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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The development and testing of a methodology for identifying reasons used to recommend curricula Gleadow, Norman E. 1978

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING REASONS USED TO RECOMMEND CURRICULA by NORMAN E. GLEADOW B.Sc. ( h o n ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES. (Department of Education) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Aug u s t , 1978 © Norman E. Gleadow, 1978 In presenting th i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements fo an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for scho lar l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is f o r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ABSTRACT This study describes the development of an instrument which would permit educators to carry out more meaningful education goal selection surveys, or "needs assessments", than is presently done. The instrument, called the Reasons SelectionQuestionnaire (RSQ), enables educators to identify the reasons which people used to judge the worth of educational goals, and provides information needed to select defensible goals. The-study was undertaken in the educational setting of a unique post-primary schooling program, offered in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The Reasons Selection Questionnaire was f i e l d tested using a stratified random sample of people in the community of Honiara, and a l l the students at the Solomon Island Teachers' College. The data obtained were interpreted to show that the RSQ successfully met appropriate validity c r i t e r i a , was generally easily understood and completed by the people in the samples, and provided results which had high test-retest st a b i l i t y . Different analysis strategies, appropriate for the RSQ data, are explored in this study. In addition, suggestions are made for potential applications of, and for further research on the RSQ technique. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. ...: x i i Chapter I THE PROBLEM. i 1.00 Purpose of the Study 1 1.10 Statement of the General Problem 1 1.20 Statement of the S p e c i f i c Problem 3 1.30 Overview of the Study 4 1.40 D e l i m i t a t i o n of the Study 5 II THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM 6 2.00 Introduction 6 2.11 Int r o d u c t i o n o 2.12 The Rule Sense of "Need" 7 2.121 D e f i n i t i o n . . 7 2.122 Discussion 7 • 2.13 The Lack Sense of "Need" 9 2.131 D e f i n i t i o n 9 2.132 Dis c u s s i o n 9 2.14 The D i s p o s i t i o n a l Sense of "Need" 12 2.141 D e f i n i t i o n 12 2 .142 Di.sfuK.sion - .. 13 .2,15 Summary T . 15 2.20 Present P r a c t i c e i n Needs Assessments 15 2.21 Summary 21 2.30 Problems of Present P r a c t i c e i n Needs Assessment 23 2.31 In t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 23 2.32 Problems of Logic ; 24 2.33 Problems of Goal S e l e c t i o n 26 2.34 Problems of Goal Rating by the Community 28 2.35 Problems of Community Judgement i n Goal Rating 30 2.36 Summary of the Problems of Present Needs Assessment Methodology 33 2.40 Discussion of the Problem 35 II I THE DETERMINATION AND SELECTION OF CURRICULUM OPTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY - PHASE I ... 38 3.00 Introduction 38 Table of Contents (Cont.) Chapter Page 6.10 Analysis Strategies I: Conceptual Procedures 141 6.11 Introduction 141 6.12 Examination of the Data 141 6.13 Li s t i n g and Ranking the Positive arid Negative Reasons 145 6.14 Formulating C r i t e r i a From Reasons 148 6.15 Determining the Acceptability of the C r i t e r i a 153 6.16 Examples of Validation 155 6.161' A Positive Criterion 155. 6.162 A Negative Criterion 158> 6.17 Using the Results of Validation 159 6.18 Another Example - "Mechanics for G i r l s " 161 6.20 Analysis Strategies II: S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures.. 163 6.21 Introduction 163 6.22 Cluster Analysis r. 165 6.23 Discriminant Analysis 174 6.30 Summary 181 VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. ....184 7.00 Restatement of the Problem and an Overview of the Study 184 7.10 A Summary ot the Findings lo'j 7.20 Conclusions 188 7.30 Epilogue.... 190 7.31 Potential Applications for the RSQ 190 7.32 Suggestions for Further Research 193 BIBLIOGRAPHY 194 V Table of Contents (Cont.) Chapter Page 4.152 Procedure.... 91 4.153 Formulating Reasons f o r the Curriculum Option's- ••• • 94 4.20 Developing the Instrument y t > 4.21 The Requirements Demanded of the Instrument 96 4.22 Development of the F i r s t Instrument 98 4.23 The Reasons S e l e c t i o n Questionnaire (RSQ) 99 4.30 The Samples for the Test i n g of the RSQ 105 4.31 The Community Sample 1 0 5 4.32 The College Sample 1 0 7 4.4Q Administering the RSQ 1 0 7 4.41 The Community Sample ... 1 0 7 4.42 The College Sample '.' 1 0 9 4.50 The R e l i a b i l i t y Study 1 1 0 4.60 Scoring the Data 1 1 1 4.70 Summary... 112 V AN EVALUATION OF THE METHOD. 1 1 3 5.00 Int r o d u c t i o n 1 1 3 5.10 Evaluating the Content Dimension of the RSQ H 3' 5.11 Introduction 1 1 3 5.12 Condition 1: The Reasons Must be Facts or Widely Held B e l i e f s , and Complete 1 1 4 5.1? Condition ?: The Reasons Must Re Relevant. ^ 7 5 -t t • n 1 r *_ ^ "> . . T'l n ^  ,^  r- ^ . - y<.. ~ *- p /-» T.1A prjon A art r »XH V^uuaxuxQu _} . X lie: ivtiaouiu -Uw .^...^*t-r" ~> from the Conclusion 5.15 Condition 4: The Reasons Must Be More E a s i l y Known Than the Conclusion 5.16 Condition 5: The Reasons Must Represent a Wide Range of Considerations..... ^ 3 5.17 Summary of the Evaluation of the Content Dimension... 126 5.20 Ev a l u a t i n g the Decision Dimension of the RSQ 128 5.21 Introduction 1 2 8 5.22 Conditions Needed f o r A r r i v i n g a t Defensible Value Judgements 128 5.23 F u l f i l l i n g the Conditions f o r Making Value Judgements * 2 9 5.24 A n a l y s i s of a Respondent's Data For the "Religious Education" RSQ 1 3 1 5.25 Summary of the Evaluation of the De c i s i o n Dimension 134 5.30 Summary •-. 1 3 4 5.40 An Eva l u a t i o n of the R e l i a b i l i t y of the Method.... 1 3 5 5.41 Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y of the Reasons' Rating on the RSQ 1 3 5 5.42 Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y of the Agree-Disagree Rating on the RSQ 1 3 6 5.43 Summary * 3 7 5.50 Evaluating the U s a b i l i t y of the Method.. 1 3 7 140 VI ANALYSIS STRATEGIES : 1 A Q 6.00 Introdu c t i o n . . . . . . . iv Table of Contents (Cont.) Chapter Page 3-10 The Context of the Study....... 39 3.11 The Physical Setting .-39 3.12 The Educational Context of the Study 41 3.20 Determining the Aims and Curriculum Options of the Honiara New Secondary School............. 43 3.21. Determining the Aims of the HNSS . 43 3.22 Determining the Curriculum Options of the HNSS....... 44 3.22.1. Introduction 44 3.22.2 Gathering the Units of Study 45 3.223 Organizing the Units of Study 46 3.2231 Introduction 46 3.2232 Placing the Units of Study into Categories 46 3.2233 Checking the Categorization 47 3.224 The Validity of the Options 52 3.225 Summary 54 3.30 Procedure for Rating and Ranking the Curriculum Options 54 3.31 Overview 54 3.32 The Community Sample 56 3.33 The College Sample 57 3.40 Results of Rating and Ranking the Curriculum Options 60 en J . H I ru* s_ J - i i Uai~cx 3.42 Ranking Data 60 3.43 R e l i a b i l i t y Estimates. .. 63 3.431 Introduction .. 63 3.432 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Rating Data 64 3.4321 From Internal Consistency Measures 64 3.4322 From Test-Retest Measures 66 3.433 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Ranking Data 67 3.4331 From Internal Consistency Measures 67 3.4332 From Test-Retest Measures 69 3.50 Selecting the Options for Further Study in Phase II.... 69 3.60 Summary 76 76 IV THE DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE REASONS SELECTION QUESTIONNAIRE.-' PHASE II... • 77 4.00 I n t r o d u c t i o n 77 4.10 Gathering Reasons 78 4.11 Introduction. 78 4.12 The Place of Reasons in Making Value Judgements 79 4.13 The Characteristics of Reasons Used in Making Value Judgements • 81 4.14 Gathering Reasons from the SITC Students.... 85 4.141 Introduction 85 4.142 Procedure 86 4.14 3 Analysis of the SITC Student's Information 87 4.15 Gathering Reasons from Interviews with Experts....... 90 4.151 Introduction... 90 v i i Table of Contents (Cont.) Page APPENDIX L ..V 248 APPENDIX M '. 250 APPENDIX N 252 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 3-1 C o e f f i c i e n t s of Agreement Calculated f o r a Random S e l e c t i o n of P a i r s of Respondents 52 3-2 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Community Sample which Rated and Ranked the Curriculum Options 57 3-3 D e s c r i p t i o n of the College Sample which Rated and Ranked the Curriculum Options 59 3-4 Rating the Options 6 1 3-5 Ranking the Options 62 3-6 Spearman's Rank Order C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of the Community Data with the College Data 63 3—7 A n a l y s i s ' o f Variance Table f o r the Community's Rating of the Options f o r BOYS i n the EN3S. 65 3-8 Summary of the R e l i a b i l i t y of the Rating Data, 66 3-9 Summary of the R e l i a b i l i t y of the Ranking Data... 69 3-10 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the Composite Rank Order of Options with the College Rank Order and the Community Rank Order 72 4-1 . The Community Sample Size by Sex and Occupation. 108 5- t i RSQ Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Community and College R e l i a b i l i t y Samples 136 6- 1 Community Response Pattern f o r the T r a d i t i o n a l Studies RSQ...142 6-2 Summary Community Data For the Curriculum Option-"Mechanics f o r G i r l s " 162 6-3 Number of Persons i n Each Group Formed By C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s . . . 167 6-4 Chi Square Values For O r i g i n a l Group and Sex by C l u s t e r Group Membership f o r Each Curriculum Option ' 169 6-5 Contingency Table f o r " T r a d i t i o n a l S t u d i e s " . O r i g i n a l Group Membership by C l u s t e r Group 170 6-6 T r a d i t i o n a l Studies Reasons Categorized by Q u i t i l e and C l u s t e r Group Membership 172 ix 6-7 Summary Results of Discriminant Analysis 6-8 P o s t e r i o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Persons 6-9 Standardized Discriminant Function C o e f f i c i e n t s X xi' 6-4 C r i t e r i a Derived from TS P o s i t i v e Valence Reasons....... 150 6-5 C r i t e r i a " . " " • » • Negative " " .152 6-6 Centroids f o r T r a d i t i o n a l Studies C l u s t e r Analysis Groups 173 6-7 Means of Reasons Which had Discriminant Function C o e f f i c i e n t s With the Highest Values f o r T r a d i t i o n a l Studies 180.. o ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my thanks to my research supervisor, Dr.G. Harry Cannon, for h i s p o s i t i v e and enthusiastic support through a l l phases of the study. I would also l i k e to thank him for arranging the unique method of communication between me, while I was i n the Solomon Islands, and my advisory committee which was i n Vancouver. In a d d i t i o n , my sincere thanks go to the many people i n the Solomon Islands who were so co-operative and candid, and who were so genuinely f r i e n d l y to me and my family. x i i i DEDICATION TO JULIE Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM 1.00 Purpose of the Study In recent years there has been an increasing trend to involve the public i n the determination of i n s t i t u t i o n a l goals. In education the most widespread method of involving the public has been through the use of a set of related procedures c a l l e d "needs" assessment surveys. This type of survey usually requires the respondent to rank or rate goals or needs for a school d i s t r i c t . The underlying assumption i s that the highly ranked goals i n some way represent a desirable and defensible set of goals. If educators are not to abrogate t h e i r r o l e i n education, and yet s t i l l make r a t i o n a l curriculum decisions i n a society whose members are demanding a r o l e i n the s e t t i n g of educational goals, then they must go beyond simply getting rank orders and ratings of goals from the commun-i t y . They must begin to attempt to f i n d out why c e r t a i n goals are con-sidered to be worthwhile,r.or more worthwhile than others. To do t h i s , educators must have a procedure which w i l l i d e n t i f y the reasons that people i n the society c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y give for or against p a r t i c u l a r goals. It i s the purpose of t h i s study to develop such a procedure. 1.10 Statement of the General Problem There i s a large body of l i t e r a t u r e (Archambault, 1957; Dearden, 1966; Komisar, 1961; Taylor, 1959) which argues that you cannot defend or j u s t i f y the choice of a goal, course or "need" i n education, or any other f i e l d , unless you have made a serious attempt to give reasons for, and/or against choosing, ranking or rating the goal. In rational deci-sion making, only through the careful consideration and weighing of a complete set of reasons, both pro- and con-, can one come to a defen-., sible decision. However, present "needs" assessments neither attempt to obtain any reasons from the public surveyed nor present any information with the l i s t of potential needs so that the public could make evidence-based decisions. There is also a large body of literature about how to perform "needs" assessments (Price, 1973; Perkinson, 1961; and the Georgia (1974), New Jersey (1974) and Ohio (1974) State Departments of Education). Much of the literature provides an excellent discussion of procedural tech-niques but i t does not grapple with the problem of justifying the goals or "needs". A recent paper about a "needs" assessment, presented at the Annual General Meeting of the American Educational Research Association in April, 1977, illustrated the d i f f i c u l t y decision makers can get into when they use conventional methods of needs assessments. To quote: The curious aspect surrounding these data l i e s with the fact that a l l groups tended to assign this goal [equality of language opportunity] a relatively low weight. Yet the State Department of Education has mandated that a l l local districts provide spe-cialized programs for students for whom English is a secondary (sic) language. Faced with this mandate and lacking financial assistance, educational leaders are required to allocate local monies irregardless (sic) of local p r i o r i t i e s . (Thompson and Smidchens 1977) This is a ludicrous situation. If a needs assessment is being performed,, then, besides assuming that the public is going to use rea-sonable grounds to make decisions, the educator is also committing him-self to community determination of goals. Yet, in the above example, the results of the survey went against what the authorities thought "ought to be", and as a result the survey results were ignored. The one reason the data are ". . . curious . . . " (Ibid.) is Hh.a.1: there was no information which could t e l l the educators why the public ranked the goal low. If the local education authorities had asked for reasons for the rating they might have found that the rating was based on prejudice or ignorance, or perhaps the community didn't know that there were students who required the courses. By obtaining reasons for the decision to rank the goal in a low position Thompson and Smidchens could: have begun to justify the final higher priority assigned to this goal. Obtaining reasons for and against pursuing particular goals goes beyond simply ranking or rating those goals. It is d i f f i c u l t to jus-t i f y implementing goal A instead of goal B only on the grounds that most people ranked A higher than B on some importance scale. What is rele-vant are the reasons why A is ranked higher than B. It may turn out that the reasons given for. implementing A are nonsensical or untrue or involve immoral actions such as indoctrination, in which case i t would not be appropriate to implement A. But that information is not avail-able from present need assessment procedures. In light of these problems, the general problem addressed in this dissertation i s : Can a procedure be developed to identify the reasons which people  would give to support their contention that a particular educational  goal is worthwhile or not worthwhile? 1.20 Statement of the Specific Problems For the purposes of solving the general problem of this <_ . • d i s s e r t a t i o n , an educational goal w i l l r e f e r to any p o t e n t i a l c u r r i c -ulum options recommended for a p a r t i c u l a r schooling s i t u a t i o n . Thus, the general problem can be broken down into three more s p e c i f i c prob-lems. They are: Problem 1: Can a reasonably complete l i s t of curriculum options f o r a p a r t i c u l a r schooling s i t u a t i o n be gathered? Problem 2: Can a reasonably complete set of reasons f o r and against each curriculum option be gathered? Problem 3: Can a simple, v a l i d and r e l i a b l e instrument be developed which would i d e n t i f y the reasons used by people to rec-ommend or not recommend a p a r t i c u l a r currriculum option. 1.30 Overview of the Study A review of the p r e s c r i p t i v e and de s c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e on needs and needs assessment, and an attempt to show how solving the problem being addressed by t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n f i l l s a large t h e o r e t i c a l and prac-t i c a l gap i n present needs assessment methodology w i l l comprise Chapter two. Chapter three w i l l consist of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the physical and educational s e t t i n g of the study and a de s c r i p t i o n of the methods used to solve problem "1". The so l u t i o n of problem "1" i s c a l l e d Phase I of the study. Chapter four w i l l be used to show how problem "2" and problem "3" can be answered. Attempting to solve problem "2" and prob-lem "3" i s c a l l e d Phase II. An evaluation of the instrument developed i n Phase II w i l l com-pri s e Chapters f i v e and s i x ; and the summary and conclusions form Chapter seven. 5 1.40 Iiimltatiora of the Study The procedures used to solve the general problem of t h i s d i s s e r -t a t i o n were developed within the context of a p a r t i c u l a r educational s i t u a t i o n . Therefore the content of the instruments i s not g e n e r a l i -zablev To keep the study manageable, not a l l the curriculum options, determined i n Phase I of the study, were used i n Phase II of the study. Therefore, the curriculum options chosen for Phase II are not meant to suggest which form the curriculum, i n the p a r t i c u l a r type of schooling studied, should take. To determine the complete curriculum would have been a step beyond what i s attempted i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h i s study took place i n a Third World country, d i f f e r i n g from Canada i n cu l t u r e , p o l i t i c s , economics , i n the educational l e v e l of the general population, and i n the peoples' f a c i l i t y with English. The e f f e c t these various factors had on the study w i l l be described and explained wherever necessary. Chapter 2 THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM 2.00 Introduction Chapter two w i l l be used to place the thesis problems i n r e l a t i o n to both the d e s c r i p t i v e and p r e s c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e on needs and needs assessments. In the f i r s t part of the chapter, a topology of the way i n which "need" i s used i n standard English i s traced. That section i s followed by a d e s c r i p t i o n of present methods of determining "need". In the t h i r d section some of the problems with needs assessments are d i s -cussed. The focus of t h i s thesis i n l i g h t of present p r a c t i c e and present knowledge i s provided i n the l a s t section. 2.10 A Topology of the Need Concept 2.11 Introduction The word "need" i s used i n many d i f f e r e n t ways and i n many d i f -ferent s i t u a t i o n s . For the purposes of the rest of t h i s chapter, i t is, useful to examine those factors of "need" which remain constant, yet en-compass a l l uses of the word. No s i n g l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l do t h i s , but Taylor (1959) has provided three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of "need" which w i l l . They are: 1) The rule sense of "need" 2) The lack of sense of "need" 3) The d i s p o s i t i o n a l sense of "need". These three "need" senses d i f f e r from each other with respect to the state of a f f a i r s which would make the needs assertions true. 2.12 The Rule Sense of "Need" 2.121 D e f i n i t i o n The r u l e sense of "need" r e f e r s to a state of a f f a i r s where something i s required or demanded by a p r e s c r i p t i v e rule or law (Taylor, 1959, p. 107). 2.122 Discussion Rules and regulations require, permit or f o r b i d acts of c e r t a i n kinds. That i s , Rule "R" t e l l s us that: "X" needs "Y" i n c i r -cumstance "C". Komisar (1961, p. 30) distinguishes between the hypo-t h e t i c a l mood i n the r u l e use, and the c a t e g o r i c a l mood i n the r u l e sense, as a means of di s t i n g u i s h i n g between circumstances where "X needs Y" i s a statement of information and "X needs Y" i s a statement of re-quirement . The hypothetical mood t e l l s us what would- be needed i f . circum-stance "C" existed. For example: " I f you wish to go to u n i v e r s i t y you need a 65% average i n a l l your high school courses." The c a t e g o r i c a l mood t e l l s us what we do_ need, because circum-stance "C" does e x i s t . For example: "You are d r i v i n g a car; therefore you need a dri v e r ' s l i c e n c e . " If a s i t u a t i o n c a l l s f o r the hypothetical mood, but the categor-i c a l mood i s eit h e r uttered or interpreted as being uttered then the form of the assertion i s misleading. For example, i t i s misleading to counsel a c h i l d that he needs a c e r t a i n combination of subjects, without making i t clear that that combination of subjects i s needed only i f he wishes to be i n circumstance "C" when he graduates. The counsellor may or may not think that he i s operating i n the hypothetical mood, but the c h i l d could i n t e r p r e t the mood as being c a t e g o r i c a l . It i s important to note that a r u l e places a contextual require-ment on someone who i s i n , or i s going to be i n , a c e r t a i n circumstance. As Ainsworth (1976) points out: "There i s . . . no implication that whatever i s i n question i s a c t u a l l y held to be worthwhile by anybody (p. 223)." For example, "You need a dr i v e r ' s l i c e n c e to drive a car" i s true whether or not anyone values d r i v i n g a car. Therefore there must be some commitment on the part of person X (X needs Y) to being i n circumstance C, e i t h e r now or i n the future, before i t can be said that he needs Y. There are two methods which can be used to:.challenge the rule sense of "X" needs "Y". F i r s t l y , the assumption that X is. i n > o r ever  w i l l be i n , circumstance C can be challenged. It i s generally f a i r l y easy to show, by empirical procedures, that X i s or i s not i n circum-stance C. For: example, he i s d r i v i n g a car, therefore he needs a driver's l i c e n c e (a law); he i s going to u n i v e r s i t y , therefore he needs a 65% average i n eight senior courses (a regulation). On the other hand, i t may be quite d i f f i c u l t to determine i f X ever w i l l be i n circumstance C. For example, w i l l the c h i l d with an I.Q. of 90 ever be applying for university? Secondly, the rule i t s e l f can be challenged. Given that X i s i n , or w i l l be i n , circumstance C, and that there i s a rule which s p e c i f i e s a state of a f f a i r s Y i n circumstance C, then "X needs Y". However, the rule can s t i l l be challenged by saying that the r u l e ought to be changed, or ought not to be enforced, because i t i s impossible to comply with, or i t has ou t l i v e d i t s usefulness, or that conditions have changed so much that the rule becomes unnecessary. People are put i n s p e c i a l positions of responsibility to preside over challenges to the rules, and are given t i t l e s such as judges, parliamentarians and chairmen (Peters, 1959, pp. 13-23). 2.13 The Lack Sense of "Need" 2.131 '!• 'Definition "Need" as a lack refers to a state of affairs in which : the something-that-is-needed is a necessary means to the attainment of a goal or objective (Taylor, 1959, p. 107). 2.132 Discussion Komisar (1961, p. 31) identified four conditions which must be met before i t is appropriate to say that "X needs Y" in the lack sense. F i r s t l y , the objective for which X needs Y must be identified. Secondly X needs Y only i f Y is necessary for the attainment of the objective. Thirdly, X must lack Y; and last l y there must be relevant standards or norms which wouldn't be complied with i f the lack per-sisted. Dearden (1966, p. 8) writes of three similar c r i t e r i a which he believes emerge from the application of the concept of need. The f i r s t criterion i s that there must be some kind of norm, such as a standard of l i v i n g or proper functioning of a thing, against which the present state could be compared; secondly, the norm has not been achieved or could f a i l to be maintained; and f i n a l l y that which is needed i s really the relevant means for achieving the desired norm. The norm relatedness of the objective to be attained is pivotal in understanding needs as lacks. Both Dearden (1966) and Komisar (1961) point out throughout their papers that part of the appeal of using student "needs" as the bases of curriculum and p o l i c y decisions i s that norms appear to be e m p i r i c a l l y based. But as Dearden (1966) warns: [Norms] can neither be 'discovered' nor em p i r i c a l l y refuted, since they ind i c a t e how things ought to be i n various ways. Questions as to desirable standards, proper functioning, desirable rules or what appropriateness and e f f i c i e n c y are cannot be determined by observation and experiment. . . . (p. 9). Even basic, b i o l o g i c a l needs considered to be necessary for s u r v i v a l are seldom devoid of any r i t u a l i z e d wrappings. Benn and Peters (1959) wrote: 'Survival' i s not the simple concept i t may at f i r s t appear. If we meant by s u r v i v a l simply breathing, eating, drinking, eliminating, sleeping, . . . then s a t i s f y i n g the b i o l o g i c a l needs would be part of the d e f i n i t i o n of s u r v i v a l . But . . . being a l i v e implies doing a l l sorts of other things . . . i t i . i s not mere l i f e that i s to be valued most highly, but the good l i f e . . . [which] means l i v i n g i n a c e r t a i n manner (p. 144). Lee (1948) wrote about her disgruntlement with the basic needs-as-lacks approach to anthropological f i e l d studies. An example she gave underlines the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n even accepting the most obvious statements of need as being em p i r i c a l l y based. She wrote of a Mexican trader who offered to s e l l s a l t to the Hopi group who were about to set o f f a.highly ceremonial s a l t expedition: A Within [the context of the s a l t expedition] t h i s o f f e r to r e l i e v e the group of the hardships and dangers of the r e l i -gious journey sounds r i d i c u l o u s . The Hopi were not j u s t going to get s a l t to season t h e i r dishes. To them, the journey i s part of the process . . . of maintaining harmonious i n t e r r e l -ations with nature and what we c a l l the divine (p. 393). So even though s u r v i v a l would appear to be the simplest objective on which to base statements of need, the " s u r v i v a l " needs could s t i l l be based on other than the obvious. However, s u r v i v a l i s too miserly a term on which to base curriculum decisions. Most needs-as-lacks i n education are based on objectives which are based on 'far more complex values than su r v i v a l objectives. Popham (1972), who has strongly influenced the approaches to as-sessing needs i n education, defined an educational need as the d i f f e r -ence between desired learner outcomes and current learner status (Popham, 1972, p. 23). Provus (1972, p. 33) took a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . Popham (loc. c i t . ) c o r r e c t l y points out that the procedure for determining desired learner outcomes i s e x c l u s i v e l y one of valuing; however, he does not c l a r i f y how to carry out t h i s valuing procedure. Judging by present needs assessment studies (see section 2.20 of-Jithis t h e s i s ) , determining desired learner outcomes i s usually c a r r i e d out through a consensus method. But, as Archambault (1957) wrote: Given a s u f f i c i e n t contextual d e f i n i t i o n of what 'the d e s i r -able' i s , then genuine needs can be determined by a process of thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n . However, t h i s i s a case of a notion of need-as-lack following from a construction of the valuable, rather than as an exclusive base for value i t s e l f (p. 55). Recently, Stufflebeam (1977) i d e n t i f i e d four d e f i n i t i o n s of need. They were: II 1) Discrepancy View: A need i s a discrepancy between desired per-formance and observed or predicted performance. -2) Democratic View: A need i s a change desired by a majority of some reference group. 3) Diagnostic View: A need i s something whose absence or deficiency proves harmful. 4) A n a l y t i c View: A need i s the d i r e c t i o n i n which improvement can be predicted to occur given,information about current status (pp. 1, 2)." The discrepancy view and the diagnostic view are c l e a r examples of variants of needs-as-lacks. The democratic view i s the use of need i n the recommendatory sense. The fourth view, the a n a l y t i c view, doesn't seem to be a "need" at a l l . I t i s more a statement of i n s t r u c t i o n a l ef-fe c t than of "need". Stufflebeam proposed the following "need-as-lack" d e f i n i t i o n of need: A need i s something that can be shown to be necessary or useful for the f u l f i l l m e n t of some defensible purpose. (Ibid., Exhibit 3) There see to be four ways a statement of the sort, "X needs Y to Z," can be challenged: 1) Challenge the existence or absence of Z. This i s purely an empirical challenge. 2) Challenge the e f f i c a c y of Y as being the means f o r achieving Z. In a c u r r i c u l a r context that i s a challenge of the ways and means for achieving Z. 3) Challenge whether or not X already has Y.. That i s an empircal challenge. 4) Challenge the worth of Z as an appropriate objective. That i s a normative challenge, f o r i t i s not l o g i c a l l y odd to ask whether Z ought to be pursued as a goal, regardless of whether or not i t i s desired as a goal. 2.14 The D i s p o s i t i o n a l Sense of "Need" 2.141 D e f i n i t i o n The d i s p o s i t i o n a l sense of need " . . . r e f e r s d i r e c t l y to the conative d i s p o s i t i o n s of human beings. . . . " (Taylor, 1959, p. 108) 2.142 Discussion A need i n t h i s sense i s a strong drive or wish (want) or motive which acts to achieve a goal even i n d i f f i c u l t or f r u s t r a t i n g c i r -cumstances. For example, an ambitious man's need f o r success, a drug ad-d i c t s need f o r the drug, an a r t i s t ' s * c r e a t i v e need, are conscious con-ative d i s p o s i t i o n s , while a g u i l t y man's unconscious need f o r punishment, the i n f e r i o r person's unconscious need to boast, are unconscious conative d i s p o s i t i o n s . Though Taylor (1959) l i m i t s the conative d i s p o s i t i o n s of humans as defining a sub-class of needs statements, the tendency among some psych-o l o g i s t s has been to define the concept of need as i f i t were completely dependent on conative d i s p o s i t i o n s . Generally, the d e f i n i t i o n of need has been t i e d to the concepts of homeostasis and the psychological p r i n c i p l e of equilibrium. The development of the homeostatic p r i n c i p l e i s usually a t t r i b u t e d to Cannon (1939). He referred to homeostasis i n terms of the p h y s i o l o g i -c a l balance of the body's processes; e.g., body temperature, blood pres-sure, etc.. As Archambault (1957) summarized "The essence of the concept i s that there i s an optimum state of balance . . . which must be main-tained i f the organism i s to survive,(p. 50)." Mace (1953) extended the p r i n c i p l e of homeostasis to cover not only the case of body equilibrium, but higher order i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l needs as w e l l . He saw need as causing stress i n a human being with con-comitant a c t i v i t y designed to eliminate the stress (p. 202). Taylor (1959, p. 108) wrote s i m i l a r l y , but whereas Mace was generalizing to a l l needs, Taylor was restricting himself to only certain needs (the type which cause this stressful state). Maslow (1970) argued that higher needs in humans are instinctive and biological and thus: "The needs for knowledge, for understanding, for a l i f e philosophy, for a theoretical frame of reference, for a value system, these are themselves conative, a part of our primitive and ani-mal nature. . . . (p. 101)." His and Mace's ubiquitous application of the conative dispositional sense of needs to a l l need statements seems to be wrong, i f only because i t doesn't seem to apply to rule senses or lack senses of need. Rollo Handy (1960) stated that determining needs are empirical questions presupposing a generic human nature. He equated need with an event or condition which aids the human to function adequately. Handy was trying to equate value with need through the following equation: X i s good for Y i n situation Z = X satisfies Y's need in situation Z. (p. 161)." The validityrof the above equation depends on the a b i l i t y of science to reduce "need" to a cognitive, descriptive and naturalistic base. Handy (1960) considered the equation a more useful approach to value questions because: ". . . in theory, the sciences can objectively deter-mine what the needs of humans are, and considering a l l cultures, there is l i k e l y to be a greater uniformity of needs than there is of interest (p. 161)." One weakness of Handy's approach is that science just has not been able to f u l f i l l the hypothetical task which his thesis requires. Therefore', though there are arguments put forward to consider a l l needs as conative dispositions, i t seems more useful to consider only certain needs, outlined at the beginning of this section (section 2.142), , 15 as f a l l i n g into the category of conative d i s p o s i t i o n s . 2.15 Summary As has been shown, there are many d i f f e r e n t ways i n which the word "need" can be used. However, i t i s possible to c l a s s i f y those uses into three categories of need: the ru l e sense, the lack sense, and the d i s p o s i t i o n a l sense. Though there i s some overlap among these categor-i e s , they are s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t to permit sensible statements to be made about the proper use of each type of need statement. The following section describes the present p r a c t i c e on "needs assessment" i n education. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s used show that "need" i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y used to mean something which i s necessary to correct a deficiency condition, i . e . , the "lack" sense of need. 2.20 Present P r a c t i c e i n Needs Assessments Needs assessment, as usually practiced, i s composed of three gen-e r a l steps. The f i r s t i s to i d e n t i f y a l i s t of goals which are con-sidered to be educational needs. The second step i s to assign goal p r i o r i t i e s , or somehow indicate the r e l a t i v e importance of each goal; and the t h i r d step i s to determine the emphasis and attention which each "important" goal i s to receive i n the educational system. Many proponents and p r a c t i t i o n e r s of needs assessments begin by using predeveloped l i s t s of educational goals. Petrowski (1974), who defined needs assessment as: "... . s t a t i n g p o t e n t i a l educational goals or objectives, deciding which of these are of highest priority,..and determining how well the educational program i s meeting these objec-t i v e s ^ (p. 1)," submitted a predeveloped l i s t of educational goals (needs) to parents, teachers and p r i n c i p a l s , and asked each member of 16 the group to rate each goal on a five point "importance" scale. Patterson and Czajkowski (1976) found that i t was d i f f i c u l t for people to reach a consensus on the goals to be included in a needs as-sessment, and therefore suggested that a predeveloped l i s t of goals, such as supplied by the Phi Delta Kappan (1975) be used. Other inves-tigators who use predeveloped l i s t s of goals are Tuckman and Montare (1977) and Brittingham and Netusil (1976). The Georgia State Department of Education (1974) defined an educational need as the d i f -ference between desired performance and current performance on some desirable goal(s). They claim that the more the students f a l l short of attaining a c r i t i c a l goal the more c r i t i c a l i s their need. Georgia State's Education Department (1974) suggested that the method which w i l l determine c r i t i c a l goals is to have a committee rate the import tance of each goal in a l i s t of goals. The "most c r i t i c a l " goals are defined as goals which ". . . are absolutely necessary for the student to attain to be a stable, happy, contributing member of the society (p. 48)." The Ohio State Department of Education (1974) defined need as the difference between what a student knows and what he should know. They (Ibid.) also suggested ;the use of a committee to determine the goals, and the use of a community survey to determine goal p r i o r i t i e s . Simi-lar approaches were suggested by Price (1973), The Rhode Island State Department of Education (1975), The New Jersey State Department of Education (1974) and the Florida University for Community Needs Assessment (1973). The Educational Research Institute of B.C.(ERIBC) (1975) circu-lated an opinionnaire to a sample of people in the community of Vancouver i n order to c o l l e c t desired educational goals for Vancouver schools. ERIBC defined student needs as those requirements which would a s s i s t the students to acquire p a r t i c u l a r knowledge, s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s ... needed to function e f f e c t i v e l y i n society. The set of goals thus ob-tained was c i r c u l a t e d to another sample of people i n the community of Vancouver, who were asked to rate each of the 71 goals i n terms of im-portance. Subsequent steps involved formulating objectives for impor-tant goals, measuring the difference between current learner status and desired learner status on important goals, and, f i n a l l y , designing and implementing programs to overcome the measured di f f e r e n c e . Downey (1960) attempted to examine people's perceptions of the task of public education, s p e c i f i c a l l y "What i s the task of public edu-cation i n the space age (p. 2)1" He synthesized a l i s t of sixteen goals (p. 20-21 and p. 24) from an examination of what other people and or-ganizations had suggested as being relevant educational goals. The f i n a l l i s t of edited goals was c i r c u l a t e d to a large, U.S.-wide sample, and a l o c a l i z e d Canadian sample. Each respondent was asked to place each goal on a scale of r e l a t i v e importance using a forced, normal-d i s t r i b u t i o n Q-sort. Nothing else was done with the goals, beyond s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the r e s u l t s . Most of the l i t e r a t u r e about needs assessments describes cases i n which the educational goals are considerably more general than the goals u t i l i z e d by the classroom teacher. However, there are a few a r t i c l e s where the general needs assessment methodology exemplified above has been used to determine i n s t r u c t i o n a l goals. For example, Baker (1972) performed a needs assessment i n order to determine i n s t r u c -t i o n a l goals for a senior elementary-school mathematics course. F i f t e e n mathematics objectives were rated, on a f i v e point scale, by teachers, pupils and parents. The objectives were then ranked on the basis of average ratings and the r e s u l t i n g ranks from the three groups (teachers, pupils and parents) were compared. Another example of a more s p e c i f i c needs assessment was a study done by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory for the Faculty of Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia (1976). A sample of the f a c u l t y was asked to perform a paper and p e n c i l Q-sort on eighteen objectives s p e c i f i c to the U.B.C. Faculty of Education. A rank order of the objectives was constructed fromtthe average placement of objec-t i v e s i n the Q-sort ranking. As has already been mentioned, once the goals have been rated or ranked the question becomes "Which goals should receive emphasis and attention i n the educational system?". The general approach to answer-ing t h i s has involved four steps: 1) Determine the important goals from the data gathered on goal p r i o r i t i e s . 2) Restate the important goals i n the form of measurable objec-t i v e s . 3) Determine the difference between the desired student perfor-mance and the actual or perceived student performance on the objectives. 4) Emphasize and give attention to those goals where the. measured discrepancy i n step "3" i s large. These four steps are the l o g i c a l extensions of an e m p i r i c a l l y based needs assessment which defines educational need as the d i f f e r e n c e between the student's current status and h i s desired state (Popham, 1972, 1 9 p. 23). That is the "need as lack sense" of needs. Examples of the application of these steps can be found in articles by The Rhode Island (1975) and The New Jersey (1974) State Departments of Education; the Florida University Center for Community Needs Assessment (1973); the Educational Research Institute of B. C. (1975); Price (1973); and Tuckman and Montare (1977). Usually, the discrepancy between current learner status and desired learner status is measured by testing the students, using norm or c r i -terion referenced tests, for each goal considered important in the i n -i t i a l goal-rating or goal-ranking step. However, there are studies which attempt to- determine this discrepancy "need" by combining i t s determination with the determination of goal importance. An example of the latter approach was described by Lave and Root (1978). Their instrument for the community survey had the question for-mat displayed in figure 2-1. FIGURE 2-1 Sample Question Format For Rating Program Goals (Source: Lave and Root, 1978, p. 4) Importance Reading::." Achievement Low High Develop adequate s k i l l s Don't know Low High 1 2 3 4 5 in reading (reading ? 1 2 3 4 5 speed and comprehension) C r i t i c a l "Need Areas" were defined by Lave and Root (1978) as goals which received high importance ratings and low achievement r a t i n g s . A high importance r a t i n g was a r a t i n g above the average importance for a l l goals, and a low achievement r a t i n g was a r a t i n g which was below the average achievement r a t i n g for a l l goals. I t i s important to note that the achievement ratings are based on peacceived achievement, and not on te s t i n g . An extension of the above discrepancy approach was discussed i n a research paper by Jenkins and Lange (1978). In t h e i r study the respond-ents were asked to give each goal an importance r a t i n g and an achieve-ment r a t i n g . From those two ratings a d i f f e r e n c e score, or discrepancy score was c a l c u l a t e d . A second instrument which incorporated the d i s -crepancy score was prepared. The respondents were asked to rate the im-portance of removing the discrepancy. This l a s t r a t i n g produced a p r i o r i t y score. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y the c o r r e l a t i o n between the importance ra t i n g and the p r i o r i t y r a t i n g was highly p o s i t i v e (p. 9). E a r l i e r , Stake (1970) had recognized the value basis of need statements, and had attempted to provide a more systematic method of determining the emphasis a p a r t i c u l a r need should receive i n the school or curriculum (Stake and Gooler (1971) and Stake (1972). Using a " P r i o r -i t y Planning Sheet" (Stake, 1972), he attempted to show how more informa-t i o n , other than a rank order, should be taken into consideration when a decision was made about the p r i o r i t y a need should receive. Stake (1972) suggested resource a l l o c a t i o n (time, teachers, equipment), payoff p r o b a b i l i t y (estimate of success i n reaching the o b j e c t i v e ) , and s p e c i a l conditions ( i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , sequencing of tasks, entering behav-iour, etc.) as being pertinent concerns. 2.21 Summary The steps described i h the previous section are summarized i n Figure 2-2. In present methods of needs assessment, there i s almost complete uniformity of the use of the word "need". Need i s usually defined as the d i f f e r e n c e between current learner status and desired learner status on p a r t i c u l a r goals which have been chosen as having some worth. The appeal of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of needs i s that determining "need" becomes an empirical procedure (giving t e s t s ) ; however, as w i l l be discussed i n the following section, i t ignores the value-base of the goals, i . e . , are the goals worth pursuing? Empirical procedures have also been used to attempt to answer that question; for example, a sample of the community ranks the goals, and, i f a goal i s ranked high, i t i s considered to be worth pursuing. There have been needs assessment studies i n which the goals them-selves have been considered to be the needs, such as, the e a r l i e r c i t e d study by Downey (1960). Many studies of that sort have been used to determine the goals of community education (What does the community need?). The methodology has involved gathering l i s t s of goals, p r i o r i -t i z i n g the goals and then deciding, i n terms of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate, s t a f f i n g , cost, etc., which goals w i l l become part of the commun-i t y college program (Morton and Warfel, 1975; Pennsbury School D i s t r i c t , 1976). Other studies have focused on "those things which are needed to help the i n s t i t u t i o n better meet i t s o v e r a l l aim". In other words the emphasis i s on the "means" rather than the "ends". For example Vicino and De Gracie (1976) found such things as s t a f f s e n s i t i v i t y , c o m m u n i c a T : . tiions, t r a i n i n g time, and work att i t u d e s to be highly ranked areas of FIGURE 2-2 Present Needs Assessment Methodology General Procedure Methods 1) Gather l i s t s of goals a) Use predeveloped l i s t s or b) Use l i s t s gathered from the community or c) Use l i s t s synthesized from books, a r t i c l e s , other l i s t s or d) Some combination of "a", "b", or "c" 2) Rank the goals Have a sample of the community, teachers, students, and so on, rate or rank the goals on some 1 basis of importance or p r i o r i t y . 3) Determine the emphasis each goal i s to receive i n the curriculum Step 1: Decide which goals are most important. Step 2: Restate the important goals i n the form of measurable objectives. Step 3: Determine the d i f f e r -ence between the desired student per-formance and the actual or perceived student performance on the objectives. This measures the need. Step 4: Emphasize and give most attention to those objectives where the measured discrep-ancy i n step 3 i s greatest ( a l l things being equal). - 23 concern at an Indian career Centre. 2.30 Problems of Present Practice i n Needs Assessment 2.31 Introduction From the plethora of d e s c r i p t i v e and p r e s c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e on needs assessment, two general approaches have been i d e n t i f i e d . The f i r s t , and most common, procedure i s to present a l i s t of goals to the community f o r ranking or r a t i n g , on some scale of importance, and then determining whether the important goals have been attained by the stu-dents (see Figure 2-2). Those which are rated highly, and which the students have not attained are regarded as the "most needed" goals. The second procedure i s r e a l l y a sub-procedure of the above. That i s , the l i s t of goals i s c i r c u l a t e d to the community f or ranking or r a t i n g . The goals believed most i n need of attention are those ranked or rated highest. In both these procedures, the community ranking and/or r a t i n g of goals provides a l i s t of recommendatory need statements. For example, saying "Goal X i s considered to be important by the community" i s es-s e n t i a l l y the same ( i n the reasoning of needs assessments) as saying "The attainment of goal X i s needed ( i n the recommendatory sense) by the students.". If the persons administering the needs assessment go on to determine whether the students have attained the goal, then they are addressing themselves to determining needs as lacks. There i s very l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e which c r e t i c i z e s needs assessment methodology at the fundamental l e v e l assumed i n the following sections. What c r i t i c i s m there i s , i s usually directed at problems of p r a c t i c e , such as costs, how to involve the community, planning, and so on. For example, Lewis (1978) found, i n h i s study of problems associated with the assessment of educational needs i n some Ohio school d i s t r i c t s , that the most frequently encountered problems were: 1) Obtaining a reasonable response rate from parents and community members. 2) I d e n t i f y i n g educational goals. 3) Determining sub-goals. 4) Preparing the survey instrument. 5) Setting desired l e v e l s of student performance. 6) Selecting adequate assessment instruments. Though these problems are important to a person performing a need assessment (as presently done), they are based on the assumption that the procedures f o r performing needs assessments are v a l i d . This assump t i o n i s not being made i n the following discussion of problems of needs assessment. 