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A study of a primary preventive intervention with young children Lamb, Eila 1977

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A STUDY OF A P R I M A R Y P R E V E N T I V E I N T E R V E N T I O N W I T H YOUNG C H I L D R E N by E I L A LAMB B . S . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19^8 M . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968 ) A D I S S E R T A T I O N S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF E D U C A T I O N i n THE F A C U L T Y . O F GRADUATE. S T U D I E S ( F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1977 Bila Lamb,1977 In present ing th i s thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree l y ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is fo r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of Education The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date November 7, 1977 6 i i ABSTRACT Primary prevention i n health care services has effected important economies through prevention of handicap i n children and through the reduction of f i n a n c i a l and time costs for expensive, often l i f e - t i m e care. An important recent development i n education has been the application of the concept to the innovation of preventive practices. These emphasize the promotion of competencies and strengths i n children, p a r t i c u l a r l y during c r i t i c a l periods i n development, rather than the treatment of emotional, behavioral and learning d e f i c i t s . This research investigated the immediate effects of a preventive programme, a modification of the Bessell and Palomares Methods i n Human Development (MHDP), upon the learning of compe-tencies and coping s k i l l s associated with cognitive and ego dev-elopment i n kindergarten and f i r s t grade children. The l i t e r a t u r e suggested a c r i t i c a l period at thi s point i n ego development. Using a sample of 103 metropolitan kindergarten and f i r s t grade children, the effects of the Be s s e l l and Palomares pro-gramme were compared to the effects of another discussion group method, Show-and-Tell. A f u l l y - c r o s s e d fixed-effects three-factor design was used to tes t eight hypotheses; treatment main e f f e c t s , sex and grade-level effects and a l l possible interactions. The dependent variables selected as representative of cognitive and ego development were: cognitive performance competency i i i as measured by ( 1 ) minutes spent i n mature problem-solving behavior on the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box and ( 2 ) s c h o o l achievement ( f o r f i r s t grade p u p i l s o n l y ) ; s o c i a l competency as measured by scores r e c e i v e d on measures of ( 1 ) teacher p e r c e p t i o n of d y s f u n c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , ( 2 ) peer p e r c e p t i o n of observed s o c i a l l y p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r , and ( 3 ) peer a f f i l i a -t i o n ; a f f e c t i v e competency as measured by scores r e c e i v e d on measures of ( 1 ) the c h i l d ' s predominant emotional response to l i f e and ( 2 ) the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s of independent s e c u r i t y ( f o r f i r s t grade p u p i l s o n l y ) . R e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g to hypotheses were: 1 . A s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the two treatments- These d i f f e r e n c e s were accounted f o r by changes i n two of the s o c i a l competency measures, the teacher behavior r a t i n g and the peer p e r c e p t i o n measure. For both measures the students taught under the mo d i f i e d Methods  i n Human Development programme (MHDP) gained s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than those taught under Show-and-Tell (SAT). 2 . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was found between t r e a t -ment and g r a d e - l e v e l , with followup u n i v a r i a t e analyses showing a s i g n i f i c a n t F f o r the measure of teacher p e r c e p t i o n of d y s f u n c t i o n . For k i n d e r g a r t e n students taught under MHDP there was a g r e a t e r r e d u c t i o n than f o r students taught under SAT. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e f o r f i r s t grade p u p i l s . 3. Informal r e s u l t s were a l s o presented which gave a d d i t i o n a l support to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the MHDP programme, i v p a r t i c u l a r l y at the k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l . h. A l l other n u l l hypotheses were accepted. A d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : 1. In s p i t e of the r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f , t r e a t m e n t p e r i o d (18 weeks), the s u b s t a n t i v e impact o f the treatment upon over t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g was noteworthy. Such p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g had been i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as p r e d i c t i v e o f a d u l t competence. 2 . While the peer a f f i l i a t i o n measure was not s i g n i f i c a n t , some i n f o r m a l r e s u l t s suggested a modest i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r the B e s s e l l and Palomares p a r t i c i p a n t s . 3. P o s s i b l e weaknesses i n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and the pro-gramme omissions n e c e s s i t a t e d by time r e s t r i c t i o n s may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the l a c k of c l e a r r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r f i r s t grade students. *fl I nformal r e s u l t s from the s t a n d a r d i z e d problem-solving s i t u a t i o n seemed promising i n p r o v i d i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the b e h a v i o r a l or temperamental and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s of c h i l d -ren. I t was co n j e c t u r e d that such o b s e r v a t i o n a l data would be h e l p f u l i n e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r young c h i l d r e n . Suggestions were made f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h p a r t i c u l a r l y with the f u l l grade one programme and on the use of the prob-l e m - s o l v i n g d e v i c e . V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Development of the Problem 1 R a t i o n a l e f o r the Present Study 3 Importance of the Study h Assumptions of the Study 5 The Research Question 6 Summary 7 I I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 9 I n t r o d u c t i o n 10 Canadian Indices of D y s f u n c t i o n 10 T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches to the Problems 11 Primary P r e v e n t i o n as an A l t e r n a t i v e 12 Primary Prevention' Defined 12 Primary P r e v e n t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l i z e d In-competence: I t s Nature and Nurture 16 T r a i t s Most Open to Environmental In f l u e n c e 19 The Developmental-Adaptational T r a i t s 25 Ego Development 25 Self-Concept 25 S o c i a l Competence 26 C o g n i t i v e Development and A f f e c t i v i t y 27 Timing of P r e v e n t i v e I n t e r v e n t i o n s : C r i t i c a l P e riods i n Development 29 A p p l i c a t i o n of the Kohlberg Developmental-A d a p t a t i o n a l Model to t h i s Study 32 L i t e r a t u r e on School-Based P r e v e n t i v e Approaches 32 The Methods i n Human Development Programme... 37 v i CHAPTER PAGE Summary ^0 I I I . RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS h2 Hypotheses ^2 R a t i o n a l e : Hypotheses 1 and 2 h2 General Hypothesis 1 *+6 Hypothesis 1 ^7 General Hypothesis 2 ^7 Hypothesis 2. . . ^7 R a t i o n a l e : Hypotheses 3 and h h7 General Hypothesis ^8 Hypothesis 3 ^8 Hypothesis h ^8 R a t i o n a l e : Hypotheses 5? 6, 7 and 8 ^8 General Hypothesis ^8 Hypothesis 5 *+8 Hypothesis 6 h9 Hypothesis 7 h9 Hypothesis 8 ^9 Op e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s ^9 C o g n i t i v e Performance Competency *+9 S o c i a l Competency 50 A f f e c t i v e Competency 50 Summary 50 IV. RESEARCH DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION 51 Design 51 Procedures . 5h D e s c r i p t i o n of Instruments 5^ C o g n i t i v e Competency Measures 5*+ K e i s t e r Puzzle Box 51+ Academic Achievement 55 S o c i a l Competency Measures 56 Behavior R a t i n g of P u p i l s 56 The Class P i c t u r e s 57 Three-Item S o c i o m e t r i c Test 58 A f f e c t i v e Competency Measures 59 A P i c t u r e Game 59 The Story of Tommy 60 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Sample 62 Programme Procedures 6^ -Treatment Procedures 65 Experimental Treatment (MHDP or T]_) 65 Level B: Kindergarten Programme (Appendix A) 66 Level 1: F i r s t Grade Programme (Appendix B) 67 Comparison Treatment (SAT or T2) 67 Testing Procedures 69 S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 69 Summary. ; 70 V. RESULTS 71 Hypothesis 1 73 Hypothesis 2 75 Hypothesis 3 75 Hypothesis h 77 Hypothesis 5 77 Hypothesis 6 77 Hypothesis 7 ' 7& Hypothesis 8 79 Additional Data 79 Summary 80 VI. DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY 82 Conclusions 82 Hypothesis 1: Treatment Effects 82 Problem-Solving Behavior 83 Results of the Three Social Competency Measures 83 Further Discussion of the Results of the S o c i a l Competency Measures 86 Self-Rating Measure 87 Hypothesis 2: Treatment Effects 89 Security Measure • 89 Academic Achievement 89 Hypothesis 3: Sex Effects 90 Hypothesis hi Grade-Level E f f e c t s . 90 Hypothesis 5- Treatment-by-Sex. . 90 Hypothesis 6: Treatment-by-Grade-Level 90 Hypothesis 7: Sex-by-Grade-Level 92 Hypothesis 8: Treatment-by-Sex-by-Grade-Level 93 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Additional Findings 93 Limitations of the Study 9h Recommendations for Further Research 95 Summary 99 LITERATURE CITED 101 APPENDIX A: Methods i n Human Development Curriculum, Kindergarten, Level B llh APPENDIX B: Methods i n Human Development Curriculum, F i r s t Grade, Level 1.... 125 APPENDIX C: Administration of Tests, Definitions of Immature and Mature Behaviors on the Keister Puzzle Box, Keister Rating Sheet and Copies of Tests 130 APPENDIX D: Sample Behavioral Protocols From Keister Puzzle Box 159 i x LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Numbers of Subjects C l a s s i f i e d by Treatment, G r a d e - l e v e l and Sex 63 I I . Observed C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Seven Dependent V a r i a b l e s 72 I I I . M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s of Treatment, Sex and G r a d e - l e v e l Upon F i v e Dependent V a r i a b l e s 7^ IV. M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : E f f e c t s of Treatment and Sex on Two Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Grade One) *. 76 X LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. C o g n i t i v e , Ego and Moral Development: Ego Development as C o g n i t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g i n The Realm of S o c i a l S e l f 2h 2. Schematic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Design 5 2 x i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the guidance and encouragement I r e c e i v e d throughout the study from the ad v i s o r y committee: Dr. M.B. Nevison, c h a i r p e r s o n , Dr. D. Bain, Dr. 0 . O l d r i d g e , and Dr. T. Rogers, a l l of the F a c u l t y of Educ a t i o n , and Dr. H. N i c h o l of the F a c u l t y of Medicine. Dr. W. Davis was a c o n t r i b u t i n g member as w e l l u n t i l h i s departure from the U n i v e r s i t y . The very generous a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d from each member made the study p o s s i b l e . P a r t i c u l a r thanks are due to Ms. C. Swanson, the former p r i n c i p a l of the sc h o o l used f o r the p r o j e c t . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION "An ounce of p r e v e n t i o n i s worth a pound of cure." The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a primary p r e v e n t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l programme upon the development of key competencies and coping s k i l l s r e l a t e d to a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e and s o c i a l development i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n . In the e d u c a t i o n a l sense primary p r e v e n t i o n i n c l u d e s any i n t e r v e n t i o n which promotes mental h e a l t h by developing i n t e r p e r s o n a l , a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e and/or psychomotor competencies i n c h i l d r e n . A c o r o l l a r y of t h i s n o t i o n i s that the presence of such com-pete n c i e s should reduce the i n c i d e n c e of emotional, l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o r a l d i s o r d e r s . Development of the Problem The a n c i e n t f o l k wisdom a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an ounce of p r e v e n t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n the recommendations of Koch and Koch (1976) who advocated p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h care modelled on e x i s t i n g knowledge and technology, care which would not only save l i v e s but a l s o h a l v e the r a t e of mental r e t a r d a t i o n i n c h i l d r e n . They noted t h a t one such i n t e r v e n t i o n , the complete immunization of a l l young c h i l d r e n i n the Un i t e d States a g a i n s t c e r t a i n common ch i l d h o o d d i s e a s e s , would produce 2 savings approaching one b i l l i o n dollars annually. The concern for prevention i n the area of health care was also r e f l e c t e d i n primary preventive action taken by France and'Finland (Wynn and Wynn, 197^ a,b). Both countries have free extensive health care services for pregnant mothers and children which are aimed at reducing perinatal mortality and morbidity. In France, for example, recognition of the growing cost of childhood handicap, which was estimated to consume about 2.5% of the gross national product, prompted a series of l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e r -ventions beginning i n 1970 which were designed to save l i v e s and reduce the extent and cost of handicap. Each of these health care interventions acknowledged that primary preven-t i o n i s not only more humane, but also more economic. Recently, education has begun to examine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of adapting such preventive modes to i t s needs -i n this instance to prevent the development of emotional, behavioral and learning problems i n children by promoting competencies through learning. These strategies r e f l e c t a major s h i f t in- emphasis: f i r s t from the diagnosis and treat-ment of d i s a b i l i t y , then to the prevention of d i s a b i l i t y , and f i n a l l y to the development of competence i n i n d i v i d u a l s . The development of such competence or functional effectiveness i s important not only for creating s a t i s f y i n g l i v e s but also for economic reasons. People who do not have s u f f i c i e n t emotional and behavioral resources too often use drugs or 3 alcohol as a crutch. The medical costs of alcohol abuse to Canada at the present time are estimated to be two b i l l i o n d o l lars annually (House of Commons Debates, Nov. 2h, 1976, p. 1330). Thus, education i n i t s services to a l l children must investigate preventive and growth-inducing strategies and the c r i t i c a l developmental period or age where such interven-tions are most l i k e l y to be optimally e f f e c t i v e . The preven-tive programme selected for the current study was the Bes s e l l and Palomares Methods i n Human Development (1969, a, b, 1973)-The programme i s addressed to areas related to cognitive and ego development; emotional self-understanding, cognitive mas-tery, interpersonal effectiveness. Rationale for the Present Study The basic purpose of the present research was to judge the l e v e l of effectiveness of the Be s s e l l and Palomares pro-gramme (HDP) upon certain performance areas and to provide evaluative information not presently available on i t . The programme was selected because i t was much i n use at the l o c a l l e v e l . Informal teacher reportings indicated that i t was a he l p f u l teaching device and was enjoyed by the children. Some teachers observed also that students' self-images appeared to improve, that children seemed to fin d i t b e n e f i c i a l not only to discuss their feelings but also to understand and improve their own s o c i a l impact. In summarizing independent s t u d i e s of the programme, Henrie (1972) r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s from s t u d i e s of Head S t a r t p r o j e c t s which i n c o r p o r a t e d the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme as one component. However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these r e s u l t s was confounded s i n c e i t was u n c l e a r i f r e s u l t a n t behavior changes i n c h i l d r e n could be a t t r i b u t e d s o l e l y to the use of HDP or to the combination of treatments used which i n c l u d e d HDP. Furthermore, no previous r e s e a r c h had c o n s i d e r e d the s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s of the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme upon the development of s o c i a l , a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e competencies i n young c h i l d r e n - each of which i s r e l a t e d to p o s i t i v e cog-n i t i v e and ego development. Given the p a u c i t y of evidence, r e s e a r c h was r e q u i r e d to determine the programme's impact upon the b u i l d i n g of c o g n i t i v e and ego str e n g t h s through i n c r e a s i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s mastery of c e r t a i n coping b e h a v i o r s . Importance of the Study Should the e f f e c t s of the B e s s e l l and Palomares pro-gramme be p o s i t i v e , a planned i n t e r v e n t i o n at the k i n d e r g a r t e n and primary l e v e l would be i n d i c a t e d i n order to prevent n e g a t i v e s e l f - a t t i t u d e s and non-coping behaviors as w e l l as to encourage p o s i t i v e self-development through a c q u i s t i o n of coping s k i l l s i n the a f f e c t i v e , s o c i a l and c o g n i t i v e perform-ance domains. There was no attempt to suggest the e f f i c a c y of a 5 s i n g l e s o l u t i o n approach to an e a r l y p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r -v e n t i o n . I t was rec o g n i z e d t h a t the problem was complex, w i t h other f a c t o r s such as g e n e t i c , c u l t u r a l , c h i l d r e a r i n g , and p a r e n t i n g p r a c t i c e s a f f e c t i n g c o g n i t i v e and ego development. For the purposes of t h i s study, however, t h i s s i n g l e aspect was examined, i . e . - the e f f e c t s of t h i s programme upon the b u i l d i n g of competencies r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego develop-ment . Assumptions of the Study S e v e r a l assumptions were made: 1. That the B e s s e l l and Palomares c u r r i c u l u m was s u i t -a ble f o r use w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade students (see Appendices A and B ) . 2. That i t could be administered i n such a way as to a v o i d r e s e a r c h e r b i a s (see p. 6M-). 3. That between the ages of 5 and 7 y e a r s , a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d e x i s t s f o r the appearance of competencies p e r t a i n i n g to ego development. h. That between the ages of 5 and 8 y e a r s , a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d e x i s t s i n the fo r m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s (other than g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ) which are p o s i t i v e f o r sc h o o l l e a r n i n g : i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g , a t t e n t i o n and sense of competence (see p. 31)• 5. That competencies i n each of the dimensions d i s c u s s e d i n (3) and (h) are c o r r e l a t e s of mental h e a l t h and p o s i t i v e self-development. 6 The Research Question The broad r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was: Is the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme a primary p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n ? S p e c i f i c a l l y : Would the use of the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade p u p i l s produce immediately-measurable increments i n performance competencies a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o s i t i v e c o g n i t i v e , s o c i a l and a f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g ? For the purposes of t h i s study, three dimensions of competence r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego development were measured: 1. C o g n i t i v e competence r e f e r r e d to academic f u n c t i o n -i n g as measured by: (a) p e r s i s t e n c e i n problem-solving b e h a v i o r , as measured by time i n minutes spent i n mature problem-solving behavior (an a d a p t a t i o n of the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box) f o r both k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade students; and (b) the Grade P o i n t Average (GPA) f o r f i r s t grade students (note d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter h which d e t a i l s the knowledge and s k i l l s t e s t e d to determine GPA). 2. S o c i a l competence r e f e r r e d to the c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y to make and mai n t a i n s o c i a l connections; to d i s p l a y a t t r i b u t e s which are antecedents to being l i k e d by o t h e r s ; to be able to give f r i e n d s h i p to o t h e r s . Because i t i s not a u n i t a r y t r a i t , three assessments were made f o r both k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade s t u d e n t s : 7 (a) teacher p e r c e p t i o n of d y s f u n c t i o n a l classroom behavior as measured by the teacher on the Behavior Rating, of P u p i l s , and (b) peer p e r c e p t i o n of observed classroom behavior as measured by s e l e c t i o n frequency on The Class P i c t u r e s , and (c) peer nomination f o r entry i n t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as measured by a th r e e - i t e m s o c i o m e t r i c d e v i c e . 3> A f f e c t i v e competence, a c e n t r a l p a r t of the s e l f -concept, r e f e r r e d to the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s about s e l f and per-c e p t i o n of l i f e i n g e n e r a l . Both aspects were ev a l u a t e d : (a) the q u a l i t y of the c h i l d ' s predominant emotional response to l i f e as measured by A P i c t u r e Game f o r both k i n d e r -garten and f i r s t grade students, and (b) the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s of independent s e c u r i t y and h i s acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as measured by the I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d Study S e c u r i t y T e s t , The Story of Tommy, f o r f i r s t grade students only. Summary The a p p l i c a t i o n of primary p r e v e n t i o n to h e a l t h care s e r v i c e s has e f f e c t e d both s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the q u a l i t y of l i f e by pr e v e n t i n g handicap and important economies i n f i n a n c i a l and time costs of l i f e - t i m e care. An important recent development i n education has been the a p p l i c a t i o n of the concept to the i n n o v a t i o n of preven-t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . These emphasize the promotion of 8 strengths and competencies i n c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than the t r e a t -ment of emotional, b e h a v i o r a l and l e a r n i n g d e f i c i t s . This study sought to determine the e f f e c t s of a p r e v e n t i v e programme, the B e s s e l l and Palomares Methods i n Human Development. upon the l e a r n i n g of competencies and coping s k i l l s a s s o c i a t e d with c o g n i t i v e and ego development i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n . 9 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter examines the relevant l i t e r a t u r e pertain-ing to the educational promotion of competence i n young'child-ren as a form of primary prevention. The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the Methods i n Human Development programme i n promoting competencies i n areas related to cogni-t i v e and ego development. The chapter's introduction covers the Canadian indices of dysfunction as well as the t r a d i t i o n a l treatment approaches to emotional, behavioral and learning problems i n children. Primary prevention as an educational alternative to treatment i s discussed next. Its d e f i n i t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , possible approaches to i t s operationalization, the nature and nurture of competence, and the rel a t i o n s h i p between adult functioning and the presence of the developmental-adaptational t r a i t s i n childhood are included i n this section. A detailed examination of the developmental-adaptational t r a i t s follows which incorporates (1) the structure of ego development and (2) the p a r a l l e l maturation of cognition and a f f e c t i v i t y . This discussion permits r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the features of appropriate types of interventions with respect to prevention of emotional, behavioral and learning problems i n children. The timing of preventive interventions and the ap p l i -10 c a t i o n of the developmental-adaptational t r a i t s to t h i s study are presented next. The chapter concludes w i t h an overview of school-based p r e v e n t i v e approaches and f i n a l l y , with an examination of the unique f e a t u r e s of the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme, the ob j e c t of t h i s r e s e a r c h . I n t r o d u c t i o n Canadian Indices of D y s f u n c t i o n S e v e r a l Canadian r e p o r t s have attempted to i d e n t i f y numbers of c h i l d r e n a f f l i c t e d by emotional, b e h a v i o r a l and l e a r n i n g d i s o r d e r s and to propose e f f e c t i v e modes of treatment f o r the s c h o o l c h i l d s u f f e r i n g from these problems. For example, Laycock and F i n d l a y (1969) made recommendations f o r s e c u r i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n with emotional and b e h a v i o r a l d i s o r d e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Another Canadian study, the C e l d i c Report (1970), r e v e a l e d t h a t 12% of Canadian youth or one m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p f o r r e m e d i a t i o n of emotional, b e h a v i o r a l and l e a r n i n g problems. Other Canadian i n d i c e s of d y s f u n c t i o n i n c h i l d and ad u l t a l i k e are suggested by a d d i t i o n a l f i g u r e s . The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s (197D p r e d i c t e d h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r mental i l l n e s s f o r one i n every s i x persons at some p o i n t i n a l i f e t i m e . The P s y c h o - S o c i a l P r i c e Index (Nevison, 1969) i n d i c a t e d r a p i d l y r i s i n g r a t e s of i n f l a t i o n i n both numbers and c o s t s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l problems i n Canada -11 In suicide rates p a r t i c u l a r l y among the young, i n convictions for juvenile delinquency, i n numbers of adult criminal offences, i n alcoholism and drug addiction and family breakdown. The over a l l increase i n dysfunction i s sometimes a contentious issue; nevertheless, i t appears that the rates are on the r i s e . For example, i n this past year the Honorable Marc Lalonde noted that the national Department of Health and Welfare had just revised i t s estimate of the medical costs for alcohol abuse from a l i t t l e over one b i l l i o n d o llars a year to two b i l l i o n - an increase approaching 100% (House of Commons Debates, Nov. 2h. 1976, p. 1330). It i s imperative that intervention s t r a -tegies be developed. Childhood seems to be the most receptive age. The etiology of the problems themselves is complex (Ryan, 1972; Smith and Neisworth, 1975; Wynn and Wynn, 197>+ a, b). These include genetic determinants, the effects of b i r t h trauma, n u t r i t i o n a l factors, accidental factors, s i t u a -t i o n a l factors, the presence of a bio-psycho-social develop-mental c r i s i s , with any or a l l of these being involved i n the symptomatology. Tra d i t i o n a l Approaches to the Problems Translation of the i d e n t i f i e d problems into services for children have t y p i c a l l y involved diagnosis of the behavior-a l pathology, the emotional disturbance, or the deviance from normal learning patterns. Diagnosis has then been followed by treatment through the use of therapy, s p e c i a l l y trained 12 adjunct teachers, or segregation of the c h i l d into s p e c i a l classes or into other special therapeutic environments. The assumptions underlying these remedial approaches are twofold: that the current state of knowledge permits successful diagnosis; that a treatment intervention, i f provided at a point of lesser morbidity, w i l l reduce or pre-vent i n d i v i d u a l suffering i n l a t e r l i f e and at less s o c i a l cost. Neither of these assumptions appears to be e n t i r e l y supported by the l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y with reference to emotional or mental problems as shown by Kohlberg, LaCrosse, and Ricks (1972). Perhaps a greater obstacle has been that the p u b l i c l y -supported treatments have been scarce, costly, and slow i n developing. To paraphrase Rene Dubois (1959), we have fixated on solving problems of disease rather than on creating health. Given these^ conditions, a need exists for alternative approaches to treatment i n dealing with the emotional, behavioral and learning problems of children. By a l t e r i n g the basic operational assumption from one viewing treatment of diagnosed disturbance as p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n childhood to one assuming that disturbance i s most e f f e c t i v e l y prevented i n childhood, other approaches to the problems may be found. Primary Prevention as an Educational Alternative Primary' Prevention" Defined Primary prevention of emotional, learning, and behavior 13 disorders i n children has been advocated by Bower ( 1 9 6 5 ) ) Lambert ( 1 9 6 5 ) ) Caplan (1961 a) and others. Bower (1965) has proposed an operational d e f i n i t i o n for primary prevention. "It i s any s p e c i f i c b i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l or psychological i n t e r -vention which promotes or enhances mental or emotional (health) or reduces the incidence ... of learning and behavior disorders in the population at large" (p. 1 ) . He proceeded to make e x p l i -c i t a value assumption within t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "those s o c i a l , psychological and b i o l o g i c a l factors which tend to enhance the f u l l development of the human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of man ( s p e c i f i -c a l l y , the