s o f f e e l i n g c o n f i d e n t about t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o cope, rape v i c t i m s o f t e n f i n d t h e m s e l v e s s u d d e n l y overcome by f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and a n x i e t y ( F r i e z e , 1987). A l t h o u g h t h e s e s h i f t s may be p a r t o f v i c t i m s ' normal r e a d j u s t m e n t , t h e apparent s e t b a c k can be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s c o u r a g i n g and f r i g h t e n i n g t o v i c t i m s , who b e g i n t o doubt whether t h e y w i l l e v e r r e c o v e r . Coates e t a l . (1979) suggest t h a t t h i s o s c i l l a t i n g a d justment p a t t e r n may not be i n t r i n s i c t o t h e v i c t i m but a res p o n s e t o b e i n g n e g a t i v e l y r e c e i v e d by o t h e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o Coates e t a l . , v i c t i m s o f t e n f a c e a c o n f l i c t between p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l a d j ustment. A c t i o n s t h a t may e n a b l e v i c t i m s t o cope more e f f e c t i v e l y (e.g., t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f n e g a t i v e a f f e c t ) , f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n by o t h e r s . I n t h e i r r e v i e w , Coates e t a l . found t h a t v i c t i m s who show t h e i r e m o t i o n a l p a i n a r e l i k e l y t o be p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r s as m a l a d j u s t e d and hence a v o i d e d ; whereas v i c t i m s who 63 seem to be coping well ( i . e . , "heroic' victims), are more l i k e l y to receive sympathy and offers of help. Various t h e o r i s t s (e.g., Coates et a l . , 1979; Lerner & M i l l e r , 1978; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) have argued that observers often f e e l threatened i n the presence of victims, as the r e a l i t y of v i c t i m i z a t i o n often evokes observers' sense of t h e i r own v u l n e r a b i l i t y . As a resu l t , observers often avoid or even blame victims for t h e i r fate. Coates et a l . concluded that those victims who most need support may be least l i k e l y to receive i t . As a result, victims may t r y to increase t h e i r s o c i a l acceptance by concealing t h e i r d i s t r e s s , at a cost to t h e i r emotional adjustment. Victims may therefore be caught between the emotional costs of premature behavioural normalization and the often worse alt e r n a t i v e of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . Some researchers (e.g., Meyer & Taylor, 1986; Wirtz & H a r r e l l , 1987) found that crime victims who remained at home and withdrew from others as a means of coping were the most poorly adjusted. Defining successful coping As conventional assumptions about the coping process have been increasingly challenged by research findings (see APA, 1984; Kessler et a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980), a notion of what constitutes e f f e c t i v e coping has become less self-evident. The research suggests that coping processes may be more complex than had been previously thought. Maintaining a tolerable l e v e l of stress had been considered fundamental to adjustment. However, intense d i s t r e s s i n the 64 s h o r t - t e r m has been found t o be more e f f e c t i v e i n m o b i l i z i n g t h e v i c t i m t o i n i t i a t e c o p i n g e f f o r t s (APA, 1984). I n a d d i t i o n , t h o s e m a i n t a i n i n g a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t h e m i d s t o f a c r i s i s — p r e v i o u s l y deemed a h a l l m a r k o f s u c c e s s f u l c o p i n g — w e r e found l e s s l i k e l y t o engage i n needed c o p i n g e f f o r t s t h a n t h o s e who f e l t t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m t h r e a t e n e d ( S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). K e s s l e r e t a l . (1985b) have q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f measures o f adjustment t h a t f a i l t o c o n s i d e r i n t e r a c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f a d j u s t m e n t . They argue t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h a l i f e c r i s i s by a d o p t i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t reduce t h e i r own d i s t r e s s o r m a i n t a i n t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t a t t h e expense o f o t h e r s . As a r e s u l t , c o n v e n t i o n a l measures o f c o p i n g t h a t a s s e s s o n l y t h e p r i m a r y v i c t i m may not r e v e a l t h e b r o a d e r s o c i a l c o s t s i n c u r r e d by such c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Resumption o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g had a l s o been c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t o r o f s u c c e s s f u l c o p i n g . S a l e s e t a l . (1984) found however t h a t rape v i c t i m s who resumed a p r i o r l e v e l o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n s i x months a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t and who appeared t o be d o i n g w e l l were more l i k e l y t o have adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e l o n g - t e r m t h a n t h o s e who had d e l a y e d t h e i r r e t u r n t o normal f u n c t i o n i n g . The n o t i o n o f a r e a l i s t i c view o f o n e s e l f and o f one's w o r l d ( i . e . , r e a l i t y - t e s t i n g ) has been c e n t r a l t o t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f mental h e a l t h and a d j u s t m e n t . I t would f o l l o w t h a t a r e a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n would f a c i l i t a t e c o p i n g . Some r e s e a r c h e r s have 65 argued however t h a t c e r t a i n a p p r a i s a l s about one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n may, i n f a c t , be more a d a p t i v e t h a n a " r e a l i s t i c 1 view of t h e c r i m e . Scheppele and B a r t (1983) found t h a t rape v i c t i m s who a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r a s s a u l t t o h a v i n g found t h e m s e l v e s i n a s i t u a t i o n t h e y had known b e f o r e h a n d t o be dangerous e x p e r i e n c e d l e s s i n t e n s e d i s t r e s s t h a n t h o s e who t hought t h e y had been i n o t h e r w i s e s a f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Scheppele and B a r t s t r e s s t h e l a r g e l y s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e s e a p p r a i s a l s (e.g., whereas one v i c t i m had p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d h i t c h h i k i n g " s a f e ' , a n o t h e r had i n i t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d i t as p o t e n t i a l l y h a z a r d o u s ) . V i c t i m s who were a s s a u l t e d i n a p l a c e t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d dangerous may t h e r e f o r e b e l i e v e t h a t f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n s can can be a v o i d e d by r e s t r i c t i n g o n e s e l f t o s a f e s i t u a t i o n s . Those who s u f f e r e d an a s s a u l t i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y v iewed as s a f e (e.g., a t home) may f e e l more v u l n e r a b l e t o f u t u r e a t t a c k s , as t h e i r n o t i o n o f a what c o n s t i t u t e s a s e c u r e environment has been s h a t t e r e d . A p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g e f f e c t i v e c o p i n g f o l l l o w i n g c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n has been t h e l a c k o f n o r m a t i v e d a t a on how i n d i v i d u a l s o r d i n a r i l y r e s p o n d t o such e v e n t s (APA, 1984; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). T h i s has l e d t o m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e c o p i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t has l e d t o f r e q u e n t u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n s o f t h e trauma evoked by e v e n t s such as c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n . V i c t i m s w i t h u n r e l e n t i n g d i s t r e s s were o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d by 66 o b s e r v e r s and mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o be i n h e r e n t l y m a l a d a p t i v e (Coates e t a l . , 1979). W i t h emerging d a t a on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a f t e r m a t h o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , v i c t i m s may be vi e w e d more p o s i t i v e l y , and t h e i r e n d u r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s as more normal. C o p i n g w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n R e s e a r c h w i t h t h o s e who have s u f f e r e d c a t a s t r o p h i c l i f e e v e n t s shows t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y e f f e c t i v e l y overcome t h e i r d i s t r e s s , and do so w i t h o u t p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n ( K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980; T a y l o r e t a l . , 1983). T h i s , and e v i d e n c e o f t h e wide v a r i a b i l i t y i n how i n d i v i d u a l s cope, have l e d t o r e s e a r c h i n t o v i c t i m s ' own a d a p t i v e p r o c e s s e s . C o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t have been c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as c r i t i c a l p o s t - e v e n t v a r i a b l e s i n v i c t i m s ' a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d t h e adver s e e f f e c t s o f u n f o r t u n a t e l i f e e v e n t s (APA, 1984; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s t h a t appear t o p r o t e c t one from t h e f u l l impact o f h a r m f u l e v e n t s , o r a m e l i o r a t e i t s d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s , have h e l d t h e promise o f a b a s i s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h t r a u m a t i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s . C o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n The " s e l f - h e a l i n g ' c a p a b i l i t i e s o r i n n e r c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s o f many i n d i v i d u a l s who have s u f f e r e d e x t r e m e l y h a r m f u l e v e n t s can be q u i t e f o r m i d a b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o S i l v e r and Wortman (1980), a m a j o r i t y o f v i c t i m s o f l i f e c r i s e s e v e n t u a l l y r e p o r t a q u a l i t y o f l i f e e q u a l t o , o r even 67 e x c e e d i n g t h a t o f t h e i r p r e - v i c t i m i z a t i o n s t a t e (e.g., i n c r e a s e d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , r e o r d e r i n g o f p r i o r i t i e s , and a r e e v a l u a t i o n o f one's l i f e ) . Burgess and H o l s t r o m (1979), i n a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f rape v i c t i m s , found t h a t t h o s e who had used c o g n i t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s such as f i n d i n g a m e a n i n g f u l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e event, o r m i n i m i z i n g i t , were t h e f a s t e s t t o r e c o v e r ; whereas t h o s e who had not used such s t r a t e g i e s were u n r e c o v e r e d 4-6 y e a r s a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t . Numerous t h e o r i s t s (e.g., F i g l e y , 1986; J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; T a y l o r , 1983; T a y l o r e t a l . , 1983; T a y l o r & Brown, 1988) have i d e n t i f i e d c o g n i t i v e " s e l f - h e l p ' s t r a t e g i e s used by v i c t i m s . T a y l o r (1983), i n p a r t i c u l a r , has p r o p o s e d a t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n t o t h r e a t e n i n g e v e n t s t h a t i n v o l v e s t h r e e p r i n c i p a l themes: (1) a s e a r c h f o r meaning i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e , (2) an attempt t o r e g a i n mastery over t h e event i n p a r t i c u l a r and over one's l i f e more g e n e r a l l y , and (3) an e f f o r t t o r e s t o r e s e l f - e s t e e m t h r o u g h s e l f - e n h a n c i n g e v a l u a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , F i g l e y (1986) has p r o p o s e d t h a t v i c t i m s o f c a t a s t r o p h i c l i f e e v e n t s engage i n a c o g n i t i v e s t r u g g l e t o attempt t o answer f o u r b a s i c q u e s t i o n s , (1) What happened t o me? (2) How d i d i t happen? (3) Why d i d I a c t as I d i d ? (4) What w i l l I do i n a n o t h e r c a t a s t r o p h e ? I n t h e F i g l e y ' s view, v i c t i m s ' a b i l i t y t o meaningly answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l l e s s e n t h e i r d i s t r e s s . The s e a r c h f o r meaning i n one's m i s f o r t u n e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o c r i m e v i c t i m s . A c c o r d i n g t o B a r d and Sangrey (1986) , humans have, t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r h i s t o r y , 68 c o n f r o n t e d e v i l and f e l t a need t o e x p l a i n i t . I n d i v i d u a l s have a c c o r d i n g l y d e v e l o p e d b e l i e f s t o account f o r h a r m f u l f o r c e s and c o n s t r u c t e d r i t u a l s t o appease them. Such e x p l a n a t i o n s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d one's sense of c o n t r o l by p r o v i d i n g a r e a s o n f o r one's trauma. I t may be argued t h a t a need t o e x p l a i n t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e i n n o c e n t gave impetus t o t h e development of r e l i g i o n ; where human s u f f e r i n g c o u l d be m e a n i n g f u l l y e x p l a i n e d . F r a n k l (1963) has a rgued t h a t humans' need f o r meaning i s more b a s i c t h a n t h e need t o maximize p l e a s u r e and t o a v o i d p a i n . I n a s e c u l a r s o c i e t y , however, c r i m e v i c t i m s are l e s s l i k e l y t o be f i n d r e l i g i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . A l s o , s e c u l a r s o c i e t i e s have no u n d e r l y i n g t r a d i t i o n s t o e x p l a i n s u f f e r i n g (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). As a r e s u l t , t h e burden o f making sense o f t h r e a t e n i n g e v e n t s t ends t o f a l l on t h e i n d i v i d u a l v i c t i m . C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , by i t s u n p r e d i c t a b l e and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e n a t u r e , can a b r u p t l y reduce t h e v i c t i m s ' s w o r l d t o chaos. One's view of t h e w o r l d and t h e s e l f may be s e v e r e l y c h a l l e n g e d . T h i s p r o v i d e s a g r e a t impetus f o r v i c t i m s t o u n d e r s t a n d and r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r w o r l d so t h a t i t i s once a g a i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e and o r d e r l y , so as t o r e g a i n a sense of c o n t r o l o ver t h e event and one's l i f e ( J a n o f f - Bulman & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . A t t h e same t i m e , c r i m e v i c t i m s ' s e a r c h f o r meaning can be an attempt t o r e i n t e g r a t e t h e v i o l a t e d s e l f , t o reduce t h e d i s s o n a n c e t h a t r e s u l t s from a fragmented s e l f (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). T h i s s e a r c h 69 f o r meaning i n v o l v e s s p e c i f i c a l l y an e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d th e e v e n t : why i t happened and what impact i t has had? ( F i g l e y , 1986; T a y l o r , 1983). The s e a r c h f o r meaning i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f one's m i s f o r t u n e i s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d by t h e a t t r i b u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n , what caused t h e event t o happen?, o r "why me?", as v i c t i m s o f t e n f e e l s i n g l e d out (Coates & Winston, 1983; J a n o f f - Bulman & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . D e s p i t e a g e n e r a l awareness t h a t c r i m e o c c u r s , v i c t i m s must account f o r t h e f a c t t h e y i t o c c u r r e d t o them and not o t h e r s . I t i s t h e apparent randomness o f t h e event t h a t can be most t r o u b l i n g , as t h e i n a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t o r c o n t r o l t h r e a t e n i n g e v e n t s evokes h e l p l e s s n e s s and f e a r . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s e a r c h f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y a d d r e s s a much deeper q u e s t i o n , what does my l i f e mean now? ( T a y l o r , 1983). The s e a r c h f o r a c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e c r i m e i s at t h e h e a r t o f an d e s i r e t o g a i n a sense o f mastery o v e r th e e v e n t , and over one's l i f e g e n e r a l l y . Foremost, t h e v i c t i m must c o n t e n d w i t h t h e b l u n t awareness o f h i s / h e r v u l n e r a b i l i t y . P e r c e p t i o n s o r i l l u s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y ( i . e . , " i t won't happen t o me") a r e o f t e n d e e p l y shaken by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . V i c t i m s a r e t h e r e f o r e m o t i v a t e d t o f i n d ways o f r e s t o r i n g a sense o f t h e i r own i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y . E f f o r t s a t mastery c e n t e r on t h e q u e s t i o n s , How can I keep t h i s o r a s i m i l a r event from happening a g a i n ? and what can I do t o manage i t now? The v i c t i m seeks t o 70 a s s e r t c o n t r o l and overcome f e e l i n g s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s and f e a r by t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e event so as t o r e c a p t u r e a sense o f t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f one's environment (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., B a r d & Sangrey, 1986; F r a z i e r , 1990; J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; J a n o f f - Bulman, 1979; Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986; M i l l e r & P o r t e r , 1983; Ochberg, 1988) have n o t e d a common tendency among v i c t i m s o f c r i m e — a s w e l l as o f o t h e r n e g a t i v e l i f e e v e n t s — t o e x a g g a r a t e t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h s e l f - b l a m e . Some t h e o r i s t s (e.g., J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1979) have c h a l l e n g e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n t h a t s e l f - b l a m e among v i c t i m s i s n e c e s s a r i l y h a r m f u l and i n a p p r o p r i a t e . They have s u g g e s t e d t h a t , under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , s e l f - b l a m e a t t r i b u t i o n s by v i c t i m s may be a d a p t i v e . C l e a r l y , t h e c r i m i n a l i s t h e cause o f t h e c r i m e , but t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n may not be s u f f i c i e n t o r s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r c r i m e v i c t i m s (Bard & Sangrey, 1986). S e l f - b l a m e among v i c t i m s may be seen as at t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n why t h e event o c c u r r e d t o them i n p a r t i c u l a r by ex a m i n i n g t h e i r own r o l e i n t h e v i c t i m i z i n g e v e n t . Such e x p l a n a t i o n s , i n B a r d and Sangrey's (1986) view, a r e i n t e n d e d t o r e s t o r e a sense o f o r d e r t o t h e w o r l d , and can r e f l e c t a d e s i r e t o m i n i m i z e one's f u t u r e v u l n e r a b i l i t y . I n b l a m i n g one's b e h a v i o u r f o r a n e g a t i v e outcome, one can m a i n t a i n p r e e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s about t h e c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f e v e n t s . 