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A study of a primary preventive intervention with young children Lamb, Eila 1977

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A STUDY  OF A P R I M A R Y P R E V E N T I V E W I T H YOUNG  INTERVENTION  CHILDREN  by EILA B.S.A., M.Ed.,  University University  LAMB  of of  British British  Columbia, Columbia,  19^8 1968  )  A DISSERTATION  SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  FOR  OF  THE DEGREE  OF  OF  EDUCATION  in THE F A C U L T Y . O F G R A D U A T E . S T U D I E S (Faculty  We a c c e p t required  this  of  Education)  dissertation  as  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H  September,  1977  Bila Lamb,1977  COLUMBIA  to  the  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h the L i b r a r y I  further  for  this  freely  available  representatives. thesis for  Department of  It  financial  i s understood that gain s h a l l  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  6  the  requirements  Columbia,  I agree  reference and copying o f  this  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  written permission.  Date  for  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n for e x t e n s i v e  scholarly  by h i s of  s h a l l make it  of  November  7, 1 9 7 7  not  copying or  publication  be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT Primary p r e v e n t i o n  i n h e a l t h care s e r v i c e s has e f f e c t e d  important economies through p r e v e n t i o n and  o f handicap i n c h i l d r e n  through the r e d u c t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l and time c o s t s f o r  expensive, o f t e n l i f e - t i m e  care.  An important r e c e n t development i n education  has been  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the concept t o the i n n o v a t i o n o f p r e v e n t i v e p r a c t i c e s . These emphasize the promotion o f competencies and strengths  i n c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y during  critical  development, r a t h e r than the treatment o f emotional, and  learning  behavioral  deficits.  This r e s e a r c h preventive  periods i n  i n v e s t i g a t e d the immediate e f f e c t s of a  programme, a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the B e s s e l l and Palomares  Methods i n Human Development (MHDP), upon the l e a r n i n g of compet e n c i e s and coping  skills  elopment i n k i n d e r g a r t e n suggested a c r i t i c a l Using  associated with and f i r s t  c o g n i t i v e and ego dev-  grade c h i l d r e n . The l i t e r a t u r e  p e r i o d a t t h i s p o i n t i n ego development.  a sample of 1 0 3 m e t r o p o l i t a n  kindergarten  and f i r s t  grade c h i l d r e n , the e f f e c t s o f the B e s s e l l and Palomares  pro-  gramme were compared to the e f f e c t s o f another d i s c u s s i o n group method, Show-and-Tell. A f u l l y - c r o s s e d f i x e d - e f f e c t s t h r e e - f a c t o r d e s i g n was used to t e s t e i g h t hypotheses; treatment main e f f e c t s , sex and  g r a d e - l e v e l e f f e c t s and a l l p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s . The  dependent v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c o g n i t i v e and  ego development were: c o g n i t i v e performance competency  iii as measured b y ( 1 ) m i n u t e s behavior (for by  grade  pupils  only);  s c o r e s r e c e i v e d on measures  tion;  life  (for  and ( 2 ) t h e c h i l d ' s  first  grade  Results 1.  pupils  pertaining  A significant  by changes  predominant emotional feelings  multivariate  rating  taught  and t h e peer  was  additional  accounted  taught under  t h e m o d i f i e d Methods  (MHDP) g a i n e d  significantly  (SAT).  followup univariate  between  treat-  analyses  showing  F f o r t h e measure o f t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f For kindergarten students  was no s t a t i s t i c a l 3.  differences  p e r c e p t i o n measure. F o r  t a u g h t u n d e r MHDP t h e r e  a greater r e d u c t i o n than f o r students  There  security  competency m e a s u r e s , t h e  i n t e r a c t i o n was f o u n d  ment and g r a d e - l e v e l , w i t h  dysfunction.  F revealed  under Show-and-Tell  A significant  a significant  response  were:  These d i f f e r e n c e s were  i n Human D e v e l o p m e n t programme those  affilia-  o f independent  t o hypotheses  b o t h measures t h e s t u d e n t s  2.  p e r c e p t i o n o f observed  i n two o f t h e s o c i a l  teacher behavior  more t h a n  of ( 1 ) teacher perception of  only).  between t h e two t r e a t m e n t s for  competency as measured  competency as measured b y s c o r e s r e c e i v e d on  measures o f ( 1 ) t h e c h i l d ' s to  problem-solving  o r n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r , and ( 3 ) p e e r  positive  affective  social  ( 2 ) peer  dysfunctional behavior, socially  i n mature  P u z z l e Box and ( 2 ) s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t  on t h e K e i s t e r  first  spent  difference  t a u g h t u n d e r SAT.  forfirst  grade  I n f o r m a l r e s u l t s were a l s o p r e s e n t e d w h i c h support  t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  pupils. gave  o f t h e MHDP programme,  iv  particularly h.  a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n  A l l o t h e r n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were  A discussion of results 1.  In s p i t e  (18 weeks), social had  level.  i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s :  of the r e l a t i v e l y  the s u b s t a n t i v e  accepted.  impact  brief,treatment  o f the treatment  period upon  overt  f u n c t i o n i n g was n o t e w o r t h y . Such p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g  been i d e n t i f i e d  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  as p r e d i c t i v e o f a d u l t  competence. 2.  While  the peer a f f i l i a t i o n  some i n f o r m a l r e s u l t s effectiveness 3.  f o r the B e s s e l l  P o s s i b l e weaknesses  gramme o m i s s i o n s contributed grade  situation  ren.  and P a l o m a r e s  participants.  i n instrumentation  and t h e p r o -  n e c e s s i t a t e d by time r e s t r i c t i o n s  to the lack of c l e a r  Informal  results,  may h a v e  particularly  results  from t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d  seemed p r o m i s i n g  i n providing valuable  b e h a v i o r a l or temperamental I t was c o n j e c t u r e d  helpful  for first  the f u l l  lem-solving  problem-solving i n f o r m a t i o n on  and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s  of c h i l d -  t h a t s u c h o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a w o u l d be  i n educational planning Suggestions  with  a modest i n c r e a s e i n s o c i a l  students. *fl  the  suggested  measure was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ,  f o r young  children.  were made f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  particularly  g r a d e one programme and on t h e u s e o f t h e p r o b -  device.  V  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  Development Rationale Importance  of the Problem  f o r the P r e s e n t Study of the  Assumptions The  1  of the  Research  3 h  Study Study  5  Question  6  Summary II.  REVIEW OF  7 LITERATURE  9  Introduction  10  Canadian Indices of D y s f u n c t i o n T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches t o the Problems Primary  P r e v e n t i o n as an A l t e r n a t i v e  Primary Prevention' Defined Primary Prevention O p e r a t i o n a l i z e d c o m p e t e n c e : I t s N a t u r e and N u r t u r e T r a i t s Most Open t o E n v i r o n m e n t a l Influence The  Developmental-Adaptational  Ego D e v e l o p m e n t Self-Concept S o c i a l Competence C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t and  10 11 12 12 In16 19  Traits  25  Affectivity  25 25 26 27  Timing of P r e v e n t i v e I n t e r v e n t i o n s : C r i t i c a l P e r i o d s i n Development  29  A p p l i c a t i o n of the Kohlberg DevelopmentalA d a p t a t i o n a l Model t o t h i s Study  32  Literature Approaches  32  The  on  School-Based  Preventive  Methods i n Human D e v e l o p m e n t Programme...  37  vi  CHAPTER  PAGE  Summary III.  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS AND  ^0 OPERATIONAL h2  DEFINITIONS Hypotheses  ^2  R a t i o n a l e : H y p o t h e s e s 1 and 2 General Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1 General Hypothesis 2 H y p o t h e s i s 2. . . R a t i o n a l e : H y p o t h e s e s 3 and h General Hypothesis Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis h R a t i o n a l e : H y p o t h e s e s 5? 6, 7 and 8 General Hypothesis Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 6 Hypothesis 7 Hypothesis 8 Operational Definitions  ^9  C o g n i t i v e P e r f o r m a n c e Competency S o c i a l Competency A f f e c t i v e Competency Summary  *+9 50 50 50  IV. RESEARCH DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION Design Procedures  h2 *+6 ^7 ^7 ^7 h7 ^8 ^8 ^8 ^8 ^8 *+8 h9 h9 ^9  51 51  .  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Instruments C o g n i t i v e Competency M e a s u r e s K e i s t e r P u z z l e Box Academic A c h i e v e m e n t S o c i a l Competency M e a s u r e s Behavior Rating o f Pupils The C l a s s P i c t u r e s Three-Item Sociometric Test A f f e c t i v e Competency M e a s u r e s A P i c t u r e Game The S t o r y o f Tommy  5h 5^ 5*+ 5+ 55 56 56 57 58 59 59 60 1  vii CHAPTER  PAGE Sample Programme Procedures Treatment Procedures Experimental Treatment (MHDP or T]_) L e v e l B: K i n d e r g a r t e n Programme (Appendix A) L e v e l 1: F i r s t Grade Programme (Appendix B) Comparison Treatment (SAT or T2) T e s t i n g Procedures S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures  62 6^65 65 66 67 67 69 69  Summary. ;  70  V. RESULTS Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis Hypothesis  71 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8  73 75 75 77 77 77 ' 7& 79  A d d i t i o n a l Data  79  Summary  80  VI. DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY  82  Conclusions Hypothesis 1: Treatment E f f e c t s Problem-Solving Behavior R e s u l t s of the Three S o c i a l Competency Measures F u r t h e r D i s c u s s i o n o f the R e s u l t s of the S o c i a l Competency Measures S e l f - R a t i n g Measure Hypothesis 2: Treatment E f f e c t s S e c u r i t y Measure Academic Achievement Hypothesis 3: Sex E f f e c t s Hypothesis hi Grade-Level E f f e c t s . Hypothesis 5- Treatment-by-Sex. . Hypothesis 6: Treatment-by-Grade-Level Hypothesis 7: Sex-by-Grade-Level Hypothesis 8: Treatment-by-Sex-by-GradeLevel  82 82 83 83  •  86 87 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 92 93  viii  CHAPTER  PAGE A d d i t i o n a l Findings L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research Summary  99  LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX A:  101  Methods i n Human Development Curriculum, Kindergarten, Level B  APPENDIX B:  llh  Methods i n Human Development C u r r i c u l u m , F i r s t Grade, L e v e l 1....  APPENDIX C:  93 9h 95  125  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T e s t s , D e f i n i t i o n s of Immature and Mature Behaviors  on the  K e i s t e r Puzzle Box, K e i s t e r Rating Sheet and Copies of Tests APPENDIX D:  130  Sample B e h a v i o r a l P r o t o c o l s From K e i s t e r Puzzle Box  159  ix  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE  I. II. III.  IV.  PAGE  Numbers o f S u b j e c t s C l a s s i f i e d G r a d e - l e v e l and Sex  by  O b s e r v e d C e l l Means and S t a n d a r d f o r S e v e n Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Treatment, 63 Deviations 72  M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance: Effects of T r e a t m e n t , Sex and G r a d e - l e v e l Upon F i v e Dependent V a r i a b l e s  7^  Multivariate Analysis of Variance: E f f e c t s of T r e a t m e n t and Sex on Two Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Grade One) *.  76  X  L I S T OF FIGURES  FIGURE  1.  2.  PAGE  C o g n i t i v e , Ego and M o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t : Ego D e v e l o p m e n t as C o g n i t i v e F u n c t i o n i n g i n The Realm o f S o c i a l S e l f  2h  Schematic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  52  of Design  xi  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n and  encouragement  advisory Dr.  0.  I received  throughout  c o m m i t t e e : D r . M.B. N e v i s o n ,  Oldridge,  Education,  the study from the  chairperson,  of the F a c u l t y  Bain,  o f M e d i c i n e . D r . W.  D a v i s was a c o n t r i b u t i n g member as w e l l u n t i l from the U n i v e r s i t y .  The v e r y  thanks  of the school  h i s departure  generous a s s i s t a n c e  f r o m e a c h member made t h e s t u d y  principal  D r . D.  and D r . T. R o g e r s , a l l o f t h e F a c u l t y o f  and D r . H. N i c h o l  Particular  f o r the guidance  received  possible.  a r e due t o Ms. C. Swanson, t h e f o r m e r used  f o r the p r o j e c t .  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION "An  The  ounce o f p r e v e n t i o n  purpose o f t h i s  effectiveness  of a primary  i s worth  a pound o f c u r e . "  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o examine t h e preventive  e d u c a t i o n a l programme  upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f k e y c o m p e t e n c i e s related  to affective,  kindergarten sense primary  c o g n i t i v e and s o c i a l  and f i r s t  grade  prevention  children.  cognitive  and/or psychomotor  corollary  of this  petencies  should  notion reduce  development i n  In the e d u c a t i o n a l  interpersonal, affective,  competencies  i n children.  i s that the presence the i n c i d e n c e  o f such  of emotional,  A com-  learning  behavioral disorders.  Development The  ancient  of the Problem  f o l k wisdom a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  p r e v e n t i o n was r e f l e c t e d Koch  skills  i n c l u d e s any i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h  promotes m e n t a l h e a l t h by d e v e l o p i n g  and  and c o p i n g  an ounce o f  i n t h e recommendations  o f Koch and  (1976) who a d v o c a t e d p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h c a r e m o d e l l e d on  e x i s t i n g k n o w l e d g e and t e c h n o l o g y , save l i v e s children.  but a l s o halve They n o t e d  immunization against  the r a t e of mental r e t a r d a t i o n i n  t h a t one s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e c o m p l e t e  o f a l l young  certain  care which would n o t only  c h i l d r e n i n the United  common c h i l d h o o d  d i s e a s e s , would  States produce  2  savings approaching The care was by France  one b i l l i o n d o l l a r s  annually.  concern f o r p r e v e n t i o n i n the area of h e a l t h  a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n primary and'Finland  p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n taken  (Wynn and Wynn, 197^ a,b). Both  c o u n t r i e s have f r e e e x t e n s i v e h e a l t h care s e r v i c e s f o r pregnant mothers and c h i l d r e n which are aimed at reducing p e r i n a t a l m o r t a l i t y and m o r b i d i t y . In France, f o r example, r e c o g n i t i o n of the growing c o s t of c h i l d h o o d which was  handicap,  estimated to consume about 2.5% of the  gross  n a t i o n a l product, prompted a s e r i e s of l e g i s l a t i v e ventions beginning i n 1970 which were designed and reduce the extent and  cost of handicap.  inter-  to save l i v e s  Each of these  h e a l t h care i n t e r v e n t i o n s acknowledged t h a t primary  preven-  t i o n i s not only more humane, but a l s o more economic. R e c e n t l y , education has begun to examine the possibilities  of adapting such p r e v e n t i v e modes to i t s needs -  i n t h i s i n s t a n c e to prevent  the development of  emotional,  b e h a v i o r a l and l e a r n i n g problems i n c h i l d r e n by promoting competencies through  l e a r n i n g . These s t r a t e g i e s r e f l e c t a  major s h i f t in- emphasis: f i r s t  from the d i a g n o s i s and  treat-  ment of d i s a b i l i t y , then to the p r e v e n t i o n of d i s a b i l i t y , and f i n a l l y to the development of competence i n i n d i v i d u a l s . The development of such competence or f u n c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s important  not only f o r c r e a t i n g s a t i s f y i n g l i v e s but a l s o  f o r economic reasons. People who emotional  do not have s u f f i c i e n t  and b e h a v i o r a l resources too o f t e n use drugs or  3 a l c o h o l as a c r u t c h . The medical costs o f a l c o h o l abuse t o Canada a t the present time are estimated t o be two b i l l i o n d o l l a r s annually  (House o f Commons Debates, Nov. 2h,  1976,  p. 1330). Thus, e d u c a t i o n i n i t s s e r v i c e s t o a l l c h i l d r e n must i n v e s t i g a t e preventive the  and growth-inducing s t r a t e g i e s and  c r i t i c a l developmental p e r i o d  or age where such  t i o n s are most l i k e l y to be o p t i m a l l y  interven-  e f f e c t i v e . The preven-  t i v e programme s e l e c t e d f o r the current  study was the B e s s e l l  (1969,  Palomares Methods i n Human Development  The  programme i s addressed t o areas r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i v e and  ego  development; emotional s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  tery, interpersonal  c o g n i t i v e mas-  effectiveness.  Rationale The  a, b,  1973)-  and  f o r the Present Study  b a s i c purpose o f the present r e s e a r c h was t o judge  the l e v e l of e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme (HDP) upon c e r t a i n performance areas and to provide evaluative  information  not p r e s e n t l y  a v a i l a b l e on i t . The  programme was s e l e c t e d because i t was much i n use at the l o c a l level.  Informal teacher r e p o r t i n g s  h e l p f u l teaching  device  i n d i c a t e d that i t was a  and was enjoyed by the c h i l d r e n . Some  teachers observed a l s o t h a t students' self-images appeared to improve, that c h i l d r e n seemed t o f i n d i t b e n e f i c i a l not only to d i s c u s s  t h e i r f e e l i n g s but a l s o to understand and improve  t h e i r own s o c i a l  impact.  In s u m m a r i z i n g  p r o j e c t s which  programme as one r e s u l t s was behavior the use  incorporated  confounded  o f HDP  since  specific  and  Palomares  unclear  of these  i f resultant  c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d  solely  to  or t o the combination of treatments used  which  HDP.  effects  the development i n young  the B e s s e l l  i t was  i n children  F u r t h e r m o r e , no  of the B e s s e l l of s o c i a l ,  children  and  ego  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h had  affective  development.  required  the b u i l d i n g  of cognitive  children's  Palomares and  cognitive  is related  and  ego  of c e r t a i n  the e f f e c t s  strengths  the  programme upon competencies  to p o s i t i v e  impact  through  increasing  of the  Study  o f the B e s s e l l  and  at the  pro-  kindergarten  be  negative  and n o n - c o p i n g b e h a v i o r s as w e l l  coping ance  skills  positive  indicated  Palomares  and p r i m a r y l e v e l would  to encourage  i n order to prevent  self-development through a c q u i s t i o n  i n the a f f e c t i v e ,  social  and  cognitive  no  attempt  to suggest the e f f i c a c y  as of  perform-  domains. T h e r e was  upon  coping behaviors.  a planned i n t e r v e n t i o n  self-attitudes  cog-  of evidence,  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e programme's  mastery  gramme be p o s i t i v e ,  considered  Given the p a u c i t y  Importance Should  and  - each of which  r e s e a r c h was  the  o f t h e programme,  component. However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  changes  included  nitive  studies  (1972) r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s f r o m s t u d i e s o f Head  Henrie Start  independent  of a  5  single  solution  vention. other  a p p r o a c h t o an e a r l y  I t was  factors  parenting  recognized  s u c h as  practices  that  t h e p r o b l e m was  genetic,  affecting  psychoeducational  complex,  cultural, childrearing, cognitive  and  ego  t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , however, t h i s s i n g l e  was  examined,  i . e . - the e f f e c t s  of competencies  related  with  and  development.  For  building  inter-  aspect  o f t h i s programme upon t h e to c o g n i t i v e  and  ego  develop-  ment .  Assumptions  able  were made:  1. T h a t t h e B e s s e l l  and P a l o m a r e s  f o r u s e w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n and  2. avoid  ego  A and  That i t could  administered  (see p.  grade  (see  students  i n s u c h a way  as t o  7 years, a  critical  6M-). o f 5 and  f o r the appearance  T h a t between t h e ages  period  exists  (other  than general  i n the f o r m a t i o n  school learning:  of competencies  competence  (3) and  (h)  o f 5 and  pertaining  8 years, a  of a t t i t u d e s  i n t e l l i g e n c e ) which  interest i n learning,  and  critical  abilities  are p o s i t i v e f o r attention  and  sense  ( s e e p. 3 1 ) •  5. T h a t c o m p e t e n c i e s in  suit-  development. h.  of  be  T h a t b e t w e e n t h e ages  exists  first  c u r r i c u l u m was  B).  researcher bias 3.  period  Study  S e v e r a l assumptions  Appendices  to  o f the  i n each of the dimensions  are c o r r e l a t e s  self-development.  of mental h e a l t h  and  discussed  positive  6  The  The  broad  Research  Question  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was: Is t h e B e s s e l l and  P a l o m a r e s programme a p r i m a r y  preventive intervention?  S p e c i f i c a l l y : Would t h e u s e o f t h e B e s s e l l programme w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t immediately-measurable associated with  increments  positive  and P a l o m a r e s  grade p u p i l s  i n performance  cognitive,  social  produce  competencies  and a f f e c t i v e  functioning? For  the purposes  competence r e l a t e d  of this  study,  three dimensions  of  t o c o g n i t i v e and ego d e v e l o p m e n t were  measured: 1. ing  C o g n i t i v e competence r e f e r r e d  t o academic  as measured b y : (a) p e r s i s t e n c e i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  measured b y t i m e behavior  i n minutes spent  i n mature  (an a d a p t a t i o n o f the K e i s t e r  kindergarten  and f i r s t  students  (note d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter  knowledge and s k i l l s 2.  Social  which a r e antecedents give f r i e n d s h i p  problem-solving  P u z z l e Box) f o r b o t h  (GPA) f o r f i r s t  social  liked  GPA).  to the c h i l d ' s  connections;  to being  to display  capacity attributes  by o t h e r s ; t o be a b l e t o  t o o t h e r s . Because i t i s n o t a u n i t a r y  three  a s s e s s m e n t s were made f o r b o t h  grade  students:  grade  h which d e t a i l s the  t e s t e d t o determine  competence r e f e r r e d  make and m a i n t a i n  b e h a v i o r , as  g r a d e s t u d e n t s ; and  (b) t h e Grade P o i n t A v e r a g e  to  function-  trait,  k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t  7  (a) behavior  teacher  perception  of dysfunctional  as m e a s u r e d b y t h e t e a c h e r  classroom  on t h e B e h a v i o r  Rating,  o f P u p i l s , and (b) p e e r p e r c e p t i o n  of observed  as m e a s u r e d by s e l e c t i o n f r e q u e n c y  on The C l a s s  (c) peer n o m i n a t i o n f o r e n t r y relationships 3>  (a)  garten  and  and f i r s t  his  Both aspects  self  and p e r -  evaluated:  predominant  emotional  as measured by A P i c t u r e Game f o r b o t h grade  kinder-  s t u d e n t s , and  the c h i l d ' s  f e e l i n g s of independent s e c u r i t y  acceptance o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Institute  of Child  for  grade students  first  were  device.  of the s e l f -  f e e l i n g s about  the q u a l i t y of the c h i l d ' s  to l i f e  (b)  i n general.  P i c t u r e s , and  sociometric  A f f e c t i v e competence, a c e n t r a l p a r t  ception of l i f e  behavior  into interpersonal  as measured b y a t h r e e - i t e m  concept, r e f e r r e d t o the c h i l d ' s  response  classroom  Study  as measured by t h e  Security Test,  The S t o r y  o f Tommy,  only. Summary  The services quality in  a p p l i c a t i o n of primary prevention  has e f f e c t e d both s i g n i f i c a n t of l i f e  financial An  the tive  by p r e v e n t i n g  and t i m e  important  costs  recent  educational  improvement  development  care  i n the  h a n d i c a p and i m p o r t a n t  of life-time  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the concept  to health  economies  care.  i n education  has been  t o the innovation o f preven-  p r a c t i c e s . These emphasize  the promotion of  8  strengths  and  competencies  i n children rather  ment o f e m o t i o n a l , b e h a v i o r a l This  study sought  and  coping  skills  and P a l o m a r e s  upon t h e l e a r n i n g  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and  first  grade  of a  Methods i n  of competencies  associated with cognitive  and  children.  treat-  deficits.  to determine the e f f e c t s  p r e v e n t i v e programme, t h e B e s s e l l Human D e v e l o p m e n t .  learning  than the  ego  and  development  9  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter examines the r e l e v a n t i n g to the e d u c a t i o n a l  literature  pertain-  promotion of competence i n y o u n g ' c h i l d -  ren as a form of primary p r e v e n t i o n . evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  The study sought to  of the Methods i n Human Development  programme i n promoting competencies i n areas r e l a t e d to cognit i v e and ego development. The  chapter's i n t r o d u c t i o n covers the Canadian i n d i c e s  of d y s f u n c t i o n  as w e l l as the t r a d i t i o n a l treatment approaches  to emotional, b e h a v i o r a l  and l e a r n i n g problems i n c h i l d r e n .  