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An evaluation of the effectiveness of a course in sex role stereotyping and the socialization process Richardson, Ann 1979

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AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A COURSE IN SEX ROLE STEREOTYPING AND THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS  by  ANN RICHARDSON  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF. ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979 (c) Ann Richardson , 1979  ^  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference  and study.  I further agree  that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives.  I t i s understood that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vane o uver, C anada V6T 1W5  Date:  A p r i l , 1979  .Abstract  This research tiveness  ipants.  awareness and Sex  to e v a l u a t e  s o c i e t a l notions cribes  the  are pervasive  The  perceived  partic-  socializing  i n changing  This study course  des-  in  r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g f o r Grades 10  restricting  c o u r s e was The  of  restricting  powerful  interdisciplinary  i t s stated objectives.  the  As  r o l e standards.  t h e i r awareness o f the  perceived roles.  o f sex  sex  i n terms  and  facilitators  s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t the  achieving creased  important  e f f e c t s o f an  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and The  be  effec-  a t t i t u d i n a l changes o f the  i n d i v i d u a l s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . can  the  role stereotyping  r o l e stereotypes  agents, schools  11.  designed  o f a c o u r s e i n sex  increased  to  s t u d y was  and  effective  in  participants i n -  s t e r e o t y p i n g process  and  e f f e c t s of narrowly defined  sex  r e s u l t s a l s o showed t h a t the p a r t i c i p a n t s  the  r o l e s o f males and  androgynous c o n t e x t  as  compared  females to the  i n a more  socially  c o n t r o l group.  iii  T a b l e o f Contents  Chanter 1  Page Introduction  1 3 4 6  Rationale Purpose D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 2  Related L i t e r a t u r e Introduction E v i d e n c e o f Sex R o l e S t e r e o t y p i n g The E f f e c t s of Sex R o l e S t e r e o t y p i n g  ...  25  Fear o f Success The E f f e c t s o f Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g i n Education Courses as I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s Conclusion 3  Methodology O r g a n i z a t i o n of P i l o t P r o j e c t Research Questions  7 7 8 14  34 42 46  •  52 52 55  Research Design Measurement I n s t r u m e n t s  57 58  Data Analyses  68  4  Results R e s u l t s o f the Outcome Measures R e s u l t s of the P r o c e s s Measures  5  D i s c u s s i o n , Recommendations and Conclusions D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r F u t u r e Use Recommendations f o r F u t u r e Research .... Conclusions  73 73 80  93 93 99 100 101  iv  Appendix  Page  I  The C o u r s e  II  The Measurement The A t t i t u d e s  102 Instruments  156  Toward Women S c a l e  The Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y The U n o b t r u s i v e Measure ( " C h r i s " exercise III  I63  The P r o c e s s M e a s u r e s The S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n  Form  The T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n  Form  5  The T e a c h e r L o g IV  Bibliography  References  I67 I69  V  L i s t o f Tables  Table 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Page C o r r e l a t i o n s between BSRI S c a l e s and Dependent Measures-ATWS and C h r i s Stereotypy Summary Table - ATWS A n a l y s i s o f Variance Means f o r S i g n i f i c a n t E f f e c t s on ATWS Summary Table - C h r i s S t e r e o t y p y A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary T a b l e - C h r i s M e d i c a l S c h o o l Analysis of Variance Summary T a b l e - O c c u p a t i o n 2 E n g i n e e r Analysis of Variance Percentage of Students i n Experimental and C o n t r o l C e l l s f o r O c c u p a t i o n 2 Engineer R e s u l t s o f t h e Student E v a l u a t i o n Form Sex o f S t u d e n t , Number o f S t u d e n t s and P e r c e n t a g e i n Each Category  74 75 76 77 78 79 80 82 83  9. 10.  Summary o f S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n Form Question 2 . . . . . . . . . Summary o f S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n Form Question 3  86  88  1  CHAPTER  1  Introduction  Sex  role  socially  s t e r e o t y p e s c a n be d e f i n e d a s t h e sum o f  designated  males and females Rosenkrantz, educators  Traditionally,  and other s o c i e t a l  as e s s e n t i a l  Until  recently,  the positive  between  Broverman, C l a r k s o n a n d parents,  the media,  g r o u p s have a c c e p t e d  to personality value  these  development and f u n c t i o n . o f sex r o l e  stereotypes  rarely.been questioned. However, d u r i n g t h e l a s t  scientists  have e x p r e s s e d  mental e f f e c t s  educators  and s o c i a l  over t h e p o s s i b l e d e t r i -  s t e r e o t y p e s on t h e development o f  (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ;  1975)*  Maccoby a n d J a c k l i n ,  decade,  concern  of sex r o l e  both males and females  the  that differentiate  (Broverman, V o g e l ,  1972).  roles  has  behaviors  Horner,  1970,  1972;  Groups i n o u r s o c i e t y  such as  C a n a d i a n S t a t u s o f Women, The C a n a d i a n T e a c h e r s  Associa-  t i o n and t h e C a n a d i a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n have questioned and of  of traditional  f e m i n i n i t y upon t h e  social,  notions  of masculinity  economic a n d p o l i t i c a l  life  Canada. An  examination  stereotypes undertaken of  the effect  also  sex r o l e  of the content  on i n d i v i d u a l  and i n f l u e n c e o f sex r o l e  and c o l l e c t i v e  i nrecent years.  b e h a v i o r has been  Both the nature  and t h e e f f e c t s  s t e r e o t y p i n g i n contemporary s o c i e t y  have  been  2  investigated. conclusions positively  These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  that characteristics valued  than  have l e d t o t h e b r o a d  a s c r i b e d t o men a r e more  characteristics  t h a t men and women i n c o r p o r a t e b o t h traits  of t h e i r  cepts.  concepts  traits,  traits  women t e n d  t h a n men ( B r o v e r m a n ,  m a l e s and f e m a l e s are regarded  alike  (Hahn, 1 9 7 5 ;  et a l . ,  1968).  Although  et a l . , 1972).  have a g r e e d  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process  attributes  suggesting  stereotypes i n our 1975;  Rosenkrantz  and i n f l u e n c e t h e  i n North American s o c i e t y ,  some  b e l i e v e t h a t androgynous  can r e p l a c e s t e r e o t y p e d b e h a v i o r s . psychologist,  self-  Repeatedly,  qualities  stereotypes exist  and educators  self-con-  that masculine  R o s e n b e r g a n d Simmons,  sex r o l e  their  t o have more n e g a t i v e  i n f l u e n c e o f sex r o l e  society  and n e g a t i v e  are negatively valued  more h i g h l y t h a n f e m i n i n e  the p e r v a s i v e  scientists  the positive  appropriate stereotype into  S i n c e more f e m i n i n e  than masculine  a s c r i b e d t o women and  social  behaviors  S a n d r a Bern, a s o c i a l  h a s done e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  area.  From h e r r e s e a r c h , s h e i s v e r y aware o f t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f sex  role  s t e r e o t y p e s and c o n c l u d e s  u c a t i n g m a l e s and f e m a l e s priate  behaviors  maladaptive  into  but also  less  behaviors  to incorporate r i g i d ,  t h e i r behavior repertoire dysfunctional.  t e a c h i n g and encouraging priate  that s o c i a l i z i n g  and ed-  sex approi s not only  Bern b e l i e v e s t h a t by  androgynous o r s i t u a t i o n a l l y  our s o c i e t y w i l l  role-locked individuals.  appro-  p r o d u c e more a d a p t a b l e a n d  3  M a t i n a H o r n e r i s a l s o a p s y c h o l o g i s t and the  area  cept  o f sex  role  of f e a r of s u c c e s s .  differences  Success"  theory  as  ment m o t i v a t i o n  The  of females.  perpetuating and  of the  facilitating  social  healthy behavior s c h o o l system  education cess.  to  The  behavior. narrowly havior role  educational  system  stereotypes  has  on  vast achieveof  achieve-  androgyny  are  discussed  a l s o been  c a n be  change r e g a r d i n g  the  females.  instrumental  in  new  One  would h e l p  roles  situationally  and  the  sexual of  stereotyping  c u r r i c u l a w o u l d be  to teach  in  and  o f t h e ways  c u r r i c u l a at a l l levels  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  These c o u r s e s  question-  appropriate  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and  and  instrumental  in facilitating  b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of these  c a n be  lower  con-  "Fear  i n promoting  However, s c h o o l s  introduce  d e f i n e d sex  the  in  2.  examine t h e  promote e q u a l  researched  Bern's r e s e a r c h  o f m a l e s and  c a n be  i s to  and  subsequent r e s e a r c h  traditional  criticized.  equality  and  the  f e m a l e s on m e a s u r e s o f  developed  i n Chapter  role  developed  a means o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e  Horner's theory  more d e t a i l  ed  She  she  H o r n e r "became aware o f t h e  b e t w e e n m a l e s and  ment m o t i v a t i o n .  and  s t e r e o t y p i n g and  researcher  proto  non-stereotyped  students  to  examine  a l s o t o become aware t h a t  determined r a t h e r than  gender  specific.  Rationale C o u r s e s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d  t o examine b o t h  the  beor  stereotyping to  p r o c e s s and  divided  into  two  cludes resource guides used  and  categories. and  i s much s m a l l e r and  lesson plans.  in this  second  The  course  tors  includes  and  need f o r c u r r i c u l a effective  and  colleges.  in this  study  curricula  belongs  are l o c a l l y developed  the courses developed  i n achieving their  t i o n procedures  and  empirical  contention that  essary to determine  the  were educa-  equality  sexism.  be  and  Gradually,  a r e a i n o r d e r t o promote  may  author's  outlines  s c h o o l s became aware o f t h e  p e r c e i v e a need f o r s u c h c o u r s e s .  effective  can  second  i n women's s t u d i e s  who  be  The  courses with  evaluated i n this  secondary  i n combating  Often these  real  courses  category i n -  stereotyping.  courses  at u n i v e r s i t i e s  i n elementary  be  first  as  category.  Many o f t h e o r i g i n a l developed  The  These  examples o f m a t e r i a l s t h a t  i n t h e s t u d y o f sex r o l e  category  and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n as w e l l  expand t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s t u d y o f women.  c a n be  be  sex r o l e  Although  by this  t o meet t h i s  stated  objectives,  evidence are r a r e .  such e m p i r i c a l effectiveness  teachers need  need  may  evaluaI t i s the  e v a l u a t i o n i s nec-  o f new  curricula.  Purpose The the  purpose  effectiveness  of t h i s  s t u d y was  of a course  t o examine and  i n sex r o l e  stereotyping i n  t e r m s o f a t t i t u d i n a l and  b e h a v i o r a l changes o f t h e  ipants.  developed  T h i s c o u r s e was  and  has  evaluate  partic-  been taught f o r  the past  three years  b y J . Godwin, a S o c i a l  at  Burnsview J u n i o r Secondary School  an  interdisciplinary  stereotyping English,  course  teacher  i n D e l t a , B.C.  It is  i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s e x r o l e  t h a t c a n be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  S o c i a l Studies  Studies  or r e l a t e d  G r a d e 10, 11 and 12 l e v e l s .  existing  humanities  Guidance  courses  The b a s i c g o a l s  a t the  of the course  are: 1.  To i n c r e a s e t h e s t u d e n t s a t i o n process,  awareness o f t h e s o c i a l i z  especially with  regards  t o sex r o l e  stereotyping. 2.  To make s t u d e n t s and  e n c o u r a g e them t o e v a l u a t e  these 3.  stereotypes  of narrowly  To have s t u d e n t s females  This study into  on  stereotypes  the e f f e c t s of  themselves.  To make s t u d e n t s more aware o f t h e r e s t r i c t i n g effects  4.  aware o f t r a d i t i o n a l  d e f i n e d sex r o l e s .  perceive the r o l e s  i n a socially  attempted  androgynous  to translate  these  o f m a l e s and  context.  stated goals  b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s t h a t c o u l d be e v a l u a t e d  j e c t i v e measures and p r o c e s s The 1.  measures.  f o l l o w i n g two q u e s t i o n s were Will  participation  typing result attitudes  posed:  i n a course  i n a decrease  toward  u s i n g ob-  women?  i n sex r o l e  of t r a d i t i o n a l  stereo-  6  2.  Will participation typing  result  i n a course  i n increased acceptance  ance of n o n - s t e r e o t y p e d ,  Definition  o f Terms  Androgyny  - The word  in  one.  i n sex r o l e  androgynous  a n d r o g y n y means b o t h m a l e  In the context  of t h i s  study,  t h e word  and  and  teristics,  and b e h a v i o r s as t h e s i t u a t i o n  a l l o w s m a l e s and f e m a l e s  line  and f e m i n i n e  Sex r o l e of  to f r e e l y  s t e r e o t y p e s - T h i s term  females.  charac-  i n both  demands. mascu-  behaviors.  s o c i a l l y designated behaviors  m a l e s and  and f e m a l e  engage  female  androgynous  e x h i b i t s b o t h male  It  toler-  behavior?  d e f i n e s a p e r s o n who attitudes  stereo-  c a n be d e f i n e d as t h e that  differentiate  sum  between  7  CHAPTER  Related  2  Literature  Introduction In the l a s t  decade i t a p p e a r s t h a t p r o g r e s s equality.  has "been  made t o w a r d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t  of sexual  The f u n c -  t i o n a l "benefits o f sex r o l e  s t e r e o t y p i n g a r e "being  question-  ed by many i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p s and i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n our  society.  of the 1 9 5 0 ' s  The r i g i d  and i n f l e x i b l e  e a r l y 1960's a r e no l o n g e r  and  cational  institutions  has b e e n made, t h e r e  sexual  much e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t types  still  exist  stereotyping process  but  the stereotypes  The  these al  the f a c t  that  a long  There i s  sex r o l e  stereo-  i s n o t as b l a t a n t as i t once was  are s t i l l  present,  albeit  i n s u b t l e and  forms. examines t h e p r o c e s s  s t e r e o t y p i n g and t h e e f f e c t s and i n f l u e n c e o f  stereotypes  system.  is still  equality i s a reality.  f o l l o w i n g review of l i t e r a t u r e  of sex r o l e  edu-  and i n f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l s i n o u r c u l t u r e .  The  non-conscious  p r o m o t e d by t h e m e d i a ,  or the s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y .  Although progress way t o go b e f o r e  stereotypes  on i n d i v i d u a l s , s o c i e t y and t h e e d u c a t i o n -  The r e v i e w a l s o  includes an examination of the  i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p e d t o combat s e x i s m and s e x role  stereotyping  i n education.  8  Evidence The  o f Sex R o l e  p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes  c a t i o n takes ogists  Stereotyping  places  have o c c u p i e d  and r e s e a r c h e r s  theories  girls  the  i n an attempt  become " f e m i n i n e . "  Underlying  the  "appropriate" masculine  and t h e  and f e m i n i n e  That  such  traditional. men  are widely  Despite  a n d women and t h e  types and  i n the  last  pervasiveness  the  behavior  exist i n  (1973)  sex r o l e  concluded areas  research role  i n the  of sexrole  stereotypes  (Bern,  stereo-  the  existence  1972;  M e d n i c k a n d Weismann, 1 9 7 5 ;  197^).  conducted a study  t o explore  t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s occurred and these  roles of  o f sex r o l e  s t e r e o t y p i n g among a n a d o l e s c e n t over  d i f f e r e n c e s were f a i r l y  on c o n c e p t s  stereotypes.  higher  a p p a r e n t changes  d e c a d e , many s t u d i e s c o n f i r m  Tresemer and P l e c k , Smith  times.  h e l d , p e r s i s t e n t and h i g h l y  seeming f l u i d i t y  Broverman e t a l . , 1972;  identi-  stereotypes  N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e h a s b e e n documented many  These s t e r e o t y p e s  of  research  and t h e r e f o r e s e x r o l e  s t e r e o t y p i n g was a d e s i r a b l e outcome.  of  t o understand the  assumptions t h a t sex r o l e  f i c a t i o n was a d e s i r a b l e p r o c e s s  our  Research and  whereby b o y s become " m a s c u l i n e " a n d  t h e o r i e s were t h e i m p l i c i t  of  identifi-  attention of psychol-  f o r many y e a r s .  have b e e n g e n e r a t e d  developmental process  whereby s e x r o l e  the existence  population. a wide  He  variety  consistent  with  o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y and sex  In general,  female adolescents  t h a n m a l e s on s c a l e s i n v o l v i n g d e p e n d e n c y ,  scored concern  9  w i t h p e r s o n a l appearance, acceptance self-confidence study  also  (1972)  of authority, lack of  and l a c k o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n .  supported  This  t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f Broverman e t a l .  t h a t women t e n d  t o have a more n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t  t h a n men. M e d n i c k a n d Weismann i n a r e p o r t i n t h e A n n u a l R e v i e w (1975)  of Psychology the  d i s c u s s e d a n d summarized r e s e a r c h o n  existence o f sex r o l e  society. herence  i n North  They p o i n t e d out t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c to traditional  settings,  role  sex-typed;  specific  economic v a l u e  styles.  job-sex  t h i n k i n g and a d -  and t e x t b o o k s ,  p a t t e r n s v a r y b u t p r e s t i g e and  (197^)  proposed  i s theeasiest  a n d most p o w e r f u l  i n our c u l t u r e  cling.  a l a r g e number o f a b s t r a c t b i p o l a r pole with  the idea that the  dimension, dimension.  tend  to cluster  male b e h a v i o r s  tend  sex r o l e  stereo-  differentiation to  There  i s a tendency on  dimensions  one s e x , t h e o t h e r p o l e w i t h  Female b e h a v i o r s  way  which  dominated.  which people  spread  t h e mass  The o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d i s  d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n o f gender and t h e r e s u l t i n g  one  i n school  areaa^lwayshhighert'forvthosecoccupations  T r e s e m e r and P l e c k  typing  American  e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e found  i nchildren's literature  media and i n language  a r e male  stereotypes  the other sex.  around the  to cluster  to associate  warmth-affect  a r o u n d a competency  Tresemer and P l e c k p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e wide-  use of t h e concept  "the opposite sex" i n d i c a t e s t h e  i n w h i c h m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y  are.seen  t o be  unalterably label,  opposed  there  i n our s o c i e t y .  are d i f f e r e n t  f o r m i t y t o two d i s t i n c t , by  sex r o l e  that  coherent  social  demanding  con-  roles delineated  (1974) summarized r e s e a r c h t h a t demon-  O'Leary  the existence  norms g o v e r n i n g  image a r e c l e a r l y ever,  norms o f b e h a v i o r ,  stereotypes.  Virginia strated  D e p e n d i n g on one's s e x  o f sex r o l e  stereotypes  t h e approved masculine  d e f i n e d and c o n s e n s u a l l y  and f e m i n i n e endorsed.  s h e went o n t o s t a t e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n  to which sex r o l e  stereotypes  and a l s o showed  How-  of the extent  influence the self-concepts of  men and women c a n n o t be r e s o l v e d on t h e b a s i s o f e m p i r i c a l evidence suggest  t o date. a high  While the sex d i f f e r e n c e l i t e r a t u r e  degree  o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n m a l e and  female s e l f - c o n c e p t s and t h e i r opposite  sex s t e r e o t y p e s ,  relationship sex  role  concepts it  with  their  of individuals  i s clear that  dorsed  concepts  i ti s difficult  Although  on t h e s e  s e l f and  t o assess the valued  t h e manner i n w h i c h s e x r o l e  associated values  influence the s e l f -  has n o t b e e n e m p i r i c a l l y documented,  the prevalence  o f s u c h c o n s e n s u a l l y en-  s t e r e o t y p e s •-will s u b s t a n t i a l l y  perceptions  of i d e a l  b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t and d i f f e r e n t i a l l y  stereotypes.  stereotypes  does  a f f e c t women's  self-  and i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e h a v i o r a l r e s p o n s e s  based  perceptions.  There  i s some c o n t r o v e r s y  among r e s e a r c h e r s  as t o  w h e t h e r a n a l t e r a t i o n o r change i n s e x r o l e s a n d a t t i t u d e s is  taking place.  Some e v i d e n c e  suggests  t h a t changes  have  11  ( O l i v e r , 1975)•  occurred  state that  Van Dusen and S h e l d o n  some c h a n g e s i n t h e r o l e s a n d s t a t u s  (I976)  of American  women have r e s u l t e d i n c h a n g e s i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n roles.  They s t a t e  that  the r e a l i t y  b e e n a t odds w i t h t h e n o t i o n s ities  roles are catching Van that  up w i t h  o f women's  o f t h e s i t u a t i o n has  of appropriate  f o r women a n d now t h e s o c i a l  r o l e s and a c t i v -  d e f i n i t i o n s o f women's  reality.  Dusen and S h e l d o n c i t e  s u c h changes a r e t a k i n g  several  place.  examples t o p r o v e  Economic f a c t o r s a r e  encouraging the female's r e t u r n to the labor f o r c e . and  child  bearing  patterns  also  Marital  a l s o a p p e a r t o be c h a n g i n g , f e -  males a r e m a r r y i n g l a t e r and p o s t p o n i n g c h i l d b e a r i n g . fore, and  There-  t h e numbers o f women i n t h e work f o r c e a r e i n c r e a s i n g  there  seems t o be a c o n c o m i t a n t s h i f t  i nthe perception  of female r o l e s . Steinmarm and Fox (1966) female p e r c e p t i o n  also  examined t h e male and  o f the female r o l e .  The r e s u l t s o f t h e i r  s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t women s h a r e d a s e t o f v a l u e s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s were b a l a n c e d b e t w e e n f a m i l y r e a l i z a t i o n and achievement. to t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s .  Their  was  and s e l f -  i d e a l woman was s i m i l a r  However, t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f  man's i d e a l woman was a s t r o n g l y f a m i l y When men were q u e s t i o n e d  and t h e i r  they s t a t e d  o r i e n t e d woman.  t h a t t h e i r i d e a l woman  a b a l a n c e between i n t r a - f a m i l y and e x t r a - f a m i l y  ests.  The w r i t e r s  inter-  c o n c l u d e d t h a t men and women i n o u r  s o c i e t y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d  each o t h e r s '  perceptions  concerning  what r o l e  a woman s h o u l d  assume.  T h e r e was a  "between men's and women's p e r c e p t i o n s r e s p o n s e s showed a n i n t e r n a l gested  specific  items  dealing with This  position  and a t r a d i t i o n a l  their  and a l s o t h e men's  contradiction.  t h a t men t o o k a l i b e r a l  on s p e c i f i c  I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t men a c c e p t  doesn't  involve their  on a s u r v e y  i n men's v i e w o f media as w e l l .  a dual role  or an a c h i e v e -  own w i v e s .  S i x years  tion  c o n d u c t e d by P s y c h o l o g y  women's l i b e r a t i o n as l o n g  stayed  personal  outside  lives  Today  assume and what changes s h o u l d Debate c o n t i n u e s sex l a b e l l i n g  Thus,  of l i b e r a their  i t would ap-  b e t w e e n men a n d women. cupational segregation  o f what r o l e s t h e y  take  or sexual  i s any change r e -  desegration  decrease  should  place.  over whether t h e r e  T h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e  differentials  (1972)  t i m e b o t h men a n d women a r e q u e s t i o n i n g  own a n d o t h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s  garding  as t h e i d e a s  way.  similar  respondents  homes a n d d i d n o t a f f e c t  i n any s i g n i f i c a n t  pear that a t t h i s their  their  after  Carol Tavris reported  w h i c h showed t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e 890 m a l e supported  items  o r i e n t e d g o a l f o r women g e n e r a l l y , a s l o n g a s  S t e i n m a n n and F o x ' s r e s e a r c h , results  sug-  own w i v e s and c h i l d r e n .  women's r o l e s o f t e n a p p e a r s i n t h e p o p u l a r  it  The d a t a  on g l o b a l , n o n -  position  i n c o n s i s t e n c y and a m b i v a l e n c e  ment/success  conflict  i n income  of occupations. differentials  The s t e r e o t y p i n g o f j o b s , t h e o c o f women a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n t  income  have b e e n r e m a r k a b l y p e r s i s t e n t i n t h e f a c e o f  dramatic Van  demographic and socioeconomic  Dusen and S h e l d o n  areas  (1976)  conclude  changes.  However,  t h a t changes i n t h e s e  a p p e a r t o be t a k i n g p l a c e . (1976)  Mason, E z a j k a a n d A r b o r  observed  that regardless  of  t h e sample c o n s i d e r e d , t h e r e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l e change  in  women's s e x r o l e  attitudes  about  s i n c e the mid-1960's.  attitudes  f a m i l y r o l e s a n d work r o l e s  o v e r t h e p a s t decade..; E s p e c i a l l y attitude  change i s t h e s h a r p  women b e l i e v i n g  employment traditional In that  decline  that maternal  well being of children. experience  Both  stereotypes s t i l l  exist  t o support  to the  the f a c t  i nour culture, a l -  a n d more f l e x i b l e  Stereotypes are s t i l l  traits  than  accepted  segments o f s o c i e t y a n d t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e a r e accepted-as  to,, .support integral  o f male a n d f e m a l e s e l f - c o n c e p t s . However, t h e r e i s a l s o  t h i n k i n g and a t t i t u d e s our culture  t h e impact  evidence  t h a t changes i n t h e  t h a t produce sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g  are taking place.  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d that  i s harmful  associated with a less  c o n c l u s i o n , there i s evidence  the t h e o r y t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c  in  evident  h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and r e c e n t  are factors  t h e y were i n p a s t d e c a d e s .  parts  i n this  outlook.  sexr o l e  large  changed  i n the proportion of  employment  though they a r e perhaps l e s s r i g i d  by  important  have  Both  These changes i n a t t i t u d e  t o a number o f f a c t o r s a n d i t i s e x p e c t e d  o f change w i l l  s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s .  continue to a f f e c t our  14-  The E f f e c t s o f Sex R o l e  Stereotyping  The f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f s e x r o l e stereotypes theories ories  i s associated  of p e r s o n a l i t y  culture.  sex r o l e s  Children  sex r o l e s  (1972)  summarized  They c o n c l u d e d t h a t  and a r e l e a r n e d and J a c k l i n  sex-typical  of d e l i n e a t i n g 1974).  (1975)  also  believe  reinforce-  stereotypes  s o c i a l shaping to  i n children's  sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g  appropriate  a c q u i s i t i o n of  investigators  and p r a c t i c e s .  have n o t o n l y  e x i s t but a l s o  and e f f e c t s t h a t  served the  sex r o l e b e h a v i o r s  However, d u r i n g t h e l a s t  accepted theories  individual  identifi-  through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process.  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have s t a r t e d  influence  sex r o l e  signifi-  behavior.  In the past,  stereotypes  i n our  research  through  r o l e m o d e l s and t h r o u g h  be o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e  and  differences.  have had c l e a r b o u n d a r i e s  These b e h a v i o r s a r e l e a r n e d  ment m o d e l l i n g .  Pleck,  o f sex r o l e  the-  are the r e s u l t of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  cation with appropriate  Maccoby  Most o f t h e s e  l e a r n c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r s f r o m p a r e n t s and  others.  exist  learning  O s o f s k y and O s o f s k y  s t a t i n g that  cant  development.  emphasize t h e e a r l y  Until recently,  w i t h a number o f t r a d i t i o n a l  function  ( T r e s e m e r and  decade, educators  to question During t h i s  previously period,  examined t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t have s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  such  examined t h e  t h e s e s t e r e o t y p e s have  on  behavior.  T h e r e i s much e m p i r i c a l  evidence r e p o r t i n g  the e f f e c t s  and  consequences o f sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g .  stereotypic  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e  are  a c c e p t e d by l a r g e  has  already  Clarks'bn  The f a c t  discussed  Broverman, V o g e l ,  Broverman,  some o f t h e e f f e c t s .  The r e s u l t s o f  a survey of mental h e a l t h  professionals revealed  standard  that  of mental health  to t h e sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s cording  society  (1972) i n a n a p p r a i s a l o f s e x r o l e  and Rosenkrantz  stereotypes  "behaviors  segments o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n  been summarized.  bore a s t r i k i n g  prevalent  a double  resemblance  i n our society.  t o these p r o f e s s i o n a l s , they tended  a n d m a t u r e i f t h e y were more s u b m i s s i v e ,  independent,  less aggressive,  This  clinicians  used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  was e x a c t l y t h e same d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h  male o r u n h e a l t h y , the extent  that  adults. for  that  feminine;  spect  looking  stereotyping, typing  societal s i t u a t i o n by  s p e c i f i e d as d e s i r a b l e  censure f o r not being  appropriately  that  a r e des-  they are n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i c i e n t with r e -  to the general In  adult  e x i s t f o r women t h a n f o r  b u t i f they adopt t h e b e h a v i o r s  feminine,  these  sex u n s p e c i f i e d .  i n a double bind  d i f f e r e n t standards  they r i s k  immature  these r e s u l t s r e f l e c t  I f women a d o p t b e h a v i o r s  adults,  ignated  an unhealthy,  immature a d u l t ,  s t a n d a r d s , women a r e p l a c e d fact  less  more e m o t i o n a l and l e s s com-  petitive.  the  Ac-  t o s e e women a s  more h e a l t h y  To  that  standards f o r adult  behavior.  a t t h e consequences and e f f e c t s o f s e x r o l e  S a n d r a Bern a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n :  enhance g e n e r a l  psychological  Does s e x -  and s o c i a l  development?  She  concluded  from a review  level  o f sex r o l e  itate  general  fact  that a high  d e v e l o p m e n t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f a c i l -  psychological or social  adjustment  a n d may i n  he h a r m f u l . A l a r g e s c a l e study  by  of thel i t e r a t u r e  Harford,  cept  Willis  by Mussen  masculinity  (1967)  and D e a b l e r  during adolescence,  (1966)  and a study  demonstrate t h a t ex-  when t h e male s u b c u l t u r e  so h i g h l y , sex-typed  behaviors  enhance t h e m a l e ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t  may  even r e t a r d i t .  with  high anxiety, The  and i n f a c t  high masculinity i n adoles-  c e n c e has b e e n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h ment, i n a d u l t h o o d ,  values  do n o t n e c e s s a r -  ily  Although  done  better psychological adjust-  h i g h m a s c u l i n i t y has been c o r r e l a t e d high  n e u r o t i c i s m and low s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e .  picture for girls  seems t o be more c o n s i s t e n t .  H i g h f e m i n i n i t y i n females c o n s i s t e n t l y has been c o r r e l a t e d with  high anxiety,  ance.  low s e l f - e s t e e m  In general,  high  and low s o c i a l  f e m i n i n i t y seems t o be a s s o c i a t e d  with  a lower s e l f - c o n c e p t and p o o r e r  ment  (Bern,  from the  of sex-typed  general  behaviors  a v a i l a b l e evidence  o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l development.  cross  greater  intellectual  sex-typing,  femininity  that a high  does n o t f a c i l i t a t e  r e v i e w e d b y Maccoby a n d J a c k l i n that  psychological adjust-  1975).  Bern c o n c l u d e d level  accept-  (1975)  development  a person's  The l i t e r a t u r e seems t o i n d i c a t e i sassociated  with  i . e . , w i t h m a s c u l i n i t y i n g i r l s and  i n boys.  M a l e s a n d f e m a l e s who a r e l e s s  s e x - t y p e d have b e e n f o u n d t o have h i g h e r o v e r a l l gence,  higher s p a t i a l  In  an a r t i c l e  ability  entitled  and h i g h e r  intelli-  creativity.  "Sex R o l e A d a p t a b i l i t y :  One  C o n s e q u e n c e o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l A n d r o g y n y " Bern h y p o t h e s i z e d that  "psychologically  more l i k e l y  than e i t h e r masculine  d i s p l a y sex r o l e situationally stereotype (P.  'androgynous'  adaptability  effective  i n d i v i d u a l s might  or feminine i n d i v i d u a l s to  across situations,  engaging i n  behavior without regard f o r i t s  as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one s e x o r t h e o t h e r "  6 3 4 ) . A n d r o g y n y a l l o w s b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s  rigid,  inflexible  priate  for individual  Two  be  roles  experiments  and a d o p t  to avoid  behaviors t h a t are appro-  situations. using college  s t u d e n t s as s u b j e c t s p r o -  vided  s u p p o r t f o r t h e above h y p o t h e s i s (Bern, 1 9 7 5 ) -  The  first  experiment  to test  the  used  a s t a n d a r d c o n f o r m i t y paradigm  hypothesis that masculine  and androgynous s u b j e c t s would  b o t h do b e t t e r a t a s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y m a s c u l i n e b e h a v i o r t h a n feminine-subjects.  That i s , the masculine  s u b j e c t s w o u l d b o t h be more l i k e l y o p i n i o n s t h a n conform.  and a n d r o g y n o u s  to express t h e i r  Nine m a s c u l i n e , n i n e f e m i n i n e and  n i n e androgynous s u b j e c t s o f each sex p a r t i c i p a t e d experiment.  The r e s u l t s  ed t h a t m a s c u l i n e remained  more t r i a l s The typically  of the f i r s t  from  demonstrat-  experiment  sexes  s o c i a l p r e s s u r e on s i g n i f i c a n t l y  than d i d feminine  second  experiment  i n the  and a n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s o f b o t h  independent  own  subjects.  was d e s i g n e d t o evoke a  feminine behavior.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  stereo-  situation  offered  s u b j e c t s the  k i t t e n to t e s t  opportunity to interact with a  the hypothesis t h a t feminine  s u b j e c t s w o u l d do b e t t e r a t t h i s task than masculine experiment  subjects.  results  and  t h e h y p o t h e s i s , f e m i n i n e and show s i g n i f i c a n t l y feminine females all  involvement  males.  were f o u n d  of the  second  involvement  with  However, c o n t r a r y t o  androgynous females  greater overall  feminine  androgynous males d i d  demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r o v e r a l l the k i t t e n t h a n d i d masculine  androgynous  stereotypically  The  showed t h a t f e m i n i n e  and  tiny  involvement.  d i d not Indeed,  t o show s i g n i f i c a n t l y  w i t h t h e k i t t e n when compared t o  less  over-  androgynous  females. I n t h e same r e s e a r c h , Bern h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s w o u l d be more l i k e l y to  t h a n non-androgynous s u b j e c t s  display behavioral adaptability  across s i t u a t i o n s  and  engage i n a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s r e g a r d l e s s o f their The  s t e r e o t y p e as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one  experiments  provided support  for this  Androgynous s u b j e c t s of both sexes of masculine and  or the  when g i v e n t h e  other.  hypothesis.  displayed a high  i n d e p e n d e n c e when u n d e r p r e s s u r e t o  they d i s p l a y e d a h i g h l e v e l  contrast,  sex  level  conform  of feminine p l a y f u l n e s s  o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r a c t w i t h the k i t t e n .  t h e n o n - a n d r o g y n o u s s u b j e c t s were f o u n d  behavioral deficits feminine females  o f one  sort  display  or another with perhaps  showing the g r e a t e s t d e f i c i t  h e r r e s e a r c h , Bern ( 1 9 7 5 )  to  concluded  t h a t one  of a l l .  of the  In  the From  effects  of  sex  role stereotyping  flexible  behaviors that  was  that  d i d not  stereotyping  allow  produced i n -  adaptability  across  situations. Another e f f e c t of investigators status  i s the  sex  role stereotyping  assertion that  the  contributes  among women.  W h i l e many d i s c u s s i o n s  phasized  the  importance  empirical research the  argument  ferior  and  on  contains  characterized these i s the  differ  a multiplicity  than  in-  men.  have s t a t e d  that  the  self-  of  salience The  little  of the  self  in their others.  other  to  sensitivity  the  as  girls  adolescence perceptions adolescence.  i n people-  compared t o b o y s .  and  and  impression  throughout  a sharp r i s e  self-  younger boys  people's  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process oriented  that  However, i n e a r l y  s e n s i t i v e to  among g i r l s  more a c h i e v e m e n t  reflected in  sensitivity  i s a c c o m p a n i e d by  of t h i s  as  authors theorized  This  oriented.  