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An evaluation of the effectiveness of a course in sex role stereotyping and the socialization process Richardson, Ann 1979

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AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A COURSE IN SEX ROLE STEREOTYPING AND THE SOCIALIZATION PROCESS by ANN RICHARDSON A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF. ARTS ^ in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1979 (c) Ann Richardson , 1979 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Depart-ment or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vane o uver, C anada V6T 1W5 Date: April, 1979 .Abstract This r e s e a r c h study was designed to evaluate the e f f e c -t i v e n e s s of a course i n sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n terms of increased awareness and a t t i t u d i n a l changes of the p a r t i c -i p a n t s . Sex r o l e stereotypes are pervasive and r e s t r i c t i n g to i n d i v i d u a l s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . As powerful s o c i a l i z i n g agents, schools can be important f a c i l i t a t o r s i n changing s o c i e t a l notions of sex r o l e standards. This study des-c r i b e s the e f f e c t s of an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y course i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g f o r Grades 10 and 11. The study concludes t h a t the course was e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n -creased t h e i r awareness of the s t e r e o t y p i n g process and p e r c e i v e d the r e s t r i c t i n g e f f e c t s of narrowly d e f i n e d sex r o l e s . The r e s u l t s a l s o showed that the p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e d the r o l e s of males and females i n a more s o c i a l l y androgynous context as compared to the c o n t r o l group. i i i Table of Contents Chanter Page 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Rat i o n a l e 3 Purpose 4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 2 Related L i t e r a t u r e 7 I n t r o d u c t i o n 7 Evidence of Sex Role Stereotyping 8 The E f f e c t s of Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g ... 14 Fear of Success 25 The E f f e c t s of Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g i n Education 34 Courses as I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s 42 Conclusion 46 3 Methodology 52 O r g a n i z a t i o n of P i l o t P r o j e c t 52 Research Questions • 55 Research Design 57 Measurement Instruments 58 Data Analyses 68 4 Results 73 R e s u l t s of the Outcome Measures 73 Results of the Process Measures 80 5 D i s c u s s i o n , Recommendations and Conclusions 93 D i s c u s s i o n of Results 93 L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r Future Use 99 Recommendations f o r Future Research .... 100 Conclusions 101 i v Appendix Page I The Course 102 I I The Measurement Instruments 156 The A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale The Bern Sex Role Inventory The Unobtrusive Measure ("Chris" e x e r c i s e I I I The Process Measures I 6 3 The Student E v a l u a t i o n Form The Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form 5 The Teacher Log IV B i b l i o g r a p h y I 6 7 References I 6 9 V L i s t of Tables Table Page 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n s between BSRI Scales and Dependent Measures-ATWS and Ch r i s Stereotypy 7 4 2 . Summary Table - ATWS A n a l y s i s of Variance 7 5 3 . Means f o r S i g n i f i c a n t E f f e c t s on ATWS 76 4 . Summary Table - Ch r i s Stereotypy A n a l y s i s of Variance 7 7 5 . Summary Table - Ch r i s Medical School A n a l y s i s of Variance 7 8 6 . Summary Table - Occupation 2 Engineer -A n a l y s i s of Variance 7 9 7 . Percentage of Students i n Experimental and C o n t r o l C e l l s f o r Occupation 2 -Engineer 8 0 8 . Results of the Student E v a l u a t i o n Form -Sex of Student, Number of Students and Percentage i n Each Category 8 2 8 3 9 . Summary of Student E v a l u a t i o n Form -Question 2 . . . . . . . . . 8 6 1 0 . Summary of Student E v a l u a t i o n Form -Question 3 8 8 1 CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s can be d e f i n e d as the sum of s o c i a l l y d esignated behaviors t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between males and females (Broverman, Vogel, Broverman, C l a r k s o n and Rosenkrantz, 1 9 7 2 ) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p a r e n t s , the media, educators and other s o c i e t a l groups have accepted these r o l e s as e s s e n t i a l to p e r s o n a l i t y development and f u n c t i o n . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , the p o s i t i v e v alue of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s has r a r e l y . b e e n questioned. However, d u r i n g the l a s t decade, educators and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have expressed concern over the p o s s i b l e d e t r i -mental e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s on the development of both males and females (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ; Horner, 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 2 ; Maccoby and J a c k l i n , 1 9 7 5 ) * Groups i n our s o c i e t y such as the Canadian Status of Women, The Canadian Teachers A s s o c i a -t i o n and the Canadian P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n have a l s o questioned the e f f e c t of t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y upon the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l l i f e of Canada. An examination of the content and i n f l u e n c e of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s on i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e b ehavior has been undertaken i n re c e n t y e a r s . Both the nature and the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n contemporary s o c i e t y have been 2 i n v e s t i g a t e d . These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have l e d to the broad c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d to men are more p o s i t i v e l y v alued than c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d to women and t h a t men and women i n c o r p o r a t e both the p o s i t i v e and negative t r a i t s of t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e s t e r e o t y p e i n t o t h e i r s e l f - c o n -c e p t s . Since more feminine t r a i t s are n e g a t i v e l y v a l u e d than masculine t r a i t s , women tend to have more negative s e l f -concepts than men (Broverman, et a l . , 1 9 7 2 ) . Repeatedly, males and females a l i k e have agreed t h a t masculine a t t r i b u t e s are regarded more h i g h l y than feminine q u a l i t i e s s u g g e s t i n g the p e r v a s i v e i n f l u e n c e of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i n our s o c i e t y (Hahn, 1 9 7 5 ; Rosenberg and Simmons, 1 9 7 5 ; Rosenkrantz et a l . , 1 9 6 8 ) . Although sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s e x i s t and i n f l u e n c e the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i n North American s o c i e t y , some s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and educators b e l i e v e t h a t androgynous behaviors can r e p l a c e s t e r e o t y p e d b e h a v i o r s . Sandra Bern, a s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , has done extensive r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . From her r e s e a r c h , she i s very aware of the per v a s i v e n e s s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and concludes t h a t s o c i a l i z i n g and ed-u c a t i n g males and females to i n c o r p o r a t e r i g i d , sex appro-p r i a t e behaviors i n t o t h e i r b ehavior r e p e r t o i r e i s not only maladaptive but a l s o d y s f u n c t i o n a l . Bern b e l i e v e s t h a t by te a c h i n g and encouraging androgynous or s i t u a t i o n a l l y appro-p r i a t e behaviors our s o c i e t y w i l l produce more adaptable and l e s s r o l e - l o c k e d i n d i v i d u a l s . 3 Matina Horner i s a l s o a p s y c h o l o g i s t and r e s e a r c h e r i n the area of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and she developed the con-cept of f e a r of s u c c e s s . Horner "became aware of the v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females on measures of a c h i e v e -ment m o t i v a t i o n . She developed and researched the "Fear of Success" t h e o r y as a means of e x p l a i n i n g the lower a c h i e v e -ment m o t i v a t i o n of females. Bern's r e s e a r c h on androgyny and Horner's theory and subsequent r e s e a r c h are d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter 2. The r o l e of the e d u c a t i o n a l system i n promoting and p e r p e t u a t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s has a l s o been q u e s t i o n -ed and c r i t i c i z e d . However, sc h o o l s can be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g s o c i a l change r e g a r d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e and h e a l t h y behavior of males and females. One of the ways the s c h o o l system can be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g s e x u a l e q u a l i t y i s to i n t r o d u c e new c u r r i c u l a a t a l l l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n to examine the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s t e r e o t y p i n g pro-c e s s . The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of these c u r r i c u l a would be to promote equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s and to teach non-stereotyped behavior. These courses would h e l p students to examine narrowly d e f i n e d sex r o l e s and a l s o to become aware t h a t be-h a v i o r can be s i t u a t i o n a l l y determined r a t h e r than gender or r o l e s p e c i f i c . R a t i o n a l e Courses have been developed to examine both the s t e r e o t y p i n g process and sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as to expand the knowledge of the study of women. These courses can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t category i n -cludes resource guides and examples of m a t e r i a l s t h a t can be used i n the study of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . The second category i s much s m a l l e r and i n c l u d e s courses w i t h o u t l i n e s and l e s s o n p l a n s . The course evaluated i n t h i s study belongs i n t h i s second category. Many of the o r i g i n a l courses i n women's s t u d i e s were developed at u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s . G r a d u a l l y , educa-t o r s i n elementary and secondary schools became aware of the need f o r c u r r i c u l a i n t h i s area i n order to promote e q u a l i t y and be e f f e c t i v e i n combating sexism. Often these c u r r i c u l a are l o c a l l y developed by t e a c h e r s who p e r c e i v e a need f o r such courses. Although t h i s need may be r e a l and the courses developed to meet t h i s need may be e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , e v alua-t i o n procedures and e m p i r i c a l evidence are r a r e . I t i s the author's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t such e m p i r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n i s nec-essary to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of new c u r r i c u l a . Purpose The purpose of t h i s study was to examine and e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a course i n sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n terms of a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l changes of the p a r t i c -i p a n t s . T h i s course was developed and has been taught f o r the past three years by J . Godwin, a S o c i a l S t u d i e s t e a c h e r at Burnsview J u n i o r Secondary School i n D e l t a , B.C. I t i s an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y course i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g t h a t can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g Guidance E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s or r e l a t e d humanities courses a t the Grade 10, 11 and 12 l e v e l s . The b a s i c goals of the course are: 1. To i n c r e a s e the students awareness of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regards to sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . 2. To make students aware of t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s and encourage them to evaluate the e f f e c t s of these s t e r e o t y p e s on themselves. 3. To make students more aware of the r e s t r i c t i n g e f f e c t s of narrowly d e f i n e d sex r o l e s . 4. To have students p e r c e i v e the r o l e s of males and females i n a s o c i a l l y androgynous context. This study attempted to t r a n s l a t e these s t a t e d g o a l s i n t o b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s t h a t c o u l d be evaluated u s i n g ob-j e c t i v e measures and process measures. The f o l l o w i n g two questions were posed: 1. W i l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a course i n sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g r e s u l t i n a decrease of t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s toward women? 6 2. W i l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a course i n sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d acceptance and t o l e r -ance of non-stereotyped, androgynous behavior? D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Androgyny - The word androgyny means both male and female i n one. I n the context of t h i s study, the word androgynous d e f i n e s a person who e x h i b i t s both male and female charac-t e r i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s and behaviors as the s i t u a t i o n demands. I t allows males and females to f r e e l y engage i n both mascu-l i n e and feminine b e h a v i o r s . Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s - T h i s term can be d e f i n e d as the sum of s o c i a l l y d esignated behaviors t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between males and females. 7 CHAPTER 2 Related L i t e r a t u r e I n t r o d u c t i o n I n the l a s t decade i t appears t h a t progress has "been made toward the achievement of sexual e q u a l i t y . The f u n c -t i o n a l "benefits of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g are "being q u e s t i o n -ed by many i n f l u e n t i a l groups and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n our s o c i e t y . The r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e s t e r e o t y p e s of the 1 9 5 0 's and e a r l y 1960's are no lon g e r promoted by the media, edu-c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s or the s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y . Although progress has been made, there i s s t i l l a l o n g way to go before s e x u a l e q u a l i t y i s a r e a l i t y . There i s much evidence to support the f a c t t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o -types s t i l l e x i s t and i n f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l s i n our c u l t u r e . The s t e r e o t y p i n g process i s not as b l a t a n t as i t once was but the s t e r e o t y p e s are s t i l l p resent, a l b e i t i n s u b t l e and non-conscious forms. The f o l l o w i n g review of l i t e r a t u r e examines the process of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and the e f f e c t s and i n f l u e n c e of these s t e r e o t y p e s on i n d i v i d u a l s , s o c i e t y and the educ a t i o n -a l system. The review a l s o i n c l u d e s an examination of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s developed to combat sexism and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n educ a t i o n . 8 Evidence of Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g The p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes whereby sex r o l e i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n takes p l a c e s have occupied the a t t e n t i o n of p s y c h o l -o g i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s f o r many y e a r s . Research and t h e o r i e s have been generated i n an attempt to understand the developmental process whereby boys become "masculine" and g i r l s become "feminine." U n d e r l y i n g the r e s e a r c h and the t h e o r i e s were the i m p l i c i t assumptions t h a t sex r o l e i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n was a d e s i r a b l e process and t h e r e f o r e sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g was a d e s i r a b l e outcome. That such s t e r e o t y p e s of " a p p r o p r i a t e " masculine and feminine behavior e x i s t i n our North American c u l t u r e has been documented many times. These s t e r e o t y p e s are w i d e l y h e l d , p e r s i s t e n t and h i g h l y t r a d i t i o n a l . D e s p i t e the apparent changes i n the r o l e s of men and women and the seeming f l u i d i t y of sex r o l e s t e r e o -types i n the l a s t decade, many s t u d i e s confirm the e x i s t e n c e and pervasiveness of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s (Bern, 1 9 7 2 ; Broverman et a l . , 1 9 7 2 ; Mednick and Weismann, 1 9 7 5 ; Tresemer and Pleck, 1 9 7 ^ ) . Smith ( 1 9 7 3 ) conducted a study t o explore the e x i s t e n c e of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g among an ado l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n . He concluded t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s occurred over a wide v a r i e t y of areas and these d i f f e r e n c e s were f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s e a r c h on concepts of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . In ge n e r a l , female a d o l e s c e n t s scored h i g h e r than males on s c a l e s i n v o l v i n g dependency, concern 9 w i t h p e r s o n a l appearance, acceptance of a u t h o r i t y , l a c k of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and l a c k of achievement m o t i v a t i o n . This study a l s o supported the c o n c l u s i o n s of Broverman et a l . ( 1 9 7 2 ) t h a t women tend to have a more negative s e l f - c o n c e p t than men. Mednick and Weismann i n a r e p o r t i n the Annual Review of Psychology (1975) d i s c u s s e d and summarized r e s e a r c h on the e x i s t e n c e of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i n North American s o c i e t y . They p o i n t e d out t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c t h i n k i n g and ad-herence to t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s are found i n sc h o o l s e t t i n g s , i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e and textbooks, the mass media and i n language s t y l e s . The o c c u p a t i o n a l world i s sex-typed; s p e c i f i c job-sex p a t t e r n s vary but p r e s t i g e and economic value areaa^lwayshhighert'forvthosecoccupations which are male dominated. Tresemer and Pleck (197^) proposed the i d e a t h a t the d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n of gender and the r e s u l t i n g sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g i s the e a s i e s t and most powerful d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n to which people i n our c u l t u r e c l i n g . There i s a tendency on a l a r g e number of a b s t r a c t b i p o l a r dimensions to a s s o c i a t e one pole w i t h one sex, the other pole w i t h the other sex. Female behaviors tend to c l u s t e r around the warmth-affect dimension, male behaviors tend to c l u s t e r around a competency dimension. Tresemer and Pleck p o i n t e d out t h a t the wide-spread use of the concept "the opposite sex" i n d i c a t e s the way i n which m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y are.seen t o be u n a l t e r a b l y opposed i n our s o c i e t y . Depending on one's sex l a b e l , there are d i f f e r e n t norms of behavior, demanding con-f o r m i t y to two d i s t i n c t , coherent s o c i a l r o l e s d e l i n e a t e d by sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . V i r g i n i a O'Leary (1974) summarized r e s e a r c h t h a t demon-s t r a t e d the e x i s t e n c e of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s and a l s o showed th a t norms governing the approved masculine and feminine image are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and c o n s e n s u a l l y endorsed. How-ever, she went on to s t a t e t h a t the q u e s t i o n of the extent to which sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i n f l u e n c e the s e l f - c o n c e p t s of men and women cannot be r e s o l v e d on the b a s i s of e m p i r i c a l evidence to date. While the sex d i f f e r e n c e l i t e r a t u r e does suggest a h i g h degree of correspondence between male and female s e l f - c o n c e p t s and t h e i r concepts of i d e a l s e l f and opposite sex s t e r e o t y p e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o assess the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - c o n c e p t and d i f f e r e n t i a l l y valued sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . Although the manner i n which sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s w i t h t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d values i n f l u e n c e the s e l f -concepts of i n d i v i d u a l s has not been e m p i r i c a l l y documented, i t i s c l e a r t h a t the preval e n c e of such c o n s e n s u a l l y en-dorsed s t e r e o t y p e s •-will s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t women's s e l f -p e r c e p t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e h a v i o r a l responses based on these p e r c e p t i o n s . There i s some c o n t r o v e r s y among r e s e a r c h e r s as to whether an a l t e r a t i o n or change i n sex r o l e s and a t t i t u d e s i s t a k i n g p l a c e . Some evidence suggests t h a t changes have 11 occurred ( O l i v e r , 1975)• Van Dusen and Sheldon (I976) a l s o s t a t e t h a t some changes i n the r o l e s and s t a t u s of American women have r e s u l t e d i n changes i n the p e r c e p t i o n of women's r o l e s . They s t a t e t h a t the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n has been at odds w i t h the not i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e s and a c t i v -i t i e s f o r women and now the s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of women's r o l e s are c a t c h i n g up w i t h r e a l i t y . Van Dusen and Sheldon c i t e s e v e r a l examples to prove t h a t such changes are t a k i n g p l a c e . Economic f a c t o r s are encouraging the female's r e t u r n to the l a b o r f o r c e . M a r i t a l and c h i l d b e a r i n g p a t t e r n s a l s o appear to be changing, f e -males are marrying l a t e r and postponing c h i l d b e a r i n g . There-f o r e , the numbers of women i n the work f o r c e are i n c r e a s i n g and there seems to be a concomitant s h i f t i n the p e r c e p t i o n of female r o l e s . Steinmarm and Fox ( 1 9 6 6 ) a l s o examined the male and female p e r c e p t i o n of the female r o l e . The r e s u l t s of t h e i r study i n d i c a t e d t h a t women shared a s e t of values and t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s were balanced between f a m i l y and s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n and achievement. T h e i r i d e a l woman was s i m i l a r to t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s . However, t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of man's i d e a l woman was a s t r o n g l y f a m i l y o r i e n t e d woman. When men were questioned they s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r i d e a l woman was a balance between i n t r a - f a m i l y and e x t r a - f a m i l y i n t e r -e s t s . The w r i t e r s concluded t h a t men and women i n our s o c i e t y do not understand each o t h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s concerning what r o l e a woman should assume. There was a c o n f l i c t "between men's and women's p e r c e p t i o n s and a l s o the men's responses showed an i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The data sug-gested that men took a l i b e r a l p o s i t i o n on g l o b a l , non-s p e c i f i c items and a t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n on s p e c i f i c items d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r own wives and c h i l d r e n . T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y and ambivalence i n men's view of women's r o l e s o f t e n appears i n the popular media as w e l l . I t would appear t h a t men accept a dual r o l e or an a c h i e v e -ment/success o r i e n t e d g o a l f o r women g e n e r a l l y , as long as i t doesn't i n v o l v e t h e i r own wives. S i x years a f t e r Steinmann and Fox's r e s e a r c h , C a r o l T a v r i s r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s on a survey conducted by Psychology Today (1972) which showed t h a t a m a j o r i t y of the 890 male respondents supported women's l i b e r a t i o n as long as the ideas of l i b e r a -t i o n stayed o u t s i d e t h e i r homes and d i d not a f f e c t t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way. Thus, i t would ap-pear t h a t at t h i s time both men and women are q u e s t i o n i n g t h e i r own and oth e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of what r o l e s they should assume and what changes should take p l a c e . Debate continues over whether there i s any change r e -gardi n g sex l a b e l l i n g or sexual d e s e g r a t i o n of occ u p a t i o n s . There seems to be l i t t l e decrease i n income d i f f e r e n t i a l s between men and women. The s t e r e o t y p i n g of jobs, the oc-c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n of women and the consequent income d i f f e r e n t i a l s have been remarkably p e r s i s t e n t i n the f a c e of dramatic demographic and socioeconomic changes. However, Van Dusen and Sheldon ( 1 9 7 6 ) conclude that changes i n these areas appear to be t a k i n g p l a c e . Mason, E z a j k a and Arbor ( 1 9 7 6 ) observed t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of the sample con s i d e r e d , there has been c o n s i d e r a b l e change i n women's sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s s i n c e the mid - 1 9 6 0's. Both a t t i t u d e s about f a m i l y r o l e s and work r o l e s have changed over the past decade..; E s p e c i a l l y important i n t h i s e v i d e n t a t t i t u d e change i s the sharp d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of women b e l i e v i n g t h a t maternal employment i s harmful to the w e l l being of c h i l d r e n . Both h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and r e c e n t employment experience are f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l o u t look. In c o n c l u s i o n , there i s evidence to support the f a c t t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s s t i l l e x i s t i n our c u l t u r e , a l -though they are perhaps l e s s r i g i d and more f l e x i b l e than they were i n past decades. Stereotypes are s t i l l accepted by l a r g e segments of s o c i e t y and the r e i s evidence to,, .support the theory t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c t r a i t s are accepted-as i n t e g r a l p a r t s of male and female s e l f - c o n c e p t s . However, there i s a l s o evidence t h a t changes i n the t h i n k i n g and a t t i t u d e s t h a t produce sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i n our c u l t u r e are t a k i n g p l a c e . These changes i n a t t i t u d e can be a t t r i b u t e d to a number of f a c t o r s and i t i s expected t h a t the impact of change w i l l continue to a f f e c t our s o c i e t y and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 4 -The E f f e c t s of Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g The f u n c t i o n a l value f o r the i n d i v i d u a l of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a number of t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y development. Most of these the-o r i e s emphasize the e a r l y l e a r n i n g of sex r o l e d i f f e r e n c e s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , sex r o l e s have had c l e a r boundaries i n our c u l t u r e . Osofsky and Osofsky ( 1 9 7 2 ) summarized r e s e a r c h s t a t i n g t h a t sex r o l e s are the r e s u l t of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . C h i l d r e n l e a r n c e r t a i n behaviors from parents and s i g n i f i -cant o t h e r s . These behaviors are l e a r n e d through i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e models and through r e i n f o r c e -ment m o d e l l i n g . They concluded t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s e x i s t and are l e a r n e d through the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . Maccoby and J a c k l i n ( 1 9 7 5 ) a l s o b e l i e v e s o c i a l shaping t o be of the utmost importance i n c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of s e x - t y p i c a l b e h a v i o r . In the pas t , sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g served the f u n c t i o n of d e l i n e a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e sex r o l e behaviors (Tresemer and Pleck, 1 9 7 4 ) . However, d u r i n g the l a s t decade, educators and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have s t a r t e d to q u e s t i o n p r e v i o u s l y accepted t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s . During t h i s p e r i o d , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have not only examined the evidence that such s t e r e o t y p e s e x i s t but a l s o have s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examined the i n f l u e n c e and e f f e c t s t h a t these s t e r e o t y p e s have on i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r . There i s much e m p i r i c a l evidence r e p o r t i n g the e f f e c t s and consequences of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . The f a c t t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e "behaviors are accepted by l a r g e segments of North American s o c i e t y has a l r e a d y been summarized. Broverman, Vogel, Broverman, Clarks'bn and Rosenkrantz (1972) i n an a p p r a i s a l of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s d i s c u s s e d some of the e f f e c t s . The r e s u l t s of a survey of mental h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s r e v e a l e d a double standard of mental h e a l t h t h a t bore a s t r i k i n g resemblance to the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s p r e v a l e n t i n our s o c i e t y . Ac-co r d i n g to these p r o f e s s i o n a l s , they tended to see women as more h e a l t h y and mature i f they were more submissive, l e s s independent, l e s s a g g r e s s i v e , more emotional and l e s s com-p e t i t i v e . T h i s was e x a c t l y the same d e s c r i p t i o n which these c l i n i c i a n s used to c h a r a c t e r i z e an unhealthy, immature a d u l t male or unhealthy, immature a d u l t , sex u n s p e c i f i e d . To the extent t h a t these r e s u l t s r e f l e c t s o c i e t a l standards, women are p l a c e d i n a double b i n d s i t u a t i o n by the f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t standards e x i s t f o r women than f o r a d u l t s . I f women adopt behaviors s p e c i f i e d as d e s i r a b l e f o r a d u l t s , they r i s k censure f o r not be i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y feminine; but i f they adopt the behaviors t h a t are des-ig n a t e d feminine, they are n e c e s s a r i l y d e f i c i e n t w i t h r e -spect to the g e n e r a l standards f o r a d u l t b e h a v i o r . In l o o k i n g a t the consequences and e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , Sandra Bern asked the q u e s t i o n : Does sex-t y p i n g enhance g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l development? She concluded from a review of the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a h i g h l e v e l of sex r o l e development does not n e c e s s a r i l y f a c i l -i t a t e g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s o c i a l adjustment and may i n f a c t he harmful. A l a r g e s c a l e study by Mussen ( 1 9 6 6 ) and a study done by Ha r f o r d , W i l l i s and Deabler ( 1 9 6 7 ) demonstrate t h a t ex-cept d u r i n g adolescence, when the male s u b c u l t u r e v a l u e s m a s c u l i n i t y so h i g h l y , sex-typed behaviors do not necessar-i l y enhance the male's p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment and i n f a c t may even r e t a r d i t . Although h i g h m a s c u l i n i t y i n a d o l e s -cence has been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h b e t t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t -ment, i n adulthood, h i g h m a s c u l i n i t y has been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h a n x i e t y , h i g h n e u r o t i c i s m and low s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e . The p i c t u r e f o r g i r l s seems to be more c o n s i s t e n t . High f e m i n i n i t y i n females c o n s i s t e n t l y has been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h high a n x i e t y , low s e l f - e s t e e m and low s o c i a l a c c e p t -ance. In g e n e r a l , h i g h f e m i n i n i t y seems to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a lower s e l f - c o n c e p t and poorer p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t -ment (Bern, 1 9 7 5 ) . Bern concluded from the a v a i l a b l e evidence t h a t a h i g h l e v e l of sex-typed behaviors does not f a c i l i t a t e a person's g e n e r a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l development. The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed by Maccoby and J a c k l i n ( 1 9 7 5 ) seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t g r e a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l development i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c r o s s s e x - t y p i n g , i . e . , with m a s c u l i n i t y i n g i r l s and f e m i n i n i t y i n boys. Males and females who are l e s s sex-typed have been found to have higher o v e r a l l i n t e l l i -gence, higher s p a t i a l a b i l i t y and higher c r e a t i v i t y . In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Sex Role A d a p t a b i l i t y : One Consequence of P s y c h o l o g i c a l Androgyny" Bern hypothesized t h a t " p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y 'androgynous' i n d i v i d u a l s might be more l i k e l y t h an e i t h e r masculine or feminine i n d i v i d u a l s to d i s p l a y sex r o l e a d a p t a b i l i t y a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s , engaging i n s i t u a t i o n a l l y e f f e c t i v e behavior without r e g a r d f o r i t s st e r e o t y p e as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one sex or the oth e r " (P. 6 3 4 ) . Androgyny allows both males and females to a v o i d r i g i d , i n f l e x i b l e r o l e s and adopt behaviors t h a t are appro-p r i a t e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s . Two experiments u s i n g c o l l e g e students as s u b j e c t s pro-v i d e d support f o r the above hypothesis (Bern, 1 9 7 5 ) - The f i r s t experiment used a standard conformity paradigm to t e s t the h y pothesis t h a t masculine and androgynous s u b j e c t s would both do b e t t e r at a s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y masculine behavior than f e m i n i n e - s u b j e c t s . That i s , the masculine and androgynous s u b j e c t s would both be more l i k e l y to express t h e i r own opi n i o n s than conform. Nine masculine, nine feminine and nine androgynous s u b j e c t s of each sex p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the experiment. The r e s u l t s of the f i r s t experiment demonstrat-ed t h a t masculine and androgynous s u b j e c t s of both sexes remained independent from s o c i a l p r e ssure on s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t r i a l s than d i d feminine s u b j e c t s . The second experiment was designed to evoke a s t e r e o -t y p i c a l l y feminine b e h a v i o r . The experimental s i t u a t i o n o f f e r e d s u b j e c t s the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r a c t w i t h a t i n y k i t t e n to t e s t the hypothesis t h a t feminine and androgynous s u b j e c t s would do b e t t e r at t h i s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y feminine task than masculine s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s of the second experiment showed t h a t feminine and androgynous males d i d demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r o v e r a l l