Primary prevention treatment i s d i s c u s s e d  as an e d u c a t i o n a l  a l t e r n a t i v e to  next. I t s d e f i n i t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  p o s s i b l e approaches to i t s o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , the nature and n u r t u r e of competence, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a d u l t functioning  and the presence of the d e v e l o p m e n t a l - a d a p t a t i o n a l  t r a i t s i n childhood  are i n c l u d e d  i n this  section.  A d e t a i l e d examination of the d e v e l o p m e n t a l - a d a p t a t i o n a l t r a i t s f o l l o w s which i n c o r p o r a t e s  (1) the s t r u c t u r e of ego  development and (2) the p a r a l l e l maturation of c o g n i t i o n and a f f e c t i v i t y . This d i s c u s s i o n permits r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the features  of a p p r o p r i a t e  to p r e v e n t i o n  types of i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h  o f emotional, b e h a v i o r a l  respect  and l e a r n i n g problems  in children. The  timing  of p r e v e n t i v e  interventions  and the a p p l i -  10 cation  of the developmental-adaptational  are presented The  to this  study  next.  chapter  preventive  traits  concludes  approaches  w i t h an overview  and f i n a l l y ,  unique  f e a t u r e s o f the B e s s e l l  object  of this  with  of school-based  an e x a m i n a t i o n  of the  and P a l o m a r e s programme, t h e  research.  Introduction Canadian  Indices of Dysfunction  Several  Canadian  numbers o f c h i l d r e n learning for  afflicted  and F i n d l a y  suffering  (1969)  e f f e c t i v e modes o f t r e a t m e n t  from  these problems.  made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  an a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n w i t h behavioral disorders i nB r i t i s h study, youth  the C e l d i c  Report  o r one m i l l i o n  to identify  b y e m o t i o n a l , b e h a v i o r a l and  d i s o r d e r s and t o p r o p o s e  theschool child  Laycock  r e p o r t s have a t t e m p t e d  Columbia.  (1970),  children  for securing  e m o t i o n a l and Another  revealed that  Canadian  12% o f C a n a d i a n  required professional help for  r e m e d i a t i o n o f e m o t i o n a l , b e h a v i o r a l and l e a r n i n g Other adult  alike  Canadian  a r e suggested  Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s mental  illness  a lifetime. indicated and  indices  s i x persons  The P s y c h o - S o c i a l P r i c e rising  figures.  The D o m i n i o n  predicted hospitalization for  f o r one i n e v e r y  rapidly  problems.  o f d y s f u n c t i o n i n c h i l d and  by a d d i t i o n a l  (197D  F o r example,  Index  (Nevison,  rates of i n f l a t i o n  c o s t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l  a t some p o i n t i n  i n both  1969) numbers  p r o b l e m s i n Canada -  11 In  s u i c i d e r a t e s p a r t i c u l a r l y among the young, i n c o n v i c t i o n s  for  j u v e n i l e delinquency, i n numbers of a d u l t c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s ,  i n a l c o h o l i s m and drug a d d i c t i o n and f a m i l y breakdown. The o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n d y s f u n c t i o n i s sometimes a c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t appears For  that the r a t e s are on the r i s e .  example, i n t h i s past year the Honorable Marc Lalonde noted  that the n a t i o n a l Department of Health and Welfare had j u s t r e v i s e d i t s estimate of the medical costs f o r a l c o h o l abuse from a l i t t l e  over one b i l l i o n d o l l a r s a year to two b i l l i o n  - an i n c r e a s e approaching 100%  (House of Commons Debates, Nov.  2h. 1976, p. 1330). I t i s imperative that i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s be developed. Childhood seems to be the most r e c e p t i v e age. The e t i o l o g y of the problems themselves (Ryan,  1972;  Smith and Neisworth,  1975;  i s complex  Wynn and Wynn,  197>+  a, b ) . These i n c l u d e g e n e t i c determinants, the e f f e c t s of b i r t h trauma, n u t r i t i o n a l f a c t o r s , a c c i d e n t a l f a c t o r s ,  situa-  t i o n a l f a c t o r s , the presence of a b i o - p s y c h o - s o c i a l developmental c r i s i s , w i t h any or a l l of these being i n v o l v e d i n the symptomatology. T r a d i t i o n a l Approaches t o the Problems T r a n s l a t i o n of the i d e n t i f i e d problems for  into  services  c h i l d r e n have t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d d i a g n o s i s o f the b e h a v i o r -  a l pathology, the emotional d i s t u r b a n c e , or the deviance normal  from  l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s . Diagnosis has then been f o l l o w e d  by treatment through the use of therapy, s p e c i a l l y  trained  12 adjunct t e a c h e r s , or s e g r e g a t i o n o f the c h i l d i n t o  special  c l a s s e s or i n t o other s p e c i a l t h e r a p e u t i c environments. The assumptions u n d e r l y i n g these remedial approaches are t w o f o l d : t h a t the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f knowledge permits s u c c e s s f u l d i a g n o s i s ; t h a t a treatment  intervention, i f  provided a t a p o i n t of l e s s e r m o r b i d i t y , w i l l reduce or prevent i n d i v i d u a l s u f f e r i n g i n l a t e r l i f e  and a t l e s s  social  c o s t . N e i t h e r o f these assumptions appears t o be e n t i r e l y supported  by the l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to  emotional  or mental problems as shown by Kohlberg,  and Ricks  (1972).  LaCrosse,  Perhaps a greater o b s t a c l e has been t h a t the p u b l i c l y supported  treatments  have been s c a r c e , c o s t l y , and slow i n  d e v e l o p i n g . To paraphrase  Rene Dubois  (1959),  we have f i x a t e d  on s o l v i n g problems of d i s e a s e r a t h e r than on c r e a t i n g h e a l t h . Given these^ c o n d i t i o n s , a need e x i s t s f o r a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to treatment  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the emotional, b e h a v i o r a l and  l e a r n i n g problems of c h i l d r e n . By a l t e r i n g the b a s i c o p e r a t i o n a l assumption from one viewing  treatment  o f diagnosed  d i s t u r b a n c e as p a r t i c u l a r l y  e f f e c t i v e i n c h i l d h o o d to one assuming t h a t d i s t u r b a n c e i s most e f f e c t i v e l y prevented  i n c h i l d h o o d , other approaches t o  the problems may be found. Primary  P r e v e n t i o n as an E d u c a t i o n a l A l t e r n a t i v e  Primary' Prevention" Defined Primary p r e v e n t i o n o f emotional, l e a r n i n g , and behavior  13  d i s o r d e r s i n c h i l d r e n has been advocated by Bower  (1965))  Lambert ( 1 9 6 5 ) ) Caplan ( 1 9 6 1 a) and o t h e r s . Bower ( 1 9 6 5 ) has proposed an o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n f o r primary " I t i s any s p e c i f i c b i o l o g i c a l ,  prevention.  s o c i a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r -  v e n t i o n which promotes or enhances mental or emotional or reduces the i n c i d e n c e  ... o f l e a r n i n g and behavior  (health) disorders  i n the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e " (p. 1 ) . He proceeded to make e x p l i c i t a value assumption w i t h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n :  "those  social,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which tend to enhance the f u l l development o f the human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of man  (specifi-  c a l l y , the a b i l i t y to love and the a b i l i t y to work p r o d u c t i v e l y ) have i l l n e s s - p r e v e n t i v e p o t e n t i a l and are ... d e s i r a b l e  (while)  f a c t o r s which tend to l i m i t or block such development have i l l n e s s producing A synopsis gests  p o t e n t i a l and are ... u n d e s i r a b l e "  h).  (p.  of the l i t e r a t u r e on primary p r e v e n t i o n  t h a t the p r o p h y l a c t i c model o f i n t e r v e n t i o n may be  sugcharac-  t e r i z e d as p r o a c t i v e , e d u c a t i v e , developmental and p r e v e n t i v e ; the m e d i c a l model, as r e a c t i v e , r e m e d i a l ,  a d j u s t i v e and t h e r a -  p e u t i c . Given one a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f the p r e v e n t i v e model, t h a t of a p p l i c a b i l i t y to a p o p u l a t i o n  ( i n this instance, a  school system), r a t h e r than to an i n d i v i d u a l , t h e advantages of prevention  over treatment become apparent. As a mode o f i n t e r -  v e n t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , primary p r e v e n t i o n  i s , again, not  only more humane, but a l s o more economic. S e v e r a l of the. a t t r i b u t e s of the primary  preventive  model w i l l l e a d to d i s c u s s i o n on means o f o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  15+ as w e l l as on t i m i n g and type of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n d i c a t e d . of  Each  these i s s u e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . s e p a r a t e l y although t h e r e  w i l l be p o i n t s a t which a l l three w i l l  intersect.  Primary P r e v e n t i o n O p e r a t i o n a l i z e d As noted e a r l i e r , Bower (1965) has proposed  that those  f a c t o r s which enhance the f u l l development o f man's human characteristics  (that i s , the a b i l i t y to l o v e and to work produc1  t i v e l y ) have p r e v e n t i v e p o t e n t i a l . How can such f u l l  develop-  ment be promoted? A review of the l i t e r a t u r e suggests some p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Developmental  counselling  ( B l o c h e r , 1966) appears  to be con-  gruent w i t h the n o t i o n o f primary p r e v e n t i o n . Blocher d e s c r i b e d developmental  c o u n s e l l i n g as having developmental-educative-  p r e v e n t i v e g o a l s . The major goal i s the maximization of human e f f e c t i v e n e s s . From a p r a c t i c a l v i e w p o i n t , e f f e c t i v e behavior i s that which gives the i n d i v i d u a l the g r e a t e s t c o n t r o l over h i s environment In  and over h i s a f f e c t i v e responses to that  environment.  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between developmental  c o u n s e l l i n g and the o p t i m i z a t i o n of human e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l model was d e l i n e a t e d : r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; coping b e h a v i o r s ; developmental  t a s k s . F a c i l i t a t i o n of human  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Blocher's terms " c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f i n s u r i n g that each i n d i v i d u a l has an o p p o r t u n i t y to master  the (develop-  mental) tasks that w i l l equip him w i t h the coping behaviors necessary f o r h a n d l i n g those r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s that are i n v o l v e d i n h i s next stage o f development" (p. 7-8). developmental  The  c o u n s e l l o r , with e x p e r t i s e i n each o f these  15  dimensions,•can a s s i s t those will  ideal  environmental  classroom  lead  environment w i l l  to task At  failure  this  rationale  to the  child's  childhood  stages tion  appropriate  reduce or social  the  child  beginning  i s completing  is  cooperative,  of' t h e  this  the  of i n i t i a t i v e  associated with and  c o n t r o l and  a l s o about to b e g i n  tasks  skills  t o be  period  are  central  An  could o f f e r  child;  mastery of  these  particular  cognitive  and  would prevent The  ego  ego  development  literature  menting primary  offers  for this  preventive  He  developmental skills  essential and  coping  first  critical  t a s k s would  another  appro-  value-relevant  important  serious discontinuities  task  grade  development.  i n t e r v e n t i o n at t h i s  point  transi-  relevant coping  the k i n d e r g a r t e n  transition  childhood  behaviors.  of the  child  the  developmental  In s h o r t , the  social  The  c l o s e of  substitution  t o c o g n i t i v e and  appropriate  entry.  later  a r e m a s t e r y and  during  which  Blocher's  the mastery of  i n d u s t r y . The  tasks  tasks.  bio-psycho-social  acquisition  behaviors.  acquired  related  the  and  these  work-relevant  to apply  of school  o f a s e n s e o f autonomy w h i c h r e q u i r e s priate  which  rejection.  i n t r a n s i t i o n between the  and  child  eliminate behaviors  experience  ( E r i k s o n , 1950). During  the  i n creating  developmental  point i t i s appropriate  developmentally  early  and  teacher  t r a n s a c t i o n s f o r the  i n s u r e mastery of the  Such an  is  the  gains  bio-psychofor  ensure  p e r i o d . Such  the  optimal  competencies  i n development. possible solution  i n t e r v e n t i o n s , that of  to  imple-  environmental  16  manipulation. counselling  That  solution  although  i s not u n r e l a t e d to developmental  i t s proponents  do n o t d i s c u s s i t i n t h e s e  terms. Kohlberg  et a l  (1972)  i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h young tion the be  of certain creation  directed  children  developmental  toward  those  tasks at c r i t i c a l  these  (which) i s c o n c e i v e d  t o be i n t e g r a l l y  cognitive  learning  From t h e i r that ity  the presence  The  intervention  This  and' R i c k s ,  1972,  good m e n t a l  1221).  et a l concluded  effects.  from  preventive  B l o c h e r ' s and K o h l b e r g ' s  writings.  and N u r t u r e review  o f an e x t e n s i v e  literature  and n u r t u r e o f competence.  i s known  that while  genetic factors  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f competence p o t e n t i a l a s u b s t a n t i a l range  circumstances  p.  health i n adults.  s h o u l d have l a s t i n g  i s a selective  on t h e n a t u r e  is  to the child's  d e v e l o p m e n t o f competence as a p r i m a r y  Competence: I t s N a t u r e  for  related  o f v a r i o u s f o r m s o f competence and ego m a t u r -  s t r a t e g y may be i n f e r r e d  It  " i s upon ego d e v e l o p m e n t  of the l i t e r a t u r e , , Kohlberg  i n c h i l d r e n best predict  Thus, e a r l y  allot-  and a d a p t a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l ...  (Kohlberg, LaCrosse  review  difficul-  t a s k s w i t h i n t h e u s u a l time  The emphasis  environment"  through  a t t e n t i o n would  therefore, experience  ment f o r a t t a i n m e n t .  and s o c i a l  Special  periods  c h i l d r e n whose r a t e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t  a n d who w i l l ,  i n accomplishing  a psychoeducational  f o c u s s i n g upon t h e f a c i l i t a -  o f optimal environments.  are i d i o s y n c r a t i c ties  have s u g g e s t e d  s e t t h e framework  i n humans,  w i t h i n which widely d i v e r g e n t  and e x p e r i e n c e s  determine  differences  there  social i n develop-  17 ment. These  differences  class  and f a m i l y  19^-9;  Hunt,  by  occur across c u l t u r e ,  (Anastasi,  1961).  general rules  early  (general  mode o f t h a t  competence v a r i e s  i n t e l l i g e n c e ) , by r u l e s  Canadian  in  other cultures  Hebb, i n complexity specific  and b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  competency  (Fowler,  e x p e r i e n c e s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  in  for  a,b; F o w l e r , 1962;  Furthermore,  to p a r t i c u l a r environments, tional  1958  environment,  1972).  The e f f e c t s o f  o f competence and d e f i c i t  c h i l d r e n have b e e n r e v i e w e d b y F o w l e r and c o u n t r i e s ,  organiza-  (1962, 1972);  p a r t i c u l a r l y the U n i t e d  example, r e v i e w s have b e e n made b y B r o n f e n b r e n n e r  Deutsch, Katz  and J e n s e n  (I968) ,  Fowler  (1971)  5  States,  (1967),  and B. W h i t e  (1971)• The in  adults  l i t e r a t u r e which  and c h i l d r e n s u g g e s t s t h e p i v o t a l importance o f  c e r t a i n performance The  dimensions.  terminology describing  functioning  i nadults  i s varied:  (Maslow, 195*0, t h e n o r m a l ance  (R. W. W h i t e ,  1962),  (Rogers,  examines t h e n a t u r e o f competence  1966,  such p o s i t i v e  the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g person  personality  1969)  performance  (Shoben,  1957),  effect-  , the f u l l y - f u n c t i o n i n g person  t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y mature p e r s o n a l i t y  (Allport,  i 1963)5 t h e r e a s o n a b l e a d v e n t u r e r ( H e a t h , 196+) , and t h e p r o -  ductive  personality  (Gilmore,  From t h e s e s t u d i e s  197*+) •  on c o m p e t e n t ,  emerged e v i d e n c e o f a n u n d e r l y i n g  persons has  core of p e r s o n a l i t y  common t o s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s . G i l m o r e following  achieving  ( 1 9 7 * 0  traits  suggested the  attributes: high self-esteem; a clear  sense o f  i d e n t i t y and of uniqueness  as an i n d i v i d u a l ; a h i g h l y  developed  i n n e r v a l u e system governing s o c i a l b e h a v i o r ; r e a l i s t i c t i o n of one's own  percep-  c a p a b i l i t i e s accompanied by an a p p r o p r i a t e l y  h i g h l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n ; an a t t i t u d e of expectancy that problems can be s o l v e d ; a r e a l i s t i c of the environment;  and s e n s i t i v e understanding  a c a p a c i t y to attend s e l e c t i v e l y ; both  the c o g n i t i v e m a t u r i t y and the experience to f a c i l i t a t e  the  h a n d l i n g of complex i n f o r m a t i o n ; m a t u r i t y of judgement; impulse c o n t r o l ; and such q u a l i t i e s as independence,  p e r s i s t e n c e and  decisiveness. A u t h o r i t a t i v e s t u d i e s on f u n c t i o n a l competency and e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c h i l d r e n i n v o l v i n g l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n are  r a r e . Two  n o t a b l e exceptions are the Wallach and Kogan  (1965) study, Modes of T h i n k i n g i n Young C h i l d r e n , and the B. White (1971) study on the e t i o l o g y of competence i n young children. Wallach and Kogan (1965) found c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s i n the group of c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h c r e a t i v e h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e . These i n c l u d e d the a b i l i t y  to e n t e r t a i n  both a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l and. wide-ranging freedom  i n cognitive .  f u n c t i o n i n g , both a d u l t l i k e and c h i l d l i k e modes of conduct, and mature s o c i a l awareness coupled w i t h a s e n s i t i v i t y to the e m o t i o n a l i t y of o t h e r s . The Burton White (197D  study r e p o r t e d two  c l u s t e r s of  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a b i l i t i e s which were observed i n very competent c h i l d r e n i n the s i x t h year of l i f e .  The f i r s t  cluster,  social  19 abilities.  included a variety  maintaining adults to  as  the  a t t e n t i o n of adults  resources;  a d u l t s and  involving  of s k i l l s  expressing  peers;  One  of  competencies  of the  study's  The  ( a s s u m i n g an  next  traits  and  hostility  The  second  dimensions  of  and a t t e n t i o n a l t h a t the  foundation  adequate h e r e d i t a r y base) parenting  q u e s t i o n w h i c h must be  described  as b e i n g  reference  adult  f u n c t i o n i n g based  practices  and  to the  characteristic i n f l u e n c e ? To  literature on  answered  on  observed  the  of  i s : Which competence  answer t h i s  predictability  childhood  of  traits  quesof  must  now  made.  Traits  Most Open t o E n v i r o n m e n t a l To  obtain information  influenced,  the  functioning  i s examined.  literature  on  on  Influence childhood  the  preventive  dictability. 1.  i n t e r v e n t i o n creates There are  Which t y p e s  two  2.  When s h o u l d  related  value  s u c h an  of  most of  readily  adult  p o i n t of view, the  concept  s t r i n g e n t demands f o r  pre-  questions:  of i n t e r v e n t i o n s are  terms o f permanence and  traits  predictability  From a s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n  in  ways; u s i n g  environment.  tion,  of  and  accomplishments;  c o n c l u s i o n s was  a r e most open t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l  be  abilities  t o emanate f r o m p a r t i c u l a r  a s t i m u l a t i n g home  the  affection  included various  competence, e x e c u t i v e  ability.  appeared  both  oneself i n a d u l t - r o l e play behavior.  linguistic  getting  i n acceptable  showing p r i d e i n one's  cluster, nonsocial a b i l i t i e s ,  these  such as:  potentially  gain?  i n t e r v e n t i o n be  made?  useful  20  Possible a later  answers t o  gent upon the part  answers t o  the  type of t r a i t  from the  ventive of  second q u e s t i o n  previous  interventions  and  first  t o be  be  examined  predictability  from the  behavior  - or  to put  of a d u l t this  question  will  be  on  discussion  derived  on  the  f r o m an  functioning  a n o t h e r way,  e x p l i c a t i o n of  research of  suggests  those t r a i t s  those t r a i t s are  are  open t o  relevant  Kohlberg permits  of a d u l t  nature  childhood  examining  continuity  to t h i s  mental h e a l t h  rationalization  categories  of t r a i t s ,  influence,  and  of  essence,  i n childhood  which  e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e . Some  (1972) p r o v i d e d  et a l  pre-  examination  from  by  expressed  In a monumental r e v i e w o f t h e dictability  derived  operationalizing  o f p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . Such a d i s c u s s i o n i s , i n an  in  contin-  e n h a n c e d . Answers a r e  discussion  competence. O t h e r answers a r e  of the  will  section. Possible  in  this  the  of t h e i r  study. literature  on  from c h i l d h o o d  a conceptual  pre-  functioning,  framework w h i c h  predictability accessibility  i n d i c a t i o n s a b o u t .the  the  of to  critical  several environmental  period  in  their  development. Kohlberg of  traits:  discussed The  his  colleagues  symptomatic-affective,  adaptational. be  and  The  first  two  proposed  three  phase-specific,  categories  are  categories developmental-  r e l a t e d and  will  first.  symptomatic-affective  temperamental or b e h a v i o r a l  style  category  includes  the  traits  identified  by  Thomas,  21  (1968).  Chess and B i r c h content The  I t also includes  s u c h as a g g r e s s i v e n e s s ,  temperamental  traits  o f response  respond  rather  studies  o f Thomas e t a l ( 1 9 6 8 ) traits  and  or c h i l d  given  revealed  c a n be a s o u r c e and s c h o o l  behavioral  The  traits  value  be).  fore-  of f r i c t i o n  will  The l o n g i t u d i n a l  that while  i f handled  these  between  stably  child  i n c e r t a i n ways, a  i n and o f i t s e l f ,  predict  disturbance.  of motivational  therefore, predictability.  each t r a i t  anxiety.  ( t h a t i s , how a c h i l d  p a t t e r n o f temperament, d i d n o t ,  to l a t e r  and,  style  b a s i s and p e r m i t  t h a n what h i s r e s p o n s e w i l l  predictive parent  or coping  of motivational  s e l f i s h n e s s , dependence,  have a g e n e t i c  casting  traits  h a s one a d a p t i v e  at another. Generally,  content  This  value  show v e r y  i s due, i n p a r t , because  a t one s t a g e  these  or r e i n f o r c e d b y t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l  low s t a b i l i t y  traits  and a s e c o n d  are not supported  e n v i r o n m e n t . These may,  however, be r e i n f o r c e d b y t h e m i c r o - e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n w h i c h the  child  lives  i f that  dards from those is  important  tional those  behaviors  reactions  exist  second  i finappropriate  the school  which  can a s s i s t  a r e approved  trait  increase  observes  category  or.concrete  stan-  of motiva-  the c h i l d  to learn  by t h e m a c r o - e n v i r o n m e n t .  includes  a t two c r i t i c a l  traits  phase-specific  Problem behaviors periods;  t o s e v e n age r a n g e w h i c h c o i n c i d e s w i t h  latency,  different  by s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . However, i t  to developmental c r i s e s .  a dramatic five  observed  t o note that  content  The  environment  may show  t h e one i s t h e school  o p e r a t i o n a l thought; the second  entrance, i s the  22  ten  t o t h i r t e e n age r a n g e w h i c h c o i n c i d e s  school  entrance, puberty,  Kohlberg ior  may p r e d i c t the  from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e traits  include  characterized  general  This  attributes  associated  of  with  study.  those  i s related  (Erikson,  conceptualize  t o l o c a t i o n a t an e a r l i e r  transformations.  through these  i s h i e r a r c h i c a l , "the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  position  or cumulative  on an o r d i n a l  The  scale"  (since  point  i n the  are r a d i c a l ,  there  Because the o r g a n i -  developmental  (Kohlberg  status  e t a l , 1972, p. 1 2 2 3 ) .  developmental-adaptational t r a i t s  substantial  sequence  i n the sense o f c o n t i n u i t y of  m o r a l and ego d e v e l o p m e n t . W h i l e moderately  invariant,  l o c a t i o n i n t h e s e q u e n c e a t any  is  predictable  models o f  an o r d e r l y  transformations  is  trends  1950; G e s e l l , 195^;  sequence. While p e r s o n a l i t y  zation  cate-  personality  e a c h o f w h i c h assumes a s i n g l e ,  1 9 2 8 ) . These models  continuity  This  by a g e - d e v e l o p m e n t a l  includes  d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence  point  of this  the stage-sequential  change. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s  later  the t r a i t s  i n t e l l i g e n c e and c o g n i t i v e - s t y l e  category also  human d e v e l o p m e n t  Piaget,  and t h a t  behav-  s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Examples  variables.  universal  much s y m p t o m a t i c  category, the developmental-adaptive, i s the  by a d a p t a t i o n a l these  thought.  period.  