2.32 Problems of Logic If the second stage of present methods of needs assessments, that i s , r a t i n g or ranking the goals (see Figure:: 2-2) , was; summarized J. i n the form of an argument of condit i o n a l l o g i c , then the argument could be written as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Argument 1. Argument 1 : If_ most people consider goal X important then goal X i s a need (in:some sense). : Most people consider goal X important. : Therefore, goal X i s a need ( i n some sense). Argument 1 i s untrue because the hypothetical.part ( i f then) i s £ f a l s e general claim. Repeated claims that something i s a need do not constitute good grounds f o r accepting that claim.. Whether a claimed need ought to be met must be established on grounds independent of the "need" claim i t s e l f . (Taylor, 1959, p. 111). But what of those goals which are not considered important? By committing oneself to determining needs on the basis of popular demand, one i s also committed to r e j e c t i n g goals considered unimportant (as est-ablished by the community) as being needs. This could be written as Argument 2. Argument 2 : If_ most people consider goal Y important then goal Y i s a need ( i n some sense). Most people do not consider goal Y important. : Therefore, goal Y i s not a need ( i n some sense). Argument 2 i s an i n v a l i d argument. In addition to i t being based on a f a l s e general.claim (the i f - t h e n sentence), argument 2 i s also i n -v a l i d because: given a hypothetical (if-then) sentence, the denial of the antecedent (if- p a r t ) does not by i t s e l f (as a r e s u l t of i t s being an i f - p a r t ) imply the deni a l of the consequent (then-part). (Ennis, 1965). The people who are doing needs assessments, using present method-ologies, are assuming that Argument 1, and that Argument 2 are correct (which they c l e a r l y aren't). /As w e l l , they are assuming that by using the community or a committee to determine needs a l l important needs w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d and highly ranked. That claim can be summarized as follows: : If_ goal Y i s a need (in some sense) then most people w i l l consider goal Y important. This i s f a l s e general claim. There i s no guarantee at a l l that a l l important needs w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as important by the community, i f only because they may not have the necessary information to make a ra-tional judgment of importance. But there is also the possibility that the original set of need statements, submitted to the community for ranking or rating, may not be a complete l i s t , and may have omitted some goals which really should have been considered. However, this is not admitted by those people undertaking needs assessments, and they continue to assume that Arguments 1 and 2, and the above claim, are sound. Perhaps some practitioners of needs assessment would consider the above criticism too harsh, for, as Stake (1970) wrote: Listing objectives can be thought of as/selecting a few more-valued goals from a vast multitude of possible goals. The l i s t is always an oversimplification. Goal-stating succeeds to whatever extent i t succeeds because people are tolerant of omissions (p. 182). The implications of Stake's argument are discussed in the next few paragraphs. 2.33 Problems of Goal Selection The f i r s t stage of needs assessment, as presently done, requires the selection of a set of goals from some larger set of goals. Often this selection i s done by a community committee. If a predetermined set of goals i s used in the needs assessment, then this selection of a goal has been done by some other committee. This procedure eliminates goals which are probably unacceptable—at least to the committee—and avoids an unmanageable l i s t of goals for the community to rank or rate. If we ignore the possible bias of the committee, we end up with.a l i s t of goals which presumably are reasonable directions for public education; that i s , goals which'".the students ought to!>be directed toward in school. But the 27 point i s , the community i s not exposed to a complete set of goals to rank or rate, but only to those goals which seem "reasonable", or are more-valued by the goal s e l e c t i o n committee. That i n i t s e l f seems l i k e a sensible thing to do, for why bother with goals which are "obviously" unacceptable. But equally, i f the com-mittee, or whoever, can j u s t i f i a b l y determine a set of worthwhile goals to present to the community for ranking or r a t i n g ( i . e . , some goals have more worth than others), then why can't the committee also decide which goals have the most worth? Why bother having the community rank or rate the goals at a l l ? Stake (1972) outlined a method by which p r i o r i t i e s could be as-signed to goals. In i t , he pointed out that we cannot consider only the perceived importance of the goal (by the community, teachers and students) but must also consider other variables such as resources a v a i l a b l e (time, money and s t a f f ) , sequencing of curriculum, entering behavior of the stu-dents, and so on. Therefore, i t i s not inconceivable that a goal which the community ranked high could be given a low p r i o r i t y on the basis of other v a r i a b l e s . But information on those other variables i s p r e c i s e l y what the community has not had. That information i s known by the edu-c a t i o n a l administrative hierarchy, and has not been made a v a i l a b l e to the community sample on the instruments used i n present needs assessments. Therefore, the community may have based i t s judgment of need on c r i t e r i a other than those suggested by Stake. So once again, given that the i n i t i a l l i s t of goals i s selected so as to represent goals "not d i s t a s t e f u l " to the general p u b l i c , and given that the implementation of these goals into c u r r i c u l a could be based on c r i t e r i a other than those avaiable to the general public, then why bother having a needs assessment? Broudy (1977) has suggested that there is a failure of "nerve" on the part of educational leaders and as a re-sult they appeal to the community to make educational decisions—the appeal confirming the public's lack of faith in the leaders' a b i l i t y : By taking refuge in multiplying options and alternatives and by basing educational decisions on p o l i t i c a l strategies, they have destroyed the belief that as experts they know what ought to be taught, to whom and when (P. 87). 2.34 Problems With Goal Rating by the Community The goals which are presented to the community are often a mixture of social goals and schooling goals. For example, consider the following l i s t of goals (Thompson and Smidchens, 1977, pp. 20-22): 1) Develop s k i l l s in reading, writing, speaking and listening. 2) Prepare to understand the changes that take place in our world and society. 3) Gain information neededito make job selections and develop s k i l l s needed to enter the world of work. 4) Develop s k i l l s in mathematical computations and concepts. 5) Foster the examination and use of information. 6) Learn to appreciate the sciences, arts, and humanities. 7) Practice and understand the ideas of both physical and mental health. 8) Develop pride in work and a feeling of self-worth. 9) Learn to respect and get along with people who may think, dress and act differently as citizenship s k i l l s are developed. 10) Understand and practice the s k i l l s of family li v i n g . 11) Learn to be a good manager of property and resources. 12) Learn to be a good manager of money and resources. 29 13) Develop a desire for learning, now and i n the future. 14) Develop educational programs at a l l l e v e l s which w i l l provide for equality of opportunity. 15) Develop educational programs which meet the needs of the non-English speaking person. 16) Develop parental and t o t a l community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the educational process. 17) Develop c i t i z e n s h i p and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There are many c r i t i c i s m s which could be made about t h i s l i s t of goals. For example, goals 1 to 13 and 17 seem to be directed toward what the student should do, whereas goals 14, 15 and 16 seem to be d i -rected toward what the school board should do. As we l l , the goals them-selves are extremely broad, and there i s considerable overlap among the set. Another major c r i t i c i s m , mentioned e a r l i e r , i s that much of the se l e c t i o n of goals has already been done by the committee which decided on these goals. A l l the goals are f a i r l y acceptable, decent sorts of things. There are no goals such as "Develop a sympathetic understanding of the communist doctrine", or "Develop the a b i l i t y to have happy, healthy sexual r e l a t i o n s " , a topic which seems to be of great concern to the society at large. However, the main concern i n t h i s section i s not with these instrumental d i f f i c u l t i e s , but with the p o s s i b i l i t y of the re s u l t s of needs assessments, using goal l i s t s s i m i l a r to the above l i s t , being used to d i v e r t a public educational system toward f u l f i l l i n g only i n -strumental goals. It i s not inconceivable to imagine a society which would rank goals 3, 10, 11, 12 and 17 high and the t r a d i t i o n a l schooling goals, 1, 4, 5', 6, and 13 at the bottom of the l i s t . The educators would then be 30 required, i f they really were committed to majority determination of goals, to begin teaching job s k i l l s , Mathematics, science and the arts, would receive only the attention necessary to ensure that the student could become successful at the higher ranked goals. This would be an educational system responding to that society's goals but i t would be a distortion of education. Scheffler (1971) wrote: . . . the notion that education i s an instrument for the r e a l i -zation of social goals, no matter how worthy they are thought to be, harbors the greatest conceivable danger to the ideal of a free and rational society. For i f these goals are presumed to be fixed i n advance, the instrumental doctrine of schooling exempts them from the c r i t i c a l scrutiny that schooling i t s e l f may foster (p. 113). An equally strong c r i t i c i s m was written by Peters (1964). In his paper, he was c r i t i c i z i n g the concept of mental health as an over-arching guideline which was somehow perceived by educationists as being extrin-sic to the business of education. As he wrote: . . . the reference to 'mental health' as an educational aim i s yet another way of perpetuating the obnoxious view that edu-cation must have some aim beyond i t s e l f , that i t must have some practical use in 'the outside world' or that i t must be some sort of 'investment' which i t i s worthwhile for a community to spend money on. . . . Education, on this view, i s a l l right i f i t helps a man to make money, to get on with his neighbour or his wife; i f i t can't i t must be some sort of ivory-tower eccentricity advocated by egg-heads. Now though 'education' may contribute to such practical ends i t is treason to c i v i l -ization to see i t only under such an aspect. For education i s not just a preparation for 'living' in this sense; i t is an i n i t i a t i o n into a distinct form of l i f e (pp. 197-198). 2.35 Problems of Community Judgement in Goal Rating As has already been mentioned a number of times, i f a goal is rated as important by the community then, according to the logic of majority determination of goals, that goal should be implemented. Similarly, i f a goal i s considered not important, i t should not be im-plemented. This l a t t e r sentence i s part of an invalid argument but has been accepted i n needs assessments as a method of rejecting goals. But present methodology does not t e l l us why a goal has been considered important or unimportant. It may be that a goal was considered impor-tant for invalid reasons—in which case i t may be unjustified to imple-ment i t . Unless the educational leaders are completely dedicated to the principle of majority determination of goals, as presently carried out i n needs assessment, then they could be placed i n a dilemma. For example, what should the leaders do i f goal X, which they consider im-portant for various reasons, i s not recognized by the community as being important? Surely i f there are powerful reasons for implementing goal X, and none against implementing goal X, then goal X shouldn't simply be rejected on the basis of majority opinion. Or, as is more usually the case, i f there are valid reasons for goal X and invalid reasons against goal X, then goal X shouldn't be rejected on the basis of those invalid reasons. The following example is not taken from the context of a needs assessment, but i t i s useful for illuminating some of these problems. In January 1978 the Vancouver School Board proposed that a French Immersion Program (F.I.P.) begin at Osier Elementary School (O.E.S.) in Vancouver, in September, 1978. A well attended public meeting was held in the area served by O.E.S.. At the end of the meeting" . . . trustees and board o f f i c i a l s had decided to scrap the idea because at least two thirds of the people attending were against i t " (The Vancouver Sun, January 13, 1978, p. A8, col. 1). The Vancouver School Board had committed itself to accepting the majority opinion of the community served by O.E.S. as the criterion for implementation. But i f majority opinion is the criterion, then well informed opinion is better than uninformed or misinformed majority opin-ion. What were the bases of the opinions of the people at that public meeting? To answer that question requires examining the reported rea-sons for and against implementing the French immersion program in the O.E.S. As summarized in The Vancouver Sun (January 13, 1978, p. A8) the reasons for were: 1) A French Immersion Program (F.I.P.) could use the space being created by declining enrolment in O.E.S. 2) There is a waiting l i s t for other F.I.P.'s in the city. 3) If the enrolment in the school declines too much, and the space isn't utilized, the school may have to be closed. 4) Today's trend is toward French-English bilingualism. while the reasons against were: 1) Children from O.E.S. will not have priority over other children in the city to join the F.I.P. 2) The English program will suffer. 3) The principal would have to be bilingual and would therefore cater to the needs of the French students. 4) The quality of education in the school could not be maintained i f two programs were operating. 5) There are other programs which could use the extra space being created by declining enrollment. 6) "We live in British Columbia not in Quebec". The reported reasons against the F.I.P. were beliefs of the 33 parents, and, in a situation where the parents did not have any evidence against those beliefs they would probably reject (as they did) the F.I.P. for O.E.S.. If the reported reasons against were true then the parents would be justified in rejecting the F.I.P.; but, as the representatives of the School Board unsuccessfully tried to point out, the reasons against the F.I.P. were not true or were based on false assumptions. The main problem, identified by an editorial in The Vancouver Sun, was: ". . . that the school board, with an over-confidence based perhaps on the success of programs elsewhere in the area, had not prepared parents for a factual discussion of French immersion programs" (The Vancouver  Sun, January 14, 1978, p. A4, col. 1). What occurred at Osier Elementary School was a vocal version of a needs assessment, with only one goal being considered. What makes i t pertinent tc this thesis is that the reported reasons against accepting the goal of F.I.P. in O.E.S. could be examined. On the whole, the decision to reject the F.I.P. appeared to be based on fear, unsubstanti-ated or untrue beliefs, and a touch of linguistic bigotry. In present methods of needs assessment, there is nothing to dis-tinguish between goals which are ranked on rational, well-founded reasons and goals which are ranked on irrational grounds. Yet, i f needs assess-ment makes any sense at a l l , the assumption must be that people are making sound, rational judgements when they rank-order or rate a set of goals. Obviously, in light of the Osier Elementary School meeting, there is no guarantee that this assumption is true. 2.36 Summary of the Problems of Present Needs Assessment Methodology From the above arguments, there appear to be eight major pro-blems associated with present needs assessments. They are: 1) Some of the arguments implied by present needs' assessment methodology are not sound. 2) Only goals "acceptable" to an i n i t i a l screening committee are circulated to the community. 3) Goals the community ranked highly may be given low priority on the basis of information not easily available to the community. 4) Some goal l i s t s are mixtures of educational goals, social goals and administrative goals; that i s , people are not being asked to rank similar objects. 5) Many of the goals overlap or are contingent upon achieving other goals in the l i s t . 6) Adhering to community determination of goals could unjust-ifiably divert schooling from traditional educational goals. 7) There is no guarantee that the community is rating or ranking the goals on rational grounds. 8) No criteria are given for the rating or ranking of a goal. Each of these problems, by itself, is a serious challenge to the validity of the results of a needs assessment. In the final chapter of this thesis a general approach to community input into curriculum change will be recommended which will eliminate, or reduce the severity of, those problems. However, the focus of this thesis is a combination of problems 7 and 8; that i s : a) There is no guarantee that the community is rating or ranking the goals on rational grounds. b) No criteria are given for the rating or ranking of goals. 2.40 Discussion of the Problem Rating or ranking goals i s a valuing procedure. The rater or ranker uses c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a , which he knows or believes to be true, i n order to come to a conclusion of the rank or r a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r goal should receive. Within the context of a p a r t i c u l a r needs assess-ment, he i s making a recommendation as to what ought to be included (or not included) i n the curriculum, or what the school system ought to emphasize (or de-emphasize), or whatever. The f i n a l rank order of goals, across a community, t e l l s the educator which goals ought to receive high p r i o r i t y and which goals ought to receive low p r i o r i t y , i n the eyes of the community. What the educator does not know are the c r i t e r i a being used by the community to make those decisions. In the terms of the types of need statements i d e n t i f i e d by Taylor (see sec. 2.10): 1) does the community rate or rank a goal highly because they believe the goal i s required by a ru l e or regulation; or because 2) they believe i t i s necessary i n order to a t t a i n some higher order goal; or because 3) they believe the students j u s t don't have any knowledge or s k i l l s i n that area; or because 4) they believe there i s a conative d i s -p o s i t i o n which ought to be f u l f i l l e d ; or 5) are they basing t h e i r judgement of goal worth on c r i t e r i a not connected to need at a l l ? To i l l u s t r a t e these considerations, the following three examples of need statements are offered below: 1) Rule-sense need statement. Judgement: The student needs to study Re l i g i o n . Reason: He needs to study i t because the School Act requires i t as a subject. 2) Lack-sense need statement. Judgement: The student needs to study Religion. t> Reason: He needs to study i t i n order to a t t a i n a l i b e r a l education. 3) Dispositional-sense need statement. Judgement: The student needs to study R e l i g i o n . Reason: He needs to study i t because a l l men have a s p i r i t u a l drive to understand the Divine. What i s the apparent from these three judgements of need i s that the reasons given i d e n t i f y the need-sense being used. That informa-t i o n alone has important implications f o r the person who i s designing the curriculum. For example, i f the need to study r e l i g i o n i s being used i n the d i s p o s i t i o n a l sense then the curriculum might be designed to foster 1 1. . . the a t t i t u d e and prac t i c e of sincere devotion to what i s supremely worthful, that i s , to a r e v e r e n t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n toward what i s of ultimate value" (Phenix, 1970, p. 313). If the need to study r e l i g i o n i s being used i n the lack sense (for a l i b e r a l education) then the curriculum might be designed so that the student should ". . . b e introduced to humanism at i t s courageous and i n s p i r i n g best, and [he] should learn to understand, and to respect, honest r e l i g i o u s doubt and skepticism" (Greene, 1970, p. 320). In other words, the cur-riculum o r i e n t a t i o n to be taken depends not only on what i s needed, but also why i t i s needed. In addition to providing information on the curriculum d i r e c t i o n desired, the reasons also provide information on .the information-base used by the community (or whoever) to rank or rate a goal as important. For example, suppose most people thought that Religious Studies was a required subject, as l a i d down i n the School Act, and for t h i s reason rated the need for Religious Studies highly. If i t turned out that the School Act had been changed and that Religious Studies was no longer required, then these people would have made a judgement based on f a u l t y data. Therefore, i t i s also i n the i n t e r e s t s of the community to have as complete a set of reasons as possible whenever making a judgement on what rank, or rating-value, a goal should receive. If an administrator wants the public to come to well thought out judgements about a goal's worth, then he must be w i l l i n g to provide the public with as much p e r t i n -ent information as possible. Present methods of needs assessment provide neither the administrator nor the public with the complete information needed to make a judgement of goal-worth. H i r s t (1974) wrote: "Saying what c h i l d r e n need i s only a cloaked way of saying what we judge they ought to have. Let us then remove the cloak . . . (p. 17). The way the cloak can be removed i s by examining the reasons why something i s considered needed. I t i s the purpose of th i s thesis to develop a method which w i l l determine the reasons used by the public i n making a decision as to a goal's worth. Chapter 3 THE DETERMINATION AND SELECTION OF CURRICULUM OPTIONS: PHASE I 3.00 Introduction Chapter three consists of f i v e major sections. The f i r s t section b r i e f l y describes the physical and educational context of the study. The second section describes the determination of the aims and p o t e n t i a l curriculum of a p a r t i c u l a r school within the s e t t i n g described i n the f i r s t section. This section i s an attempt to answer the f i r s t s p e c i f i c question of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . That i s : "Can a reasonably complete l i s t of curriculum options for a p a r t i c u l a r schooling s i t u a t i o n be gathered?". The t h i r d , fourth, and f i f t h sections are descriptions of the methods used to se l e c t some of the curriculum options for more de t a i l e d study. B r i e f l y , the t h i r d section describes how the curriculum options were ranked and rated; the fourth section describes the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the ranking and rat i n g s ; and the f i f t h section describes how the re s u l t s from sections three and four were used to sel e c t some of the curriculum options for further study. As a whole, Chapter 3 i s c a l l e d Phase I of the study. Phase I i s a necessary prerequisite to solving the general problem of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . The chapter also includes the r e s u l t s for each section, so as to preserve the chronological sequence of the research. 3.10 The Context of The Study 3.11 The Physical Setting This study took place i n Honiara, the c a p i t a l c i t y of the Solomon Islands. The Solomon Islands are a double chain of islands located between 6°31' and 11° south l a t i t u d e , and between 155°30' and 162°30" east longitude. The boundaries of the Solomons enclose a sea area of about 250,000 square miles. Six major islands comprise 86% (9,900 square miles) of the t o t a l land area of 11,500 square miles. A map of the Solomons i s attached as Appendix A. T y p i c a l l y , the large islands have a mountainous spine, running northwest to southeast, which drops steeply to the coast on one side, and descends through a seri e s of f o o t h i l l s to the coast on the other side. The highest point i n the Solomons i s Mount Popomanasen, pn Guadalcanal, with a height of 7,647 fe e t . The whole archipelego i s s t i l l very g e o l o g i c a l l y active. During the period of t h i s study, there were numerous earthquakes, and a volcanic eruption. There i s l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n climate i n the Solomons. The period from A p r i l to October i s one of steady southeasterly winds, while from November to March northwest winds blow. The period of southeasterly winds i s c a l l e d a dry season; however, "dry season" i s a euphemism for less r a i n rather than an accurate d e s c r i p t i o n of the season. The rains f a l l i n any month at any time of the day. They can range from steady d r i z z l e s , l a s t i n g from hours to days, to heavy downpours l a s t i n g from seconds to hours. Generally, the temperature ranges from about 75°F at night to about 90°F i n the day. ' The Solomon Islands were named and discovered for the West by the Spanish navigator Alvaro de Mendana de Neyra, i n 1568. L i t t l e notice was taken of the islands u n t i l the l a t e 19th century. At that time the white traders and missionaries i n the islands appealed to B r i t a i n for protection from the Melanesians. The Melanesian population was extremely h o s t i l e to white people because of the depredations of notorious labour r e c r u i t e r s known as "blackbirders". Those " r e c r u i t e r s " rounded up young, male islanders to labour on the sugar and cotton plantations of F i j i and A u s t r a l i a , and i n the mines of New Caledonia and South America, i n conditions which approximated slavery. B r i t a i n responded to the appeal for protection by declaring the Solomons a protectorate, i n 1893. B r i t i s h e f f o r t s ended the "blackbirding" by 1910. Beyond commercial copra production for the B r i t i s h firm Lever Brothers and the A u s t r a l i a n trading companies of Burns P h i l i p and W.R. Carpenter, there was l i t t l e economic a c t i v i t y i n the Solomons between 1910 and 1941. Then, early i n 1942, the Japanese occupied the main islands as part of t h e i r wartime expansion. In August of 1942 the American Marines landed on Guadalcanal, and, a f t e r s i x months of f i e r c e f i g h t i n g , caused the withdrawal of the Japanese. The jungles around Honiara, where much of the f i g h t i n g occurred, are s t i l l l i t t e r e d with unexploded s h e l l s , destroyed a i r c r a f t , rusted land v e h i c l e s , "foxholes" and barbed wire. A f t e r the war, the B r i t i s h administration chose a s i t e c a l l e d Honiara, which the Americans had cleared and developed into a sizeable wartime camp, as the new c a p i t a l . "Honiara" i s an abbreviation of a longer, Melanesian name for the area meaning "place of the east wind". Today Honiara i s the main commercial center and seat of government for the Solomon Islands. I t has a population of about 15,000 people. Most of the remaining 185,000 people in the Solomons s t i l l live in small villages, and practice subsistent farming and fishing. English is the off i c i a l language of communication and the language of government. Informal communication is often in the oral language called "Pijin** which has a vocabulary derived from English and a Melanesian syntax. There is no universally spoken, traditional language in the Solomon Islands. The Solomon Islands achieved internal self-government in January, 1976. Full independence was granted in July, 1978. 3.12 The Educational Context of the Study A document, prepared in the Solomon Islands in 1973, and titled "Education for What", was the presentation of a Solomon Island government committee whose frame of reference was: 1) To review a l l aspects of education in the Protectorate In the light of its present and future needs with particular reference to the school system" and 2) ' To recommend ways in which primary and secondary education in the Protectorate should be developed to meet these needs .... (BSIP Educational Review Committee, 1973, p. 2) Throughout the document there were statements such as: "... the present secondary school course was too narrow, and was foreign to the Solomons (p. 34)"; "[there is] the need for practical and vocational courses, which reflect the needs of the area in which the schools are located (p. 32)"; "[the] primary course should be of a general nature, broadened from the present course with its academic emphasis, to meet the needs of the majority of pupils (p. 35)". There was general agreement that the school system was somehow not meeting the "needs" of the pupils or the society. The nature of those "needs" was not s p e c i f i e d , but the report d i d help to c l a r i f y the d i r e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e educational p o l i c y i n the Solomons. From the Committee's report came a proposal which suggested s e t t i n g up area high schools, c a l l e d "New Secondary Schools" (NSS). To date, eight of these schools have been e s t a b l i s h e d . These schools were to be two-year, post-primary, t r a i n i n g schools, and " ... should be located to serve an area, and the courses o f f e r e d should be geared to the needs of that area (p. 37)". Before the NSS system began, the students who f a i l e d to gain a place, through an entry exam, i n the academic secondary schools, had no other educational option open to them. That meant that formal education f o r most students i n the Solomon Islands ended at Standard 7. I t was f o r t h i s l a r g e group of students that the NSS system was introduced. In a Solomon Island government p o l i c y paper, Education P o l i c y 1975-1979, i t was put t h i s way: The huge ta p e r i n g - o f f between the present Standard 7 output and the entry to academic secondary school has been.a focus of concern i n recent d i s c u s s i o n s . I t i s not p r a c t i c a b l e or d e s i r a b l e simply to extend primary education so as to delay release of the c h i l d i n t o a young-adult s i t u a t i o n . But there i s a need to provide a form of secondary education, appropriate to l o c a l circumstances f o r as many young people as want i t and can be accommodated (p. 18). The form of secondary education o f f e r e d became i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the New Secondary Schools. These NSS's were to have the f o l l o w i n g aims: 1) To complete the b a s i c education begun i n the s i x year primary course. 2) To equip the c h i l d f o r young-adult s i t u a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 3) To provide a b a s i s for t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g and employment In a g r i c u l t u r e , trading or industry. 4 ) To develop i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s with roots i n the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . (Education P o l i c y 1975-1979) A more complete account of New Secondary Schools, prepared for a series of a r t i c l e s which appeared in the Solomon Islands News Drum newspaper in 1976, i s presented in Appendix B. The specific context of this study was i n Honiara, the capital an only ci t y in the Solomon Islands (population about 15,000). Up to the time this study commenced, a l l the new Secondary Schools were in rural areas and concentrated their work on "... rural a f f a i r s and ... s k i l l s relevant to Village l i f e " (News Drum, August 5, 1977, p. 3, col. 2), the Honiara New Secondary School (HNSS).. was to. be i n the urban environment of Honiara. Therefore, the curriculum which i t used might have to be different from the other NSS's, so as to prepare the student for urban l i f e . The HNSS opened in November 1976, one month after the author of this thesis (henceforth called the "investigator)"' arrived i n the Solomon Islands. 3.20 Determining the Aims and Possible Curriculum Options of the  Honiara New Secondary School (HNSS) 3.21 Determining the Aims of the HNSS Discussions the investigator had with senior officers of the Ministry of Educational and Cultural Affairs (MECA), the Headmaster of the HNSS, and thr tutor in charge of the NSS program at the Solomon Islands Teacher College (SITC) revealed that they a l l were worried about the overall aims of the HNSS. Therefore, a meeting of the interested partiesj (mentioned above) was arranged to discuss the aims of the . Honiara New Secondary School. At the meeting, l i s t s of aims which the investigator had extracted verbatim from local publications were presented. To prepare those l i s t s of aims, publications about the New Secondary Schools were reviewed u n t i l no new statements of aims could be identified. These l i s t s of aims are at t a c h e d ae Appendix C # The people at the meeting decided that the l i s t of aims taken from the Education Policy 1975-1979 White Paper represented the Government's o f f i c i a l position, and were the appropriate aims for the Honiara New Secondary School (minutes of the meeting are in Appendix D). The . investigator did not take part in the discussions which led to that decision. Thus, the aims of the Honiara New Secondary School from those stated in the White Paper were: . 1) To complete the student's basic education after six years of primary schooling. 2) To equip the student for young adult situations and responsibilities in Honiara. 3) To provide a basis for technical learning, and employment training i n agriculture, trading or industry in Honiara. 4) To develop interests and s k i l l s with roots in the cultural heritage of the Solomon Islands. 5) To provide the student with chances to learn things which are useful for l i v i n g in Honiara. 3.2.2 Determining Possible Curriculum Options for the HNSS 3.221 Introduction The word "curriculum" i s used here to mean a l l the courses and units which w i l l be offered in the HNSS. Therefore a Curriculum Option w i l l refer to a course of study such as agriculture, homecrafts, mechanics, etc.; and a unit of study would be a lesson or unit under a particular curriculum option. For example, under the curriculum option, "Homecrafts", there could be a unit of study on the cooking of taro. 45 3.222 Gathering Units of Study The f i r s t step taken to i d e n t i f y the curriculum options involved compiling a reasonably complete l i s t of un i t s of study f o r the t o t a l curriculum of the HNSS. S p e c i f i c curriculum options could then be i d e n t i f i e d from the r e s u l t s of c a t e g o r i z i n g the units of study (as w i l l be described i n Section 3.233). The u n i t s of study gathered were often s p e c i f i c to the perceived needs of students i n the Honiara area. For example, instead of simply "mechanics", a person might suggest f i x i n g and maintaining an automobile (commonly found only i n the c i t y of Honiara). F i x i n g an automobile i s part of mechanics; but, i f "mechanics" was a curriculum option i n a r u r a l NSS, i t would not include the f i x i n g of automobiles. Though t h i s information was not used d i r e c t l y i n t h i s study i t would be an important source of data f o r anyone who would be designing a course i n the HNSS. Therefore, given the aims and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Honiara New Secondary School a l i s t of suggested units of study was gathered from the f o l l o w i n g sources (the s p e c i f i c references are presented i n Appendix E) 1) The Minutes of the New Secondary School Curriculum Committee meetings (NSSCC). 2) L e t t e r s from c i t i z e n s and educators to the NSSCC. 3) F u g i t i v e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e i n the MECA f i l e s and the S.I. N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y . 4) Discussions with MECA o f f i c i a l s . : 5) Discussions with NSS teachers, from r u r a l NSS's, and with HNSS teachers. 6) Theses and reports prepared i n the Solomon Islands. Some examples of the 154 u n i t s of study, extracted from the above sources, are l i s t e d belox;: 46 1) Making a fish pond. 2) Starting a small business. 3) Latrine construction. 4) Terracing on h i l l y land. 5) Growing vegetable crops. 6) Proper child care. 7) Banks and banking. 8) Storing food in the home. 9) Getting help from the police, when you need i t . 10) Building animal houses. • 3.223 Organizing the Units of Study 3.2231 Introduction Once the potential units of study had been determined for the HNSS, the problems became to organize the units into a number of different categories, name the categories, and check that the categories were mutually exclusive and complete. These f i n a l categories would be the potential curriculum options for the HNSS. •3.2232 Placing the Units of Study into Categories Since the 154 units were f a i r l y specific statements of possible curriculum outcomes i t seemed reasonable to ask educators and subject specialists, rather than the general public, to categorize them. Therefore, the 154 units pf study were randomly numbered from 1 to 154. Each was typed onto a separate s l i p of paper. Seven subject specialists from the Teachers' College (SITC), two New Secondary School teachers, and one primary school teacher were independently and separately asked to group the units into categories so that each category contained related units of study. The nature and aims of the Honiara New Secondary School were explained to each respondent before he/she categorized the units. There was no re s t r i c t i o n placed on the number of categories or on the number of units of study in each category. The respondents were also asked to add any units they f e l t were missing, point out any units they considered vague or redundant, and attach a name to each of the categories they had established. A copy of the instructions and the form the respondents were given to record this information i s provided in Appendix F. The 154 units of study were used to produce a symmetrical matrix of dimensions 154 by 154. The c e l l s above the diagonal of the matrix were f i l l e d with the percent of times a unit was associated with each other unit. The categories were formed by combining those units of study which were grouped together by 50 percent or more of the respondents. It did occur that some units of study were included in one category by 40 percent (or more) of the respondents, and in another category by another 40 percent (or more) of the respondents. In these cases, the units of study were placed i n both categories. These procedures yielded thirteen categories. Following further discussions with two of the respondents (the SITC Agriculture tutor, and the Agriculture teacher at the HNSS), the category "Agriculture" was divided into "Plant Agriculture" and "Animal Agriculture". The ten respondents eliminated nineteen redundant units of study from the l i s t . The remaining 135 units of study are displayed in Figure 3-1. 3.2233 Checking the Categorization Ten more respondents were chosen to check the categorizations. Half of the respondents were in the educational f i e l d Figure 3-1 The Curriculum Options and Units of Study X. RECREATION AND GAKK3 - l e a r n i n g to swim «-©rganisinf indoor games - r a f o r e e i n g l o c a l geasa 2 . ANIMAIi AGRICULTURE - r a l e i n s d a i r y c a t t l e • r a i s i n g beef c a t t l e • p i g r a i s i n g 3 . PLANT AG R I C U L T U R E - r i c e growing -pineapple p r o d u c t i o n -growing s p i c e s -coconut growing -copra producing - i r r i g a t i o n -tobacco growing s -growing t r a d i t i o n a l crops -growing bamboo -growing c h i l i e s -organising outdoor games -ruleo o f popular games - r a i s i n g chietens - r a i s i n g c r o c o d i l e s • r a i s i n g t u r t l e s - insect pests i n the garden -using f e r t i l i s e r s -growing vegetables •cocoa producing -producing; plant seeds -banana -producing -sugar C A . 2 9 growing -growing o i l palm* -making f e r t i l i s e r and com-post. -marketing farm products 4. FISHING -making a f i s h pond -he- t s catch b a i t f i s h - p r e s e r v i n g and siarkctins f i s h — c a t c h i n g and marketing s h e l l f i s h g. 3MALL BUSINESS 3TUDI33 - o p e r a t i n g a s m a l l shop - s t a r t i n g a email business - a d v e r t i s i n g - s a v i n g and u s i n g money wi s e l y 6 . ERADK COURSES -simple metalwork -blackemithing -the use and care of t o o l s - b r i c k l a y i n g - s e p t i c tank c o n s t r u c t i o n 7. BUILDING ANU CONSTRUCTION -road c o n s t r u c t i o n — l a t r i n e c o n o t r u c t i o n - s e p t i c tank c o n o t r u c t i o n - b u i l d i n c pormonunt houuoa - -boatbuilding^canoea and 6mall boatoj —tho use and care of t o o l s 8 . K E C H Z N I C 3 -the r e p a i r and maintenance o f outboard motors -tho r e p a i r and maintenance of b i c y c l e s -tho r e p a i r and maintonunce of power saws -methods o f catching f i s h i n the sea. -methods of catching f i s h i n the r i v e r s , - r e a r i n g t u r t l e s . -simple book-keeping -obtaining business loans -co-operatives -marketing farm products - f u r n i t u r e making -simple plumbing -simple welding -typing -the use of bush wood f o r b u i l d i n g - p a i n t i n g s t r u c t u r e s - b u i l d i n g l e a f houoes -bridge c o n o t r u c t i o n - b u i l d i n g with concrete -tho r o p u i r and maintenance of motorcycle engines ••tho r e p t i i r and maintenance of e l e c t r i c Renorutoro -car and truck maintenance -the use and care of t o o l o Figure 3-1 (continued) 9 . HOMECRAFTS -u s i n g e l e c t r i c i t y i n the hoao. —sewing by hand f p r e v e n t i n g accidents i n the home, -planaiai,- n u t r i t i o u s meals -making clothes -hygiene i n tho homo —how to t r e a t and serve guests i n your home. -reading r e c i p e s - s t o r i n g food i n the home - B o w i n g by machine -making washing soap -dyeing c l o t h e s -vanning c l o t h e s -proper c h i l d care -how to uso d i f f e r e n t types of stoves and ovens. 10. HANDICRAFTS —weaving (baskets, mats,etc.) - t u r t l e s h e l l c r a f t s —woo* carving -candle making -drawing and p a i n t i n g -leatherwork —rope and twine making - p o t t e r y making -dyeing c l o t h -making s h e l l jewelery U. TRADITIONAL STUDIES •»the t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s of the people i n the Honiara area -the t r a d i t i o n a l songs of the people i n the Honiara area -the t r a d i t i o n a l dances o f t he people i n tho Honiara area 12. HONIARA STUDIK3 —lan d use and land tenure i n Honiara -urban housing i n Honiara -tho h i s t o r y of Hcr.io.rc - g e t t i n g l e g a l advice i n Honiara -tho use of the Honiara museum -how to get help when you are s i c k 13. PKRSONAL HKALTH - a l c o h o l uae and i t s e f f e c t on the body -r e c o g n i a i n g and preventing n u t r i t i o n a l disease -recogniaing and preventing common diseases -town planning i n Honiara -where you can l i v e i n Honiara -labour lews i n Honiara -the f u n c t i o n o f the p o l i c e -the use of the l i b r a r y -Honiara town p o l i t i c s -community o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n Honiara -preventing malaria the body and how i t works -preventing i n f e c t i o n s -elementary f i r s t a i d -fam i l y planning 14. SOLOMON' ISLAND STUDIES —tho h i s t o r y o f the Solomon Islands • —the e x t e r n a l trade o f the Solomon Islands —Solomon Islands Government f i n a n c i n g .-tho Government's development plan -the p o l i t i c a l atruct-ire of the Solomon Islands -tho geography of the Soloir.on Iulunda -the adrainintrative s t r u c t u r e of the Solonon Islands - a i r , sea arid land transpor-t a t i o n i n the Holooona -induutrien i n the Solomon Inlands -tourism i n the Solomons and h a l f were i n business and industry. Because.of the s p e c i f i c nature of the uni t s of study under the various curriculum options, a judge-mental sample of a r t i c u l a t e people to check the groupings was used rather than a la r g e random sample. Three expatriots were included to perform a check on the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c l a r i t y of the uni t s of study. A l i s t of the respondents asked to check the ca t e g o r i z a t i o n s f o l l o w s : Respondent A = HNSS Teacher (Solomon Islander, male) B = Accountant ( B r i t i s h , male) C = Housewife ( A u s t r a l i a n , female) D = Primary School Teacher (Solomon Islander, female) E = Teacher Trainee (Solomon Islander, female) F = Tutor at SITC (Solomon Islander, male) G = Accountant (Solomon Islander, male) H = HNSS Teacher (Solomon Islander, male) . I «= Re l i g i o u s Worker (Solomon Islander, female) J = Construction Foreman ( F i j i i a n , male) Each respondent, independently and separately, was given the uni t s of study, each w r i t t e n on a separate s l i p of paper. The respondent was als o given fourteen envelopes which were glued i n t o a f i l e f o l d e r and l a b e l l e d with the curriculum options i d e n t i f i e d i n the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n step. He was asked to place the l a b e l l e d s l i p s of paper i n t o the appropriate envelope. A f t e r checking to be sure that he was s a t i s f i e d with the assignments, the respondent was asked to return the f o l d e r to the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The information obtained was then recorded. The ' complete i n s t r u c t i o n s are i n Appendix G. To determine the extent of agreement between the respondents, a c o e f f i c i e n t of agreement (K) f o r nominal scales (Cohen's Kappa) was used. Cohen's Kappa (Cohen, 1960) d i f f e r s from simply counting up the proportion of cases i n which the respondents agree by i n c l u d i n g a fa c t o r which adjusts f o r chance agreement. K can range from "1", f o r perf e c t agreement, to "0", when attained agreement equals chance agreement. A preliminary examination of the proportion of un i t s i d e n t i c a l l y placed i n each category revealed high agreement among the respondents. Therefore, a sample of twenty of the N(N-l) p o s s i b l e unique p a i r s of 2 respondents were randomly selected f o r d e t a i l e d c a l c u l a t i o n s of Cohen's K. The r e s u l t s of these c a l c u l a t i o n s are displayed i n Table 3-1. The medium value of c o e f f i c i e n t "K" f o r the twenty randomly selected p a i r s of respondents was 0.87, with a range from 0.72 to 0.94. That i n d i c a t e d very good agreement between the respondents i n assigning the u n i t s to the l a b e l l e d c a t egories. This suggested that the category headings were c l e a r , independent and mutually e x c l u s i v e with respect to the u n i t s under them. A f t e r these steps i n the procedure, another curriculum option, "Re l i g i o u s Education", was added, because of suggestions from three of the respondents (the two HNSS teachers and the r e l i g i o u s worker), and because, as t h i s study was being c a r r i e d out, " R e l i g i o u s Education" was being taught i n the HNSS. This a d d i t i o n gave a t o t a l of f i f t e e n curriculum options f o r the HNSS. They were: 1. Recreation and Games 9. Homecrafts 2. Animal A g r i c u l t u r e 10. Handicrafts 3. Plant A g r i c u l t u r e 11. T r a d i t i o n a l Studies 4. F i s h i n g 12. Honiara Studies 5. Small Business Studies 13. Personal Health 6. Trade Courses 14. Solomon Island Studies 7. B u i l d i n g and Construction 15. R e l i g i o u s Education. 8. Mechanics Table 3-1 C o e f f i c i e n t s of Agreement Calc u l a t e d f o r a Random S e l e c t i o n of P a i r s of Respondents Respondent A B C D E F G H I J A * .92 - - - .90 .88 -B * .86 .76 .94 - .88 - .84 -C * .80 .88 - .84 .90 .92 -R D * .74 - - - .78 .72 e s E ' * .94 -P o F * - .87 -n d G * .86 .84" .88 e n H t I J * The diagonal values equal 1 3.22^ The V a l i d i t y of the Options The curriculum options f o r the New Secondary Schools (NSS) were supposed to meet the needs of p u p i l s from a small geographical area surrounding the school. Though there might have been some agreement f o r a standard curriculum f o r a l l of the r u r a l new secondary schools, that curriculum would not n e c e s s a r i l y be the same f o r the Honiara School-an urban NSS. Hence, there was no accepted c r i t e r i o n curriculum against which to check the v a l i d i t y of the curriculum options obtained i n Phase I of t h i s study. Therefore, f o r the f i f t e e n curriculum options obtained, i t Is most meaningful to discuss the adequacy of the set of curriculum options i n forming a reasonable curriculum f o r the students i n the HNSS. In other words, i t w i l l be shown that the curriculum options have content v a l i d i t y . The purpose of Phase I of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y a l l the c u r r i c l u m options f o r the HNSS which could be considered reasonable, i n l i g h t of the aims and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the School i n Honiara. The question constantly put to the respondents, i n compiling the u n i t s of study and formulating the curriculum options, was "Is there anything e l s e which you think should be included?". I t was quite p o s s i b l e that some u n i t s of study were missed; however, i t was much more u n l i k e l y that a c u r r i c u -lum option was missed. I t was u n l i k e l y because the curriculum options were formulated from the u n i t s of study. Omitting one or two or more of the u n i t s of study w i t h i n an option s t i l l l e f t a set of u n i t s which could be i d e n t i f i e d as comprising a p a r t i c u l a r curriculum option. I f the curriculum options had been suggested f i r s t , then i t would be l e s s l i k e l y that the set of f i f t e e n options i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study would have been obtained. Yet, i n the other new secondary schools, curriculum options were decided f i r s t , and then units of study were derived from the options. The problem of using that approach, besides p o s s i b l y missing a major curriculum option, was that the name of the curriculum option could d i c t a t e the kinds of things which - should be taught under i t . If the option was homecrafts, then a pre-developed course • I • • . • . ' such as the UNDP course on Homecrafts—developed at the' U n i v e r s i t y of the South P a c i f i c — m i g h t have ended up being used ( t h i s was the case i n one of the r u r a l new secondary schools v i s i t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r ) , rather than a set of units based on l o c a l requirements and foods. Therefore, in the type of schooling studied, the options determined in this phase of the study have high content validity because: (1) the options were derived from, and supported by, specific units of study considered appropriate to the Honiara environment; (2) indigenous judges agreed on the content classifications; and (3) indigenous judges only suggested changes in units of study and did not suggest that any of the curriculum options were unreasonable. 