s o c i a l i z e d to f e e l  one  maintain this  results  of  i n t e r m s o f numerous d i m e n s i o n s and  o f them and  orientedness  brunt  be  become v e r y  period  The  can  t h e y a r e m a k i n g on girls  em-  o f components and  consciousness. girls  (1975)  have  self-concepts,  is rare.  t h u s have l o w e r s e l f - e s t e e m Simmons  achievement  studies  o f c h a n g i n g women's subject  social  self-concept  lower  and  c o n t e n d s t h a t women a r e  R o s e n b e r g and concept  to r e l a t i v e l y  this  concerns  inferior  o f women i s r e f l e c t e d i n a n e g a t i v e  which i n t u r n  that  i s that  One  of  the  boys become  become more p e o p l e  R o s e n b e r g a n d Simmons  concluded  from t h e i r  research  t h a t t h e most s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l ization degree  i n terms  s e l f - c o n c e p t s was t h e i r  of self-consciousness.  personal be  of g i r l s '  Excessive  r e l a t i o n s and e x c e s s i v e  admirable t r a i t s  social-  but they  high  concern with  sensitivity  t o o t h e r s may  a l s o may p r o d u c e a l i e n a t i o n  f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s g e n u i n e f e e l i n g s and d e s i r e s . achievement ly  and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  among g i r l s  impeded by o v e r c o n c e r n f o r o t h e r s .  traditionally  associated with  change i n t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i s t o be  stereotypes  to evaluate,  a possible effect  appropriate  simply  from  achievement  i s e s s e n t i a l i f true  stereotyping  traits.  Regardless  r e q u i r i n g male sex  o f whether t h i s has  of negative  o f what women c o n s i d e r  d i r e c t e d behavior this  that  i s t h a t women  traits  or i s  t o be f e m a l e  i t may be a n t i c i p a t e d t o have a n e f f e c t  women a r e c a u g h t  the  attitudinal  o n women's s e l f - c o n c e p t s h a s  an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n  Once a g a i n ,  role  stereotype.  i ti s p l a u s i b l e t o suggest  of sex r o l e  a reflection  appropriate,  trait i s  that basic  may be h e s i t a n t t o engage i n b e h a v i o r s  resulted  may be s e r i o u s -  achieved.  of sex r o l e  been d i f f i c u l t  role  Both  (1974) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i v e  O'Leary impact  This  t h e female  R o s e n b e r g a n d Simmons a l s o c o n c l u d e d  equality  inter-  role  on t h e  o f women.  argument o f O ' L e a r y ' s p o i n t s  i n a double bind,  requirements f o r the achieving i d e a l woman s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  unable  out t h a t  to f u l f i l l the  i n d i v i d u a l and those o f  Role c o n f l i c t  among women  might r e s u l t  i n the s u p p r e s s i o n o f achievement  Thus, sex r o l e  s t e r e o t y p i n g c a n he i d e n t i f i e d  obstacle to certain aspirations (1975)  Weissmann  stereotypic  also  sex r o l e  o f women.  summarized attitudes  research suggesting  h e l d about  activism  These b e h a v i o r s  others or the s e l f of various  tolerated  and c r o s s - s e x b e h a v i o r  a s c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r .  the  effects  o f sex r o l e  for  girls.  I n a study 1965),  (Torrance,  e a r l y grades for their  of f i r s t - t o - t h i r d  at thinking  third  reluctant  i s less  grade  appear  children  o f ways t o i m p r o v e t o y s  designed  boys were b e t t e r  these  children  a t improving Girls  a l l the  were  very  t o work w i t h s c i e n c e t o y s , o f t e n p r o t e s t i n g  A s t u d y b y Nash ( 1 9 7 5 ) of traits  adolescence.  found  i n c r e a s e d from  that  early  that  them.  sex r o l e  stereo-  adolescence  through  O l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e sample s c o r e d more  stereotypically  f o u r groups i n t h i s 14 y e a r  that  i n the  t h e y were n o t s u p p o s e d t o know a n y t h i n g about  and  and l e s s  and boys d i d e q u a l l y w e l l  However, b y t h e t i m e  grade,  become  s t e r e o t y p i n g become more d e t r i m e n t a l  girls  own s e x .  sex r o l e s  I t would a l s o  toys, r e g a r d l e s s o f the t o y presented.  items  classes  and achievement.  more r e s t r i c t e d  typing  that  include occupational choice,  Some s t u d i e s have p o i n t e d o u t t h a t  reached  as a p o t e n t i a l  Mednick and  are s i g n i f i c a n t moderators or determinants of b e h a v i o r s .  striving.  than younger a d o l e s c e n t s .  study,  11  There  were  y e a r o l d males and females  o l d males and f e m a l e s .  A l l groups s t e r e o t y p e d  math and  s c i e n c e as m a s c u l i n e  o l d female nine.  group  who  tween t h e ages o f 11  achievement. the r a p i d  and  the author  14,  girls  concluded  that  this  study a l s o  The  preferred  t o be  preferred  role,  the  interests  of of  that  females.  The  results  boys t h a n v i c e  preferred  showed  versa  t o be b o y s t h a n o l d e r  s u b j e c t s o f b o t h s e x e s who  t h e i r reasons  their  to d i s c o v e r the  gender p r e f e r e n c e of e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s .  more y o u n g e r g i r l s  be-  i s an-indicator  sought  year  femi-  that  a d o l e s c e n c e b e t w e e n m a l e s and  (1975)  t h a t more g i r l s  11  as  b e g i n t o change  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l  Nash  the  s c i e n c e as sex a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a s  Nash b e l i e v e s  occurs during e a r l y The  except  stereotyped these a c t i v i t i e s  From t h e s e r e s u l t s ,  o p i n i o n o f math and  activities  and  girls.  t o be m a l e s  stated  i n terms of s o c i e t y ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the male  desirability  of male a c t i v i t i e s  value accorded to these a c t i v i t i e s .  and  the  high  Nash c o n c l u d e d  that  t h e m a j o r i t y o f a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e sample p e r c e i v e d t h a t society's tional  gender p r e f e r e n c e i s masculine  c h o i c e s a r e more v a r i e d  and  that  occupa-  f o r males.  Many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have b e e n d e s i g n e d t o d i s c o v e r the e f f e c t s concept, has  o f sex r o l e  role  p e r c e p t i o n s and  b e e n done on  males.  The  the e f f e c t s  premise  t h a t women w i l l  aspirations. o f sex r o l e  Research  able to s u c c e s s f u l l y  a l s o are w i l l i n g  sex r o l e s  and  also  sexes  area i s  liberate  to l i b e r a t e  then both  self-  s t e r e o t y p i n g on  o f some r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s  n o t be  s e l v e s u n l e s s men from m a s c u l i n e  s t e r e o t y p i n g on t h e f e m a l e ' s  them-  themselves  c a n work  toward  some k i n d o f human l i b e r a t i o n .  The girls.  process  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s similar  The m a s c u l i n e  childhood  role  appears  and the behaviors  hood t o a d u l t h o o d society's  f o r boys and  t o be l e a r n e d i n e a r l y  learned remain  stable  i f t h e behaviors a r e congruent  sex r o l e  from  child-  with  standards.  Boys seem t o show a much s t r o n g e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a s pects role  o f the masculine  and boys demonstrate  age.  This supports  pressure age  role  t o conform  than g i r l s  than g i r l s  t o masculine  b o y s a r e u n d e r more  standards  t o male s e x s t e r e o t y p e d b e h a v i o r  effects  on males.  They a r e w e l l  In  t o con-  c a n have d e t r i m e n t a l on how t o be  b u t have d i f f i c u l t y i n  e x p r e s s i v e and n u r t u r a n t areas  our s o c i e t y ,  of behavior.  w i t h a l l i t s a d v a n t a g e s f o r men, t h e b u r d e n  of b e i n g m a s c u l i n e c a n be c o s t l y  pressure  socialized  dominant, a g g r e s s i v e and m a s c u l i n e the a f f e c t i v e ,  and a t a n e a r l i e r  1974).  Male s o c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e r e s u l t i n g form  feminine  t h i s preference a t an e a r l i e r  thetheory that  (Feinman,  do f o r t h e  and m a i n t a i n i n g the m a s c u l i n e  f o r men i n t e r m s  stereotype  o f human p o t e n t i a l  (Sawyer,  1975). Many o f t h e above t h e o r i e s a r e s u p p o r t e d Fasteau  i nan a r t i c l e  Psychology "The to  Today  (1975).  Male Machine".  a machine t h a t  "The H i g h  Price  Fasteau  He e q u a t e s  b y Max  o f Macho" i n  i s the author  o f t h e book  t h e i d e a l male s t e r e o t y p e  i sfunctionally  designed  t o work.  He i s  programmed t o t a c k l e j o b s , overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s seize  the offensive.  petitive and with  framework a n d f i g h t  out-performs  really  take  o n any t a s k  f o rvictory.  h i s f e l l o w machines.  o t h e r machines  doesn't  He w i l l  and always  i n a com-  He d o m i n a t e s  His relationship  i s one o f r e s p e c t b u t n o t i n t i m a c y .  understand  He  his internal  circuitry  a n d he  leaves t h e maintenance of h i s i n t e r n a l  circuitry  to•humans  of t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . Fasteau  admits  that this  stereotype  that f i t s  stereotype  exists  description  i s an i d e a l , a  no one a n d y e t , he a s s e r t s t h a t  and e x e r t s  ed b y l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e  i n f l u e n c e because  i ti s believ-  and i t r e m a i n s t h e s t a n d a r d by  w h i c h l a r g e numbers o f t h e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n judge The learned  attempt  to live  a t an e a r l y  self-concept,  up t o t h i s  stereotype  age a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  affects  almost  every  area  by t h e c o n s t a n t  need t o p u t up a m a s c u l i n e  themselves.  that i s t h e male  o f men's  F r i e n d s h i p s b e t w e e n men a r e o f t e n r e n d e r e d rewarding  lives.  shallow  natural  front.  Similarly,  need t o promote a s t e r e o t y p e  and u n f e e l i n g ( F a s t e a u ,  Fasteau, stereotyping  relationships  are f i g h t i n g t h e i r  of this  t h a t i s un-  1975)•  Sawyer and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s agree w i t h  and un-  u n d e r t o n e o f c o m p e t i t i o n and t h e  w i t h women o f t e n l a c k d e p t h a n d i n t i m a c y b e c a u s e same m a s c u l i n e  this  into  sex r o l e  Bern's r e s e a r c h t h a t men a n d women  nature  a s human b e i n g s  f o r m t o a "male" a n d " f e m a l e "  role  i ntrying  or stereotype.  t o con"Male"  and  "female"  characteristics  women a l t h o u g h this  fact.  identity  our  are present  c u l t u r e has  done i t s b e s t  Stereotyping renders  irrelevant  and  the  individual's potential. d e f i n i t i o n has  outlived  can perhaps best  i n b o t h men  an  final  to  obscure  individual's  result  unique  i s a d e n i a l of  I n a s o c i e t y where r i g i d its utility,  d e f i n e a new  and  the  sex  androgynous  the  role person  and more human s t a n d a r d  of  mental h e a l t h .  Fear  of  Success  Matina follow-up (FOS)  or  success"  s t u d i e s has "the motive can  on f e m a l e s sex  role  and  so  as  conceptualized this  one  of the  t h e o r y as  r e s e a r c h on  standards  o f sex  role  value t h e o r i e s of m o t i v a t i o n ,  effect  effects  an  sex  attempt differ-  achievement success  motiva-  was  t o achievement framework o f  o f m o t i v a t i o n as a l a t e n t ,  disposition acquired  success"  _..t '  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d w i t h i n the theory  and  " f e a r of  a negative  When t h e m o t i v e t o a v o i d  expectancy-value personality  " f e a r of  This  ^~ a  as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r  women, i t was  of  s e e n as h a v i n g  i s d i s c u s s e d here  i n previous  i n women.  t i o n with  a theory  or e x p l a i n the major u n r e s o l v e d  ences d e t e c t e d  introduced  o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h study  to a v o i d success."  stereotyping.' • • c •  understand  tion  i n her  developed  c e r t a i n l y be  Horner f i r s t to  (1970)  Horner  early  in life  behavior.  avoidance  In  motives  in  first in an  stable conjunc-  expectancyinhibit  of  actions  e x p e c t e d t o have u n a t t r a c t i v e  sequences. avoid  Horner  and/or  n e g a t i v e con-  a r g u e d t h a t most women have a m o t i v e t o  s u c c e s s o r have a d i s p o s i t i o n t o become a n x i o u s  achieving  s u c c e s s because  as a r e s u l t  i n Horner's f i r s t  (1970),  study  she found a n  r e l a t i o n between a n x i o u s i d e a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g s u c -  cess and a c t u a l decrements with a s i t u a t i o n avoid  consequences  o f s u c c e e d i n g ( H o r n e r , 1970).  Briefly, important  they expect n e g a t i v e  about  i n p e r f o r m a n c e when  demanding c o m p e t i t i o n .  s u c c e s s " was a s s e s s e d b y s c o r i n g  confronted  The " m o t i v e t o imagery  i n stories  w r i t t e n t o t h e , t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i v e c u e , " A t t h e end o f first  term f i n a l s ,  school class." of t h e c l a s s kinds  Anne f i n d s  Female  herself  s u b j e c t s wrote  and male s u b j e c t s wrote  o f themes were f o u n d f o r f e a r (a) i n t e r n a l feels  fears  guilty,  (c) b i z a r r e denial  a b o u t Anne a t t h e t o p about  John.  Three  of success:  and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s unhappy a n d / o r  (b) s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n a s a r e s u l t "everyone  a t t h e t o p o f h e r med  - Anne  unfeminine; of success -  h a t e s and e n v i e s h e r " ;  or exaggerated h o s t i l e o f t h e cue a l t o g e t h e r  the top o f her c l a s s  responses or  - "Anne i s a t  but her boyfriend i s  higher." Horner's r e s u l t s sample  showed t h a t  responded w i t h f e a r  65$ o f t h e women i n t h e  o f success imagery t o t h e  s u c c e s s f u l female  showed s t r o n g p o s i t i v e striving  feelings  and i n d i c a t e d i n c r e a s e d  and c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e f u t u r e t o t h e cue o f John a t  the t o p o f h i s m e d i c a l differences has  90% o f t h e m a l e s i n t h e s t u d y  cue. While  school class.  T h i s p a t t e r n o f sex  i n the production of fear  been m a i n t a i n e d  women t e s t e d  i n t h e subsequent  s i n c e t h a t time  of success  imagery  s a m p l e s o f men and  by Horner.  The m a j o r  differ-  ence h a s b e e n a n i n c r e a s e , n o t e d  s i n c e 1970, i n t h e e x t e n t  to which f e a r  or negative  of success  were e x p r e s s e d  by male s u b j e c t s i n response  s u c c e s s f u l males. were p r o d u c e d  imagery  Horner  by t h e f a c t  (1972) b e l i e v e d that  college  consequences t o cues  that  these  students  about results  of both  s e x e s were t a k i n g a n i n c r e a s i n g l y " n e g a t i v e v i e w o f s u c c e s s as  i t had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y Horner concluded  up  studies that  motive  from  to avoid success  resulting  expressing t h e i r  internalized in  sex r o l e  inter-personal  such  inhibits  the fact  stereotypes.  highly  young women, image  behaviors to t h e i r When women a r e p l a c e d  competitive situations, of success  otherwise p o s i t i v e  m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o r .  that  and d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i n -  adjust their  males, the a n t i c i p a t i o n as  incidence of the  between t h e i r f e m i n i n e  competencies  and a b i l i t i e s ,  from  r e s e a r c h and f o l l o w  achievement motivated  when f a c e d w i t h a c o n f l i c t  terests  her o r i g i n a l  there i s an i n c r e a s i n g  competent a n d o t h e r w i s e  and  defined.  particularly  with  i s a n x i e t y p r o v o k i n g and achievement-oriented  When women h i g h i n f e a r  of success  withdraw from our  society,  price  paid  i t does n o t o c c u r w i t h o u t  ed  introduction  a great  and  deal  finality  of Horner's  of research  Cabelerra,  Giles  sults  generally  covered that was well  i n a loss of 1972).  (Horner,  c o n c e p t o f FOS h a s s p a r k -  and n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e c l a r i t y  o f t h e c o n c e p t have come i n t o q u e s t i o n .  of t h e subsequent r e s e a r c h  that  A  e m o t i o n a l and  consequences and by s o c i e t y  human a n d e c o n o m i c r e s o u r c e s  The  a high price.  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n n e g a t i v e  interpersonal valuable  t h e mainstream o f thought and achievement i n  i s confusing  and Shaver  (1975)  Some  and c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  produced  research r e -  supported Horner's theory.  They  dis-  i n t h e i r sample t h e " f e a r  of success"  imagery  more common among n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ,  politically  liberal,  e d u c a t e d women.  cluded  that  "fear  Therefore,  of success"  these researchers  i m a g e r y was n o t s i m p l y a n  expression of t r a d i t i o n a l attitudes women b u t r a t h e r  O ' L e a r y a n d Hammock concept o f " f e a r  conditions (1975)  of success."  t h e y have i n t r o d u c e d  variable  also  They b e l i e v e  they  encountered.  studies  failure  to avoid t o take  o f FOS i m a g e r y .  O ' L e a r y a n d Hammock's r e s e a r c h  research,  "sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n " as  i n t o a c c o u n t may h e l p t o e x p l a i n  i n r e s u l t s across  by ambitious  have r e s e a r c h e d t h e  o f the motive that  ambitious  As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r  the variable  a s i g n i f i c a n t determinant among women.  towards  i t seemed t o be a r e a c t i o n  women t o t h e t h r e a t e n i n g  con-  indicated  success this  the fluctuations The r e s u l t s o f that  the arousal  o f FOS i m a g e r y  among a r e l a t i v e l y  a c a d e m i c a l l y a c h i e v i n g young a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r orientation.  homogeneous g r o u p o f  women was a t l e a s t  traditional  partially  o r n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e  As h y p o t h e s i z e d , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l l y  s u b j e c t s g e n e r a t e d fewer  success avoidant responses to  cues.  One i m p l i c a t i o n  of t h i s  tional  construct  of success" postulated  "fear  an " i n t e r n a l i z e d  sex r o l e  oriented  study i s that  stereotype"  does  the motivaby H o r n e r a s  n o t have  stable,  u n i v e r s a l meaning w i t h i n t h e female p o p u l a t i o n but f l u c t u ates  as a f u n c t i o n o f b o t h t h e a c h i e v e m e n t  sexxrole  orientation.  Thus O ' L e a r y dict  Cabellera,  and Hammock's r e s u l t s  Giles  f o u n d more FOS i m a g e r y  traditional  female s u b j e c t s . i n empirically  results  as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r ,  individual's  the  o f FOS.  why  Horner's  one, c o n f i r m e d by some  originally Horner  women  demonstrate the  t o demonstrate  r e s e a r c h e r s a n d d i s m i s s e d by o t h e r s . a l t h o u g h Horner  et a l  from non-  proving the existence  c o n c e p t a p p e a r s t o be a n e p h e m e r a l  phasized that  liberal  FOS i m a g e r y  These  O t h e r s t u d i e s have t r i e d  ed o u t t h a t  to contra-  Cabellera  among n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ,  and Hammock f o u n d l e s s  difficulty  appear  and Shaver's r e s u l t s .  and O ' L e a r y  sequences  c o n t e x t and t h e  Lockheed  (1975)  proposed t h i s  h a s more r e c e n t l y  point"motive" em-  t h e " m o t i v e " i s a r o u s e d as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e expectations  r e g a r d i n g t h e nature of the con-  o f b e h a v i o r and t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s  individual.  The p u r p o s e  of Lockheed's  s t u d y was t o  to  o f f e r another e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why males and females r e p o r t e d n e g a t i v e consequences f o r women who a c h i e v e . t i o n f o c u s e d n o t on t h e a c t u a l achievement the arena i n w h i c h t h e achievement  Her e x p l a n a -  p e r se but on  was e x h i b i t e d .  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of what arenas were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r female s u c c e s s has been a m a t t e r o f s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n and t h e arenas f o r women have been narrow and r e s t r i c t e d .  The r e s u l t s o f Lockheed's s t u d y sug-  g e s t e d t h a t arenas c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r female a c h i e v e ment and s u c c e s s a r e i n c r e a s i n g .  T h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d fewer  women e x h i b i t i n g a "motive t o a v o i d s u c c e s s " and Lockheed b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e s e r e s u l t s may be e x p l a i n e d by new emerging s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r f o r women. The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t when success b e h a v i o r was d e p i c t e d as a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e r e s u l t was t h a t l e s s " f e a r o f s u c c e s s " imagery was g e n e r a t e d on t h e p a r t o f a c h i e v i n g women. She a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s i s a p o w e r f u l argument f o r t h e r a p i d m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p e r m i t e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by b o t h s e x e s . The c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s mentioned  e a r l i e r and t h e  l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n t s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e has l e d t o c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g Horner's  " f e a r o f s u c c e s s " concept.  o r i g i n a l s t u d y appeared  Since her  i n 1 9 6 8 , n e a r l y 200 s t u d i e s o f t h e  " f e a r o f s u c c e s s " concept have been conducted.  I t i s now  p o s s i b l e t o examine t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area. Horner o r i g i n a l l y concluded t h a t American women f e a r  s u c c e s s more t h a n A m e r i c a n men. from  a review o f theresearch  fear  o f s u c c e s s was n o t s u p p o r t e d .  that  The h i g h  found  variability  i n responses t o t r a d i t i o n a l  (1976)  Horner's theory  believes  problems.  success"  concept  were m e t i c u l o u s l y carefully  stated  that  Future could  over t h i s  defined  and t h e r e s e a r c h  "fear of  i n this  area,  was done u n d e r  Philip  (1976)  Shaver  h a s r a i s e d more  have b e e n a b l e  measures, a b r o a d e r view o f the  involved  conditions.  t o answer some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  questions  t o answer.  raised,  conceptual  In  better  issues  involved  a t t e m p t s t o r e l a t e e x i s t i n g methods a n d  findings  t o each other  (Shaver,  1976).  In conclusion,  and p r e v i o u s  worKs i s n e e d e d  the concept of f e a r of success  t o be a c o n t r o v e r s i a l one.  However, H o r n e r ' s  a r o s e from a need t o e x p l a i n the  i n the  Tresemer  concept and  r e s u l t i f the constructs  than she o r h e r f o l l o w e r s  research  inconsistent.  understanding o f the  Horner's research  more s e r i o u s  results of  findings arethe r e s u l t of experimental  c o n t r o l l e d experimental  concluded that  cited  exceeded  study has never been r e p l i c a t e d .  Another researcher  and  success f a r  supportive  t h a t much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n  contradictory  order  indicated that i n d i v i d u a l  e x i s t b u t these data are  Horner's o r i g i n a l  design  studies  degree o f  differences.  Tresemer  the  concluded  a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n  variability  gender  i n these  (1976)  Tresemer  motivational  and achievement  appears  original  differences l e v e l s o f men  and  women.  There  i s evidence  t o support  the idea that  a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n d i f f e r s b e t w e e n men a n d women. Rather  t h a n d i s m i s s t h e t h e o r y , p e r h a p s more s t r u c t u r e d  r e s e a r c h i s needed a l o n g t h e l i n e s and  suggested  by Tresemer  Shaver. In  this  section,  the effects  have b e e n d i s c u s s e d .  o f sex r o l e  stereotyping  From t h e r e s e a r c h , t h e c o n c l u s i o n  c a n be drawn t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l mined r o l e Firstly, esteem et  s t a n d a r d s may be u n d e s i r a b l e f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s .  several investigators  i s accorded  a l . , 1972;  Secondly,  O'Leary,  evidence  have f o u n d  197^;  indicates  s h o u l d be l i k e ,  Broverman 1975).  R o s e n b e r g a n d Simmons,  that sex stereotypes a r e a t  conceptions  o f what i d e a l m a l e s a n d  therefore suggesting that  are d i s s a t i s f i e d with t r a d i t i o n a l behaviors  that d i f f e r e n t i a l  (Bern, 1 9 7 5 ;  t h e two s e x e s  variance with people's females  sex d e t e r -  sex r o l e  (Steinmann and Fox, 1 9 6 6 ) .  people  s t a n d a r d s and  Finally,  a significant  amount o f l i t e r a t u r e  suggests  mined r o l e  are not only non-functional but also  standards  perhaps d y s f u n c t i o n a l . have s u g g e s t e d unnecessary individual from  that traditional  In general, writers i nthis  that traditional  internal  sex r o l e  interests  full  and p r e v e n t  produce both  individuals  potential.  E l e a n o r Maccoby a n d C a r o l J a c k l i n tensive  standards  field  c o n f l i c t , are incompatible with  and s o c i e t a l  achieving their  sex deter-  (1975)  have done e x -  research i n the area of the psychology  of sex  differences.  I n t h e summary o f t h e i r  o f Sex D i f f e r e n c e s "  they s t a t e d  shape i n d i v i d u a l s toward t i m e s boomerang. aspect  their  that  hook "The P s y c h o l o g y social  pressures  to  " n a t u r a l " s e x r o l e s some-  T r a i t s t h a t may be f u n c t i o n a l f o r one  o f a s e x r o l e may be d y s f u n c t i o n a l  f o r other  aspects.  A man who a d o p t s t h e "machismo" image may g a i n p r e s t i g e his  peers,  en,  a t t h e e x p e n s e o f h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s a h u s b a n d and  father. woman.  o r enhance h i s s h o r t  with  A s i m i l a r problem Training a g i r l  non-assertive,  dependent  t e r m a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t o wom-  e x i s t s f o r the h i g h l y  t o be " f e m i n i n e "  "feminine"  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  and s e l f - d e p r e c a t o r y  s e n s e may  a c t u a l l y make h e r a w o r s e m o t h e r b e c a u s e e f f e c t i v e involves  both assertiveness  Therefore, by  behaviors  and c o m p e t e n c e .  attempts t o f o s t e r  (as t r a d i t i o n a l l y  capping.  life  sex-typed  Indeed,  i n some  serve  spheres  s u c h a t t e m p t s a p p e a r t o be p o s i t i v e l y h a n d i -  These r e s e a r c h e r s  suggest  the  opportunity  sex  d i f f e r e n c e s through t h e i r  variety  i t is  d e f i n e d ) i n boys and g i r l s  t o make them b e t t e r men a n d women. of a d u l t  (1975) c o n c l u d e  Maccoby and J a c k l i n ^  no means o b v i o u s t h a t  parenting  of minimizing,  of s o c i a l  institutions  work s e t b y b i o l o g y .  that  rather  s o c i e t i e s have  than maximizing,  socialization practices. are viable within  the frame-  I t i s up t o human b e i n g s t o s e l e c t  those that f o s t e r the l i f e s t y l e s  t h e y most  value.  A  34  The  E f f e c t s o f Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g Educational  tions,  institutions,  usually reflect  i s much e v i d e n c e  particularly  are  t o suggest  and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  accepted  public  that  t h e sex r o l e  And j u s t  of children, this  There  stereotypes  encouraged by o u r p u b l i c as these  stereotypes  by s o c i e t y as u s e f u l and n e c e s s a r y  socialization  institu-  the s o c i e t y which they serve.  e n c o u r a g e d "by o u r c u l t u r e a r e a l s o schools  i n Education  attitude also  i n the  i s reflected  i n the schools. The next  c o n c e r n o f one g e n e r a t i o n  i s frequently  called  socialization.  the  process  of preparing  and  roles.  Schools are the only  socialization  Terry  c h i l d r e n t o assume a d u l t  statuses  i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t have t h e function.  of c e r t a i n s o c i e t a l  Schools  norms f r o m one  to the next. Saario,  argued t h a t  schools  way, b u t a l s o  exert  of sex r o l e s . broad  Socialization i s  o f y o u t h as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e  f u n c t i o n as t r a n s m i t t e r s generation  i n a s o c i e t y f o r the  limits  Carol  not only  socialize  a powerful  Instead  children i n a  general  i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  of encouraging d i v e r s i t y  o f conduct,  (1973)  J a c k l i n and C a r o l T i t t l e  schools  define  within  specific  attitudes,  modes o f a c t i n g and o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b o y s and g i r l s .  This  serves  e a c h s e x and c o n t r i b u t e s individuals until  do n o t l i v e  to l i m i t  the choices  open t o  t o a s e n s e o f i n a d e q u a c y when up t o d e f i n e d  r e c e n t l y , have n o t q u e s t i o n e d  norms.  The  the u t i l i t y  c a t i n g w i t h i n North American c h i l d r e n f i x e d  schools,  of i n c u l -  patterns  of  behavior role  defined along t r a d i t i o n a l  categories are simply  cance  i n the s o c i a l  reflected  i n our s o c i a l  Schools  and t h e i r  the young about "As  order  conventions  behavior  stereotyped" Although  institutions, curricula  the sex r o l e  t h e home and o t h e r  our society,  of  these  transmission of c u l t u r a l , t h a t the sex r o l e  havioral  and T i t t l e ,  cultural  by  of  choices.(  the education  linity  certainly  determinants  some r e s e a r c h e r s  are c r u c i a l sex typed  i n this  institutions  expectations.  i n the They  t h a t i s t h e norm i n  ' - f f .  their  life  options  i n this  o f sex r o l e s  system.  Stacey,  as they  field  inhibits  standards  also  attack  are perpetuated  Bereaud and D a n i e l s  i n American E d u c a t i o n , "  cultural  and b e -  ' •  5  i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o "And J i l l  Sexism  arbitrary  influences  socialization  that limit  r e s t r i c t i v e nature  After:  P. 3 8 8 ) .  i s c h a n n e l i n g members o f e a c h s e x i n t o r e -  roles  (1974) w r o t e  1973.  s t e r e o t y p i n g which i s prevalent  Other w r i t e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s the  i n our s o c i e t y .  awareness o f a p p r o p r i a t e sex  In fact,  believe that schools  strictive  c a r r y h i d d e n messages t o  the schools are a l s o important  stereotypes.  many s c h o o l s  signifi-  i . e . schools.  stereotypes  (Saario, Jacklin  in  state  which hold  sex  i n c r e a s e s a n d becomes more r e s t r i c t e d a n d  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e sex r o l e  field  Traditional  o f t h e day and a r e t h e r e f o r e  c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r , t h e i r  role  lines.  Came  Tumbling  that the imposition  o f f e m i n i n i t y and mascu-  t h e n a t u r a l development o f young  people.  36  As  sex r o l e behaviors  areprimarily  learned, then the  schools play an i n t e g r a l part i n t h i s  process.  T h e r e i s much r e s e a r c h t h a t p r o v e s c r i m i n a t i o n and sex r o l e every  aspect  stereotyping present  of public education.  studies  done o n s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s ,  teacher  attitudes,  physical  guidance  education,  classroom  public  education  students  environments,  activities  The b u l k  stereotyping exists  and suggests  detrimental effects  that such  on male a n d f e m a l e  at a l l levels of stereotypes.have  students  their  full  F e d e r a t i o n o f Teachers,  1972;  The Emma W i l l a r d  Sexism  1971;  where boys a r e d i r e c t e d girls  aredirected  stereotypes  number o f a c t i v i t i e s  of  (American  early  Task  Force  i n kindergarten and t r u c k s and  to t h e housekeeping corner. differentiate  p r i a t e male a n d f e m a l e a c t i v i t i e s  vide  start  towards t h e b l o c k s  k i n d e r g a r t e n , many c l a s s r o o m s  Thus, b e g i n n i n g  potential  and p r e v e n t s  1976).  Nelson,  and sex r o l e  and p e r s o n a l  of t h e evidence  from r e a l i z i n g  on E d u c a t i o n ,  research  and c o u n s e l l i n g departments,  n e l and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o l i c i e s . t h a t sex r o l e  i s dis-  i n almost  T h e r e have * e e n  extra-curricular  states  that there  considered  between a p p r o -  and t h e r e f o r e l i m i t t h e  acceptable  f o r each s e x .  i nthe education process,  a shrinking of alternatives  Starting i n  r a t h e r than  schools  an expansion  options. Outside  the classroom,  education a c t i v i t i e s  extracurricular  pro-  and p h y s i c a l  areoften strongly differentiated.  37  Boys and g i r l s activities. separated  a r e encouraged  to take  By t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e  part  grades,  i n separate  t h e sexes a r e o f t e n  f o r gym and h e a l t h c l a s s e s and t h i s  goes beyond  separation  t h e p h y s i c a l u s e o f s p a c e and o b j e c t s  (Bernstein,  1972). This type  of subtle s o c i a l i z a t i o n  ways t h a t many t e a c h e r s reinforce teacher ficantly are  determine  not expected  science  there  the p r i n c i p l e s Teacher  student  estimate  behavior  aggressive  (1968)  and a t t i t u d e s .  internally  '.[-.we  expectations  accept  that  19/-O. are different f o r  can place a psychic  a r e encouraged  t o manage on t h e i r aggressive;  girls  If girls  and n o t t r y t o l e a r n  i n many c a s e s ,  Girls  signi-  and e x c e l i n math and  d e p e n d e n c y by o b t a i n i n g h e l p w i t h  be p h y s i c a l l y  study of  and i n t r o s p e c t i v e b o y s and on  girls.  boys a r e expected  unconsciously  they w i l l  o f math and s c i e n c e  and t h e s e  i n the  t h a t such expectations  to think l o g i c a l l y  b u r d e n on s e n s i t i v e  to  suggested  expectations,  b o y s and g i r l s  feminine  Rosenthal's  i s the danger t h a t  lower performance  and  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  sex s t e r e o t y p e s .  expectations  i s apparent  own.  to  outgoing  develop  physical tasks; Boys a r e  are expected  expected  t o be more  passive. Perhaps and  females  certainly in  schools i n a type  and t e a c h e r s  of double b i n d  some e v i d e n c e  a double b i n d .  are p l a c i n g both  to suggest  situation.  that they  The s c h o o l s y s t e m  males  There i s  place  girls  encourages g i r l s  t o be  good s t u d e n t s ;  to l e a r n to perform  these  same g i r l s  c a n be  tive,  too b r i g h t , or take  accomplishments. says. out  criticized  school  too  i f they  are  aggressive,"  Yet  too  the  competiacademic  system  c a n become wary o f s u c c e s s  e x c e l l a n c e by  the  time they  and  reach  basal readers  roles.  high  Rarely  sex  role  stereotypes.  portray stereotypic nuclear  All-too family  i s a women p i c t u r e d whose i d e n t i t y  own  achievements r a t h e r than  status.  Not  o n l y do many e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l r e a d e r s  type  r o l e s o f a d u l t m a l e s and  the  distort  the  activities  Feminists  than  150  studied,  and  girls  were r a r e l y observing  boys were a c t i v e , If  the  school  options  of r o l e  limited  by  the  able  s t u d i e d more  i n the  engaged i n  o f bo'ys and options  large majority  see  girls are  readers they while  activities. limit  elementary  and  inter-  I t i s a rare experience  W h i l e most  their  often further  i n the  of primary  an a d u l t male i n a l o v i n g ,  teacher.  as w e l l .  "helping" roles  a d u l t r o l e models they  a r e women.  a primary  that,  and  development, t h e i r  mediate teachers  characters  (1971) has  stereo-  also greatly  to s o l v e problems,  competitive  The  as  girl  r o l e s or  experiences  her m a r i t a l  females but  They f o u n d  school setting.  c h i l d r e n t o see  and  C h i l d r e n s Media  school readers.  assumed p a s s i v e , the  o f boy  from  stems  from her  The  opt  ( B e r n s t e i n , T9-72) .  Textbooks a l s o r e f l e c t often,  to a c h i e v e .  t o o much p r i d e i n t h e i r  "Don't be  Thus, many g i r l s  of academic  and  nurturing  elementary teachers  for role are  women, most e l e m e n t a r y  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are males.  a t i o n seems t o stem d i r e c t l y stitutions  a n d t h e h i r i n g and p r o m o t i o n a l  school d i s t r i c t s . in  both  from the teacher  The p e o p l e  the t r a i n i n g  themselves  t o take  situ-  training i n -  policies  within  i n p o s i t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  institutions  often f a i l  This  and t h e s c h o o l  districts  the i s s u e of sexism  seriously.  They o f t e n a r e unaware o f r e s e a r c h t h a t shows t e a c h i n g a n d modeling sex r o l e ety,  both  doing best  the h i r i n g develop  i n elementary  satisfactory  choose from.  be  enlarged  I t rarely  schools  sex r o l e s  i f students  occurs  from having  There i s evidence  definition  c o u l d s e e more men a s  t h a t sex r o l e  stereotyping  of  the s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g  behaviors in  fact,  cribe the that  are expected be e x h i b i t e d .  context  textbooks  The n o t i o n i n high  a r e \ s e t up i n w h i c h c e r t a i n and r e i n f o r c e d , t h e s e  of sex r o l e s without  i n which they  prophesy e x i s t s  exist.  