involvement w i t h the k i t t e n than d i d masculine males. However, c o n t r a r y to the h y p o t h e s i s , feminine and androgynous females d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r o v e r a l l involvement. Indeed, feminine females were found to show s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s over-a l l involvement w i t h the k i t t e n when compared to androgynous females. I n the same r e s e a r c h , Bern hypothesized t h a t androgynous s u b j e c t s would be more l i k e l y than non-androgynous s u b j e c t s to d i s p l a y b e h a v i o r a l a d a p t a b i l i t y across s i t u a t i o n s and engage i n a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n a l behaviors r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r s t e r e o t y p e as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one sex or the o t h e r . The experiments p r o v i d e d support f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Androgynous s u b j e c t s of both sexes d i s p l a y e d a h i g h l e v e l of masculine independence when under p r e s s u r e to conform and they d i s p l a y e d a h i g h l e v e l of feminine p l a y f u l n e s s when g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r a c t w i t h the k i t t e n . In c o n t r a s t , the non-androgynous s u b j e c t s were found to d i s p l a y b e h a v i o r a l d e f i c i t s of one s o r t or another w i t h perhaps the feminine females showing the g r e a t e s t d e f i c i t of a l l . From her r e s e a r c h , Bern ( 1 9 7 5 ) concluded t h a t one of the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g was t h a t s t e r e o t y p i n g produced i n -f l e x i b l e b ehaviors t h a t d i d not allow a d a p t a b i l i t y a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s . Another e f f e c t of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g t h a t concerns i n v e s t i g a t o r s i s the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the i n f e r i o r s o c i a l s t a t u s of women i s r e f l e c t e d i n a negative s e l f - c o n c e p t which i n t u r n c o n t r i b u t e s to r e l a t i v e l y lower achievement among women. While many d i s c u s s i o n s and s t u d i e s have em-p h a s i z e d the importance of changing women's s e l f - c o n c e p t s , e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h i s s u b j e c t i s r a r e . The brunt of the argument contends t h a t women are s o c i a l i z e d to f e e l i n -f e r i o r and thus have lower s e l f - e s t e e m than men. Rosenberg and Simmons ( 1 9 7 5 ) have s t a t e d that the s e l f -concept c o n t a i n s a m u l t i p l i c i t y of components and can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n terms of numerous dimensions and one of these i s the s a l i e n c e of the s e l f as r e f l e c t e d i n s e l f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The authors t h e o r i z e d t h a t younger boys and g i r l s d i f f e r l i t t l e i n t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o the i m p r e s s i o n they are making on o t h e r s . However, i n e a r l y adolescence g i r l s become very s e n s i t i v e to other people's p e r c e p t i o n s of them and m a i n t a i n t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y throughout adolescence. T h i s p e r i o d i s accompanied by a sharp r i s e i n people-ori e n t e d n e s s among g i r l s as compared to boys. One of the r e s u l t s of t h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i s t h a t boys become more achievement o r i e n t e d and g i r l s become more people o r i e n t e d . Rosenberg and Simmons concluded from t h e i r r e s e a r c h t h a t the most s e r i o u s consequence of d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l -i z a t i o n i n terms of g i r l s ' s e l f - c o n c e p t s was t h e i r high degree of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . E x c e s s i v e concern w i t h i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s and ex c e s s i v e s e n s i t i v i t y t o others may be admirable t r a i t s but they a l s o may produce a l i e n a t i o n from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s genuine f e e l i n g s and d e s i r e s . Both achievement and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t among g i r l s may be s e r i o u s -l y impeded by over concern f o r o t h e r s . T h i s t r a i t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the female s t e r e o t y p e . Rosenberg and Simmons a l s o concluded t h a t b a s i c a t t i t u d i n a l change i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i s e s s e n t i a l i f t r u e e q u a l i t y i s to be achi e v e d . O'Leary (1974) has suggested t h a t although the r e l a t i v e impact of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s on women's s e l f - c o n c e p t s has been d i f f i c u l t to eva l u a t e , i t i s p l a u s i b l e to suggest t h a t a p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g i s th a t women may be h e s i t a n t to engage i n behaviors r e q u i r i n g male sex r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i t s . Regardless of whether t h i s has r e s u l t e d from an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of neg a t i v e t r a i t s or i s simply a r e f l e c t i o n of what women c o n s i d e r to be female r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e , i t may be a n t i c i p a t e d to have an e f f e c t on the achievement d i r e c t e d behavior of women. Once again, t h i s argument of O'Leary's p o i n t s out t h a t women are caught i n a double b i n d , unable to f u l f i l l the r o l e requirements f o r the a c h i e v i n g i n d i v i d u a l and those of the i d e a l woman si m u l t a n e o u s l y . Role c o n f l i c t among women might r e s u l t i n the s u p p r e s s i o n of achievement s t r i v i n g . Thus, sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g can he i d e n t i f i e d as a p o t e n t i a l o b s t a c l e to c e r t a i n a s p i r a t i o n s of women. Mednick and Weissmann ( 1 9 7 5 ) a l s o summarized r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s t e r e o t y p i c sex r o l e a t t i t u d e s h e l d about others or the s e l f are s i g n i f i c a n t moderators or determinants of v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of b e h a v i o r s . These behaviors i n c l u d e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , a c t i v i s m and achievement. Some s t u d i e s have p o i n t e d out t h a t sex r o l e s become more r e s t r i c t e d and cro s s - s e x b e h a v i o r i s l e s s and l e s s t o l e r a t e d as c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r . I t would a l s o appear t h a t the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g become more d e t r i m e n t a l f o r g i r l s . I n a study of f i r s t - t o - t h i r d grade c h i l d r e n (Torrance, 1 9 6 5 ) , g i r l s and boys d i d e q u a l l y w e l l i n the e a r l y grades at t h i n k i n g of ways to improve toys designed f o r t h e i r own sex. However, by the time these c h i l d r e n reached t h i r d grade, boys were b e t t e r a t improving a l l the toys, r e g a r d l e s s of the toy presented. G i r l s were very r e l u c t a n t to work w i t h s c i e n c e t o y s , o f t e n p r o t e s t i n g t h a t they were not supposed to know anything about them. A study by Nash (1975) found t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g of t r a i t s i n c r e a s e d from e a r l y adolescence through adolescence. Older a d o l e s c e n t s i n the sample s c o r e d more items s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y than younger a d o l e s c e n t s . There were f o u r groups i n t h i s study, 11 year o l d males and females and 14 year o l d males and females. A l l groups s t e r e o t y p e d math and s c i e n c e as masculine a c t i v i t i e s except the 11 year o l d female group who s t e r e o t y p e d these a c t i v i t i e s as f e m i -n i n e . From these r e s u l t s , the author concluded t h a t be-tween the ages of 11 and 14, g i r l s b e g i n to change t h e i r o p i n i o n of math and s c i e n c e as sex a p p r o p r i a t e areas of achievement. Nash b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s i s a n - i n d i c a t o r of the r a p i d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t occurs d u r i n g e a r l y adolescence between males and females. The Nash (1975) study a l s o sought to d i s c o v e r the gender p r e f e r e n c e of e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s . The r e s u l t s showed th a t more g i r l s p r e f e r r e d to be boys than v i c e v e r s a and more younger g i r l s p r e f e r r e d to be boys than o l d e r g i r l s . The s u b j e c t s of both sexes who p r e f e r r e d to be males s t a t e d t h e i r reasons i n terms of s o c i e t y ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r the male r o l e , the d e s i r a b i l i t y of male a c t i v i t i e s and the high value accorded to these a c t i v i t i e s . Nash concluded that the m a j o r i t y of a d o l e s c e n t s i n the sample p e r c e i v e d t h a t s o c i e t y ' s gender p r e f e r e n c e i s masculine and t h a t occupa-t i o n a l c h o i c e s are more v a r i e d f o r males. Many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have been designed to d i s c o v e r the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g on the female's s e l f -concept, r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s . Research a l s o has been done on the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g on males. The premise of some r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s a r e a i s that women w i l l not be able to s u c c e s s f u l l y l i b e r a t e them-s e l v e s u n l e s s men a l s o are w i l l i n g to l i b e r a t e themselves from masculine sex r o l e s and then both sexes can work toward some k i n d of human l i b e r a t i o n . The process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s s i m i l a r f o r boys and g i r l s . The masculine r o l e appears to be le a r n e d i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and the behaviors l e a r n e d remain s t a b l e from c h i l d -hood to adulthood i f the behaviors are congruent w i t h s o c i e t y ' s sex r o l e standards. Boys seem to show a much s t r o n g e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r as-pects of the masculine r o l e than g i r l s do f o r the feminine r o l e and boys demonstrate t h i s p r e f e r e n c e at an e a r l i e r age. T h i s supports the theo r y t h a t boys are under more pressure to conform to masculine standards and a t an e a r l i e r age than g i r l s (Feinman, 1 9 7 4 ) . Male s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the r e s u l t i n g p r essure to con-form to male sex st e r e o t y p e d behavior can have d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on males. They are w e l l s o c i a l i z e d on how to be dominant, a g g r e s s i v e and masculine but have d i f f i c u l t y i n the a f f e c t i v e , e x p r e s s i v e and nu r t u r a n t areas of be h a v i o r . In our s o c i e t y , w i t h a l l i t s advantages f o r men, the burden of b e i n g masculine and m a i n t a i n i n g the masculine s t e r e o t y p e can be c o s t l y f o r men i n terms of human p o t e n t i a l (Sawyer, 1 9 7 5 ) . Many of the above t h e o r i e s are supported by Max Fasteau i n an a r t i c l e "The High P r i c e of Macho" i n Psychology Today ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Fasteau i s the author of the book "The Male Machine". He equates the i d e a l male s t e r e o t y p e to a machine t h a t i s f u n c t i o n a l l y designed to work. He i s programmed to t a c k l e jobs, overcome d i f f i c u l t i e s and always s e i z e the o f f e n s i v e . He w i l l take on any task i n a com-p e t i t i v e framework and f i g h t f o r v i c t o r y . He dominates and out-performs h i s f e l l o w machines. His r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h other machines i s one of r e s p e c t but not in t i m a c y . He doesn't r e a l l y understand h i s i n t e r n a l c i r c u i t r y and he leaves the maintenance of h i s i n t e r n a l c i r c u i t r y to•humans of the opposite sex. Fasteau admits t h a t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s an i d e a l , a ste r e o t y p e t h a t f i t s no one and ye t , he a s s e r t s t h a t t h i s s t e r e o t y p e e x i s t s and exerts i n f l u e n c e because i t i s b e l i e v -ed by l a r g e numbers of people and i t remains the standard by which l a r g e numbers of the male p o p u l a t i o n judge themselves. The attempt to l i v e up to t h i s s t e r e o t y p e t h a t i s learn e d a t an e a r l y age and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the male s e l f - c o n c e p t , a f f e c t s almost every area of men's l i v e s . F r i e n d s h i p s between men are o f t e n rendered shallow and un-rewarding by the constant undertone of c o m p e t i t i o n and the need to put up a masculine f r o n t . S i m i l a r l y , r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h women o f t e n l a c k depth and in t i m a c y because of t h i s same masculine need to promote a s t e r e o t y p e t h a t i s un-n a t u r a l and u n f e e l i n g (Fasteau, 1975)• Fasteau, Sawyer and other r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g agree w i t h Bern's r e s e a r c h t h a t men and women are f i g h t i n g t h e i r nature as human beings i n t r y i n g to con-form to a "male" and "female" r o l e or s t e r e o t y p e . "Male" and "female" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are p r e s e n t i n both men and women although our c u l t u r e has done i t s best to obscure t h i s f a c t . S t e r e o t y p i n g renders an i n d i v i d u a l ' s unique i d e n t i t y i r r e l e v a n t and the f i n a l r e s u l t i s a d e n i a l of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o t e n t i a l . In a s o c i e t y where r i g i d sex r o l e d e f i n i t i o n has o u t l i v e d i t s u t i l i t y , the androgynous person can perhaps best d e f i n e a new and more human standard of mental h e a l t h . Fear of Success Matina Horner ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n her o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h study and follow-up s t u d i e s has developed a t h e o r y of " f e a r of success" (FOS) or "the motive to a v o i d success." T h i s " f e a r of success" can c e r t a i n l y be seen as having a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on females and so i s d i s c u s s e d here as one of the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . ' • • c • ^~ a _..t ' Horner f i r s t c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h i s theory as an attempt to understand or e x p l a i n the major u n r e s o l v e d sex d i f f e r -ences d e t e c t e d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on achievement motiva-t i o n i n women. When the motive to a v o i d success was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r t o achievement i n women, i t was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d w i t h i n the framework of an expectancy-value t h e o r y of m o t i v a t i o n as a l a t e n t , s t a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n a c q u i r e d e a r l y i n l i f e i n conjunc-t i o n w i t h standards of sex r o l e b e h a v i o r . I n expectancy-value t h e o r i e s of m o t i v a t i o n , avoidance motives i n h i b i t a c t i o n s expected to have u n a t t r a c t i v e and/or n e g a t i v e con-sequences. Horner argued t h a t most women have a motive to av o i d success or have a d i s p o s i t i o n t o become anxious about a c h i e v i n g success because they expect negative consequences as a r e s u l t of succeeding (Horner, 1970). B r i e f l y , i n Horner's f i r s t study (1970), she found an important r e l a t i o n between anxious i d e a t i o n concerning suc-cess and a c t u a l decrements i n performance when con f r o n t e d w i t h a s i t u a t i o n demanding c o m p e t i t i o n . The "motive to avo i d s uccess" was assessed by s c o r i n g imagery i n s t o r i e s w r i t t e n to the,thematic a p p e r c e p t i v e cue, "At the end of f i r s t term f i n a l s , Anne f i n d s h e r s e l f a t the top of her med sch o o l c l a s s . " Female s u b j e c t s wrote about Anne a t the top of the c l a s s and male s u b j e c t s wrote about John. Three kinds of themes were found f o r f e a r of success: (a) i n t e r n a l f e a r s and negative e f f e c t s - Anne f e e l s g u i l t y , unhappy and/or unfeminine; (b) s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n as a r e s u l t of success -"everyone hates and envies her"; (c) b i z a r r e or exaggerated h o s t i l e responses or d e n i a l of the cue a l t o g e t h e r - "Anne i s a t the top of her c l a s s but her b o y f r i e n d i s hig h e r . " Horner's r e s u l t s showed t h a t 65$ of the women i n the sample responded w i t h f e a r of success imagery t o the s u c c e s s f u l female cue. While 90% of the males i n the study showed s t r o n g p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s and i n d i c a t e d i n c r e a s e d s t r i v i n g and confidence i n the f u t u r e to the cue of John a t the top of h i s m e d i c a l s c h o o l c l a s s . T h i s p a t t e r n of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n of f e a r of success imagery has been maintained i n the subsequent samples of men and women t e s t e d s i n c e t h a t time by Horner. The major d i f f e r -ence has been an i n c r e a s e , noted s i n c e 1970, i n the extent to which f e a r of success imagery or neg a t i v e consequences were expressed by male s u b j e c t s i n response to cues about s u c c e s s f u l males. Horner (1972) b e l i e v e d t h a t these r e s u l t s were produced by the f a c t t h a t c o l l e g e students of both sexes were t a k i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y " n e g a t i v e view of success as i t had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . Horner concluded from her o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h and f o l l o w up s t u d i e s t h a t there i s an i n c r e a s i n g i n c i d e n c e of the motive to a v o i d success r e s u l t i n g from the f a c t t h a t h i g h l y competent and otherwise achievement motivated young women, when fa c e d w i t h a c o n f l i c t between t h e i r feminine image and e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r competencies and de v e l o p i n g t h e i r i n -t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s , a d j u s t t h e i r behaviors to t h e i r i n t e r n a l i z e d sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . When women are p l a c e d i n i n t e r - p e r s o n a l c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h males, the a n t i c i p a t i o n of success i s a n x i e t y provoking and as such i n h i b i t s otherwise p o s i t i v e achievement-oriented m o t i v a t i o n and beh a v i o r . When women high i n f e a r of success withdraw from the mainstream of thought and achievement i n our s o c i e t y , i t does not occur without a h i g h p r i c e . A p r i c e p a i d by the i n d i v i d u a l i n negative emotional and i n t e r p e r s o n a l consequences and by s o c i e t y i n a l o s s of va l u a b l e human and economic res o u r c e s (Horner, 1 9 7 2 ) . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of Horner's concept of FOS has spark-ed a great d e a l of r e s e a r c h and not s u r p r i s i n g l y the c l a r i t y and f i n a l i t y of the concept have come i n t o q u e s t i o n . Some of the subsequent r e s e a r c h i s c o n f u s i n g and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . C a b e l e r r a , G i l e s and Shaver ( 1 9 7 5 ) produced r e s e a r c h r e -s u l t s t h a t g e n e r a l l y supported Horner's t h e o r y . They d i s -covered t h a t i n t h e i r sample the " f e a r of success" imagery was more common among n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l , w e l l educated women. Th e r e f o r e , these r e s e a r c h e r s con-cluded t h a t " f e a r of success" imagery was not simply an ex p r e s s i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards ambitious women but r a t h e r i t seemed to be a r e a c t i o n by ambitious women t o the t h r e a t e n i n g c o n d i t i o n s they encountered. O'Leary and Hammock (1975) a l s o have researched the concept of " f e a r of success." As a r e s u l t of t h e i r r e s e a r c h , they have i n t r o d u c e d the v a r i a b l e "sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n " as a s i g n i f i c a n t determinant of the motive to avo i d success among women. They b e l i e v e t h a t f a i l u r e to take t h i s v a r i a b l e i n t o account may help to e x p l a i n the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n r e s u l t s across s t u d i e s of FOS imagery. The r e s u l t s of O'Leary and Hammock's r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a r o u s a l of FOS imagery among a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group of a c a d e m i c a l l y a c h i e v i n g young women was a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l or n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . As hypothesized, n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d s u b j e c t s generated fewer success avoidant responses to cues. One i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s study i s t h a t the motiva-t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t " f e a r of success" p o s t u l a t e d by Horner as an " i n t e r n a l i z e d sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e " does not have s t a b l e , u n i v e r s a l meaning w i t h i n the female p o p u l a t i o n but f l u c t u -ates as a f u n c t i o n of both the achievement context and the s e x x r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . Thus O'Leary and Hammock's r e s u l t s appear to c o n t r a -d i c t C a b e l l e r a , G i l e s and Shaver's r e s u l t s . C a b e l l e r a et a l found more FOS imagery among n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l , l i b e r a l women and O'Leary and Hammock found l e s s FOS imagery from non-t r a d i t i o n a l female s u b j e c t s . These r e s u l t s demonstrate the d i f f i c u l t y i n e m p i r i c a l l y p r o v i n g the e x i s t e n c e of FOS. Other s t u d i e s have t r i e d to demonstrate why Horner's concept appears t o be an ephemeral one, confirmed by some r e s e a r c h e r s and di s m i s s e d by o t h e r s . Lockheed (1975) p o i n t -ed out t h a t although Horner o r i g i n a l l y proposed t h i s "motive" as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r , Horner has more r e c e n t l y em-ph a s i z e d t h a t the "motive" i s aroused as a f u n c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the nature of the con-sequences of be h a v i o r and the value of the consequences to the i n d i v i d u a l . The purpose of Lockheed's study was to o f f e r another e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why males and females reported negative consequences f o r women who achieve. Her explana-t i o n focused not on the a c t u a l achievement per se but on the arena i n which the achievement was e x h i b i t e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the determination of what arenas were appropriate f o r female success has been a matter of s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n and the arenas f o r women have been narrow and r e s t r i c t e d . The r e s u l t s of Lockheed's study sug-gested that arenas considered appropriate f o r female achieve-ment and success are i n c r e a s i n g . This study revealed fewer women e x h i b i t i n g a "motive to avoid success" and Lockheed b e l i e v e s that these r e s u l t s may be explained by new emerging s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of appropriate behavior f o r women. The author concluded that when success behavior was depicted as appropriate, the r e s u l t was that l e s s "fear of success" imagery was generated on the part of achieving women. She als o b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s i s a powerful argument f o r the r a p i d m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s to permit equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n by both sexes. The c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s mentioned e a r l i e r and the lack of c o n s i s t e n t supporting evidence has l e d to confusion regarding Horner's " f e a r of success" concept. Since her o r i g i n a l study appeared i n 1968, n e a r l y 200 s t u d i e s of the "fea r of success" concept have been conducted. I t i s now p o s s i b l e to examine the cumulative record of research i n t h i s area. Horner o r i g i n a l l y concluded t h a t American women f e a r success more than American men. Tresemer ( 1 9 7 6 ) concluded from a review of the r e s e a r c h t h a t a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n f e a r of success was not supported. The high degree of v a r i a b i l i t y found i n these s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n responses to t r a d i t i o n a l success f a r exceeded gender d i f f e r e n c e s . Tresemer ( 1 9 7 6 ) s t a t e d that s u p p o r t i v e r e s u l t s of Horner's theory e x i s t but these data are i n c o n s i s t e n t . Horner's o r i g i n a l study has never been r e p l i c a t e d . Tresemer b e l i e v e s t h a t much of the c o n f u s i o n over t h i s concept and the c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s are the r e s u l t of experimental d e s i g n problems. Future understanding of the " f e a r of success" concept could r e s u l t i f the c o n s t r u c t s i n v o l v e d were m e t i c u l o u s l y d e f i n e d and the r e s e a r c h was done under c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d experimental c o n d i t i o n s . Another r e s e a r c h e r i n t h i s area, P h i l i p Shaver ( 1 9 7 6 ) concluded t h a t Horner's r e s e a r c h has r a i s e d more q u e s t i o n s than she or her f o l l o w e r s have been able to answer. In order to answer some of the questi o n s r a i s e d , b e t t e r measures, a broader view of the c o n c e p t u a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d and more s e r i o u s attempts to r e l a t e e x i s t i n g methods and f i n d i n g s to each other and prev i o u s worKs i s needed (Shaver, 1 9 7 6 ) . I n c o n c l u s i o n , the concept of f e a r of success appears to be a c o n t r o v e r s i a l one. However, Horner's o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h arose from a need to e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n the m o t i v a t i o n a l and achievement l e v e l s of men and women. There i s evidence to support the i d e a t h a t achievement m o t i v a t i o n d i f f e r s between men and women. Rather than d i s m i s s the theory, perhaps more s t r u c t u r e d r e s e a r c h i s needed along the l i n e s suggested by Tresemer and Shaver. In t h i s s e c t i o n , the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g have been d i s c u s s e d . From the r e s e a r c h , the c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn t h a t the p e r s i s t e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l sex d e t e r -mined r o l e standards may be u n d e s i r a b l e f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t l y , s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have found t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a l esteem i s accorded the two sexes (Bern, 1 9 7 5 ; Broverman et a l . , 1 9 7 2 ; O'Leary, 197^; Rosenberg and Simmons, 1 9 7 5 ) . Secondly, evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t sex st e r e o t y p e s are at va r i a n c e w i t h people's conceptions of what i d e a l males and females should be l i k e , t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t people are d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e standards and behaviors (Steinmann and Fox, 1 9 6 6 ) . F i n a l l y , a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of l i t e r a t u r e suggests t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l sex d e t e r -mined r o l e standards are not only n o n - f u n c t i o n a l but a l s o perhaps d y s f u n c t i o n a l . In g e n e r a l , w r i t e r s i n t h i s f i e l d have suggested t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e standards produce unnecessary i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , are incompatible w i t h both i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t s and prevent i n d i v i d u a l s from a c h i e v i n g t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l . E l e a n o r Maccoby and C a r o l J a c k l i n ( 1 9 7 5 ) have done ex-t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n the area of the psychology of sex d i f f e r e n c e s . I n the summary of t h e i r hook "The Psychology  of Sex D i f f e r e n c e s " they s t a t e d t h a t s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s to shape i n d i v i d u a l s toward t h e i r " n a t u r a l " sex r o l e s some-times boomerang. T r a i t s t h a t may be f u n c t i o n a l f o r one aspect of a sex r o l e may be d y s f u n c t i o n a l f o r other a s p e c t s . A man who adopts the "machismo" image may g a i n p r e s t i g e w i t h h i s peers, or enhance h i s sh o r t term a t t r a c t i v e n e s s to wom-en, at the expense of h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a husband and f a t h e r . A s i m i l a r problem e x i s t s f o r the h i g h l y "feminine" woman. T r a i n i n g a g i r l to be "feminine" i n the t r a d i t i o n a l n o n - a s s e r t i v e , dependent and s e l f - d e p r e c a t o r y sense may a c t u a l l y make her a worse mother because e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t i n g i n v o l v e s both a s s e r t i v e n e s s and competence. Ther e f o r e , Maccoby and J a c k l i n ^ (1975) conclude i t i s by no means obvious t h a t attempts to f o s t e r sex-typed behaviors (as t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d ) i n boys and g i r l s serve to make them b e t t e r men and women. Indeed, i n some spheres of a d u l t l i f e such attempts appear to be p o s i t i v e l y h a n d i -capping. These r e s e a r c h e r s suggest t h a t s o c i e t i e s have the o p p o r t u n i t y of mi n i m i z i n g , r a t h e r than maximizing, sex d i f f e r e n c e s through t h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . A v a r i e t y of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are v i a b l e w i t h i n the frame-work s e t by b i o l o g y . I t i s up to human beings to s e l e c t those t h a t f o s t e r the l i f e s t y l e s they most v a l u e . 34 The E f f e c t s of Sex Role S t e r e o t y p i n g i n E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p u b l i c i n s t i t u -t i o n s , u s u a l l y r e f l e c t the s o c i e t y which they se r v e . There i s much evidence to suggest t h a t the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s encouraged "by our c u l t u r e are a l s o encouraged by our p u b l i c s c h o o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . And j u s t as these s t e r e o t y p e s are accepted by s o c i e t y as u s e f u l and necessary i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n , t h i s a t t i t u d e a l s o i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s c h o o l s . The concern of one g e n e r a t i o n i n a s o c i e t y f o r the next i s f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n . S o c i a l i z a t i o n i s the process of p r e p a r i n g c h i l d r e n t o assume a d u l t s t a t u s e s and r o l e s . Schools are the only i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t have the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of youth as t h e i r p r i n c i p l e f u n c t i o n . Schools f u n c t i o n as t r a n s m i t t e r s of c e r t a i n s o c i e t a l norms from one g e n e r a t i o n to the next. T e r r y S a a r i o , C a r o l J a c k l i n and C a r o l T i t t l e (1973) argued t h a t s c h o o l s not onl y s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n i n a g e n e r a l way, but a l s o e x e r t a powerful i n f l u e n c e on the development of sex r o l e s . Instead of encouraging d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n broad l i m i t s of conduct, schools d e f i n e s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s , modes of a c t i n g and o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r boys and g i r l s . T h i s serves to l i m i t the c h o i c e s open t o each sex and c o n t r i b u t e s t o a sense of inadequacy when i n d i v i d u a l s do not l i v e up to d e f i n e d norms. The s c h o o l s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , have not questioned the u t i l i t y of i n c u l -c a t i n g w i t h i n North American c h i l d r e n f i x e d p a t t e r n s of behavior d e f i n e d along t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s . T r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e c a t e g o r i e s are simply conventions which h o l d s i g n i f i -cance i n the s o c i a l order of the day and are t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t e d i n our s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i . e . s c h o o l s . Schools and t h e i r c u r r i c u l a c a r r y hidden messages t o the young about the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s i n our s o c i e t y . "As c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r , t h e i r awareness of a p p r o p r i a t e sex r o l e behavior i n c r e a s e s and becomes more r e s t r i c t e d and st e r e o t y p e d " ( S a a r i o , J a c k l i n and T i t t l e , 1973. P. 388). Although the home and other c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s c e r t a i n l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g which i s p r e v a l e n t i n our s o c i e t y , the sc h o o l s are a l s o important determinants of these s t e r e o t y p e s . I n f a c t , some r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d b e l i e v e t h a t schools are c r u c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of c u l t u r a l , sex typed e x p e c t a t i o n s . They s t a t e t h a t the sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t i s the norm i n many schools i s cha n n e l i n g members of each sex i n t o r e -s t r i c t i v e r o l e s t h a t l i m i t t h e i r l i f e o p t ions and be-h a v i o r a l c h o i c e s . ( ' - f f . 5 ' • Other w r i t e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d a l s o a t t a c k the r e s t r i c t i v e nature of sex r o l e s as they are perpetuated by the educa t i o n system. Stacey, Bereaud and D a n i e l s (1974) wrote i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to "And J i l l Came Tumbling  A f t e r : Sexism i n American E d u c a t i o n , " t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n of a r b i t r a r y c u l t u r a l standards of f e m i n i n i t y and mascu-l i n i t y i n h i b i t s the n a t u r a l development of young people. 36 As sex r o l e b e h a v i o r s are p r i m a r i l y l e a r n e d , then the scho o l s p l a y an i n t e g r a l p a r t i n t h i s p r o c e s s . There i s much r e s e a r c h t h a t proves t h a t there i s d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g present i n almost every aspect of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . There have * e e n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s done on s c h o o l textbooks, classroom environments, teacher a t t i t u d e s , guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g departments, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and p e r s o n a l n e l and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o l i c i e s . The bulk of the evidence s t a t e s t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g e x i s t s at a l l l e v e l s of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and suggests t h a t such stereotypes.have d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on male and female students and prevents students from r e a l i z i n g t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l (American F e d e r a t i o n of Teachers, 1 9 7 2 ; The Emma W i l l a r d Task Force on Education, 1 9 7 1 ; Nelson, 1 9 7 6 ) . Sexism and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s s t a r t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n where boys are d i r e c t e d towards the blo c k s and t r u c k s and g i r l s are d i r e c t e d to the housekeeping c o r n e r . S t a r t i n g i n ki n d e r g a r t e n , many classrooms d i f f e r e n t i a t e between appro-p r i a t e male and female a c t i v i t i e s and t h e r e f o r e l i m i t the number of a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e f o r each sex. Thus, b e g i n n i n g e a r l y i n the e d u c a t i o n process, s c h o o l s pro-v i d e a s h r i n k i n g of a l t e r n a t i v e s r a t h e r than an expansion of o p t i o n s . Outside the classroom, e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s are o f t e n s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . 37 Boys and g i r l s are encouraged to take p a r t i n separate a c t i v i t i e s . By the in t e r m e d i a t e grades, the sexes are o f t e n separated f o r gym and h e a l t h c l a s s e s and t h i s s e p a r a t i o n goes beyond the p h y s i c a l use of space and o b j e c t s ( B e r n s t e i n , 1972). T h i s type of s u b t l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s apparent i n the ways t h a t many teachers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e i n f o r c e sex s t e r e o t y p e s . Rosenthal's (1968) study of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s suggested t h a t such e x p e c t a t i o n s s i g n i -f i c a n t l y determine student behavior and a t t i t u d e s . I f g i r l s are not expected to t h i n k l o g i c a l l y and e x c e l i n math and s c i e n c e there i s the danger t h a t they w i l l accept t h a t lower performance estimate i n t e r n a l l y and not t r y to l e a r n the p r i n c i p l e s of math and s c i e n c e '.[-.we 19/-O. Teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n many cases, are d i f f e r e n t f o r boys and g i r l s and these e x p e c t a t i o n s can p l a c e a p s y c h i c burden on s e n s i t i v e and i n t r o s p e c t i v e boys and on outgoing and a g g r e s s i v e g i r l s . G i r l s are encouraged to develop feminine dependency by o b t a i n i n g help w i t h p h y s i c a l t a s k s ; boys are expected to manage on t h e i r own. Boys are expected to be p h y s i c a l l y a g g r e s s i v e ; g i r l s are expected to be more p a s s i v e . Perhaps schools and teachers are p l a c i n g both males and females i n a type of double b i n d s i t u a t i o n . There i s c e r t a i n l y some evidence to suggest t h a t they p l a c e g i r l s i n a double b i n d . The s c h o o l system encourages g i r l s to be good students; to l e a r n to perform and to a c h i e v e . Yet these same g i r l s can be c r i t i c i z e d i f they are too competi-t i v e , too b r i g h t , or take too much p r i d e i n t h e i r academic accomplishments. "Don't be too a g g r e s s i v e , " the system says. Thus, many g i r l s can become wary of success and opt out of academic e x c e l l a n c e by the time they reach h i g h s c h o o l ( B e r n s t e i n , T 9 -72) . Textbooks a l s o r e f l e c t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . A l l - t o o o f t e n , b a s a l readers p o r t r a y s t e r e o t y p i c n u c l e a r f a m i l y r o l e s . R a r e l y i s a women p i c t u r e d whose i d e n t i t y stems from her own achievements r a t h e r than from her m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Not only do many elementary s c h o o l readers s t e r e o -type the r o l e s of a d u l t males and females but a l s o g r e a t l y d i s t o r t the a c t i v i t i e s of boy and g i r l c h a r a c t e r s as w e l l . The F e m i n i s t s and C h i l d r e n s Media (1971) has s t u d i e d more than 150 s c h o o l r e a d e r s . They found t h a t , i n the readers s t u d i e d , g i r l s were r a r e l y able to s o l v e problems, they assumed p a s s i v e , o b s e r v i n g r o l e s or " h e l p i n g " r o l e s while the boys were a c t i v e , c o m p e t i t i v e and engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s . I f the s c h o o l experiences of bo'ys and g i r l s l i m i t t h e i r o p t i o n s of r o l e development, t h e i r options are o f t e n f u r t h e r l i m i t e d by the a d u l t r o l e models they see i n the elementary s c h o o l s e t t i n g . The l a r g e m a j o r i t y of primary and i n t e r -mediate teachers are women. I t i s a r a r e experience f o r c h i l d r e n to see an a d u l t male i n a l o v i n g , n u r t u r i n g r o l e as a primary t e a c h e r . While most elementary teachers are women, most elementary a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are males. T h i s s i t u -a t i o n seems to stem d i r e c t l y from the teacher t r a i n i n g i n -s t i t u t i o n s and the h i r i n g and promotional p o l i c i e s w i t h i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . The people i n p o s i t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n both the t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s themselves o f t e n f a i l to take the i s s u e of sexism s e r i o u s l y . They o f t e n are unaware of r e s e a r c h t h a t shows t e a c h i n g and modeling sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s as d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n our s o c i -ety, both now and i n the f u t u r e . I t r a r e l y occurs to those doing the h i r i n g i n elementary s c h o o l s t h a t c h i l d r e n can best develop s a t i s f a c t o r y sex r o l e s from having many models to choose from. The op t i o n s f o r sex r o l e d e f i n i t i o n would be enlarged i f students c o u l d see more men as i n t e r e s t i n g and l o v i n g t e a c h e r s and more women as e f f e c t i v e and com-petent a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( B e r n s t e i n , - 1 9 7 2 ) . There i s evidence t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g continues i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and s e n i o r h i g h as w e l l . The n o t i o n of the s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophesy becomes important i n h i g h s c h o o l . I f s i t u a t i o n s a r e \ s e t up i n which c e r t a i n r o l e b ehaviors are expected and r e i n f o r c e d , these behaviors w i l l , i n f a c t , be e x h i b i t e d . Thus, one cannot p r e d i c t and des-c r i b e the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of sex r o l e s without r e g a r d i n g the s o c i a l context i n which they e x i s t . And i t appears t h a t i n many high s c h o o l s i n North America/, such a s e l f -f u l f i l l i n g prophesy e x i s t s and i s r e i n f o r c e d by the courses, textbooks and a t t i t u d e s of the t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and 4 0 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (Minnesota PTA News, 1971)• Textbooks i n many areas such as H i s t o r y , E n g l i s h and even Math tend to perpetuate s t e r e o t y p e s . The accomplish-ments of Canadian and American women have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y l e f t out of both l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y courses. T h e i r p a r t and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n h i s t o r y have not been presented o b j e c t i v e l y and o f t e n few female or f e m i n i s t w r i t e r s are in c l u d e d i n E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l a (Chapin, Jones and Waldman, 1 9 7 3 ) • Often the sexes are segregated i n courses and by t h i s s e g r e g a t i o n s t e r e o t y p e s may be promoted. In many s c h o o l s , g i r l s are r e q u i r e d to take courses i n Home Economics and boys are r e q u i r e d to take courses i n I n d u s t r i a l A r t s . T h i s r e i n f o r c e s the s t e r e o t y p e s t h a t household work i s f o r g i r l s and mechanical t a s k s are f o r boys .• (Minnesota PTA News, 1 9 7 D . Another area of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i g h s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y which i s d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y i s ^ c o u n s e l l i n g . Female students are o f t e n encouraged to choose t r a d i t i o n a l areas of study, such as n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , and s o c i a l work and are o f t e n discouraged from choosing majors i n s c i e n c e , mathematics or other t y p i c a l l y male dominated a r e a s . V o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and v o c a t i o n a l courses sometimes r e i n f o r c e t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment (Chapin, et ' a l . , 1 9 7 3 ) . Doherty and C u l v e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) d i d a study on "Sex Role I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , A b i l i t y and Achievement Among High School G i r l s . " W i t h i n t h e i r sample, they d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i g h s c h o o l women with a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l i s t i c , e x t r a - f a m i l i a l o r i e n t a t i o n may not have f u l l y u t i l i z e d t h e i r h i g h e r i n -t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y or p o t e n t i a l . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r lower c l a s s rank i n comparison to the h i g h e r c l a s s rank of female students w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l or i n t r a - f a m i l i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . In other words, i n t h i s sample, g i r l s w i t h l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g sex r o l e i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n seemed l e s s l i k e l y to achieve success i n academic terms. Doherty and C u l v e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) t h i n k t h a t these r e s u l t s suggest the need f o r r e s e a r c h t h a t takes i n t o account not only the sex r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s of both male and female s t u -dents but a l s o p a r e n t a l and peer a t t i t u d e s and more im-p o r t a n t l y , the a t t i t u d e s of teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s who d e a l p r o f e s s i o n a l l y w i t h h i g h a b i l i t y females. High a b i l i t y , independent high s c h o o l g i r l s a p p a r e n t l y are not p r o v i d e d w i t h the inducements, the o p p o r t u n i t i e s or the encouragement which might allow them to achieve both i n an academic atmosphere and l a t e r i n the work f o r c e . Groups of concerned par e n t s , t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and students are now demanding changes i n the areas d i s c u s s e d above and many other areas of s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a and the e d u c a t i o n a l system g e n e r a l l y t h a t promote sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g and do not a l l o w c h o i c e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s based on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s , a p t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s . 42 Courses as I n t e r v e n t i o n S t r a t e g i e s How can concerned educators b r i n g about e f f e c t i v e changes i n our e d u c a t i o n system? One of the main goals of t h i s system i s to help young people l e a r n b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n and then make informed c h o i c e s from a wide v a r i e t y of pos-s i b i l i t i e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s . However, as long as the e d u c a t i o n system models and teaches r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g then the number of a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e to males and females of a l l ages i s g r e a t l y reduced. This -is perhaps more tr u e f o r females than f o r males. The females s o - c a l l e d freedom of choice i n matters of education, c a r e e r and l i f e - s t y l e i s i l l u s o r y because as e a r l y as p r e - s c h o o l age and c e r t a i n l y d u r i n g the elementary and high s c h o o l years she has been s o c i a l i z e d to l i m i t her a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s a l s o can be true f o r males. I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t merely to inform students t h a t t h e i r h o r i z o n s need not be l i m i t e d i n t h i s way. T h e i r s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of t h e i r sex r o l e c o n d i t i o n i n g w i l l not v a n i s h t h a t e a s i l y . What i s r e q u i r e d i s the b e g i n n i n g of a r e - e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s . Males and females should be encouraged to q u e s t i o n the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s they have a s s i m i l a t e d from t h e i r c u l t u r e . Sandra and D a r y l Bern (1971) b e l i e v e t h a t female ad o l e s c e n t s must be f o r c e d to c o n f r o n t t h e i r sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g and the c o n f l i c t s t h a t such s t e r e o t y p i n g produces. While a d m i t t i n g t h a t c h a l l e n g i n g s o c i e t y ' s c u r r e n t value system i s not always seen as the job of the s c h o o l or the e d u c a t i o n a l process, the Bems a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t to av o i d c h a l l e n g i n g the framework of today's female a d o l e s c e n t i s to a b d i c a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r women i n the l a t e 1970's and 1980's. They s t a t e d that no female i n our s o c i e t y today i s f r e e to make a t r u l y p e r s o n a l choice r e g a r d i n g v o c a t i o n or l i f e - s t y l e u n t i l she has begun to q u e s t i o n s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s surrounding sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . The Bems suggested t h a t t h i s process could b e s t be f a c i l i t a t e d through a course on the r o l e of women and the nature of America's sex r o l e i d e o l o g y . Such a course would pl a c e North America's sex r o l e p r a c t i c e s i n t o h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I t would s e n s i t i z e women to t h e i r own r o l e c o n d i t i o n i n g and pro v i d e a forum i n which they could b e g i n to examine t h e i r own con-f l i c t s about whether i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a woman to be s u c c e s s f u l both p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y . Other w r i t e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s i n the area of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g support the i d e a t h a t one of the s t r a t e g i e s t h a t can be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g to e l i m i n a t e sexism i s the development of programs to i n c r e a s e student awareness of the s t e r e o t y p i n g process and then a l l o w students to make more informed c h o i c e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e s . Chapin, Jones and Waldman (1973) suggest t h a t sex r o l e behavior i s l e a r n e d , t h e r e f o r e r e - l e a r n i n g can take p l a c e . Such l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g then become important tasks f o r the educator and the human s e r v i c e p r o f e s s i o n a l because the maintenance of st e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g l i m i t s the c a p a c i t y of both men and women to r e a l i z e t h e i r f u l l poten-t i a l as human be i n g s . Many r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t r o l e s are changing, t h a t the s t e r e o t y p i n g process i s not as s t r o n g and the s t e r e o -types are not as r i g i d as i n past decades. Osofsky and Osofsky noted t h i s t r e n d i n 1 9 7 2 , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of women and work. They b e l i e v e t h a t to change the s t e r e o -t y p i n g process the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process needs to change and t h a t changes can come about through the ed u c a t i o n pro-cess. By changing r o l e models i n education, textbooks, c o u n s e l l i n g programs and by o f f e r i n g courses a t a l l l e v e l s of education, g i r l s can be made more aware and can be en-couraged to take t h e i r c a r e e r s s e r i o u s l y and pursue both f a m i l y and care e r l i n e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y (Osofsky and Osofsky, 1 9 7 2 ) . Van Dusen and Sheldon ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n a paper on "The Chang-i n g Status of American Women" see changes i n the r o l e s and st a t u s of American women as a r e s u l t of changes i n the per-c e p t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e sequences f.dr women. They b e l i e v e d ' t h a t the r e a l i t y f o r women has been d i f f e r e n t from the n o t i o n s of what r o l e s and a c t i v i t i e s are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women and now, slowly, the s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of women's r o l e s are c a t c h i n g up wit h r e a l i t y . Although s t e r e o t y p i n g and sex l a b e l l i n g of jobs have been remarkably p e r s i s t e n t i n the f a c e of dramatic demographic and socioeconomic changes, they see changes coming. The 1975 Manpower Report s t a t e d t h a t r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n e a r l y l i f e l a t e r a f f e c t s e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s and i f through s o c i e t y and the e d u c a t i o n a l process changes take p l a c e i n e a r l y r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , then changes w i l l take p l a c e i n female's e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . The authors conclud-ed t h a t these changes are t a k i n g p l a c e . To combat sexism and s t e r e o t y p i n g i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system, many educators have developed i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t -e g i e s . E i l e e n N i c k e r s o n (1975) d e s c r i b e s some of the s t r a t e g i e s c u r r e n t l y being used by a group of Boston U n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y members and graduate s t u d e n t s . L i k e other r e s e a r c h e r s , she has examined the ways e d u c a t i o n l i m i t s the growth, a s p i r a t i o n s and achievements of students by t r e a t i n g them not as i n d i v i d u a l s but as members of a sex group. One of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s used is. a Women's Studies course at v a r i o u s l e v e l s . The sample p o p u l a t i o n i n the study i n c l u d e s c o l l e g e and j u n i o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , a d o l e s c e n t s and Grade 5 and 6 students i n the Boston U n i v e r s i t y a rea. N i c k e r s o n f e e l s t h a t the d u r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and the measurement of a t t i t u d i n a l change have been l i m i t e d to date p a r t i a l l y due to the f a c t t h a t the s t u d i e s have not been e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d but she b e l i e v e s there i s much work t h a t can be done i n t h i s a r e a . Two s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r i n t h i s review lend credence to the i d e a that a course i n sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g can be h e l p f u l i n changing sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . O'Leary and Hammock (1975) i n t h e i r paper "Sex Role O r i e n t a t i o n and Achievement Context as Determinants of Motive to Avoid Success" concluded t h a t perhaps changes i n the sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and achievement o r i e n t a t i o n of women would "be h e l p f u l i n overcoming achievement l i m i t a t i o n s . A course would be h e l p f u l i n i n c r e a s i n g awareness and overcoming these l i m i t a t i o n s . Rosenberg and Simmons (1975) i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e i r paper "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n the Se l f - C o n c e p t of Ado l e s c e n t s " s t a t e t h a t many i n v e s t i g a t o r s a s s e r t t h a t the i n f e r i o r s o c i a l s t a t u s of women is r e f l e c t e d i n negative s e l f - c o n c e p t s , which i n t u r n c o n t r i b u t e to r e l a t i v e l y lower achievement of women. They have summarized some of the recommendations f o r s o l u t i o n s and i n c l u d e d i n these are a change i n s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e towards women and to change women's a t t i t u d e s towards themselves. T h i s l a s t outcome is a major o b j e c t i v e of the consciousness r a i s i n g awareness t h a t can l e a d to change and is the major o b j e c t i v e of most women's s t u d i e s courses, and courses on sex r o l e s t e r e o -t y p i n g . C o n c l u s i o n Many r e s e a r c h e r s agree t h a t one of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s t h a t can be u s e f u l i n e l i m i n a t i n g sexism and ste r e o t y p e d behaviors is a course on the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and s t e r e o t y p i n g process and/or a women's s t u d i e s course that i n c o r p o r a t e s an examination of the s t e r e o t y p i n g and s o c i a l -i z a t i o n process as one p a r t of a more comprehensive cur-r i c u l a . Such courses have been developed and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l a at a l l l e v e l s of edu c a t i o n from primary grades to the graduate u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . I n the l a s t decade, many educators have become s e n s i -t i v e t o the i s s u e of sexism i n s c h o o l s and are now working on a p p l i c a t i o n s of planned change i n the elementary s c h o o l s . Many of the a r t i c l e s reviewed here focus on the importance of changing the s c h o o l atmosphere and c l i m a t e (Hahn, 1 9 7 5 ; Jacobs, 1972) and suggest ways t h a t t e a c h e r s can become s e n s i t i z e d and then make changes i n the c u r r i c u l a t h a t can help r a i s e the awareness of st u d e n t s . Other a r t i c l e s , such as those c o n t a i n e d i n the "Women i n Ed u c a t i o n " b o o k l e t p u b l i s h e d by the American F e d e r a t i o n of Teachers ( 1 9 7 2 ) and "Sexism i n Ed u c a t i o n " p u b l i s h e d by The Emma W i l l a r d Task Force on E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 1 )» suggest s p e c i f i c classroom s t r a t e g i e s and m i n i - u n i t s on women's s t u d i e s and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . Again, the o b j e c t i v e of these s t r a t e g i e s and u n i t s i s to r a i s e student awareness. The N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n has p u b l i s h e d a book c a l l e d "Today's Changing Roles: An Approach to Non-S e x i s t Teaching" ( 1 9 7 4 ) . T h i s book has s p e c i f i c u n i t s planned f o r th r e e d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s : elementary, i n t e r m e d i a t e and secondary. These u n i t s were developed as supplemental i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s because i t was be-l i e v e d t h a t the images i n c h i l d r e n ' s books, textbooks and the mass media may perpetuate sex r o l e s which show g i r l s i n p a s s i v e , r e t i r i n g ways and hoys i n a g g r e s s i v e , outgoing ways. S h i r l e y McLune, the program c o - o r d i n a t o r , concluded there i s i n c r e a s i n g documentation of the p r i c e t h a t c h i l d r e n pay f o r the p e r p e t u a t i o n of these u n r e a l i s t i c images i n our s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e the m a t e r i a l s contained i n the "book are designed to a s s i s t c h i l d r e n to explore and understand the ways t h a t sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s have d e f i n e d and l i m i t e d male and female r o l e s . Many of the s t r a t e g i e s designed to help e l i m i n a t e sex-ism i n the elementary s c h o o l are s t r a t e g i e s f o r use i n the classroom or s c h o o l as a whole. Very few courses i n Women's St u d i e s or sex r o l e s are designed to be implemented as a separate course i n elementary s c h o o l s . There are s p e c i f i c courses designed f o r hig h s c h o o l students i n the area of women's s t u d i e s . A mi n i - c o u r s e i n Women's L i b e r -a t i o n i s co n t a i n e d i n the "Sexism i n Educ a t i o n " b o o k l e t a l r e a d y mentioned. The Minnesota Women's Centre a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota developed a course c a l l e d '"Intro-ducing High School Students to the Women's Movement" i n 1973-I n 1976, the B.C. Department of E d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d a "Resource Guide f o r Women's St u d i e s f o r High School S t u -dents." T h i s resource guide o u t l i n e s suggested u n i t s and less o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: Images of M a s c u l i n i t y and F e m i n i n i t y ; Learning Sex Roles; P h y s i o l o g y of Sex D i f f e r e n c e s ; The Family; The Economy; H i s t o r y of Women i n Canada; P o l i t i c s ; The Law; and Ed u c a t i o n . The course was developed f o r students i n s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l by Jane G a s k e l l and Heather Knapp. As w e l l as courses and/ or course o u t l i n e s , there are a l s o a r t i c l e s which suggest how t o s e t up women's s t u d i e s a t the high s c h o o l l e v e l and a l s o suggest u s e f u l m a t e r i a l s and l e s s o n a i d e s f o r such courses (Biemer, 1 9 7 5 ;'Holman, 1 9 7 5 ) ' An a r t i c l e i n the H i s t o r y and S o c i a l S c i e n c e Teacher d e s c r i b e s how "The Women's K i t " produced by the Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r St u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n can be used i n a Canadian women's s t u d i e s course. I n the words of the de-v e l o p e r s , the " k i t " c o n t a i n s multi-media m a t e r i a l s which are d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y about women and t h e i r s o c i a l i z -a t i o n . The " k i t " was designed f o r use at the hig h s c h o o l and community c o l l e g e l e v e l and the resource m a t e r i a l s are chosen e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s group (Manen, Fagan, Evans, B r e i t h a u p t and Wayne, 1 9 7 5 ) * Although many hig h s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r courses i n women's s t u d i e s and many of these i n c l u d e u n i t s on s o c i a l i z a t i o n and sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , v e r y few courses have been e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d . The course o f f e r e d by the Minnesota Women's Centre, " I n t r o d u c i n g High School Students to the Women's Movement" c o n t a i n s a p r o j e c t e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e but the r e s u l t s of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e are not re p o r t e d i n the a r t i c l e (Magnusen and Wetzel, 1973). The a r t i c l e on "The Women's K i t " (1975) c o n t a i n s a s e c t i o n d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s to eval u a t e the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i n terms of student and tea c h e r e x p e r i e n c e s . Teachers u s i n g the " k i t " have been requested to keep a note-book o u t l i n i n g the nature of the c l a s s to which i t i s pre -sented, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s c h o o l environment and the way i n which the t e a c h e r - l e a r n i n g experience was s t r u c t u r e d . Both t e a c h e r s and students have been asked to complete a lengthy survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e which o f f e r e d them the op-p o r t u n i t y to r e a c t t o the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s i n the form of c l o s e d and open-ended q u e s t i o n s . The developers have a l s o v i s i t e d many schools to observe the " k i t " i n use. In a s s e s s i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses, the develop-ers were impressed by the o v e r a l l p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n of teachers and s t u d e n t s . However, s i n c e the women's c u r r i c -ulum does not aim a t a c h i e v i n g c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d student l e a r n i n g outcomes i n terms of measureable knowledge or s k i l l o b j e c t i v e s , f i e l d t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of the cu r r i c u l u m remains i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c and process o r i e n t e d . The developers went on to s t a t e t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p o o r l y completed hy the stu d e n t s . They concluded t h a t female student responses to the " k i t " were mostly p o s i t i v e and male student responses were mixed. They a l s o concluded t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e evidence from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e -sponses t h a t any a t t i t u d e changes had taken p l a c e as a r e s u l t of the " k i t " experience (Manen et a l , 1 9 7 5 ) ' Rosenwood and Lunnenborg developed an e v a l u a t i v e r e -search p r o j e c t a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. T h i s pro-j e c t r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to assess the e f f e c t s upon the p a r t i c i p a n t s of a c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n program i n women's s t u d i e s . B r i e f instruments to measure s e l f - i m a g e , a t t i -tudes towards women and problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y were con-s t r u c t e d and adm i n i s t e r e d to r e g i s t r a n t s and n o n - r e g i s t r a n t s , who served as c o n t r o l s . The program's impact was l i m i t e d to a s i g n i f i c a n t r i s e i n s e l f - e s t e e m . The authors f e l t t h a t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and a s m a l l sample perhaps accounted f o r the l a c k of ot h e r d i f f e r e n c e s ( 1 9 7 4 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n , although v a r i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s are being developed and used and many women's s t u d i e s courses and c u r r i c u l a are being developed and taught a t both the h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e l e v e l , t h e r e i s very l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such c o u r s e s . CHAPTER 3 Methodology The b a s i s f o r the r e s e a r c h used i n t h i s study was one of program e v a l u a t i o n . Facets of the methodology to be des-c r i b e d are: the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p i l o t p r o j e c t , the r e -search q u e s t i o n s , the r e s e a r c h design, the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the P i l o t P r o j e c t S u b j e c t s . The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of 128 Grade 10, 11 and 12 students from three h i g h schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia's lower mainland; the schools they attended were: Burnsview J u n i o r Secondary School i n D e l t a , P r i n c e of Wales Secondary Sch o o l i n Vancouver, and Burnaby North S e n i o r Secondary School i n Burnaby. The D e l t a students were i n Grade 10, the Burnaby students were i n Grade 11 and the Vancouver s t u -dents were i n Grades 11 and 12. There were 59 s u b j e c t s i n the c o n t r o l groups and 69 s u b j e c t s i n the e x p e r i -mental groups. Of the three s c h o o l s , two are s i m i l a r s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y . Burnsview J u n i o r Secondary and Burnaby North S e n i o r Secondary are l o c a t e d i n middle-c l a s s suburban communities. P r i n c e of Wales Secondary School i s l o c a t e d i n an upper-middle c l a s s neighbourhood i n Vancouver. Experimental Treatment. The program evaluated was a 20 u n i t course i n sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and the s o c i a l i z -a t i o n process (See Appendix A ) . In t h i s course, students analyze the h i s t o r y and modern development of male and female sex r o l e s and evaluate the u t i l i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y accepted s t e r e o t y p e s of men and women. The search f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s which might l e a d to a more e g a l i t a r i a n Canadian s o c i e t y i s emphasized. The course c e n t e r s around student d i s c u s s i o n s , supplemented hy a r t i c l e s , f i l m s , videotapes and guest speakers to pro-v i d e a v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g experiences and c r e a t e a s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which to explore the area of s t e r e o -t y p i n g . C o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g e x e r c i s e s which h e i g h t e n awareness of one's own a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s , r o l e r e v e r s a l of t y p i c a l sex-typed behaviours, r o l e - p l a y of d i f f i c u l t work and f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , and a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g f o r d i r e c t , honest communication are i n c l u d e d i n the course m a t e r i a l s . I n s t r u c t i o n s on how most e f f e c t i v e l y to implement d i s c u s s i o n and to use the e x e r c i s e s and assignments are p r o v i d e d . The course was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s and Women's S t u d i e s . c l a s s e s at the Grade 10, 11 and 12 l e v e l and taught as a p i l o t p r o j e c t . Once the p i l o t t e a c h e r s had v o l u n t e e r e d to teach the course, they were g i v e n the course package c o n t a i n -i n g the l e s s o n plans and c l a s s s e t s of m a t e r i a l s to he used. Al s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s package were the evalua-t i o n instruments (the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), the A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Sc a l e (ATWS) and the unobtrusive measure) and the process measures (the Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form, the Student E v a l u a t i o n Form and the Teacher Log). Each t e a c h e r was a l s o g i v e n a typed l i s t of i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the e v a l u a t i o n instruments and the process measures. The experimental c l a s s i n D e l t a was a S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10 c l a s s , i n Burnaby i t was a S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11 c l a s s and i n Vancouver i t was a Women's S t u d i e s c l a s s . The Burnaby experimental c l a s s was a n a t u r a l l y assem-b l e d c l a s s . The D e l t a and Vancouver experimental c l a s s e s were s e l f - s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s ; i . e . the students had chosen these c l a s s e s as e l e c t i v e c o urses. The l a t t e r c l a s s e s s had a predominance of . f e m a l e s . The three c o n t r o l c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d by the p i l o t t e a c h e r s . The c o n t r o l c l a s s e s were i n p a r a l l e l grades and comparable to the experimental c l a s s e s ex-cept t h a t they contained approximately equal numbers of males and females as they were n a t u r a l l y s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s . Data C o l l e c t i o n . The p i l o t t eachers taught the course and a d m i n i s t e r e d the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t measures to the experimental c l a s s e s as per the i n s t r u c t i o n s . The c o n t r o l teachers were g i v e n the same l i s t of i n -s t r u c t i o n s and admi n i s t e r e d the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t measures a t the a p p r o p r i a t e times. The data was c o l -l e c t e d and organized by the teach e r s i n v o l v e d w i t h the e x p l i c i t understanding conveyed to the students t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d would on l y be read by r e -searchers from the u n i v e r s i t y . Research Questions The g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s of i n t e r e s t s t a t e d i n Chaper 1 are r e s t a t e d here as a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The f o r m u l a t i o n of the ques t i o n s determined the r e s e a r c h de-s i g n and data analyses subsequently r e p o r t e d i n t h i s study. 1. Questions r e g a r d i n g course outcomes. a. Does the experimental treatment r e s u l t i n highe r s c o r e s as indexed by c o n v e n t i o n a l and experimental measures of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g ? b. Does the e f f e c t of the experimental treatment d i f f e r depending on the sex of the student as i n d i c a t e d by the same c o n v e n t i o n a l and e x p e r i -mental measures? c. Can the e f f e c t of the experimental treatment be g e n e r a l i z e d over d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s ? 