a b i l i t y to love and the a b i l i t y to work productively) have illness-preventive potential and are ... desirable (while) factors which tend to l i m i t or block such development have i l l n e s s producing potential and are ... undesirable" (p. h). A synopsis of the l i t e r a t u r e on primary prevention sug-gests that the prophylactic model of intervention may be charac-terized as proactive, educative, developmental and preventive; the medical model, as reactive, remedial, adjustive and thera-peutic. Given one additional feature of the preventive model, that of a p p l i c a b i l i t y to a population ( i n this instance, a school system), rather than to an individual,the advantages of prevention over treatment become apparent. As a mode of i n t e r -vention i n the schools, primary prevention i s , again, not only more humane, but also more economic. Several of the. attributes of the primary preventive model w i l l lead to discussion on means of operationalization 15+ as well as on timing and type of intervention indicated. Each of these issues w i l l be discussed.separately although there w i l l be points at which a l l three w i l l i n t e r s e c t . Primary Prevention Operationalized As noted e a r l i e r , Bower (1965) has proposed that those factors which enhance the f u l l development of man's human char-a c t e r i s t i c s (that i s , the a b i l i t y to1 love and to work produc-t i v e l y ) have preventive po t e n t i a l . How can such f u l l develop-ment be promoted? A review of the l i t e r a t u r e suggests some p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Developmental counselling (Blocher, 1966) appears to be con-gruent with the notion of primary prevention. Blocher described developmental counselling as having developmental-educative-preventive goals. The major goal i s the maximization of human effectiveness. From a p r a c t i c a l viewpoint, e f f e c t i v e behavior i s that which gives the i n d i v i d u a l the greatest control over his environment and over his a f f e c t i v e responses to that environment. In characterizing the relat i o n s h i p between developmental counselling and the optimization of human effectiveness, a three-dimensional model was delineated: roles and relat i o n s h i p s ; coping behaviors; developmental tasks. F a c i l i t a t i o n of human effectiveness i n Blocher's terms "consists l a r g e l y of insuring that each i n d i v i d u a l has an opportunity to master the (develop-mental) tasks that w i l l equip him with the coping behaviors necessary for handling those roles and relationships that are involved i n his next stage of development" (p. 7-8). The developmental counsellor, with expertise i n each of these 15 dimensions,•can a s s i s t the classroom teacher i n c r e a t i n g those i d e a l environmental t r a n s a c t i o n s f o r the c h i l d which w i l l i n s u r e mastery of the a p p r o p r i a t e developmental t a s k s . Such an environment w i l l reduce or e l i m i n a t e behaviors which l e a d to task f a i l u r e and s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n . At t h i s p o i n t i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to apply Blocher's r a t i o n a l e to the c h i l d ' s experience of s c h o o l e n t r y . The c h i l d i s developmentally i n t r a n s i t i o n between the c l o s e of the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and the beginning of' the l a t e r c h i l d h o o d stages ( E r i k s o n , 1950). During t h i s b i o - p s y c h o - s o c i a l t r a n s i -t i o n the c h i l d i s completing the c e n t r a l developmental task of a sense of autonomy which r e q u i r e s the mastery of appro-p r i a t e c o o p e r a t i v e , c o n t r o l and s u b s t i t u t i o n b e h a v i o r s . He i s a l s o about to begin the a c q u i s i t i o n of the developmental tasks of i n i t i a t i v e and i n d u s t r y . The r e l e v a n t coping s k i l l s a s s o c i a t e d with these tasks are mastery and v a l u e - r e l e v a n t and work-relevant b e h a v i o r s . In s h o r t , the e s s e n t i a l coping s k i l l s to be a c q u i r e d d u r i n g the k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade p e r i o d are r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego development. An a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n at t h i s c r i t i c a l bio-psycho-s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t could o f f e r important gains f o r the c h i l d ; mastery of these p a r t i c u l a r tasks would ensure optimal c o g n i t i v e and ego development f o r t h i s p e r i o d . Such competencies would prevent s e r i o u s d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n development. The l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s another p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n to imple-menting primary p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s , that of environmental 16 m a n i p u l a t i o n . That s o l u t i o n i s not u n r e l a t e d to developmental c o u n s e l l i n g although i t s proponents do not d i s c u s s i t i n these terms. Kohlberg et a l (1972) have suggested a psych o e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h young c h i l d r e n f o c u s s i n g upon the f a c i l i t a -t i o n of c e r t a i n developmental tasks at c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s through the c r e a t i o n of optimal environments. S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n would be d i r e c t e d toward those c h i l d r e n whose r a t e s of development are i d i o s y n c r a t i c and who w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , experience d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n accomplishing these tasks w i t h i n the u s u a l time a l l o t -ment f o r attainment. The emphasis " i s upon ego development (which) i s conceived to be i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d to the c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e and s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and a d a p t a t i o n i n the sch o o l ... environment" (Kohlberg, LaCrosse and' R i c k s , 1972, p. 1221). From t h e i r review of the l i t e r a t u r e , , Kohlberg et a l concluded t h a t the presence of v a r i o u s forms of competence and ego matur-i t y i n c h i l d r e n best p r e d i c t good mental h e a l t h i n a d u l t s . Thus, e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n should have l a s t i n g e f f e c t s . The development of competence as a primary p r e v e n t i v e s t r a t e g y may be i n f e r r e d from Blocher's and Kohlberg's w r i t i n g s . Competence: I t s Nature and Nurture This i s a s e l e c t i v e review of an exte n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e on the nature and nur t u r e of competence. I t i s known t h a t w h i l e g e n e t i c f a c t o r s set the framework f o r the development of competence p o t e n t i a l i n humans, there i s a s u b s t a n t i a l range w i t h i n which w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t s o c i a l circumstances and experiences determine d i f f e r e n c e s i n develop-17 ment. These d i f f e r e n c e s occur across c u l t u r e , environment, c l a s s and f a m i l y ( A n a s t a s i , 1958 a,b; Fowler, 1962; Hebb, 19^ -9; Hunt, 1961). Furthermore, competence v a r i e s i n complexity by g e n e r a l r u l e s (general i n t e l l i g e n c e ) , by r u l e s s p e c i f i c to p a r t i c u l a r environments, and by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l mode of t h a t competency (Fowler, 1972). The e f f e c t s of e a r l y experiences on the development of competence and d e f i c i t i n Canadian c h i l d r e n have been reviewed by Fowler (1962, 1972); i n other c u l t u r e s and c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r example, reviews have been made by Bronfenbrenner (1967), Deutsch, Katz and Jensen (I968) , Fowler (1971)5 and B. White (1971)• The l i t e r a t u r e which examines the nature of competence i n a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n suggests the p i v o t a l importance of c e r t a i n performance dimensions. The terminology d e s c r i b i n g such p o s i t i v e performance f u n c t i o n i n g i n a d u l t s i s v a r i e d : the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g person (Maslow, 195*0, the normal p e r s o n a l i t y (Shoben, 1957), e f f e c t -ance (R. W. White, 1966, 1969) , the f u l l y - f u n c t i o n i n g person (Rogers, 1962), the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y mature p e r s o n a l i t y ( A l l p o r t , 1963)5 the reasonable adventurer (Heath, 196i+) , and the pro-d u c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y (Gilmore, 197*+) • From these s t u d i e s on competent, a c h i e v i n g persons has emerged evidence of an u n d e r l y i n g core of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s common to such i n d i v i d u a l s . Gilmore ( 1 9 7 * 0 suggested the f o l l o w i n g a t t r i b u t e s : h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m ; a c l e a r sense of i d e n t i t y and of uniqueness as an i n d i v i d u a l ; a highly developed inner value system governing s o c i a l behavior; r e a l i s t i c percep-tion of one's own c a p a b i l i t i e s accompanied by an appropriately high l e v e l of aspiration; an attitude of expectancy that pro-blems can be solved; a r e a l i s t i c and sensitive understanding of the environment; a capacity to attend s e l e c t i v e l y ; both the cognitive maturity and the experience to f a c i l i t a t e the handling of complex information; maturity of judgement; impulse control; and such q u a l i t i e s as independence, persistence and decisiveness. Authoritative studies on functional competency and effectiveness i n children involving large numbers of children are rare. Two notable exceptions are the Wallach and Kogan (1965) study, Modes of Thinking i n Young Children, and the B. White (1971) study on the etiology of competence i n young children. Wallach and Kogan (1965) found certain psychological attributes i n the group of children i d e n t i f i e d as high creative-high i n t e l l i g e n c e . These included the a b i l i t y to entertain both appropriate control and. wide-ranging freedom i n cognitive . functioning, both a d u l t l i k e and c h i l d l i k e modes of conduct, and mature s o c i a l awareness coupled with a s e n s i t i v i t y to the emotionality of others. The Burton White (197D study reported two clusters of distinguishing a b i l i t i e s which were observed i n very competent children i n the sixth year of l i f e . The f i r s t c l u s t e r , s o c i a l 1 9 a b i l i t i e s . i n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s such as: g e t t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the a t t e n t i o n of a d u l t s i n a c c e p t a b l e ways; u s i n g a d u l t s as r e s o u r c e s ; e x p r e s s i n g both a f f e c t i o n and h o s t i l i t y to a d u l t s and peers; showing p r i d e i n one's accomplishments; i n v o l v i n g o n e s e l f i n a d u l t - r o l e p l a y behavior. The second c l u s t e r , n o n s o c i a l a b i l i t i e s , i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s dimensions of l i n g u i s t i c competence, e x e c u t i v e a b i l i t i e s and a t t e n t i o n a l a b i l i t y . One of the study's c o n c l u s i o n s was that the f o u n d a t i o n of these competencies (assuming an adequate h e r e d i t a r y base) appeared to emanate from p a r t i c u l a r p a r e n t i n g p r a c t i c e s and a s t i m u l a t i n g home environment. The next q u e s t i o n which must be answered i s : Which of the t r a i t s d e s c r i b e d as being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of competence are most open to environmental i n f l u e n c e ? To answer t h i s ques-t i o n , r e f e r e n c e to the l i t e r a t u r e on the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of a d u l t f u n c t i o n i n g based on observed c h i l d h o o d t r a i t s must now be made. T r a i t s Most Open to Environmental I n f l u e n c e To o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on c h i l d h o o d t r a i t s most r e a d i l y i n f l u e n c e d , the l i t e r a t u r e on the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of a d u l t f u n c t i o n i n g i s examined. From a s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n p o i n t of view, the concept of p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n creates s t r i n g e n t demands f o r pre-d i c t a b i l i t y . There are two r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s : 1. Which types of i n t e r v e n t i o n s are p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l i n terms of permanence and value of gain? 2 . When should such an i n t e r v e n t i o n be made? 20 P o s s i b l e answers to t h i s second q u e s t i o n w i l l be examined i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . P o s s i b l e answers to the f i r s t q u e s t i o n w i l l be c o n t i n -gent upon the type of t r a i t t o be enhanced. Answers are d e r i v e d i n p a r t from the previous d i s c u s s i o n on o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g pre-v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s and from the d i s c u s s i o n on the nature of competence. Other answers are d e r i v e d from an examination of the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of a d u l t f u n c t i o n i n g from c h i l d h o o d behavior - or to put t h i s another way, by examining c o n t i n u i t y of p e r s o n a l i t y development. Such a d i s c u s s i o n i s , i n essence, an e x p l i c a t i o n of those t r a i t s expressed i n chi l d h o o d which r e s e a r c h suggests are open to environmental i n f l u e n c e . Some of those t r a i t s are r e l e v a n t to t h i s study. In a monumental review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the pre-d i c t a b i l i t y of a d u l t mental h e a l t h from c h i l d h o o d f u n c t i o n i n g , Kohlberg et a l (1972) p r o v i d e d a conceptual framework which permits r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of t r a i t s , of t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y to environmental i n f l u e n c e , and i n d i c a t i o n s about .the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n t h e i r development. Kohlberg and h i s colleagues proposed three c a t e g o r i e s of t r a i t s : s y m p t o m a t i c - a f f e c t i v e , p h a s e - s p e c i f i c , developmental-a d a p t a t i o n a l . The f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s are r e l a t e d and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t . The s y m p t o m a t i c - a f f e c t i v e category i n c l u d e s the temperamental or b e h a v i o r a l s t y l e t r a i t s i d e n t i f i e d by Thomas, 21 Chess and B i r c h ( 1 9 6 8 ) . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s t r a i t s of m o t i v a t i o n a l content such as ag g r e s s i v e n e s s , s e l f i s h n e s s , dependence, a n x i e t y . The temperamental t r a i t s have a ge n e t i c b a s i s and permit f o r e -c a s t i n g of response or coping s t y l e (that i s , how a c h i l d w i l l respond r a t h e r than what h i s response w i l l be). The l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s of Thomas et a l (1968) r e v e a l e d that w h i l e these s t a b l y p r e d i c t i v e t r a i t s can be a source of f r i c t i o n between c h i l d and parent or c h i l d and sch o o l i f handled i n c e r t a i n ways, a given p a t t e r n of temperament, d i d not, i n and of i t s e l f , p r e d i c t to l a t e r b e h a v i o r a l d i s t u r b a n c e . The t r a i t s of m o t i v a t i o n a l content show very low s t a b i l i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . This i s due, i n p a r t , because each t r a i t has one adaptive value at one stage and a second value at another. G e n e r a l l y , these t r a i t s are not supported or r e i n f o r c e d by the l a r g e r s o c i a l environment. These may, however, be r e i n f o r c e d by the micro-environment w i t h i n which the c h i l d l i v e s i f t h a t environment observes d i f f e r e n t s t a n -dards from those observed by s o c i e t y at l a r g e . However, i t i s important to note that i f i n a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i t s of motiva-t i o n a l content e x i s t the s c h o o l can a s s i s t the c h i l d to l e a r n those behaviors which are approved by the macro-environment. The second t r a i t category i n c l u d e s p h a s e - s p e c i f i c r e a c t i o n s to developmental c r i s e s . Problem behaviors may show a dramatic i n c r e a s e at two c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s ; the one i s the f i v e to seven age range which c o i n c i d e s w i t h s c h o o l entrance, l a t e n c y , o r . c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n a l thought; the second i s the 22 ten to t h i r t e e n age range which c o i n c i d e s w i t h j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l entrance, puberty, or formal o p e r a t i o n a l thought. Kohlberg e t a l (1972) p o i n t e d out th a t much symptomatic behav-i o r i s s p e c i f i c to the developmental c r i s i s and t h a t the t r a i t s may p r e d i c t from one t r a n s i t i o n era to the other but not i n the i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d . The t h i r d category, the developmental-adaptive, i s the most important from the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s study. This cate-gory i n c l u d e s t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by age-developmental trends and by a d a p t a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the i n d i v i d u a l . Examples of these i n c l u d e general i n t e l l i g e n c e and c o g n i t i v e - s t y l e v a r i a b l e s . This category a l s o i n c l u d e s those p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s t a g e - s e q u e n t i a l models of human development each of which assumes a s i n g l e , i n v a r i a n t , u n i v e r s a l developmental sequence ( E r i k s o n , 1950; G e s e l l , 195^; P i a g e t , 1928). These models c o n c e p t u a l i z e an o r d e r l y sequence of change. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s l o c a t i o n i n the sequence at any l a t e r p o i n t i s r e l a t e d to l o c a t i o n at an e a r l i e r p o i n t i n the sequence. While p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s are r a d i c a l , there i s c o n t i n u i t y through these t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . Because the o r g a n i -z a t i o n i s h i e r a r c h i c a l , "the i n d i v i d u a l ' s developmental s t a t u s i s p r e d i c t a b l e or cumulative i n the sense of c o n t i n u i t y of p o s i t i o n on an o r d i n a l s c a l e " (Kohlberg et a l , 1972, p. 1223). The d e v e l o p m e n t a l - a d a p t a t i o n a l t r a i t s i n c l u d e c o g n i t i v e , moral and ego development. While c o r r e l a t i o n s among them are moderately s u b s t a n t i a l ( s i n c e there are cognitive-competence 23 components i n a l l t h r e e ) , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s does d i s t i n g u i s h among them. Some evidence i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p such that the more s p e c i f i c t r a i t (eg. moral development) depends upon the more general (eg. c o g n i t i v e development), hut not v i c e v e r s a . By combining the h i e r a r c h i c a l stage approaches w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , c o g n i t i v e - s t y l e , c o p i n g - s t y l e s t u d i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e r i v e broad, r e l a t i v e l y p r e d i c t i v e d e s c r i p -t i o n s of ego development which i n c l u d e c o g n i t i v e , moral and s e l f - c o n c e p t u a l components. Kohlberg and h i s c o l l e a g u e s p o i n t out that such d e s c r i p t i o n s are at present the best general t o o l f o r long-range p r e d i c t i o n which normal c h i l d development s t u d i e s can o f f e r the c l i n i c i a n . This would be expected s i n c e these t r a i t s have a c o g n i t i v e base and are s e q u e n t i a l and cumulative. Furthermore, the p o s i t i v e a d a p t a t i o n a l t r a i t s are r e i n f o r c e d by the environment. In terms of p r e d i c t i n g a d u l t f u n c t i o n i n g , Kohlberg et a l (1972) found t h a t " p o s i t i v e s t a t u s on a deve l o p m e n t a l - a d a p t a t i o n a l t r a i t i s p r e d i c t i v e of l a t e r absence of maladjustment ..." (p. 1232). A diagrammatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the components of ego development i s presented i n F i g u r e 1. I t i l l u s t r a t e s , a l s o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e , ego, and moral development. Because of the relev a n c e of the developmental-adapta-t i o n a l t r a i t s to t h i s study a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s i n the n e x t . s e c t i o n . F i g u r e 2 . C o g n i t i v e , ego and moral development as c o g n i t i v e the realm of s o c i a l s e l f . development: ego f u n c t i o n i n g i n 25 The Developmental-Adaptational Traits Ego Development Age-developmental trends which p a r a l l e l or include moral development have been i d e n t i f i e d (Harvey, Hunt and S.chroeder, 1961; Loveinger, 1966; Van Den Daele, 1968). Stage of ego development i s based on the l e v e l of conceptualization of s e l f , ego-ideal, s o c i a l relationships and s o c i a l values; that i s , i t represents cognitive functioning i n the domain of s o c i a l s e l f . Self-concept. As one element within this group, the se l f concept i s defined as a l l the attitudes, f e e l i n g s , opin-ions and b e l i e f s held by the in d i v i d u a l about himself (Purkey, 1967). As the centre of experience and the c r i t e r i o n against which a l l external events are measured i t i s not surprising that research shows i t to be a central determinant i n behavior (Brookover, 1959, 196*f, 1965, 1967; Combs, 1962, 1969; Cooper-smith, 1 9 6 7 ; Diggory, 1966; Hamachek, 1975; Patterson, 1961; Purkey, 1970). This l i t e r a t u r e indicates that s e l f i s learned and i s , therefore, accessible to change, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the early phases of development. Furthermore, there i s a d i r e c t ' relationship between the child's sense of self-esteem and academic achievement (Bodwin, 1957; Bruck and Bodwin, 1962: Campbell, 1966; Douvan and Gold, 1966; Fink, 1962; Lamy, 1965; Shaw and McCuen, I 9 6 0 ; Walsh, 1956; Wattenburg and C l i f f o r d , 1962). 26 There i s some evidence to suggest that such p o s i t i v e self-development l e a r n e d i n chi l d h o o d tends to continue on i n t o adulthood (Bloom, 196*+; Bower, 1966; O'Neal and Robbins, 1958; Kagan and Moss, 1962; Kohlberg, LaCrosse and R i c k s , 1972). Given t h a t these p o s i t i v e experiences are a fo u n d a t i o n upon which an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p e r s o n a l i t y s u p e r s t r u c t u r e may be b u i l t , the importance of e a r l y success experiences f o r the young elementary s c h o o l c h i l d becomes s e l f - e v i d e n t . As Hamachek (1975) noted, "These are the years when the f o o t i n g s of a c h i l d ' s p e r s o n a l i t y are e i t h e r f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n experiences of success, accomplishment and p r i d e i n h i m s e l f or f l i m s i l y p l a n t e d i n s h i f t i n g sands of s e l f -doubt, f a i l u r e and f e e l i n g s of wort h l e s s n e s s " (p. 5^ 3) • S o c i a l Competence. This i s a second component w i t h i n ego development. I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e to the o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n i n g of the c h i l d and as a powerful p r e d i c t o r of a d u l t mental h e a l t h s t a t u s determines i t s importance i n t h i s study. Research i n d i -cates t h a t s o c i a l competence i s not only d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the c h i l d ' s c a p a c i t y to use h i s a b i l i t i e s but a l s o i s an i n d i c a t o r of h i s c u r r e n t mental h e a l t h s t a t u s (Bower, 1965; Caplan, 1961 b; G l i d e w e l l , Kantor, Smith and S t r i n g e r , 1966; Jennings, 19^3; L i p p i t t and Gold, 1959; Schmuck, 1963, I966; Van Egmond, I960; B. White, 1971). Kohlberg et a l (1972) a l s o found aspects of overt s o c i a l conduct and f u n c t i o n i n g as key p r e d i c t o r s of a d u l t mental h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g . For example, a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , encompassing both a g g r e s s i v e behavior 27 i n v o l v i n g v i o l a t i o n of persons or prop e r t y and r u l e - v i o l a t i n g b e h a v i o r , was the s i n g l e most powerful p r e d i c t o r of l a t e r a d u l t maladjustment. T h e i r survey of the l i t e r a t u r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d that' peer acceptance and s t a b i l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h peers added c o n s i d e r a b l y to p r e d i c t i o n s about l a t e r c a p a c i t y f o r e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . The p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s they found which appeared to r e l a t e to peer acceptance were those per-t a i n i n g to ego development and to p e r s o n a l i t y - a d j u s t m e n t : i n t e l l i g e n c e , c o n t r o l of a n t i s o c i a l behavior, c o n t r o l of d i s -t r a c t i b l e b ehavior, moral behavior, and c a p a c i t y f o r coopera-t i o n . Furthermore, some s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d the s a l i e n c e of teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of p u p i l behavior to l a t e r adjustment . s t a t u s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o b s e r v a t i o n of the a g g r e s s i v e , immature, u n d e r a c h i e v i n g behavior c o n s t e l l a t i o n (Wickman, 1928; Kellam and S c h i f f , 1967). In view of these f i n d i n g s three d i f f e r e n t measures of s o c i a l competence were i n c l u d e d as dependent v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s tudy. C o g n i t i v e Development and A f f e c t i v i t y Reference has already.been made to the assumption h e l d by Kohlberg et a l (1972) based on t h e i r a n a l y s i s of the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t a c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r a l base u n d e r l i e s the developmental-adaptive t r a i t s . P i a g e t (1967) viewed the e v o l u t i o n of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n -i n g throughout c h i l d h o o d as c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g the e v o l u t i o n 28 of a f f e c t i v i t y . He maintained t h a t " a f f e c t i v i t y and i n t e l l i -gence are i n d i s s o c i a b l e and c o n s t i t u t e two complementary aspects of a l l human be h a v i o r " (p. 15)- Some support f o r t h i s view i s presented i n the classroom r e s e a r c h of B i b e r (1961); L i p p i t t , Fox and Schmuck (1967) ; and Sanford (1967) , which i n d i c a t e s t h at the c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e processes are r e l a t e d . I t i s no longer f e a s i b l e to dichotomize the l e a r n i n g f u n c t i o n s (mastery of symbol systems, processes of re a s o n i n g , judging and problem-s o l v i n g , a c q u i s i t i o n and o r d e r i n g of informa-t i o n , e t c . ) on the one hand, and the processes of p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a t i o n ( s e l f - f e e l i n g and i d e n t i t y , r e l a t e d n e s s p o t e n t i a l , autonomy, i n t e -g r a t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y , etc.) on the other. I t i s t h e r e f o r e no longer an open q u e s t i o n as to whether or not the sc h o o l has an impact on developing p e r s o n a l i t y ( B i b e r , 1961, p. 323 - 32!