third  gory i n c l u d e s  of  high  f r o m one t r a n s i t i o n e r a t o t h e o t h e r b u t n o t i n  most i m p o r t a n t  and  out that  to the developmental c r i s i s  intervening The  junior  or formal o p e r a t i o n a l  e t a l (1972) p o i n t e d  is specific  with  correlations  there  include  cognitive,  among them a r e  are cognitive-competence  23 components  i n a l l three),  factor analysis  among them. Some e v i d e n c e more s p e c i f i c more g e n e r a l By the it  trait (eg.  i s possible  tions  out tool  development), hut not v i c e  ability,  broad, r e l a t i v e l y  studies these  include  components. K o h l b e r g  such d e s c r i p t i o n s  f o r long-range  predictive  and h i s  the best  p r e d i c t i o n which normal c h i l d  have a c o g n i t i v e  This  status later  Kohlberg  et a l  (1972)  absence o f maladjustment  representation  development i s p r e s e n t e d  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e ,  in  to this  the next.section.  study  development since  t r a i t s are  that  trait  adult  "positive i s predictive of  1232).  o f t h e components o f  i n Figure  Because o f t h e r e l e v a n c e traits  general  of predicting  found  ..." (p.  ego  tional  point  b a s e and a r e s e q u e n t i a l and  on a d e v e l o p m e n t a l - a d a p t a t i o n a l  A diagrammatic  descrip-  would be e x p e c t e d  by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I n terms  functioning,  studies,  colleagues  cumulative. Furthermore, the p o s i t i v e adaptational reinforced  with  c o g n i t i v e , m o r a l and  are at present  can o f f e r the c l i n i c i a n .  traits  versa.  cognitive-style, coping-style  o f ego d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h  that  a r e l a t i o n s h i p such t h a t t h e  the h i e r a r c h i c a l stage approaches  to derive  self-conceptual  distinguish  m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t ) depends upon t h e  cognitive  combining  intellectual  (eg.  implies  does  1.  Itillustrates,  ego, and m o r a l  also  development.  o f the developmental-adapta-  a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n  follows  Figure  2.  C o g n i t i v e , ego and m o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t : ego d e v e l o p m e n t as c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g i n the r e a l m o f s o c i a l s e l f .  25  The Developmental-Adaptational T r a i t s Ego  Development Age-developmental trends which p a r a l l e l or i n c l u d e  moral development S.chroeder,  1961;  have been i d e n t i f i e d Loveinger,  of ego development  1966;  (Harvey, Hunt and  Van Den Daele,  1968).  Stage  i s based on the l e v e l o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  of s e l f , e g o - i d e a l , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i a l v a l u e s ; that i s , i t r e p r e s e n t s c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g i n the domain of s o c i a l  self.  S e l f - c o n c e p t . As one element w i t h i n t h i s group, the s e l f concept i s d e f i n e d as a l l the a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , o p i n ions and b e l i e f s h e l d by the i n d i v i d u a l about h i m s e l f  1967).  As the centre o f experience and the c r i t e r i o n  (Purkey, against  which a l l e x t e r n a l events are measured i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that r e s e a r c h shows i t t o be a c e n t r a l determinant i n behavior (Brookover, 1959,  196*f, 1965,  smith, 1 9 6 7 ; Diggory, 1966; Purkey,  1970).  1967;  Combs, 1962,  Hamachek, 1975;  1969;  Patterson,  Cooper1961;  This l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that s e l f i s l e a r n e d  and i s , t h e r e f o r e , a c c e s s i b l e to change, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l y phases o f development. Furthermore, there i s a d i r e c t ' r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i l d ' s sense o f s e l f - e s t e e m and academic  achievement  Campbell, 1966;  (Bodwin, 1957;  Douvan and Gold, 1966;  Shaw and McCuen, I 9 6 0 ; Walsh, 1956;  1962).  Bruck and Bodwin, F i n k , 1962;  Wattenburg  1962:  Lamy,  1965;  and C l i f f o r d ,  26  There  i s some e v i d e n c e  self-development into  adulthood  196*+;  (Bloom,  Kagan and Moss,  Given  that  these  1962;  positive  which an i n c r e a s i n g l y  Kohlberg,  As Hamachek  elementary  (1975)  i n experiences  Social ego  of the c h i l d status cates the  that  Caplan,  Jennings,  found  competence  aspects  firmly  ( p . 5^3) •  component w i t h i n functioning mental  1971).  of overt s o c i a l  1959;  but also  i s an  Kohlberg  conduct  predictors  o f a d u l t mental  antisocial  b e h a v i o r , encompassing both  1965; 1966;  and S t r i n g e r , Schmuck,  indi-  related to  h e a l t h s t a t u s (Bower, Smith  health  study. Research  i snot only d i r e c t l y  and G o l d ,  B. W h i t e ,  years  sands o f s e l f -  of adult  i nthis  b; G l i d e w e l l , Kantor,  I960;  either  to the o v e r a l l  predictor  o f h i s c u r r e n t mental  Egmond,  are  of worthlessness"  i t s importance  Lippitt  becomes  planted i ns h i f t i n g  c a p a c i t y t o use h i s a b i l i t i e s  19^3;  success  "These a r e t h e  personality  and as a p o w e r f u l  1961  of early  school c h i l d  noted,  Its significance  social  child's  a r e a f o u n d a t i o n upon  Competence. T h i s i s a s e c o n d  determines  indicator  Van  and f e e l i n g s  development.  1972).  and R i c k s ,  o f s u c c e s s , a c c o m p l i s h m e n t and  i n himself or f l i m s i l y  doubt, f a i l u r e  O'Neal and R o b b i n s ,  t h e importance  when t h e f o o t i n g s o f a c h i l d ' s  pride  positive  t o c o n t i n u e on  LaCrosse  experiences  such  complex p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p e r s o n a l i t y  f o r t h e young  established  1966;  Bower,  s u p e r s t r u c t u r e may be b u i l t ,  self-evident.  that  l e a r n e d i n c h i l d h o o d tends  1958;  experiences  t o suggest  1963, I966;  et a l  (1972)  and f u n c t i o n i n g  also  as k e y  h e a l t h f u n c t i o n i n g . F o r example, aggressive  behavior  27  involving  v i o l a t i o n o f persons  or property  and r u l e - v i o l a t i n g  b e h a v i o r , was t h e s i n g l e most p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r maladjustment. that' p e e r  Their  to predictions  functioning.  which appeared taining  of the l i t e r a t u r e  a c c e p t a n c e and s t a b i l i t y  added c o n s i d e r a b l y effective  survey  tractible  also  The p e r s o n a l i t y  later  capacity  attributes  adult  indicated  of relationships with about  they  t o r e l a t e t o p e e r a c c e p t a n c e were t h o s e  t o ego d e v e l o p m e n t and t o  intelligence,  of later  peers  for found per-  personality-adjustment:  control of a n t i s o c i a l behavior,  control of dis-  b e h a v i o r , m o r a l b e h a v i o r , and c a p a c i t y  for  coopera-  tion. Furthermore, teacher perceptions status,  Schiff,  the salience o f  to later  adjustment .  of the aggressive,  immature,  c o n s t e l l a t i o n (Wickman, 1928;  behavior  Kellam  1967).  In v i e w o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s social  revealed  of p u p i l behavior  p a r t i c u l a r l y observation  underachieving and  some s t u d i e s  competence were i n c l u d e d  three  d i f f e r e n t measures o f  as d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n  t h i s s tudy. Cognitive  D e v e l o p m e n t and A f f e c t i v i t y  R e f e r e n c e has a l r e a d y . b e e n made t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n by  Kohlberg  literature,  et a l that  (1972)  a cognitive  developmental-adaptive Piaget ing  throughout  based  (1967)  on t h e i r a n a l y s i s  of the research  s t r u c t u r a l base u n d e r l i e s t h e  traits.  viewed t h e e v o l u t i o n  childhood  held  of cognitive  function-  as c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n  28 of a f f e c t i v i t y . gence a r e aspects  He m a i n t a i n e d  indissociable  that  Lippitt, indicates  and i n t e l l i -  and c o n s t i t u t e two c o m p l e m e n t a r y (p. 15)-  o f a l l human b e h a v i o r "  view i s p r e s e n t e d  "affectivity  i n the  F o x and Schmuck  classroom  (1967) ;  Some s u p p o r t  research of Biber  and S a n f o r d  t h a t t h e c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e  (1967) ,  for  this  (1961); which  processes are  related. I t i s no l o n g e r f e a s i b l e t o d i c h o t o m i z e t h e l e a r n i n g f u n c t i o n s ( m a s t e r y o f symbol s y s t e m s , p r o c e s s e s o f r e a s o n i n g , j u d g i n g and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , a c q u i s i t i o n and o r d e r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , e t c . ) on t h e one h a n d , and t h e p r o c e s s e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y f o r m a t i o n ( s e l f - f e e l i n g and i d e n t i t y , r e l a t e d n e s s p o t e n t i a l , autonomy, i n t e g r a t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y , e t c . ) on t h e o t h e r . I t i s t h e r e f o r e no l o n g e r an open q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s c h o o l h a s an i m p a c t on d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l i t y ( B i b e r , 1961, p. 323 - 32!+). Kohlberg  et a l  (1972)  pointed' out  b e t w e e n c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e by  the  fact  correlations as  by and  measures i n t h i s exist,  children's fears  1968) The  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h measures  development wherever r e l i a b l e  developmental  and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  maturity the h i g h Kogan  tural  culturally  5  study  Another aspect  areas  (Levine,  (Ellinwood,  children  a l s o demonstrated  component i n e m o t i o n a l  divergent  1969).  social-emotional situation  creative-high intelligence  (1965)  These  c h i l d r e n ' s humor  expression of affect  o f p e r c e p t i o n o f the  i n affec-  g e n e r a l age-  a r e a have been found.  19^3)  suggested  as t h e  of maturity  f o r example, i n s u c h w i d e l y (Jersild,  parallelism  d e v e l o p m e n t was a l s o  t h a t c o g n i t i v e m a t u r i t y measures, such  Stanford-Binet, tive  t h a t the  i n the  Wallach  the c o g n i t i v e - s t r u c -  development.  of affectivity  related  to the expression  29  of  competence was  that  the  proposed, by  expression  manner and  of  and  availability, toward the  oriented.  This,  persistence,  and  vary  He  suggested  .sharply w i t h  a f f e c t i o n a l energies  the  are  i n t u r n , would determine organization  of  effort  the  directed  task.  In t h i s were i n c l u d e d One  study as  two  measures of  dependent  other  emotional  development  variables.  dependent v a r i a b l e i n t h i s  achievement, i s a l s o although  competence w i l l  degree to which the  distributed  (1972).  Fowler  a gross  study,  academic  developmental-adaptational  i t i s t e c h n i c a l l y not  equated w i t h b a s i c  trait  cognitive  development. The for  next  t o p i c t o be  those preventive  tive  examined i s the  i n t e r v e n t i o n s which  optimal  timing  seem t o h a v e a p o s i -  e f f e c t upon c o m p e t e n c i e s r e l a t e d t o  c o g n i t i v e - and  ego  development.  Timing of Preventive  Interventions:  i n D e v e l o p m e n t and Prior optimal  d i s c u s s i o n has  timing  i n order  primary preventive fact  that  The stood  by  about  alluded ensure  the  of the  examining  t o the  centrality  successful I t has  period  critical the  Periods  States  outcomes  also  ontogeny of a t r a i t  a critical  salience  briefly  Transition  interventions.  knowledge o f  information  to  Critical  alluded  of for to  the  provides  i n i t s development. period  biological  may  best  be  under-  formation  of  organs  30  in  t h e embryo. E a c h  Each the  i s equally  o r g a n h a s i t s t i m e and p l a c e  important f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e organ. I f  organ begins i t s ascendancy  time f a c t o r  stage w i l l  or arrest  development  (196+)  a critical  of  t h e development  of  one t o f i v e .  Kohlberg et a l  of  the c r i t i c a l  period  of  Head S t a r t  citing  projects  However, t o t h e d e g r e e ence  the optimal expression  wide range that  o f performance  p e r i o d would  period  Blatt  (1972)  a rapid of  period  disputed  o f growth  trait failure  gains i n i n t e l l i g e n c e .  environmental factors of intelligence  competencies,  can i n f l u -  i n the form o f a  i t i s more  period  i n moral development  likely  o f one t o  o f B. W h i t e  who h a v e i d e n t i f i e d  a t age t w e n t y - f i v e  Bloom  the application  as e v i d e n c e t h e a p p a r e n t  n i n e t o t w e l v e . The i n c r e a s e d  maturity  F o r example,  seem t o o c c u r between t h e ages  (1972)  (and,  to a largely hereditary  example o f a c r i t i c a l  and K o h l b e r g  o f the period  i n the stimulation  t h r e e y e a r s as s u g g e s t e d b y t h e f i n d i n g s A second  concept t o the  o c c u r s between t h e ages  to' d e m o n s t r a t e that  1950).  stabilization  trait.  of intelligence  s u c h as i n t e l l i g e n c e  (Erikson,  period  by r a p i d  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ) of that  logic  a t an e a r l y  suggests d e f i n i t i o n  i s characterized  proposed that  stage i n development.  the organ  of the c r i t i c a l  o f a human t r a i t  as one w h i c h  time, another  o f a r a p i d l y budding part  suppress or d i s t o r t  Application  therefore,  at the right  d e t e r m i n e s t h e most c r i t i c a l  Interruption  of origin.  (1971)*  i s p r o v i d e d by and s u b s t a n t i a t e d b e t w e e n t h e ages  predictability  o f moral  f r o m age t e n t o age t h i r t e e n . i s  31  the  r e s u l t o f r a p i d moral  growth  1969).  (Kohlberg,  From a s u r v e y o f l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , K o h l b e r g  (1972) and  found a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d  abilities  school  (other  i n the formation  than general  l e a r n i n g which  et a l  of attitudes  intelligence) positive for  contributed  t o school  achievement.  Stabilization  o f i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g , a t t e n t i o n , and sense  of  appeared  competence  elementary  school  t o occur  (ages f i v e  i n the f i r s t  three  grades o f  to nine).  A v a r i a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l period  i s the t r a n s i t i o n  state.  The t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e , a t e r m u s e d b y T y h u r s t  Caplan  (1961  individual take  b) a n d o t h e r s , i s dealing with  the form o f a c r i s i s  which challenges  a life  during  personal  t h e i n d i v i d u a l beyond h i s c u r r e n t  life  s t r e s s may be r e l a t e d t o a n e x p e c t e d  the  individual's biological  i n h i s customary s o c i a l psycho-social  development  role.  These s t r e s s e s  developmental tasks  such a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d  (Caplan,  or personal  e m o t i o n a l and c o g n i t i v e  of  f l u x t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s more s u s c e p t i b l e than during  this  state  fluid  capacity.  transition i n change  a r e termed b i o -  1965). crisis  d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . During  h i s customary  l o s s or  o r t o a marked  of  others  which the  s t r e s s . Such a s t r e s s may  which threatens  The  during  i s a period  (1957)3  What  emerges  i s a time this  period  t o i n f l u e n c e by  of psychological  stability.  I t i s during  state  that  short-term  i n t e r v e n t i o n may be i n s t i g a t e d . The n a t u r e  developing  crisis  assistance  provided  and t h e type o f m a t e r i a l t o the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  a relatively  and/or greatly  o f the  psychological influence  32  his  crisis  response.  substantial with as  life  An  appropriate i n t e r v e n t i o n provides  i n c r e a s e i n the  individual's  i n a d a p t i v e h e a l t h y ways. Such c o p i n g  permanent  child to  entry.  The  review  i s beginning  c o g n i t i v e and  this  critical  skills  p o i n t f o r t h e young c h i l d  o f l i t e r a t u r e has  f o r the  shown t h a t  t o a c q u i r e a number o f c o p i n g  ego  development. A p p r o p r i a t e  b i o - p s y c h o - s o c i a l developmental  smooth t h e p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n gains  coping remain  gains.  A natural transition school  capacity for  a  and  is the  skills  related  assistance with task  could provide  should important  child.  A p p l i c a t i o n f the K o h l b e r g DevelopmentalA d a p t a t i o n a l Model to t h i s Study Q  Both the Kohlberg the  prior  literature  i n t e r v e n t i o n which  c i t e d would  focuses  related  t o c o g n i t i v e and  cessful  i n the  Literature  on  five-.to  posed. as  and  Zimiles  a precursor  placed ability  a focus  indicate  upon t h e  ego  that a  acquisition  development would  model  and  preventive of  competencies  likely  be  suc-  seven-age p e r i o d .  School-based  A variety emotional  developmental-adaptational  Preventive  Approaches  of p r e v e n t i v e approaches  b e h a v i o r a l problems i n the  to d e a l i n g with s c h o o l have b e e n  pro-  (1967) recommended a s o c i a l s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s to primary  p r e v e n t i v e work. Morse  upon u p g r a d i n g  of teachers  the  competence and  r e l e v a n t t o the  field  (1967) has knowledge-  of mental h e a l t h .  33  Another  approach  h a s b e e n t o work i n t h e same a r e a w i t h  through  t h e s c h o o l ( G i l d e a , G l i d e w e l l , a n d K a n t o r , 1961;  parents Cros-  by, 1963). C u r r i c u l u m approaches and  D e l a w a r e Human R e l a t i o n s  1967)  ley,  (1963)5  both  o f whom r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g  the mental  fifth  health  health  of the c h i l d r e n  topics  the  c u r r i c u l u m approach.  c l a i m e d by Limbacher  programmes was t h a t approaches  attitudes their  themselves. immediate  to  i n the project.  interests,  criticism  t o develop  concepts  clarify  sensitivity  to children  their  types  focus-on-  i n children  problems  situations  and h i g h i n t e r e s t ;  and r e l e a s e  o f these  were  those  and r e s o l v e  problems.  experiences which  classroom or playground  of timeliness  on men-  or i n c i d e n t a l  as t h e y have a r i s e n o u t  and c u r r e n t  Such l e a r n i n g  for first  r e s u l t s with the l a t t e r  has been t h e i n f o r m a l  health  a n d O'Mal-  contribution  such d i d a c t i c , m o r a l i s t i c ,  approach  ..(1971) •  and M i l l e r  (1965)  o f Sugarman  Kaplan's  were n o t l i k e l y  o f mental  t h e needs,  tage  involved  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g s n e e d e d t o c l a r i f y  Another  of  a positive  own e m o t i o n a l and human r e l a t i o n s  inclusion  (I960)  health  are other representatives of  Positive  (1967).  (Bullis  f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e grades  (1967)  h e a l t h by L i m b a c h e r  facts  stories  g r a d e r s and t h e t e x t  tal  of  Project  has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by M a t l o c k  The m e n t a l to  o f mental  t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e s e h a v e b e e n r e v i e w e d b y K a p l a n The  to  t o the promotion  emotions.  of the c h i l d r e n  capitalize  have t h e advan-  the c h i l d r e n  are helped  However, w i t h o u t  and k n o w l e d g e a b o u t  upon  child  teacher  psychology  3>4  as w e l l  as a b o u t  superficial  mental  receiving  h e a l t h , such  instruction  only s p o r a d i c r a t h e r than  c a n become continuous  attention. The  Dekatur  resource units  S c h o o l Board  designed  (1965)  to build  has created a s e r i e s o f  student  a c r o s s k i n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade 6 l e v e l s . matter  units  structured  per s e , these  around  are determined The 1968)  form  the actual  largely  has been used  case  with  life  approach  o f human r e l a t i o n s  incorporating riculum.  s i t u a t i o n and  junior  and s e n i o r h i g h  o f short i n c i d e n t s or  the student  o f the a t t i t u d e s  realistic  has developed  another  p s y c h o l o g i c a l concepts  a p p r o a c h , one  into regular school cur-  a f o c u s upon u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n f l u e n c i n g human b e h a v i o r . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s  and  sixth  fifth-grade  superior  results  contact  f r o m w h i c h he may d e r i v e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  T h i s encourages  gramme w i t h  and H o o v e r ,  dynamics.  (1967)  Ojemann  and e x p e r i e n c e  (Hoover  group d i s c u s s i o n  i n v o l v e d , allows  situations  than s u b j e c t  o f study  a c t u a l problems accompanied by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the people  and u s e d  teacher/pupil planning.  e f f e c t i v e l y with  school students. Small  Rather  classroom l i v i n g  through  human r e l a t i o n s  areas  self-respect  graders  classes  (Ojemann, 1967)  (Griggs,  196!+)  type o f pro-  and w i t h  found  i n terms o f s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n  the forces  fourth-  significantly and i n t o t a l  mental h e a l t h . Kaplan general  contended  that mental  that  these  and o t h e r s t u d i e s show i n  health instruction  tended  t o improve  35  children's by  b e h a v i o r b o t h b y r e d u c i n g c l a s s r o o m t e n s i o n and  increasing  a marked these  cooperative behavior.  improvement  i n academic achievement  changes i n a t t i t u d e  1965j  (Davis,  Withall,  1964-)  indicated  human r e l a t i o n s  emotional  needs o f c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d gains but a l s o  adjustment  pointed out that  great expenditure  human r e l a t i o n s  (p.  other studies  a n emphasis on  i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and on m e e t i n g t h e  i noverall  may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  proved  that  not only i n s i g n i f i c a n t  enhancement o f t h e e m o t i o n a l  of the children.  Kaplan  no  that  found  accompanied  and i n b e h a v i o r . S t i l l  improving  learning  (1963)  Crosby  existing  o f time.  and m e n t a l  and b e t t e r  most o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d courses  o r programmes  He c o n c l u d e d  that  h e a l t h concepts,  p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l  using  by emphasizing  l e a r n i n g was i m -  integration  resulted  369). Several  resources i n broad  other published psychoeducational curriculum  now w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d terms,  understanding  of self,  t o promote,  o f o t h e r s , and o f  s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l b e h a v i o r . These i n c l u d e D e v e l o p i n g standing  of Self  F o c u s on S e l f  and Others  Development  (DUSO) ( D i n k m e y e r ,  (Science Research  and Methods i n Human D e v e l o p m e n t  1973).  I t i s thelatter  (Bessell  1970),  the  Associates,  and Palomares,  1970)  1969?  programme w h i c h i s t h e o b j e c t o f t h i s  current  s t u d y . B e c a u s e t h e programmes have  to  o t h e r i n terms  each  Under-  o f thebasic  o f e a c h w i t h r e p o r t i n g s o'f r e s e a r c h  some  similarities  theme, a b r i e f follows.  description  36 The DUSO  (1970)  i n understanding  has been designed  to a s s i s t  children  s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l behavior. I t c o n s i s t s o f  a series of a c t i v i t i e s  i n c l u d i n g group d i s c u s s i o n planned  around the developmental  tasks o f childhood and i n c l u d e s  m a t e r i a l s such as storybooks, p o s t e r s , puppets,  and records  or c a s s e t t e tapes of a d d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s and songs t o supplement the main themes. Based on A d l e r i a n theory and the purp o s i v e , c a u s a l nature o f human behavior, the programme attempts  to s t i m u l a t e the development o f s o c i a l i n t e r e s t i n  the c h i l d i n order that he may more r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e the goals of h i s behavior and understand  the nature o f h i s f a u l t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others. Research  on the use o f DUSO with elementary  c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n a guidance with s p e c i a l l y selected children  ( Z i n g l e , 1972)  programme and improved  s e l f - c o n c e p t s w i t h others (Koval and H a l e s , 1972; Dinkmeyer,  1972;  E l d r i d g e , Barckowski  The Focus on Self-Development to be another  elementary  s c h o o l guidance  mental programme, i t attempts  Rusch and  and Witmer,  (SRA, 1970)  school  1973)•  i s intended  r e s o u r c e . A develop-  t o f o s t e r understanding  of s e l f ,  o t h e r s , and environment. The conceptual framework i s provided by the Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s : A f f e c t i v e Domain (Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia, kit  1961+). M a t e r i a l s  provided i n the  i n c l u d e f i l m s t r i p s , r e c o r d s , photoboards and p u p i l  i t y books. The manual r e p o r t s only f i e l d  testing.  activ-  37 The  Methods I n Human D e v e l o p m e n t The  Bessell  Programme  (1969)  and Palomares  programme i s b a s e d  on s e l f - c o n c e p t t h e o r y and on t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l t h e o r y o f  (1950).  Karen  Horney  areas  of experience  and  understanding  of t h e i r  The c u r r i c u l u m f o c u s e s  of the children's to thinking  and o t h e r performance  t o promote s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e interpersonal  others  and o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s  summarized  can d o " . These The  skills  as " I f e e l " ,  used  of social  or f i l m s  resembles  tured nature  interaction.  " I t h i n k and/or  from  These may  developed. t h e o t h e r two p s y c h o -  ( t h e DUSO and t h e SRA) i n two i m p o r t a n t  to the c h i l d .  experiences about  i n order  I know" a n d " I  t h e HDP programme o f f e r s  experiences  w i t h h i s own l i f e stories  modes o f f u n c t i o n i n g  which i n c l u d e understanding o f  HDP programme d i f f e r s  respects. F i r s t l y ,  p r o c e s s e s and  and b e h a v i o r ; m a s t e r y o f  themes a r e s e q u e n t i a l l y  e d u c a t i o n a l programmes  vicarious  affectional  and r e s p o n s i b l e competence i n t h e  child;  be  critical  f o r a p r e v e n t i v e programme; awareness o f  relationship  cognitive  on t h r e e  those  That  direct  i s , the c h i l d  and f e e l i n g s  r a t h e r than  of others. Secondly,  t h e s m a l l group p r o c e s s  of the i n t e r a c t i o n  rather  except  than  deals with  t h e method  f o r the struc-  and f o r t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f  topics. The developing illuminated discussion:  guided child  group p r o c e s s  itself  i s important  f o r a number o f r e a s o n s .  thepotential  value of this  Kubie  type  t o the  (1967)  of personal  38  The c h i l d b u r i e s p a i n every day; and the accumulation o f b u r i e d p a i n g r a d u a l l y i s o l a t e s ' h i m from h i s e l d e r s and h i s age peers, and makes him a f r a i d to allow h i s mental processes to flow f r e e l y . He becomes i n v a r y i n g degrees c o n s t r i c t e d . This d e s t r u c t i v e process could be h e l d i n check and r e v e r s e d i f t h a t which the c h i l d b u r i e s were to be exhumed day by day as he i s buryi n g i t . . Thus the e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the education process of techniques borrowed from group psychotherapy but not i d e n t i c a l w i t h i t could unlock the doors which i m p r i son us i n t o our masked neuroses (p. 9 6 ) . This d i s c u s s i o n v e h i c l e i s t a i l o r e d to the concepts and to the c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f language development  themselves  and  under-  s t a n d i n g . He experiences the sharing of p e r s o n a l data i n a n a t u r a l way  l e a r n i n g t h a t he i s , a t the same time, l i k e  each  other c h i l d yet d i f f e r e n t , too. Another aspect which i s of v a l u e to the c h i l d i n t h i s particular  s t r u c t u r e d format i s the m o d e l l i n g by teacher and  peers of a p p r o p r i a t e a t t e n d i n g and l i s t e n i n g behavior and W a l t e r s , 1 9 6 3 ) .  The c h i l d ' s own  (Bandura  e f f o r t s to reproduce s i m i -  l a r behavior are a c t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d i n the programme. Because peer group behavior i s shaped  i n c o n s t r u c t i v e and  positive  ways through m o d e l l i n g , r e i n f o r c e m e n t and through the p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c s i n t r o d u c e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m (see Appendices B), an a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t may  A and  accrue over time to the c h i l d .  The impact o f the age-segregated peer group upon c h i l d r e n ' s values and behavior has been documented by Bronfenbrenner His c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h has demonstrated  (1970).  the p r o g r e s s i v e  decrease i n p a r e n t a l involvement w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n and the  39  corresponding  increase  in  socializing  in  the  the  pluralistic  shown by  that  a dim  The  negative  view of  behavior.  factor  i n the  of  other  structured  This  peer  t o be  a negative child  views of h i m s e l f  and  f u t u r e , and  peer  force  of the  HDP  i n the  contravene  the  (1966) and B r o n f e n b r e n n e r The for  HDP  a l l of  also reported  acquisition  of  having  in  that  antithe  most  to  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  same s c h o o l . the  Both  the  content  influences  described  appear climate  by  Coleman  (1970).  programme was  these reasons  as  o f h i s p e e r s , as  programme and  debilitating  been  child's  t o h a v e a p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g a more p o s i t i v e p e e r to  child  is characterized  a c h i e v e m e n t was the  group  s o c i e t i e s has  environment which c o n t r i b u t e s  children attending  format  the  engaging f r e q u e n t l y  (1966) has  Coleman  school  as  by  i n f l u e n c e upon t h e  Western t e c h n o l o g i c a l  child's intellectual the  r o l e played  peer-oriented  the  social  the  child.  research  socialization. holding  i n the  selected for this  i n a d d i t i o n to  competencies  r e l a t e d to  the  current  study  emphasis upon  cognitive  and  the  ego  development. It There are of  i s recognized genetic  c a p a c i t i e s as  t h a t human d e v e l o p m e n t i s  determinants well  as  individual.  There are  environment  transactions.  of  the  experiences  d e v e l o p m e n t and  are  f o r the  f o r the  rate  structure  important  and  of development  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the T i m i n g , the  complex.  kinds  of  n a t u r e and  kinds of  the  organismthe  extent  f a c t o r s i n i n f l u e n c i n g human  l e a r n i n g . However, t h e  child  is a unified  ho  s y s t e m : what I n f l u e n c e s one all  aspect  o f h i m has  an e f f e c t upon  o f h i m . W h i l e t h e r i d d l e o f human d e v e l o p m e n t  this  one  aspect  of the t o t a l  Can an i n t e r v e n t i o n programme between  u s i n g t h e Methods' i n Human  t h e ages  cognitive  development  cognitive  competence?  If their  this  problem i s s e l e c t e d  of 5 to 8 years  i n the areas  competence  level  in skills  f o r study.  Development  further  of s o c i a l ,  study demonstrates that  c h i l d r e n do  related  t o ego  could  type  more c o m p e t e n t , affectively,  cognitive  programme  to a s s i s t c h i l d r e n  fully-functioning individuals,  and  and  improve  and  t h e u s e o f t h e B e s s e l l and P a l o m a r e s of intervention  ego  a f f e c t i v e and  development, be one  i s complex,  t o become  cognitively,  socially. Summary  This literature traditional learning ture,  c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d a review on p r i m a r y treatment  and b e h a v i o r  of the  relevant  p r e v e n t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e modes f o r d e a l i n g  with  problems  children.  i n young  to the  emotional, That  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e K o h l b e r g , La C r o s s e , and R i c k s '  review,  presented  some s u p p o r t  vention during a c r i t i c a l related overview  to cognitive  i n the e t i o l o g y  development  i n young  o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s c h o o l - b a s e d  concludes with a d e s c r i p t i o n  (1972)  f o r a psychoeducational i n t e r -  period  and ego  litera-  of competencies children.  An  p r e v e n t i v e approaches  of the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s  t h e B e s s e l l and P a l o m a r e s programme w h i c h i s t h e o b j e c t  of of  hi  this  research.  vention with  The  basic research  kindergarten  and  question  first  Methods i n Human D e v e l o p m e n t d e v e l o p related  t o c o g n i t i v e and The  developed  specific  ego  an  inter-  grade c h i l d r e n u s i n g competencies  in  areas  development?  hypotheses  i n the next  i s : Can  chapter.  on  t h e use  o f HDP  will  be  CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH HYPOTHESES AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS The purpose of the study was to determine the e f f e c t s of the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme upon the a c q u i s i t i o n of three types of f u n c t i o n a l competencies r e l a t e d to ego s t r e n g t h , p o s i t i v e self-development and mental h e a l t h : c o g n i t i v e performance competence, emotional  s o c i a l competence, and  competence.  This chapter p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r each g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s and the c r i t e r i o n measures s e l e c t e d f o l l o w e d by a s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s or hypotheses. O p e r a t i o n a l  definitions  and a summary conclude the chapter. HYPOTHESES R a t i o n a l e : Hypotheses Both  1 and 2  the nature of the programme and the l i t e r a t u r e  reviewed p r o v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r the hypotheses and f o r s e l e c t i o n of the types of c r i t e r i o n  measures.  Examination of the Methods i n Human Development  (HDP)  programme r e v e a l s both the s e q u e n t i a l nature of the m a t e r i a l and a content, a p p a r e n t l y d i r e c t e d toward enhancing the a c q u i s i t i o n of the f u n c t i o n a l competencies d e s c r i b e d  above.  The programme p r o v i d e s both c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g s and e x p e r i ences which should promote development  o f competencies i n  a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e and i n t e r p e r s o n a l areas. S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  *+3 these a r e : 1. awareness affective thinking  o f and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  processes,  and o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  of these to  and b e h a v i o r ;  2. m a s t e r y o f c e r t a i n of  o f the c h i l d ' s  other performance s k i l l s  c o g n i t i v e (academic) s k i l l s w h i c h , i n t u r n , promote  and  self-  c o n f i d e n c e , i n d e p e n d e n c e and r e s p o n s i b l e competence; 3.  interpersonal skills  awareness standing  and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of the p r i n c i p l e s  In nature vide  addition,  interaction.  and m o d e l l i n g  suggested  to cognitive,  and t h e s t r u c t u r e d  The  literature  the s e l e c t i o n suggested  reviewed  of these  programme  of c r i t e r i o n  offered  performance evidence  t o ego m a t u r i t y s e t s an i n t e r t w i n i n g  and  pattern  o f ego d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t  serves  primary  p r e v e n t i o n . These  achievement, e f f e c t i v e self-feelings, Ego both with  competencies  problem-solving  and s k i l l  areas.  supportlitera-  o f v a r i o u s forms o f competence  related  of  measures  performance measures. That  that fostering  pro-  o f a t t e n d i n g and  and s o c i a l  also  sessions  Thus, b o t h  selection  affective  social  as w e l l as an u n d e r -  t h e s m a l l group p r o c e s s  reinforcement  and p r o c e s s  relevant  ture  of s o c i a l  learning-appropriate behavior.  content  ing  to others  a mature  o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e programme  ongoing  other  furthering  spiralling as a  form  include school  behavior,  positive  i n interpersonal relationships.  s t r e n g t h , f o r example, was shown t o be a s s o c i a t e d a reflective  and a n a l y t i c  style  of c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l .  F u r t h e r m o r e , the the  productive  c a p a c i t y to attend  problems stand  can  be  selectively,  solved  and  s t r e s s . Given the  programme upon t h e lem-solving tained  p e r s o n a l i t y was  as h a v i n g an  ability  focus  w i t h i n the  B e s s e l l and  of attending  behavior  as  one  and  as  having  a t t i t u d e that  possessing  i t became l o g i c a l  problem-solving  an  as  development  behaviors,  described  to  with-  Palomares  r e l a t e d prob-  to i n c o r p o r a t e  dimension of  sus-  cognitive  performance. School relatively  a c h i e v e m e n t was  good g r o s s  cited  i n the  literature  p r e d i c t o r of a d u l t adjustment  a c o r r e l a t e o f most c h i l d h o o d  measures  t h e HDP  programme a c c e n t u a t e s  the mastery of  skills.  School  s e c o n d measure o f c o g n i t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e the  sion,  a r i t h m e t i c ) used  not  academic  normally  grade, t h i s  skills  measure was  part  as Again,  as  a  competency. However,  (reading, w r i t t e n language  as  a  c e r t a i n academic  included  to c a l c u l a t e school  introduced  and  of adjustment.  a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e r e f o r e , was  since  as  expres-  achievement  of c u r r i c u l u m u n t i l  available for first  grade  are  first  subjects  only. Social was  aspect  h i g h l i g h t e d f r e q u e n t l y i n the  relationship city  t o use  skill  b e t w e e n the his  child's  abilities  was  Aspects  of overt  p r e d i c t o r s of l a t e r  social  development,  competence and  emphasized.  social  adult  o f ego  review of l i t e r a t u r e .  d e v e l o p m e n t a r e known t o be  ment, t o o . key  competence, a n o t h e r  Social  important behavior  and  The capa-  affective  to school  achieve-  were f o u n d  adjustment. Moreover, the  to  be  litera-  h5 ture  suggested  predicting teacher was  that  p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s added  the l e v e l  perceptions  also  of adult  of p u p i l behavior  demonstrated  t h e emphasis w i t h i n  of  social  supported  literature  reviewed  i n d i c a t e d the c e n t r a l i t y  determinants.  It will  own and o t h e r s ' the  likewise  of l i f e ,  p o n s e s were i n c l u d e d The grouping  nature  obtained  hypotheses  forfirst reflect  scribed  Appendices  feelings  a n d  - p. 60 ) .  necessitated f o r both  and t h a t w h i c h only.  about  of a f f e c t i v e res-  be o b t a i n e d  i s required  The f i r s t  at this  point  t h e programme. Time or omissions  could two  regarding  constraints i n the pre-  The changes made a r e d e t a i l e d i n C h a p t e r  •+ s u p p l e m e n t e d by an o u t l i n e o f l e s s o n s in  behavioral  grouping.  certain contractions  curriculum.  could  grade s u b j e c t s  a l t e r a t i o n s made w i t h i n  necessitated  includes  ( s e e p. 59  grade s u b j e c t s  this  as  form a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f  o f t h e c r i t e r i o n measures  and f i r s t  Furthermore,  awareness o f t h e c h i l d ' s  two measures  i n the study  A further notation the  processes.  of s e l f  o f data i n t o that which  kindergarten be  part  types of  suggested a r e l a t i o n -  of self-perceptions  a f f e c t i v e states  and p e r c e p t i o n s  status  competence.  be r e c a l l e d t h a t  HDP programme. S i n c e  self  of  consideration  the i n c l u s i o n o f three  s h i p b e t w e e n a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e it  Finally,  to  t h e HDP programme upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  c r i t e r i o n measures f o r s o c i a l The  The r e l e v a n c y  t o adjustment  i n some s t u d i e s .  of  skills  functioning.  considerably  used which  i s provided  A and B. B e c a u s e o f t h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h e  1+6  programme  General  i sidentified  Hypothesis  as MHDP i n t h e  1  The MHDP programme effectiveness  as compared  Show-and-Tell  (SAT),  should  related  petency,  social  demonstrate i t s o v e r a l l  t o another  i n promoting  g r a d e and k i n d e r g a r t e n p u p i l s measures  hypotheses.  treatment  g r e a t e r competence  on a c l u s t e r  competency  and a f f e c t i v e  of criterion  competency.  t o SAT, t h e MHDP programme s h o u l d  greater  overall  I n com-  demonstrate i t s  an i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s  s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n . a n d e f f e c t i v e mature as m e a s u r e d by t h e K e i s t e r  2. i n c r e a s i n g the a r e a  com-  effectiveness i n :  1. e n h a n c i n g  behavior  i n first  t o ego s t r e n g t h : c o g n i t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e  parison  for  programme,  social  (a) t h e B e h a v i o r  P u z z l e Box;  adeptness  o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence  problem-solving  because o f i t s focus  upon  as measured b y :  Rating•of Pupils,  a teacher  percep-  t i o n measure, and (b) The C l a s s P i c t u r e s , (Peer  p e r c e p t i o n measure  »B'), and (c)  tion  a peer  a t h r e e - i t e m s o c i o m e t r i c measure  o f peer  affilia-  (Peer ' A ' ) ; 3-  promoting  a more p o s i t i v e  as measured b y A P i c t u r e The r e v i e w evidence  hypothesis  response  to l i f e  Game.  of literature  to warrant  emotional  offered  a directional  i s , therefore, i nnull  little  o r no e m p i r i c a l  h y p o t h e s i s . The s t a t i s t i c a l form.  hi  Hypothesis  General  1.  Mean change s c o r e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r MHDP groups t h a n mean change s c o r e s f o r SAT g r o u p s f o r t r e a t m e n t main e f f e c t s on f i v e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : p e r s i s t e n c e t i m e i n mature problem-solving behavior (Keister Puzzle Box); t e a c h e r r a t i n g o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g behavior (Behavior Rating o f P u p i l s ) ; peer nomination f o r observed p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r (Peer 'B'); peer s e l e c t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n (Peer ' A ' ) ; s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o l i f e (A P i c t u r e Game).  Hypothesis The  2  programme emphasis upon m a s t e r y o f a c a d e m i c  and  upon a sense o f p e r s o n a l  not  only  but  also i n greater  sured  competence  should  i n i n c r e a s e d academic achievement  by i n c r e a s e d  feelings scores  be r e f l e c t e d  as m e a s u r e d by GPA  o f independent  on The S t o r y  skills  security  o f Tommy,  as mea-  another  measure o f a f f e c t .  Hypothesis  2.  F o r f i r s t g r a d e s u b j e c t s , mean change s c o r e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r t h e MHDP g r o u p s t h a n f o r SAT g r o u p s f o r t r e a t m e n t m a i n e f f e c t s on two d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ; s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t (GPA) and i n d e p e n d e n t s e c u r i t y (The S t o r y o f Tommy).  R a t i o n a l e : Hypotheses Any  differential  responses  3 and h  t o treatment  due t o s e x o r  g r a d e - l e v e l f a c t o r s must be c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n t h e d e s i g n o f the  study.  Therefore,  independent v a r i a b l e s .  s e x and g r a d e - l e v e l were a s s i g n e d as  i+8  General Hypothesis Neither dent v a r i a b l e s nificant  sex nor grade-level w i l l identified  influence  i n H y p o t h e s i s 1 and/or  t h e depen2 to a sig-  degree.  Hypothesis  3-  T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males a n d f e m a l e s on each o f t h e c r i t e r i o n measures.  Hypothesis  h.  T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d f i r s t g r a d e p u p i l s on e a c h o f t h e c r i t e r i o n measures.  Rationale:  I n t e r a c t i o n Hypotheses  With  independent v a r i a b l e s  three  t r e a t m e n t , s e x and g r a d e - l e v e l occur. Hypotheses  5. 6  1  7 and 8  i n the design -  - interaction  are presented to include  e f f e c t s may  these  possible  interactions.  General Hypothesis There w i l l following:  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  interactions  f o r the  treatment-by-sex (TxS); treatment-by-grade-level  ( T x G ) ; s e x - b y - g r a d e - l e v e l ( S x G ) ; and t r e a t m e n t - b y - s e x - b y grade-level  Hypothesis  (TxSxG).  5'  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change s c o r e s b e t w e e n MHDP and SAT groups f o r males a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m mean change s c o r e s between MHDP and SAT groups f o r f e m a l e s on e a c h o f t h e c r i t e r i o n measures.  ±9  Hypothesis  6.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change s c o r e s between MHDP and SAT g r o u p s f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n p u p i l s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m mean change s c o r e s between MHDP and SAT g r o u p s f o r f i r s t g r a d e p u p i l s on e a c h o f t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e s .  Hypothesis  7«  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change s c o r e s b e t w e e n males and f e m a l e s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m mean change s c o r e s between males and f e m a l e s i n f i r s t g r a d e on e a c h o f t h e c r i t e r i o n measures.  Hypothesis  8.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change s c o r e s between MHDP and SAT g r o u p s f o r males and f e m a l e s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change s c o r e s b e t w e e n MHDP a n d SAT g r o u p s f o r males and f e m a l e s i n f i r s t g r a d e on e a c h of t h e c r i t e r i o n measures.  OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Operational of  the kinds  These ing  type d e f i n i t i o n s  are provided  o f c o m p e t e n c i e s u s e d as d e p e n d e n t  definitions  i n Chapter  will  Cognitive  be s u p p l e m e n t e d b y d i s c u s s i o n  appear-  Competency  performance  competency  was d e f i n e d  o n e a c h o f two c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e s .  the' K e i s t e r P u z z l e B o x , p r o v i d e d spent  i n mature  first  grade s u b j e c t s Point  variables.  h.  C o g n i t i v e Performance  scores received  f o r each  as t h e The f i r s t ,  a measure i n m i n u t e s  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o r . The s e c o n d ,  the  Grade  the  Language A r t s  and  i n Arithmetic.  o n l y , was a measure o f s c h o o l  A v e r a g e ( GPA), c a l c u l a t e d ( r e a d i n g and w r i t t e n  o f time for  achievement,  on a c h i e v e m e n t i n  language e x p r e s s i o n )  50  S o c i a l Competency S o c i a l competency was d e f i n e d as the scores r e c e i v e d on each o f three s o c i o m e t r i c nomination d e v i c e s . The f i r s t was  the Behavior  Rating o f P u p i l s , a measure of teacher  p e r c e p t i o n o f the amount o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g behavior.  The second, The Class P i c t u r e s , was a measure of  peer o b s e r v a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l behavior f i e d as Peer  and i s i d e n t i -  'B'. The t h i r d was a t h r e e - i t e m s o c i o m e t r i c meas-  ure of peer a f f i l i a t i o n , Peer 'A'. Affective  Competency  A f f e c t i v e competency was d e f i n e d as the scores r e c e i v e d on two instruments.  The f i r s t , A P i c t u r e Game, was a p r o j e c t i v e  measure of the c h i l d ' s predominant emotional  response t o l i f e  with the score r e p r e s e n t i n g the number o f 'happy' The  responses.  second, The Story of Tommy, was a measure, f o r f i r s t  s u b j e c t s o n l y , of the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s of independent  grade  security.  SUMMARY The  purpose o f the study was r e i t e r a t e d . F o r each  h y p o t h e s i s , a r a t i o n a l e was presented which r e c a p i t u l a t e d the l i t e r a t u r e very b r i e f l y . This was f o l l o w e d by a general hypothesis  which provided the statement i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l  terms and by the corresponding  s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis or  hypotheses. O p e r a t i o n a l type d e f i n i t i o n s were p r o v i d e d .  51  CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN AND The  purpose of the  mining the  INSTRUMENTATION  study has  been s t a t e d  s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s of the B e s s e l l and  programme upon the  as  deter-  Palomares  a c q u i s i t i o n of three types of  functional  competence i n young c h i l d r e n . These competencies are to ego  strength,  mental h e a l t h : petence and tured  p o s i t i v e self-development and  cognitive  a state  of  performance competence, s o c i a l com-  a f f e c t i v e competence. The  discussion  related  e f f e c t s of t h i s  group programme upon the  competencies were compared to the  struc-  a c q u i s i t i o n of these  e f f e c t s of another  programme t r a d i t i o n a l l y employed i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and  discussion primary  grades, Show-and-Tell. This The  first  chapter i s organized i n t o three major  contains a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the  d e s i g n and  dependent v a r i a b l e s . The  sections. a brief  second d i s c u s s e s  procedures. I t begins w i t h a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of each instrument used as a measure of the are  f o l l o w e d by  dependent v a r i a b l e s .  a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  treatment, t e s t i n g and  statistical  These  sample, of programme,  procedures. The  third  s e c t i o n provides a b r i e f summary. DESIGN In order to c o n t r o l f o r sex these v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d  and  grade-level  as a d d i t i o n a l  differences  independent  52 variables included  i n the two  programme  study.  levels:  Each of the  treatment  (Experimental  independent v a r i a b l e s  - the  Bessell  T r e a t m e n t , T]_) and  and  Palomares  Show-and-Tell  ( C o m p a r i s o n T r e a t m e n t , T 2 ) ; g r a d e - k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade;  and  sex  - boy  g e n e r a l i z e beyond as  these  a fully-crossed  schematic Figure  and  girl.  Since  levels,  the  fixed-effects  i t was  not  design  intended  can be  design  to  described  three-factor design.  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s  first  i s presented  A in  2.  Treatment  Sex  Figure The used  as  2.  Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  d i f f e r e n c e between p r e t e s t and  a measure f o r e a c h o f t h e  design  p o s t t e s t scores  following five  was  dependent  variables: Cognitive  Performance  Competency  1. P e r s i s t e n c e time solving  behavior  Puzzle  Box.  i n minutes  as measured by  spent  i n mature  problem-  a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the K e i s t e r  53  Social  Competencies 2.  