71 J a n o f f - B u l m a n and Lang-Gunn ( i n p r e s s ) , i n a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s e l f - b l a m e a t t r i b u t i o n s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c o p i n g a c r o s s v a r i o u s v i c t i m groups, found i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s . The a u t h o r s have a t t e m p t e d t o r e c o n c i l e t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l and b e h a v i o u r a l s e l f - b l a m e . C h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - b l a m e r e f e r s t o t h e b l a m i n g o f p e r c e i v e d d e f i c i e n t and e n d u r i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f f o r t h e n e g a t i v e outcome (e.g., "I'm a poor judge of c h a r a c t e r " ) . B e h a v i o u r a l s e l f - b l a m e , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e f e r s t o b l a m i n g one's own b e h a v i o u r . " . . . I was not c a r e f u l enough because I had i n f a c t l e f t t h e window open...I hadn't b o t h e r e d t o put l o c k s on t h e windows. That was something I d i d n ' t t h i n k was n e c e s s a r y t o do r i g h t away. My guess i s t h a t [the u n l o c k e d window] was a p r e t t y open i n v i t a t i o n t o t h i s g uy....I t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h a t . " B u r g l a r y v i c t i m (Bard & Sangrey, 1986) J a n o f f - B u l m a n (1979) p r o p o s e s t h a t each t y p e o f s e l f - blame has d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v i c t i m s ' a p p r a i s a l o f t h e i r f u t u r e v u l n e r a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l over e v e n t s . B e h a v i o u r a l s e l f - b l a m e i s c o n s i d e r e d a d a p t i v e as i t i m p l i e s a b e l i e f i n f u t u r e c o n t r o l by f o c u s i n g on changeable a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f . One may p r e v e n t a c r i m e from r e c u r r i n g by a l t e r i n g one's b e h a v i o u r , (e.g., not walk a l o n e a t n i g h t ) . C h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - b l a m e i s , on t h e o t h e r hand, v i e w e d as m a l a d a p t i v e as i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a r s h s e l f - c r i t i c i s m , low s e l f - e s t e e m and p e r c e p t i o n s o f h e l p l e s s n e s s ( P e t e r s o n & Seligman, 1984) . U n l i k e b e h a v i o u r a l s e l f - b l a m e , 72 c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - b l a m e t e n d s t o f o c u s on t h e p a s t and one's de s e r v e d n e s s (or r a t h e r t h e l a c k t h e r e o f ) . C h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - b l a m e i m p l i e s a p e s s i m i s t i c i n e v i t a b i l i t y about f u t u r e e v e n t s and p r e c l u d e s a sense o f i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l ( J a n o f f - B u l m an & Lang-Gunn, i n p r e s s ; Meyer & T a y l o r , 1986). Other r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., F r a z i e r , 1990; Meyer and T a y l o r , 1986) have c h a l l e n g e d t h e p r o p o s e d a d a p t i v e v a l u e o f b e h a v i o u r a l s e l f - b l a m e . In s t u d i e s o f rape v i c t i m s , t h e y found t h a t b o t h b e h a v i o u r a l and c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l s e l f - b l a m e were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poor p o s t - r a p e a d j u s t m e n t . Only s o c i e t a l blame was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h adjustment (Meyer and T a y l o r , 1986). F r a z i e r (1990) found t h a t b e h a v i o u r a l s e l f - blame was r e l a t e d t o p a s t a v o i d a b i l i t y but not w i t h f u t u r e a v o i d a b i l i t y (as had been argued by J a n o f f - B u l m a n ) . Meyer and T a y l o r suggest t h a t t h e impact o f s e l f - b l a m e on adjustment may depend on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t h r e a t e n i n g event and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e v i c t i m . A c c e p t a n c e o f blame must be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e meaning i t has f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and may be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by such f a c t o r s as gender, s o c i a l power and c u l t u r e . A rape v i c t i m who a c c e p t s blame f o r her m i s f o r t u n e , a b l e i t b e h a v i o u r a l , may a l s o be y i e l d i n g t o s o c i e t a l b e l i e f s about rape as a " v i c t i m - i n d u c e d ' phenomenon and c o n c o m i t a n t b e l i e f s about women's p o w e r l e s s n e s s . F r a z i e r (1990) found t h a t most rape v i c t i m s who blamed t h e i r b e h a v i o u r u s u a l l y blamed t h e i r c h a r a c t e r as w e l l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , b e h a v i o u r a l s e l f - b l a m e among male b u r g l a r y v i c t i m s and among female rape v i c t i m s may have d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r adj u s t m e n t . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e a d a p t i v e r o l e o f s e l f - b l a m e s h o u l d a l s o be p l a c e d i n some h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . F r a z i e r (1990) found t h a t a l t h o u g h many v i c t i m s blame t h e m s e l v e s t o some degree, t h e y seem t o blame o t h e r f a c t o r s more. In t h e i n t e r v e n i n g decade between t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f J a n o f f - Bulman's (1979) s e l f - b l a m e h y p o t h e s i s and F r a z i e r ' s (1990) f i n d i n g s , t r a d i t i o n a l v iews o f rape have been s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a l l e n g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e f e m i n i s t movement. No doubt, s h i f t i n g s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s would have i n f l u e n c e d t h e c a s u a l a t t r i b u t i o n s o f rape v i c t i m s from i n t e r n a l t o more e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . C o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f a c r i s i s i s o f t e n o r i e n t e d t o w a r d self-enhancement (Gibbons, 1986; T a y l o r , 1983; T a y l o r e t a l . , 1983). V i c t i m i z a t i o n t e n d s t o erode s e l f - e s t e e m even when t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e a r s no c o n c e i v a b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e v i c t i m i z i n g event (J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). Many i n t r a p s y c h i c c o p i n g e f f o r t s i n v o l v e f i n d i n g ways t o r e s t o r e one's s e l f - e s t e e m . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y o f t e n i n c l u d e ways t o m i n i m i z e t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f o n e s e l f as a v i c t i m . T a y l o r e t a l . argue t h a t e x p e r i e n c i n g o n e s e l f as a v i c t i m and b e l i e v i n g t h a t o t h e r s c o n s i d e r one t o be a v i c t i m a r e b o t h a v e r s i v e . V i c t i m i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , can produce l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m , c o n t r o l , s t a t u s , and p r o p e r t y as w e l l as e m o t i o n a l trauma and p h y s i c a l i n j u r y . L a b e l l i n g 74 o n e s e l f a v i c t i m can evoke t h e s u f f e r i n g and sense o f l o s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i c t i m i z a t i o n . A l s o , h a v i n g been v i c t i m i z e d compels one t o i d e n t i f y w i t h s t i g m a t i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s may r e a c t t o t h e s e l f w i t h a s i m i l a r a v e r s i o n t h e y may have p r e v i o u s l y f e l t f o r o t h e r v i c t i m s . V i c t i m s a r e t h u s m o t i v a t e d t o c o n s t r u e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n so as t o "de- v i c t i m i z e " t h e m s e l v e s . T a y l o r e t a l . , (1983) have i d e n t i f i e d f i v e p r o c e s s e s o f s e l e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f o n e s e l f and one's s i t u a t i o n by which i n d i v i d u a l s t r y t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r v i c t i m s t a t u s . These i n c l u d e : (1) downward comparisons ( i . e . , v i e w i n g o n e s e l f more f a v o u r a b l y when compared w i t h l e s s f o r t u n a t e o t h e r s ) , (2) s e l e c t i v e l y f o c u s i n g on a t t r i b u t e s t h a t make one f e e l advantaged, (3) c r e a t i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l , worse w o r l d s ( i . e . , " I t c o u l d have been w o r s e " ) , (4) c o n s t r u i n g b e n e f i t from t h e v i c t i m i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and (5) m a n u f a c t u r i n g n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d s o f adjustment t h a t make one's adjustment seem e x c e p t i o n a l . S e l f - e n h a n c i n g c o g n i t i o n s i n t h e wake o f one's m i s f o r t u n e , though t h e y can p r o v i d e a sense o f meaning, and/or i n c r e a s e one's sense o f mastery, can be c o n s i d e r e d " i l l u s i o n s ' , as t h e y need not c o r r e s p o n d t o r e a l i t y . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f downward comparison, f o r example, v i c t i m s o f t e n assume t h e y a r e c o p i n g b e t t e r t h a n i m a g i n e d s i m i l a r o t h e r s , when such o t h e r s are t y p i c a l l y not a c c e s s i b l e f o r a c t u a l c omparison ( T a y l o r , 1983) . To v i c t i m s , t h e t r u t h f u l n e s s o f t h e s e s e l f - e n h a n c i n g c o g n i t i o n s i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e i r 75 a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n . The n o t i o n t h a t i l l u s i o n s a r e b e n e f i c a l t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g runs c o u n t e r t o t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f mental h e a l t h which f a v o u r a c c u r a t e r e a l i t y t e s t i n g o v er s e l f - d e c e p t i o n . In r e c e n t y e a r s , however, some r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., T a y l o r , 1983; T a y l o r & Brown, 1988) have argued f o r t h e a d a p t i v e v a l u e o f c e r t a i n p o s i t i v e i l l u s i o n s , o r u n r e a l i s t i c p o s i t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s i n t h e f a c e o f t h r e a t e n i n g e v e n t s , i n s o f a r as t h e y enhance s e l f - e s t e e m , s u p p o r t b e l i e f s i n one's e f f i c a c y and p e r m i t an o p t i m i s t i c v i ew o f t h e f u t u r e . T a y l o r and Brown acknowledge c e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l l i a b i l i t i e s o f such i l l u s i o n s (e.g., t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n , i g n o r i n g o f l e g i t i m a t e r i s k s ) . They argue however t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o d e v e l o p and m a i n t a i n p o s i t i v e i l l u s i o n s i s a v a l u a b l e human r e s o u r c e t h a t s h o u l d not be d i s c o u n t e d . S o c i a l s u p p o r t When i n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n d i s t r e s s t h e y t e n d t o show a p a r t i c u l a r need f o r t h e s o l a c e o f human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t c l o s e s o c i a l t i e s seem t o l e s s e n t h e adve r s e e f f e c t s o f a range o f d i s t r e s s i n g l i f e e v e n t s (Coates e t a l . , 1979; F i g l e y , 1986; Holahan & Moos, 1986; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). I n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o f t h o s e who have s u f f e r e d p a r t i c u l a r m i s f o r t u n e s (e.g., unemployment, widowhood) , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t was found t o be an i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r o f a d a p t a t i o n ( K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b). S o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, 76 were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d o f i l l n e s s and d e t e r i o r a t i o n (Coates e t a l . , 1979). W i t h r e s p e c t t o v i c t i m s o f c r i m e , t h e r e i s a c c u m u l a t i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t s u p p o r t from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , t h e h e l p i n g and l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s , t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system and t h e community a t l a r g e a r e v i t a l t o t h e l o n g - t e r m adjustment o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983; K r u p n i c k & H o r o w i t z , 1980; S a l e s e t a l . , 1984; Symonds, 1980). Such f i n d i n g s have l e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c p o t e n t i a l i n m o b i l i z i n g s u p p o r t f o r v i c t i m i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r s o c i a l networks (see F i g l e y , 1986; G o t t l i e b , 1988). S o c i a l s u p p o r t i s thought t o h e l p v i c t i m s by e n h a n c i n g t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m t h r o u g h f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g c a r e d f o r and v a l u e d ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983). S u p p o r t i v e o t h e r s can p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t a l k about t h e event or t o v e n t emotions. S o c i a l s u p p o r t can i n c l u d e not o n l y e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t but a l s o companionship, a d v i c e , i n f o r m a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e , h e l p w i t h p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , and t a n g i b l e a i d ( F i g l e y , 1986; J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983; T h o i t s , 1986). D e s p i t e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t can f a c i l i t a t e t h e c o p i n g p r o c e s s , an i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y based m e r e l y on u r g i n g members of v i c t i m s ' s o c i a l networks t o be s u p p o r t i v e may i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s prove s i m p l i s t i c and i l l - c o n c e i v e d . There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s u p p o r t and c o p i n g i s complex and r e c i p r o c a l , and as y e t i n s u f f i c i e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s 77 (e.g., Monroe & S t e i n e r , 1986; ^ S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l n a t u r e of t h e r e s e a r c h on s o c i a l s u p p o r t and c o p i n g r e n d e r s i t v u l n e r a b l e t o a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s . I t can be argued t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l s u p p o r t and c o p i n g i s , t o some degree, s p u r i o u s . There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between s o c i a l s u p p o r t and c o p i n g may a l s o be a f u n c t i o n o f a t h i r d v a r i a b l e , t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e v i c t i m , which appears t o i n f l u e n c e one's a b i l i t y t o b e n e f i t from s u p p o r t . S a n d l e r and Lakey (1982) found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l b e l i e f s r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r s u p p o r t , but t h e s t r e s s - b u f f e r i n g b e n e f i t s o f s u p p o r t were s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y f o r i n t e r n a l l o c u s i n d i v i d u a l s . A l s o , Henderson e t a l . (1981), i n a l a r g e - s c a l e s t u d y on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f s e v e r a l s u p p o r t d i m e n s i o n s (e.g., p e r s o n a l i t y , p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r ) , f o u n d t h a t n e u r o t i c i s m p r e d i c t e d 69% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r , w h i l e t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s u p p o r t adequacy p l a y e d a minor r o l e . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n s u p p o r t was t h e s i g n i f i c a n t u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n . S i l v e r and Wortman (1980) suggest t h a t t h e p o o r l y a d j u s t e d may l a c k s o c i a l competence and may a l i e n a t e o t h e r s by e n g aging i n s o c i a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Coyne and DeLongis (1986), h i g h l y s t r e s s e d or d i s t u r b e d i n d i v i d u a l s may o r d i n a r i l y f i n d c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i f f i c u l t . I n d i v i d u a l s i n d i s t r e s s may a l s o judge t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s more n e g a t i v e l y ( K e s s l e r e t a l . , 78 1985b), o r u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e s u p p o r t a v a i l a b l e t o them ( S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) . There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i n f l u e n c e s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u p p o r t . Coates e t a l . (1979) found t h a t v i c t i m s who appear t o be c o p i n g w e l l were more l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e s u p p o r t ; whereas t h o s e who seemed t o be c o p i n g p o o r l y were more l i k e l y t o be a v o i d e d . Thus, measures o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t may a c t u a l l y t a p more complex a s p e c t s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s between s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s and r e c i p i e n t s t h a n was i n t e n d e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l s o c i a l s u p p o r t model. S a l e s e t a l . (1984) have argued t h a t most i n d i c a t o r s o f f a m i l y s u p p o r t a r e not " c l e a n " measures o f p o s t - v i c t i m i z a t i o n s u p p o r t but a r e a complex b l e n d i n g o f p r e e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and " c r i s i s - c o n t i n g e n t " s u p p o r t . V a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., Coyne & DeLongis, 1986; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985b; Monroe & S t e i n e r , 1986; S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980) have argued t h a t t h e concept o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t i s as y e t t o o v a g u e l y d e f i n e d and i t s mechanisms not s u f f i c i e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d t o form a b a s i s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h v i c t i m s . There a r e l i m i t s as w e l l t o t h e b e n e f i t s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t . Coyne, Wortman and Lehman (1988) have p r o p o s e d a c u r v i l i n e a r model i n which i n d i v i d u a l s f u n c t i o n b e s t a t moderate l e v e l s o f i n v o l v e m e n t by s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s . They found e v i d e n c e t h a t e x c e s s i v e e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t (e.g., o v e r p r o t e c t i o n , i n t r u s i v e n e s s and u n s o l i c i t e d a d v i c e ) , can e x a c e r b a t e and p e r p e t u a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f r e c i p i e n t s . The o v e r p r o t e c t i v e o r i n t r u s i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f f a m i l y members can d i s c o u r a g e v i c t i m s ' autonomy and become a major 79 s o u r c e o f s t r e s s f o r v i c t i m s . A c c o r d i n g t o Coyne and DeLongis (1986), t h e s t r e s s f u l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t b r i n g about t h e g r e a t e s t need f o r s u p p o r t seem t o be t h e v e r y ones under wh i c h e m o t i o n a l o v e r i n v o l v e m e n t by f a m i l y members i s more l i k e l y t o o c c u r . The b e n e f i t s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t appear not t o be u n i v e r s a l . Holahan and Moos (1986) found sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o t e c t i v e o r s t r e s s - b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t . W h i l e f a m i l y s u p p o r t was an i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e f o r women, av o i d a n c e c o p i n g was somewhat more i m p o r t a n t f o r men. A l s o , t h e b e n e f i t o f s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s seems dependent on i t s s o u r c e . Coyne and DeLongis (1986) r e p o r t e v i d e n c e t h a t s u p p o r t from s o u r c e s o t h e r t h a n a spouse ( i . e . , r e l a t i v e s , f r i e n d s ) , d i d not compensate f o r an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y m a r r i a g e i n p r o t e c t i n g women from d e p r e s s i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , Dakof and T a y l o r (1990) found t h a t i n t i m a t e o t h e r s were more v a l u e d f o r t h e i r e m o t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n a l o r t a n g i b l e s u p p o r t ; whereas p r o f e s s i o n a l s and s i m i l a r o t h e r s were more v a l u e d f o r t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n a l r o l e . Coyne and DeLongis (198 6) m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e n o t i o n t h a t v a r i o u s s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s a r e not i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e b r i n g s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f a g e n e r i c view o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t . One i n s t a n c e o f t h e n o n - i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s r e l a t e s t o a p a r t i c u l a r c o p i n g need o f v i c t i m s , t h a t i s , t o overcome f e e l i n g s o f d e v i a n c y . A c c o r d i n g t o Coates and Winston (1983) , t h o s e who have been v i c t i m i z e d o f t e n seek t o e v a l u a t e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e i r 80 e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s out o f a need t o r e g a i n a sense o f normalcy. Such o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e , however, not u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h n o n - v i c t i m s . As a r e s u l t , f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g somehow d e v i a n t may ensue, l e a d i n g t o d e p r e s s i o n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , v i c t i m s o f t e n seek v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e i r n o r m a l i t y among s i m i l a r o t h e r s . P eer s u p p o r t groups have o f t e n p r o v i d e d such o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n a s t u d y o f group p e e r s u p p o r t among rape v i c t i m s , Coates and Winston (1983) found t h a t f e e l i n g s o f d e v i a n c y t e n d e d t o d e c l i n e a f t e r group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h a t d e c l i n e s i n n e g a t i v e a f f e c t were g e n e r a l l y found i n groups f a c i l i t a t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The n o m o t h e t i c approach o f s t u d y i n g group d i f f e r e n c e s may, however, ob s c u r e t h e f a c t t h a t a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f p o o r l y a d j u s t e d v i c t i m s may a c t u a l l y have t h e i r sense o f d e v i a n c y c o n f i r m e d i f o t h e r group members appear, i n f a c t , t o be b e t t e r a d j u s t e d . A l s o , t h e e f f o r t s o f p o o r l y f u n c t i o n i n g v i c t i m s a t s e l f - e n h a n c i n g c o g n i t i o n s such as s o c i a l c o mparison w h i c h r e l i e s on i m a g i n a r y norms may be impeded i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , exposure t o s i m i l a r o t h e r s whose d i s t r e s s i s e n d u r i n g may dash an one's hopes f o r a q u i c k r e c o v e r y . Such i s s u e s would have t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n a group d e s i g n f o r a cr i m e v i c t i m s ' p e e r s u p p o r t group. There appear t o be c e r t a i n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e r o l e o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a m i l y s u p p o r t , i n v i c t i m s ' adjustment p r o c e s s . F i g l e y (1986), f o r example, o f f e r s an u n q u a l i f i e d endorsement o f t h e r o l e o f f a m i l y s u p p o r t i n v i c t i m s ' r e c o v e r y . F i g l e y 81 c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e n a t u r e o f f a m i l y s u p p o r t as a c t i v e , e n g a g i n g and u n r e s e r v e d l y t h e r a p e u t i c . A c c o r d i n g t o F i g l e y : " t h e f a m i l y may h e l p t h e v i c t i m r e s o l v e t h e t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e and c o n f l i c t s t h r o u g h e i t h e r p a s s i v e o r a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t , ( i . e . , m utual o r one- s i d e d s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e ) , c o n f r o n t a t i v e o r non- c o n f r o n t a t i v e by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e v i c t i m t o t a l k about what i s t r o u b l i n g him/her, and by c l a r i f y i n g i n s i g h t s , c o r r e c t i n g d i s t o r t i o n s , p l a c i n g blame and c r e d i t more o b j e c t i v e l y , and o f f e r i n g o r s u p p o r t i n g new and more "generous' o r a c c u r a t e p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e event t h a t was o r i g i n a l l y t r a u m a t i c . I n t h i s p r o c e s s t h e v i c t i m w i l l f i n d answers t o q u e s t i o n s f a c e d by a l l c a t a s t r o p h e v i c t i m s . " Other r e s e a r c h e r s p r e s e n t more tempered v i e w s o f t h e f a m i l y ' s s u p p o r t r o l e . Lehman, E l l a r d and Wortman (1986) found t h a t more " a c t i v e ' s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s such as g i v i n g a d v i c e o r o f f e r i n g a new p e r s p e c t i v e were o f t e n p e r c e i v e d by r e c i p i e n t s as u n h e l p f u l and i n t r u s i v e . On t h e o t h e r hand, more " p a s s i v e " forms o f s u p p o r t such as j u s t b e i n g t h e r e , o r p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o vent f e e l i n g s , were g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d more h e l p f u l by r e c i p i e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Wortman and Lehman (1985), b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l h e l p e r s a r e not always aware o f t h e s p e c i f i c needs o f v i c t i m s and may, w i t h t h e b e s t o f i n t e n t i o n s , o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e and s u p p o r t i n ways t h a t can prove h a r m f u l t o v i c t i m s . F o r example, u r g i n g a v i c t i m t o "get on w i t h t h e i r l i f e ' b e f o r e t h e y a r e ready t o do so may d i s c o u r a g e t h e v i c t i m from t h e n e c e s s a r y v e n t i l a t i o n o f n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s , t h e r e b y c u r t a i l i n g communication and h e i g h t e n i n g t h e v i c t i m ' s sense o f i s o l a t i o n . Some r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., Coyne & D e l o n g i s , 1986; P a g e l , E r d l y & Be c k e r , 1987) have argued t h a t b e l o n g i n g t o a 82 s o c i a l network can e n t a i l c e r t a i n c o s t s , and c o n s i d e r i t t h e r e f o r e m i s l e a d i n g t o measure s u p p o r t networks e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e i r p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s . P a g e l e t a l . found t h a t n e g a t i v e o r u p s e t t i n g a s p e c t s o f s u p p o r t networks were, i n f a c t , more p r e d i c t i v e o f t h e onset o f d e p r e s s i o n and network s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n were i t s h e l p f u l a s p e c t s . More r e s e a r c h i s needed t o e l u c i d a t e t h e r o l e o f s o c i a l networks i n a d a p t a t i o n , t o d i s c e r n what form o f s u p p o r t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and who s h o u l d p r o v i d e i t . The p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t can, over t i m e , e n t a i l c o s t s b o t h f o r t h e r e c i p i e n t and t h e p r o v i d e r . A c c o r d i n g t o Coyne e t a l . (1988), b e i n g t h e r e c i p i e n t o f h e l p can i m p l y t h a t one i s not a b l e t o c a r e f o r t h e m s e l v e s , which may erode t h e one's s e l f - e s t e e m . R e c i p i e n t s o f s u p p o r t may become uneasy about t h e l a c k o f r e c i p r o c i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e p r o v i d e r . A l s o , s i g n s o f s t r a i n i n t h e p r o v i d e r can evoke f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t and shame i n t h e r e c i p i e n t . At t h e same t i m e , p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t can t a k e i t s t o l l on t h e c a r e g i v e r , who may e v e n t u a l l y become e m o t i o n a l l y d r a i n e d and r e s e n t f u l i f t h e v i c t i m ' s c o n d i t i o n i s u n r e l e n t i n g . Coyne e t a l . s uggest t h a t r e c i p i e n t s , s e n s i n g t h e burden i n c u r r e d by t h e p r o v i d e r , may f e e l p r e s s u r e d t o show f a l s e s i g n s o f improvement. A c c o r d i n g t o K e s s l e r e t a l . (1985a), t h e c o s t s i n c u r r e d by b e i n g a s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h o s e who m o b i l i z e s u p p o r t f o r v i c t i m i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s . G i v e n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r / r e c i p i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , c o s t s i n c u r r e d t o t h e 83 s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r can, i n t u r n , n e g a t i v e l y impact t h e v i c t i m s ' a djustment i n s o f a r as i t erodes t h e b a s i s o f t h e t h e i r s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t . E x p l a i n i n g r e a c t i o n s t o c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n To a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n , one must account f o r t h e n a t u r e and s e v e r i t y of v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s as w e l l as t h e wide v a r i a b i l i t y o f res p o n s e among v i c t i m s . Much has been made of commonly-held assumptions i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d about t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r w o r l d t h a t e n a b l e d a i l y f u n c t i o n i n g (e.g., a sense o f p e r s o n a l i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y , p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l ) , and t h e n e g a t i v e impact o f h a r m f u l e v e n t s on t h e s e b e l i e f s (see J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983; J a n o f f - Bulman, 1989) . E x p l a i n i n g r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f a s h a t t e r i n g o f such b e l i e f s does not i n i t s e l f a ccount f o r t h e v a r i a n c e i n i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e . A more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v iew o f t a c i t b e l i e f systems t h a t e x p l a i n s i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y i s needed. An e l a b o r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how p e r s o n a l b e l i e f systems i n t e r a c t w i t h t r a u m a t i c l i f e e v e n t s may a l s o e x p l a i n subsequent c o p i n g ( i . e . , why some v i c t i m s e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e c o g n i t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s and/or, e l i c i t and b e n e f i t from s o c i a l s u p p o r t , and o t h e r s n o t ) . A c c o r d i n g t o J a n o f f - B u l m a n (1989), n e g a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n r e s u l t from t h e d i s r u p t i v e impact o f h a r m f u l e v e n t s on v i c t i m s ' " a s sumptive w o r l d s " . J a n o f f - B u l m a n has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e commonly h e l d 84 " v u l n e r a b i l i t y - r e l e v a n t " assumptions as core elements of i n d i v i d u a l s ' conceptual systems: (1) perceived benevolence of the world, (2) meaningfulness of the world, and (3) worthiness of the s e l f . These assumptions are thought to constitute the highest-order schema, or foundation of an i n d i v i d u a l s ' conceptual system ( i . e . , the basis on which other b e l i e f s r e s t ) . Traumatic occurrences such as criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i n Janoff-Bulman 1s view, challenge the v a l i d i t y of these assumptions. The i n a b i l i t y to reconcile the catastrophic event with one's p r e - e x i s i t i n g b e l i e f s can therefore threaten one's entire conceptual system. Janoff- Bulman argues that the victim's coping task i s to somehow integrate the negative experience with one's p r i o r assumptions. Victims must interpret the new data so as to f i t t h e i r old assumptions, or revise t h e i r assumptions i n order to prevent the breakdown of one's conceptual system, to enable one to perceive the world as not completely threatening. Janoff-Bulman attributes the trauma of v i c t i m i z a t i o n exclusively to the impact of c r i t i c a l "anomalous data", that i s , data incongruent with p r i o r b e l i e f s about the s e l f and others. This suggests that victims' a p r i o r i b e l i e f s about the s e l f and others are e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e (and subject to "disillusionment'). Therein l i e s a problem with t h i s model as an explanatory framework for victims' reactions. By implication, those who hold more negative or pessimistic a p r i o r i b e l i e f s would experience a v i c t i m i z i n g event as less 85 t r a u m a t i c , as t h e event i s more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n t h e l o g i c o f J a n o f f - B u l m a n ' s model, one who i n i t i a l l y p e r c e i v e s t h e w o r l d as l a r g e l y m a l e v o l e n t and i s l a c k i n g i n s e l f - e s t e e m would t h e r e f o r e f a c e l e s s o f a c o p i n g t a s k . E v i d e n c e o f t h e more s e v e r e and e n d u r i n g impact o f human-induced v i c t i m i z a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p r e - e x i s t i n g n e u r o s i s , d e v e l o p m e n t a l problems, and p s y c h i a t r i c h i s t o r i e s (APA, 1984; Hymer, 1984; K r u p n i c k & H o r o w i t z , 1980; W i l s o n , 1989) , as w e l l as p r i o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n s (Sorenson & G o l d i n g , 1990) , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h o s e w i t h more n e g a t i v e or p e s s i m i s t i c a p r i o r i b e l i e f s may, i n f a c t , f a c e g r e a t e r c o p i n g c h a l l e n g e s . A comprehensive t h e o r y o f r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n must account