+). Kohlberg et a l (1972) pointed' out t h a t the p a r a l l e l i s m between c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e development was a l s o suggested by the f a c t t h a t c o g n i t i v e m a t u r i t y measures, such as the St a n f o r d - B i n e t , c o r r e l a t e d w i t h measures of m a t u r i t y i n a f f e c -t i v e development wherever r e l i a b l e c u l t u r a l l y g e n e r a l age-developmental measures i n t h i s area have been found. These c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t , f o r example, i n such w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t areas as c h i l d r e n ' s f e a r s ( J e r s i l d , 19^3)5 c h i l d r e n ' s humor (Levi n e , 1968) and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e x p r e s s i o n of a f f e c t ( E l l i n w o o d , 1969). The m a t u r i t y of p e r c e p t i o n of the s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n by the h i g h c r e a t i v e - h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e c h i l d r e n i n the Wallach and Kogan (1965) study a l s o demonstrated the c o g n i t i v e - s t r u c -t u r a l component i n emotional development. Another aspect of a f f e c t i v i t y r e l a t e d to the ex p r e s s i o n 29 of competence was proposed, by Fowler (1972). He suggested t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n of competence w i l l vary .sharply w i t h the manner and degree to which the a f f e c t i o n a l energies are d i s t r i b u t e d and o r i e n t e d . T h i s , i n t u r n , would determine the a v a i l a b i l i t y , p e r s i s t e n c e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n of e f f o r t d i r e c t e d toward the task. In t h i s study two measures of emotional development were i n c l u d e d as dependent v a r i a b l e s . One other dependent v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study, academic achievement, i s a l s o a gross developmental-adaptational t r a i t although i t i s t e c h n i c a l l y not equated w i t h b a s i c c o g n i t i v e development. The next t o p i c to be examined i s the optimal t i m i n g f o r those p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s which seem to have a p o s i -t i v e e f f e c t upon competencies r e l a t e d to cognitive- and ego development. Timing of P r e v e n t i v e I n t e r v e n t i o n s : C r i t i c a l Periods  i n Development and T r a n s i t i o n States P r i o r d i s c u s s i o n has a l l u d e d to the c e n t r a l i t y of o p t i m a l t i m i n g i n order to ensure s u c c e s s f u l outcomes f o r primary p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . I t has a l s o a l l u d e d to the f a c t t h a t knowledge of the ontogeny of a t r a i t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n about a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n i t s development. The s a l i e n c e of the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d may best be under-stood by b r i e f l y examining the b i o l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n of organs 30 i n the embryo. Each organ has i t s time and pl a c e of o r i g i n . Each i s e q u a l l y important f o r the ex p r e s s i o n of the organ. I f the organ begins i t s ascendancy at the r i g h t time, another time f a c t o r determines the most c r i t i c a l stage i n development. I n t e r r u p t i o n or a r r e s t of a r a p i d l y budding p a r t at an e a r l y stage w i l l suppress or d i s t o r t the organ ( E r i k s o n , 1950). A p p l i c a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d concept to the development of a human t r a i t suggests d e f i n i t i o n of the p e r i o d as one which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r a p i d s t a b i l i z a t i o n (and, t h e r e f o r e , p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ) of that t r a i t . For example, Bloom (196+) proposed t h a t a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the s t i m u l a t i o n of the development of i n t e l l i g e n c e occurs between the ages of one to f i v e . Kohlberg et a l (1972) d i s p u t e d the a p p l i c a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d l o g i c to a l a r g e l y h e r e d i t a r y t r a i t such as i n t e l l i g e n c e c i t i n g as evidence the apparent f a i l u r e of Head S t a r t p r o j e c t s to' demonstrate gains i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . However, to the degree t h a t environmental f a c t o r s can i n f l u -ence the optimal e x p r e s s i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the form of a wide range of performance competencies, i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t p e r i o d would seem to occur between the ages of one to three years as suggested by the f i n d i n g s of B. White (1971)* A second example of a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i s pro v i d e d by B l a t t and Kohlberg (1972) who have i d e n t i f i e d and s u b s t a n t i a t e d a r a p i d p e r i o d of growth i n moral development between the ages of nine to twelve. The i n c r e a s e d p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of moral m a t u r i t y at age tw e n t y - f i v e from age ten to age t h i r t e e n . i s 31 the r e s u l t of r a p i d moral growth (Kohlberg, 1969). From a survey of l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , Kohlberg et a l (1972) found a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the fo r m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s (other than ge n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ) p o s i t i v e f o r sc h o o l l e a r n i n g which c o n t r i b u t e d to sc h o o l achievement. S t a b i l i z a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g , a t t e n t i o n , and sense of competence appeared to occur i n the f i r s t three grades of elementary s c h o o l (ages f i v e to n i n e ) . A v a r i a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i s the t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e . The t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e , a term used by Tyhurst (1957)3 Caplan (1961 b) and ot h e r s , i s a p e r i o d d u r i n g which the i n d i v i d u a l i s d e a l i n g w i t h a l i f e s t r e s s . Such a s t r e s s may take the form of a c r i s i s which threatens p e r s o n a l l o s s or which c h a l l e n g e s the i n d i v i d u a l beyond h i s c u r r e n t c a p a c i t y . The l i f e s t r e s s may be r e l a t e d to an expected t r a n s i t i o n i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b i o l o g i c a l development or t o a marked change i n h i s customary s o c i a l r o l e . These s t r e s s e s are termed b i o -p s y c h o - s o c i a l developmental tasks (Caplan, 1965). What emerges durin g such a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d or per s o n a l c r i s i s i s a time of emotional and c o g n i t i v e d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . During t h i s p e r i o d of f l u x the i n d i v i d u a l i s more s u s c e p t i b l e to i n f l u e n c e by others than d u r i n g h i s customary s t a t e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y . I t i s dur i n g t h i s f l u i d s t a t e t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y short-term i n t e r v e n t i o n may be i n s t i g a t e d . The nature of the developing c r i s i s and the type of m a t e r i a l and/or p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s i s t a n c e provided to the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e 32 h i s c r i s i s response. An a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n provides a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y f o r coping w i t h l i f e i n adaptive h e a l t h y ways. Such coping s k i l l s remain as permanent gains. A n a t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t f o r the young c h i l d i s s c h o o l e n t r y . The review of l i t e r a t u r e has shown that the c h i l d i s beginning to a c q u i r e a number of coping s k i l l s r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego development. A p p r o p r i a t e a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h i s c r i t i c a l b i o - p s y c h o - s o c i a l developmental task should smooth the p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n and could provide important gains f o r the c h i l d . A p p l i c a t i o n Q f the Kohlberg Developmental- A d a p t a t i o n a l Model to t h i s Study Both the Kohlberg d e v e l o p m e n t a l - a d a p t a t i o n a l model and the p r i o r l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d would i n d i c a t e t h at a p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n which focuses upon the a c q u i s i t i o n of competencies r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego development would l i k e l y be suc-c e s s f u l i n the f i v e - . t o seven-age p e r i o d . L i t e r a t u r e on School-based P r e v e n t i v e Approaches A v a r i e t y of p r e v e n t i v e approaches to d e a l i n g w i t h emotional and b e h a v i o r a l problems i n the s c h o o l have been pro-posed. Z i m i l e s (1967) recommended a s o c i a l systems a n a l y s i s as a p r e c u r s o r to primary p r e v e n t i v e work. Morse (1967) has p l a c e d a focus upon upgrading the competence and knowledge-a b i l i t y of teachers r e l e v a n t to the f i e l d of mental h e a l t h . 33 Another approach has been to work i n the same area w i t h parents through the s c h o o l ( G i l d e a , G l i d e w e l l , and Kantor, 1961; Cros-by, 1963). Curriculum approaches to the promotion of mental h e a l t h and the r e s e a r c h on these have been reviewed by Kaplan ..(1971) • The Delaware Human R e l a t i o n s P r o j e c t ( B u l l i s and O'Mal-l e y , 1967) has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by Matlock (I960) and M i l l e r (1963)5 both of whom r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the mental h e a l t h of the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t . The mental h e a l t h t o p i c s s t o r i e s of Sugarman (1965) f o r f i r s t to f i f t h graders and the t e x t f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e grades on men-t a l h e a l t h by Limbacher (1967) are other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m approach. P o s i t i v e r e s u l t s w i t h the l a t t e r were claimed by Limbacher (1967). Kaplan's c r i t i c i s m of these types of programmes was th a t such d i d a c t i c , m o r a l i s t i c , focus-on-f a c t s approaches were not l i k e l y to develop i n c h i l d r e n those a t t i t u d e s and understandings needed to c l a r i f y and r e s o l v e t h e i r own emotional and human r e l a t i o n s problems. Another approach has been the i n f o r m a l or i n c i d e n t a l i n c l u s i o n of mental h e a l t h concepts as they have a r i s e n out of the needs, i n t e r e s t s , and c u r r e n t problems of the c h i l d r e n themselves. Such l e a r n i n g experiences which c a p i t a l i z e upon immediate classroom or playground s i t u a t i o n s have the advan-tage of t i m e l i n e s s and hig h i n t e r e s t ; the c h i l d r e n are help e d to c l a r i f y and r e l e a s e t h e i r emotions. However, without teacher s e n s i t i v i t y to c h i l d r e n and knowledge about c h i l d psychology 3>4 as w e l l as about mental h e a l t h , such i n s t r u c t i o n can become s u p e r f i c i a l r e c e i v i n g only s p o r a d i c r a t h e r than continuous a t t e n t i o n . The Dekatur School Board (1965) has creat e d a s e r i e s of resource u n i t s designed to b u i l d student s e l f - r e s p e c t and used across k i n d e r g a r t e n to Grade 6 l e v e l s . Rather than s u b j e c t matter u n i t s per se, these form areas of study and experience s t r u c t u r e d around the a c t u a l classroom l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n and are determined l a r g e l y through t e a c h e r / p u p i l p l a n n i n g . The human r e l a t i o n s case approach (Hoover and Hoover, 1968) has been used e f f e c t i v e l y with j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . Small group d i s c u s s i o n of short i n c i d e n t s or a c t u a l problems accompanied by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s of the people i n v o l v e d , allows the student r e a l i s t i c c o n t a c t with l i f e s i t u a t i o n s from which he may d e r i v e an understanding of human r e l a t i o n s dynamics. Ojemann (1967) has developed another approach, one i n c o r p o r a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l concepts i n t o r e g u l a r s c h o o l cur-r i c u l u m . This encourages a focus upon understanding the f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g human behavior. E v a l u a t i o n of t h i s type of pro-gramme w i t h s i x t h graders (Ojemann, 1967) and with f o u r t h -and f i f t h - g r a d e c l a s s e s ( G r i g g s , 196!+) found s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s i n terms of s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n and i n t o t a l mental h e a l t h . Kaplan contended t h a t these and other s t u d i e s show i n general that mental h e a l t h i n s t r u c t i o n tended to improve 35 c h i l d r e n ' s behavior both by redu c i n g classroom t e n s i o n and by i n c r e a s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e behavior. Crosby (1963) found that a marked improvement i n academic achievement accompanied these changes i n a t t i t u d e and i n behavior. S t i l l other s t u d i e s (Davis, 1965j W i t h a l l , 1964-) i n d i c a t e d t h a t an emphasis on improving human r e l a t i o n s i n the classroom and on meeting the emotional needs of c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d not only i n s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g gains but a l s o i n o v e r a l l enhancement of the emotional adjustment of the c h i l d r e n . Kaplan p o i n t e d out that most of the techniques d e s c r i b e d may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g courses or programmes u s i n g no great expenditure of time. He concluded that by emphasizing human r e l a t i o n s and mental h e a l t h concepts, l e a r n i n g was im-proved and b e t t e r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n r e s u l t e d (p. 369). S e v e r a l other p u b l i s h e d psychoeducational c u r r i c u l u m resources now w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e have been designed to promote, i n broad terms, understanding of s e l f , of o t h e r s , and of s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l b ehavior. These i n c l u d e Developing Under-standing of S e l f and Others (DUSO) (Dinkmeyer, 1970), the Focus on S e l f Development (Science Research A s s o c i a t e s , 1970) and Methods i n Human Development ( B e s s e l l and Palomares, 1969? 1973). I t i s the l a t t e r programme which i s the ob j e c t of t h i s c u r r e n t study. Because the programmes have some s i m i l a r i t i e s to each other i n terms of the b a s i c theme, a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each w i t h r e p o r t i n g s o'f r e s e a r c h f o l l o w s . 36 The DUSO (1970) has been designed to a s s i s t children i n understanding social-emotional behavior. It consists of a series of a c t i v i t i e s including group discussion planned around the developmental tasks of childhood and includes materials such as storybooks, posters, puppets, and records or cassette tapes of additional stories and songs to supple-ment the main themes. Based on Adlerian theory and the pur-posive, causal nature of human behavior, the programme attempts to stimulate the development of s o c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d i n order that he may more readi l y recognize the goals of his behavior and understand the nature of his faulty relationships with others. Research on the use of DUSO with elementary school children reported positive results i n a guidance programme with s p e c i a l l y selected children (Zingle, 1972) and improved self-concepts with others (Koval and Hales, 1972; Rusch and Dinkmeyer, 1972; Eldridge, Barckowski and Witmer, 1973)• The Focus on Self-Development (SRA, 1970) i s intended to be another elementary school guidance resource. A develop-mental programme, i t attempts to foster understanding of s e l f , others, and environment. The conceptual framework i s provided by the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Affective Domain (Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia, 1961+). Materials provided i n the k i t include f i l m s t r i p s , records, photoboards and pupil a c t i v -i t y books. The manual reports only f i e l d t e sting. 37 The Methods In Human Development Programme The B e s s e l l and Palomares (1969) programme i s based on s e l f - c o n c e p t theory and on the m o t i v a t i o n a l theory of Karen Horney (1950). The c u r r i c u l u m focuses on three c r i t i c a l areas of experience f o r a p r e v e n t i v e programme; awareness of and understanding of the c h i l d r e n ' s a f f e c t i o n a l processes and of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h i n k i n g and beh a v i o r ; mastery of c o g n i t i v e and other performance modes of f u n c t i o n i n g i n order to promote s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p o n s i b l e competence i n the c h i l d ; i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s which i n c l u d e understanding of others and of the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . These may be summarized as "I f e e l " , "I t h i n k and/or I know" and "I can do". These themes are s e q u e n t i a l l y developed. The HDP programme d i f f e r s from the other two psycho-e d u c a t i o n a l programmes (the DUSO and the SRA) i n two important r e s p e c t s . F i r s t l y , the HDP programme o f f e r s d i r e c t r a t h e r than v i c a r i o u s experiences to the c h i l d . That i s , the c h i l d deals w i t h h i s own l i f e experiences and f e e l i n g s r a t h e r than with s t o r i e s or f i l m s about those of ot h e r s . Secondly, the method used resembles the s m a l l group process except f o r the s t r u c -t ured nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n and f o r the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t o p i c s . The guided group process i t s e l f i s important t o the developing c h i l d f o r a number of reasons. Kubie (1967) i l l u m i n a t e d the p o t e n t i a l value of t h i s type of p e r s o n a l d i s c u s s i o n : 38 The c h i l d buries pain every day; and the accumulation of buried pain gradually isolates'him from his elders and his age peers, and makes him a f r a i d to allow his mental processes to flow f r e e l y . He be-comes in varying degrees constricted. This destructive process could be held i n check and reversed i f that which the c h i l d buries were to be exhumed day by day as he i s bury-ing i t . . Thus the early introduction into the education process of techniques borrowed from group psychotherapy but not i d e n t i c a l with i t could unlock the doors which impri-son us into our masked neuroses (p. 9 6 ) . This discussion vehicle i s t a i l o r e d to the concepts themselves and to the child's l e v e l of language development and under-standing. He experiences the sharing of personal data i n a natural way learning that he i s , at the same time, l i k e each other c h i l d yet d i f f e r e n t , too. Another aspect which i s of value to the c h i l d i n this p a r t i c u l a r structured format i s the modelling by teacher and peers of appropriate attending and l i s t e n i n g behavior (Bandura and Walters, 1963). The child's own e f f o r t s to reproduce simi-l a r behavior are a c t i v e l y reinforced i n the programme. Because peer group behavior i s shaped i n constructive and positive ways through modelling, reinforcement and through the particu-l a r topics introduced i n the curriculum (see Appendices A and B), an addi t i o n a l benefit may accrue over time to the c h i l d . The impact of the age-segregated peer group upon children's values and behavior has been documented by Bronfenbrenner (1970). His c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research has demonstrated the progressive decrease i n parental involvement with their children and the 39 corresponding i n c r e a s e i n the r o l e played by the peer group i n s o c i a l i z i n g the c h i l d . T h i s peer i n f l u e n c e upon the c h i l d i n the p l u r a l i s t i c Western t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t i e s has been shown by t h a t r e s e a r c h to be a n e g a t i v e f o r c e i n the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The p e e r - o r i e n t e d c h i l d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h o l d i n g n e g a t i v e views of h i m s e l f and of h i s peers, as having a dim view of the f u t u r e , and as engaging f r e q u e n t l y i n a n t i -s o c i a l b e havior. Coleman (1966) has a l s o r e p o r t e d that the f a c t o r i n the s c h o o l environment which c o n t r i b u t e s most to the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement was the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the other c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the same s c h o o l . Both the s t r u c t u r e d format of the HDP programme and the content appear to have a p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g a more p o s i t i v e peer c l i m a t e to contravene the d e b i l i t a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s d e s c r i b e d by Coleman (1966) and Bronfenbrenner (1970). The HDP programme was s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s c u r r e n t study f o r a l l of these reasons i n a d d i t i o n to the emphasis upon the a c q u i s i t i o n of competencies r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego development. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d that human development i s complex. There are g e n e t i c determinants f o r the s t r u c t u r e and kinds of c a p a c i t i e s as w e l l as f o r the r a t e of development of the i n d i v i d u a l . There are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the kinds of organism-environment t r a n s a c t i o n s . Timing, the nature and the extent of the experiences are important f a c t o r s i n i n f l u e n c i n g human development and l e a r n i n g . However, the c h i l d i s a u n i f i e d ho system: what I n f l u e n c e s one aspect of him has an e f f e c t upon a l l of him. While the r i d d l e of human development i s complex, t h i s one aspect of the t o t a l problem i s s e l e c t e d f o r study. Can an i n t e r v e n t i o n u s i n g the Methods' i n Human Development programme between the ages of 5 to 8 years f u r t h e r ego and c o g n i t i v e development i n the areas of s o c i a l , a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e competence? I f t h i s study demonstrates that c h i l d r e n do improve t h e i r competence l e v e l i n s k i l l s r e l a t e d to ego and c o g n i t i v e development, the use of the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme coul d be one type of i n t e r v e n t i o n to a s s i s t c h i l d r e n to become more competent, f u l l y - f u n c t i o n i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , c o g n i t i v e l y , a f f e c t i v e l y , and s o c i a l l y . Summary This chapter has presented a review of the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e on primary p r e v e n t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a d i t i o n a l treatment modes f o r d e a l i n g w i t h emotional, l e a r n i n g and behavior problems i n young c h i l d r e n . That l i t e r a -t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Kohlberg, La Crosse, and R i c k s ' (1972) review, presented some support f o r a psy c h o e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r -v e n t i o n d u r i n g a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the e t i o l o g y of competencies r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego development i n young c h i l d r e n . An overview of the l i t e r a t u r e on school-based p r e v e n t i v e approaches concludes w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme which i s the o b j e c t of hi t h i s r e s e a r c h . The b a s i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s : Can an i n t e r -v e n t i o n w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n u s i n g Methods i n Human Development develop competencies i n areas r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and ego development? The s p e c i f i c hypotheses on the use of HDP w i l l be developed i n the next chapter. CHAPTER III RESEARCH HYPOTHESES AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of the Be s s e l l and Palomares programme upon the a c q u i s i t i o n of three types of functional competencies related to ego strength, pos i t i v e self-development and mental health: cognitive performance competence, s o c i a l competence, and emotional competence. This chapter provides a rationale for each general hypothesis and the c r i t e r i o n measures selected followed by a s p e c i f i c hypothesis or hypotheses. Operational d e f i n i t i o n s and a summary conclude the chapter. HYPOTHESES Rationale: Hypotheses 1 and 2 Both the nature of the programme and the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed provided a rationale for the hypotheses and for sele c t i o n of the types of c r i t e r i o n measures. Examination of the Methods i n Human Development (HDP) programme reveals both the sequential nature of the material and a content, apparently directed toward enhancing the acq u i s i t i o n of the functional competencies described above. The programme provides both cognitive learnings and experi-ences which should promote development of competencies i n a f f e c t i v e , cognitive and interpersonal areas. S p e c i f i c a l l y , *+3 these a r e : 1. awareness of and understanding of the c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s , and of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these to t h i n k i n g and behavior; 2. mastery of c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e (academic) s k i l l s and of other performance s k i l l s which, i n t u r n , promote s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e , independence and r e s p o n s i b l e competence; 3. i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s f u r t h e r i n g a mature s o c i a l awareness and responsiveness to others as w e l l as an under-standing of the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the small group process and the s t r u c t u r e d nature of the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the programme sessions pro-v i d e ongoing r e inforcement and modelling of a t t e n d i n g and other l e a r n i n g - a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . Thus, both programme content and process suggested s e l e c t i o n of c r i t e r i o n measures r e l e v a n t to c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and s o c i a l performance areas. The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed a l s o o f f e r e d evidence support-i n g the s e l e c t i o n of these performance measures. That l i t e r a -t u r e suggested that f o s t e r i n g of v a r i o u s forms of competence r e l a t e d to ego m a t u r i t y sets an i n t e r t w i n i n g and s p i r a l l i n g p a t t e r n of ego development. This development serves as a form of primary p r e v e n t i o n . These competencies i n c l u d e s c h o o l achievement, e f f e c t i v e p roblem-solving b e h a v i o r , p o s i t i v e s e l f - f e e l i n g s , and s k i l l i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Ego s t r e n g t h , f o r example, was shown to be a s s o c i a t e d both with a r e f l e c t i v e and a n a l y t i c s t y l e of c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l . Furthermore, the p r o d u c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y was d e s c r i b e d as having the c a p a c i t y to attend s e l e c t i v e l y , as having an a t t i t u d e that problems can be s o l v e d and as p o s s e s s i n g an a b i l i t y to w i t h -stand s t r e s s . Given the focus w i t h i n the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme upon the development of a t t e n d i n g and r e l a t e d prob-l e m - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o r s , i t became l o g i c a l to i n c o r p o r a t e sus-t a i n e d problem-solving behavior as one dimension of c o g n i t i v e performance. School achievement was c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as a r e l a t i v e l y good gross p r e d i c t o r of a d u l t adjustment and as a c o r r e l a t e of most ch i l d h o o d measures of adjustment. Again, the HDP programme accentuates the mastery of c e r t a i n academic s k i l l s . School achievement, t h e r e f o r e , was i n c l u d e d as a second measure of c o g n i t i v e performance competency. However, s i n c e the academic s k i l l s ( reading, w r i t t e n language expres-s i o n , a r i t h m e t i c ) used to c a l c u l a t e s c h o o l achievement are not normally i n t r o d u c e d as p a r t of c u r r i c u l u m u n t i l f i r s t grade, t h i s measure was a v a i l a b l e f o r f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s only. S o c i a l competence, another aspect of ego development, was h i g h l i g h t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l competence and capa-c i t y to use h i s a b i l i t i e s was emphasized. S o c i a l and a f f e c t i v e s k i l l development are known to be important to s c h o o l achieve-ment, too. Aspects of overt s o c i a l behavior were found to be key p r e d i c t o r s of l a t e r a d u l t adjustment. Moreover, the l i t e r a -h5 ture suggested that peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s added c o n s i d e r a b l y to p r e d i c t i n g the l e v e l of a d u l t f u n c t i o n i n g . The r e l e v a n c y of teacher p e r c e p t i o n s of p u p i l behavior to adjustment stat u s was a l s o demonstrated i n some s t u d i e s . F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the emphasis w i t h i n the HDP programme upon the development of s o c i a l s k i l l s supported the i n c l u s i o n of three types of c r i t e r i o n measures f o r s o c i a l competence. The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed l i k e w i s e suggested a r e l a t i o n -s h i p between a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e processes. Furthermore, i t i n d i c a t e d the c e n t r a l i t y of s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s as b e h a v i o r a l determinants. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t awareness of the c h i l d ' s own and ot h e r s ' a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s form a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f the HDP programme. Since p a r t of s e l f i n c l u d e s f e e l i n g s about s e l f and pe r c e p t i o n s of l i f e , two measures of a f f e c t i v e r e s -ponses were i n c l u d e d i n the study (see p. 59 a n d - p. 60 ) . The nature of the c r i t e r i o n measures n e c e s s i t a t e d grouping of data i n t o that which could be obtained f o r both k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s and th a t which could be obtained f o r f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s only. The f i r s t two hypotheses r e f l e c t t h i s grouping. A f u r t h e r n o t a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d at t h i s p o i n t r e g a r d i n g the a l t e r a t i o n s made w i t h i n the programme. Time c o n s t r a i n t s n e c e s s i t a t e d c e r t a i n c o n t r a c t i o n s or omissions i n the pre-s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m . The changes made are d e t a i l e d i n Chapter •+ supplemented by an o u t l i n e of les s o n s used which i s provided i n Appendices A and B. Because of these m o d i f i c a t i o n s the 1+6 programme i s i d e n t i f i e d as MHDP i n the hypotheses. General Hypothesis 1 The MHDP programme should demonstrate i t s o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s as compared to another treatment programme, Show-and-Tell (SAT), i n promoting g r e a t e r competence i n f i r s t grade and k i n d e r g a r t e n p u p i l s on a c l u s t e r of c r i t e r i o n measures r e l a t e d to ego s t r e n g t h : c o g n i t i v e performance com-petency, s o c i a l competency and a f f e c t i v e competency. In com-p a r i s o n to SAT, the MHDP programme should demonstrate i t s great e r o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n : 1. enhancing an i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n . a n d e f f e c t i v e mature probl e m - s o l v i n g behavior as measured by the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box; 2. i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l adeptness because of i t s focus upon the area of i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence as measured by: (a) the Behavior R a t i n g • o f P u p i l s , a teacher percep-t i o n measure, and (b) The Class P i c t u r e s , a peer p e r c e p t i o n measure (Peer »B' ), and (c) a t h r e e - i t e m s o c i o m e t r i c measure of peer a f f i l i a -t i o n (Peer 'A'); 3- promoting a more p o s i t i v e emotional response to l i f e as measured by A P i c t u r e Game. The review of l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r e d l i t t l e or no e m p i r i c a l evidence to warrant a d i r e c t i o n a l h y p o t h e s i s . The s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n n u l l form. hi Hypothesis 1. Mean change scores are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r MHDP groups than mean change scores f o r SAT groups f o r treatment main e f f e c t s on f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s : p e r s i s t e n c e time i n mature problem-solving behavior ( K e i s t e r Puzzle Box); teacher r a t i n g of d y s f u n c t i o n a l s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g behavior (Behavior R a t i n g of P u p i l s ) ; peer nomination f o r observed p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l behavior (Peer 'B'); peer s e l e c t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n (Peer 'A'); s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of the dominant emotional response to l i f e (A P i c t u r e  Game). General Hypothesis 2 The programme emphasis upon mastery of academic s k i l l s and upon a sense of p e r s o n a l competence should be r e f l e c t e d not only i n i n c r e a s e d academic achievement as measured by GPA but a l s o i n gr e a t e r f e e l i n g s of independent s e c u r i t y as mea-sured by i n c r e a s e d scores on The Story of Tommy, another measure of a f f e c t . Hypothesis 2. For f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s , mean change scores are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r the MHDP groups than f o r SAT groups f o r treatment main e f f e c t s on two dependent v a r i a b l e s ; s c h o o l achievement (GPA) and independent s e c u r i t y (The S t o r y of Tommy). R a t i o n a l e : Hypotheses 3 and h Any d i f f e r e n t i a l responses to treatment due to sex or g r a d e - l e v e l f a c t o r s must be c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n the design of the study. T h e r e f o r e , sex and g r a d e - l e v e l were assigned as independent v a r i a b l e s . i+8 General Hypothesis N e i t h e r sex nor g r a d e - l e v e l w i l l i n f l u e n c e the depen-dent v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d i n Hypothesis 1 and/or 2 to a s i g -n i f i c a n t degree. Hypothesis 3- There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. Hypothesis h. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade p u p i l s on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. R a t i o n a l e : I n t e r a c t i o n Hypotheses 5. 6 1 7 and 8 With three independent v a r i a b l e s i n the design -treatment, sex and g r a d e - l e v e l - i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s may occur. Hypotheses are presented to i n c l u d e these p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s . General Hypothesis There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r the f o l l o w i n g : treatment-by-sex (TxS); t r e a t m e n t - b y - g r a d e - l e v e l (TxG); s e x - b y - g r a d e - l e v e l (SxG); and treatment-by-sex-by-g r a d e - l e v e l (TxSxG). Hypothesis 5 ' D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r males are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r females on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. ±9 D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n p u p i l s are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r f i r s t grade p u p i l s on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between males and females i n k i n d e r g a r t e n are not s i g n i f i c a n t -l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between males and females i n f i r s t grade on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r males and females i n k i n d e r -garten are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r males and females i n f i r s t grade on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS O p e r a t i o n a l type d e f i n i t i o n s are provided f o r each of the kinds of competencies used as dependent v a r i a b l e s . These d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be supplemented by d i s c u s s i o n appear-i n g i n Chapter h. C o g n i t i v e Performance Competency C o g n i t i v e performance competency was d e f i n e d as the scores r e c e i v e d on each of two c r i t e r i o n measures. The f i r s t , the' K e i s t e r P u zzle Box, provided a measure i n minutes of time spent i n mature problem-solving b ehavior. The second, f o r f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s o n l y , was a measure of sc h o o l achievement, the Grade P o i n t Average ( GPA), c a l c u l a t e d on achievement i n the Language A r t s (reading and w r i t t e n language expression) and i n A r i t h m e t i c . Hypothesis 6. Hypothesis 7« Hypothesis 8 . 50 Social Competency Soc i a l competency was defined as the scores received on each of three sociometric nomination devices. The f i r s t was the Behavior Rating of Pupils, a measure of teacher perception of the amount of dysfunctional s o c i a l and learning behavior. The second, The Class Pictures, was a measure of peer observation of positive or neutral behavior and i s i d e n t i -f i e d as Peer 'B'. The t h i r d was a three-item sociometric meas-ure of peer a f f i l i a t i o n , Peer 'A'. Affective Competency Aff e c t i v e competency was defined as the scores received on two instruments. The f i r s t , A Picture Game, was a projective measure of the child's predominant emotional response to l i f e with the score representing the number of 'happy' responses. The second, The Story of Tommy, was a measure, for f i r s t grade subjects only, of the child's feelings of independent security. SUMMARY The purpose of the study was re i t e r a t e d . For each hypothesis, a rationale was presented which recapitulated the l i t e r a t u r e very b r i e f l y . This was followed by a general hypothesis which provided the statement i n psychological terms and by the corresponding s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis or hypotheses. Operational type d e f i n i t i o n s were provided. 51 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION The purpose of the study has been stated as deter-mining the s p e c i f i c effects of the Bessell and Palomares programme upon the a c q u i s i t i o n of three types of functional competence i n young children. These competencies are related to ego strength, positive self-development and a state of mental health: cognitive performance competence, s o c i a l com-petence and a f f e c t i v e competence. The effects of this struc-tured discussion group programme upon the a c q u i s i t i o n of these competencies were compared to the effects of another discussion programme t r a d i t i o n a l l y employed i n kindergarten and primary grades, Show-and-Tell. This chapter i s organized into three major sections. The f i r s t contains a description of the design and a b r i e f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the dependent variables. The second discusses procedures. It begins with a detailed description of each instrument used as a measure of the dependent variables. These are followed by a description of the sample, of programme, treatment, testing and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures. The t h i r d section provides a b r i e f summary. DESIGN In order to control for sex and grade-level differences these variables were included as additional independent 52 v a r i a b l e s i n the study. Each of the independent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d two l e v e l s : treatment - the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme (Experimental Treatment, T]_) and Show-and-Tell (Comparison Treatment, T 2 ) ; grade - k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade; and sex - boy and g i r l . S i nce i t was not intended to g e n e r a l i z e beyond these l e v e l s , the design can be d e s c r i b e d as a f u l l y - c r o s s e d f i x e d - e f f e c t s t h r e e - f a c t o r d e s i g n . A schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s d e sign i s presented i n F i g u r e 2. Treatment Sex F i g u r e 2. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of design The d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t scores was used as a measure f o r each of the f o l l o w i n g f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s : C o g n i t i v e Performance Competency 1. P e r s i s t e n c e time i n minutes spent i n mature problem-s o l v i n g behavior as measured by a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box. 5 3 S o c i a l Competencies 2 . Teacher p e r c e p t i o n of the amount of d y s f u n c t i o n a l or negative classroom, s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g behavior as measured on the Behavior R a t i n g of P u p i l s . Rating of P u p i l s 3. Peer p e r c e p t i o n of observed s o c i a l l y p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l behavior as measured by frequency of nomination on an a d a p t a t i o n of The Class P i c t u r e s (Peer 'B'). h. Peer s e l e c t i o n f o r entry i n t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v i n g work and play s i t u a t i o n s as measured by frequency of nomination on a th r e e - i t e m s o c i o m e t r i c device (Peer 'A'). A f f e c t i v e Competency 5 . The s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of the c h i l d ' s dominant emotional response to l i f e as measured by A P i c t u r e Game• In a d d i t i o n to the f i v e measures above which were used wi t h both grade l e v e l s , two a d d i t i o n a l measures were c o l l e c t e d f o r f i r s t grade students. These were: C o g n i t i v e Performance Competency 1. Academic achievement as measured by the Grade Point Average (GPA) computed on r e a d i n g , language a r t s and a r i t h m e t i c performance. Emotional Competency 2 . F e e l i n g s of independent s e c u r i t y as measured by the I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d Study S e c u r i t y T e s t , The Story of Tommy. Ne i t h e r of these kinds of data could be obtained f o r 9+ kindergarten children because f i r s t grade academic s k i l l s (eg. reading) were required for both measures. PROCEDURES Description of Instruments  Cognitive Competency Measures For the purposes of this study two measures were taken, one i n each of the two parts of the design. Keister Puzzle Box. A standard problem-solving s i t u a -t i o n was needed which made available for study under compara-ble controlled conditions the reactions of children to a standard s i t u a t i o n . Such a problem, while possible of accomp-lishment, needed to be d i f f i c u l t enough that immediate success was u n l i k e l y for the majority of children. Thus, some f r u s t -r a t i o n would occur. Such a test carried other s p e c i f i c a t i o n s as well. It needed to be a natural a c t i v i t y l i k e a play s i t u a t i o n ; i t needed to be simple enough so that the average c h i l d could c l e a r l y perceive that success was possible through his own e f f o r t s . Such a test was found i n the Puzzle Box Test (Keister, 1937)• A shallow 9 inch square wooden box similar to the one shown i n Keister's work was constructed. It contained 10 b r i g h t l y colored enamelled wood blocks i n assorted shapes such as a sailboat, a car, a house. When a l l the wooden figures were placed f l a t i n the box, the l i d ' of the box could be closed and locked. As each c h i l d t r i e d to solve the puzzle i n the 5 5 a l l o t e d time of 12 minutes, his performance was videotaped for l a t e r playback and rating. Three trained raters using stop watches rated each c h i l d according to the maturity of behavior as defined by the researcher. A copy of that d e f i n i t i o n i s included i n Appendix C. The number of minutes spent i n mature problem-solving behavior was recorded on the rating sheet designed for this purpose. This rating became the child's score on the test. The raters were trained on two trai n i n g tapes showing several kindergarten and f i r s t grade pupils of both sexes solving the puzzle. A t h i r d tape was prepared containing s i x segments showing s i x d i f f e r e n t children, boys and g i r l s , k i n -dergarten and f i r s t grade pupils, who were solving the puzzle. This t h i r d tape was used to determine rater r e l i a b i l i t y . i R e l i a b i l i t y of the three judges' ratings on the subjects were calculated using the analysis of variance procedure described by Winer (1971)* This procedure gave a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of r^ = .91* Also appearing i n Appendix C are the d e f i n i t i o n of immature behavior (Keister, 1937), the directions for adminis-t r a t i o n , a description of the method of f a m i l i a r i z i n g each c h i l d with the videotape equipment and a sample of the rating form used. The Keister Puzzle Box was used with both kindergarten and f i r s t grade pupils. Academic Achievement. For f i r s t grade students academic % achievement was measured by c a l c u l a t i n g the Grade P o i n t Average (GPA). This was computed from l e t t e r grades assigned by teachers f o r the December and E a s t e r r e p o r t i n g periods on Language A r t s ( r e a d i n g , w r i t t e n language usage, and vocabulary development) and A r i t h m e t i c . L e t t e r grades were transformed to numerical values u s i n g a seven p o i n t s c a l e : A = 7; B = 6; c+ = 5 ; c = h-. c- = 3 ; D = 2; E = i . S o c i a l Competency Measures Three measures of s o c i a l competency were used i n the present study. The f i r s t two, the Behavior R a t i n g of P u p i l s and The Class P i c t u r e s , were adapted from A Process f o r  In-School Screening of C h i l d r e n w i t h Emotional Handicaps (Bower and Lambert, 1962). The t h i r d measure was a t h r e e - i t e m s o c i o m e t r i c device c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the purposes of t h i s study by the r e s e a r c h e r . Behavior Rating of P u p i l s . This instrument i s one of three s u b - t e s t s i n A Process f o r In-School Screening of  C h i l d r e n w i t h Emotional Handicaps (Bower and Lambert, 1962). I t provides a measure of teacher p e r c e p t i o n of student behavior. I t i s a s i m p l i f i e d Q-sort system i n which each student's name i s p l a c e d on an a p p r o p r i a t e normal d i s t r i b u t i o n ranging from a r a t i n g of one ( p o s i t i v e behavior) to seven (negative behavior) on e i g h t statements of maladjusted behavior. High t o t a l scores i n d i c a t e a great degree of d i s -turbed behavior. D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a copy of the r a t i n g s c a l e and the e i g h t statements appear i n Appendix C. 57 V a l i d i t y s t u d i e s o n t h e B e h a v i o r R a t i n g o f P u p i l s i n c l u d e d a n i t e m - a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e s t a n d a m e d i a n t e s t w i t h b o t h p r o v i d i n g some p o s i t i v e d a t a . The a u t h o r s r e c o m m e n d f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s . R e l i a b i l i t i e s a r e n o t r e p o r t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t ( L a m b e r t a n d B o w e r , 1 9 6 1 ) d o e s s t a t e t h a t w o r d i n g o f a l l e i g h t s t a t e m e n t s h a v e b e e n m o d i f i e d s i n c e t h e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s i n o r d e r t o p r o m o t e c o n s i s t e n c y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r a t i n g s . The C l a s s P i c t u r e s . The s e c o n d s u b - t e s t f r o m t h e B o w e r a n d L a m b e r t b a t t e r y was m o d i f i e d f o r u s e a t t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n o f t h e s c h o o l b o a r d o f t h e d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h t h e s a m p l e s c h o o l was s i t u a t e d . H a l f o f t h e 20 p i c t u r e s , t h o s e p o r t r a y i n g n e g a t i v e b e h a v i o r , h a d t o b e d e l e t e d . The  C l a s s P i c t u r e s became a t e n - i t e m s o c i o m e t r i c d e v i c e m e a s u r i n g p e e r p e r c e p t i o n o f p o s i t i v e o r n e u t r a l l e a r n i n g a n d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . The t e n p i c t u r e c a r d s w e r e s h o w n i n d i v i d u a l l y t o e a c h c h i l d . T h e r e w e r e f i v e p i c t u r e s o f b o y s a n d f i v e o f g i r l s w h o s e o v e r t b e h a v i o r w o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as e m o t i o n a l l y p o s i t i v e o r n e u t r a l . The t o t a l n u m b e r o f s e l e c t i o n s r e c e i v e d b y e a c h c h i l d became h i s s c o r e . R e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e f u l l t e s t t h r e e w e e k s a p a r t p r o d u c e d r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f . 6 0 f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n p u p i l s a n d .77 f o r f i r s t g r a d e p u p i l s ( L a m b e r t a n d B o w e r , 1 9 6 1 ) . The T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t w e n t o n t o n o t e t h a t i n t h e t r u e 58 sense of the word " r e l i a b l e " , the r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n i s low f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n ; however, r e l i a b i l i t y r a t i n g s i n c r e a s e to t h i r d grade. D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are presented i n Appendix C. Three-Item S o c i o m e t r i c Test. This s o c i o m e t r i c t e s t assessed the expressed d e s i r e of each c h i l d f o r a f f i l i a t i o n w i th h i s classmates. Because The Cl a s s P i c t u r e s had to be mod i f i e d (by d e l e t i o n of the n e g a t i v e p i c t u r e s ) , t h i s s o c i o -m etric t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d to assess d e s i r e f o r peer a f f i l i a -t i o n . I t was assumed t h i s t e s t would provide supplementary data to The Cl a s s P i c t u r e s . While each of the three measures of s o c i a l competence assess somewhat d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s of t h a t competence, i t can be expected t h a t they' share a common v a r i -ance. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t behavior should be c o n s i s t e n t across the three measures. This t e s t was to provide data about c h i l d r e n who were more a t t r a c t i v e to t h e i r peers e i t h e r because they d i s p l a y e d f r i e n d l y behaviors and/or possessed some s k i l l s or other a t t r i b u t e s admired by t h e i r peers. Each c h i l d was asked to nominate one c h i l d or more from the c l a s s f o r each of the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s : 1. Whom would you most l i k e to have to work w i t h on a s c h o o l p r o j e c t ? 2 . Whom would you most l i k e to p l a y w i t h at recess or noon-hour? 59 3. Whom would you most l i k e to have f o r a best f r i e n d ? There was no l i m i t on the number of s e l e c t i o n s f o r each item. The number of s e l e c t i o n s formed the c h i l d ' s s c o r e . A f f e c t i v e Competency Measures For the purposes of t h i s study two measures were taken: A P i c t u r e Game, f o r use with both k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade p u p i l s ; and The Story of Tommy f o r use wit h f i r s t grade sub-j e c t s only. A P i c t u r e Game. This t e s t i s a s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n measure and i s the t h i r d s u b - t e s t of the Bower and Lambert t e s t bat-t e r y . A p r o j e c t i v e t e s t , i t r e q u i r e s each c h i l d to s o r t 66 p i c t u r e s of n e u t r a l events or o b j e c t s i n t o one of two cate-g o r i e s : "This i s a happy p i c t u r e " or "This i s a sad p i c t u r e " i n t o a two-compartment box. Each p i c t u r e i s c a t e g o r i z e d accord-in g to the c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n of i t . The f i r s t 12 cards are ste r e o t y p e s of o b v i o u s l y happy or sad s i t u a t i o n s which have been i n c l u d e d to check on the c h i l d ' s understanding of the task. S c o r i n g i s accomplished by counting the number of cards i n the "happy" compartment. Data on i t e m - a n a l y s i s i n the T e c h n i c a l Report (Lambert and Bower, 1961) show few items d i s c r i m i n a t i n g the e m o t i o n a l l y handicapped (EHC) from those not so i d e n t i f i e d (NEHC). The authors conclude that i n d i v i d u a l . i t e m s c o u l d not be taken as p r e d i c t i v e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as EHC or NEHC. A s i g n t e s t d i d , however, r e v e a l that EHC p u p i l s see the p i c t u r e s as "sad" more f r e q u e n t l y than NEHC p u p i l s . However, s i n c e the i n s t r u -60 ment was not being used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h to separate EHC from NEHC c h i l d r e n t h i s l a c k of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y has no e f f e c t on t h i s study. Reported r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n range from .52 to .62; f o r f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n , from .66 to .77- The data i s c i t e d as evidence t h a t there i s enough c o n s i s t e n c y i n the c h i l d r e n ' s responses to suggest that a reasonably s t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s being measured. In t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was the o v e r a l l emotional response to l i f e as happy or sad. D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n appear i n Appendix C. The Story of Tommy: A Primary Form of the I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d Study S e c u r i t y Test.. The t e s t , used w i t h Grade One p u p i l s o n l y , measures the secure f e e l i n g s t a t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r a l response p a t t e r n s . As o u t l i n e d by Grapko (1965), Behaviors ( r e f l e c t i n g ) an i n c r e a s e i n s k i l l or knowledge c o n t r i b u t e to the development of s e c u r i t y . I t i s assumed that the c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l , technique or knowledge i n c r e a s e s the p r o b a b i l i t y of behaviors which w i l l r e s u l t i n consequences acce p t a b l e to the c h i l d (p. 3)• In s o l v i n g problems and i n responding to day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s , the c h i l d can adopt one of fou r approaches. F i r s t l y , through the u t i l i z a t i o n of h i s previous experience, knowledge and s k i l l i n a d i r e c t c o n f i d e n t approach to the task, the c h i l d extends h i s competence and h i s independent s e c u r i t y . Secondly, i n p e r c e i v i n g the task to be too d i f f i c u l t or complex, the 61 c h i l d may ask f o r h e l p thereby a c h i e v i n g confidence i n a n t i -c i p a t i o n of the outcome. This mode of f u n c t i o n i n g i s termed immature dependent. T h i r d l y , the c h i l d may respond with a defense mechanism to a m e l i o r a t e a n x i e t y . "In s e c u r i t y terms, the defense (which reduces a n x i e t y ) c o n t r i b u t e s to a q u a s i -s e c u r i t y (and) i s c a l l e d a deputy agent" (Grapko, 1965, p. h). L a s t l y , the c h i l d f a ced w i t h a d i f f i c u l t a c t i v i t y may become immobilized and manifest the f e e l i n g s t a t e of i n s e c u r i t y . From t h i s conceptual framework, The Story of Tommy was developed. The c h i l d i s asked to rank h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r each of f o u r approaches to twelve s i t u a t i o n s which sample the t y p i c a l d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s or tasks of the young c h i l d . Each s i t u a t i o n i s accompanied by f o u r d e s c r i p t i o n s of behavior r e f l e c t i n g the four s e c u r i t y s t a t e s . The rankings are used to c a l c u l a t e a Consistency Score and a S e c u r i t y Score. The C o n s i s t e n c y Score measures the degree of u n i f o r m i t y i n r a n k i n g while the S e c u r i t y Score p r o v i d e s a measure of d e v i a t i o n between the c h i l d ' s order of r a n k i n g and the rank order based on optimal s e c u r i t y develop-ment. Higher scores i n d i c a t e a more optimal s e c u r i t y s t a t e . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r e p o r t e d f o r the t e s t are as f o l l o w s : S e c u r i t y - .62 f o r boys and .65 f o r g i r l s ; Consis-tency - .53 f o r boys and .65 f o r g i r l s . R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r other p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s r e p o r t e d by A n a s t a s i (1958) range from the low AO's to .80's. The f i g u r e s f o r t h i s t e s t are q u i t e compar-able . V a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s p rovided by Grapko ( 1 9 6 5 ) , w h i l e 62 low, are comparable to those r e p o r t e d by Cronbach (191+9). A sample of the t e s t and the d i r e c t i o n s f o r adminis-t r a t i o n are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C. Sample The sample c o n s i s t e d of the e n t i r e k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade enrolment of a t y p i c a l s c h o o l i n an o l d e r s e c t i o n of a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t y ( p o p u l a t i o n approximately one m i l l i o n . ) V arying socioeconomic l e v e l s were rep r e s e n t e d by the f a m i l i e s of the c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g the s c h o o l , although the m a j o r i t y (98%) were from the lower and middle-lower working c l a s s e s . A s m a l l number of w e l f a r e f a m i l i e s were repr e s e n t e d as were a few prosperous p r o f e s s i o n a l and en t r e -p r e n e u r i a l f a m i l i e s housed i n s m a l l enclaves w i t h i n the com-munity. In r e c e n t y e a r s , a growing number of new immigrant f a m i l i e s had moved i n t o the area w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l number of these being Greek n a t i o n a l s . I t was t h e i r c h i l d r e n who were present i n s u b s t a n t i a l numbers i n the two grade l e v e l s used. The Greek c h i l d r e n had some beginning f a c i l i t y w ith the E n g l i s h language. The sample c o n s i s t e d of *+9 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , 21 boys and 28 g i r l s from one morning and one a f t e r n o o n c l a s s taught by the same female teacher. The 5^ f i r s t grade stud e n t s , 26 boys and 28 g i r l s , were from two c l a s s e s taught by two women. The a s s i g n i n g of students to treatment c o n d i t i o n s was accomplished by u s i n g a t a b l e of random numbers a f t e r d i v i d i n g 63 the e n t i r e s u b j e c t p o o l by grade l e v e l and sex w i t h a f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n of the grade one c l a s s e s . C o n t r o l f o r any d i f f e r e n c e s i n teacher e f f e c t s was achieved by a s s i g n i n g equal numbers of students from each grade one c l a s s to each treatment c o n d i t i o n . Table 1 presents the composition of the treatment groups with-i n the d e s i g n . Table 1 Numb ers of Subjects C l a s s i f i e d by Treatment, G r a d e - l e v e l and Sex Treatment G r a d e - l e v e l Sex Number of Subjects T-j_ K i n d e r g a r t e n Male 13 Female 12 Grade 1 Male 13 Female 1.3 T 2 K i n d e r g a r t e n Male 8 Female 16 Grade 1 Male 13 Female Each d i s c u s s i o n group c o n s i s t e d of 8 to 10 students with as n e a r l y equal numbers of boys and g i r l s as p o s s i b l e wherever t h e i r numbers i n the r e s p e c t i v e classroom groups were not e q u a l l y represented. These groups were randomly assigned to treatments. 