i n North  role  behaviors  Thus, one c a n n o t p r e d i c t  i n many h i g h s c h o o l s  fulfilling  continues  p r o p h e s y becomes i m p o r t a n t  the appropriateness  social  and com-  (Bernstein,-1972).  j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and s e n i o r h i g h as w e l l .  I f situations  would  interesting  in  school.  many m o d e l s  and more women a s e f f e c t i v e  administrators  to those  that c h i l d r e n can  The o p t i o n s f o r s e x r o l e  loving teachers  petent  as d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n our s o c i -  now a n d i n t h e f u t u r e .  to  and  stereotypes  will,  and d e s -  regarding  And i t a p p e a r s  America/, s u c h  a  self-  and i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e c o u r s e s ,  and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s ,  c o u n s e l l o r s and  40  administrators Textbooks  (Minnesota  PTA News, 1971)•  i n many a r e a s  such as H i s t o r y ,  e v e n Math t e n d t o p e r p e t u a t e ments o f C a n a d i a n left and  out o f both their  included  The a c c o m p l i s h -  a n d A m e r i c a n women have b e e n literature  contributions  objectively  stereotypes.  E n g l i s h and  and h i s t o r y  i nhistory  and o f t e n few f e m a l e  i nEnglish  curricula  traditionally  courses.  have n o t b e e n  Their part presented  or feminist writers are  (Chapin,  Jones  a n d Waldman,  1973)• O f t e n t h e sexes  are segregated  i n courses  s e g r e g a t i o n s t e r e o t y p e s may be p r o m o t e d . girls  a r e r e q u i r e d t o take  courses  boys a r e r e q u i r e d t o take c o u r s e s reinforces  the stereotypes that  and m e c h a n i c a l  and by t h i s  I n many s c h o o l s ,  i n Home E c o n o m i c s and i n Industrial Arts.  household  This  work i s f o r g i r l s  t a s k s a r e f o r b o y s .• ( M i n n e s o t a  PTA News,  197D. Another  area of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  u n i v e r s i t y which i s d i f f i c u l t  i n h i g h s c h o o l and  to quantify is^counselling.  Female s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n e n c o u r a g e d areas and  of study,  such  Vocational reinforce  choosing majors  o r o t h e r t y p i c a l l y male d o m i n a t e d c o u n s e l l i n g and v o c a t i o n a l  this  Doherty  differential  and C u l v e r  Identification,  traditional  a s n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , and s o c i a l  a r e o f t e n d i s c o u r a g e d from  mathematics  t o choose  Ability  treatment  (1976)  courses (Chapin,  d i d a study  work  i n science, areas. sometimes et 'al.,  1973).  on "Sex R o l e  and A c h i e v e m e n t Among H i g h  School  Girls."  Within  their  s c h o o l women w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n may tellectual their  sample, t h e y  a non-traditionalistic,  not  ability  lower c l a s s  have f u l l y  less  utilized  or p o t e n t i a l . rank  with  traditional  their  T h i s was  traditional  I n o t h e r words,  i n this  likely  to achieve  high  higher i n -  reflected  or  higher  by  class  intra-familial  sample, g i r l s  orientations regarding  c a t i o n seemed l e s s  that  extra-familial  i n comparison to the  rank of female students orientations.  discovered  sex  role  success  with  identifi-  i n academic  terms. D o h e r t y and suggest  the  only the  role  perceptions  a l s o p a r e n t a l and  portantly,  the  with  the  high  that takes of both  school g i r l s  allow  a t m o s p h e r e and  ability  are  above and  now  i n an  teachers,  demanding c h a n g e s i n t h e  many o t h e r  an  do  not  individual's  High  who ability,  provided  encouragement  academic  areas  of school  counsellors  areas  curricula  e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m g e n e r a l l y t h a t p r o m o t e sex t y p i n g and  im-  counsellors  are not  stu-  i n t h e work f o r c e .  Groups o f c o n c e r n e d p a r e n t s , students  more  o p p o r t u n i t i e s or the both  not  female  females.  apparently  them t o a c h i e v e  later  m a l e and  and  results  into account  p e e r a t t i t u d e s and  high  inducements, the  which might  t h a t these  a t t i t u d e s of t e a c h e r s  deal p r o f e s s i o n a l l y with independent  think  (1976)  need f o r r e s e a r c h  sex  dents but  Culver  allow  choices  interests,  and  aptitudes  discussed and  role  the stereo-  a l t e r n a t i v e s based and  and  abilities.  on  42  C o u r s e s as How  Intervention Strategies  can  concerned  changes i n our this and  system  educators  education  education the  system?  One  i s t o h e l p young p e o p l e  t h e n make i n f o r m e d  sibilities  b r i n g about  and  choices  alternatives.  s y s t e m m o d e l s and  effective  of the main g o a l s  learn basic  information  from a wide v a r i e t y of However, as  teaches r o l e  l o n g as  stereotyping  T h i s -is p e r h a p s more  f o r females than f o r males.  females  is  i n matters  illusory  during  the  socialized  b e c a u s e as  to l i m i t  i s not  i s the  females  stereotypes  the  adolescents t y p i n g and  they  and  pre-school  be  life-style  age  school years  and  she  This  certainly  has  been  limitation  of  true f o r males.  be  limited  students  i n t h i s way.  psychological effects not  vanish  that  encouraged  to q u e s t i o n  Their  of t h e i r  easily.  of a r e - e d u c a t i o n  that  What i s  process. the  sex  sex  Males role  have a s s i m i l a t e d f r o m t h e i r c u l t u r e . Daryl  must be the  be  beginning  should  S a n d r a and  career  alternatives.  need not  conditioning w i l l  required  high  true  s o - c a l l e d freedom  s u f f i c i e n t merely to inform  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and  and  her  a l s o can  their horizons  role  e a r l y as  e l e m e n t a r y and  alternatives It  of e d u c a t i o n ,  then  females  of a l l ages i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d .  of choice  pos-  the  number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e t o m a l e s and  The  of  Bern  (1971) b e l i e v e t h a t f e m a l e  f o r c e d to  conflicts  that  confront  their  sex  such s t e r e o t y p i n g  role  stereo-  produces.  While admitting system  that  challenging  society's current  i s n o t always seen as t h e j o b o f t h e s c h o o l  educational  process,  t h e Bems a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t  value or the  to avoid  c h a l l e n g i n g t h e framework o f t o d a y ' s f e m a l e a d o l e s c e n t i s to a b d i c a t e 1980's.  They s t a t e d  t h a t no f e m a l e i n o u r s o c i e t y t o d a y i s  f r e e t o make a t r u l y life-style  until  surrounding The  personal  choice  regarding  s h e h a s begun t o q u e s t i o n  sex r o l e  t h i s process  through a course  nature of America's  society's  could  sex r o l e p r a c t i c e s i n t o  s e n s i t i z e women t o t h e i r  b e s t be  Such a c o u r s e would  s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  flicts  values  o n t h e r o l e o f women and t h e  sex r o l e ideology.  North America's  a forum  vocation or  stereotypes.  Bems s u g g e s t e d t h a t  facilitated  place  1970's a n d  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r women i n t h e l a t e  historical, I t would  own r o l e c o n d i t i o n i n g a n d p r o v i d e  i n which they could  begin  t o examine t h e i r  own c o n -  a b o u t w h e t h e r i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a woman t o be  s u c c e s s f u l b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y . Other w r i t e r s stereotyping  and r e s e a r c h e r s  i n the area  s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t one o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s  t h a t c a n be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g  to eliminate  sexism  development o f programs t o i n c r e a s e  student  stereotyping  students  informed  p r o c e s s and t h e n a l l o w  choices  regarding  J o n e s a n d Waldman ( 1 9 7 3 ) is  learned,  learning  o f sex r o l e  therefore  and t e a c h i n g  their  awareness o f t h e t o make more  alternatives.  suggest that  sex r o l e  Chapin, behavior  r e - l e a r n i n g can take place. t h e n become i m p o r t a n t  i s the  tasks  Such f o r the  educator  a n d t h e human s e r v i c e  p r o f e s s i o n a l because the  maintenance o f s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g  limits the  capacity  full  tial  o f b o t h men and women t o r e a l i z e  stereotyping process  types  a r e n o t as r i g i d  as i n p a s t d e c a d e s .  trend i n 1972,  o f women a n d work.  They b e l i e v e  noted  typing process  r o l e models  couraged  girls  t o take  needs t o change the education  i n education,  c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s and by o f f e r i n g of e d u c a t i o n ,  i n the area  t h a t t o change t h e s t e r e o -  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process  By c h a n g i n g  that  O s o f s k y and  particularly  t h a t changes c a n come a b o u t t h r o u g h  cess.  a r e changing,  i s n o t as s t r o n g and t h e s t e r e o -  this  Osofsky  and  poten-  as human b e i n g s . Many r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t r o l e s  the  their  courses  pro-  textbooks, at a l l levels  c a n be made more aware and c a n be e n -  their  f a m i l y and c a r e e r l i n e s  careers seriously simultaneously  and p u r s u e  (Osofsky  both  and Osofsky,  1972). Van  ing Status status  (1976)  Dusen and S h e l d o n  i  na  o f A m e r i c a n Women" s e e c h a n g e s i n t h e r o l e s a n d  o f A m e r i c a n women as a r e s u l t  ception of appropriate role believed'that the n o t i o n s  and  o f changes i n t h e p e r -  s e q u e n c e s f.dr women.  They  t h e r e a l i t y f o r women h a s b e e n d i f f e r e n t  o f what r o l e s  and a c t i v i t i e s  f o r women a n d now, s l o w l y , t h e s o c i a l roles  p a p e r o n "The Chang-  a r e c a t c h i n g up w i t h r e a l i t y .  sex l a b e l l i n g  are appropriate  definitions Although  o f j o b s have b e e n r e m a r k a b l y  i n the face of dramatic  demographic and  from  o f women's  stereotyping persistent  socioeconomic  changes, they  stated that role educational and  differentiation  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  the educational  role  definition,  educational  To  process  choices  t h e n changes w i l l  take  have d e v e l o p e d  (1975) d e s c r i b e s  f a c u l t y members a n d g r a d u a t e  by  i n female's  some o f t h e  u s e d by a g r o u p o f B o s t o n students.  s h e has examined t h e ways  t h e g r o w t h , a s p i r a t i o n s and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f  students  t r e a t i n g them n o t as i n d i v i d u a l s b u t a s members o f a s e x One o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s u s e d  Studies  course  study  University  at various  includes  adolescents  levels.  c o l l e g e and j u n i o r c o l l e g e  and G r a d e 5 and 6 s t u d e n t s area.  Nickerson  feels  that  the duration of the  limited  t o date p a r t i a l l y  there  students,  i n the Boston  and t h e measurement o f a t t i t u d i n a l due t o t h e f a c t  have n o t b e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l l y  i s . a Women's  The sample p o p u l a t i o n i n  project  change have b e e n that the s t u d i e s  c o n t r o l l e d b u t she b e l i e v e s  i s much work t h a t c a n be done i n t h i s Two s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r  credence t o the i d e a that a course can  Like  education  group.  the  conclud-  intervention strat-  University  limits  place  i n early  i n the educational  c u r r e n t l y being  researchers,  affects  place.  strategies  other  place  The a u t h o r s  combat s e x i s m and s t e r e o t y p i n g  E i l e e n Nickerson  later  and i f t h r o u g h s o c i e t y  choices.  changes a r e t a k i n g  s y s t e m , many e d u c a t o r s egies.  i n early l i f e  changes t a k e  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  ed t h a t t h e s e  The 1975 Manpower R e p o r t  see changes coming.  be h e l p f u l i n c h a n g i n g s e x r o l e  i n this  area. review  i n sex r o l e  lend  stereotyping  stereotypes.  O'Leary  and  (1975) i n t h e i r p a p e r "Sex R o l e O r i e n t a t i o n a n d  Hammock  Achievement C o n t e x t as Determinants o f Motive t o A v o i d Success"  c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r h a p s changes i n t h e s e x r o l e  o r i e n t a t i o n and achievement helpful  o r i e n t a t i o n o f women w o u l d "be  i n overcoming achievement l i m i t a t i o n s .  A course  w o u l d be h e l p f u l i n i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s a n d o v e r c o m i n g these l i m i t a t i o n s . R o s e n b e r g a n d Simmons t h e i r paper  "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s  Adolescents" inferior  (1975) i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  state  social  self-concepts, achievement  i n the Self-Concept  t h a t many i n v e s t i g a t o r s a s s e r t  status  which i n t u r n  o f women.  change i n s o c i e t y ' s  that the  o f women i s r e f l e c t e d i n n e g a t i v e contribute  to r e l a t i v e l y  They have summarized  recommendations f o r s o l u t i o n s  and i n c l u d e d  is a major o b j e c t i v e  some o f t h e i n these are a  This  last  outcome  of the consciousness r a i s i n g  awareness  c a n l e a d t o change a n d i s t h e m a j o r o b j e c t i v e  women's s t u d i e s  lower  a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s women and t o change  women's a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e m s e l v e s .  that  of  courses,  and c o u r s e s o n s e x r o l e  o f most  stereo-  typing.  Conclusion Many r e s e a r c h e r s strategies  that  stereotyped stereotyping  agree t h a t  c a n be u s e f u l  behaviors process  one o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n  i n e l i m i n a t i n g s e x i s m and  i s a c o u r s e on t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d a n d / o r a women's s t u d i e s  course  that  incorporates  an examination  i z a t i o n p r o c e s s a s one p a r t ricula. into  at a l l levels  t o the graduate  In the l a s t tive  o f a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  S u c h c o u r s e s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d  thecurricula  grades  o f t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g and s o c i a l -  level.  o f planned  change i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y  reviewed  here  a n d s u g g e s t ways t h a t  t h e awareness o f s t u d e n t s .  "Sexism  strategies  units  suggest  a n d m i n i - u n i t s o n women's Again, the objective  i sto raise  (1972)  student  specific  studies o f these  classroom  and sex r o l e strategies  awareness.  N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n has p u b l i s h e d a  book c a l l e d  "Today's C h a n g i n g  Teaching"  (1974).  R o l e s : An Approach  T h i s book h a s s p e c i f i c  f o rthree different  education levels:  intermediate  and secondary.  supplemental  i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s because  lieved  such  i n E d u c a t i o n " p u b l i s h e d b y The Emma W i l l a r d  stereotyping.  planned  articles,  F e d e r a t i o n of Teachers  Task F o r c e o n E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) »  Sexist  Other  that can  c o n t a i n e d i n t h e "Women i n E d u c a t i o n " b o o k l e t  p u b l i s h e d by t h e American  The  1975;  t e a c h e r s c a n become  help r a i s e  and  schools.  focus on t h e importance  a n d t h e n make changes i n t h e c u r r i c u l a  and  sensi-  i n s c h o o l s a n d a r e now w o r k i n g  sensitized  as t h o s e  primary  t h e s c h o o l a t m o s p h e r e a n d c l i m a t e (Hahn,  1972)  Jacobs,  o f e d u c a t i o n from  university  o f sexism  Many o f t h e a r t i c l e s of changing  and i n c o r p o r a t e d  d e c a d e , many e d u c a t o r s have become  to the issue  on a p p l i c a t i o n s  cur-  that  t o Nonunits elementary,  These u n i t s were d e v e l o p e d a s  t h e images i n c h i l d r e n ' s  i t was b e -  books, t e x t b o o k s and  t h e mass m e d i a may p e r p e t u a t e  s e x r o l e s w h i c h show  i n p a s s i v e , r e t i r i n g ways a n d h o y s  i n aggressive,  ways.  co-ordinator,  S h i r l e y McLune, t h e program  there pay  i s i n c r e a s i n g documentation o f the p r i c e  f o r the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f these  society. are  Therefore  designed  the materials contained  to assist  t h e ways t h a t s e x r o l e male a n d f e m a l e  c h i l d r e n to explore stereotypes  i n the elementary  classroom  as  a separate  specific area  designed  i s contained  a l r e a d y mentioned. University ducing  children  images i n o u r  i n t h e "book  to help  eliminate  sex-  f o r use i n t h e  few c o u r s e s i n  are designed  t o be i m p l e m e n t e d  schools.  There a r e  f o r high school students  i n the  A mini-course  Liber-  i n t h e "Sexism  i n Women's  i n Education"  booklet  The M i n n e s o t a Women's C e n t r e  o f Minnesota developed  High School  Very  i n elementary  o f women's s t u d i e s .  ation  that  and understand  school are strategies  o r sex r o l e s  course  courses  concluded  have d e f i n e d and l i m i t e d  designed  o r s c h o o l as a w h o l e .  Women's S t u d i e s  outgoing  roles.  Many o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s ism  unrealistic  girls  Students  a course  a t the  c a l l e d '"Intro-  t o t h e Women's Movement" i n  1973I n 1976,  t h e B.C. D e p a r t m e n t  of Education  published a  " R e s o u r c e G u i d e f o r Women's S t u d i e s f o r H i g h S c h o o l dents." lessons  This resource  guide  o u t l i n e s suggested  i n the f o l l o w i n g areas:  Stu-  u n i t s and  Images o f M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y ; L e a r n i n g Sex R o l e s ; Physiology  o f Sex D i f f e r e n c e s ;  The  Family;  The  Economy;  History  o f Women i n Canada;  Politics; The  Law; a n d  Education. The by  course  was d e v e l o p e d  f o r students  J a n e G a s k e l l and H e a t h e r Knapp.  or course  outlines,  there  i n senior high  school  As w e l l a s c o u r s e s a n d /  are also a r t i c l e s  which  suggest  how t o s e t up women's s t u d i e s a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l a n d also  suggest  courses An  u s e f u l m a t e r i a l s and l e s s o n a i d e s f o r s u c h  (Biemer, article  1975;'Holman,  1975)'  i n t h e H i s t o r y and S o c i a l S c i e n c e  Teacher  d e s c r i b e s how "The Women's K i t " p r o d u c e d by t h e O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies C a n a d i a n women's  i n Education  studies course.  c a n be u s e d  I n t h e words o f t h e d e -  velopers, the " k i t " contains multi-media are  directly  ation. and  or i n d i r e c t l y  community c o l l e g e l e v e l  B r e i t h a u p t a n d Wayne, Although  m a t e r i a l s which  a b o u t women a n d t h e i r  The " k i t " was d e s i g n e d  chosen e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s  ina  socializ-  f o r use a t the h i g h  school  and t h e r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a r e group  (Manen, F a g a n ,  Evans,  1975)*  many h i g h s c h o o l s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s  offer  courses on  i n women's s t u d i e s and many o f t h e s e  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s e x r o l e  stereotyping,  have b e e n e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d . M i n n e s o t a Women's C e n t r e ,  "Introducing  reported  but the r e s u l t s  i n the a r t i c l e  The  article  of this  way  efforts  questionnaire  and t e a c h e r  the nature  survey  portunity  and s t u d e n t s  the curriculum  environment  and the  was s t r u c t u r e d .  have b e e n a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e a w h i c h o f f e r e d them t h e op-  to react t o the curriculum  o f c l o s e d a n d open-ended q u e s t i o n s .  In assessing  t o keep a n o t e -  of t h e c l a s s t o which i t i s pre-  questionnaire  a l s o v i s i t e d many s c h o o l s  a  experiences.  i n which the t e a c h e r - l e a r n i n g experience  lengthy  are not  1973).  to evaluate  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the school  Both t e a c h e r s  Students  evaluation  T e a c h e r s u s i n g t h e " k i t " have b e e n r e q u e s t e d  sented,  courses  o n "The Women's K i t " (1975) c o n t a i n s  i n terms o f student  book o u t l i n i n g  few  High School  a project  units  o f f e r e d by t h e  (Magnusen and W e t z e l ,  section discussing their materials  very  The c o u r s e  t o t h e Women's Movement" c o n t a i n s questionnaire  include  materials  i n t h e form  The d e v e l o p e r s  have  to observe the " k i t " i n use.  the questionnaire  responses,  the develop-  e r s were i m p r e s s e d b y t h e o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n o f teachers  and s t u d e n t s .  However, s i n c e  ulum does n o t a i m a t a c h i e v i n g learning skill  t h e women's  carefully  defined  curric-  student  outcomes i n t e r m s o f m e a s u r e a b l e k n o w l e d g e o r  objectives, f i e l d  curriculum  remains  testing  and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c and p r o c e s s  oriented.  The  developers  went o n t o s t a t e  were p o o r l y c o m p l e t e d female  student  hy t h e s t u d e n t s .  responses  and male s t u d e n t  were m i x e d .  evidence  sponses t h a t any a t t i t u d e result  from  tudes  a significant methodological accounted In  rise  and c u r r i c u l a  The a u t h o r s  a n d a s m a l l sample  felt  that  perhaps  (1974). strategies  a n d many women's s t u d i e s  a r e being developed  t h e h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e  empirical  con-  was l i m i t e d t o  conclusion, although various i n t e r v e n t i o n and used  atti-  and n o n - r e g i s t r a n t s ,  f o rthe lack of other differences  are being developed courses  i n women's  a b i l i t y were  The p r o g r a m ' s i m p a c t  i nself-esteem.  pro-  upon t h e  t o measure s e l f - i m a g e ,  to registrants  difficulties  This  the effects  t o w a r d s women a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g  who s e r v e d a s c o n t r o l s .  both  of Washington.  to assess  instruments  and a d m i n i s t e r e d  concluded  an e v a l u a t i v e r e -  o f a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program  Brief  structed  They a l s o  (Manen e t a l , 1 9 7 5 ) '  a t theUniversity  j e c t r e p r e s e n t s an attempt  studies.  positive  the questionnaire r e -  Rosenwood a n d L u n n e n b o r g d e v e l o p e d  participants  that  changes had t a k e n p l a c e as a  of the " k i t " experience  search project  They c o n c l u d e d  t o t h e " k i t " were m o s t l y  responses  t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e  that thequestionnaires  level,  and taught a t  there  i svery  e v a l u a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f such  little  courses.  CHAPTER  3  Methodology  The b a s i s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h o f program  evaluation.  cribed  are:  search  questions,  and  the r e s e a r c h  Organization  Grade  The 10,  the  11 and 12 s t u d e n t s  in British  schools  they  t o be  i n Burnaby. Burnaby  des-  p r o j e c t , the r e instrumentation  Columbia's  attended  were:  study  c o n s i s t e d of  from t h r e e  high  lower mainland; Burnsview  the  Junior  Secondary  i n D e l t a , P r i n c e o f Wales Secondary S c h o o l  Vancouver,  one  Project  population f o r this  schools  School  design,  was  analyses.  of the P i l o t  Subjects.  study  of the methodology  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p i l o t  the s t a t i s t i c a l  128  Facets  used i n t h i s  and B u r n a b y  North Senior  The D e l t a s t u d e n t s  students  were i n Grade  d e n t s were i n G r a d e s  11 and  12.  Secondary  School  were i n Grade 11 and  in  10,  the  the Vancouver  T h e r e were 59  subjects  i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s and 69  subjects  i n the e x p e r i -  mental groups.  schools,  two  Of t h e t h r e e  socioeconomically. Burnaby class School  are  stu-  similar  Burnsview J u n i o r Secondary  and  North Senior Secondary are l o c a t e d i n middle-  suburban communities.  Prince  o f Wales  i s l o c a t e d i n an u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s  Secondary  neighbourhood  in  Vancouver.  Experimental unit  course  Treatment. i n sex r o l e  a t i o n process  The p r o g r a m  e v a l u a t e d was a 20  s t e r e o t y p i n g and t h e s o c i a l i z -  (See A p p e n d i x A ) .  students analyze the h i s t o r y male a n d f e m a l e s e x r o l e s  In this  and modern d e v e l o p m e n t o f  and e v a l u a t e t h e u t i l i t y o f  the  traditionally  The  s e a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s which might  accepted  s t e r e o t y p e s o f men and women.  e g a l i t a r i a n Canadian s o c i e t y  vide  films,  a variety  videotapes  of learning  lead  i s emphasized.  c e n t e r s around student d i s c u s s i o n s , articles,  course,  t o a more The c o u r s e  supplemented hy  and g u e s t  speakers  to pro-  e x p e r i e n c e s and c r e a t e a  s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which t o explore the area of s t e r e o typing. Consciousness-raising awareness reversal difficult  o f one's  e x e r c i s e s which  own a t t i t u d e s  of t y p i c a l  sex-typed  and b e l i e f s ,  behaviours,  work and f a m i l y c o n f l i c t  assertiveness  training f o r direct,  role  r o l e - p l a y of  s i t u a t i o n s , and honest  are  i n c l u d e d i n the course m a t e r i a l s .  how  most e f f e c t i v e l y  t o implement  heighten  communication  I n s t r u c t i o n s on  d i s c u s s i o n and t o  use t h e e x e r c i s e s and a s s i g n m e n t s a r e p r o v i d e d . c o u r s e was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  existing  Social  and Women's S t u d i e s . c l a s s e s a t t h e Grade level  and t a u g h t  as a p i l o t  Once t h e p i l o t  The  Studies  10, 11 and 12  project.  t e a c h e r s had v o l u n t e e r e d t o t e a c h  the  c o u r s e , t h e y were g i v e n t h e c o u r s e  ing  t h e l e s s o n p l a n s and c l a s s  used. tion  package c o n t a i n -  s e t s o f m a t e r i a l s t o he  A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p a c k a g e were t h e e v a l u a instruments  the A t t i t u d e s  ( t h e Bern Sex R o l e  Toward Women S c a l e  Inventory  (BSRI),  (ATWS) a n d t h e  u n o b t r u s i v e measure) and t h e p r o c e s s measures ( t h e T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n Form, t h e S t u d e n t and  the Teacher Log).  typed  list  E a c h t e a c h e r was a l s o  of instructions  Studies class The  experimental 10 c l a s s ,  class  and i n V a n c o u v e r  class.  latter  classess  The pilot  classes  three control  classes;  class. assem-  experimental i . e . the students  as e l e c t i v e  courses.  The  of.females.  c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d  by t h e  The c o n t r o l c l a s s e s were i n p a r a l l e l  g r a d e s and c o m p a r a b l e they  S t u d i e s 11  c l a s s was a n a t u r a l l y  had a p r e d o m i n a n c e  teachers.  cept that  i n D e l t a was a S o c i a l  The D e l t a a n d V a n c o u v e r  chosen these  measures.  i t was a Women's S t u d i e s  c l a s s e s were s e l f - s e l e c t e d had  and t h e p r o c e s s  i n B u r n a b y i t was a S o c i a l  Burnaby e x p e r i m e n t a l  bled  given a  regarding the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of t h e e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s The  E v a l u a t i o n Form  to the experimental  contained approximately  m a l e s and f e m a l e s  c l a s s e s ex-  e q u a l numbers o f  a s t h e y were n a t u r a l l y  selected  classes. Data C o l l e c t i o n . and  The p i l o t  teachers taught  administered the p r e - t e s t  and p o s t - t e s t  t h e course measures  to The  the experimental control  structions  c l a s s e s as p e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s .  t e a c h e r s were g i v e n t h e same l i s t  and a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t  measures a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s . lected  the  The d a t a was  and o r g a n i z e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s  explicit  of i n -  understanding  involved with the  conveyed t o the s t u d e n t s  i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d would  col-  that  o n l y be r e a d by r e -  searchers from the u n i v e r s i t y .  Research The  Questions general questions  are r e s t a t e d here The  of i n t e r e s t  as a s e r i e s  s t a t e d i n Chaper 1  of s p e c i f i c  research questions.  f o r m u l a t i o n of the questions determined  s i g n and d a t a a n a l y s e s 1. Q u e s t i o n s  subsequently  r e g a r d i n g course  a. Does t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  reported i n this  treatment  result i n  by c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d  e x p e r i m e n t a l measures o f sex r o l e  differ  stereotyping?  of the experimental  treatment  d e p e n d i n g on t h e s e x o f t h e s t u d e n t as  indicated  b y t h e same c o n v e n t i o n a l and e x p e r i -  mental measures? c. Can t h e e f f e c t be  study.  outcomes.  h i g h e r s c o r e s as i n d e x e d  b. Does t h e e f f e c t  t h e r e s e a r c h de-  of the experimental  g e n e r a l i z e d over d i f f e r e n t  settings?  treatment  educational  56  2.  Questions regarding a.  Student i.  course  process.  reactions. What p r o p o r t i o n  of the students  f i n d the  course i n t e r e s t i n g ? ii.  What p r o p o r t i o n course  iii.  f i n d the  of the students  would  useful?  What p r o p o r t i o n like  of the students  t o take a longer  a n d more d e t a i l e d  course? iv.  Which p a r t s  o f t h e c o u r s e a r e s e e n a s most  interesting? v.  vi.  as l e a s t  What p r o p o r t i o n  interesting?  of the students  think  the  c o u r s e c a u s e s more d i s c u s s i o n  the  classroom?  the  classroom?  What p r o p o r t i o n  less  discussion  of the students  outside  outside  think the  c o u r s e c a u s e s more d i s c u s s i o n a t home? less b.  Teacher i.  d i s c u s s i o n a t home?  Reaction Are the l e s s o n plans materials  ii.  iii.  clear?  Are the  appropriate?  Is the d i s c u s s i o n format useful? students  become i n v o l v e d  involved  i n the written  Are there teachers  Do t h e  i n the discussion? assignments?  m a j o r v a r i a t i o n s among t h e i n the presentation  of the course?  Research The  Design research  equivalent  d e s i g n used  i n t h i s p r o j e c t was a n o n -  c o n t r o l group d e s i g n .  c o n t r o l g r o u p s were g i v e n  The e x p e r i m e n t a l and t h e  a pre-test  and p o s t - t e s t  but the  membership o f t h e s e g r o u p s was n o t d e t e r m i n e d b y random assignment.  The g r o u p s u s e d  i n t h i s s t u d y were n a t u r a l l y  assembled  and s e l f - s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s .  treatment  to classes  As  was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e c o u r s e  m e n t i o n e d above, t h e p i l o t  class  f o r a c o n t r o l group.  teachers  I n Prince  m e n t a l c l a s s was a Women's S t u d i e s c h o s e n was a n E n g l i s h contention rable the  that  two r e m a i n i n g s c h o o l s  ferential The  a comparabl  c l a s s , the c o n t r o l  I t was t h e p i l o t  class.  content.  o f Wales, t h e e x p e r i group  teacher's  11 c l a s s was compa-  The c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n  were S o c i a l S t u d i e s  as t h e experimental c l a s s e s .  classes  att h  Hence, t h i s  o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s g a v e no r e a s o n t o s u s p e c t recruitment  similarity  assessed using  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l  initial  differences  be a d j u s t e d  using  t h e BSRI as t h e c o v a r i a t e .  b y means o f a n a n a l y s i s  post-test  i ndetail  groups  t h e Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y a s a p r e - t e s t  could  Several  dif-  r e l a t e d t o X.  T h u s , any p r e - e x i s t i n g  cribed  selected  this particular English  same g r a d e l e v e l  was  11 c l a s s .  t o h e r Women's S t u d i e s  assignment  The a s s i g n m e n t o f  m e a s u r e s were u s e d .  i n the section  on  between groups of covariance  These a r e des-  instrumentation.  Measurement  Instruments  Many i n s t r u m e n t s linity  and f e m i n i n i t y , s e x r o l e  the best the  have b e e n d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e mascustereotypes  known s c a l e s f o r m e a s u r i n g s e x r o l e  This  stereotypes  questionnaire  122 b i p o l a r i t e m s ,  each o f which d e s c r i b e s  tive  phrase  or a d j e c t i v a l  characteristic.  One p o l e  t y p i c a l l y masculine;  Many s i m i l a r technique as  One o f was  S t e r e o t y p i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( R o s e n k r a n t z , V o g e l , Bee,  B r o v e r m a n a n d B r o v e r m a n , 1968).  as  or both.  -- a p a r t i c u l a r o f each item  the other  instruments  with  behavior  an a d j e c t r a i t or  c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t y p i c a l l y  u s i n g the semantic  feminine.  differential  a n d b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d ,  the S i t u a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e Scale  Sedlacek,  pole  —  contains  such  - Women (Herman a n d  1973)•  However, i n c r e a s i n g e v i d e n c e  supported  the theory  that  m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i n i t y were n o t b i p o l a r d i m e n s i o n s a n d c o u l d n o t be e f f e c t i v e l y m e a s u r e d a s s u c h .  Constantinople  (1973) w r o t e a p a p e r e x a m i n i n g t h e a d e q u a c y o f a p p r o a c h e s to  m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y measurement.  development and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s masculinity-femininity. largely ly  t e s t s measuring  She j u d g e d t e s t s t h e n c u r r e n t  to multi-dimensionality  linity-femininity, by  of various  i n a d e q u a t e on two c o u n t s :  pointed  She r e v i e w e d t h e  the a v a i l a b l e data  t o be clear-  o f t h e c o n s t r u c t mascu-  and none o f t h e t e s t s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d  homogeneous s u b - s c a l e s  that could  be m e a s u r e d  separately;  59  and  a l l o f t h e t e s t s were b u i l t  o n a n assumed p o l a r i t y i n  t h e m a s c u l i n e - f e m i n i n e d i m e n s i o n , b u t t h e r e was enough evidence f o r s e p a r a t e m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s al  assumption  have a l s o  dimensions.  questioned the t r a d i t i o n -  t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y r e p r e s e n t t h e  o p p o s i t e ends o f a s i n g l e  1975)•  Helmreich and Stapp, c e p t u a l advantages  dimension  (Heilbrun,  In place  o f assuming  of t h i s ,  independent  m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a t t r i b u t e s  1976,?'  t h e con-  development o f  has been p r o p o s e d .  of this  for  a p e r s o n may d e v e l o p b o t h mascu-  line  that  and f e m i n i n e a t t r i b u t e s .  (1975)  supported t h i s  Spence,  i s that  The  most i m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e the p o s s i b i l i t y  approach  Spence,  i t allows  Helmreich and Stapp  concept from t h e i r r e s e a r c h .  They  concluded that m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y  is a dualistic  cept,  desirable  each i s a s e p a r a t e and s o c i a l l y  present  i n both  o n t h e a r g u m e n t s o f Spence a n d  C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and t a k i n g language  component  sexes.  T h e r e f o r e , based  the  level  into  account  of the test  b i p o l a r d i m e n s i o n s were n o t u s e d Masculinity-femininity  other factors  i n this  or direction  study. o f sex t y p i n g can (197^).  T h i s t e c h n i q u e p u r p o r t s t o measure p s y c h o l o g i c a l from r i g i d  sex r o l e s ,  such as  items, instruments u s i n g  be m e a s u r e d b y a new t e c h n i q u e d e v e l o p e d b y Bern  or freedom  con-  and a l s o  m e a s u r e s o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y .  gives separate Bern t r e a t s  c e p t s o f m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y a s two i n d e p e n d e n t r a t h e r t h a n a s o p p o s i t e ends o f a s i n g l e  androgyny  t h e condimensions,  personality  dimension.  A person's androgyny i s measured by t h e d i f f e r -  ence between the m a s c u l i n i t y s c o r e and t h e f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e . The  s m a l l e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between f e m i n i n i t y and mascu-  l i n i t y , t h e g r e a t e r t h e degree o f androgyny. The  Bern Sex Role I n v e n t o r y  c o n s i s t s of three s c a l e s of  20 items each, a M a s c u l i n i t y S c a l e  (M), a F e m i n i n i t y  (F) and a S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e .  Scale  Androgyny i s computed  as a t - r a t i o f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between M and F. T h i s measurement o f m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y d i f f e r s from o t h e r s c a l e s and as a r e s u l t t h e BSRI a l l o w s a p e r s o n t o be masculine,  feminine, both or n e i t h e r .  