f o r t h e n e g a t i v e impact o f h a r m f u l e v e n t s which may a f f i r m p r e - e x i s t i n g n e g a t i v e a s s u m p t i o n s . J a n o f f - B u l m a n ' s model a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n a manner t h a t e x e m p l i f i e s a l i m i t e d a s p e c t o f schema t h e o r y ( i . e . , where a r o u s a l ensues from e x p e r i e n c e t h a t cannot r e a d i l y be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g schemas). E v i d e n t l y , c o n f i r m i n g d a t a can be n e g a t i v e l y a r o u s i n g as w e l l , though t h i s i s not a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i n s u p p o r t o f J a n o f f - B u l m a n ' s model i s t h a t n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s about t h e s e l f and one's w o r l d may be kept from f u l l awareness by c e r t a i n d e f e n c e mechanisms which a l l o w f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e a s s u m p t i o n s . A v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e may s t r i p away not o n l y t h e s e s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e assumptions but a l s o t h e d e f e n c e s 86 t h a t m a i n t a i n e d them, r e s u l t i n g i n v i c t i m s h a v i n g t o b e a r t h e f u l l - b l o w n i m p o r t o f t h e s e n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s . I n t h i s way, t h o s e w i t h n e g a t i v e c o r e b e l i e f s may undergo a " d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t 1 a k i n t o t h o s e w i t h more p o s i t i v e b e l i e f s but w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r consequences (see APA, 1984). McCann e t a l . (1988) p r e s e n t a comprehensive model of r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n t h a t a c c o u n t s f o r b o t h i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e sponse and t h e impact o f p r e e x i s t i n g n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s on a d a p t a t i o n . McCann e t a l . have i d e n t i f i e d f i v e a r e a s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t are i m p a c t e d by v i c t i m i z a t i o n : s a f e t y , t r u s t , power, esteem, and i n t i m a c y . I n t h e i r model, l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e a r e a s form schemas about t h e s e l f and o t h e r s . These schemas t h e n a f f e c t how subsequent l i f e e v e n t s , such as v i c t i m i z a t i o n , a r e i n t e r p r e t e d and i n t e g r a t e d . The p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n w i l l t h e n i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . I n t h e i r model, McCann e t a l . examine schemas about s a f e t y , t r u s t , power, esteem, and i n t i m a c y from f o u r p e r s p e c t i v e s . There a r e schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f and t h o s e r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s . W i t h i n each schema c a t e g o r y , b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e schemas and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a d a p t a t i o n and l a t e r f u n c t i o n i n g are c o n s i d e r e d . I n d i v i d u a l s ' n e g a t i v e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , such as v i c t i m i z a t i o n , w i l l be compared w i t h e x i s t i n g schemas, e i t h e r c h a l l e n g i n g p o s i t i v e b e l i e f s , o r c o n f i r m i n g l a t e n t n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s . 87 I n t h e a r e a o f s a f e t y , f o r example, i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p o s i t i v e s a f e t y schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f w i l l t y p i c a l l y f e e l c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s , g i v e n t h e i r p r i o r s u c c e s s i n k e e p i n g t h e m s e l v e s s a f e . An e x p e r i e n c e o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n may c h a l l e n g e such p o s i t i v e " s e l f - s a f e t y " schemas. A d i s c r e p a n c y between p r e v i o u s l y h e l d b e l i e f s about one's i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y and one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n may, i n some i n s t a n c e s , be overcome by a c t i o n s t h a t a f f i r m one's p o s i t i v e s a f e t y schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f (e.g., i n c r e a s e d p r e c a u t i o n s ) . On t h e o t h e r hand, a v i c t i m may be u n a b l e t o r e s t o r e p r e v i o u s schemas and d e v e l o p n e g a t i v e s e l f - s a f e t y schemas. F o r example, women who a r e s e x u a l l y a s s a u l t e d i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y t h o u g h t s e c u r e ( i . e . , one's own home), may be e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o a c q u i r i n g n e g a t i v e s e l f - s a f e t y schemas ( i . e . , b e l i e f s t h a t t h e y are no l o n g e r a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s and are t h u s v u l n e r a b l e t o f u t u r e harm) (see Scheppele & B a r t , 1983). N e g a t i v e s e l f - s a f e t y schemas may a d v e r s e l y e f f e c t subsequent l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s by c r e a t i n g s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s . Those who b e l i e v e t h e y cannot p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s from danger may f a i l t o t a k e s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e measures. T h i s may i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f h a r m f u l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , which may c o n f i r m and e n t r e n c h n e g a t i v e s e l f - s a f e t y schemas. A c c o r d i n g t o McCann e t a l . , n e g a t i v e s e l f - s a f e t y schemas t e n d t o evoke c h r o n i c a n x i e t y , i n t r u s i v e t h o u g h t s o f danger, and f e a r s r e l a t e d t o f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n . They a r e 88 a l s o l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n u n u s u a l l y h e i g h t e n e d r e s p o n s e s t o s i t u a t i o n s t h a t resemble t h e o r i g i n a l trauma. By c o n t r a s t , t h o s e w i t h more p o s i t i v e s e l f - s a f e t y schemas w i l l l i k e l y not p e r c e i v e t h e same s t i m u l i as t h r e a t e n i n g . I n McCann e t a l . ' s view, a v i c t i m ' s a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e o r r e s t o r e p o s i t i v e schemas r e l a t e d t o s a f e t y , t r u s t , power, esteem, and i n t i m a c y f a c i l i t a t e s t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . The i n a b i l i t y t o do so impedes t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e t r a u m a t i c e v e n t . McCann e t a l . argue t h a t t h e v i c t i m ' s i n a b i l i t y t o a d e q u a t e l y p r o c e s s t h r e a t e n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e g a t e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o a c t i v e memory where i t i s c o n t i n u a l l y r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h i s i s i n v a r i a b l y accompanied by i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , d e f e n s e p r o c e s s e s such as d e n i a l and e m o t i o n a l numbing may emerge t o p r e v e n t t h e p e r s o n from b e i n g overwhelmed. S a f e t y schemas r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s r e f e r t o t h e b e l i e f i n t h e r e l a t i v e b e n e v o l e n t or m a l e v o l e n t i n t e n t i o n s o f o t h e r s . Those w i t h a p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e s a f e t y schema r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s may, a f t e r v i c t i m i z a t i o n , q u a l i f y t h e i r o r i g i n a l schema t o a c c e p t t h a t some but not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s a r e h a r m f u l . A c c o r d i n g t o McCann e t a l . , 1988, i n d i v i d u a l s who had e x p e r i e n c e d o t h e r s as dangerous e a r l y i n l i f e (e.g., c h i l d a b u s e ) , or f o r whom t h i s i s a c u l t u r a l norm, a r e most l i k e l y t o have t h e s e n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s c o n s o l i d a t e d when t h e y a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y harmed t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s . To one w i t h a p r e v i o u s l y n e g a t i v e s a f e t y schema 89 r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n may s e r v e t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e w o r l d i s , i n f a c t , a dangerous p l a c e and t h a t everyone i s a p o t e n t i a l p r e d a t o r . McCann e t a l . n o t e s t h a t some v i c t i m s w i t h p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e s a f e t y schemas r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s may be u n a b l e t o r e c o n c i l e them w i t h t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e and f i n d t h e i r p r i o r b e l i e f s about t h e b e n e v o l e n c e of o t h e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d . Esteem o f t h e s e l f and o f o t h e r s are b o t h v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n (McCann e t a l . , 1988). P o s i t i v e esteem schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f r e f e r t o b e l i e f s i n one's wort h and v a l u e . Those who a r e v i c t i m i z e d may e x p e r i e n c e a p r o f o u n d and sometimes e n d u r i n g impact t o t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m . N e g a t i v e esteem schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f r e s u l t i n g from v i c t i m i z a t i o n can emerge as a b e l i e f t h a t t h e s e l f i s bad, o r w o r t h l e s s and d e s e r v i n g o f s u f f e r i n g . I n McCann e t a l . ' s view, e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e a v i o l a t i o n t o t h e s e l f (e.g., c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n ) a r e more l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n n e g a t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m schemas. Those who undergo d e g r a d i n g o r h u m i l i a t i n g forms of v i c t i m i z a t i o n can e x p e r i e n c e an i n c o n g r u i t y between t h e event and p r e v i o u s l y h e l d p o s i t i v e schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f . In t h i s c a s e , a s t a t e o f a r o u s a l may c o n t i n u e u n t i l t h e s e schemas a r e a l t e r e d o r r e s t o r e d t o r e s o l v e t h e i n c o n g r u i t y (e.g., t h r o u g h c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s t h a t b o l s t e r one's s e l f - esteem) . On t h e o t h e r hand, e x p e r i e n c e s o f v i o l a t i o n o r d e g r a d a t i o n may c o n f i r m p r e e x i s t i n g t a c i t b e l i e f s about t h e badness o r u n w o r t h i n e s s o f t h e s e l f . I n t h i s c a s e , n e g a t i v e 90 s e l f - e s t e e m schemas are a c t i v a t e d and s o l i d i f i e d by one's m i s f o r t u n e . N e g a t i v e esteem schemas r e l a t e d t o t h e s e l f t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y a f f i r m e d by l i f e e x p e r i e n c e (e.g., v i c t i m i z a t i o n ) a r e l i k e l y t o l e a d t o d e p r e s s i o n , g u i l t , shame, and p o s s i b l y t o s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s (McCann et a l . , 1988). An e x p e r i e n c e o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e l f and i n t e n s e s e l f - l o a t h i n g may r e s u l t i n a c t i o n s by v i c t i m s t h a t s y m b o l i c a l l y d e s t r o y p a r t s o f t h e bad s e l f (e.g., s e l f - m u t i l a t i o n , d a n g e r - s e e k i n g ) . I f t h e s e l f i s p e r c e i v e d as u t t e r l y f l a w e d o r damaged, a s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e l i f e s t y l e (e.g., s u b s t a n c e a b u s e ) , o r s u i c i d a l t e n d e n c i e s may emerge, r e f l e c t i n g a sense o f one's fundamental w o r t h l e s s n e s s . Those who a r e harmed t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s may e x p e r i e n c e a p r o f o u n d downward s h i f t i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n o f p e o p l e (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Those w i t h p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e schemas r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s may, as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , m o d i f y t h e i r b e l i e f s t o a c c e p t t h a t o n l y some p e o p l e a r e m a l e v o l e n t . " I u s ed t o t r u s t p e o p l e but I had a bad t h i n g happen t o m e — I was r a p e d — s o when t h i s happened, I kept t h i n k i n g about i t and t h a t i t c o u l d happen a g a i n , o r t o my d a u g h t e r s , and maybe t h i s t i m e I wouldn't be so l u c k y . I mean I was beat and b r u i s e d , but you c o u l d be k i l l e d . " Rape v i c t i m (Wertz, 1985). However, u n s u p p o r t i v e o r i n d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s o f o t h e r s f o l l o w i n g one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n may l e a d t o g e n e r a l i z e d v i e w s o f p e o p l e as b a s i c a l l y u n c a r i n g . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p r e v i o u s l y n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s about o t h e r s may undergo a c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f such b e l i e f s i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f a human- i n d u c e d v i c t i m i z a t i o n . E x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e schemas about o t h e r s t h a t a r e u n r e l e n t i n g may l e a d t o c h r o n i c anger, contempt, b i t t e r n e s s and c y n i c i s m t o w a r d o t h e r s and t h e w o r l d . Those h o l d i n g such b e l i e f s , a c c o r d i n g t o McCann e t a l . , may r e a c t t o genuine a c t s o f c a r i n g w i t h c y n c i s m as t h e y a r e t o o d i s c r e p a n t w i t h e x i s t i n g schemas. As a r e s u l t , such i n d i v i d u a l s may d e p r i v e t h e m s e l v e s of n u r t u r i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s . In t h e i r extreme, t h e s e schemas can l e a d t o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , as w e l l as t o p r o f o u n d d e s p a i r and l o s s o f meaning. McCann e t a l . ' s (1988) model o f r e a c t i o n s t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n seems t o p r o v i d e elements m i s s i n g i n t h e work o f J a n o f f - B u l m a n (1989). McCann e t a l . 1 s model a t t r i b u t e s t h e t r a u m a t i z i n g e f f e c t o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n not o n l y t o a d i s c r e p a n c y between a p r e v i o u s l y h e l d a ssumption (e.g., i l l u s i o n o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y ) and a h a r m f u l e x p e r i e n c e , b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , t o i t s i m p l i c a t i o n ( i . e . , t h a t one i s v u l n e r a b l e ) . In o t h e r words, i t i s t h e v e r y f a c t o f f e e l i n g v u l n e r a b l e t h a t i s t h r e a t e n i n g , even i f i t c o n f i r m s a p r e v i o u s l y h e l d b e l i e f . I t seems t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a h i s t o r y o f n e u r o s i s , d e v e l o p m e n t a l problems, p r i o r v i c t i m i z a t i o n s , and p s y c h i a t r i c d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e o f t e n more s e v e r l y t r a u m a t i z e d — p o s s i b l y , because t h e y may have fewer p r e v i o u s l y p o s i t i v e schemas r e l a t e d t o s a f e t y , t r u s t , power esteem, and i n t i m a c y as r e s o u r c e s t o c o u n t e r t h e n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r u n f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e . 93 CHAPTER III A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CRIME VICTIMS' COPING NEEDS Introduction Those who counsel crime victims, or who act on t h e i r behalf, need a conceptual framework to guide interventions. The American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Victims of Crime and Violence, i n noting the complexity of crime victims' needs, has c a l l e d for interventions with victims based, whenever possible, on theory and research (APA, 1984). Given the d i v e r s i t y of current theories and research findings related to criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n , a integrative framework i s needed to l o g i c a l l y order t h i s extensive knowledge base. A needs assessment can be used to meaningfully organize theory and research findings related to criminal v i c t i m i z a t i o n . A conceptual framework for assessing crime victims' coping needs i s therefore presented for the purpose of f a c i l i t a t i n g interventions with t h i s population. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the framework draws from theory and research to i d e n t i f y what crime victims need i n order to cope, and how these needs may be met. In t h i s framework, several categories of needs are delineated and t h e i r implications for interventions are considered. These categorical d i s t i n c t i o n s are made i n order to operationalize victims' adjustment processes, as well as counselling with t h i s 94 p o p u l a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , t h e framework a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e "what needs t o be done' and "who s h o u l d do what' t o f a c i l i t a t e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g . I n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e framework d i f f e r e n t i a t e s : (A) v i c t i m s ' i n t e r m e d i a t e and l o n g - t e r m c o p i n g needs, (B) what v i c t i m s need from o t h e r s v e r s u s what t h e y need t o do f o r t h e m s e l v e s , and (C) what v i c t i m s need from whom. The d i s t i n c t i o n between v i c t i m s ' i n t e r m e d i a t e and l o n g - t e r m c o p i n g needs i s a k i n t o a d i f f e r e n c e between p r o c e s s and outcome g o a l s i n c o u n s e l l i n g . I n t e r m e d i a t e needs r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o what v i c t i m s need o t h e r s t o do f o r them as w e l l as t o what v i c t i m s need t o do f o r t h e m s e l v e s t o a c h i e v e c e r t a i n c o p i n g - r e l a t e d outcomes. F o r example, c r i m e v i c t i m s may "need' t o r e g a i n a p p r o p r i a t e t r u s t i n t h e b e n e v o l e n c e and s e c u r i t y o f o t h e r s t o overcome f e a r , s u s p i c i o n , i s o l a t i o n and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n . A sense o f t r u s t cannot be d i r e c t l y sought; r a t h e r i t ensues from a p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s o f o t h e r s . As a r e s u l t , r e e s t a b l i s h i n g t r u s t can be deemed a l o n g - t e r m need o r outcome g o a l , t h e p r o d u c t o f i n t e r m e d i a t e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e i t . C e r t a i n a c t i o n s o f t h o s e i n v i c t i m s ' s o c i a l m i l i e u , community, as w e l l as i n r e l e v a n t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (e.g., t h e c o u r t s ) and p r o f e s s i o n s (e.g., m e n t a l h e a l t h ) can h e l p t o r e s t o r e v i c t i m s ' t r u s t . T h e i r f a i l u r e t o do so may f u r t h e r erode v i c t i m s ' t r u s t ( i . e . , "second i n j u r y ' ) . V i c t i m s t h e r e f o r e "need' o t h e r s t o 95 behave i n a t r u s t - e n g e n d e r i n g manner i n o r d e r t o r e g a i n an a b i l i t y t o t r u s t . Such b e h a v i o u r s d e f i n e v i c t i m s ' i n t e r m e d i a t e c o p i n g needs. The d e l i n e a t i o n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e needs p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h c r i m e v i c t i m s ; whereas l o n g - t e r m needs p r o v i d e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r d o i n g so. The i s s u e o f what v i c t i m s need o f o t h e r s v e r s u s what t h e y must do f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n c o r p o r a t e s v i c t i m s ' own " s e l f - h e a l i n g ' c a p a c i t i e s i n t o a c o n c e p t i o n o f v i c t i m s ' needs. These i n n e r r e s o u r c e s t y p i c a l l y r e f e r t o t h e i n d i g e n o u s c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s used, perhaps even u n w i t t i n g l y , by t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on s t r e s s and c o p i n g has b r o u g h t t o l i g h t t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f v i c t i m s ' own c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s , as m a n i f e s t e d by forms of c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n t h a t emerge i n r e sponse t o t h r e a t e n i n g e v e n t s (see S i l v e r & Wortman, 1983; T a y l o r , 1983). I n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h v i c t i m s s h o u l d t a k e i n t o account what v i c t i m s ' can and perhaps s h o u l d b e s t do f o r t h e m s e l v e s . O t h e r s may p l a y a d i r e c t and i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n v i c t i m s ' a d j u s t m e n t , but t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e meaning of one's e x p e r i e n c e , f o r example, may have t o emanate from t h e v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l . A t t e m p t s by o t h e r s t o d i r e c t t h i s p r o c e s s — t h o u g h w e l l - intended--may be n e g a t i v e l y r e c e i v e d by v i c t i m s (see Wortman & Lehman, 1985). T h i s framework a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s "what i s h e l p f u l from whom'. A l t h o u g h s o c i a l s u p p o r t ( i . e . , f a m i l y s u p p o r t ) i s p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c r i m e v i c t i m s ' adjustment (see S a l e s e t a l . , 1983), v i c t i m s have d i f f e r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o f 96 d i f f e r e n t s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s (Dakof & T a y l o r , 1990). These e x p e c t a t i o n s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o p r o v i d e r s ' p e r c e i v e d r o l e f u n c t i o n s , and t h e symbolism a s c r i b e d t o t h e i r r o l e s by v i c t i m s . F o r example, a p o l i c e o f f i c e r a t t e n d i n g a c r i m e scene may be p e r c e i v e d by v i c t i m s not m e r e l y as an i n d i v i d u a l s o u r c e o f a s s u r a n c e but as e x e m p l i f y i n g s o c i e t y ' s r e s p o n s e t o i n j u s t i c e s u f f e r e d by i t s c i t i z e n r y . A s u p p o r t i v e p o l i c e o f f i c e r may s y m b o l i c a l l y convey s o c i e t y ' s commitment t o u p h o l d i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f j u s t i c e and s e c u r i t y . An i n d i f f e r e n t o r c a l l o u s response by a p o l i c e o f f i c e r may, on t h e o t h e r hand, i m p l y t h a t s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s can u l t i m a t e l y not t o be r e l i e d on f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Whereas t h e former e x p e r i e n c e may be p r o f o u n d l y r e a s s u r i n g t o v i c t i m s and f a c i l i t a t e a d j ustment, t h e l a t t e r may p r e c i p i t a t e a d e m o r a l i z a t i o n (Karmen, 1984). C e r t a i n c o p i n g needs of v i c t i m s (e.g., e m o t i o n a l , s u p p o r t , i n f o r m a t i o n , s o c i a l comparison) appear t o be b e s t met by s p e c i f i c s o u r c e s . As a r e s u l t , t h i s framework a d d r e s s e s t h e i s s u e o f who s h o u l d be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n m e e t i n g p a r t i c u l a r c o p i n g needs o f v i c t i m s . A c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r a s s e s s i n g c r i m e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs i s p r e s e n t e d here d e s p i t e t h e i n c o m p l e t e n e s s of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h and t h e o r y . W h i l e c e r t a i n c o p i n g needs o f c r i m e v i c t i m s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , how t h e s e needs may be met i s not always c l e a r . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s framework i s n e v e r t h e l e s s m o t i v a t e d by a need t o a c t g i v e n t h e p l i g h t o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . The needs c a t e g o r i e s t h a t c o m prise t h e framework's s t r u c t u r e a r e s u g g e s t e d by c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e on 97 c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n and r e l a t e d t o p i c s (e.g., s o c i a l s u p p o r t , c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n ) . A framework o f t h e k i n d p r e s e n t e d here may be used not o n l y t o base i n t e r v e n t i o n s , but a l s o t o g e n e r a t e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , as t h e c o n c e p t u a l o r d e r i n g o f needs c a t e g o r i e s may i t s e l f i n d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l a r e a s o f i n q u i r y . Crime v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs The c o p i n g needs of c r i m e v i c t i m s r e f e r t o what v i c t i m s need i n o r d e r t o resume or assume a normal l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s i s , i n a sense, a m i n i m a l e x p e c t a t i o n . V i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t , may a c h i e v e a q u a l i t y o f l i f e e x c e e d i n g one's p r e - v i c t i m i z a t i o n l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g (See S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). A c c o r d i n g t o Wertz (1985), "every (crime) v i c t i m s ' t a s k i s t o r e e s t a b l i s h t h e w o r l d as he(she) p r e f e r s i t f o r h i m ( h e r ) s e l f . " S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s can i n c l u d e a need t o f e e l s a f e a g a i n , t o t r u s t i n o t h e r s , t o view o n e s e l f as p o s i t i v e and competent, and t o e x p e r i e n c e one's w o r l d as b e n e v o l e n t and m e a n i n g f u l - - t h e v e r y o p p o s i t e o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . What v i c t i m s need i n o r d e r t o cope i s e s s e n t i a l l y what i n d i v i d u a l s o r d i n a r i l y need t o f u n c t i o n . However, t h e s e needs o f t e n assume e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i m e n s i o n s i n t h e wake of a human-induced trauma. C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can d i s r u p t p r o c e s s e s n o r m a l l y i n v o l v e d i n m e e t i n g b a s i c needs t h a t s u s t a i n one's everyday f u n c t i o n i n g . As a r e s u l t , c r i m e v i c t i m s may f i n d t h e m s e l v e s s u d d e n l y u n a b l e t o met b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs. 98 Humans' b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs (e.g., t o f e e l s a f e , worthy, t o be i n c o n t r o l ) are s u s t a i n e d , i n l a r g e p a r t , by b e l i e f s i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p over t i m e about t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s — t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t l i f e e v e n t s do not r e n d e r t h e s e b e l i e f s i n s u p p o r t a b l e (see J a n o f f - B u l m a n & F r i e z e , 1983; J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1989; McCann e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) . F o r example, t h e b e l i e f i n one's w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l may be seen as d e r i v i n g from a need t o e x p e r i e n c e one's w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l . M e e t i n g t h e s e needs i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f a human-induced trauma i n v o l v e s t h e b u i l d i n g o r r e b u i l d i n g o f c e r t a i n a d a p t i v e b e l i e f s ( J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1985b). A c o p i n g need f o r v i c t i m s may t h e r e f o r e be a "need' t o once a g a i n e x p e r i e n c e t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l i n t h e l i g h t o f one's m i s f o r t u n e . The v a r i a b i l i t y i n v i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s t o h a r m f u l e v e n t s s u g g e s t s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a n c e i n c o p i n g needs. As a r e s u l t , t h e p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a d a p t i v e b e l i e f s f o l l o w i n g v i c t i m i z a t i o n may be h i g h l y s p e c i f i c t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Those whose p o s i t i v e b e l i e f s were s t r a i n e d may t h e r e f o r e f a c e a d i f f e r e n t c o p i n g t a s k t h a n t h o s e w i t h p r e e x i s t i n g n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s t h a t were c o n s o l i d a t e d by one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Crime v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs a r e not d i s c r e t e but i n t e r r e l a t e d . F o r example, t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f one's w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l may presuppose t h e m e e t i n g o f o t h e r needs (e.g., a p e r c e p t i o n o f o t h e r s as t r u s t w o r t h y ) . The e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s as s a f e and t r u s t w o r t h y may evoke a sense of community, which can, i n t u r n , g i v e a sense of meaning t o 99 one's l i f e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many o f v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g needs may be a d d r e s s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The c o p i n g needs o f v i c t i m s p r e s e n t e d here a r e not e x h a u s t i v e . T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o t h e n a t u r e o f human needs. W h i l e many needs a r e a r g u a b l y s e l f - e v i d e n t (e.g., t o f e e l s a f e , t o t r u s t ) , o t h e r s may be l e s s so (e.g., a need t o b e l i e v e i n a v j u s t - w o r l d ' ) . I n d i v i d u a l s may o p e r a t e on t a c i t b e l i e f s t h a t outcomes are d i s t r i b u t e d on t h e b a s i s o f p r i n c i p l e s o f j u s t i c e and/or p e r s o n a l d e s e r v e d n e s s w i t h o u t awareness t h a t such b e l i e f s g u i d e e x p e c t a t i o n s . Human needs ar e t y p i c a l l y made apparent by consequences t o f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t r e s u l t from t h e i r not b e i n g met. Needs a r e i n f e r r e d from s i g n s o f d i s t r e s s o r d i s c o m f o r t which suggest t h a t c e r t a i n r e q u i s i t e s f o r f u n c t i o n i n g a r e not i n p l a c e . T h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t e n depends on i n d i v i d u a l s ' a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r needs. The d e l i n e a t i o n o f human needs r e l i e s on (and i s l i m i t e d by) one's a b i l i t y t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e s e needs. T h i s p r o c e s s i s i n v a r i a b l y shaped by s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a ssumptions about t h e n a t u r e o f needs. One cannot assume t h a t a l l human needs are r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e and e a s i l y d e f i n e d . A t y p i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s may y e t b r i n g t o l i g h t c e r t a i n human needs whose e x i s t e n c e may o t h e r w i s e not be i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . A need f o r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y The need f o r p e r s o n a l s a f e t y i s among t h e most b a s i c o f human needs (Maslow, 1970). I t i s a need met, i n p a r t , by commonly-held t a c i t b e l i e f s i n one's i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y 100 (Janoff-Bulman & Lang-Gunn, in press; P e r l o f f , 1983). Such b e l i e f s allow one to proceed r e l a t i v e l y free of the intense stress, anxiety and fear that could ensue from a perceived r i s k to one's physical i n t e g r i t y , loved ones, and/or possessions. Traumatic events that render t h i s perception untenable cast l i g h t on intrapsychic processes that o r d i n a r i l y enable individuals to f e e l safe. One who has been c r i m i n a l l y victimized needs to once again f e e l safe to function e f f e c t i v e l y . Victims' safety needs must receive immediate attention following the crime. Young (1988) urges that victims at the "emergency-response stage" be made to f e e l as safe and secure as possible. The environment must over time show that the victims' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c hypervigilance i s no longer necessary (Fischer & Wertz, 1979). Others (i . e . , one's family, s o c i a l network, the community at large) must be p a r t i c u l a r l y sensitive and responsive to victims' heightened need for safety and respond accordingly. Evidence of a safe and h e l p f u l community w i l l hopefully generate i n crime victims the perceptions of a security i n others. Such actions would help to b u i l d or r e b u i l d a more general sense of s o c i a l harmony and security often shattered in the wake of a crime. The safety-engendering actions of p a r t i c u l a r others can assume unique importance. Actions of the p o l i c e and the criminal j u s t i c e system are p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l . Victims' p o s i t i v e appraisals of t h e i r e f f o r t s to apprehend, convict 101 and i n c a r c e r a t e t h e c r i m i n a l can b r i n g on f e e l i n g s o f r e l a t i v e s a f e t y from f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t may r e s t o r e an eroded sense o f s o c i a l o r d e r . " I t h i n k i t ' s good t h a t t h e p o l i c e a re i n v o l v e d so t h a t t h e y can l e t k i d s know what p o s s i b l y c o u l d happen t o them i n t h e f u t u r e . . . " V i c t i m o f a b u r g l a r y (Wertz, 1985) The r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ( i . e . , spouses, f a m i l y members) can have a p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l i z i n g e f f e c t . (see Coyne & DeLongis, 1986; S a l e s e t a l . , 1983). "I'm a l o t more c a r e f u l now. My husband meets me i n t h e p a r k i n g l o t e v e r y n i g h t and I p i t y anyone who t r i e s a n y t h i n g . " V i c t i m o f a s s a u l t (Wertz, 1985). M e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s can c o n t r i b u t e not o n l y t o v i c t i m s ' sense o f s a f e t y among o t h e r s , but a l s o w i t h one's own e m o t i o n a l t u r b u l e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n (1989), t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s a f e " h o l d i n g ' environment i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l t o t h e c o u n s e l l i n g o f c r i m e v i c t i m s . A s t r o n g t h e r a p e u t i c a l l i a n c e t h a t e n a b l e s b o n d i n g , s u p p o r t and t r u s t i s needed t o r e s o l v e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e n i a l / a v o i d a n c e as w e l l as i n t r u s i v e t h o u g h t s . A l s o , t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e t h e g r a d u a l and g e n t l e c h a l l e n g i n g o f v i c t i m s ' m a l a d a p t i v e b e l i e f s . A t h e r a p e u t i c a l l i a n c e i n which t h e c l i e n t f e e l s s e c u r e would l e s s e n t h e r i s k o f v i c t i m i z e d c l i e n t s f e e l i n g v i o l a t e d once a g a i n . 