56 2. Questions r e g a r d i n g course p r o c e s s . a. Student r e a c t i o n s . i . What p r o p o r t i o n of the students f i n d the course i n t e r e s t i n g ? i i . What p r o p o r t i o n of the students f i n d the course u s e f u l ? i i i . What p r o p o r t i o n of the students would l i k e to take a longer and more d e t a i l e d course? i v . Which p a r t s of the course are seen as most i n t e r e s t i n g ? as l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g ? v. What p r o p o r t i o n of the students t h i n k the course causes more d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom? l e s s d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom? v i . What p r o p o r t i o n of the students t h i n k the course causes more d i s c u s s i o n at home? l e s s d i s c u s s i o n at home? b. Teacher R e a c t i o n i . Are the l e s s o n plans c l e a r ? Are the m a t e r i a l s a p p r o p r i a t e ? i i . Is the d i s c u s s i o n format u s e f u l ? Do the students become i n v o l v e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n ? i n v o l v e d i n the w r i t t e n assignments? i i i . Are there major v a r i a t i o n s among the te a c h e r s i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the course? Research Design The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n t h i s p r o j e c t was a non-eq u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l group d e s i g n . The experimental and the c o n t r o l groups were g i v e n a p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t but the membership of these groups was not determined by random assignment. The groups used i n t h i s study were n a t u r a l l y assembled and s e l f - s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s . The assignment of treatment to c l a s s e s was determined by the course content. As mentioned above, the p i l o t teachers s e l e c t e d a comparabl c l a s s f o r a c o n t r o l group. I n P r i n c e of Wales, the e x p e r i -mental c l a s s was a Women's St u d i e s c l a s s , the c o n t r o l group chosen was an E n g l i s h 11 c l a s s . I t was the p i l o t teacher's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r E n g l i s h 11 c l a s s was compa-r a b l e to her Women's Stu d i e s c l a s s . The c o n t r o l groups i n the two remaining schools were S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s at t h same grade l e v e l as the experimental c l a s s e s . Hence, t h i s assignment of the treatments gave no reason to suspect d i f -f e r e n t i a l r e c r u i t m e n t r e l a t e d to X. The s i m i l a r i t y of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups was assessed u s i n g the Bern Sex Role Inventory as a p r e - t e s t Thus, any p r e - e x i s t i n g i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups cou l d be adj u s t e d by means of an a n a l y s i s of covar i a n c e u s i n g the BSRI as the c o v a r i a t e . S e v e r a l p o s t - t e s t measures were used. These are des-c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n the s e c t i o n on i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . Measurement Instruments Many instruments have been developed to measure mascu-l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y , sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s or both. One of the best known s c a l e s f o r measuring sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s was the S t e r e o t y p i c Questionnaire (Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman and Broverman, 1968). T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n s 122 b i p o l a r items, each of which d e s c r i b e s — w i t h an a d j e c -t i v e or a d j e c t i v a l phrase -- a p a r t i c u l a r behavior t r a i t or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . One pole of each item can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as t y p i c a l l y masculine; the other pole as t y p i c a l l y f e m i n i n e . Many s i m i l a r instruments u s i n g the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l technique and b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s have been developed, such as the S i t u a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e S c a l e - Women (Herman and Sedlacek, 1973)• However, i n c r e a s i n g evidence supported the theory t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y were not b i p o l a r dimensions and co u l d not be e f f e c t i v e l y measured as such. C o n s t a n t i n o p l e (1973) wrote a paper examining the adequacy of approaches to m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y measurement. She reviewed the development and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v a r i o u s t e s t s measuring m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y . She judged t e s t s then c u r r e n t to be l a r g e l y inadequate on two counts: the a v a i l a b l e data c l e a r -l y p o i n t e d to m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the c o n s t r u c t mascu-l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y , and none of the t e s t s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by homogeneous su b - s c a l e s t h a t c o u l d be measured s e p a r a t e l y ; 59 and a l l of the t e s t s were b u i l t on an assumed p o l a r i t y i n the masculine-feminine dimension, but there was enough evidence f o r separate m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y dimensions. Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have a l s o questioned the t r a d i t i o n -a l assumption t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y r e p r e s e n t the oppos i t e ends of a s i n g l e dimension ( H e i l b r u n , 1976,?' Spence, Helmreich and Stapp, 1 9 7 5 )• In p l a c e of t h i s , the con-c e p t u a l advantages of assuming independent development of masculine and feminine a t t r i b u t e s has been proposed. The most important advantage of t h i s approach i s t h a t i t allows f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a person may develop both mascu-l i n e and feminine a t t r i b u t e s . Spence, Helmreich and Stapp ( 1 9 7 5 ) supported t h i s concept from t h e i r r e s e a r c h . They concluded t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y i s a d u a l i s t i c con-cept, each i s a separate and s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e component presen t i n both sexes. Th e r e f o r e , based on the arguments of Spence and Co n s t a n t i n o p l e and t a k i n g i n t o account other f a c t o r s such as the language l e v e l of the t e s t items, instruments u s i n g b i p o l a r dimensions were not used i n t h i s study. M a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y or d i r e c t i o n of sex t y p i n g can be measured by a new technique developed by Bern ( 1 9 7 ^ ) . T h i s technique p u r p o r t s to measure p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny or freedom from r i g i d sex r o l e s , and a l s o g i v e s separate measures of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y . Bern t r e a t s the con-cepts of m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y as two independent dimensions, r a t h e r than as opposite ends of a s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y dimension. A person's androgyny i s measured by the d i f f e r -ence between the m a s c u l i n i t y score and the f e m i n i n i t y score. The smaller the d i f f e r e n c e between f e m i n i n i t y and mascu-l i n i t y , the gre a t e r the degree of androgyny. The Bern Sex Role Inventory c o n s i s t s of three s c a l e s of 20 items each, a M a s c u l i n i t y Scale (M), a F e m i n i n i t y Scale (F) and a S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e . Androgyny i s computed as a t - r a t i o f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between M and F. This measurement of m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y d i f f e r s from other s c a l e s and as a r e s u l t the BSRI allows a person to be masculine, feminine, both or n e i t h e r . The r e s u l t s of Bern's ( 1974) psychometric analyses were: a. t h a t the dimensions of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y are e m p i r i c a l l y as w e l l as l o g i c a l l y independent. b. t h a t the concept of p s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny i s a r e l i a b l e one. c. t h a t h i g h l y sex-typed scores d o - n o t - r e f l e e t a general tendency to respond i n a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n but r a t h e r a s p e c i f i c tendency to describe oneself i n accordance w i t h sex-typed standards of d e s i r a b l e behavior f o r men and women. Research on the BSRI done by Wakefield, Sasek, Friedman and Bowden ( 1 9 7 6 ) supported Bern's r e s u l t s and con c l u s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as regards the concept of androgyny. For the males, high scores on the Masculine s c a l e were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h non-androgynous males. F o r the females, h i g h scores on the Feminine s c a l e i n d i c a t e d non-androgynous females. When the components of the two sex types were r o t a t e d to "best f i t , " t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n was maintained. This o b s e r v a t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Bern's c o n t e n t i o n s t h a t males must overcome pr e s s u r e s to conform to the masculine s t e r e o -type to become androgynous, whereas females must overcome press u r e s towards f e m i n i n i t y t o become androgynous. Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich ( 1 9 7 2 ) developed a s c a l e to measure a person's a t t i t u d e s toward women. They b e l i e v e d t h a t i n both s p e c u l a t i v e essays and e m p i r i c a l r e -sear c h s t u d i e s , the authors' o p i n i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y based on assumptions about the b e l i e f s which members of both sexes had about women. The a c t u a l knowledge t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s had about a t t i t u d e s was l a r g e l y i mpression-i s t i c . E m p i r i c a l data about a t t i t u d e s toward women, as ' opposed to s p e c u l a t i v e assumptions was s c a r c e . They b e l i e v e d the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e l e v a n t data was i n p a r t due to the absence of s t a n d a r d i z e d , p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound instruments f o r s u r v e y i n g the a t t i t u d e s which members of s o c i e t y have about the proper r o l e s of women. They decided to develop an o b j e c t i v e measure, t i t l e d the A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale (ATWS). In de v e l o p i n g t h i s s c a l e , an attempt was made to i n c l u d e items d e s c r i b i n g r o l e s and pa t t e r n s of conduct i n major areas of a c t i v i t y i n which males and females were, i n p r i n c i p l e , capable of being granted equal r i g h t s . : The form which was the immediate predecessor of the A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale c o n s i s t e d of 78 items, and i n 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 was g i v e n to over 1 , 0 0 0 male and female students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Texas. The data was then s u b j e c t e d to va r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l analyses and c e r t a i n items were omitted. The A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale f i n a l l y c o n t a i n e d 55 items. A s h o r t v e r s i o n of the s c a l e was a l s o developed and was the instrument used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The Lunnenborg study ( 1 9 7 * 0 mentioned p r e v i o u s l y found the ATWS to be s u c c e s s f u l as a measure of change. The author d i d a v a l i d a t i o n study of the ATWS as an assessment device to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a Women's Stu d i e s course. She found the s c a l e to be s e n s i t i v e to change i n a t t i t u d e s even f o r a group of students w i t h an i n i t i a l h igh l e v e l of awareness (Bowman and Nickersen, 1 9 7 5 ) • Both the BSRI and the ATWS were used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h as the p r e - t e s t measure and one of the p o s t - t e s t measures r e s p e c t i v e l y . Both s c a l e s were f i e l d t e s t e d on a Grade 10 p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of 91 s u b j e c t s w r i t i n g the BSRI and 98 s u b j e c t s w r i t i n g the ATWS. The purpose of t h i s f i e l d t e s t i n g was to assess the s u i t a b i l i t y of the voca b u l a r y l e v e l f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . This was necessary because both s c a l e s were s t a n d a r d i z e d on a u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n . As a r e s u l t of the f i e l d t e s t i n g c e r t a i n items were e l i m i -nated from the BSRI. When the a n a l y s i s demonstrated t h a t a l a r g e number of the Grade 10 student sample d i d not understand a g i v e n word, i t was dropped from i t s r e s p e c t i v e s u b - s c a l e . The words " a s s e r t i v e " and " a n a l y t i c a l " were dropped from the masculine s u b - s c a l e . The words " y i e l d i n g " and " g u l l i b l e " were removed from the feminine s u b - s c a l e and the word " c o n v e n t i o n a l " was removed from the n e u t r a l sub-s c a l e . I n order to have an equal number of words i n each s u b - s c a l e , the word "solemn" was randomly s e l e c t e d to be dropped from the n e u t r a l s u b - s c a l e as w e l l . Thus, t h i s r e -v i s e d v e r s i o n of the BSRI co n t a i n e d three s u b - s c a l e s of eig h t e e n words each. A l s o as a r e s u l t of t h i s f i e l d t e s t i n g , s e v e r a l vocab-u l a r y changes were made i n the ATWS. These v o c a b u l a r y changes were necessary because the t e s t i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t c e r t a i n words used i n the ATWS were not c l e a r l y understood by the Grade 10 sample. These vocabulary changes were made without changing the meaning and/or i n t e n t of the sentences. F o r example, i n Question 5 of the short v e r s i o n of the o r i g i n a l ATWS the word " i n t o x i c a t i o n " i s used, i n the r e -v i s e d v e r s i o n of the ATWS the word "drunkeness" i s used. T h i s example i s t y p i c a l of the type of vocabulary changes t h a t were made i n 7 of the 25 q u e s t i o n s . A d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s of the BSRI, the ATWS and the other p o s t - t e s t measures used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . P r e - t e s t Measure 1. The Bern Sex Role Inventory. The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s i n v e n t o r y i s to t r e a t m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y as two independent dimensions, thereby making i t p o s s i b l e to c h a r a c t e r i z e a person as masculine, feminine or androg-ynous as a f u n c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between h i s / h e r endorsement of masculine and feminine p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Bern, 1 9 7 4 ) . The BSRI asks a person to i n d i c a t e on a 7 p o i n t s c a l e how w e l l each of the f i f t y - f o u r masculine, feminine and n e u t r a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s des-c r i b e s h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f . The s c a l e ranges from 1 (Never or almost never t r u e ) to 7 (Always or almost always true) and i s l a b e l l e d at each p o i n t . On the b a s i s of h i s / h e r responses, each person r e c e i v e s three major sc o r e s : a M a s c u l i n i t y score, a F e m i n i n i t y score and an Androgyny s c o r e . In a d d i t i o n , a s o c i a l d e s i r -a b i l i t y score can be computed. These scores are a f u n c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s endorsement of masculine and feminine p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Normative data are a v a i l a b l e and the major r e s u l t s of v a r i o u s psychometric analyses have a l r e a d y been mentioned. P o s t - t e s t Measures 1. A t t i t u d e Outcomes. In order to measure the s t u -dents' p e r c e p t i o n of the r o l e s of males and females as s o c i a l l y androgynous, the s h o r t v e r s i o n of the ATWS was used. This s c a l e c o n s i s t s of t w e n t y - f i v e d e c l a r a t i v e statements r e l a t i n g to the v o c a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l r o l e s of women: d a t i n g behavior and e t i q u e t t e ; s e x u a l behavior and m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The instrument p u r p o r t s to measure a t t i t u d e s towards women's r o l e s and p a t t e r n s of conduct. For each item, there are f o u r response a l t e r n a t i v e s ranging from "Agre S t r o n g l y " to "Disagree S t r o n g l y . " These responses are scored from 1 r e p r e s e n t i n g the most t r a d i t i o n a l , con-s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e , to 4 r e p r e s e n t i n g the most l i b e r a l , p r o - f e m i n i s t a t t i t u d e . Each s u b j e c t ' s score, r a n g i n g from a p o s s i b l e h i g h of 100 to a p o s s i b l e low of 25 i s obtained by summing the values f o r the i n d i v i d u a l items T h i s s h o r t , t w e n t y - f i v e item form was developed to r e p l a c e the l o n g e r form when t e s t i n g time i s an impor-t a n t f a c t o r and when a numerical score f o r each s u b j e c t i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d . Item a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the v a l i d i t y of the s e l e c t e d items. The high l e v e l of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n the s c a l e leaves l i t t l e reason to doubt the short-term, h i g h t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument. T h i s s c a l e was used as the outcome measure f o r a s s e s s i n g post-treatment a t t i t u d e s towards women. 2. Unobtrusive Mgasure. Due to the content of the m a t e r i a l used i n the proposed course, a s o c i a l d e s i r -a b i l i t y dimension was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the e v a l u a t i o n measures. The r e f o r e , t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed to measure student a t t i t u d e s i n a way t h a t i s l e s s sub-j e c t to s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and w i l l be used i n conjunc-t i o n w i t h the ATWS. The measure d e s c r i b e s C h r i s Jones, a Grade 11 stud e n t . The name C h r i s was chosen because i t can be e i t h e r a male or female name. The i n t r o d u c t o r y para-graph d e s c r i b e s h i s / h e r s c h o o l marks, i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . S p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s f o l l o w the i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraph. H a l f of each c l a s s answered the ques t i o n s a f t e r having been informed t h a t C h r i s was male, the other h a l f answered assuming C h r i s was female. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was scored a c c o r d i n g to s e x - s t e r e o t y p e d responses. In the data a n a l y s i s the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of C h r i s ' s p e c i -f i c a t i o n as e i t h e r male or female were examined as were i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h i s f a c t o r and o t h e r s . 3. Process Measures. Three process measures have been summarized as a p a r t of the course e v a l u a t i o n . These process measures were i n c l u d e d f o r s e v e r a l reasons. F i r s t l y , to h e l p d e s c r i b e v a r i a t i o n s i n the ways the course was taught by the d i f f e r e n t p i l o t t e a c h e r s . Secondly, the author was i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g sub-j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s from p i l o t t eachers and student s u b j e c t s . F i n a l l y , the summarization of the process measures w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h outcome scores and ad-ju s t e d by co v a r i a n c e i f such an adjustment i s j u s t i f i e d . 67 The three process measures used were: a student e v a l u -a t i o n form, a teacher l o g , and a teacher e v a l u a t i o n form (see Appendix B). The Student E v a l u a t i o n Form. The experimental c l a s s e s were asked to f i l l i n a Student E v a l u a t i o n Form a t the end of the twenty l e s s o n package. This form c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t q u e s t i o n s a s k i n g the students to s u b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e the course i n terms of the i n t e r e s t l e v e l of the course and the u s e f u l n e s s of such a course. The Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form. The Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form was i n c l u d e d as a process measure p r i m a r i l y to e l i c i t s p e c i f i c feedback on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and c l a r i t y of the l e s s o n plans as w e l l as the a p p r o p r i a t e -ness of the m a t e r i a l s used. This form was a l s o used as an i n d i c a t o r of any major v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g of the course. The form c o n s i s t e d of t e n qu e s t i o n s a s k i n g f o r feedback r e g a r d i n g the l e s s o n p l a n s , the d i s c u s s i o n technique o u t l i n e d and the m a t e r i a l s used. P i l o t t e a c h e r s were a l s o asked to o f f e r any suggestions they might have f o r improving the course. The Teacher Log. The purpose of the Teacher Log was to all o w the p i l o t i n g teachers to comment d a i l y on s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l l e s s o n s . For a few l e s s o n s , the l o g format was inap-p r o p r i a t e . However, f o r the m a j o r i t y of l e s s o n s the 68 teachers were asked to answer qu e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n "by checking o f f "yes" or "no" i n the teacher's l o g hook. The questions p e r t a i n e d to s p e c i f i c aspects of the l e s s o n , such as the c l a r i t y of the l e s s o n p l a n and i n s t r u c t i o n s , the d i s c u s s i o n s , the students' w r i t t e n work and the t i m i n g of the l e s s o n . Data Analyses The data i n t h i s study were analysed u s i n g m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . T h i s mode of a n a l y s i s was chosen because i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r analyses where the c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s are unequal and d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e , as was the case i n t h i s study. L i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n analyses were used to determine post-treatment d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c t o r s of sex, s c h o o l , treatment and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s . The dependent v a r i a b l e s were the ATWS and the unobt r u s i v e measure based on the " C h r i s " e x e r c i s e . The c o v a r i a t e se-l e c t e d was the masculine s c a l e from the BSRI. O v e r a l l and S p i e g e l ' s (1969) Method 3 of forward s t e p -wise l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used to determine a f i r m o r d e r i n g 'for e f f e c t s i n the p r e d i c t i v e model. The g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y used f o r o r d e r i n g i n t h i s study was: 6 9 1. c o v a r i a t e - intended to be BSRI masculine s c a l e . * 2. biodemographic v a r i a b l e s , e.g. sex and s c h o o l . 3 . treatment v a r i a b l e ( s ) . k. t w o - f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n s . 5. t h r e e - f a c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n s (where a p p r o p r i a t e ) . For the purpose of these a n a l y s e s , h i g h e r order i n t e r a c t i o n s were d e f i n e d as and i n c l u d e d i n e r r o r v a r i a n c e . In order to prepare f o r c e r t a i n computer a n a l y s e s , i t was necessary to s u b j e c t some of the data to a content a n a l y s i s . The " C h r i s " e x e r c i s e was analysed by two indepen-dent judges. The names and any other i d e n t i f y i n g informa-t i o n were removed from the " C h r i s " p r o t o c o l s which were then thoroughly s h u f f l e d . Each judge took 25 papers and s o r t e d them i n t o c a t e g o r i e s depending on the s u b j e c t s ' responses to Question 3> which asked: "Try to imagine what C h r i s w i l l be doing when he (or she) i s 27 years o l d . Please d e s c r i b e t h i s . " Each judge developed a s c a l e of 5 c a t e g o r i e s where category 1 contained the most s t e r e o t y p e d answers and category 5 contained the l e a s t s t e r e o t y p e d answers. The judges then came to a consensus on d e f i n i t i o n s of s c a l e p o i n t s . Thus, they combined the two s c a l e s i n t o one and This step was subsequently d e l e t e d f o r reasons d e t a i l e d i n Chapter 4. r e - s o r t e d the f i r s t 50 papers. They then d i v i d e d the r e s t of the papers between them and s o r t e d them i n t o the 5 c a t e -g o r i e s . A f t e r s o r t i n g was f i n i s h e d , they recorded the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers f o r each category, then l a b e l l e d and wrote a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each category. These d e s c r i p -t i o n s were: Category 1 - Most s t e r e o t y p e d responses. The r e -sponses i n d i c a t e d t h a t C h r i s had not pursued h i s / h e r i n t e r e s t s or had been thwarted i n p u r s u i n g these i n t e r e s t s . C h r i s was m i s e r a b l e , unhappy and/or u n f u l f i l l e d . Category 2 - The respondents had C h r i s a c c e p t i n g a l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g p o s i t i o n . Category 3 - The respondents questioned whether a m e d i c a l c a r e e r would be wise to pursue and suggested other, l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g o p t i o n s . Category 4 - The respondents had C h r i s pursue a r e -l a t e d s c i e n c e c a r e e r but not medicine. Category 5 - Least s t e r e o t y p e d responses. The respondents had C h r i s s u c c e s s f u l l y pur-s u i n g a c a r e e r i n medicine. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was i n c l u d e d i n the l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l -yses as a dependent v a r i a b l e c a l l e d " C h r i s s t e r e o t y p e " based on the r a t e d s t e r e o t y p e of the responses. 71 The f i r s t q u e s t i o n on the " C h r i s " unobtrusive measure was used as another dependent v a r i a b l e . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n asked, "Do you t h i n k medicine would be a good c a r e e r f o r C h r i s to e n t e r ? Please e x p l a i n why or why not?" The sub-j e c t s ' responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n were analysed by the author. A "no" response was g i v e n a value of 1 and a "yes" response was given-a value of 2.* A f t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and coding, the s u b j e c t s ' responses were i n c l u d e d i n the analyses as the dependent v a r i a b l e " C h r i s - m e d i c a l s c h o o l . " The second q u e s t i o n on the " C h r i s " u n o b t r u s i v e measure' c o n s i s t e d of an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h e c k l i s t c o n t a i n i n g e i g h t r e -l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . Four of these occupations are t r a d i t i o n -a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as masculine (engineer, h i g h s c h o o l math teacher, pharmacist and b i o l o g i s t ) and f o u r occupations are t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as feminine (nurse, c h i l d care worker, x-ray t e c h n i c i a n and s o c i a l worker). Based on t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g C h r i s , the students were asked to choose a l t e r n a t i v e occupations f o r C h r i s . The purpose of t h i s q u e s t i o n was to d i s c o v e r whether the sex of C h r i s determined the s t u d e n t i s choice of o c c u p a t i o n . Three process measures were a l s o used to evaluate the course: a Student E v a l u a t i o n Form, a Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form and a Teacher Log. These have a l r e a d y been b r i e f l y * There was one case where the response c o u l d not be c l a s s -i f i e d as a "yes" or "no" answer. This response was • omitted from the a n a l y s e s . 72 d e s c r i b e d and the content a n a l y s i s of each i s d e s c r i b e d here. The Student E v a l u a t i o n Form was s o r t e d and analysed by the author. On t h i s form, i t was p o s s i b l e to s o r t three of the questions i n t o a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s . Each of the three q u e s t i o n s (Questions 1, 4 and 5 ; see Appendix B) were s o r t e d independently i n t o c a t e g o r i e s , u s i n g a 4 p o i n t s c a l e f o r Questions 1 and 4 , and a 5 p o i n t s c a l e f o r Q uestion 5 w i t h a n e u t r a l mid-point f o r each q u e s t i o n . The l a s t two q u e s t i o n s (Questions 7 and 8 ; see Appendix B) were a l s o i n -cluded i n the a n a l y s i s , u s i n g a three p o i n t s c a l e r e f l e c t i n g answers of a, b, or c. As a l r e a d y s t a t e d , the Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form and the Teacher Log were i n c l u d e d as process measures to r e c o r d feedback u s e f u l i n the r e v i s i o n of the course and to i n d i c a t e any major v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g of the course. The author of the course reviewed the content of the Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form and the Teacher Log and the r e s u l t s are i n c l u d e d i n Chapter 4 . CHAPTER 4 Results The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are organized i n t o two s e c t i o n s : a. r e s u l t s of the outcome measures, and b. r e s u l t s of the process measures. The f i r s t s e c t i o n r e p o r t s on the r e s u l t s of the outcome measures; the Bern Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), the A t t i t u d e s Toward Women Scale (ATWS) and the Unobtrusive Measure ("Chris" e x e r c i s e ) . These r e s u l t s are found i n Tables 1 through 7« The second s e c t i o n contains the r e s u l t s regard-i n g the process measures i n two sub-sections: i . student r e a c t i o n s to the course, and i i . teacher r e a c t i o n s to the cpurse. These r e s u l t s are found i n Tables 8 through 10. Results of the Outcome Measures The masculine s c a l e of the Bern Sex Role Inventory was intended to be the c o v a r i a t e i n t h i s study. The c o r r e l a -t i o n s between the BSRI masculine and feminine s c a l e and the two dependent measures are presented i n Table 1. The Bern masculine s c a l e would have been e f f e c t i v e as a c o v a r i a t e only had i t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the dependent measures. As noted i n Table 1, there were no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . Furthermore, the experimental groups and the c o n t r o l groups were not found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t when pre-treatment BSRI scores were compared i n an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . Therefore, an assumption of equivalent groups was made and the Bern masculine s c a l e was not used as a co v a r i a t e . TABLE 1 C o r r e l a t i o n s between BSRI Scales and Dependent Measures - ATWS and Ch r i s Stereotypy Bern Scales ATWS Chr i s Stereotypy Masculine - . 0 0 5 - . 0 9 5 Feminine . 1 1 5 - . 0 5 4 * C r i t i c a l value f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s df=118 i s r = l .178 when x = . 0 5 . The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the ATWS are reported i n Table 2. As i n d i c a t e d , the v a r i a b l e s gender and school were s i g n i f i c a n t . A l s o , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t s c h o o l -treatment i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . The scores on the ATWS show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the male and female 75 students. The means on the ATWS, r e p o r t e d by gender, s c h o o l and treatment, are shown i n Table 3« TABLE 2 Summary Table - ATWS A n a l y s i s of Variance Source A R 2 a df V a r iance Estimate F Gender .1897 1 . 1 8 9 7 3 3 . 8 7 * School . 0 9 8 1 2 . 0 4 9 1 8 . 7 6 * Treatment .0118 1 .0118 2 . 1 1 Gender x Schoo l . 0 2 5 2 2 . 0 1 2 6 2 . 2 5 Gender x Treatment . 0 0 3 4 1 . 0 0 3 4 . 6 1 School x Treatment . 0 6 7 5 2 . 0 0 3 7 6 . 0 3 * a The e r r o r term f o r the analyses i n Tables 2 , 4 and 5 i s FS,E = A f i 2 - ( s o u r c e ) ^ .... U - ^ C f u l l ) / ^ where: S=source E=error 2 2 & R =change i n R a t t r i b u t a b l e to source b e i n g t e s t e d 2 2 R f l -] -I —R when a l l sources are i n c l u d e d m the equation dfs=degrees of freedom f o r source being t e s t e d dfe=sum of N-K-l K= degrees of freedom from as sources * p . 0 5 ; n=118 The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s c h o o l and t r e a t -ment i s r e p o r t e d i n Table 3 - There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimentalaand c o n t r o l groups, w i t h 76 the ATWS experimental mean exceeding the c o n t r o l mean. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the experimental group mean ex-ceeded the c o n t r o l group mean i n School 1 and School 2 but tha t the rev e r s e i s true i n Schoo l 3« TABLE 3 Means f o r S i g n i f i c a n t E f f e c t s on ATWS School-Treatment Means Treatment School Treatment Means (Row) Experimental (n) 8 3 . 3 0 8 5 . 2 5 6 8 . 82 (23) (26) (I?) 8 0 . 3 5 (66) C o n t r o l (n) 7 5 - 0 5 7 3 . 8 6 7 6 . 1 7 (19) (18) (15) 7 4 . 9 6 (52) S c h o o l Means ( T o t a l n*s) 7 9 . 5 9 8 0 . 6 0 7 2 . 2 7 (42) (44) ( 3 2 ) (118) ATWS Mean Gender Means Males 7 0 . 7 6 (37) Females 81 . 2 7 (81) (118) Note: C e l l s i z e s i n parentheses The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the C h r i s stereotype v a r i a b l e are reported i n Table 4 . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups, w i t h the experimental mean ( 3 . 8 8 ) exceeding the c o n t r o l mean ( 3 . 1 0 ) as shown i n Table 4 . TABLE 4 Summary Table - C h r i s Stereotypy A n a l y s i s of Variance Variance Source df Estimate F Gender . 0 2 4 5 1 . 0 2 4 5 3.14 School • 0055 2 .0028 . 3 6 Treatment .0486 1 .0046 6 . 2 3 * Chrisex . 0 0 0 9 1 . 0 0 0 9 .12 Gender xvSchool . 0 0 2 5 2 .0012 . 1 5 Gender x Treatment .0008 1 .0008 .10 School x Treatment .0110 2 . 0 0 5 5 • 71 Treatment x Chrisex .0171 1 . 0 1 7 1 2 . 1 9 Gender x Chrisex .0007 1 . 0 0 0 7 .09 School x Treatment x Chrisex . O O 6 3 2 . 0 0 3 2 .41 Gender x Treatment x Chrisex .0018 1 .0018 1 . 5 1 Note. Treatment mean = 3.88, c o n t r o l mean = 3.10. p . 0 5 ; n=!20 ' As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 5» the C h r i s m e d i c a l s c h o o l v a r i -able was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to any f a c t o r or i n t e r -a c t i o n i n the a n a l y s i s . TABLE 5 Summary Table - C h r i s M e d i c a l School A n a l y s i s of Variance Source A.R2 df Variance Estimate F Gender . 0 2 3 2 1 . 0 2 3 2 2 . 8 3 School . 0 3 8 3 2 . 0 1 9 2 2 . 3 4 Treatment . 0 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 0 2 . 0 2 C h r i s e x . 0 0 0 9 1 . 0 0 0 9 .11 Gender x School . 0 0 1 0 2 . 0 0 0 5 . 0 6 Gender x Treatment . 0 1 6 0 1 . 0 1 6 0 1 . 9 5 School x Treatment . 0 2 6 2 2 . 0 1 3 1 1 . 6 0 Treatment x C h r i s e x . 0 0 3 5 1 . 0 0 3 5 . 4 3 Gender x C h r i s e x . 0 0 0 1 1 . 0 0 0 1 . 0 1 School x Treatment x Ch r i s e x . 0 2 5 9 2 . 0 1 3 0 1 . 5 9 Gender x Treatment x Ch r i s e x . 0 0 8 3 1 . 0 0 8 3 1 . 0 1 n=120 The o c c u p a t i o n a l choices f o r C h r i s were analysed and the r e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t on on l y one of the e i g h t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s - e n g i n e e r . Although the occupations "mathteacher" and "nurse" showed a d i f f e r -ence, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e . Table 6 gives the summary ta b l e of the a n a l y s i s and shows the i n t e r -a c t i o n e f f e c t between treatment and C h r i s * sex. TABLE 6 Summary Table - Occupation 2 Engineer - A n a l y s i s of Variance Source df Sum of Squares Mean Square F Treatment 1 .591 • 591 3.18 Chrisex 1 .043 .043 0.23 Treatment x Chrisex 1 .804 .804 4 .33 E r r o r 116 21.550 .186 p .05.1.-.n= 120 The c e l l means which produced a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t are r e -ported i n Table 7 » TABLE 7 Percentage of Students i n Experimental and Co n t r o l C e l l s f o r Occupation 2 - Engineer Treatment Chrisex . Male '  " .