The  r e s u l t s o f Bern's (1974) p s y c h o m e t r i c a n a l y s e s  a.  t h a t t h e dimensions o f m a s c u l i n i t y and  were:  f e m i n i n i t y are e m p i r i c a l l y as w e l l as l o g i c a l l y independent. b.  t h a t t h e concept o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny i s a r e l i a b l e one.  c.  t h a t h i g h l y sex-typed scores d o - n o t - r e f l e e t a g e n e r a l tendency t o respond i n a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n but r a t h e r a s p e c i f i c tendency t o d e s c r i b e o n e s e l f i n accordance w i t h sex-typed standards of d e s i r a b l e  behavior  f o r men and women. Research on the BSRI done by W a k e f i e l d ,  Sasek, Friedman  and Bowden (1976) s u p p o r t e d Bern's r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as r e g a r d s t h e concept o f androgyny. males, h i g h s c o r e s on the M a s c u l i n e  F o r the  s c a l e were a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h non-androgynous males. on  the Feminine s c a l e  F o r the females, high  i n d i c a t e d non-androgynous  scores  females.  When t h e components o f t h e two s e x t y p e s were r o t a t e d t o "best  fit,"  observation  this  distinctive  was c o n s i s t e n t  must overcome p r e s s u r e s  p a t t e r n was m a i n t a i n e d .  w i t h Bern's c o n t e n t i o n s  that  t o conform t o t h e masculine  t y p e t o become a n d r o g y n o u s , w h e r e a s f e m a l e s must pressures  that  i n both s p e c u l a t i v e  studies,  were f r e q u e n t l y  (1972)  developed a  the authors' opinions based  that researchers  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  on assumptions about  They b e l i e v e d  the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y  of relevant  t h e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h members  t o d e v e l o p a n o b j e c t i v e measure, t i t l e d  Toward Women S c a l e  (ATWS).  a t t e m p t was made t o i n c l u d e o f conduct  In developing  rights.  :  this  They the Attitudes  s c a l e , an  i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g r o l e s and  i n major areas o f a c t i v i t y  f e m a l e s were, i n p r i n c i p l e ,  equal  d a t a was i n  psychometrically  s o c i e t y have a b o u t t h e p r o p e r r o l e s o f women.  patterns  impression-  scarce.  due t o t h e a b s e n c e o f s t a n d a r d i z e d ,  decided  and  The a c t u a l k n o w l e d g e  a s s u m p t i o n s was  sound i n s t r u m e n t s f o r s u r v e y i n g of  which  d a t a about a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women, a s '  opposed t o s p e c u l a t i v e  part  the b e l i e f s  h a d a b o u t a t t i t u d e s was l a r g e l y  Empirical  They  essays and e m p i r i c a l r e -  members o f b o t h s e x e s h a d a b o u t women.  istic.  stereo-  overcome  s c a l e t o measure a p e r s o n ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d women.  search  males  t o w a r d s f e m i n i n i t y t o become a n d r o g y n o u s .  J a n e t Spence and R o b e r t H e l m r e i c h  believed  This  i n which males  capable o f being  granted  The  form  w h i c h was t h e i m m e d i a t e p r e d e c e s s o r  Toward Women S c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f 78 i t e m s ,  Attitudes  1 9 7 0 - 7 1 was g i v e n t o o v e r  1 , 0 0 0 male and female  the  The d a t a was t h e n  University  various  items. was  of Texas.  statistical  The  analyses  and c e r t a i n  used  i nthis  Lunnenborg study  students a t  i t e m s were  A s h o r t v e r s i o n o f t h e s c a l e was a l s o  the instrument  a v a l i d a t i o n study  developed and  research.  (197*0 mentioned p r e v i o u s l y found  found  the scale  t o be s e n s i t i v e  even f o r a group o f students w i t h awareness  (Bowman and N i c k e r s e n ,  an i n i t i a l  high l e v e l of  1975)•  B o t h s c a l e s were f i e l d  population consisting subjects writing  i nthis  research  The p u r p o s e  the s u i t a b i l i t y  l e v e l f o r high school students. both  10  t h e BSRI and  of this  field  of the vocabulary  T h i s was n e c e s s a r y  because  s c a l e s were s t a n d a r d i z e d o n a u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n .  a result  nated  t e s t e d on a Grade  o f 91 s u b j e c t s w r i t i n g  t h e ATWS.  t e s t i n g was t o a s s e s s  As  course.  t h e p r e - t e s t m e a s u r e and one o f t h e p o s t - t e s t m e a s u r e s  respectively.  98  device  t o change i n a t t i t u d e s  B o t h t h e BSRI a n d t h e ATWS were u s e d as  The a u t h o r  o f t h e ATWS as a n a s s e s s m e n t  t o measure t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a Women's S t u d i e s She  omitted.  c o n t a i n e d 55  t h e ATWS t o be s u c c e s s f u l as a m e a s u r e o f c h a n g e . did  and i n  subjected to  A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e f i n a l l y  The  of the  from  of the f i e l d t h e BSRI.  testing  certain  When t h e a n a l y s i s  a l a r g e number o f t h e Grade 10 s t u d e n t  i t e m s were  elimi-  demonstrated  that  sample d i d n o t  u n d e r s t a n d a g i v e n word, i t was d r o p p e d sub-scale. dropped and  The words  from  scale.  were removed f r o m  t h e word  Also  of this  were n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e  t h e Grade  field  three  this r e -  sub-scales of  several  10 s a m p l e .  These  vocab-  These v o c a b u l a r y revealed  i n t h e ATWS were n o t c l e a r l y  understood  v o c a b u l a r y changes intent  that  were made  of the sentences.  i n Question 5 of the short v e r s i o n of the  o r i g i n a l ATWS t h e word  "intoxication"  i s used,  v e r s i o n o f t h e ATWS t h e word " d r u n k e n e s s " example  t o be  Thus,  testing,  the testing  c h a n g i n g t h e meaning and/or  example,  selected  s u b - s c a l e as w e l l .  were made i n t h e ATWS.  c e r t a i n words u s e d  without  was r a n d o m l y  each.  as a r e s u l t  u l a r y changes  This  t h e f e m i n i n e s u b - s c a l e and  o f t h e BSRI c o n t a i n e d  e i g h t e e n words  changes  "solemn"  from t h e n e u t r a l  vised version  vised  "yielding"  I n o r d e r t o have a n e q u a l number o f words i n e a c h  dropped  For  The words  were  " c o n v e n t i o n a l " was removed f r o m t h e n e u t r a l s u b -  sub-scale,  by  i t s respective  and " a n a l y t i c a l "  the masculine sub-scale.  "gullible"  t h e word  "assertive"  from  i stypical  i nthe r e i s used.  o f t h e t y p e o f v o c a b u l a r y changes  t h a t were made i n 7 o f t h e 25 q u e s t i o n s . A description follows  o f t h e BSRI, t h e ATWS a n d t h e  o t h e r p o s t - t e s t measures used Pre-test 1.  i n this  Measure  The Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y .  inventory  research.  i s to treat masculinity  The o b j e c t i v e and f e m i n i n i t y  of this a s two  independent dimensions, t h e r e b y making i t p o s s i b l e characterize ynous as  a p e r s o n as m a s c u l i n e , f e m i n i n e  a function  of the  difference  e n d o r s e m e n t o f m a s c u l i n e and characteristics The scale  well  f e m i n i n e and  1  each of the  himself/herself.  fifty-four  The  a l w a y s t r u e ) and  is labelled  basis  responses,  and  scale  ability  s c o r e can  function  of the  be  In  masculine,  ranges 7  des-  from  (Always or  each p o i n t .  score,  almost  On  the  a Femininity  addition,  computed.  difference  point  each p e r s o n r e c e i v e s  a Masculinity  an A n d r o g y n y s c o r e .  at  a 7  characteristics  (Never or a l m o s t never t r u e ) to  major scores:  his/her  personality  i n d i c a t e on  neutral personality  of h i s / h e r  between  androg-  1974).  BSRI a s k s a p e r s o n t o  how  cribes  (Bern,  feminine  or  to  a social  e n d o r s e m e n t o f m a s c u l i n e and  feminine  score  desir-  These s c o r e s a r e  between the  three  a  individual's personality  characteristics. Normative data are of v a r i o u s  psychometric  a v a i l a b l e and  the major r e s u l t s  a n a l y s e s have a l r e a d y  been  mentioned. Post-test 1.  Measures  Attitude  Outcomes.  dents' perception socially used.  of the  In  r o l e s o f m a l e s and  androgynous, the  This  scale  o r d e r t o measure t h e  consists  short  version  of t w e n t y - f i v e  stu-  females  of the  ATWS  as was  declarative  statements r e l a t i n g intellectual etiquette; The  sexual behavior purports  women's r o l e s and  dating behavior  and  scored  from  servative  Strongly."  attitude.  replace  by  o f 100  summing t h e  the  factor  and  a l l that i s required.  internal  consistency  to  doubt the  of  the  item  i n the  short-term,  "Agre  score,  liberal, ranging o f 25  individual  f o r m was  The  scale leaves  high t e s t - r e t e s t  items to  impor-  f o r each  high  is  developed  time i s an  score  are  con-  subject  Item a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d  s e l e c t e d items.  level  the of  little  reason  reliability  instrument.  T h i s s c a l e was  u s e d as  assessing post-treatment Unobtrusive  m a t e r i a l used ability  f o r the  when a n u m e r i c a l  of the  from  t o a p o s s i b l e low  values  item,  traditional,  l o n g e r f o r m when t e s t i n g  validity  2.  each  These r e s p o n s e s  Each s u b j e c t ' s  This short, twenty-five  is  For  t o 4 r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e most  a possible high  obtained  and  relationships.  of conduct.  1 r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e most  attitude,  and  t o measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s  patterns  "Disagree  pro-feminist  tant  marital  are f o u r response a l t e r n a t i v e s ranging  S t r o n g l y " to  from  vocational, educational  r o l e s o f women:  instrument  there  to the  Due  i n the proposed  Therefore,  outcome measure f o r  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s women.  Mgasure.  d i m e n s i o n was  measures.  the  to the course,  introduced this  into  content a social the  of  the  desir-  evaluation  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  developed  t o measure s t u d e n t ject  to s o c i a l  attitudes  desirability  i n a way t h a t i s l e s s and w i l l  be u s e d  sub-  i n conjunc-  t i o n w i t h t h e ATWS. The  measure d e s c r i b e s C h r i s J o n e s ,  student. either graph  The name C h r i s was c h o s e n b e c a u s e  a male o r f e m a l e  name.  vocational  i t c a n be  The i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a -  d e s c r i b e s h i s / h e r s c h o o l marks,  personality traits.  Half  a G r a d e 11  Specific  i n t e r e s t s and  questions r e l a t e d to  choices f o l l o w the i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraph.  o f each c l a s s  been informed  answered t h e q u e s t i o n s a f t e r  t h a t C h r i s was m a l e , t h e o t h e r  a n s w e r e d a s s u m i n g C h r i s was f e m a l e .  having  half  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  was s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d r e s p o n s e s . the  data analysis  fication  the r e l a t i v e  effects  as e i t h e r male o r f e m a l e  interactions  between t h i s  3.  Measures.  Process  factor  of Chris'  In  speci-  were examined a s were and o t h e r s .  T h r e e p r o c e s s m e a s u r e s have  summarized a s a p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e  evaluation.  been  These  p r o c e s s m e a s u r e s were i n c l u d e d f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . Firstly, course  to help describe variations  was t a u g h t  Secondly, jective  pilot  t h e a u t h o r was i n t e r e s t e d  e v a l u a t i o n s from  subjects.  Finally,  measures w i l l justed  by t h e d i f f e r e n t  pilot  the summarization  i f such  teachers.  i n o b t a i n i n g sub-  t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t  be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  by c o v a r i a n c e  i n t h e ways t h e  of the process  outcome s c o r e s and a d -  an adjustment  i s justified.  67  The t h r e e  process  a t i o n form, a t e a c h e r  m e a s u r e s u s e d were: l o g , and a t e a c h e r  a student  evalu-  e v a l u a t i o n form (see  Appendix B ) . The S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n Form. were a s k e d t o f i l l end of  eight questions  asking  the course  course  elicit  of such a  clarity  feedback  as  Evaluation  measure p r i m a r i l y t o  o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and  of the l e s s o n plans  ness o f the m a t e r i a l s  l e v e l of  course.  The T e a c h e r  i n c l u d e d as a p r o c e s s  consisted  to s u b j e c t i v e l y  i n terms of the i n t e r e s t  and t h e u s e f u l n e s s  specific  T h i s form  the students  The T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n Form. Form was  classes  i n a S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n Form a t t h e  o f the twenty l e s s o n package.  evaluate the  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  used.  as w e l l a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e This  f o r m was  also  a n i n d i c a t o r o f any m a j o r v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e  of the  consisted of ten questions  feedback regarding technique teachers  the l e s s o n plans,  o u t l i n e d and t h e m a t e r i a l s were a l s o a s k e d  have f o r i m p r o v i n g  The T e a c h e r L o g . allow  teaching  course.  The f o r m  might  used  to o f f e r the  the d i s c u s s i o n used.  teachers  questions  regarding  lessons.  F o r a few l e s s o n s ,  Pilot  any s u g g e s t i o n s  they  course.  The p u r p o s e o f t h e T e a c h e r  the p i l o t i n g  propriate.  asking f o r  t o comment d a i l y  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  L o g was t o on  individual  t h e l o g f o r m a t was  However, f o r t h e m a j o r i t y  specific  inap-  of l e s s o n s the  68 teachers  were a s k e d  t o answer q u e s t i o n s  a p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n "by c h e c k i n g the  teacher's  specific the  aspects  lesson plan  students'  Data  l o g hook.  The q u e s t i o n s  of the l e s s o n ,  w r i t t e n work  i n this  to  s u c h as t h e c l a r i t y  and t h e t i m i n g  s t u d y were  because i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  of  of the lesson.  frequencies case  i n this  appropriate  study.  wise l i n e a r  f o r analyses  chosen  where t h e as  was  were  differences associated  treatment  with  and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s .  t h e ATWS and t h e  on t h e " C h r i s " e x e r c i s e .  the masculine  Overall  multiple  Linear r e g r e s s i o n analyses  The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were  l e c t e d was  using  a r e u n e q u a l and d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e ,  f a c t o r s o f sex, s c h o o l ,  measure b a s e d  analysed  T h i s mode o f a n a l y s i s was  used to determine post-treatment the  pertained  and i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e  linear regression analysis.  the  o f f " y e s " o r "no" i n  Analyses The d a t a  cell  p e r t a i n i n g to  unobtrusive  The c o v a r i a t e s e -  s c a l e from the BSRI.  and S p i e g e l ' s  (1969)  Method  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was  used  3  of forward  to determine  o r d e r i n g 'for e f f e c t s i n t h e p r e d i c t i v e m o d e l . s t r a t e g y used f o r o r d e r i n g  i n this  study  was:  The  stepa firm  general  69  1.  covariate - intended  t o be BSRI  masculine  scale.* 2.  biodemographic v a r i a b l e s ,  e . g . s e x and  school. 3.  treatment  k.  two-factor  5.  three-factor interactions  variable(s). interactions. (where  appropriate). For the purpose of these  analyses, higher  order  interactions  were d e f i n e d a s and i n c l u d e d i n e r r o r v a r i a n c e . In order to prepare was n e c e s s a r y analysis. dent  f o r certain  computer a n a l y s e s , i t  t o s u b j e c t some o f t h e d a t a  to a  The " C h r i s " e x e r c i s e was a n a l y s e d  judges.  The names and a n y o t h e r  content  b y two  identifying  indepen-  informa-  t i o n were removed f r o m t h e " C h r i s " p r o t o c o l s w h i c h were thoroughly them i n t o  shuffled.  j u d g e took  3> w h i c h a s k e d :  Each  judge d e v e l o p e d  old.  1 contained  t h e most s t e r e o t y p e d  category  5 contained  the l e a s t  points.  then  Please  stereotyped  answers.  The  of s c a l e  combined t h e two s c a l e s i n t o  T h i s s t e p was s u b s e q u e n t l y i n C h a p t e r 4.  describe  answers and  came t o a c o n s e n s u s on d e f i n i t i o n s  Thus, t h e y  will  a s c a l e o f 5 c a t e g o r i e s where  category  judges  responses  " T r y t o i m a g i n e what C h r i s  d o i n g when he ( o r s h e ) i s 27 y e a r s  this."  25 p a p e r s a n d s o r t e d  c a t e g o r i e s depending on t h e s u b j e c t s '  to Question be  Each  then  d e l e t e d f o r reasons  one and  detailed  re-sorted of  the  the  50  first  papers.  They t h e n d i v i d e d  p a p e r s b e t w e e n them and  gories.  A f t e r s o r t i n g was  sorted  them  tions  d e s c r i p t i o n of  rest  5  i n t o the  f i n i s h e d , they recorded  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y , wrote a b r i e f  the  cate-  the  then l a b e l l e d  each category.  These  and  descrip-  were: C a t e g o r y 1 - Most s t e r e o t y p e d  responses.  sponses i n d i c a t e d t h a t pursued h i s / h e r  Chris  The  re-  had  not  i n t e r e s t s o r had  thwarted  i n pursuing  C h r i s was  miserable,  been  these i n t e r e s t s . unhappy  and/or  unfulfilled. Category  2 - The  r e s p o n d e n t s had  less C a t e g o r y 3 - The  challenging  accepting  suggested  a  position.  respondents q u e s t i o n e d whether  medical career and  Chris  w o u l d be other,  wise to  less  a  pursue  challenging  options. Category 4  - The  r e s p o n d e n t s had  lated Category 5 - Least  science  career  stereotyped  r e s p o n d e n t s had suing This  information  y s e s as b a s e d on  was  a career  included  rated  stereotype  not  re-  medicine. The  s u c c e s s f u l l y pur-  i n medicine.  i n the  of  but  pursue a  responses.  Chris  a dependent v a r i a b l e c a l l e d the  Chris  the  linear "Chris  regression stereotype"  responses.  anal-  71  The was  first  u s e d as  asked, Chris  "Do  another you  author.  A  response  was  coding, the  to t h i s response  given-a  w o u l d be  e x p l a i n why  was  value  After  classified  Four of these  as m a s c u l i n e and  worker, x-ray  t e c h n i c i a n and  (engineer,  as f e m i n i n e  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g C h r i s , the  q u e s t i o n was  determined  the  Three p r o c e s s a Student  Form and  a T e a c h e r Log.  a  and  analyses  measure'  are  tradition-  h i g h s c h o o l math four occupations  (nurse,  students  for Chris.  of  "yes"  school."  child  The sex  are  care  B a s e d on  were a s k e d  their  to  purpose  of  of C h r i s  occupation.  m e a s u r e s were a l s o u s e d t o  course:  the  containing eight re-  to d i s c o v e r whether the  studentis choice  by  sub-  identification  s o c i a l worker).  occupations  The  o f 1 and  occupations  b i o l o g i s t ) and  classified  choose a l t e r n a t i v e  not?"  "Chris" unobtrusive  of an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h e c k l i s t  traditionally  *  o r why  were i n c l u d e d i n t h e  s e c o n d q u e s t i o n on t h e  occupations.  question  a good c a r e e r f o r  given a value  o f 2.*  measure  first  q u e s t i o n were a n a l y s e d  s u b j e c t s ' responses  teacher, pharmacist  this  The  dependent v a r i a b l e " C h r i s - m e d i c a l  consisted  ally  "no"  the  The  lated  Please  responses  "Chris" unobtrusive  dependent v a r i a b l e .  think medicine  to e n t e r ?  jects'  as  q u e s t i o n on t h e  evaluate  the  E v a l u a t i o n Form, a T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n T h e s e have a l r e a d y b e e n  briefly  T h e r e was one c a s e where t h e r e s p o n s e c o u l d n o t be c l a s s i f i e d as a " y e s " o r "no" answer. T h i s r e s p o n s e was • omitted from the a n a l y s e s .  72  described  and  the  content  a n a l y s i s of  each i s  described  here. The  S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n Form was  the  author.  the  questions  questions  On  this  i t was  1,  4  5;  and  into categories,  Q u e s t i o n s 1 and  4,  and  see  cluded  (Questions  i n the  answers o f a, As  b,  or  stated,  the  were i n c l u d e d  as  of the  included  i n Chapter  The  three  were  point  sorted  scale f o r  last  A p p e n d i x B)  a three  with  two  were a l s o i n -  scale  reflecting  T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n Form and process  teaching  course reviewed the  E v a l u a t i o n Form and  of  scale for Question 5  the 4.  measures t o  r e v i s i o n of the  major v a r i a t i o n s i n the  author  see  s o r t three  c.  feedback u s e f u l i n the any  8;  and  analysis, using  already  T e a c h e r Log  7  by  Each of the  a 4 point  a n e u t r a l m i d - p o i n t f o r each q u e s t i o n . questions  analysed  A p p e n d i x B)  using  a 5 point  and  p o s s i b l e to  into analytic categories.  (Questions  independently  form,  sorted  c o u r s e and  o f the  content  T e a c h e r Log  and  the  record to  course.  of the  the  indicate The  Teacher  results  are  CHAPTER  4  Results  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o two sections: a.  r e s u l t s o f t h e outcome measures, and  b.  r e s u l t s o f t h e p r o c e s s measures.  The f i r s t s e c t i o n r e p o r t s on the r e s u l t s o f t h e outcome measures; t h e Bern Sex Role I n v e n t o r y (BSRI), t h e A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e (ATWS) and t h e U n o b t r u s i v e Measure ("Chris" e x e r c i s e ) . through 7«  These r e s u l t s a r e found i n T a b l e s 1  The second  s e c t i o n contains the r e s u l t s regard-  i n g the p r o c e s s measures i n two s u b - s e c t i o n s : i.  s t u d e n t r e a c t i o n s t o t h e c o u r s e , and  ii.  teacher r e a c t i o n s to the cpurse.  These r e s u l t s a r e found i n Tables 8 through 10.  R e s u l t s o f t h e Outcome Measures The m a s c u l i n e s c a l e o f t h e Bern Sex R o l e I n v e n t o r y was i n t e n d e d t o be t h e c o v a r i a t e i n t h i s s t u d y .  The c o r r e l a -  t i o n s between the BSRI m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e s c a l e and t h e two dependent measures a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table 1.  The Bern  m a s c u l i n e s c a l e would have been e f f e c t i v e as a c o v a r i a t e  o n l y had i t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the dependent measures.  As noted i n Table 1, t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  correlations.  Furthermore,  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups and t h e  c o n t r o l groups were n o t found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y when p r e - t r e a t m e n t of v a r i a n c e .  different  BSRI s c o r e s were compared i n an a n a l y s i s  T h e r e f o r e , an a s s u m p t i o n o f e q u i v a l e n t groups  was made and the Bern m a s c u l i n e  s c a l e was not used as a  covariate.  TABLE  1  C o r r e l a t i o n s between BSRI S c a l e s and Dependent Measures - ATWS and C h r i s S t e r e o t y p y  Bern S c a l e s  ATWS  Chris Stereotypy  - .005  Masculine  - .095  .115  Feminine  -  C r i t i c a l value f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s  .054*  df=118 i s  r = l .178 when x = . 0 5 .  The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s o f the ATWS are r e p o r t e d i n Table 2.  As i n d i c a t e d , the v a r i a b l e s gender and s c h o o l  were s i g n i f i c a n t .  A l s o , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l -  treatment i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t .  The s c o r e s on the ATWS show  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female  75  students. and  The means o n t h e ATWS, r e p o r t e d b y g e n d e r ,  treatment,  3«  a r e shown i n T a b l e TABLE  2  T a b l e - ATWS A n a l y s i s  Summary  AR  Source  2  school  of  F  Variance Estimate  df  a  Variance  Gender  .1897  1  .1897  33.87*  School  .0981  2  .0491  8.76*  Treatment  .0118  1  .0118  2.11  Gender x S c h o o l  .0252  2  .0126  2.25  Gender x T r e a t m e n t  .0034  1  .0034  .61  S c h o o l x Treatment  .0675  2  .0037  6.03*  a  The e r r o r  term  f o r the analyses  S,E  =  F  A  f  i  i n Tables  2,4  and 5 i s  - ( s o u r c e ) ^ ....  2  U-^Cfull)/^ where:  S=source  E=error  2  & R =change  2  R  f l  2  -] -I —R  2  i nR  attributable  when a l l s o u r c e s equation  to source  being tested  are included m the  dfs=degrees o f freedom f o r source  being tested  dfe=sum o f N - K - l K=  degrees  o f freedom from  as sources  * p . 0 5 ; n=118 The ment  significant  i n t e r a c t i o n between s c h o o l and t r e a t -  i s reported i n Table  difference  3-  T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a a n d  c o n t r o l groups,  with  76  t h e ATWS e x p e r i m e n t a l mean e x c e e d i n g is  interesting  ceeded that  t o note  the control  that  the control  1 and S c h o o l 2 b u t  i n S c h o o l 3«  TABLE  3  Means f o r S i g n i f i c a n t E f f e c t s School-Treatment  o n ATWS  Means  School  Treatment Means (Row)  Treatment  83.30  85.25  (23)  (26)  75-05  73.86  76.17  (n)  (19)  (18)  (15)  S c h o o l Means  79.59  80.60  72.27  (42)  (44)  (32)  (n) Control  ( T o t a l n*s)  It  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p mean ex-  g r o u p mean i n S c h o o l  the reverse i s true  Experimental  mean.  68.82 (I?)  80.35 (66) 74.96 (52)  (118)  Gender Means ATWS Mean  Note:  Cell  sizes  Males  Females  70.76  81.27  (37)  (81)  i n parentheses  (118)  The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e C h r i s s t e r e o t y p e v a r i a b l e a r e r e p o r t e d i n Table 4 .  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups, w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l mean ( 3 . 8 8 ) e x c e e d i n g t h e c o n t r o l mean ( 3 . 1 0 ) as shown i n Table 4 .  TABLE  4  Summary Table - C h r i s S t e r e o t y p y A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e  df  Source  Variance Estimate  F  Gender  .0245  1  .0245  3.14  School  • 0055  2  .0028  .36  Treatment  .0486  1  .0046  6.23*  Chrisex  .0009  1  .0009  .12  Gender x v S c h o o l  .0025  2  .0012  .15  Gender x Treatment  .0008  1  .0008  .10  S c h o o l x Treatment  .0110  2  .0055  • 71  Treatment x C h r i s e x  .0171  1  .0171  2.19  Gender x C h r i s e x  .0007  1  .0007  .09  S c h o o l x Treatment x C h r i s e x  .OO63  2  .0032  .41  Gender x Treatment x C h r i s e x  .0018  1  .0018  1.51  Note. p  Treatment mean = 3.88,c o n t r o l mean = 3.10.  . 0 5 ; n=!20  ' As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e a b l e was action  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  5»  the C h r i s medical  related  school  vari-  t o any f a c t o r o r i n t e r -  i n the a n a l y s i s .  5  TABLE Summary T a b l e  - Chris Medical  Source  School  A.R  2  Analysis of  df  Variance  Variance Estimate  F  Gender  .0232  1  .0232  2.83  School  .0383  2  .0192  2.34  Treatment  .0002  1  .0002  .02  Chrisex  .0009  1  .0009  .11  .0010  2  .0005  .06  Gender x Treatment  .0160  1  .0160  1.95  School  .0262  2  .0131  1.60  .0035  1  .0035  .43  .0001  1  .0001  .01  x Treatment x C h r i s e x  .0259  2  .0130  1.59  Gender x T r e a t m e n t x C h r i s e x  .0083  1  .0083  1.01  Gender x  School  x Treatment  Treatment x Gender x School  Chrisex  Chrisex  n=120 The o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s the r e s u l t s  f o r C h r i s were a n a l y s e d  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  one o f t h e e i g h t o c c u p a t i o n a l  interaction effect  choices-engineer.  and  on o n l y  Although  the o c c u p a t i o n s "mathteacher"  and "nurse" showed a d i f f e r -  ence, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i d n o t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Table 6  g i v e s t h e summary t a b l e o f t h e a n a l y s i s and shows the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between t r e a t m e n t and C h r i s * s e x .  TABLE  6  Summary Table - O c c u p a t i o n 2 E n g i n e e r - A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e  Source  df  Sum o f Squares  Mean Square  F  Treatment  1  .591  • 591  3.18  Chrisex  1  .043  .043  0.23  Treatment x C h r i s e x  1  .804  .804  4.33  116  21.550  .186  Error  p  .05.1.-.n= 120  The c e l l means w h i c h produced a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t a r e r e ported i n Table 7 »  TABLE Percentage  7  o f Students i n E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l  C e l l s f o r Occupation 2 - Engineer  Chrisex . Male '' " .-Female  Treatment  27.5 % n=40  Experimental  27.6  Control  37.9 %  31.88fo  n=29  (n=69)  4.5 % n=22  fo  n=29 Column Percentage  Note.  Row Percentage  27.5^%  23-  (n=69)  (n=5D  17.65%  (n=5D  53fo  Row and column s i z e s i n p a r e n t h e s e s .  R e s u l t s o f t h e P r o c e s s Measures The second  s e c t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s c o n t a i n s two sub-  sections : i.  s t u d e n t r e a c t i o n s t o t h e c o u r s e , and  ii.  teacher r e a c t i o n s t o the course.  Student r e a c t i o n s t o t h e c o u r s e .  The s t u d e n t s ' r e a c -  t i o n s t o t h e course were r e c o r d e d on. a S t u d e n t .. r  E v a l u a t i o n Form (see Appendix I I I ) . dents completed  Sixty-eight stu-  t h i s form and t h e r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d  in  T a b l e 8.  Five  o f t h e q u e s t i o n s were a n a l y s e d .  T h e s e q u e s t i o n s were: Q u e s t i o n 1. Was why  the course  interesting?  Please  explain  o r why n o t .  Q u e s t i o n 4. Do y o u e x p e c t you?  How  this  course  do y o u e x p e c t  t o be u s e f u l t o  i t t o be  Q u e s t i o n 5. B a s e d on what y o u have s t u d i e d  useful?  i n this  c o u r s e , w o u l d y o u be i n t e r e s t e d i n a more d e t a i l e d c o u r s e ?  Please  longer,  explain  why  o r why n o t . Q u e s t i o n 7* C i r c l e course  one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g .  Did this  cause  (a) more d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e  the classroom,  (b) l e s s d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e  the classroom,  (c) about  t h e same amount o f d i s c u s s i o n  outside Q u e s t i o n 8. C i r c l e course  the classroom?  one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g .  Did this  cause  (a) more d i s c u s s i o n a t home, (b) l e s s d i s c u s s i o n a t home, (c) about home?  t h e same amount o f d i s c u s s i o n a t  TABLE Results  of Student  Number o f S t u d e n t s  Question  Question  Question  1  4  5  8  E v a l u a t i o n Form  - Sex o f  and P e r c e n t a g e  i n Each  "Males  Student, Category  Total  %  Category  Females  0  0  1  1  1.49  1  4  3  7  10.45  2  14  0  14  20.89  3  36  9  45  67.17  Total  %  Category  Females  Males  0  1  1  2  1  5  3  8  11.94  2  8  1  9  13.43  3  40  8  48  71.64  Total  2.99  %  Category  Females  Males  0  4  0  4  5-97  1  10  4  14  20.90  2  10  1  11  16.42  3  8  0  8  11.94  4  22  8  30  44.78  TABLE 8 - c o n t i n u e d  Question 7  Females  Males  Total  %  36  8  kk  66.66  (h)  k  0  k  6.06  (c)  Ik  k  18  27.27  Category  Question 8  Category  Females  Males  %  Total  (a)  31  k  35  53.03  (b)  k  1  5  7.58  (c)  19  7  26  39.39  Each o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s were s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s on t h e "basis o f t h e r e s p o n s e s .  S i n c e the  c a t e g o r i e s a r e d i f f e r e n t f o r each q u e s t i o n , t h e y have been d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y . Question 1  The answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n were s o r t e d into four categories. interpretableVV understand  Category 0 was "Non-  E i t h e r the student d i d n ' t  t h e q u e s t i o n o r the answer was  unclear, i l l e g i b l e or incomplete. dent f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . was " N e g a t i v e . "  One s t u -  Category  1  The s t u d e n t responses i n -  d i c a t e d t h a t t h e course was b o r i n g o r  84  repetitious. to  Seven s t u d e n t s {10%)  t h i s category.  category.  fell in-  C a t e g o r y 2 was  The responses  a  "Mixed"  indicated that  p a r t s of the course were i n t e r e s t i n g w h i l e o t h e r p a r t s were n o t .  Fourteen  students  (21%)  responded i n t h i s c a t e g o r y .  3 was  a " P o s i t i v e " category.  Category  The  wrote t h a t the course was v e r y  students  interesting  and r e l e v a n t t o them. F o r t y - s i x x s t u d e n t s (67%) Question 4  was  were i n t h i s  category.  a l s o c a t e g o r i z e d and computer a n a l y s e d .  A g a i n , the s t u d e n t s ' responses were s o r t e d into four categories. interpretable."  Category  dents (12%)  l e f t blank.  (3%) f e l l i n t o t h i s  Category 1 was  a "No"  Two  category.  response.  Eight stu-  f e l t t h a t the course was  not u s e f u l o r not p a r t i c u l a r l y Category 2 was  "Non-  The responses were ambigu-  ous o r the q u e s t i o n was responses  0 was  either  useful.  a "Maybe" c a t e g o r y .  The  s t u d e n t s responded t h a t some p a r t s were u s e f u l o r t h a t the course might be i n the f u t u r e .  A t o t a l of n i n e s t u d e n t s  (13%>) f e l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . 3 was  useful  a "Yes" c a t e g o r y .  Category  The s t u d e n t s i n  t h i s c a t e g o r y wrote t h a t i t was  definitely  u s e f u l and/or would be u s e f u l i n the f u t u r e .  85  Forty-eight  (72$)  students  were i n t h i s  category. Question 5  The answers t o t h i s into  five  q u e s t i o n were s o r t e d  categories.  "Non-interpretable" as m e n t i o n e d  above.  A total  (6$)  1 was  a "No" r e s p o n s e .  were i n t h i s  this  dents but  stated  that  stu-  Category wrote  i n a longer  (21$)  fell  into  difficult  Generally,'the stu-  t h e y had l i k e d  the course  d i d n ' t want o r need more i n f o r m a t i o n a t  this  time.  this  category.  category. terested later this  of four  2 was a  Category  category to d e s c r i b e .  reasons  The s t u d e n t s  Fourteen students  category.  was  category.  they weren't i n t e r e s t e d  course.  0  f o r t h e same  dents  that  Category  Eleven students  said  course  indicated  i n f o r m a t i o n and i n more  Thirty-one  students  at a were i n  4 was a " Y e s " c a t e -  Category  g o r y where t h e s t u d e n t s ed more  "Maybe"  E i g h t s t u d e n t s o r 11$  category.  into  t h e y m i g h t be i n -  i n a more d e t a i l e d  time.  fell  3 was a  Category  Students  (16$)  (45$)  t h e y want-  detail.  were i n C a t e g o r y  4. Questions 7 and 8  on t h e S t u d e n t  E v a l u a t i o n Form a s k e d t h e  s t u d e n t s t o comment o n t h e amount o f d i s cussion generated  by t h i s  course.  Referring that  t o T a b l e 8, t h e r e s u l t s  forty-four  course  caused  Also  (67%)  s t a t e d the  more d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e t h e  and 35 s t u d e n t s o r 5 3 ^  classroom the  students  course  caused  more  i n c l u d e d i n the Student  part  the s t u d e n t s to i n d i c a t e  o f the c o u r s e .  summarized  i n Table  E v a l u a t i o n form  t h e most  These r e s u l t s  Summary o f S t u d e n t  E v a l u a t i o n Form: was most I n t e r e s t i n g ? Frequency 18  Sex  Role  16  All  of  12  Case  Histories  7  "The  B i g S w i t c h 11  7 5  Marriage None o f Role Early  interesting  a r e t a b u l a t e d and  Assertiveness Course  Question  9  Q u e s t i o n 2 - What p a r t o f t h e C o u r s e  Stereotypes  were  9-  TABLE  Response  thought  d i s c u s s i o n a t home.  t h r e e q u e s t i o n s t h a t were c o n t e n t a n a l y s e d . 2 asked  show-  Course  Reversal  5 5  Feminists  Women's R i g h t s  4  Guest  2  Speakers  " I Want a W i f e "  2  Non-interpretable 92  Total  87  S i n c e t h e s t u d e n t s were n o t a s k e d choice  t o one t o p i c ,  students. category blanks  The f i v e  the t o t a l students  e x c e e d s t h e number o f  i n the n o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e  or i l l e g i b l e writing.  F i v e o f the students  interesting  a l l of i t i n t e r e s t i n g .  t h e s e c t i o n s on sex r o l e  tiveness those  training  The r e m a i n i n g  students  over  10,  b e i n g t h e most p o p u l a r .  c h o i c e s seem  3 asked  they found  least  there i s a t o t a l  interesting.  As n o t e d  of 6 6 responses,  the t o p i c  of least  interest.  were n o t i n t e r p r e t a b l e  interesting  Assertiveness  area  t h e r e were a These 8  responses  g i v e n above.  s t a t e d t h a t a l l of the course  o r none o f i t was u n i n t e r e s t i n g .  T r a i n i n g has t h e most v o t e s  p a r t o f the c o u r s e .  are a g a i n spread  i n Table  gave one  f o r t h e same r e a s o n s  T h i r t e e n o f the students  interesting  evenly  therefore i t  Again,  number o f n o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e r e s p o n s e s .  was  than  t h e s t u d e n t s what p a r t o f t h e  appears t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f the students as  Other  the 2 0 l e s s o n s .  Question course  part,  s t e r e o t y p i n g and a s s e r -  two c a t e g o r i e s , t h e s t u d e n t s '  spread  found  and 1 2 o f t h e s t u d e n t s  c h o s e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s as t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g with  their  i n c l u d e answers n o t r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n ,  no p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e found  to l i m i t  fairly  as t h e l e a s t  Otherwise,  evenly over  the choices  the 2 0 l e s s o n s .  TABLE 10 Summary o f S t u d e n t  E v a l u a t i o n Form:  Q u e s t i o n 3 - What p a r t o f t h e C o u r s e was L e a s t I n t e r e s t i n g ? Response  Frequency  Assertiveness  13  None o f C o u r s e  13  Early Case All  7  Feminists  7  Histories  5  o f Course  "You A r e Woman" Role  3  Reversal  Questions  2  Essay  2  Marriage  1  "The  1  B i g Switch"  8  Non-interpretable  66  Q u e s t i o n 6 on t h e s t u d e n t most d i f f i c u l t  The  the course  was t h e  t o c o n t e n t a n a l y s e and c a t e g o r i z e .  