102 O t h e r s s h o u l d , a t t h e same t i m e , a v o i d e n g aging i n b e h a v i o u r s i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f v i c t i m s t h a t may evoke f e e l i n g s o f t h r e a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c r i m e . F o r example, e x p r e s s i o n s o f i n t e n s e anger toward t h e p e r p e t r a t o r , though i n a p p a rent sympathy w i t h t h e v i c t i m , may s t i r up f o r t h e v i c t i m r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e c r i m e . I n d i v i d u a l s a r e i n a sense t h e f i n a l a r b i t e r s o f t h e i r own s a f e t y , f o r b e t t e r o r worse. V i c t i m s must be a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e t h e p o s i t i v e response o f o t h e r s and e s t a b l i s h a sense o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y . F o l l o w i n g one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n , t h i s view might be o f a w o r l d t h a t i s n e i t h e r w h o l l y b e n e v o l e n t nor m a l e v o l e n t , as w e l l as a s e l f t h a t i s n e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y i n v u l n e r a b l e n or t o t a l l y v u l n e r a b l e . Some v i c t i m s w i t h p r o f o u n d l y n e g a t i v e s a f e t y schemas may be o n l y m i n i m a l l y r e a s s u r e d by t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f o t h e r s . O t h e r s , on t h e o t h e r hand, may f e e l t o o r e a d i l y a s s u r e d and n e g l e c t t o t a k e needed p r e c a u t i o n s t o a v o i d f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The s u b j e c t i v e n e s s o f one's sense o f s a f e t y p o i n t s t o t h e c r i t i c a l r o l e o f v i c t i m s ' own c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n i n adjustment (e.g., s e l e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ) . Some v i c t i m s may be a b l e t o r e d e f i n e o r a p p r a i s e t h e i r v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e so as t o m i n i m i z e a sense o f r i s k o f f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n . O t h e r s may, as a r e s u l t , be l i m i t e d i n what t h e y may u l t i m a t e l y do f o r v i c t i m s . There a r e , f o r example, c e r t a i n s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s which i n d i v i d u a l s must i n i t i a t e on t h e i r own, t h a t o t h e r s may be un a b l e t o do f o r them (e.g., o b t a i n an u n l i s t e d phone number). The b u i l d i n g o r r e b u i l d i n g o f a 103 b e l i e f i n one's r e l a t i v e s a f e t y can be a l o n g - t e r m p r o c e s s , a c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e f f o r t s o f a v a r i e t y o f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e v i c t i m . A need t o t r u s t C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e need t o f e e l s a f e i s a need t o t r u s t . P e r c e p t i o n s o f one's s a f e t y depend on a t r u s t i n one's s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s (e.g., t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s hazardous s i t u a t i o n s ) , as w e l l as i n t h e s a f e t y o f o t h e r s . McCann e t a l . (1988) have i d e n t i f i e d t r u s t as a " v u l n e r a b i l i t y - r e l e v a n t " a s s u mption. Those who have s u f f e r e d human-induced harm (e.g., c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n ) r i s k a l o s s o f t r u s t b o t h i n t h e m s e l v e s and i n o t h e r s . I n d i v i d u a l s who had p r e v i o u s l y f e l t c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s and judgments may f i n d a t r u s t i n o n e s e l f p r o f o u n d l y shaken i f t h e i r judgments f a i l e d t o p r o t e c t them from harm (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Loss o f f a i t h i n one's a b i l i t y t o make s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e c h o i c e s can l e a d t o g r e a t a n x i e t y , e x c e s s i v e c a u t i o n , c o n f u s i o n and p a r a l y s i s . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d s e l f - t r u s t p r e - d a t i n g a v i c t i m i z a t i o n (e.g.., e a r l y c h i l d abuse) may be u n i q u e l y v u l n e r a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y t o b e i n g i n v a l i d a t e d by p o w e r f u l o t h e r s . A r e s t o r a t i o n o f t r u s t i n o n e s e l f i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e adjustment o f c r i m e v i c t i m s . C o n f i d e n c e i n one's a b i l i t y t o a c c u r a t e l y a p p r a i s e p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous s i t u a t i o n s h e l p s r e s t o r e a sense o f p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f u t u r e v i c t i m i z a t i o n . E s t a b l i s h i n g t r u s t i n o n e s e l f can be a l o n g - t e r m p r o c e s s t h a t r e s u l t s from a c t i o n s o f b o t h t h e v i c t i m and h i s / h e r 104 s o c i a l m i l i e u . B e i n g s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r s i n t h e v a l i d i t y o f one's p r e f e r e n c e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and good judgments can h e l p v i c t i m s t o i n c r e a s e s e l f - t r u s t . A t t h e same t i m e , o t h e r s , n o t a b l y m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , s h o u l d a v o i d g i v i n g a d v i c e t o o r e a d i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y u n s o l i c i t e d a d v i c e , o r i n t e r v e n i n g t o o a c t i v e l y , as t h i s may i n t e f e r e w i t h v i c t i m s d e v e l o p i n g f a i t h i n t h e i r own judgments (McCann e t a l . , 1988). I t i s as y e t u n c l e a r how d i f f e r i n g s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t (e.g., spouse, mental h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r , s i m i l a r o t h e r ) would be d i f f e r e n t i a l l y p e r c e i v e d by v i c t i m s i n t h i s p r o c e s s . Dakof and T a y l o r (1990) found t h a t v i c t i m s appear t o v a l u e a form o f s u p p o r t t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d r o l e o f t h e p r o v i d e r . T h i s would s u g g e s t , f o r example, t h a t v a l i d a t i o n o f one's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e by a s i m i l a r o t h e r ( i . e . , a n o t h e r c r i m e v i c t i m ) may be most c r e d i b l e t o a v i c t i m . S i m i l a r o t h e r s may t h u s p l a y a u n i q u e l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n h e l p i n g v i c t i m s ' b u i l d s e l f - t r u s t . I n t e r p e r s o n a l t r u s t i s f r a g i l e and e a s i l y e r o d e d a f t e r a s u f f e r i n g human-induced harm (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Crime v i c t i m s have t o account f o r a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s t h a t a r e g r o s s l y u n f a i r and m a l i c i o u s . T h i s can l e a d t o a g e n e r a l d i s t r u s t i n p e o p l e , r e s u l t i n g from e i t h e r a d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n o t h e r s , o r a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f one's n e g a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s . " I was s c a r e d t o de a t h when my husband would l e a v e t h e house...I am r e a l l y s u s p i c i o u s o f everybody... even when t h e p o l i c e c a l l e d y e s t e r d a y and he says t h i s guy's [ r e s e a r c h i n t e r v i e w e r ] g o i n g t o c a l l you. I s a i d w e l l , I don't know...I went t o p i e c e s . " 105 Robbery v i c t i m ( F i s c h e r & Wertz, 1979). An e n t r e n c h e d and p e r v a s i v e d i s t r u s t o f o t h e r s o f t e n r e s u l t s from a f a i l u r e by t h o s e v i c t i m s count on t o a d e q u a t e l y r e s p o n d t o t h e i r s u p p o r t needs ( i . e . , N s e c o n d i n j u r y 1 ) . A c r i m e v i c t i m may r e c o n c i l e h i m / h e r s e l f t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c e r t a i n p r e d a t o r y o t h e r s ( i . e . , c r i m i n a l s ) , but a p e r c e i v e d b e t r a y a l by t h o s e one o t h e r w i s e depended on may erode one's sense of s o c i a l f a b r i c . "The i n s u r a n c e company robbed me a g a i n . We l o s t $5,0.00 w o r t h o f s t u f f and t h e y o n l y p a i d $2,100. H e l l , I got robbed t w i c e . " B u r g l a r y v i c t i m (Wertz, 1985) A r e s p o n s i v e , p r o t e c t i v e , h e l p f u l community e n a b l e s v i c t i m s ' t o overcome m i s t r u s t , anger, b i t t e r n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . W i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s ' t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s , one can resume s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h a c o n f i d e n c e t h a t one has some p r o t e c t i o n from harm and b e t r a y a l . V i c t i m s need e v i d e n t l y t o t r u s t not o n l y i n t h e s a f e t y o f o t h e r s but a l s o i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h o s e t h e y r e l y on f o r h e l p and s u p p o r t (e.g., spouse, f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , p o l i c e ) . "We moved out o f t h a t bad neighbourhood and now we have p e o p l e who c a r e around us. One l a d y walks h e r dog and makes s u r e e v e r y t h i n g l o o k s s t r a i g h t . We're c l o s e r t o our n e i g h b o u r s now and I doubt any one c o u l d get away w i t h a n y t h i n g h e r e . " Robbery v i c t i m (Wertz, 1985) V i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s must, i n t h e end, p o s s e s s an a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e t h e h e l p f u l and r e s p o n s i v e e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s so as t o t r u s t . Those w i t h a s o l i d i f i e d d i s t r u s t o f o t h e r s , and/or a p r o f o u n d i n a b i l i t y t o t r u s t one's own judgments may f i n d t h e s u p p o r t i v e e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s t o o d i s c r e p a n t w i t h t h e i r own c o n c e p t u a l systems. As a r e s u l t , such i n d i v i d u a l s may be o n l y m a r g i n a l l y i m p a c t e d by o t h e r s ' b e s t s u p p o r t i v e e f f o r t s . A need f o r esteem A paradox o f t h e c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m by t h o s e v i c t i m i z e d by o t h e r s . O b j e c t i v e l y , c r i m e v i c t i m s d i d no wrong but were t h e m s e l v e s wronged. S t i l l , an onus o f s e l f - i m p o s e d c u l p a b i l i t y t e n d s t f a l l on t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h e c o u r s e o f b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d and i t s a f t e r m a t h , i n d i v i d u a l s o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e t h e m s e l v e s as weak, h e l p l e s s , needy, f r i g h t e n e d and p o w e r l e s s i n t h e f a c e o f f o r c e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l ( K r u p n i c k & H o r o w i t z , 1980). Assumptions o f one's sense o f agency can be su d d e n l y r e n d e r e d as no l o n g e r t e n a b l e . V i c t i m s may, as a r e s u l t , s u f f e r p r o f o u n d and, a t t i m e s , l a s t i n g e f f e c t s t o t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Some v i c t i m s may come t o b e l i e v e t h e y a r e somehow r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v i l a c t s , o r a r e w o r t h l e s s and d e s e r v i n g o f s u f f e r i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e s e e v e n t s a c t i v a t e p r e - e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s about one's badness o r u n w o r t h i n e s s . T h i s can r e s u l t i n p r o f o u n d d e p r e s s i o n , shame g u i l t , and p o s s i b l y s u i c i d a l t e n d e n c i e s . V i c t i m s need t o r e s t o r e o r g a i n a sense o f t h e i r own wo r t h and v a l u e as human b e i n g s . Others can p l a y a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n t h i s p r o c e s s by b e i n g r e s p o n s i v e , a f f i r m i n g , non- c r i t i c a l and a c c u r a t e l y empathic. The r o l e o f s i g n i f i c a n t 107 o t h e r s o r spouses may be p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l i n t h i s r e g a r d (Coyne & D e l o n g i s , 1986; Dakof & T a y l o r , 1990) . "My husband h e l p e d a l o t . I f I had t o go t h r o u g h i t a l o n e , I wouldn't have made i t , "cause i t h e l p s t o c r y l i k e a baby and you need t h e c o m f o r t , t h e arms, t h e a f f e c t i o n . My husband used t o be t h e h a r d t y p e , but he r e a l l y t u r n e d s o f t , l i k e "don't worry I'm h e r e . " You r e a l l y need somebody t o h e l p you t h r o u g h i t , somebody t o t a l k t o . " V i c t i m o f a s s a u l t (Wertz, 1985) C o n t a c t w i t h s i m i l a r o t h e r s can be p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l i n overcoming p e r c e p t i o n s o f one's d e v i a n c y (see Coates and Winston, 1983). Lehman e t a l . (1986) a l s o found t h a t v i c t i m s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d c o n t a c t w i t h s i m i l a r o t h e r s as h e l p f u l . Crime v i c t i m s w i t h d i m i n i s h e d s e l f - e s t e e m may be e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o b e i n g blamed, c r i t i c i z e d o r d e v a l u e d . N e g a t i v e or c r i t i c a l remarks may evoke v i c t i m s ' own s e l f - c r i t i c i s m s . Others s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e a v o i d not o n l y d e r o g a t o r y remarks t o v i c t i m s , but a l s o s e e m i n g l y n e u t r a l b e h a v i o u r s t h a t may be n e g a t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d by t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . F o r example, c a s u a l i n q u i r i e s i n t o v i c t i m s ' r o l e i n t h e i r own m i s f o r t u n e may be c o n s t r u e d by v i c t i m s as blame f o r t h e i r own f a t e . M e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , s h o u l d be aware o f how t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n shapes t h e i r s t y l e o f q u e s t i o n i n g , and how t h i s may be p e r c e i v e d by v i c t i m i z e d c l i e n t s (see Coates e t a l . , 1979). F o r example, e x t e n s i v e q u e s t i o n s about e v e n t s p r e - d a t i n g t h e v i c t i m i z a t i o n may i m p l y t h a t v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e r o o t e d i n c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r d e f i c i e n c i e s . 108 Also, victims with a profoundly negative view of the s e l f may f i n d considerable caring or closeness by a therapist or others too frightening to be assimilated (McCann et a l . (1988). It may evoke fears of being hurt or of betrayal associated with e a r l i e r trauma (e.g., c h i l d abuse). Such experiences can activate a defensive avoidance, as they are too discrepant with the one's self-schemas. Victims themselves can assume a c r i t i c a l r o le i n developing p o s i t i v e self-perceptions. The use of s e l f - enhancing cognitive strategies (e.g., s e l e c t i v e evaluation) and new learning (e.g., assertiveness training) are both associated with more e f f e c t i v e coping (Burgess & Holstrom, 1979; Janoff-Bulman, 1985b). Furthermore, to benefit from esteem-enhancing pote n t i a l of s o c i a l support, one may have to seek i t out and be able to meaningfully integrate i t into one's conceptual system. In the aftermath of a human-induced v i o l a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s need to be able to hold others i n esteem to derive benefit from the healing properties of human rela t i o n s h i p s . Being degraded or v i o l a t e d by another can profoundly lessen victims' estimation of people, leading to generalized b e l i e f s that others are malicious, predatory or i n d i f f e r e n t . This can res u l t i n demoralization and i n a s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e withdrawal from others. It i s v i t a l that victims of human-induced harm experience others as supportive, responsive and caring. Reactions of others following one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n can determine whether a 109 n e g a t i v e e s t i m a t i o n o f o t h e r s i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y s e l e c t i v e or a g e n e r a l i z e d d e v a l u a t i o n . I t may t h e r e f o r e be e s s e n t i a l t h a t v i c t i m s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l and m e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s a d d r e s s "second i n j u r y " i s s u e s . P r e v i o u s l y , v i c t i m s have been l e f t on t h e i r own t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m a t i c r e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s (Downing, 1988). Those w i t h p e r v a s i v e l y n e g a t i v e views o f o t h e r s o f t e n d e v a l u e t h e b e n e v o l e n t e f f o r t s o f s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Such i n d i v i d u a l s t e n d t o e x p e c t i n s i n c e r i t y and b e t r a y a l , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r n e g a t i v e schemas o f o t h e r s . T h i s p o p u l a t i o n may t h e r e f o r e need s u b s t a n t i a l commitment on t h e p a r t o f h e l p e r s t o g r a d u a l l y overcome t h e s e n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s - - a t t h e same t i m e , w i t h perhaps l i m i t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s u c c e s s . Support p r o v i d e r s t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o u n d e r s t a n d and r e s p e c t t h e s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n o f such g e n e r a l i z e d n e g a t i v e b e l i e f s . M e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s may p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n c h a l l e n g i n g t h e s e m a l a d a p t i v e b e l i e f s , assuming v i c t i m s a r e w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p r o c e s s . A need f o r i n t i m a c y I n t i m a c y i s g e n e r a l l y thought o f as a c o n n ectedness t o o t h e r s . I t can r e f e r as w e l l t o r e l a t e d n e s s t o o n e s e l f . Kohut (1971) has d e s c r i b e d t h e i n n e r r e s o u r c e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d which n o u r i s h t h e s e l f . These i n n e r s e l f - s t r u c t u r e s e n a b l e one t o be a l o n e w i t h o u t f e e l i n g l o n e l y or empty. S e l f - s o o t h i n g and s e l f - c a l m i n g c a p a c i t i e s can, i n Kohut's view, form a c r i t i c a l p a r t o f a s t a b l e and c o h e s i v e 110 s e l f . In the absence of such inner resources, one may experience a self-estrangement which can resu l t i n anxiety, dread and despair. Individuals who been victimized may vary i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to