3.225 Summary The categorization of the i n i t i a l set of units of study, labelling the categories and checking those categories provided results which indicated that this is a useful method for obtaining an accurate descriptive picture of the type of curriculum required in a particular schooling situation. For the administrator, the curriculum options (category headings ) would provide a general framework for the curriculum, against which he could check the picture he wanted to convey within the aims of the school. For the curriculum implementer, the units of study would provide specific information which he could organize and amplify within his expert capabilities. Gathering units of study before specifying curriculum options increases the probability that the curriculum will be based on indigenous concerns (if that is the. overall aim of the type of schooling being developed). 3.30 Procedure for Rating and Ranking the Curriculum Options 3.31 Overview • Twenty-four members of the Honiara community and 88 teacher trainees from the SITC (college respondents) were asked to rate and rank order the fifteen curriculum options obtained from the previous steps. No members of these samples had participated in the formulation of the curriculum options. The respondents were asked to rate each curriculum option on a five point importance scale. After the rating they were also asked to rank order the options in order of importance, in light of the aims of the Honiara New Secondary School. Preliminary t r i a l s of these procedures indicated that both tasks would be easily understood and easily completed by the respondents sampled. Except for five respondents, this was the case. The college respondents performed the task i n their classrooms under the supervision of the investigator. The community respondents were approached individually and completed the task at their place of work, or at home in the case of three respondents who were not working for wages. It became apparent from the materials used to generate the units of study, from the comments made by the respondents who were used to determine and check the categorization of the units of study, and from the preliminary t r i a l s of the rating and ranking of the curriculum options, that some of the options were considered to be only appropriate for g i r l s in the HNSS, and that some options were only appropriate for boys in the HNSS. Therefore, half of the above sample was randomly assigned to the rating and ranking of the options for BOYS i n the HNSS, and the other half for GIRLS in the HNSS. A copy of the instrument and instructions for rating the options are appended as Appendix H. A copy of the instructions for ranking the options i s appended as Appendix I. .56 3.32. . The Community Sample • The community respondents comprised a judgemental sample of 24 people. They were chosen because they had the a b i l i t y to complete the task, and they represented a range of occupations i n Honiara. In view of the fact that the 1976 census datawerenot available at this time, and the fact that Phase I was a procedure for selecting some curriculum options for more study i n Phase II, i t seemed reasonable to use a deliberate procedure to obtain this sample. The occupations of the community respondents were: Bank Clerk Nurse Trainee Garage Mechanic Tour Guide Gas-pump Attendant E l e c t r i c i t y Corp. Clerk Accountant Shopkeeper Agricultural Worker Housewives (2) (field) Accountant Trainee Typist Store Clerks (3) Agriculture Trainee Primary Teachers (3) Nurse Store Clerk (Chinese) Unemployed Worker (labourer) Dancer A l l of the respondents were native Solomon Islanders, except for one « * Chinese store clerk. Table 3-2 describes the sample with respect to age, sex, schooling and years of residence in Honiara. What is particularly interesting about the data exhibited in Table j • • . 3 - 2 i s the short time the people sampled had spent in Honiara. Only one of the twenty-four respondents indicated that he had been in Honiara for more than five years. That person was the Chinese store clerk. The investigator had been told on a number of occasions that there was no such thing a3 a "Honiarian". These data seem to support that contention. (See also the last paragraph of the f i r s t page of Appendix D for further discussion of this in relation to the HNSS.) Table 3-2 Description of the COMMUNITY Sample Which Rated and Ranked the Curriculum Options Sex Age (in years) Schooling Residence .(median i n Honiara Male Female min. mean max. yrs.) (median yrs.) For BOYS in HNSS 12 8 4 18 26.5 38 10.2 For GIRLS i n HNSS 12 7 5 19 24.3 31 9.5 3.33 The College Sample At this point i n the study, the investigator decided to use the students i n the Solomon Islands Teacher College (SITC) as a data source for Phase I and for Phase II of the study. Of the total of seven intact classes of students available, six were used'. -The omitted class consisted of the New Secondary School teacher trainees. They were omitted because the courses they were taking emphasized a particular curriculum for the New Secondary Schools. Therefore their responses as a group might have been systematically biased. It was suspected that the students in the college were a microcosm of the larger Honiara community. Honiara could be characterized as an activity center rather than as a home for most of i t s residents. People came to the town from a l l over the Solomon Islands, spent a few years there, and then went back to their home villages. Honiara simply did not. seem to be considered a home vil l a g e . For example, i n data gathered from the students at the Honiara New Secondary School, by the Headmaster of the School, only 8% of the students described Honiara as their family's home, and only 38% indicated they wanted to stay in Honiara after they had completed their course at the HNSS. Yet the students had completed most of their primary schooling i n Honiara and were l i v i n g with their immediate families in Honiara. The college students were similar to the members of the larger community in that their stay in Honiara was seen as having instrumental benefits, i.e. to get teacher training so that they could go back to their villages to teach. Comparing the college data with the community data would help to confirm or deny the supposition that the college and community respondents were from the same population. If i t turned out that the data obtained from both samples was the same, then the college students would provide a convenient source for checking the r e l i a b i l i t y of the instruments. Table 3-3 summarizes the characteristics of the college respondents. Table 3-3 Description of the COLLEGE Sample Which Rated and Ranked the Curriculum Options Sex Age (in years) Schooling Residence N (median in Honiara . Male Female min. mean max. yrs.) (median yrs.) For BOYS 'n ' in HNSS 44 27 17 16 21.0 31 8.7 1.2 For GIRLS n _ • - . in HNSS. 43 24 19 17 21.5 32 8 . 7 1.4 3.40 Results of Rating and Ranking the Curriculum Options 3.41 . Rating Data Table 3-4 summarizes the results of the rating task. The mean ratings, for the options for BOYS in the HNSS, were quite high. Both the community and the college rated more than half of the options between very important and extremely important. When ranks were assigned to those mean ratings for BOYS in the HNSS, and a Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (r ) calculated between the college and community ranks, r was found to be 0.73. That is significantly s different from zero at a < .01 (see Table 3-6). The mean ratings, for the options for GIRLS in the HNSS, had a greater range than those for BOYS in the HNSS. In addition, the college and community ware in greater agreement than they were for BOYS. r The rank order correlation coefficient between the college and community ratings was 0.98, which is significantly different from zero at a < .001 level. The rank order correlation coefficients for the rank order of BOYS with the rank order of GIRLS were not significantly different from zero (see Table 3-6). 3.42 Ranking Data Table 3-5 summarizes the results of the ranking task. £R^  is the sum of the ranks given to a particular option by all the respondents. For example if person 1 ranked option A in position 3 then R^  = 3; if person 2 ranked option A in position 5 then R^  = 5; and £R^  = + = 8. The lower £R^ , the greater the perceived Importance of the option. There was good agreement between the college and the community on the ranking task for BOYS and for GIRLS. The rank order correlation Table 3-4 Rating the Options For BOYS in i the HNSS , For GIRLS i n the HNSS COMMUNITY COLLEGE COMMUNITY COLLEGE • (N=ll) (N= 42) (N= 11) (N= 38) Curriculum Options mean rank Tie an rank mean rank mean rank rating* rating* rating* rating* 1.- Recreation and Games 3.73 12 3.57 11 3.00 10 2.95 11 2. Animal Agriculture 4.36 2.5 4.33 '6 2.82 11 3.18 10 3. Plant Agriculture 4.36 2.5 4.55 2.5 3.64 7 3.74 9 4. Fishing 3.09 13 3.43 13 1.73 14 2.32 13 5. Small Business Studies 4.18 6.5 4.60 1 3.82 6 ' 3.86 6 6. Trade Courses' 4.00 9.5 3.62 10 2.73 12 2.68 12 7. Building and Construction 4.09 8 4.00 9- 1.27 15 1.82 15 8. Mechanics 4.55 1 "*4.43 5 2.64 13 2.24 14 9. Homecrafts 3.00 14 3.24 14 5.00 1 4.95 1 10. Handicrafts 4.00 9.5 3.55 12 4.63 3 4.61 3 11. Traditional Studies 2.27 15 3.23 15 3.55 8.5 3.76 7.5 12. Honiara Studies 4.27 4.5 4.02 8 3.55 8.5 3.76 7.5 13. Personal Health Studies 4.27 4.5 4.52 4 4.64 2 4.79 2 14. Solomon Island Studies 3.91 11 4.55 2.5 4.00 5 4.00 5 15. Religious Education 4.18 6.5 4.29 7 4.18 4 4.11 4 * The lower the rating, the less the perceived importance of the option (max=5, min=l). Table 3-5 Ranking the Options V For BOYS i n the HNSS For GIRLS i n the HNSS COMMUNITY COLLEGE COMMUNITY • COLLEGE (N= 12) (N-42) (N =12) (N= =42) Curriculum Option IR. Rank* IR. Rank* IR. Rank* IR. Rank* j J J 3 1. Recreation and Games 108 11 444 12 109 10 398 11 2. Animal Agriculture 69 5 207 2 116 12 372 10 3. Plant Agriculture 59 1 198 1 95 6.5 328 7 4. Fishing 142 13.5 435 11 153 14 494 13 5. Small Business Studies 75 6 217 3 64 4 293 5 6. Trade Courses 97 9 373 10 107 9 408 12 7. Building and Construction 62 2 250 4 133 13 496 14 8. Mechanics 65 3 270 6 173 15 574 15 9. Homecrafts 142 13.5 485 15 18 1 111 1 10. Handicrafts 120 12 445 13 48 3 161 3 11. . Traditional Studies 145 15 453 14 111 11 330 8 12. Honiara Studies 90 7 352 9 95 6.5 311 6 13. Personal Health Studies 67 4 258 5 38 2 149 2 14. Solomon Islands Studies 107 10 317 7 101 8 369 9 15. Religious Education 95 8 340 8 84 5 260. 4 * The lower the rank the greater the perceived importance of the option. 63 c o e f f i c i e n t s were 0.88 and 0.95 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Both of these c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero at a < .001 l e v e l . As with the r a t i n g data, the c o r r e l a t i o n between the rank order of options f o r BOYS with that f o r GIRLS was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero (see Table 3-6). Table 3-6 Spearman's Rank Order C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t (r ) of the Community Data With the College Data COLLEGE From RATING data From RANK J N G data For BOYS i n the HNSS For GIRLS i n the HNSS For BOYS i n the HNSS For GIRLS i n the HNSS r Prob. s r Prob. s r„ Prob. r Prob. s >< H i—i For BOYS i n the HNSS 0.73 < .01 0.10 > .20 iin i • ; 0.88 < .OOlj 1 -0.10 > .20 COMMUN: For GIRLS i n the HNSS -0.16 > .20 0.98 < .001 -0.19 > .20 0.95 < .001 3.43 R e l i a b i l i t y Estimates # 3.431 Introduction . The ordering of the options from both the r a t i n g data and the ranking data was on the basi s of a consensus. There was no ob j e c t i v e or c r i t e r i o n order a v a i l a b l e to compare with the order obtained from consensus. The obtained order of options was r e l i a b l e 64 to the extent to which the respondents acted as replicates of each other, and gave much the same ratings and ranks for a particular option; and to the extent to which the mean ratings and ranks were stable over a period of time. Therefore, internal consistency, and test-retest estimates of r e l i a b i l i t y were calculated. 3 . 4 3 2 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Rating Data 3 . 4 3 2 1 From Internal Consistency Measures The r e l i a b i l i t y of ratings from the internal consistency of the raters was obtained by calculating the interclass correlation coefficient and applying Spearman-Browns prediction formula (Ebel, 1 9 5 1 , p. 4 1 8 ; Winer, 1 9 6 2 , p. 1 2 8 ; Guilford, 1 9 5 0 , p. 5 0 9 ) , The necessary data for these calculations were obtained from an analysis of variance table, derived from considering the ratings to be a single factor experiment with repeated measures. The analysis of variance data for the community sample's rating of the options for B O Y S in the H N S S i s displayed i n Table 3 - 7 . This example w i l l be used to i l l u s t r a t e the calculations. Example Calculation The interclass correlation (r^) equals: ( 1 ) r n = M S _ .— M S (Ebel, 1 9 5 1 , p. 4 1 8 ) J . D U W O  M S B 0 + ( K - 1 ) M S W 0 • where K = the number of raters M S ^ = mean square between options M S ^ Q = mean square within options Table 3-7 Analysis of Variance Table for the Community's Ratings of the Options for BOYS in the HNSS Source Sum of Squares df MS Between Options Within Options Between Raters Residual Total 60.27 156.54 14 150 29.21 127.33 10 140 4. 31 = M SB0 1. 04 •MSwo 2. 92 = M SBR 0. 91 = MS res 216.81 164 Therefore,, for the example of the community rating of the options for BOYS in the HNSS r = 4.31 - 1.04 = 0.22 The interclass correlation ( r ^ i s an estimate of the r e l i a b i l i t y of a single set of ratings. Because, i n this study, the average ratings were used to determine the relative importance of the options, then a r e l i a b i l i t y estimate of the-average ratings was calculated. This was done by calculating the intercalss correlation coefficient from equation (1), and then applying the Spearman-Brown prediction formula (Guilford, 1950, p. 508). The Spearman-Brown prediction formula can be found in a number of sources. It i s : (2) The r e l i a b i l i t y of K ratings ( r ^ ) - Kr. 1 + (K - l ) r . Therefore, i n the example being used here, vvv = 11(0.22) = 0.76 1 + (11 - 1)0.22 This estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y indicates that i f the rating task was repeated with another sample, from the same population, then the correlation between the mean ratings obtained from the two sets of data vnnld be approximately 0.76. the r e l i a b i l i t i e s (r v l.) of the other rating tasks are displayed in Table 3-8. Table 3-8 Summary o f the R e l i a b i l i t y of the Rating Data M SB0 MSW0 MS res r l rKK Test-retest R e l i a b i l i t y Community •n „ 1UL UU J. »-> 4.31 1.04 0.91 0 oo 0.76 * For GIRLS 12.3 1.01 0.92 0.50 " 0.92 * College For BOYS 10.9 0.93 0.87 0.20 0.91 .66 ! For GIRLS 34.8 1.00 .83 0.47 0.97 .97 * Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y study was not performed with the community sample. 3.4322 From Test-Retest Measures One month after the rating and ranking task was performed one of the classes at SITC was randomly selected to repeat the task. They were given the same instructions and the same forms as before. The average ratings, converted to ranks, obtained i n the f i r s t t r i a l were correlated with the average ratings, converted to ranks, obtained in the second t r i a l . These correlations are displayed in Table 3-8. High correlation coefficients indicated that the 6; ordering of the options, using the mean ratings, were stable over the one month period of time. 3.433 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Ranking Data 3.4331 From Internal Consistency Measures The r e l i a b i l i t y of rankings due to the internal consistency of the rankers was estimated from the coefficient of concordance, and the Spearman-Brown prediction formula (equation "2"). Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) i s a measure of the degree of association among "K" rankings of "N" objects. A high or significant W means that the judges are applying the same standard in ranking the N objects. Their pooled ordering may serve as a "standard" (Siegel, 1956, p. 237). That i s , the best estimate of the "true" ranking of N objects, i f W i s significant, i s by the order of the various sums of ranks R^  (Kendall, 1948, p. 87). When the number of objects being ranked i s greater than seven, then: where K = the number of rankers 2 (3) X = K(N - 1)W N = the number of objects to be ranked If the value of chi square, calculated from equation "5", equals 2 or exceeds x f ° r a particular level of significance, and df = N - 1, then the nu l l hypothesis that the "K" rankings are unrelated may be rejected (Siegel, 1956, p. 237). The average interperson correlation (r^) can be calculated from: (4) r - KW - 1 K - 1 The r e l i a b i l i t y of the rank order obtained from the various sums of the ranks (R^) can be calculated using the Spearman-Brown prediction formula (Equation "2"), and the interperson correlation 68 c o e f f i c i e n t . The r e s u l t s of these c a l c u l a t i o n s are presented i n Table 3-9. The high r e l i a b i l i t y estimates from equation "2" in d i c a t e d that the judges were a c t i n g as r e p l i c a n t s of each other; and, i f the ranking task was repeated with another sample from the same population, the two composite rank orders would be very nearly the same. 3.4332' From Test-Retest Measures The same c l a s s that supplied the r a t i n g t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y data supplied the ranking t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y data. The rank order of options, obtained from the R^  values of the f i r s t t r i a l , was c o r r e l a t e d with the rank order of options from the second t r i a l . These c o r r e l a t i o n s are displayed i n Table 3-9. Table 3-9 Summary of the R e l i a b i l i t y of the RANKING Data Sample Size W 2 X Sig. of 2 X r l rKK Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y Community For BOYS 12 0.32 54.3 < .001 0.26 0.81 * For GIRLS 12 0.60 101.6 < .001 0.56 0.94 * College For BOYS 42 0.28 164.6 < .001 0.26 0.94 0.85 For GIRLS .42 0.49 288 < .001 0.48 0.97 0.88 * A t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y study was not performed with the community sample. 3.50 S e l e c t i n g the Options for Further Study i n Phase II To keep the study to a manageable s i z e , a subsample of the curriculum options was retained f o r f u r t h e r study. This subsample was '•' • '69 selected using the rank order of topics obtained by combining the ranking data of the college and the community. ' . The decision to use only the ranking data was based on the following reasons: (1) The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the ranking data were consistently higher than the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the rating data (Tables 3-8 and 3-9). (2) The interperson correlations of the ranking data were consistently higher than those of the rating data. (3) The rating procedure tended to produce clusters of options at the high end of the "importance" scale, whereas the ranking procedure forced each respondent to make finer discriminations among options. The decision to combine the college and community ranking data was based on the following reasons: (1) The correlations between the college and community rank orders were very high (0.89 for BOYS and 0.95 for GIRLS), and suggested that the two samples were using the same c r i t e r i a for ranking the options. (2) Neither the community sample's rank order nor the college sample's rank order could be described as "correct"; therefore there was no j u s t i f i c a t i o n for choosing one over the other. (3) In Phase II both a community sample and a college sample were to be. used; therefore basing the selection of options on the basis of a composite rank order seemed a reasonable compromise. Figure 3-2 Composite Rank Order for the Curriculum Options Composite Curriculum Option Curriculum Option Composite Rank For BOYS in HNSS . For GIRLS i n HNSS Rank 1 Plant Agriculture Homecrafts 1 2 Animal Agriculture Personal Health 2 Studies 3 Building and Handicrafts • 3 Construction 4 Small Business Small Business 4 Studies Studies 5 Personal Health Religious Education 5 , Studies 6 Mechanics Honiara Studies 6 7 Honiara Studies Plant Agriculture 7 8 Religious Traditional Studies 8 Education 9 Solomon Island Solomon Island 9 Studies Studies 10 Trade Courses Trade Courses 11 11 Recreation and Recreation and 11 Games Games 12 Handicrafts Animal Agriculture 11 13 Fishing Building and 13 Construction 14 Traditional Fishing 14 Studies 15 Homecrafts Mechanics 15 To calculate the composite rank order, a mean score, J K j , was N calculated for each option from the community data, and similarly from the college data.. The two means were added together to form a composite score for each curriculum option. The lower the composite score, the greater the perceived importance of the curriculum option. For example, for'the curriculum option "Plant Agriculture for Boys i n the HNSS", IRj= 59from the community (N=12), and ZR^ = 198from the college (N=42) (see Table 3-5). Therefore the composite score was: = 59 + 198 12 42 = 9 .6 Since the composite score of 9*6 was the lowest score, then Plant Agriculture was ranked f i r s t for Boys in the HNSS. The composite rank orders are displayed in Figure 3-2. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients (r ) were calculated s between the ranks obtained by the composite data and the ranks obtained from the college and community data separately. As would be expected from the strongly positive correlations between the community and college rank orders (see Table 3-6), the composite rank order i s a very good representation of both (see Table 3-10). The f i r s t , middle, and last ranked options for both boys and g i r l s were chosen for use in Phase II of this study. The f i r s t and last ranked options were chosen because there was high agreement among the respondent when they ranked those options (see Figure 3-3). Therefore, a question which could be asked was: Given that the rank position of an option was stable and definite within the population, do people give i t that rank position for the same reasons? The middle ranked options were retained for the opposite reason. There was considerable disagreement among the respondents when they 72 ranked those options (see Figure 3-3) . Therefore, the question which could be asked was: Given that the rank position of an option was not stable or definite within the population, what reasons do people give which would explain the disparate ranks given the option? That i s , i s there corresponding disparity among the reasons given? If both of the above questions could be sa t i s f a c t o r i l y answered by the procedures to be developed i n Phase II of this dissertation, then that would support the claim that the procedures were valuable and useful, Table 3-10 Correlations Between the Composite Rank Order of Options With the College Rank Order and With the Community Rank Order (Spearman's "r") Community Rank Order of Options For BOYS For GIRLS College Rank Order of Options For. BOYS For GIRLS Composit Rank Order of Options for BOYS Composit Rank Order of Options for GIRLS r = 0.95 s r = 0.97 s r = 0.97 s r - 0.98 s Therefore, the curriculum options chosen for Phase II of the dissertation were: Plant Agriculture for BOYS . Homecrafts for GIRLS Religious Education for BOYS Traditional Studies for GIRLS Homecrafts for BOYS Mechanics for GIRLS. Figure 3-3 Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of F i r s t , Middle and Last Ranked Options (Combined Community and College Data) The Options f o r BOYS i n the HNSS 1) PLANT AGRICULTURE ( F i r s t Ranked) frequency 2) RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (Middle Ranked) 10 frequency 10 15 rank Figure 3-3 (continued) 3) HOMECRAFTS (Last Ranked) 74 20 frequency 10 1 5 rank 10 f 15 B. The Options for GIRLS in the HNSS 1) HOMECRAFTS (First Ranked) 30 frequency 20 10 10 15 75. Figure 3 - 3 (continued) 2) TRADITIONAL STUDIES (Middle Ranked) 20 frequency 10 1 5 10 15 rank 3.50 Summary This chapter described the f i r s t stage of the study done in this dissertation. As such i t was labelled Phase I. The reason for Phase I was to provide reasonable curriculum options for the second part of the study, Phase II. The procedure, developed in Phase I, derived the curriculum options from an exhaustive l i s t of specific units of study, whereas, in present methods of "need" determination, the curriculum options are developed f i r s t , and then the specific units of study are derived from those options. The problems of this latter approach were » discussed in Section 3.234. From a composite rank order of the curriculum options, three curriculum options for BOYS in the HNSS, and three curriculum options for GIRLS in the HNSS were retained for use in Phase II of the study. Phase II i s described i n che following chapter. Chapter 4 THE DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE REASONS SELECTION QUESTIONNAIRE—PHASE II 4.00 Introduction The purpose of Phase II of this study was to attempt to develop a method to determine the reasons people gave when they recommended the inclusion, or the omission, of a curriculum option for a group of students i n a particular educational setting. The most direct method of proceeding would be to ask each respondent whether he would include or omit a particular curriculum option, and then ask him why he decided the way he did. However, simply asking for reasons has a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with i t . F i r s t l y , the respondent would give only those reasons which "spring-to-mind", that i s , there may be other reasons, which may be equally important, but which he wouldn't immediately think of. Secondly, the reasons given may be biased toward his decision; for example, i f the respondent decided to recommend a particular option, then the reasons he gave would support his decision and ignore possible reasons that he might have considered and rejected in his deliberation. That i s , there is no guarantee that deliberation occurred (with careful weighing of pros and cons) before the decision to recommend inclusion or omission of the curriculum option was made. And f i n a l l y , there is no guarantee that a l l relevant points of view were taken into consideration when the decision was made. Therefore, in light of these d i f f i c u l t i e s p i m p l y to ask respondents for reasons they used to recommend the inclusion or omission of a curriculum option f o r the students i n the HNSS d i d not seem to be an appropriate procedure. Instead a procedure was to be developed which would: a) - present the respondent with a reasonably complete set of rel e v a n t , "pro" and "con", reasons which might i n f l u e n c e h i s recommendatory d e c i s i o n ; and b) present the respondent with a s i t u a t i o n i n which i t i s po s s i b l e f o r him to d e l i b e r a t e on h i s recommendatory d e c i s i o n , i n l i g h t of those reasons he considers "pro" and those reasons he considers II „ _ _ l l con . Thus, t h i s chapter describes two stages i n Phase I I . The f i r s t stage was to c o l l e c t a complete set of relevant reasons, both pro and con, f o r each curriculum option; the second stage was to develop an instrument which incorporated the reasons and presented the respondent with a s i t u a t i o n i n which i t would be po s s i b l e f o r him to d e l i b e r a t e on h i s recommendatory d e c i s i o n ( i . e . , whether or not the curriculum option should be included i n the curriculum). 4.10 Gathering Reasons 4.11 Introduction . Section 4.10 w i l l describe the procedures used to gather reasons which could be relevant to a person's d e c i s i o n to recommend or not recommend a curriculum option f o r the HNSS. However, before the d e s c r i p t i o n of that procedure, two sub-sections are presented. The f i r s t describes the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reasons and value judgements, and the second describes the c r i t e r i a which were used to s e l e c t reasons from the data gathered. 79 4.121 The Place of Reasons In Making Value Judgements As was b r i e f l y mentioned in Chapter Two, rating or ranking curriculum options i s a valuing procedure. If option A is ranked higher than option B, then the ranker has made a value judgement that option A i s of more worth than option B. If option A is rated as "very important", then the rater has made a value judgement of the importance" of option A. Or i f a group of people i n s i s t that option A ought to be included i n the curriculum, they are making a recommendation, or prescribing that a certain course of action be followed; and they are contextually implying that they have judged that option A i s worthwhile. One of the most significant points about value judgements i s : "... that i t i s always relevant to ask for j u s t i f i c a t i o n of value judgements. That i s , i t i s never beside the point to ask for reasons or grounds for the judgement. If someone asserts that racism is bad, i t i s relevant tc ask why i t is bad or what makes i t bad (Coomb s, 1971, p. 13). This i s true for prescriptions as well. For example, the following conversations seem d i s t i n c t l y odd: (1) "You ought to include option A i n the curriculum." "Why?" "Oh, I don't know. I don't have any reasons." (2) "You ought to include option A i n the curriculum." "Why?" "Don't be impertinent. Just do as I say." When a recommendation is made by means of expressing a value judgement, the presupposition is that the judge can j u s t i f y his judgement (at least in his own mind). Indeed, in any situation in which a value judgement i s uttered, i t is always legitimate and proper for the hearer to ask 'Why should I accept your judgement?" (Taylor, 1960, p. 67) The reason we should ask the above question is that / ... a value judgement contextually implies a reasoning process in which something has been evaluated. To judge the value of something i s not merely to have a pro-attitude or a cbh-attitude toward i t , nor i s i t merely a method of getting others to do something. It is an assertion, a claim that something is the case (namely, that an object has a certain value or disvalue). Such an assertion is the outcome of a process of evaluation and may always be challenged. A person who pronounces judgement upon something must have reasons for saying what he does (Taylor, 1960, p. 67). An argument, used to arrive at a value judgement, would look something l i k e this: Value principle: "We ought to include courses i n the school curriculum which w i l l teach the students how to grow vegetables." Factual claim: "The agriculture course teaches the students how to grow vegetables." Value judgement: "We ought to include the agriculture course i n the school curriculum." As Coombs (1971) points out: Making a value judgement commits the evaluator to a value principle because his judgement lo g i c a l l y implies a principle. If someone says that this pencil i s good he commits himself to the value principle that any pencil j u s t ' l i k e this one i s good .... The precise nature of the value principle implied by any judgement is indicated by the facts which are given to support the judgement., (p. 13) But often more than one fact i s used to make a value judgement. If a complete job was done, there might be a set of relevant facts which are both supportive of, or i n opposition to, the value judgement. Suppose, for example, the evaluator was aware that a particular course had positive t r a i t s A, B and C, and negative t r a i t s X, Y, and Z; but even after taking into account the negative t r a i t s he decided that we ought to teach the course. In that case the value principle would be a rather complex statement worded: "We ought to teach this course i f i t 81 has tr a i t s A, B, and C, even i f It also has tra i t s X, Y and Z." Somehow, the evaluator has weighed the.pros and cons and decided that the benefits . derived from A, B, C, outweigh the losses due to X, Y and Z. What the above arguments imply is that: f i r s t l y , the person who makes the value judgement can articulate a set of reasons which provide a prima facie case for support of the value judgement; and secondly, the person making the value judgement considered the reasons i n some complex, interrelated way to arrive at his value judgement. The instrument to be developed i n this study should be able both to identify the reasons the respondent used to make his decision, and to determine the relative importance he placed on certain reasons to arrive at his value judgement. However, before the instrument and i t s development are discussed, the next section identifies some important characteristics of reasons. These characteristics guided the investigator's selection of reasons for the instrument. 4.13 The Characteristics of Reasons Used i n Making Value Judgements Scriven (1966) identified and discussed five requirements for a system of reasons that constitute good reasons for making a value judgement. Four of the requirements relevant to this study are: 1) The reasons are true. 2) The reasons are relevant. 3) The reasons are independent from the conclusion. 4) The reasons are more easily known than the conclusion. Scriven (1966) also stated that, i n their usual l i n g u i s t i c form, the reasons are assertions "... which bear on some other hypothesis o r assertion that i s said 'to follow from them', or be 'the conclusion which they support' (p. 159) ...." Each of the four requirements w i l l now be described i n more d e t a i l . Requirement 1: The Reasons Are True To be good reasons for making a value judgement, the reasons must be true. If the reasons are false, then the judgement, which follows those reasons, may be incorrect. For example: Suppose someone judges that capital punishment i s a good thing on the grounds that i t deters serious crime. If as a matter of fact capital punishment does not act as a deterrent, the evaluator has made a poor judgement (Coombs, 1971, p. 18). But, this produces a quandary. Should the public be presented with an adequate set of only true reasons for and against a curriculum option, and then be asked to rate or rank the option in the light of those reasons? That approach would be acceptable i f we could be sure that the public would make decisions based on those reasons. However, .that cannot be assumed. For example, in the case of the Osier School French Immersion Program (see Chapter 2, Section 2.35), i t reportedly was not the case that true reasons were used i n the parents' decision, even when those reasons were available and verbally espoused by the School Board. Therefore, in order to determine why a curriculum option i s considered important, or unimportant (worthwhile, worthless, etc.) by the community, the community must be presented both with reasons which are known to be true, or are well confirmed, and with reasons which are assumptions. Reasons which are assumptions are believed-to be true without proof. j • . • • . _ • ' Reasons which are true, or are well confirmed, can usually be gathered from people who have expertise in the subject of inquiry. Reasons which are assumptions, and which are believed to be true without proof, can be gathered from people who are aware of, but who have no special knowledge of the subject of inquiry. Therefore, in this study, in which both kinds of reasons were sought for each curriculum option, the reasons were gathered from experts, and from non-specialists. Requirement 2: The Reasons Are Relevant In order to bring a set of reasons to bear on a value decision, there must be a sound connection between the reason and the conclusion. In other words, there must be logi c a l relevance. In addition, the reasons must actually have valence for the person making the value judgement (Coombs, 1971, p. 18). That i s , one should be able to say: "I consider these reasons to support my decision ( i . e . , have positive valence) and these reasons to oppose my decision ( i . e . , have negative valence)". Logical relevance can be demonstrated by performing a reasonably complete validation of each reason. The procedures for validating reasons are demonstrated i n Chapter Six, Sections 6.14 to 6.17. If a reason i s to have valence, then i t must be perceived by the respondent as having "something to do with" his/her decision to include or exclude the curriculum option from the HNSS. Whether or not the reasons for each curriculum option met the valence requirement w i l l be examined i n Chapter Five, Section 5.13. Requirement 3: The Reasons Are Independent of The Conclusion Scriven (1966) wrote: "The independence requirement demands that we be able to know the reason(s) for a conclusion without f i r s t having to know the conclusion (p. 160)". This requirement i s necessary so as to avoid reasons which simply beg the question. For example, consider the following argument: "Joe i s a good teacher." • "Why?" "Because he i s effective in the classroom." Being "effective i n the classroom" i s just another way of saying he i s a good teacher. It i s not independent of the conclusion and does not constitute a reason for judging Joe a good teacher. The aid of a specialist in lin g u i s t i c s and teaching English as a second language was enlisted to ensure that each reason selected met the independence requirement. Requirement 4: The Reasons Are More Easily Known Than The Conclusions Scriven (1966) cal l s this the "simplicity" requirement. Unless the reasons are simpler to prove than the conclusion, there would be l i t t l e point i n using them as grounds for the conclusion, "... since we could as readily establish the conclusion (p. 161)". In the example given earlier about "Joe the good teacher", i t would be as d i f f i c u l t proving that Joe was effective in the classroom as proving that he was a good teacher. But consider the following example: "Joe i s a good teacher." "Why?" "His students consistently score high on the d i s t r i c t ' s standardized tests." The reason given above (high test scores) may be only one of a set of reasons which are taken as evidence for supporting the contention that Joe i s a good teacher. The point i s that each reason i s at least as easily understood or proven as the conclusion. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of reasons suggested by Coombs and Meux (1971) was useful for determining whether each reason collected i n this study met the "simplicity" requirement. They suggested that reasons were of three kinds: (1) particular facts which describe a specific state of af f a i r s ; (2) general facts which are empirical generalizations; and (3) conditional facts which are stated in an "if...then" form. Examples and discussion of these three kinds of reasons are provided in Chapter Five, Section 5.15. An Additional Requirement: The Reasons Must Represent' a Wide Range of Considerations A requirement which was not mentioned by Scriven, but which was mentioned by Coombs (1971), is the requirement that the reasons should represent a wide range of considerations, for: "Other things being equal, the greater the range of relevant facts taken into account in making the judgement, the more adequate the judgement i s l i k e l y to be (Coombs, 1971, p. 18)". For example, moral, religious, traditional, and aesthetic considerations might-be relevant for the curriculum option "Religious Education". Section 5.16 of Chapter Five i l l u s t r a t e s the cl a s s i f i c a t i o n of the reasons gathered, into different concerns. Therefore, the following five requirements were used in the selection of reasons from the data collected from specialists and non-specialists. 1) The set of reasons must be comprised of reasons which are known to be true and/or reasons which are assumptions. 2) The reasons must be relevant. . 3) The reasons must be independent from the conclusion. 4) The reasons must be more easily known than the conclusion. 5) The reasons must represent a wide range of considerations. 4.14 Gathering Reasons From The SITC Students 4.141 Introduction . The Solomon Islands Teacher College provided potential teachers with training i n the "best" methods of transmitting a particu-lar body of knowledge or set of s k i l l s to the pupils in the classroom. 86 There was no purposeful attempt in the training courses to determine why a particular subject should be taught. In addition, only one of the five curriculum options selected for further study, homecrafts, was being taught at the SITC. The students met once a week for religious training, and had one afternoon a week for traditional studies, but neither religious training nor traditional studies were formal courses in their teacher training. For these reasons the investigator decided that the students at SITC would have no special knowledge of the curriculum options which were selected, in chapter 3, for further study in this dissertation, and would therefore provide reasons which would represent commonly held, societal-based assumptions about aspects of each curriculum option. Therefore, the investigator decided to use the students at the college as a large and convenient source of reasons which were assumptions about why a particular curriclum option should or should not be included in the HNSS curriculum. The procedure used to collect those .reasons i s described below. 4.142 Procedure Each student at SITC was given a sheet which described the aims and characteristics of the HNSS. This was the same as the sheet given the students in the ranking and rating task discussed i n chapter 3 (see Appendix I). The aims and characteristics were read aloud and, i f necessary, explained. Each student was then randomly given one of the curriculum options, along with a description of the option, and asked to give as many reasons as he/she could think of as to why the course should be taught in the HNSS, and to give as many reasons as he/she could think of why the option should not be taught in the HNSS. Specifically the questions were: 87 "WHAT REASONS WOULD YOU GIVE TO SUPPORT HAVING A COURSE IN (curriculum option) FOR (girls or boys) IN THE HNSS?" "WHAT REASONS WOULD YOU GIVE TO OPPOSE HAVING A COURSE IN • (curriculum option) FOR (girls or boys) IN THE HNSS?" Though the curriculum options chosen for this part of the study were either for BOYS or for GIRLS in the HNSS (see Section 3.50), half of the college students were asked to give reasons for and against for BOYS and the other half reasons for and against for GIRLS in the HNSS, for each curriculum option. / -This was done to ensure that a l l possible reasons for and against a curriculum option would be gathered. It could result that a reason for including a particular curriculum option for g i r l s i n HNSS could equally apply for including the option for boys in HNSS. Therefore 10 SITC students gave reasons for and against including the curriculum option "Mechanics" for BOYS in the HNSS, and another 10 SITC students gave reasons for and against including the curriculum option "Mechanics" for GIRLS in the HNSS, and so on with the other curriculum options. . 4.143 Analysis of the SITC Students' Information There was not an overwhelming number of reasons given for or against each curriculum option. About 75% of the college students gave only one reason each for the option and one reason each against the option. Nevertheless, there was a wide variety of reasons given, representing many different considerations (see Figure 4-2). The collection of reasons for and against each option was care- ? fu l l y reworded so that they were in grammatical English but did not • lose the meaning of the original statement. Some examples of these rewordings for "Traditional Studies" are presented below in Figure 4-1.. Figure 4-1 Rewording of the College Students' Reasons For The Curriculum Option: "Traditional Studies" College Student Wording Rewording How w i l l they use these environment (sic)? In order to increase or improve their l i v i n g i n Honiara. They must have this course, because when they go back to their villages, they w i l l s t i l l meet these things. The Honiara people do not have any traditional ways or cultures of their own to introduce to the students in MSS, Traditional Studies w i l l improve the students' way of l i f e in Honiara. Traditional Studies w i l l prepare the students for the traditional ways they w i l l find in their own vill a g e . The Honiara people do not have any traditional ways. A complete l i s t of the reworded, college students' reasons, for the curriculum option "Traditional Studies", are displayed in Figure 4-2. Thus, from the college students, a l i s t of reasons for and against each curriclum options was obtained. These reasons were used in the development of the instrument (described in Section 4.20) and served i n the development of a guide for the semi-structured interviews carried out with experts on each curriclum option (described in the next section). Figure 4-2 The College Students' Reasons For And Against The Curriculum Option: " T r a d i t i o n a l Studies" ( " T r a d i t i o n a l Studies" w i l l be abbreviated to "TS") Reason For 1) TS w i l l prepare the students f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l ways that they w i l l f i n d i n t h e i r own v i l l a g e s . 2) TS w i l l teach the students about the old ways i n the Solomon Islands. Reasons Against 1) "Made-up" t r a d i t i o n a l ways may be taught. 2) T r a d i t i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l s are d i f f i c u l t to put in t o p r a c t i c e i n Honiara. 3) TS w i l l provide the students with experiences of Honiara's t r a d i t i o n a l ways. 4) TS w i l l give the students knowledge of the past. 5) TS w i l l improve the students' way of l i f e i n Honiara. 6) TS w i l l r e i n f o r c e the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of l i f e . 7) TS w i l l t e l l g i r l s why they should keep t h e i r v i r g i n i t y . 8) TS w i l l teach the students about t h e i r c u l t u r e . 9) TS w i l l give the students the knowledge and s k i l l so that they could demonstrate t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ways to t o u r i s t s . 3) I t i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain some of the bush materials f o r the dances. 4) The teachers who Leach the course are < u n q u a l i f i e d . 5) The students w i l l n e i t h e r l i k e nor enjoy a TS course. 6) I t w i l l be too d i f f i c u l t f o r the students. 7) The students have already been taught the t r a d i t i o n a l ways from t h e i r parents. • 8) TS w i l l present c o n f l i c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l ways. 9) TS w i l l . p r e s e n t t r a d i t i o n s , which the students w i l l not be able to implement i n t h e i r own v i l l a g e s . , Figure 4-2 (continued) Reasons For Reasons Against 10) TS w i l l teach the students about the people around them and how they treat each other. 11) TS w i l l teach the students other ways of l i v i n g . 12) TS w i l l give the students an understanding of old people. 13) TS w i l l teach the students custom history. 14) TS w i l l remind the students of the traditional ways of l i v i n g . 10) TS w i l l r e s t r i c t i t s content to the Guadacanal area. 11) The students w i l l find the traditional ways of other people boring. 12) TS w i l l present traditions from areas other than the students' own area. 13) TS does not teach anything which i s modern. 14) The traditional ways are not supported i n town. 15) The Honiara people do not have any traditional ways. 16) TS w i l l teach the students other people's traditional ways. 4.15 Gathering Reasons From Interviews With Experts 4.151 Introduction In addition to gathering reasons from the college students reasons were gathered from well-informed persons who individually had expertise in one of the five curriculum options. Two experts were interviewed for each of the curriculum options, with the exception of Homecrafts, in which three people were interviewed. Each interview was tape-recorded with the permission of the interviewee(s). Figure 4-3 displays the qualifications of each interviewee. 