Question 6 asked of  e v a l u a t i o n form  t h e s t u d e n t s what c r i t i c i s m s  they had  a n d what improvements t h e y w o u l d  suggest.  r e s e a r c h e r has t a k e n t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s and  generally icisms  summarized  them.  Many s t u d e n t s had no  and no improvements t o s u g g e s t  a n s w e r s were n o t i n t e r p r e t a b l e .  several  Some s t u d e n t s f e l t t h e  b e g i n n i n g l e s s o n s were r e p e t i t i o u s ~ a n d contained  and a g a i n  crit-  t o o much r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l .  that  the course  The  most common s u g g e s t i o n f r o m  the Prince of  W a l e s s t u d e n t s was t o have a more a d v a n c e d , course.  The most common s u g g e s t i o n f r o m  s t u d e n t s was t o f o c u s t h e c o u r s e female feel  socialization.  t h a t they  Teacher  in-depth  t h e Burnaby  e q u a l l y on m a l e and  Many B u r n a b y s t u d e n t s  seemed t o  had been g i v e n a o n e - s i d e d p r e s e n t a t i o n  r e a c t i o n s to the course.  T h i s second  sub-  s e c t i o n reports the teachers' r e a c t i o n s to the course. The  r e a c t i o n s o f t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s were r e p o r t e d on  two  instruments;  the Teacher  E v a l u a t i o n Form a n d t h e  Teacher Log. The  Teacher  E v a l u a t i o n Form was i n c l u d e d a s a p r o  c e s s measure p r i m a r i l y  to e l i c i t  specific  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s and c l a r i t y  the  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s used  an  indicator  of  the course.  c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d f r o m The  primary  were r e q u e s t e d  •,z,^ and  the responses  of the course.  f o r changing  '..The p i l o t - t e a c h e r s facilitated  stereotyping.  form  and t h e p i l o t  make s u g g e s t i o n s  i n the teaching  felt  on t h e f o r m .  was t o g i v e Specific  felt  feedcriticisms  t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t o the course. t h e l e s s o n s were r e l e v a n t  awareness o f t h e e f f e c t s They a l s o  a s w e l l as  i n the t e a c h i n g o f the course  purpose o f t h i s  back t o the a u t h o r  on  o f t h e l e s s o n p l a n s and  o f any m a j o r v a r i a t i o n s  No m a j o r v a r i a t i o n s  feedback  of sex-role  t h e l e s s o n s promoted  meaningful  d i s c u s s i o n but  d i s c u s s i o n wasn't always The to  vary  the  the  lesson plans.  She  felt  t h a t the  o f the  main s u g g e s t i o n from the course  a t the  t e a c h i n g the  lessons, p a r t i c u l a r l y elementary said  for  was  format  course  of  was  repetitious.  t e a c h the  enjoyed  allowed  Burnaby t e a c h e r  f o u r l e s s o n s i n the b e g i n n i n g  The  time  adequate.  main s u g g e s t i o n from the  somewhat  to  t h a t the  for  t h a t the  Grade 9 o r 10  course the  Grade 11 c o u r s e was  Vancouver teacher  the  i n t r o d u c t o r y o n e s , were  too  12  felt  She  t h a t some o f  and  but  level.  was  students.  w e l l planned  Both  and  the  teachers  materials  were r e l e v a n t . The piloting  purpose of the teachers  r e g a r d i n g the For  some o f t h e s e  inappropriate.  "No"  t o comment d a i l y  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  assertiveness,  the  (the guest  rest  to i n d i c a t e  to a l l o w  specific  individual  speakers,  However, f o r t h e  the  lessons.  essay,  l o g format of the  either  instructions  teacher  clear?  Was  " D i s c u s s i o n of the  tion helpful  i n l e a d i n g the  to  "yes"  sec-  discussion?  was  lessons,  the  Questions"  the  questions  following questions:  Were t h e p r o c e d u r a l  the  on  r o l e p l a y i n g , e t c . ) the  t e a c h e r s were a s k e d to the  T e a c h e r Log was  or  Did  a majority  volved  i n the  of  you  feel  Did  the  students'  Did  an  you  students get  in-  discussions?  Did  strate  the  the  d i s c u s s i o n was  productive?  w r i t t e n a n s w e r s demon-  understanding of  the  have e n o u g h . t i m e t o  material?  complete  the  lesson? The  e n t r i e s recorded  indicate a highly positive  r e s p o n s e "by p i l o t i n g  teachers  and  the  l o g e n t r i e s , the  piloting  teachers  the  procedural  (55  "Yes"  - 0  i n s t r u c t i o n s to the "No")  and  Q u e s t i o n s " s e c t i o n was (49  "Yes"  involved (30  - 0  This  high  over to 47  level  the  of  had  teacher  The  were  "Discussion  majority  of the  c l a s s "became not,  d i s c u s s i o n was  considered  "Yes"  the  discussion  class, 5  (51  clear  of  9 about h a l f the  entries  that  - 0  less pro-  "No").  i n v o l v e m e n t seems t o have c a r r i e d  students'  0  the  indicated  helpful i n leading  the  w r i t t e n work, out students'  understanding of  "Unsure",  teacher  the  o f the  indicated that  shown an 2  that  i n 100$  that  In a l l of  d i s c u s s i o n f a r more o f t e n t h a n  - majority,  than h a l f ) or ductive  "No").  i n the  "Yes"  students.  "No").  the  I n 43  enough t i m e t o  o f 49  w r i t t e n work  entries, had  lesson material  out  o f 50  complete  (47  entires,  the  lesson.  the  "Yes"  The r e s u l t s dimension  t o t h e outcome  r e s u l t s were tional course.  f r o m t h e p r o c e s s m e a s u r e s gave an a d d e d measures.  generally positive  i n f o r m a t i o n to the study  The p r o c e s s  measure  and s u p p l i e d u s e f u l , and t o t h e a u t h o r  addi-  of the  93  CHAPTER  Discussion,  Discussion The course cess  5  Recommendations a n d  of Results  r e s u l t s of this  evaluation  i n sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g  i s effective i nachieving  certain conditions. support  this  The  and t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i t s stated  show t h a t  do n o t d i f f e r  effective  f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s .  Attitudes  Toward Women S c a l e  f i c a n t main e f f e c t ; higher  i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d  the females  the f a c t  economic e q u a l i t y .  a sex b i a s .  This  signi-  difference i n scores i n our s o c i e t y  equality.  have  An i n c r e a s i n g  a r e b e c o m i n g more aware o f a n d r e c e p t i v e o f f e r them s o c i a l ,  educational  Thus, when p r e s e n t e d w i t h a n i n s t r u -  ment t h a t m e a s u r e s t h e s e  has  t h e c o u r s e was  i n t h e sample s c o r e d  that females  and a t t i t u d e s t h a t  than males.  that  (ATWS) do d e m o n s t r a t e a s i g n i -  i n t e r e s t i n sexual  number o f f e m a l e s  higher  measures  However, t h e r e s u l t s o n t h e  than the males.  possibly reflects  and  under  depending on t h e s e x o f t h e  Therefore,  ideas  pro-  the e f f e c t s o f the experi-  student.  to  objectives  B o t h t h e outcome and p r o c e s s  results also  a more v e s t e d  s t u d y show t h a t t h e  conclusion.  mental treatment  ficiantly  Conclusions  Also,  ideas  and a t t i t u d e s f e m a l e s  i t could  be p o s s i b l e  that  score t h e ATWS  94  The mental  results  also  show t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e ATWS  1 and 2 ,  mean e x c e e d e d t h e c o n t r o l mean i n S c h o o l s  the r e v e r s e i s t r u e i n S c h o o l 3« generalizahility  This result  experi-  l i m i t s the  o f the experimental treatment  over  differ-  ent e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . The  t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s were d i f f e r e n t  respects.  Three  independent  variables  that  i n many  c o u l d n o t be  c o n t r o l l e d were a g e , t e a c h e r a n d s e l e c t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l groups.  The age o f t h e s t u d e n t s d i f f e r e d ; 1 were 15 a n d 1 6 ,  School  the students i n  i n S c h o o l 2 t h e y were 1 6 ,  18 a n d i n S c h o o l 3 t h e y were 16 a n d 1 7 .  17 a n d  From comments o n  the p r o c e s s measure, t h e s t u d e n t s i n S c h o o l 2 sometimes f e l t t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l was t o o e l e m e n t a r y n o t seem t o a f f e c t comments 3.  f o r them b u t t h i s d i d  t h e i r ATWS s c o r e s .  were n o t made by t h e g r a d e  The same t y p e o f  11  students  i n School  Hence, t h e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t age was n o t a c o n t r i b u t i n g  factor  to the d i f f e r e n t  results.  However, t h e i n d e p e n d e n t t e a c h e r m i g h t be i m p o r t a n t dents  i n Schools  contributing  1 and 2 e l e c t e d  S c h o o l 3 was a n a t u r a l l y Research  variables  factors.  t o take  assembled  done a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y  o f s e l e c t i o n and  t h e c o u r s e , whereas  social  level  the results  University perhaps  of the study  s t u d e n t s who e n r o l  studies  suggests  s e l f - s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s i s an important affect  (Brush,  The s t u -  class.  that the  factor  and c a n  G o l d and W h i t e ,  1978).  i n women's s t u d i e s c o u r s e s a r e  more a n d r o g y n o u s and p r o - f e m i n i s t a t t h e o u t s e t .  95' This s e l f - s e l e c t i o n process the  students  introduces an i n t e r a c t i o n  and t h e c o u r s e ,  p o s s i b l y making such  more e f f e c t i v e f o r t h o s e  s t u d e n t s who have e l e c t e d  it.  self-selection  In this  may  study,  have b e e n o p e r a t i n g i n S c h o o l s  experimental  i t i sdifficult  school students. students'  Different  interaction  be c o n c l u d e d  androgynous than  t o compare  university  influence high  S i n c e t h e r e were no  between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  groups i n Schools  that the students  the students  enced t h e s t u d e n t s  self-selection  i n Schools  factor  variable  i n the experimental  i n School  3-  influ-  1 and 2 d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e , to conclude  that the d i f f e r o n l y due t o t h e  t e a c h e r a l s o may have b e e n a n  i n the teaching of the course, the  s t u d e n t p r o c e s s measures d i d i n d i c a t e the w r i t t e n responses  on t h e S t u d e n t  that the students  some v a r i a t i o n s .  From  E v a l u a t i o n Forms, i t  a t School  t h e t e a c h e r and by t h e m a t e r i a l .  that  Therefore, a l -  t h e t e a c h e r p r o c e s s measures d i d n o t  i n d i c a t e major v a r i a t i o n s  by  groups,  i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l mean d i f f e r e n c e s on  Although  apparent  signifi-  process.  The i n d e p e n d e n t  was  and h i g h  and c o n t r o l  e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l s o n t h e ATWS were  t h e ATWS.  higher  school  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t may have  w o u l d p e r h a p s be a m i s t a k e  important  effect  1 a n d 2 were more p r o - f e m i n i s t a n d / o r  though a s e l f - s e l e c t i o n  it  t o take  1 and 2 t o produce  factors  choice of courses.  cant d i f f e r e n c e s cannot  a course  means.  However,  it  this  between  3 felt  threatened  S e v e r a l o f them s t a t e d  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n was b i a s e d and o n e - s i d e d  and t h a t  they  96  r e s e n t e d and r e j e c t e d their  comments t h a t  teacher. Student  Since this  that bias.  t h e y were r e a c t i n g type  that  were p a r t l y  the lower  t o the b i a s o f the  due t o t h e e f f e c t  o n t h e ATWS a t S c h o o l 3  o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e  I t i s also possible  i n S c h o o l 3 were due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n  tors—the  from  o t h e r s c h o o l s , i t m i g h t be  results  t e a c h e r and h e r s t u d e n t s . results  apparent  o f comment d i d n o t a p p e a r o n t h e  E v a l u a t i o n Forms f r o m  concluded  I t was a l s o  students d i d not e l e c t  to take  that  t h e ATWS  o f two f a c -  t h e course and  many o f them r e s e n t e d t h e way t h e c o u r s e was p r e s e n t e d . The  three experimental schools also  differed  the t e a c h e r s f o l l o w e d the s e t i n s t r u c t i o n s tion,  p r e s e n t a t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n  f o r the introduc-  o f t h e p r e and p o s t - t e s t  The t e a c h e r ( s ) i n S c h o o l 3 d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e  measures.  instructions  and t h e r e f o r e some o f t h e s t u d e n t s  experimental  and c o n t r o l c l a s s e s  the sample.  This i s another  different The  results  possible  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the  3'  i n School  dependent, v a r i a b l e  i n the experimental question i n less c o n t r o l group. a social  social  i n both the  had t o be e l i m i n a t e d f r o m  Chris stereotype also  i n h i g h e r s c o r e s i n t h e experimental group.  for  i n t h e way  group responded  resulted  The s t u d e n t s  t o t h e open-ended  s t e r e o t y p e d ways t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s The C h r i s m e a s u r e was d e v e l o p e d  desirability factor,  desirability  scale.  results,  i n the  t o account  s i n c e t h e ATWS h a s no  By u s i n g b o t h measures and  achieving  similar  i t m i g h t be c o n c l u d e d  students'  answers were b a s e d  on b e l i e f s  that the  r a t h e r than r e a c t i o n s  to s o c i a l  pressure.  Although ficant  the C h r i s , s t e r e o t y p e v a r i a b l e produced  results,  the  T h i s v a r i a b l e was differently Chris.  students  was  no  i n c l u d e d to see  t h i s was  a direct  basically  significant  questions  medical  to a male C h r i s t h a n  Since  the  Chris  l a c k the  m i g h t e x p l a i n why t h e o t h e r was  gave  they would to a q u e s t i o n and or  based  type.  such  one  not.  icant sex  A l s o , the r e s u l t s  responses,  to these  on o n l y one  factors  effect  of the  that  occupation  control the  alternate  group.  open-ended,  sex.  on t h e C h r i s  o t h e r more and  i t appeared  Direct  dominant  sex.  although  these  results  and  had  differed  Chris' I n the  a female  experi Chris  these  of  results  have b e e n l o o k i n g f o r an  from  treatment  signif-  o p p o s e d t o o n l y 4.5%  as  t h i n k i n g when c h o o s i n g  experimental  medical  rather than C h r i s '  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and  t h a t the  while  they  I t would appear from  I n summary, t h e r e s u l t s  this  that  s t u d e n t s who  g r o u p may  there  personality  occupations—engineer.  engineer  experimental  stereotyped  female  significant  between t r e a t m e n t  m e n t a l g r o u p , 37•9$ o f t h e  the  respond  a n s w e r s and  o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s f o r C h r i s showed a  interaction  chose the  not  on C h r i s '  C h r i s v a r i a b l e was  From t h e s t u d e n t  The  "no"  as C h r i s ' marks, i n t e r e s t s  were r e s p o n d i n g  not.  s c o p e o f open-ended q u e s t i o n s and  v a r i a b l e were p e r h a p s c o n f o u n d e d by factors,  did  i f s t u d e n t s would  "yes"  difference  school factor  signi-  d i d not that the  demonstrate  occupation.  outcome m e a s u r e s show  produced  significant  d e p e n d i n g on t h e  results  school  attended. The  p r o c e s s measures are a l s o  additional  d a t a and  information.  important In t h i s  sources  study,  of  these  m e a s u r e s p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w o u l d have b e e n lost  ity  i f o n l y the  outcome m e a s u r e s had  The  E v a l u a t i o n Form showed t h a t a l a r g e  Student  of the s t u d e n t s found  useful.  Many s t a t e d  l o n g e r and an  described  course  as most i n t e r e s t i n g  t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g found  this  section  noted  that  this  and  least  had  that  helped  The  E v a l u a t i o n Forms  the  in a  repetitive.  I n summary, indicated  as r e l e v a n t and  issues involved i n  process.  p r o c e s s measures t h a t  complete a l s o p r o v i d e d u s e f u l the author  that  be  seemed t o c a u s e more  a t home.  awareness o f the  section  I t should  section  s e e n by t h e s t u d e n t s  increase their  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n  this  and  course  students  to the f a c t  course  classroom  on t h e S t u d e n t  t h e c o u r s e was  13  assertiveness training  Compared t o o t h e r c o u r s e s , t h i s  the responses  and  interesting. due  was  interesting.  course  t h e r e f o r e found  d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the  There  the p a r t s of the least  and  i n taking a  the a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g  d i s c r e p a n c y was  V a n c o u v e r s t u d e n t s had class  and  major-  interesting  i n the f u t u r e .  p a r t of the  the  both  used.  interested  discrepancy.:between  Eighteen students found  guidance  course  t h e y w o u l d be  more d e t a i l e d  interesting  the  been  of the c o u r s e .  l e s s o n p l a n s were c l e a r ,  The  t h e t e a c h e r s were a s k e d information, p a r t i c u l a r l y pilot  teachers said  t h e d i s c u s s i o n f o r m a t was  that  to to the  useful  99  and of  t h e m a t e r i a l s were r e l e v a n t .  One  t h e t e a c h e r p r o c e s s m e a s u r e s was  of the main f u n c t i o n s  to assess  a t e a c h e r m i g h t have i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e piling logs,  the  i n f o r m a t i o n from  i t would appear t h a t the  clear,  the  classroom.  teachers f e l t to  format  insights  into  the  of both'students  revisions  Limitations  and  10  discussions led  and  course  teachers.  f o r the author  limitations.  that  elementary the  teacher.  the  These m e a s u r e s necessary  study The  also  Use  show t h a t t h e  evidence  suggests  i s t h e m o s t optimum g r a d e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  too  valuable  of m a t e r i a l .  of t h i s  Some o f t h e  roles  from  regarding  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e  results  certain  course.  and  piloting  process.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  changes and  and  discussions i n  o f s t u d e n t v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g sex  a l s o p r o v i d e d feedback  has  the  were  understood  l e d to meaningful  comteacher  teaching instructions  c o n c l u s i o n , t h e process- m e a s u r e s p r o v i d e d  viewpoints  The  e v a l u a t i o n f o r m s and  t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s and  the s o c i a l i z a t i o n In  problems  After  P e r h a p s most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e  a clarification  and  course.  h a n d - o u t m a t e r i a l s were e a s i l y  t h e q u e s t i o n s and the  the  the  concepts  and  t h a t Grade of  course  I t would a l s o c a n be  limited  More r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o d i s c o v e r what  personality traits  the  m a t e r i a l s appear to  f o r senior students.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  course  make e f f e c t i v e  teachers  be  appear by  the  factors  i n the  area  100  of sex r o l e tions  s t e r e o t y p i n g and women's s t u d i e s .  suggest  course  These  limita-  c e r t a i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e u s e . The  s h o u l d he i m p l e m e n t e d a t t h e Grade 10 l e v e l a n d he a n  elective  course.  ly  this  teach  Also,  type  t h e i s s u e o f who c a n most  of course  Recommendations f o r F u t u r e  effective-  needs t o be r e s o l v e d .  Research  S e v e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h c a n be made.  In this  instruments  study,  i t was d i f f i c u l t  high school populations  in attitude The for  this  and b e h a v i o r  type  n e e d t o be  t o use i n t h i s  m a s c u l i n i t y and androgyny.  as  t o changes  Inventory  may be l i m i t e d At least  study.  When u s e d as a p r e -  showed a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n Therefore,  t h e BSRI d i d n o t g i v e  to do.  Two o t h e r m a j o r i s s u e s i n e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h  and  between  measures o f m a s c u l i n i t y , f e m i n i n i t y and androgyny  i t i s purported  should  i t is  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e BSRI was n o t a n e f f e c -  t e s t measure, t h e r e s u l t s  separate  designed  developed.  of future evaluation research.  instrument  l e v e l and  Instruments  and more s e n s i t i v e  u s e o f t h e Bern Sex R o l e  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s tive  measurement  t h a t were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e g r a d e  w o u l d measure t h e d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s . for  to find  be a d d r e s s e d  the importance  a r e ways t o m e a s u r e p e r m a n e n t  that effects  of a l l o w i n g f o r u n a n t i c i p a t e d conse-  quences o f i n t e r v e n t i o n programs. o f any a t t i t u d e - c h a n g e  I n a s s e s s i n g the impact  program, a n i m p o r t a n t  question i s  "how permanent w i l l problem  are not immediately  a t some l a t e r  measure. account ning  The  i s t h a t p r o g r a m s and c o u r s e s may c r e a t e  changes t h a t selves  t h e measured changes be"?  time  latent  evident but manifest  them-  and a r e t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o  Future r e s e a r c h should take  these  issues  when d e c i d i n g o n measurement i n s t r u m e n t s  data  second  into  and p l a n -  collection.  Conclusions The  purpose o f t h i s  ness o f the course original  course  s t u d y was t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e -  i n achieving i t s stated  g o a l s were t o i n c r e a s e t h e s t u d e n t s  ness o f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of  traditional  objectives.  p r o c e s s , t o make s t u d e n t s  The  awareaware  s t e r e o t y p e s and e n c o u r a g e them t o e v a l u a t e  t h e s t e r e o t y p i n g p r o c e s s , and t o have s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e roles text-.  o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s  i n a s o c i a l l y androgynous  con-  As m e a s u r e d by b o t h c o n v e n t i o n a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l  instruments,  this  study  concludes  that  the course  have b e e n a c h i e v e d f o r a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s experimental  groups.  objectives i n the  APPENDIX  I  The C o u r s e  TABLE OF CONTENTS Pag COURSE INTRODUCTION  1  LESSON PLANS 1.  P r e - t e s t i n g , D e f i n i t i o n s , and "Love I s "  7  2.  Role R e v e r s a l Story  10  3.  Case H i s t o r y : C h e r y l  12  4.  Case H i s t o r y : Sandra  14  5.  "Prom Queen" and f i l m " A n y t h i n g You Want To Be"  16  6.  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A s s e r t i v e Behaviour  18  7.  A s s e r t i v e Behaviour  24  8.  Non-Verbal and V e r b a l B e h a v i o u r s  28  9.  A s s e r t i v e D e m o n s t r a t i o n and E x e r c i s e  30  10.  " F a s h i o n as O p p r e s s i o n "  33  11.  A F u t u r i s t i c T a l e "The B i g S w i t c h "  35  12.  Guest Speaker: S o c i a l i z a t i o n  37  13.  H i s t o r i c a l Overview  of the P o s i t i o n of  Women  38  14.  " I Want a W i f e "  41  15.  M a r r i a g e : P a s t and P r e s e n t  43  16.  Essay P r o j e c t :  (a) "How t o H o l d a Husband" ..  45  (b) "You Are Woman"  45  17. 18.  F i l m : " H a p p i l y Ever A f t e r "  47  19.  Guest Speaker: Women and R e l i g i o n  49  20.  Men and t h e Women's Movement  50  21.  Post-testing  See Other Boo  104  COURSE  The  INTRODUCTION  twenty l e s s o n s which comprise  i z a t i o n package a r e taken from "Quarter"  British  a larger  a t Burnsview J u n i o r Secondary  Columbia.  10 and t h i s  "Canadian  thirty-three  Socialhour  c a l l e d Human S t u d i e s 10 w h i c h h a s "been t a u g h t  course  1975  since  this  The m a i n o b j e c t i v e  "Canadian  Socialization"  School  i n Delta,  o f b o t h Human S t u d i e s package i s to r a i s e the  awareness o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o t h e f a c t  that  they a r e  the .victims o f sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . The because  u s e o f t h e word traditionally  sex r o l e s Until rarely  educators  as e s s e n t i a l  recently,  " v i c t i m s " may a p p e a r t o be t o o s t r o n g  to p e r s o n a l i t y  the p o s i t i v e  been q u e s t i o n e d .  and s o c i e t y  will  Horner,  1969?  definitely  1972,  Broverman e t a l , 1968, 1974;  the term  "victims"  the detrimental, l i m i t i n g  o f sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g .  This  course  relies  heavily  t h e l e s s o n s t o be e f f e c t i v e designed  on c l a s s r o o m  and a s p e c i f i c  NOTE:  discussion f o r  d i s c u s s i o n model,  to encourage student p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  i n t h e hope t h a t  tone  familiar  appear reasonable, f o r d u r i n g the p a s t t e n years  t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s have d e m o n s t r a t e d nature  s t e r e o t y p e s has  However, t o t h o s e r e a d e r s  and Bern,  these  d e v e l o p m e n t and f u n c t i o n .  value o f sex r o l e  w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h o f Maccoby, 1 9 6 6 ; 1970;  have a c c e p t e d  has been i n c l u d e d  t e a c h e r s w i l l make u s e o f i t .  N e i t h e r the d i s c u s s i o n model nor the a u t o c r a t i c  o f t h e l e s s o n p l a n s were c o n c e i v e d i n o r d e r t o " t e l l t h e  t e a c h e r now t o t e a c h " .  However, f o r t h e p u r p o s e s  1  of post  test  105  measurement i t i s n e c e s s a r y ency the  be o b s e r v e d  that  among t h o s e  rationale  t e a c h e r s who a r e t e s t  piloting  f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n model i s based  simple but important  f o r m u l a V i z . LEARNING r e s u l t s  INTEREST and i n t e r e s t  results  from  G i v e n t h e extreme d i f f i c u l t y EVERY s t u d e n t f i n d s students  interesting,  commit t h e m s e l v e s  cussed  i n t h e hope t h a t  MENT.  To t h i s  materials (a)  form  (b)  develop  T h i s example  you t h i n k i t i s proper  a date?  t e a c h e r s s h o u l d t r y t o have  on whatever i s s u e be s p a r k e d  a manner t h a t  a n o p i n i o n on t h e t o p i c reasons  from  o f p l a n n i n g lessons which  INTEREST w i l l  i n such  on a  INVOLVEMENT.  end, a m a j o r i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s  are phrased  F o r example: Do  of consist-  course. The  the  a c e r t a i n degree  i s taken from  dis-  by INVOLVEi n the course  students  under  which support  i s being  must:  discussion  that opinion. Lesson  10.  f o r a woman t o "pay h e r own way" o n  Why o r why n o t ?  1.  D u r i n g t h e " s e a t work" p o r t i o n o f L e s s o n 10 e a c h s t u d e n t w i l l be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s i s s u e a n d w i l l have t o make a d e c i s i o n and b u t t r e s s t h a t d e c i s i o n w i t h s u p p o r t i n g r e a s o n s w h i c h w i l l be w r i t t e n i n h i s / h e r e x e r c i s e b o o k .  2.  When t h i s i s s u e i s b r o a c h e d d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p e r i o d , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d say: " P l e a s e r a i s e y o u r hand i f y o u f e e l t h a t a woman t o 'pay h e r own way' o n a d a t e .  section  i t is_ p r o p e r f o r  The t e a c h e r r e c o r d s t h e number o n t h e b l a c k b o a r d head, t h e n s a y s :  or over-  " P l e a s e r a i s e y o u r hand i f y o u do n o t f e e l i t i s p r o p e r f o r a woman t o 'pay h e r own way' o n a d a t e .  2  106  This  number i s l i k e w i s e r e c o r d e d  Should Should  15 10  p a y own way n o t p a y own way  The e n t i r e c l a s s extent that:  on t h e b o a r d :  i s now i n v o l v e d i n t h e i s s u e t o t h e  (a)  Each student support i t .  has a w r i t t e n o p i n i o n and r e a s o n s t o  (b)  E a c h s t u d e n t has p u b l i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d , i n a show o f hands, o n w h i c h s i d e o f t h e i s s u e h e / s h e s t a n d s .  Because every student i s i n v o l v e d t o t h i s extent, a l l a r e f a i r game f o r t h e n e x t q u e s t i o n w h i c h i s : "Why do y o u b e l i e v e t h i s ?  What a r e y o u r  reasons?"  The t e a c h e r may b e g i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n by t a k i n g r a i s e d hands b u t c a n a n d s h o u l d a s k f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m l e s s o u t g o i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h i s manner: "X, y o u v o t e d i n f a v o u r o f women p a y i n g p l e a s e r e a d us y o u r r e a s o n s . "  their  own way,  NOTE: The t e a c h e r c a n make t h e p r o c e s s o f c l a s s r o o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e s s t r a u m a t i c f o r i n s e c u r e s t u d e n t s by w a l k i n g around the c l a s s w h i l e the students a r e doing t h e i r s e a t work and: (a)  administering positive answers.  re-enforcement  f o r perceptive -  (b)  a s c e r t a i n i n g w h e t h e r a s t u d e n t has good arguments b e f o r e c a l l i n g t h a t s t u d e n t .  supporting  T h r e e o r f o u r arguments f o r e a c h s i d e s h o u l d be b r o u g h t f o r t h , d i s c u s s e d and e v a l u a t e d by t h e c l a s s . Through t h i s p r o c e s s e v e n t h e q u i e t e s t s t u d e n t - t h e one who n e v e r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s - g e t s t o compare h i s / her p o i n t o f view with t h a t of the o t h e r s . I f student t h i n k i n g has, i n the o p i n i o n o f t h e teacher, b e e n a l t e r e d b y t h e exchange o f i d e a s d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n , t h e n t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d summarize t h e p o i n t s made b y e i t h e r s i d e ( j o t t i n g e a c h m a j o r p o i n t on t h e b o a r d as i t comes up f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s p r o c e s s ) a n d t h e c l a s s t h e n r e - v o t e s on t h e o r i g i n a l p r e m i s e .  3  lo? 6.  A t t h i s p o i n t , i f d e s i r e d , the t e a c h e r may v o i c e o p i n i o n and s u p p o r t i n g r e a s o n s .  his/her  NOTE: T h i s d i s c u s s i o n model has proved t o he v e r y e f f e c t i v e f o r " g e t t i n g the b a l l r o l l i n g " a t the b e g i n n i n g o f d i s c u s s i o n time as w e l l as f o r t r e a t i n g h i g h l y c o n t e n t i o u s b u t openEnded i s s u e s . L i k e any o t h e r t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e , i t s h o u l d not be o v e r u s e d . LESSON STRUCTURE Each l e s s o n i n t h e Canadian S o c i a l i z a t i o n course i s s t r u c t u r e d f o r a s i x t y minute p e r i o d . Each l e s s o n : (a)  b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e p r e v i o u s day's work w h i c h , i n a d d i t i o n t o r e f r e s h i n g t h e students'mmemories, p r o v i d e s a n a t u r a l " l e a d i n " t o t h e day's l e s s o n .  (b)  f e a t u r e s t h e r e a d i n g o f some document, s h o r t s t o r y o r a r t i c l e which t h e n forms t h e b a s i s f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n of the p e r i o d .  NOTE: H o p e f u l l y , a l l documents have been adapted so t h a t t h e y may be r e a d and u n d e r s t o o d by most Grade 10 s t u d e n t s . (c)  i n v o l v e s a t e a c h e r - l e d d i s c u s s i o n . Each l e s s o n p l a n contains a s e c t i o n c a l l e d " D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions" t h a t p r o v i d e s some h i n t s and s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h may a i d the t e a c h e r i n d i r e c t i n g c l a s s debate o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . (There a r e a few e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p a t t e r n , n o t a b l y t h e l e s s o n s on A s s e r t i v e B e h a v i o r . )  (d)  c o n c l u d e s w i t h a "Wrap Up" s e c t i o n t h a t g i v e s the s t u dent an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e g r a t e any new i n f o r m a t i o n o r i d e a s he/she has a c q u i r e d w i t h h i s / h e r p r e v i o u s b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g t h e t o p i c b e i n g s t u d i e d t h a t day.  NOTE: I f b o t h t e a c h e r and s t u d e n t s a r e e n j o y i n g a p r o d u c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n , a d e s i r e t o i g n o r e t h e Wrap Up e x e r c i s e may d e v e l o p . I n some cases t h i s i s p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e . However, i n o t h e r s t h e r e v i e w w h i c h b e g i n s t h e c l a s s i s based on t h e Wrap Up from t h e p r e v i o u s l e s s o n . I n these c a s e s , t h e Wrap Up i s e s s e n t i a l . As a g e n e r a l r u l e , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d s t r i v e t o s t r u c t u r e t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o a l l o w enough time f o r t h e l e s s o n Wrap Up. STUDENT REQUIREMENTS A l l s t u d e n t s must have w r i t i n g equipment and an e x e r c i s e book w h i c h they b r i n g t o c l a s s each day. D u r i n g t h e r e v i e w  4  108  s e c t i o n of (unless  each c l a s s ,  otherwise  these  specified  hooks s h o u l d r e m a i n c l o s e d i n that hour's l e s s o n p l a n ) .  All  w r i t t e n work done d u r i n g t h e  twenty l e s s o n s - w i t h  the  t i o n of the  15  - s h o u l d he  done i n  s e c t i o n of the  course,  this  essay  i n Lessons  and  16  excep-  hook. At  least  once d u r i n g t h e  teacher should c o l l e c t evidence  t h e e x e r c i s e b o o k s and  t h a t the s t u d e n t s  l e s s o n s are based  on.  understand  I f the  o f t h e e x e r c i s e book c a n be a c a d e m i c mark a t t h e  final  end  the  examine them f o r  issues that  teacher desires,  the  the b a s i s f o r a t l e a s t  of the  the  the  assessment p a r t of  an  course.  HINTS THAT MIGHT HELP 1.  By d e s i g n , t h e b u l k o f m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s C a n a d i a n S o c i a l i z a t i o n course d e a l w i t h the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of f e m a l e s . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d make e v e r y e f f o r t t o see t h a t male s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d a t "the o t h e r s i d e of the c o i n " to female c o n d i t i o n i n g .  2.  The c l a s s may c o n t a i n one o r more s t u d e n t s who c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s t o be " l i b e r a t e d . " These s t u d e n t s might b a l k a t some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a n d / o r s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d , by saying: "But I'm n o t l i k e t h a t " o r " T h i s d o e s n ' t a p p l y t o me." F o r example, t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f " b e i n g p o p u l a r " i n L e s s o n 4. These s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be r e m i n d e d t h a t i n most c a s e s i t i s t h e t y p i c a l o r a v e r a g e a t t i t u d e w h i c h i s under d i s c u s s i o n .  3.  A l t h o u g h t h e b u r d e n o f l e s s o n p l a n n i n g and m a t e r i a l g a t h e r i n g h a s , f o r t h e most p a r t , b e e n l i f t e d f r o m t h e s h o u l d e r s of the t e a c h e r d u r i n g the d u r a t i o n of the c o u r s e , t h e r e r e m a i n s t h e j o b o f c o n t a c t i n g t h e two g u e s t s p e a k e r s ( L e s s o n s 12 and 19)• Since these speakers f u l f i l l an important f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the c o u r s e , the t e a c h e r i s s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d t o a t t e n d t o t h i s d e t a i l as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e t o e n s u r e t h a t i t w i l l n o t be o v e r l o o k e d u n t i l too l a t e .  5  109  4.  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Wrap Up s e c t i o n o f e a c h l e s s o n w i l l vary from s u b j e c t area to s u b j e c t a r e a . I f "Canadian S o c i a l i z a t i o n " i s b e i n g t a u g h t as p a r t o f an E n g l i s h o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o u r s e , t h e t e a c h e r may want t o expand upon t h e number o f p a r a g r a p h a s s i g n m e n t s . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s assumed t h a t a G u i d a n c e c l a s s w o u l d p u t a g r e a t e r emphasis on v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n .  FINALLY, A PERSONAL NOTE The on  lessons designed  f o r Canadian S o c i a l i z a t i o n are  experiential  learning principles  t o an a n e c d o t a l  teaching technique.  you  as  the  teacher  should  ences r e g a r d i n g the one  of your goals  part is  Teaching and  i s to a c h i e v e  this  course  have r e s p o n d e d  degree of t r u s t  and  t o d i s c u s s y o u r own  has  to the  a t the  proved  not  t o be  s u b j e c t matter but  the  technique  of the  a most  o n l y i n t h e way  o p e n n e s s t h a t has  on  teaching front  experi-  Remember, i f  nonsexist behaviour  that i s modelled  best  Whenever a p p r o p r i a t e ,  t h e most e f f e c t i v e  worthwhile experience,  dents  free  lend themselves  s u b j e c t under d i s c u s s i o n .  of your s t u d e n t s ,  the b e h a v i o u r  feel  and  based  room.  rewarding  t h a t the  stu-  a l s o i n the  been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the  classroom. I n my  own  experience,  s e n s e o f warmth and  this  course  has  community w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s  have known as an E n g l i s h o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s y o u r own  experience  rewarding. and  will  Therefore,  confirmed,  be  produced  prove  t o be  to  anything  teacher.  speakers  enjoy y o u r s e l f .  