T e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e amount o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l  or n e g a t i v e  classroom,  social  measured on t h e B e h a v i o r Rating  Rating  of Pupils.  of Pupils 3.  Peer p e r c e p t i o n o f observed  n e u t r a l behavior an  and l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r as  adaptation h.  socially  as measured b y f r e q u e n c y  o f The C l a s s  Peer s e l e c t i o n  Pictures  f o r entry  p o s i t i v e or  o f n o m i n a t i o n on  (Peer ' B ' ) . into  tionships  i n v o l v i n g work and p l a y  frequency  o f n o m i n a t i o n on a t h r e e - i t e m  interpersonal rela-  situations  as m e a s u r e d b y  sociometric  device  (Peer ' A ' ) . Affective 5. response  Competency The s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s to l i f e  for  both first  Cognitive 1. Average  emotional  as m e a s u r e d b y A P i c t u r e Game•  In a d d i t i o n t o the f i v e with  dominant  grade l e v e l s ,  two a d d i t i o n a l measures were  grade s t u d e n t s . Performance  measures above w h i c h were u s e d collected  These w e r e :  Competency  A c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t as measured by t h e Grade (GPA) computed on r e a d i n g ,  Point  l a n g u a g e a r t s and a r i t h m e t i c  performance. Emotional  Competency  2.  Feelings  o f independent  Institute  of Child  S t u d y S e c u r i t y T e s t , The S t o r y  Neither  o f these  kinds  security  o f data  as measured b y t h e o f Tommy.  c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r  9+  kindergarten  c h i l d r e n because f i r s t grade academic  skills  (eg. reading) were r e q u i r e d f o r both measures. PROCEDURES D e s c r i p t i o n of Instruments C o g n i t i v e Competency Measures For the purposes of t h i s study one  i n each of the two  parts of the  K e i s t e r Puzzle Box. t i o n was ble  measures were  taken,  design.  A standard  problem-solving  situa-  needed which made a v a i l a b l e f o r study under compara-  c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s the r e a c t i o n s of c h i l d r e n to a  standard  s i t u a t i o n . Such a problem, w h i l e p o s s i b l e of accomp-  lishment, needed to be d i f f i c u l t was  two  enough that immediate  success  u n l i k e l y f o r the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n . Thus, some f r u s t -  r a t i o n would occur. Such a t e s t c a r r i e d other  specifications  as w e l l . I t needed to be a n a t u r a l a c t i v i t y l i k e a p l a y s i t u a t i o n ; i t needed to be simple  enough so that the average  c h i l d could c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e t h a t success was his  own  e f f o r t s . Such a t e s t was  p o s s i b l e through  found i n the Puzzle Box  Test  ( K e i s t e r , 1937)• A shallow  9 i n c h square wooden box  shown i n K e i s t e r ' s work was  constructed.  b r i g h t l y c o l o r e d enamelled wood blocks  s i m i l a r to the I t contained  one  10  i n a s s o r t e d shapes  such as a s a i l b o a t , a c a r , a house. When a l l the wooden f i g u r e s were placed f l a t i n the box, and  the l i d ' of the box  could be  closed  l o c k e d . As each c h i l d t r i e d to s o l v e the puzzle i n the  5 5  a l l o t e d time o f 12 minutes, h i s performance was videotaped for  l a t e r playback and r a t i n g . Three t r a i n e d r a t e r s u s i n g stop  watches  r a t e d each c h i l d according to the m a t u r i t y o f b e h a v i o r  as d e f i n e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . A copy of that d e f i n i t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C. The number o f minutes spent i n mature problem-solving behavior was recorded on the r a t i n g sheet designed f o r t h i s purpose. This r a t i n g became the c h i l d ' s score on the t e s t . The r a t e r s were t r a i n e d on two t r a i n i n g tapes showing s e v e r a l k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t  grade p u p i l s of both sexes  s o l v i n g the p u z z l e . A t h i r d tape was prepared c o n t a i n i n g s i x segments showing s i x d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n , boys and g i r l s , dergarten and f i r s t  kin-  grade p u p i l s , who were s o l v i n g the p u z z l e .  This t h i r d tape was used t o determine r a t e r  reliability.  i  R e l i a b i l i t y o f the three judges' r a t i n g s on the s u b j e c t s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e procedure d e s c r i b e d by Winer c o e f f i c i e n t of r ^ =  (1971)*  This procedure gave a r e l i a b i l i t y  .91*  Also appearing i n Appendix C are the d e f i n i t i o n of immature behavior ( K e i s t e r ,  1937),  the d i r e c t i o n s f o r adminis-  t r a t i o n , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the method o f f a m i l i a r i z i n g c h i l d w i t h the videotape equipment  and a sample  each  o f the r a t i n g  form used. The K e i s t e r Puzzle Box was used w i t h both k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t  grade p u p i l s .  Academic  Achievement. F o r f i r s t  grade students academic  % a c h i e v e m e n t was Average by  measured by  (GPA). T h i s was  teachers  f o r the  Language A r t s  c+  5;  =  Social  the  Grade  computed f r o m l e t t e r  December and  Point  grades  Easter reporting periods  A r i t h m e t i c . L e t t e r g r a d e s were  values  c = h-.  using  3;  c- =  D  a seven p o i n t s c a l e : =  2;  A = 7;  In-School  Screening  (Bower and  device  the  i n A Process  Emotional  Emotional  i n the  of P u p i l s for  Handicaps a  purposes  three-item  of  a measure o f t e a c h e r  name i s p l a c e d on  from a r a t i n g  (negative behavior) High  total  behavior.  o f one  on  This instrument  f o r In-School  Handicaps  student's  rating  Rating  t h i r d measure was  of P u p i l s .  It i s a simplified  behavior.  Behavior  c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the  behavior.  ranging  the  1962). The  Rating  sub-tests  Children with  the  6;  this  researcher.  Behavior  provides  two,  of C h i l d r e n with  Lambert,  sociometric by  first  competency were u s e d  C l a s s P i c t u r e s , were a d a p t e d f r o m A P r o c e s s  The  The  of s o c i a l  and  turbed  B =  = i .  E  study.  It  vocabulary  transformed  present  three  on  Competency M e a s u r e s T h r e e measures  study  assigned  ( r e a d i n g , w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e u s a g e , and  d e v e l o p m e n t ) and to numerical  calculating  an  a p p r o p r i a t e normal  (positive behavior)  indicate  the  to  seven  maladjusted  a great  e i g h t statements  each  distribution  degree of  D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  s c a l e and  1962).  student  system i n which  of  of  of  Lambert,  p e r c e p t i o n of  e i g h t statements  scores  Screening  (Bower and  Q-sort  i s one  dis-  a copy  of  appear i n Appendix  C.  57  Validity included both  on t h e  an i t e m - a n a l y s i s  of  validation studies.  However,  the  state  that  since  the  earlier  a l l  of  (Lambert  increase  not  have  promote  the  test  with  recommend reported.  and B o w e r ,  statements to  Pupils  a median  The a u t h o r s  i n order  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t o  and  R e l i a b i l i t i e s are  eight  studies  test  data.  Technical Report  wording of  Behavior Rating  the  p r o v i d i n g some p o s i t i v e  further  of  studies  1961)  been  does  modified  consistency  reliability  of  the  ratings. The C l a s s and Lambert the  Pictures.  battery  research  was  division  modified for  of  the  which  the  those  portraying negative  Class  Pictures  peer  sample  perception  The s e c o n d  s c h o o l was  became of  sub-test use  at  school board situated.  behavior,  had  the  of  Half  or neutral  of  district  the  t o be  Bower  insistence  the  of  a ten-item sociometric  positive  from the  20  pictures,  deleted. device  in  The  measuring  l e a r n i n g and  social  behavior. The t e n child. overt  picture  There were  five  cards  pictures  b e h a v i o r w o u l d be  neutral.  The t o t a l  became h i s  shown i n d i v i d u a l l y  of  boys  i d e n t i f i e d as  number  of  and f i v e  of  to  each  girls  whose  emotionally positive  selections  received  by  each  or child  score.  Readministration produced  were  reliability .77  for  of  the  full  coefficients  pupils  and  first  grade  1961).  The T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t w e n t  test  of  .60  pupils on t o  three for  apart  kindergarten  (Lambert note  weeks  and  that  Bower,  i n the  true  58  sense low to  o f t h e word  "reliable",  the r e l i a b i l i t y  f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n ; however, r e l i a b i l i t y third  correlation i s  ratings  increase  grade.  Directions  f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are presented  i n Appendix  C. Three-Item S o c i o m e t r i c Test. This assessed  the expressed  with h i s classmates. modified metric tion. data of  d e s i r e o f each c h i l d  was c o n s t r u c t e d t o a s s e s s test  competence a s s e s s  ance. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , c o n s i s t e n t across This  somewhat d i f f e r e n t  peers  the  admired by t h e i r  class  measures  facets  of that  a common  that behavior  varishould  c h i l d r e n who were  e i t h e r because they d i s p l a y e d  and/or p o s s e s s e d  E a c h c h i l d was a s k e d from  affilia-  t h e t h r e e measures.  to their  f r i e n d l y behaviors attributes  t h a t they' s h a r e  i t was a n t i c i p a t e d  socio-  supplementary  each o f t h e t h r e e  t e s t was t o p r o v i d e d a t a a b o u t  more a t t r a c t i v e  this  d e s i r e f o r peer  would p r o v i d e  t o The C l a s s P i c t u r e s . W h i l e  c o m p e t e n c e , i t c a n be e x p e c t e d  be  affiliation  o f the n e g a t i v e p i c t u r e s ) ,  I t was assumed t h i s  social  for  test  B e c a u s e The C l a s s P i c t u r e s h a d t o be  (by d e l e t i o n  test  sociometric  some s k i l l s  or other  peers. t o n o m i n a t e one c h i l d  o r more  f o r each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s :  1. Whom w o u l d y o u most l i k e  t o h a v e t o work w i t h on  a school project? 2.  Whom w o u l d y o u most l i k e noon-hour?  t o play with a t recess or  59  3. Whom w o u l d y o u most l i k e T h e r e was no l i m i t each i t e m . Affective  on t h e number o f s e l e c t i o n s f o r  the purposes  of this  and The S t o r y  gories:  ing  sub-test  A projective test,  pictures  into  both kindergarten  test  and f i r s t  first  grade  o f t h e Bower and Lambert i trequires  "This  grade  sub-  test  i n t o one o f two c a t e i s a sad p i c t u r e "  a two-compartment b o x . E a c h p i c t u r e i s c a t e g o r i z e d t o the c h i l d ' s  perception  o f i t . The f i r s t  task.  i s accomplished  Scoring  t h e "happy"  Bower, 1961)  understanding  by c o u n t i n g  o f the  t h e number o f c a r d s  i n the T e c h n i c a l Report  (Lambert  show few i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l l y  (EHC) f r o m t h o s e  conclude  predictive  12 c a r d s a r e  compartment.  D a t a on i t e m - a n a l y s i s  authors  accord-  o f o b v i o u s l y happy or s a d s i t u a t i o n s which have t o c h e c k on t h e c h i l d ' s  handicapped  bat-  t o s o r t 66  each c h i l d  i s a happy p i c t u r e " o r " T h i s  been i n c l u d e d  and  taken:  i s a s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n measure  of n e u t r a l events or o b j e c t s  stereotypes  in  two measures were  only.  i s the t h i r d  tery.  study  o f Tommy f o r u s e w i t h  A P i c t u r e Game. T h i s and  score.  Competency M e a s u r e s  A P i c t u r e Game, f o r u s e w i t h  jects  friend?  The number o f s e l e c t i o n s f o r m e d t h e c h i l d ' s  For  pupils;  t o have f o r a b e s t  that  n o t so i d e n t i f i e d  (NEHC). The  i n d i v i d u a l . i t e m s c o u l d n o t be t a k e n as  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  as EHC o r NEHC. A s i g n t e s t  h o w e v e r , r e v e a l t h a t EHC p u p i l s s e e t h e p i c t u r e s as more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n NEHC p u p i l s . However, s i n c e  did,  "sad"  the i n s t r u -  60  ment was n o t b e i n g u s e d NEHC c h i l d r e n on  this  this  r e s e a r c h t o s e p a r a t e EHC f r o m  lack of predictive  validity  reliability  c h i l d r e n range from .66  t o .77-  .52  coefficients  t o .62;  The d a t a  for kindergarten  for f i r s t  i s cited  grade  as e v i d e n c e  enough c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s that In  a reasonably  this  to l i f e  Directions The Child  pupils with  stable  characteristic  that there i s t o suggest  i s being  measured. emotional  as h a p p y o r s a d . f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i x C.  S t o r y o f Tommy: A P r i m a r y  Form o f t h e I n s t i t u t e  S t u d y S e c u r i t y Test.. The t e s t , u s e d  o n l y , measures  the secure  c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r a l response  Grapko  children,  r e s e a r c h t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was t h e o v e r a l l  response  of  h a s no e f f e c t  study. Reported  from  i n this  feeling  with  Grade One  states associated  p a t t e r n s . As o u t l i n e d by  (1965), Behaviors ( r e f l e c t i n g ) an i n c r e a s e i n s k i l l or k n o w l e d g e c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s e c u r i t y . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l , t e c h n i q u e o r knowledge i n c r e a s e s the p r o b a b i l i t y o f behaviors which w i l l r e s u l t i n consequences a c c e p t a b l e t o the c h i l d (p. 3 ) • In  solving  activities, through and  in  the c h i l d  i na direct  and i n r e s p o n d i n g  can adopt  the u t i l i z a t i o n  skill  extends  problems  t o day-to-day  one o f f o u r a p p r o a c h e s .  of h i s previous  experience,  Firstly,  knowledge  c o n f i d e n t approach t o the task, the c h i l d  h i s competence and h i s i n d e p e n d e n t  p e r c e i v i n g t h e t a s k t o be t o o d i f f i c u l t  security.  Secondly,  o r complex, t h e  61  child  may  ask  cipation  for help  of the  thereby  the  security Lastly,  (which  (and) the  reduces  is called  child  immobilized  and  developed.  child  typical  daily  situation  the  The and  to twelve or t a s k s  s t a t e of  ranking  are used  to c a l c u l a t e  Consistency  The as  scores  indicate  reliability  follows: Security -  tency  -  .53  personality low  rank order based  AO's  to  f o r b o y s and tests  Score the  .65  The  Tommy for  child.  the  Each  behavior  measures  Security  Score  the  Score  child's  order  of  optimal  security  develop-  a more o p t i m a l  security  state.  reported  f o r b o y s and  r e p o r t e d by  .80's.  on  coefficients .62  become  a Consistency  a measure o f d e v i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e  ment. H i g h e r  of  four d e s c r i p t i o n s of  rankings  the  may  h).  p.  w h i c h sample  o f t h e young  states.  and  terms,  insecurity.  Story  situations  degree of u n i f o r m i t y i n r a n k i n g while provides  a  to rank h i s preference  security  The  security  activity  four  a S e c u r i t y Score.  with  (Grapko, 1965,  f r a m e w o r k , The  i s a c c o m p a n i e d by  reflecting  anti-  c o n t r i b u t e s to a q u a s i -  feeling  i s asked  activities  respond  "In  a difficult  the  conceptual  each o f f o u r approaches  may  anxiety.  anxiety)  faced with  The  child  a deputy agent"  manifest  From t h i s was  the  mechanism t o a m e l i o r a t e  defense  in  outcome. T h i s mode o f f u n c t i o n i n g i s t e r m e d  immature d e p e n d e n t . T h i r d l y , defense  achieving confidence  figures  test  .65 f o r g i r l s ;  for girls. Anastasi  f o r the  Reliabilities (1958) range  for this  test  are  are  Consisfor  from  quite  other the  compar-  able . Validity  coefficients  provided  by  Grapko  (1965), while  62  low,  a r e comparable  to those  A sample o f t h e t e s t tration  (191+9).  r e p o r t e d by C r o n b a c h and t h e d i r e c t i o n s  are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix  f o r adminis-  C.  Sample The first of  c o n s i s t e d o f t h e e n t i r e k i n d e r g a r t e n and  grade enrolment  of a t y p i c a l  a large metropolitan  million.) the  sample  Varying  families  the m a j o r i t y working  preneurial munity.  f a m i l i e s housed  h a d moved  of  being  were p r e s e n t  into  and  although  families  were  p r o f e s s i o n a l and e n t r e -  i n small enclaves  a g r o w i n g number the area w i t h  Greek n a t i o n a l s . I t was  w i t h i n t h e com-  o f new  immigrant  a substantial their  number  children  i n t h e two g r a d e  The G r e e k c h i l d r e n had some b e g i n n i n g  English  by  middle-lower  of welfare  i n s u b s t a n t i a l numbers  one  were r e p r e s e n t e d  a t t e n d i n g the s c h o o l ,  were f r o m t h e l o w e r  In recent years,  these  levels  as were a few p r o s p e r o u s  families  facility  who levels with the  language. The  sample c o n s i s t e d o f *+9  boys and 28 taught  socioeconomic  of the c h i l d r e n (98%)  (population approximately  c l a s s e s . A s m a l l number  represented  used.  city  s c h o o l i n an o l d e r s e c t i o n  girls  children,  f r o m one m o r n i n g and one a f t e r n o o n  by t h e same f e m a l e  26 boys and 28  kindergarten  girls,  teacher.  The 5^ f i r s t  grade  were f r o m two c l a s s e s t a u g h t  21  class students,  by two  women. The  a s s i g n i n g of students  accomplished  to treatment  c o n d i t i o n s was  by u s i n g a t a b l e o f random numbers  after  dividing  63 the  entire  division in  o f t h e g r a d e one c l a s s e s .  teacher  students  e f f e c t s was  achieved  the composition  and s e x w i t h  C o n t r o l f o r any  a further differences  by a s s i g n i n g e q u a l numbers o f  f r o m e a c h g r a d e one c l a s s  1 presents  Table in  s u b j e c t p o o l by g r a d e l e v e l  t o each treatment  of the treatment  condition.  groups  with-  the design.  Table  1  Numb e r s o f S u b j e c t s C l a s s i f i e d by T r e a t m e n t , G r a d e - l e v e l and Sex  Treatment  T-j_  Grade-level  Sex  Kindergarten  Male  13  Female  12  Male  13  Female  1.3  Grade  T2  1  Kindergarten  Grade  1  Number o f S u b j e c t s  8  Male Female  16  Male  13  Female  E a c h d i s c u s s i o n group c o n s i s t e d with  as n e a r l y e q u a l  wherever  their  numbers o f boys  numbers  to  treatments.  and  i n the r e s p e c t i v e  were n o t e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . These assigned  o f 8 t o 10  students  g i r l s as p o s s i b l e classroom  groups  groups were r a n d o m l y  6>+  Programme  d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s were l e d f o r 15  The for  t h r e e mornings a t 9:30  beginning the  Proc edures  e a c h week on Monday, a.m.  right The  graduate  two t r e a t m e n t s  herself  g r o u p , showing  number  of both  female  effort  programmes  was  i n a similar  s t u d e n t s were  manner  except  w i t h the thoroughly  e a c h o f t h e programmes. E a c h c o n d u c t e d treatment  p.m.  t h e same d e g r e e o f i n t e r e s t  same d e g r e e o f warmth. B o t h g r a d u a t e  an  equal  f o r t h e groups  f o r m e d by t h e a f t e r n o o n k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s . by  1:00  a t t e n t i v e n e s s t o a l l d i s c u s s i o n s and r e s p o n d i n g  familiar with  from  t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The p r o b l e m  recognized. Every  made by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n d u c t  and  after  were a d m i n i s t e r e d by two  s t u d e n t s , one o f whom was  each treatment  and F r i d a y  d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s be-  a f t e r homeroom p e r i o d s h o r t l y  o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r v a r i a n c e was  with  Wednesday  each  The e x c e p t i o n s were t h e g r o u p s  afternoon kindergarten class with  ginning  minutes  These were l e d  the r e s e a r c h e r . To  teachers  ensure  o f t h e c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d were t o l d  significant the  l e a r n i n g was  the s k i l l s  that proved  of the s t a f f  to occur  group  that, since through  purposes.  most e f f e c t i v e w i t h  staff  identities,  interaction,  t o examine s e v e r a l modes o f  for instructional  were t o be s h a r e d w i t h part  thought  r e s e a r c h e r s were a t t e m p t i n g  d i s c u s s i o n format and  the anonymity o f treatment  ( i f t h e r e was  i n using the techniques.)  s t a f f were aware o f t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s  The  findings  the c h i l d r e n  an i n t e r e s t  on t h e  Furthermore,  keen i n t e r e s t  both  the  i n the  6 5  r e s e a r c h and site.  i n having  the s c h o o l s e l e c t e d  S t a f f were r e q u e s t e d n o t  nature  or apparent All  purpose  t o ask  o f the groups  discussion  November a f t e r  the  t h e y were i n . in a  classroom  conference  depending  pretesting.  p e r i o d was  an i n t e r r u p t i o n  Some a d d i t i o n a l  staff  b e e n made t o  o f t h e s c h o o l and  This treatment  length with  period.  s e s s i o n s began i n the f i r s t  a l l arrangements had  a p p r o v a l f o r the use  for  about  availability. The  in  children  d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s were c o n d u c t e d  room, a s m a l l r e a d i n g room o r a v a c a n t upon  the  f o r the r e s e a r c h  in-services  f o r the  t i m e was  and  lost  week o f secure  upon c o m p l e t i o n  of  e i g h t e e n s c h o o l weeks Christmas due  holiday  to school closures  i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r . D i s c u s s i o n groups  ended d u r i n g t h e l a s t week o f M a r c h . Treatment Experimental The of  Treatment  cular  s m a l l group f o r m a t  (Bessell,  1973)-  teacher  and  own  feelings; of and  The  as  outlined  programme a u t h o r s  s e a t i n g arrangement of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s  two-way v e r b a l and  ren's  (MHDP o r T i )  Methods i n Human D e v e l o p m e n t programme  a structured  Manual  Procedures  nonverbal  s t u d e n t s . The  experiences their  others both  communication  circle  - their  the b e h a v i o r  and  o f o t h e r s as  i n the  Theory  designed  a  t o enhance  flow  feelings the  cirthe  between  s e s s i o n s f o c u s upon t h e  c a p a c i t y to a f f e c t positively  consists  and what a f f e c t s  childthese  feelings  and  behavior  negatively; their  own  behavior  i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d by  them.  The  66  three  sequential  social  i n t e r a c t i o n . Each of these  time p e r m i t t e d I,  d i s c u s s i o n themes a r e a w a r e n e s s , m a s t e r y and  only  covered  although  s i x weeks o f e a c h d i s c u s s i o n theme  (Units  I I and I I I ) . Some d e v i a t i o n s  I t was n o t e d  that  weekly r a t h e r recurring  from the p r e s c r i b e d  activities  than d a i l y  activities  activities  could  h a d t o be o m i t t e d  n o t be f o l l o w e d  minutes r a t h e r  only  curriculum  be g i v e n  occurred.  three  times  as recommended. As a c o n s e q u e n c e  were combined. The o t h e r  which could 15  themes was  was  while  some r e l a t e d  procedural  the length  than the 2 0 minutes  recommendation  o f each s e s s i o n -  prescribed.  B o t h : t h e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o f t h e programme d i d n o t p e r m i t experience  the f i r s t  e i t h e r the c h i l d r e n ' s  making) as d e s c r i b e d  choice  i n the curriculum  activities  Other o m i s s i o n s  on  and f a n t a s y  projections, responsibility  is  identified  used  appears  clude in  each a c t i v i t y ,  and tion  o f the a c t u a l  lessons  to t a l k ,  and t o d e a l  (Appendix A ) .  at the k i n d e r g a r t e n  to l i s t e n ,  level i n -  to experience  e f f e c t i v e l y with  p o s i t i v e t o p i c s . B e c a u s e a two-way movement i s the core  and h o n e s t y .  h a d t o be made t h e programme  programme  strategies utilized  encouragement  the lessons  A and B.  L e v e l B: K i n d e r g a r t e n The  included  as MHDP. A d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g i n Appendices  (decision-  guide or the c h i l d  activities.  Because these m o d i f i c a t i o n s  purpose  grade c h i l d r e n t o  leadership reality  some  both  success negative  o f communica-  o f t h e programme, t h e T h e o r y M a n u a l  (Bessell,  67  is  1973) active  most  explicit  listening  positive  to  to  standing  of  increase  social  to  Like deal  modelling  First  1: the  and and  as  positive acquire through  behaviors  Effective  programme, grade  experience needs  these  level:  the  the  a b i l i t y to  to  to  through  kindergarten  develop  a  programme  listen  and  i n and  under-  tolerance  for  common h u m a n t r a i t s ;  increase  programme  verbal  and n e g a t i v e active  to  expression  objectives  effective  to  the  increase  The s e c o n d  (SAT o r  treatment  of  thoughts  and  through  adult  addition,  and  are  for  are  thoughts  also  the  conseexamined.  kindergarten  included for the  ability  ambivalence,  tolerance  i n making h e l p f u l  Treatment'  noted  self-control,  feelings,  students  and n e g a t i v e  behavior  objectives  grade  In  i n feelings  positive  ineffective  the  skills  reinforcement.  ambivalence  B).  first  feelings,  listening  having both  and  (Appendix  c h i l d r e n , the  positive  comfortably  skills  Comparison  and  additional  effectively,  improve  for  emphasize  kindergarten  Supplementing  first  to  grade  children discuss  quences.  m o d e l l i n g and  of  skills.  with  behaviors,  well  acquisition  self-confidence  interaction;  self-acceptance;  Level  and  develop  differences;  and l i s t e n i n g  as  children's adult  cited  self-control  oneself;  individual  these  through  objectives  improve  express  also  skills  the  reinforcement.  Specific are:  about  and  suggestions  to  to  to  empathy,  the  meet and  to  others.  