6>+ Programme Proc edures The d i s c u s s i o n groups were l e d f o r 15 minutes each f o r three mornings each week on Monday, Wednesday and F r i d a y beginning at 9:30 a.m. The exceptions were the groups from the a f t e r n o o n k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s be-gi n n i n g r i g h t a f t e r homeroom p e r i o d s h o r t l y a f t e r 1:00 p.m. The two treatments were administered by two female graduate s t u d e n t s , one of whom was the r e s e a r c h e r . The problem of a d m i n i s t r a t o r v a r i a n c e was r e c o g n i z e d . Every e f f o r t was made by the r e s e a r c h e r to conduct h e r s e l f i n a s i m i l a r manner wit h each treatment group, showing the same degree of i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i v e n e s s to a l l d i s c u s s i o n s and responding w i t h the same degree of warmth. Both graduate students were thoroughly f a m i l i a r w i t h each of the programmes. Each conducted an equal number of both treatment programmes except f o r the groups formed by the a f t e r n o o n k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s . These were l e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . To ensure the anonymity of treatment group i d e n t i t i e s , teachers of the c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d were t o l d t h a t , s i n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g was thought to occur through i n t e r a c t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r s were attempting to examine s e v e r a l modes of d i s c u s s i o n format f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes. The f i n d i n g s and the s k i l l s that proved most e f f e c t i v e w i t h the c h i l d r e n were to be shared w i t h s t a f f ( i f there was an i n t e r e s t on the part of the s t a f f i n u s i n g the techniques.) Furthermore, the s t a f f were aware of the p r i n c i p a l ' s keen i n t e r e s t both i n the 6 5 r e s e a r c h and i n having the s c h o o l s e l e c t e d f o r the r e s e a r c h s i t e . S t a f f were requested not to ask the c h i l d r e n about the nature or apparent purpose of the groups they were i n . A l l d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s were conducted i n a conference room, a s m a l l reading room or a vacant classroom depending upon a v a i l a b i l i t y . The d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s began i n the f i r s t week of November a f t e r a l l arrangements had been made to secure approval f o r the use of the s c h o o l and upon completion of p r e t e s t i n g . This treatment p e r i o d was eighteen s c h o o l weeks i n l e n g t h w i t h an i n t e r r u p t i o n f o r the Christmas h o l i d a y p e r i o d . Some a d d i t i o n a l time was l o s t due to s c h o o l c l o s u r e s f o r s t a f f i n - s e r v i c e s and inclement weather. D i s c u s s i o n groups ended d u r i n g the l a s t week of March. Treatment Procedures  Experimental Treatment (MHDP or T i ) The Methods i n Human Development programme c o n s i s t s of a s t r u c t u r e d s m a l l group format as o u t l i n e d i n the Theory Manual ( B e s s e l l , 1973)- The programme authors designed a c i r -c u l a r s e a t i n g arrangement of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s t o enhance the two-way v e r b a l and nonverbal communication flow between teacher and students. The c i r c l e s e s s i o n s focus upon the c h i l d -ren's own experiences - t h e i r f e e l i n g s and what a f f e c t s these f e e l i n g s ; t h e i r c a p a c i t y to a f f e c t the f e e l i n g s and behavior of others both p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y ; t h e i r own behavior and the behavior of others as i t i s experienced by them. The 66 three s e q u e n t i a l d i s c u s s i o n themes are awareness, mastery and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Each of these themes was covered although time pe r m i t t e d only s i x weeks of each d i s c u s s i o n theme (Units I, II and I I I ) . Some d e v i a t i o n s from the p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m occurred. I t was noted t h a t a c t i v i t i e s c ould only be given three times weekly r a t h e r than d a i l y as recommended. As a consequence some r e c u r r i n g a c t i v i t i e s had to be omitted w h i l e some r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s were combined. The other p r o c e d u r a l recommendation which could not be f o l l o w e d was the l e n g t h of each s e s s i o n -1 5 minutes r a t h e r than the 2 0 minutes p r e s c r i b e d . Both: the time c o n s t r a i n t s and the experimental purpose of the programme d i d not permit the f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n to experience e i t h e r the c h i l d r e n ' s choice a c t i v i t i e s ( d e c i s i o n -making) as d e s c r i b e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide or the c h i l d l e a d e r s h i p a c t i v i t i e s . Other omissions i n c l u d e d the le s s o n s on r e a l i t y and f a n t a s y p r o j e c t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and honesty. Because these m o d i f i c a t i o n s had to be made the programme i s i d e n t i f i e d as MHDP. A d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g of the a c t u a l lessons used appears i n Appendices A and B. L e v e l B: K i n d e r g a r t e n programme (Appendix A). The s t r a t e g i e s u t i l i z e d at the k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l i n -clude encouragement to t a l k , to l i s t e n , to experience success i n each a c t i v i t y , and to d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h both negative and p o s i t i v e t o p i c s . Because a two-way movement of communica-t i o n i s the core of the programme, the Theory Manual ( B e s s e l l , 67 1973) i s m o s t e x p l i c i t a b o u t t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s t h r o u g h a d u l t m o d e l l i n g a n d t h r o u g h p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s c i t e d f o r t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m m e a r e : t o i m p r o v e s e l f - c o n t r o l a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o l i s t e n a n d t o e x p r e s s o n e s e l f ; t o d e v e l o p s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n a n d u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; t o d e v e l o p a t o l e r a n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ; t o e m p h a s i z e common human t r a i t s ; t o i n c r e a s e s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e ; a n d t o i n c r e a s e v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n a n d l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . L e v e l 1: F i r s t g r a d e p r o g r a m m e ( A p p e n d i x B ) . L i k e t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , t h e f i r s t g r a d e s t u d e n t s a l s o d e a l w i t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s , t h o u g h t s a n d b e h a v i o r s , a n d a c q u i r e a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s t h r o u g h a d u l t m o d e l l i n g a n d t h r o u g h p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e c h i l d r e n d i s c u s s a m b i v a l e n c e i n f e e l i n g s a n d t h o u g h t s as w e l l as b e h a v i o r s h a v i n g b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e c o n s e -q u e n c e s . E f f e c t i v e a n d i n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r a r e a l s o e x a m i n e d . S u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s n o t e d f o r t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m m e , t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e i n c l u d e d f o r t h e f i r s t g r a d e l e v e l : e f f e c t i v e s e l f - c o n t r o l , t h e a b i l i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e c o m f o r t a b l y t h e f e e l i n g s , o f a m b i v a l e n c e , t o mee t n e e d s e f f e c t i v e l y , t o i n c r e a s e t o l e r a n c e a n d e m p a t h y , a n d t o i m p r o v e s k i l l s i n m a k i n g h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s t o o t h e r s . C o m p a r i s o n T r e a t m e n t ' (SAT o r To) The s e c o n d t r e a t m e n t p r o c e d u r e u t i l i z e d was S h o w - a n d -68 T e l l , a s t a n d b y o f many k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d p r i m a r y c l a s s r o o m s . I t h a s n o w r i t t e n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e a n d no c l e a r l y s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . H a n d e d o n b y w o r d - o f - m o u t h i t a p p e a r s t o be u s e d t o p r o m o t e s k i l l s i n v e r b a l i z i n g , a n d t o b u i l d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e t h r o u g h a m o d e s t a m o u n t o f s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( i n c o m p a r i -s o n t o o t h e r d i s c u s s i o n m e t h o d s s u c h as DUSO a n d t h e B e s s e l l a n d P a l o m a r e s p r o g r a m m e ) . H a v i n g n e i t h e r f o r m a l c u r r i c u l u m n o r o b j e c t i v e s , i t i s n o t a s e r i e s o f p l a n n e d s e q u e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h one b u i l d i n g u p o n t h e o t h e r . I t i s u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d as a b r i e f d a i l y a c t i v i t y w i t h p e r h a p s f i v e o r s i x p e r f o r m e r s . E a c h c h i l d i s a l l o w e d t o t a k e a t u r n i n f r o n t o f t h e c l a s s t o d i s p l a y a n a r t i c l e b r o u g h t f o r t h e o c c a s i o n , c o m m e n t i n g u p o n i t t o h i s p e e r s a n d t e a c h e r , a s t h e name " S h o w - a n d - T e l l " i m p l i e s . I n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e f u r t h e r v e r b a l i z a t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r a n d / o r t h e c l a s s may q u e s -t i o n t o e l i c i t f u r t h e r comments f r o m t h e c h i l d a b o u t t h e a r t i c l e ' s u s e s , w h y i t i s e n j o y e d o r why i t was s e l e c t e d . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e d i s p l a y t h e c h i l d i s t h a n k e d f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . T h i s was t h e f o r m a t u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . S h o w - a n d - T e l l was s e l e c t e d as a c o m p a r i s o n t r e a t m e n t s i n c e i t i s a w i d e l y u s e d d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p m e t h o d . No r e s e a r c h was f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h w o u l d s u b s t a n t i a t e o r r e f u t e i t s v a l u e as a n e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l . I n t h e w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e some t e a c h e r s d i s m i s s t h e HDP p r o g r a m m e as b e i n g e x a c t l y t h e same as S h o w - a n d - T e l l . H o w e v e r , t h e l a c k o f a d i s c u s s i o n s t r u c -t u r e w h i c h s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t e a c h e s t h e e l e m e n t s o f l i s t e n i n g 69 and of two-way communication as well as. the lack of a sequen-t i a l content structure do appear to present substantial d i f -ferences. How s i g n i f i c a n t these differences are with respect to ego development i n p a r t i c u l a r was to be examined i n this study. Testing Procedures Pretesting using the s i x testing devices was conducted from the l a s t week of September beginning with the videotaping of student responses to the Keister Puzzle Box. Upon completion of the videotaping procedure i n the l a s t week of October, teachers were asked to complete the Behavior Rating of Pupils. The Class Pictures, A Picture Game and The Story of Tommy were completed next. Posttesting began immediately at the conclusion of the treatment period i n March l a s t i n g u n t i l the l a t t e r part of A p r i l with the same order of testing. The c a l -culations on Grade Point Average (GPA) were computed as des-cribed under "Description of Instruments". S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures This research problem was multivariate i n nature involving the simultaneous investigation of multiple dependent variables. Therefore, a multivariate 2x2x2 (treatment-by-sex-by-grade-le v e l ) analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the independent variables upon the subject's responses . (Bock and Haggard, 1968). In those factors where a s i g n i f i c a n t multivariate F was found, univariate analyses followed for each of the dependent variables (Hummel and Sligo, 70 1971; F i n n , 197*+) • M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was more a p p r o p r i a t e than separate u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s on each of the v a r i a b l e s measured upon the same s u b j e c t s s i n c e t h i s form of a n a l y s i s took i n t o account the c o r r e l a t i o n s among the dependent v a r i -ables which would otherwise be i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d . This p r o c e d u r a l choice was f u r t h e r supported by Gardner's re c e n t review of l i t e r a t u r e on s c a l e s t r e n g t h and s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c s (1975)-The MANOVA a n a l y s i s used change scores d e r i v e d by c a l c u l a t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s between post- and pre-measures f o r each of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The choice of a n a l y s i s of g a i n or change scores r a t h e r than a n a l y s i s of covariance procedures was supported by the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e presented by Bock (1975)' A l l analyses were performed u s i n g the computer programme, M u l t i v a r i a n c e : U n i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i -ance, c o v a r i a n c e . and r e g r e s s i o n - V e r s i o n V (MULTIVAR, V e r s i o n 5) ( F i n n , 197*+) , maintained by the E d u c a t i o n a l Research S e r v i c e s Center, F a c u l t y of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. SUMMARY This chapter has presented the r e s e a r c h design and sampling techniques, treatment, t e s t i n g and s t a t i s t i c a l procedures. 71 CHAPTER V RESULTS U n i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e tech-niques were u t i l i z e d i n the a n a l y s i s of data r e l a t e d to the e i g h t hypotheses. In the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , the e f f e c t of the treatment on a l l c r i t e r i o n measures was observed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t a k i n g i n t o account the c o r r e l a t i o n s between these measures. The m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t c o nsidered the s u b j e c t ' s responses to a l l measures as a s i n g l e response, thus p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the t o t a l e f f e c t of the treatment. In those i n s t a n c e s where the n u l l hypothesis was r e j e c t e d , u n i v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e f o l l o w e d f o r each of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the change scores appear i n Table 2 . As noted i n the d i s c u s s i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l procedures i n Chapter h, the change scores r e p r e s e n t the d i f f e r e n c e s between post- and p r e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r each of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . For each of these v a r i a b l e s , with the e x c e p t i o n of the teacher r a t i n g measure, a p o s i t i v e gain corresponds to growth. For the teacher r a t i n g the negative s i g n r e f l e c t s growth; a negative value f o r the Behavior R a t i n g  of P u p i l s r e p r e s e n t s an a c t u a l r e d u c t i o n i n the amount of n e g a t i v e classroom l e a r n i n g and s o c i a l behavior observable to the teacher. I n s p e c t i o n of Table 2 r e v e a l s both the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e Table 2 Observed C e l l Means and Standard Deviations : Seven Dependent Variables Cognitive So c i a l A f f e c t i v e Competence Competence Competence Group N Problem-Solving Time GPA Teacher Rating Peer 'A' ( A f f i l i a t i o n ) Peer 'B' (Observation) S e l f -Rating Security T XBK 13 0.81+3 ( 3 - 1 3 1 ) - -I+.231 (5 .231) - 1 . 3 8 5 ( 7 . 1 7 1 ) k.l5h (1+.525) - 0 . 6 9 2 (7- L +09) -TjBl 13 (0.901) 0 . 8 6 2 ( 1 . 0 2 8 ) a - 1 . 0 0 (if.865) 0 . 3 8 5 Q.l+l+6) 1 - 5 3 8 (3-526) 3 - 0 0 ( 7 . 7 0 3 ) 3-^85 (5-121) TjGK 12 -0.1+1+9 ( 3 - 6 5 1 ) - -9 .083 (6.775) 0 . 3 3 3 (2.71+D 3 . 8 3 3 (5-132) 2.50 (11.81+1+) -T ] G 1 13 0.33>+ O .O77 ( 1 . 2 2 6 ) -O .3O8 (3-79>+) -1.125 ( 2 . 3 8 6 ) 1 . 3 0 8 (1+.516) 1+.538 (6.1+63) 9 . 6 6 2 (8.501) T-.BK 8 2.9hk ( 3 - 8 8 3 ) - -0.500 (3-M5L+) - 0 . 3 7 5 (1.598) - 1 . 1 2 5 (5-21+9) . 3-625 (7-577) -T 2 B 1 13 -O.171+ (1.195) 0.269 ( 0 . 5 6 8 ) -0.8>+6 (6.581) 0 . 0 7 7 (2.900) O . 6 1 5 (5-881) 0 . 0 7 7 (u . 35 L +) ( 6 . 5 3 3 ) T2GK 16 1.052 ( 1 . 5 8 9 ) - -O .O63 (if.823) 1 . 3 1 3 (3.239) 1 . 0 0 (5.01+6) -1.313 (8.252) -T 2 G 1 15 O . 0 7 2 (1.1+62) 0 . 6 5 3 ( 1 . 0 1 1 ) O .O67 ( 6 . 8 0 8 ) - 0 . 2 6 7 (3.239) 0 . 8 6 7 ( 7 A 5 3 ) - 1 - 3 3 3 ( 1 2 . 5 6 8 ) 7.155 ( 8 . 5 0 3 ) Note: GPA and Security Scores collected for Grade One students only a Numbers i n parentheses are standard deviations T] = MHDP B = Boys K = Kindergarten T 2 = SAT G = G i r l s 1 = Grade One 73 increases i n means i n the teacher rating measure for kinder-garten students i n the MHDP treatment groups and the Peer 1B' rating which measures peer observation of s o c i a l l y positive or neutral behavior i n the same groups. The balance of the results are presented below with hypotheses pertaining to the independent variables or factors presented f i r s t . Hypothesis 1. Mean change scores are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater for MHDP groups than mean change scores for SAT groups for treatment main effects on f i v e dependent variables: persistence time i n mature problem-solving behavior (Keister Puzzle Box); teacher rating of dysfunctional s o c i a l and learning behavior (Behavior Rating; of Pupils) ; peer nomination for observed positive or neutral behavior (Peer 'B'); peer s e l e c t i o n for person-a l a f f i l i a t i o n (Peer 'A'); self-perception of the dominant emotional response to l i f e (A Picture Game). Table 3 presents MANOVA results along with the followup univariate tests. These results indicate that there, was a s i g n i -f i c a n t treatment effect (p_ <^  .003) which can be accounted for by the changes i n the teacher behavior rating and the Peer 1B' ratin g , both measures of s o c i a l competency related to overt s o c i a l behavior. For the teacher r a t i n g , the observed combined means for MHDP and SAT groups were -3-5+9 and -0.289 respectively. These scores revealed that children i n the MHDP groups demon-strated less dysfunctional behavior as observed by the teachers. The corresponding combined means for the peer perception St Table 3 M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance E f f e c t s of Treatment, Sex, and Grade-Level Upon Five Dependent Variables U n i v a r i a t e F S t a t i s t i c s M u l t i v a r i a t e Degrees Problem- Teacher Peer 'A' Peer 'B1 S e l f -Test of Solving Rating ( A f f i l i a t i o n ) (Observation) Eating F (df) Freedom Time Treatment 3.8601* (5, 91) 1 l . .3053 8. •9931* 0.3593 '+. 1837* 1.84-27 Sex 0.4415 (5, 91) l 0, .6025 0. • 3057 1.9012 0.0926 0.0062 Grade-Level 1.9751 (5, 91) 1 1. • 304-2 6. • 74 54- 0.2214- 0.9636 0.24-96 T x S 0.9373 (5, 91) 1 0. .2152 1. .9526 0.0056 0.2953 1-7633 T x G 3.6680* (5, 91) 1 2. • 2571 7. .5279* 1.2362 2.24-9 !+ 1.2867 S x G 1.0313 (5, 91) 1 3. , 074-9 1. .9296 0.9680 0.1639 0.0517 T x S x G 0.4-870 (5, 91) 1 0. .5807 1. • 3087 0.0033 0.2105 0.4-598 Within 95 T o t a l 102 *P < .05 7 5 measure, Peer 'B', were 2.686 and 0-538. These scores indicate a concomitant increase for the MHDP participants i n the amount of positive or neutral behavior observed by peers. Hypothesis 2. For . f i r s t grade subjects, mean change scores are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater for the MHDP groups than for SAT groups for treatment main effects on two dependent variables: school achievement (GPA) and independent security (The Story of Tommy). The multivariate analyses corresponding to Hypothesis 2 are summarized i n Table h. These analyses revealed no s i g n i -f i c a n t differences. Therefore, research Hypothesis 2 i s not rejected. Mean change scores for f i r s t grade subjects for treatment effects of the MHDP programme on academic achieve-ment and independent security were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r -ent from mean change scores for the comparison treatment group. Hypothesis 3« There is no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between males and females on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. As hypothesized, the multivariate analyses for the second independent variable, sex, did not show s i g n i f i c a n t differences with either group of dependent variables (see Tables 3 and h). Therefore, Hypothesis 3 i s not rejected: s i g n i f i c a n t differences between males and females on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures were not found. 7.6 Table h Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Effects of Treatment and Sex on Two Dependent Variables (Grade One) Univariate F S t a t i s t i c s Multivariate Test F (df) Degrees of Freedom GPA Security Treatment 0.0571 (2, h9) 1 0.005 0.1161 Sex 2.1+313 : (2, 1+9) 1 0.1+1+61+ h.797 T x S 2.1+78 (2, 1+9) 1 1+.6938 0.7^10 Within 50 Total 53 77 Hypothesis h. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between kindergarten and f i r s t grade pupils on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. As hypothesized, the multivariate analyses for the t h i r d independent variable, grade-level, revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between grades (Table 3 ) . Therefore, Hypothesis h was accepted: grade-level did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. Hypothesis 5« Differences i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups for males are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups for females on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. From Tables 3 and h, the multivariate analyses of treat-ment interactions with sex f a i l e d to reveal s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences. The n u l l hypothesis was accepted. There was no s i g n i f i -cant i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment and sex. Hypothesis 6. Differences i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups for kindergarten pupils are . not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups for f i r s t grade subjects on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. Examination of Table 3 reveals a s i g n i f i c a n t multivar-iate F r a t i o for the int e r a c t i o n effect of treatment with grade-level (F ( 5 , 91) = 3-688, p < . 0 0 5 ) . Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected. Followup univariate tests of the 78 dependent v a r i a b l e s to determine which v a r i a b l e i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F showed a s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o f o r only one of the dependent v a r i a b l e s , the teacher behavior r a t i n g (F ( 1 , 95) = 7-528, p < . 0 0 7 3 ) . Examination of the combined means f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n s r e v e a l e d that the mean gain f o r the MHDP k i n d e r g a r t e n group (6.559) was gr e a t e r than the mean ga i n f o r the MHDP f i r s t grade group ( .65^) , whereas f o r the SAT groups the mean gains were more n e a r l y comparable (.208 and .357 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S p e c u l a t i o n about the causes of such manifest treatment d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be res e r v e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g chapter. Hypothesis 7' D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between males and females i n k i n d e r g a r t e n are not s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores f o r males and females i n f i r s t grade on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was not r e v e a l e d i n the m u l t i -v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of i n t e r a c t i o n between sex and g r a d e - l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was accepted (Table 3 ) . There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between sex and g r a d e - l e v e l of s u b j e c t s . Hypothesis 8. D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r males and females i n k i n d e r -garten are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r males and females i n f i r s t grade on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures. 79 The f i n a l multivariate analysis was for the possible i n t e r a c t i o n effects for treatment, sex and grade-level upon the f i v e dependent variables. Table 3 reveals no s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis was accepted. The implications of these findings w i l l be discussed i n the concluding chapter. Additional Data Additional data was available which can be used to supplement the results reported earlier- i n this chapter. This data related to the problem-solving measure, the Keister Puzzle Box, and the peer a f f i l i a t i o n measure, Peer 'B'. The results w i l l be presented i n that order. Two kinds of data were obtained from the Keister Puzzle Box. F i r s t l y , posttest results for the puzzle revealed a small increase i n the numbers of subjects from the MHDP group who successfully completed the puzzle. At the kindergarten l e v e l there were f i v e MHDP participants with correct solutions out of a t o t a l of 25 subjects (as compared to two on the pretest) while at the f i r s t grade l e v e l there were two solutions out of a t o t a l 26 participants (as compared to none on the pretest). This pattern did not hold for the SAT participants. There were no correct solutions for the kindergarten subjects (one on the pretest out of 2k subjects i n total) and one correct solu-tion at the f i r s t grade l e v e l (one on the pretest out of 28 subjects). Secondly, the nature of the behavioral responses made by the subjects to the Keister Puzzle were unexpectedly 80 d i v e r s e . Rather than the very narrow c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the behavior as "mature" or "immature", i t became apparent t h a t the t e s t p rovided a remarkable o p p o r t u n i t y to sample a broader range of the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e - eg. approach-avoidance of the task; c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y - r i g i d i t y . S e v e r a l samples of the b e h a v i o r a l p r o t o c o l s which i l l u s -t r a t e the d i v e r s e kinds of data a v a i l a b l e are i n c l u d e d (see Appendix D ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n "Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research". Examination of the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of the Peer 'B' measure, The Class P i c t u r e s , r e v e a l e d that i n each of the fo u r MHDP groups (N = 5l) there were no longer any s o c i a l i s o l a t e s . Each c h i l d r e c e i v e d at l e a s t one nomination f o r p e r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n . This was not true f o r the SAT groups (N = 52) at e i t h e r grade l e v e l . SUMMARY This chapter has presented the r e s u l t s of the m u l t i -v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e of the data. E i g h t hypotheses were t e s t e d f o r the two parts of the study. Hypotheses 1 through !+ were r e l a t e d to the three independent v a r i a b l e s -treatment, sex and g r a d e - l e v e l . Hypotheses 5" through 8 per-t a i n e d to i n t e r a c t i o n s . U n i v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e f o l l o w e d s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o s i n order to de t e r -mine which dependent v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d to the e f f e c t . 81 The f i r s t hypothesis examined the effects of treatment on f i v e c r i t e r i o n measures. A s i g n i f i c a n t multivariate F r a t i o was obtained leading to r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypothesis. Mean change scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater for MHDP groups than for SAT groups. Two of the c r i t e r i o n measures, the teacher Behavior Rating of Pupils and Peer 'B' (peer perception of positive or neutral behavior), were s i g n i f i c a n t as noted by their univariate F values. Hypothesis 2 concerning treatment main effects on the f i r s t grade c r i t e r i o n measures, GPA and independent security, was accepted: there were no differences between the treatment groups. Hypotheses 3 and h, the assess-ments of sex and grade-level e f f e c t s , were likewise accepted. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between males and females nor between kindergarten and f i r s t grade pupils on each of the c r i t e r i o n variables. Interaction hypotheses, Hypothesis 5? treatment-by-sex, Hypothesis 7, sex-by-grade-level, and Hypoth-esis 8 , treatment-by-sex-by-grade-level, were accepted. A s i g n i f i c a n t multivariate F r a t i o was found for the in t e r a c t i o n between treatment and grade-level, Hypothesis 6 , with those differences accounted for only at the kindergarten l e v e l . 82 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e d some s u p p o r t f o r a s s e r t i n g t h a t the Methods i n Human Develop-ment programme d i d promote f u n c t i o n a l competencies r e l a t e d t o ego development. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h a t c a p a b i l i t y was s o c i a l competence. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e s u l t s f o r each h y p o t h e s i s , some i n f o r m a l d a t a , l i m i t a t i o n s o f the s t u d y , as w e l l as recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . C o n c l u s i o n s H y p o t h e s i s 1; Treatment E f f e c t s The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s examined t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s on f i v e c r i t e r i o n measures: time spent i n mature p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g behav-i o r ; t e a c h e r r a t i n g o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r ; peer r a t i n g f o r p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r ; peer s e l e c t i o n f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n ; s e l f - r a t i n g o f e m o t i o n a l response t o l i f e . A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F v a l u e was observ e d f o r t r e a t m e n t main e f f e c t s a t the .003 l e v e l . U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t two o f the f i v e c r i t e r i o n measures were c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the e f f e c t : t he t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r r a t i n g , s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .0035 l e v e l , and the Peer 1B' r a t i n g w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .00*+ l e v e l of proba-b i l i t y . Both r a t i n g s measured s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r 83 c l e a r l y observable to classmates and teacher. I t was apparent that more p o s i t i v e changes i n the overt conduct of MHDP par-t i c i p a n t s were being d i s c e r n e d by teacher and peers. Thus, these r e s u l t s complement each other. However, the treatment groups were c l e a r l y not d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d from each other w i t h r e s p e c t to any of the remaining c r i t e r i o n measures: time spent i n mature problem-solving be-h a v i o r , peer s e l e c t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n ; s e l f - p e r c e p -t i o n of the dominant emotional response to l i f e . In summary, two of the three s o c i a l competency measures -those r e l a t i n g to ov e r t s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g behavior - were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the MHDP programme, w h i l e the • t h i r d , s e l e c t i o n f o r peer a f f i l i a t i o n , was not. More d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of these r e s u l t s i s i n d i c a t e d . Problem-Solving Behavior. The u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s f a i l e d to r e v e a l a d i f f e r e n c e i n the treatment groups w i t h r e s p e c t to problem - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o r . In the previous d i s c u s s i o n on "Addi-t i o n a l Data" i n Chapter 5 ? there were some n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n fa v o r of the MHDP groups with r e s p e c t to the number of c o r r e c t puzzle s o l u t i o n s . The problems presented by the instrument i t s e l f are di s c u s s e d under " L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study" (see p. 9h). R e s u l t s of the Three S o c i a l Competency Measures. The importance of p o s i t i v e o v e r t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g was h i g h l i g h t e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n s reached by Kohlberg et a l (1972) i n t h e i r review of the l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n 8k Chapter 2. T h e i r study showed t h a t a severe c h i l d h o o d p a t t e r n of a n t i s o c i a l behavior was the s i n g l e most powerful p r e d i c t o r of l a t e r adjustment problems of any childhoo d behavior examined. T h e i r review suggested t h a t d i s t o r t i o n s i n the c h i l d ' s ego development and i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s environment were the necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r the r e l a t i v e frequency of the appearance of a n t i s o c i a l behavior i n adulthood. P r e d i c t a b l y , t h i s age-developmental t r a i t operated toward a d e c l i n e i n such behavior w i t h i n c r e a s e i n age (Robins, 1966; F i e l d , 1969; Glueck and Glueck, 1959)• P o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g was found to be the b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of s u c c e s s f u l a d u l t adjustment. "... We can p r e d i c t t hat almost no c h i l d r e n who are f r e e of a n t i s o c i a l behavior w i l l become a n t i s o c i a l a d u l t s " (Kohlberg et a l , 1972, p. 121+9). In the l i g h t of t h e i r f i n d i n g s , the importance of the r e s u l t s from t h i s study w i t h r e s p e c t to the f o s t e r i n g of such p o s i t i v e o v e r t s o c i a l behavior can h a r d l y be over-estimated. A programme which can f o s t e r such p o s i t i v e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n such r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f time has p o t e n t i a l as a psychoeduca-t i o n a l p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n . More d e t a i l e d comments on the r e s u l t s of the instrument f o r teacher p e r c e p t i o n of behavior w i l l be r e s e r v e d f o r d i s -c u s s i o n of Hypothesis 6, t r e a t m e n t - b y - g r a d e - l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n . The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n measure of s o c i a l competency, peer a f f i l i a t i o n , a p p a r e n t l y was not a f f e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y 1 by treatment. The c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the MHDP programme 85 were not chosen more f r e q u e n t l y f o r entry i n t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Despite the s u b s t a n t i a l focus w i t h i n the MHDP programme of a s s i s t i n g c h i l d r e n to a t t a i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l com-p e t e n c i e s , the r e s u l t s of t h i s study d i d not support the claims of the programme i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area. I t was.assumed that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s programme would have provided the c h i l d r e n w i t h accurate knowledge about the power each c h i l d had to a f f e c t the e m o t i o n a l i t y of others and to d i s c e r n accu-r a t e l y the nature of f r i e n d l y b e h a v i o r , s i n c e these were t o p i c s i n the d i s c u s s i o n groups. Apparently, the MHDP c h i l d r e n were not able to r e t r i e v e and put to a c t i v e use that knowledge i n a c o n s i s t e n t way. As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n Chapter examination of the data f o r the measure of peer a f f i l i a t i o n , however, d i d b r i n g to l i g h t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s f o r the groups of c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the MHDP programme, a l l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d at l e a s t one nomination f o r a f f i l i a t i o n . Although the r e s u l t s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , there were no longer any s o c i a l i s o l a t e s . This was not true f o r the c o n t r o l groups. I t may be i n f e r r e d that the c h i l d r e n i n the MHDP groups d i d seem to have demonstrated some grasp of the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n s p e c t i o n of the means i n Table 2 r e v e a l e d , too, t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n MHDP groups showed a tre n d f o r gr e a t e r gain even though the c h i l d r e n were not as popular i n i t i a l l y judging by the frequency of s e l e c t i o n on the p r e t e s t . 