6  real I  Hopefully,  e q u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g and  once y o u r g u e s t  prepared  a  are  contacted  110 LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION: A l t h o u g h we might l i k e t o b e l i e v e t h a t " e v e r y one i s an i n d i v i d u a l , " t h e s o c i e t y i n which we l i v e o f t e n a s c r i b e s c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o a l l males and a l l f e m a l e s . 'The f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e t o p i c o f s e x r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . I t w i l l demonstrate t o s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e y themselves a r e v i c t i m s o f s e x r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g as w e l l as e x p l a i n i n g some o f t h e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each s e x . PROCEDURE: 1.  2.  The t e a c h e r s h o u l d w r i t e t h e f o l l o w i n g terms on the board: (a)  A " r e a l l a d y " i s ...  (b)  A " r e a l gentleman" i s .  (c)  A m a s c u l i n e man i s ...  (d)  A f e m i n i n e woman i s  (e)  A b a c h e l o r i s ...  (f)  A s p i n s t e r i s ...  S t u d e n t s s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d t h a t they a r e t o p r o v i d e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the above terms. That i s , i n two o r t h r e e sentences they a r e t o d e s c r i b e what p i c t u r e comes i n t o t h e i r mind w i t h each term. 10 - 15 m i n u t e s .  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: S t u d e n t s s h o u l d attempt these d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f the t e a c h e r o r f e l l o w s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d n o t l o o k a t t h e s t u d e n t s * work d u r i n g t h e time these d e f i n i t i o n s a r e b e i n g w r i t t e n . 3.  A f t e r t h e a l l o t t e d time i s up, t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d c a l l the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c l a s s t o t h e f i r s t term (a r e a l l a d y ) and say: " P l e a s e p u t your hand up i f you d e s c r i b e d a r e a l l a d y i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s e terms." ... sweet, g e n t l e , k i n d , s m i l i n g , doesn't swear, "proper" ( w r i t e these on t h e board next t o No. l a ) .  IMPORTANT: I s t h e r e b a s i c agreement among c l a s s members w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n y o u have p r o v i d e d ? Ask f o r one o r two d e f i n i t i o n s t o be r e a d a l o u d and add some o f these s t e r e o t y p i c a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e terms a l r e a d y on t h e board.  7  Ill  The  Use  teacher  should  f o l l o w t h e same s t e p s w i t h  1.  giving a general  2.  checking in basic  3.  e m b e l l i s h i n g each d e f i n i t i o n w i t h v i d e d by t h e c l a s s .  these  A real  definition  (provided  out whether the m a j o r i t y agreement  after A m a s c u l i n e man  ladies,  - strong,  polite  definition,  helow)  of the c l a s s i s expressions  terms as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g  gentleman - w e l l dressed,  each  (holds  pro-  definitions. doors),  looks  wealthy.  h a i r y chested,  tough, wouldn't  cry..  A f:eminine woman - d a i n t y , n i c e c l o t h e s ( d r e s s e s ) , d e l i c a t e , doesn't shout. A bachelor - young, a s w i n g e r , l i v e s i n a n a p a r t m e n t (pad), f a s t car, l i k e s p a r t i e s , l o t s of girlfriends. A spinster 4.  - " o l d m a i d " , l o n e l y , wears a h a i r n e t a n d keeps c a t s .  Once t h e l i s t i s c o m p l e t e , t h e d i s c u s s i o n c a n b e g i n these q u e s t i o n s from t h e t e a c h e r .  with  (a)  I d i d n o t l o o k a t y o u r work w h i l e y o u were w r i t i n g your d e f i n i t i o n s . Why do y o u s u p p o s e I was a b l e t o know ( g e n e r a l l y ) how y o u w o u l d d e f i n e t h e s e t e r m s ?  (b)  B a s e d o n o u r d e f i n i t i o n s what a r e some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we i d e n t i f y w i t h e a c h s e x ?  (c)  S i n c e a " s p i n s t e r " i s a c t u a l l y d e f i n e d as "an u n m a r r i e d woman" ( t h a t i s , a f e m a l e b a c h e l o r ) , why do you t h i n k we s e e b a c h e l o r s a n d s p i n s t e r s i n s u c h d i f f e r e n t ways?  TEACHERS NOTE: One o f t h e b a s i c p o i n t s w h i c h s h o u l d come o u t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e d t h a t women s h o u l d f i n d h a p p i n e s s and s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e i n m a r r i a g e . A single woman i s s e e n as o l d and l o n e l y - i n s h o r t , a f a i l u r e - w h i l e m a l e s a r e n ' t s u b j e c t t o t h e same s o r t o f p r e s s u r e b e c a u s e a n u n m a r r i e d man i s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y d e f i n e d as a " c a r e f r e e bachelor."  8  112  IMPORTANT: To emphasize t h i s p o i n t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d a s k , "How many o f you have thought a t a l l s e r i o u s l y about m a r r i a g e i n g e n e r a l and t h e k i n d o f m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r you want?" Compare how many g i r l s r a i s e t h e i r hands as opposed t o boys. A l s o ask, "How many o f you have s t a r t e d t o c o l l e c t goods and f u r n i s h i n g s (a hope c h e s t ) f o r your f u t u r e m a r r i a g e ? " A g a i n , compare t h e number o f boys v s . g i r l s who respond. Such q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d r e v e a l t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e to c o n s i d e r m a r r i a g e (and a f a m i l y ) i s much g r e a t e r on young g i r l s than boys. The economic and c a r e e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s f a c t s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d i n f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g : (a)  I f we b e l i e v e t h a t women s h o u l d marry and r a i s e a f a m i l y , w i l l women workers be g i v e n t h e same c a r e e r t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s as men?  (b)  I s one sex b e i n g expected t o be dependent ( a t l e a s t f i n a n c i a l l y ) upon t h e o t h e r ?  (c)  What problems may r e s u l t from such dependency?  WRAP UP: I n c l o s i n g , i t s h o u l d be e v i d e n t t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t s o c i e t y assumes t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e between males and females w i t h r e g a r d t o m a r r i a g e . I n order to p i n p o i n t o t h e r s t e r e o t y p i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i n t h e time r e m a i n i n g , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d h o l d up t h e sheet c o n t a i n i n g "Love i s ..." c a r t o o n s and go over each p a n e l w i t h t h e c l a s s d i s c u s s i n g t h e "humour" and t h e u n d e r l y i n g assumptions about t h e sexes cont a i n e d i n each c a r t o o n . QUESTION: How many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e "Love i s . c a r t o o n s a r e n a t u r a l ( i n s t i n c t i v e ) q u a l i t i e s o f each s e x and how many a r e c o n d i t i o n e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Eg. A r e g i r l s more a f r a i d of s c a r y movies than boys?  9  113  LESSON 2 INTRODUCTION: T h i s l e s s o n employs a r o l e r e v e r s a l s t o r y t o e x p l o r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g on c a r e e r c h o i c e and m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Students s h o u l d n o t "be t o l d t h a t t h e s t o r y they a r e about t o r e a d i s i n any way u n u s u a l . REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e g i n t h i s l e s s o n w i t h t h e f o l l o w ing q u e s t i o n . (5 minutes) (a:) L a s t day we d i s c u s s e d s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e •" • between men and women, What were some o f these differences? L i s t these d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e board and d i s c u s s them b r i e f l y i n o r d e r t o r e f r e s h t h e s t u d e n t s * minds. Cover t h i s board ( i f p o s s i b l e ) w h i l e the s t u d e n t s complete t h e n e x t p a r t o f the lesson. PROCEDURE: 1.  G i v e each s t u d e n t a copy o f "A S t o r y " (green p a p e r ) . Tell them t o r e a d t h e a r t i c l e and - on t h e i r own - answer t h e accompanying q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i r note book i n as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e . I f they have problems f i g u r i n g out t h e meani n g o f any o f t h e q u e s t i o n s they s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o seek h e l p from t h e t e a c h e r . (20 m i n u t e s )  NOTE TO TEACHER: I t may be obvious t o many s t u d e n t s t h a t t h i s i s a r o l e r e v e r s a l s t o r y but t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n should not i n any way a f f e c t t h e i r answering o f t h e q u e s t i o n s . 2.  3.  D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: (a)  Make a l i s t on t h e board o f 5 - 8 o f t h e c a r e e r s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e a young man would c o n s i d e r to be a "demanding a n d " u s e f u l p r o f e s s i o n . "  (b)  Q u e s t i o n two concerns t h e i n c u l c a t i o n o f s u b s e r v i e n c e and s a c r i f i c e , two key elements o f t r a d i t i o n a l female s t e r e o t y p i n g . I f s t u d e n t s do n o t f e e l t h a t t h e young man i n t h e s t o r y r e c e i v e d good a d v i c e , l i s t on t h e board some o f t h e i r own a d v i c e f o r him.  (c)  When d i s c u s s i n g q u e s t i o n t h r e e , a g a i n , l i s t on t h e board 3 - 8 o f t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s which s t u d e n t s f e e l would l e a d an employer t o assume t h a t a young male i n t e r v i e w e e would p r o b a b l y q u i t and wasn't worth t r a i n i n g .  At t h i s p o i n t , e x p l a i n the r o l e r e v e r s a l nature of the s t o r y and ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r answers to t h e f i r s t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . That i s ,  10  114  (a)  b e s i d e t h e l i s t o f p r o f e s s i o n s i n q u e s t i o n one, ask the c l a s s f o r a l i s t o f s e v e r a l jobs which ( t r a d i t i o n a l l y ) a woman might be encouraged t o c o n s i d e r as "demanding and u s e f u l . " Compare t h e s t a t u s and economic power o f these l i s t s . W i t h w h i c h sex .do we a s s o c i a t e t h e b e s t jobs?  (b)  When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a d v i c e i n q u e s t i o n two, do these s u g g e s t i o n s sound as s t r a n g e when d i r e c t e d towards a woman as towards a man. Why?  (c)  I n q u e s t i o n t h r e e , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d p o i n t out t h a t i n many cases where a woman a p p l i e s f o r a j o b r e q u i r i n g s e r i o u s t r a i n i n g , many employers assume t h a t she " i s n ' t worth t r a i n i n g and w i l l t e n d t o q u i t : J u s t Because She's a Woman - Her sex a l o n e and n o t any o f t h e n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s l i s t e d on t h e b o a r d , i s i n i t s e l f enough t o doom h e r t o t h e " u n f i t f o r serious t r a i n i n g " category.  NOTE TO TEACHER: T h i s may be an opportune moment t o remind s t u d e n t s about t h e economic and c a r e e r i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h r e s s u i t from t h e p r e s s u r e many females f e e l , t o g e t m a r r i e d and r a i s e a f a m i l y (Lasy Day's L e s s o n ) . (d)  Q u e s t i o n f o u r r a i s e s t h e b a s i c "nature v s . n u r t u r e " d i s c u s s i o n . A r e human s o c i a l p a t t e r n s t h e way t h e y are because o f n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t o r because o f s o c i e t y ' s c o n d i t i o n i n g system? F o r a i d i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s t o p i c , r e f e r s t u d e n t s back t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f " b a c h e l o r " and " s p i n s t e r " w h i c h t h e y w r o t e l a s t day. Do they f e e l t h a t men a r e n a t u r a l l y c a r e f r e e and woman n a t u r a l l y l o n e l y l i v i n g o u t s i d e o f marriage?  WRAP UP: I f time remains i n t h e p e r i o d a f t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n of q u e s t i o n s , ask t h e s t u d e n t s t o w r i t e a b r i e f paragraph i n t h e i r notebooks g i v i n g t h e i r own o p i n i o n on t h e t o p i c , "Which i s more i m p o r t a n t i n s h a p i n g t h e way I am, my n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s , or t h e way I was r a i s e d ? " These paragraphs c a n be r e a d by t h e t e a c h e r (and marked) a t a l a t e r date when e x e r c i s e books a r e collected.  11  115  LESSON 3 INTRODUCTION: This lesson presents students with a t y p i c a l c a r e e r v s . m a r r i a g e dilemma f a c e d "by many young women a p p r o a c h i n g t h e end o f t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . The m a i n g o a l o f t h e l e s s o n i s t o i s o l a t e and examine some o f t h e p r e s s u r e s p l a c e d u p o n women i n t h i s s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n . REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e g i n t h i s class the following questions:  l e s s o n by a s k i n g t h e  (a)  L a s t d a y we d i s c u s s e d some o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s w h i c h men a n d women ( t r a d i t i o n a l l y ) have toward m a r r i a g e and a c a r e e r . What were some o f these d i f f e r e n c e s ? ( L i s t on t h e board)  (b)  Do y o u f e e l t h e r e s h o u l d be e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n p a r t ners i n a marriage? Explain  IMPORTANT: (c)  The t e a c h e r  should  now p o s e  the i s s u e :  C a n t h e r e be t r u e e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n p e o p l e when one i s f i n a n c i a l l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e o t h e r ? The v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h i s i s s u e s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d i n a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n b u t no c o n c l u s i o n s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s time. However, s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o k e e p t h i s i s s u e i n m i n d w h i l e r e a d i n g and a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s o n "Cheryl::, A Case History." (10 - 15 m i n u t e s )  PROCEDURE: 1.  The t e a c h e r s h o u l d now d i s t r i b u t e c o p i e s o f Case H i s t o r y : C h e r y l (on w h i t e paper) and s h o u l d r e a d over t h e a r t i c l e w i t h t h e c l a s s , s o l v i n g any p r o b l e m s t o do w i t h t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e a r t i c l e o r t h e meaning o f t h e q u e s t i o n s .  2.  Next, s t u d e n t s s h o u l d , i n d e t a i l , r e c o r d t h e i r t h e i r note'books. (20 - 25 m i n u t e s )  3.  D i s c u s s i o n of Questions:  answers i n  The d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d f o c u s a r o u n d C h e r y l ' s c h o i c e o f f u r t h e r i n g h e r e d u c a t i o n toward a c a r e e r , o r e a r l y marriage to Derek. IMPORTANT: The t e a c h e r c a n p o i n t o u t t o t h e c l a s s t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y t h e a v e r a g e C a n a d i a n women m a r r i e s a t age t w e n t y a n d that Cheryl's dilemma c o u l d be c l o s e a t hand f o r many o f them. The v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e s f r o m D e r e k , C h e r y l ' s f r i e n d s , and h e r f a m i l y s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d . The i s s u e "What i s b e s t f o r C h e r y l " ? i s open ended b u t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be r e m i n d e d t o c o n s i d e r i t i n l i g h t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n on " e q u a l i t y and f i n a n c i a l dependence" at the beginning o f the c l a s s .  12  116  WRAP UP: I n any r e m a i n i n g t i m e ( o r p o s s i b l y f o r homework) each s t u d e n t s h o u l d w r i t e a paragraph e n t i t l e d : "Early M a r r i a g e o r a C a r e e r : My O p i n i o n and My P l a n s . " The t e a c h e r s h o u l d c o l l e c t t h e s e ( e i t h e r a t t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d o r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n e x t ) and e v a l u a t e them to see w h e t h e r t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e l e s s o n s have p r o v o k e d c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s .  13  117  LESSON 4 INTRODUCTION: Up t i l l now, s t u d e n t s have b e e n f a c e d w i t h s i t u a t i o n s which i n v o l v e the f u t u r e - marriage, a c a r e e r s e t c . T o d a y ' s l e s s o n i s b u i l t a r o u n d a common h i g h s c h o o l p r o b l e m c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The m a i n g o a l o f t h e l e s s o n i s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e - e v a l u a t e these s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n l i g h t o f the course material. REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e g i n f o l l o w i n g review questions:  this  l e s s o n by a s k i n g t h e  (a)  L a s t day we examined a dilemma f a c e d by many y o u n g women a s t h e y r e a c h t h e end o f h i g h s c h o o l . What was i t ?  (b)  What was t h e a t t i t u d e o f many o f C h e r y l ' s f r i e n d s to t h i s problem?  (c)  How many o f y o u t h i n k t h a t D e r e k ' s c l o s e f r i e n d s w o u l d have p u t p r e s s u r e on him t o m a r r y C h e r y l i f t h e y t h o u g h t he was u n d e c i d e d ?  (d)  Why o r why n o t ?  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The p o i n t t o be b r o u g h t o u t h e r e i s t h a t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , a man i s c o n s i d e r e d " s u c c e s s f u l " i f he p u r s u e s an e c o n o m i c a l l y r e w a r d i n g c a r e e r . By t h e s e same t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , a woman i s c o n s i d e r e d " s u c c e s s f u l " i f she m a r r i e s and r a i s e s a f a m i l y . IMPORTANT: (e)  The t e a c h e r  should  now r a i s e  the i s s u e :  Is i t natural (instinct vs. conditioning) f o r g i r l s t o c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s a s u c c e s s i f t h e y " g e t a man" early i n life?  Once a g a i n , t h e r e s h o u l d be no a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e t h i s i s s u e a t t h i s p o i n t , m e r e l y t o d i s c u s s i t s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s and t o k e e p i t i n mind w h i l e r e a d i n g Case H i s t o r y : S a n d r a . Also, i f t h e r e a r e s t u d e n t s who c l a i m t h a t " g e t t i n g a man" i s n ' t a n important a s p e c t o f h i g h s c h o o l l i f e , pose t h e f o l l o w i n g quest i o n to the class: Which g i r l s  have h i g h e r  s t a t u s around  (a)  those  who have good  (b)  those  who do w e l l a t s p o r t s  the school  grades  (c)  t h o s e who c a n a t t r a c t h i g h s t a t u s b o y s as d a t e s ( e . g . f o o t b a l l o r h o c k e y team c a p t a i n s ) . ( T h i s r e v i e w a n d d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d t a k e 15 m i n u t e s )  14  118  PROCEDURE: 1.  At t h i s p o i n t the teacher should d i s t r i b u t e copies of C a s e H i s t o r y : S a n d r a (on p i n k p a p e r ) . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d r e a d i t a l o n g w i t h t h e c l a s s , s o l v i n g i n t h e p r o c e s s , any d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the a r t i c l e o r the meaning of the q u e s t i o n s .  2.  S t u d e n t s s h o u l d t h e n p r o c e e d t o answer t h e t h e i r notebooks. (20 minutes)  3.  D i s c u s s i o n of (a)  questions  in  Questions:  The m a i n p o i n t t o be e m p h a s i z e d d u r i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t a c h i e v i n g s u c c e s s by " b e i n g p o p u l a r " and " p l a y i n g t h e d a t i n g game" by t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e s , e n c o u r a g e s young p e o p l e t o r e l a t e d i s h o n e s t l y ( " p l a y games")- w i t h t h o s e a r o u n d them.  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: L i s t on t h e b o a r d t h e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h the s t u d e n t s f e e l are i n v o l v e d i n " b e i n g p o p u l a r " . Question: Do t h e s e q u a l i t i e s i n v o l v e m a s k i n g what a p e r s o n i s and what t h a t p e r s o n b e l i e v e s i n o r d e r t o be l i k e d ? I f p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s one o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n "popularity", consider " f a l s i e s " , f a l s e eyelashes, f a l s e f i n g e r n a i l s , e t c . A l s o , m i g h t n o t " g o i n g a l o n g w i t h what o t h e r s s a y i n o r d e r t o be l i k e d , r a t h e r t h a n s t a n d i n g up f o r t h a t w h i c h one b e l i e v e s " be j u s t a c a s e o f p r e s e n t i n g a f a l s e front? (b)  A n o t h e r i s s u e w h i c h s h o u l d be r a i s e d d u r i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n s male and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s toward f r i e n d s h i p s . (i)  Do g i r l s m a i n t a i n a s t e a d y c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s once t h e y b e g i n d a t i n g o r do t h e y g e n e r a l l y g r a v i t a t e to t h e i r b o y f r i e n d ' s c i r c l e of f r i e n d s a t t h e expense o f l o n g h e l d r e l a t i o n ships?  (ii)  I f s o , why?  C o m p a r i n g male and f e m a l e answers t o q u e s t i o n f o u r c o u l d b r i n g t h i s i s s u e more i n t o t h e open f o r discussion. WRAP UP: I n any t i m e r e m a i n i n g ask s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r t h i s issue: I s i t more i m p o r t a n t f o r a p e r s o n t o d e v e l o p a s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y ( s e l f - c o n c e p t ) o r t o t r y t o l i v e up t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s of others i n order to "get along"? Students should l i s t s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h e y s u p p o r t and s e v e r a l disadvantages of the o t h e r .  15  119 LESSON 5 INTRODUCTION: Because of t h e t i g h t sequencing o f events e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s l e s s o n , t h e t e a c h e r must pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to t h e c l o c k t o ensure t h a t both t h e a r t i c l e "On B e i n g a Prom Queen" and t h e f i l m A n y t h i n g You Want To Be a r e d i s c u s s e d adequately. T h i s may mean " s h u t t i n g down" a good c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n b u t such a c t i o n may be n e c e s s a r y so t h a t t h e o v e r a l l impact o f t h e l e s s o n can be a c h e i v e d . REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g questions: (5 m i n u t e s )  review  (a)  L a s t day we d i s c u s s e d t h e q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a p e r s o n t o be " p o p u l a r " i n h i g h s c h o o l . What were some of these q u a l i t i e s ? The t e a c h e r s h o u l d l i s t these on t h e b o a r d .  (b)  W i t h t h i s l i s t i n mind, a r e t h e r e some ways t h a t h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a r i t y might be a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n adjusting to adult l i f e ?  (c)  Explain.  PROCEDURE: 1.  The t e a c h e r s h o u l d d i s t r i b u t e c o p i e s o f "On B e i n g a Prom Queen" and r e a d i t over w i t h t h e c l a s s t o make c e r t a i n t h a t t h e a r t i c l e and t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d t h e n answer t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i r books. (10 minutes)  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: W h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g on t h i s e x e r c i s e t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d ensure t h a t t h e f i l m is. s e t up and ready t o go so t h a t no t e a c h i n g time i s t a k e n up by t h i s activity. 2.  D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: The emphasis on p h y s i c a l appearance and p a s s i v i t y ( w a i t i n g to be "chosen" as opposed t o g o i n g out and doing) s h o u l d be brought o u t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . A l s o , any p a r a l l e l s between t h e Prom Queen and Sandra ( l a s t day's l e s s o n ) c o u l d be e x p l o r e d . (15 minutes)  3.  Show the f i l m A n y t h i n g You Want To Be and encourage t h e s t u d e n t s t o i d e n t i f y some of t h e many " r o l e s " t h a t women are p r e s s u r e d t o p l a y i n our s o c i e t y .  16  120.  4.  At the conclusion of the f i l m the teacher should lead a d i s c u s s i o n based around the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : (a)  A t what p o i n t i n t h e f i l m a r e t h e g i r l ' s most p r o u d o f h e r ? Why h e r e ?  (b)  A t t h e end o f t h e f i l m , t h e g i r l " t r i e s on" t h e v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t r o l e s a woman i s " s u p p o s e d " t o b e , y e t s h e s c r e a m s i n f r u s t r a t i o n when t h e f i n a l . . " words "be y o u r s e l f " a r e s p o k e n . Why m i g h t s h e r e a c t t h i s way?  (c)  How i s t h e g i r l Queen?  (d)  I f b e i n g a s u c c e s s f u l woman does n o t e q u a l a man" how m i g h t y o u d e f i n e t h i s term?  i n this  film  similar  parents  t o t h e Prom "catching  WRAP UP: I f s t u d e n t s a r e a g r e e d t h a t much o f " b e i n g a woman" i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l way i n v o l v e s d e c e p t i o n o f some f o r m o r a n o t h e r , t h e n i n t h e time r e m a i n i n g ( o r f o r homework) a s k t h e s t u d e n t s t o w r i t e down t h e i r own i d e a s a b o u t how p e o p l e c a n overcome t h e s e d e c e p t i o n s and a c h i e v e o p e n a n d h o n e s t communication. A l s o , they should decide whether t h i s i s something t o be v a l u e d .  17  121  TEACHER'S INTRODUCTION TO The  purpose of  background tive  counsellor's basically But, now  this introduction  information  training.  office  the  i s to give  t h e o r y and  t r a i n i n g was  teachers  objectives  of  asserthe  i n v o l v i n g a one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  the  i n two  above a r e  ways:  once c o n f i n e d  some  to  a behaviouristic  while both of expanding  on  Assertive  s e e n as  ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR  approach to  true,  firstly,  counselling.  assertive  training is  i t i s b e i n g t a u g h t more  i n group s i t u a t i o n s , i n v o l v i n g a w i d e r range of p e o p l e i n cluding  students.  Secondly,  behaviouristic,  but  is  of  a great  deal  instructor feelings The to  fear,  tive  are  assertive  i s not  only  young p e o p l e  unsure  the  his  t o grow.  The  o f t h e m s e l v e s and and  unassertively  is  are  self-assured  f o r t h o s e who  assertive of  not  t r a i n i n g attacks  being  an  O.K.  phasizes personal one  has  the  person.  r i g h t s and  power i n t h e  presence  being  the  introduced  asser-  Individuals to  whereas t h e and  in  individual's belief  confidence react  environment p a s s i v e l y true  show a f f e c t i o n .  i s another step  self-concept. lack  the  group's  whole i d e a b e h i n d  I t challenges  or her  to  t r a i n i n g i s now  There  t r a i n i n g as  i n d i v i d u a l ' s and  encouraging, but  t r a i n i n g i s simple.  system c o n t a i n i n g  in assertive  reflects  only  i n i t s approach.  anger, and/or i n a b i l i t y  f a c t that  students  helping  and  t r a i n i n g i s not  humanistic  empathizing  listens  of  i s also  assertive  who  their opposite  confident.  Thus,  individual's irrational beliefs Rather,  the of  18  assertive  importance assertive  training  of knowing or a g g r e s s i v e  em-  that people.  122  I t does t h i s hy t e a c h i n g people open, h o n e s t , d i r e c t communication.  I n essence, a s s e r t i v e  t r a i n i n g i s a form o f communi-  c a t i o n , n o t a method t o m a n i p u l a t e o t h e r s t o g e t what you want. A p e r s o n may n o t always g e t what they want when b e i n g a s s e r tive. has  What i s a c h i e v e d i s t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l  expressed h i s or h e r s e l f Becoming a s s e r t i v e ,  i n a d i r e c t manner.  however, does n o t appear i n s t a n t l y .  Because new b e h a v i o u r s n o t c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s ' repertoire  must be l e a r n e d , t h e i n d i v i d u a l may t a k e months  b e f o r e he o r she f e e l s c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h one new a s s e r t i v e behaviour.  The p o i n t ,  t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t one who i n s t r u c t s  assertive  t r a i n i n g cannot expect h i s o r h e r s t u d e n t s t o be  a b l e t o a c t a s s e r t i v e l y a f t e r t h e f i r s t few l e s s o n s .  It is  e s s e n t i a l t o p o i n t t h i s out t o t h e s t u d e n t s as w e l l . What t h e n , a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s course f o r s t u d e n t s ?  The o b j e c t i v e s  o f an a s s e r t i v e  training  a r e as f o l l o w s :  1.  To have s t u d e n t s become aware o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s and how they d e a l w i t h them. How do t h e y handle t h e i r anger, f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g mad, h u r t o r happy? I n what s i t u a t i o n s do these f e e l i n g s occur?;  2.  To demonstrate t o s t u d e n t s e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e approaches i n d e a l i n g w i t h a n x i e t y - p r o d u c i n g s i t u a t i o n s ; and  3.  To a s s i s t i n changing t h e s t u d e n t s ' b e l i e f t h a t i t i s m a s c u l i n e f o r a g i r l t o express anger and f e m i n i n e f o r a boy t o show a f f e c t i o n . I n o u r s o c i e t y , t h e m a j o r i t y of women are brought up t o be h e l p l e s s and p a s s i v e and suppress t h e i r anger w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y of men a r e s o c i a l i z e d t o be dominant, comp e t i t i v e , and a g g r e s s i v e and a r e t a u g h t n o t t o d i s p l a y open a f f e c t i o n ( N i c h o l s , 1975)• A s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g teaches i n d i v i d u a l s t o e x p r e s s b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s regardless of sex.  19  123  I n a c h i e v i n g these o b j e c t i v e s , i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t , as an a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r , you p r o v i d e y o u r s e l f as a model o f a s s e r t i o n . M o d e l i n g  has been shown t o be a k e y f a c t o r  i n a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g (Flowers and Goldman, 1976; L i n , 1 9 7 3 ; and S t r o n g and Schmidt, 1 9 7 0 ) -  Consequently,  awareness o f  y o u r f e e l i n g s , your knowledge o f a s s e r t i o n , and t h e a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y observe t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between a g g r e s s i v e , a s s e r t i v e , and n o n a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r  as w e l l as b e i n g a b l e t o  communicate a s s e r t i v e l y , cannot be over-emphasized. A s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i s by no means the o n l y method used t o h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s t o communicate more e f f e c t i v e l y and a s s i s t them i n becoming aware o f how t h e y r e a c t i n v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . However, i t i s o f t h e a u t h o r s ' o p i n i o n and from t h e i r e x p e r i ence i n w o r k i n g w i t h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , t h a t a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g does work.  Moreover, a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g l e s s o n s have  been e v a l u a t e d by s t u d e n t s as e n j o y a b l e and i n s i g h t f u l .  It is  hoped t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n s w i l l a l s o be e n j o y a b l e and i n s i g h t f u l f o r both you, the i n s t r u c t o r , and your s t u d e n t s . NOTE TO THE TEACHER;  The authors r e c o g n i z e t h a t these  can be d i f f i c u l t t o t e a c h and t h r e a t e n i n g t o s t u d e n t s . recommend t h a t the t e a c h e r preview  lessons We  t h e l e s s o n p l a n s and t h i n k  h i s / h e r own anecdotes t o add and p r a c t i c e t h e examples and demonstration.  I f time p e r m i t s , some o f t h e suggested  readings  might be h e l p f u l . As a l r e a d y mentioned, these l e s s o n s c a n be t h r e a t e n i n g  20  124  to  students.  oriented  However, t h e f i r s t  and d e s i g n e d  students  lessons  an atmosphere  Once e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s  perceive  lessons  t o he n o n t h r e a t e n i n g .  hoped t h a t d u r i n g t h e s e developed.  five  the lessons  are discussion Therefore,  of t r u s t w i l l  atmosphere w i l l  help the  on a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r  threatening.  21  i t is  as  less  be  125 LESSON 6 INTRODUCTION TO ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR TEACHER INTRODUCTION: There a r e many common, everyday s i t u a t i o n s where people don't say what they r e a l l y t h i n k o r f e e l or where p e o p l e end up d o i n g something t h e y d i d n ' t want t o do or n o t d o i n g something they wanted t o do. O f t e n , these s i t u a t i o n s r e s u l t because people a r e a f r a i d t o express t h e i r f e e l i n g s , they a r e n o t d i r e c t , honest and a s s e r t i v e . The o b j e c t i v e of t h e f i r s t l e s s o n i s t o show s t u d e n t s how common these s i t u ations are. Three s i t u a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d below. A s t u d e n t handout accompanies t h i s l e s s o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e s t u d e n t s t o respond t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s r e a l i s t i c a l l y . (They s h o u l d w r i t e t h e i r responses on t h e handout.) A.  Three s i t u a t i o n s . (1)  On F r i d a y , a f r i e n d asks you t o go somewhere on Sunday. You've had a busy week and you're g o i n g out on S a t u r d a y n i g h t . You've been l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o s l e e p i n g i n on Sunday and t h e n you're g o i n g t o do some s t u d y i n g . You r e a l l y don't want t o go anywhere. What would you say o r do?  (2)  You're i n a l i n e u p a t t h e d r u g s t o r e and people a r e w a i t i n g f o r you o u t s i d e . You're i n a h u r r y . An o l d e r s t u d e n t you know t o see b u t n o t t o t a l k t o , b u t t s i n f r o n t of y o u . What would you say o r do?  (3)  You're g o i n g out w i t h your b e s t f r i e n d on F r i d a y n i g h t . T h i s i s something you've been p l a n n i n g a l l week. Another p e r s o n asks i f he/she c a n come a l o n g . You l i k e t h i s p e r s o n b u t you r e a l l y don't want h i m / her t o come. What would you s a y o r do?  B.  D i s c u s s t h e s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n responses t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d paraphrase o r summarize the s t u d e n t responses b u t make no comments o r v a l u e judgements.  C.  D i s c u s s i o n Questions.  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The purpose o f q u e s t i o n s one and to have t h e s t u d e n t s commit themselves t o a p o s i t i o n . r e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s one and two, have t h e s t u d e n t s r a i s e hands and v o t e e i t h e r yes o r no. The yes-no v o t e s c a n t a l l i e d on t h e b o a r d .  22  two i s After their be  126  (1)  How many p e o p l e i n t h e c l a s s b e l i e v e t h a t s t r a i g h t and h o n e s t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i s a good i d e a ?  (2)  How many p e o p l e were s t r a i g h t t h e above s i t u a t i o n s ?  (3)  What a r e some o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r n o t e x p r e s s i n g ourselves honestly? Comment: The u s u a l answers t h e s t u d e n t s come up w i t h r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e dilemma o f h o n e s t y as opposed t o h u r t i n g someone's f e e l i n g s .  (4)  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The dilemma m e n t i o n e d above o f t e n p l a c e s p e o p l e i n a d o u b l e b i n d . A l t h o u g h most people w i l l t e l l "white l i e s " o r " f i b " t o r e f r a i n f r o m h u r t i n g o t h e r s , most p e o p l e w o u l d a l s o l i k e o t h e r s t o be d i r e c t and h o n e s t w i t h them.  and h o n e s t  in a l l  The p u r p o s e o f q u e s t i o n f o u r i s t o have s t u d e n t s examine t h e s e f e e l i n g s t h r o u g h r e v e r s i n g t h e r o l e s i n s i t u a t i o n s l i k e t h e above. (a)  I n a s i t u a t i o n where y o u a s k a f r i e n d t o do s o m e t h i n g , do y o u know when h e / s h e r e a l l y d o e s n ' t want t o ?  (b)  Do y o u f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e a t t i m e s b e c a u s e you t h i n k your f r i e n d s a r e l y i n g o r j u s t n o t t e l l i n g y o u how t h e y r e a l l y f e e l ?  (c)  Would y o u p r e f e r y o u r f r i e n d s t o be h o n e s t o r w o u l d y o u r a t h e r n o t know how t h e y r e a l l y f e e l ?  SUMMARY: T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r s i n t h e above s i t u a t i o n s a n d no h a r d and f a s t r u l e s . E v e r y s i t u a t i o n and every i n d i v i d u a l are d i f f e r e n t . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e i s t o e x p l o r e and d i s c u s s a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t i s d i r e c t and h o n e s t b u t e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l w i l l d e c i d e i f , when and how he/she m i g h t u s e i t .  23  127  LESSON 7 ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR REVIEW QUESTIONS; 1.  What was  t h e m a i n i d e a o f lasjs d a y ' s  2.  