To) procedure  u t i l i z e d was  Show-and-  68  Tell, It  a  has  standby  no w r i t t e n  objectives. to  promote  through  appears  to  and  Palomares  nor  objectives,  for as  amount  it  with  is  is  one  or  six of  student  methods  a series  conducted  as  performers. class  to  the  tion  elicit  comments  the  further  uses,  why i t  conclusion of  contribution.  the  it  is  found  i n the  its  value  as  some t e a c h e r s  ture  is  was  an  format  selected  literature educational  dismiss  the  systematically  the  Bessell  is  activity  with  allowed to  take  an a r t i c l e  to  his  peers  In order  and/or  the  child  is  class  thanked  as  comparison  teaches  lack  the  as of  his  treatment  method.  being  No  research or  of  refute  experience exactly  a discussion  elements  At  study.  In the w r i t e r ' s  HDP p r o g r a m m e  the  for  which would substantiate tool.  ques-  selected.  i n the  group  may  about  was  teacher,  encourage  used a  brought and  to  child  o r why i t  Show-and-Tell. However, the  which  compari-  sequential  daily  child  discussion  (in  other.  from the  the  used  formal curriculum  planned  display  enjoyed  the  a w i d e l y used  was  same a s  Each  be  self-confidence  DUSO a n d  a brief  teacher  display  T h i s was  Show-and-Tell since  of  "Show-and-Tell" implies.  verbalization,  article's  as  commenting upon i t  further to  such  Having neither  not  the  build  participation  b u i l d i n g upon the  usually  occasion, name  of  programme).  i n front  the  i n v e r b a l i z i n g , and t o  discussion  five  the  classrooms.  Handed on by w o r d - o f - m o u t h i t  other  turn  primary  stated  to  perhaps  and  clearly  a modest  It  c u r r i c u l u m guide  skills  activities,  many k i n d e r g a r t e n  and no  son  a  of  the struc-  listening  69  and of two-way communication tial  as w e l l as. the l a c k of a sequen-  content s t r u c t u r e do appear to present s u b s t a n t i a l  f e r e n c e s . How  dif-  s i g n i f i c a n t these d i f f e r e n c e s are w i t h r e s p e c t  to ego development  i n p a r t i c u l a r was  to be examined i n t h i s  study. Testing  Procedures  P r e t e s t i n g u s i n g the s i x t e s t i n g devices was  conducted  from the l a s t week of September beginning w i t h the v i d e o t a p i n g of student responses to the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box. Upon completion of the v i d e o t a p i n g procedure i n the l a s t week of October, teachers were asked to complete  the Behavior R a t i n g of P u p i l s .  The Class P i c t u r e s , A P i c t u r e Game and The Story of Tommy were completed next. P o s t t e s t i n g began immediately at the c o n c l u s i o n of the treatment p e r i o d i n March l a s t i n g u n t i l the l a t t e r p a r t of A p r i l w i t h the same order of t e s t i n g . The c u l a t i o n s on Grade P o i n t Average c r i b e d under  cal-  (GPA) were computed as des-  " D e s c r i p t i o n of Instruments". Statistical  This r e s e a r c h problem was  Procedures m u l t i v a r i a t e i n nature i n v o l v i n g  the simultaneous i n v e s t i g a t i o n of m u l t i p l e dependent Therefore, a multivariate 2x2x2  variables.  (treatment-by-sex-by-grade-  l e v e l ) a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was  used to determine  the e f f e c t s of the independent v a r i a b l e s upon the s u b j e c t ' s responses . (Bock and Haggard, 1 9 6 8 ) . In those f a c t o r s where a s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F was  found, u n i v a r i a t e analyses  f o l l o w e d f o r each of the dependent  variables  (Hummel and  Sligo,  70  1971; than  F i n n , 197*+) • M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was more separate  u n i v a r i a t e F - t e s t s on e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s  measured upon t h e same s u b j e c t s took i n t o  account  This procedural review  of a p p r o p r i a t e The  for  form o f a n a l y s i s  c h o i c e was f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d  of literature statistics  by G a r d n e r ' s  on s c a l e s t r e n g t h and s e l e c t i o n  (1975)change s c o r e s  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between p o s t -  d e r i v e d by  and p r e - m e a s u r e s  e a c h o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The c h o i c e  of analysis  o f g a i n o r change s c o r e s  r a t h e r than  procedures  by t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s  was s u p p o r t e d  presented  by Bock  All  analysis of covariance  were p e r f o r m e d u s i n g  t h e computer  M u l t i v a r i a n c e : U n i v a r i a t e and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s  programme,  of vari-  and r e g r e s s i o n - V e r s i o n V (MULTIVAR,  5) ( F i n n , 197*+) , m a i n t a i n e d Center,  issue  (1975)'  analyses  ance, c o v a r i a n c e .  vari-  be i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d .  MANOVA a n a l y s i s u s e d  calculating  since this  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e d e p e n d e n t  a b l e s which would otherwise  recent  appropriate  by t h e E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h  Faculty of Education,  University of B r i t i s h  Version Services  Columbia.  SUMMARY This sampling  chapter  techniques,  procedures.  has presented treatment,  the research  testing  d e s i g n and  and s t a t i s t i c a l  71 CHAPTER V  RESULTS  Univariate niques  and  were u t i l i z e d  multivariate analysis i n the a n a l y s i s  of variance  of data r e l a t e d  eight hypotheses.  In the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s  the  treatment  effect  observed  of the  on  b e t w e e n t h e s e m e a s u r e s . The subject's  responses  providing  i n f o r m a t i o n about  In those  dependent  2.  As  i n Chapter  differences  standard noted h,  total  the  considered  a single effect  was  correlations the  response,  of the was  thus  treatment.  rejected,  dependent v a r i a b l e s .  the  e x c e p t i o n of the  corresponds  the  For  teacher  pretest results each of these  classroom  an  the  actual  learning  scores  statistical the  f o r each  variables,  of with  r a t i n g measure, a p o s i t i v e teacher  growth; a n e g a t i v e v a l u e  of P u p i l s represents  change  change s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t  and  to growth. For  reflects  d e v i a t i o n s of the  i n the d i s c u s s i o n of  the  between p o s t -  the  the  of v a r i a n c e ,  of v a r i a n c e f o l l o w e d f o r each of  means and  i n Table  negative  the  the  variables.  procedures  sign  multivariate test  t o a l l measures as  analyses  The appear  account  i n s t a n c e s where t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  univariate  to  a l l c r i t e r i o n measures  simultaneously, taking into  tech-  and  rating  the  gain  negative  f o r the Behavior  r e d u c t i o n i n the s o c i a l behavior  amount  Rating of  observable  to  teacher. I n s p e c t i o n of Table  2 r e v e a l s both  the r e l a t i v e l y  large  Table 2 Observed C e l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s : Seven Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Cognitive Competence  SelfRating  Security  Teacher Rating  Peer 'A' (Affiliation)  Peer 'B' (Observation)  -  -I+.231 (5.231)  -1.385 (7.171)  (1+.525)  k.l5h  -0.692 (7- L +09)  -  0.862 (1.028)a  -1.00 (if.865)  0.385 Q.l+l+6)  1-538 (3-526)  3-00 (7.703)  3-^85 (5-121)  -  -9.083 (6.775)  0.333 (2.71+D  3.833 (5-132)  2.50 (11.81+1+)  -  O.O77 (1.226)  -O.3O8 (3-79>+)  -1.125 (2.386)  1.308 (1+.516)  1+.538 (6.1+63)  9.662 (8.501)  -  -0.500 (3-M5L+)  -0.375 (1.598)  -1.125 (5-21+9)  3-625 (7-577)  -  -O.171+ (1.195)  0.269 (0.568)  -0.8>+6 (6.581)  0.077 (2.900)  O.615 (5-881)  0.077 (u.35L+)  16  1.052 (1.589)  -  -O.O63 (if.823)  1.313 (3.239)  1.00 (5.01+6)  -1.313 (8.252)  15  O.072 (1.1+62)  0.653 (1.011)  O.O67 (6.808)  -0.267 (3.239)  0.867 (7A53)  -1-333 (12.568)  N  T BK  13  TjBl  13  TjGK  12  -0.1+1+9 (3-651)  T]G1  13  0.33>+  T-.BK  8  T2B1  13  T GK T2G1  2  Affective Competence  GPA  Group  X  Social Competence  ProblemS o l v i n g Time 0.81+3 (3-131) (0.901)  2.9hk  (3-883)  Note: GPA and S e c u r i t y Scores c o l l e c t e d  f o r Grade One students only  Numbers i n parentheses are standard d e v i a t i o n s  a  T] = MHDP  B = Boys  K = Kindergarten  T  G = Girls  1 = Grade One  2  = SAT  .  (6.533) -  7.155 (8.503)  73 i n c r e a s e s i n means i n the teacher r a t i n g measure f o r k i n d e r garten students i n the MHDP treatment  groups and the Peer B' 1  r a t i n g which measures peer o b s e r v a t i o n o f s o c i a l l y or n e u t r a l behavior i n the same  positive  groups.  The balance o f the r e s u l t s are presented below with hypotheses presented  Hypothesis  p e r t a i n i n g t o the independent  v a r i a b l e s or f a c t o r s  first.  1. Mean change scores are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r MHDP groups than mean change scores f o r SAT groups f o r treatment main e f f e c t s on f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s : p e r s i s t e n c e time i n mature problem-solving behavior ( K e i s t e r Puzzle Box); teacher r a t i n g o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g behavior (Behavior Rating; o f P u p i l s ) ; peer nomination f o r observed p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l behavior (Peer 'B'); peer s e l e c t i o n f o r persona l a f f i l i a t i o n (Peer 'A'); s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f the dominant emotional response t o l i f e (A P i c t u r e Game).  Table 3 presents MANOVA r e s u l t s along with the followup u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s . These r e s u l t s f i c a n t treatment  effect  i n d i c a t e that there, was a s i g n i -  (p_ <^ .003)  which can be accounted f o r  by the changes i n the teacher behavior r a t i n g and the Peer B' 1  r a t i n g , both measures of s o c i a l competency r e l a t e d t o overt social  behavior. For the teacher r a t i n g , the observed  for  MHDP and SAT groups were  -3-5+9  and  combined means  -0.289  respectively.  These scores r e v e a l e d t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the MHDP groups demons t r a t e d l e s s d y s f u n c t i o n a l behavior as observed The  by the t e a c h e r s .  corresponding combined means f o r the peer p e r c e p t i o n  St  Table 3 M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance E f f e c t s o f Treatment, Sex, and Grade-Level Upon F i v e Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Univariate F Statistics Multivariate Test F (df)  Degrees of Freedom  ProblemSolving Time  Teacher Rating  Treatment  3.8601* (5, 91)  1  l . .3053  8.•9931*  0.3593  '+. 1837*  1.84-27  Sex  0.4415  (5, 91)  l  0,.6025  0.• 3057  1.9012  0.0926  0.0062  Grade-Level  1.9751  (5, 91)  1  1.• 304-2  6.• 74 54-  0.2214-  0.9636  0.24-96  T x S  0.9373  (5, 91)  1  0..2152  1..9526  0.0056  0.2953  1-7633  T x G  3.6680* (5, 91)  1  2.• 2571  7..5279*  1.2362  2.24-9+  1.2867  S x G  1.0313  (5, 91)  1  3., 074-9  1..9296  0.9680  0.1639  0.0517  T xSx G  0.4-870  (5, 91)  1  0..5807  1.• 3087  0.0033  0.2105  0.4-598  95  Within  102  Total *P < .05  Peer 'A' (Affiliation)  Peer 'B (Observation) 1  !  SelfEating  7 5  measure, Peer  'B', were 2.686 and 0 - 5 3 8 .  These scores  indicate  a concomitant i n c r e a s e f o r the MHDP p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the amount of  p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l behavior observed by peers.  Hypothesis 2 .  For . f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s , mean change scores are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r the MHDP groups than f o r SAT groups f o r treatment main e f f e c t s on two dependent v a r i a b l e s : s c h o o l achievement (GPA) and independent s e c u r i t y (The Story o f Tommy).  The m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses corresponding to Hypothesis 2 are summarized  i n Table h.  These analyses r e v e a l e d no s i g n i -  f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , r e s e a r c h Hypothesis 2 i s not r e j e c t e d . Mean change scores f o r f i r s t  grade s u b j e c t s f o r  treatment e f f e c t s of the MHDP programme on academic a c h i e v e ment and independent s e c u r i t y were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y ent  differ-  from mean change scores f o r the comparison treatment group.  Hypothesis 3«  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females on each o f the c r i t e r i o n measures.  As h y p o t h e s i z e d , the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses f o r the second independent v a r i a b l e , sex, d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h e i t h e r group of dependent Tables 3 and h).  v a r i a b l e s (see  T h e r e f o r e , Hypothesis 3 i s not r e j e c t e d :  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females on each o f the  c r i t e r i o n measures were not found.  7.6  Table h M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance: E f f e c t s of Treatment and Sex on Two Dependent V a r i a b l e s (Grade One)  Univariate F Statistics Multivariate Test F (df)  Degrees of Freedom  GPA  Security  Treatment  0.0571 (2, h9)  1  0.005  0.1161  Sex  2.1+313 : (2, 1+9)  1  0.1+1+61+  h.797  T xS  2.1+78 (2, 1+9)  1  1+.6938  0.7^10  Within  50  Total  53  77 Hypothesis  h.  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade p u p i l s on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures.  As h y p o t h e s i z e d ,  the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses  f o r the t h i r d  independent v a r i a b l e , g r a d e - l e v e l , r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between grades (Table 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , Hypothesis was accepted:  g r a d e - l e v e l d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t  h  effect  on each o f the c r i t e r i o n measures.  Hypothesis  5«  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r males are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r females on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures.  From Tables 3 and h, the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses ment i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h sex f a i l e d  to r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t  ences. The n u l l hypothesis was accepted. cant i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment  Hypothesis  6.  of t r e a t differ-  There was no s i g n i f i -  and sex.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n p u p i l s a r e . not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change scores between MHDP and SAT groups f o r f i r s t grade s u b j e c t s on each of the c r i t e r i o n measures.  Examination o f Table 3 r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f treatment g r a d e - l e v e l (F ( 5 , 91) = 3 - 6 8 8 , p < . 0 0 5 ) .  with  T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l  hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . Followup u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s of the  78  dependent v a r i a b l e s t o determine which v a r i a b l e i s c o n t r i b u t i n g to for  the s i g n i f i c a n t only  rating  m u l t i v a r i a t e F showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  one o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , t h e t e a c h e r  (F  g a i n f o r t h e MHDP k i n d e r g a r t e n  group  the  mean g a i n f o r t h e MHDP f i r s t  for  t h e SAT g r o u p s  such m a n i f e s t  treatment  g r a d e group  was g r e a t e r (.65^),  S p e c u l a t i o n about  differences w i l l  than  whereas  comparable  t h e causes o f  be r e s e r v e d  f o r the  7'  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change s c o r e s between males and f e m a l e s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m mean change s c o r e s f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s i n f i r s t g r a d e on e a c h o f the c r i t e r i o n measures.  d i f f e r e n c e was n o t r e v e a l e d  i n the m u l t i -  a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s e x and g r a d e - l e v e l .  Therefore, is  (6.559)  chapter.  A significant variate  t h a t t h e mean  t h e mean g a i n s were more n e a r l y  (.208 and .357 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  Hypothesis  behavior  ( 1 , 95) = 7-528, p < . 0 0 7 3 ) . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  combined means f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s r e v e a l e d  following  F ratio  the n u l l hypothesis  no s i g n i f i c a n t  was a c c e p t e d  (Table 3 ) .  There  i n t e r a c t i o n between s e x and g r a d e - l e v e l o f  subjects.  Hypothesis  8.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n mean change s c o r e s b e t w e e n MHDP and SAT g r o u p s f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s i n k i n d e r garten a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from mean change s c o r e s b e t w e e n MHDP a n d SAT g r o u p s f o r males a n d f e m a l e s i n f i r s t g r a d e on e a c h of t h e c r i t e r i o n measures.  79 The  f i n a l multivariate  a n a l y s i s was f o r the p o s s i b l e  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s f o r treatment, sex and g r a d e - l e v e l the f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s . Table 3 r e v e a l s  upon  no s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was accepted. The in  implications  the concluding  Additional  o f these f i n d i n g s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  chapter.  Data  A d d i t i o n a l data was a v a i l a b l e which can be used to supplement the r e s u l t s reported  e a r l i e r - i n t h i s chapter.  This  data r e l a t e d t o the problem-solving measure, the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box, and the peer a f f i l i a t i o n measure, Peer r e s u l t s w i l l be presented i n that  'B'. The  order.  Two kinds o f data were obtained from the K e i s t e r Box. F i r s t l y , p o s t t e s t increase  r e s u l t s f o r the p u z z l e r e v e a l e d  i n the numbers o f subjects  s u c c e s s f u l l y completed the p u z z l e .  Puzzle a small  from the MHDP group who At the k i n d e r g a r t e n  level  there were f i v e MHDP p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h c o r r e c t s o l u t i o n s out of a t o t a l o f 25 s u b j e c t s w h i l e a t the f i r s t  grade l e v e l there were two s o l u t i o n s out  of a t o t a l 26 p a r t i c i p a n t s This p a t t e r n  d i d not h o l d  no c o r r e c t s o l u t i o n s the p r e t e s t  (as compared t o two on the p r e t e s t )  (as compared t o none on the p r e t e s t ) . f o r the SAT p a r t i c i p a n t s . There were  f o r the k i n d e r g a r t e n subjects  out o f 2k s u b j e c t s  t i o n a t the f i r s t  grade l e v e l  (one on  i n t o t a l ) and one c o r r e c t (one on the p r e t e s t  solu-  out o f 28  subjects). Secondly, the nature o f the b e h a v i o r a l by  the s u b j e c t s  responses made  to the K e i s t e r Puzzle were unexpectedly  80 diverse.  Rather  behavior  as "mature" o r "immature", i t became a p p a r e n t  the  provided  test  range  narrow  of the task;  Several  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the  a remarkable opportunity  of the child's behavioral  avoidance  trate  than the very  flexibility-rigidity.  of the behavioral  the diverse kinds  of data  t o sample a b r o a d e r  r e p e r t o i r e - eg. approach-  cognitive  samples  that  p r o t o c o l s which  illus-  a v a i l a b l e are included (see  Appendix D ) . The in  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these  a later  findings w i l l  s e c t i o n "Recommendations  Examination of the posttest m e a s u r e , The C l a s s f o u r MHDP g r o u p s isolates.  for Further  Each c h i l d  personal  affiliation.  (N = 52)  a t e i t h e r grade  that  i n each o f t h e  t h e r e were no l o n g e r  received  Research".  r e s u l t s o f t h e P e e r 'B'  Pictures, revealed  (N = 5l)  be d i s c u s s e d  at least  T h i s was n o t t r u e  any s o c i a l  one n o m i n a t i o n  for  f o r t h e SAT groups  level. SUMMARY  This variate  chapter  analyses  has presented  of variance  were t e s t e d f o r t h e two p a r t s  the r e s u l t s of the multi-  o f the data.  Eight  o f the study. Hypotheses 1  t h r o u g h !+ were r e l a t e d t o t h e t h r e e  independent v a r i a b l e s -  t r e a t m e n t , s e x and g r a d e - l e v e l . H y p o t h e s e s tained  to interactions. Univariate  followed  significant  hypotheses  analyses  multivariate F ratios  mine w h i c h d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d  5" t h r o u g h  8 per-  of variance i n order  to deter-  to the e f f e c t .  81  The f i r s t hypothesis examined the e f f e c t s of treatment on f i v e c r i t e r i o n measures. A s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o was obtained l e a d i n g to r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . Mean change scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r MHDP groups for  than  SAT groups. Two of the c r i t e r i o n measures, the teacher  Behavior R a t i n g of P u p i l s and Peer  'B' (peer p e r c e p t i o n of  p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r ) , were s i g n i f i c a n t as noted by t h e i r u n i v a r i a t e F v a l u e s . Hypothesis 2 concerning treatment main e f f e c t s on the f i r s t independent  grade c r i t e r i o n measures, GPA and  s e c u r i t y , was accepted: there were no d i f f e r e n c e s  between the treatment groups. Hypotheses  3 and h, the a s s e s s -  ments of sex and g r a d e - l e v e l e f f e c t s , were l i k e w i s e accepted. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females nor between k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t  grade p u p i l s on each of the  c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s . I n t e r a c t i o n hypotheses, Hypothesis 5? treatment-by-sex, Hypothesis 7,  s e x - b y - g r a d e - l e v e l , and Hypoth-  e s i s 8 , t r e a t m e n t - b y - s e x - b y - g r a d e - l e v e l , were accepted. A s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F r a t i o was found f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment and g r a d e - l e v e l , Hypothesis 6 , w i t h those d i f f e r e n c e s accounted f o r only at the k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l .  82 CHAPTER V I DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY The  results  some s u p p o r t  presented  f o r asserting  i n the previous chapter  provided  t h a t t h e M e t h o d s i n Human  Develop-  ment programme d i d p r o m o t e f u n c t i o n a l ego  competencies  development. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h a t c a p a b i l i t y  related to  was s o c i a l  competence. This chapter w i l l for  present a discussion o f the results  e a c h h y p o t h e s i s , some i n f o r m a l d a t a , l i m i t a t i o n s  s t u d y , as w e l l  as r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r  of the  research.  Conclusions Hypothesis The  1;  Treatment  Effects  f i r s t hypothesis  examined t r e a t m e n t  c r i t e r i o n measures: time spent ior;  teacher r a t i n g  positive  o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r ; peer r a t i n g f o r selection  f o r interpersonal  s e l f - r a t i n g o f emotional response  statistically  significant multivariate  for  main e f f e c t s  treatment  on f i v e  i n mature p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g behav-  or n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r ; peer  affiliation;  effects  a t t h e .003  to l i f e .  A  F v a l u e was o b s e r v e d level.  U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t two o f t h e f i v e c r i t e r i o n measures were c o n t r i b u t i n g behavior r a t i n g , 1  B'  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  to the effect:  .0035 l e v e l , a n d t h e P e e r  r a t i n g w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e  bility.  Both  ratings  the teacher  .00*+ l e v e l o f p r o b a -  m e a s u r e d s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g  behavior  83  clearly  observable  t h a t more p o s i t i v e ticipants  t o classmates  changes i n t h e o v e r t c o n d u c t  complement  each  from  each  selection  o f t h e dominant In  significantly  emotional  influenced  of these r e s u l t s  a difference  Data"  differences  The u n i v a r i a t e  i n the treatment  - were  detailed  analysis  failed  groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o  I n t h e p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n on " A d d i -  5?  puzzle  t h e r e were some n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  solutions.  "Limitations o f t h e Three  of positive  o f t h e Study" Social  overt s o c i a l  the conclusions reached  review  was n o t . More  problems p r e s e n t e d by t h e instrument  Results  in  behavior  i n f a v o r o f t h e MHDP g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e  d i s c u s s e d under  importance  competency measures -  i s indicated.  Behavior.  i n Chapter  number o f c o r r e c t The  to l i f e .  and l e a r n i n g  affiliation,  problem-solving behavior. tional  response  self-percep-  b y t h e MHDP programme, w h i l e t h e  f o r peer  Problem-Solving reveal  i n mature p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e -  for personal a f f i l i a t i o n ;  to overt social  selection  discussion  to  spent  summary, two o f t h e t h r e e s o c i a l  those r e l a t i n g  •third,  g r o u p s were c l e a r l y n o t d i f f e r -  o t h e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o any o f t h e r e m a i n i n g  c r i t e r i o n measures: time h a v i o r , peer  Thus,  other.  However, t h e t r e a t m e n t  tion  o f MHDP p a r -  were b e i n g d i s c e r n e d b y t e a c h e r a n d p e e r s .  these r e s u l t s  entiated  and t e a c h e r . I t was a p p a r e n t  of the longitudinal  i t s e l f are  (see p.  9h).  Competency M e a s u r e s . The f u n c t i o n i n g was h i g h l i g h t e d  by Kohlberg  et a l  (1972) i n t h e i r  research previously discussed i n  8k  2.  