marshall self-calming capacities i n time of stress. Those with a p r i o r history of drawing support from the s e l f may be less traumatized given an expectation of accessing such resources once again (McCann et a l . , 1988). Certain forms of v i c t i m i z a t i o n may, however, be so overwhelming and intense that preexisting i n t e r n a l resources may become depleted. As a result, victims may f e e l overwhelmed by unmanageable levels of anxiety without the hope of being able to manage these feelings. Victims with negative self-intimacy schemas may experience a profound i n a b i l i t y to comfort and calm the s e l f . This can lead to a fear of being alone, as well as a sense of inner emptiness or dread (McCann et a l . , 1988). If such indiv i d u a l s experience p a i n f u l memories or emotions when alone, i t may result i n a fear of di s i n t e g r a t i o n or panic. They may, as a result, look continually to external sources of comfort such as drugs, alcohol, food, medications, or sex (Wilson, 1989) . Those who have been victimized need to restore or develop a capacity for self-intimacy, that i s , the a b i l i t y to draw on inner resources to soothe and comfort the s e l f i n times of d i s t r e s s . According to Kohut (1971), such inner resources are usually acquired i n early childhood through I l l t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f a r e s p o n s i v e and empathic p a r e n t . T h i s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n can o c c u r s u b s e q u e n t l y i n a t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . Support p r o v i d e r s may t h e r e f o r e f a c i l t a t e v i c t i m s ' a djustment t h r o u g h h e a l i n g s o c i a l c o n t a c t s t h a t a re c a l m i n g and s o o t h i n g . I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ( i . e . , spouse) can p l a y a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n t h i s r e g a r d (Coyne & DeLongis, 1986; Dakof & T a y l o r , 1990). However, p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u a l e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t t o t h o s e who ar e p r o f o u n d l y l a c k i n g i n s e l f - c a l m i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s may r e s u l t i n p r o v i d e r s e v e n t u a l l y becoming d e p l e t e d (see Coyne e t a l . , 1988; K e s s l e r e t a l . , 1985a). M e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s may t h e r e f o r e p l a y a c r i t i c a l a d j u n c t r o l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c r i s i s c a l l s t h a t r e s u l t from v i c t i m s ' i n a b i l i t y t o soothe t h e s e l f . I n McCann e t a l . ' s (1988) view, b r i e f c o n t a c t s t h a t a re c a l m i n g and s o o t h i n g a r e u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t t o reduce t h e n e g a t i v e a f f e c t s o f t h i s s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , c l i n i c i a n s can assume t h e p r i n c i p l e t h e r a p e u t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t r e a t i n g t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . A r e l a t e d n e s s t o o t h e r s has been c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e most b a s i c o f human needs (e.g., Maslow, 1971; E r i k s o n , 1963). I t i s a need most a c u t e l y f e l t a f t e r a d i s t r e s s i n g event (Coates e t a l . , 1979). The r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f o t h e r s can g r e a t l y l e s s e n one's r e s u l t i n g s t r e s s . E x p r e s s i o n s o f c o n c e r n , p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o v e n t i l a t e f e e l i n g s , i n v o l v e m e n t i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and t h e mere p r e s e n c e o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n were found by v i c t i m i z e d r e c i p i e n t s t o be 112 among t h e most h e l p f u l s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s (Lehman e t a l . , 1986). A t t h e same t i m e , t h e a b i l i t y t o be i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d t o o t h e r s i s f r a g i l e and can be e a s i l y damaged or d e s t r o y e d by o t h e r s ' h u r t f u l o r unempathic r e s p o n s e s (McCann e t a l . , 1988). I n i t s more extreme forms, one may e x p e r i e n c e a b reak i n t h e i r connectedness w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s , r e s u l t i n g i n a p r o f o u n d sense o f m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s and f u t i l i t y . To e s t a b l i s h o r r e s t o r e a v i c t i m ' s sense o f c onnectedness w i t h o t h e r s , he/she must i d e a l l y e x p e r i e n c e one's s o c i a l network, th e community a t l a r g e , s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as empathic, h e l p f u l and r e s p o n s i v e . At t h e same t i m e , t h o s e who have s u f f e r e d human-induced trauma may have a r e d u c e d c a p a c i t y t o i n t e g r a t e t h e c a r i n g o f o t h e r s . Support p r o v i d e r s may c o n s e q u e n t l y become d i s c o u r a g e d by t h e a pparent f r u i t l e s s n e s s o f t h e i r e f f o r t s , and r e a c t w i t h h u r t and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . Those who have been p r o f o u n d l y t r a u m a t i z e d and have e r e c t e d d e f e n s e s t o a v o i d f u t u r e h u r t may need p a r t i c u l a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s , as w e l l as c o n s i d e r a b l e p a t i e n c e . A need f o r agency V a r i o u s t h e o r i s t s (e.g., De Charms, 1968; Gecas, 1989) have argued t h a t a c h i e v i n g c o n t r o l o r mastery over one's environment i s a p r i n c i p a l human m o t i v a t i o n . Loss o f c o n t r o l , e s p e c i a l l y under adv e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , can b r i n g on i n t e n s e d i s t r e s s l e a d i n g t o e f f o r t s t o r e g a i n c o n t r o l , ( S t r i c k l a n d , 1989). A f a i l u r e t o p e r c e i v e one's environment 113 as c o n t r o l l a b l e can have p r o f o u n d l y n e g a t i v e consequences. A c c o r d i n g t o Abramson, Seligman, & T e a s d a l e (1978), a p e r c e p t i o n o f n o n c o n t i n g e n c y between one's e f f o r t s and subsequent outcome can e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n an a c u t e l y m a l a d a p t i v e p a s s i v i t y , o r " l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s ' , i n which i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l u n a b l e t o escape a v e r s i v e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The p e s s i m i s m and h o p e l e s s n e s s t h a t ensue from l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s has been thought t o cause d e p r e s s i o n ( S t r i c k l a n d , 1989). Having c o n t r o l o f one's environment i s h i g h l y v a l u e d i n w e s t e r n s o c i e t y , which promotes mastery, s e l f - r e l i a n c e and achievement (Gecas, 1989). Those w i t h a sense o f e f f i c a c y may e x p e r i e n c e t h e m s e l v e s not m e r e l y i n c o n t r o l , but as p e r s o n a l l y e x e m p l i f y i n g c u l t u r a l i d e a l s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f a l a c k o f c o n t r o l , on t h e o t h e r hand, may d o u b l y burden one as a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g f a i l e d t o meet p e r c e i v e d s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . H a r m f u l l i f e e v e n t s such as c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can p r o f o u n d l y t h r e a t e n one's sense o f c o n t r o l . These e v e n t s , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , i n t r o d u c e chaos and u n c e r t a i n t y . The p e r c e p t i o n o f agency i n v o l v e s not m e r e l y a s s e r t i n g a c t u a l c o n t r o l i n t h e p r e s e n t but a l s o e x p e c t a n c i e s f o r f u t u r e o c c u r r e n c e s . As a r e s u l t , t h o s e w i t h a s h a t t e r e d sense o f agency may f e e l v u l n e r a b l e t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e . Themes o f power and p o w e r l e s s n e s s become c e n t r a l i s s u e s f o r v i c t i m s (McCann e t a l . , 1988). 114 In t h e wake o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n , a p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f c o n t r o l can pervade one's b e i n g . I t can be e x p e r i e n c e d as a f r i g h t e n i n g l a c k o f c o n t r o l o v er one's own e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y or r e a c t i v i t y . In t h e case o f a s s a u l t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s e x u a l a s s a u l t , i t can be f e l t as a l a c k o f c o n t r o l o v er one's b o d i l y i n t e g r i t y . V i c t i m s ' r e a c t i o n s may v a r y w i t h p r i o r b e l i e f s about one's p e r s o n a l power (McCann e t a l . , 1988). Those w i t h u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o n t r o l can be p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t r e s s e d f o l l o w i n g an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e , t r a u m a t i c e v e n t . The e x p e r i e n c e of i n t e n s e emotions r e l a t e d t o t h e event such as f e a r , g r i e f and anger can be e s p e c i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g as t h e y may compound one's sense of b e i n g out o f c o n t r o l . S e l f - p r o t e c t i v e o v e r c o n t r o l r e a c t i o n s such as a v o i d i n g emotions a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v u l n e r a b i l i t y may d e v e l o p . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h o s e w i t h u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y low e x p e c t a t i o n s of c o n t r o l ( i . e . , l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s ) may r e a c t w i t h a sense o f f u t i l i t y and d e s p a i r . I n d i v i d u a l s who have been c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d need t o g a i n c o n t r o l over a s p e c t s of t h e i r l i f e and b e i n g , t h a t have, i n a sense, been t a k e n from them. The s h a t t e r i n g o f one's sense of c o n t r o l , or t h e c o n f i r m i n g o f b e l i e f s about one's l a c k o f agency can l e a d t o m a l a d a p t i v e views o f t h e s e l f as weak, h e l p l e s s and i n a d e q u a t e . P e r c e p t i o n s o f one's mastery, or l a c k t h e r e o f , a r e , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i n t i m a t e l y bound w i t h one's s e l f - c o n c e p t . A p o s i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n can r e s u l t i n a more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v iew of one's power and s e l f 115 that involves expectancies of future control or mastery that are neither extremely high nor low. Others (e.g:, family, friends, counsellors, p o l i c e , the courts) may f a c i l i t a t e the empowerment of victims by being s e n s i t i v e and responsive to victims' e f f o r t s to reassert control over t h e i r l i v e s . Support providers should avoid behaviours—although well-intended--that victims may consider i n t r u s i v e (e.g., u n s o l i c i t e d advice), or i n f r i n g i n g on t h e i r autonomy. Also, support providers should be sens i t i v e to victims' need for r e c i p r o c i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the provider. Victims need to f e e l that they can do things for others, despite t h e i r own heightened needs. Symonds (1980) urges that mental health professionals restore power to a victimized i n d i v i d u a l through an approach that i s "non-challenging, non-contradictory and supportive". In p a r t i c u l a r , Symonds recommends counsellors seek p r i o r consensus before proceeding with various phases of an interview (e.g., "Do you mind i f I ask you the following question?"). Victimized individuals can play an important part i n gaining or regaining a sense of agency through t h e i r own cognitive adaptation strategies, as well as through changes in behaviour. "Now, I've got a dog who barks loud whenever anyone comes near the house, and when he barks I get up and turn on the flood l i g h t s I had i n s t a l l e d . " Victim of vandalism (Wertz, 1985) 116 A need t o p e r c e i v e t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l P r i o r t o v i c t i m i z a t i o n , one's e x p e r i e n c e o f agency, o f p e r s o n a l i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y , o f w o r t h i n e s s , and o f o t h e r s as t r u s t w o r t h y can r e n d e r t h e w o r l d o r d e r l y and c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . The w o r l d as a r e s u l t "makes sense' and e v e n t s can be a c c o u n t e d f o r . In a m e a n i n g f u l w o r l d , we know what t o e x p e c t and why p e r s o n a l harm o c c u r s . A c c o r d i n g t o L e r n e r and M i l l e r (1978), a p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l i s s u s t a i n e d as w e l l by a t a c i t b e l i e f t h a t b e i n g good and worthy can p r o t e c t one a g a i n s t m i s f o r t u n e . The w o r l d i s t h e r e b y seen as not o n l y c o n t r o l l a b l e but j u s t , where p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y get what t h e y d e s e r v e . Harmful e v e n t s may t h u s be p r e v e n t e d not o n l y by e x e r c i s i n g c a u t i o n , but by a l s o e x e m p l i f y i n g goodness and decency. W h i l e such b e l i e f s may appear n a i v e , t h e i r i m p l i c i t n a t u r e and s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n may r e n d e r them somewhat i m p e r v i o u s t o easy d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n . B e i n g t h e v i c t i m o f a c r i m e , e s p e c i a l l y a s e r i o u s c r i m e , can s h a t t e r one's view o f t h e w o r l d as m e a n i n g f u l l y o r d e r e d (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; J a n o f f - B u l m a n , 1985b). Those who had p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as good and c a u t i o u s may f i n d t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s f a i l e d t o p r o t e c t them from harm. As a r e s u l t , t h e y can undergo a p r o f o u n d l o s s o f meaning as t h e i r v i c t i m i z a t i o n c o n t r a d i c t s p r i o r b e l i e f s about t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f j u s t i c e and t h e c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f e v e n t s . A l t h o u g h v i c t i m s a r e g e n e r a l l y aware o f r e a s o n s f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c r i m e , why i t happened t o them i n p a r t i c u l a r t e n d s t o become t h e f o c u s o f a s e a r c h f o r meaning (J a n o f f - B u l m a n & Lang- 117 Gunn, i n p r e s s ) . The question "why me" can be understood as an attempt to counter the f r i g h t e n i n g a r b i t r a r i n e s s of the crime and i t s evocation of world that has l o s t i t s order and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . Crime v i c t i m s need to once again perceive t h e i r world as meaningful. A c r i t i c a l aspect of t h i s i s t o make sense of one's own negative experience ( S i l v e r & Wortman, 1980). The v i c t i m i z i n g event must somehow be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o one's conceptual system i n a way that r e s t o r e s a sense of coherence t o one's l i f e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , to one's fragmented s e l f . E f f o r t s by others (e.g., f a m i l y , neighbours, p o l i c e , the courts) t h a t help v i c t i m s regain a sense of s a f e t y , agency, t r u s t and the benevolence of others can engender perceptions of one's world as meaningful d e s p i t e an experience of human-induced harm. "When the p o l i c e got our s t u f f back, I was so g r a t e f u l and s u r p r i s e d . There's some j u s t i c e i n the world a f t e r a l l " . V i c t i m of a bu r g l a r y (Wertz, 1985) Regaining a sense of meaning i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t r a p s y c h i c event, though the a c t i o n s of others i n f l u e n c e t h i s process. I t i s an aspect of coping t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i c t i m s ' i d i o c y n c r a t i c use of c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e i r negative experience. V i c t i m s ' behaviours t h a t r e s u l t from t h i s process can be p u z z l i n g and appear c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e to others (e.g., self-blame, r e i n t e r p r e t i n g one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t , d e n i a l ) (Bard & Sangrey, 1986; Janoff-Bulman, 1989). I t i s important t h a t 118 o t h e r s , n o t a b l y f a m i l y members and mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , u n d e r s t a n d and r e s p e c t v i c t i m s ' m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r i n n e r r e s o u r c e s t o cope w i t h t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e . A c c o r d i n g t o Wertz (1985), "sense-making.... d i s p e l s t h e shock, d i s b e l i e f and c o n f u s i o n , t h e uncanny i r r a t i o n a l i t y o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n , b e s t o w i n g on i t i n c r e a s i n g l y p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s . " Other r e l a t e d needs Other c o p i n g needs o f c r i m e v i c t i m s r e q u i r e emphasis. Though many have been a l l u d e d t o , t h e y s h o u l d be r e s t a t e d t o s t r e s s t h e i r i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n ad j u s t m e n t . Crime v i c t i m s need s o c i a l s u p p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a m i l y s u p p o r t , t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r l o n g - t e r m a d j u s t m e n t . In t h e c o n t e x t o f s u p p o r t , v i c t i m s need t o f e e l u n d e r s t o o d . F a m i l y members, f r i e n d s , m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s , p o l i c e and o t h e r s who i n t e r a c t w i t h c r i m e v i c t i m s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be knowledgeable o f t h e impact o f c r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n