-Female Row Percentage Experimental 27.5 % n=40 37.9 % n=29 3 1 . 8 8 f o ( n = 6 9 ) C o n t r o l 27.6 fo n=29 4 .5 % n=22 17.65% (n=5D Column Percentage 27.5^% ( n = 6 9 ) 23- 53fo (n=5D Note. Row and column s i z e s i n parentheses. Results of the Process Measures The second s e c t i o n of the r e s u l t s contains two sub-s e c t i o n s : i . student r e a c t i o n s to the course, and i i . teacher r e a c t i o n s to the course. Student r e a c t i o n s to the course. The students' reac-t i o n s to the course were recorded on. a r Student .. Ev a l u a t i o n Form (see Appendix I I I ) . S i x t y - e i g h t s t u -dents completed t h i s form and the r e s u l t s are reported i n Table 8. F i v e of the ques t i o n s were analy s e d . These que s t i o n s were: Question 1. Was the course i n t e r e s t i n g ? Please e x p l a i n why or why not. Question 4. Do you expect t h i s course to be u s e f u l to you? How do you expect i t to be u s e f u l ? Question 5. Based on what you have s t u d i e d i n t h i s course, would you be i n t e r e s t e d i n a lo n g e r , more d e t a i l e d course? Please e x p l a i n why or why not. Question 7* C i r c l e one of the f o l l o w i n g . D i d t h i s course cause (a) more d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom, (b) l e s s d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom, (c) about the same amount of d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom? Question 8. C i r c l e one of the f o l l o w i n g . D i d t h i s course cause (a) more d i s c u s s i o n a t home, (b) l e s s d i s c u s s i o n a t home, (c) about the same amount of d i s c u s s i o n a t home? TABLE 8 R e s u l t s of Student E v a l u a t i o n Form - Sex of Student, Number of Students and Percentage i n Each Category Question 1 Category Females "Males T o t a l % 0 0 1 1 1 . 49 1 4 3 7 1 0 . 4 5 2 14 0 14 2 0 . 8 9 3 36 9 45 6 7 . 1 7 Question 4 Category Females Males T o t a l % 0 1 1 2 2 . 9 9 1 5 3 8 1 1 .94 2 8 1 9 1 3 . 43 3 40 8 48 7 1 .64 Question 5 Category Females Males T o t a l % 0 4 0 4 5-97 1 10 4 14 2 0 . 9 0 2 10 1 11 1 6 . 4 2 3 8 0 8 1 1 . 9 4 4 22 8 30 4 4 . 7 8 TABLE 8 - continued Question 7 Category (h) (c) Females Males T o t a l % 36 8 kk 6 6 . 6 6 k 0 k 6 . 0 6 Ik k 18 2 7 . 2 7 Question 8 Category (a) (b) (c) Females Males T o t a l % 31 k 35 5 3 . 0 3 k 1 5 7 . 5 8 19 7 26 3 9 . 3 9 Each of the f i r s t three questions were sorted i n t o c a tegories on the "basis of the responses. Since the categories are d i f f e r e n t f o r each question, they have been d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y . Question 1 The answers to t h i s question were sorted i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s . Category 0 was "Non-i n t e r p r e t a b l e V V E i t h e r the student didn't understand the question or the answer was unclear, i l l e g i b l e or incomplete. One s t u -dent f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Category 1 was "Negative." The student responses i n -d i c a t e d that the course was bo r i n g or 84 r e p e t i t i o u s . Seven students {10%) f e l l i n -to t h i s category. Category 2 was a "Mixed" category. The responses i n d i c a t e d that p a r t s of the course were i n t e r e s t i n g while other parts were not. Fourteen students (21%) responded i n t h i s category. Category 3 was a " P o s i t i v e " category. The students wrote that the course was very i n t e r e s t i n g and r e l e v a n t to them. F o r t y - s i x x s t u d e n t s (67%) were i n t h i s category. Question 4 was also categorized and computer analysed. Again, the students' responses were so r t e d i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s . Category 0 was "Non-i n t e r p r e t a b l e . " The responses were ambigu-ous or the question was l e f t blank. Two responses (3%) f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Category 1 was a "No" response. Eight s t u -dents (12%) f e l t t h a t the course was e i t h e r not u s e f u l or not p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . Category 2 was a "Maybe" category. The students responded t h a t some p a r t s were u s e f u l or t h a t the course might be u s e f u l i n the f u t u r e . A t o t a l of nine students (13%>) f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Category 3 was a "Yes" category. The students i n t h i s category wrote t h a t i t was d e f i n i t e l y u s e f u l and/or would be u s e f u l i n the f u t u r e . 85 F o r t y - e i g h t students (72$) were i n t h i s c ategory. Question 5 The answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n were s o r t e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . Category 0 was " N o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e " f o r the same reasons as mentioned above. A t o t a l of f o u r s t u -dents (6$) were i n t h i s category. Category 1 was a "No" response. The students wrote t h a t they weren't i n t e r e s t e d i n a longer course. Fourteen students (21$) f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Category 2 was a d i f f i c u l t c ategory to d e s c r i b e . G e n e r a l l y , ' t h e s t u -dents s t a t e d t h a t they had l i k e d the course but d i d n ' t want or need more i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h i s time. E l e v e n students (16$) f e l l i n t o t h i s category. Category 3 was a "Maybe" category. Students s a i d they might be i n -t e r e s t e d i n a more d e t a i l e d course a t a l a t e r time. E i g h t students or 11$ were i n t h i s category. Category 4 was a "Yes" c a t e -gory where the students i n d i c a t e d they want-ed more i n f o r m a t i o n and i n more d e t a i l . T h i r t y - o n e students (45$) were i n Category 4 . Questions on the Student E v a l u a t i o n Form asked the 7 and 8 students to comment on the amount of d i s -c u s s i o n generated by t h i s course. R e f e r r i n g to Table 8, the r e s u l t s show-t h a t f o r t y - f o u r students (67%) s t a t e d the course caused more d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom and 35 students or 5 3 ^ thought the course caused more d i s c u s s i o n a t home. Al s o i n c l u d e d i n the Student E v a l u a t i o n form were three q u e s t i o n s t h a t were content a n a l y s e d . Question 2 asked the students to i n d i c a t e the most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t of the course. These r e s u l t s are t a b u l a t e d and summarized i n Table 9-TABLE 9 Summary of Student E v a l u a t i o n Form: Question 2 - What p a r t of the Course was most I n t e r e s t i n g ? Response Frequency A s s e r t i v e n e s s 18 Sex Role Stereotypes A l l of Course 16 12 Case H i s t o r i e s 7 7 5 5 5 4 "The B i g Switch Marriage None of Course 11 Role R e v e r s a l E a r l y F e m i n i s t s Women's Rights Guest Speakers "I Want a Wife" 2 2 N o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e 92 T o t a l 8 7 Since the students were not asked to l i m i t t h e i r choice to one t o p i c , the t o t a l exceeds the number of s t u d e n t s . The f i v e students i n the n o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e category i n c l u d e answers not r e l e v a n t to the q u e s t i o n , blanks or i l l e g i b l e w r i t i n g . F i v e of the students found no p a r t of the course i n t e r e s t i n g and 1 2 of the students found a l l of i t i n t e r e s t i n g . The remaining students chose v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s as the most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t , w i t h the s e c t i o n s on sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and a s s e r -t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g being the most p o p u l a r . Other than those two c a t e g o r i e s , the students' c h o i c e s seem evenly spread over the 2 0 l e s s o n s . Question 3 asked the students what p a r t of the course they found l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g . As noted i n Table 1 0 , t h e r e i s a t o t a l of 6 6 responses, t h e r e f o r e i t appears t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the students gave one ar e a as the t o p i c of l e a s t i n t e r e s t . Again, there were a number of n o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e responses. These 8 responses were not i n t e r p r e t a b l e f o r the same reasons g i v e n above. T h i r t e e n of the students s t a t e d t h a t a l l of the course was i n t e r e s t i n g or none of i t was u n i n t e r e s t i n g . A s s e r t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g has the most votes as the l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t of the course. Otherwise, the choices are a g a i n spread f a i r l y evenly over the 2 0 l e s s o n s . TABLE 10 Summary of Student E v a l u a t i o n Form: Question 3 - What p a r t of the Course was Least I n t e r e s t i n g ? Response Frequency A s s e r t i v e n e s s 13 None of Course 13 E a r l y F e m i n i s t s 7 Case H i s t o r i e s 7 A l l of Course 5 "You Are Woman" Role R e v e r s a l 3 Questions 2 Essay 2 Marriage 1 "The B i g Switch" 1 N o n - i n t e r p r e t a b l e 8 66 Question 6 on the student e v a l u a t i o n form was the most d i f f i c u l t to content analyse and c a t e g o r i z e . Question 6 asked the students what c r i t i c i s m s they had of the course and what improvements they would suggest. The r e s e a r c h e r has taken the st u d e n t s ' responses and g e n e r a l l y summarized them. Many students had no c r i t -i c i s m s and no improvements to suggest and a g a i n s e v e r a l answers were not i n t e r p r e t a b l e . Some students f e l t the beginning l e s s o n s were r e p e t i t i o u s ~ a n d t h a t the course contained too much r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . The most common s u g g e s t i o n from the P r i n c e of Wales students was to have a more advanced, in-depth course. The most common s u g g e s t i o n from the Burnaby students was to focus the course e q u a l l y on male and female s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Many Burnaby students seemed to f e e l t h a t they had been g i v e n a one-sided p r e s e n t a t i o n Teacher r e a c t i o n s to the course. T h i s second sub-s e c t i o n r e p o r t s the t e a c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n s to the course. The r e a c t i o n s of the three teachers were r e p o r t e d on two instruments; the Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form and the Teacher Log. The Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form was i n c l u d e d as a pro cess measure p r i m a r i l y to e l i c i t s p e c i f i c feedback on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and c l a r i t y of the l e s s o n plans and the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the m a t e r i a l s used as w e l l as an i n d i c a t o r of any major v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g of the course. No major v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g of the course c o u l d be d i s c e r n e d from the responses on the form. The primary purpose of t h i s form was to gi v e f e e d -back to the author of the course. S p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s were requested and the p i l o t t eachers were asked to make suggestions f o r changing the course. •,z,^ '..The p i l o t - t e a c h e r s f e l t the l e s s o n s were r e l e v a n t and f a c i l i t a t e d awareness of the e f f e c t s of s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . They a l s o f e l t the le s s o n s promoted meaningful d i s c u s s i o n but t h a t the time allowed f o r d i s c u s s i o n wasn't always adequate. The main s u g g e s t i o n from the Burnaby t e a c h e r was to vary the l e s s o n p l a n s . She f e l t t h a t the format of the f o u r l e s s o n s i n the b e g i n n i n g of the course was somewhat r e p e t i t i o u s . The main s u g g e s t i o n from the Vancouver teacher was to t e ach the course a t the Grade 9 or 10 l e v e l . She enjoyed t e a c h i n g the course but f e l t t h a t some of the l e s s o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the i n t r o d u c t o r y ones, were too elementary f o r Grade 11 and 12 s t u d e n t s . Both teachers s a i d t h a t the course was w e l l planned and the m a t e r i a l s were r e l e v a n t . The purpose of the Teacher Log was to a l l o w the p i l o t i n g t e a c h e r s to comment d a i l y on s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l l e s s o n s . For some of these (the guest speakers, the essay, a s s e r t i v e n e s s , r o l e p l a y i n g , etc.) the l o g format was i n a p p r o p r i a t e . However, f o r the r e s t of the l e s s o n s , the teachers were asked to i n d i c a t e e i t h e r "yes" or "No" to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : Were the p r o c e d u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the teacher c l e a r ? Was the " D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions" s e c -t i o n h e l p f u l i n l e a d i n g the d i s c u s s i o n ? D i d a m a j o r i t y of the students get i n -v o l v e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n s ? D i d you f e e l the d i s c u s s i o n was p r o d u c t i v e ? D i d the students' w r i t t e n answers demon-s t r a t e an understanding of the m a t e r i a l ? D i d you have enough. time to complete the lesson? The e n t r i e s recorded i n d i c a t e a h i g h l y p o s i t i v e response "by p i l o t i n g teachers and s t u d e n t s . I n a l l of the l o g e n t r i e s , the p i l o t i n g t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p r o c e d u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the teacher were c l e a r (55 "Yes" - 0 "No") and t h a t the " D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions" s e c t i o n was h e l p f u l i n l e a d i n g d i s c u s s i o n (49 "Yes" - 0 "No"). The m a j o r i t y of the c l a s s "became i n v o l v e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n f a r more o f t e n than not, (30 "Yes" - m a j o r i t y , 9 about h a l f the c l a s s , 5 l e s s than h a l f ) or t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n was c o n s i d e r e d pro-d u c t i v e i n 1 0 0 $ of the e n t r i e s ( 5 1 "Yes" - 0 "No"). Th i s h i g h l e v e l of involvement seems to have c a r r i e d over to the students' w r i t t e n work, out of 49 e n t r i e s , 47 i n d i c a t e d t h a t the students' w r i t t e n work had shown an understanding of the l e s s o n m a t e r i a l (47 "Yes" 2 "Unsure", 0 "No"). In 43 out of 50 e n t i r e s , the teacher had enough time to complete the l e s s o n . The r e s u l t s from the process measures gave an added dimension to the outcome measures. The process measure r e s u l t s were g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e and s u p p l i e d u s e f u l , a d d i -t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to the study and to the author of the course. 93 CHAPTER 5 D i s c u s s i o n , Recommendations and Conclusi o n s D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n study show t h a t the course i n sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o -cess i s e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . Both the outcome and process measures support t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The r e s u l t s a l s o show t h a t the e f f e c t s of the e x p e r i -mental treatment do not d i f f e r depending on the sex of the student. T h e r e f o r e , i t can be concluded t h a t the course was e f f e c t i v e f o r males and females. However, the r e s u l t s on the A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e (ATWS) do demonstrate a s i g n i -f i c a n t main e f f e c t ; the females i n the sample scored s i g n i -f i c i a n t l y h i g h e r than the males. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n sc o r e s p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t s the f a c t that females i n our s o c i e t y have a more vested i n t e r e s t i n sex u a l e q u a l i t y . An i n c r e a s i n g number of females are becoming more aware of and r e c e p t i v e to ideas and a t t i t u d e s t h a t o f f e r them s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and economic e q u a l i t y . Thus, when presented w i t h an i n s t r u -ment t h a t measures these ideas and a t t i t u d e s females sco r e h i g h e r than males. A l s o , i t could be p o s s i b l e t h a t the ATWS has a sex b i a s . 94 The r e s u l t s a l s o show t h a t although the ATWS e x p e r i -mental mean exceeded the c o n t r o l mean i n Schools 1 and 2 , the r e v e r s e i s t r u e i n School 3« T h i s r e s u l t l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a h i l i t y of the experimental treatment over d i f f e r -ent e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . The three experimental groups were d i f f e r e n t i n many r e s p e c t s . Three independent v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d were age, teacher and s e l e c t i o n of experimental groups. The age of the students d i f f e r e d ; the students i n School 1 were 15 and 1 6 , i n School 2 they were 1 6 , 17 and 18 and i n School 3 they were 16 and 1 7 . From comments on the process measure, the students i n School 2 sometimes f e l t t h a t the m a t e r i a l was too elementary f o r them but t h i s d i d not seem to a f f e c t t h e i r ATWS s c o r e s . The same type of comments were not made by the grade 11 students i n School 3 . Hence, the c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t age was not a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . However, the independent v a r i a b l e s of s e l e c t i o n and teacher might be important c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . The s t u -dents i n Schools 1 and 2 e l e c t e d to take the course, whereas School 3 was a n a t u r a l l y assembled s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s . Research done a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l suggests t h a t the s e l f - s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s i s an important f a c t o r and can a f f e c t the r e s u l t s of the study (Brush, Gold and White, 1 9 7 8 ) . U n i v e r s i t y students who e n r o l i n women's s t u d i e s courses are perhaps more androgynous and p r o - f e m i n i s t a t the o u t s e t . 95' T h i s s e l f - s e l e c t i o n process i n t r o d u c e s an i n t e r a c t i o n between the students and the course, p o s s i b l y making such a course more e f f e c t i v e f o r those students who have e l e c t e d to take i t . I n t h i s study, t h i s s e l f - s e l e c t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t may have been o p e r a t i n g i n Schools 1 and 2 to produce hi g h e r experimental means. However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to compare u n i v e r s i t y and hig h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . D i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e h i g h s c h o o l students' choice of courses. Since there were no s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e s between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups, i t cannot be concluded t h a t the students i n the experimental groups i n Schools 1 and 2 were more p r o - f e m i n i s t and/or androgynous than the students i n School 3- Ther e f o r e , a l -though a s e l f - s e l e c t i o n i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t may have i n f l u -enced the students i n Schools 1 and 2 d u r i n g the course, i t would perhaps be a mistake to conclude t h a t the d i f f e r -ences between the schools on the ATWS were only due to the s e l f - s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . The independent v a r i a b l e teacher a l s o may have been an important f a c t o r i n the experimental mean d i f f e r e n c e s on the ATWS. Although the teacher process measures d i d not i n d i c a t e major v a r i a t i o n s i n the t e a c h i n g of the course, the student process measures d i d i n d i c a t e some v a r i a t i o n s . From the w r i t t e n responses on the Student E v a l u a t i o n Forms, i t was apparent t h a t the students a t School 3 f e l t t hreatened by the teacher and by the m a t e r i a l . S e v e r a l of them s t a t e d t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n was b i a s e d and one-sided and t h a t they 96 r e s e n t e d and r e j e c t e d t h a t b i a s . I t was a l s o apparent from t h e i r comments t h a t they were r e a c t i n g to the b i a s of the teacher. S i n c e t h i s type of comment d i d not appear on the Student E v a l u a t i o n Forms from other s c h o o l s , i t might be concluded t h a t the lower r e s u l t s on the ATWS a t Sc h o o l 3 were p a r t l y due to the e f f e c t of the i n t e r a c t i o n between the teacher and her st u d e n t s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the ATWS r e s u l t s i n School 3 were due to a combination of two f a c -t o r s — t h e students d i d not e l e c t to take the course and many of them r e s e n t e d the way the course was presented. The three experimental s c h o o l s a l s o d i f f e r e d i n the way the teachers f o l l o w e d the s e t i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the i n t r o d u c -t i o n , p r e s e n t a t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n of the pre and p o s t - t e s t measures. The t e a c h e r ( s ) i n School 3 d i d not f o l l o w the i n s t r u c t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e some of the students i n both the experimental and c o n t r o l c l a s s e s had to be e l i m i n a t e d from the sample. This i s another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s i n School 3 ' The dependent, v a r i a b l e C h r i s s t e r e o t y p e a l s o r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r scores i n the experimental group. The students i n the experimental group responded to the open-ended q u e s t i o n i n l e s s s t e r e o t y p e d ways than the students i n the c o n t r o l group. The C h r i s measure was developed to account f o r a s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y f a c t o r , s i n c e the ATWS has no s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y s c a l e . By u s i n g both measures and a c h i e v i n g s i m i l a r r e s u l t s , i t might be concluded t h a t the students' answers were based on b e l i e f s r a t h e r than r e a c t i o n s to s o c i a l p r e s s u r e . Although the C h r i s , s t e r e o t y p e v a r i a b l e produced s i g n i -f i c a n t r e s u l t s , the C h r i s m e d i c a l s c h o o l f a c t o r d i d not. T h i s v a r i a b l e was i n c l u d e d to see i f students would respond d i f f e r e n t l y to a male C h r i s than they would to a female C h r i s . Since t h i s was a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n and not open-ended, the students b a s i c a l l y gave "yes" or "no" answers and there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e based on C h r i s ' sex. D i r e c t questions l a c k the scope of open-ended que s t i o n s and t h i s might e x p l a i n why one C h r i s v a r i a b l e was s i g n i f i c a n t while the other was not. A l s o , the r e s u l t s on the C h r i s m e d i c a l v a r i a b l e were perhaps confounded by other more dominant f a c t o r s , such as C h r i s ' marks, i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y type. From the student responses, i t appeared t h a t they were responding to these f a c t o r s r a t h e r than C h r i s ' sex. The o c c u p a t i o n a l choices f o r C h r i s showed a s i g n i f -i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between treatment and C h r i s ' sex on o n l y one of the o c c u p a t i o n s — e n g i n e e r . In the e x p e r i mental group, 37•9$ of the students who had a female C h r i s chose the o c c u p a t i o n engineer as opposed to only 4.5% of the c o n t r o l group. I t would appear from these r e s u l t s t h a t the experimental group may have been l o o k i n g f o r an a l t e r n a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l choice and d i d not demonstrate s t e r e o t y p e d t h i n k i n g when choosing t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . I n summary, the r e s u l t s from the outcome measures show t h a t the experimental treatment produced s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s although these r e s u l t s d i f f e r e d depending on the s c h o o l attended. The process measures are a l s o important sources of a d d i t i o n a l data and i n f o r m a t i o n . In t h i s study, these measures p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would have been l o s t i f o n l y the outcome measures had been used. The Student E v a l u a t i o n Form showed t h a t a l a r g e major-i t y of the students found the course both i n t e r e s t i n g and u s e f u l . Many s t a t e d they would be i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g a l o n g e r and more d e t a i l e d course i n the f u t u r e . There was an i n t e r e s t i n g discrepancy.:between the p a r t s of the course d e s c r i b e d as most i n t e r e s t i n g and l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g . E i g h t e e n students found the a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g s e c t i o n the most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t of the course and 13 students found t h i s s e c t i o n the l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g . I t should be noted t h a t t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y was due to the f a c t t h a t the Vancouver students had had a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g i n a guidance c l a s s and t h e r e f o r e found t h i s s e c t i o n r e p e t i t i v e . Compared to other courses, t h i s course seemed to cause more d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom and a t home. In summary, the responses on the Student E v a l u a t i o n Forms i n d i c a t e d t h a t the course was seen by the students as r e l e v a n t and helped i n c r e a s e t h e i r awareness of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . The process measures t h a t the teachers were asked to complete a l s o p r o v i d e d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y to the author of the course. The p i l o t t eachers s a i d t h a t the l e s s o n p l a n s were c l e a r , the d i s c u s s i o n format was u s e f u l 9 9 and the m a t e r i a l s were r e l e v a n t . One of the main f u n c t i o n s of the t e a c h e r process measures was to assess the problems a teacher might have i n p r e s e n t i n g the course. A f t e r com-p i l i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n from the e v a l u a t i o n forms and teacher l o g s , i t would appear t h a t the t e a c h i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were c l e a r , the hand-out m a t e r i a l s were e a s i l y understood and the q u e s t i o n s and format l e d to meaningful d i s c u s s i o n s i n the classroom. Perhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , the p i l o t i n g teachers f e l t t h a t the m a t e r i a l s and the d i s c u s s i o n s l e d to a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of student values r e g a r d i n g sex r o l e s and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . In c o n c l u s i o n , the process- measures p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the course from the viewpoints of both'students and t e a c h e r s . These measures a l s o p r o v i d e d feedback f o r the author r e g a r d i n g necessary changes and r e v i s i o n s of m a t e r i a l . L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations f o r Future Use The r e s u l t s of t h i s study a l s o show t h a t the course has c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s . The evidence suggests t h a t Grade 10 i s the most optimum grade f o r implementation of the course. Some of the concepts and m a t e r i a l s appear to be too elementary f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s . I t would a l s o appear t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the course can be l i m i t e d by the teacher. More r e s e a r c h i s needed to d i s c o v e r what f a c t o r s and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s make e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s i n the area 100 of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and women's s t u d i e s . These l i m i t a -t i o n s suggest c e r t a i n recommendations f o r f u t u r e use. The course should he implemented a t the Grade 10 l e v e l and he an e l e c t i v e course. A l s o , the i s s u e of who can most e f f e c t i v e -l y t e a c h t h i s type of course needs to be r e s o l v e d . Recommendations f o r Future Research S e v e r a l recommendations f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h can be made. I n t h i s study, i t was d i f f i c u l t to f i n d measurement instruments t h a t were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the grade l e v e l and would measure the d e s i r e d outcomes. Instruments designed f o r h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s and more s e n s i t i v e to changes i n a t t i t u d e and behavior need to be developed. The use of the Bern Sex Role Inventory may be l i m i t e d f o r t h i s type of f u t u r e e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h . At l e a s t i t i s the r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the BSRI was not an e f f e c -t i v e instrument to use i n t h i s study. When used as a p r e -t e s t measure, the r e s u l t s showed a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between m a s c u l i n i t y and androgyny. Th e r e f o r e , the BSRI d i d not gi v e separate measures of m a s c u l i n i t y , f e m i n i n i t y and androgyny as i t i s pur p o r t e d to do. Two other major i s s u e s i n e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h t h a t should be addressed are ways to measure permanent e f f e c t s and the importance of a l l o w i n g f o r u n a n t i c i p a t e d conse-quences of i n t e r v e n t i o n programs. In a s s e s s i n g the impact of any att i t u d e - c h a n g e program, an important q u e s t i o n i s "how permanent w i l l the measured changes be"? The second problem i s t h a t programs and courses may c r e a t e l a t e n t changes t h a t are not immediately evident but man i f e s t them-s e l v e s at some l a t e r time and are t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t to measure. Future r e s e a r c h should take these i s s u e s i n t o account when d e c i d i n g on measurement instruments and p l a n -n i n g data c o l l e c t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s The purpose of t h i s study was to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the course i n a c h i e v i n g i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . The o r i g i n a l course goals were to i n c r e a s e the students aware-ness of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , to make students aware of t r a d i t i o n a l s t e r e o t y p e s and encourage them to evaluate the s t e r e o t y p i n g process, and to have students p e r c e i v e the r o l e s of males and females i n a s o c i a l l y androgynous con-text-. As measured by both c o n v e n t i o n a l and experimental instruments, t h i s study concludes t h a t the course o b j e c t i v e s have been achieved f o r a m a j o r i t y of the students i n the experimental groups. A P P E N D I X I The Course TABLE OF CONTENTS Pag COURSE INTRODUCTION 1 LESSON PLANS 1 . P r e - t e s t i n g , D e f i n i t i o n s , and "Love I s " 7 2 . Role Reversal Story 10 3 . Case H i s t o r y : Cheryl 12 4 . Case H i s t o r y : Sandra 14 5 . "Prom Queen" and f i l m "Anything You Want To Be" 16 6 . I n t r o d u c t i o n to A s s e r t i v e Behaviour 18 7 . A s s e r t i v e Behaviour 24 8 . Non-Verbal and Verbal Behaviours 28 9 . A s s e r t i v e Demonstration and E x e r c i s e 30 1 0 . "Fashion as Oppression" 33 1 1 . A F u t u r i s t i c Tale "The B i g Switch" 35 1 2 . Guest Speaker: S o c i a l i z a t i o n 37 1 3 . H i s t o r i c a l Overview of the P o s i t i o n of Women 38 14. " I Want a Wife" 41 1 5 . Marriage: Past and Present 4 3 1 6 . Essay P r o j e c t : (a) "How to Hold a Husband" .. 45 1 7 . (b) "You Are Woman" 45 18. F i l m : "Happily Ever A f t e r " 47 1 9 . Guest Speaker: Women and R e l i g i o n 4 9 2 0 . Men and the Women's Movement 50 2 1 . P o s t - t e s t i n g See Other Boo 104 COURSE INTRODUCTION The twenty l e s s o n s which comprise t h i s "Canadian S o c i a l -i z a t i o n package are taken from a l a r g e r t h i r t y - t h r e e hour "Quarter" course c a l l e d Human Studie s 10 which has "been taught s i n c e 1975 a t Burnsview J u n i o r Secondary S c h o o l i n D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia. The main o b j e c t i v e of both Human S t u d i e s 10 and t h i s "Canadian S o c i a l i z a t i o n " package i s to r a i s e the awareness of h i g h s c h o o l students to the f a c t t h a t they are the .victims of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . The use of the word " v i c t i m s " may appear to be too s t r o n g because t r a d i t i o n a l l y educators and s o c i e t y have accepted these sex r o l e s as e s s e n t i a l to p e r s o n a l i t y development and f u n c t i o n . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , the p o s i t i v e value of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s has r a r e l y been questioned. However, to those readers f a m i l i a r w i t h the r e s e a r c h of Maccoby, 1 9 6 6 ; Broverman e t a l , 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 0 ; Horner, 1969? and Bern, 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 4 ; the term " v i c t i m s " w i l l d e f i n i t e l y appear reasonable, f o r d u r i n g the past t e n years these r e s e a r c h e r s have demonstrated the d e t r i m e n t a l , l i m i t i n g nature of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . T h i s course r e l i e s h e a v i l y on classroom d i s c u s s i o n f o r the l e s s o n s to be e f f e c t i v e and a s p e c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n model, designed to encourage student p a r t i c i p a t i o n , has been i n c l u d e d i n the hope t h a t teachers w i l l make use of i t . NOTE: N e i t h e r the d i s c u s s i o n model nor the a u t o c r a t i c tone of the l e s s o n plans were conceived i n order to " t e l l the teacher now to tea c h " . However, f o r the purposes of pos t t e s t 1 105 measurement i t i s necessary t h a t a c e r t a i n degree of c o n s i s t -ency be observed among those teachers who are t e s t p i l o t i n g the course. The r a t i o n a l e f o r the d i s c u s s i o n model i s based on a simple but important formula V i z . LEARNING r e s u l t s from INTEREST and i n t e r e s t r e s u l t s from INVOLVEMENT. Given the extreme d i f f i c u l t y of p l a n n i n g l e s s o n s which EVERY student f i n d s i n t e r e s t i n g , teachers should t r y to have the students commit themselves on whatever i s s u e i s being d i s -cussed i n the hope that INTEREST w i l l be sparked by INVOLVE-MENT. To t h i s end, a m a j o r i t y of the questions i n the course m a t e r i a l s are phrased i n such a manner t h a t students must: (a) form an o p i n i o n on the t o p i c under d i s c u s s i o n (b) develop reasons which support that o p i n i o n . For example: This example i s taken from Lesson 1 0 . Do you t h i n k i t i s proper f o r a woman to "pay her own way" on a date? Why or why not? 1 . D u r i n g the "seat work" p o r t i o n of Lesson 10 each student w i l l be co n f r o n t e d w i t h t h i s i s s u e and w i l l have to make a d e c i s i o n and b u t t r e s s that d e c i s i o n w i t h s u p p o r t i n g reasons which w i l l be w r i t t e n i n h i s / h e r e x e r c i s e book. 2. When t h i s i s s u e i s broached d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n of the p e r i o d , the teacher should say: "Please r a i s e your hand i f you f e e l t h a t i t is_ proper f o r a woman to 'pay her own way' on a date. The teacher r e c o r d s the number on the blackboard or over-head, then says: "Please r a i s e your hand i f you do not f e e l i t i s proper f o r a woman to 'pay her own way' on a date. 2 106 This number i s l i k e w i s e recorded on the board: Should pay own way 15 Should not pay own way 10 The e n t i r e c l a s s i s now i n v o l v e d i n the i s s u e to the extent t h a t : (a) Each student has a w r i t t e n o p i n i o n and reasons to support i t . (b) Each student has p u b l i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d , i n a show of hands, on which s i d e of the i s s u e he/she stands. Because every student i s i n v o l v e d to t h i s extent, a l l are f a i r game f o r the next q u e s t i o n which i s : "Why do you b e l i e v e t h i s ? What are your reasons?" The teacher may be g i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n by t a k i n g r a i s e d hands but can and should ask f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s from l e s s outgoing students i n t h i s manner: "X, you voted i n favour of women paying t h e i r own way, pl e a s e read us your reasons." NOTE: The teacher can make the process of classroom p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e s s traumatic f o r in s e c u r e students by walking around the c l a s s w h ile the students are doing t h e i r seat work and: (a) a d m i n i s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e re-enforcement f o r p e r c e p t i v e -answers. (b) a s c e r t a i n i n g whether a student has good s u p p o r t i n g arguments before c a l l i n g t h a t student. Three or f o u r arguments f o r each s i d e should be brought f o r t h , d i s c u s s e d and eval u a t e d by the c l a s s . Through t h i s p rocess even the q u i e t e s t student - the one who never p a r t i c i p a t e s i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s - gets to compare h i s / her p o i n t of view wi t h t h a t of the o t h e r s . I f student t h i n k i n g has, i n the o p i n i o n of the teacher, been a l t e r e d by the exchange of ideas d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n , then the teacher should summarize the p o i n t s made by e i t h e r s i d e ( j o t t i n g each major p o i n t on the board as i t comes up f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s process) and the c l a s s then r e - v o t e s on the o r i g i n a l premise. 