Chapter  Their study  of a n t i s o c i a l of l a t e r Their  a severe  b e h a v i o r was t h e s i n g l e  adjustment  review  showed t h a t  problems  suggested  that  distortions  age-developmental  behavior  trait  frequency  i n adulthood.  operated  toward  Glueck  1959)•  be  thebetter  "...  predictor  We c a n p r e d i c t  were  of the  Predictably,  a decline i n  i n c r e a s e i n age ( R o b i n s , 1966; Positive  examined.  t o h i s environment  such behavior w i t h and G l u e c k ,  predictor  i n t h e c h i l d ' s ego  conditions f o r the relative  appearance o f a n t i s o c i a l this  most p o w e r f u l  o f any c h i l d h o o d b e h a v i o r  development and i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p the n e c e s s a r y  childhood pattern  Field,  1969;  f u n c t i o n i n g was f o u n d t o  of successful  adult  adjustment.  that  almost  no c h i l d r e n who a r e f r e e o f  a n t i s o c i a l behavior w i l l  become  antisocial  adults"  (Kohlberg  et a l , 1972, p. 121+9). In t h e l i g h t results  from  positive  this  of the  study w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f o s t e r i n g  o f such  preventive  brief  c a n h a r d l y be o v e r - e s t i m a t e d .  such  positive  cussion o f Hypothesis third  affiliation, treatment.  functioning  as a  psychoeduca-  time has p o t e n t i a l  comments  on t h e r e s u l t s  teacher perception of behavior w i l l  The  social  intervention.  More d e t a i l e d for  findings,  behavior  can f o s t e r  such r e l a t i v e l y  tional  the importance  overt s o c i a l  A programme w h i c h in  of their  6,  be r e s e r v e d f o r d i s -  treatment-by-grade-level  c r i t e r i o n measure o f s o c i a l  a p p a r e n t l y was n o t a f f e c t e d  The c h i l d r e n  of the instrument  participating  interaction.  competency,  significantly  i n t h e MHDP  1  peer  by  programme  85  were n o t c h o s e n more f r e q u e n t l y relationships. programme  that  o f t h e programme  not  within  accurate  the nature  the d i s c u s s i o n  p a r t i c u l a r area.  programme  t h e MHDP  of friendly  com-  I t was.assumed  would have p r o v i d e d t h e  knowledge about  t o a f f e c t the emotionality  able  interpersonal  study d i d not support the  i nthis  participation i n this  rately in  the s u b s t a n t i a l focus  the r e s u l t s of t h i s  children with had  into  of assisting children to attain interpersonal  petencies, claims  Despite  f o r entry  t h e power e a c h  o f others behavior,  groups. Apparently,  child  and t o d i s c e r n since  t h e s e were  accutopics  t h e MHDP c h i l d r e n were  t o r e t r i e v e and p u t t o a c t i v e u s e t h a t k n o w l e d g e i n  a c o n s i s t e n t way. As  discussed  earlier  i n Chapter  examination o f the  d a t a f o r t h e measure o f p e e r a f f i l i a t i o n , to l i g h t  additional information.  however, d i d b r i n g  In the p o s t t e s t  the  g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e MHDP  all  children received  control  groups.  any s o c i a l  isolates.  This  I t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t  of  involved  significant,  was n o t t r u e  2 revealed,  MHDP g r o u p s showed a t r e n d  too, that  f o r greater  c h i l d r e n were n o t as p o p u l a r of s e l e c t i o n on t h e p r e t e s t .  initially  f o r the  some g r a s p o f t h e  i n interpersonal relationships.  t h e means i n T a b l e  there  the c h i l d r e n i n the  MHDP g r o u p s d i d seem t o h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d principles  programme,  a t l e a s t one n o m i n a t i o n f o r a f f i l i a t i o n .  A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y were no l o n g e r  results for  gain  Inspection  the kindergarten even though t h e  judging  by t h e f r e q u e n c y  86  Several  research  f i n d i n g s had suggested  t h e importance  o f p e e r a c c e p t a n c e a n d . s o c i a l competence t o t h e c h i l d with  respect  predictor Lippitt  of later  use o f h i s a b i l i t i e s  positive functioning 1959;  and G o l d ,  Havighurst, that  t o the present  Schmuck, 1963,  later  adjustment  to improve  this  Further  while  Discussion  statistically  Firstly, to allow  Forty-five tively  over  of theResults failure  significant  f o r greater  results with  observations  on t h e p l a y g r o u n d  fluctuations i nsocial  was o b s e r v e d  able  may h a v e b e e n t o o  may be i n d i c a t i v e device  t h e r e may h a v e b e e n o t h e r  example, i n f o r m a l  preferences  it  by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  skills. i sa relainteraction.  o f t h e somewhat  used  (see  "Limita-  of the Study"). Thirdly,  able  Compe-  one o f t h e s o c i a l  f o r t h e u n i t on s o c i a l  of the sociometric  trait).  of theSocial  i m p a c t upon t h e r e l e v a n t  time a l l o t m e n t  inadequate nature  For  (an a n t i c i p a t e d  o f t h e MHDP programme t o  t h e time f o r t h e l e s s o n s  Secondly, ther e s u l t s  tions  time  m i n u t e s e a c h week f o r a s i x week p e r i o d  brief  found  r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n tended  competency measures may be e x p l a i n e d  short  (1962)  i s an a g e - d e v e l o p m e n t a l - a d a p t a t i o n a l  M e a s u r e s . The a p p a r e n t  produce  197D-  a guarantee o f t h e absence o f  i ninterpersonal skills  pattern since  tency  difficulties  1972;  et a l ,  B. W h i t e ,  Bowman, L i d d l e , Matthews and P i e r c e  p e e r a c c e p t a n c e was a l m o s t  and a s . a  (Kohlberg 1966;  both  t o "buy"  factors i n operation.  of the children's  and i n c l a s s r e v e a l e d  groupings.  t h a t some o f t h e l e s s  t h e i r way i n t o p l a y  social consider-  On a number o f o c c a s i o n s popular  c h i l d r e n were  g r o u p s by s h a r i n g  candy o r  87  a toy w i t h the o t h e r s . The manner i n which the t r e a t was shared was not the more easy manner i n which the true s o c i a l equals behaved. This o b s e r v a t i o n seems to conform to the f i n d ings of S e l l s , R o f f , Cox and Mayer (1967) who found  that  s o c i o m e t r i c rank was a momentary r a t h e r than a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t a b l e v a r i a b l e except  f o r the extremes of s o c i o m e t r i c s t a t u s .  It was these extremes i n repeated observations which were useful of  p r e d i c t o r s of l a t e r f u n c t i o n i n g . Over a f o u r - y e a r p e r i o d observing the same i n d i v i d u a l s , a moderately  stable picture  evolved w i t h p o s i t i v e peer-choice scores being more s t a b l e than n e g a t i v e peer-choice  scores.  As a c o n c l u d i n g remark, the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s f o r two out of three c r i t e r i o n measures r e l a t i n g t o s o c i a l mastery as w e l l as some i n d i c a t i o n of reduced to  support  the c o n c l u s i o n that the B e s s e l l and Palomares pro-  gramme does i n c r e a s e s k i l l in  i s o l a t i o n are evidence  i n t h i s v i t a l area o f f u n c t i o n i n g  these young c h i l d r e n . I t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s seems to be more  n o t i c e a b l e w i t h the k i n d e r g a r t e n group. F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n r e l e v a n t to t h i s p o i n t w i l l be made under Hypothesis  6.  S e l f - R a t i n g Measure. This study d i d not r e v e a l any d i f f e r e n c e i n the treatment  groups w i t h r e s p e c t to the s e l f -  p e r c e p t i o n measures of the emotional response  to l i f e as  happy or sad. Kohlberg  et a l (1972) found t h a t a f f e c t i v e t r a i t s  r e l a t e d t o c u r r e n t developmental  (which  and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s ) were  n e i t h e r s e q u e n t i a l nor i r r e v e r s i b l e . One can r e a d i l y  recognize  88 that  moods change; t h e  relate  to the  persist  as  emotion f e l t  s u g g e s t e d by  Thomas, C h e s s , and measure may of the as  child,  The  by  should  nent  and  and  competence.  so,  detected  given  of  the  by  will  the  be  not  include  ment t o d e t e c t  the  emphasis upon an  a self-concept  emotional  learning  therefore,  p o s i t i v e l y or MHDP  interven-  a f f e c t i v e compochange  did  not.  of r e s u l t s i s  best  that  a v a i l a b l e , may  reported  (see  power. O t h e r  m e a s u r e , or  capability for differentiated  o f an  critical  even i f t h i s  paucity the  a  years  q u a l i t y of that  reliabilities  a n d / o r a measure o f t h e  detection  relationship  toward  influenced  some i n s t r u m e n t  low  t o be  i n t e r v e n t i o n . The  r e a s o n f o r the  measures m i g h t  accurate  therefore,  reasonable,  t e s t suggest poor d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  of a f f e c t ,  by  p r e d o m i n a n t mood  of a t t i t u d e s  t e s t , A P i c t u r e Game, a l t h o u g h  the  and,  colleagues  upon a s e n s e o f m a s t e r y . The  be  the  found  These e a r l y s c h o o l  I t would be  educational  h a v e b e e n a d e q u a t e . The for  his  affectivity  any  do  Perhaps p a r t the  affectivity.  Kohlberg  to p r e d i c t that  tion  to  patterns  this particular  d i d i n d i c a t e the  i n , f o r example, f o r m a t i o n  negatively  basic  change.  a sense of  should  closely tied  review of l i t e r a t u r e  were shown by  very  S e l e c t i o n of  a genetically-linked trait  b e t w e e n c o g n i t i o n and  and  hut  clearly  temperamental p a t t e r n s  (1968).  Birch  t o d a y does n o t  yesterday,  the  have been too  amenable t o  period  emotion f e l t  an  p.  not 60)  possible instru-  expression  child's capability for state i n others.  Any  of  t h e s e m i g h t h a v e b e e n more u s e f u l measures r e l a t e d t o a f f e c t  89  than the instrument s e l e c t e d . 2:' Treatment  Hypothesis The first  Effects  s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s examined  grade p u p i l s  performance  and  only  on two  feelings  were n o t . s i g n i f i c a n t :  t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was While  apparently  The  results  accepted.  the a c t i v i t i e s .provided  The  Story  i s important at t h i s  omissions had  i n the f i r s t  Each  leadership  point  within  and duce  of independence.  significant Academic  and  results  would  be  In relating  I t may  be  grade  that  curriculum  which  included  the  second  development  a longer  programme  e x p e r i e n c e s would  affective  The  pro-  area.  criterion  depends t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e  component. I t i s t h i s least  the n a t u r e of the  a b e a r i n g upon t h e  i n this  Achievement.  security  the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s .  of these f i r s t  s c h o o l achievement, cognitive  to r e c a l l  programme  participants.  of time r e s t r i c t i o n s  activities  the i n c l u s i o n  Palomares  of independent  g r a d e programme. The  o f t h e s e s h o u l d have had  feelings  feelings  and  o f Tommy t h a n t h e SAT  t o be d e l e t e d b e c a u s e  child  i n the B e s s e l l  d i d not have g r e a t e r  as m e a s u r e d by  of  academic  programme a r e d e s i g n e d t o p e r m i t e a c h s t u d e n t t o e x p e r i e n c e  success, the p a r t i c i p a n t s  It  c r i t e r i o n measures:  of independent s e c u r i t y .  S e c u r i t y Measure. the  treatment e f f e c t s f o r  measure,  d e g r e e upon a  a r e a of development  which  amenable t o a s h o r t - t e r m t r e a t m e n t s u c h as  summarizing  the r e s u l t s  f o r the f i r s t  to t r e a t m e n t main e f f e c t s ,  two  this.  hypotheses  i t i s apparent that  the  90  social  competency m e a s u r e s , t e a c h e r and p e e r  the c h i l d ' s  behavior  P i c t u r e s ) , were  of the effects  to cognitive  enced  by treatment.  and e m o t i o n a l  o f t h e MHDP t r e a t -  competence were  not i n f l u ^  3 : Sex E f f e c t s  The s u b j e c t ' s s e x as an i n d e p e n d e n t affect  and The C l a s s  a s p e c t o f ego d e v e l o p m e n t . Those measures r e -  lated  Hypothesis  ( B e h a v i o r Rating: o f P u p i l s  indicative  ment upon t h i s  perception of  variable  did not  t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was s u s t a i n e d .  Hypothesis  h: G r a d e - l e v e l E f f e c t s  This hypothesis that nificant  effect  Hypothesis  g r a d e - l e v e l w o u l d n o t have a s i g -  upon t h e c r i t e r i o n measures was s u s t a i n e d .  5: T r e a t m e n t - b y - S e x  The h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g treatment F ratios  and s e x was s u p p o r t e d  to interaction since  effects  significant  between  multivariate  were n o t e v i d e n t .  Hypothesis  6;  Treatment-by-Grade-level  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s examined i n t e r a c t i o n s  between  treatment  and  g r a d e - l e v e l . With a m u l t i v a r i a t e F value s i g n i f i c a n t a t  the  .005 l e v e l ,  the n u l l  h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d .  inspection of theunivariate that  significance:  F ratios  Further  r e v e a l e d the source o f  t h e t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r r a t i n g measure  (p_ <C  .007). Examination that  o f the'observed  combined means r e v e a l e d  t h e mean g a i n f o r t h e MHDP k i n d e r g a r t e n g r o u p  (6.559) was  91 g r e a t e r than the mean gain f o r the MHDP f i r s t  grade group  ( . 6 5 * 0 .  While the u n i v a r i a t e F f o r the Peer  'B r a t i n g was no 1  longer s i g n i f i c a n t , the same d i r e c t i o n a l change i n the  observed  combined means f o r the MHDP groups at the k i n d e r g a r t e n  level  was  apparent  (3«999  as compared t o  IA23  f o r the f i r s t  grade  MHDP group). There are a t l e a s t two p o s s i b l e explanations phenomenon. The f i r s t the k i n d e r g a r t e n  for this  r e l a t e s to the developmental l e v e l of  ( 5 - y e a r - o l d ) c h i l d ; the second r e l a t e s to  some o f the major goals o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . The  developmental stage o f the c h i l d suggests two  answers. One r e l a t e s t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the  typical  5 - y e a r - o l d who i s d e s c r i b e d as being pre-moral and s e l f c e n t e r e d , as viewing  a b s t r a c t i o n s i n p e r s o n a l terms r a t h e r  than i n r e l a t i o n to standards, iences  (Bessell,  1973).  and as being open t o h i s exper-  The second e x p l a n a t i o n i n v o l v e s the  t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e i n which the c h i l d f i n d s h i m s e l f . He has j u s t s t a r t e d a new experience  - h i s s c h o o l career - and he must  accommodate t o the demands o f t h i s new s i t u a t i o n . Both the c h i l d ' s developmental s t a t u s and h i s t r a n s i t i o n s t a t e make him more a c c e s s i b l e t o an i n t e r v e n t i o n . A programme to iod  designed  s u i t h i s developmental needs o f f e r e d a t t h i s c r i t i c a l  per-  should be r e a d i l y a s s i m i l a t e d . Hence, there i s the g r e a t e r  e f f e c t o f the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme i n c r e a t i n g the outward behavior  change.  92 Another e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n between t r e a t ment and  g r a d e - l e v e l r e l a t e s to i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s . In k i n d e r -  garten the c h i l d i s taught  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a t t e n d i n g and  l e a r n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e behavior. adaptation  other  A l l h i s attempts at p o s i t i v e  to the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and  i n the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  of l e a r n i n g cues are rewarded by the s c h o o l environment. Vygotsky  (1962) o f f e r e d y e t another e x p l a n a t i o n which  might account f o r the r e s u l t s . Appropriateness and  of  curriculum  timing were suggested by the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n : "The  only good k i n d of i n s t r u c t i o n i s that which marches ahead of development and  leads i t ; i t must be aimed not  so much at the  r i p e but at the r i p e n i n g f u n c t i o n s . . . " (p. lO^f). I t may  be  that the c u r r i c u l u m of the MHDP programme i s at an optimum l e v e l of complexity  f o r the k i n d e r g a r t e n  child.  I t i s aimed  at the r i p e n i n g f u n c t i o n s . I t happens to a l i g n with teacher's  g o a l s , as w e l l . This may  i n overt negative  s o c i a l and  to the teacher, and behaviors  seen by  account f o r the decrease  l e a r n i n g behaviors d i s c e r n i b l e  f o r the i n c r e a s e i n p o s i t i v e or n e u t r a l  peers.  Because the B e s s e l l and mental, the omissions  Palomares programme i s  i n the f i r s t  ship a c t i v i t i e s , decision-making, and r e a l i t y and  the  f a n t a s y ) , may  develop-  grade programme ( l e a d e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  have m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t  honesty, similar  r e s u l t s f o r the grade one p u p i l s . Hypothesis 7'-  Sex-by-Grade-level  This hypothesis  examined the i n t e r a c t i o n s of treatment,  93 sex and g r a d e - l e v e l . I t was significant interactions Hypothesis 8 :  accepted s i n c e no  statistically  existed.  Treatment-by-Sex-by-Grade-level  This h y p o t h e s i s examined the i n t e r a c t i o n s of treatment, sex and g r a d e - l e v e l . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  were found. T h e r e f o r e , the hypothesis was  interactions  accepted.  Additional Findings Many of these f i n d i n g s have been d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n the context of the r e l e v a n t hypotheses One  as supplementary  data.  of the important f i n d i n g s of the study was  the un-  expected o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d by the s t a n d a r d i z e d problem-solv i n g s i t u a t i o n , the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box,  to sample a very broad  range of the c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e . Information on both the temperamental and the c o g n i t i v e s t y l e of the c h i l d readily available  (eg. approach-avoidance  was  of the task, indepen-  dence-dependence, c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y - r i g i d i t y ) . The  poten-  t i a l value of r e c o r d i n g these types of o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l  be  d i s c u s s e d under "Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research". A very a c c u r a t e , b e a u t i f u l l y p o e t i c summary of the overa l l responses of the c h i l d r e n to the puzzle i s p r o v i d e d by Murphy  (1962). For one c h i l d to whom newness has p r o g r e s s i v e l y brought new s a t i s f a c t i o n s , a strange new experi e n c e arouses f a n t a s i e s of new o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p o t e n t i a l f u n : f o r another strangeness b r i n g s p o t e n t i a l ogres i n i t s shadows. For s t i l l another, strangeness i s simply a q u e s t i o n mark, something to d i s c o v e r ; t h i s c h i l d w i l l l e t strangeness have a f a i r chance. He allows i t to show i t s c o l o r s ; he does not prejudge i t . One c h i l d may march f o r ward, ready to beard a l i o n i n h i s den i f need be, w h i l e another s k i p s i n t o newness as i f i t c a r r i e d  9h a rainbow's promise o f a p o t o f g o l d . S t i l l a n o t h e r i s t r a n s f i x e d and i m m o b i l i z e d , seemi n g l y h y p n o t i z e d by i n s c r u t a b l e f o r c e s i n s t r a n g e n e s s i t s e l f (p. 193). Limitations  o f t h e Study  T h e r e were possible out  several limitations  experimenter  effect  some o f t h e t r e a t m e n t Another  first  centered  on t h e c u r r i c u l u m d e l e t i o n s a t t h e  o f some k e y e x p e r i e n c e s  decision-making  may  have been a c o n t r i b u t i n g this  the m e r i t  g r o u p as w e l l .  Yet  another  instruments abilities  capable  young  The r e s u l t s  the f u l l  subjects  i n t o t a l would  suggest  o f measuring  grade  i nfinding  level.  good  the wide range o f d e v e l o p i n g  i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l , a f f e c t i v e and  Lack o f a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r use w i t h  Instruments  b y B. W h i t e  (1971)  and C a l d w e l l  t o p r o v i d e a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f developing  abilities  simply  were  available. The  sented  instruments  limitations.  finally  selected  or developed  also  F o r example, t h e P u z z l e Box y i e l d e d  data b u t i t might have y i e l d e d used  grade  i n the paucity o f r e s u l t s  p r o b l e m was t h e d i f f i c u l t y  a wide range o f t h e c h i l d ' s not  the f i r s t  programme a t t h e f i r s t  c h i l d r e n has been n o t e d  (1970).  l i m i t a t i o n s . The  (eg. l e a d e r s h i p a c t i v i t i e s  factor  i n young c h i l d r e n  other areas.  by time  a c t i v i t i e s ) with  of testing  carried  procedures.  and  with  One was  since the researcher also  g r a d e - l e v e l made n e c e s s a r y  omission  t o the study.  pre-  good  more s u p p o r t i n g d a t a h a d i t b e e n  t o measure o t h e r r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l c a t e g o r i e s : c o g n i t i v e  style,  approach or avoidance  of the task, s o c i a b i l i t y  or non-  95  s o c i a b i l i t y , manifest a f f e c t i v i t y , tempo, a c t i v i t y l e v e l , independence versus dependence. The b i p o l a r i n t o "mature" and  "immature" responses may  narrow. W i t h i n the scope  and  categorization have been too  of t h i s study, i t was  not p o s s i b l e to  v e r i f y that mature and immature behavior as d e s c r i b e d were sufficiently  comprehensive.  As shown i n Chapter h, the r e l i a b i l i t y  estimates f o r  the s o c i o m e t r i c measures were e i t h e r not a v a i l a b l e or of modest  s i z e . Consequently,  three such measures were used. A p l a u -  s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the peer a f f i l i a t i o n measure, may  l i e i n the instruments  An a d d i t i o n a l problem  themselves.  r e s u l t e d from s e l e c t i o n of  GPA  as a c r i t e r i o n measure. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n grading p r a c t i c e s between d i f f e r e n t teachers and i n i n t r a r a t e r v a r i a n c e from one r e p o r t i n g p e r i o d to the next. This i s to be expected  s i n c e some aspects of grading appear to  depend upon s u b j e c t i v e  criteria.  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research E m p i r i c a l support f o r areas of the study would  suggest  the merit of a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . Some of these have been proposed w i t h i n the context of the d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s f o r each h y p o t h e s i s . C e r t a i n l y a more l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h programme i n c l u d i n g g r e a t e r numbers of c h i l d r e n and  extending  over the primary grades with the f u l l programme would be i n d i c a t e d to determine  i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n reducing emotional,  b e h a v i o r a l and l e a r n i n g problems, and  i n increasing  competency.  96  More thorough examination of the programme's e f f e c t s upon other aspects  of ego  development should be t e s t e d , par-  t i c u l a r l y i t s e f f e c t s upon the maturation t i o n i n g and  e g o - i d e a l . Other types  of a f f e c t i v e  func-  of a f f e c t i v e measures which  could be r e l a t e d more d i r e c t l y to some goals of the programme might be i n c l u d e d . The emotional  HDP  programme places an emphasis upon  s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and upon understanding  the emo-  t i o n a l responses of o t h e r s . Development of another type instrument  capable  of y i e l d i n g data on the c h i l d ' s  of  ability  to d e t e c t a c c u r a t e l y the e m o t i o n a l i t y of o t h e r s , f o r example, might be a more u s e f u l measure. A new  important  area f o r study would be i n d i c a t e d by  the f o r t u i t o u s i f unexpected f i n d i n g on the p o t e n t i a l value of the s t r u c t u r e d t e s t s i t u a t i o n , the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box. instrument  This  appeared to y i e l d much o b j e c t i v e data on both the  c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and  the temperamental p a t t e r n or b e h a v i o r a l  s t y l e of the c h i l d as d i s c u s s e d i n the review of  literature.  I t would appear to be p o s s i b l e to r e c o r d a c c u r a t e l y , object i v e l y and  r a p i d l y , the child-environment  t r a n s a c t i o n s over  the r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h needs to be done to confirm the value of the t e s t as a potent i a l d i a g n o s t i c device on the b e h a v i o r a l and of the  cognitive styles  child. These l a s t f i n d i n g s i n p a r t i c u l a r have some i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r the elementary school c o u n s e l l o r . They may g r e a t e r i m p l i c a t i o n s from a primary p r e v e n t i v e  have even stand-point.  97  One  of the major f u n c t i o n s of the elementary c o u n s e l l o r  i s to serve as a c o n s u l t a n t to the teacher  and  the parent  on  the c h i l d ' s developmental s t a t u s . In that c a p a c i t y , the couns e l l o r could gather  the developmental data f o r about  fifty  c h i l d r e n i n four to f i v e days u s i n g t h i s instrument.  The  b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on each c h i l d would form the b a s i s f o r j o i n t e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g w i t h the teacher.  