What were some o f t h e ourselves honestly?  reasons  lesson?  g i v e n f o r not  expressing  TEACHER INTRODUCTION; The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s l e s s o n i s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s understand the d i f f e r e n c e s between a g g r e s s i v e , a s s e r t i v e and p a s s i v e behaviours. A l s o , by c o m p a r i n g a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r w i t h p a s s i v e and a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s , t h e m e a n i n g of a s s e r t i v e n e s s becomes more c l e a r . (1)  P u t t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t e s and on a n o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r .  c h a r t on  the  board  or  NOTES; People can choose t h e i r b e h a v i o u r s . I f you want t o be d i r e c t , h o n e s t and n o t p l a y games, ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR c a n h e l p you a c h i e v e these g o a l s . AGGRESSIVE  ASSERTIVE  PASSIVE  NOTE TO THE TEACHER; The o b j e c t i v e i s t o e l i c i t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s and w r i t e i t i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o l u m n . D e p e n d i n g on t h e c l a s s and t h e age g r o u p , i t m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y to d i s c u s s and b r i e f l y d e f i n e a g g r e s s i v e and p a s s i v e . The t h r e e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d e l i c i t t y p i c a l p a s s i v e and aggressive behaviours. T h e n by c o m p a r i n g t y p i c a l a g g r e s s i v e and p a s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s , t h e s t u d e n t s c a n see what b e h a v i o u r s w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s s e r t i v e . Questions: 1.  What b e h a v i o u r s Comment: walk o v e r you d o n ' t dependent  are  considered  passive?  Some t y p i c a l examples a r e l e t t i n g p e o p l e you, n e v e r s a y i n g no, w h i n i n g , d o i n g t h i n g s want t o do, b e i n g a doormat, b e i n g v e r y on o t h e r s , e t c .  24  128  2.  What b e h a v i o u r s  are considered  aggressive?  Comment: Some t y p i c a l examples a r e s e l f i s h n e s s , dominating, h u r t i n g o t h e r s , n o t c a r i n g about o t h e r s , bullying, etc. 3.  What b e h a v i o u r s  w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s s e r t i v e ?  Comment: Some t y p i c a l examples a r e s t a n d i n g up f o r y o u r r i g h t s , b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t , d o i n g what y o u want to do w i t h o u t h u r t i n g o t h e r s , b e i n g d i r e c t , b e i n g honest about your f e e l i n g s , e t c . A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s have f i l l e d i n t h e c h a r t a n d t h e t e a c h e r has added a n y p o i n t s t h a t h e / s h e f e e l s a r e r e l e v a n t , t h e t e a c h e r c a n a d d t h e f o l l o w i n g comments. A g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s u s u a l l y f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t a g g r e s s i o n . (These c a n be added a t t h e t o p o f t h e chart) The t e a c h e r c a n t h e n g i v e examples o f t h e s e two d i f f e r ent types o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s . F o r example: other person,  D i r e c t aggression u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s h u r t i n g aneither p h y s i c a l l y or v e r b a l l y .  I n d i r e c t a g g r e s s i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e p e r s o n who s a y , "No, I'm n o t mad," a n d t h e n g o e s i n t o h i s / h e r room, s l a m s t h e d o o r and s t a r t s t h r o w i n g t h i n g s a r o u n d . P a s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s a l s o f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , g e n e r a l and situational. ( T h e s e c a n a l s o be a d d e d t o t h e c h a r t ) F o r example: V e r y few p e o p l e a r e g e n e r a l l y p a s s i v e o r n o n assertive. An example o f t h i s t y p e o f p e r s o n i s t h e d o o r m a t . Most p e o p l e a r e s i t u a t i o n a l l y p a s s i v e o r n o n a s s e r t i v e . I n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s t h e y c a n be v e r y a s s e r t i v e w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s , t h e y c a n be v e r y p a s s i v e . Many p e o p l e i n o u r c u l t u r e v a c i l l a t e b e t w e e n a g g r e s s i v e a n d passive behaviours. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , men a r e o f t e n more a g g r e s s i v e a n d women a r e more p a s s i v e . Handout: The n e x t p a r t o f t h e l e s s o n i n v o l v e s a h a n d o u t c a l l e d " A s s e r t i v e B e h a v i o u r : P o i n t s t o Keep i n M i n d . " T h i s handout c a n be d i s c u s s e d a n d r e l e v a n t t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and i n p u t c a n be a d d e d . I n c l u d e d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r h a n d o u t a r e some a d d i t i o n a l n o t e s w h i c h m i g h t be u s e f u l .  25  129  TEACHER HANDOUT ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR: POINTS TO KEEP I N MIND 1.  U n l i k e a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r does not i n v o l v e h u r t i n g a n o t h e r p e r s o n . The i n t e n t o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r i s t o h u r t . A l t h o u g h people may be i n a d v e r t a n t l y h u r t by a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r that i s not the i n t e n t i o n .  2.  A s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r i n v o l v e s e x p r e s s i n g your r i g h t s and your needs. Everyone has r i g h t s and needs and t h e t h e o r y behin d a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g s t a t e s t h a t everyone has a r i g h t t o express t h e s e r i g h t s and needs. T h i s doesn't mean t h a t t h e r i g h t s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be g r a n t e d and t h e needs met.  3.  A s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r aims a t making t h e power between two people e q u a l . A s s e r t i v e n e s s encourages e q u a l i t y and d i s courages t o p dog - under dog r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t e n i n v o l v e a g g r e s s i v e and p a s s i v e p a r t ners r a t h e r t h a n e q u a l s .  4.  A s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r doesn't always g e t you what you want. O f t e n people see a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g and a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r as m a n i p u l a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g two p o i n t s demonstrate t h a t a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s a r e n o t manipul a t i v e techniques.  5.  Remember: Other people have t h e r i g h t t o respond to you a s s e r t i v e l y , t h a t . i s , i n t h e same way.  6.  So, a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r may r e s u l t i n coming t o a compromise. I n f a c t , a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r encourages a l o t of compromise.  7.  A s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r opens t h e way f o r d i r e c t and honest communication.  8.  A s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r i s n o t o n l y concerned w i t h what you say b u t a l s o w i t h how you s a y i t . The l e s s o n f o l l o w i n g t h i s one f o c u s e s on t h i s p o i n t . The v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g g r e s s i v e , p a s s i v e and a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r a r e d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l . A u s e f u l d e m o n s t r a t i o n c a n be i n s e r t e d here t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e above p o i n t . The t e a c h e r walks up t o a member o f t h e c l a s s and s a y s , "I'm r e a l l y angry w i t h you." When t h e t e a c h e r says t h i s , he/she l o o k s r e l a x e d and i s s m i l i n g . Then he/she asks t h e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o t h e above d e m o n s t r a t i o n . T h i s u s u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e concept involved.  26  A s s e r t i v e "behaviour i s a s k i l l t h a t needs f r e q u e n t p r a c t i c e t o work. A s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y come e a s i l y . Once t h e s t u d e n t becomes awareo f t h e s i t u a t i o n s where h e / s h e w o u l d l i k e t o be more assertive, then frequent practice i s necessary.  27  131  LESSON 8 NON-VERBAL AND VERBAL BEHAVIOURS REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. 2.  ril  L a s t d a y we were d i s c u s s i n g a d i r e c t a n d h o n e s t of communication. What was i t c a l l e d ? What a r e some a s s e r t i v e  method  "behaviours?  TEACHER INTRODUCTION: The o b j e c t i v e o f L e s s o n 8 i s t o demons t r a t e t h a t b o t h what y o u s a y a n d how y o u s a y i t , a r e i m p o r t a n t aspects of assertive behaviour. A t e a c h e r ' s handout i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l e s s o n p l a n . I t desc r i b e s , i n more d e t a i l t h a n t h e s t u d e n t h a n d o u t , t h e b e h a v i o u r s t o o b s e r v e and e n c o u r a g e when p r a c t i c i n g a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r . The s t u d e n t h a n d o u t i n c l u d e d w i t h t h i s l e s s o n d e s c r i b e s n o n v e r b a l and v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o be aware o f when p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e r o l e - p l a y i n g e x e r c i s e o f t h e f o l l o w ing lesson. 1.  Distribute  and d i s c u s s t h e s t u d e n t  handout.  NOTE .TO THE TEACHER: The n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s a r e d i s cussed f i r s t . The a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s a r e o u t l i n e d and the n o n a s s e r t i v e behaviour s e c t i o n s a r e blank. Through d i s c u s s i o n and examples, b o t h t h e t e a c h e r and t h e s t u dents f i l l i n t h e n o n a s s e r t i v e behaviours s e c t i o n . In the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , teacher demonstrations of both the a s s e r t i v e and n o n a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s a r e o f t e n useful. Important:  B o t h s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r i n p u t a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s l e s s o n . T h i s adds humour a n d a s h a r e d s e n s e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o what w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be a m e c h a n i c a l , t e a c h e r o r i e n t e d l e s s o n .  2.  D i s c u s s i o n Notes t o use w i t h handout, Non-Verbal Verbal Behaviour.  I  NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOURS A.  and  Eye C o n t a c t (2)  Nonassertive behaviours: Some t y p i c a l examples are - l o o k i n g a t the 'floor, the c e i l i n g , behind the person. A good d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n i s : How do y o u f e e l when someone i s t a l k i n g t o y o u and h e / she does n o t l o o k y o u i n t h e eye?  28  132  B.  Posture (2)  C.  N o n a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s : Some t y p i c a l examp l e s a r e - s l o u c h i n g , slumped i n a c h a i r .  Gestures and P h y s i c a l Movement Comment: I t i s e a s i e r t o examine the n o n - a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s and g e t t h e s t u d e n t s t o s u p p l y examples and then l o o k a t t h e o p p o s i t e b e h a v i o u r s f o r t h e assertive section. (2)  N o n a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s : Some t y p i c a l examp l e s a r e - f o o t s h u f f l i n g , hand w r i n g i n g , r i n g t w i s t i n g , hands on h i p s , f i n g e r p o i n t i n g ( t h e l a t t e r examples a r e a g g r e s s i v e g e s t u r e s ) .  Comment: A f t e r s t u d e n t s have g i v e n examples, two good d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s a r e : How do you f e e l when .... ? What do you t h i n k about t h e o t h e r p e r s o n when ? D.  F a c i a l Expression (2)  II  N o n a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s : A good example t o use here i s one used p r e v i o u s l y . Someone i s s m i l i n g and s a y i n g how angry he/she i s .  VERBAL BEHAVIOURS The a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s a r e d i s c u s s e d . N o n a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r s : Some t y p i c a l examples a r e b a b b l i n g n e r v i o u s l y , t a l k i n g i n a l o u d o r squeaky v o i c e , u s i n g a l o t o f urns, ahs, s o r t o f s , and maybes. C.  S e t t i n g up t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n and t h e r o l e - p l a y i n g exercise. NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The l e s s o n t h a t f o l l o w s i n v o l v e s a t e a c h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n and r o l e - p l a y i n g e x e r c i s e . The r o l e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g handout. There a r e t h r e e r o l e s : THE ACTOR, THE OTHER, AND THE OBSERVER. (See s t u d e n t handout)  A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g t h e handout, t h e t e a c h e r c a n o r g a n i z e t h e groups i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r next days l e s s o n . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n , t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l be w o r k i n g i n groups o f t h r e e . I n t h e time r e m a i n i n g , t h e t e a c h e r can p l a c e t h e s t u d e n t s i n groups o f t h r e e o r a l l o w them t o choose t h e i r group.  29  LESSON 9 DEMONSTRATION AND EXERCISE REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1.  When b e i n g a s s e r t i v e , portant?  what n o n v e r b a l  2.  When b e i n g tant?  what v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s  assertive,  behaviours  a r e im-  a r e impor-  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: When i n d i v i d u a l s f i r s t p r a c t i c e asser-; t i v e b e h a v i o u r s i n s i m u l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s , t h e y o f t e n f e e l phoney and m e c h a n i c a l . The t e a c h e r c a n e x p l a i n t h i s a n d e n c o u r a g e them t o t r y t h e b e h a v i o u r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f how u n n a t u r a l t h e y feel. The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a l s o be r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e s e a r e practice situations. No one i s t e l l i n g them t h a t t h i s i s how t h e y " s h o u l d " b e h a v e i n o r d e r t o be a s s e r t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s s h o u l d be w r i t t e n o n t h e b o a r d o r the overhead p r o j e c t o r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of the p e r i o d . Once t h e g r o u p s have b e e n o r g a n i z e d t h e s i t u a t i o n s c a n be l o o k e d a t a n d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s c a n be g i v e n . Three  Situations:  1.  Someone a s k s y o u t o do some a c t i v i t y t h a t y o u r e a l l y d o n ' t e n j o y , e . g . t e n n i s , swimming, h o c k e y . You r e a l l y d o n ' t want t o g o . How w o u l d y o u r e f u s e ?  2.  You've b e e n g i v e n two f r e e t i c k e t s t o a m o v i e and t h e r e ' s a g i r l / g u y t h a t y o u r e a l l y l i k e a n d want t o go o u t w i t h . How w o u l d y o u a s k h i m / h e r f o r a d a t e ?  3.  You've b e e n g o i n g a r o u n d w i t h someone f o r s i x months b u t now y o u ' v e d e c i d e d y o u want t o go o u t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . How w o u l d y o u b r e a k up?  PROCEDURE: (NOTE TO THE TEACHER) A n o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o c e d u r e c a n be p u t o n t h e b o a r d t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s . I n t h e i r g r o u p s o f t h r e e , e a c h p e r s o n c h o o s e s one o f t h e t h r e e r o l e s f o r t h e f i r s t e x e r c i s e . The p e r s o n who i s t h e a c t o r c h o o s e s w h i c h o f t h e t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s he/she wants t o a c t o u t . The a c t o r a c t s o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n two d i f f e r e n t ways. F i r s t - The a c t o r d e m o n s t r a t e s how h e / s h e w o u l d n o r m a l l y a c t in that situation. Then t h e o b s e r v e r a s k s b o t h t h e a c t o r a n d t h e o t h e r how t h e y f e l t d u r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i s t o h e l p t h e a c t o r become aware o f h i s / h e r f e e l i n g s a n d t h e i m p a c t h e / s h e has on t h e o t h e r .  30  134  S e c o n d l y - The a c t o r d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e same s i t u a t i o n , u s i n g assertive behaviours. A g a i n , t h e o b s e r v e r a s k s how t h e a c t o r and t h e o t h e r f e l t , b u t i n a d d i t i o n c a n make s u g g e s t i o n s a n d give p o s i t i v e feedback t o the a c t o r . The a c t o r c a n r e p e a t t h e demonstration a f t e r the feedback. DEMONSTRATION: A f t e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s have b e e n g i v e n , ( t h e s e c a n be c o n f u s i n g a n d s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n s f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s s h o u l d be encouraged) the t e a c h e r g i v e s a demonstration. He/she c h o o s e s one o f t h e t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s t o a c t o u t . A s t u d e n t p l a y s t h e r o l e o f t h e ' o t h e r and t h e c l a s s p l a y s t h e r o l e o f o b s e r v e r . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e above p r o c e d u r e a n d e n c o u r a g e t h e c o r r e c t o b s e r v e r q u e s t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s . EXERCISE: The g r o u p s f o l l o w t h e above p r o c e d u r e a n d t h e n s w i t c h r o l e s so t h a t a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e l e s s o n e v e r y o n e has p l a y e d a l l three r o l e s . Each d i f f e r e n t a c t o r can choose a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n i f he/she chooses. SUMMARY: Some s u g g e s t e d  d i s c u s s i o n questions are:  1.  How d i d y o u f e e l  2.  Was b e i n g a a s s e r t i v e e a s y  3.  Was any p a r t i c u l a r others?  4.  How many o f y o u f e e l t h a t y o u l e a r n e d s o m e t h i n g f r o m t h e exercise? NOTE TO THE TEACHER: Have s t u d e n t s r a i s e d t h e i r h a n d s ?  5.  How c o u l d a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o u r be h e l p f u l y o u r f r i e n d s and y o u r f a m i l y ?  during the r o l e - p l a y ? or d i f f i c u l t ?  s i t u a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h e  31  i n dealing with  135 SUMMARY NOTE TO THE TEACHER ON ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOURS: S i n c e one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t elements i n l e a r n i n g a s s e r t i v e "behaviour i s p r a c t i c e , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d encourage a s s e r t i v e behaviours during the r e s t of the course. S e v e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o do t h i s w i l l a r i s e i n f u t u r e discussions. When these s i t u a t i o n s o c c u r , t h e t e a c h e r c a n remind t h e s t u d e n t s about these l e s s o n s and encourage them t o be d i r e c t and a s s e r t i v e i n c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n s and a v o i d a g g r e s s i v e , p a s s i v e and "game p l a y i n g " b e h a v i o u r s . Teachers c a n a l s o p o i n t o u t and r e - i n f o r c e a s s e r t i v e beh a v i o u r s as they o c c u r i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F o r example, i f someone asks f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n an a s s e r t i v e manner, t h e t e a c h e r can say, "That's a v e r y a s s e r t i v e way t o ask a quest i o n . I l i k e t h a t . " As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g r e i n f o r c e m e n t , t h i s w i l l perhaps encourage o t h e r s t u d e n t s t o t r y a s s e r t i v e behaviours i n the classroom.  Some of t h e a s s e r t i v e m a t e r i a l s f o l l o w i n g sources:  have been adapted from t h e  A l b e r t i , R. and Emmons, E. Your P e r f e c t R i g h t : A Guide t o A s s e r t i v e B e h a v i o u r . Impact P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , San L u i s Obispo, 1 9 7 4 . F e n s t e r h e i m , R. and Baer, J . Don't Say Yes When You Want t o Say No. D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., New York, 1 9 7 5 . Manderino, Mary Ann. E f f e c t s o f a Group A s s e r t i v e T r a i n i n g P r o c e d u r e on Undergraduate Women. U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Arizona State U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 . S m i t h , M.J. When I Say No I F e e l G u i l t y . York, 1 9 7 5 .  D i a l Press,  New  Classroom m a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d by Sharon Kahn, Ph.D., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  32  LESSON 10 INTRODUCTION: This i z a t i o n process:  l e s s o n concerns  two a s p e c t s  of the s o c i a l -  (1)  D i f f e r e n t m a l e and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f a s h i o n .  (2)  The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  o f "making a p a s s "  a t someone.  D u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n o f t h i s h o u r , s t u d e n t s w i l l he a b l e to experiment w i t h t h e i r newly a c q u i r e d a s s e r t i v e n e s s skills. REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d a s k t h e f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w at the outset of the c l a s s . (1)  question  I n t h e l a s t f o u r l e s s o n s , we have b e e n s t u d y i n g a s s e r t i v e , n o n a s s e r t i v e , and a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . What a r e some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e a c h t y p e of behaviour?  To a d e q u a t e l y r e f r e s h t h e s t u d e n t s ' m i n d s , t h e s e t e r i s t i c s s h o u l d be l i s t e d on t h e b o a r d .  charac-  PROCEDURE: (1)  The t e a c h e r d i s t r i b u t e s c o p i e s o f " F a s h i o n as O p p r e s s i o n " ( w h i t e p a p e r ) a n d a l l o w s 20 m i n u t e s f o r t h e c l a s s t o r e a d t h e a r t i c l e a n d answer t h e q u e s tions .  (2)  Discussion of (a)  Important:  Questions  A f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s have d i s c u s s e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o q u e s t i o n s one and two, t h e t e a c h e r should i n i t i a t e a r o l e p l a y of the s i t u a t i o n ( p o s s i b l y two o r t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e ones i n volving various students). I f c l a s s members a r e w i l l i n g t o do t e a c h e r s h o u l d o r g a n i z e one o r two v e r s a l s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h a male has t o f e n d o f f t h e a d v a n c e s o f a female.  so, the role r e student predatory  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: To a v o i d p o s s i b l e phone c a l l s t o t h e s c h o o l and t o p r e v e n t t h e e x e r c i s e f r o m b e c o m i n g a c o m p l e t e f a r c e , t h e t e a c h e r i s a d v i s e d t o assume t h e r o l e o f t h e " d i r t y o l d man/woman" ( i t may e v e n b:e t y p e c a s t i n g ! ) when t h e r o l e arises. The d i s c u s s i o n o f how t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t d u r i n g t h e r o l e p l a y ( e s p e c i a l l y o f how t h e m a l e was o b v i o u s l y  33  137 u n c o m f o r t a b l e ) may p r o v e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d w i l l p r o v i d e a natural t r a n s i t i o n to d i s c u s s i o n of question three. (b)  WRAP UP:  Q u e s t i o n s f o u r and f i v e d e a l w i t h a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d d r e s s a n d a l t h o u g h many y o u n g m a l e s a r e b e c o m i n g h i g h l y f a s h i o n a c o n s c i o u s , i t m i g h t be i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare how a w a r e n e s s i n t h i s a r e a d i f f e r s b e t w e e n m a l e s and f e m a l e s .  I n t h e time  remaining  the teacher should ask:  (1)  How many o f y o u t h i n k y o u w o u l d e n j o y l i v i n g i n a w o r l d where s e x r o l e s were c o m p l e t e l y r e v e r s e d and men l o o k e d a f t e r t h e home w h i l e women worked?  (2)  Why do y o u f e e l  t h i s way?  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s t o p i c , r e f e r e n c e c o u l d be made t o t h e r e c e n t r e v e r s e r o l e p l a y , t o t h e r o l e r e v e r s a l s t o r y examined i n L e s s o n 2 a n d t o t h e r e c e n t Norman L e a r s o a p comedy " A l l T h a t G l i t t e r s " . The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d s p e c u l a t e o n how t h e i r l i v e s a n d a m b i t i o n s m i g h t be d i f f e r e n t i n s u c h a world. J u s t b e f o r e t h e end o f t h i s c l a s s , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d e x p l a i n that the next l e s s o n explores the exact s i t u a t i o n t h a t the s t u d e n t s have b e e n d i s c u s s i n g ; t h a t i s , a w o r l d i n w h i c h "The B i g S w i t c h " ( i n s e x r o l e s ) have t a k e n p l a c e .  34  138  LESSON  11  INTRODUCTION: T h i s l e s s o n employs a f u t u r i s t i c s h o r t s t o r y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e male s e x has d o m i n a t e d recorded history. S u c h t o p i c s as r o l e s w i t h i n m a r r i a g e a n d the e v o l u t i o n o f f e m i n i s t sentiment (which form t h e b a s i s f o r study i n the second s e c t i o n o f t h i s course) a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n this story. REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e g i n t h e c l a s s w i t h questions. (10 m i n u t e s ) 1.  the f o l l o w i n g  The s t o r y y o u ' r e a b o u t t o r e a d i s s e t i n t h e f u t u r e a n d i t c o n c e r n s a w o r l d i n w h i c h t r a d i t i o n a l m a l e and f e m a l e r o l e s are completely reversed. (a)  What a r e some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s we w o u l d have to g e t used to i f a " B i g S w i t c h " i n sex r o l e s took place? L i s t f i v e o r s i x o f these changes on t h e board and d i s c u s s .  (b)  I f s u c h a change d i d t a k e p l a c e , how many m a l e s i n t h e c l a s s f e e l t h a t t h e y w o u l d be members o f "Men's Lib?" Why?  PROCEDURE: D i s t r i b u t e c o p i e s o f "The B i g S w i t c h " p l u s t h e Andy Capp c a r t o o n and a l l o w t h e c l a s s t o r e a d t h e s t o r y and p r e p a r e d e t a i l e d answers t o t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g q u e s t i o n s . (30 m i n u t e s ) DISCUSSION OF THE QUESTIONS: T h i s d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d be f o c u s e d on t h e n a t u r e o f s t e r e o t y p i c a l human s o c i a l r o l e s . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e g i n by d i s c u s s i n g t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e s o c i a l r o l e s which e x i s t a f t e r the B i g Switch. 1.  Do t h e r o l e s  2.  A r e t h e r e any advantages t o s o c i e t y Are t h e r e any p o s s i b l e problems?  seem  reasonable? i n reversing  roles?  The t o p i c s h o u l d t h e n be s w i t c h e d t o e x i s t i n g , p r e s e n t day s o c i a l r o l e s and t h e same q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be u s e d t o examine t h e i r p r o p r i e t y . I f the students are d i s s a t i s f i e d with e x i s t i n g s t e r e o t y p e s and i f t h e y f e e l t h a t r e v e r s i n g t h e s e r o l e s s i m p l y p e r p e t u a t e s p r e s e n t day problems t h e n d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d c e n t e r a r o u n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new s o c i a l r e l a t i o n ships . An i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l r o l e s i s : Who s h o u l d p a y f o r d a t e s ?  35  139  The Andy Capp c a r t o o n a n d t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s i s s u e . WRAP UP: I n the f i n a l t e n minutes o f the c l a s s the teacher s h o u l d a s k t h e s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r why human s o c i a l r o l e s have d e v e l o p e d i n t h e way t h e y h a v e . T h a t i s , what e v e n t s i n o u r p a s t have c a u s e d men a n d women t o r e l a t e t o e a c h o t h e r a s we do a t p r e s e n t ? The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d t r y t o j o t down t h e i r own i d e a s i n t h e i r n o t e b o o k s (5 m i n u t e s ) a n d have t h e s e f o r m the b a s i s o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e time r e m a i n i n g . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d n o t t r y t o p r o v i d e d e f i n i t i v e answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , merely t o arouse s t u d e n t c u r i o u s i t y i n t h e p o s s i b l e answers, s i n c e t h i s s u b j e c t i s the main focus f o r the next s e c t i o n of the c o u r s e .  36  LESSON 12 INTRODUCTION: As a c o n c l u s i o n t o t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d a r r a n g e t o have a g u e s t s p e a k e r v i s i t t h e c l a s s a n d d i s c u s s one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s . (1) (2) (3) (4)  M a l e c h a u v i n i s m a n d how i t w o r k s . Ways we s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n . Towards a n d r o g y n y . Male s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  S p e a k e r s f o r t h e o c c a s i o n c o u l d be c o n t a c t e d (1) (2) (3)  through:  a l o c a l S t a t u s o f Women o f f i c e , a local feminist organization, t h e S o c i o l o g y o r Womens S t u d i e s D e p a r t m e n t s of a l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y o r j u n i o r c o l l e g e .  B e s i d e s h e a r i n g t h e message coming f r o m a " r e a l p e r s o n " as o p p o s e d t o a t e a c h e r , t h e s t u d e n t s w i l l become more aware t h a t t h e r e a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r own community w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by r e s t r i c t i v e s e x r o l e s . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d l o c a t e a s p e a k e r a t advance and f a m i l i a r i z e t h e p e r s o n w i t h t h e c o u r s e a n d t h e b a c k g r o u n d t h e s t u d e n t s have r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . A l s o , make c e r t a i n t h a t to handle student q u e s t i o n s .  37  l e a s t one week i n nature of the i n the area of sex the speaker expects  141  LESSON 13 INTRODUCTION: The document used i n t h i s l e s s o n p r o v i d e s a "brief i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e h i s t o r y and development o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f women i n EUROPEAN s o c i e t y . T h i s a r t i c l e i s a c u r s o r y overview ( i t f a i l s t o m e n t i o n t h e tremendously import a n t r o l e p l a y e d hy World War One i n a l t e r i n g t h e s t a t u s o f women) h u t i t i s b a s i c a l l y a c c u r a t e and, l i k e many h i s t o r i e s of women w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t s i x t y y e a r s o f t h i s c e n t u r y , i t assumes t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l r i g h t s f o r women had ended ( v i c t o r i o u s l y f o r women) a t the time o f w r i t i n g ! REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d remind s t u d e n t s o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n the Wrap Up f o r Lesson 11 by a s k i n g : (10 minutes) (a)  What do you t h i n k a r e some of t h e reasons t h a t women have n o t been t r e a t e d as equals by men i n t h e p a s t ?  The s t u d e n t s may r e f e r t o notes they made d u r i n g t h e Lesson 11 Wrap Up. A f t e r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n , w r i t e down t h r e e or f o u r o f t h e reasons w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s agree on, t h e n i n t r o d u c e t h e S c h a p i r o r e a d i n g by s a y i n g : "This p e r i o d you w i l l be r e a d i n g a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f women i n Western s o c i e t y . B e s i d e s answering the q u e s t i o n s t o t h e b e s t o f your a b i l i t y , see i f some of your e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e S t a t u s o f Women are t h e same as those g i v e n i n t h i s a r t i c l e . " PROCEDURE: 1.  Hand out c o p i e s of "The F e m i n i s t Movement" as adapted from J.S. S c h a p i r o ' s Modern and Contemporary European H i s t o r y 1815 - 1952. A l l o w twenty minutes t o r e a d and answer t h e accompanying q u e s t i o n s .  2.  D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: (a)  D e s p i t e i t s redeeming q u a l i t i e s , f o r almost 2000 y e a r s C h r i s t i a n i t y has been t h e most p o w e r f u l f o r c e f o r s h a p i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the Western W o r l d , and upon e x a m i n a t i o n i t i s r e v e a l e d as an extremely s e x i s t f a i t h . In discussing this topic, the t e a c h e r s h o u l d t r y t o draw from t h e c l a s s , examples o f B i b l i c a l s e x i s m .  eg.  ( i ) Males b e i n g c r e a t e d i n God's image and t h e c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e d i v i n i t y i n male terms. (ii)  t h e c r e a t i o n o f Eve (as an a f t e r t h o u g h t ) from Adam's s i d e .  38  142  ( i i i ) The e x p u l s i o n from p a r a d i s e (man's f a l l "by t h e "weakness" of a woman) . (iv)  caused  Most hooks i n t h e New Testament a r e named a f t e r and s o l e l y c o n c e r n t h e a c t i v i t i e s of men.  A l s o , the chapters quotations.  of t h e B i b l e abound w i t h f l a g r a n t l y  sexist  " I f a woman have c o n c e i v e d seed, and b o r n a man c h i l d , t h e n she s h a l l be u n c l e a n seven days ... b u t i f she bear a maid c h i l d , t h e n she s h a l l be u n c l e a n two weeks." L e v i t i c u s CH X I I "How c a n he be c l e a n t h a t i s b o r n o f a woman?" Job CH IV Verse 4 "Man was n o t made from woman, woman was made from man: and man was n o t c r e a t e d from woman, b u t woman from man." St.Paul to Corinthians F i r s t L e t t e r CH X I , V e r s e s 8 and 9 T h i s demeaning a t t i t u d e toward women has been passed on by later C h r i s t i a n theologians. "Every woman s h o u l d be overwhelmed w i t h shame a t the thought t h a t she i s a woman." S t . Clement o f A l e x a n d r i a (150-215 AD) "We a r e b o r n between t h e f e c e s and t h e u r i n e . " St.Augustine (354-430 AD) "God c r e a t e d Adam Lord o f a l l l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s , but Eve s p o i l e d i t a l l . ! ' M a r t i n L u t h e r (1483-1546) IMPORTANT: The emphasis d u r i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n s h o u l d n o t be on a t t a c k i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y as a r e l i g i o n , b u t on d e m o n s t r a t i n g to t h e c l a s s t h e s e x i s t n a t u r e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h t h e conc l u s i o n b e i n g t h a t a s o c i e t y w i t h i t s m o r a l , l e g a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l h e r i t a g e r o o t e d i n a s e x i s t t r a d i t i o n cannot escape evolving into a sexist society.  39  143  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: I n most Canadian classrooms t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d he m e t i c u l o u s l y c a r e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g t h i s theme. Remember, t h e main i d e a i s t o understand the development o f a t t i t u d e s toward women i n t h e Western World n o t t o c r e a t e a c r i s i s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l community by d e r i d i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s o f the m a j o r i t y o f t a x p a y e r s ! (b)  S t u d e n t s who have j u s t completed a s e r i e s o f l e s s o n s on a s s e r t i v e n e s s s h o u l d be a b l e t o spot t h e c o r r u p t i v e a s p e c t s o f f l a t t e r y . B e s i d e s t h e answers w h i c h t h e y p r o v i d e f o r q u e s t i o n s two and t h r e e , ask them to e x p l o r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f : "A Woman has the R i g h t t o Change Her Mind" and o t h e r such  statements.  (c)  Q u e s t i o n f o u r r e t u r n s t o one o f t h e themes mentioned i n Lesson 3. (Can t h e r e be e q u a l i t y when t h e r e i s f i n a n c i a l dependency?) Once a s a t i s f a c t o r y answer to q u e s t i o n f o u r i s b e f o r e t h e c l a s s , t h e t e a c h e r can r e c a l l t h e e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n and r e i n f o r c e t h a t theme.  (d)  The l a s t q u e s t i o n s h o u l d demonstrate t o t h e c l a s s how l i m i t e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f an h i s t o r i a n can be whose e v a l u a t i o n o f a s o c i e t y i s based on i t s cons t i t u t i o n and laws w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o i t s t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e s s e s .  WRAP UP: I n c o n c l u d i n g t h i s l e s s o n , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d ask the s t u d e n t s i f they f e e l t h a t t h e f i g h t f o r female e q u a l i t y has now (as opposed t o when Mr. S c h a p i r o wrote) come t o a conc l u s i o n . I f they f e e l i t has n o t , ask them t o w r i t e down t h r e e o r f o u r o f t h e s t e p s w h i c h they t h i n k w i l l be n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h i s i s s u e c a n be r e s o l v e d . A f t e r they have c o n s i d e r e d f o r a few m i n u t e s and j o t t e d down some i d e a s , ask them t o f o c u s t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e ( s i n c e t h i s t o p i c w i l l be t h e b a s i s of d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h e next few l e s s o n s ) . ASK THE CLASS: "What a s p e c t s of marriage w i l l need r e - e v a l u a t i o n i f we a r e t o a c h i e v e e q u a l i t y between t h e s e x e s ? " These i d e a s c a n be w r i t t e n i n s t u d e n t note books f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n a l a t e r r e v i e w o r done i n paragraph form f o r homework i f the t e a c h e r d e s i r e s .  