3 lo? 6 . At t h i s p o i n t , i f d e s i r e d , the teacher may voice h i s / h e r o p i n i o n and supporting reasons. NOTE: This d i s c u s s i o n model has proved to he very e f f e c t i v e f o r " g e t t i n g the b a l l r o l l i n g " at the beginning of d i s c u s s i o n time as w e l l as f o r t r e a t i n g h i g h l y contentious but open-Ended i s s u e s . L i k e any other teaching technique, i t should not be overused. LESSON STRUCTURE Each l e s s o n i n the Canadian S o c i a l i z a t i o n course i s s t r u c t u r e d f o r a s i x t y minute p e r i o d . Each lesson: (a) begins w i t h a b r i e f review of the previous day's work which, i n a d d i t i o n to r e f r e s h i n g the students'mmemories, provides a n a t u r a l "lead i n " to the day's l e s s o n . (b) f e a t u r e s the reading of some document, short s t o r y or a r t i c l e which then forms the b a s i s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n of the p e r i o d . NOTE: Hopefully, a l l documents have been adapted so that they may be read and understood by most Grade 10 students. (c) i n v o l v e s a tea c h e r - l e d d i s c u s s i o n . Each l e s s o n p l a n contains a s e c t i o n c a l l e d " D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions" t h a t provides some h i n t s and suggestions which may a i d the teacher i n d i r e c t i n g c l a s s debate of the questions. (There are a few exceptions to t h i s p a t t e r n , notably the lessons on A s s e r t i v e Behavior.) (d) concludes w i t h a "Wrap Up" s e c t i o n t h a t gives the s t u -dent an opportunity to i n t e g r a t e any new i n f o r m a t i o n or ideas he/she has acquired w i t h h i s / h e r previous b e l i e f s regarding the t o p i c being s t u d i e d t h a t day. NOTE: I f both teacher and students are enjoying a productive d i s c u s s i o n , a d e s i r e to ignore the Wrap Up exe r c i s e may develop. I n some cases t h i s i s p e r f e c t l y acceptable. However, i n others the review which begins the c l a s s i s based on the Wrap Up from the previous lesson. I n these cases, the Wrap Up i s e s s e n t i a l . As a general r u l e , the teacher should s t r i v e to s t r u c t u r e the d i s c u s s i o n to allo w enough time f o r the l e s s o n Wrap Up. STUDENT REQUIREMENTS A l l students must have w r i t i n g equipment and an exe r c i s e book which they b r i n g to c l a s s each day. During the review 4 108 s e c t i o n of each c l a s s , these hooks should remain c l o s e d (unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d i n t h a t hour's l e s s o n p l a n ) . A l l w r i t t e n work done d u r i n g the twenty l e s s o n s - w i t h the excep-t i o n of the essay i n Lessons 1 5 and 1 6 - should he done i n t h i s hook. At l e a s t once d u r i n g the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the course, the teacher should c o l l e c t the e x e r c i s e books and examine them f o r evidence t h a t the students understand the i s s u e s t h a t the l e s s o n s are based on. I f the teacher d e s i r e s , the assessment of the e x e r c i s e book can be the b a s i s f o r a t l e a s t p a r t of an academic mark at the end of the course. HINTS THAT MIGHT HELP 1. By design, the bulk of m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s Canadian S o c i a l -i z a t i o n course d e a l w i t h the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of females. The teacher should make every e f f o r t to see t h a t male s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d a t "the other s i d e of the c o i n " to female c o n d i t i o n i n g . 2. The c l a s s may c o n t a i n one or more students who c o n s i d e r themselves to be " l i b e r a t e d . " These students might b a l k at some of the questions and/or s i t u a t i o n s presented, by s a y i n g : "But I'm not l i k e t h a t " or "This doesn't apply to me." For example, the d i s c u s s i o n of "being popular" i n Lesson 4. These students should be reminded t h a t i n most cases i t i s the t y p i c a l or average a t t i t u d e which i s  under d i s c u s s i o n . 3. Although the burden of l e s s o n p l a n n i n g and m a t e r i a l gath-e r i n g has, f o r the most p a r t , been l i f t e d from the shoulders of the teacher d u r i n g the d u r a t i o n of the course, there remains the job of c o n t a c t i n g the two guest speakers (Lessons 12 and 19)• S i n c e these speakers f u l -f i l l an important f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the course, the t e a c h e r i s s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d to a t t e n d to t h i s d e t a i l as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e to ensure t h a t i t w i l l not be overlooked u n t i l too l a t e . 5 109 4. The importance of the Wrap Up s e c t i o n of each l e s s o n w i l l v a ry from s u b j e c t area to s u b j e c t a r e a . I f "Canadian S o c i a l i z a t i o n " i s being taught as p a r t of an E n g l i s h or S o c i a l S t u d i e s course, the teacher may want to expand upon the number of paragraph assignments. On the other hand, i t i s assumed that a Guidance c l a s s would put a g r e a t e r emphasis on v e r b a l communication and i n t e r a c t i o n . FINALLY, A PERSONAL NOTE The l e s s o n s designed f o r Canadian S o c i a l i z a t i o n are based on e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s and l e n d themselves b e s t to an a n e c d o t a l t e a c h i n g technique. Whenever a p p r o p r i a t e , you as the teacher should f e e l f r e e to d i s c u s s your own e x p e r i -ences r e g a r d i n g the s u b j e c t under d i s c u s s i o n . Remember, i f one of your goals i s to achieve n o n s e x i s t behaviour on the p a r t of your students, the most e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g technique i s the behaviour t h a t i s modelled a t the f r o n t of the room. Teaching t h i s course has proved to be a most rewarding and worthwhile experience, not only i n the way t h a t the s t u -dents have responded to the s u b j e c t matter but a l s o i n the degree of t r u s t and openness t h a t has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the classroom. In my own experience, t h i s course has produced a r e a l sense of warmth and community which transcends anything I have known as an E n g l i s h or S o c i a l S t u d i e s t e a c h e r . H o p e f u l l y , your own experience w i l l prove to be e q u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g and rewarding. T h e r e f o r e , once your guest speakers are contacted and confirmed, be prepared to enjoy y o u r s e l f . 6 110 LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION: Although we might l i k e to b e l i e v e that "every-one i s an i n d i v i d u a l , " the s o c i e t y i n which we l i v e o f t e n a s c r i b e s c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to a l l males and a l l females. 'The f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the t o p i c of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . I t w i l l demonstrate to students that they themselves are v i c t i m s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g as w e l l as e x p l a i n i n g some of the various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each sex. PROCEDURE: 1. The teacher should w r i t e the f o l l o w i n g terms on the board: (a) A " r e a l lady" i s ... (b ) A " r e a l gentleman" i s . (c) A masculine man i s ... (d) A feminine woman i s (e) A bachelor i s ... (f) A s p i n s t e r i s ... 2. Students should be i n s t r u c t e d t h a t they are to provide d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the above terms. That i s , i n two or three sentences they are to describe what p i c t u r e comes  i n t o t h e i r mind w i t h each term. 10 - 15 minutes. NOTE TO THE TEACHER: Students should attempt these d e f i n i t i o n s without the help of the teacher or f e l l o w students. The teacher should not look at the students* work during the time these d e f i n i t i o n s are being w r i t t e n . 3. A f t e r the a l l o t t e d time i s up, the teacher should c a l l the a t t e n t i o n of the c l a s s to the f i r s t term (a r e a l lady) and say: "Please put your hand up i f you described a r e a l lady i n approximately these terms." ... sweet, g e n t l e , k i n d , s m i l i n g , doesn't swear, "proper" (w r i t e these on the board next to No. l a ) . IMPORTANT: Is there b a s i c agreement among c l a s s members w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n you have provided? Ask f o r one or two d e f i n i -t i o n s to be read aloud and add some of these s t e r e o t y p i c a l references to the terms already on the board. 7 I l l The teacher should f o l l o w the same steps w i t h each d e f i n i t i o n , 1. g i v i n g a g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n (provided helow) 2. checking out whether the m a j o r i t y of the c l a s s i s i n b a s i c agreement 3. e m b e l l i s h i n g each d e f i n i t i o n w i t h expressions pro-v i d e d by the c l a s s . Use these terms as the b a s i s f o r the remaining d e f i n i t i o n s . A r e a l gentleman - w e l l dressed, p o l i t e (holds doors), looks a f t e r l a d i e s , wealthy. A masculine man - st r o n g , h a i r y chested, tough, wouldn't cry.. A f:eminine woman - da i n t y , n i c e c l o t h e s ( d r e s s e s ) , d e l i c a t e , doesn't shout. A b a c h e l o r - young, a swinger, l i v e s i n an apartment (pad), f a s t car, l i k e s p a r t i e s , l o t s of g i r l f r i e n d s . A s p i n s t e r - " o l d maid", l o n e l y , wears a h a i r n e t and keeps c a t s . 4. Once the l i s t i s complete, the d i s c u s s i o n can beg i n w i t h these questions from the teacher. (a) I d i d not look a t your work while you were w r i t i n g your d e f i n i t i o n s . Why do you suppose I was able to know ( g e n e r a l l y ) how you would d e f i n e these terms? (b) Based on our d e f i n i t i o n s what are some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we i d e n t i f y w i t h each sex? (c) Since a " s p i n s t e r " i s a c t u a l l y d e f i n e d as "an un-married woman" (t h a t i s , a female b a c h e l o r ) , why do you t h i n k we see ba c h e l o r s and s p i n s t e r s i n such d i f f e r e n t ways? TEACHERS NOTE: One of the b a s i c p o i n t s which should come out of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s that s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e d t h a t women should f i n d happiness and s o c i a l acceptance i n marriage. A s i n g l e woman i s seen as o l d and l o n e l y - i n sh o r t , a f a i l u r e - wh i l e males ar e n ' t s u b j e c t to the same s o r t of p r e s s u r e because an unmarried man i s s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y d e f i n e d as a " c a r e f r e e b a c h e l o r . " 8 112 IMPORTANT: To emphasize t h i s p o i n t the teacher should ask, "How many of you have thought at a l l s e r i o u s l y about marriage i n general and the k i n d of marriage partner you want?" Compare how many g i r l s r a i s e t h e i r hands as opposed to boys. Also ask, "How many of you have s t a r t e d to c o l l e c t goods and f u r n i s h i n g s (a hope chest) f o r your f u t u r e marriage?" Again, compare the number of boys vs. g i r l s who respond. Such questions should r e v e a l to the students t h a t the pressure to consider marriage (and a fa m i l y ) i s much gre a t e r on young g i r l s than boys. The economic and career i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s f a c t should be explored i n f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i n g : (a) I f we b e l i e v e t h a t women should marry and r a i s e a f a m i l y , w i l l women workers be given the same career t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s as men? (b) Is one sex being expected to be dependent (at l e a s t f i n a n c i a l l y ) upon the other? (c) What problems may r e s u l t from such dependency? WRAP UP: In c l o s i n g , i t should be evident to the students that s o c i e t y assumes there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e between males and females w i t h regard to marriage. I n order to p i n -p o i n t other s t e r e o t y p i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i n the time remaining, the teacher should hold up the sheet c o n t a i n i n g "Love i s ..." cartoons and go over each panel w i t h the c l a s s d i s c u s s i n g the "humour" and the un d e r l y i n g assumptions about the sexes con-t a i n e d i n each cartoon. QUESTION: How many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the "Love i s . cartoons are n a t u r a l ( i n s t i n c t i v e ) q u a l i t i e s of each sex and how many are conditioned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Eg. Are g i r l s more a f r a i d of scary movies than boys? 9 113 LESSON 2 INTRODUCTION: This l e s s o n employs a r o l e r e v e r s a l s t o r y to explore the i m p l i c a t i o n s of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g on career choice and m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Students should not "be t o l d that the s t o r y they are about to read i s i n any way unusual. REVIEW: The teacher should begin t h i s l e s s o n w i t h the f o l l o w -ing q u e s t i o n . (5 minutes) (a:) Last day we discussed s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e •" • between men and women, What were some of these d i f f e r e n c e s ? L i s t these d i f f e r e n c e s on the board and discuss them b r i e f l y i n order to r e f r e s h the students* minds. Cover t h i s board ( i f p o s s i b l e ) w h i l e the students complete the next p a r t of the less o n . PROCEDURE: 1. Give each student a copy of "A Story" (green paper). T e l l them to read the a r t i c l e and - on t h e i r own - answer the accompanying questions i n t h e i r note book i n as much d e t a i l  as p o s s i b l e . I f they have problems f i g u r i n g out the mean-ing of any of the questions they should f e e l f r e e to seek help from the teacher. (20 minutes) NOTE TO TEACHER: I t may be obvious to many students t h a t t h i s i s a r o l e r e v e r s a l s t o r y but t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n should not i n any way a f f e c t t h e i r answering of the questions. 2. D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: (a) Make a l i s t on the board of 5 - 8 of the careers which the students b e l i e v e a young man would consider to be a "demanding and"useful p r o f e s s i o n . " (b) Question two concerns the i n c u l c a t i o n of subservience and s a c r i f i c e , two key elements of t r a d i t i o n a l female s t e r e o t y p i n g . I f students do not f e e l t h a t the young man i n the s t o r y r e c e i v e d good advice, l i s t on the board some of t h e i r own advice f o r him. (c) When d i s c u s s i n g question three, again, l i s t on the board 3 - 8 of the personal q u a l i t i e s which students f e e l would lead an employer to assume that a young male interviewee would probably q u i t and wasn't worth t r a i n i n g . 3. At t h i s p o i n t , e x p l a i n the r o l e r e v e r s a l nature of the s t o r y and ask the students to recon s i d e r t h e i r answers to the f i r s t three questions. That i s , 10 114 (a) beside the l i s t of pr o f e s s i o n s i n qu e s t i o n one, ask the c l a s s f o r a l i s t of s e v e r a l jobs which ( t r a d i -t i o n a l l y ) a woman might be encouraged to consider as "demanding and u s e f u l . " Compare the stat u s and economic power of these l i s t s . With which sex .do we a s s o c i a t e the best jobs? (b) When c o n s i d e r i n g the advice i n qu e s t i o n two, do these suggestions sound as strange when d i r e c t e d towards a woman as towards a man. Why? (c) I n question three, the teacher should p o i n t out that i n many cases where a woman a p p l i e s f o r a job r e -q u i r i n g serious t r a i n i n g , many employers assume that she " i s n ' t worth t r a i n i n g and w i l l tend to q u i t : -Just Because She's a Woman - Her sex alone and not any of the negative q u a l i t i e s l i s t e d on the board, i s i n i t s e l f enough to doom her to the " u n f i t f o r serious t r a i n i n g " category. NOTE TO TEACHER: This may be an opportune moment to remind students about the economic and career i m p l i c a t i o n s which res s u i t from the pressure many females f e e l , to get married and r a i s e a f a m i l y (Lasy Day's Lesson). (d) Question f o u r r a i s e s the b a s i c "nature vs. nurture" d i s c u s s i o n . Are human s o c i a l patterns the way they are because of n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t or because of s o c i e t y ' s c o n d i t i o n i n g system? For a i d i n d i s c u s s -ing t h i s t o p i c , r e f e r students back to the d e f i n i -t i o n s of "bachelor" and " s p i n s t e r " which they wrote l a s t day. Do they f e e l t h a t men are n a t u r a l l y care-f r e e and woman n a t u r a l l y l o n e l y l i v i n g outside of marriage? WRAP UP: I f time remains i n the p e r i o d a f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n of questions, ask the students to w r i t e a b r i e f paragraph i n t h e i r notebooks g i v i n g t h e i r own o p i n i o n on the t o p i c , "Which i s more important i n shaping the way I am, my n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s , or the way I was r a i s e d ? " These paragraphs can be read by the teacher (and marked) at a l a t e r date when e x e r c i s e books are c o l l e c t e d . 11 115 LESSON 3 INTRODUCTION: T h i s l e s s o n p r e s e n t s students w i t h a t y p i c a l c a r e e r v s . marriage dilemma f a c e d "by many young women approach-i n g the end of t h e i r high s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . The main g o a l of the l e s s o n i s to i s o l a t e and examine some of the press u r e s p l a c e d upon women i n t h i s s o r t of s i t u a t i o n . REVIEW: The teacher should b e g i n t h i s l e s s o n by as k i n g the c l a s s the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : (a) Last day we d i s c u s s e d some of the d i f f e r e n t a t t i -tudes which men and women ( t r a d i t i o n a l l y ) have toward marriage and a c a r e e r . What were some of these d i f f e r e n c e s ? ( L i s t on the board) (b) Do you f e e l there should be e q u a l i t y between p a r t -ners i n a marriage? E x p l a i n IMPORTANT: The teacher should now pose the i s s u e : (c) Can there be true e q u a l i t y between people when one i s f i n a n c i a l l y dependent upon the other? The v a r i o u s aspects of t h i s i s s u e should be examined i n a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n but no c o n c l u s i o n s should be e s t a b l i s h e d at t h i s time. However, students should be encouraged to keep t h i s i s s u e i n mind while r e a d -i n g and answering questions on "Cheryl::, A Case H i s t o r y . " (10 - 15 minutes) PROCEDURE: 1. The teacher should now d i s t r i b u t e copies of Case H i s t o r y : C h e r y l (on white paper) and should read over the a r t i c l e w i t h the c l a s s , s o l v i n g any problems to do w i t h the word-in g of the a r t i c l e or the meaning of the q u e s t i o n s . 2. Next, students should, i n d e t a i l , r e c o r d t h e i r answers i n t h e i r note'books. (20 - 25 minutes) 3. D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: The d i s c u s s i o n should focus around C h e r y l ' s choice of f u r t h e r i n g her educa t i o n toward a career, or e a r l y marriage to Derek. IMPORTANT: The tea c h e r can p o i n t out to the c l a s s t h a t s t a t i s -t i c a l l y the average Canadian women marries a t age twenty and tha t C h e r y l ' s dilemma c o u l d be c l o s e a t hand f o r many of them. The v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e s from Derek, C h e r y l ' s f r i e n d s , and her f a m i l y should be examined. The i s s u e "What i s b e s t f o r C h e r y l " ? i s open ended but students should be reminded to co n s i d e r i t i n l i g h t of the d i s c u s s i o n on " e q u a l i t y and f i n a n c i a l dependence" at the beginning of the c l a s s . 12 116 WRAP UP: I n any remaining time (or p o s s i b l y f o r homework) each student should w r i t e a paragraph e n t i t l e d : " E a r l y Marriage or a Career: My O p i n i o n and My P l a n s . " The teacher should c o l l e c t these ( e i t h e r a t the end of the p e r i o d or a t the beginning of the next) and evaluate them to see whether the i s s u e s r a i s e d i n the f i r s t three l e s s o n s have provoked c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g on the p a r t of the s t u d e n t s . 13 117 LESSON 4 INTRODUCTION: Up t i l l now, students have been f a c e d w i t h s i t u a t i o n s which i n v o l v e the f u t u r e - marriage, a c a r e e r s e t c . Today's l e s s o n i s b u i l t around a common hig h s c h o o l problem concerning s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The main g o a l of the l e s s o n i s to encourage the students t o r e - e v a l u a t e these s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n l i g h t of the course m a t e r i a l . REVIEW: The tea c h e r should b e g i n t h i s l e s s o n by ask i n g the f o l l o w i n g review q u e s t i o n s : (a) L a s t day we examined a dilemma f a c e d by many young women as they reach the end of hig h s c h o o l . What was i t ? (b) What was the a t t i t u d e of many of C h e r y l ' s f r i e n d s to t h i s problem? (c) How many of you t h i n k t h a t Derek's c l o s e f r i e n d s would have put pressure on him to marry C h e r y l i f they thought he was undecided? (d) Why or why not? NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The p o i n t to be brought out here i s t h a t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , a man i s con s i d e r e d " s u c c e s s f u l " i f he pursues an economically rewarding c a r e e r . By these same t r a d i t i o n a l standards, a woman i s con s i d e r e d " s u c c e s s f u l " i f she mar r i e s and r a i s e s a f a m i l y . IMPORTANT: The teacher should now r a i s e the i s s u e : (e) Is i t n a t u r a l ( i n s t i n c t v s . c o n d i t i o n i n g ) f o r g i r l s to c o n s i d e r themselves a success i f they "get a man" e a r l y i n l i f e ? Once again, there should be no attempt to r e s o l v e t h i s i s s u e at t h i s p o i n t , merely to d i s c u s s i t s v a r i o u s aspects and to keep i t i n mind w h i l e r e a d i n g Case H i s t o r y : Sandra. A l s o , i f there are students who c l a i m t h a t " g e t t i n g a man" i s n ' t an important aspect of high s c h o o l l i f e , pose the f o l l o w i n g ques-t i o n to the c l a s s : Which g i r l s have hig h e r s t a t u s around the s c h o o l (a) those who have good grades (b) those who do w e l l a t s p o r t s (c) those who can a t t r a c t h i g h s t a t u s boys as dates (e.g. f o o t b a l l or hockey team c a p t a i n s ) . (This review and d i s c u s s i o n should take 15 minutes) 14 118 PROCEDURE: 1. At t h i s p o i n t the teacher should d i s t r i b u t e copies of Case H i s t o r y : Sandra (on pink p a p e r ) . The teacher should read i t along w i t h the c l a s s , s o l v i n g i n the p r o c ess, any d i f f i c u l t i e s i n understanding the a r t i c l e or the meaning of the q u e s t i o n s . 2. Students should then proceed to answer the questions i n t h e i r notebooks. (20 minutes) 3. D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: (a) The main p o i n t to be emphasized d u r i n g t h i s d i s c u s -s i o n i s that a c h i e v i n g success by "being popular" and " p l a y i n g the d a t i n g game" by t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e s , encourages young people to r e l a t e d i s h o n e s t l y ("play games")- w i t h those around them. NOTE TO THE TEACHER: L i s t on the board the q u a l i t i e s which the students f e e l are i n v o l v e d i n "being p o p u l a r " . Question: Do these q u a l i t i e s i n v o l v e masking what a p e r s o n i s and what t h a t person b e l i e v e s i n order to be l i k e d ? I f p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s one of the elements i n v o l v e d i n " p o p u l a r i t y " , c o n s i d e r " f a l s i e s " , f a l s e eyelashes, f a l s e f i n g e r n a i l s , e t c . A l s o , might not "going along w i t h what others say i n order to be l i k e d , r a t h e r than s t a n d i n g up f o r t h a t which one b e l i e v e s " be j u s t a case of p r e s e n t i n g a f a l s e f r o n t ? (b) Another i s s u e which should be r a i s e d d u r i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n concerns male and female a t t i t u d e s toward f r i e n d s h i p s . ( i ) Do g i r l s m a i n t a i n a steady c i r c l e of f r i e n d s once they b e g i n d a t i n g or do they g e n e r a l l y g r a v i t a t e to t h e i r b o y f r i e n d ' s c i r c l e of f r i e n d s a t the expense of long h e l d r e l a t i o n -s h i p s ? ( i i ) I f so, why? Comparing male and female answers to q u e s t i o n f o u r c o u l d b r i n g t h i s i s s u e more i n t o the open f o r d i s c u s s i o n . WRAP UP: In any time remaining ask students to c o n s i d e r t h i s i s s u e : Is i t more important f o r a person to develop a s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y ( s e l f - c o n c e p t ) or to t r y to l i v e up to the e x p e c t a t i o n s of others i n order to "get along"? Students should l i s t s e v e r a l advantages of the o p i n i o n they support and s e v e r a l disadvantages of the o t h e r . 15 119 LESSON 5 INTRODUCTION: Because of the t i g h t sequencing of events e s s e n t i a l to t h i s l e sson, the teacher must pay close a t t e n t i o n to the clock to ensure t h a t both the a r t i c l e "On Being a Prom Queen" and the f i l m Anything You Want To Be are discussed adequately. This may mean " s h u t t i n g down" a good c l a s s d i s -c u s sion but such a c t i o n may be necessary so tha t the o v e r a l l impact of the l e s s o n can be acheived. REVIEW: The teacher should begin w i t h the f o l l o w i n g review questions: (5 minutes) (a) Last day we discussed the q u a l i t i e s necessary f o r a person to be "popular" i n high s c h o o l . What were some of these q u a l i t i e s ? The teacher should l i s t these on the board. (b) With t h i s l i s t i n mind, are there some ways tha t high school p o p u l a r i t y might be a disadvantage i n a d j u s t i n g to a d u l t l i f e ? (c) E x p l a i n . PROCEDURE: 1. The teacher should d i s t r i b u t e copies of "On Being a Prom Queen" and read i t over w i t h the c l a s s to make c e r t a i n t h a t the a r t i c l e and the questions are c l e a r l y understood. The students should then answer the questions i n t h e i r books. (10 minutes) NOTE TO THE TEACHER: While the students are working on t h i s e x e r c i s e the teacher should ensure t h a t the f i l m is. s et up and ready to go so that no teaching time i s taken up by t h i s a c t i v i t y . 2. D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: The emphasis on p h y s i c a l appearance and p a s s i v i t y ( w a i t i n g to be "chosen" as opposed to going out and doing) should be brought out i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . A l s o , any p a r a l l e l s between the Prom Queen and Sandra ( l a s t day's lesson) could be explored. (15 minutes) 3. Show the f i l m Anything You Want To Be and encourage the students to i d e n t i f y some of the many " r o l e s " that women are pressured to pl a y i n our s o c i e t y . 16 120. 4. At the c o n c l u s i o n of the f i l m the teacher should l e a d a d i s c u s s i o n based around the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : (a) At what p o i n t i n the f i l m are the g i r l ' s parents most proud of her? Why here? (b) At the end of the f i l m , the g i r l " t r i e s on" the va r i o u s d i f f e r e n t r o l e s a woman i s "supposed" to be, yet she screams i n f r u s t r a t i o n when the final.." words "be y o u r s e l f " are spoken. Why might she r e a c t t h i s way? (c) How i s the g i r l i n t h i s f i l m s i m i l a r to the Prom Queen? (d) I f being a s u c c e s s f u l woman does not equal " c a t c h i n g a man" how might you d e f i n e t h i s term? WRAP UP: I f students are agreed t h a t much of "being a woman" i n the t r a d i t i o n a l way i n v o l v e s d e c e p t i o n of some form or another, then i n the time remaining (or f o r homework) ask the students to w r i t e down t h e i r own ideas about how people can overcome these deceptions and achieve open and honest communi-c a t i o n . A l s o , they should decide whether t h i s i s something to be v a l u e d . 17 1 2 1 TEACHER'S INTRODUCTION TO ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR The purpose of t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n i s to give teachers some background i n f o r m a t i o n on the theory and o b j e c t i v e s of a s s e r -t i v e t r a i n i n g . A s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g was once c o n f i n e d to the c o u n s e l l o r ' s o f f i c e i n v o l v i n g a one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p and b a s i c a l l y seen as a b e h a v i o u r i s t i c approach to c o u n s e l l i n g . But, w h ile both of the above are t r u e , a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i s now expanding i n two ways: f i r s t l y , i t i s being taught more i n group s i t u a t i o n s , i n v o l v i n g a wider range of people i n -c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s . Secondly, a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i s not only b e h a v i o u r i s t i c , but i s a l s o humanistic i n i t s approach. There i s a g r e a t d e a l of empathizing i n a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g as the i n s t r u c t o r l i s t e n s and r e f l e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s and group's f e e l i n g s of f e a r , anger, and/or i n a b i l i t y to show a f f e c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i s now being i n t r o d u c e d to students i s not o n l y encouraging, but i s another step i n h e l p i n g young people to grow. The whole i d e a behind a s s e r -t i v e t r a i n i n g i s s i m p l e . I t c h a l l e n g e s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f system c o n t a i n i n g h i s or her s e l f - c o n c e p t . I n d i v i d u a l s who are unsure of themselves and l a c k confidence r e a c t to t h e i r environment p a s s i v e l y and u n a s s e r t i v e l y whereas the opposite i s true f o r those who are s e l f - a s s u r e d and c o n f i d e n t . Thus, a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g a t t a c k s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s of not b e i ng an O.K. person. Rather, a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g em-p h a s i z e s p e r s o n a l r i g h t s and the importance of knowing t h a t one has power i n the presence of a s s e r t i v e or a g g r e s s i v e people. 1 8 122 I t does t h i s hy teaching people open, honest, d i r e c t communi-c a t i o n . I n essence, a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i s a form of communi-c a t i o n , not a method to manipulate others to get what you want. A person may not always get what they want when being asser-t i v e . What i s achieved i s the s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l has expressed h i s or h e r s e l f i n a d i r e c t manner. Becoming a s s e r t i v e , however, does not appear i n s t a n t l y . Because new behaviours not contained i n the i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e p e r t o i r e must be learned, the i n d i v i d u a l may take months before he or she f e e l s comfortable w i t h one new a s s e r t i v e be-haviour. The p o i n t , t h e r e f o r e , i s that one who i n s t r u c t s a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g cannot expect h i s or her students to be able to act a s s e r t i v e l y a f t e r the f i r s t few les s o n s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l to po i n t t h i s out to the students as w e l l . What then, are the o b j e c t i v e s of an a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g course f o r students? The o b j e c t i v e s are as f o l l o w s : 1 . To have students become aware of t h e i r f e e l -ings and how they de a l w i t h them. How do they handle t h e i r anger, f e e l i n g s of being mad, hurt or happy? I n what s i t u a t i o n s do these f e e l i n g s occur?; 2 . To demonstrate to students e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a -t i v e approaches i n d e a l i n g w i t h a n x i e t y - p r o -ducing s i t u a t i o n s ; and 3 . To a s s i s t i n changing the students' b e l i e f t h a t i t i s masculine f o r a g i r l to express anger and feminine f o r a boy to show a f f e c -t i o n . I n our s o c i e t y , the m a j o r i t y of women are brought up to be h e l p l e s s and passive and suppress t h e i r anger while the m a j o r i t y of men are s o c i a l i z e d to be dominant, com-p e t i t i v e , and aggressive and are taught not to d i s p l a y open a f f e c t i o n ( N i c h o l s , 1975)• A s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g teaches i n d i v i d u a l s to express both p o s i t i v e and negative f e e l i n g s r e g a r d l e s s of sex. 19 123 In a c h i e v i n g these o b j e c t i v e s , i t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t , as an a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i n s t r u c t o r , you provide y o u r s e l f as a model of a s s e r t i o n . Modeling has been shown to be a key f a c t o r i n a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g (Flowers and Goldman, 1 9 7 6 ; L i n , 1 9 7 3 ; and Strong and Schmidt, 1 9 7 0 ) - Consequently, awareness of your f e e l i n g s , your knowledge of a s s e r t i o n , and the a b i l i t y to e f f e c t i v e l y observe the d i f f e r e n c e s between aggressive, asser-t i v e , and nonassertive behaviour as w e l l as being able to communicate a s s e r t i v e l y , cannot be over-emphasized. A s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g i s by no means the only method used to help i n d i v i d u a l s to communicate more e f f e c t i v e l y and a s s i s t them i n becoming aware of how they r e a c t i n various s i t u a t i o n s . However, i t i s of the authors' o p i n i o n and from t h e i r e x p e r i -ence i n working w i t h high school students, t h a t a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g does work. Moreover, a s s e r t i v e t r a i n i n g lessons have been evaluated by students as enjoyable and i n s i g h t f u l . I t i s hoped that the f o l l o w i n g lessons w i l l a l s o be enjoyable and i n s i g h t f u l f o r both you, the i n s t r u c t o r , and your students. NOTE TO THE TEACHER; The authors recognize that these lessons can be d i f f i c u l t to teach and th r e a t e n i n g to students. We recommend that the teacher preview the l e s s o n plans and think h i s / h e r own anecdotes to add and p r a c t i c e the examples and demonstration. I f time permits, some of the suggested readings might be h e l p f u l . As already mentioned, these lessons can be th r e a t e n i n g 20 124 to s t u d e n t s . However, the f i r s t f i v e l e ssons are d i s c u s s i o n o r i e n t e d and designed to he nonthreatening. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s hoped t h a t d u r i n g these l e s s o n s an atmosphere of t r u s t w i l l be developed. Once e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s atmosphere w i l l help the students p e r c e i v e the l e s s o n s on a s s e r t i v e behaviour as l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g . 21 125 LESSON 6 INTRODUCTION TO ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR TEACHER INTRODUCTION: There are many common, everyday s i t u -a t i o n s where people don't say what they r e a l l y t h i n k or f e e l or where people end up doing something they didn't want to do or not doing something they wanted to do. Often, these s i t u -a t i o n s r e s u l t because people are a f r a i d to express t h e i r f e e l -i n g s , they are not d i r e c t , honest and a s s e r t i v e . The o b j e c t i v e of the f i r s t l e s s o n i s to show students how common these s i t u -a t i o n s are. Three s i t u a t i o n s are l i s t e d below. A student handout accompanies t h i s l e s s o n w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s to the students to respond to the s i t u a t i o n s r e a l i s t i c a l l y . (They should w r i t e t h e i r responses on the handout.) A. Three s i t u a t i o n s . (1) On F r i d a y , a f r i e n d asks you to go somewhere on Sunday. You've had a busy week and you're going out on Saturday n i g h t . You've been l o o k i n g forward to s l e e p i n g i n on Sunday and then you're going to do some studying. You r e a l l y don't want to go any-where. What would you say or do? (2) You're i n a lin e u p at the drugstore and people are w a i t i n g f o r you o u t s i d e . You're i n a hurry. An ol d e r student you know to see but not to t a l k t o , butt s i n f r o n t of you. What would you say or do? (3) You're going out w i t h your best f r i e n d on F r i d a y n i g h t . This i s something you've been planning a l l week. Another person asks i f he/she can come along. You l i k e t h i s person but you r e a l l y don't want him/ her to come. What would you say or do? B. Discuss the students' w r i t t e n responses to the s i t u a t i o n s . At t h i s p o i n t the teacher should paraphrase or summarize the student responses but make no comments or value judgements. C. D i s c u s s i o n Questions. NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The purpose of questions one and two i s to have the students commit themselves to a p o s i t i o n . A f t e r reading questions one and two, have the students r a i s e t h e i r hands and vote e i t h e r yes or no. The yes-no votes can be t a l l i e d on the board. 22 126 (1) How many people i n the c l a s s b e l i e v e t h a t s t r a i g h t and honest communication w i t h other people i s a good idea? (2) How many people were s t r a i g h t and honest i n a l l the above s i t u a t i o n s ? (3) What are some of the reasons f o r not e x p r e s s i n g o u r s e l v e s honestly? Comment: The u s u a l answers the students come up w i t h r e v o l v e around the dilemma of honesty as opposed to h u r t i n g someone's f e e l i n g s . (4) NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The dilemma mentioned above o f t e n p l a c e s people i n a double b i n d . Although most people w i l l t e l l "white l i e s " or " f i b " to r e f r a i n from h u r t i n g others, most people would a l s o l i k e others to be d i r e c t and honest w i t h them. The purpose of q u e s t i o n f o u r i s to have students examine these f e e l i n g s through r e v e r s i n g the r o l e s i n s i t u a t i o n s l i k e the above. (a) In a s i t u a t i o n where you ask a f r i e n d to do something, do you know when he/she r e a l l y doesn't want to? (b) Do you f e e l uncomfortable a t times because you t h i n k your f r i e n d s are l y i n g or j u s t not t e l l i n g you how they r e a l l y f e e l ? (c) Would you p r e f e r your f r i e n d s to be honest or would you r a t h e r not know how they r e a l l y f e e l ? SUMMARY: There are no r i g h t or wrong answers i n the above s i t u a t i o n s and no hard and f a s t r u l e s . Every s i t u a t i o n and every i n d i v i d u a l are d i f f e r e n t . The purpose of t h i s p a r t of the course i s to expl o r e and d i s c u s s a means of communication t h a t i s d i r e c t and honest but every i n d i v i d u a l w i l l decide i f , when and how he/she might use i t . 23 127 LESSON 7 ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR REVIEW QUESTIONS; 1. What was the main i d e a of lasjs day's lesson? 2. What were some of the reasons g i v e n f o r not e x p r e s s i n g o u r s e l v e s h o n e s t l y ? TEACHER INTRODUCTION; The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s l e s s o n i s to help students understand the d i f f e r e n c e s between a g g r e s s i v e , a s s e r -t i v e and p a s s i v e behaviours. A l s o , by comparing a s s e r t i v e be-h a v i o u r w i t h p a s s i v e and a g g r e s s i v e behaviours, the meaning of a s s e r t i v e n e s s becomes more c l e a r . (1) Put the f o l l o w i n g notes and c h a r t on the board or on an overhead p r o j e c t o r . NOTES; People can choose t h e i r b e h aviours. I f you want to be d i r e c t , honest and not p l a y games, ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR can help you achieve these g o a l s . AGGRESSIVE ASSERTIVE PASSIVE NOTE TO THE TEACHER; The o b j e c t i v e i s to e l i c i t the informa-t i o n from the students and w r i t e i t i n the a p p r o p r i a t e column. Depending on the c l a s s and the age group, i t might be necessary to d i s c u s s and b r i e f l y d e f i n e a g g r e s s i v e and p a s s i v e . The three f o l l o w i n g questions should e l i c i t t y p i c a l p a s s i v e and a g g r e s s i v e behaviours. Then by comparing t y p i c a l a g g r e s s i v e and p a s s i v e behaviours, the students can see what behaviours would be c o n s i d e r e d a s s e r t i v e . Questions: 1. What behaviours are c o n s i d e r e d p a s s i v e ? Comment: Some t y p i c a l examples are l e t t i n g people walk over you, never s a y i n g no, whining, doing t h i n g s you don't want to do, being a doormat, being v e r y dependent on o t h e r s , e t c . 24 128 2. What behaviours are c o n s i d e r e d a g g r e s s i v e ? Comment: Some t y p i c a l examples are s e l f i s h n e s s , dominating, h u r t i n g o t h e r s , not c a r i n g about o t h e r s , b u l l y i n g , e t c . 3. What behaviours would be co n s i d e r e d a s s e r t i v e ? Comment: Some t y p i c a l examples are s t a n d i n g up f o r your r i g h t s , b e i n g independent, doing what you want to do without h u r t i n g o t h e r s , being d i r e c t , b e i n g honest about your f e e l i n g s , e t c . A f t e r the students have f i l l e d i n the cha r t and the teacher has added any p o i n t s t h a t he/she f e e l s are r e l e v a n t , the tea c h e r can add the f o l l o w i n g comments. Aggressive behaviours u s u a l l y f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t a g g r e s s i o n . (These can be added a t the top of the chart) The tea c h e r can then give examples of these two d i f f e r -ent types of a g g r e s s i v e behaviours. For example: D i r e c t a g g r e s s i o n u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s h u r t i n g an-other person, e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or v e r b a l l y . I n d i r e c t a g g r e s s i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the pers o n who say, "No, I'm not mad," and then goes i n t o h i s / h e r room, slams the door and s t a r t s throwing t h i n g s around. P a s s i v e behaviours a l s o f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , g e n e r a l and s i t u a t i o n a l . (These can a l s o be added to the chart) For example: Very few people are g e n e r a l l y p a s s i v e or non-a s s e r t i v e . An example of t h i s type of person i s the doormat. Most people are s i t u a t i o n a l l y p a s s i v e or n o n a s s e r t i v e . I n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s they can be very a s s e r t i v e w h i l e i n other s i t u a t i o n s , they can be ve r y p a s s i v e . Many people i n our c u l t u r e v a c i l l a t e between ag g r e s s i v e and pa s s i v e behaviours. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , men are o f t e n more aggres-s i v e and women are more p a s s i v e . Handout: The next p a r t of the l e s s o n i n v o l v e s a handout c a l l e d " A s s e r t i v e Behaviour: P o i n t s to Keep i n Mind." This handout can be d i s c u s s e d and r e l e v a n t teacher experience and in p u t can be added. Included w i t h the teacher handout are some a d d i t i o n -a l notes which might be u s e f u l . 25 129 TEACHER HANDOUT ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR: POINTS TO KEEP IN MIND 1 . Unlike aggressive behaviour, a s s e r t i v e behaviour does not i n v o l v e h u r t i n g another person. The i n t e n t of aggressive behaviour i s to hu r t . Although people may be i n a d v e r t a n t l y hurt by a s s e r t i v e behaviour t h a t i s not the i n t e n t i o n . 2 . A s s e r t i v e behaviour i n v o l v e s expressing your r i g h t s and your needs. Everyone has r i g h t s and needs and the theory behind a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g s t a t e s t h a t everyone has a r i g h t to express these r i g h t s and needs. This doesn't mean t h a t the r i g h t s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be granted and the needs met. 3. A s s e r t i v e behaviour aims at making the power between two people equal. Assertiveness encourages e q u a l i t y and d i s -courages top dog - under dog r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t e n i n v o l v e aggressive and passive p a r t -ners r a t h e r than equals. 4. A s s e r t i v e behaviour doesn't always get you what you want. Often people see as s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g and a s s e r t i v e behaviour as manipulative. The f o l l o w i n g two p o i n t s demonstrate that a s s e r t i v e behaviours are not manipu-l a t i v e techniques. 5 . Remember: Other people have the r i g h t to respond to you a s s e r t i v e l y , t h a t . i s , i n the same way. 6 . So, a s s e r t i v e behaviour may r e s u l t i n coming to a compro-mise. I n f a c t , a s s e r t i v e behaviour encourages a l o t of compromise. 7. A s s e r t i v e behaviour opens the way f o r d i r e c t and honest communication. 8. A s s e r t i v e behaviour i s not only concerned w i t h what you say but also w i t h how you say i t . The le s s o n f o l l o w i n g t h i s one focuses on t h i s p o i n t . The v e r b a l and nonverbal behaviours a s s o c i a t e d w i t h aggressive, passive and asser-t i v e behaviour are discussed i n some d e t a i l . A u s e f u l demonstration can be i n s e r t e d here to i l l u s t r a t e the above p o i n t . The teacher walks up to a member of the c l a s s and says, "I'm r e a l l y angry w i t h you." When the teacher says t h i s , he/she looks r e l a x e d and i s s m i l i n g . Then he/she asks the students f o r t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the above demonstration. This u s u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s the concept i n v o l v e d . 2 6 A s s e r t i v e "behaviour i s a s k i l l t h a t needs f r e q u e n t p r a c t i c e to work. A s s e r t i v e behaviour does not nec-e s s a r i l y come e a s i l y . Once the student becomes aware-of the s i t u a t i o n s where he/she would l i k e to be more a s s e r t i v e , then frequent p r a c t i c e i s necessary. 27 131 LESSON 8 NON-VERBAL AND VERBAL BEHAVIOURS REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. L a s t day we were d i s c u s s i n g a d i r e c t and honest method of communication. What was i t c a l l e d ? 2. ril What are some a s s e r t i v e "behaviours? TEACHER INTRODUCTION: The o b j e c t i v e of Lesson 8 i s to demon-s t r a t e t h a t both what you say and how you say i t , are important aspects of a s s e r t i v e behaviour. A teacher's handout i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l e s s o n p l a n . I t des-c r i b e s , i n more d e t a i l than the student handout, the behaviours to observe and encourage when p r a c t i c i n g a s s e r t i v e behaviour. The student handout i n c l u d e d w i t h t h i s l e s s o n d e s c r i b e s non-v e r b a l and v e r b a l behaviours f o r the students to be aware of when p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the r o l e - p l a y i n g e x e r c i s e of the f o l l o w -i n g l e s s o n . 1. D i s t r i b u t e and d i s c u s s the student handout. NOTE .TO THE TEACHER: The nonverbal behaviours are d i s -cussed f i r s t . The a s s e r t i v e behaviours are o u t l i n e d and the n o n a s s e r t i v e behaviour s e c t i o n s are blank. Through d i s c u s s i o n and examples, both the teacher and the s t u -dents f i l l i n the n o n a s s e r t i v e behaviours s e c t i o n . I n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , teacher demonstrations of both the a s s e r t i v e and n o n a s s e r t i v e behaviours are o f t e n u s e f u l . Important: Both student and teacher i n p u t are important i n t h i s l e s s o n . This adds humour and a shared sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n to what would other-wise be a mechanical, teacher o r i e n t e d l e s s o n . 2. D i s c u s s i o n Notes to use w i t h handout, Non-Verbal and V e r b a l Behaviour. I NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOURS A. Eye Contact (2) Nonassertive behaviours: Some t y p i c a l examples are - l o o k i n g a t the ' f l o o r , the c e i l i n g , be-hind the person. A good d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n i s : How do you f e e l when someone i s t a l k i n g to you and he/ she does not look you i n the eye? 28 132 B. Posture (2) Nonassertive behaviours: Some t y p i c a l exam-pl e s are - sl o u c h i n g , slumped i n a c h a i r . C. Gestures and P h y s i c a l Movement Comment: I t i s e a s i e r to examine the non-assertive behaviours and get the students to supply examples and then look at the opposite behaviours f o r the a s s e r t i v e s e c t i o n . (2) Nonassertive behaviours: Some t y p i c a l exam-ples are - f o o t s h u f f l i n g , hand wringing, r i n g t w i s t i n g , hands on h i p s , f i n g e r p o i n t i n g (the l a t t e r examples are aggressive g e s t u r e s ) . Comment: A f t e r students have g i v e n examples, two good d i s c u s s i o n questions are: How do you f e e l when .... ? What do you t h i n k about the other person when ? D. F a c i a l Expression (2) Nonassertive behaviours: A good example to use here i s one used p r e v i o u s l y . Someone i s s m i l i n g and saying how angry he/she i s . I I VERBAL BEHAVIOURS The a s s e r t i v e behaviours are discussed. Nonassertive behaviours: Some t y p i c a l examples are -babbling n e r v i o u s l y , t a l k i n g i n a loud or squeaky v o i c e , using a l o t of urns, ahs, s o r t o f s , and maybes. C. S e t t i n g up the demonstration and the r o l e - p l a y i n g e x e r c i s e . NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The l e s s o n that f o l l o w s i n v o l v e s a teacher demonstration and r o l e - p l a y i n g e x e r c i s e . The r o l e s are described i n the f o l l o w i n g handout. There are three r o l e s : THE ACTOR, THE OTHER, AND THE OBSERVER. (See student handout) A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the handout, the teacher can organize the groups i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r next days l e s s o n . During the f o l l o w -i n g l esson, the students w i l l be working i n groups of three. I n the time remaining, the teacher can place the students i n groups of three or allo w them to choose t h e i r group. 29 LESSON 9 DEMONSTRATION AND EXERCISE REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. When being a s s e r t i v e , what nonverbal behaviours are im-po r t a n t ? 2. When being a s s e r t i v e , what v e r b a l behaviours are impor-t a n t ? NOTE TO THE TEACHER: When i n d i v i d u a l s f i r s t p r a c t i c e asser-; t i v e behaviours i n simulated s i t u a t i o n s , they o f t e n f e e l phoney and mechanical. The teacher can e x p l a i n t h i s and encourage them to t r y the behaviours, r e g a r d l e s s of how un n a t u r a l they f e e l . The students should a l s o be reminded t h a t these are p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n s . No one i s t e l l i n g them t h a t t h i s i s how they "should" behave i n order to be a s s e r t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s should be w r i t t e n on the board or the overhead p r o j e c t o r a t the be g i n n i n g of the p e r i o d . Once the groups have been organized the s i t u a t i o n s can be looked at and the i n s t r u c t i o n s can be g i v e n . Three S i t u a t i o n s : 1. Someone asks you to do some a c t i v i t y t h a t you r e a l l y don't enjoy, e.g. t e n n i s , swimming, hockey. You r e a l l y don't want to go. How would you r e f u s e ? 2. You've been g i v e n two f r e e t i c k e t s to a movie and there's a g i r l / g u y t h a t you r e a l l y l i k e and want to go out w i t h . How would you ask him/her f o r a date? 3 . You've been going around w i t h someone f o r s i x months but now you've decided you want to go out w i t h other people. How would you break up? PROCEDURE: (NOTE TO THE TEACHER) An o u t l i n e of the procedure can be put on the board to a s s i s t the s t u d e n t s . In t h e i r groups of three, each person chooses one of the three r o l e s f o r the f i r s t e x e r c i s e . The person who i s the a c t o r chooses which of the three s i t u a t i o n s he/she wants to a c t out. The a c t o r a c t s out the s i t u a t i o n i n two d i f f e r e n t ways. F i r s t - The a c t o r demonstrates how he/she would normally a c t i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n . Then the observer asks both the a c t o r and the o t h e r how they f e l t d u r i n g the s i t u a t i o n . The purpose of t h i s i s to help the a c t o r become aware of h i s / h e r f e e l i n g s and the impact he/she has on the other. 30 134 Secondly - The a c t o r demonstrates the same s i t u a t i o n , u s i n g a s s e r t i v e b e haviours. Again, the observer asks how the a c t o r and the other f e l t , but i n a d d i t i o n can make suggestions and giv e p o s i t i v e feedback to the a c t o r . The a c t o r can re p e a t the demonstration a f t e r the feedback. DEMONSTRATION: A f t e r the i n s t r u c t i o n s have been g i v e n , (these can be confus-i n g and student questions f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n purposes should be encouraged) the teacher g i v e s a demonstration. He/she chooses one of the three s i t u a t i o n s to a c t out. A student p l a y s the r o l e of the'other and the c l a s s p l a y s the r o l e of observer. The teacher should f o l l o w the above procedure and encourage the c o r r e c t observer questions and responses. EXERCISE: The groups f o l l o w the above procedure and then switch r o l e s so t h a t at the c o n c l u s i o n of the l e s s o n everyone has p l a y e d a l l three r o l e s . Each d i f f e r e n t a c t o r can choose a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n i f he/she chooses. SUMMARY: Some suggested d i s c u s s i o n questions a re: 1 . How d i d you f e e l d u r i n g the r o l e - p l a y ? 2. Was b e i n g a a s s e r t i v e easy or d i f f i c u l t ? 3 . Was any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t than the others? 4 . How many of you f e e l t h a t you l e a r n e d something from the e x e r c i s e ? NOTE TO THE TEACHER: Have students r a i s e d t h e i r hands? 5. How co u l d a s s e r t i v e behaviour be h e l p f u l i n d e a l i n g w i t h your f r i e n d s and your f a m i l y ? 31 135 SUMMARY NOTE TO THE TEACHER ON ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOURS: Since one of the important elements i n l e a r n i n g a s s e r t i v e "behaviour i s p r a c t i c e , the teacher should encourage a s s e r t i v e behaviours during the r e s t of the course. Several o p p o r t u n i t i e s to do t h i s w i l l a r i s e i n f u t u r e d i s c u s s i o n s . When these s i t u a t i o n s occur, the teacher can remind the students about these lessons and encourage them to be d i r e c t and a s s e r t i v e i n classroom d i s c u s s i o n s and avoid aggressive, passive and "game p l a y i n g " behaviours. Teachers can also p o i n t out and r e - i n f o r c e a s s e r t i v e be-haviours as they occur i n the classroom. For example, i f someone asks f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n an a s s e r t i v e manner, the teacher can say, "That's a very a s s e r t i v e way to ask a ques-t i o n . I l i k e t h a t . " As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g reinforcement, t h i s w i l l perhaps encourage other students to t r y a s s e r t i v e behaviours i n the classroom. Some of the a s s e r t i v e m a t e r i a l s have been adapted from the f o l l o w i n g sources: A l b e r t i , R. and Emmons, E. Your P e r f e c t Right: A Guide to  A s s e r t i v e Behaviour. Impact P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., San Lui s Obispo, 1 9 7 4 . Fensterheim, R. and Baer, J . Don't Say Yes When You Want to Say No. D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., New York, 1 9 7 5 . Manderino, Mary Ann. E f f e c t s of a Group A s s e r t i v e T r a i n i n g Procedure on Undergraduate Women. Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Arizona State U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 . Smith, M.J. When I Say No I Fe e l G u i l t y . D i a l Press, New York, 1 9 7 5 . Classroom m a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d by Sharon Kahn, Ph.D., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 32 LESSON 10 INTRODUCTION: T h i s l e s s o n concerns two aspects of the s o c i a l -i z a t i o n p r o c e s s : (1) D i f f e r e n t male and female a t t i t u d e s toward f a s h i o n . (2) The ap p r o p r i a t e n e s s of "making a pass" a t someone. During the d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n of t h i s hour, students w i l l he able to experiment w i t h t h e i r newly a c q u i r e d a s s e r t i v e n e s s s k i l l s . REVIEW: The teacher should ask the f o l l o w i n g review q u e s t i o n a t the o u t s e t of the c l a s s . (1) I n the l a s t f o u r lessons, we have been s t u d y i n g a s s e r t i v e , n o n a s s e r t i v e , and a g g r e s s i v e behaviour. What are some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each type of behaviour? To adequately r e f r e s h the students' minds, these charac-t e r i s t i c s should be l i s t e d on the board. PROCEDURE: (1) The teacher d i s t r i b u t e s copies of "Fashion as Oppression" (white paper) and allows 20 minutes f o r the c l a s s to read the a r t i c l e and answer the ques-t i o n s . (2) D i s c u s s i o n of Questions (a) A f t e r the students have d i s c u s s e d t h e i r r e -a c t i o n s to ques t i o n s one and two, the teacher should i n i t i a t e a r o l e p l a y of the s i t u a t i o n ( p o s s i b l y two or three c o n s e c u t i v e ones i n -v o l v i n g v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s ) . Important: I f c l a s s members are w i l l i n g to do so, the te a c h e r should organize one or two r o l e r e -v e r s a l s i t u a t i o n s i n which a male student has to fend o f f the advances of a p r e d a t o r y female. NOTE TO THE TEACHER: To a v o i d p o s s i b l e phone c a l l s to the s c h o o l and to prevent the e x e r c i s e from becoming a complete f a r c e , the teacher i s advised to assume the r o l e of the " d i r t y o l d man/woman" ( i t may even b:e type c a s t i n g ! ) when the r o l e a r i s e s . The d i s c u s s i o n of how the p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t d u r i n g the r o l e p l a y ( e s p e c i a l l y of how the male was o b v i o u s l y 3 3 137 uncomfortable) may prove i n t e r e s t i n g and w i l l p r o v i d e a n a t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n to d i s c u s s i o n of q u e s t i o n t h r e e . (b) Questions f o u r and f i v e d e a l w i t h a t t i t u d e s toward dress and although many young males are becoming h i g h l y f a s h i o n a c o n s c i o u s , i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g to compare how awareness i n t h i s a rea d i f f e r s between males and females. WRAP UP: I n the time remaining the teacher should ask: (1) How many of you t h i n k you would enjoy l i v i n g i n a world where sex r o l e s were completely r e v e r s e d and men looked a f t e r the home wh i l e women worked? (2) Why do you f e e l t h i s way? NOTE TO THE TEACHER: I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s t o p i c , r e f e r e n c e c o u l d be made to the r e c e n t r e v e r s e r o l e p l a y , to the r o l e r e v e r s a l s t o r y examined i n Lesson 2 and to the r e c e n t Norman Lear soap-comedy " A l l That G l i t t e r s " . The students should s p e c u l a t e on how t h e i r l i v e s and ambitions might be d i f f e r e n t i n such a world. J u s t before the end of t h i s c l a s s , the teacher should e x p l a i n t h a t the next l e s s o n explores the exact s i t u a t i o n t h a t the students have been d i s c u s s i n g ; t h a t i s , a world i n which "The B i g Switch" ( i n sex r o l e s ) have taken p l a c e . 34 138 LESSON 11 INTRODUCTION: T h i s l e s s o n employs a f u t u r i s t i c s h o r t s t o r y to demonstrate the extent to which the male sex has dominated reco r d e d h i s t o r y . Such t o p i c s as r o l e s w i t h i n marriage and the e v o l u t i o n of f e m i n i s t sentiment (which form the b a s i s f o r study i n the second s e c t i o n of t h i s course) are i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s t o r y . REVIEW: The teacher should b e g i n the c l a s s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . (10 minutes) 1. The s t o r y you're about to read i s s e t i n the f u t u r e and i t concerns a world i n which t r a d i t i o n a l male and female r o l e s are completely r e v e r s e d . (a) What are some of the important changes we would have to get used to i f a "Big Switch" i n sex r o l e s took place? L i s t f i v e or s i x of these changes on the board and d i s c u s s . (b) I f such a change d i d take p l a c e , how many males i n the c l a s s f e e l t h a t they would be members of "Men's L i b ? " Why? PROCEDURE: D i s t r i b u t e c o p i e s of "The B i g Switch" p l u s the Andy Capp c a r t o o n and al l o w the c l a s s to read the s t o r y and prepare d e t a i l e d answers to the accompanying q u e s t i o n s . (30 minutes) DISCUSSION OF THE QUESTIONS: This d i s c u s s i o n should be focused on the nature of s t e r e o t y p i c a l human s o c i a l r o l e s . The teacher should b e g i n by d i s c u s s i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the s o c i a l r o l e s which e x i s t a f t e r the B i g Switch. 1. Do the r o l e s seem reasonable? 2. Are there any advantages to s o c i e t y i n r e v e r s i n g r o l e s ? Are there any p o s s i b l e problems? The t o p i c s hould then be switched to e x i s t i n g , p r e s e n t day s o c i a l r o l e s and the same questions should be used to examine t h e i r p r o p r i e t y . I f the students are d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h e x i s t i n g s t e r e o -types and i f they f e e l t h a t r e v e r s i n g these r o l e s simply perpetuates present day problems then d i s c u s s i o n should c e n t e r around the development of new s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . An i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c f o r high s c h o o l students e v a l u a t i n g s o c i a l r o l e s i s : Who should pay f o r dates? 35 139 The Andy Capp ca r t o o n and the accompanying questions should p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s i s s u e . WRAP UP: I n the f i n a l t e n minutes of the c l a s s the tea c h e r should ask the students to c o n s i d e r why human s o c i a l r o l e s have developed i n the way they have. That i s , what events i n our p a s t have caused men and women to r e l a t e to each other as we do a t present? The students should t r y to j o t down t h e i r own ideas i n t h e i r notebooks (5 minutes) and have these form the b a s i s of d i s c u s s i o n i n the time remaining. The teacher should not t r y to provide d e f i n i t i v e answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n , merely to arouse student c u r i o u s i t y i n the p o s s i b l e answers, s i n c e t h i s s u b j e c t i s the main focus f o r the next s e c t i o n of the course. 36 LESSON 12 INTRODUCTION: As a c o n c l u s i o n to t h i s s e c t i o n of the course, the teacher should arrange to have a guest speaker v i s i t the c l a s s and d i s c u s s one of the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s . (1) Male chauvinism and how i t works. (2) Ways we s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n . (3) Towards androgyny. (4) Male s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Speakers f o r the o c c a s i o n c o u l d be con t a c t e d through: (1) a l o c a l S t a t u s of Women o f f i c e , (2) a l o c a l f e m i n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n , (3) the S o c i o l o g y or Womens S t u d i e s Departments of a l o c a l u n i v e r s i t y or j u n i o r c o l l e g e . Besides h e a r i n g the message coming from a " r e a l person" as opposed to a teacher, the students w i l l become more aware t h a t there are o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r own community which d e a l w i t h the problems c r e a t e d by r e s t r i c t i v e sex r o l e s . The teacher s h o u l d l o c a t e a speaker a t l e a s t one week i n advance and f a m i l i a r i z e the pers o n w i t h the nature of the course and the background the students have i n the area of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . A l s o , make c e r t a i n t h a t the speaker expects to handle student q u e s t i o n s . 37 141 LESSON 13 INTRODUCTION: The document used i n t h i s l e s s o n provides a "brief i n t r o d u c t i o n to the h i s t o r y and development of the p o s i t i o n of women i n EUROPEAN s o c i e t y . This a r t i c l e i s a cursory overview ( i t f a i l s to mention the tremendously impor-tant r o l e played hy World War One i n a l t e r i n g the st a t u s of women) hut i t i s b a s i c a l l y accurate and, l i k e many h i s t o r i e s of women w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t s i x t y years of t h i s century, i t assumes that the st r u g g l e f o r equal r i g h t s f o r women had end-ed ( v i c t o r i o u s l y f o r women) at the time of w r i t i n g ! REVIEW: The teacher should remind students of the d i s c u s s i o n i n the Wrap Up f o r Lesson 11 by asking: (10 minutes) (a) What do you t h i n k are some of the reasons t h a t women have not been t r e a t e d as equals by men i n the past? The students may r e f e r to notes they made during the Lesson 11 Wrap Up. A f t e r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n , w r i t e down three or f o u r of the reasons which the m a j o r i t y of students agree on, then introduce the Schapiro reading by saying: "This p e r i o d you w i l l be reading a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the p o s i t i o n of women i n Western s o c i e t y . Besides answering the questions to the best of your a b i l i t y , see i f some of your explanations f o r the Status of Women are the same as those given i n t h i s a r t i c l e . " PROCEDURE: 1. Hand out copies of "The Feminist Movement" as adapted from J.S. Schapiro's Modern and Contemporary European  H i s t o r y 1815 - 1952. Allow twenty minutes to read and answer the accompanying questions. 2. D i s c u s s i o n of Questions: (a) Despite i t s redeeming q u a l i t i e s , f o r almost 2000 years C h r i s t i a n i t y has been the most powerful f o r c e f o r shaping s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the Western World, and upon examination i t i s revealed as an extremely s e x i s t f a i t h . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s t o p i c , the teacher should t r y to draw from the c l a s s , examples of B i b l i c a l sexism. eg. ( i ) Males being created i n God's image and the constant references to the d i v i n i t y i n male terms. ( i i ) the c r e a t i o n of Eve (as an afterthought) from Adam's s i d e . 38 1 4 2 ( i i i ) The ex p u l s i o n from paradise (man's f a l l caused "by the "weakness" of a woman) . ( i v ) Most hooks i n the New Testament are named a f t e r and s o l e l y concern the a c t i v i t i e s of men. Al s o , the chapters of the B i b l e abound w i t h f l a g r a n t l y s e x i s t quotations. " I f a woman have conceived seed, and born a man c h i l d , then she s h a l l be unclean seven days ... but i f she bear a maid c h i l d , then she s h a l l be unclean two weeks." L e v i t i c u s CH X I I "How can he be clean t h a t i s born of a woman?" Job CH IV Verse 4 "Man was not made from woman, woman was made from man: and man was not created from woman, but woman from man." St . P a u l to Co r i n t h i a n s F i r s t L e t t e r CH X I , Verses 8 and 9 This demeaning a t t i t u d e toward women has been passed on by l a t e r C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i a n s . "Every woman should be overwhelmed w i t h shame at the thought t h a t she i s a woman." St. Clement of A l e x a n d r i a (150-215 AD) "We are born between the feces and the u r i n e . " St.Augustine (354-430 AD) "God created Adam Lord of a l l l i v i n g c r e a t u r e s , but Eve s p o i l e d i t a l l . ! ' M a r t i n Luther (1483-1546) IMPORTANT: The emphasis during t h i s d i s c u s s i o n should not be on a t t a c k i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y as a r e l i g i o n , but on demonstrating to the c l a s s the s e x i s t nature of C h r i s t i a n i t y w i t h the con-c l u s i o n being t h a t a s o c i e t y w i t h i t s moral, l e g a l and p h i l - o s o p h i c a l h e r i t a g e rooted i n a s e x i s t t r a d i t i o n cannot escape  ev o l v i n g i n t o a s e x i s t s o c i e t y . 39 143 NOTE TO THE TEACHER: I n most Canadian classrooms the teacher should he m e t i c u l o u s l y c a r e f u l i n developing t h i s theme. Remember, the main idea i s to understand the development of a t t i t u d e s toward women i n the Western World not to create a c r i s i s w i t h i n the school community by d e r i d i n g the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s of the m a j o r i t y of taxpayers! (b) Students who have j u s t completed a s e r i e s of lessons on a s s e r t i v e n e s s should be able to spot the corrup-t i v e aspects of f l a t t e r y . Besides the answers which they provide f o r questions two and three, ask them to explore the i m p l i c a t i o n s of: "A Woman has the Right to Change Her Mind" and other such statements. (c) Question f o u r returns to one of the themes mentioned i n Lesson 3. (Can there be e q u a l i t y when there i s f i n a n c i a l dependency?) Once a s a t i s f a c t o r y answer to question f o u r i s before the c l a s s , the teacher can r e c a l l the e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n and r e i n f o r c e t h a t theme. (d) The l a s t q u e stion should demonstrate to the c l a s s how l i m i t e d the perceptions of an h i s t o r i a n can be whose e v a l u a t i o n of a s o c i e t y i s based on i t s con-s t i t u t i o n and laws without regard to i t s t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g processes. WRAP UP: I n concluding t h i s l e s s o n , the teacher should ask the students i f they f e e l that the f i g h t f o r female e q u a l i t y has now (as opposed to when Mr. Schapiro wrote) come to a con-c l u s i o n . I f they f e e l i t has not, ask them to w r i t e down three or four of the steps which they t h i n k w i l l be necessary before t h i s i s s u e can be re s o l v e d . A f t e r they have considered f o r a few minutes and j o t t e d down some ideas, ask them to focus t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s on the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage (since t h i s t o p i c w i l l be the ba s i s of d i s c u s s i o n f o r the next few l e s s o n s ) . ASK THE CLASS: "What aspects of marriage w i l l need r e - e v a l u a t i o n i f we are to achieve e q u a l i t y between the sexes?" These ideas can be w r i t t e n i n student note books f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n a l a t e r review or done i n paragraph form f o r homework i f the teacher d e s i r e s . 