and i t s complex p s y c h o l o g y so t h e y may r e l a t e t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n f o r m e d p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . V i c t i m s t h e m s e l v e s need i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e n a t u r e o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n so t h e y may know what t o e x p e c t i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r a djustment p r o c e s s . F o r example, knowing t h a t p e r i o d s o f h e i g h t e n e d d i s t r e s s may n o r m a l l y r e c u r a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l c r i s i s can h e l p one t o b e t t e r cope w i t h such e v e n t s . V i c t i m s need t o f e e l normal, not merely as an outcome o f adj u s t m e n t , but w i t h i n t h e adjustment p r o c e s s i t s e l f . V i c t i m s need, as a r e s u l t , t h u s t o p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as 119 c o p i n g n o r m a l l y r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r v i c t i m s . A l s o , v i c t i m s need t o r e e x p e r i e n c e o r e x p e r i e n c e t h e w o r l d as b e n e v o l e n t where p e o p l e a r e b a s i c a l l y good, k i n d , h e l p f u l and c a r i n g , and where m i s f o r t u n e i s r e l a t i v e l y uncommon. F u r t h e r m o r e , c r i m e v i c t i m s need t o e x p e r i e n c e j u s t i c e t h r o u g h t h e l e g a l system so t h e y may p e r c e i v e outcomes t o be governed by p r i n c i p l e s o f j u s t i c e . Crime v i c t i m s may need f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t a d d ress i s s u e s such as "second i n j u r i e s ' t o t h e m s e l v e s , as w e l l as t h e secondary v i c t i m i z a t i o n o f f a m i l y members. A p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l component can i n f o r m b o t h v i c t i m s and f a m i l y members as t o what t h e y may a n t i c i p a t e i n wake o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . D i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h The impact o f t h e c o g n i t i v e " r e v o l u t i o n ' i s v e r y e v i d e n t i n v i c t i m i z a t i o n s t u d i e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n and c o p i n g f o c u s on t h e e f f e c t o f h a r m f u l l i f e e v e n t s on t a c i t b e l i e f systems, and on t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f a d a p t i v e b e l i e f s i n t h e wake o f m i s f o r t u n e (see J a n o f f - Bulman, 1989; T a y l o r , 1983). There has, however, been i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e g r a t i v e r e s e a r c h on t h e v a r i e d t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . C o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n by v i c t i m s (e.g., r e d e f i n i n g t h e e v e n t ) , c o n s i d e r e d a c r i t i c a l p a r t o f adjustment, has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y l i n k e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s ' c o n c e p t u a l systems. As a r e s u l t , c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n t e n d s t o be d e p i c t e d as an autonomous p r o c e s s , and i t s c o g n i t i v e p r e c u r s o r s as l a r g e l y m y s t e r i o u s . 120 I t would be u s e f u l t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between one's t a c i t b e l i e f s and t h e r e s u l t i n g c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , so t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s may be m o b i l i z e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of i n t e r v e n t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h p o o r l y c o p i n g v i c t i m s . Presumably, a c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g y would have t o be l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h one's t a c i t b e l i e f s t o be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . F o r example, t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t one's v i c t i m i z a t i o n was s a t e s t i n g o f one's f a i t h by God' p r e supposes t h e a c c e p t a n c e of a t r a n s c e n d e n t b e i n g , and a b e l i e f i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f outcomes based on r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s . Whether t h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e c r i m e o r emerged i n i t s a f t e r m a t h would be o f t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l s u p p o r t and c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n i s not a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d . R e p o r t s o f v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e w e l l - i n t e n d e d e f f o r t s by o t h e r s t o d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e v i c t i m s ' c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n (e.g., o f f e r i n g a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ) may o f t e n be p e r c e i v e d by v i c t i m s as u n h e l p f u l and i n t r u s i v e (see Lehman e t a l . , 1986). A r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t v i c t i m s may p e r c e i v e as h e l p f u l a t y p e of s u p p o r t t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h or u p h o l d s t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r way o f c o p i n g . F o r example, J a n o f f - B u l m a n and Timko (1987) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t d e n i a l i s a f u n c t i o n a l and a d a p t i v e d e f e n s i v e mechanism i n t h e i n i t i a l phase of a t r a u m a t i c e v e n t , as i t p r e v e n t s t h e one from b e i n g overwhelmed. A v i c t i m e n g a ging i n d e n i a l may t h e r e f o r e f i n d u n h e l p f u l an 121 e x h o r t a t i o n by a s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r t o " t a l k about i t and get i t o f f your c h e s t " , as t h i s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h d e n i a l . A comment l i k e " t r y not t o t h i n k about about" may be p e r c e i v e d as more h e l p f u l as i t s u p p o r t s and v a l i d a t e s t h e v i c t i m ' s p a r t i c u l a r way o f c o p i n g . To a v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l who i s not u s i n g d e n i a l as a way o f c o p i n g , a remark such as " t r y not t o t h i n k about about" may, on t h e o t h e r hand, be p e r c e i v e d as d i s c o u r a g i n g needed d i s c u s s i o n and e m o t i o n a l v e n t i l a t i o n . T h i s i s s u e has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c o u n s e l l i n g o f v i c t i m s . M e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s whose i n t e r v e n t i o n s a r e a t v a r i a n c e w i t h a v i c t i m ' s p a r t i c u l a r mode o f c o g n i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n may i n a d v e r t e n t l y i n c u r " r e s i s t a n c e 1 o r p r e c i p i t a t e premature t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r a p y . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o a d v i s e v i c t i m s ' f a m i l y members t o be s u p p o r t i v e w i t h o u t knowledge o f how t h e i r s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s may enhance or h i n d e r v i c t i m s ' own c o p i n g e f f o r t s . R e s e a r c h on what v i c t i m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d h e l p f u l i n t h e s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s of o t h e r s has g i v e n some g u i d a n c e t o t h o s e i n t e r v e n i n g w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n (See Dakof & T a y l o r , 1990; Lehman e t a l . , 1986). Crime v i c t i m s p e r se have not as y e t been t h e s u b j e c t t o t h i s t y p e o f i n q u i r y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e f e r e n c e s o f s u p p o r t a t t e m p t s would be no t e w o r t h y g i v e n e v i d e n c e t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t may be more r e l e v a n t t o women's c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s (see Holohan & Moos, 1986). Such r e s e a r c h w i t h c rime v i c t i m s would not o n l y g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o f u t u r e i n t e r v e n t i o n s , but a l s o show t h e e x t e n t 122 t o which f i n d i n g s about o t h e r v i c t i m i z e d p o p u l a t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o v i c t i m s o f c r i m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t may p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f cr i m e v i c t i m s ' c o p i n g p r o c e s s e s . P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on b e i n g c r i m i n a l l y v i c t i m i z e d has p r o v i d e d r i c h i n s i g h t s i n t o what t h e e x p e r i e n c e means f o r t h e v i c t i m and how t h i s changes over t i m e . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f i n t i m a t e s u p p o r t p r o v i d e r s (e.g., spouses) has been a l l u d e d t o i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . " I f e e l more s e c u r e . I never thought my husband would be w i l l i n g t o p i c k me up a f t e r work o r w a i t i n t h e p a r k i n g l o t f o r me when I come home, but now he does. We've become c l o s e r . " A s s a u l t v i c t i m (Wertz, 1985) G i v e n t h e c r i t i c a l r o l e o f t h e f a m i l y i n c r i m e v i c t i m s ' a d j u s t m e n t , as w e l l as f a m i l y members' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o a secondary v i c t i m i z a t i o n , i t would be i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e phenomenology o f b e i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r t o a cr i m e v i c t i m . Moreover, p a r a l l e l p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f b o t h v i c t i m and h i s / h e r s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r c o u l d e l a b o r a t e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s between v i c t i m s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s over t i m e . C o n c l u s i o n C r i m i n a l v i c t i m i z a t i o n can c o n s t i t u t e an i n j u r y t o t h e most i n n e r r e c e s s e s o f one's b e i n g . Beyond t h e m a t e r i a l l o s s o r p h y s i c a l i n j u r y , i t can be an a s s a u l t a g a i n s t t h a t which makes l i f e t o l e r a b l e and m e a n i n g f u l : a sense o f p e r s o n a l 123 safety, t r u s t , agency, self-esteem, community and j u s t i c e . Being subjected to the predatory intentions and actions of others can b r u t a l l y confront one with his/her own v u l n e r a b i l i t y and mortality. A sense of profound v i o l a t i o n can ensue. This sense of v i o l a t i o n can be evoked as well as by the disruption or loss of personal possessions which over time become extentions of ourselves. Also v i o l a t e d are cer t a i n s o c i a l covenants that make possible a sense of s o c i a l harmony and s o c i a l order. Crime reveals the f r a g i l i t y of these covenants. Despite a general awareness that malevolence exists, the experience of human-induced harm shatters i l l u s i o n s or defences that o r d i n a r i l y s h i e l d one from i t s unsettling r e a l i t y . The impact of being c r i m i n a l l y victimized varies with the severity of the crime as well as the meaning i t has for victim. The experience of being a crime victim challenges one's fundamental b e l i e f structures. Human-induced harm may shatter p o s i t i v e assumptions about oneself and one's world, or i t may activate a core of negative b e l i e f s that may o r d i n a r i l y be kept from f u l l awareness. The vic t i m struggles to assimilate t h i s harmful event to regain a sense of s e l f and others that would make l i f e t olerable again. The psychologically vulnerable possess fewer resources to integrate t h i s negative experience. For them, deeply-held b e l i e f s of unworthiness, s e l f - l o a t h i n g , powerless and emptiness may be b r u t a l l y evoked. With one's psychological 124 d e f e n s e s s t r i p p e d away, v i c t i m s may f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n an u n r e l e n t i n g e m o t i o n a l t u r m o i l . That most a d j u s t s u c c e s s f u l l y o v er t i m e f o l l o w i n g such u n d e s i r a b l e e v e n t s i s a commentary on t h e endurance and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s o f humans. Some a c q u i r e a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t even enhances t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i f e o v e r what i t was b e f o r e . Many v i c t i m s show rema r k a b l e i n g e n u i t y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o g i v e meaning t o t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e and c a r r y on. Crime i s a i n t e r p e r s o n a l a c t i n s o f a r as i t r e q u i r e s a n o t h e r , a p e r p e t r a t o r . O t h e r w i s e , i t i s a n t i s o c i a l i n i t s f u l l e s t sense. The p r o c e s s of adjustment o r h e a l i n g i s l a r g e l y a s o c i a l a c t - - t h e m i r r o r o p p o s i t e o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The h e a l i n g a s p e c t s of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o r e s t o r e what was s t r i p p e d away. Through t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and c a r i n g o f o t h e r s , one's sense o f s a f e t y , w o rth, t r u s t , agency and meaning may be r e s t o r e d . Those c l o s e t o v i c t i m s i n a p e r s o n a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l c a p a c i t y a r e , however, not immune t o t h e e f f e c t s o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The v e r y p r e s e n c e of v i c t i m s and t h e i r s t o r y shakes i l l u s i o n s o f our own v u l n e r a b i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y . The r e a l i t y o f c r i m e v i c t i m s compels us t o acknowledge t h e u n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f e v e n t s and our l i m i t e d agency. Crime v i c t i m s must p e r i o d i c a l l y b ear t h e b r u n t o f our u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t our own f r a i l t i e s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y be shunned o r blamed f o r t h e i r own f a t e . Crime v i c t i m s need t o f e e l c o n n e c t e d a g a i n t o a community t h a t u p h o l d s c a r i n g , s e c u r i t y and j u s t i c e . To p r o v i d e t h a t , o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g 125 m e n t a l h e a l t h p r a c t i t i o n e r s , must i n v a r i a b l y c o n f r o n t t h e i r own v u l n e r a b i l i t y . 126 Appendix I Post-traumatic Stress Disorder The Diagnostic and S t a t i s t i c a l Manual (DSM-III), and more recently the DSM-III-R, of the American Ps y c h i a t r i c Association (1980/ 1987), describes the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of symptoms of di s t r e s s that t y p i c a l l y follow unusually traumatic, l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g experiences (e.g., earthquakes, m i l i t a r y combat, torture, physical assault, rape, and offers diagnostic c r i t i e r i a for the disorder). The Post-traumatic stress disorder i s characterized by the presence of three p r i n c i p a l dimensions: (1) i n t r u s i v e reexperiencing of the trauma through r e c o l l e c t i o n s , dreams, or even the sensation that the event i s reoccuring, (2) a numbing of responsiveness to, or diminished involvement with the external world, evidenced by greatly reduced interest i n important a c t i v i t i e s , feelings of detachment or estrangement from others, and r e s t r i c t e d a f f e c t , (3) symptoms not evident p r i o r to the traumatic event, such as an exaggerated s t a r t l e response, sleep disturbance, memory impairment or d i f f i c u l t y concentrating, g u i l t about surviving when others did not, or about what one did i n order to survive, and hypers e n s i t i v i t y or avoidance of that which r e c a l l s or symbolizes the event. The DSM-III also l i s t s features associated with the Post- traumatic stress disorder. Depression and anxiety are common. I r r i t a b i l i t y or an unpredictable explosive aggression with l i t t l e or no apparent provocation may also be occur. 127 Appendix I I The p r o p o s e d " V i c t i m S t r e s s D i s o r d e r ' : (1) Shame: deep embarrassment, o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h u m i l i a t i o n o r m o r t i f i c a t i o n . (2) S e l f - B l a m e : e x a g g e r a t e d f e e l i n g s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e t r a u m a t i c e v ent, w i t h g u i l t and remorse, d e s p i t e o b v i o u s e v i d e n c e o f inn o c e n c e (3) S u b j u g a t i o n : f e e l i n g b e l i t t l e d , dehumanized, l o w e r e d i n dominance, p o w e r l e s s , as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e trauma (4) M o r b i d H a t r e d : o b s e s s i o n s o f vengeance and p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h u r t i n g o r h u m i l i a t i n g t h e p e r p e t r a t o r , w i t h o r w i t h o u t o u t b u r t s o f anger o r rage (5) P a r a d o x i c a l G r a t i t u d e : p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d t h e v i c t i m i z e r r a n g i n g from compassion t o r o m a n t i c l o v e , i n c l u d i n g attachment but not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The f e e l i n g s a re u s u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d as i r o n i c but p r o f o u n d g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e g i f t o f l i f e from one who has demonstrated t h e w i l l t o k i l l . ( a l s o known as p a t h o l o g i c a l t r a n s f e r e n c e and t h e "Stockholm syndrome".) (6) D e f i l e m e n t : f e e l i n g d i r t y , d i s g u s t e d , d i s g u s t i n g , t a i n t e d , " l i k e s p o i l e d goods", and i n extreme c a s e s , r o t t e n and e v i l . (7) S e x u a l i n h i b i t i o n : l o s s o f l i b i d o , r e d u c e d c a p a c i t y f o r i n t i m a c y , more f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i r h s e x u a l a s s a u l t . 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