4o  LESSON  14  INTRODUCTION: The d i s c u s s i o n o f m a r r i a g e b e g i n s on a s t r i dently f e m i n i s t note. " I Want a W i f e " s h o u l d p r o v o k e some r e a c t i o n from a l l s t u d e n t s . The m a i n g o a l o f t h e l e s s o n i s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c l a s s members t o examine t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s t o housework and f a m i l y d u t i e s . REVIEW: As r e v i e w , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d ask t h e c l a s s f o r t h e i r a n s w e r s t o t h e Wrap Up q u e s t i o n o f L e s s o n 13. (5-10 minutes) (a)  What a s p e c t s o f m a r r i a g e w i l l need r e - e v a l u a t i o n i f we a r e t o a c h i e v e e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s ?  T h e s e a r e a s s h o u l d be l i s t e d on t h e b o a r d and d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y , s a y i n g housework u n t i l l a s t . I f no s t u d e n t m e n t i o n s housework as a f a c e t o f m a r r i a g e t h a t needs r e - e v a l u a t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d b r i n g up t h e s u b j e c t and ask c l a s s members i f t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e s e d u t i e s are e q u a l l y shared a t present? PROCEDURE: 1.  D i s t r i b u t e c o p i e s o f " I Want a W i f e " ( m u s t a r d c o l o u r e d p a p e r ) t o t h e c l a s s and r e a d o v e r t h e a r t i c l e and q u e s t i o n s w i t h the c l a s s , making s u r e they understand the exercise f u l l y . T h e n a l l o w 20 - 25 m i n u t e s f o r them t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s .  2.  D i s c u s s i o n o f the (a)  Questions:  The q u a l i t y o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s l e s s o n w i l l g e n e r a l l y be d i c t a t e d by t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who feel t h a t t h e w r i t e r has b e e n u n f a i r t o men. Questions 1 t h r o u g h 3 s h o u l d a s s i s t s t u d e n t s t o compare t h e i r own v a l u e s on t h e t o p i c o f h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s w i t h those o f the r e s t o f the c l a s s . At t h i s p o i n t , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d b r o a d e n the d i s c u s s i o n t o the p o i n t where t h e c l a s s members t r y t o d i s c e r n the i d e a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r w i t h i n a f a m i l y setting. H o p e f u l l y , t h i s i d e a l s e t - u p w i l l n o t be s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r m s o f what i s "man's work" and "woman's work" b u t on a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d b a s i s .  (b)  Q u e s t i o n 4 examines t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " d o u b l e s t a n d a r d " f o r e t h i c a l c o n d u c t b e t w e e n m a l e s and f e m a l e s . If a s t u d e n t does n o t m e n t i o n t h e s u b j e c t , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e n a t u r e v e r s u s n u r t u r e i s s u e by a s k i n g the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n :  41  145  " I s i t n a t u r a l f o r a man's eye t o wander and f o r a woman t o want t o s e t t l e down w i t h one h u s b a n d ? " NOTE TO THE TEACHER: I f t h e d i s c u s s i o n becomes " h e a t e d " , t h i s may be a n a p p r o p r i a t e moment t o e n c o u r a g e t h e s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e on a n a s s e r t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a n a g g r e s s i v e b a s i s . The t e a c h e r c a n c u t o f f a n y s p e a k e r who s t r a y s f r o m a s s e r t i o n . WRAP UP: The t e a c h e r may e l e c t o r a s s i g n some o f t h e members o f t h e c l a s s t o combine t h e i r e f f o r t s i n a " c o u n t e r a r t i c l e " e n t i t l e d , " I Want a Husband." T h i s document s h o u l d be r e a d a l o u d a t a l a t e r date and e v a l u a t e d by t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s .  42  146  LESSON 15 INTRODUCTION; T h i s l e s s o n examines t h e h i s t o r y o f m a r r i a g e . I t s main g o a l i s t o demonstrate to the c l a s s the f a c t t h a t r a t h e r t h a n "being a n e t e r n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t " a l w a y s was a n d a l w a y s w i l l be" m a r r i a g e has b e e n a n e v o l v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h has changed i n n a t u r e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s w i t h i n a given society. H o p e f u l l y , t h i s awareness w i l l a l l o w the s t u d e n t s t o examine t h e i r own p l a n s r e g a r d i n g m a r r i a g e . REVIEW: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d b e g i n t h i s ing questions. (5-10 m i n u t e s ) (a) (b)  What was t h e " d o u b l e i n our l a s t c l a s s ?  lesson with  s t a n d a r d " w h i c h we  the f o l l o w discussed  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e r i g h t s ' o f h u s b a n d s i s a n o l d i d e a o r a r e l a t i v e l y new one? Explain.  (c)  How  do y o u t h i n k s u c h  a s i t u a t i o n came a b o u t ?  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: As i n a n y i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d s t r i v e m e r e l y t o s p a r k s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t as t o how m a r r i a g e e v o l v e d - n o t s u p p l y a n s w e r s . PROCEDURE: 1.  Have e a c h s t u d e n t r e a d a copy o f " M a r r i a g e : P a s t and P r e s e n t " ( o n w h i t e p a p e r ) and p r e p a r e a n s w e r s t o t h e questions which f o l l o w the a r t i c l e . (25-30 m i n u t e s )  NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The " F o r D i s c u s s i o n " s e c t i o n a t t h e e n d o f t h e a r t i c l e s h o u l d be o m i t t e d by s t u d e n t s s i n c e t h e s e issues are r a i s e d i n the questions which f o l l o w the a r t i c l e . 2.  D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions: (a)  A l t h o u g h some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t accompany t h i s a r t i c l e p r o b e no f u r t h e r t h a n w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d what t h e y have r e a d , s e v e r a l themes w h i c h have p r e v i o u s l y b e e n i n t r o d u c e d may be b r o u g h t into this discussion.  i.e.  (i)  The p r e s s u r e on women t o " l a n d a man" and be a s u c c e s s ( L e s s o n 3)•  (ii)  The p r o b l e m "of d e a l i n g w i t h a n c e " ' ( L e s s o n s 4 and 5).  (iii)  The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c h r i s t i a n c h u r c h and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e ( L e s s o n 13)•  43  "social  accept-  147  (b)  " H i s D a u g h t e r s Were a Form o f C u r r e n c y . " T h i s c o u l d prompt a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " m a r r i a g e ceremony" i n C a n a d a . I s i t s e t up a s a u n i o n o f e q u a l s who a r e " i n l o v e " , o r l i k e a t r a n s f e r o f p r o p e r t y f r o m one m a l e t o a n o t h e r ?  Consider: =1.  The s p e c i a l v a l u e o f a " w h i t e w e d d i n g " • (new a s opposed t o used g o o d s ) .  2.  The c e r e m o n i a l a c t o f " g i v i n g away t h e b r i d e . " ( L i t e r a l l y , t h e t r a n s f e r o f a woman f r o m t h e c o n t r o l o f one man t o a n o t h e r . )  3.  The p o s i t i o n o f " b e s t man." (Who t r a d i t i o n a l l y f u l f i l l e d t h e same f u n c t i o n as t h e " s h o t g u n r i d e r " on a s t a g e c o a c h by e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e b r i d e - t h e comm o d i t y o f v a l u e was n o t s t o l e n by a n o t h e r man b e f o r e the wedding.)  WRAP UP: I n the time remaining, ask the students t o t h i n k a b o u t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o v e r e d i n t h e two l e s s o n s a n d t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y w o u l d want a t r a d i t i o n a l m a r r i a g e i n w h i c h t h e h u s b a n d h o l d s a j o b and b r i n g s i n a p a y c h e c k w h i l e t h e w i f e r e m a i n s i n t h e home, c a r i n g f o r i t and r a i s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . T e l l t h e c l a s s t o w r i t e down b r i e f notes on: 1.  Why  they would p r e f e r  this  type  of marriage.  or 2.  What o t h e r t y p e  of marriage  44  t h e y w o u l d want.  148  LESSON 16 a n d LESSON 17 INTRODUCTION: The m a i n g o a l i n t h e s e two l e s s o n s i s t o have t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d a n d e v a l u a t e two a r t i c l e s on t h e t o p i c o f m a r r i a g e w h i c h d i f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y f r o m t h o s e w h i c h have b e e n examined so f a r i n t h e c o u r s e . The a d v i c e i n "How t o H o l d a Husband" d a t e s f r o m t h e F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y and' t h a t i n "You A r e Woman" i s m i d - T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . D e s p i t e t h i s s i x hundred y e a r d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m e , t h e theme o f b o t h a r t i c l e s i s " s u b s e r v i e n c e t o y o u r L o r d ' s whims and m a i n t e n a n c e o f h i s c a s t l e , w i l l produce happiness." The f o r m a t o f t h e s e two c l a s s e s b r e a k s t h e REVIEW, READ AND ANSWER, DISCUSS p a t t e r n w h i c h may have become b o r i n g t o b o t h t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t s by t h i s t i m e . The e s s a y p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h e s e two c l a s s e s w i l l g i v e t h e t e a c h e r a c h a n c e t o d e t e r m i n e w i t h what s k i l l t h e s t u d e n t s c a n d e t e c t t h e common theme i n t h e a r t i c l e s a n d a l s o how w e l l t h e y c a n e v a l u a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s theme i n p r o d u c i n g s u c c e s s f u l m a r r i a g e s b y w e i g h i n g i t a g a i n s t t h e m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d . Not i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h i s e x e r c i s e w i l l p r o v i d e t h e t e a c h e r w i t h a n a c a d e m i c mark f o r t h i s s e c t i o n o f the course. PROCEDURE: The t e a c h e r s h o u l d d i s t r i b u t e one c o p y o f "How t o H o l d a Husband" a n d "You A r e Woman" t o e a c h s t u d e n t . NOTE TO THE TEACHER: "How t o H o l d a Husband" may r e q u i r e u p d a t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g because i t i s c i r c a the F o u r t e e n t h Century. The t e a c h e r s h o u l d s p e n d some t i m e a s k i n g t h e c l a s s f o r modern e q u i v a l e n t s t o t h e a d v i c e p r o v i d e d h e r e . 1.  The a s s i g n m e n t  i s as f o l l o w s :  I n a s h o r t e s s a y o f t h r e e t o f o u r p a g e s compare t h e a d v i c e t o w i v e s g i v e n i n "How t o H o l d a Husband" w i t h t h a t g i v e n i n "You A r e Woman." Y o u r e s s a y s h o u l d c o n s i d e r (at l e a s t ) the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : (a)  What do t h e s e a r t i c l e s have i n common? Give e v i dence f r o m b o t h a r t i c l e s t o s u p p o r t y o u r o p i n i o n .  (b)  G i v e y o u r own o p i n i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f a d v i c e given t o wives. (What a r e i t s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses? )  (c)  Do y o u c o n s i d e r t h i s t o be v a l u a b l e a d v i c e t o g i v e t o a y o u n g woman g e t t i n g m a r r i e d t o d a y ? Why o r why not?  (d)  W h i c h do y o u t h i n k w o u l d be more b e n e f i c i a l t o y o u n g p e o p l e c o n s i d e r i n g m a r r i a g e , a course on " f a s c i n a t i n g womanhood" o r a c o u r s e i n a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g ? Why do y o u t h i n k t h i s ?  45  14-9 2.  The t e a c h e r s h o u l d w r i t e one e s s a y a s s i g n m e n t on t h e b o a r d o r o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r and d i s c u s s e a c h s e c t i o n o f i t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n d what i s d e s i r e d . N a t u r a l l y t h e i r v e r y b e s t work i s e x p e c t e d a s a f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t and t h e t e a c h e r m i g h t w i s h t o t a k e a few moments discussing: (a)  the c o l l e c t i n g  o f i d e a s and t h e m a k i n g  (b)  the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a rough  (c)  the " p o l i s h i n g "  of a f i n a l  of notes,  draft, copy.  WRAP UP: During the i n - c l a s s w r i t i n g time, the teacher should c i r c u l a t e among t h e s t u d e n t s s o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m s a n d d i s c u s s i n g t h e i s s u e s on a o n e - t o - o n e l e v e l . Students should do most o f t h e a c t u a l w r i t i n g o f t h i s e s s a y i n c l a s s t i m e , s u b m i t t i n g i t a t t h e end o f L e s s o n 17.  46  150  LESSON 18 INTRODUCTION; This i s the concluding l e s s o n f o r the d i s c u s s i o n on m a r r i a g e . The l e s s o n i s f o c u s e d a r o u n d a f i l m e n t i t l e d "Happily Ever A f t e r . " T h i s f i l m examines t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t m a r r i a g e o f a g r o u p o f young p e o p l e ( b o t h male and f e m a l e ) and compares t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s of s e v e r a l housewives. I t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s t o a s s e s s t h e i r own e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . REVIEW: I f t h e t e a c h e r has b e e n i n c r e d i b l y k e e n and e f f i c i e n t t h e e s s a y s s u b m i t t e d l a s t day w i l l be marked and c a n be r e t u r n ed t o t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s would a l l o w t h e s t u d e n t s t o h e a r one o r two good p a p e r s r e a d o u t l o u d and w o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r a r e v i e w d i s c u s s i o n . F a i l i n g t h i s t y p e o f e f f i c i e n c y , t h e t e a c h e r c a n go o v e r t h e e s s a y a s s i g n m e n t p o i n t b y p o i n t , u s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s as a review. (15 minutes) PROCEDURE; 1.  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s c a n be w r i t t e n on t h e b o a r d o r an o v e r h e a d p r o j e c t o r . B e f o r e s h o w i n g t h e f i l m , have the s t u d e n t s r e a d the q u e s t i o n s which form the b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r the f i l m . (a)  Had most o f t h e y o u n g p e o p l e i n t h e f i l m much a b o u t m a r r i a g e ? Evidence?  (b)  Do t h e s e  students  a p p e a r t o have  thought  thought  - more - t h e same, o r -  less  about marriage,  2.  t h a n y o u and y o u r  friends?  (c)  Were t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e y o u n g p e o p l e t h e women b e f o r e t h e y became h o u s e w i v e s ?  (d)  What e x p e r i e n c e s i n m a r r i a g e housewives f e l t about i t ?  (e)  Why do y o u s u p p o s e t h e f i l m Ever A f t e r ? "  shared  c h a n g e d t h e way i s entitled  by  these  "Happily  The t e a c h e r s h o u l d show t h e f i l m ( 1 5 m i n u t e s ) a n d a t i t s c o n c l u s i o n , l e a d a d i s c u s s i o n b a s e d on t h e above q u e s t i o n s .  47  151  NOTE TO THE TEACHER; The i n t e n t o f t h i s lesso'n i s t o demons t r a t e t h e gap "between t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f u n m a r r i e d p e o p l e and t h e r e a l i t y o f h o u s e h o l d m a i n t e n a n c e . I t i s not intended t o a t t a c k h o u s e w i v e s n o r t o d e n i g r a t e housework. Household m a i n t e n a n c e and c h i l d c a r e a r e v i t a l i n o u r s o c i e t y . However, i t need n o t a l w a y s be women who p e r f o r m t h i s f u n c t i o n . WRAP UP: I n t h e f i n a l m i n u t e s o f t h i s p e r i o d , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d e x p l a i n t h a t a g u e s t s p e a k e r ( s ) w i l l be coming n e x t day. The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o p l a n some q u e s t i o n s t h a t they would l i k e t o ask t h e s p e a k e r ( s ) . I t m i g h t p r o v e i n t e r e s t i n g i f t h e s t u d e n t s were armed w i t h some o f t h e B i b l i c a l q u o t e s c o n c e r n i n g women t h a t were g i v e n i n L e s s o n 13• The s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a l s o be e n c o u r a g e d t o be a s s e r t i v e i n the questioning of the guest speaker(s).  48  152  LESSON 1 9 INTRODUCTION: The p u r p o s e o f t h i s l e s s o n i s t o r e s t o r e a n y " i m b a l a n c e " t h a t may have o c c u r r e d , i n p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f seemingly o n e - s i d e d f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s on C h r i s t i a n i t y and'marriage. V i r t u a l l y e v e r y C a n a d i a n community has a n a r t i c u l a t e , o p i n i o n a t e d , C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r , be he p r i e s t , m i n i s t e r o r p a s t o r , who w o u l d e n j o y t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : (1)  Christianity  and t h e R o l e  (2)  Christianity  versus  (3)  The r o l e  o f Women.  "Women's L i b . "  o f t h e C h r i s t i a n Woman i n  Marriage.  An i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l p a n e l o f s u c h p r e l a t e s c o u l d be a s s e m b l e d t o d i s c u s s one o f t h e above t o p i c s . However, i f t h e c l a s s i s e a g e r t o a s k q u e s t i o n s and t h e t i m e i s l i m i t e d t o one h o u r , i t may be a d v i s a b l e t o r e s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o one s p e a k e r who w i l l e x p l a i n h i s c h u r c h ' s p o s i t i o n o n t h e s e l e c t e d t o p i c and t h e n f i e l d student q u e s t i o n s . (Possibly the stud e n t s c o u l d be h e l p f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g someone f r o m a n e a r b y church.) If possible, a fundamentalist Protestant leader i susually a good b e t f o r p r o d u c i n g a l i v e l y h o u r o f d i s c u s s i o n . When c o n t a c t i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l s p e a k e r , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d b r i e f l y e x p l a i n what h a s b e e n c o v e r e d i n t h e s i x p r e v i o u s c l a s s e s and a l l o w t h e speaker t o p i c k w h i c h o f t h e t h r e e t o p i c s he f e e l s most c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h . NOTE TO THE TEACHER: R e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s a r e u s u a l l y busy and i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t a c t t h e s p e a k e r a t l e a s t one week i n advance i n o r d e r f o r him t o p l a n t o a t t e n d a n d have t h e opportunity to prepare h i s t a l k .  49  153  LESSON  20  INTRODUCTION: T h i s l e s s o n i s p r e s e n t e d l a s t because there may be m a l e s i n t h e c l a s s who have b e e n t r a d i t i o n a l l y r a i s e d and who may have s a t s i l e n t l y and u n c o m f o r t a b l y d u r i n g t h e l a s t n i n e t e e n l e s s o n s n o t k n o w i n g q u i t e how t o r e s p o n d t o t h e l e s s o n s b u t k n o w i n g i n t h e i r h e a r t s t h a t "men a r e men and women a r e women." P a s t e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t many o f t h e s e m a l e s who i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e " J o h n Wayne Syndrome" t e n d t o come o u t d u r i n g t h i s l e s s o n . REVIEW: D e b r i e f i n g t h e c l a s s on t h e t a l k g i v e n by t h e l o c a l r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s h o u l d t a k e a b o u t 15 m i n u t e s and w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d i f the teacher takes notes d u r i n g the speaker's talk. He/she c o u l d t h e r e f o r e r e f e r t h e c l a s s t o s p e c i f i c p o i n t s touched upon. PROCEDURE: 1.  Hand o u t "Men and t h e Women's Movement" and a l l o w 2 0 - 2 5 m i n u t e s f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o r e a d i t and p r e p a r e t h e i r answers to t h e q u e s t i o n s .  2.  D i s c u s s i o n of the  Questions:  (a)  The f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s a r e a r e v i e w o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c o u r s e and by t h i s t i m e s t u d e n t s s h o u l d have a f a i r l y c l e a r i d e a o f where t h e m o d e r n "Women's Movement" o r i g i n a t e d and why i t has become w i d e s p r e a d a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time.  (b)  Q u e s t i o n s 3 and k i n v o l v e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h a t most d e l i c a t e o f s t r u c t u r e s , t h e male ego. The t e a c h e r s h o u l d p o i n t out the r e s e a r c h e d t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s o f c r y i n g and i n f o r m s t u d e n t s t h a t " c o o l , u n e m o t i o n a l " m a l e s d i e s e v e n y e a r s b e f o r e f e m a l e s (on t h e a v e r a g e ) and t h a t many o f t h e s e d e a t h s a r e c a u s e d by s t r e s s - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s , w h i c h a r e t h e l o n g - t e r m r e s u l t s o f i n t e r n a l i z i n g e m o t i o n a l c o n f l i c t and tension.  (c)  Once t h e Question  students 5:  have e x p r e s s e d  their  opinions  I f t h e s t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t i t i s no h a r d e r f o r men t o do f e m i n i n e j o b s t h a n v i c e - v e r s a , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d ask:  50  on  154  (i)  How many g i r l s w o u l d n o t f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e mowing t h e l a w n w h i l e y o u r f e m a l e f r i e n d s w a i t e d f o r you? (Note on t h e b o a r d t h e number o f f e m a l e s who r a i s e t h e i r hands i n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s tion. )  (ii)  How many b o y s w o u l d n o t f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e s e w i n g a b u t t o n on a s h i r t w h i l e y o u r male f r i e n d s w a i t e d f o r you? (Note t h e number o f m a l e s who r a i s e hands and compare t h e t o t a l s . )  their  Then r e t u r n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f the o r i g i n a l question.  51  APPENDIX I I  The Measurement  Instruments  The A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e The Bern Sex R o l e Unobtrusive  Measure  Inventory ("Chris"  Exercise)  The s t a t e m e n t s l i s t e d below d e s c r i b e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e r o l e o f men and women i n s o c i e t y w h i c h d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e have. T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r s , o n l y o p i n i o n s . You a r e a s k e d t o e x p r e s s y o u r f e e l i n g s a b o u t e a c h s t a t e m e n t by i n d i c a t i n g w h e t h e r y o u ( a ) a g r e e s t r o n g l y , (b) a g r e e m i l d l y , (c) d i s a g r e e m i l d l y , o r (d) d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n by f i l l i n g i n t h e space p r o v i d e d w i t h the l e t t e r which corresponds w i t h your f e e l i n g s . P l e a s e answer a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s . (a)  agree s t r o n g l y  (c) disagree  mildly  (b)  agree m i l d l y  (d)  strongly  1.  S w e a r i n g and b a d l a n g u a g e woman t h a n b y a man.  2.  Women s h o u l d t a k e more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n s o l v i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f the day.  3.  Both husband for divorce.  4.  Telling thing.  5.  A d r u n k e n woman i s u s u a l l y man.  6.  Under modern economic c o n d i t i o n s w i t h women w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home, men s h o u l d s h a r e i n h o u s e h o l d t a s k s , such as washing t h e d i s h e s and d o i n g t h e l a u n d r y .  7.  I t i s i n s u l t i n g t o women t o have t h e "Obey" remain i n the marriage s e r v i c e .  8.  T h e r e s h o u l d be a s t r i c t m e r i t s y s t e m i n j o b a p p o i n t ment and p r o m o t i o n , w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o s e x .  9.  A woman s h o u l d be a s f r e e  dirty  sounds  disagree  w o r s e when s a i d  and w i f e s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t h e same  by a  grounds  j o k e s s h o u l d be m o s t l y a male a worse s i g h t  than a  drunken  clause  a s a man t o p r o p o s e m a r r i a g e .  10.  Women s h o u l d w o r r y l e s s a b o u t t h e i r r i g h t s a b o u t b e c o m i n g good w i v e s a n d m o t h e r s .  a n d more  11.  Women e a r n i n g as much as t h e i r d a t e s s h o u l d p a y h a l f t h e e x p e n s e s when t h e y go o u t t o g e t h e r .  158  12.  Women s h o u l d take t h e i r r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n b u s i n e s s and a l l t h e p r o f e s s i o n s a l o n g w i t h men.  13.  A woman s h o u l d n o t expect t o go t o e x a c t l y t h e same p l a c e s o r t o have the same freedom o f a c t i o n as a man.  14.  Sons i n a f a m i l y s h o u l d he g i v e n more encouragement t o go t o c o l l e g e t h a n d a u g h t e r s .  15-  I t i s r i d i c u l o u s f o r a woman t o r u n a l o c o m o t i v e and f o r a man t o darn socks .  16.  U s u a l l y , t h e f a t h e r s h o u l d have g r e a t e r a u t h o r i t y t h a n the mother i n t h e b r i n g i n g up o f c h i l d r e n .  17.  Women s h o u l d be encouraged n o t t o have s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h anyone b e f o r e m a r r i a g e , even w i t h t h e p e r s o n t h e y are g o i n g t o marry.  18.  The husband s h o u l d n o t be f a v o u r e d by law over the w i f e i n s a y i n g how f a m i l y p r o p e r t y s h o u l d be used o r how f a m i l y money i s s p e n t .  19.  Women s h o u l d be concerned w i t h t h e i r d u t i e s o f c h i l d r e a r i n g and house t e n d i n g , r a t h e r than w i t h d e s i r e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s i n e s s c a r e e r s .  20.  The i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e community s h o u l d be l a r g e l y i n t h e hands o f men.  21.  Having money and freedom i s w o r t h more t o a woman t h a n t r y i n g t o l i v e up t o t h e " i d e a l woman image" s e t by men.  22.  On t h e average, women s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d l e s s capable o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e n a t i o n ' s economic p r o d u c t i o n t h a n men.  23.  There a r e many jobs i n which men s h o u l d be g i v e n p r e f e r e n c e over women i n b e i n g h i r e d o r promoted.  24.  Women s h o u l d be g i v e n e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h men f o r apprenticeship i n various trades.  25.  The modern g i r l i s e n t i t l e d t o t h e same freedom from r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l t h a t i s g i v e n t o t h e modern boy.  159  On t h e f o l l o w i n g page, you w i l l he shown a l a r g e number of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  We would l i k e you t o use  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e y o u r s e l f . is,  i n d i c a t e , on a s c a l e from 1 t o 7,  various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are.  That  how t r u e of you these  P l e a s e do n o t l e a v e any charac-  t e r i s t i c s unmarked. EXAMPLE: s l y Mark a  1  i f i t i s NEVER OR ALMOST NEVER TRUE t h a t you a r e s l y  Mark a  2  i f i t i s USUALLY NOT TRUE t h a t you are s l y  Mark a  3  i f i t i s SOMETIMES BUT INFREQUENTLY TRUE t h a t you a r e s l y  Mark a  4  i f i t i s OCCASIONALLY TRUE t h a t you are s l y  Mark a  5  i f i t i s OFTEN TRUE t h a t you a r e s l y  Mark a  6  i f i t i s USUALLY TRUE t h a t you a r e sly  Mark a  7  i f i t i s ALWAYS OR ALMOST ALWAYS TRUE t h a t you a r e s l y  Thus, i f you f e e l i t i s sometimes b u t i n f r e q u e n t l y t r u e t h a t you a r e " s l y " , never o r almost never t r u e t h a t you a r e " m a l i c i o u s " , always o r a l m o s t always t r u e t h a t you a r e " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " , and o f t e n t r u e t h a t you a r e " c a r e f r e e " , t h e n you would r a t e these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as f o l l o w s :  Sly  3  Irresponsible  7  Malicious  1  Carefree  5  DESCRIBE YOURSELF  NEVER OR : USUALLY ALMOST •' NOT NEVER TRUE TRUE  SOMETIMES BUT. OCCASIONALLY INFREQUENTLY " 'TRUE TRUE  OFTEN TRUE . USUALLY . ! TRUE.  ALWAYS OR A MOST ALWAYS TRUE  Self-reliant  Has leadership a b i l i t i e s  W i l l i n g to take a stand  Cheerful  Sympathetic  Warm  Helpful  Reliable.  Likable  Defends own b e l i e f s  W i l l i n g to take r i s k s  Aggressive  Shy  S e n s i t i v e to the needs of others  Tender  Moody-  Jealous  Friendly-  Independent  Makes decisions e a s i l y  Acts as a leader'  Affectionate  Understanding  Childlike  Conscientious  Truthful  Inefficient  Athletic  Self-sufficient  Individualistic  Flatterable  Compassionate  Does not use harsh language  Theatrical  Secretive  Adaptable  Strong P e r s o n a l i t y  Dominant  Competitive  Loyal  Eager to soothe hurt feelings  Loves c h i l d r e n  Happy  Sincere  Unsystematic  Forceful  Masculine  Ambitious  Feminine  Soft-spoken  Gentle  Unpredictable  Conceited  Tactful  161.  C h r i s Jones, a Grade 11 s t u d e n t , i s v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n a n y t h i n g s c i e n t i f i c and she g e t s good marks i n Math and a l l s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s . A l t h o u g h C h r i s g e t s average marks i n E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , she doesn't e n j o y t h e s e s u b j e c t s as much. I n her spare time, she enjoys r e a d i n g , w o r k i n g on s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s and p l a y i n g t e n n i s . C h r i s gets a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s but she i s not t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , such as l a r g e p a r t i e s o r s c h o o l dances. She i s not t h a t a c t i v e i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , a l t h o u g h she i s a member of the b i o l o g y c l u b and p l a y s on the t e n n i s team. C h r i s wants t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y and become a d o c t o r . She r e a l i z e s t h a t m e d i c i n e t a k e s a minimum o f seven y e a r s u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , t h a t a person applying to medical school needs v e r y good marks and t h a t i t w i l l be e x p e n s i v e . Her p a r e n t s are not w e l l o f f and w i l l not be a b l e t o g i v e her much f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . However, c o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h i s i s what she p r e s e n t l y wants t o do. A f t e r r e a d i n g the above d e s c r i p t i o n , p l e a s e answer the f o l lowing questions: 1.  Do you t h i n k m e d i c i n e would be a good f i e l d f o r C h r i s to e n t e r ? P l e a s e e x p l a i n why o r why n o t .  2.  Based on C h r i s ' marks, i n t e r o t h e r f i e l d s and/or jobs do ; s u c c e s s f u l i n ? P l e a s e check b r i e f l y g i v e the reasons f o r 1. 2. 3. k.  3.  Nurse Engineer C h i l d c a r e worker X-Ray t e c h n i c i a n  56. 7. 8.  s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y , what ou t h i n k she might be any of the f o l l o w i n g and your c h o i c e . High s c h o o l math t e a c h e r Pharmacist S o c i a l worker Biologist  T r y t o imagine what C h r i s w i l l be d o i n g t e n y e a r s from now when she i s 27 y e a r s o l d . P l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h i s .  C h r i s J o n e s , a Grade 11 s t u d e n t , i s v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n a n y t h i n g s c i e n t i f i c and he g e t s good marks i n Math arid a l l s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s . A l t h o u g h C h r i s g e t s a v e r a g e marks i n E n g l i s h a n d ' S o c i a l S t u d i e s , he d o e s n ' t e n j o y t h e s e s u b j e c t s as much. I n h i s s p a r e t i m e , he e n j o y s r e a d i n g , w o r k i n g on s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s and p l a y i n g t e n n i s . C h r i s g e t s a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s b u t he i s n o t t h a t c o m f o r t a b l e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , s u c h as l a r g e p a r t i e s o r s c h o o l d a n c e s . He i s n o t t h a t a c t i v e i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , a l t h o u g h he i s a member o f t h e b i o l o g y c l u b and p l a y s on t h e t e n n i s team. C h r i s w a n t s t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y and become a d o c t o r . He r e a l i z e s t h a t m e d i c i n e t a k e s a minimum o f s e v e n y e a r s u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , t h a t a person a p p l y i n g to m e d i c a l s c h o o l needs v e r y good marks and t h a t i t w i l l be e x p e n s i v e . H i s p a r e n t s a r e n o t w e l l o f f and w i l l n o t be a b l e t o g i v e him much f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . However, c o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h i s i s what he p r e s e n t l y w a n t s t o do.  A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n , lowing questions:  p l e a s e answer the  fol-  1.  Do y o u t h i n k m e d i c i n e w o u l d be a good c a r e e r f o r C h r i s to enter? P l e a s e e x p l a i n why o r why n o t .  2.  B a s e d on C h r i s ' marks, i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y , what o t h e r f i e l d s a n d / o r j o b s do you t h i n k he m i g h t be successful in? P l e a s e c h e c k any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g and b r i e f l y g i v e the reasons f o r your c h o i c e . 1. 2. 3. k.  3.  Nurse Engineer C h i l d c a r e worker X-Ray t e c h n i c i a n  5» 6. 78.  H i g h s c h o o l math Pharmacist S o c i a l worker Biologist  teacher  T r y t o i m a g i n e what C h r i s w i l l be d o i n g t e n y e a r s f r o m now when he i s 2 7 y e a r s o l d . P l e a s e d e s c r i b e t h i s .  APPENDIX I I I  The P r o c e s s M e a s u r e s The S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n  Form  The T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n  Form  The T e a c h e r  Log  164  STUDENT EVALUATION FORM 1.  Was t h e c o u r s e why n o t .  2.  What p a r t explain.  o f t h e c o u r s e was most i n t e r e s t i n g ?  3.  What p a r t explain.  o f t h e c o u r s e was l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g ?  4.  Do y o u t h i n k t h i s c o u r s e w i l l you e x p e c t i t t o be u s e f u l ?  5.  Based o n what y o u have s t u d i e d i n t h i s c o u r s e , w o u l d y o u be i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g a l o n g e r and more d e t a i l e d course? P l e a s e e x p l a i n why o r why n o t .  6.  (a) What c r i t i c i s m s do y o u have o f t h e c o u r s e ?  interesting?  Please  e x p l a i n why o r  be u s e f u l  Please  Please  t o you?  How do  (b) What improvements w o u l d y o u s u g g e s t ?  7.  8.  Circle  one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g .  D i d t h i s course  (a)  more d i s c u s s i o n  outside  the classroom.  (b)  less discussion  outside  the classroom.  (c)  a b o u t t h e same amount o f d i s c u s s i o n c l a s s r o o m as y o u r o t h e r c o u r s e s .  Circle  one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g .  outside the  D i d t h i s course  (a)  more d i s c u s s i o n  a t home.  (b)  less discussion  a t home.  (c)  a b o u t t h e same amount o f d i s c u s s i o n your other c l a s s e s .  cause  cause  a t home a s  165  TEACHER EVALUATION FORM  1.  D i d t h e l e s s o n p l a n s f a c i l i t a t e a n a w a r e n e s s and d i s cussion of the e f f e c t s of sex-role stereotyping? Please e x p l a i n .  2.  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e l e s s o n s p r o m o t e d m e a n i n g f u l and t o p i c - r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s among y o u r s t u d e n t s ? Please explain.  3.  Do y o u f e e l t h e l e s s o n s f o l l o w e d a l o g i c a l p a t t e r n o f development f o r a course i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I f no, please explain.  4.  Do y o u f e e l y o u r c l a s s e s had enough t i m e f o r d i s c u s s i o n ?  5.  D i d the d i s c u s s i o n technique o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n prove u s e f u l ? Please explain.  6.  Were y o u p l e a s e d w i t h t h e w r i t t e n work and t h e e s s a y r e s u l t s of your students?  7.  Was t h e r e u s u a l l y a d e q u a t e t i m e o u t l i n e d i n each l e s s o n plan?  8.  Was any o f t h e m a t e r i a l t o o a d v a n c e d o r t o o u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d f o r the m a j o r i t y of your students? Please i d e n t i f y which m a t e r i a l s f e l l i n t o which category.  9.  What were y o u r o v e r a l l f e e l i n g s a b o u t t e a c h i n g course?  10.  P l e a s e o f f e r any s u g g e s t i o n s prove the course or increase  to cover  the m a t e r i a l  this  t h a t y o u f e e l w o u l d imi t s impact.  TEACHER  LOG  D i d t h e s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n answers demonstrate an understanding of the m a t e r i a l ? Yes  No  Did a m a j o r i t y of the students discussions?  get i n v o l v e d i n the  Yes D i d you f e e l  No t h e d i s c u s s i o n was  productive?  Yes Were t h e p r o c e d u r a l  No instructions  Yes  to the teacher c l e a r ? No  D i d y o u have enough t i m e t o c o m p l e t e Yes  No  Was t h e " D i s c u s s i o n o f Q u e s t i o n s " leading the discussion? Yes  Please  section helpful i n  No  What was t h e most e f f e c t i v e What was t h e l e a s t  the lesson?  effective  add any a d d i t i o n a l  p a r t of the lesson? part of the lesson?  comments o r c r i t i c i s m s .  APPENDIX  IV  B i b l i o g r a p h y  168  Bibliography Ahmann, J . S . 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