4o LESSON 14 INTRODUCTION: The d i s c u s s i o n of marriage begins on a s t r i -d e n t l y f e m i n i s t note. "I Want a Wife" should provoke some r e a c t i o n from a l l students. The main g o a l of the l e s s o n i s to encourage the c l a s s members to examine t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s to housework and f a m i l y d u t i e s . REVIEW: As review, the teacher should ask the c l a s s f o r t h e i r answers to the Wrap Up q u e s t i o n of Lesson 13. (5-10 minutes) (a) What aspects of marriage w i l l need r e - e v a l u a t i o n i f we are to achieve e q u a l i t y between the sexes? These areas should be l i s t e d on the board and d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y , s a y i n g housework u n t i l l a s t . I f no student mentions housework as a f a c e t of marriage t h a t needs r e - e v a l u a t i o n , the teacher should b r i n g up the s u b j e c t and ask c l a s s members i f they f e e l t h a t these d u t i e s are e q u a l l y shared a t present? PROCEDURE: 1. D i s t r i b u t e copies of "I Want a Wife" (mustard c o l o u r e d paper) to the c l a s s and read over the a r t i c l e and ques-t i o n s w i t h the c l a s s , making sure they understand the e x e r c i s e f u l l y . Then allow 20 - 25 minutes f o r them to answer the q u e s t i o n s . 2. D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions: (a) The q u a l i t y of d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s l e s s o n w i l l gener-a l l y be d i c t a t e d by the number of students who f e e l t h a t the w r i t e r has been u n f a i r to men. Questions 1 through 3 should a s s i s t students to compare t h e i r own v a l u e s on the t o p i c of household d u t i e s w i t h those of the r e s t of the c l a s s . At t h i s p o i n t , the teacher should broaden the d i s -c u s s i o n to the p o i n t where the c l a s s members t r y to d i s c e r n the i d e a l d i v i s i o n of labour w i t h i n a f a m i l y s e t t i n g . H o p e f u l l y , t h i s i d e a l set-up w i l l not be s t r u c t u r e d i n terms of what i s "man's work" and "woman's work" but on a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d b a s i s . (b) Question 4 examines the t r a d i t i o n a l "double standard" f o r e t h i c a l conduct between males and females. I f a student does not mention the s u b j e c t , the teacher should r e t u r n to the nature versus nurture i s s u e by a s k i n g the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : 41 145 "Is i t n a t u r a l f o r a man's eye to wander and f o r a woman to want to s e t t l e down wit h one husband?" NOTE TO THE TEACHER: I f the d i s c u s s i o n becomes "heated", t h i s may be an a p p r o p r i a t e moment to encourage the students to p a r t i c i p a t e on an a s s e r t i v e r a t h e r than an a g g r e s s i v e b a s i s . The teacher can cut o f f any speaker who s t r a y s from a s s e r t i o n . WRAP UP: The teacher may e l e c t or a s s i g n some of the members of the c l a s s to combine t h e i r e f f o r t s i n a "counter a r t i c l e " e n t i t l e d , "I Want a Husband." This document should be read aloud a t a l a t e r date and evaluated by the r e s t of the c l a s s . 42 146 LESSON 15 INTRODUCTION; T h i s l e s s o n examines the h i s t o r y of marriage. I t s main g o a l i s to demonstrate to the c l a s s the f a c t t h a t r a t h e r than "being an e t e r n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t "always was and always w i l l be" marriage has been an e v o l v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n which has changed i n nature a c c o r d i n g to the e x i g e n c i e s w i t h i n a g i v e n s o c i e t y . H o p e f u l l y , t h i s awareness w i l l a llow the s t u -dents to examine t h e i r own plans r e g a r d i n g marriage. REVIEW: The teacher should b e g i n t h i s l e s s o n w i t h the f o l l o w -i n g q u e s t i o n s . (5-10 minutes) (a) What was the "double standard" which we d i s c u s s e d i n our l a s t c l a s s ? (b) Do you t h i n k t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e toward the r i g h t s 'of husbands i s an o l d i d e a or a r e l a t i v e l y new one? E x p l a i n . (c) How do you thin k such a s i t u a t i o n came about? NOTE TO THE TEACHER: As i n any i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n the teacher should s t r i v e merely to spark student i n t e r e s t as to how marriage evolved - not supply answers. PROCEDURE: 1. Have each student read a copy of "Marriage: Past and Present" (on white paper) and prepare answers to the que s t i o n s which f o l l o w the a r t i c l e . (25-30 minutes) NOTE TO THE TEACHER: The "For D i s c u s s i o n " s e c t i o n a t the end of the a r t i c l e s h ould be omitted by students s i n c e these i s s u e s are r a i s e d i n the qu e s t i o n s which f o l l o w the a r t i c l e . 2. D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions: (a) Although some of the questions that accompany t h i s a r t i c l e probe no f u r t h e r than whether the students understand what they have read, s e v e r a l themes which have p r e v i o u s l y been i n t r o d u c e d may be brought i n t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . i . e . ( i ) The pressure on women to "land a man" and be a success (Lesson 3)• ( i i ) The problem "of d e a l i n g w i t h " s o c i a l a c cept-ance"' (Lessons 4 and 5). ( i i i ) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h r i s t i a n church and the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage (Lesson 13)• 43 147 (b) "His Daughters Were a Form of Currency." T h i s c o u l d prompt an examination of the t r a d i t i o n a l "marriage ceremony" i n Canada. Is i t s e t up as a union of equals who are " i n l o v e " , or l i k e a t r a n s -f e r of p r o p e r t y from one male to another? Consider: =1. The s p e c i a l value of a "white wedding" • (new as opposed to used goods). 2. The ceremonial a c t of " g i v i n g away the b r i d e . " ( L i t e r a l l y , the t r a n s f e r of a woman from the c o n t r o l of one man to another.) 3. The p o s i t i o n of "best man." (Who t r a d i t i o n a l l y f u l -f i l l e d the same f u n c t i o n as the "shotgun r i d e r " on a stage coach by ens u r i n g t h a t the b r i d e - the com-modity of value was not s t o l e n by another man b e f o r e the wedding.) WRAP UP: I n the time remaining, ask the students to thi n k about the i n f o r m a t i o n covered i n the two lessons and to decide whether or not they would want a t r a d i t i o n a l marriage i n which the husband holds a job and b r i n g s i n a paycheck w h i l e the w i f e remains i n the home, c a r i n g f o r i t and r a i s i n g the c h i l d r e n . T e l l the c l a s s to w r i t e down b r i e f notes on: 1. Why they would p r e f e r t h i s type of marriage. or 2. What other type of marriage they would want. 44 148 LESSON 16 and LESSON 17 INTRODUCTION: The main g o a l i n these two les s o n s i s to have the students read and evaluate two a r t i c l e s on the t o p i c of marriage which d i f f e r d r a m a t i c a l l y from those which have been examined so f a r i n the course. The advic e i n "How to Hold a Husband" dates from the Fourt e e n t h Century and' t h a t i n "You Are Woman" i s mid-Twentieth Century. D e s p i t e t h i s s i x hundred year d i f f e r e n c e i n time, the theme of both a r t i c l e s i s "sub-s e r v i e n c e to your Lord's whims and maintenance of h i s c a s t l e , w i l l produce happiness." The format of these two c l a s s e s breaks the REVIEW, READ AND ANSWER, DISCUSS p a t t e r n which may have become b o r i n g to both teacher and students by t h i s time. The essay produced d u r i n g these two c l a s s e s w i l l g i ve the teacher a chance to determine w i t h what s k i l l the students can de t e c t the common theme i n the a r t i c l e s and a l s o how w e l l they can evaluate the importance of t h i s theme i n producing s u c c e s s f u l marriages by weighing i t a g a i n s t the m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d . Not i n c i d e n t a l l y , t h i s e x e r c i s e w i l l p r o v i d e the teacher w i t h an academic mark f o r t h i s s e c t i o n of the course. PROCEDURE: The teacher should d i s t r i b u t e one copy of "How to Hold a Husband" and "You Are Woman" to each s t u d e n t . NOTE TO THE TEACHER: "How to Hold a Husband" may r e q u i r e up-d a t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g because i t i s c i r c a the Fourt e e n t h Century. The teacher should spend some time a s k i n g the c l a s s f o r modern e q u i v a l e n t s to the advice p r o v i d e d here. 1. The assignment i s as f o l l o w s : In a s h o r t essay of three to f o u r pages compare the advice to wives g i v e n i n "How to Hold a Husband" w i t h t h a t g i v e n i n "You Are Woman." Your essay should con-s i d e r (at l e a s t ) the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : (a) What do these a r t i c l e s have i n common? Give e v i -dence from both a r t i c l e s to support your o p i n i o n . (b) Give your own o p i n i o n of the q u a l i t y of advice g i v e n to wives. (What are i t s s t r e n g t h s and weak-nesses? ) (c) Do you c o n s i d e r t h i s to be v a l u a b l e a d v i c e to g i v e to a young woman g e t t i n g m a r r i e d today? Why or why not? (d) Which do you t h i n k would be more b e n e f i c i a l to young people c o n s i d e r i n g marriage, a course on " f a s c i n a t i n g womanhood" or a course i n a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g ? Why do you th i n k t h i s ? 45 14-9 2. The teacher should w r i t e one essay assignment on the board or overhead p r o j e c t o r and d i s c u s s each s e c t i o n of i t to ensure t h a t the students understand what i s d e s i r e d . N a t u r a l l y t h e i r very b e s t work i s expected as a f i n i s h e d product and the teacher might wish to take a few moments d i s c u s s i n g : (a) the c o l l e c t i n g of ideas and the making of notes, (b) the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a rough d r a f t , (c) the " p o l i s h i n g " of a f i n a l copy. WRAP UP: During the i n - c l a s s w r i t i n g time, the teacher should c i r c u l a t e among the students s o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l problems and d i s c u s s i n g the i s s u e s on a one-to-one l e v e l . Students should do most of the a c t u a l w r i t i n g of t h i s essay i n c l a s s time, s u b m i t t i n g i t a t the end of Lesson 17. 46 150 LESSON 18 INTRODUCTION; T h i s i s the c o n c l u d i n g l e s s o n f o r the d i s c u s -s i o n on marriage. The l e s s o n i s focused around a f i l m e n t i t l e d "Happily Ever A f t e r . " T h i s f i l m examines the expecta-t i o n s about marriage of a group of young people (both male and female) and compares t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h the experiences of s e v e r a l housewives. I t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r students to assess t h e i r own e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h i s a r e a . REVIEW: I f the teacher has been i n c r e d i b l y keen and e f f i c i e n t the essays submitted l a s t day w i l l be marked and can be r e t u r n -ed to the students a t the ou t s e t of t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s would a l l o w the students to hear one or two good papers read out loud and would a l s o p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a review d i s c u s s i o n . F a i l i n g t h i s type of e f f i c i e n c y , the teacher can go over the essay assignment p o i n t by p o i n t , u s i n g the questions as a review. ( 1 5 minutes) PROCEDURE; 1. The f o l l o w i n g questions can be w r i t t e n on the board or an overhead p r o j e c t o r . Before showing the f i l m , have the students read the qu e s t i o n s which form the b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r the f i l m . (a) Had most of the young people i n the f i l m thought much about marriage? Evidence? (b) Do these students appear to have thought - more - the same, or - l e s s about marriage, than you and your f r i e n d s ? (c) Were the ex p e c t a t i o n s of the young people shared by the women bef o r e they became housewives? (d) What experiences i n marriage changed the way these housewives f e l t about i t ? (e) Why do you suppose the f i l m i s e n t i t l e d "Happily Ever A f t e r ? " 2 . The teacher should show the f i l m ( 1 5 minutes) and at i t s c o n c l u s i o n , l e a d a d i s c u s s i o n based on the above q u e s t i o n s . 47 151 NOTE TO THE TEACHER; The i n t e n t of t h i s lesso'n i s to demon-s t r a t e the gap "between the ex p e c t a t i o n s of unmarried people and the r e a l i t y of household maintenance. I t i s not intended to a t t a c k housewives nor to den i g r a t e housework. Household maintenance and c h i l d care are v i t a l i n our s o c i e t y . However, i t need not always be women who perform t h i s f u n c t i o n . WRAP UP: I n the f i n a l minutes of t h i s p e r i o d , the teacher should e x p l a i n t h a t a guest speaker(s) w i l l be coming next day. The students should be encouraged to p l a n some qu e s t i o n s t h a t they would l i k e to ask the s p e a k e r ( s ) . I t might prove i n t e r e s t i n g i f the students were armed w i t h some of the B i b l i c a l quotes concerning women t h a t were g i v e n i n Lesson 13• The students should a l s o be encouraged to be a s s e r t i v e i n the q u e s t i o n i n g of the guest s p e a k e r ( s ) . 48 152 LESSON 19 INTRODUCTION: The purpose of t h i s l e s s o n i s to r e s t o r e any "imbalance" t h a t may have occurred, i n p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s by the p r e s e n t a t i o n of seemingly one-sided f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s on C h r i s t i a n i t y and'marriage. V i r t u a l l y every Canadian community has an a r t i c u l a t e , o p i n i o n a t e d , C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r , be he p r i e s t , m i n i s t e r or p a s t o r , who would enjoy the oppor-t u n i t y to d i s c u s s one of the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : (1) C h r i s t i a n i t y and the Role of Women. (2) C h r i s t i a n i t y versus "Women's L i b . " (3) The r o l e of the C h r i s t i a n Woman i n Marriage. An i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l p a n e l of such p r e l a t e s could be assembled to d i s c u s s one of the above t o p i c s . However, i f the c l a s s i s eager to ask questions and the time i s l i m i t e d to one hour, i t may be a d v i s a b l e to r e s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n to one speaker who w i l l e x p l a i n h i s church's p o s i t i o n on the s e l e c t e d t o p i c and then f i e l d student q u e s t i o n s . ( P o s s i b l y the s t u -dents c o u l d be h e l p f u l i n su g g e s t i n g someone from a nearby church.) I f p o s s i b l e , a f u n d a m e n t a l i s t P r o t e s t a n t l e a d e r i s u s u a l l y a good bet f o r pro d u c i n g a l i v e l y hour of d i s c u s s i o n . When c o n t a c t i n g the p o t e n t i a l speaker, the teacher should b r i e f l y e x p l a i n what has been covered i n the s i x p r e v i o u s c l a s s e s and allow the speaker to p i c k which of the three top-i c s he f e e l s most comfortable w i t h . NOTE TO THE TEACHER: R e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s are u s u a l l y busy and i t w i l l be necessary to co n t a c t the speaker a t l e a s t one week i n advance i n order f o r him to p l a n to at t e n d and have the op p o r t u n i t y to prepare h i s t a l k . 49 153 LESSON 20 INTRODUCTION: T h i s l e s s o n i s presented l a s t because there may be males i n the c l a s s who have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y r a i s e d and who may have s a t s i l e n t l y and uncomfortably d u r i n g the l a s t n i n e t e e n l e s s o n s not knowing q u i t e how to respond to the l e s s o n s but knowing i n t h e i r hearts t h a t "men are men and women are women." Past experience has shown t h a t many of these males who i d e n t i f y w i t h the "John Wayne Syndrome" tend to come out d u r i n g t h i s l e s s o n . REVIEW: D e b r i e f i n g the c l a s s on the t a l k g i v e n by the l o c a l r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r should take about 15 minutes and w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d i f the teacher takes notes d u r i n g the speaker's t a l k . He/she c o u l d t h e r e f o r e r e f e r the c l a s s to s p e c i f i c p o i n t s touched upon. PROCEDURE: 1 . Hand out "Men and the Women's Movement" and allow 2 0 - 2 5 minutes f o r the students to read i t and prepare t h e i r answers to the q u e s t i o n s . 2 . D i s c u s s i o n of the Questions: (a) The f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s are a review of i n f o r m a t i o n presented e a r l i e r i n the course and by t h i s time students should have a f a i r l y c l e a r i d e a of where the modern "Women's Movement" o r i g i n a t e d and why i t has become widespread a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time. (b) Questions 3 and k i n v o l v e d i s c u s s i o n of t h a t most d e l i c a t e of s t r u c t u r e s , the male ego. The t e a c h e r should p o i n t out the r e s e a r c h e d t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t s of c r y i n g and inform students t h a t " c o o l , unemotion-a l " males d i e seven years b e f o r e females (on the average) and t h a t many of these deaths are caused by s t r e s s - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s , which are the long-term r e s u l t s of i n t e r n a l i z i n g emotional c o n f l i c t and t e n s i o n . (c) Once the students have expressed t h e i r o p i n i o n s on Question 5 : I f the students f e e l t h a t i t i s no harder f o r men to do feminine jobs than v i c e - v e r s a , the teacher should ask: 50 154 ( i ) How many g i r l s would not f e e l uncomfortable mowing the lawn w h i l e your female f r i e n d s waited f o r you? (Note on the board the number of females who r a i s e t h e i r hands i n response to t h i s ques-t i o n . ) ( i i ) How many boys would not f e e l uncomfortable sewing a b u t t o n on a s h i r t w h i l e your male f r i e n d s waited f o r you? (Note the number of males who r a i s e t h e i r hands and compare the t o t a l s . ) Then r e t u r n to the d i s c u s s i o n of the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n . 51 APPENDIX I I The Measurement Instruments The A t t i t u d e s Toward Women S c a l e The Bern Sex Role Inventory Unobtrusive Measure ("Chris" E x e r c i s e ) The statements l i s t e d below d e s c r i b e a t t i t u d e s towards the r o l e of men and women i n s o c i e t y which d i f f e r e n t people have. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers, only o p i n i o n s . You are asked to express your f e e l i n g s about each statement by i n d i c a t i n g whether you (a) agree s t r o n g l y , (b) agree m i l d l y , (c) di s a g r e e m i l d l y , or (d) di s a g r e e s t r o n g l y . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e your o p i n i o n by f i l l i n g i n the space pro-v i d e d w i t h the l e t t e r which corresponds w i t h your f e e l i n g s . P l e a s e answer a l l the q u e s t i o n s . (a) agree s t r o n g l y (c) di s a g r e e m i l d l y (b) agree m i l d l y (d) di s a g r e e s t r o n g l y 1. Swearing and bad language sounds worse when s a i d by a woman than by a man. 2. Women should take more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n s o l v i n g the i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l problems of the day. 3. Both husband and w i f e should be allowed the same grounds f o r d i v o r c e . 4. T e l l i n g d i r t y jokes should be mostly a male t h i n g . 5 . A drunken woman i s u s u a l l y a worse s i g h t than a drunken man. 6. Under modern economic c o n d i t i o n s w i t h women working o u t s i d e the home, men should share i n household t a s k s , such as washing the dishes and doing the laundry. 7. I t i s i n s u l t i n g to women to have the "Obey" c l a u s e remain i n the marriage s e r v i c e . 8. There should be a s t r i c t m e r i t system i n job ap p o i n t -ment and promotion, without regard to sex. 9. A woman should be as f r e e as a man to propose marriage. 10. Women should worry l e s s about t h e i r r i g h t s and more about becoming good wives and mothers. 11. Women ea r n i n g as much as t h e i r dates should pay h a l f the expenses when they go out to g e t h e r . 158 12. Women should take t h e i r r i g h t f u l place i n business and a l l the p r o f e s s i o n s along w i t h men. 13. A woman should not expect to go to e x a c t l y the same places or to have the same freedom of a c t i o n as a man. 14. Sons i n a f a m i l y should he given more encouragement to go to c o l l e g e than daughters. 15- I t i s r i d i c u l o u s f o r a woman to run a locomotive and f o r a man to darn socks . 16. U s u a l l y , the f a t h e r should have greater a u t h o r i t y than the mother i n the b r i n g i n g up of c h i l d r e n . 17. Women should be encouraged not to have sexual r e l a t i o n s w i t h anyone before marriage, even w i t h the person they are going to marry. 18. The husband should not be favoured by law over the w i f e i n saying how f a m i l y property should be used or how f a m i l y money i s spent. 19. Women should be concerned w i t h t h e i r d u t i e s of c h i l d -r e a r i n g and house tending, r a t h e r than w i t h d e s i r e s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and business c a r e e r s . 20. The i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s h i p of the community should be l a r g e l y i n the hands of men. 21. Having money and freedom i s worth more to a woman than t r y i n g to l i v e up to the " i d e a l woman image" set by men. 22. On the average, women should be considered l e s s capable of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the nation's economic production than men. 23. There are many jobs i n which men should be given pre-ference over women i n being h i r e d or promoted. 24. Women should be given equal opportunity w i t h men f o r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n various trades. 25. The modern g i r l i s e n t i t l e d to the same freedom from r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l t h a t i s gi v e n to the modern boy. 159 On the f o l l o w i n g page, you w i l l he shown a la r g e number of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . We would l i k e you to use those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n order to describe y o u r s e l f . That i s , i n d i c a t e , on a s c a l e from 1 to 7 , how true of you these various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are. Please do not leave any charac-t e r i s t i c s unmarked. EXAMPLE: s l y Mark a 1 i f i t i s NEVER OR ALMOST NEVER TRUE that you are s l y Mark a 2 i f i t i s USUALLY NOT TRUE that you are s l y Mark a 3 i f i t i s SOMETIMES BUT INFREQUENTLY  TRUE that you are s l y Mark a 4 i f i t i s OCCASIONALLY TRUE that you are s l y Mark a 5 i f i t i s OFTEN TRUE tha t you are s l y Mark a 6 i f i t i s USUALLY TRUE that you are s l y Mark a 7 i f i t i s ALWAYS OR ALMOST ALWAYS TRUE th a t you are s l y Thus, i f you f e e l i t i s sometimes but i n f r e q u e n t l y true that you are " s l y " , never or almost never true that you are "m a l i c i o u s " , always or almost always true t h a t you are " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " , and of t e n true that you are " c a r e f r e e " , then you would r a t e these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as f o l l o w s : S l y M a l i c i o u s 3 1 I r r e s p o n s i b l e 7 Carefree 5 DESCRIBE YOURSELF NEVER OR : USUALLY SOMETIMES BUT. OCCASIONALLY OFTEN TRUE . USUALLY . ALWAYS OR ALMOST •' NOT INFREQUENTLY " 'TRUE ! TRUE. A MOST NEVER TRUE TRUE TRUE ALWAYS TRUE Self-reliant Has leadership a b i l i t i e s Willing to take a stand Cheerful Sympathetic Warm Helpful Reliable. Likable Defends own beliefs Shy Willing to take risks Sensitive to the needs of others Aggressive Tender Moody- Jealous Friendly-Independent Makes decisions easily Acts as a leader' Affectionate Understanding Childlike Conscientious Truthful Inefficient Athletic Self-sufficient Individualistic Flatterable Compassionate Does not use harsh language Theatrical Secretive Adaptable Strong Personality Loyal Dominant Eager to soothe hurt feelings Competitive Loves children Happy Sincere Unsystematic Forceful Masculine Ambitious Feminine Soft-spoken Gentle Unpredictable Conceited Tactful 161. C h r i s Jones, a Grade 11 student, i s very i n t e r e s t e d i n anything s c i e n t i f i c and she gets good marks i n Math and a l l science s u b j e c t s . Although C h r i s gets average marks i n E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , she doesn't enjoy these subjects as much. I n her spare time, she enjoys reading, working on science p r o j e c t s and p l a y i n g t e n n i s . C h r i s gets along w i t h other students but she i s not t h a t comfortable i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , such as l a r g e p a r t i e s or school dances. She i s not that a c t i v e i n school a c t i v i t i e s , although she i s a member of the b i o l o g y club and plays on the tennis team. C h r i s wants to go to u n i v e r s i t y and become a doctor. She r e a l i z e s t h a t medicine takes a minimum of seven years u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , t h a t a person a p p l y i n g to medical school needs very good marks and that i t w i l l be expensive. Her parents are not w e l l o f f and w i l l not be able to give her much f i n a n c i a l support. However, c o n s i d e r i n g a l l these f a c t o r s , t h i s i s what she p r e s e n t l y wants to do. A f t e r reading the above d e s c r i p t i o n , please answer the f o l -lowing questions: 1. Do you t h i n k medicine would be a good f i e l d f o r C h r i s to enter? Please e x p l a i n why or why not. 2. Based on C h r i s ' marks, i n t e r other f i e l d s and/or jobs do ; s u c c e s s f u l i n ? Please check b r i e f l y give the reasons f o r 1. Nurse 5-2. Engineer 6. 3. C h i l d care worker 7. k. X-Ray t e c h n i c i a n 8. s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y , what ou t h i n k she might be any of the f o l l o w i n g and your choice. High school math teacher Pharmacist S o c i a l worker B i o l o g i s t 3. Try to imagine what C h r i s w i l l be doing t e n years from now when she i s 27 years o l d . Please describe t h i s . C h r i s Jones, a Grade 11 student, i s very i n t e r e s t e d i n anything s c i e n t i f i c and he gets good marks i n Math arid a l l s c i e n c e s u b j e c t s . Although C h r i s gets average marks i n E n g l i s h a n d ' S o c i a l S t u d i e s , he doesn't enjoy these s u b j e c t s as much. In h i s spare time, he enjoys r e a d i n g , working on s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s and p l a y i n g t e n n i s . C h r i s gets along w i t h other students but he i s not t h a t comfortable i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , such as l a r g e p a r t i e s or s c h o o l dances. He i s not t h a t a c t i v e i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , although he i s a member of the b i o l o g y c l u b and p l a y s on the t e n n i s team. C h r i s wants to go to u n i v e r s i t y and become a d o c t o r . He r e a l i z e s t h a t medicine takes a minimum of seven years u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , t h a t a person a p p l y i n g to m e d i c a l s c h o o l needs very good marks and t h a t i t w i l l be expensive. His parents are not w e l l o f f and w i l l not be a b l e to give him much f i n a n c i a l support. However, c o n s i d e r i n g a l l these f a c t o r s , t h i s i s what he p r e s e n t l y wants to do. A f t e r r e a d i n g the above d e s c r i p t i o n , p l e a s e answer the f o l -lowing q u e s t i o n s : 1 . Do you t h i n k medicine would be a good c a r e e r f o r C h r i s to enter? P l e ase e x p l a i n why or why not. 2 . Based on C h r i s ' marks, i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y , what other f i e l d s and/or jobs do you t h i n k he might be s u c c e s s f u l i n ? Please check any of the f o l l o w i n g and b r i e f l y g i v e the reasons f o r your c h o i c e . 1 . Nurse 5» High s c h o o l math teacher 2 . Engineer 6 . Pharmacist 3 . C h i l d care worker 7- S o c i a l worker k. X-Ray t e c h n i c i a n 8 . B i o l o g i s t 3 . Try to imagine what C h r i s w i l l be doing t e n years from now when he i s 2 7 years o l d . Please d e s c r i b e t h i s . APPENDIX I I I The Process Measures The Student E v a l u a t i o n Form The Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form The Teacher Log 164 STUDENT EVALUATION FORM 1. Was the course i n t e r e s t i n g ? Please e x p l a i n why or why not. 2. What p a r t of the course was most i n t e r e s t i n g ? Please e x p l a i n . 3. What p a r t of the course was l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g ? Please e x p l a i n . 4 . Do you t h i n k t h i s course w i l l be u s e f u l to you? How do you expect i t to be u s e f u l ? 5. Based on what you have s t u d i e d i n t h i s course, would you be i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g a l o n g e r and more d e t a i l e d course? Please e x p l a i n why or why not. 6. (a) What c r i t i c i s m s do you have of the course? (b) What improvements would you suggest? 7. C i r c l e one of the f o l l o w i n g . D i d t h i s course cause (a) more d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom. (b) l e s s d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom. (c) about the same amount of d i s c u s s i o n o u t s i d e the classroom as your other courses. 8. C i r c l e one of the f o l l o w i n g . D i d t h i s course cause (a) more d i s c u s s i o n at home. (b) l e s s d i s c u s s i o n a t home. (c) about the same amount of d i s c u s s i o n a t home as your other c l a s s e s . 165 TEACHER EVALUATION FORM 1 . D i d the l e s s o n plans f a c i l i t a t e an awareness and d i s -c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t s of s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g ? Please e x p l a i n . 2. Do you t h i n k t h a t the l e s s o n s promoted meaningful and t o p i c - r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s among your students? Please e x p l a i n . 3. Do you f e e l the le s s o n s f o l l o w e d a l o g i c a l p a t t e r n of development f o r a course i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I f no, please e x p l a i n . 4. Do you f e e l your c l a s s e s had enough time f o r d i s c u s s i o n ? 5 . D i d the d i s c u s s i o n technique o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c -t i o n prove u s e f u l ? Please e x p l a i n . 6 . Were you ple a s e d w i t h the w r i t t e n work and the essay r e s u l t s of your students? 7. Was there u s u a l l y adequate time to cover the m a t e r i a l o u t l i n e d i n each l e s s o n plan? 8. Was any of the m a t e r i a l too advanced or too unsophis-t i c a t e d f o r the m a j o r i t y of your students? Please i d e n t i f y which m a t e r i a l s f e l l i n t o which category. 9. What were your o v e r a l l f e e l i n g s about t e a c h i n g t h i s course? 1 0 . Please o f f e r any suggestions t h a t you f e e l would im-prove the course or i n c r e a s e i t s impact. T E A C H E R L O G D i d the students' w r i t t e n answers demonstrate an understanding of the m a t e r i a l ? Yes No D i d a m a j o r i t y of the students get i n v o l v e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n s ? Yes No D i d you f e e l the d i s c u s s i o n was p r o d u c t i v e ? Yes No Were the p r o c e d u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the teacher c l e a r ? Yes No D i d you have enough time to complete the lesson? Yes No Was the " D i s c u s s i o n of Questions" s e c t i o n h e l p f u l i n l e a d i n g the d i s c u s s i o n ? Yes No What was the most e f f e c t i v e p a r t of the lesson? What was the l e a s t e f f e c t i v e p a r t of the lesson? Please add any a d d i t i o n a l comments or c r i t i c i s m s . A P P E N D I X I V B i b l i o g r a p h y 168 B i b l i o g r a p h y Ahmann, J.S. Aspects of ^ curriculum e v a l u a t i o n : A s y n o p s i s . I n R-. T y l e r , R. Gagne & M. S c r i v e n (Eds.), P e r s p e c t i v e s  of c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n . Chicago: Rand McNally, 1 9 6 7 . Bern, S.L. Androgyny versus the t i g h t l i t t l e l i v e s of f l u f f y women and chesty men. Psychology Today, September 1 9 7 5 , pp. 5 9 - 6 2 ( b ) . Bern, S.L. Beyond s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g . Paper presented a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, March 1977• B i r d , C. Born female: The high c o s t of keeping women down. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1 9 7 1 . Cohen, J . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n as a g e n e r a l d a t a - a n a l y t i c system. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1 9 6 8 , 7_0, 4 2 6 - 4 3 3 . E n g l i s h , Jane. P h i l o s o p h y . Signs: J o u r n a l of Women i n C u l t u r e  and S o c i e t y , 1978 , 3 ( 4 1 ) , 8 2 3 - 8 3 1 . Greenberg, S.B. A t t i t u d e s of elementary and secondary s t u -dents toward i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1973 , §1, 1 4 7 - 1 4 8 . Roszak, B. & Roszak, T. (Eds.) Masculine/Feminine: Readings  i n s e x u a l mythology and the l i b e r a t i o n of women. New York: Harper & Row, I969. Stake, R.E. Toward a technology f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l programs. I n R. T y l e r , R. Gagne & M. S c r i v e n ( E d s . ) , P e r s p e c t i v e s of c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n . Chicago, Rand McNally, 1967• 169 References Bern, S.L. & Bern, D.J. T r a i n i n g the woman to know her place: The s o c i a l antecedents of women i n the world of work. Stanford, C a l i f : : Stanford U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1 . Bern, S.L. 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Paper presented at the Annual Convention of School P s y c h o l o g i s t s , Boston, 1 9 7 5 * Broverman, I.K., Broverman, D.M., Clarkson, F.E., Rosenkrantz, P.S., & Vogel, S.R. Sex r o l e stereotypes and c l i n i c a l judgments of mental h e a l t h . J o u r n a l of Co n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1 9 7 0 , 34 ( 1 ) , 1 - 7 . Broverman, I . , Vogel, S.R., Broverman, D., Clarkson, F.E., & Rosenkrantz, P.S. Sex-role stereotypes: A current a p p r a i s a l . J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues, 1 9 7 2 , 28., 6 1 - 7 7 . Brush, L.R., Gold, A.R., & White, M.G. The paradox of i n t e n -t i o n and e f f e c t : A women's studie s course. Signs: J o u r n a l of Women i n Culture and S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 8 , 3 (41), 8 7 0 - 8 8 3 . C a b a l l e r a , C , G i l e s , P. & Shaver, P. Sex-role t r a d i t i o n a l -ism and f e a r of success. Sex Roles J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 5 , JL» 3 2 2 - 3 2 7 . 1 7 0 Chapin, R., Jones, S. & Waldman, N. Sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the human s e r v i c e s . M i n n e a p o l i s , Minn.: Minnesota Resource Center f o r S o c i a l Work Edu c a t i o n , 1 9 7 3 -((Eric Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. E D . 0 9 6 188) C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , A. M a s c u l i n i t y - F e m i n i n i t y : An e x c e p t i o n to the famous dictum? P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1 9 7 3 i 8 0 ( 4 ) , 3 8 9 - 4 0 7 . Doherty, E. & C u l v e r , C. Sex r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a b i l i t y and achievement among hig h s c h o o l g i r l s . S o c i o l o g y of Education, 1 9 7 6 , 4_9_, 1 - 3 . E l l i s , L . •& B e n t l e r , P.M. T r a d i t i o n a l sex-determined r o l e standards and sex s t e r e o t y p e s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y  and S o c i a l Psychology, 1 9 7 3 , 2 5 , 2 8 - 3 4 . Fasteau, M.F. The male machine: The h i g h p r i c e of macho. 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