4.152 Procedure The interview was a semistructured interview. It was built around a core of structured questions with the flexibility to branch off and explore issues in depth. "... accurate and complete information is desired with the additional opportunity to probe for underlying factors or relationships which are too complex or elusive to encompass in [a structured interview] (Isaac and Michael, 1971, p. 96)". The questions for the interview were structured around the list s of reasons obtained from the college students. Figure 4-4 illustrates the question guide used for the interviews with experts on "Traditional Studies". The question guide provided the "structure" part of the semi-structured interview. The purpose of the interview was explained to each interviewee contacted. Each interviewee was asked whether he would agree to the interview (all did) and whether the interview could be tape-recorded (all agreed to this). A date was then arranged for the interview. Before the taping of the interview, the investigator described the aims and characteristics of the HNSS, and the kind of students at the.HNSS, and answered any questions. (Part I of the Question Guide, Figure 4-4.) The questions in the Question Guide (Part II) were then asked, but not necessarily in the order given on the Question Guide. The order was determined by the direction of the interview. Figure 4-3 Description of the Community Interviewees Interview Topic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Interviewee Mechanics Mechanics Foreman, small vehicle section of Public Works Department. Six years' experience at PWD Honiara, Diploma i n vehicle mechanics from F i j i . Heavy duty mechanic, Public Works Dept. (Honiara). Three years' experience at PWD Honiara, graduate of Honiara Technical Institute i n Mechanics. T r a d i t i o n a l Studies T r a d i t i o n a l Studies Religious Education Assistant Curator of the Solomon Islands National Museum. Member of the Solomon Islands Cultural Association. Chairman of the Solomon Islands C u l t u r a l Association and Senior Education O f f i c e r (primary). Chairwoman of the committee which developed a r e l i g i o u s education course for the New Secondary Schools. Member of the Solomon Islands C h r i s t i a n Association (a committee made up cf churches of a l l denominations), and a Nun i n the Catholic Church. Religious Education Plant Agriculture Plant Agriculture United Church minister. Taught re l i g i o u s education to students i n the Honiara New Secondary School. Member of the Solomon Islands C h r i s t i a n Association. Agriculture o f f i c e r for Guadacanal. Identified by the Chief A g r i c u l t u r a l O f f i c e r as the person most experienced i n agriculture for the Honiara area. Agriculture extension worker (Honiara). Diploma i n agri c u l t u r e from Papua New Cuinea. Duties include dissemination of agriculture methods for use i n the Honiara area. Homecrafts Social Development O f f i c e r for women i n the Solomon Islands. She was interviewed together with the Director of the Women's Instit u t e . Both people were training women in homecraft methods which were appropriate for the Honiara area. Homecrafts Homecrafts tutor at the Solomon Islands Teacher College ) Figure 4-4 Question Guide for "Tra d i t i o n a l Studies" Interview Interview Number Tape Number Date . . Time_ Topic: TRADITIONAL STUDIES IN THE HONIARA NSS PART I 1) Aims of the Honiara NSS. 2) Characteristics of the HNSS. 3 ) The students attending the HNSS. PART II 1) The course In t r a d i t i o n a l studies at the HNSS w i l l teach the studejits at the HN'SS knowledge and s k i l l s of some of the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of people who l i v e around Honiara. DO YOU THINK IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE STUDENTS TO LEARN ABOUT THESE TRADITIONAL WAYS? 2) WHY DO YOU FEEL THAT WAY? 3 ) Do you think we should teach the students about the t r a d i t i o n a l ways they w i l l meet in the i r home v i l l a g e ? 4) Do you think we should teach the students t r a d i t i o n a l ways other than their own? 5) Would learning about people's t r a d i t i o n a l ways help the students understand old people? 6) Would learning about t r a d i t i o n a l ways help g i r l s to keep out of trouble rn Honiara? 7) Would learning aDout t r a d i t i o n a l ways help to.keep boys -out of trouble i n Honiara? 8 ) Should the boys and g i r l s i n the HNSS demonstrate th e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ways to tourists? (either now or i n the future) 9) Can and should t r a d i t i o n a l ways be put into practice by the students in Honiara? 10) What sorts of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s should a teacher of t r a d i t i o n a l studies i n the HNSS have? 11) Do you think the students at the HNSS would f i n d a t r a d i t i o n a l studies course too hard to learn? 12) Do most children i n Honiara already know the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of their home areas by the time they f i n i s h primary school? 13) Do you think i t would confuse students at the HNSS to learn about t r a d i t i o n a l ways other than their own? 14) Do you think that the students would find i t boring to study t r a d i t i o n a l ways other than their own? 15) Should boys and g i r l s both take t r a d i t i o n a l studies? Just •boys? Just g i r l s ? 16) Do you have any suggestions about the best way to teach a course such as t r a d i t i o n a l studies to a group of students l i k e those i n the HN'SS? 17) Any other comments? The interviews averaged about three-quarters of an hour each. If "an exchange" i s defined as an interviewer utterance, followed by an interviewee utterance, then the interviews included between f o r t y and one hundred exchanges. Each interview was tr a n s c r i b e d . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e from the i n v e s t i g a t o r . 4.153 Formulating Reasons For the Curriculum Options Statements about each curriculum option were extracted from the t r a n s c r i p t s of the appropriate interview. These statements were then compared with s i m i l a r statements about the option obtained from the c o l l e g e students. Reasons which simply and accurately summarized what was being s a i d by both the expert interviewee and the students were synthesized from the two sets of statements. For example, the f o l l o w i n g reason: \ "A TRADITIONAL OR CULTURAL STUDIES COURSE WOULD GIVE THE STUDENT SOME TRADITIONAL RULES AND WAYS TO BEHAVE.", was synthesized from the f o l l o w i n g c o l l e g e students' statements and interview excerpts: College Student Statements 1) T r a d i t i o n a l Studies w i l l improve the student's way of l i f e i n Honiara. 2) T r a d i t i o n a l Studies w i l l t e l l g i r l s why they should keep t h e i r v i r g i n i t y . 3) t r a d i t i o n a l Studies w i l l remind the students of the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of l i v i n g . 9 5 T r a d i t i o n a l Studies Expert, Interview #1 "1 think there are some of t h i s type of c h i l d r e n who are brought up without understanding t r a d i t i o n a l ways ... when they grow up cause a l o t of trouble because they don't respect any c u l t u r e because they don't know." (para. 5 8 ) T r a d i t i o n a l Studies Expert, Interview #2 "And i n Honiara that i s removed, you are removed from that. T r a d i t i o n a l leaders are not there. The t r a d i t i o n a l norms are not there. There i s no one to watch you and say to you 'watch your step' ... [by taking T r a d i t i o n a l Studies] you have a f u l l e r knowledge of why i t i s done and you become a b e t t e r person, and you are b e t t e r able to c o n t r o l y o u r s e l f . " (para. 20) In the above example, data from both interviewees and from the c o l l e g e students were used. This was not always the case. Any one, or any combination of the two sources (the c o l l e g e students and the two expert interviewees) was used to synthesize reasons. The option " R e l i g i o u s Education", which was o r i g i n a l l y only to be considered f o r beys (see Section 3.50, Chapter 3), was broadened to i n c l u d e the g i r l s as w e l l . I t was broadened because there was no sexual d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n made i n the reasons, by the interviewees, with respect to that option. As w e l l , the course " R e l i g i o u s Education" being taught at that time i n the Honiara New Secondary School, was co-educatiohal; therefore, the curriculum option became "Rel i g i o u s Education" f o r a l l students. S i m i l a r l y , " T r a d i t i o n a l Studies" was considered to be a co-educational course by the interviewees. Therefore the reference frame of that curriculum option was a l s o broadened to be f o r a l l s t u d e n t s — and not j u s t f o r g i r l s i n the HNSS. On the other hand, there was a d i s t i n c t sexual bias exhibited i n the interviews and the c o l l e g e students' data with respect to "Mechanics". As w e l l , mechanics were only being taught to boys i n some of the New Secondary Schools. Therefore, the curriculum option "Mechanics for boys", as well as "Mechanics for girls", was included in the study. Thus, the curriculum options used were: 1) Mechanics for BOYS; 2) Mechanics for GIRLS; 3) Homecrafts for BOYS; 4) Homecrafts for GIRLS; 5) Plant Agriculture for BOYS; 6) Traditional Studies for ALL STUDENTS; 7) Religious. Education for ALL STUDENTS. From the information gathered from the college students and from the interviews, a l i s t of reasons was prepared for each of the above curriculum options. These lists were given to four members of a curriculum development seminar at S.I.T.C. for comments as to wording and completeness. No additions were suggested. The wording of the reasons was also checked by an English as a Second Language specialist. The final form of each l i s t is appended as Appendix J. There were approximately equal numbers of positive valence and negative valence reasons identified by the persons who proposed them. Two of the curriculum options had nineteen reasons, two had eighteen, two had sixteen, and one had thirteen reasons. 4.20 Developing the Instrument 4.21 The Requirements Demanded of the Instrument The following requirements for the instrument to be developed came from the conditions necessary for defensible value judgements. Those conditions were derived mainly from the writings of P. Taylor (1961) i n his book Normative Discourse; and from the book Values Education: Rationale, Strategies and Procedures, edited by L.E. Metcalf (1971). Detailed explanations for the requirements w i l l not be given here, since i t is more meaningful to explain them i n terms of the actual instruncnt developed and the data collected with i t . Therefore, the explanations w i l l be delayed u n t i l Chapter Five, Section 5.22. The f i r s t requirement was that the respondent be provided with the opportunity to indicate whether he thought a reason supported a conclusion to include the curriculum option in the curriculum of the HNSS (that i s , the reason had positive valence), or to indicate i f he thought a reason supported a conclusion to omit the curriculum option from the curriculum of the HNSS (that i s , the reason had negative valence). The second requirement was that the respondent be provided with the opportunity to indicate whether a reason did not apply or had no meaning for the respondent. That i s , there had to be a " n u l l " category available. -The third requirement was that the respondent must have an opportunity to add any reasons which were not included in the l i s t given to him for a particular curriculum option. Placing this requirement on the instrument would also provide a content v a l i d i t y check for each l i s t of reasons. Fourthly, the instrument must provide the respondent with an opportunity to indicate the relative importance of those reasons he assigned positive valences and the relative importance of those reasons he assigned negative valences. F i n a l l y , the instrument must provide the respondent with an opportunity to i n d i c a t e the importance he would give the curriculum option i n l i g h t of the reasons he gave p o s i t i v e and negative valences. 4.22 The Development of the F i r s t Instrument The f i r s t instrument which the i n v e s t i g a t o r t r i e d was a s o r t i n g procedure with the reasons f o r each curriculum option p r i n t e d on cards. The object was to have the respondents s o r t the reasons, fo r the p a r t i c u l a r curriculum option, by p l a c i n g those reasons they perceived as having p o s i t i v e valence i n one p i l e , negative valence i n another p i l e , and any which they considered i n a p p l i c a b l e i n a " n u l l " p i l e . The respondents were also to be given blank cards on which to w r i t e any other reasons they considered a p p l i c a b l e . The respondents were to then rank the cards i n the p o s i t i v e valence pile., and those i n the negative valence p i l e . A f t e r considering the reasons i n the p o s i t i v e and negative valence p i l e s the respondent was to i n d i c a t e how important he perceived the curriculum option f o r the HNSS. This procedure was tested on a group of the College students at SITC. They had no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n following the i n s t r u c t i o n s and i n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y completing the task. However, the q u a n t i t i e s of. materials required f o r the task were considerable. Each respondent required seven f o l d e r s (one f o r each curriculum option) each containing an envelope of reasons cards. Therefore the t o t a l package was very bulky and quite formidable i n appearance. I t was a l s o c o s t l y and time consuming to produce, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r group administration. For these reasons, the i n v e s t i g a t o r decided to attempt to develop a paper and p e n c i l questionnaire f o r the respondents and to abandon any further development of the card sorting procedure. 4.23 The Reasons Selection Questionnaire (RSQ) The instrument described in this section was sa t i s f a c t o r i l y tested with a group of college students at SITC and used for the gather-ing of the data discussed in the remainder of the dissertation. The Reasons Selection Questionnaire.(RSQ) consisted of three 8 1/2 X 14" pieces of paper glued together as ill u s t r a t e d in the sketch below. P There was at\RSQ for each curriculum option. Page "1" had, at the top of i t , a statement of the curriculum option to be considered and a short description of the option. That was followed by the l i s t of reasons to be considered by the respondent, Page "1" for "Traditional Studies" i s displayed in Figure 4-5. Page "2" consisted of three columns of boxes. The f i r s t column of boxes was labelled: "A reason why we SHOULD have this course for ) 100 FIGURE h-S Page One of the Traditional Studies RSQ JPOFTC TO HR CO'ToIDKRF.D: T r a d i t i o n a l and • c u l t u r e l s-tudies i o r .ALL S-TUDLN-JS • i n the Honiara New Secondary School gSgCRIPTI:::: OF THE TOPIC: This course would i n c l u d e the siady. of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l dances, songs, music, c r a f t s , s t o r i e s and graeo o f the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r -a l groups i n Honiara. REA30N3 1. TAXING- A COURSE Hi TRADITIONAL STUDIES WOULD ENCOURAGE THE_ STUDENTS TC_ KEE?_ S0KE_ OP_ JTHE_ T?J^ITI0N/^_ WAYS_. 2. THE COURSE WOULD NOT TEACH T H E STUDENTS ANYTHING WHICH IS KODKRN. 3. A TRADITIONAL OR CULTURAL STUDIES COURSE WOULD GIVE THE. STUDENT SO'IS TRAJ5I TI ONAL HUL"i;S_ AND_ WAY3_ T0_ ESHAV3. 4. THS THINGS THE STUDENTS LEARN IN TRjJJlTIONAL STUDIES MAY NOT AGREE WITH WHAT THEY iiRE TO LD_ I N_ RELIG-10 US_ EDUOAXlp N_» _ _ _ . THE STUDENTS ARE TOO YOUNG TO GET ANYTHING OUT 0 ? A TRADITIONAL STUDIES COURSE. _ . 6. THE STUDENTS COULD DEMONSTRATE SOME (DP THE TRADITIONAL WAYS TO TOISISTS_POR_KOIIEY_. . 7. VERY . PEW OP THE STUDENTS KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THEIR 0WK^ULTURS3_A^D_ TRADITIONS_. 5 . IP THE STODailT HAS TO LEAVE HONIARA. THE TRADITIONAL STUDIES COURSE V/CULD_HEL?_?RE?£^_HIH_FOR_yi 9. THE STUDENTS WOULD LEARN WHAT WAS TABU IN THE DIFFERENT CULTURES Oi? THE S0L0KCN_ ISLANDS. 10. THERE ARE TOO MANY DIFFERENT CUSTOMS AND THATTTIONS POR THE STUDENT TO LEARN THE;-; A L L . 11. THS STUDENTS COULD USE SOKE C ? THE THINGS THEY LEARN IN TRADITIONAL STUDIES FOR THEIR Opr_ENJOYHENT^. 12. THE STUDENT' COULD SELL THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS HE MAKES FOR EONEY. 13. THERE 1 3 FEESENTL" NC SYLL-LBUS WHICH COULD EE USED POR A TRADITIONAL S T U D I E S OOU?.SE_IN_HONIARA. 14. TRAD ITIOIIAL STUDIES WILL TEJICH THE STUDENT SOME OP THE WAYS OF THE CLE PHOFLE_IN THE SOLOMOKS. 15. THE HONIARA PEOPLE DO NOT HAVE"ANY TRADITIONAL WAYS. 16. L E A R N I N G ABOUT OTHER SOLOMON I S L A N D S C U L T U R E S WOULD H E L P T H E S T UDENT G E T ALONG WITH OTHER SOLOMON I S L A N D E R S . 17. I.HARNIN3 D I F F E R E N T TRADITI0N3 i-'IGHT CONFUSE T H E STUDENTS IN T E E H C N I AiiA NEW oECCND.-JtY SCHOOL. 18. MOST STUE3NT3 I N TOWN WILL KOT U S E TRAD IT10 N A L OE CaSTOK WAYS. 19. EY L E A R N I N G ABOUT D I F F E R E N T 3ULCKCK I S L A N D QU3T0K3 AKD T R A D I T I O N S , T H E STUDENT COULD LOOK AT THE SOLOMONS AS A SINGLE I.'ATIGM. 101 ( a l l students or the appropriate sex)". The second column of boxes was labelled: "A reason why we SHOULD NOT have this course for ( a l l students or the appropriate sex)". And the third column of boxes was labelled: "A reason which does not apply, or i s not for or against this course for ( a l l students or the appropriate sex)". The respondent was directed to place a tick in the appropriate column of boxes for each reason. The three choices for each reason f u l f i l l e d the f i r s t two requirements of the instrument. Page "2" i s displayed i n Figure 4-6. The dashed lines separating the rows of boxes were used as guides for aligning page "2" with page "1". The investigator considered using a rating scale for rating the reasons, which ranged from "A very important reason why we should not include the curriculum option" to "A very important reason why we should include the curriculum option". However, experience provided by the use of a rating scale for the curriculum options described i n section 3.30, Chapter 3, suggested that the respondents did not tend to use the whole of a rating scale, but only a small section of i t . Therefore, a more "forced choice" format was used. N The third and fourth requirements of the instrument (see section 4.21) were f u l f i l l e d i n instructions given to each respondent, and read and explained to him by the investigator. The respondent was asked to add any reasons to the l i s t which he considered relevant, and which were not on the l i s t , and to assign those additional reasons positive or negative valence. Those instructions f u l f i l l e d the third requirement of the instrument. (The complete instructions are appended as Appendix JC.) The fourth requirement of the instrument was f u l f i l l e d by asking the respondent to read over a l l those reasons to which he had assigned 1 0 2 FIGURE 4-6 Page Two of the Traditional Studies RSQ a reason why we a reason why we a reason which does SHOULD have t h i s SHOULD i'.'OT have not apply, o r i s not course f o r BOYS t h i G course f o r f o r o r ehainot t h i s . OIHLS. E C Y S G I R L S course f o r BOYS GIHL3 CO CO CO —T2= = = y - £ Z 7 ". " 2 = 7 "2=7 " 2=7 """"2=7 -—-£=j 2zf7 " —-2=5-— *"2fff7 2=7"" CJ "co"" " "2=7" "co" 2z=7 : " 2=7 ~ 2=7 "2=7 """ "fcj" "co " -"2= 7 " " """"" 2=7 " 2=7 ""2=7 : 2ff7 """ 2=7 ~ 2 ^ 7 - 2=7 " 2=7"" ""'""2=7 2=7 " 2=7" '"""""2=7""" 2==7 ——^j 2=7 2=7 " 2=7 " 2=7"" 2=7" "2=7" '-"7f~j" 2=7"" """""2=7"" 2=7 " co " c o " " — ™ „ — _ _ „ . . . . . „ _ . "2=7""" " 2=7 " " c o " "• 103 positive valence, to pick the reason he considered most important, and place a "1" beside i t . Similarly a "2" was to be placed beside the second most important reason and a "3" beside the third most important reason. Since there was no res t r i c t i o n on the number of reasons which could be assigned to one of the three columns of boxes (i.e. any number of reasons could be assigned positive or negative or " n u l l " valence), there was the p o s s i b i l i t y that there would not be three or more positive valence reasons to rank. If that occurred, the respondent was asked to rank those that he did have. For example, i f he only considered two of the reasons to have positive valence, the respondent was asked to place a "1" beside the more important of the two. The respondent was asked to perform the same procedure with the reasons to which he had given negative valence. The instructions on page "3" asked the respondent to consider the reasons he had given positive and negative valence and then decide whether he agreed or disagreed with the statement: "(name of the  curriculum option) should be taught to ( a l l students or the appropriate  sex) in the Honiara New Secondary School". After indicating whether he agreed or disagreed with the above statement, by placing a "tickV i n one of the boxes provided, the respondent was asked to indicate the extent of his agreement or disagree-ment on a six point scale which ranged from "Very Much Agree" to "Very Much Disagree". The scale was diagrammed to i l l u s t r a t e the relative strengths of each of the six choices. Page "3" i s illustrated i n Figure 4-7. Page "3" f u l f i l l e d the last requirement of the instrument (see section 4.21). 104 FIGURE 4 - 7 Page Three of the T r a d i t i o n a l Studies RSQ Read over the reasons you marked aa importunt reasons why TRADITIONAL AOT CULTURAL STUDIES SHOULD bo taught i n tho Honiara New Secondary School; and those reasons you marked as important reasons why TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES SHOULD NOT be taught t o students i n the Honiara New Secondary School. On the b a s i s o f those reasons you have read over (both reasons why we should and why wc should not teach • t r a d i t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s to students) please decide i f you AGREE o r DISAGREE with the f o l l o w i n g statement: TRADITIONAL AND CULTURAL siUDIEa SHOULD S3 TAUGIIX T O THE STUDENTS IN THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL. I AGREE / / I DISAGREE / / HOW MUCH DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE ( CIRCLE ONE OP THE FOLLOWING) ******* * * * * * * * * * * * * * { SLIGHTLY SlOMEWHAT VERY MUCH * I •***»*; DISAGiiLE DISAGREE DISAGREE t t • 1 a 4 * + « VERY MUCK SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY * * AGREE AGREE AGREE * _ . « # » » * « » * * « • * * « *• ******* THANK YOU MR. N.K. GLEADOW • 105 4.30 The Samples for the Testing of the RSQ 4.31 The Community Sample The purpose of using the community sample was to field test the RSQ. The nature of the task required by the RSQ meant that the community respondents had to be able to read and understand English. The possibility of translating the RSQ into the lingua franca,Pijin, was explored, but a number of Solomon Islanders said not to bother doing so. The reasons they gave were: firstly, i f a person can read P i j i n then he can read English; and secondly, P i j i n is an oral language, and when written has to be read aloud to be understood. English is the main language of business, industry, government and social services in Honiara. In other words, i t is the language of employment in Honiara. Therefore, the sample for the testing of the RSQ was taken from the population defined as a l l those people 15 years of age or older working for wages in Honiara. The type of sample chosen was a stratified, proportional random sample, with the strata being the occupational classes by sex of the population. • In the November, 1976, Solomon Islands' census, Solomon Islanders who were over the age of 15 and working to earn money were classified into seven major categories, by council area and sex, according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (Revised Edition, 1968, I.L.O. Geneva, 1969). Appendix L lists the categories, and the occupations under them, which were relevant to the Solomon Islands, as compiled by the Statistics Section of the Ministry of Finance, Honiara (1975). The last category, "Production and Related Workers", was sub-divided into three strata for this study: those occupations listed, in Appendix L, between 7-00 and 7-99 were labelled "Production I", 106 between 8-00 and 8-99 "Production II", and between 9-00 and 9-99 "Production I I I " . This was done to keep the coding of the occupations consistent with the l i s t in Appendix L. Table 4—1 displays the population size and the sample size by occupation class and sex. The population, for the sample, was only Solomon Islanders over the age of fifteen and working to earn money in Honiara. The overall sample size was 2% of the population. Wherever possible, both the respondent and his place of work were chosen at random (within each strata). However, in some cases there was only one place of business where the job category existed; for example the soft drink factory, police station, poultry farm; and sometimes there was only one person i n a business who f u l f i l l e d the occupational sub-category, for example a business manager or a bank manager. In those cases random selection of either the business or the respondent was not possible. However, in the total sample, there were only six non-random selections which were necessitated by the consider-ations mentioned above. Only two of the f i r s t ten people sampled from the occupational category "Production III" were able to complete the RSQ. Of the eight people who did not f i l l i n the RSQ's, six could not understand the written material given them, and two said they didn't have the" time to do i t . Because of this low response rate, mainly due to the i n a b i l i t y of the respondents to complete the task, further sampling of Production III was stopped. The reason the six respondents couldn't complete the task i s probably due to the low educational level of the group. There was no educational data specific to Honiara; however, for the Solomons'as a whole: 34% of Production III workers had no education; 34% had between Standard 1 and Standard 4 education (grades 1 to 4); 27% had between • 107 Standard 5 and Standard 7 education (grades 5 to 7); and only 5% had any post-primary education at a l l (source: Basic Table 34 of Solomon Islands Census, November, 1976, n.p.) . 4.32 The College Sample A l l the students at the Solomon Island Teachers College (SITC) were asked to complete the RSQ's. This was to provide a group for comparison with the community, as well as to provide the investiga-tor with a large enough sample to explore some of the s t a t i s t i c a l properties of the RSQ. The investigator w i l l not claim that the college students' responses are the "right" responses. The students who participated in this part of the study were a different group from those who had participated in the earlier parts of the study. There had been a complete turnover of college students. The previous group of students had gone into the schools for a period of interning. Twenty-four female students and seventy-eight male students participated. 4.40 Administering the RSQ's 4.41 The Community Sample After random selection, each community respondent was personally approached and asked for his/her cooperation in completing the RSQ's. Only three of the people approached refused to participate. One male in the occupational category "Service" said he didn't have enough time, and two males in the occupational category "Production III" accepted the RSQ's but each said later that he didn't have time to complete them. Table 4-1 The Community Sample Size by Sex and Occupation (Honiara Only) Category. People i n the Occupational Category** Number Required For the Sample Number Sampled Number Completed Who the Tas Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females 1) P r o f e s s i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l 443 151 9 3 11* 3 11 3 2) Administrative-Managerial 56 2 1 0 1 1 1 1 3) C l e r i c a l 683 205 14 4 . 12 4 12 4 4) Sales 172 18 3 1 3 0 3 0 5) Service . 573 238 11 5 7 5 6 5 6) A g r i c u l t u r e 138 33 2 1 2 0 2 0 7) Production I 226 22 5 0 3 1 3 1 8) Production I I 334 1 7 0 6 . 0 6 0 9) Production I I I 1,323 11 27 0 10 0 2 • 0 TOTALS 3,948 681 79 14 55 14 46 14 * One male x-ray technician asked to be given anRSQ. ** T h i s i s f o r Honiara only, and only Solomon Islanders f i f t e e n years of-age and older working f o r wages (source: Solomon Islands Census data, November, 1976, Basic Table No. 32). An information sheet, an instruction sheet, and the seven RSQ's (one for each curriculum option) were given to the respondent. .The information sheet asked for the respondent's name, occupation, education, and whether or not the respondent had any children in the Honiara New Secondary School (two of the respondents did). The information sheet also gave the aims and characteristics of the Honiara NSS. The aims and characteristics were read aloud to the respondent, and any of the respondent's questions about the HNSS were answered. The information sheet i s appended as Appendix M. The instructions for the RSQ were also read aloud to each respondent. Any questions the respondent might have had were answered. The instructions for the RSQ are appended as Appendix K. The investigator then told the respondent that he would return in two days' time to see i f there were any d i f f i c u l t i e s in completing the RSQ. A convenient time to meet was arranged for two days hence. Two days later, the investigator met with the respondent and asked i f he was having any d i f f i c u l t i e s with the RSQ. Quite a large number of the respondents had not begun the RSQ by this time, so this arranged second meeting helped remind them of the task. Another meeting was then arranged for two days later so that the completed RSQ's could be picked up. Generally, most respondents had completed the RSQ's by that time. Each respondent was given a ball—point pen as a g i f t . 4.42 The College Sample • The college students were given the same information sheet, instruction sheets and RSQ's as the community. However, in this case, the investigator met with the students in their classrooms at SITC. The whole task from explanation to completion took about two and one-half class periods. In the f i r s t class period, the purpose of the study was 1 explained and the students were asked to complete the top parr of the information sheet, giving their name, education and sex. The instruction sheets, which were given to each student, were read to the class, and explanations provided when needed. The students were then asked to perform the required task for the f i r s t RSQ. In the second meeting with the class, the procedure was reviewed. The students then completed the next four RSQ's. In the third meeting the students completed the last two RSQ's. That took about twenty-minutes. There was usually about one day between each meeting with each class. The investigator was always present while the students were completing the task. Each student was given a ball-point pen as a g i f t . 4.50 The R e l i a b i l i t y Study Twenty-five of the community respondents were randomly selected and asked to take part In a r e l i a b i l i t y study. In addition, three intact classes of students at the SITC were also asked to participate i n the r e l i a b i l i t y study. The time between the f i r s t administration of the RSQ and the second administration ranged from three to five weeks. It was decided to ask each respondent to complete three of the RSQ's rather than the complete set of seven. This was done so that the r e l i a b i l i t y study would not be too onerous a task for the respondents. The seven curriculum options were accordingly grouped into a l l possible combinations of three, with the re s t r i c t i o n that mechanics for boys and mechanics for g i r l s were kept together, and homecrafts for boys and homecrafts for g i r l s were kept together. This restriction was placed on the grouping because of possible, but unknown, interaction between the responses given to the RSQ for g i r l s , and those for boys. Three of the eight resulting groupings (there was one grouping of the two mechanics options and the two homecrafts options) were randomly I l l selected. The selected groupings were: Group 1: Religious Education, Homecrafts (boys), Homecrafts (girls). Group 2: Plant Agriculture (boys), Religious Education, Traditional Studies. Group 3: Traditional Studies, Homecrafts (boys), Homecrafts (girls). The three groups of RSQ's were randomly distributed to the respondents so that each respondent received one of the groups of curriculum options. 4.60 Scoring the Data If a reason was given a "1" in the SHOULD column, then i t was given a value of +4, i f i t was given a "2" then a value of +3, and i f given a !:3,: then a value of +2. Al l other reasons in the SHOULD column were given values of +1. The same, but opposite In sign, sooring was used for reasons in the SHOULD NOT column. For example, i f a reason was given a "1" in the SHOULD NOT column, i t was given a value of -4. A l l reasons which were marked by the respondent in the "null" column were given values of zero. An examination of the data gathered from the administration of the RSQ's revealed that some respondents, for particular curriculum options, tended to mark most of the reasons in the SHOULD and/or NULL columns, and some others tended to mark most of the reasons in the SHOULD NOT and/ or NULL columns. The partial ranking of the reasons provided information about the importance of some reasons relative to the rest of the reasons on an RSQ. However, beyond the i n i t i a l tricotomization of the reasons (SHOULD, NULL, SHOULD NOT), the partial ranking task did not show how much "positiveness" ("negativeness") a reason marked in the SHOULD (SHOULD NOT) column had for the respondent, except i n relation to the other reasons. Therefore, in order to place a reason on a positive-negative continuum relative to the other reasons, in those cases when fewer than four reasons were placed in the SHOULD or SHOULD NOT column, an adjusted scoring system was used. If there were only three reasons placed in the SHOULD column, then the reason given a "1" was assigned a value of +3, i f i t was given a "2" i t was assigned a value of +2, and, i f i t was given a "3" i t was assigned a value of +1. If there were only two ranked reasons in the SHOULD column then they were assigned values of +2 and +1. Missing data were coded as missing data, with the following exceptions: (1) If a respondent failed to code two or more reasons for a particular curriculum option, then a l l his data for that option were eliminated. (2) If a respondent fa i l e d to code two or more reasons for three or more of the curriculum options, then i t was deemed that he did not understand the task and a l l his data, for a l l the curriculum options, were eliminated. 4.70 Summary Chapter Four described the development and f i e l d testing of an instrument which was labelled a "Reasons Selection Questionnaire (RSQ)". The reasons, used on each RSQ* were selected by.adhering to certain grammatical and lo g i c a l requirements described in the f i r s t part of the chapter. The format of the RSQ was developed from logical condi-tions for making defensible value.judgements. Both the reasons themselves, and the format of the RSQ, w i l l be discussed and evaluated, in light of the data collected from the f i e l d study samples, in the following chapter. J 113 Chapter 5 AN EVALUATION OF THE METHOD 5.00 Introduction To evaluate the method, i t is necessary to show: (1) that the reasons gathered and used in the RSQ's f u l f i l l certain standards which are c r i t e r i a for good reasons, that i s , the content dimension of the RSQ's must be evaluated; (2) that the RSQ f u l f i l l s certain standards which are c r i t e r i a for coming to a rational value judgement, that i s , evaluate the decision dimension of the RSQ. Evaluating the content and decision dimensions comprises a study of the content and construct v a l i d i t y of the instrument. In addition: (3) the r e l i a b i l i t y of the RSQ must be evaluated; and (4) the ease with which the respondents can use the RSQ must be evaluated. Each of the above four evaluations w i l l be discussed i n this chapter and w i l l be used as part of an overall evaluation of the worth of the method. Another important part of the evaluation of the method i s to show how the data obtained from the RSQ's could be used to contribute to educational practice. That w i l l be done in Chapter 6. 5.10 Evaluating the Content Dimension of the RSQ 5.11 In'troduction • Evaluating the content dimension of the RSQ requires determin-ing whether the.reasons gathered for use on the Instrument f u l f i l l certain conditions demanded of good reasons. Those conditions were 114 o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 4.13 of Chapter 4. The a d d i t i o n a l requirement that the set of reasons be reasonably complete was added to the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n . Therefore, with t h i s a d d i t i o n , the l i s t of conditions i s : 1) The set of reasons must be reasonably complete and must be com-p r i s e d of reasons which are. known to be true and/or reasons which are assumptions. 2) The reasons must be rel e v a n t . 3) The reasons must be independent of the conclusions 4) The reasons must be more e a s i l y known than the conclusion. 5) The reasons must represent a wide range of considerations. Determining whether each of the above conditions was met by the reasons gathered and used i n the RSQ's i s a study of the content v a l i d i t y of the method. I t i s undertaken below. 5.12 Condition 1: The Set of Reasons Must Be Reasonably Complete  and Must Be Comprised of Reasons Which Are Known to Be True  and/or Reasons Which Are Assumptions. The RSQ was designed to determine what reasons were used i n making a value judgement as to the worth of a p a r t i c u l a r curriculum option. Therefore, i t was necessary to provide reasons which were known to be true as w e l l as reasons which were assumptions. Only then would the educators have a complete p i c t u r e of the c r i t e r i a which the community were using i n making i t s value judgement. The reasons which were known to be true were gathered mainly from the interviews with the experts. They were the people most l i k e l y to know, or best able to' judge, whether a reason had a la r g e component of t r u t h . For example, the follwoing reasons relevant to Plant A g r i c u l t u r e were obtained from the interviews with a g r i c u l t u r a l experts: 115 "The s o i l s in and around Honiara Town are very poor tor agriculture." (Reason 3, App.J ) "There i s a shortage of land for agriculture i n Honiara." (Reason 13, App.J ) "There are no agriculture extension workers working with the people in Honiara Town." (Reason 15, App.J ) Other examples, for reasons relevant to Religious Education and gathered from Religious Education experts, were: "Religious Education deals with a lot of basic moral problems of town l i v i n g . " (Reason 6, App.J ) "The student would only get the point of view of his church, and not the points of view of other churches." (Reason 8, App. J ) "Religious Education w i l l be about the Christian religion only." (Reason 13, App.J ) The above sets of reasons were confirmed as true. The agricultural experts showed the investigator s o i l maps and land usage maps, and the Religious Education experts showed the investigator copies of the syllabus for Religious Education, plus confirmation came from an expert who was teaching Religious Education at the HNSS. However some of the reasons, synthesized trom the comments of the college students and the experts, were assumptions. The assumptions were believed to be true, but there was no proof offered to support that be-l i e f . Some of the Traditional Studies reasons which could be cl a s s i f i e d as assumpti6ns are: "Taking a course in Traditional Studies would encourage the . student to keep some of the traditional ways." (Reason 1, App.J ) "Learning about other Solomon Islands cultures would help the student get along with .other Solomon Islanders." (Reason 16, App.J ) For Religious Education, some of the reasons which could be clas-s i f i e d as assumptions are: ' 116 "The students in school have s p i r i t u a l needs." (Reason 4, App.J ) "A Religious Education course would encourage non-Christian students to become Christians." (Reason 16, App.J ) Each of the assumptions offered as reasons would require an exten-sive empirical investigation in order to prove i t true or well founded. It was neither feasible for the investigator to undertake those numerous empirical investigations, nor necessary. It was not necessary at this stage because, regardless of the truth or f a l s i t y of an assumption, the object of each RSQ was to provide each respondent with a reasonably com-plete set of reasons which he might be expected to consider in coming to a value judgement about each curriculum option. In addition, an educator using the results from the RSQ data would more completely know on what bases a respondent had judged the worth of an option i f reasons which were assumptions were included with true reasons on the RSQ. When the RSQ was designed, instructions were provided which directed each respondent to add any additional reasons which he considered relevant but which were not already on the RSQ. (See sections 4.21, 4.41 and Appendix K.) No respondent added any additional reasons. That fact was as least an indicator that both the community and college respondents were satisfied with the completeness of the l i s t of reasons given them, for each curriculum option. In summary, the above considerations support the contention that the procedures used in the study successfully provided a reasonably complete, set of reasons which were true, and reasons which were assump-tions, for each curriculum option. 1 5.13 Condition 2: The Reasons Must Be Relevant To show that the reasons are lo g i c a l l y relevant requires proving that there i s a sound connection between each reason and the conclusion. This can be done through the procedure of validation (Taylor, 19.61, pp. 80-103). Though validation is important, i t does not contribute to the solution of the main instrumental problems of providing and identifying the reasons used by the people i n the sample to come to a value decision. Through the procedure used to gather reasons for each RSQ, some reasons which were not l o g i c a l l y relevant may have been included because they were reasons which were considered to be relevant by the people sampled. Thus, validation of the reasons is an appropriate part of the application of the RSQ data and w i l l be discussed in Chapter 6 rather than in this section. However, since the respondents had tc cheese reasons which they, themselves, considered relevant, i t i s important, for determining the v a l i d i t y of the RSQ to show that the respondents could assign positive or negative valence to each reason. A null category was provided on the RSQ's so that a respondent could indicate whether he_ considered a reason not relevant. If 100% of the respondents gave a reason a null rating, then one could safely say that the reason was not relevant; however, there i s no definitive "cut-off" percentage below 100%. Therefore, i t was decided that i f a reason was given a null rating by two-thirds (67%), or more,: of the respondents, then that would be taken as evidence for saying they did not consider the reason relevant. Figure 5-1 displays the number of reasons across a l l .the RSQ's given null ratings by the percent of respondents placing a reason in the null category, for the community and College rating data. FIGURE 5-1 Percent of Respondents Who Gave Reasons "Null" Ratings Across A l l 119 Reasons on the Seven RSQ's Number of Reasons 30 20 A 10 |::yT&£| Community Respondents | 1 College Respondents 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69* 70-79 80-89 90-99 Percent of Respondents Putting a Reason in the Null Category From the community data, two of; the twelve reasons in this interval were given null ratings by 67% to 69% of the respondents. * From the college data, two of the three reasons in this interval were given null ratings by 67% tO 69% of the respondents. i — oo 119 Five reasons of the total of 119 reasons were placed in the null category by two-thirds or more of the community respondents; and two reasons were placed in the null category by two-thirds or more of the College respondents. The reasons placed in the null category by two-thirds or more of the community respondents were: 1) "The boys clothes would get dirty." (Reason 9, "Mechanics for Boys") 2) "Girls do not have the ability to learn how to do mechanics." (Reason 8, "Mechanics for Girls") 3) "The girls clothes will get dirty." (Reason 13, "Mechanics for Girls") 4) "The boys are too young to use modern methods of agriculture." (Reason 5, "Plant Agriculture") 5) "The boys clothes will get dirty doing Plant Agriculture at the School." (Reason 6, "Plant Agriculture^) One can speculate that reasons numbers 1, 3 and 5 in the above l i s t likely describe actual occurrences (getting clothes dirty doing mechanics or agriculture is likely, particularly i f coveralls are not available), but were not considered important enough, by two-thirds or more of the respondents, to affect a decision to include or exclude mechanics or plant agriculture in the HNSS curriculum. Reasons numbers 2 and 4 in the above l i s t are assumptions which may or may not be true. If they were true, then reason number 2 might be an important reason not to teach mechanics to the girls, and reason number 4 might be an important reason not to teach modern methods of plant agriculture to boys. That is, they would be relevant reasons i f they were considered to be true. However, since those two reasons were . placed in the null category by two-thirds or more of the community respondents one can probably assume that those respondents do not con-sider the reasons to be true. 120 The two reasons placed In the null category by two-thirds or more of the College respondents were: 1) "The boys clothes would get di r t y . " (Reason 9, "Mechanics for Boys") 2) "The boys clothes w i l l get dirty doing Plant Agriculture at the School." (Reason 6, "Plant Agriculture") In conclusion, only 5 of the 119 reasons were considered not relevant by two-thirds or more of the community respondents; and only 2 of the 119 reasons were considered not relevant by two-thirds or more of the College respondents. These figures support the conclusion that the requirement for relevant reasons has been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y met by the procedures used to develop the RSQ's. 5.14 Condition 3: The Reasons Must Be Independent From the  Conclusion The independence condition requires that the reasons do not say the same thing as the conclusion (see section 4.13). For example, a reason worded "Traditional Studies would be a good thing for the student to study" i s not a good "reason" at a l l , for supporting that "reason" Is the same as supporting the prescription "Traditional Studies should be taught to the students". Similarly, negatively worded "reasons", such as "The student would suffer i f he did not have a course in Traditional Studies", are not good "reasons". To determine whether the independence condition has been met requires that each reason for each curriculum option be examined and judged as independent from the conclusion or not. The investigator, together with a sp e c i a l i s t in l i n g u i s t i c s , language, and English as a second language' independently and separately performed this task. Both were satisfied that the independence standard was met for a l l the reasons. 121 The reader i s referred to the l i s t s of reasons given in Appendix J to confirm this for himself. 5.15. Condition 4: The Reasons Must be More Easily Known than the  Conclusion Coombs and Meux (1971, p. 44) cl a s s i f i e d reasons into three kinds: (1) particular facts; (2) general facts; and (3) conditional facts. A particular factual assertion describes a specific state of aff a i r s . For example, the following statements assert.particular facts: 1) "The students would be separated in Religious Education according to the church they belonged to." (Reason 19, "Religious Studies") 2) "There are no agriculture extension workers working with the people i n Honiara Town." (Reason 15, "Plant Agriculture") 3) "There i s presently no syllabus which could be used for a traditional studies course in Honiara." (Reason 13, .j-CuX^xUiidj. u ^- ^ O f The above, particular factual assertions, can be verified by observing that the state of aff a i r s exists, or by relying on reputable sources, such as experts, that the state of aff a i r s exists. General factual assertions are empirical generalizations. For example: 1) "Very few people in the Solomons have any training in mechanics." (Reason 6, "Mechanics for Boys") 2) "Fixing machines is not a customary role for women or g i r l s in the Solomons." (Reason 14, "Mechanics for Girls") Verifying or f a l s i f y i n g general factual assertions i s done by gathering particular facts which support or refute the assertions. For example, to verify the assertion that: "Very few people have any training in mechanics" would require some sort of count of the number of people who have had training in mechanics versus those who have not had training in mechanics. Conditional factual assertions are expressed in the following examples: 1) "If a boy cannot find a job in Honiara, then he must grow his own food." (Reason 11, "Plant Agriculture") 2) "If the student has to leave Honiara, then the traditional studies course would help prepare him for village l i f e . " (Reason 8, "Traditional Studies") 3) "If the boys l i v e away from home, then they w i l l have to look after themselves." (Reason 11, "Homecrafts for Boys") Some conditional factual assertions are not expressed in the "If ... then ..." format. For example: "Taking a course i n traditional studies would encourage the student to keep some of the traditional ways." (Reason 1, "Traditional Studies") That statement can be reworded into the "If ... then ..." form as follows: "If the student took a course in traditional studies, then he would be encouraged to keep the traditional ways." Conditional factual assertions ... are ver i f i e d by finding out whether or not anything similar to the "then" part of the assertion has in the past followed the occurrence of things similar to what i s described in the " i f " part of the assertion (Coombs and Meux, 1971, p. 45), Whereas a l l the reason used for the RSQ's can be cl a s s i f i e d as particular, general or conditional factual assertions, i t was the case that the conclusion was a value judgement In the form of a prescription (We should (should not) teach X to the students in the Honiara NSS.") Verifying the reasons involves an empirical investigation for each reason; iverifying the value judgement requires determining whether or not a l l the reasons used to come to the value judgement really are relevant and true. Therefore, verifying the value judgement requires accepting the reasons which are used to make the judgement and then verifying each reason individually. Thus, i t is a simpler task to verify a single reason which, along with other reasons, is used to arrive at a value judgement than i t is to verify the value judgement. In-depth treatment of this matter can be found in Taylor (1961, pp. 76-80) and Daniels (1971, pp. 4-11). In conclusion, since a l l the reasons on the RSQ's can be c l a s s i -fied as particular, general or conditional factual assertions, and since the conclusion reached by each respondent i s a value judgement, then the requirement that the reasons must be more easily known than the conclusion has been met. 5.16 Condition 5: The Reasons Must Represent a Wide Range of  Considerations Gathering reasons from a wide range of considerations helps tc ensure that the person using these reasons to arrive ?