86 S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s had suggested the importance of peer acceptance a n d . s o c i a l competence to the c h i l d both w i t h r e s p e c t to the present use of h i s a b i l i t i e s and as.a p r e d i c t o r of l a t e r p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g (Kohlberg et a l , 1972; L i p p i t t and Gold, 1959; Schmuck, 1963, 1966; B. White, 197D-Havighurst, Bowman, L i d d l e , Matthews and P i e r c e (1962) found that peer acceptance was almost a guarantee of the absence of l a t e r adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i l e r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n tended to improve i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s over time (an a n t i c i p a t e d p a t t e r n s i n c e t h i s i s an age-developmental-adaptational t r a i t ) . F u r t h e r D i s c u s s i o n of the Res u l t s of the S o c i a l Compe-tency Measures. The apparent f a i l u r e of the MHDP programme to produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s w i t h one of the s o c i a l competency measures may be expl a i n e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , the time f o r the lessons may have been too sho r t to allow f o r g r e a t e r impact upon the r e l e v a n t s k i l l s . F o r t y - f i v e minutes each week f o r a s i x week p e r i o d i s a r e l a -t i v e l y b r i e f time al l o t m e n t f o r the u n i t on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Secondly, the r e s u l t s may be i n d i c a t i v e of the somewhat inadequate nature of the s o c i o m e t r i c device used (see " L i m i t a -t i o n s of the Study"). T h i r d l y , there may have been other f a c t o r s i n o p e r a t i o n . For example, i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e s on the playground and i n c l a s s r e v e a l e d c o n s i d e r -able f l u c t u a t i o n s i n s o c i a l groupings. On a number of occasions i t was observed that some of the l e s s popular c h i l d r e n were able to "buy" t h e i r way i n t o p l a y groups by sh a r i n g candy or 87 a toy with the others. The manner i n which the treat was shared was not the more easy manner i n which the true s o c i a l equals behaved. This observation seems to conform to the f i n d -ings of S e l l s , Roff, Cox and Mayer (1967) who found that sociometric rank was a momentary rather than a p a r t i c u l a r l y stable variable except for the extremes of sociometric status. It was these extremes i n repeated observations which were use-f u l predictors of l a t e r functioning. Over a four-year period of observing the same in d i v i d u a l s , a moderately stable picture evolved with positive peer-choice scores being more stable than negative peer-choice scores. As a concluding remark, the positive results for two out of three c r i t e r i o n measures r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l mastery as well as some in d i c a t i o n of reduced i s o l a t i o n are evidence to support the conclusion that the Besse l l and Palomares pro-gramme does increase s k i l l i n this v i t a l area of functioning i n these young children. Its effectiveness seems to be more noticeable with the kindergarten group. Further discussion relevant to this point w i l l be made under Hypothesis 6 . Self-Rating Measure. This study did not reveal any difference i n the treatment groups with respect to the s e l f -perception measures of the emotional response to l i f e as happy or sad. Kohlberg et a l (1972) found that a f f e c t i v e t r a i t s (which related to current developmental and s i t u a t i o n a l factors) were neither sequential nor i r r e v e r s i b l e . One can readi l y recognize 88 that moods change; the emotion f e l t today does not c l e a r l y r e l a t e to the emotion f e l t y e s t e r d a y , hut very b a s i c p a t t e r n s p e r s i s t as suggested by the temperamental p a t t e r n s found by Thomas, Chess, and B i r c h (1968). S e l e c t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r measure may have been too c l o s e l y t i e d to the predominant mood of the c h i l d , a g e n e t i c a l l y - l i n k e d t r a i t and, t h e r e f o r e , not as amenable to change. The review of l i t e r a t u r e d i d i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i o n and a f f e c t i v i t y . These e a r l y s c h o o l years were shown by Kohlberg and h i s c o l l e a g u e s to be a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n , f o r example, for m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s toward l e a r n i n g and a sense of competence. I t would be reasonable, t h e r e f o r e , to p r e d i c t t h a t a f f e c t i v i t y w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y by any e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . The MHDP i n t e r v e n -t i o n should do so, given the emphasis upon an a f f e c t i v e compo-nent and upon a sense of mastery. The q u a l i t y of t h a t change should be detected by some instrument even i f t h i s d i d not. Perhaps p a r t of the reason f o r the p a u c i t y of r e s u l t s i s that the t e s t , A P i c t u r e Game, although the best a v a i l a b l e , may not have been adequate. The low r e l i a b i l i t i e s r e p o r t e d (see p. 60) f o r the t e s t suggest poor d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power. Other p o s s i b l e measures might i n c l u d e a s e l f - c o n c e p t measure, or an i n s t r u -ment to d e t e c t the c a p a b i l i t y f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e x p r e s s i o n of a f f e c t , and/or a measure of the c h i l d ' s c a p a b i l i t y f o r a c c u r a t e d e t e c t i o n of an emotional s t a t e i n o t h e r s . Any of these might have been more u s e f u l measures r e l a t e d to a f f e c t 89 than the instrument s e l e c t e d . Hypothesis 2 : ' Treatment E f f e c t s The second hypothesis examined treatment e f f e c t s f o r f i r s t grade p u p i l s only on two c r i t e r i o n measures: academic performance and f e e l i n g s of independent s e c u r i t y . The r e s u l t s were n o t . s i g n i f i c a n t : the n u l l hypothesis was accepted. S e c u r i t y Measure. While the a c t i v i t i e s .provided w i t h i n the programme are designed to permit each student to experience success, the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme appa r e n t l y d i d not have g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s of independent s e c u r i t y as measured by The S t o r y of Tommy than the SAT p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s important at t h i s p o i n t to r e c a l l the nature of the omissions i n the f i r s t grade programme. The c u r r i c u l u m which had to be d e l e t e d because of time r e s t r i c t i o n s i n c l u d e d the c h i l d l e a d e r s h i p a c t i v i t i e s and the decision-making experiences. Each of these should have had a b e a r i n g upon the development of f e e l i n g s of independence. I t may be t h a t a longer programme and the i n c l u s i o n of these f i r s t grade experiences would pro-duce s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n t h i s a f f e c t i v e area. Academic Achievement. The second c r i t e r i o n measure, s c h o o l achievement, depends to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree upon a c o g n i t i v e component. I t i s t h i s area of development which would be l e a s t amenable to a short-term treatment such as t h i s . In summarizing the r e s u l t s f o r the f i r s t two hypotheses r e l a t i n g to treatment main e f f e c t s , i t i s apparent t h a t the 90 s o c i a l competency measures, teacher and peer p e r c e p t i o n of the c h i l d ' s behavior (Behavior Rating: of P u p i l s and The Class  P i c t u r e s ) , were i n d i c a t i v e of the e f f e c t s of the MHDP t r e a t -ment upon t h i s aspect of ego development. Those measures r e -l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e and emotional competence were not i n f l u ^ enced by treatment. Hypothesis 3 : Sex E f f e c t s The s u b j e c t ' s sex as an independent v a r i a b l e d i d not a f f e c t the c r i t e r i o n measures. This h y p o t h e s i s was s u s t a i n e d . Hypothesis h: G r a d e - l e v e l E f f e c t s This h y p o t h e s i s t h a t g r a d e - l e v e l would not have a s i g -n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon the c r i t e r i o n measures was s u s t a i n e d . Hypothesis 5: Treatment-by-Sex The hypothesis r e l a t i n g to i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between treatment and sex was supported s i n c e s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o s were not ev i d e n t . Hypothesis 6; Treatment-by-Grade-level This h y pothesis examined i n t e r a c t i o n s between treatment and g r a d e - l e v e l . With a m u l t i v a r i a t e F value s i g n i f i c a n t at the .005 l e v e l , the n u l l h y p o thesis was r e j e c t e d . F u r t h e r i n s p e c t i o n of the u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o s r e v e a l e d the source of that s i g n i f i c a n c e : the teacher behavior r a t i n g measure (p_ <C .007). Examination of the'observed combined means r e v e a l e d t h a t the mean gain f o r the MHDP k i n d e r g a r t e n group (6.559) was 91 greater than the mean gain for the MHDP f i r s t grade group ( . 6 5 * 0 . While the univariate F for the Peer 'B1 rating was no longer s i g n i f i c a n t , the same d i r e c t i o n a l change i n the observed combined means for the MHDP groups at the kindergarten l e v e l was apparent (3«999 as compared to IA23 for the f i r s t grade MHDP group). There are at least two possible explanations for this phenomenon. The f i r s t relates to the developmental l e v e l of the kindergarten ( 5 - y e a r - o l d ) c h i l d ; the second relates to some of the major goals of in s t r u c t i o n i n kindergarten. The developmental stage of the c h i l d suggests two answers. One relates to the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t y p i c a l 5-year-old who i s described as being pre-moral and s e l f -centered, as viewing abstractions i n personal terms rather than i n r e l a t i o n to standards, and as being open to his exper-iences (Bessell, 1973). The second explanation involves the tr a n s i t i o n state i n which the c h i l d finds himself. He has just started a new experience - his school career - and he must accommodate to the demands of this new si t u a t i o n . Both the child's developmental status and his t r a n s i t i o n state make him more accessible to an intervention. A programme designed to s u i t his developmental needs offered at this c r i t i c a l per-iod should be r e a d i l y assimilated. Hence, there i s the greater effect of the Bessell and Palomares programme i n creating the outward behavior change. 92 Another explanation for the i n t e r a c t i o n between treat-ment and grade-level relates to i n s t r u c t i o n a l goals. In kinder-garten the c h i l d i s taught systematically attending and other learning appropriate behavior. A l l his attempts at positive adaptation to the learning s i t u a t i o n and i n the discrimination of learning cues are rewarded by the school environment. Vygotsky (1962) offered yet another explanation which might account for the r e s u l t s . Appropriateness of curriculum and timing were suggested by the following description: "The only good kind of i n s t r u c t i o n i s that which marches ahead of development and leads i t ; i t must be aimed not so much at the ripe but at the ripening functions..." (p. lO^f). It may be that the curriculum of the MHDP programme i s at an optimum l e v e l of complexity for the kindergarten c h i l d . It i s aimed at the ripening functions. It happens to a l i g n with the teacher's goals, as well. This may account for the decrease i n overt negative s o c i a l and learning behaviors discernible to the teacher, and for the increase i n p o s i t i v e or neutral behaviors seen by peers. Because the Bessell and Palomares programme i s develop-mental, the omissions i n the f i r s t grade programme (leader-ship a c t i v i t i e s , decision-making, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and honesty, and r e a l i t y and fantasy), may have mitigated against similar results for the grade one pupils. Hypothesis 7'- Sex-by-Grade-level This hypothesis examined the interactions of treatment, 93 sex and grade-level. It was accepted since no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t interactions existed. Hypothesis 8 : Treatment-by-Sex-by-Grade-level This hypothesis examined the interactions of treatment, sex and grade-level. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t interactions were found. Therefore, the hypothesis was accepted. Additional Findings Many of these findings have been discussed within the context of the relevant hypotheses as supplementary data. One of the important findings of the study was the un-expected opportunity provided by the standardized problem-sol-ving s i t u a t i o n , the Keister Puzzle Box, to sample a very broad range of the child's behavioral repertoire. Information on both the temperamental and the cognitive style of the c h i l d was re a d i l y available (eg. approach-avoidance of the task, indepen-dence-dependence, cognitive f l e x i b i l i t y - r i g i d i t y ) . The poten-t i a l value of recording these types of observations w i l l be discussed under "Recommendations for Further Research". A very accurate, b e a u t i f u l l y poetic summary of the over-a l l responses of the children to the puzzle i s provided by Murphy (1962). For one c h i l d to whom newness has progressively brought new s a t i s f a c t i o n s , a strange new exper-ience arouses fantasies of new opportunities and poten t i a l fun: for another strangeness brings poten t i a l ogres i n i t s shadows. For s t i l l another, strangeness i s simply a question mark, something to discover; this c h i l d w i l l l e t strangeness have a f a i r chance. He allows i t to show i t s colors; he does not prejudge i t . One c h i l d may march f o r -ward, ready to beard a l i o n i n his den i f need be, while another skips into newness as i f i t carried 9h a rainbow's promise of a pot of gold . S t i l l another i s t r a n s f i x e d and immobilized, seem-i n g l y h y p n o t i z e d by i n s c r u t a b l e f o r c e s i n strangeness i t s e l f (p. 193). L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study There were s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s to the study. One was p o s s i b l e experimenter e f f e c t s i n c e the re s e a r c h e r a l s o c a r r i e d out some of the treatment procedures. Another centered on the c u r r i c u l u m d e l e t i o n s at the f i r s t g r a d e - l e v e l made necessary by time l i m i t a t i o n s . The omission of some key experiences (eg. l e a d e r s h i p a c t i v i t i e s and decision-making a c t i v i t i e s ) w i t h the f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s may have been a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n the p a u c i t y of r e s u l t s w i t h t h i s group as w e l l . The r e s u l t s i n t o t a l would suggest the merit of t e s t i n g the f u l l programme at the f i r s t grade l e v e l . Yet another problem was the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g good instruments capable of measuring the wide range of developing a b i l i t i e s i n young c h i l d r e n i n the b e h a v i o r a l , a f f e c t i v e and other areas. Lack of a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r use with young c h i l d r e n has been noted by B. White (1971) and C a l d w e l l (1970). Instruments to provide a more comprehensive p i c t u r e of a wide range of the c h i l d ' s developing a b i l i t i e s simply were not a v a i l a b l e . The instruments f i n a l l y s e l e c t e d or developed a l s o pre-sented l i m i t a t i o n s . For example, the Puzzle Box y i e l d e d good data but i t might have y i e l d e d more suppo r t i n g data had i t been used to measure other r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l c a t e g o r i e s : c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , approach or avoidance of the task, s o c i a b i l i t y or non-95 s o c i a b i l i t y , manifest a f f e c t i v i t y , tempo, a c t i v i t y l e v e l , and independence versus dependence. The bipolar categorization into "mature" and "immature" responses may have been too narrow. Within the scope of this study, i t was not possible to v e r i f y that mature and immature behavior as described were s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive. As shown i n Chapter h, the r e l i a b i l i t y estimates for the sociometric measures were either not available or of mod-est size. Consequently, three such measures were used. A plau-s i b l e explanation for the r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y for the peer a f f i l i a t i o n measure, may l i e i n the instruments themselves. An additional problem resulted from selection of GPA as a c r i t e r i o n measure. There i s considerable v a r i a b i l i t y i n grading practices between d i f f e r e n t teachers and i n i n t r a -rater variance from one reporting period to the next. This i s to be expected since some aspects of grading appear to depend upon subjective c r i t e r i a . Recommendations for Further Research Empirical support for areas of the study would suggest the merit of additional research. Some of these have been proposed within the context of the discussion of results for each hypothesis. Certainly a more longitudinal research pro-gramme including greater numbers of children and extending over the primary grades with the f u l l programme would be indicated to determine i t s effectiveness i n reducing emotional, behavioral and learning problems, and i n increasing competency. 96 More thorough examination of the programme's effects upon other aspects of ego development should be tested, par-t i c u l a r l y i t s effects upon the maturation of a f f e c t i v e func-tioning and ego-ideal. Other types of a f f e c t i v e measures which could be related more d i r e c t l y to some goals of the programme might be included. The HDP programme places an emphasis upon emotional self-understanding and upon understanding the emo-ti o n a l responses of others. Development of another type of instrument capable of y i e l d i n g data on the child's a b i l i t y to detect accurately the emotionality of others, for example, might be a more useful measure. A new important area for study would be indicated by the fortuitous i f unexpected finding on the potential value of the structured test s i t u a t i o n , the Keister Puzzle Box. This instrument appeared to y i e l d much objective data on both the cognitive s t y l e and the temperamental pattern or behavioral style of the c h i l d as discussed i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e . It would appear to be possible to record accurately, objec-t i v e l y and r a p i d l y , the child-environment transactions over the r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f testing s i t u a t i o n . Additional research needs to be done to confirm the value of the t e s t as a poten-t i a l diagnostic device on the behavioral and cognitive styles of the c h i l d . These l a s t findings i n p a r t i c u l a r have some implications for the elementary school counsellor. They may have even greater implications from a primary preventive stand-point. 97 One of the major functions of the elementary counsellor i s to serve as a consultant to the teacher and the parent on the child's developmental status. In that capacity, the coun-s e l l o r could gather the developmental data for about f i f t y children i n four to f i v e days using this instrument. The behavioral information on each c h i l d would form the basis for jo i n t educational planning with the teacher. It would be possible, for example, to design interventions immediately for those groups i d e n t i f i e d as " r i s k " groups. These groups of children are those most prone to making maladaptive res-ponses to c e r t a i n environmental features. The j o i n t planning by teacher and counsellor would make certain that these fea-tures were removed or modified i n such a way as to allow the i d e n t i f i e d " r i s k " children not only to adjust more smoothly to school but also to have a more nearly optimal beginning i n achieving mastery i n learning. This data on developmental status could also be shared with the parents i n order to a s s i s t them i n responding to and i n dealing with their children more e f f e c t i v e l y . The consider-able amount of research on c h i l d development tends not to be used i n a systematic way both i n i d e n t i f y i n g the developmental stage of the c h i l d and i n planning educational and parenting a c t i v i t i e s to promote the a c q u i s i t i o n of those competencies which would appear next i n the sequence. Such a c t i v i t i e s would actuate the kind of i n s t r u c t i o n Vygotsky described as aimed at the ripening functions. 98 An area worthy of future research i s the investigation of the impact of teaching primary preventive strategies such as the Be s s e l l and Palomares programme upon the teacher. There has been some research which revealed the hazards of over-s e n s i t i z i n g teaching s t a f f to student d e f i c i t . A Vancouver study (Nichol, 1968) revealed that increasing the threshold of teacher perception of student d i s a b i l i t i e s and problems by over-zealous mental hygienists produced a diminution of the teachers' sense of professional c a p a b i l i t i e s . By empha-si z i n g the development and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of competence i n children, the Bessell and Palomares programme may enhance a sense of professional competence in. teachers as well. The influence of the programme upon teacher self-concept and sense of professional worth may be an int e r e s t i n g one to explore. In conclusion, more longitudinal research was suggested on the f u l l B e s s e l l and Palomares programme, p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i r s t grade programme, to determine i t s effectiveness i n pro-moting competencies related to other aspects of ego develop-ment and i n reducing emotional, behavioral and learning prob-lems. Research on the poten t i a l diagnostic value of the struc-tured test, the Keister Puzzle Box, was proposed as well. F i n a l l y , research on the effects of teaching primary preventive strategies such as this programme upon the teacher's s e l f -concept and sense of professional competence was recommended. 99 SUMMARY The study sought to determine the effects of a programme, the B e s s e l l and Palomares Methods i n Human Development, upon cognitive performance, s o c i a l and emotional competencies -a l l a f f i l i a t e d with ego strength, positive self-development, and mental health. The results confirmed the programme's effectiveness upon some c r i t e r i o n measures related to ego development, those associated with overt s o c i a l functioning. Hypothesis 1 on treatment main effects upon the aggre-gate of f i v e c r i t e r i o n measures was accepted. Univariate analyses revealed that two of these measures, the teacher r a t i n g , the Behavior Rating of Pupils, and the peer perception measure, The Class Pictures, contributed to the s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o . Both measures were associated with s o c i a l competence. While neither sex nor grade-level affected the c r i t e r i o n measures, a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n effect between grade-level and treatment was found for one measure of s o c i a l competence, the Behavior Rating of Pupils. This was found at the kinder-garten l e v e l only. Cognitive performance and af f e c t i v e compe-tencies were apparently not influenced s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the treatment. Additional supporting data, while not s i g n i f i c a n t , provided further evidence seeming to substantiate the pro-., gramme's impact upon the development of s o c i a l competence. The results presented lend support for the programme's use and for more extensive research. 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Pr e v e n t i v e aspects of sch o o l experience. In E. Cowen, E. Gardner, & M. Zax (Ed s . ) , Emergent approaches  to mental h e a l t h problems. New York: Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , 19W-Z i n g l e , H. Developing understanding of s e l f and others (DUSO) i n elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 1972. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 09+298). 113 A P P E N D I C E S APPENDIX A METHODS IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CURRICULUM, KINDERGARTEN, LEVEL B 11? KINDERGARTEN ACTIVITIES AS USED IN THE STUDY U n i t I S i x Weeks on Awareness: F e e l i n g s , Thoughts and Behavior Week I - Pleasant F e e l i n g s Monday - Having Good F e e l i n g s . The teacher d i s c u s s e s b r i e f l y with the c h i l d r e n how everyone has good, f e e l i n g s and bad f e e l i n g s . She t e l l s the c h i l d r e n t h at the d i s c u s s i o n i s on t e l l i n g each other about the good f e e l i n g s we have about something that i s i n the classroom. B r i e f l y , she e x p l a i n s how some a r t i c l e i n the classroom helps her i n some way and t e l l s how she f e e l s about i t . The c h i l d r e n are i n v i t e d to ask questions about the a r t i c l e or make comments on i t . A f t e r the teacher's t u r n i s completed, she asks the c h i l d r e n to t h i n k of some ob j e c t i n the classroom t h a t gives them a good f e e l i n g . The c h i l d r e n are i n v i t e d to take a t u r n as each c h i l d f e e l s ready to d e s c r i b e and/or name the o b j e c t t e l l i n g how i t i s h e l p f u l to that i n d i v i d u a l and how he/she f e e l s about i t . The teacher e x p l a i n s t h a t everyone w i l l get a t u r n i f they want one. Only one person w i l l t a l k at a time i n the s e s s i o n because a l l of us want to hear what each c h i l d wishes to t e l l us. That i s how a c i r c l e s e s s i o n works. As the c h i l d v o l u n t e e r s some open-ended statement i s made such as "Can you d e s c r i b e or name the o b j e c t ? " Each c h i l d i s a l s o asked, " T e l l us about the f e e l i n g you get when you (look at i t or use i t ) . " Each c h i l d i s thanked f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g , u s i n g h i s name. The c h i l d r e n are asked to n o t i c e t h a t some c h i l d r e n f e e l good about one t h i n g and others, about something e l s e . This i s d i s c u s s e d i n a very m a t t e r - o f - f a c t manner. In t h i s way, the teacher demonstrates and f o s t e r s open acceptance of the c h i l d ' s choice and of h i s f e e l i n g s . By doing t h i s d a i l y , the c h i l d r e n begin to accept and r e s p e c t i n d i -v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as being normal and n a t u r a l . 