>t a ^a.lue j u d g -ment has not omitted any relevant areas of concern. Since the value judgements formulated by using the RSQ's are prescriptions recommending, certain curriculum options for inclusion i n , or omission from, the total curriculum of a particular kind of school, then the relevant concerns are those which affect people. Some of these concerns include concern for economic welfare, health concerns, recreation and activity concerns, and aesthetic concerns (Coombs and Meux, 1971, p. 38); and religious concerns, p o l i t i c a l concerns, moral concerns, legal concerns, custom and etiquette concerns, and intellectual concerns (Taylor, 1961, p. 300).; The reasons used, on a RSQ for a particular curriculum option, were not from a l l of the areas of concern cited above. Certain concerns are more relevant to some of the curriculum options than others. For example, economic concerns are more relevant to "Mechanics" than to 124 "Religious Education". As well, one may be able to clas s i f y a single reason under more than one concern. For example, "The g i r l s clothes w i l l get dirty" (Reason 13, "Mechanics for Girls") could be considered to be a health concern, an aesthetic concern or a custom and etiquette concern. Some examples of reasons to i l l u s t r a t e each concern are (see Appendix J for the reasons for each .curriculum option): A) Economic Welfare Concerns (1) The vegetables the boys learned to grow could be sold i n the Honiara Market (Reason 7, "Plant Agriculture"). (2) , The boys could make some money by repairing other people's machines (Reason 11, "Mechanics for Boys"). B) Health Concerns (1) "The boys would learn to grow crops other than just traditional crops (Reason.4, "Plant Agriculture") (Reason 18, "Plant Agriculture"). (2) "Most Solomon Islanders are healthy using, the traditional methods of homecrafts" (Reason 1, "Homecrafts for Boys"). C) Recreation and Activity Concerns (1) "The students could use some of the things they learn in Traditional Studies for their own enjoyment (Reason 11, "Traditional Studies"). (2) "The boys w i l l use outboard engines and other machines when they get older" (Reason 1, "Mechanics for Boys"). D) Aesthetic Concerns (1) "The g i r l s clothes w i l l get dirty" (Reason 13, "Mechanics for G i r l s " ) . (2) "The boys clothes w i l l get d i r t y " (Reason 9, "Mechanics for Boys"). E) Religious Concerns (D "The students in the school have s p i r i t u a l needs" (Reason 4, "Religious Education"). (2) "Religious Education w i l l be about the Christian religion only" (Reason 13, "Religious Education"). F) P o l i t i c a l Concerns (1) "By learning about different Solomon Island customs and traditions, the student could look at the Solomon Islands as a single nation" (Reason 19, "Traditional Studies"). G) Moral Concerns (1) "A Traditional Studies course would give the student some traditional rules and ways to behave" (Reason 3, "Traditional Studies"). (2) "The student would only get the point of view of his churc and not the points of view of other churches" (Reason 8, "Religious Education"). H) Legal Concerns (1) "Religious Education would teach a student to obey the law (Reason 3, "Religious Education"). I) Custom and Etiquette Concerns (1) "Fixing machines i s not a customary role for women or g i r l i n the Solomons" (Reason 14, "Mechanics for Girls").. (2) "Homecrafts i s g i r l s ' or womens' work by custom and tradition in the Solomons (Reason 5, "Homecrafts for G i r l s " ) . J) Intellectual Concerns (1) "Girls do not have the a b i l i t y to learn how to do mechanics" (Reason 8, "Mechanics for G i r l s " ) . (2) "There are too many different customs and traditions for the student to learn them a l l " (Reason 10, "Traditional Studies"). Figure 5-2 illustrates how each reason could be classified under the various concerns, for each curriculum option. Some of the reasons have been classified under more than one concern. The classification is based on the investigator's judgement in light of his experience in the Solomon Islands. In conclusion, the requirement for a wide range of relevant considerations appears to have been met. 5.17 Summary of the Evaluation of the Content Dimension This section has demonstrated that the reasons used for the RSQ's f u l f i l l a l l the standards required of them. The standards which were used to evaluate the reasons were derived from the writings of Taylor (1961), Scriven (1966), Coombs (1971), Cccmbs and Me^ x (1971), and Daniels (1971). Therefore, i t can be concluded that the reasons used for the RSQ's content are: i . . . 1) True or assumptions, and form a complete set; 2) Relevant; 3) Independent of the conclusions} 4) More easily known than the conclusions; 5) Represent a wide range of considerations. Therefore, the conclusion is that the method of gathering the reasons provided good reasons in the context of the study, and thus the method is valid, and the reasons have high content validity. . FIGURE 5-2 Classification of Reasons by Concern and Curriculum Option 1 Economic A Health B Recreation C Aesthetic D Religious E' P o l i t i c a l F Moral G Legal H Custom I Intellect J Mechanics for Boys 11,2,«.5.7, 10,11,12,8 3.9 1.7 9 7,9,10,13 6.7 Mechanics for Girls 1,3,7,9.10, 12,15,16. 18 4.5,8,13 1 13,14 14 14.2,6,10, 13.14,15. 16,17,18 4.8.5.11,17 Homecrafts for Boys 2.5,13,15 1,4.9,11, 12,14,16 14 16,11 1.3,6,8. 10,12,14, 16 7.8 Homecrafts for Girls 4.3.10,16, 8,13,12,14 6.7 6 7.12 5,8,11,9, 2,14,6,7. 15 .1.9 Plant Agriculture 7,3,9.10. 11,12,13, 14,18 18,4,5,6. 17,18 6 13,14,15 11 1.6,8,13, 14,17 4,5,8,16 Traditional Studies 6,12 11.6,12, 18 6,7,12,14. 15,18 4 19,16 3.4.8,9. 14,16 3.9,16 1.2.6,7.8, 9.11.12,14, 15,18 2.10.5.7. 13,17 Religious Education 5,15 • 4,13,12, 14,17,18 5.9,11.15, 19 1.7.9.8,2. 5.6.10,11, 12,15.16,19 3 7,10,16,17, 19 14 Note: the numerals refer to the reason number for the curriculum option (see Appendix?). ro -•u 128 ,5.20 Evaluating the Decision Dimension of the RSQ 5.21 Introduction The format of the RSQ was designed so that the reasons were rated and ranked in a particular manner. In order to make claims about the worth of the method developed and explained in this dissertation i t i s necessary to examine the logic of the format of the RSQ. There-fore, this section i s a study of the construct v a l i d i t y of the instrument. 5.22 Conditions Needed for Arriving at Defensible Value Judgements The most important characteristic of a value judgement i s that i t cannot be made by simply reporting what i s observably the case. As Russell (1910) wrote: ... There i s , so far as I can discover, no self-evident proposition as to the goodness or badness of a l l that exists, or has existed or w i l l exist. It follows that, from the fact that the existent world i s of such and such a nature, nothing can be inferred as to what things are good or bad (p. 7). Other writers such as Frankena (1973, p. 97), Hare (1965, p. 87), Coombs (1971, p. 8), Taylor (1961, pp. 48-67) have taken similar positions. What these writers say i s that simply l i s t i n g observable or empirically v e r i f i a b l e properties of that which i s to be evaluated (the value object) does not constitute a value judgement. For example, simply pointing out that an automobile i s blue in colour, has a five-speed transmission and 400 horsepower does not make the car a good car unless certain l o g i c a l rules are followed which connect the descriptive properties of the car to the value judgement "It i s a good car". Paul Taylor (1961) has analyzed the logical conditions necessary for a value judgement. He sets out the process of arriving at a value judgement as a process of reasoning, with the following caution: This analysis is not meant to be a psychological account of what happens in our heads when we evaluate something. I am not trying to describe or explain our thought processes as they actually occur. I am trying instead to make explicit the pattern or structure of the logic of our thinking (p. 9). Taylor's caution is important in this dissertation, for the method developed here is not to investigate the complex psychological processes that a person might use in coming to a value judgement, but to develop a simple format which would maximize the possibility of a person making a rational value judgement, and to display the reasons he considered important in arriving at his judgement. The conditions for making a value judgement, which Taylor identified, are, in rearranged order and reworded (Daniels* 1971, p. 5) 1) There must be a class of comparison. 2) There must be adoption of a standard or a set of standards. 3) The value object must have characteristics which enable us to determine whether i t f u l f i l l s or fails to f u l f i l l the standards. 4) The person making the value judgement must have taken some attitude toward the value object. 5) The person making the value judgement must have adopted a point of view or points of view. 5.23 Fulfilling the Conditions for Making Value Judgements As part of the administration of the RSQ, the investigator read, to each respondent, the aims of the Honiara New Secondary School, and the characteristics of the Schools and students (see Appendix M). It was explained to each respondent that he would be deciding whether or not the curriculum option should be included in the curriculum of the HNSS. Thus, the class of comparison would be a l l those curriculum options which had some chance of f u l f i l l i n g the aims of the School within the limitations of the characteristics of the students and the School. ' As was previously described (see section 4.41 of Chapter 4), the respondent selected reasons which he considered reasons why the curriculum option .should be included or why i t should not be included. The respondent placed reasons which he thought did not apply in the " n u l l " category. The reasons were assertions that the curriculum option had certain characteristics. The respondent identified the most important reasons which, for him, had positive valence; and he identi-fied the most important reasons which, for him, had negative valence. By doing this, the respondent had adopted certain standards which he considered relevant and important to use i n making his value judgement. That i s , the standards he used could be identified from the reasons that he marked as most important. Once the respondent had identified those reasons which had positive or negative valence, and those which did not apply, he was asked to indicate whether he agreed or disagreed with the prescriptive statement that the curriculum option should be taught in the HNSS, and to indicate the extent of his agreement or disagreement. In other words, he took some attitude toward the value object (the curriculum option). The point of view he took can be surmised by examining the standard(s) he applied. An example of a single community respondent's data w i l l be used to i l l u s t r a t e the above considerations. . ' 131 5.24 An Analysis of a Respondent's Data For the "Religious  Education" RSQ : The respondent chosen for this example was a male employed as an administrator in a government office. His responses to the Religious Education RSQ are divided in the following paragraphs accord-ing to the valence he assigned each reason. 1) The Reasons he chose as reasons why we should teach Religious Education (R.E.) in the HNSS were: Reason 3: "Religious Education would teach a student to obey the law." Reason 6: "Religious Education deals with a lot of basic moral problems of town living." Reason 13: "Religious Education will be about the Christian religion only." Reason 14: "The student would be taught about God and Jesus." Reason 16: "Religious Education would show a student how he could be free from the fears and magic ot Custom religion." . Reason 17: "A Religious Education course would encourage non-Christian students to become Christians." Reason 18: "Religious Education would give simple Christianity to students who would not get any religion at home." 2) The Reasons he chose as reasons why we should NOT teach Religious Education in the HNSS were: Reason 1: "Even i f a student did not feel religious he or she would be expected to go to Religious Education." Reason 2: "Religious Education will not help, very much, a student who hasn't got Christian beliefs in the family." Reason 5: "Religious Education might show that some kinds of economic development in the Solomons are wrong." Reason 8: "The student would only get the point of view of his church, and not the point of view of other churches." Reason 11: "Religious Education is something that is a job for in the church,.and not a job for in the school." Reason 18: "Taking Religious Education might make the student more willin g to give money to the church." Reason 19: "The students would be separated in Religious Education according to the church they belonged to." 3)- The Reasons he placed in the " n u l l " category were: Reason A: "The students in school have s p i r i t u a l needs." Reason 7: "Most parents would want their children to take Religious Education." Reason 9: "The members of the Solomon Islands Christian Association think that Religious Education should be taught in the School." Reason 10: "The things the students learn in Religious Education may not agree with custom and traditional b e l i e f s . " Reason 12: "Some of the churches are not worried about whether there i s Religious Education i n the School." Figure 5-3 displays those reasons which the respondent identified as important reasons. The respondent in this example indicated that he disagreed with the prescriptive statement: "Religious Education should be taught to the students in the Honiara New Secondary School". Therefore, he gave the reasons he considered important reasons why R.E. should NOT be taught greater weight in his value judgement than the reasons he considered important reasons why R.E. should be taught. To simplify the discussion: i f we assume that he based his value judgement on comparing the positive valence reason and the negative valence reas'on he identified as most important, then we could say that his standard of freedom of choice to participate in Religious Education carried more weight than his standard of potential obedience to the law. Therefore he has probably taken the moral point of view. FIGURE 5-3 A Respondent's Important Reasons For and Against Religious Education in the HNSS Most Important Important Reasons Why We Should Teach R.E. Important Reasons Why We Should Not Teach R.E. Reason 3: "Religious Education would teach a student to obey the law." Reason 1: Even i f a student did not feel religious, he would be expected to go to Religious Education." 2nd Most Important Reason 14: "The student would be taught about God and Jesus." Reason 11: "Religious Education is a job for in the church and NOT a job for in the school." 3rd Most Important Reason 16: "Religious Education would show a student how he could be free from the fears and magic of Custom religion." Reason ~8: "The student would get the point of view of his own church and not the points of view of other churches." 134 The procedure he used to a r r i v e at h i s value judgement was l i k e l y much more complex than t h i s ; but t h i s example was presented to demon-s t r a t e that the method used i n the RSQ d i d f u l f i l l the necessary condi-tions f o r making a def e n s i b l e value judgement. I f the respondent was not- purposely being misleading, then we can make some reasonable claims about the kinds of issues he considered when he disagreed with teaching R e l i g i o u s Education i n the HNSS. 5.25 Summary of the Evaluation of the Deci s i o n Dimension This s e c t i o n has shown that the d e c i s i o n dimension of the RSQ has a l o g i c a l , d e f e n s i b l e s t r u c t u r e and f u l f i l l s the conditions l a i d down i n the l i t e r a t u r e on value judgements. Thus, the cla i m i s made that the method used, to obtain the reasons people consider when recom-mending or not recommending c e r t a i n curriculum options, has high con-s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . 5.30 Summary The previous sections on the Content Dimension and the Decision Dimension of the RSQ's have shown that a reasonably complete set of relevant reasons can be gathered f o r each curriculum option, and that those reasons can be placed i n a l o g i c a l format. By using the RSQ, the respondent i s able to engage i n a d e l i b e r a t e procedure, using a greater range of relevant reasons than he otherwise might have thought of, i n ~* making a value judgement. In a d d i t i o n , an examination of the data obtained from the RSQ would allow reasonable claims to be made about the issues the respondent brought to bear on h i s value judgement v i s - a -v i s the curriculum options. The content dimension of the method was I • 135 evaluated* as having high content v a l i d i t y , and the decision dimension of the method was evaluated as having high construct v a l i d i t y . Both of these evaluations w i l l be used i n determining whether the method was a good method overall. 5.40 An Evaluation of the R e l i a b i l i t y of the Method 5.41 Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y of the Reasons' Ratings on the RSQ Section 4.50 in Chapter 4 described the r e l i a b i l i t y study. Since the RSQ is an instrument composed of heterogeneous items, the most important r e l i a b i l i t y estimate for i t i s test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y (Guilford and Fruchter, 1973, p. 407). The retest method yields information about the s t a b i l i t y of the obtained rank order of reasons, across people, for an RSQ, over a period of time. The r e l i a b i l i t y coefficient was determined by calculating the average rating for each reason, converting the average ratings to ranks, and calculating Spearman's " r " for ranks between the rank order of reasons obtained from the f i r s t administration of the RSQ with the rank order obtained from the second administration of the RSQ (for only the r e l i a b i l i t y sample). The results of these calculations are presented in Table 5-J. As can be seen from Table 5-}, a l l the r e l i a b i l i t y coefficients are greater than 0.90. These high values indicate that the relative importance of the reasons as perceived by the people i n the sample, and for each curriculum option used, remained relatively unchanged over the one month time period. 136 TABLE 5-1 , RSQ Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y Coefficients for the Community and College R e l i a b i l i t y Samples Community Sample* College Sample** Curriculum Option Sample Size R e l i a b i l i t y Coefficient Sample Size R e l i a b i l i t y Coefficient Mechanics for Boys *** *** *** *** Mechanics for G i r l s *** *** *** *** Homecrafts for Boys 14 0.92 32 0.97 Homecrafts for G i r l s 14 0.93 27 0.90 Plant Agriculture 9 0.92 14 0.94 Traditional Studies 15 0.90 30 0.95 Religious Education 13 0.93 32 • 0.97 * individual administration ** group administration *** not included i n the r e l i a b i l i t y study (see section 4.50 of Chapter 4). 5.42 Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y of the Agree-Disagree Rating on the RSQ's The agree-disagree rating was a single item response on the RSQ. Therefore, using techniques which require multiple-item responses to estimate r e l i a b i l i t y would yield misleading information. For that reason, a gross indicator of response s t a b i l i t y was used. A simple count was taken of the number of respondents who switched from "agree" in the f i r s t administration of the RSQ to "disagree" in the second admini-stration. In the community sample two people switched their ratings, and in the college sample only one person switched his rating. That 137 information indicated that, for the persons in the r e l i a b i l i t y sample, there was high s t a b i l i t y in their overall recommendatory conclusion to recommend or not recommend the particular curriculum option being considered. 5.A3 Summary In summary, the r e l i a b i l i t y study indicated that there was high s t a b i l i t y in the responses given to each RSQ by the persons in the study, over a one month period of time. Therefore, i f the opinions and knowledge of the people being surveyed remain f a i r l y constant, the RSQ i s a reli a b l e method of determining the reasons those people used to arrive at their overall value judgement of whether or not a particular curriculum option should be taught. In addition, their conclusion (we should or should not teach the curriculum option) is stable. That observation i s i n agreement with the s t a b i l i t y of ratings of curriculum options found by other researchers (Brittingham and Netusil, 1976). Therefore, the method used to identify the reasons used in coming to a value judgement as to whether a curriculum option should be taught i s evaluated as having high r e l i a b i l i t y . 5.50 Evaluating the Usability of the Method An important characteristic of the method i s the ease or d i f f i c u l t y the respondents had in completing the RSQ. Two questions to be asked to determine the usability of the instrument are: 1) Are the instructions understandable? 2) Does the RSQ require an inordinate amount of time to complete? With respect to the f i r s t question, the instructions were under-standable i f the person completing the RSQ had a certain minimum know-' . ' 138 ledge and understanding of written and spoken English. In a country such as Canada, most people have this minimum understanding; however, In the Solomon Islands that was not the case for a l l ' the respondents. The sample used to test the RSQ was chosen so as to maximize the possi-b i l i t y of obtaining people who could understand English. However, even within this sample, the workers c l a s s i f i e d as Production III were unable to complete the RSQ because of a lack of f a c i l i t y with written and spoken English. As mentioned in Chapter 4 (section 4.31), i t would not have helped to translate .the RSQ into the lingua franca, P i j i n , because P i j i n i s an oral language in the Solomons, not a written language. Nor would i t have been practical to present the RSQ orally (in either P i j i n or some other language) because the respondent needed to rank the reasons once they had been given positive or negative valence. It may be possible to present the RSQ verbally, i f each reason i s responded to on a rating scale; for example, a rating scale ranging from "a very important reason why we should have the course" to "a very important reason why we should NOT have the course". However, in this study, that was not done, because there appeared to be a tendency for the respondents to mark in the extremes of the rating scales. Nevertheless, using a rating scale may be a useful avenue for further study of the RSQ tech-nique. If the respondents could understand the instructions, and a l l i n the sample except Production III workers were able to, each RSQ took between five and ten minutes to complete. The community respondents estimated that i t required about one hour to complete the seven RSQ's given them. Explaining the instructions to each respondent took about twenty minutes. . About the same time was required to explain the instructions to the college students under group administration. None of the respondents indicated, when asked, that they found the task too time consuming. In summary, i f the RSQ technique i s to be used in a society in vhich there are a large number of i l l i t e r a t e people then i t would prob-ably be useful to adjust the format so that the RSQ could be presented orally. However, among the li t e r a t e members of the society, the format developed and used in this study was understandable and easily used. Therefore, in a highly l i t e r a t e society, or sample, the usability of the method is rated high. In a society or sample with low literacy, the method would have to be rated low. CHAPTER 6 Analysis Strategies 6.00 Introduction This chapter w i l l attempt to demonstrate how the information obtained from the RSQ's can be used to contribute to educational practice. The f i r s t analysis strategy to be discussed i s that which the educational practitioners might use to design a course or to decide whether to implement a course. Since i t i s addressed to the practitioner, the analysis strategy w i l l avoid complex s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the information, and, instead, focus on a more conceptual approach. The second analysis strategy w i l l attempt to show how the informa-tion obtained from the administration of the RSQ could be used to answer potential research questions requiring more s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the data. , There i s no intention to imply that the f i r s t analysis strategy is better or worse than the second analysis strategy. Nor is there any intention to suggest that the strategies outlined in this chapter are the only ways the RSQ information can be treated. The strategies were chosen to i l l u s t r a t e two different potential uses for the RSQ information. As well, the strategies w i l l not be used to make substantive claims about the Solomon Island people or their value systems. 141 6.10 Analysis Strategies I: Conceptual Procedures 6.11 Introduction Let us assume that an educational administrator is considering implementing a course in "Traditional Studies" in the Honiara New Secondary School. Let us also assume he wanted to know whether the Honiara people thought such a course should be taught to the students in the HNSS, and why the Honiara people thought the course should or should not be taught. Thus he developed the "Traditional Studies" RSQ, had a representative sample of the population complete i t , and scored and sum-marized the data from their responses. So that the example has some credence, the actual community data collected in this study w i l l be used. 6.12 Examination of the Data Before the content of each reason on the RSQ is treated, the distribution of responses for each reason should be examined. This should be done to check for bimodal responses; that i s , to check whether a large percentage of the respondents consider a particular reason a reason why the course should be taught while another large percentage of the res-pondents consider the same reason a reason why the course, should not be taught. If there was a bimodal response to a reason, then i t would not be accurate to use the mean rating value calculated for that reason as a descriptor of Its importance. For this example i f one-third or more of the respondents gave a reason a negative rating and one-third or more of the respondents gave the same reason a positive rating, then the response pattern would be considered bimodal. Table 6-1 displays the response pattern for each reason for the curriculum option "Traditional Studies". In Table 6-1 the reasons have been arranged in descending rank order TABLE 6-1 Community Response Pattern for the Traditional Studies RSQ (Percent of Respondents For Each Rating) Rating Reason Number -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 Mean 1 2 2 40 12 12 33 2.269 16 46 .25 17 12 1.942 8 8 60 4 17 12 1.654 7 2 4 65 6 10 13 1.519 19 — — — 2 10 58 12 8 12 1.481 3 2 2 6 71 10 6 4 1.135 9 .— — 2 2 4 85 2 2 4 1.038 14 4 4 83 4 6 1.038 11 — 2 2 10 8 60 10 6 4 0.923 12 — 6 — 2 8 69 10 4 2 r\ o o rr U • OOJ 6 2 — 6 13 4 65 2 8 — 0.596 13 — 4 4 21 50 17 2 2 — -0*135 15 2 12 4 13 46 21 2 — — -0.385 4 6 4 8 25 38 17 — — 2 -0.500 5 — 10 6 23. 48 13 -0.500 2 2 6 12 21 48 12 -0.577 17 6 2 6. 29 52 6 -0.635 10 10 13 8 10 46 10 — 2 2 -0.308 • i 1 8 . •• 23 .6 8 13 40 10 -1.288 according to the mean of the r a t i n g s . No reason has a bimodal response pattern when compared with the c r i t e r i o n for bimodalitv given above. The next problem f a c i n g the administrator i s to decide how high a mean r a t i n g must be before a reason could be considered an important reason why T r a d i t i o n a l Studies should be included i n the curriculum; and how low a mean r a t i n g must be before a reason could be considered an important reason why T r a d i t i o n a l Studies should not be included i n the curriculum. One way t h i s problem could be solved i s by determining the response p a t t e r n a reason would have under the n u l l hypothesis that the population responds randomly to the reasons. Under that hypothesis, one-third of the population would give a reason p o s i t i v e valence, one-t h i r d would give i t negative valence, and one-third of the population would give the reason a " n u l l " r a t i n g . From t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t r i b u -t i o n q u i n t i l e s could be constructed so that twenty percent of the responses were i n each q u i n t i l e . Thus the upper q u i n t i l e could be l a b e l l e d "High P o s i t i v e " ; the next q u i n t i l e "Low P o s i t i v e " ; the middle q u i n t i l e "Neutral"; the second lowest q u i n t i l e "Low Negative"; and the lowest q u i n t i l e could be l a b e l l e d "High Negative". Therefore, each reason could be l a b e l l e d i n r e l a t i o n to the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , depending on the mean of the scores assigned to that reason. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of reasons i s an a r t i f i c i a l technique which w i l l help group the reasons i n t o d e f i n a b l e categories. The i n v e s t i g a t o r has shown elsewhere (Appendix N) that, under the n u l l hypothesis of random response to each reason, the following propor-tions of t o t a l response can be assigned to each r a t i n g : Scoring Value Expected Proportion of Responses For a Reason on Under the N u l l Hypothesis of Random the RSQ Response to Each Reason -4 1/r (continued) I 144 -3 1/r -2 1/r -1 1/3 0 .1/3 +1 1/3 +2 1/r +3 1/r +4 1/r r = number of reasons on the RSQ Therefore, under the n u l l hypothesis of random response to each reason, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses f o r each reason, f o r the to p i c T r a d i t i o n a l Studies, w i l l look l i k e the graph i n Figure 6-1. FIGURE 6-1 Response Pattern f o r T r a d i t i o n a l Studies' Reasons Under the N u l l Hypothesis of Random Response .35 .30 .25 .20 .15 .10 • Q5 (.3333) (.1754) (.0526) -4 • -3 - 2 - 1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 Scoring Value 145 Quintilcs can be constructed using standard procedures (see for example Glass and Stanley, 1970, p. 35). From the above distribution (Figure 6-1), the quintile ranges are: Quintile Range Label Assigned 1 1.23 to 4.00 High Positive (HP) 2 0.31 to 1.22 Low Positive (LP) 3 -0.30 to 0.30 Neutral (Z) 4 -1.22 to -0.31 Low Negative (LN) 5 -4.00 to -1.23 High Negative (HN) Therefore, given the information displayed i n Table 6-1, the administrator could subdivide the set of Traditional Studies (TS) reasons on the basis of their mean ratings i n the following way: Description of Quintile Reason Numbers: 1) High positive (IIP) reasons why we SHOULD 1,16,5,7,19 teach TS in the HNSS. 2) Low positive (LP) reasons why we SHOULD 3,9,14,11,12,6 teach TS i n the HNSS. 3) Reasons which aren't considered relevant (Z). 13 4) Low negative (LN) reasons why we SHOULD NOT 15,4,5,2,17,10 teach TS in the HNSS. 5) High negative (HN) reasons why we SHOULD NOT 18 teach TS in the HNSS. 6.13 Listing and Ranking the Positive and Negative Reasons From the mean ratings and the quintile ranges the administra-tor can rank the reasons and label each as high positive, low positive, neutral, low negative or high negative. Figures 6-2 and 6-3 display the result of doing this for the positive reasons and the negative 146 reasons r e s p e c t i v e l y . The reason given a n e u t r a l r a t i n g , reason 13, was omitted. FIGURE 6-2 T r a d i t i o n a l Studies Reasons Given P o s i t i v e Valence Reason High P o s i t i v e Reasons a) Taking a course i n TS ( T r a d i t i o n a l Studies) would encourage the students to keep some of the t r a d i t i o n a l ways (Reason 1). b) Learning about other Solomon Islands c u l t u r e s would help the student get along with other Solomon Islanders(Reason 16). c) I f the student has to leave Honiara, the TS course would help prepare him f o r v i l l a g e l i f e (Reason 8). d) Very few of the students know anything about t h e i r own c u l t u r e s and t r a d i t i o n s (Reason 7). e) By l e a r n i n g about d i f f e r e n t Solomon Islands customs and t r a d i t i o n s , the student could look at the Solomons as a s i n g l e nation (Reason 19). Low P o s i t i v e Reasons f) A t r a d i t i o n a l or c u l t u r a l studies course would give the student some t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e s and ways to behave (Reason 3). Rank Mean Rating 2.27 1.94 1.65 1.52 1.48 1.14 FIGURE 6-2 (Continued) Reason Rank Mean Rating g) The students would learn what was taboo i n the different cultures of the Solomon Islands (Reason 9). .7.5 1.04 h) TS w i l l teach the student some of the ways of the old people i n the Solomons (Reason 14). - 7.5 1.04 i ) The students could use some of the things they learn in TS for their own enjoyment (Reason 11). 9 0.92 j) The student could s e l l the traditional crafts he makes for money (Reason 12). 10 0.89 k) The students could demonstrate some of the traditional ways to tourists for money (Reason 6). 11 0.60 FIGURE 6-3 Traditional Studies Reasons Given Negative Valence Reason High Negative Reasons a) Most students in town w i l l not use traditional or custom ways. Rank Mean Rating -1.29 148 Figure 6-3 (continued) Low Negative Reasons b) There are too many different customs and traditions for the student to learn them a l l . 2 -0.81 c) Learning different traditions might confuse . the students i n the HNSS. 3 -0.64 d) The course would not teach the students anything which i s modern. 4 -0.58 e) The students are too young to get anything out of a TS course. 5.5 -0.50 f) The things the students learn in TS may not agree with what they are told in Religious Education. 5.5 -0.50 g) The Honiara people do not have any traditional ways. 7 -0.39 6.14 Formulating C r i t e r i a From Reasons Once the reasons have been identified as positive and negative and their relative importance determined (High Positive, Low Negative, etc.), then a cri t e r i o n can be formulated from the reason's valence and i t s content. Determining the criterion i s important because i t articu-lates the value principle which the respondents are using In making their value judgement. A criterion Is composed of three items: a comparison class, a characteristic, and a value term (Casper, 1971, p. 184). The comparison class i s derived from the class of things being rated; the characteristic comes from the reason; and the value term comes from the rating. For example,, the value judgement: "Traditional Studies (TS) should be taught in the Honiara NSS", is a rating of the worth of including TS in the HNSS (the rating term, or value term, is "should"). The compari-son class i s a l l those courses which might be taught i n the HNSS. Those courses have been called "Curriculum Options". Thus, the criterion i s a more general application of the characteristic used in making the value judgement. The characteristic could be any one of the reasons given high positive valence. The criterion i s derived from the reason and the rating. Therefore, the formulation of a criterio n might look as follows: Rating (Value Judgement) Reason (Characteristic) -Traditional Studies should be Learning about other Solomon Islands cultures would help taught i n the HNSS. the student get along with other Solomon Islanders. The CRITERION i I which help the student should be taught i n Curriculum options get along with other the HNSS Solomon Islanders. COMPARISON CLASS CHARACTERISTIC RATING The same procedure can be used tb formulate the c r i t e r i a for the rest of the positive reasons and the negative reasons. The c r i t e r i a formulated from the positive reasons w i l l be called positive c r i t e r i a , and are displayed In figure 6-4. The negative c r i t e r i a , from the negative reasons, are displayed in figure 6-5. The symbols PC and NC n n 150 are used to identify the positive c r i t e r i a , and the negative c r i t e r i a respectively. The symbol "n" is the rank, of the reason from Figure 6-2 or 6-3 , used to produce the criterion. FIGURE 6-4 Cr i t e r i a Derived From TS Positive Valence Reasons Comparison Class Characteristic Rating PC. Curriculum options PC£ same PC2 same PC. same 4 PC^ same PC, same 6 PC^ same which encourage students to should be taught keep traditional ways in the HNSS which help the student get same along with other Solomon Islanders which would prepare students same for l i v i n g in the village which would t e l l students same about their own cultures and traditions which would help the student same look at the Solomon Islands as a single nation which would provide the same student with behavioural rules which would identify what . same was taboo in other Sqlomon Island cultures I. 151 FIGURE 6-4 (Continued) P C _ same o PCg same P C ^ Q same P C 1 1 s a m e "which would teach the same student some of the "old" ways which would provide the same student with skills they can use for their own enjoyment which would teach the same students how to make saleable products which would teach the same student skills which he could demonstrate for money 152 FIGURE 6-5 C r i t e r i a Derived From TS Negative Valence Reasons Comparison Class NC^ Curriculum options UC^ same NC.j same NC, same Characteristic which teach the students thing they won't use in town which contain too many different topics for the student to learn whose variety of content would confuse the student which do not teach anything modern Rating should NOT be taught i n the HNSS same same S 2.rri':* NC^ same NC, same o NC^ same which are too advanced for the age of the students which contain content which conflicts with religious teachings which teach something that cannot be used in town. same same same 153 6.15 Determining the A c c e p t a b i l i t y of the Criteria Once the criteria have been synthesized from the comparison class, characteristics and ratings, i t becomes necessary to determine the acceptability of each criterion. Determining the acceptability of each criterion is different from determining whether the criterion is true or false. The criteria were formulated from reasons about: (1) the kind of traditional studies course which might be taught; (2) po-tential outcomes of the course; (3). social or cultural assumptions about the course; and (4) characteristics of the students who might take the course. But, the course had not yet been developed. Therefore, the criteria are formulated from some reasons which are assumptions. As a result, making statements about the truth or falsity of the assumptions is not valid until the course has been developed., or until the reasons have been shown to be true or well-founded. However, one can make statements about the acceptability of the criterion assuming the assump-tion (characteristic) on which i t is based is true. For example, one of the reasons identified as a reason why Traditional Studies (TS) should NOT be taught to the students was: "The things the students learn in TS may not agree with what they are told in Religious Education." (Figure 6-2, Reason f) The criterion for that reason was: . "Curriculum options which contain content which conflicts with religious teachings should not be taught." The question is whether or not the criterion is acceptable: that is whether, in the cultural mileu of the Solomon Islands and in their value system, i t is not acceptable to teach things which conflict with religious teachings. If the criterion is acceptable (i.e. content which conflicts with religious teachings should not be taught), then the J Traditional Studies course must be developed so that i t does not contain the conflicting content (assuming that a traditional studies course should be taught at a l l ) . Thus the content of the course w i l l be determined by the acceptability of the positive and negative c r i t e r i a . This w i l l be discussed in more de t a i l in the section which follows this section. Determining the acceptability of the c r i t e r i a i s , in the opinion of P.W. Taylor (1961), a process of validation. Validation i s an "... attempt to show that the criterio n adopted in evaluation was a good cr i t e r i o n . This we do by appealing to a 'higher' or 'more fundamental' principle ... which we believe would show clearly that our cri t e r i o n i s a va l i d one." (Daniels, 1971, p. 3j : see also Taylor, 1961, p. 80). To perform a complete validation requires showing that: (1) The cri t e r i o n i s relevant. (2) There are no reasons why an exception should be made to the crit e r i o n . (3) F u l f i l l i n g the criterio n does not conflict with another important principle of our way of l i f e . (Taylor, 1961, p. 85; Daniels, 1971, p. 12). Showing that the criterion is relevant requires not only showing that i t i s a derivative of a "higher order" criterion, but also showing that i t leads to beneficial consequences or at least does, no harm to people (Daniels, 1978), or ". . . the more widely the [criterion] i s ad-opted i n a society, and the more completely i t i s f u l f i l l e d by those who adopt i t , the more ideal the society w i l l be" (Taylor, 1961, p. 88). Showing that there are no reasons why an exception should be made, and that the criterion does not conflict with another important principle are d i f f i c u l t but necessary tasks. Taylor (1961) argues that only by completing the above three tasks do we know the criterion is valid. He wrote: 'If someone should ask on what grounds such a claim to knowledge can be made, my answer would be that no other way of reasoning could yield better reasons for accepting a [criterion] as valid. I am merely trying to explicate the pattern of reasoning which would yield the best results for justifying a value judgement ... (Taylor, 1961, p. 85). Before an example is given of how validation might be carried out the following caveat is in order: Carrying out a l l these aspects of validation in the justification of curricula is extremely difficult, chiefly because i t is so difficult to know what the consequences of its use are likely to be and because the fulfillment of some criteria seems to lead to conflict with other criteria. (Daniels, 1971, p. 12). 6.16 Examples of Validation To illustrate the validation of criteria, the first positive criterion (PC,, Figure 6-4) and the first negative criterion (NC^ Figure 6-5) will be used. The validation is presented to illustrate the logic of the procedure and does not necessarily reflect the value systems of Solomon Islanders. 6.161 A Positive Criterion The positive criterion PC^ was: "Curriculum options which encourage students to keep traditional ways should be taught in the HNSS." If this criterion is reworded in the form of an argument called a "practical syllogism," then the syllogism will be something like: major premise: .We ought to encourage students to keep the traditional ways, minor premise: Teaching "Traditional Studies" encourages the students to keep the traditional ways. conclusion: We ought to teach Traditional Studies. The major premise is the criterion used to come to the conclusion. It is that criterion which should be validated. It should form the conclusion to another syllogism having a higher order criterion as its major premise. In this example, the higher order criterion might be: "We ought to preserve our cultural integrity". Thus, the higher order syllogism would be: major premise: We ought to preserve our cultural integrity. minor premise: Encouraging the students to keep the traditional ways will help preserve our cultural integrity. conclusion: We ought to encourage students to keep the traditional ways. Putting the two arguments together, the complete argument becomes: : We ought to preserve our cultural integrity. : Encouraging the students to keep the traditional ways will help preserve our cultural integrity. : We ought to encourage the students to keep the traditional ways. : Teaching "Traditional Studies" encourages the students to keep the traditional ways. : We ought to teach "Traditional Studies". Thus, i t has been shown that the criterion PC^ can be derived from a higher order criterion. The other tasks for the valida-tion of criterion PC^ might be completed in the following way: 1) Possible beneficial effects of students keeping the tradi- tional ways: a) Promote harmonious relations with their relatives and friends "back home". 157 b) Give them feelings of pride in their own culture. c) Resist the inroads of "Western" culture. etc. 2) Possible conditions where an exception should be made to keeping the traditional ways; a) Some traditional ways are not compatible with the running of business, government and industry. b) Some traditional ways may be offensive to visitors from other cultures. c) Some traditional ways promote poor health practices. etc. 3 ) Possible conflicts with other important principles: a) Some traditional ways may conflict with present laws. b) Some traditional ways may conflict with Christian principles. etc. The procedure shown above i s not simple, and probably should be done with a committee of well-informed, indigenous people. In addition, the procedure was demonstrated for onlv one of the c r i t e r i a , whereas in r e a l i t y i t should be done with a l l the c r i t e r i a — b o t h positive and ) negative—taking into account their relative importance. However, once i t has been done, the administrator would be able to say something l i k e : "Teaching Traditional Studies so as to encourage the students to keep some of the traditional ways i s an acceptable criter i o n for teaching the course, as long as the course does not encourage the students to keep traditional ways which are against the law of the land, do not con f l i c t with Christian principles, do not encourage poor health practices and so on. 6.162 A Negative Criterion Determining the acceptability of a negative criter i o n uses the same method as for a positive c r i t e r i o n . The negative criter i o n chosen for this example i s NC^: "Curriculum options which teach the students things they won't use i n town should NOT be taught i n the HNSS." (Figure 6-5). Rewording this i n the form of a practical syllogism i t becomes: major premise: We shouldn't teach the students things they won't use i n town, minor premise: "Traditional Studies" teaches the students things they won't use in town, conclusion: We shouldn't teach Traditional Studies. A higher order criterion might be: "We shouldn't waste the HNSS students' time". Therefore, the complete argument becomes: : We shouldn't waste the HNSS students' time. : Teaching the students things they won't use i n town wastes their time. : We shouldn't teach the students things they won't use in town. 159 : "Traditional Studies" teaches the students things they won't , use i n town. : We shouldn't teach Traditional Studies. To complete the three tasks of validation, the harmful effects of f u l f i l l i n g the characteristic of the criter i o n must be determined, along with possible exceptions and potential conflicts. If the criter i o n i s found to be acceptable, that i s , the exceptions and conflicts don't outweigh the harmful effects, then the administrator could a l t e r the content of the curriculum so that the harmful effects are eliminated. In this example this may mean simply not teaching those traditional ways which the student won't use in town. A more creative response might involve providing f a c i l i t i e s where, and opportunities when, the students could use traditional ways in town. Either response would render the criterio n invalid, because the characteristic on which i t was based would no longer be true. 6.17 Using the Results of Validation . Once the administrator has gone through the validation procedure for each reason, then he would have a l i s t of val i d positive c r i t e r i a , v a l i d negative c r i t e r i a and a l i s t of invalid c r i t e r i a . His next step i s to compare the l i s t of valid positive c r i t e r i a with the l i s t of negative c r i t e r i a and decide whether the course should be taught in the school. If he decides i t should, then he has decided that the valid positive c r i t e r i a as a whole are more important than the valid negative c r i t e r i a as a whole. Therefore, in his opinion the course should be designed so as to: (1) maximize for each positive criterion the beneficial effects to the students; (2) sensitize the students to potential circumstances where exceptions should be made; and (3) minimize 1 6 0 the potential for conflicts with other important principles; For each negative cr i t e r i o n , the course should be designed so as to eliminate or minimize the harmful effects on the student. If, on the other hand, the administrator decides the course should NOT'be taught in the school, because he decides the harmful effects of the course are l i k e l y fro be more severe than the benefits, then he should s t i l l attempt to design the course in the same way as i f he had decided that the course should be taught in the school. If, after making a reasonable effort to design a course which minimizes the poten-t i a l detriments, he s t i l l finds that the detriments of the course out-weigh the benefits of the course, then he must decide that the course should not be taught. But performing the above tasks can be done independently without circulating the RSQ to the community. Therefore the question which must s t i l l be answered i s : "Why bother having a community survey at a l l ? " The results of circulating the RSQ to a community sample w i l l indicate the c r i t e r i a the community was using when i t recommended that the course be accepted or rejected; and, through the analysis strategies outlined in this section, whether or not the community's decision was based on sound c r i t e r i a . With that information, the administrator would be in a position to re-educate the community, i f i t had formed i t s judge-ments on unsound c r i t e r i a , or to make appropriate adjustments to the cur-riculum, i f the community made judgements on sound c r i t e r i a . If, for example,! there were.sound c r i t e r i a for implementing the program, and any sound c r i t e r i a for not implementing the program could be n u l l i f i e d , yet the community rejected the program on the basis of unsound c r i t e r i a , then the administrator might decide to explain to the community why the pro-gram should be implemented, and how the program could be implemented so as to minimize or eliminate p o s s i b l e harmful e f f e c t s . The assumptions being made are that curriculum should not be eliminated from the school system on the basis of unsound c r i t e r i a , and that the administrator, using the procedures o u t l i n e d , and i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with knowledgeable others, i s b e t t e r able, than he otherwise would be, to decide whether or. not the curriculum should be implemented. On the other hand, i f the community decided that the program should be implemented, but made i t s d e c i s i o n on the b a s i s of unsound c r i t e r i a , and the administrator a l s o thinks the program should be im-plemented, then the administrator would be we l l equipped to point out to the people i n the community that there are more powerful reasons f o r implementing the program. In a d d i t i o n , the administrator could explain why some reasons were inadequate, and so on. The a n a l y s i s strategy o u t l i n e d i n t h i s se^cioiv would be a reasonable step toward preparing f o r some of the c o n f l i c t s which could occur. The point i s that the administrator must be i n a p o s i t i o n from which he can defend the d e c i s i o n to implement or not implement the program. By being aware of p o t e n t i a l areas of c o n f l i c t he would be be t t e r able to do that. 6.18 Another Example—Mechanics For G i r l s So f a r , nothing has been sa i d about the place of the agree-disagree r a t i n g i n the an a l y s i s strategy. In the previous example, " T r a d i t i o n a l Studies", the whole sample agreed that the course should be taught In the HNSS. However, f o r the curriculum option "Mechanics for G i r l s (MG)", 40% of the community sample i n d i c a t e d that they thought "Mechanics For G i r l s " should NOT be taught i n the HNSS. In a case such TABLE 6-2 Summary Community Data for the Curriculum Option "Mechanics for Girls" Rating Group Who Thought Mechanics for Girls SHOULD be taught (N = 33) Reason Mean Rank High Positive Reason 7 2.33 1 Reason 12 2.21 2 Reason 11 1.39 4 Reason 10 1.39 4 Reason 18 1.39 4 Low Positive Reason 1 1.03 6 Reason 15 .88 7 Reason 3 .67 8 Reason 17 .64 9 Neutral Reason 8 - .12 10 Reason 13 - .24 11 Low Negative Reason 5 - .45 12 Reason 16 - .45 12 Reason 4 - .49 14 Reason 6 - .52 15 Reason 2 - .70 16 Reason 9 - .85 17 Reason 14 - .88 18 High Negative Group Who Thought Mechanics for Girls SHOULD NOT be taught (N = 21) Reason Mean Rank Reason 12 1.52 1 Reason 10 1.43 2 Reason 7 1.33 3 Season 11 1.00 4 Reason 15 .52 5 Reason 18 .43 6 Reason 17 .19 7 Reason 1 .05 8 Reason 3 - .14 9 Reason 16 - .43 10 Reason 13 - .52 11 Reason 8 - .57 12 Reason 4 - .76 13 Reason 5 - .95 14 Reason 9 -1.24 15 Reason 6 -1.48 16 Reason 2 -1.57 17 Reason 14 -2.48 18 as this, the administrator should examine the data from the "agree" group separately from the "disagree" group. Table 6-2 displays the summary data for the two groups (the group which thought MG should be taught, and the group which thought MG should NOTbe taught). From the information in Table 6-2, i t seems that the "disagree" group are suggesting that the course, "Mechanics for Girls" should NOT be taught because of reasons 6, 2 and 14. They are: Reason 14: "Fixing a machine is not a customary role for women and girls in the Solomons." Reason 2: "A mechanic's job would take the girls out of the home." Reason 6: "Girls are not interested in mechanics." If the administrator in the Solomon Islands, after validating a l l the reasons on the MG RSQ, concludes that Mechanics For Girls should be taught, then he must be prepared to convince a fairly large segment of the community that the customary roles of females are not valid reasons for not teaching the course, or that the benefits of teaching the course to girls outweigh possible conflicts with traditional roles. Conversely, i f the administrator concludes that the course should NOT be taught, then he must be able to convince sixty percent of the community that the benefits derived from the course do not outweigh the negative effects of the- course. 6.20 Analysis Strategies I I— S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 6.21 '• Introduction ' This section will present analysis strategies which can be used to examine differences among possible subgroups in the samples. It is often assumed that the responses people make to a particular rating question are normally distributed around the mean^  and that the mean profil e of scores on a set of questions is the best indicator of the sample's response pattern. However, for an instrument such as the RSQ i t is important to know whether there are subgroups i n the population which are homogeneous with respect to their responses, but different from other subgroups. For example, perhaps males respond to the RSQ's differently than females. Or perhaps people i n high socio-economic strata respond differently than people in low socioeconomic strata. Examining group differences i s a frequent area of investiga-tion i n educational research which also has implications for the p r a c t i t i o n e r — p a r t i c u l a r l y i f he is applying the RSQ method. If the practitioner knows that females are responding differently from males to a RSQ, then he can be more parsimonious i n the techniques he might use to eliminate conflicts which result from their use of different or invalid c r i t e r i a . Analysing the score profiles of persons responding to an instru-ment has generally used two methods. If the subgroups of the sample are known in advance of the analysis, then the problem concerns discriminant analysis. If the groupings of people are not stated in advance of the analysis, then the problem concerns cluster analysis. Discriminant analysis w i l l provide information about the variables which distinguish among the a p r i o r i groups. Cluster analysis w i l l group people on the basis of similar score profiles (Nunnally, 1967, p. 373). In the analysis strategy to be i l l u s t r a t e d in this section, both discriminant analysis and cluster analysis w i l l be used. Cluster analysis w i l l be used f i r s t in order to group the persons i n the sample, so that each "cluster" contains people with similar score profiles. Discriminant analysis w i l l then be used, by assigning people to the 165 groups determined by cluster analysis. The groups of people formed by cluster analysis can be examined to determine If they are distinguish-able from other groups on the basis of sex and original group member-ship. The discriminant analysis w i l l provide information about those reasons on the RSQ's which explain the v a r i a b i l i t y among the groups. For the purposes of the analyses to be presented, the data obtained from the community sample w i l l be combined with the data from the college sample. 6.22 Cluster Analysis The object of subdividing the population i s to determine whether there are people in the sample who form mutually exclusive groups, on the basis of their responses to the RSQ's. The problem i s one of cluster snalvsH. R , The four most widely used cluster analysis methods are: (1) single-linkage; (2) complete linkage; (3) average linkage; (4) minimum variance. Good summary discussions of the different methods can be found in Blashfield (1976). More detailed treatments can be found in Anderberg (1973) and Everitt (1974). ; Blashfield (1976) compared these four methods of cluster analysis by creating a heterogeneous sample from a number of different populations. He found that the minimum variance method "... clearly obtained the most accurate solutions of any of the four methods" (Ibid, p. 385). The minimum variance model is based on the euclidian distance (D) between corresponding pairs of variables in the profiles being compared, 166 and as Nunnally (1967) pointed out: "D i s in t u i t i v e l y appealing because i t considers prof i l e level, dispersion and shape. Also, i t does lend i t s e l f to powerful methods of analysis.... The author [Nunnally] recommends ... that problems of profil e analysis be discussed In terms > of. the D measure (p. 378)*. Therefore, the minimum variance method was used as the method for forming people clusters. The minimum variance method was f i r s t proposed by Ward (1963). His desire was to design a method which formed each possible number of groups, n, n-1, n-2, 1, i n a manner that minimized the loss associated with each grouping Brie f l y , the algorithm for analysis i s to compare the vector of scores for each person with the vector of scores for every other person by summing, over a l l the variables, the squared differences between pairs of scores on corresponding variables. A cluster of persons i s then formed by combining that pair of persons which i s characterized by the smallest sum of squared differences. A "common" vector, weighted by the number of persons in the cluster, then replaces the two original individuals' vectors. The sum of squared differences between this common vector and each of the other remaining persons' vectors i s then computed. These steps are then repeated n-2 times. At the beginning of the analysis each person forms a "cluster" by himself and at the end of the analysis a l l persons are in one "cluster". At each step, indices of error are computed which reflect the relative amount of "stress" introduced by combining a particular pair of "clusters". These indices enable judgements regarding the appropriate number of clusters, or the step at which the analysis optimally should be terminated (Rodgers, Slade and Conry, 1974, p. 320; Patterson and Whitaker, 1973). 167 The computer program, UBC C-GROUP, available at the University of B.C. Computing Centre, was used to generate clusters of people from the community and college samples, who had similar score profiles. Selecting the number of clusters to be retained for further analysis was a judge-mental procedure based on the error index, and the number of persons in each cluster. Table 6-3 displays the number of persons in each cluster formed from the analysis, for each topic. TABLE 6-3 Number of Persons in Each Group Formed by Cluster Analysis For Each Curriculum Option Curriculum Option Number of Groups Formed From Cluster Analysis Number of Persons in Each Cluster Group Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Total Mechanics for Boys Mechanics for Girls Homecrafts for Boys Homecrafts for Girls Plant Agriculture Traditional Studies 21 49 26 85 43 31 57 52 72 36 62 72 37 37 38 13 34 30 24 139 138 136 134 139 133 Religious Education 4 54 15 54 11 134 163 The c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s showed chat the t o t a l sample consisted of c l u s t e r s of people which could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , one from the other, on the basis of t h e i r response pattern to the RSQ's. But, could the people in each c l u s t e r a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d by some other v a r i a b l e ( s ) ? The o r i g i n a l sample was composed of community respondents and c o l l e g e respondents. Therefore i n t h i s study one p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e on which the c l u s t e r s could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d might be the o r i g i n a l group to which they belonged. Another v a r i a b l e might be the sex of the respondent. To determine whether the composition of the c l u s t e r s d i d i n d i c a t e that people from the same o r i g i n a l group or the same sex were c l u s t e r i n g together, contingency tables were constructed. The f i r s t set of c o n t i n -gency tables was o r i g i n a l group membership by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s group membership, and the second set of tables was sex by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s group membership. The n u l l hypothesis f o r each cf the o r i g i n a l group membership by c l u s t e r group membership tables was: H : There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r each RSQ, between the o r i g i n a l o . group membership of the respondents and the c l u s t e r group membership. The n u l l hypothesis f o r each of the sex by c l u s t e r group tables was: H : There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r each RSQ, between sex and o the c l u s t e r group membership. These hypotheses can be tested by c a l c u l a t i n g X 2 for each contingency t a b l e . The r e s u l t s of these c a l c u l a t i o n s are displayed i n Table 6-4. The r e s u l t s of the Chi square analyses show that f o r each c u r r i c u -lum option formed, there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex of the respond-169 ent and the cluster group membership at the significance level of a = .05. Therefore H was not rejected. The results in Table 6-4 also show o J that there i s a significant (at a j< .05) relationship between the original group membership of the respondent (college or community) and cluster group membership for four of the curriculum options: Homecrafts for Boys, Homecrafts for G i r l s , Traditional Studies and Religious Education. Therefore H q was rejected for those topics. Given these sorts of re-sults, ,the contingency tables (for those curriculum options with s i g -nificant Chi square values) should be examined in more detail, to deter-mine the relationship between the cluster groups and the original groups. TABLE 6-4 Chi Square Values for Original Group and Sex by Cluster Group Membership For Each Curriculum Option Curriculum Option 1 • Original Group by Cluster Group Sex by Cluster Group X 2 df sig. X 2 df sig. Mechanics for Boys 2.81 3 0.42 2.75 3 0.43 Mechanics for G i r l s 1.62 2 0.44 1.44 2 0.49 Homecrafts for Boys 11.08 2 0.00* 0.32 2 0.85 Homecrafts for Girls 6.47 2 0.04* 5.36 2 0.07 Plant Agriculture 1.73 2 0.42 5.21 2 0.07 Traditional Studies 15.86 2 0.00* 3.85 2 0.15 Religious Education 35.62 3 0.00* 3.39 2 0.33 * Reject H q at a < .05 The reader i s reminded that this section was included to demonstrate analysis strategies and not to interpret the "results", or make substantive claims about the results. Given that limitation, the following brief description of one of the contingency tables (Table 6-5), for the curriculum option "Traditional Studies", w i l l be provided. TABLE 6-5 Contingency Table For "Traditional Studies" Original Group Membership by Cluster Analysis Group Membership Group From Cluster Analysis Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Row Totals Community Group 21 25 6 52 (expected value) (12.1) (28.2) (11.7) College Group i n -4. VS 47 24 81 (expected value) (18.9) (43.8) (18.3) The contingency table (Table 6-5) yields a significant (a< .05) Chi square value of 15.86 with 2 df. If the observed frequency Is compared to the expected frequency, in each c e l l of the table, then Group 3 from the cluster analysis contained a disproportionate number of college respondents, and Group 1 from the cluster analysis contained a disproportionate number of community respondents. Group 2 contained approximately the correct proportions of college and community respond-ents. But Group 1 and Group 3 combined total less than half of the total number of respondents. Therefore, what appeared to be occurring for this curriculum option (and similar results were observed in the other contingency tables which yielded significant Chi square values) was that most of the respondents, both college and community, were responding in much the same way, but. that a small group of college respondents (Group 3) and a small group of community respondents (Group 1 were responding differently from the majority (Croup 2). Comparing the RSQ score profiles for each group from the cluster analysis would show how they were responding differently. The RSQ data for "Traditional Studies" are displayed in Table 6-6. The reasons have been subdivided according to the mean rating received for each cluster group, and according to their quintile placement (see section 6.12). A l l three groups have agree-disagree ratings between "Somewhat Agree" and "Very Much Agree" (the maximum). In fact, only two persons disagreed with the statement: "We should teach Traditional Studies to a l l the students i n the HNSS". Thus, there were no major conflicts among the groups on their overall judgement to recommend the curriculum option "Traditional Studies". However, the three groups did d i f f e r with respect to the reasons they rated high positive, and the reasons they rated high negative. If we examine the f i r s t ranked reason for each group, then Group 1 (which has a disproportionate number of commun-i t y respondents) rated reason no. 1 highest; that i s : "Taking a course in Traditional Studies would encourage the students to keep some of the traditional ways." Group 2 (the largest group, and with proportional representation from the college and community respondents) rated reason no. 8 highest; that i s : "If the student has to leave Honiara, the TradltionaL Studies course would help prepare him for village l i f e " . The third group, Group 3 (with a disproportionate number of college respondents) rated reason no. 3 highest; that i s : "A Traditional Studies course would give the student some traditional rules and ways to behave". Therefore, in terms of the most important reasons why the 172 TABLE 6-6 T r a d i t i o n a l Studies Reasons Categorized by Q u i n t i l e and Cluster Group Membership Rating Group f o r Cluster Analysis Group 1 (N = 31) Group 2 (N = 72) Group 3 (N = 30) Reason Mean Rank Reason Mean Rank Reason Mean Rank Number Number Number High P o s i t i v e 1 2.39 1 8 2.13 1 3 2.23 1 16 2.00 2 1 1.90 2 1 2.07 2 19 1.77 3 19 1.61 3 8 1.67 3 8 1.58 4 16 1.47 4 16 1.50 4 7 1.39 5 3 1.43 " 5 12 1.47 5 • 7 1.29 6 6 1.30 6 14 1.25 7 Low P o s i t i v e 12 1.19 6 12 1.08 8 14 1.07 7 9 1.16 7 9 0.94 9 19 0.93 8 3 1.13 8 6 0.93 10 9 0.53 9 14 1.10 9 11 0.78 11 7 0.50 10 11 0.90 10 6 0.81 11 Neutral 10 0.29 12 11 0.00 11 15 0.28 13 15 -0.10 12 18 0.13 14 10 -0.30 13 13 -0.07 15 2 -0.15 16 4- -0.17 17 Low Negative 17 -0.52 12 17 -0.44 18 13 -0.37 14 4 -0.71 13 5 -0.50 19 5 -0.53 15 15 -0.74 14 18 -0.57 16 5 -0.84 15 2 -0.87 16 13 -0.93 17 * High Negative 10 -1.97 18 4 -1.40 17 18 -3.03 19 17 -1.70 18 2 -1.77 19 Agree-Disagree +2.41 Rating +2.13 +2.55 course should be taught, the three groups have quite different orientations. However, in terms of a l l the reasons which were given high positive reasons by the three groups, the groups are quite similar. Since a l l three groups recommended that the Traditional Studies course should be taught, then those reasons given high negative ratings point out areas of concern rather than reasons which negate having the course; In other words, the perceived beneficial effects outweigh the perceived harmful effects of the course. Group 1 gave high negative ratings to reason no. 10: "There are too many different customs and traditions for the student to learn them a l l " ; and to reason no. 18: "Most students in town w i l l not use traditional or custom ways". Group 2 gave no reasons high negative ratings, and gave the two reasons rated high negative by Group 1 neutral ratings (with modes equal to zero). Group 3 had concerns quite different from Group 1. Group 3 gave high negative ratings to reason no.' 4: "The things the students learn i n Traditional Studies may not agree with what they are told i n Religious Education"; to reason no. 17: "Learning different traditions might confuse the students i n the HNSS"; and to reason no. 2: ""The course would not teach the students anything which i s modern". Two of the three reasons given high negative ratings by Group 3 were given neutral ratings by Group 2 (with modes equal to zero); they were reasons no. 4 and reason no. 2. Therefore, by using the cluster analysis technique, and then inspecting the comparative ratings given the reasons by each cluster of persons (in conjunction with the agree-disagree rating), a more specific description of the population sample could be offered than that which would result from examining the mean rating of each reason across the total sample. Cluster analysis provides a compromise between examining the p r o f i l e of each individual, which would be the most accurate but also the most cumbersome method of describing the sample, and treating the sample as a homogeneous group. If the researcher was interested in determining those reasons which contributed the most to the differences among the groups, then he could use discriminant analysis. That type of analysis will be described in the next section. 6.23 Discriminant Analysis Performing discriminant analysis produces a multiple discrim-inant function which is the linear combination of the variables which will maximize the group differences. Therefore the discriminant function(s). gives information of the adequacy of the a. priori group classification, and, from the coefficients for the variables in the linear combination, gives information on how much each variable contri-butes to the differentiation among the groups. A general account of the method can be found in Nunnally (1967, pp. 338-400). A more detailed statistical treatment can be found in Tatsuoka (1970). Table 6-7 displays the summary statistics for discriminant analysis performed on the data sets for each RSQ with the groups determined from the cluster analysis. The discriminant analysis program in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Nie et al, 1975, pp. 434-462) was used. In Table 6-7, the column labelled "Relative Percentage" is the relative magnitude of the eigenvalues, and indicates the percentage of the total discriminating power of the battery as a whole that is apportioned to each discriminant function. If there are "k"tx priori groups then there are'k- 1 discriminant functions, and: Relative Percentage for i'th function => A j x 100 ~\l + X2 + ... + Ak-i TABLE 6-7 Summary Results of Discriminant Analysis Using Group Membership Defined by Cluster Analysis Curriculum Option Number of Eigenvalues Relative Chi-Square df Significance Discriminant Groups (X) Percentage Power (%) Mechanics for Boys (N = 1 3 9 ) 4 2 . 7 5 1 . 5 9 1.12 5 0 . 3 9 2 9 . 1 2 2 0 . 4 9 1 7 1 . 2 8 1 2 3 . 2 9 9 7 . 2 7 1 5 1 3 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 • . 0 0 0 9 5 % Mechanics for Girls (N = 1 3 8 ) 3 2.17 1.28 6 2 . 7 7 3 7 . 2 3 1 4 5 . 8 0 1 0 4 . 5 2 1 9 1 7 . 0 0 0 .'ooo 8 6 % Homecrafts for Boys . (N = 1 3 6 ) 3 2 . 1 0 , 1. 3 1 \ 6 1 . 5 9 3 8 . 4 1 1 4 1 . 8 8 1 0 4 . 9 6 1 7 1 5 . . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 8 6 % Homecrafts for Gi r l s (N = 1 3 4 ) 3 3 . 0 8 1 . 2 9 7 0 . 5 4 2 9 . 4 6 1 7 3 . 5 6 1 0 2 . 0 7 1 7 1 5 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 8 9 % Plant Agriculture (N = 1 3 9 ) 3 2.94 1.58 6 5 . 0 2 3 4 . 9 8 . 1 7 4 . 8 1 1 2 0 . 9 1 1 9 1 7 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 9 0 % Traditional Studies (N = 1 3 3 ) 3 2 . 9 5 1.44 6 7 . 2 0 3 2 . 8 0 1 6 6 . 2 6 1 0 7 . 9 7 2 0 1 8 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 8 9 % Religious Education (N = 1 3 4 ) 4 2 . 4 9 1 . 9 3 1 . 2 0 4 4 . 2 6 3 4 . 4 0 2 1 . 3 3 1 5 1 . 7 4 1 3 0 . 7 2 9 5 . 7 1 2 1 1 9 1 7 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 9 5 % The column labelled "Chi square" in Table 6-7 is the quantity of the statistic "V ", where V. is defined by: j J V. = £n ( 1 + A ) (N - 1 - k + p) 3 J — 2 ~ where N = total sample size; K - number of a_ priori groups p = number of variables. is approximately a Chi square with p + k - 2J degrees of freedom. That i s : V1 - x 2 with df = p + k - 2 V 2 = x 2 with df = p + k - 4 etc. (Tatsuoka, 1 9 7 0 , p. 4 4 ) . The significance of x2 indicates whether the discriminant function represents a dimension along which significant differences among the groups exist. The column labelled "Discriminant Power", in Table 6- 7 , is an estimate of the total variability of a l l the discriminant functions which is attributable to group differences. Its value can range from 0 . 0 0 to 1 . 0 0 and was calculated from: Total Discriminant Power = 1 - m N  ( N - k ) ( l + A 1 ) ( l + X 2 ) . . . ( l + A n _ 1 ) + 1 As can be seen from Table 6 - 7 , a l l the discriminant functions generated, for each RSQ, significantly differentiated among the groups generated from the cluster analysis. The group differences for each RSQ explained a high proportion ( 8 6 % to 95%) of the total variability in the discriminant space. Another indicator of the adequacy of the discriminant functions used to distinguish among the different groups is to use the functions 177 to determine the p o s t e r i o r p r o b a b i l i t y that each person "belonged" to a c e r t a i n group, and to assign him to that group to which he had the highest p r o b a b i l i t y of belonging. Performing t h i s p o s t e r i o r assignment provided a check on the i n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n generated from the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are displayed i n Table 6-8. Those r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the discriminant functions c o r r e c t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the groups generated by the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s f o r each RSQ. Therefore, the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were, i n some way, meaningful. TABLE 6-8 P o s t e r i o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Persons Into C l u s t e r Groups, Using Discriminant A n a l y s i s Curriculum Option Mechanics f o r Boys Mechanics f o r G i r l s Homecrafts f o r Boys Homecrafts f o r G i r l s Plant A g r i c u l t u r e T r a d i t i o n a l Studies Re l i g i o u s Education * a group Percent of Sample C o r r e c t l y C l a s s i f i e d by the Discriminant Functions i n the Group Generated By C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 100% 96.5% 97.3% 100% T o t a l Percent Correct Assignment 97.8% 85.7% 90.4% 94.6% 100% 93.1% 92.1% 94.1% 88.9% 100% 95.3% 93.5% 97.1% 93.5% 91.7% 90.0% * 89.9% 94.1% 93.3% 95.0% 91.7% 96.3% 100% 92.6% 100% 95.5% no t formed i n the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s 178 The discriminant functions can be thought of as the axes of a geometric space and can be used to study the spatial relationships among the groups. Each a p r i o r i group can be represented, in the reduced space defined by the discriminant functions, by a group centroid. The centroids are the mean discriminant scores for each group on the respective functions. Figure 6-6 shows the centroids for the three cluster groups formed from the Traditional Studies RSQ data. As can FIGURE 6-6 Centroids for Traditional Studies Cluster Analysis Groups -1.0 -.5 Group 2 Function 2 1.5 1.0 A .5 --. 5 -o Group 3 1.0 Group 1. Function 1 1.5 -1.0 1 179 be seen from Figure 6-6 the f i r s t discriminant function seems to distinguish Group 2 from Groups 1 and 3. The second discriminant function distinguishes Group 3 from Groups 1 and 2. To determine those reasons which were most strongly contributing to the separation of the groups required examining the discriminant function coefficients. Those coefficients are displayed in Table 6-9. TABLE 6-9 Standardized Discriminant Function Coefficients For The "Traditional Studies" RSQ Data Reason Number Function 1 Function 2 1 0.023 0.094 2 - .111 - .348** 3 - .009 0.159 4 - .120 - .290** 5 - .003 U. 145 6 0.013 0.016 7 - .087 - .285** 8 - .125 - .185 9 - .062 - .208 10 - .355* 0.157 11 - .065 - .186 12 - .084 0.*215 13 - .169 0.014 14 0.000 0.006 15 - .101 - .070 16 0.013 - .009 17 - .003 - .454** 18 - .689* 0.187 19 - .087 - .179 * coefficients which discriminate in function 1 ** coefficients which discriminate in function 2 Tatsuoka (1970, p. 3, 4) suggests that those coefficient weights whose absolute values are no less than about one-half of the largest 180 weight be used for a concise description of the group differences on each function. The coefficients which f u l f i l l that suggested requirement have been asterisked in Table 6-9. Figure 6-10 displays a pictograph of the mean ratings for those reasons which have the 4 largest discriminant function coefficients for each group. FIGURE 6-7. Means of Reasous Which Had Discriminant Function Coefficients With the Highest Absolute Values, For Traditional Studies (l ' s = Group 1, 2's = Group 2, 3's = Group 3) Mean Rating -2 -1 0 1 2 Reason Number 1 * " 1 1 1— Reason 2 111111111 22 333333333333333333 Reason 4 1111111 22 33333333333333 Reason 7 11111111111111 2222222222222 33333 Reason 1° 11111111111111111111 222 333 Reason 17 11111 2222 33333333333333333 Reason 18 111111111111111111111111111111 9 333333 181 The results displayed in Table 6-9 and Figure 6-7 suggest that for the option "Traditional Studies", the three groups of respondents identified by cluster analysis are being distinguished from each other mainly on the basis of those reasons to which they gave negative ratings. 6.30 Summary This chapter presented and discussed analysis strategies for use in interpreting the results obtained from the administration of the RSQ's. The fi r s t analysis strategy was a conceptual analysis of the information which could be used by an educational practitioner whose main concerns are whether or not the curriculum option should be implemented into the schooling system, and the form and content that the option should take. The second analysis strategy was a more statistical treatment of the results which might be used by the practitioner who has access to sophisticated computing devices, or by the researcher who might be interested in identifying subgroups of the population who have different RSQ score profiles. Both analyses of the data have been presented as examples of analytical approaches which might be taken. There is no intention to imply that they are the only approaches. The conceptual approach should be used in every case where the RSQ is used. For a complete picture of the rationality of the judge-ment to include or not include the curriculum option in the schooling system, the administrator should not only know what reasons the samp1.'? used to make the judgement, but also whether those reasons are sound. By using the RSQ in a community survey, the administrator would know what reasons the community is using to recommend inclusion or omission of the course. Through a careful analysis of the community RSQ data he is in a position to correct misconceptions which the com-munity might have, eliminate their concerns by adjusting the course • 182 content (assuming they are valid concerns) and more carefully t a i l o r the course to meet sound c r i t e r i a . If there i s a considerable number of people who disagree with Including the curriculum option, as well as a considerable number who agree, then the data set should be subdivided into an "agree" group and a "disagree" group before inspection of the ratings for the reasons i s undertaken. It may occur that both groups give each reason the same mean ratings, and hence the reasons w i l l have the same rank order for both groups. For example the rank order correlation coefficient between the "agree" group reasons and the "disagree" group reasons for "Mechanics for G i r l s " (see Table 6-2) was 0.96. However, in this case the "disagree" group gave greater weight to the negative reasons than to the positive reasons when they made their overall judgement, whereas the reverse was true for the "agree" group. Where warranted, subdivision of the sample on the basis of the agree-disagree rating provides a more accurate description of the sample than simply averaging the ratings. The s t a t i s t i c a l analysis strategies would be a useful adjunct to the conceptual analysis, and should be attempted whenever the necessary computing f a c i l i t i e s are available. If the sample can be subdivided according to RSQ score profi l e s , then, by examining the RSQ profiles of the different subgroups, and by determining whether the subgroups are composed of identifiable segments of the population sample, the administrator may be in a position to more clearly describe the popula- • tiori response. As well, he may be able to direct his attention to specific subgroups in order to eliminate misconceptions they might have. For the researcher, the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis presented in this chapter may be only one approach which could be taken in order to discuss group differences. The general approach could be used in > 183 exploratory f i e l d studies (can the population being studied be subdiv-ided on the basis of their RSQ score profiles) or in more specific hypothesis testing f i e l d studies (do females 15 years of age and older have different score profiles than males 15 years of age and older). More w i l l be said about potential uses of the RSQ in the next, and f i n a l , chapter of this dissertation. 1 8 4 Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 7.00 Restatement of the Problem and An Overview of the Study The value-base of "need" has been ignored in existing, related procedures, which purport to determine "needs", called "needs assessments". Those procedures are empirical techniques, and, though they may identify goals which certain groups of people want it does not logically follow that those goals are "needs". To determine if what is wanted is really needed, it is necessary to examine and weigh the reasons for and against that which is wanted, and then make a value judgement about whether or not it is needed. Therefore, the main problem of this thesis was to develop a method to identify the reasons people would give to support their contention that a particular goal is worthwhile or not worthwhile. In the context of this study the pertinent goals were par-ticular curriculum options relevent to the students in the Honiara New Secondary School (HNSS). The curriculum options and the HNSS were discussed in the early sections of Chapter Three. To determine those options which were relevant to the HNSS, the investigator gathered specific units of study and had them classified and labelled by indigenous people into curriculum options. That is described in section 3.23 of Chapter 3. Six of the curriculum options were then selected for further study. The method of selecting those options, and the reasons for the selection, are described in sections 3.30, 3.40 and 3.50 of Chapter 3. Determining the curriculum options and selecting some of them for further study was called Phase I of the Study. 185 Reasons f o r and against teaching each of the options were gathered from interviews with people who had some expert knowledge of the curriculum o p t i o n , and from asking a l l the Solomon Islands Teachers' College (SITC) students to give reasons f o r and against each curriculum option. The reasons which were c o l l e c t e d were arranged, f o r each option, in a format c a l l e d the Reasons S e l e c t i o n Questionnaire (RSQ). The RSQ's were then administered to a community sample and to the SITC students. Developing and administering the RSQ's was described i n Chapter 4, and was c a l l e d "Phase I I of the study. Chapter 5 evaluated the method and Chapter 6 presented a n a l y s i s s t r a t e g i e s f o r the data gathered from the RSQ's. 7.10 A Summary of the Findings The development of a method that would e l i c i t the reasons people use i n making curriculum recommendations has been achieved i n the i n -v e s t i g a t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . For the i n v e s t i g a t i o n the main problem was d i v i d e d i n t o three more s p e c i f i c problems. They were: 1) Can a reasonably complete l i s t of curriculum options f o r a p a r t i c u l a r schooling s i t u a t i o n be gathered? 2) Can a reasonably complete set of reasons f o r and against each curriculum option be gathered? 3) Can a simple, v a l i d and r e l i a b l e instrument be developed which would i d e n t i f y the reasons used by people to recommend or not recommend a p a r t i c u l a r curriculum option? As a general f i n d i n g , the answer to each of the above questions is "Yes". Each of the s p e c i f i c problems w i l l be examined below: 186 Problem 1: Can a reasonably complete l i s t of curriculum options for a  particular schooling situation be gathered? (See Chapter 3.) The approach used by the investigator to determine the curriculum options was unique in that, once the aims of the HNSS had been identi-fied, specific units of study were gathered and then c l a s s i f i e d into broader curriculum options. Deriving the curriculum options from the units of study had two major strengths: f i r s t l y , i t minimized the pos s i b i l i t y of omitting a particular curriculum option, and secondly i t pre-identified specific sorts of things which could be taught within a particular curriculum option. The f i r s t strength is particularly important i f the person devel-oping the overall curriculum i s a non-indigenous expert. The potential for systematic bias i s considerable i f someone from one culture i s attempting to derive curriculum options for people in another culture. Therefore, gathering specific units of study (within the aims of the schooling) suggested by the writings and comments of indigenous people, and then asking them to group the units of study into more general categories, minimized the pos s i b i l i t y of curriculum distortion which might have resulted from cultural bias. In addition, i t was a much less serious problem i f some of the units of study were omitted, than i f a curriculum option was omitted. Generally, there were a number of units of study under each curriculum option. Overlooking a few of the units of study s t i l l l e f t a sufficient number of units which could be categorized together to define a curriculum option. The second strength would alert the curriculum developer to particular topics which would be relevant to local conditions. There-fore, i t would help to avoid the imposition of an "alien" set of units within a particular curriculum option. Therefore, a complete set of reasonable curriculum options for the Honiara New Secondary School was determined by gathering units of study from indigenous sources, and by having indigenous people categoriz those units into curriculum options. Problem 2: Can a reasonably complete set of reasons for and against  each curriculum option be gathered? (See Section 4.10.) Section 5.12 showed that the reasons gathered formed a very thorough set. In this study two sources were used to gather reasons: (1) Interviews with persons who had expert knowledge about one ot the curriculum options chosen for Phase II of the study; and (2) the SITC students. The experts on the various options were interviewed so as to obtain true reasons, and reasons which they, as experts, believed to be true. The college students were asked for reasons that were assump-tions which they believed to be true without proof. It was argued.that the college students would have assumptions similar to those of the community because of the unique nature of the Honiara community (see Section 4.14). The reasonableness of that argument was substantiated in Section 5.12. Problem 3: Can a simple, valid and reliable instrument be developed  which would identify the reasons used by people to recommend or not  recommend a particular curriculum option? The Reasons Selection Questionnaires (RSQ's) were tested by having them completed by a sample of the Honiara population' defined as those people who were over the age of 15 years, and working for wages in Honiara (see Section 4.31), and by a l l the SITC students. The RSQ fo r each curriculum option was found to have high content v a l i d i t y 188 (see Section 5.10) and high construct v a l i d i t y (see Section 5.20). That i s , the reasons presented for selection on the RSQ f u l f i l l e d certain requirements which were appropriate for the RSQ; and the instructions for, and format of, the RSQ f u l f i l l e d certain logical requirements for using reasons to come to value judgements. The requirement that the method be simple was pa r t i a l l y met in the samples used to test the RSQ. For the Honiara sample, i t appeared that respondents with education to the level of about Standard 6 (Grade 6) or higher were able to complete the task. Those respondents with less than Standard 6 education were unable to complete the task (see Section 5.50). A "test-retest" r e l i a b i l i t y study provided results which indicated that there was high s t a b i l i t y in the rank order of reasons both for and against each curriculum option; and high s t a b i l i t y for the overall rec-ommendatory value judgement (see Section 5.40). 7.20 Conclusion A contradiction in present empirical attempts to determine "needs" is the propensity to use s c i e n t i f i c methods but to leave the value decisions, inherent in any determination of needs, s c i e n t i f i c a l l y out of control. Finding that students are deficient in meeting goals which have been rated as important does not, in i t s e l f , mean that the students need to meet that goal. Only after the careful consideration of sound reasons;for and against a goal can a defensible judgement be made about whether that goal ought to be met. It i s admirable, that educators are now attempting to involve the community in the setting of educational goals; however, blindly accept-ing community dictates as the principle on which the educational system • 1 w i l l be designed could destroy educators' c r e d i b i l i t y that they are persons who know what i s to be taught, when and to whom. In addition, education is much too serious an enterprise to be based on unjustified ranking and rating of goals. To maximize the quality of goal selection, i t i s in the interests of both the public and the educators to have available a l l the information they w i l l need to come to rational judge-ments. By the j u d i c i a l selection of relevant reasons a group lays bare i t s reasoning for recommending that the goal be met, or not be met. The Reasons Selection Questionnaire developed in this dissertation provides respondents with the opportunity to perform that j u d i c i a l selection of reasons. It has been argued in this dissertation that the statement: "X needs Y" i s not merely a matter of opinion with no objective way to settle disagreement with the statement. Yet i n present methods of needs assessment, where unsubstantiated statements such as "X needs Y" are a l l that are asked for, we can only speculate on why disagreements with the opinion occur. By using the methodology embodied in the Reasons Selection Questionnaire, we have a better idea why disagreement i s taking place and, through validation of the reasons, we can distinguish between supportable and unsupportable arguments for or against the state-ment "X needsY". The Reasons Selection Questionnaire was developed using defensible research techniques which were properly adapted to suit the l i v i n g laboratory of the Solomon Islands. Using the RSQ would more clearly delineate issues in education which might otherwise not be apparent, and would eliminate the need for the statement (quoted in Chapter 1 of this dissertation) that disagreement i s a ". . . curious aspect surrounding these data . . ." (Thompson and Swidchens, 1977). 190 7.30 Epilogue The previous s e c t i o n , "Conclusions", marks the end of the d i s -s e r t a t i o n . This epilogue i s o f f e r e d as a source of ideas f o r applying and/or extending the RSQ technique. 7.31 P o t e n t i a l A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the RSQ In the broadest sense, the RSQ could be used i n any s i t u a t i o n where an o f f i c i a l of some sor t wished both to know whether or not people would support some change, a d d i t i o n or d e l e t i o n to a current state of a f f a i r s , and the reasons f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of p r e s c r i p t i v e statements i n d i c a t e s some of the c u r r e n t l y t o p i c a l issues i n which the RSQ could be used: Some issues i n Education: We should teach SEX EDUCATION courses. We should have FRENCH IMMERSION courses. We should have a CORE CURRICULUM. We should teach VALUES EDUCATION. We should use COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION. We should use TEAM TEACHING. We should have PREFECTS. The students should wear SCHOOL UNIFORMS. We should b r i n g back STRAPPING. We should INTEGRATE HANDICAPPED STUDENTS in t o the school. We should have a SMOKING AREA for students i n the school. We.should finance INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS. Some issues not i n Education: We should allow NIGHT FLIGHTS over the c i t y . We should allow a NEIGHBOURHOOD PUB i n our area. I 191 We should have COMPULSORY TREATMENT for heroin users. We should let QUEBEC SECEDE from Canada. We should have a CURFEW in our community. We should ban the use of CHILDREN IN COMMERCIALS. To use the RSQ, the value object (the words in capitals in the above prescriptions) must be clearly defined so that the respondents know what is to be' judged. As well, the geographical or social area where the prescription would possibly be applied must be described. For example, is the educational prescription pertinent to this school, the school district, a l l students, some grades, etc. True, reasons and reasons that are assumptions, must be gathered from the population to be sampled, and from persons who have expert knowledge about the value object. It is extremely important that the reasons and beliefs are gathered by a person (or persons) who has nothing to lose or gain from whatever decision is finally made. The reasons would then be arranged in the format of the RSQ and circulated to an adequate sample of the relevant population. Chapter 6 presented various methods which could be used to analyse the results obtained from the sample; therefore, that informa-tion will not be repeated here. But, i f the off i c i a l who was going to use the results from the RSQ was committed to abiding by the decision of the population (i.e. i f he would only implement the change, addition, etc., i f most people agreed with the prescription), and i f he analysed the obtained data at the simplest level (i.e. simply rank ordered the reasons "for" and the reasons "against" on the basis of mean scores), then, depending oa the homogeneity of response in the sample, he would know the desirable characteristics and undesirable characteristics of 192 the value object as perceived by the sample. Therefore, i f the o f f i c i a l was going to implement the program, course, change or whatever, he would be i n a position to maximize the perceived positive characteristics, and minimize the perceived negative characteristics. . However, as recommended in Section 6.10, the o f f i c i a l who is the., fi n a l arbiter of whether or not to implement or not implement that which was recommended in the prescription should attempt to validate each reason (with the help of a knowledgeable committee) and come to an i n -dependent decision about the worth of the value object. The validation, along with the results from the RSQ, w i l l help him decide whether the population sample had. come to a rational f i n a l decision based on sound reasons. If they hadn't, then the o f f i c i a l would have the information necessary to re-educate the sample: that i s , he would be better able to design strategies to clear—up misunderstandingc, mollify people's concerns, prepare a defense for the o f f i c i a l position and generally improve the overall social climate for either recommending or not rec-ommending the value object. The RSQ format might also be used in the classroom. For example, suppose a teacher had taught a unit on the circumstances which led to a particular h i s t o r i c a l decision to do "X". The teacher could produce an RSQ by l i s t i n g reasons why decision "X" should have been made, and reasons why decision "X" should not have been made. He could then incorporate those reasons into the format of an RSQ, ask his students to perform the required reason rating task, and ask them to come to an overall judgement as to whether the h i s t o r i c a l decision "X" should have been made. The results from the RSQ could be used either for forming the basis of discussion of decision "X", or perhaps as a method of measuring the students' grasp of the important reasons which necessita-ted decision "X", or which indicated that "X" was the wrong decision to make. 7.31 Suggestions for Further Research The following suggestions provide potential areas for further research on the RSQ technique: 1) Explore the pos s i b i l i t y of using a rating scale for each reason in place of the pa r t i a l l y ipsative format. 2) Explore the card sorting procedure b r i e f l y described in Section 4.22 as a useful alternative to either the independent rating or p a r t i a l l y ipsative procedures. 3) Attempt to adjust the format of the RSQ be so that i t could be presented orally for use in areas of low literacy. 4) Study the use of the RSQ to develop and explore value issues with students in school. 5) Study whether different value orientations taken by subgroups of the population could be related to other characteristics of those subgroups? 6) Apply the RSQ to measure the effectiveness of an intervention designed to change the reasoning of people on some important issue. . It would also be of value to follow the development and use of an .RSQ from i n i t i a l formulation to the f i n a l decision to implement or not implement the means to attain a particular goal. I 194 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ainsworth, C. S. "Curricular Aims and The Analysis of Needs -Statements." British Journal of Educational Studies, vol. XXIV, no. 3, Oct. 1976, pp. 219-232. Anderberg, M. R. Cluster A n a l y s i s for Applications. New York, Academic Press, 1973-(cited in Blashfield, 1976). Archambault, R. D. "The Concept of Need and i t s Relation to Certain Aspects of Educational Theory." Harvard Educational  Reviews. XXVII, no. 1, Winter 1957, pp. 38-62. Baker, E. "Parents, Teachers, and Students as Data Sources for the Selection of Instructional Goals." American Educational Research  Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, Summer 1972, pp. 403-411. Benn, S. I. and Peters, R. S. Social Principles and the Democratic State. Ruskin House, Allen & Unwin Ltd., London, 1959. Blashfield, R. K. 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"Di s t r i c t Needs Assessment: One Avenue to Program Improvement." Phi Delta Kappan, Dec. 1976, p. 327-330. Patterson, J. M. , Whitaker, R. A. Hierarchical Grouping Analysis with Optional Contiguity Constraint. Vancouver: University of B.C. Computing Center, 1973. .Pennsbury School D i s t r i c t . Community Education Need/Resource Assessment: A Summary Report. Fallsington, Pa., 1976, ED128 436. Perkinson, H. J. "The Methodological Determination of the Aims of Education." Educational Theory, 2_, Jan. 1961, pp. 61-64. Peters, R. S. Authority, Responsibility and Education. Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1959. 198 Stake, R. E., Gooler, D. "Measuring Educational P r i o r i t i e s . " Educational Technology, Sept. 1971, pp. 44-48. Stake, R. E. P r i o r i t i e s Planning: Judging The Importance of In d i v i d u a l Objectives. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a , 1972. Stufflebeam, D. L. Needs Assessment i n Evaluation. E x h i b i t s to support a working paper. Presented at AERA Evaluation Conference, San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a , Sept. 1977. Tatsuoka, M. M. Discriminant A n a l y s i s . I n s t i t u t e f o r P e r s o n a l i t y and A b i l i t y Testing, Champaign, I l l i n o i s , U.S.A., 1970. Taylor, P. W. "'Need' Statements." Ana l y s i s , v o l . 19, no. 5, 1959, pp. 106-111. Taylor, P. W. Normative Discourse. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1961. Thompson, E. W., Smidchens, U. "Process and Problems of P r i o r -i z i n g Educational Goals i n a Complex Society." A paper presented at the Annual Meeting of AERA, New York, 1977. Tuckman, B. W., Montare, P. S. "The Many Uses of PDK's Goal Attainment Tests." Phi Delta Kappan, A p r i l 1977, pp. 610-613. The Vancouver Sun. 'Parents A n g r i l y Reject French Immersion Idea. 13 January 1978, p. A8, c o l 1,2. The Vancouver Sun. A S i t t i n g Goose. Saturday 14 January 1978, p. A4, c o l . 1,2. Vi c i n a , F. L., De Gracie, J . S. Comprehensive Needs Assessment: G i l a River Career Center. Sacaton, Arizona, 1976, ED128-649. Ward, J . H. " H i e r a r c h i a l Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function." American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Journal, March 1963, v o l . 58, pp. 236-244. Winer, B. J . S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n Experimental Design. McGraw-Hill, N.Y., N.Y., 1962. 199 THE APPENDICES i 200 APPENDIX A-A MAP OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS Ontong Java or Lord howa Atoll BRITISH S O L O M O N I S L A N D S Scale of Miles 6 i Cholseul ^ „ . , or Lauru Sbortluid Is ^ Vei l . U v e I l « ~ w { * C > ^ Vella / V i l k ^ 8° 'Oaaon^ga', ew Georgia Santa Isabel or Bugotu 10° h 12° iL Ndal Vangunu (>G»tukal £> Savo *V-Sri Rusaell la.*?' Guadalcanal Mulalta .„ 81kalasa San Crisloha. or Msklri g Santa Ana Be)lona<» RennellC^Dc^j 160° 162° Cert la. 10° Koef l a . .".^  Tlnaiula Volcano £> Scata Cruz Is Vaalhoro Q » Tikopitt, Aruita, faloio 164° _ l 100 ailcs c j ey . t 12° 202 APPENDIX B A COLLECTION OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN THE SOLOMON ISLAND'S NEWS DRUM FOR PUBLICIZING THE NEW SECONDARY SCHOOLS ^•fro»vv b e s t AV* . i"U.bie copy} BACISG3CUND TO I'Z'f C2CCr?D.-.RY SCHOOLS: E a r l y i n 1973 the Educational P o l i c y Keview Committee was formed. This v/as a group of people with s p e c i a l kno->/ledgo and i n t e r n s t i i v education. A l l the nenbsrs except the secre-tary were Goianon Inlanders. The commit tee toured the Solomons, l i s t e n i n g to people's views on changes needed i n our educational system. T h e i r conclusions wore written up i n a report with the t i t l e "Education f o r '.'hat?". This report had a groat deal of i n f l u e n c e on the ''./hive Paper* produced i n 1974, which, with so ne a l t e r a t i o n s , was approved by the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Many changes were reconaended and these are j u s t beginning to take p l a c e . One of the most important changes i s the c r e a t i o n of a new k i n d of Secondary School. The . f i r s t four of these, at Tangararc, A l i g e g e o , Vonunu and Pax/a, are to open i n 1976. KOVS TOWARDS VILLAGE DAY SCHOOLS; Up to now • we have had both Junior Primary and Senior Primary schools. S e n i o r primaries were mostly boarding schools. Cne of the recommendations of the 3F?C report v;as that c h i l d r e n should not be taken awav_from t h e i r hones at sucn an-earlv-ace. Oo, f r o a 1970, there i s to be a move towards more v i l l a g e prim?ry day schools. E v e n t u a l l y , perhaps by 1983, a l l c h i l d r e n cf pri n a r y school age w i l l be i n school f o l l o w i n g a s i x year primary course. Many c f the se n i o r -primary schools which c l o s e w i l l , we hope, have new bui l c i . ngs added to then and eventually become New Secondary schools. SSCOKDinY S C H O O L S ; The name •Hew Secondary 1 i t s e l f has caused some confusion. These are planned to become l o c a l .schools.. mainly.for c h i l d r e n f r m .the surroundina area. For that reason they v.'ere to be c a l l e d 'Area High - c a o o i s ' . Then, to make i t c l e a r that they were Secondary, they were re-named 'Hew Secondary Schools', The word Secondary o i n o l y means 'coming second' - aft e r primary. The M i n i s t r y of Education i s also' responsible for f i v e o l d e r - e s t a b l i s h e d secondary schools - KGVI , Selwyn, Tenr.ru, Goldio and Su'u. Because each of these takes i n p u p i l s from a l l over the nat i o n , i t was decided to re-name them 1 n a t i o n a l Secondary Schools'. There are also other secondaries (eg. Bctikana) which chose to remain independent. EXF.M•DIT'G S S C O H P A S Y .EDUCATION; As the primary system grows there i s a need for more c h i l d r e n to be able to have some further education. But i n most c o u n t r i e s i t has been found that only about 2(X$ of c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g y.rimary school can b e n e f i t from going on to a purely academic secondary course. The EPHC Committee found that parents d i d not want a b i g expansion of this hind of secondrry education. In any case, common sense suggests that before opening more schools wc should t h i n k c a r e f u l l y what they are f o r . We can St a r t by lo o k i n g at the e x i s t i n g schools. 2.. 204 NATICNU, SECONDARY SCHOOLS: N a t i o n a l G c c o n d r . r i e s grew up f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . Some of t h e n r u n e x c e l l e n t p r a c t i c a l conr S CS btit i n gencr ?.l t h e y have b o c o r e a c a d e n i c and s e l e c t i v e . T h e i r / a o c t a b l e p u p i l s have hed t o go on t o C o l l e g e r : and U r . i y o r s i t i c e o v e r s c a n , Most o f t h e i r o u t p u t has been p e o p l e who l o o k i'6r j o b s i n government and b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s , brinks, s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s and i n t e c h n i c a l v/ork i n i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t S o l o n o n I s l a n d e r s s h o u l d r o p l a c o j e x p a t r i a t e s i n t h e s e p o s t s but t h e nunber o f j o b s i s l i n i t e ' d and v / i l l n o t grow v e r y f a s t . P l a n n e r s have c a l c u l a t e d t h a t the e x i s t i n g N a t i o n a l S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s can p r o d u c e enough p e o p l e to f i l l t h i s denand. B u i l d i n g a n o t h e r one a t t h i s t i n e ; would not make s e n s e . And i f we a r e ' t o s e r v e t h e needs o f the n a j o r i t y v;c c a n n o t a f f o r d t h e aoney, e i t h e r . C u r r i c u l u n i n N a t i o n a l S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s i s b e i n g r e v i s e d - but i t s c o n s o b v i o u s t h a t i t v/ould not be s e n s i b l e t o s t a r t o f f a whole s c r i e s o f new s c h o o l s as c o p i e s of the o l d o n e s . OTH53 COUNTRIES' EXPERIENCE: We need not copy o t h e r countr5.es but we c a n l e a r n f r o m t h e i r m i s t a k e s . Too nany ' d e v e l o p i n g 1 c o u n t r i e s have p r o d u c e d . t h o u s a n d s o f ' e d u c a t e d ' young p e o p l e vrho have not g a i n e d s k i l l s u s e f u l i n r u r a l a r e a s and have l o s t i n t e r e s t i n v i l l a g e l i f e . They have d r i f t e d t o town but f o u n d no j o b s t h e r e . V i l l a g e s w i t h o u t t h e i r i.'.oct a b l e young p e o p l e hevo become d u l l p l a c e s -and t h a t i n t u r n has l e d o t h e r s to l e a v e . Meanwhile tovms have d e v e l o p e d overcrowded s.lur.s, unemployed p e o p l e and c r i r . c . O f f e n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s c a n n o t now f e e d t h e i r own p o p u l a t i o n s . The wrong typo of e d u c a t i o n i s n o t t h e o n l y cause o f t h i s b u t t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t i t h a s c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y towards i t . P l a n n i n g o f e d u c a t i o n and r u r a l development have to go t o g e t h e r . The new p o l i c y i s an a t t e m p t t o do t h i s . NEW 0 CM COLS AND RUIU'vL DEV2L0PI!^NT: The C o l o n o n o have t h e a d v a n t a g e o f p l e n t y o f l a n d , a r e a s o n a b l e c l i n a t c and the r e s o u r c e s o f t h e . s e a . T h i s means t h a t w i t h our reainly r u r a l way o f l i f e we can e a s i l y f e e d o u r s e l v e s . I f wc can a l s o nako our a g r i c u l t u r e a l i t t l e n o r e e f f i c i e n t wc can hope to pay f o r the d o v o l o p n e n t s vie want. Most p e o p l e a l s o f e e l th-.t- our v i l l a g e s are good p l a c e s t o l i v e - i n . E v e r y t h i n g l e a d s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t most of our p e o p l e s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o l i v e i n r u r a l a r e a s . The d i f f i c u l t y v / i l l p e r h a p s r>o t h a t young p e o p l e w i l l e x p e c t n o r e of v i l l a g e l i f e t h a n i t o f f e r s at p r e s e n t . They w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by what t h e y r e a d and by r a d i o and f i l n s . V i l l a g e s nay have to change a l i t t l e to net: a l i f e nore r e w a r d i n g f o r t h e n . They v / i l l n e ed c h a n c e s to use what they l e a r n i n s c h o o l . Tho p a r e n t s ' n a j n denand t o t h o EPP.C C o m i t t e o was f o r a s c h o o l system s u i t " " 1 to t h o l i f e o f +hr> r p j o r i t y o f So)oTnc^..r rooul'".. I t shor.ld not al-».onv + c young p-Lojrilc: f r o n t n e i r pa.rv.-nts d v i l l a g e s . n n v j u y p r i i v . r y ;--.:nooJs t o t h e v i l l a g e s and l o c a t i n g n o s t Now S e c o n d a r y G c l n o l s i n r u r a l a r e a s w i l l h e l p . The o t h e r b i g i n f l u e n c e w i l l be what we t e a c h (tlic. cjiir.r_ic.ulun) 3 " onr r . ^ i i o o l s . 3 . . 2 0 5 NEW SECONDARY CURRICULUM: What s h o u l d be l e a r n t i n Nov/ S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s ? E a r l y i n 1975 tho M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n s o t up a c u r r i c u l u m committee to t h i n k about t h i s . The s c h o o l s a r e to p r o v i d e a two y e a r s " c o u r s e . The committee r e a l i s e d t h a t a few p u p i l s might c o n t i n u e to o t h e r forms of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . 'Jocc w o u l d go to tov/n. But t h e m a j o r i t y w o u l d go home t o t h e i r v i l l a g e s . I t was thought t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d m a i n l y as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f s . . i n . x u r a l areas:. T h i n K i n g s h o u l d o u g m i ron t h e r e ana not f r o m any i d e a s |of e l i m i n a t i o n s or what o t h e r s c h o o l s have done. I f t h e r e v i s i o n o f c u r r i -culum i n N a t i o n a l S e c o n d a r i e s moves towards wha,t i s done i n Nov/ S e c o n d a r i e s and makes p o s s i b l e a common b a s e - so . much the b e t t e r . I A . s c r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s may h e l p . What changes must come i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h i n g , b u s i n e s s , t r a n s p o r t , and i n d u s t r y i f the Solomons a r e to be e c o n o m i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t ? Can we l e a d p u p i l s t o s e e t h o need t o bo a l i t t l e more s c i e n t i f i c and b u s i n e s s - l i k e ? What new s k i l l s and c r a f t s would be welcome ' i n v i l l a g e s ? '.Vhat o l d c r a f t s n e e d to be p r e s e r v e d or r e v i v e d ? V/hat new s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and games might be welcomed? Can we i n t r o d u c e some of t h e s e t h i n g s t h r o u g h t h e s c h o o l s ? What s h o u l d v i l l a g e p e o p l e know a b o u t t h e i r own area- and t h e i r c o u n t r y s o t h a t t h e y a r e i n t e l l i g e n t v o t e r s who p u t t h e r i g h t p e o p l e i n t o l o c a l and n a t i o n a l government? What do v/e want to p r e s e r v e i n v i l l a g e l i f e and customs? Tho answers t o many o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i n e a c h a r e a o f the Solomons. T h e committee t h e r e f o r e f e l t t h a t i t shoul~d g i v e b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s but l e a v e Headmasters and S c h o o l Boards f r e e t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own v e r s i o n of t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o s u i t l o c a l needs and i n t e r e s t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n an a r e a where f i s h i n g i s i m p o r t a n t t h i s s h o u l d form a l a r g e p a r t of t h e c u r r i c u l u m . Seme Nov; S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s w i l l be i n o r near towns and t h e y w i l l need a v e r y d i f f e r e n t programme t o the o t h e r s . T h e r e was a general--jLce.li.nn t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d . b e e n p h a s i s on p r a c t i c a l woxl<;, but i t w o u l d t e f o o l i s h t o e;cpect to t u r n c h i l d r e n c l w i s age group i n t o f u l l y t r a i n e d f a r m e r s , t e c h n i -c i a n s o r tradesmen. Thov w i l l n e e d . a y a r i e t v o f woxk and •cecr.e.a-t i o n . Tho most importcint t h i n g is th-at they s n o u i d p a i n e x p e r i e n c e and c o n f i d e n c e i n s oi«5nn pro'->-->•••« whi«~h KU i c a r r y o v e r to l i f e a f t e r s c h o o l . Tho committee t h o u g h t t h a t the b a s i c s u b j e c t s o f Maths and E n g l i s h s h o u l d be u s e d i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g f o r m a l l y t a u g h t with out any c l e a r p u r p o s e . I t i s easy t o f i n d ways, o f u s i n g Maths i n p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t s - not q u i t e so e a s y w i t h E n g l i s h . Most o t h e r a c a d e m i c and p r a c t i c a l work i s b e i n g grouped under f o u r main c e n t r e s of i n t e r e s t : AGRICULTURE; -I n most Nov/. > m n r t ; r v S c h o o l s ag.ri.au J.iujrc w i l l bo the. most i m p o r t a n t s u ' o i c c t . I t i s hoped t h a t i t w i l l have a s c i e n t i f i c and e x p e r i m e n t a l ;:n-v>roach b u i l t i n . . T h e r e s h o u l d a l s o be emphasis on r e c o r d s and t h e b u s i n e s s s i d e o f a g r i c u l t u r e and on u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r new developments i n t h e Solomons. P r a c t i c a l . w o r k w i l l i n c l u d e ."^ki.ng l ^ r g t c o n -t r i b u t i o n as por.r. jiii P t c . ->r-odi\c i n g t h e s c h o o l s own f o c d . S c h o o l B o a r d s w i l l make t h e i r own decision:.; as. m whether t o t r y t o g e t some s u a ! 1-scr.lo nww-h.inery t o h e l p i n t h i s . 4 . . 2 0 6 • HANDCRAFT; H a n d c r a f t v / i l l i r c l u d c t r a d i t i o n a l and noriern c r a f t s b a s e d on. h^twi tool i and. where p o s s i b l e l o c a l m a t e r i a l s , . . Woodwork w i l l be f r o b a s i c c o u r s e o u t o t h e r c r a f t s s uch as c a r v i n g , weaving, e t c . v / i l l be i r . c l u d c d a c c o r d i n g to l o c a l i n t e r e s t s and t h e h e l p a v a i l a b l e . The s a ~ c v / i l l a p p l y t o p r a c t i c a l . _wo •:!: i n o t h e r ^ i o l d s s uch v . s i w l c r.i i m W nn, n e c h a n i c s ( i n c l u d i n g o u t b a a r a e n g i n e s ) , po+>er.y, use o f c o n -crctc_ar.£ s i n o l c s c t a l w o r k . T h e r e v / i l l n o t , a t f i r s t , be t e a c h e r s a - v a i l a o i o r o r a l l t h e s e t h i n g s . . KrjKECRAFT; H c n e c r a f t w i l l i n c l u d e nut r i t i o n , - cook.inn d r e s s m a k i n g , f a c i l y _ r ! c a i t : i . f i r . s t a i d , oudget;.r.g, rons-'war • e d u c a t i o n and cha .40 c a r e . /.s w i t h the o t n o r p r a c t i c a l s v . b j e c t s r.-.ucn c f t h e c o u r s e w i J l be f o r b o t h boys and. g i r l s b u t w i t h - s o Us t o p i c s fo^r c::e_gr^up^oji_lv. DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ; T h i s v / i l l i n c l u d e s.tudy.. o f — n a t i o n a l deveJLoosent and p i ,-.TV-I po ( s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a r d e c c n ; a i c ) , s.'.r.'.plc i d e a s o f .hc.«_jtiw* _oeonqnv v/crks, nenev and b u s i n e s s s t u d i e s ( i n c l u d i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s ; , g-vor n:-e;ii. ; e t u . l a e t l s c a o w i l l De the need t o u n d e r s t a n d hew d e c i s i o n s a r c t a k e n a t l o c a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l and the c h o i c e s open to us. C o n s e r v a t i o n v / i l l be s t r e s s e d and w e l l as change. CULT-JSE; Tho c o n n i t t e o v/as n t s u r e t h a t t u r n i n g ' c u l t u r e ' i n t o a s c h o o l ' s u b j e c t * v/as a -jood i d e a . I f e v e r y t h i n g wc t e a c h s t a r t s fror.) the l o c a l a r e a a l l t h e s u b j e c t s s u g g e s t e d l.avc c o a a t h i n g c f our c u l t u i c i n t h e n . The a c r e o b v i o u s a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s such as s t o r i e s , s o n g s , dances and l o c a l c r a f t s v / i l l g i v e nany c h a n c e s t o i n v o l v e l o c a l p e o p l e i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . -r:-'7SIC:.L 5DVCATI~K: The p o p u l a r i d e a o f t h i s i s p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y •: £ s p o r t s a n d l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s t o keep y-.-ung p e o p l e h e a l t h y and happy. T h i s v / i l l be i m p o r t a n t b v t , as w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s , wc s h o u l d c o n s i d e r what i s u s e f u l i n r u r a l l i f e . I f t h o s e who l e a v e t h e s e s c h o c l s know the r u l e s o f g a n c s , c a n no as u r e and n a r k out p i t c h e s , r e f e r e e , j.-.akc s i r v p l e equipr.ont and p l a n the draw f o r a c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e y v / i l l be a b l e t o h e l p then-selves and o t h e r s . R3LIGIQUS ?.r-UCATIOM: , " The c h u r c h e s a r e w o r k i n g out a n a g r e e d s y l l a b u s . Mo s c h o o l v / i l l b e l o n g to any p a r t i c u l a r c h u r c h . I'ow nuch c h u r c h e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n s c h c o l l i f e w i l l depend on what p a r e n t s want. The s c h o o l s v / i l l b e l o n g to l o c a l p e o p l e . # • » & » « • # # • * * » * • # * • » • » » » « < > » » * • * # ' # * * T h i s a r t i c l e has been c o n c e r n e d w i t h the t h i n k i n g w h i c h l i e s b e h i n d t h e propesa/.s f r He..' S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . Tho next v / i ) l d e a l w i t h tho. r i t u n e d i a t e p r o b l e m s , hopes and f e a r s , a: c! how wc can h e l p t h e n s u c c e e d . J 207 KEW £.~conDAnY SCHOOLS; Tha f i r s t a r t i c l e was concerned with the background to^the scheme ar.d an o u t l i n e o f v/pat the s c h o o l s ho~o to do. This week's a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e s sor.c ways i n which the schools can be helped, sor.ic d e t a i l s o f t h e i r o r g a n i s a t i o n - and the immediate plans f o r 1976. HELP FROM LOCAL PEOPLE; Parents should remember that those are to be t h e i r own ' l o c a l secondary schools. I t nay be d i f f i c u l t t o see t h i s i n the f i r s t year. To be f a i r to parents i n d i s t r i c t s which do not get a Nen Secondary School t h i s year, cone p l a c e s have been r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t four s c h o o l s . So at f i r s t there w i l l bo a mixture of c h i l d r e n . Some w i l l be able t o l i v e at home and walk tb s c h o o l , So.no w i l l board, because t h e i r homo i s f a r t h e r away. A few w i l l be - u i t e a long way. from hone. W i t h i n two years, with 4 more s c h o o l s being opened each year, they w i l l be almost e n t i r e l y l o c a l . Teachers w i l l t r y to see that p u p i l s l e a r n t h ings which w i l l be u s e f u l to then when they go home. They car. do t h i s b e t t e r i f parents w i l l t e l l M e n what they would l i k e t h e i r c h i l d r e n to l e a r n . T h i s can bo done i n s e v e r a l ways. L o c a l people, whether they a r c parents or not, - / i l l • be welcome to v i s i t tho s c h o o l s , walk around and see what i s going on. They can t a l k to teachers and nal:e t h e i r own sugges-t i o n s . I f they l i v e c l o s e enour^i they can g i v e some personal help - f o r i n s t a n c e a good gardener or farmer could give up part of i. ilay to s>how p u p i l s what methods he uses, e i t h e r at h i s own hone or i n the s c h o o l garden. P u p i l s cot".Id t r y t h i s and other methods and compare r e s u l t s . L o c a l people . s k i l l e d i n p a r t i c u l a r c r a f t s such as c a r v i n g , basketry, canoe b u i l d i n g , house c o n s t r u c t i o n or anything e l s e w i l l be no re than vielcona to demonstrate at tho s c h o o l or at t h e i r hones. The same a p p l i e s to people with knowledge of l o c a l customs, dances, games or s t o r i e s . The best way to i n f l u e n c e what p u p i l s l e a r n i s to go and help. Anyone with a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n education can o f f e r t o serve on the school Board of Management which w i l l c o n t r o l most of the a c t i v i t i e s of the s c h o o l . Parents who l i v e f a r t h e r away cam send suggestions to tho Board. HELP IN r^TUnH FROM SCHOOLS; I t i s important that c h i l d r e n should not f e e l that school i s something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t of l i f e . . The more contact they have with the l i f e of the area aro::nd the school tho b e t t o r . Newly opened schools " . . i l l be busy with t h e i r own problems f o r cone time but, once e s t a b l i s h e d , they should a c t i v e l y look for ways i n which they car. be h e l p f u l . People should t o l l the Headmaster when some help from p u p i l s would be'welcome, whether i n c o l l e c t i n g i a t c r i a l s f o r b u i l d i n g a home, c l e a r i n g land, digging a d r a i n , or whatever. The t i m e t a b l e s of those schools w i l l bo f l e x i b l e enough to allow a group of p u p i l s to v o l u n t e e r to help.. 2 0 3 2 . . Schools could arrange entertainments i n v i l l a g e s or at the school - or i n a h o s p i t a l when near enough. Some sh a r i n g of use of b u i l d i n g s and gareos f a c i l i t i e s should t e p o s s i b l e i f s c h o o l s are asked i n good time. If there are things which l o c a l people would l i k e to buy, t h i s can be considered i n planning p r a c t i c a l work. I t might be anything from f u r n i t u r e to food. HELP FROM OTHER SOURCES; I f the f i r s t Ifcw Secondaries are a success the p l a n i s to have 20 opened w i t h i n 5 yocrs, T h i s w i l l provide a network of centres which can be used by e x t e n s i o n workers from any M i n i s t r y . ' During t e r n time the school b u i l d i n g s can be used-f o r t a l k s , f i l m s or demonstrations f o r a d u l t s , './hen s u i t a b l e , p u p i l s can also attend. R e s i d e n t i a l courses c o u l d be h e l d d u r i n g s c h o o l h o l i d a y s . Wc must try to b u i l d up the i d e a that those schools are places north v i s i t i n g , where something i n t e r e s -t i n g i s always happening. School s t a f f w i l l not at f i r s t bo exports i n a i l tho Subjects i n which they wo v. i d l i k e t o p r o v i d e courses. I f workers i n other departments such as h e a l t h , a g r i c u l t u r e , p u b l i c works e t c . can a d v i s e teachers, and even o c c a s i o n a l l y h e l p i n i n s t r u c -t i o n themselves i t w i l l be much ap p r e c i a t e d . T h i s i s not "asking others to do the Education department's job f o r them". ':1c arc a l l doing the same job for the same people. Xt i s j u s t a n a t t e r o f malting the best use of the exports i n an area. Even use of a school as a meeting n l i . * n . vftirb extension workers from d i f f e r e n t departments d i s c u s s e d the problems of the area and how they were t a c k l i n g them, would be v a l u a b l e to t e a c h e r s . F i n a l l y , anyone, i n c l u d i n g p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , who i s about to throw something away, can g i v e a thought to the nearest s c h o o l f i r s t . An o l d outboard or v e h i c l e engine, even a few o l d spark plugs, may be u s e f u l to a s c h o o l . I f c h i l d r e n arc t o do p r a c t i c a l work they nust have t h i n g s t o handle. Wc s h a l l never be able to a f f o r d t o provide noro than one or two now items l i k e cutboards to each s c h o o l . RESPONSIBILITY FOR SCHOOLS; The M i n i s t r y of Education and C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s w i l l bo r e s p o n s i b l e for an overview of p o l i o / , but d e t a i l e d d e c i s i o n s on almost a l l aspects of the p o l i c y of each school w i l l be taken by tho s c h c o l Board of Managcm.-nt, under each C o u n c i l , which w i l l meet at l e a s t once each t e r n . Most members of t h i s board w i l l be l o c a l people. I t w i l l be set up by the Council's D i s t r i c t Education Ooard with guidance from M i n i s t r y o f Education & C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s . . D i s t r i c t Education 3oards, which w i l l become sub-conmitteos of D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l s , w i l l e v e n t u a l l y each have s e v e r a l Nov; Secondaries i n t h e i r care, as w e l l as a l l th-- d i s t r i c t ' s granary s c h o o l s . The i d e a o f r.ost r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r education being a t D i s t r i c t l e v e l i s " i l a p a r t of the nova to ' d e v o l u t i o n ' of powers to C o u n c i l s . In tho case c f Haw Secondaries i t i s only p o s s i b l e to r e l e a s e the UK. cjrant honzy a f t e r l o c a l acceptance o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s c h o o l s , s i n c e the whole a i d request was worded as a l o c a l scheme. 209 3 . . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r day to day running of the schools w i l l of course l i e with the Hoadnastcrs.and t h o i r s t a f f s , who w i l l a l s o ba represented on the Boards of Management. FINANCING CF SCHOOLS; I n i t i a l b u i l d i n g and equipment costs arc mostly covered by UK Crants. Teachers' s a l a r i e s w i l l be p a i d d i r e c t l y by M i n i s t r y of Education & C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s . Each school w i l l r e c e i v e annually f r o u M i n i s t r y of Education U C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s a Boarding Grant, a Recurrent Equipment Grant and a s n a i l P u p i l T r a v e l Grant. These grants w i l l be p a i d through the C o u n c i l s ' D i s t r i c t Education Bocrds to tho Boards of Management. Tho Board of Mc-nagcmcnt w i l l a l s o r a i s e noney by charging school f e e s . There nay a l s o be a s n a i l ' b u i l d i n g s f e e ' to help keep b u i l d i n g s i n gcod r e p a i r - but i t i s hoped that Gone parents w i l l c o n t r i b u t e labour and c a t c r i a l s i n s t e a d . I f a school Board of I'anagcmcnt wishes to r a i s e e x t r a money by tho sale of things produced by p u p i l s , i t w i l l bo f r e e to do so - and a l s o to allow p u p i l s to earn some noney f o r themselves. BUILDINGS AND SSUIFiaNT: The f i r s t f o u r schools v / i l l each got 3 now s p e c i a l i s t b u i l d i n g s p a i d for by a UK grant, but b u i l t b y ' l o c a l c o u n c i l s . The new b u i l d i n g s v / i l l be a Kcndcrs.it workshop, a Honocraft room and an A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e Laboratory. Equipment f o r t ho: c b u i l d i n g s r.ni t o o l s f o i tho ..>r i i c t i c a i s ubjects are being provided by a i d from UK end New Zealand. Sone of t h i s i s t i e d to purchase i n UK, so shipment nay delay tho a r r i v a l of sone of i t u n t i l about May 1976. However, enough equipnent has been bought l o c a l l y f o r tho schools to open i n March, with a U n i t e d i n t a k e . S i m i l a r grants have a l s o been agreed f o r the second 4 s c h o o l s . Apart f r o n the 3 new b u i l d i n g s the schools w i l l use e x i s t i n g , a c c o m o d a t i o n p l u s any inprovencnts the Board of Managenent and parents want and can a f f o r d . Part of tho UK grant is f o r conversion of e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s . Boards of Managenent v / i l l bo r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e c i s i o n s i n the ordering of books and other equipnent. PUPIIS : . Each school v / i l l have a p p r o x i n a t c l y 210 p u p i l s , , o f r/hon 25fi v / i l l bo g i r l s . Because of the change to a 6 yo?-r p r i m r y course wc have both F'6 and P7 leavers t h i s ycr.r, which nakos s e l e c t i o n of the entry very d i f f i c u l t . 3ut wc must s t a r t at souo p o i n t , and i ' i n i s t r y of Education & C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s r e a l i s e s and i s s y n p a t h c t i c to the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by sone parents t h i s year. I n f u t u r e years c-ich e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l v / i l l have an annual intake of 105 p u p i l s who w i l l spend 2 years i n tho s c h o o l . lioat of then v/ill be P6 l e a v e r s , though 3ocrds v / i l l a l s o be able to recor.ncnd sone other entrants who l e f t p r i n a r y school i n previous ycr.rs. I f tho schenc i s s u c c e s s f u l i t i s hoped that by 1979 a l l p u p i l s e n t e r i n g P r i n a r y One i n tho Solorjons v / i l l have akc-d of th.cn the prospect of a t l e a s t 8 years of education - i n that by the t i r e they leave P6 i n 1905 there c o u l d bo enough ncon<l.-.iy placoo f o r then a l l . 210 4. . T^A CHS!?.1?; ' Each school w i l l have 0. teachers. The t a r g e t f o r the f i r s t few ycacs i s that 6 of these, i n c l u d i n g the Headmaster, should be Solomon I s l a n d e r s . The other 2 w i l l be Anerican Peace Corps v o l u n t e e r s . Tho Peace Corps w i l l try to supply sone of the s k i l l s which we'arc not yet able to provide from our own tcr.ching f o r c e , w h i l s t being guided by tha.lr . Soloicon Islander colleagues i n <udginj what i s ' a p p r o p r i a t e to l o c a l needs. I f they arc as good as the v o l u n t e e r s we already have, q u i e t l y doing a good job behind tho scenes i n c o - o p c r a t i 1 and the census, there v i i l l be no problems i n having a s t a f f with such v a r i e d backgrounos. Solomon I s l a n d e r s t a f f w i l l be a n i x t u r e o f experienced teachers, n c w l y - o u a l i f i c d teachers who have dene a s p e c i a l 3rd year course at the Teachers' C o l l e t and s p e c i a l i s t s i n t e c h n i c a l subjects and a g r i c u l t u r e who have done a one year course at tho C o l l e g e . PRSPAaATICHS FOR 1976; Tho Peace Corps are running'their'own t r a i n i n g course,_ during December and e a r l y January,at the Teachers' C o l l e g e . Much of t h i s i s being conducted by Oolonon I s l a n d e r t r a i n e r s . I t i n c l u d e s p i d g i n . Soi^e of them w i l l be spending Christmas i n the hones of the.newly q u a l i f i e d l o c a l t e a c h e r s . -Froo 5th January to 19th February i t i s hoped'to have a l l the s t a f f o f the new schools, i n c l u d i n g Hcadzsastors, together at the Teachers' C o l l e g e . Much of t h e i r t i n e w i l l be spent i n planning the t e a c h i n g work they w i l l do i n t h e schools. They w i l l a l s o have d i s c u s s i o n s with o f f i c i a l s f r o n t'io M i n i s t r y of Education about the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f ? . n g cf the s c h o o l s . Th arc -will be t a l k s with members of other M i n i s t r i e s about t h e i r views on ITeiv Secondaries and ways i n wbich s c h o o l s t a f f can l i a i s e with t h e i r extension workers i n the D i s t r i c t s . There w i l l be chances to s i t together as school teams and deci.de ."who teaches what" and p l a n timetables. Perhaps most important w i l l be g e t t i n g to knew each other ai;d making contacts which w i l l keep tho schools and Teachers' C o l l e g e l i n k e d and h e l p i n g each ot2te*c during the year. In mid-February the toachcrs v / i l l go t o t l a e i r schools and on 1st March each school v / i l l admit 70 boys, a l l F7 l e a v e r s . They w i l l have scr.ie norr.-.al teaching but v / i l l a l s o be h e l p i n g s t a f f with a l l kinds c f p r a c t i c a l work to prepare f o r the f u l l opening of the. schools on 1st May. They v / i l l then bo j o i n e d by 140 nore boys and g i r l s . , D i s t r i c t s t a f f v / i l l hr.vc an cxtroriely busy t i n e between now and the s c h o o l s ' opening. Mow b u i l d i n g s have to be s t a r t e d , o l d ones renovated and gardens p l a n t e d . There w i l l probably bo sone a i d f r o n How Zealand i n s u p p l y i n g t i n n e d food to h e l p sec the schoolo through the ec.rly str.gas but i t i s important t h a t t h e i r own food production shouJd be under v/ay as soon as p o s s i b l e . How i s tho f i r s t chance f o r people l i v i n g near the schools to lend a hand. The t h i r d a r t i c l e i n t h i s s e r i e s w i l l C U M up, and discuss the problems expected and tho chr.ncos of r o n l success f o r Nov/ Secondaries. 211 KcTf. S"CO'.TH3Y SC?-03LS Ihl3 third and f i n a l nrticlo discusses 3030 of the alternatives to Vow Secondaries which woro considered, problems which .oro expected, and tho chances of success. ••' FJTtms SECOCT;RY EXPAT'SIOW In 1977 schools will bo opened in Isabel, Eastern Outer Islands, Sola .. and Honiara. After that i t w i l l bo a matter of distributing future schools in relation to population. In each 50CO people in tao Solomons'thoro aro about 225 children cged 14 and 15. If that structure of population continues, and tho present siso of school i 3 found satisfactory, then the ultimata aim would bo one Hair Secor.d.-.ry in each area with 5,000 people. Tho census vri.ll t o l l ua moro about tho structure and distribution of population ra well c3 tho total -number. Of course, any inc.ror.se in tho.total number of children w i l l mean d i f f i c u l t 'decisions in sharing the monoy available between Primary and Secondary expansion. Now that District -Councils aro beginning to understand and accept tho freedoms and responsibilities' that 'devolution 1 gives then, they can begin to plan ahead. One of the most important jobs i s to chooso and reservo suitable sites for new schools well i r . advance of their opening. In 1575/76 tho urjx-my of providing for both P6 r.nd P7 leavers rx.d the delr.ys in discussing and revising the Education '.."hitc Paper ccant that thing3 wore rather rushed. Now that a pattern of procedure i s established i t should bo possible for plans to go more smoothly, AR3 KEW SSC0?m;J!ir3 TH5 RIGHT AK5W5R? • Arguments over alto mat ivo school systems never cease. Even countries vhich have long been rich enough to provide free secondary education for a l l , s t i l l have fierce arguments going on, crd people both in and cut of politics • ecsj-.ii^r.ij^ f o r ohemges. In Britain, for instance, there is a whole series of different systems cf secondary education operating at onca, and c. great deal of indecision, Tho recent South Pacific Cosmi.ssion 'workshop' in Honiara and later v i s i t s to a variety of training centes in Papua iicv Guinea, was an attempt to examine, discuss and evaluate sonc of tho attempts being cade to provide training for young people in the Pacific. There wore criticisms cf alcost every scheme discussed and seen, including tho Solonons Nov; Secondary Programme but r.obody in tho workshop claimed to have n perfect answer. It is always easier to identify problcns than to sol-vo then. Hoveror, no wise planner sticks r i g i d l y to scacthing v:hich .can bo seen not to work. Experience w i l l show to what extent v;o have to bo flexible and perhaps, i n time, E c d i f y tho •Now Secondary scheme. Tho Solomons are at a Etago of development whoro outside financial aid i s needed for nany of tho larger devcvlcpuoiits which arc wanted quickly. It i s easier to get a i d i f you h.-.vo a definite plan. People like to know what their coney is to bo used f o r . It w.-.s necessary tc make n decision on eTrpansion of tho cducr.tion.-d system and the prcposcd size and distribution of Hov Secondaries were the result of that decision. g-i?i,Lr-» trz-i SECOWPAP.T5B7 • .' " Tho S.P.O. 'workshop' suggested that New Secondary schools with about 50 pupils, instead of 210, eight be bott-r. This would cf course improve their chance cf boiag truly l o c d . Also lc3S pupils would need to live awsy from homo - though in m-x.y parts of tho Solomo;i3 a largo number would s t i l l need to be boarding. • J 212 - 2 -If this were dor.o we should need <l smaller schools of 50 for every school of 2 1 0 at present planned. I f we could only afford to pay the saao number of teachers, that would mean only 2 teachers per school and there could not be specialists in a l l the subjects we var.t. There would b 9 4 3et3 of buildings instead of one so that ccsta per pupil would be higher, Tho same would apply to ccae equipment. Smaller schools would be an attractive alternative i f we became rich enough to afford 4 teachers for 50 pupils. The chosen pattern and size of the f i r s t New Secondaries vas therefore a comproEise -,as alrcst a l l decisions are. It has the advantage that, with 8 teachers, sose can be specialists. The sihools are big enough to afford scco specialised equipment. They w i l l bo sprer.d over the country widely enough to have a chance of varying their courses to suit local needs. They are small enough to to cocr.unitics, not hiaan factories. They will bo close enough to rural people to have at least a chance of being seen as their own schools. They can certainly be controlled and guided at District .leval. If we use then wisely, they can becono centres for part, at least, of an adult education scheme. These schools will not bo perfect, certainly not at f i r s t , and i f weaknesses show up the scheme can be modified. But tho decision to start them was not taken without thought. Having taken i t wo have to give i t a chance and do our best to nake i t work. PUBLICITY Probably these articles should have been written sone tine ago. Certainly i t rloar th.-vt cany people do not yet f u l l y understand what New Secondaries are a l l about. However, the f i n a l approval of British aid, which mado tho whole thing in i t s present form possible, did not cone until September 1 9 7 5 . To st.art training teachers earlier in tho year had to bo en act of fai t h . Tho task now i s to got the information to the many people who do not yet read I.'ewsdrun. These who do road i t and can explain to others will be a gvoat help. Prinary teachers always have to advise parents of children na they roach tho end of their prinary course. They wi l l a l l be sent copies of these articles and should nake sure that they p a 3 3 the information on i n a way th.it people can understand. There have been radio talks in pidgin about changes in tho educational system c--d there will be nore. The trouble is that so many changes are takir.g place at once in tho Solomons that people do not always absorb then until they arc directly affected. It w i l l bo interested to soc pictures in flcwsdrum of tho work done in tho new schools. But they will need a chance to settle do-.™. It would bo very d i f f i c u l t for teachers to get on with solving problems and trying out their idc.-.s i f t;icy folt that they were being publicly cxai'incd right ?ron tho beginning. AC 5 OF PUPILS Tho future pattern i s of entry to primary school ct about 7 years- of ego, then a 6 year course. This ac-ans th-'.t r.ost children will enter How Socondarie3 at 1 3 or 14 and leave when they arc 15 or 1 6 . 'How tiuch practical work can n pupil do at that a?e - and what will 1 5 cr 16 year—olds find to do when they leave? This is not an easy question but, ir«*«, i e^io-Hf of tho alternatives snkOB i t ono whinh luuul, l». f . n r o d . 213 - 3 -Ono other possibility i s to Icavo children rvt hono for a year or two cftor leo.7ir.-j ru. This right make- suro that by tho tino they entered ITow 'Secondaries they would have a clearer irtun cf what they vantod to loam and do i n l i f e . One disr/.ivr.ntr.^o would bo that i t would nako an obvious distinction i f a child had friends going straight on to National Sccor.darios. Ho would foci that ho had boor, lo f t out. Another possibility is for New Secondaries to provido a longer course. Some thought was given to making i t a 3 year rather than 2 year course. The problcn would then bo that cither vo would have to provide cany more teachers and larger schools, neither of which wo can afford, or less schools which would give a chance to fewer children. Tho hopo of a longer courso probably has to rcnain a future prospect. ,'FOUW-UP' I f 7oung people aro to benefit fron two further years in school i t w i l l 'bo necessary for parents to help then afterwards. .Schools v i l l also ha vo to try to help by. keeping-an interest in their progress. With 105 children . leaving each school por year, and only 8 teachers to a school, this i3 asking a groat deal of then Individual help and advice for every ex-pupil will not bo possible, especially in the f i r s t few years when tho schools 30rvo a wider area. Tcr.chors will hope to v i s i t sono cx-pupil3 in the holidays. Another suggestion i s that, a year after leaving, a l l 105 ox-pppils should be invited back to tho school for .* ..-.ck omrrx^ tho holidays. They would discuss what they had done, and what problens they found, and share idea3. It is hoped that other extension workers in each area w i l l also help with follow-up work and advice to young leavers. Whatever happens, tho parents will s t i l l bo the most important 'extension workers'. LocmsATioir I f Nov So.tcnJ..;ric5 arc to prepare pupils mainly for li£o in rural areas, they need staff who understand that way of l i f e and know what changes pooplo want and are ready.for. That really means Solomon Islanders, Tho same applies to training the teachers for theso schools and designing the curriculum. Expatriate staff at the Teachers' College and on tho Curriculum Committee would agree with this - and Fc.aoo Corps volunteers only accept jobs on the understanding that a najor part of their task is to f i l l a temporary noed and replace thcmsol'/cs with local pooplo as soon as possible. Tho fact remains that i f tho V.ou Secondary schcuo i3 to. expand rapidly thoro w i l l bo shortagus of Solonon Islanders with the necessary s k i l l s for sometime. This Dakco i t urgent that those Solomon Islanders who can contribute i n teaching, training, or just advising, cake every effort to do so. At school, level thoro is a particular need for Solonon Islanders who really believe in the importance of those schools, and are willing to load ' an enthusiastic team of teachers, to come forward to servo as Hcadtoachors. SUCCESS OR FAILUH.5? Thoso must be schools where children aro busy and happy. But in ono sense success in this r.ny create a problem. Young people who have enjoyed tho company ar.d shared activities of ar.ny others of their ovm ago, nay nios this when they return hono. Fnrents will have to help them find interesting things to do and encourage then to use what thoy have learned. A further point i s that unles3 village people increase their earnings from cash crops, there will bo no market for tr.irvys vhich young p-jople with now ideas waii to produce. There is not much point in starting v. email shop, or a bakery, or trying to s e l l furniture, in a villa?:c whore nobody has any money, l.'obcdy wants to turn Solomon T-lar.dcrs into people who think of nothing but noncy but gaining economic independence as a nation, improving village l i f e , and avoiding problcwa with discontented vouths aro a l l part of tho nimo IMnj* and need efforts from parents as much .in from schools. - 4 -214 In 1970 tho f i r a t 35 students l e f t Knmaosi Rural Training Centre. In. 1972 a check was nadc to find out what had hapixrnaata thoa. 12 wcro back in their own villages and said tho," wore using tho s k i l l s they had learned at ,tho RTC. 2 were in their c :n villages "doing nothing." 9 were working elsewhere in Isabel in luabor, agriculture, ct-j. 3 vrero on boats in tho Isabel axon. 6 were working at trades in Honiara .and 3 wcro in Honiara "doing nothing", ',/as this a success or a failure? Tho Sural Dcvelopucntf Planning Officer at that tino concluded that to find tho majority doing something useful in their cm ir.land, i f not a l l in their own village, ig.ss ot least a partial success. Schools will try to keep accurate records of their pupils and wo hope that i t w i l l bo possible to check uhnt happens to thorn. A third important chock w i l l bo to ooo.what parents feci about the schools of tor cnac tine. If they see then as something foreign and nothing to do with. th<n then they will probably have foiled. If they increasingly take an interest in tho schools and ask that their children loam what they sec as their needs, whether for family and village projects, or ju3t to bo good people — then they will have succeeded. '-.Tien the tiao comes to judge I'ow Scdondarios wo shall also bo judging ourselves. for the tine being wo should avoid any judging and concentrate on • helping. Teachers in tho now schools w i l l net bo looking for sympathy They know what their problems will bo, and accept then. What they do want i s tiae to settle doi.aa before facing criticism — and for people to shovr interest and do everything they can to help. APPENDIX C LIST OF AIMS FOR THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL COMPILED BY NORMAN GLEADOW 216 SOURCK I t Govornei«nt H.iucntion P o l i c y 1975-79 White ?ftgp,i« a. To complete the b a s i c oducotion.begun i n the 6 year Primary course. b. To equip tho c h i l d for* young adult o i t u a t i o n u and r o o p o n o i b i l l t i e d . 0. To provide a baeio f o r t o c h n i c o l l e a r n i n g and emply-mcnt i n a g r i c u l t u r e , trot1, ing and i n d u s t r y . <L. To dovolop i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s with roots i n tho c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . SOURCE. 2 : Minutes o f t ha Curriculum Doveloprnent Eeotinx Oct.1976 tx. Provide some post-priraury education which would bo of some uoe to the students. b. Provide •is'-ining which w i l l l e ad to a b e t t e r chance of employment. SOURCE 3 i Development Studies S y l l a b u s SITC a. Produce young people who are f l e x i b l e and r e s o u r c e f u l i used to baaing t h e i r judgements on considered f a c t a , and who t r y to f i n d out what they don't know. SOURCE 4 ; A r t i c l e s i n the 'News Drum" a. To keep the c h i l d r e n c l o s e to t h e i r own homes and not take them away to boarding uchoola. b. Provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s that w i l l not a l i e n a t e young pwOi-lo froia '.lioir parents and vi l l r - J j c o . o. Provide l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are s u i t e d to the l i f e o f the m a j o r i t y o f 3oloraon Island people. d. Give the p u p i l s experience and confidence i n s o l v i n g problems which w i l l c a r r y over to l i f o a f t e r s c h o o l . e. Provide and emphasise p r a c t i c a l work. SOURCE 5 s Sub-Regional Workshop on Planning R u r a l - V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g (South P a c i f i c Commission) a. To provide standard 6 and 7 l e a v e r s wifth l a r g e l y p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , to equip then f o r s u c c e s s f u l l i f e i n e i d o t h e i r own environment, i n a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e , h a n d i c r a f t , homecraft, development s t u d i e s e t c . . 30URCB 6i "Kducation For Wh„t" . a. The New Secondary Schools should be designed to meet the needs of the v i l l a g e s i n tho area. SOURCE 7J Miscellaneous a. To ensure that students r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r home v i l l a g e s are equipped with knowledge which w i l l enable them to improve t h e i r l a v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and e s t a b l i s h i n d u s t r y . b. To encourage students to consider the changing poss-i b i l i t i e s of v i l l a g e l i f e . c. To provide the students with s k i l l s end experiences whioi* would b e n e f i t tho community and provide some remuneration to the p u p i l . d. To provide contres f o r adult education. APPENDIX D MINUTES OF THE MEETING CALLED TO DISCUSS THE AIMS OF THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL C { r « » * \ b c s + A ( / f t t ' U i > l f copy) HONIARA KD7 SCCOfJVuP.Y SCHOOL CURRICTfLtJH - Record of a mooting hold i n tho conference room of UECA HQ. ou . Friday 11th February. M 7? . Present; . N. G-loadow (Visiti:ig research woi-ter) J. Puia •.- (SEO, Honiara) T. Paccy (HM, Honiara NS3) ' " .