116 Once or twice during the session and at i t s close, the group i s asked to review what feelings were reported and what object was selected by each c h i l d . Appreciation i s expressed by the teacher for the posit i v e aspects of t h e i r behavior i n the session, especially for l i s t e n i n g to each other. Each c h i l d who did not get a chance to par t i c i p a t e t h i s time, i s thanked for being i n the c i r c l e being acknowledged by name. The teacher makes a comment about the p o s s i b i l i t y of their willingness to parti c i p a t e next time. Wednesday- Having Good Feelings. This i s a continuation of the previous day's a c t i v i t y with the same format and structure used. The modelling and expres-sion of appreciation for their e f f o r t s , for attendance and for l i s t e n i n g i s repeated as before. Friday - Having Good Feelings. The same a c t i v i t y i s repeated today. Week 2 - Pleasant Thoughts Monday - Having Pleasant Thoughts. The children demonstrate th e i r own pleasant thought by making the object thought about i n clay. Wednesday- Having Pleasant Thoughts. Each c h i l d may guess what pleasant but un-known object i s i n a box. Friday - Having Pleasant Thoughts. A picture i s shown of a c h i l d who i s appar-ently experiencing-pleasure and i s thereby thinking a pleasant thought. The picture acts as a stimulus for discussion. Week 3 - Positive Behavior Monday - Performance of Positive Behavior. The c h i l d does something that i s nice for another c h i l d i n the group by giving him a candy. Wednesday- Performance of Positive Behavior. Continuation of posit i v e behavioral sequences by giving each c h i l d the opportunity to mend 117 a broken crayon w i t h masking tape. F r i d a y - Performance of P o s i t i v e Behavior. Each c h i l d has the o p p o r t u n i t y to make a b e l t or s t r i n g of beads. Week h - Pl e a s a n t F e e l i n g s A r e p e t i t i o n of the f i r s t week's a c t i v i t i e s . There i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of an emphasis upon e l i c i t i n g s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n by each c h i l d ; upon developing, l i s -t e n i n g s k i l l s ; upon the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t people have s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n regard to the kinds of p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s they have about things;, upon expansion of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with other people. The teacher continues to give acceptance and r e c o g n i t i o n to each c h i l d and continues to model l i s t e n i n g b ehavior. Week 5 - Pl e a s a n t Thoughts A r e p e t i t i o n of the second week's a c t i v i t i e s . There i s a c o n t i n u i n g emphasis upon s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n about these thoughts; upon developing l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ; upon the f a c t t h a t people have s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r thoughts; upon broadening the base of awareness and the area of e x p r e s s i v e a p p l i -c a t i o n . There i s a promotion of a sense of i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n and belongingness i n the human f a m i l y . The teacher continues to model e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r : acceptance, r e f l e c t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n and l i s t e n i n g . Week 6 - P o s i t i v e Behavior A r e p e t i t i o n of the t h i r d week's a c t i v i t i e s . Aware-ness of p o s i t i v e behavior i s promoted through behav-i o r a l enactment. While each c h i l d performs a "nice behavior", the teacher accompanies the a c t w i t h a d e s c r i p t i v e commentary. The emphasis i s upon doing: A c h i l d l e a r n s by doing. The p r i n c i p a l focus i s to e s t a b l i s h a b e h a v i o r a l sequence s e r v i n g as a proto-type f o r v e r b a l r e c o g n i t i o n that p o s i t i v e behavior i s o c c u r r i n g . Each c h i l d performs a b e h a v i o r a l sequence which i s p r o d u c t i v e and u t i l i t a r i a n . In so doing s u c c e s s f u l l y , the c h i l d l e a r n s to p e r c e i v e h i m s e l f as capable. 118 Unit II S i x Weeks on Mastery Week 7 - Mastery i n Language Monday - What Does The Word Mean? Each c h i l d i s encouraged to t e l l of a word he knows or l i k e s and explains something he knows about i t . By recognizing the child's e f f o r t and by stressing "you can ... " the c h i l d gains a f e e l i n g of s e l f -confidence. Approval i n t e n s i f i e s his pos-i t i v e motivational s t r i v i n g s . Wednesday- What Is It Used For and How Do You Use It? The prior a c t i v i t y i s continued. Each c h i l d has the opportunity to demonstrate compre-hension. The p r i n c i p a l objectives are pro-motion of a sense of positive motivation and a sense of self-confidence. Language development i s a secondary purpose. Friday - Why Is It Good For Us? The children are told that everything we make or use has at least one reason for having been made. The a c t i v i t y today focuses upon talk about things that are good for us, for fun or for work with the teacher providing at least one example i n each category to orient the children more c l e a r l y as to expectation. Week 8 - Mastery i n Quantitative Concepts and Mastery of the Concept Two Monday - Counting and the Concepts of More and Less. Two jars are presented by the teacher, one with many beads (or other objects) and one with two objects. Each c h i l d i s i n v i t e d to t e l l which has more and which has l e s s . The children are then in v i t e d to count the numbers of objects i n the jar having less (two). Teacher behavior remains the same, with an emphasis upon recognition to increase his self-confidence. Wednesday- Mastery of the Concept of Three and the Concepts of Many and Few and Review of the Concepts of More and Less. Similar experiences to those engaged i n on Monday provided. The emphasis remains upon increasing the child's self-confidence through a sense of mastery i n each of the concepts. 119 Friday - Mastery of the Concepts of None, Three, Four and Five. Similar counting a c t i v i t i e s are undertaken. Week 9 - Mastery i n Fine Motor Coordination Monday - Stringing One-quarter Inch Beads. Each c h i l d i s given the opportunity to st r i n g 10 beads on a shoelace. Upon com-ple t i o n he i s recognized for his success. Some discussion of the general usefulness of the manipulation of small objects follows with the children encouraged to present their ideas f i r s t . Wednesday- Tying and Untying a Knot. A demonstration of tying and untying a knot with a thick s t r i n g i s given. Each c h i l d i s encouraged to try with minimal aid i f necessary, followed by recognition for being able. Some discussion of the usefulness of the s k i l l s follows with the children again encouraged to present their ideas f i r s t . Friday - Threading a Large Needle. A demonstration of threading a large-eyed needle with thick thread i s given followed by i n v i t i n g each c h i l d to try. Successful performance i s recognized and i s followed by a discussion of the usefulness of the s k i l l . Week 10 - Mastery i n Performance S k i l l s Monday - Putting Something Away and Retrieving It. The teacher discusses the u t i l i t y of putting things away and the value of being able to f i n d them l a t e r when needed. Each c h i l d i s given the opportunity to put an object away. When a l l have completed the task, each l a t e r retrieves his object. Recognition i n the form of praise for successful r e t r i e v a l i s given. Wednesday- Cooperation i n Assembling a Box With Tape. A pre-cut unassembled box of sturdy construc-t i o n paper whose four sides can be folded up and taped to make a box with open top i s readied for each child...The teacher t e l l s the children i t i s both useful and fun to be able to make things yourself. It i s also fun to cooperate i n making things -together. 120 Although i t i s not always easy to do, she i s sure that they can a l l make boxes by helping each other. Each c h i l d can keep a box he has helped to make. The teacher demonstrates making the box with one of the more able children. The children select each other for the a c t i v i t y and the a c t i v i t y i s repeated u n t i l everyone has a box. The pairs are praised immediately upon comple-ti o n of the box. Further discussion i s s o l i c i t e d about the possible use to which each box w i l l be put and upon the advan-tages of cooperation. Friday - Cooperation i n Hole Punching and Fastening Small Note Pads. Children are shown the materials; many sheets of small uniform size paper, a box of metal paper fasteners., and a hole punch-er which i s easy to use. Each object i s named, and, using one c h i l d as an assistant, a small note pad i s made. The pairs of children again perform the task with each c h i l d given s u f f i c i e n t opportunity to prac-t i s e each phase of the a c t i v i t y u n t i l he has a. acquired some proficiency i n perform-ance. Each pair of children i s praised upon successful completion of the task. Discussion i s i n v i t e d upon some of the things which the children know must be made by people working together. Week 11 - Mastery i n Personal Hygiene Monday - Learning about Food. The importance of good food for the body i s discussed with regard to how i t makes us f e e l good and how i t i s good for us. Each c h i l d i s encouraged to eat and oatmeal and r a i s i n cookie or a piece.of f r u i t and to show why he thinks i t i s good for him -that i t relieves his hunger and how i t helps him to-grow healthy and strong. Each c h i l d i s thanked for his contribution. Wednesday- Learning About Taking Care of Ourselves. The children are encouraged to pa r t i c i p a t e i n a discussion about the mouth, nose and ears, on the importance of t h e i r care and why random, unclean objects are never put in-them. Each c h i l d i s praised for his con-t r i b u t i o n to the discussion. 121 Friday - A Way to Help Avoid Colds. The discussion focuses on germs, and how they cause diseases, l i k e the cold as well as how e a s i l y germs are spread through sneezing, coughing and contact with un-washed hands. The teacher demonstrates the use of a tissue and each c h i l d i s i n v i t e d to give a demonstration also. Discussion i s then s o l i c i t e d on how colds can be avoided with each c h i l d i n v i t e d to t e l l one thing that can be done to keep from catching a cold. Week 12 - Mastery i n Social Comprehension Monday - You Can Make Him Feel Good. Again the game i s demonstrated by the teach-er guessing how she could make one c h i l d f e e l good. Each c h i l d i s i n v i t e d to follow s u i t . Wednesday- Can You Guess What He's Afraid Of? Children get the opportunity to learn that everyone has fears. As children volunteer for guessing by thinking of an object he i s a f r a i d of. Emphasis i s on the children developing a sensitive f e e l i n g so that they can a s s i s t each other to overcome fears. Friday - Can You Guess What His Wish Is? After the teacher demonstrates several of her wishes which are comprehensible to the children, the children may volunteer to be " i t " while each of the other children guess what the c h i l d might be wishing f o r . Teacher comments on how they are a l l getting to know each other better. Unit III Six Weeks on Social Interaction Week 13 - How Other People's Behavior Affects Me Monday - What Did Someone Do That You Disliked? The notion that i t i s not possible for people to l i v e together without bothering each other i s discussed. This happens be-cause no one can have each individual's f e e l i n g s , nor i s i t possible to know beforehand what w i l l or w i l l not bother the other person. The teacher i l l u s t r a t e s by t e l l i n g something that someone did which 122 had bothered her. She then i n v i t e s the c h i l d r e n to f o l l o w her example. These are d e a l t w i t h as an a n a l y s i s of an i n t e r -p e r s o n a l event by p r o v i d i n g , a n e u t r a l , n o n - m o r a l i z i n g a n a l y s i s o f f e n d i n g no one and maligning n e i t h e r the other person nor the c h i l d . Rather i t i s dwelt upon as a f a c t t h a t t h i s i s what can and does happen i n l i f e . Wednesday- What Did Someone Do That You D i s l i k e d ? A c o n t i n u a t i o n of the previous day's a c t i v i t y so t h a t each c h i l d gets a t u r n . Again the teacher reminds the c h i l d r e n t h a t these i n c i d e n t s occur mainly because the other person does not know e x a c t l y how we are f e e l i n g . I t i s a l s o p o i n t e d out that sometimes' a c h i l d or other person may d e l i b e r a t e l y t r y to make us f e e l badly because that i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s he i s not l i k e d enough but t h a t t h i s behavior changes once he l e a r n s how to be n i c e and to get people to l i k e him b e t t e r . F r i d a y - What Did Someone Do For Me That I Liked? This c o n t i n u a t i o n of the week's a c t i v i t y examines the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of another person's behavior on the i n d i v i d u a l . The teacher demonstrates w i t h a r e a l p e r s o n a l example and shares why the e f f e c t of the behavior was l i k e d . She then asks the c h i l d r e n to share t h e i r p o s i t i v e experiences w i t h the o t h e r s . D i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s as customary. Week Ik- - How My Behavior A f f e c t s Others Monday - Can You Show What You Did That Someone Liked? Two or more c h i l d r e n arrange a demonstration i n which they p l a y r o l e s p o r t r a y i n g a s i t u a -t i o n i n which the l e a d c h i l d d i d something t h a t earned another's a p p r o v a l . The p r i n c i p a l c h i l d p l a y s h i m s e l f i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n and he coaches the other c h i l d i n the r o l e of the r e c i p i e n t . The focus i s upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p between having done something f o r someone and r e c e i v i n g a p p r o v a l f o r i t . 123 Wednesday- Can You Show What You Did That Someone Liked? A c o n t i n u a t i o n of the d r a m a t i z a t i o n s so t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n get a t u r n . F r i d a y - Can l o u Show What l o u Did That Someone D i s l i k e d ? S e v e r a l c h i l d r e n s e p a r a t e l y arrange demon-s t r a t i o n s one a f t e r another, i n v i t i n g one or more other c h i l d r e n to p o r t r a y assigned r o l e s i n the event. The teacher helps each c h i l d to set up and d i r e c t the d r a m a t i z a t i o n of h i s event. At the c o n c l u s i o n of each enactment the teacher comments on the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between having done something which causes another to f e e l badly and of which they t h e r e f o r e disapprove. Week 1 5 - Learning to O f f e r Kind Behavior Monday - What Could I Do For l o u ? The teacher informs c h i l d r e n about needs. She a l s o comments t h a t r a t h e r than guessing about what we might be able to do f o r another t h a t would make them f e e l good, there i s a b e t t e r way to f i n d out by a s k i n g . The teacher demonstrates w i t h a c h i l d . A f t e r the sequence i s performed, she asks the c h i l d i f t h i s d i d make him f e e l good. She then i n v i t e s the others to p a r t i c i p a t e s i m i l a r l y . Each request must be easy and p o s s i b l e to f u l f i l l immediately and i t must be p o s s i b l e f o r the c h i l d g r a n t i n g the help to e i t h e r want t o , o r , not mind much i n doing i t . P r a i s e i s given f o r t h e i r under-s t a n d i n g , c o o p e r a t i o n and t h e i r k i n d behav-i o r to each other. Wednesday- What Could I Do For l o u ? C o n t i n u a t i o n w i t h the previous day's a c t i v i t y . F r i d a y - What Could I Do For You? As f o r the two previous days. Week 16 - L e a r n i n g to Ask f o r Kind Behavior Monday - What You Could Do For Me. Needs are a g a i n d i s c u s s e d w i t h the teacher reminding the c h i l d r e n t h a t people need things from each other from time to time. What was now needed was p r a c t i s e i n asking I2h another person to do something for us that i s nice. The teacher also t e l l s the children that most people are a f r a i d to ask for some-thing they need u n t i l they have some prac-t i c e . A demonstration follows with children i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . Wednesday- What You Could Do for Me. A continuation of Monday's a c t i v i t y . The teacher provides a running commentary stres-sing the basic idea that one of the best ways of receiving kind treatment from others is simply to l e t the other person know what you need. Friday - What You Could Do For Me. As before making sure that every c h i l d can play the game and also i s asked for kind behavior. A P P E N D I X B METHODS I N HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CURRICULUM., F I R S T G R A D E , L E V E L 126 LEVEL 1 ACTIVITIES AS USED IN THE STUDY The same rules for discussion and l i s t e n i n g as outlined i n the Kindergarten A c t i v i t i e s are used. Modelling and re i n -forcement p r i n c i p l e s are continued as well. Unit I Six Weeks on Awareness: Feelings, Thoughts, and Behavior (Simple and Mixed) Week 1 - Pleasant Feelings and Unpleasant Feelings Monday - Having Good Feelings Wednesday- Having Nice Feelings and Bad Feelings, Too Friday - I F e l t Good and Bad About Something Week 2 - Pleasant Thoughts and Unpleasant Thoughts Monday - Having Nice Thoughts Wednesday- Having A Nice Thought and a Bad Thought Friday - I Had a Nice Thought and a Bad Thought About Something Week 3 - Positive Behavior and Negative Behavior Monday - Positive Behavior Wednesday- Negative Behavior Friday - Positive and Negative Aspects of Given Behavior Week h - Having Mixed Feelings About Something Monday - Having Mixed Feelings About Something Wednesday- What I Like and D i s l i k e About School Friday - What I Like and D i s l i k e About the Way I Do Things Week 5 - Having Mixed Thoughts About Something Monday - Thinking of Something Nice That You Would Wednesday- I Had a Bad Thought Friday - I Thought of Something Bad i n One Way, Good in Another 127 Week 6 - P o s i t i v e and Negative Aspects of Given Behaviors Monday - P o s i t i v e and Negative Aspects of Given Behavior Wednesday- Something Happened, Good For Me and Bad For Me F r i d a y - Something Happened, Good For Me and Bad For Someone E l s e U n i t II S i x Weeks on Mastery: S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , S e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y and E f f e c t i v e n e s s Week 7 - Mastery i n Language Monday - What Does the Word Mean? Wednesday- What Is I t Used For and How Do You Use I t ? F r i d a y - Why Is I t Good For Us? Week 8 - Mastery i n Math S k i l l s Monday - Bead Counting Wednesday- Adding Beads F r i d a y - Counting and Adding Week 9 - My Powers To Be and Do' Monday - Energy Is The A b i l i t y To Work Wednesday- S e l f - c o n t r o l Is the Power To Not Do Some-t h i n g That You Can Do F r i d a y - Having Many Kinds of S e l f - c o n t r o l Week 10 - I Can Do Things For Mysel f Monday - Things About D r e s s i n g I Can Do For Myself Wednesday- Some Things At School That I Can Do For Myself F r i d a y - Something I'm Very Proud That I Can Do By Myself Week 11 - How I Got What I Needed Monday - I Was Able to Get What I Needed 128 Wednesday- I C o u l d n ' t Get What I Needed F r i d a y - How I Got What I Needed Week 12 - How I Got I n t o T r o u b l e Monday - I D i d n ' t Know I'd Get I n t o T r o u b l e Wednesday- I Knew I'd Get I n t o T r o u b l e I f I D i d I t F r i d a y - Somebody Got Me I n t o T r o u b l e U n i t I I I S i x Weeks on S o c i a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g : How People A f f e c t Each Other Week 13 - G e t t i n g and G i v i n g A p p r o v a l Monday - I D i d Something That Somebody L i k e d Wednesday- Somebody D i d Something That I L i k e d F r i d a y - We D i d Something F or Each Other Week lh - G e t t i n g and G i v i n g D i s a p p r o v a l Monday - Somebody D i d Something That I D i d Not L i k e Wednesday- I D i d Something That Somebody D i d Not L i k e F r i d a y - We Each D i d Something The Other D i d Not L i k e Week 15 - G i v i n g and E a r n i n g A p p r o v a l F or K i n d B e h a v i o r Monday - What Could I Do F o r You? Wednesday- What You Could Do F o r Me F r i d a y - Commitment Review Week 16 - G e t t i n g A t t e n t i o n Monday - How I Got Somebody To Pay A t t e n t i o n To Me Wednesday- How Somebody Got Me To Give Them A t t e n t i o n F r i d a y - How I F e l t When I D i d Not Get A t t e n t i o n 129 Week 1 7 - 1 Can Make You Feel Good or Bad Monday - How I Can Make You Feel Good Wednesday- I Can Make You Feel Good Or Bad Friday - I Can Make You Feel Good Or Bad Week 18 - Being Included or Excluded Monday - Somebody Let Me Play; Somebody Did Not Let Me Play Wednesday- I Let Somebody Play; Somebody Let Me Play Friday - We Made Room For One More APPENDIX C ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS, .DEFINITIONS OF IMMATURE AND MATURE BEHAVIORS ON THE KEISTER PUZZLE BOX, KEISTER RATING SHEET, AND COPIES OF TESTS 131 Admihlstrat 1on of Tests D i r e c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box The c h i l d i s welcomed and allowed to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the room and. w i t h the videotape equipment. The equipment i n p a r t i c u l a r i s shown c a r e f u l l y . Each c h i l d i s encouraged to look through the camera v i e w f i n d e r and i s t o l d t h a t he can see h i m s e l f b r i e f l y i n a few moments on the t e l e v i s i o n monitor i n the room. "Today you can p l a y a game. You can t r y to s o l v e a p u z z l e and while you do t h a t , I am going to videotape you so that I can look at how you t r i e d to do the p u z z l e . Would you l i k e to see y o u r s e l f on T.V.? Here, l e t me show you." A b r i e f t a p i n g of the c h i l d w h i l e he looks at the equipment and t a l k s to the t e s t e r i s made (approximately 10 -15 seconds). This t a p i n g i s played back f o r him and he i s allowed to t a l k about i t (approximately 2 minutes). I f the c h i l d has other questions about the f u n c t i o n i n g of the equip-ment, these are answered b r i e f l y and simply. The c h i l d i s seated at a s m a l l low primary t a b l e and the t e s t e r s i t s next to him, near enough to d i s p l a y the Puzzle Box and i t s contents without crowding the c h i l d . "I am going to show you the Puzzle Box now. I am going to u n l a t c h the l i d and open i t up. I n s i d e the box are d i f f e r -ent wooden shapes a l l b r i g h t l y p a i n t e d . See the s a i l b o a t and the house? (The c h i l d i s allowed to look at the contents f o r 5 seconds.) You can see how a l l the p i e c e s f i t f l a t i n t o the bottom of the box and I can c l o s e and l a t c h the l i d l i k e t h i s . Now I am going to t u r n the box upside down and dump a l l the shapes onto the t a b l e l i k e t h i s . You can t r y to put a l l the p i e c e s back i n t o the box i n j u s t a minute. (The empty box i s p l a c e d w i t h the bottom of the box i n t o which the p u z z l e pieces are put, n e a r e s t the c h i l d . ) See i f you can put a l l the pieces back i n t o the box so t h a t they w i l l l i e f l a t , too. You have 12 minutes. You may s t a r t now." At 2 minutes: "You are doing f i n e . " I f the c h i l d appears ner-vous, encouragement i s given. "Try the p u z z l e . Let me see you t r y . I t h i n k you can do i t . " At k minutes: "You are r e a l l y doing w e l l . " I f the c h i l d appears discouraged because of the d i f f i c u l t y , the f o l l o w -i n g comment i s made: "I l i k e the way you t r y . See i f you can put another p i e c e i n . " At 6 m i n u t e s : "You c e r t a i n l y t r y h a r d . You have 6 minute l e f t . See i f you can get a n o t h e r p i e c e i n . At 9 m i n u t e s : "You have 3 minutes l e f t . " At 12 m i n u t e s : "You may s t o p now." The c h i l d i s thanked f o r coming and i s t a k e n back h i s c l a s s r o o m . Definitions' of Immature and" Mature Responses 133 Immature Responses The following behaviors have been described by Keister (1937) as immature or undesirable i n terms of the Puzzle Box Test. 1. Retreat from the task, or giving up almost at once without exploring many of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of solutions: (For the puzzle box test allow 5 min-utes , on the assumption that i t is obvious to the c h i l d that there are a number of ways of going at the problem and he could not be exploring them a l l i f he t r i e d for less than 5 minutes.) 2. Repeated and numerous requests for help: . . . i f the c h i l d requests help for more than one-half of the t o t a l time of the t e s t , i . e . 6 minutes. 3- Manifestations of destructive behavior with intent to harm the objects or persons connected with the d i f f i c u l t y . h. R a t i o n a l i z i n g : Not more than two r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s given during the 12 minute experimental period. 5. Exaggerated emotional responses, such as crying, sulking, y e l l i n g and/or motor manifestations of anger. Mature Responses The following behaviors were i d e n t i f i e d by the researcher as mature behaviors i n terms of puzzle-solving behavior on the Puzzle Box Test. 1. Attempts to solve alone without verbal or non-verbal expressions indicating any request for help; persis-tence which shows involvement i n continuing with the problem (eg. putting the puzzle pieces i n the box, or taking them out to rearrange t h e i r p o s i t i o n ; apparently engaged i n thinking of alternate strate-gies for resolution of the problem. 13>+ 2 . D i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t i n p u z z l e as g a u g e d b y a n a n i -m a t e d f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n o r b y s u b j e c t ' s e x a m i n a t i o n o f s p a c e i n b o x o r o f t h e p i e c e s , p e r h a p s m a n i p u -l a t i n g t h e p u z z l e p i e c e s i n t h e a i r p r e p a r a t o r y t o p l a c i n g i n b o x . 3. T a l k s i n a f r i e n d l y way w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g i n e f f o r t s t o s o l v e p u z z l e . h. No e m o t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s b u t e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d a t s o l u t i o n . Keister Puzzle Rating Sheet Behavior Minutes 1 2 3 + 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 No overt attempt Attempts to solve alone Asks another to solve Asks for help Destructive behavior Rationalizes Displays•interest i n puzzle No emotional manifestations Sulks Cries Whines Yel l s Motor manifestations of anger Talks i n f r i e n d l y way while attempting to solve Solves puzzle BEHAVIOR RATINGS OF PUPILS 136 District Tecich?r'» Nome. -School G r o d e Dntm Subject and period Note to the Teocher One of the most important and useful kinds of information obtained by the school is the teacher's professional judgment of children's behavior. Teachers see children over a period of time in a variety of situations, in stress situations, in work, and in play. The teacher's observation and judg-ment have been sharpened by his professional training and day-to-day ex-perience with the normal behavior of children. Often the teacher's rating can be the single most useful index of a pupil's growth and development. Few professional persons, no matter how well trained, can make ratings of others with absolute certainty and complete comfort. Don't spend too much time worrying about whether your rating for a particular child is "right" or "wrong." Make your best judgment of each student and go on to the next. As you will see, these ratings are made in a way somewhat different from any you might have done before. The instructions on the inside of this folder will explain how to proceed. Prepared by E L I M. B O W E R, California State Department of Mental Hygiene, and N A D I N E M. L A M B C R T, California State Department of Education © Copyright, 1962, California State Department of Education Diitributed. for rewarch u «> , by Educational T«ttlng S.rvlee, Proton, N. J. • lo* Ang*)w, CalKomlo INSTRUCTIONS 137 1. Copy the names of all your pupils in the appropriate spaces on the right-hand edge of the inside back cover so that all names will be visible to you when you make your ratings. 2. There are eight narrow pages, each with a pyramid grid and a one-sentence description of behavior. Your ratingjob on each of these eight pages is to locate every pupil in your class on a scale that runs from "most like" the pupil described to "least like" him. Let us use the first narrow page as an example. The statement below the pyramid (Statement A) reads: This pupil gets into fights or quarrels with other pupils. Look at your list of pupils and identify those who you think are most like the pupil referred to in the statement. You will note there are only two boxes at the extreme right of the pyramid (Column 7) on the narrow page. Choose the two pupils who are most like the pupil in the statement and write their names in the boxes in Column 7 of the pyra-mid, one name to a box. Now, look at your list of students and identify those who are least like the pupil in Statement A below the pyramid. Choose the two pupils who are least like the pupil in the statement and write their names in the boxes in Column 1 of the pyramid, one name to a box. 3. Now, return to your list of students and again identify from the remaining students those who are most like the pupil mentioned in the statement. These will be pupils who show this behavior to a great degree but not to the extreme found in the two pupils listed in Column 7. Write their names in the boxes of Column 6 of the pyramid. 4. Again, return to your list of pupils and identify other pupils who are least like the pupil mentioned in the statement on the bottom of the page. These will be pupils who show this behavior to a very slight degree but somewhat more than the two in Column 1. Place their names in the boxes of Column 2 of the pyramid. Continue in this manner until all names have been used. 5. When you have completed the ratings, you should have on the right pupils most like the pupil in the statement, and on the left those who are least like the pupil in the statement. For example, for the first statement, pupils who seldom, if ever, fight or quarrel will be in columns on the left side of the paper and pupils who fight or quarrel quite a lot (or at least enough to be noticed by you) will be on the right side. The pupils who are average or "not extreme in either direction" with respect to the described behavior will fall into the larger middle categories. 6. Use the boxes shown with dotted lines only if you have a large class and find you do not have enough spaces for all your students. Be sure that each pupil's name is placed in only one box. Some teachers check off names on the class list with light pencil marks to keep track of names used. 7. Try your best to complete the boxes in Columns 1 and 7 first, Columns 2 and 6 second, and in Columns 3 and 5 last. If you cannot completely fill these columns, use dashes to indicate that the boxes have not been overlooked or omitted. Some teachers who have small classes or insufficient contact with some children may find it necessary to omit names in several of the boxes. If you feel uncertain about placing a child near either extreme of the rating scale, place his name in the middle column, Column 4. When you have completed the ratings, the name of every child in your class should be found in one of the boxes in one of the seven columns of the pyramid. Unused boxes should have dashes in them. 8. When you finish with your rating on the first statement of behavior, go on to the others, repeating the procedure just described. Complete your ratings on all eight statements of behavior—rating every pupil in your class on every statement—before you under-take the scoring. I MOST UKf LEAST LfKC I This pupil gets into fights or quarrels with other pupils more often than others. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | MOST LIKE LEAST LIKE B. This pupil has to be coaxed or forced to work or play with other pupils. He or she will actively .avoid having any contact with classmates. ' 2 3 4 5 6 7 I MOST UKE LEAST LIKE This pupil has difficulty in learning school subjects. 7 MOST UKE LEAST LIKE D. This pupil makes unusual or inappropriate responses dur-ing normal school activities. His behavior is unpredictable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | MOST met LEAST UKE | E. This pupil works extremely hard in learning school sub-jects to the exclusion of any other interests or activities. This pupil pours al! his energies into school work. 1^3 j i 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I MOST UKE LEAST LIKE J F. This pupil behaves in ways which are dangerous to self or others. This pupil will get into situations in which he or she may be hurt or frightened. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | MOST UKE LEAST UKE I G. This pupil is unhappy or depressed. He or she may cry easily, be inattentive, or daydream. r 2 3 4 5 6 7 | MOST LIKE r LEAST LIKE | H. This pupil becomes upset or sick often, especially when faced with a difficult school problem or situation. STATEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR lk6 XI — u- | <*) Q | -Ulrs co In er ht U) «_* 3 '•J O t OA JC 0 c -o •a .C the OJ ur </i c ~ JS V-U '— to '5. c -5 c OJ JC w -a XT Ji S JC «_ .y O J= u _ rj c o i. •a = a & "E. c E ° O w > ^ rt ° >. 5, *- i-<Z % « 2 •o -5 U. O i § c E. JC PJ 61) .12 b c v c: c STATE-MENT A STATE-MENT B STATE-MENT c STATE-MENT D STATE-MENT E STATE-MENT F STATE-MENT G STATE-MENT H Total Name of Pupil Sex — 1 t - — — \ The Class Pictures (Peer Rating—Kindergarten to Grade 3) Description After you have completed the Behavior Rating of Pupils, your next step in screening is to plan for ad-ministration of the peer ratings. The peer rating instru-ment for kindergarten and primary grades, The Class Pictures, must be given to each child in your class individually, following the instructions given on page 8. This may take fifteen to twenty minutes of time for ' each child. Administration of The Class Pictures to the entire class, however, may be spread over a period of lime—up to, but not exceeding, one month. Administer the instrument to children one at a time when the rest of the class is engaged in scat work of some kind or occupied in other activities which do not require constant supervision. Such a schedule will require a minimum of interruption in your regular teaching program. Read the instructions for admin-istering and scoring The Class Pictures before you start. (See pages 8 and 9.) The Class Pictures are composed of twelve picture cards with a total of twenty scoring items (one or two items on a card). Five of the items are pictures of boys in situations related to emotionally maladjusted be-havior; live arc pictures of girls in situations related to emotionally maladjusted behavior; five are pictures of boys in situations related to positive or neutral types of behavior; and live are pictures of girls in situations related to positive or neutral types of behavior. The Class Pictures have been developed as a means of analyzing, in a systematic and measurable way, how children are perceived or "seen" by their peers. The responses of most pupils to the pictures will not surprise you. Some responses, however, may seem unrealistic and inappropriate. Accept each child's re-sponses without comment unless the child obviously misunderstands directions. Your role during the admin-istration of The Class Pictures is one of test proctor and recorder of responses. The Class Pictures are used with children who have not yet learned to read or write well. Therefore, the responses of each child.will need to be recorded individually by you. You will, of course, have to make special provision for the rest of the class while you are administering Class Pictures to individual children. If an additional school person is available, he may work with the class while you administer Clans PIC' tures. The actual administration should always be done by you. If you are able to organize the class into working groups, Class Pictures may be administered to a few individuals daily during such work periods —but you will decide for yourself how best to accom-plish this task. On the test each child is asked to consider which of his classmates is niost like the child in everyone of the twenty situations. Some children will pick twenty different names. Others may name one or two peers for several or many different items. Still others may make no response for one or more items (within the 15-sccond time limit set in the instructions for adminis-tering, page 8.) Do not expect any fixed pattern of responses. When the responses for every child in the class are collected, the teacher can tally the number of times a particular child is chosen for each of the twenty pictures. The total number of times a child is chosen for all of the pictures indicates how clearly or how vividly he is "seen," or perceived, by his peers. The number of times a pupil is picked for the ten negative pictures indicates the degree to which he or she is negatively perceived by his peers. By dividing the number of times a child is picked for the ten negative pictures by the total number of times he is picked for all twenty of the pictures, a per cent, indi-cating the ratio of negative perception by peers, is obtained and used in screening. The mean or average number of negative selections of emotionally handicapped boys and girls bas been found to be significantly different from the mean number of negative selections in the general school population of that grade and sex. Consequently, the per cent of negative perception has been found to be a reliable indicator of those children whose be-havior, as observed by peers, indicates some degree of emotional difficulty. The higher the per cent, the greater the possibility that the child has emotional problems. The per cent of negative selections on Tfve Class Pictures, when combined with teacher ratings and self ratings, has been found effective in primary grades for screening children with emotional handicaps. lh8 Administration In the administration of The Class Pictures, you should proceed in the following manner: Announce to the class that they will be playing a game with some pictures in the next few days, and, since many boys and girls cannot as yet write, very well, you will be playing the game with each child individually. Use a table other than your own desk and set it apart somewhat from the rest of the class. On the table or desk place a set of The Class Pictures and a pad of "Recording Forms for The Class Pic-tures." While the pictures are administered, the child should have his back toward the class so that the other children are not directly visible to him. When the child is seated and ready to begin, SAY: "1 am going to show you pictures about school. In each picture you will see arrows pointing to chil-dren who will be acting as some children do in this class. I want you to look at each picture and tell me who in this class might act like the boy or girl in the picture. Use your imagination and try to think of someone in your class who might be acting like the boys and girls in these pictures. Now, let's try this one." As the pupil gives you his choice, write the names of the children selected, in the spaces provided, making certain you write each name on the correct numbered line (line 1 for Arrow 1, and so on). If there is no response for a picture in an interval of 15 seconds, draw a line in that space and go on to the next arrow. Pick up the first card (Arrow l)and point to Arrow 1. 1. SAY: "Who could this be, sitting at his desk listening to the teacher?" Fnter the name suggested, on line 1 ' of the recording sheet. Place the first card face down and turn over the second card. Point to Arrow 2 and 2. SAY: "Who could this be talking to her friend while the teacher is explaining something to the class?" Record response. Place the second card face down and" pick up the third card. With the third card in hand, point to Arrow 3 and 3. SAY: "Who could this be having fun on the swings?" Record response. Place the third card face down and pick up the fourth card. Point to Arrow 4 and 4. SAY: "Who could this be chasing this boy and trying to hit him?" Place the fourth card face down and continue in this \ way with the rest of the cards. 5. "Who could this be, playing ball with the other children?" 6. "Who could this be, fighting with this other boy?" 7. "Who could this be, playing kick-ball with other children?" 8. "Who could this be, this unhappy child watching other children play?" 9. "Who could this be, carrying milk back to the class?" 10. "Who could this sick child be, in the nurse's office?" 11. "Who could this happy child be?" 12. "Who could this child be who is being brought to school by her mother?" 13. "Who could this be, playing on the bars?" 14. "Who could this child be who seems to have a stomach-ache?" 15. "Who could this be, wulking along with her friends?" 16. "Who could this be, fighting with another child?" 17. "Who could this be, working quietly at the tabic?" 18. "Who could this be, playing with toys while the rest of the class is working?" 19. "Who could this be, playing tether-ball?" 20. "Who could this be. being told by the teacher not to do something?" 1^9 M o d i f i c a t i o n s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  The C l a s s P i c t u r e s The b a s i c procedures remained the same. As noted i n Chapter h, only the p i c t u r e cards d e p i c t i n g p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l behavior were d i s p l a y e d . These are the odd-numbered items. The t o t a l number of s e l e c t i o n s r e c e i v e d by a c h i l d formed h i s s c o r e . 150 A Picture G a m e (Self Rating—Kindergarten to Grade 3) Description A Picture Game is designed to give a measure of young children's perception of self. It is used along with the Behavior Rating of Pupils (teacher rating) and The Class Pictures (peer rating) to identify pupils who are vulnerable to, or handicapped by, emotional problems. A Picture Game consists of 66 pictures, including two sample pictures. Each picture is illustrative of normal home and school relationships and events. With the exception of the two sample cards and the first ten pictures, each picture is emotionally neutral in the portrayal of the relationship or event. The child is asked to sort each picture into one of two categories: "This is a happy picture" or "This is a sad picture." The sorting is done by placing each picture in the "happy" or "sad" side of a two-compartment box which has a happy face shown on one compartment and a sad face on the other. The child categorizes each picture in accordance with his perception of it. The first ten pictures the child sorts are stereotypes: obviously happy or obviously sad situations. The pur-pose of including them in the test items is to check on each pupil's understanding of the task. If a child sorts the first ten pictures correctly, you can be fairly sure that he has understood the process well enough for you to use his score in screening. If, on the other hand, he does not sort the first ten pictures correctly, you will need to meet with him individually and ask him to sort the pictures again for you, making certain that he understands the process. Some children rlmose to place pictures differently from others. If you find that such children understand the process but continue, on re-administration, to sort the pictures in an inde-pendent fashion, make a note of it on the "Class Record Sheet," and use the child's score in screening. A Picture Gome can be administered to your <:h\'^ • as a group ,by providing each child with the special two-compartment box and a set of pictures. There ate separate forms of A Picture Game for boys and f j i U . The boys' form is printed on blue cards, contained in is blue box. The girls' form is on pink cards, contained in a pink box. It should take about one half hour to administer A Picture Game to your class, including time for dis-tribution and collection. 10 i 1 5 1 Administration You should have enough pink boxes and sets of pink cards for each girl in your class and enough blue boxes and sets of blue cards for each boy. Distribute a box and a set of cards to each boy and girl along with small pieces of scratch paper on which they will write . their names to put into their boxes when they have finished the game. You may, if you wish, distribute papers with the names already written on them. When all the children arc ready, say to the class: "We are going to play a picture game. Open your boxes. Notice that on the inside of the box cover there are two pictures. On the left is a picture of a sad boy or a sad girl. On the right, there is a picture of a happy boy or a happy girl. Each of you also has a set of picture cards. Girls have pink picture cards and pink boxes and boys have blue cards and blue boxes. Some of the pictures will seem sad to you and some of them will seem happy. You are to decide which arc the sad pictures and which arc the happy ones. "Look at picture A. Is that a happy picture or a sad picture? (Hu// for class response.) Yes, that is a happy picture. Put it in the compartment under the happy face—at your right hand. "Look at Picture B. Is that a happy picture or a sad picture? (Wait for class response.) Yes, that is a sad picture. Put it in the compartment under the sad f a c e — at your left hand. "The game is for you to look at all the pictures in your set and decide which ones are happy pictures and which are sad pictures. "Place the sad pictures in the compartment under the picture of the sad boy or girl. Place the happy pictures in the compartment under the picture of the happy boy or girl. You will probably all choose different pictures as happy or sad. I expect that. Play the game by yourself and don't work with your neighbor. "When you are finished with all the pictures, place the ' slip of paper with your name on it in one of the com-partments; it docs not matter which. Then close your box and wait for mc to pick it up." Collect the boxes one by one, as the children com-plete the task, and place them out of sight until class is dismissed for the day. When you are ready to score them, take your "Class Record Sheet for A Picture Game," and turn to the instructions for "Scoring." Scoring To score A Picture Game you will need "Class Record Sheet—A Picture Game" and all the boxes, into which the students sorted the picture cards. Complete the identifying information at the top of the "Class Record Sheet" and write the names of the boys and girls in the spaces provided. Note that boys and girls are listed separately. Next, count the number of cards in the "happy" compartment of the first pupil's box and record that number in the column headed "Total No. of Happy Pictures" on your "Class Record Sheet," opposite the pupil's name. The first ten columns of the "Class Record Sheet" provide a check to see if a pupil has understood the instructions. When you have finished counting and recording the number of pictures the pupil has placed in the "happy" compartment, note where he placed each picture numbered one through ten (1-10). A child's placement of each of these ten pictures .should correspond with the "M" (happy) or "S" (sail) at the top of the column on the "Class Record Sheet." " I I " indicates that most children sec the picture as happy; "S" indicates that most children see the picture as sad. Where a child's placement does not correspond with the "H" or "S" at the top of the column, place an "X" in that square. Put an "X" in every square where the pupil's choice disagrees with the selection indicated at the top of the column. If a pupil has three or more "X's," there is a strong possibility that the child misunderstood the directions or cannot grasp the concepts of "happy" or "sad." In any case, the test should be re-administered with the instructions explained individually to the chi Ul. The fact that you have administered the test a second time should then be noted in the column under "Comments" and the number in the "Total No. of Happy Pictures" column should be that counted in the second admin-istration. The two sample cards, A and B. and the first ten cards, unlike the other cards, are supposed to be what an average child sees as "happy" or "sad." If a pupil sorts out cards A and B and the first ten pictures as most children do, you can be fairly confident that he understood how to take the test. Hut if he has three or more choices which disagree with the average choices indicated on the "Class Record Sheet," you should suspect that he has not sorted the rest of the pictures according to the instructions and you will need to give him individual help in a re-administration of A Picture Game. 11 152 Name ; Age Boy Or Girl (Circle one) Flr»t N « m c •' Lmt Ntmt School Grade Date PRIMARY FORM —Grades 1 to 3 T H E S T O R Y O F T O M M Y This is the story of Tommy. Tommy is about your age, he lives at home with his mother and father, he goes to school, he likes to play games, and now and then he has to make up his mind about things as they happen. This story is also about you because we want to know what you would do if you were Tommy. Now in the story, each time that Tommy has to make up his mind what to do, he will have FOUR choices. After you read each of these four choices, pick out what you would choose first if YOU were Tommy, and then what you would choose second, third, and finally what you would choose last. As you read the story, or the teacher reads the story out loud for you, and you come to a part where Tommy has to make up his mind what to do, you will stop and read the four choices first, and then write in the brackets the numbers 1, 2, 3 or 4 after each of the four choices, that is in the order that you would choose them if you were Tommy. Therefore, you will write 1 after what you choose to do first ( 1 ) write 2 after what you choose to do second ( 2 ) write 3 after what you choose to do third ( 3 ) write 4 after what you choose to do last ( 4 ) Before you begin, you should know that there are no right or wrong answers. The only right choices are those that you would make if you were Tommy, and the order in which you make them from one to four. Are you ready? NOW TURN THE PAGE. 153 Tommy goes to school now. In the morning when Tommy gets up, he dresses and gets ready for school. This morning he was not able to find his other shoe. Tommy looked everywhere but he could not find it. He was afraid he might be late for school, and so he finally decided to: ask his mother to help him find his other shoe ( ) just wait in his room until his mother comes ( ) blame his sister for putting it in the wrong place ( ) wear his other pair of shoes that were in the closet ( ) After breakfast, Tommy was off to school. He had his books under his arm but as he arrived at the school grounds, he found that he forgot his gym shoes. It was too late to run back home. Tommy thought about what he should do and at last decided to: take gym with only socks on ( ) hope the teacher would not notice he did not have his gym shoes ( ) expect that mother might remember to bring them at recess ( ) say that he does not feel well and miss the gym class ( ) The school bell rang and the children began to enter the school. Tommy was going to his room and as he got to the door, he playfully grabbed Billy's cap and threw it in the air. It landed on the light shade and stayed there. Just then the teacher walked in. Tommy saw the teacher and he decided to: walk to his seat and hope the teacher did not really see him ( ) say it was Billy's fault because he was pushing ( ) ask the teacher if he could get the janitor to get the cap down ( ) tell the teacher he was sorry since she would understand ( ) I5h The teacher started the first lesson for the day. The children took out their reading books and some of the children were asked to stand up and read aloud. Johnny was the first to read. He was a very good reader and he made very few mistakes. Later it was Tommy's turn. Tommy was not able to read some words too well, and as the teacher tried to help Tommy with these words, he decided to: listen carefully so as to know how to say them the next time ( ) tell the teacher that he knows the words all right ( ) read more slowly so the teacher could help him with the hard words ( ) stop at every long word so the teacher would pronounce it ( ) The next class was art. In Tommy's grade the teacher asked the children to draw a picture. Tommy is very good at art and the teacher usually shows Tommy's work to the class. As Tommy started on his drawing this morning, he decided he would: draw another horse since he can do this best v.( ) draw a new picture which he had never drawn before ( ) wait to see what the other children started to draw ( ) ask the teacher to help him get started on something ( ) At recess, most of the children in Tommy's class play tag. Freddie was " i t " this time. After chasing some other children, Freddie started to chase Tommy. Tommy could also run pretty fast, but when he got near the fence he tripped. Freddie caught him and tagged him anyway, so now Tommy was " i t . " Tommy decided to: go and sit down and not play anymore ( ) just get up and start to chase someone else ( ) say it wasn't fair since he tripped and fell ( ) go and ask the teacher to settle it ( ) 155 The last class before lunch was arithmetic. Tommy likes number work although it gets pretty hard sometimes. This morning the class had some number work to do by themselves at their desks. Tommy got most of the questions but some were too hard. He was not sure what to do about the hard questions so he decided to: raise his hand to get help from the teacher ( ) sit quietly and not say anything ( ) leave the hard questions for the next day ( ) keep trying to figure out the hard questions by himself ( ) At noon, Tommy goes home for lunch, and so does L a r r y who lives a few houses from Tommy. They usually go home together. On their way home, Tommy asked Larry if he would like to see his new bicycle. Since Larry rides a bicycle well, he said yes, and when they got to Tommy's house, Larry asked Tommy if he could try out his new bicycle. Tommy decided to: let Larry have a short ride up and down the street ( ) say "No" because Larry might scratch his bicycle ( ) tell Larry that he has to ask his mother first ( ) tell Larry that his bicycle is too new ( ) After lunch, Tommy went back to school. The class was having gym this afternoon, and this time Tommy did remember to bring his gym shoes. During gym, the children do exercises and play games. Also some of the children are allowed to play on the bars, and some even hang head down holding on by their knees. Tommy was not sure whether he should try this and finally decided to: just watch the others do it since it is dangerous ( ) maybe try it some other time ( ) climb up to the bar and try it himself ( ) ask the teacher to help him so he wouldn't fall ( ) 156 After school, Tommy came right home because he had to go with his mother to the doctor. Tommy was going for a check-up, but he might be getting a needle as well. He did not want to go very much, so he decided to: go even if the needle does sting a bit ( ) say he feels quite well and does not need to see a doctor ( ) ask the doctor if his mother could come in with him ( ) try to get out of going this time ( ) Tommy's father usually plays with him after supper, and this day he asked Tommy if he would like to play catch. Tommy quickly got his ball and glove and he and his father went out to the back yard. Tommy is just learning how to catch a ball, so sometimes he misses quite a few. This time Tommy was missing almost every catch. He war not too happy about this and after a while decided to: say that it must be the new glove that makes him drop the ball ( ) step closer to his father, so as to practice on short throws ( ) hope his father wouldn't be too angry at him ( ) ask his father again to show him how to catch the ball ( ) After playing catch, Tommy had to go inside. Tommy played with his toys for a while, and then had to get ready for bed. He put on his pajamas, washed his face and hands, and brushed his teeth. Tommy has been taught to say his prayers before going to sleep. However, Tommy was pretty tired this night and thought he would: hope that nothing really bad will happen ( ) say his prayers because they are important to him ( ) say his prayers tomorrow night instead ( ) ask his mother to help him say his prayers this time ( ) When Tommy was finished, he jumped into bed and soon was fast asleep. Tomorrow, Tommy was most probably going to have another busy day. And that is the end of the story. 1. shoe IDS INS DA IS THE STORY OF TOMMY —Score Sheet No. 1 7. arithmetic IDS INS DA IS E Z INSTITUTE OF CHILD STUDY SECURITY 157 Security Category IS IDS DA INS 2. gym shoes IS INS IDS DA 8. bicycle IS INS IDS DA 3. cap INS DA IS IDS 4. reading is : DA IDS INS 5. art DA IS INS IDS 6 . playing tag INS IS DA IDS 9. gym INS DA IS IDS 10. doctor IS I DA IDS INS 11. playing ball DA is rz INS IDS 12. prayers INS I S C DA IDS IS — Independent Security IDS — Immature Dependent Security DA — Deputy Agent INS — Insecurity R A N K Total 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 TEST—Primary Form SCORING S H E E T TIIK S T O R Y O F T O M M Y — Score Sheet No. 2 158 Consistency Score Security Score X Mean Y Y- Z Security Category Rank 1 2 3 4 IS 0 1 4 9 30 IDS 1 0 1 4 30 D A 4 1 0 1 30 INS 9 4 1 0 30 120 Total Y-Mnlt.iply hy -14 Cor.sist.pnry Srnrp Pprrpntilp Copyright, 1964 \c\ F. Grapko, Ph.D. tute of Child Study versity of Toronto foronto, Canada Total 7 Multiply hv 5 Divide hy 100 minus Seriirit.v Srnrp Pprrpntilp 12 APPENDIX D SAMPLE BEHAVIORAL PROTOCOLS FROM KEISTER PUZZLE BOX 160 SAMPLE BEHAVIORAL PROTOCOLS FROM THE PUZZLE BOX TEST Subject: Female, kindergarten Begins immediately to pick up blocks with both hands and starts to t a l k . "Oh, this i s fun!" Smiles, appears to enjoy h e r s e l f . "I l i k e puzzles. Do you have other puzzles, too?" Has box nearly f i l l e d and r e a l i z e s that the sailboat w i l l not f i t . "Oh, this won't work." Grasps box with both hands, turns i t upside down and starts again. Same speed of movements with hands and eyes, assessing the space available and the shapes l e f t . "Oh, this i s kinda hard, but i t ' s fun." Continues with the same physical responses i n order to solve. No slowing of pace, although stops momentarily for assessment and moves i n chair occasionally. Uses both hands throughout and continues to t a l k i n a f r i e n d l y way at inte r v a l s - eg. "I have puzzles at home. Mine aren't made of wood. They're jig-saw puzzles." On being told that the time i s up, she asks i f she could come back another day to try again. Subject: Male, kindergarten Looks unhappily at examiner, moves i n chair to s i t sideways i n order not to face desk or to see or touch puzzle. Looks at T.V. camera momentarily, then looks at f l o o r . Seems to pout (lower l i p juts out, corners of mouth turned down). Looks at examiner and pushes l i p s together so that corners of mouth turned down even more - glares for a moment i n res-ponse to the i n v i t a t i o n to try and looks away from examiner. 161 Negative affect continues though he looks at other objects, examines book shelves, but continues to s i t on edge of chair, grasping chair with both arms and hands at his' sides, held s t i f f l y , s t i l l positioned away from puzzle. When spoken to again w i l l not look at examiner nor w i l l he respond verbally. When asked i f he would rather leave to go back to class, nods head a f f i r m a t i v e l y , gets out of chair, continues looking down and moves d i r e c t l y to door, avoiding a l l contact on way back to class. Subject: Male, f i r s t grade When to l d he can begin,glances b r i e f l y at camera, then goes on to task. Leans forward, picks up a piece, places i t i n box and picks up another with, slow, deliberate, steady movements. Solemn, intent look upon his face. Realizes l a s t block won't f i t without picking i t up; moves some of the pieces around i n the box i n order to try to accomodate the block. Gauges space and positions block above into space, then lowers i t and t r i e s to push i t i n . "Hmmmm, this i s hard." Takes out a l l the blocks systematically placing them on the table. Re-examines shapes; solemn look on face remains. Totally absorbed; does not look up when a noise heard i n hallway. Con-tinues working methodically. Solves puzzle. Smiles broadly and looks at examiner without verbalizing. When asked i f he had l i k e d doing the puzzle, he smiles again, nodding head and says "Yes." 1 6 2 Subject: Female, f i r s t grade Begins by staring at puzzle for some time. Expression on face one of uncertainty, even apprehensive. Looks at examiner several times and, though says nothing, conveys fe e l i n g of wanting help. Directs attention again at puzzle pieces, selects one, the house, and very h e s i t a n t l y places i t i n box, moving i t into a corner. Takes hand away from block, hesitates leaving hand poised above i t , looks at exam-iner; seems to seek approval or reassurance. Puts hand back on block and moves i t te n t a t i v e l y to another corner, looks at examiner again. Stops. Body tensed, knees pressed together, other hand clenched i n b a l l . Slowly moves block into middle of box. Stares at i t , then looks at examiner and back again to the block. Picks up fish-shaped block from table, looks at i t i n her hand and very h e s i t a n t l y puts i t into box beside the house. F a c i a l expression very unhappy, dejected, seems close to tears. Squeezes eyes shut. Test stopped. Subject: Male, kindergarten (Talks volubly from the time he leaves cl a s s , shows immediate inter e s t i n T.V. set and, after being promised h e ' l l be shown how i t works i n greater d e t a i l after t e s t , i s ready to tackle puzzle.) Starts to move blocks rapidly into box using one hand to begin with but soon starts to use two as he pushes blocks into place. Moves vigorously, shaking and moving his chair and the table with his body movement. Stands up several times as he continues to work. Pleasant f a c i a l expression. 163 Talks constantly. Samples: "I got a new baby brother. You got any l i t t l e boys? I'm not l i t t l e anymore. Boy, look at this truck! (To himself) Hey, why won't th i s go in? This i s hard." Stands up for a better look and decides i n s t a n t l y to empty the box and star t over. "Do you come to school every-day l i k e I do? Do you l i k e school? What kinda car i s this? You gotta car? My Dad's got a big Mercury. Oh, boy, I'm getting i t now. But that won't go i n . It won't work. Aah! (an expression of disgust)." Dumps box's contents again and starts over immediately. "It's hard but I'm gonna win. Did lo t s a kids get thi s r i g h t ? " 

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