-. C.J. Skinr.cr (S.I.T.C.) S. Sipolo (SEC Secoisdary, tECA) -Chairman Hr. Sipolo explained that the meeting had boon called by Permanent 'Secretary, lE'CA, to chock to what extent the aims am curriculum proposals far tiio Honiara New Secondary School were i n accord with those of the Sew Secondary achcuo in general. Tho school course should bo •regarded, aa with the other schools, as a terminal course, with no cte.nco of i t loading to direct entry to IITI. Ls witii the other schools, English and Maths should i n general bo taught within tho otter subjects, not as separate subjects themselves. Any differences from otter MS sclioola should bo simply those arising fron the general principle of serving tho needs of tho l o c a l area, i u this case Honiara, and tho opportunities and problems i t would offer to school leavers. • •• / It waa proposed that the mceti:ig should cxami ;ie the aims of the school i n tho liglit of a l i s t of KOS aims which Mr. Glcadcw had extracted from, a variety of documents. Of those culy tho 'White Paper' represented o f f i c i a l Govcr:sic!:t Policy - though the otters reflected Ministry thi:iki;:g since production df tho White Paper. On examining tlie aims stated in tlie TVhito Paper i t was f e l t that the ' school and tho proposed curriculum (attached) could achieve those aims. There could be some bins towards urban employment, inevitably, but the fact that the HI! had located some lajsd i n a small valley behind the school and possibly could get access to seme Government lane on tho banks of tho Hatandfeu, meant that useful vegetable arid cliickon projects could bo attempted. Viewii'g Honiara and fringes as the school's 'local area' this scorned r e a l i s t i c a l l y oriented towards tho children's possible future livo3. Aims 4 (a) "Keep children close to their ovm homes...." and 4 (b) .. "not alienate young pooplo from their parents and villages" wore co:isidorcd carefully. Tte k?y point was v/!:etl:er Hoidara was considered as their *homa* ar not. IS*. Puia said tte.t a l l cliildrcn i n the 1977 cTitry had given a Honiara address as 'home' on selection form 7C - and n i l but ono ted been attending Honiara Primary schools for some years. Mr. Skinner thought tlicro would s t i l l be so210 clildrcn i n the school whoso parents would plan to sci"i them back to t):oir 'other homo1 i n n rural area i f they did not find employment in Honiara. It was agreed tlint tho c u o 3 t i o u a i r o prepared "by tte school staff would supply som answers to this and should bo- sent to parents as soon as tlie school opened. - 2.- . ) Tho proposed 'agriculture' and 'buaijicaa* curricula trouM be useful what- 219 .over children'did afterwards, lir. Paccy thought tho majority of cliildroii would continue to live witli their parent3 i n Hoimara after tho 2 years i u school. Mr. Puia agreed and thought part of tho course should bo a preparation for helping parents in ho;.u and garden i n Honiara. Messrs . Sipolo, Puia and Paccy a l l thought that about of Honiara pooplo had garden land on th.o fringes cf town where Eajy school leavers could work. Tho quootionai.ro should resolve this also. . In general the neotir-g concluded with tluj view that tho proposals mdo by Headmaster and staff wore sensible o:id within tho stated aims of o f f i c i a l policy for Nov; Secondary Schools, Differences in capliasis _ simply reflected tho needs of pooplo in tlxs Ko:iiara area, and tho -i. f a c i l i t i e s available in town. Prom th.o point of view of •culture* the sohool would be more 'national' than tho others, reflecting tho varied pre- I'omi backgrounds and continuing links to rural areas, of parents. Some further matters which would effect tho school and i t s curriculum wore (a) the proposod quostioiioi.ro, (b) possibilities of evening classes i n typing and shorthand at HH (PS MECA. to bo asked i f ho would discuss with Principal, HT1 as to whether coao places could bo reserved) 1 (c) the capabilities of tho school staff (not yet f u l l y known), (d) any .more up to date information on lately future job opportunities i n and crouiai Honiara (from 'Central Planning or other courcos), (e) finance available. ". As with a l l NS Schools staff would need to give considerable r . t t r r . t i t ? v.ui?.ri!i£ rosiiirfefXsl u-?.o of Mr.ths and English .*vto other subjects. Fith i t s access to tomi library, newspapers oiii tho 'business* aspects of town.life this should be rather easier hero than i n rural schools. ' - C.J. SJdLuncr. Attached:- (i) School Staff curriculum proposals (ii) Stated aims of Nov/ Secondary Schools. APPENDIX E BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOURCES USED TO COMPILE THE LIST OF UNITS OF STUDY FOR THE HONIARA NSS 221 1. B00K3 E d u c a t i o n . Manpower and Economic Growth, Harbison,P ; and meger, A. McGraw-Hill Boole Co. 1964 A p p r o p r i a t e Technology Source Book, A p p r o p r i a t e Technology p r o j e c t . V o l u n t e e r s i n A e i a , Box 4 5 3 4 , S t a n f o r d , C a l i f . V i l l a g e Technology Hand book ,(n.d.) Volunteers* i n T e c h n i c a l AssiBtar.ce, 3706 Rhode I s l a n d Ave., Mt. R a i n i e r Ave Maryland U,S.A. L i k l i k Buk B i l o n g K a i n K a i n Santir.g; A R u r a l Development Handbook. The r i e l a n e a i a n C o u n c i l o f Churches, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 1976. 2. THESES . . A Study o f the Changes i n S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s o f Secondary  P u p i l a i n the r S I P . A.M. Macbeth, D o c t o r a l T h e s i f l , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oxford, Oxford England p p l l 8 - 1 3 0 , 1973 O p t i o n s f o r the Development o f JSducatior. i:;. the Solomon  Ielar.dt;, B. Palmer, D o c t o r a l T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f New England, A u s t r a l i a . 1977 3 . REPORTS Report on a Survey o f E d u c a t i o n i n the Solomon I s l a n d s , W. Groves, T u l a g i , 1940 (Solomon I n l a n d s N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y ) New Secondary S c h o o l e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Approach to S c i e n c e ( a g r i c u l t u r e ) , Report submitted to the N33 C u r r i c u l u m C o n a i t t e e , by Murdoch,!; and Luacenta,N; A p r i l 1975 Report on NSS C u r r i c u l u m Course, 1976. Report -nubraitted t o the p r i n c i p a l o f SITC by NSS Course Tutor, SITC. :March 1976 j ' t E d u c u t i o r i and C u r r i c u l u m , a r e p o r t submitted t o the NSS C u r r i c u l u m Comrnittoe (No date, but about March 1976) D i s c u s s i o n Paper on Approaches to the C u r r i c u l u m Process i n the S.I. C u r r i c u l u m Dovoiopmt-nt O f l i c e r ( P r i m a r y ) . C i r c u l a t e d i n the M i n i o t r y o f Ed. Honiara 1977 (Feb) 222 The Guedacanal Rural Training Centre. A d r a f t plan f o r the organisation and curriculum of an RTC on Guada-canal; Submitted to the Ministry of Education by the Guadacanal Council (no date ,. but early 1976) Report on Study V i s i t to Vunamami Vocational Training Centre. Sub-regional workshop on planning r u r a l vocational t r a i n i n g , South P a c i f i c Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia (Oct 19-75) Report on Study V i a i t to Raval Vocational Training Centre Sub-regional workshop on planning r u r a l vocational training» South P a c i f i c Commission, Noumea, New C a l -edonia(Oct 1975) Report on Study V i s i t to Kabaka Vocational Training Centre Sub-regional workshop on planning r u r a l vocational t r a i n i n g . South P a c i f i c Commission, Noumea, New Cal-edonia (oct 1975) Draft Report on the Sub-regional Workshops on Planning Rural Vocational T r a i n i n g . Presented i n Honiara Oct 21, 1975* South P a c i f i c Commission. Report of the Secondary School Curriculum Workshop (July 1976) fjurriculum Development Section of the Min-* — * / . — V* y * _< — « NSS Curriculum Committee Development Studies Sub-committee Eeport, Oct. 1976. Submitted to the NSS Curriculum . Committee, Oct. 1976 Teaching of Ag r i c u l t u r e ; , Report on a workshop heid at the So&omon Islands Teacher's College. 29 Nov. - 3 Dec. 1976. Ministry of Education, Honiara. 4. LETTERS AND NOTES Note to students taking the NSS course at SITC on NSS curriculum. Prepared by NSS Tutor Jan 1976 Now Secondary Curriculum Development; suj^esttfd topics f o r .handicrafts and motor mechanics. Px-epared by NSS •tutor at SITC. Jan 1976 Eng l i s h . i n the New Secondary Schools. A d i r e c t i v e from the Ministry of Education. Feb. 19, 1976 Honiara New Secondary School Curriculum. A l e t t e r to the Headmaster of HNSS from the NSS tutor at SITC. Jan 26, 1977 MINUTES OF THE NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM COMMITTEE The Minutea of:Feb. 18, 1975 March 10, 1975 A p r i l 24, 1975 Oct. 29, 1975 A p r i l 22, 1976 Aug. 14, 1976 Oct. 27. 1976 224 APPENDIX F INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INITIAL CATEGORIZATION OF THE UNITS OF STUDY 225 DEAR RESPONDANT: ' • HERE ARE A LARGE NUMBER OP POSSIBLE COURSES FOR STUDY IN THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL. THEY ARE WRITTEN ON CARDS. PLEASE DIVIDE THEM UP INTO GROUPS SO THAT YOU HAVE SIMILAR COURSES IN EACH GROUP. FOR EXAMPLE, ONE OF YOUR GROUPS MIGHT CONTAIN COURSES WHICH COULD BE GROUPED TOGETHER AS "AGRICULT-URE COURSES". SEE NUMBER OF COURSES IN EACH GROUP DOES NOT HAVE TO BE THE SAME. THE NUMBERS ON THE CARD3 HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THE GROUPING. THEY ARE FOR IDENTIFICATION PUR-POSES. IN THE CHART. BELOW, PLEASE NAME EACH GROUP THAT YOU DET-ERMINE, AND RECORD THE IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS OF THE COURSES WHICH YOU PLACED IN THAT GROUP. THE NAME YOU WOULD GIVE THE GROUP THE IDENTIFICATION NUMB- . ERS OF THE COURSES IN THE GROUP ) 2 2 6 PLEASE RECORD THE IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS OF ANY CARDS' STAT-MENTS WHICH YOU CONSIDER TO BE UNCLEAR OR POORLY WORDED. ARE THERE ANY OTHER COURSES WHICH YCU THINK SHOULD BE .ADDED? I F S O , PLEASE WRITE THEM J3ELOY/, AND INDICATE WHICH OF YOUR GROUPS YOU WOULD PUT THEM I K . APPENDIX G INSTRUCTIONS FOR CATEGORIZING THE UNITS OF INSTRUCTION 228 TUB HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL NEEDS ASSESSMENT INTRODUCTION: IN THE WHITE ENVELOPE TO YOUR RIGHT ARE A NUMBER OP POSSIBLE TOPICS, TYPED ON SLIPS OF PAPER, FOR THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL. •PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING STEPS FOR ASSIGNING THE TOPICS. WHEN YOU . HAVE FINISHED READING, THEN PLEASE ASSIGN THE TOPICS AS REQUESTED. CHECK EACH STEP A3 YOU COMPLETE IT. THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME. NORMAN E. GLSADOW STEP 1:CAREFULLY GO THROUGH THE TOPICS ON THE SLIPS OF PAPER AND PLACE EACH ONE IN THE BROWN ENVELOPE WITH THE CATEGORY HEADING YOU CONSIDER APPROPRIATE. STEP 2 : WHEN ALL THE SLIPS CF PAPER HAVE BEEN PLACED IN THE DIFFERENT ENVELOPES, TAKE-OUT EACH SET FROM EACH ENVELOPE IN TURN AND GO THROUGH THEM UNTIL YCU ARE ABSOLUTELY SURE YOU HAVE PLACED THE TOPICS IN THE APPROPRIATE ENVELOPES. STEP3: WHEN YOU ARE COMPLETELY SATISFIED WITH THE WAY IN WHICH YCU HAV. ASSIGNED THE TOPICS, THEN CLOSE UP THE FOLDER AND RETURN IT TO NOHMAN OLEALOW. NOTES : 1. THE NUMBERS ON THE SLIPS OF PAPER ARE FOR IDENTIFICATION PURPOSES ONLY, AND HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THE WAY IN WHICH YOU ASSIGN THE TOPICS. 2 . THE NUMBER OF SLIPS OF PAPER IN EACH ENVELOPE DOES NOT HAVE T BE THE SAME. 3. EACH TOPIC SHOULD BE ASSIGNED TO AN ENVELOPE. 229 APPENDIX H INSTRUCTIONS AND INSTRUMENT FOR RATING THE CURRICULUM OPTIONS IN PHASE I OF THE STUDY 230 - 1 - •' 1. DEAR RBSPONDANTi Tho work that you w i l l ba asked to do on the f o l l o w i n g pages i s important. I t w i l l bo used to help determine th© curriculum of the HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL. Shank you f o r the t i n e you w i l l spend on i t . ' PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING- AIMS AND CHARACTERISTICS CAREFULLY 2. THE AIKS OF TifE HONIARA NS3t . . a. To provide the student with the knowledge and s k i l l s t hat w i l l help the student l i v e a u s e f u l l i f e i n Honiara. b. To provide the student with chances to l e a r n things which are s u i t a b l e f o r l i v i n g i n Honiara. c. To provide t r a i n i n g which w i l l l e a d to a b e t t e r chance o f employment. v • 3. THE CHARACTERISTICS OP THE HONIARA N33; a. The school w i l l be loca t e d i n the b u i l d i n g s wnich used to be the Honiara Government Primary School (GPS), beside the Ka-fcanikau H i v e r . fc. The school w i l l have enough land f o r demonstration p l o t s i n a g r i c u l t u r e . o. Th students w i l l be day students. They w i l l not have t o produce t h e i r own food at s c h o o l . d. A l l the students w i l l be from Honiara primary s c h o o l s . e. A l l o f the students w i l l have completed standard 6. £. The School's program w i l l be 2 years i n l e n g t h . 4. In the f o l l o w i n g pages you w i l l be asked to make judgements about t o p i c s which have been suggested f o r the Honiara KS3. You w i l l be esked to i n d i c a t e how important each t o p i c i s i n h e l p i n g the students i n the school meet the above aims. Some of you w i l l be asked to do t h i s f o r boys i n the Honiara N3S, and some f o r g i r l s i n ths K o n i t r a NSS. There are no "courect" answers. This i s not a t e s t . But please do your work c a r e f u l l y . Do not put your name on any o f the papers. Thank you f o r your cooperation Norcan Gleadow . 2 3 1 -2-THE FOLLOWING SUBJK3T HEADINGS HAVE BEEN SUGGESTED POR THE HONIARA NEW S3C0NDARY SCHOOL, UNDER EACH SUBJECT HEADING IS A SHORT DESCRIPTION OP THE SORTS OP THINGS WHICH MIGHT BE INCLUDED. THIS IS TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA OP WHAT IS BEING CONSID* / BRED, AND DOES NOT REPRESENT THE PINAL FORM OF THE SUBJECTS. 1. RBCREATTOI3 AND GAMES; or g a n i z i n g indoor and outdoor games swimming i n s t r u c t i o n , a knowledge of tha r u l e s 4: r e f e r e e i n g .popular l o c a l games. 2. -flSTMAL AGRICULTURE: r a i s i n g farm animals such aa p i g s and chickens, and other animal which could make money f o r -the student such a 3 d a i r y c a t t l e , beef c a t t l e , c r o c o d i l e r a i s -i n g and r e a r i n g t u r t l e s . 3 . PLANT AGRICULTURE: the e f f i c i e n t production of t r a d i t i o n a l and cash crops. Improving s o i l conditions by i r r i g a t i o n , fertilizers, and compost, and marketing the farm products. 4. ETSI-THMG' methods o f catching and marketing f i s h from the • sea. and from the r i v e r s . Catching s h e l l f i s h and b a i t f i s h . 5. S3IALL BUSXN5S3 STUDIES: the s k i l l s needed to open a s m a l l business, narket farm products, operate a small shop, s t a r t «. cooperative. Simple book-keeping, banking, loans, and using money wi s e l y . 6« ^AP^—CJ-OT^ES: i n t r o d u c t i o n to some of t he trades such as blacksmithing, plumbing, welding, typing, b r i c k l a y i n g . PPTT.T>I?:G ABED CONSTRUCTION; BUILding s t r u c t u r e s such as houses end l a t r i n e s , and smaller things such as boats, l e a f houses and s e p t i c tanks. Simple road and bridge c o n s t r u c t i o n . 8« y3C:SAT»TC3 * the r e p a i r and maintenence of simple engines much as outboard motors, motorcycle engines, power eaws; end the cozre and maintenence o f cars and t r u c k s . 9. H0J>rTCRAPT3;cooking and preparing food, sewing, c h i l d care and other s k i l l s f o r running a good household. 10. HAND!CRAFTS:: THE t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s such as weaving, carving, making s h e l l _ jewelery e t c . , and the newer ci-afts such as leatherwork, drawing and p a i n t i n g , candle making. 11. TRADITIONAL STUDIES: THE t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s , songs and dances of people of the Honiara area. X2. HONIARA STODIBS:' how to use the Various f a c i l i t i e s i n Honiara such as the l i b r a r y , museum, h o s p i t a l , community orga n i z a t i o n s , the p o l i c e i n Honiara,town p o l i t i c s , labour laws e t c . 13. PERSONAL HRALTTI: the r e c o g n i t i o n and treatment of disease and i n f e c t i o n . A l c o h o l use, elementary f i r s t a i d , f a m i l y "* planning and how the body fu n c t i o n s . 14. SOT'OKOU ISI.AND STUDIES: Those t o p i c s which are about the Solomon IsXands as a whole, such as i t s government, i t s economy, geography of the Solomons, i t s h i s t o r y , i t s i n d u s t r y . 15. FEXXGIQUS EDUCATION: a r e l i g i o u s education curriculum epprcTve'd by a l l the church tgroups i n Honiara. 232 INFORMATION ABOUT YOU AGE yrs 3 EX SCHOOLING S T . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 POEM 1 2 3 4 5 HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN IN HONIARA? lees than 1 year 1 yr 1-Jr yr 2 y r _ _ 24yr 3yr___ 3-^ yr 4yr___ 44-vr 5yr more than 5 .vr *»»*»##»*»•»»*•»*»««*••»**»»**»*»»*******»*»***•»*«»**»****»»»»»* IN LIGHT OD1 THE•AIMS OP THE HONIARA NSS, PLEASE INDICATE THE IMPORTANCE YOU FEEL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING TOPICS SHOULD HAVE POR GIRLS IN THE HONIARA NSS. PLEASE REFER TO PAGE 2 5 FOR MORE DETAILS ABOUT EACH TOPIC. TOPIC I t RECREATION AND GAMES , EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT TOPIC 2: ANIMAL AGRICULTURE EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY _ NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT xMPORTANT **«»»*»***•»•»*••»********** ************************************* TOPIC 3 J PLANT AGRICULTURE EXTREMELY VERY SOMESTHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT >*««**#*»**••***«**»*****•»***** TOPIC 4* FISHING «*««««»*•***************** EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT. IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT #** •»* * * *»* *« » » * » * * » * * * TOPIC 5l SMALL BUSINES3 STUDIES • ' \ EXTRFMELY ' VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT I M P O R T • • ' ' " • ' 2 3 3 TOPIC 6» TRADE COURSES EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORT.iNT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT l i i m m «•» « » « * » » » • » « - » « « - » » • « • • » » • - » * » • • » « « » » « « - « - »•«»••»•>••»• TOPIC 7t BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT . IMPORTANT IMPORTANT TOPIC 8 : MECHANICS EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT TOPIC,9: HOMECRAFTS EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTiiNT IMPORTANT ••**••*•***•*••*****«•**••*•»>'*•••••«#*•«•**«•***«*•«***»•«**• TOPIC lOt HANDICRAFTS EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPOETANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT • «•##•»•••*****•*«•«?»»#•«•*»?***'##«*«•***#* **»*•*»«»***«*»*»** TOPIC H i TRADITIONAL STUDIES • EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMBORTAN T IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT • ••»««#««•«•»*#»•»«**** »*«««•«**»**#»*******»*»**#***»«****»•*•»«»•• * TOPIC 12» HONIARA STUDIES , EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT TOPIC X3: PERSONAL HEALTH STUDIES EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT TOPIC 14: SOLOMON ISLAND STUDIES EXTREMELY VERT SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT TOPIC 15t RELIGIOUS EDUCATION EXTREMELY VERY SOMEWHAT SLIGHTLY NOT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT •«»«*»*»******»**•*»**»*»»*»***»»«**«**•»»*«»*<*•**»»»*#***«*** e x e r c i s e 2 RANKING THE TOPICS MOST IMPORTANT LEAST IMPORTANT APPENDIX I INSTRUCTIONS FOR RANKING THE CURRICULUM OPTIONS IN PHASE I OF THE STUDY 236 Is t h e s m a l l envelope attached to t h i s page, are the f i f t e e n (15) t o p i c s , which have been suggested f o r the Honiara NSS, w r i t t e n on s l i p s of paper. Slease take t h e m out of the envelope and plaOe them on your desk Count them to be sure you have a l l 15 t o p i c s . In t h i s e x e r c i s e you are asked to rank order the 'topics i n terms o f t h e i r importance f o r . GIRLS i n t h e Honiara NSS, i n l i g h t o f the aims of the NSS. STEP Is SPREAD OUT THE SLIPS OP PAPER. ON TOUR DESK SO THAT TOO CAN SEE THEM ALL. STEP 2 s PICK OUT THAT TOPIC WHICH YOU THINK IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FOR ' ; GIRLS IN THE HONIARA NSS. STEP 3s PLACE THAT MOST IMPORTANT TOPIC AT TEE TOP OF YOUR DESK. STBP 4s PICK OUT THAT TOPIC YOU THINK IS THE NEXT MOST IMPORTANT TOPIC FOR GIRLS IN THE HONIARA sss . ST£*» 5» PLACE THAT NEXT MOST IMPORTANT TOPIC BELOW THE FIRST ONE YOU CHOSE. STEP 6s CONTINUE TO DO THIS UNTIL ALL 15 TOPICS ARE ARRANGED IN A COLUMN DOWN YOUR DESST. THE TOPIC AT THE TOP OF YOUR COLUMN SHOULD BE THE M03T IMPORTANT ONE FOR - GIRLS; AND THE TOPIC AT THE BOTTOM OF THE COLUMN SHOULD BE THE ONE YOU THINK IS LEAST IMPORTANT FOR GIRLS. Vhen you are completely s a t i s f i e d with the way you have arranged the topicB, then record, the order you have made i n the space provided at the end of the previous e x e r c i s e , Simply write the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n -"mborB from the s l i p s o f paper i n the spaces provided. ) 237 APPENDIX J THE "REASONS" LIST FOR EACH CURRICULUM OPTION CHOSEN FOR PHASE II OF THE STUDY (PAGE 1 OF EACH RSQ) 238 TOPIC TO P.S Cv.ifi3IDj.HED: Mechanics f o r BOYS i n tho Honiara New Secondary School. DESCRIPTION CF THE TOPIC: Mechanics would i n c l u d e the r e -p a i r and maintenance of cimplo machines such aa outboard motors, motorcycle engines, power saws, and simple household machines, and the uoo of t o o l s . REASONS -. 1. THE B0Y3 WILL USE OUTBOARD ENGINES AND OTHER MACHINES WHEN THEY GET CLDER. 2. THE COURSE- WOULD GIVE THE BOYS So ME EiiRLY TRAINING FOR A JOB IN MECHANICS. 3. THE BCYS Wc-ULD PLAY ABOUT TOO MUCH IN A MECHANICS COURSE 4. IF THE BOYS KNOW HOW TO PROPERLY CARE FOR MACHINES, THE MACHINES WILL KEi;? GoING FOR_A l^NG..™'12.: 5. THERE ARE NOT MANY MECHANIC JOiiii IN THE SOLOMONS OR IN -HONIARA. 6 . VERY FEW PEOPLE HAVE ANY TRAINING IN MECHANICS. 7. THE BOYS WOULD LE~RN TO FIX THE MACHINES THEY HAVE AT Mj^.WITH^yiLSsYI-^ 8 . MORE MACHINES ARE NOW USED IN HONIARA H0ME3 THAN • 5Y^*L5£? (J '55:: 9- THE BOYS CLO-THE3 WOULD GET DIRTY. 10. THERE ARE VERY FEW MACHINES III THE B0Y3 HOME VILLAGES 11. The boys could make 6ome money by r e p a i r i n g other 2S9PlS5. .machines^ 22. THE TOOLS FOR MECIL-NICS COST A LOT OF MONEY 13. MACHINES ARE BECOMING PART OF D..ILY LIFE IN THE S0LCM0N3 239 TOPIC TO BE C0N3IDKriy.D:MochanloB for OIRLS i n tho Honiara New Secondary School. DESCRIPTION OF TK3 TOPIC: Mechanics would i n c l u d e the r e p a i r and maintenance of aimple machines such as outboard motors, motorcycle engines, power saws, and simple household machines, and the use of t o o l s . REASONS 1. THE GIRLS WILL U3E OUTBOARD ENGINES AND OTHER MACHINE3 WHEN_ TKEY_ OET_OLDER. 2 . A MECHANICS JOB WOULD TAKE THE GIRL3 OUT OF THE HOME. 3. THE COURSE WOULD GIVE THE GIRL3 SOME EARLY TRAINING FOR A JOB IN f'!3CKAKICS_.__ 4. GIRLS ARE TOO SLOW DOING MECHANICAL JOBS. 5. THE GIRLS ARE TOO YOUNG TO TAKE A MECHANICS COURSE IN THE HONIARA NEW_SEC0NDAHY_SCH0OL._; 6. GIRL3 ARE NOT INTERESTED IN MECHANICS. 7. IF THE GIRLS KNOW HOW TO PROPERLY CAKE FOR MACHINE3, ?™_^2y5LJ^§_L^i_r?§?_52ILJ5_I9lLA_^2i:S_?J!!?5i 8 . GIRLS DO NOT HAVE THE ABILITY TO LEARN HOW TO DO JffiCHANICS. O. THERE AHK NOT MANY MECHANICS JOBS IN THE TOWN OR IN _ilS_Lc52I_2?_±Lci_^2£2L.'2L:3i 10. THE GIRLS COULD MAKE SOME MONEY BY REPAIRING OTHER ?§OPLES_MACHLNE3_. 11. VERY FEW PEOPLE IN THE VILLAGES HAVE ANY TRAINING IN £i?I£r5_^2£:5*£5§i 12. THE GIRL3 WOULD LH.vRi; TO FIX TIIS MACHINES THEY IUVE AT HOME WITKiJUT_HAVING_TO_SPENn_MON^ ^ 13. THE GIRLS CLOTHES WILL GET DIRTY. 3.4. FIXING MACHINES IS NOT A CUSTOMARY ROLE FOR WOMEN OR . GIPJ/S_IN_Th^_SOLuKONS. 15. MORS MACHINES ARE NOW USED IN ' HONIARA HOMES THAN EVER BEFORE^ ; ± l6^~THSRE ARE VERY FEW MACHINES IN THE GIRLS' HOME VILLAGES 17. THERE ARE NO GIRL OR WOMEN MECHANICS IN THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. : 16. MACHINES ARE BECOMING PART CF DAILY LIFE IN THE' SOLOMONS I • 240 TOPIC TO 3H CONSIDERED: Hoaocrafts f o r BOYS i n the Honiara Now Secondary School. DESCRIPTION Q? THE TOPIC; Hor.ccrafts c o n s i s t o o f l o a r n i n g about proper i'oods T O feed the fa m i l y , cooking, sewing, proper c h i l d care, and other s k i l l s needed to keep a home i n Honiara. REASONS X. MOST SOLOMON ISLItNliERS ARE HEALTHY USING THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OP HOMECRAFTS. ' 2 . BOYS WHO TAKE HOMECRAFTS MAY BE ABLE TO GET JOBS AS H0U3E2CYS. 3. HOMECRAFTS ARE USED IN EVERYDAY LIFE. 4. HOMECRAFTS TEACH HEALTHIER WAYS OF LIVING IN HONIARA. "5r~Tffi:^ _ARE VERY FEW PAYING JOBS THAT USE THE HOMECRAFT SKILLS. . "6r~HOieCRAFTS~I3_GIRLS OR WOMEN'S WORK BY CUSTOM AND TRADITION iy_iHS_PCL0M0!:3. 7. THE.HOYS IN THE SCHOOL ARE TOO YOUNG. 8. THE BOYS ALREADY ENOW HOW TO DO MOST HOMECRAFT SKILLS. " ~ ^ " ^ . " ^ - . . - - o ^-^v X'l A FAMILY WILL HAVE TO DO IKE^CCOKi-NC^AfTi; LOOK /^TER_THE_H0M3_£^J_THE_CH IOTHE^'ATIETTO'STRCIJO TRADITIONAL REASONS IN TOWN WHICH SAY HOMECRAFTS ARE_ONLY_FOR_GIRLS. llT'lF THE 30Y3 LIVE AWAY FROM HOME THEY V/ILL HAVE TO*LOCK AFTER THEMSELVES. 12~~EV~3~TKuUGH THE BOYS LEARN NSW HOMECRAFT METHODS I N THE SCHOOL THEY_WILL_USS_TKS_TK^ IBvl L*D™:~ffiN~U3UALLY~HAV3 JC3S WHICH TAKE THEM AWAY FRO:-': TEE HO'ME_DURING_THS_DAY. II~~THE " BOYS COULD U S E T H E HOMECRAFT S K I L L S T H E Y L E A R N A T B C H G O W = . O U ^ 1 T V - I E B O Y S WOULD S A V E MONEY I F T H E Y IEARNSD GOOD S H O P -PING M E T H O D S £ Sr.l.-ED T ^ I 3 _ G K ; _ C L C T f f i S 1 6 /T!3"30YS"WOULD " DE A B L E T O H E L P T H E I R W I F E I N T H E H0,£E V i f f i : N _ T K S Y _ G O T _ M A R R I E D . _ _ . ) 241 TOPIC TO BE CONSIDERED;' Homecrafts f o r G I R L 3 i n tha Honiara I.'cw Secondary School. DESCRIPTION i,V THE TOPIC; Homecrafts c o n 3 i s t 3 of l e a r n i n g about about proper foods to feed the family, cooking, sowing, proper c h i l d care, and other s k i l l s needed to keep a home i n Honiara. REASONS 1. THE GIRDS I N T H E SCHOOL ARE TOO YOUNG. 2. THERE ARE NC STRONG TRADITIONAL REASONS HT TOWN WHICH SAY THAT HOMECRAFTS ARE ONLY FOR GIRLS. 3 . THERE ARE VERY FEW PAYING JOBS THAT USE THE HOMECRAFT SKILLS^ 4. GIRLS WHO TAKE HOMECRAFTS MAY $ BS ABLE TO GET JOBS AS H0U3EGIRLS. 5 . HOMECRAFTS IS GIRLS OR WOMSNS WORK BY CUSTOM AND TRADITION IN THE SOLOMONS. • 6 . . T H E G I R L S COULD USE THE HOMECRAFT SKILLS THEY LEARN*. AROUND THEIR PARENT'S_OR ^LATIVES_HoMES. A°?*±-?2\J 7. T H E WOMEN AND GIRLS HAVE TO DO HOMECRAFTS IN T H E HOME BECAUSE THE MEN AND BOYS WuN'T DO THEM. 8. MOST SOLOMON ISLANDERS ARE HEALTHY USING THE TRAD-• 9. T H E G I R L S ALREADY KNOW HOW TC U S E MOST HOMECRAFT _ S K I L L S . 1 0 . B0Y3 AND K E N U S U A L L Y HAVE J 0 3 S WHICH TAKE THEM AWAY FRCM T H E HOME DURIN:>_TKE_DJ»Y 1  1 1 . HOMECRAFTS ARE USED I N EVERYDAY L I F E . 1 2 . IF TEE GIRLS LIVE AWAY FROM HOME THEY WILL HAVE TO iQ^-^sS-^-i^iY??- . 1 3 . HOMECRAFTS TEACH HEALTHIER WAYS OF LIVING IN HONIARA 1 4 . EVEN THOUGH THE GIRLS LEARN NEW HOMECRAFT METHODS IN SCHOOL, THEY WILL USE Th3_TRADITIoNAL_.MSTHo;D 1 5 . MOST OF THE GIRL3 WILL EECOME H0U3EWIFES AND MOTHERS 1 6 . T E E G I R L S WOULD SAVE MONEY I F THEY LEARNED GOOD SHOP-PING,. " METHODS AND SEWED T H E I R OWN CLOTHES. 242 TOPIC TC BE CONSIDEliED; P l a n t A e r i c u l t u r u f o r BOYS In tha Honiara Hew Secondary School. DESCRIPTION OP THE TOPIC; The e f f i c i e n t production of p l a n t crops would be s t u d i e d and p r a c t i c e d . I t would include t r a d i t i o n a l crops as w e l l as cash cropc, i r r i g a t i o n , Improving s o i l c o n d i t i o n s ! and some simple farm economics• RBAS0N3 • 1. AGRICULTURE IS PART OP A SOLOMON ISLANDERS WAY OP LIFE 2. SOME OF THE BCY3 WILL BE GOING BACK TO THEIR OWN VILLAGES WHEN THEY HAVE LEFT THE • HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCH. 3- THE SOILS IN, AND AROUND HONIARA TOWN. ARE VERY POOR FOB: AGRICULTURE. 4- . THE 30YS WOULD LEARN TO GROW CROPS OTHER THAN JUST TRADITIONAL CROPS. 5. THE BOYS ARE TOO YOUNG TO USE MODERN METHODS OF AGRICULTURE._ 6. THE BOYS' CLOTHES WILL GET DIRTY DOING PLANT AGRICULTURE AT THE SCHOOL. 7. TEE VEGETABLES THE BOYS LEARNED TO GROW COULD BE SOLD IN' THE HONIARA MARKET. _ B. MOSf CF IKE BvYS ALREADY KNOW HoV/ TO GROW THE TfuiDITIONAL CROPS, BEFORE THE" COME TO Th2_HCniAP-i.JjTBW_SBCONDAilY SCH. 9. YOV DON'T HEED EXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR PLANT AGRICULTURE SO A BOY WOULD NOT NEED MUCH MONEY TO ST A R T HIS OWN FARM. 10. PEOPLE IN HONIARA CAN BUY ALL THEIR FOOD IN THE MARKET, . SO_THEY DuK'T NEED A FARM. X I . I F A BOY C;*N NOT FIND A JOB IN HONIARA, THEN HE MUST GROW HIS OWN FOOD. 12. A BOY COULD UOT GROW A CASH CROP ON THE SMALL PLOTS OF I,^^-5§-!f5Hi5_F?iI)_iK_?t;wJi' 13. THERE IS A SHORTAGE OF LAND FOR AGRICULTURE IN HONIARA. 14. TEE BOYS WILL NOT BE ABLE TO GET THEIR OWN PLOT OF LAND IN HONIARA. . 15.""THERE ARE NO AGRICULTURE EXTENSION WORKERS WORKING WITH JTHE Pto-PLE_IN_HCHIARA_TOWN. 16. PLANT AGRICULTURE IS TAUGHT IN ALL THE OTHER NEW SEC-ONDARY _SCH0CL3 _IN _THE _SOLOMO N _I3LAND3. 17. AT HOME THE EOYS WILL USE THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF . AGRICULTURE, NOT THE MODERN METI-ICDS^TKDY J^.SCHOCL 18. THE TRADITIONAL METHODS OF AGRICULTURE WILL NOT GROW AS MUCH FCCD_ A 3 J£HE-MODERN METHODS._ TOPIC TO BR CONSIDftRED: T r a d i t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s ' ' f o r A L L STUDENTS i n the Honiara Now Secondary achool DESCRIPTION O F THE T O P I C : Thi3 course would i n c l u d e the study of the t r a d i t i o n a l dances, s o n g s , music, c r a f t s , s t o r i e s and games of the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r -a l groups i n Honiara. R E A S O N S I - TAKING A COURSE IN TRADITIONAL STUDIES WOULD ENCOURAGE THE STUDENTS TO KEEP SOME O F THE_ TRADITIONAL. WAY3. 2. TEE COURSE WOULD NOT TEA C H THE STUDENTS. ANYTHING WHICH I S MODERN. _ 3. A TRADITIONAL OR CULTURAL STUDIES COURSE WOULD GIVE THE STUDENT SOME TRADII1CWAL_ HULE3_AND. WAYS_ TO_EEHAVE_. 4-. TEE THINGS THE STUDENTS LEARN I N TRADITIONAL STUDIE3 MAY EO! AGREE WITH WHAT THEY ARE TOLD IN_ HELIGIOUS_ 2DUCATI0N]._--T H E STUDENTS ARE TOO YOUNG TO GET ANYTHING O U T OF A T R A D I T I O N A L S T U D I E S COURSE. _ _ •6.. THE STUDENTS COULD DEMONSTRATE SOME <DF THE TRADITIONAL . WAYS "W TOURISTS FOR MONEY.. 7, V E R Y . FEW Oi- T H E STUDENTS KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT T H E I R OWN C U L T U R E S AMD T R A D I T I O N S . 8- II" THE STUDENT HAS TO L E A V E HONIARA, THE TRADITIONAL STUDIES COURSE WOULD_HEL? ??^PARE_HIM_F0R_TIIiAC-3_LIFE^ 9. TE3 STUDENTS WOULD LEARN WHAT WAS TABU IN THE DIFFERENT CULTUaES O F THE SOLOMON ISLANDS.. 1C. THESE ARE TOO MAirf D I F F E R E N T CUSTOMS AND TR A D I T I O N S FOR T H E STUDENT TO LEARN THEM A L L . . 11. THE STUDENTS COULD USB SOME OF THE THINGS THEY LEARN IN T R A D I T I O N A L S T U D I E S FOR T H E I R 0WN_ENJ0YM3NT. 12.. THE STUDENT COULD SELL THE TRADITIONAL CRAFTS H E MAKES FOR KOBET. ' 13. T H E R E I S P R E S E N T L Y NO S Y L L A B U S WHICH COULD B E USED FOR A TRADITIONAL STUDIES C0URSE_IN_K0NIAHA. 14. TRADITIONAL S T U D I E S WILL T E A C H THE. STUDENT SOME O F T H E WAYS, O P T H E OLD P E O P L E I N T H E SOLOMONS. . 15. T H H HONIARA P E O P L E DO NOT HAVE "AMY TRA D I T I O N A L WAYS. 16. L E A D I N G ABOUT OTHER SOLOMON I S L A N D S CULTURES WOULD H E L P T H E S T U D E N T G E T ALONG WITH CT:^R_SOLCMON_ISLANDERS I  17. L E A R N I N G D I F F E R E N T T R A D I T I O N S MIGHT CONFUSE T H E STUDENTS IN T H E HONIARA HEW SECONDARY SCHOOL. 18. MOST S T U D E N T S I N TOWN WILL NOT U S E TRA D I T I O N A L OR CUSTOM WAYS. 19. B Y L E A R N I N G ABOUT D I F F E R E N T SOLCMON I S L A N D CUSTOMS AND T R A D I T I O N S , T H E STUDENT COULD LOCK AT THE SOLOMONS AS_A S I N G L E N A T I O N . ) 244 TOPIC TO BR CONSIDERED: R e l i g i o u s education f o r STUDENTS i n tho Honiara New Secondary School DESCRIPTION OF TIE T'.PIC: R e l i g i o u s education vould be the touching of C h r i s t i a n i t y i n the Honiara New Secondary School, by the d i f f e r e n t church groups. REAS0N3 X. -EVSK I F A STUDENT DID NOT FEEL RELIGIOUS HE OR SHE WOULD BE EXPECTED TO GC Tu RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. 2. RELIGIOUS EDUCATION WILL NOT HELP, VERY MUCH, A STUDENT WHO HASN'T GOT CHRISTIAN BELIEFS IN THE FAMILY 3. RELIGIOUS EDUCATION WoULD TS«.CH A STUDENT TO OBEY THE LAW. 4. THE STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOL HAVE SPIRITUAL NEEDS. . 5. RELIGIOUS SD. MIGHT SHOW THAI SOME KINDS OF ECONOMIC ^DEVELOPMENT IN THE SALOMONS ARE WRONG.. 6 . RELIGIOUS ED. DEALS WITH A LOT OF BASIC MORAL PROBLEMS _OF__TOV&" LIVING. 7. MOST PARENTS WOULD WANT THEIR CHILDREN TO TAKE RELIGIOUS _EDUCATIO-ii. S. THE STUDENT WOULD ONLY GET THE POINT OF VIEW OF HIS _CH^CH Z_ A? r j JjO T_ THE _P v. IN TS 9. THE MEMBERS OF THE SOLOMON ISLiuvD CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION _THINK THAT RELIGIuUS ED. SH0ULD_3E TAUOHT_IN_THE_SCH0CL. 10. THE THINGS THE STUDENTS LEARN IN RELIGIOUS ED. MAY NOT AGREE WITH CUSTOM AND TP^ITI0NAL_BELIEFS. 11. RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IS SOMETHING THAT IS 2 JOB FOR IN THE CHURCH, AND !£T_A_J03 F0R_IN_THE_SCHO0L . ' 12. SOME C.F THE CHURCHES ARE NvT WORRIED A30UT WHETHER THERE IS RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN_THE SCHOOL.. 12. RELIGIOUS EDUCATION WILL BE ABOUT THE CHRISTIAN RELI^IC^ONLY. 14. THE STUDENT WOULD BE TAUGHT ABuUT GOD AND JESUS 15. TAKIKC- RELIGIOUS EDUCATION MIGHT MAKE THE STUDENT MORE *f 1^ - L'5 _ ?i i Y"^  _ ilrm'i: S m _ I i _ _ 5 l J 5 £3 • 16. RELIGIOUS EDUCATION WcULD SHOW A STUDENT HOW HE COULD BS FREE-PROM THE_FEARS AIO_ MAGIC OF CUSTOM RELIGION. 17. A RELIGIOUS EDUCTION COURSE WOULD ENCOURAGE NON-CHHISTIAIi_3TUDENT3_T0_3ECo^ 18. - RELIUIoUS EDUCATION WOULD GIVE . 3IM.7LE CHRISTIANITY TO STU"->E-;TS WHO_>:0ULii_N0T_GET_A.T/_RELIG 19. THE STUDENTS WOULD BE SEPARATED IN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ACCCHDIM5_T^ j . 245 APPENDIX K THE INSTRUCTIONS TO THE RESPONDENTS FOR COMPLETING THE RSQ'S INSTRUCTIONS STEP 1: C a r e f u l l y read the TOPIC TO BE CONSIDERED. Be sure you understand whether i t i s f o r ALL STUDENTS, or j u s t f o r GIRLS. or j u s t f o r BOYS. STEP 2: Read the DESCRIPTION CP THE TOPIC. STEP 3s Read reason number 1. Each reason has 3 boxes beside i t . I f you think that reason number 1 i s a reason why we SHOULD teach the t o p i c i n the Honiara New Secondary School, then place a t i c k ( «0 i n the f i r s t box. I f you t h i n k that t h i s reason i s a reason why we SHOULD NOT t e a c h tho topic- i n the Honiara Now Secondary School, then place a t i c k ( w^Jf i n the second box. If you cannot make-up your mind, then place a t i c k i n the t h i r d box. Only place a t i c k i n the t h i r d box i f you t r u l y cannot make-up your mind , or i f you think th a t the reason does not apply to the t o p i c . NOTE: YOU SHOULD ONLY PUT ONE TICK ( *^TlN ONE OF THE ' THREE BOXES FOR BACK REASON 1 STEP 4: Repeat STEP 3 with n i l the other reasons. STEP 5: I f you think of any reasons, which are not on the l i s t , then add them to the bottom of the l i s t o f reasons, and f o l l o w tho same procedure i as you have with the other * reasons. STEP 6: Look over those reasons where you have placed t i c k s i n the f i r s t column of boxes; that i s , a l l those reasons why you think we SHOULD teach the t o p i c i n the Honiara Now Secondary School. Pick the reason which you think i s the most important reason why wo SHOULD teach the t o p i c . Place the number "1" beside the box t i c k e d ("T" f o r that reason. P i c k the reason which you think i s the second most important reason why we 6 h o u l d teach the t o p i c , and place tho. number "2" beside the box t i c k e d ( */) f o r that reason. P i c k tho reason which you think i s the t h i r d most important toason why we should teach the t o p i c , and place the number "3" beside the box t i c k e d ( >/) f o r that reason. 247 4 STEP 7s Look over those reasons where you have placed -ticks i n the second column of boxes; that i s , a l l those reasons why you th i n k we SHOULD NOT teach the t o p i c i n the Honiara New Secondary School. P i c k the reason which you think i s tho most important reason why we SHOULD NOT teach the t o p i c . Place the nunbor "1" beside the box t i c k e d f o r that reason. P i c k the reason which you think i s the second most in p o r t a n t reason why we SHOULD NOT teach the t o p i c , and place the number "2" beside the box t i c k e d f o r that reason.' P i c k the reason which you think i s the t h i r d most important reason why we SHOULD NOT teadh the t o p i c , and p l a c e the number "3" beside the box t i c k e d f o r t h a t reason. STEP 8: Fellow the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the t h i r d page o f the sheet of reasons. STEP 9: Please go to the next t o p i c . ) 2 4 8 APPENDIX L SOLOMON ISLAND OCCUPATION CATEGORIES, AS COMPILED BY THE STATISTICS DIVISION OF THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE, HONIARA 249 List of Occupations P r o f e s s i o n a l T e c h n i c a l a n d R e l a t e d  W o r k e n 0 - 1 1 C h e m i s t s 0 - 1 2 G e o l o g i s t s 0 - 1 4 P h y s i c a l s c i e n c e t e c h n i c i a n s 0 - 2 1 A r c h i t e c t s 0 - 2 2 C i v i l e n g i n e e r s 0 - 2 3 E l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r s 0 - 2 4 M e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r s 0 - 2 9 O t h e r e n g i n e e r s ( spec i fy o n f o r m ) • 0 - 3 1 S u r v e y o r s 0 - 3 2 D r a u g h t s m e n 0 - 3 3 C i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s ; 0 - 3 4 E l e c t r i c a l a n d e l e c t r o n i c s e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s 0 - 3 5 M e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s 0 - 3 9 O t h e r e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s 0 - 4 1 A i r c r a f t p i l o t s a n d n a v i g a t o r s 0 - 4 2 S h i p s ' d e c k o f f i c e r s a n d p i l o t s 0 - 4 3 S h i p s ' e n g i n e e r s { i n c l u d i n g shore h a s e d ) 0 - 5 1 B i o l o g i s t s , zoo log i s t s a n d r e l a t e d s c i e n t isls 0 - 5 2 B a c t e r i o l o g i s t s 0 - 5 3 A g r o n o m i s t s a n d r e l a t e d s c i e n t i s t s 0~r»4 ' LIT*. c c i c n c . -0 - 6 1 M e d i c a l d o c t o r s 0 - 6 3 D e n t i s t s 0 - 6 4 D e n t a l assistants 0 - 6 5 V e t e r i n a r i a n s 0 - 6 7 Pliant* ac isls G - 6 K P h a r m a c e u t i c a l assistants 0- 71 P r o f e s s i o n a l nurses 0- 72 N u r s i n g a ids 0 - 7 3 S t u d e n t Nurses 0 - 7 6 P h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l therap i s t s 0 - 7 7 M e d i c a l X - r a y t e c h n i c i a n s 0-7S) H e a l t h i n s p e c t o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d M a n a g e r i a l W o r k e r s 0 - 8 1 S t a t i s t i c i a n s 0 - 9 0 E c o n o m i s t s 1- 10 A c c o u n t a n t s a n d A u d i t o r s 1 -21 l a w y e r s 1 -22 fudges 1 - 2 9 Jurists i»i e l s e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d 1-31 T e r t i a r y t e a c h e r s 1 -32 S e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s • 1 - 3 3 P r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s 1-34 P r e - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s t - 3 9 E d u c a t i o n adv i sers 1-41 - M i n i s t e r s o f r e l i g . ' on 1 - 4 9 O t h e r ' w o r k e r s i n r e l i g i o n (not i n c l u d i n g t r a d e s m e n ) 1 - 5 9 A u t h o r s . i ou :na i i s t s a n d r e l a t e d wri ters 1-61 W o o d c a r v e r s 1 - 6 2 C o m m e r c i a l artists a n d des igners 1 -63 P h o t o g r a p h e r s 1-93 S o c i a l workers 2 - 0 1 2 - 0 2 2 - 1 1 2 - 1 2 L e g i s l a t i v e o f f i c i a l s G o v e r n m e n t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s G e n e r a l m a n a g e r s ( i n c l u d e s Ban! , a n d o ther F i n a n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n M a n a g e r s ) P r o d u c t i o n m a n a g e r s ( e x c e p t f a r m ) C l e r i c a l a n d R e l a t e d W o r k e r s 3 - 0 0 C l e r i c a l superv i sors 3 - 1 0 G o v e r n m e n t e x e c u t i v e o f f i c i a l s 3 - 2 0 P e r s o n a l S e c r e t a r i e s 3 - 2 1 S t e n o g r a p h e r s , typists a n d t e l e t y p i s t s . 3 - 2 2 C a r d a n d t a p e - p u n c h i n g m a c h i n e opera tors 3 - 3 1 B o o k k e e p e r s , c a s h i e r s a n d t e l l e r s 3 - 4 1 B o o k k e e p i n g a n d c a l c u l a t i n g m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s 3 - 5 9 T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s superv i sors 3 - 6 0 T r a n s p o r t c o n d u c t o r s 3 - 7 0 M a i l d i s t r i b u t i o n c l e r k s 3 - 8 0 T e l e p h o n e , t e l e g r a p h a n d R a d i o o p e r a t o r s 3 - 9 1 S t o c k c l e r k s 3 - 9 3 C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d r e p o r t i n g c l e r k s 3 - 9 4 R e c e p t i o n i s t s a n d t r a v e l a g e n c y c l e r k s 3 - 9 5 L i b r a r y a n d f i l i n g c l e r k s 3 - 99 A l l o t h e r c l e r i c a l workers 5 a l e s W o r k e r s 4 - 0 0 4 - 1 0 4 - 2 0 4 - S 1 M a n a g e r s ( w h o l e s a l e a n d r e t a i l t r a d e ) W o r k i n g p r o p r i e t o r s ( w h o l e s a l e a n d r e t a i l f a d e ) S a l e s S u p e r v i s o r s a n d Buyers S h o p Ass i s tants S e r v i c e W o r k e r s 5 - 0 0 M a n a g e r s ( c a t e r i n g a n d l o d g i n g s e r v i c e s ) S - 1 0 W o r k i n g p r o p r i e t o r s ( c a t e r i n g a n d l o d g i n g s e r v i c e s ) 5 - 2 0 H o u s e k e e p i n g a n d r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s u p e r v i s o r s 5 - 3 1 C o o k s 5 - 3 2 W a i t e r s , bar tenders a n d r e l a t e d workers 5 - 4 0 M a i d s a n d r o o m s e r v i c e workers 5.-51 B u i l d i n g c a r e t a k e r s a n d w a t c h m en 5 - 6 0 L a u n d e r e r s a n d pressers 5 - 8 1 F i r e - f i g h t e r s S-82 P o l i c e m e n a n d d e t e c t i v e s 5 - 8 9 O t h e r p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e workers e g . H e a d m e n , W a r d e n 5 - 9 9 M a l a r i a sprayers A g r i c u l t u r a l A n i m a l H u s b a n d r y and  F o r e s t r y W o r k e r s , F i s h e r m e n 6 - 0 0 F a r m a n d P l a n t a t i o n M a n a g e r s 6 - 1 0 S u p e r v i s o r s ( i n c l u d i n g those persons w i t h t i t les 'Bos s l i oy 'J 6 -15 F i e l d assistants 6 - 2 1 C o p r a Cut ter s 6 - 2 2 F i e l d c r o p a n d v e g e t a b l e f a r m workers 6 - 2 4 C a t t l e w o r k e r j ti-25 P i g g e r y workers 6 - 2 6 P o u l t r y workers 6 - 2 8 F a r m m a c h i n e r y o p e r a t o r s ( I n c l u d i n g t r a c t o r d r i v e r s ) 6 - 2 9 E x t e n s i o n assistants : 6 - 3 1 L o g g e r s 6 - 3 2 Fores try workers ( e x c e p t l o g g i n g ) 6 - 4 1 F i s h e r m e n ( i n c l u d i n g crews o f F i s h i n g vesse ls ) 6 - 9 9 O t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l workers P r o d u c t i o n a n d R e l a t e d W o r k e r s , T r a n s p o r t E q u i p m e n t O p e r a t o r s  a n d L a b o u r e r s 7 - 0 0 P r o d u c t i o n S u p e r v i s o r s a n d G e n e r a l F o r e m e n (spec i fy t r a d e ) 7 - 1 1 M i n e r s a n d q u a r r y m e n 7 - 3 1 W o o d treaters 7 - 3 2 S a w y e r s 7 - 7 1 M i l l e r s , pressers a n d r e l a t e d workers 7 - 7 3 Butchers a n d m e a t preparers 7 - 7 4 F i s h Preservers ( i n c l u d i n g C a n n i n z and F r e e z i n g ) 7 - 7 6 Bakers , p a s t r y c o o k s a n d c o n f e c t i o n e r y m a k e r s 7 - 7 8 Soft D r : n k M a k e r s 7 - 8 1 T o b a c c o preparers 7 - 9 1 T a i l o r s a n d d r e s s m a k e r s . 7 - 9 5 Sewers 7 - 9 6 U p h o l s t e r e r s a n d R a t t a n F u r n i t u r e W o r k e r s 7 - 9 9 P r o d u c e i n s p e c t o r s ( A g r i c ) . 8 - 11 C a b i n e t m a k e r s 8 - 1 2 W o o d w o r k i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s 8 - 3 4 M a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s 8 - 3 5 M e t a l g r i n d e r s , po l i shers a n d t o o l sharpeners 8 - 4 ? M o t o r v e h i c l e m e c h a n i c s 8 - 4 4 A i r c r a f t e n g i n e m e c h a n i c s 8 - 4 9 H e a v y P l a n t and S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e M e c h a n i c s 8 - 5 1 E l e c t r i c a l f itters 8 - 5 5 E l e c t r i c a l w i r e m e n 8 - 5 6 T e l e p h o n e a n d t e l e g r a p h ins ta l l er s 8 - 5 7 E l e c t r i c l i n e s m e n a n d c a b l e j o i n t e r s 8 - 6 1 B r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s 8 - 6 2 C i n e m a P r o j e c t i o n i s t s 8 - 7 1 P l u m b e r s and p i p e fitters 8 - 7 2 W e l d e r s and f l a m e - c u t t e r s 8 - 7 4 S t r u c t u r a l m e t a l preparers a n d erectors 9 - 01 R u b b e r a n d p la s t i c s p r o d u c t m a k e r s 9 - 2 1 C o m p o s i t o r s a n d typeset ters 9 - 2 2 P r i n t i n g p r e s s m e n 9 - 2 6 B o o k b i n d e r s 9 - 2 7 P h o t o g r a p h i c d a r k r o o m workers 9 - 3 1 P a i n t e r s , c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 - 5 1 B l o c k m a k e r s 9 - 5 4 C a r p e n t e r s a n d jo iners 9 - 5 5 Plas terers a n d B l o c k layers 9 - 6 1 P o w e r - g e n e r a t i n g m a c h i n e r y opera tors 9 - 7 1 D o c k e r s a n d fre ight h a n d l e r s 9 - 7 2 R i g g e r s a n d c a b l e s p l i c e r s 9 - 7 3 C r a n e a n d hoist o p e r a t o r s 9 - 7 4 E a r t h - m o v i n g a n d r e l a t e d m a c h i n e r y o p e r a t o r s 9 - 7 9 L i f t i n g t r u c k d r i v e r s 9 - 8 0 Bosuns 9 - 8 1 S e a m e n 9 - 8 2 M a r i n e m e c h a n i c s 9 - 8 5 M o t o r v e h i c l e d r i v e r s 9 - 9 9 O t h e r L a b o u r e r s ( i n c l u d i n g C r a s J C u t t e r s ) APPENDIX M INFORMATION SHEET FOR RESPONDENTS COMPLETING THE RSQ'S 251 INFORMATION ABOUT YOU( A l l this information w i l l be kept eonfidentieJk ( n o one else w i l l seo i t ) NAME; OCCUPATION OR WORK E D U C A T I O N : CIRCLE THE HIGHEST YE.^ R OF PRIMARY SCHOOL YOU COMPLETED STANDARD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CIRCLB THE HIGHEST YEiiR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL YOU COMPLETED FORM 1 2 3 4 5 6 DO YOU HAVE AMY FURTHUR TRAINING, DIPLOMAS, DEGREES OR CERTIFICATED? IF 30 PLEASE WRITE THEM IN THE SPACE BELOWs DO Y O U HAVE ANY CHILDREN IN THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL? ( IF Y O U D O PLEASE SAY IF THEY ARE BOYS CR BIRDS ), •»»#»**»»***«****»***•*»*»»#****»»*»**»***^ AIMS OF THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL: .. 1. TO COMPLETE THE STUDENTS BASIC EDUCATION AFTER THE SIX YEARS OF PRIMARY SCHOOLING. 2. TO EQUIP THE STUDENT FOR YOUNG ADULT SITUATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN HONIARA. 3 . TO PROVIDE A BASIS FOR TECHNICAL LEARNING, AND EMPLOYMENT TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE, TRADING OR INDUSTRY IN HONIARA. 4. TO DEVELOPS INTERESTS AND SKILLS WITH RROTS IN THE CULTURAL HERITAGE OF THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 5 . TO PROVIDE THE.STUDENT WITH CHANCES TO LEARN THINGS WHICH ARE USEFUL FOR LIVING IN HONIARA. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HONIARA NEW SECONDARY 3CH0OL 1. THE SCHOOL IS LOCATED IN THE BUILDING3 WHICH USED TO BE THE GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOL. IN HONIARA. 2. THE STUDENTS ARE DAY STUDENTS AND LIVE AT HOME WITH THEIR PARENTS OR RELATIVES. • 3 . THE STUDENTS HAVE COMPLETED STANDARD SIX IN HONIARA PRIMARY SCHOOLS.. 4. THE NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL PROGRAM 13 TWO YEARS LONG. 5. MOST OF THE STUDENTS ARE 12 OR 13 YEARS OLD. 6. THE NEW SECONDLY 3CH0OL PROGRAM WILL NOT LEAD TO FURTHUR TRAINING AT THE HONIARA TECHNICAL INSTITUBE OR THE TEACHERS COLLEGE. 252 APPENDIX N CALCULATING A THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION FOR THE REASONS ON THE RSQ, UNDER THE NULL HYPOTHESIS OF RANDOM RESPONSE 253 To understand the f o l l o w i n g d e r i v a t i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h o RSQ acore p r o f i l e , under the n u l l hy-p o t h e s i s o f random response, the r e a d e r i s a d v i s e d to r e a d the. i n s t r u c t i o n s to the RSQ g i v e n i n Appendix K. I f we assume t h a t the responses have been made randomly, then one t h i r d o f the responses w i l l be i n the "should" c o l -umn, one t h i r d o f the responses w i l l be i n the "should n o t " column, and one t h i r d o f the responses w i l l be i n tho " n u l l " column. Po r the sake o f b r e v i t y , the "should"column w i l l be c a l l e d the " I ' B " , the " s h o u l d n o t " column w i l l be c a l l e d the • - l ' s " , and the " n u l l " column w i l l be c a l l e d the "O'a". S i n c e t h e r e a r e t h r e e p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s f o r each reason, then, f o r each judge, the p r o b a b i l i t y o f a r e a s o n r e c e i v i n c a " 1 " i c l / 3 . I f t h e r e are " r " r e a s o n s , then each judge w i l l have a s s i g n e d r / 3 o f those reasons t o the "!'©" column, and the seme number t o the - l ' s column and the O's column* I f t h e r e are n judges, then the t o t a l number o f I'B r e -ceived, by each r e a s o n , w i l l be n/3 Each judge then p i c k s one o f the reasons a s s i g n e d to the l ' s column, and marks i t as "most important" ( t h i s i s a l s o done at rendow) . S i n c e the judge has a s s i g n e d r/]5 reasons to the l ' s column, then the p r o b a b i l i t y o f any one 01 those reasons b e i n g chosen us nost i n p o r t a n t i o l ( r / 2 ) vfhich equalo 3 / r . (the r e a s o n s chosen as most imp o r t a n t are s c o r e d +4) S i n c e there are n judges and, each r e a s o n has r/3 "Jt's" then: . the t o t a l number o f times a reason i o marked as most i m p o r t a n t 3 (3/r)(n/3) - n / r Por each j u d ^ e , t h e r e are now , ( r / 3 ) - l reasons l e f t i n the l ' s column. T h e r e f o r e , the p r o b a b i l i t y o f one o f these r e m a i n i n g reasons b e i n g marked as a "second most i m p o r t a n t " reason i s l ( ( r / 3 ) . - l ) ~^ (the reasons chosen as second most important are s c o r e d as +3) Over the n judges t h e r e are now ( n / 3 ) - ( n / r ) reasons, l e f t i n the l ' s column. T h e r e f o r e : t h e t o t a l number o f ti m e s a r e a s o n i s marked as the second most important r e a s o n * l ( ( r / 3 ) - l ) " 1 ( ( n / 3 ) - ( n / r ) ) » 3 ( r - 3 ) ~ 1 ( n r - 3 n ) / 3 r = 3r.(r-3)" 1(r-3)/3y a n / r F o r each judge, t h e r e a r e now (r/3)-2 r e a s o n s l e f t i n the l ' s column. T h e r e f o r e the p r o b a b i l i t y o f one o f these r e m a i n i n g reasons b e i n g marked as a " t h i r d most important" reason i s l ( ( r / 3 ) - 2 ) (the reasons, chosen as t h i r d most im-p o r t a n t are s c o r e d as +2) Over ,the n judges there are now (n/3)-2(n/r) reasons l e f t i n the 1'.a column. T h e r e f o r e : the t o t a l number o f times a reason i s marked as the t h i r d most important reason -•l<(r / : 0-2rH<»/3)"2(«i/r)) ^ 3 ( r - 6 ) ~ 1 ( n r - 6 n ) / 3 r » 3n(r-6)"°'(r-6)/3r n n / r J 255 A f t e r marking the t h i r d most import sunt reason, the judges stop s e l e c t i n g from the l ' s column. Therefore there are now (n/3)-3(n/r) reasons l e f t which have, been marked i n the l ' s column.. (these remaining l ' s are given a score of +l) Exactly the same procedure can be ca r r i e d out with the reasons marked i n the - l ' s column, with the same r e s u l t s . Therefore, f o r zi judges and r reasons, the following: frequencies can be expected f o r each reason on the RSQx RATING NUMBER OF TIKES EACH PROPORTION OF REASON WILL RECEIVE RESPONSE FOR THIS RATING THIS RATING. +4 n/r l / r •3 n/r l/z-+2 rs/x* l / r +1 (n/3)-3(n/r) ( l / 3 ) - ( 3 / r ) 0 n/3 1/3 -1 * (n/3)-3(n/r) (i/3)-(3/r) -2 n/r . l / r -3 n/r l / r -4 n/i* l / r 

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