I t would be  p o s s i b l e , f o r example, to design i n t e r v e n t i o n s immediately f o r those  groups i d e n t i f i e d as " r i s k " groups. These groups  of c h i l d r e n are those most prone to making maladaptive r e s ponses to c e r t a i n environmental f e a t u r e s . The by teacher  and  planning  c o u n s e l l o r would make c e r t a i n that these  tures were removed or modified identified  joint  i n such a way  fea-  as to allow  the  " r i s k " c h i l d r e n not only to a d j u s t more smoothly  to s c h o o l but a l s o to have a more n e a r l y optimal  beginning  i n a c h i e v i n g mastery i n l e a r n i n g . This data on developmental s t a t u s could a l s o be with the parents  i n order to a s s i s t them i n responding  i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n more e f f e c t i v e l y . The  shared to  and  consider-  able amount of r e s e a r c h on c h i l d development tends not to be used i n a systematic way stage  of the c h i l d and  activities  both i n i d e n t i f y i n g the developmental  i n planning  e d u c a t i o n a l and  to promote the a c q u i s i t i o n of those  parenting  competencies  which would appear next i n the sequence. Such a c t i v i t i e s would actuate  the k i n d of i n s t r u c t i o n Vygotsky d e s c r i b e d as aimed  at the r i p e n i n g f u n c t i o n s .  98  An area worthy of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  the impact  of t e a c h i n g primary p r e v e n t i v e s t r a t e g i e s  such  as the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme upon the teacher. There has been some r e s e a r c h which r e v e a l e d the hazards  of over-  s e n s i t i z i n g t e a c h i n g s t a f f to student d e f i c i t . A Vancouver study of  ( N i c h o l , 1968) r e v e a l e d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g the t h r e s h o l d  teacher p e r c e p t i o n o f student d i s a b i l i t i e s and problems  by over-zealous mental h y g i e n i s t s produced  a d i m i n u t i o n of  the t e a c h e r s ' sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . By emphas i z i n g the development and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of competence i n c h i l d r e n , the B e s s e l l and Palomares programme may enhance a sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l competence in. teachers as w e l l . The i n f l u e n c e of the programme upon teacher s e l f - c o n c e p t and sense of  p r o f e s s i o n a l worth may be an i n t e r e s t i n g one to e x p l o r e . In  c o n c l u s i o n , more l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h was  suggested  on the f u l l B e s s e l l and Palomares programme, p a r t i c u l a r l y the first  grade programme, to determine  i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n pro-  moting competencies r e l a t e d to other aspects o f ego development and i n r e d u c i n g emotional, b e h a v i o r a l and l e a r n i n g lems. Research  prob-  on the p o t e n t i a l d i a g n o s t i c value of the s t r u c -  tured t e s t , the K e i s t e r Puzzle Box, was proposed  as w e l l .  F i n a l l y , r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t s of t e a c h i n g primary p r e v e n t i v e s t r a t e g i e s such as t h i s programme upon the teacher's concept  self-  and sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l competence was recommended.  99 SUMMARY The study sought t o determine the e f f e c t s of a programme, the B e s s e l l and Palomares Methods i n Human Development, upon c o g n i t i v e performance,  s o c i a l and emotional competencies  a l l a f f i l i a t e d w i t h ego s t r e n g t h , p o s i t i v e  -  self-development,  and mental h e a l t h . The r e s u l t s confirmed the programme's e f f e c t i v e n e s s upon some c r i t e r i o n measures r e l a t e d to ego development, those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h overt s o c i a l  functioning.  Hypothesis 1 on treatment main e f f e c t s upon the aggregate of f i v e c r i t e r i o n measures was accepted. U n i v a r i a t e analyses r e v e a l e d that two o f these measures, the teacher r a t i n g , the Behavior R a t i n g of P u p i l s , and the peer p e r c e p t i o n measure, The Class P i c t u r e s , c o n t r i b u t e d to the s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o . Both measures were a s s o c i a t e d with s o c i a l  competence.  While n e i t h e r sex nor g r a d e - l e v e l a f f e c t e d the c r i t e r i o n measures, a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between g r a d e - l e v e l and treatment was found f o r one measure o f s o c i a l competence, the Behavior Rating o f P u p i l s . This was found a t the k i n d e r garten l e v e l o n l y . C o g n i t i v e performance  and a f f e c t i v e compe-  t e n c i e s were a p p a r e n t l y not i n f l u e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the treatment. A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t i n g data, w h i l e not s i g n i f i c a n t , provided f u r t h e r evidence seeming to s u b s t a n t i a t e the pro-., gramme's impact upon the development o f s o c i a l  competence.  The r e s u l t s presented lend support f o r the programme's use and f o r more e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h . The evidence  suggested  the value of the Methods i n Human Development programme as a  100 primary p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n promoting "basic  competencies  i n d i c a t i v e of p o s i t i v e self-development and a s t a t e of mental health.  101  LITERATURE CITED  102 A l l p o r t , G. P a t t e r n and growth i n p e r s o n a l i t y . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1963. A n a s t a s i , A. D i f f e r e n t i a l psychology (3rd Macmillan, 1958. (a)  ed.). New York:  A n a s t a s i , A. H e r e d i t y , environment and the q u e s t i o n "How?" 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S o c i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s k i l l s and e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the c l a s s r o o m . Unpubl i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n , I960. V y g o t s k y , L. Thought and language. Cambridge, Mass.: Massac h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology P r e s s , 1962. W a l l a c h , M., & Kogan, N. Modes of t h i n k i n g i n young c h i l d r e n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1965Walsh, A. S e l f - c o n c e p t s of b r i g h t boys w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . New York: Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers' C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1956. Wattenburg, W., & C l i f f o r d , C. R e l a t i o n of s e l f - c o n c e p t , t o b e g i n n i n g achievement i n r e a d i n g . C h i l d Development,  196*+, 31, W l - W .  W h i t e , B. An a n a l y s i s of e x c e l l e n t e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s : p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t . I n t e r c h a n g e , 1971, 2, 71-88.  112  W h i t e , R.W. Competence a n d t h e p s y c h o s e x u a l s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p ment. I n J . R o s e n b l i t h & W. A l l i n s m i t h ( E d s . ) , The 'causes' o f b e h a v i o r T I : R e a d i n g s i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t and e d u c a t i o n a l 'psychology (2nd e d . ) . B o s t o n : A l l y n & Bacon, 1966. W h i t e , R.W. A d u l t g r o w t h and e m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . I n H. C h i a n g & A. Maslow ( E d s . ) , The h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t y : R e a d i n g s . New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d - R e i n h o l d , 1969Wickman, E . C h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r a n d t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s . New Y o r k : The Commonwealth F u n d , D i v i s i o n o f P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  1928.  W i n e r , B. S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l ed.). New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1971. W i t h a l l , J . Mental Education,  h e a l t h i n the classroom. l £ , 193-199-  196+,  design  (2nd  J o u r n a l o f Teacher  Wynn, A., & Wynn, M. The r i g h t o f e v e r y c h i l d t o h e a l t h c a r e ( F r a n c e ) . I n C. B l a k e s l e e , E . McLeod, A. S h e l l , & B. H i c k s , A f i s c a l a n a l y s i s o f 2j+ h o u r c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n i n M a n i t o b a . W i n n i p e g : Management Committee o f C a b i n e t , 197^- ( a ) Wynn, A., & Wynn, M. The p r o t e c t i o n o f m a t e r n i t y a n d i n f a n c y ( F i n l a n d ) . I n C. B l a k e s l e e , E . McLeod, A. S h e l l , & B. H i c k s , A f i s c a l a n a l y s i s o f 2k h o u r c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n i n M a n i t o b a . W i n n i p e g : Management Committee o f C a b i n e t ,  1971+. (b)  Z i m i l e s , H. P r e v e n t i v e a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . I n E . Cowen, E . G a r d n e r , & M. Z a x ( E d s . ) , Emergent a p p r o a c h e s t o m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Crofts, 19WZ i n g l e , H. D e v e l o p i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e l f and o t h e r s (DUSO) i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 1972. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 09+298).  113  A P P E N D I C E S  APPENDIX A  METHODS IN HUMAN  DEVELOPMENT  CURRICULUM, KINDERGARTEN, LEVEL B  11? KINDERGARTEN A C T I V I T I E S  Unit  I  Week I -  AS USED IN THE STUDY  S i x Weeks on A w a r e n e s s : Behavior Pleasant  Feelings,  Thoughts  and  Feelings  Monday - H a v i n g Good F e e l i n g s . The t e a c h e r d i s c u s s e s b r i e f l y w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n how e v e r y o n e h a s good, f e e l i n g s and b a d f e e l i n g s . She t e l l s t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s on t e l l i n g e a c h o t h e r a b o u t t h e good f e e l i n g s we h a v e about something t h a t i s i n the c l a s s r o o m . B r i e f l y , she e x p l a i n s how some a r t i c l e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m h e l p s h e r i n some way and t e l l s how she f e e l s a b o u t i t . The c h i l d r e n a r e i n v i t e d to ask questions a b o u t t h e a r t i c l e o r make comments on it. A f t e r the t e a c h e r ' s t u r n i s completed, she a s k s t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h i n k o f some o b j e c t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t h a t g i v e s them a good f e e l i n g . The c h i l d r e n a r e i n v i t e d t o t a k e a t u r n as e a c h c h i l d f e e l s r e a d y t o d e s c r i b e a n d / o r name t h e o b j e c t t e l l i n g how i t i s h e l p f u l t o t h a t i n d i v i d u a l and how h e / s h e f e e l s a b o u t i t . The t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t e v e r y o n e w i l l g e t a t u r n i f t h e y want one. O n l y one person w i l l t a l k a t a time i n the s e s s i o n b e c a u s e a l l o f us want t o h e a r what e a c h c h i l d w i s h e s t o t e l l u s . T h a t i s how a c i r c l e s e s s i o n works. As t h e c h i l d v o l u n t e e r s some open-ended s t a t e m e n t i s made s u c h as "Can y o u d e s c r i b e or name t h e o b j e c t ? " E a c h c h i l d i s a l s o asked, " T e l l us about t h e f e e l i n g y o u g e t when y o u ( l o o k a t i t o r u s e i t ) . " E a c h c h i l d i s thanked f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g , u s i n g h i s name. The c h i l d r e n a r e a s k e d t o n o t i c e t h a t some c h i l d r e n f e e l good a b o u t one t h i n g and o t h e r s , about something e l s e . This i s d i s c u s s e d i n a v e r y m a t t e r - o f - f a c t manner. I n t h i s way, t h e t e a c h e r d e m o n s t r a t e s and f o s t e r s open a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c h i l d ' s c h o i c e and o f h i s f e e l i n g s . By d o i n g t h i s d a i l y , t h e c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o a c c e p t and r e s p e c t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as b e i n g n o r m a l and natural.  116  Once or twice during the s e s s i o n and at i t s c l o s e , the group i s asked to review what f e e l i n g s were r e p o r t e d and what object was s e l e c t e d by each c h i l d . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed by the teacher f o r the p o s i t i v e aspects of t h e i r behavior i n the s e s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y f o r l i s t e n i n g to each other. Each c h i l d who d i d not get a chance t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h i s time, i s thanked f o r being i n the c i r c l e being acknowledged by name. The teacher makes a comment about the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e next time. Wednesday- Having Good F e e l i n g s . This i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p r e v i o u s day's a c t i v i t y w i t h the same format and s t r u c t u r e used. The m o d e l l i n g and express i o n of a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s , f o r attendance and f o r l i s t e n i n g i s repeated as b e f o r e . F r i d a y - Having Good F e e l i n g s . The same a c t i v i t y i s repeated today. Week 2 -  Pleasant  Thoughts  Monday - Having Pleasant Thoughts. The c h i l d r e n demonstrate t h e i r own p l e a s a n t thought by making the o b j e c t thought about in clay. Wednesday- Having Pleasant Thoughts. Each c h i l d may guess what p l e a s a n t but unknown o b j e c t i s i n a box. F r i d a y - Having Pleasant Thoughts. A p i c t u r e i s shown of a c h i l d who i s appare n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g - p l e a s u r e and i s thereby t h i n k i n g a p l e a s a n t thought. The p i c t u r e acts as a stimulus f o r d i s c u s s i o n . Week 3 -  P o s i t i v e Behavior Monday - Performance of P o s i t i v e Behavior. The c h i l d does something that i s n i c e f o r another c h i l d i n the group by g i v i n g him a candy.  Wednesday- Performance of P o s i t i v e Behavior. C o n t i n u a t i o n of p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r a l sequences by g i v i n g each c h i l d the o p p o r t u n i t y to mend  117  a broken crayon w i t h masking Friday  Week h -  tape.  - Performance of P o s i t i v e Behavior. E a c h c h i l d has t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a b e l t or s t r i n g o f beads.  Pleasant Feelings A r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t week's a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f an emphasis upon e l i c i t i n g s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n b y each c h i l d ; upon d e v e l o p i n g , l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ; upon t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p e o p l e have s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e g a r d t o t h e k i n d s o f p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s t h e y have a b o u t t h i n g s ; , upon e x p a n s i o n o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . The t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e s t o g i v e a c c e p t a n c e and r e c o g n i t i o n t o e a c h c h i l d and c o n t i n u e s t o model l i s t e n i n g behavior.  Week 5 -  Pleasant  Thoughts  A r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d week's a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i n g emphasis upon s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n a b o u t t h e s e t h o u g h t s ; upon d e v e l o p i n g l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ; u p o n t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e h a v e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r t h o u g h t s ; upon b r o a d e n i n g t h e b a s e o f awareness and t h e a r e a o f e x p r e s s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n . There i s a promotion o f a sense o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and b e l o n g i n g n e s s i n t h e human f a m i l y . The t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e s t o model e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o r : a c c e p t a n c e , r e f l e c t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n and listening. Week 6 -  Positive  Behavior  A r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e t h i r d week's a c t i v i t i e s . Awareness o f p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r i s promoted t h r o u g h behavi o r a l enactment. While each c h i l d performs a " n i c e b e h a v i o r " , t h e t e a c h e r accompanies t h e a c t w i t h a d e s c r i p t i v e commentary. The emphasis i s upon d o i n g : A c h i l d l e a r n s b y d o i n g . The p r i n c i p a l f o c u s i s t o e s t a b l i s h a b e h a v i o r a l s e q u e n c e s e r v i n g as a p r o t o type f o r v e r b a l r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r i s o c c u r r i n g . Each c h i l d performs a b e h a v i o r a l s e q u e n c e w h i c h i s p r o d u c t i v e and u t i l i t a r i a n . I n so doing s u c c e s s f u l l y , the c h i l d learns to perceive h i m s e l f as c a p a b l e .  118  U n i t II  S i x Weeks on Mastery  Week 7 -  Mastery i n Language Monday - What Does The Word Mean? Each c h i l d i s encouraged to t e l l of a word he knows or l i k e s and e x p l a i n s something he knows about i t . By r e c o g n i z i n g the c h i l d ' s e f f o r t and by s t r e s s i n g "you can ... " the c h i l d gains a f e e l i n g of s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . Approval i n t e n s i f i e s h i s posi t i v e motivational strivings.  Wednesday- What Is I t Used For and How Do You Use I t ? The p r i o r a c t i v i t y i s continued. Each c h i l d has the o p p o r t u n i t y to demonstrate compreh e n s i o n . The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s are promotion of a sense of p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and a sense of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . Language development i s a secondary purpose. F r i d a y - Why Is I t Good For Us? The c h i l d r e n are t o l d that e v e r y t h i n g we make or use has at l e a s t one reason f o r having been made. The a c t i v i t y today focuses upon t a l k about t h i n g s that are good f o r us, f o r fun or f o r work w i t h the teacher p r o v i d i n g at l e a s t one example i n each category to o r i e n t the c h i l d r e n more c l e a r l y as to e x p e c t a t i o n . Week 8 -  Mastery i n Q u a n t i t a t i v e Concepts and Mastery of the Concept Two Monday - Counting and the Concepts of More and Less. Two j a r s are presented by the t e a c h e r , one w i t h many beads (or other o b j e c t s ) and one w i t h two o b j e c t s . Each c h i l d i s i n v i t e d to t e l l which has more and which has l e s s . The c h i l d r e n are then i n v i t e d to count the numbers of objects i n the j a r having l e s s (two). Teacher behavior remains the same, with an emphasis upon r e c o g n i t i o n to i n c r e a s e his self-confidence. Wednesday- Mastery of the Concept of Three and the Concepts of Many and Few and Review of the Concepts of More and Less. S i m i l a r experiences to those engaged i n on Monday p r o v i d e d . The emphasis remains upon i n c r e a s i n g the c h i l d ' s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e through a sense of mastery i n each of the concepts.  119  F r i d a y - Mastery o f the Concepts of None, Three, Four and F i v e . S i m i l a r counting a c t i v i t i e s are undertaken. Week 9 -  Mastery i n F i n e Motor C o o r d i n a t i o n Monday - S t r i n g i n g One-quarter Inch Beads. Each c h i l d i s given the o p p o r t u n i t y to s t r i n g 10 beads on a shoelace. Upon comp l e t i o n he i s recognized f o r h i s success. Some d i s c u s s i o n of the general u s e f u l n e s s of the m a n i p u l a t i o n of s m a l l o b j e c t s f o l l o w s with the c h i l d r e n encouraged to present t h e i r ideas f i r s t .  Wednesday- Tying and Untying a Knot. A demonstration o f t y i n g and u n t y i n g a knot with a t h i c k s t r i n g i s given. Each c h i l d i s encouraged to t r y with minimal a i d i f necessary, f o l l o w e d by r e c o g n i t i o n f o r being a b l e . Some d i s c u s s i o n of the u s e f u l n e s s of the s k i l l s f o l l o w s with the c h i l d r e n again encouraged to present t h e i r ideas f i r s t . F r i d a y - Threading a Large Needle. A demonstration of t h r e a d i n g a large-eyed needle w i t h t h i c k thread i s given f o l l o w e d by i n v i t i n g each c h i l d to t r y . S u c c e s s f u l performance i s recognized and i s f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of the u s e f u l n e s s of the skill. Week 10 - Mastery i n Performance S k i l l s Monday - P u t t i n g Something Away and R e t r i e v i n g I t . The teacher d i s c u s s e s the u t i l i t y of p u t t i n g t h i n g s away and the value of being able t o f i n d them l a t e r when needed. Each c h i l d i s given the o p p o r t u n i t y to put an o b j e c t away. When a l l have completed the task, each l a t e r r e t r i e v e s h i s o b j e c t . R e c o g n i t i o n i n the form o f p r a i s e f o r s u c c e s s f u l r e t r i e v a l i s given. Wednesday- Cooperation i n Assembling a Box With Tape. A pre-cut unassembled box of sturdy construct i o n paper whose four s i d e s can be f o l d e d up and taped to make a box w i t h open top i s r e a d i e d f o r each child...The teacher t e l l s the c h i l d r e n i t i s both u s e f u l and f u n to be able to make t h i n g s y o u r s e l f . I t i s a l s o fun to cooperate i n making t h i n g s -together.  120  Although i t i s not always easy to do, she i s sure that they can a l l make boxes by h e l p i n g each other. Each c h i l d can keep a box he has helped to make. The teacher demonstrates making the box w i t h one of the more able c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n s e l e c t each other f o r the a c t i v i t y and the a c t i v i t y i s repeated u n t i l everyone has a box. The p a i r s are p r a i s e d immediately upon complet i o n of the box. F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i s s o l i c i t e d about the p o s s i b l e use to which each box w i l l be put and upon the advantages of c o o p e r a t i o n . F r i d a y - Cooperation i n Hole Punching and F a s t e n i n g Small Note Pads. C h i l d r e n are shown the m a t e r i a l s ; many sheets of small uniform s i z e paper, a box of metal paper fasteners., and a h o l e puncher which i s easy to use. Each o b j e c t i s named, and, u s i n g one c h i l d as an a s s i s t a n t , a small note pad i s made. The p a i r s of c h i l d r e n a g a i n perform the task w i t h each c h i l d given s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to pract i s e each phase of the a c t i v i t y u n t i l he has a. a c q u i r e d some p r o f i c i e n c y i n performance. Each p a i r of c h i l d r e n i s p r a i s e d upon s u c c e s s f u l completion of the task. D i s c u s s i o n i s i n v i t e d upon some of the t h i n g s which the c h i l d r e n know must be made by people working t o g e t h e r . Week 11 - Mastery i n P e r s o n a l Hygiene Monday - L e a r n i n g about Food. The importance of good food f o r the body i s d i s c u s s e d w i t h regard to how i t makes us f e e l good and how i t i s good f o r us. Each c h i l d i s encouraged to eat and oatmeal and r a i s i n cookie or a p i e c e . o f f r u i t and to show why he t h i n k s i t i s good f o r him that i t r e l i e v e s h i s hunger and how i t helps him to-grow h e a l t h y and s t r o n g . Each c h i l d i s thanked f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . Wednesday- L e a r n i n g About Taking Care of Ourselves. The c h i l d r e n are encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d i s c u s s i o n about the mouth, nose and e a r s , on the importance of t h e i r care and why random, u n c l e a n o b j e c t s are never put in-them. Each c h i l d i s p r a i s e d f o r h i s cont r i b u t i o n to the d i s c u s s i o n .  121  F r i d a y - A Way to Help Avoid Colds. The d i s c u s s i o n focuses on germs, and how they cause d i s e a s e s , l i k e the c o l d as w e l l as how e a s i l y germs are spread through sneezing, coughing and contact w i t h unwashed hands. The teacher demonstrates the use of a t i s s u e and each c h i l d i s i n v i t e d to give a demonstration a l s o . D i s c u s s i o n i s then s o l i c i t e d on how colds can be avoided w i t h each c h i l d i n v i t e d to t e l l one t h i n g t h a t can be done to keep from catching a cold. Week 12 - Mastery i n S o c i a l  Comprehension  Monday - You Can Make Him F e e l Good. Again the game i s demonstrated by the teacher guessing how she could make one c h i l d f e e l good. Each c h i l d i s i n v i t e d to f o l l o w suit. Wednesday- Can You Guess What He's A f r a i d Of? C h i l d r e n get the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n that everyone has f e a r s . As c h i l d r e n v o l u n t e e r f o r guessing by t h i n k i n g of an o b j e c t he i s a f r a i d of. Emphasis i s on the c h i l d r e n developing a s e n s i t i v e f e e l i n g so t h a t they can a s s i s t each other to overcome f e a r s . F r i d a y - Can You Guess What His Wish Is? A f t e r the teacher demonstrates s e v e r a l of her wishes which are comprehensible to the c h i l d r e n , the c h i l d r e n may v o l u n t e e r to be " i t " w h i l e each of the other c h i l d r e n guess what the c h i l d might be w i s h i n g f o r . Teacher comments on how they are a l l g e t t i n g to know each other b e t t e r . Unit III  S i x Weeks on S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n  Week 13 - How  Other People's  Behavior  Affects  Me  Monday - What Did Someone Do That You D i s l i k e d ? The n o t i o n that i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r people to l i v e together without b o t h e r i n g each other i s d i s c u s s e d . This happens because no one can have each i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s , nor i s i t p o s s i b l e to know beforehand what w i l l or w i l l not bother the other person. The teacher i l l u s t r a t e s by t e l l i n g something that someone d i d which  122  had b o t h e r e d h e r . She t h e n i n v i t e s t h e c h i l d r e n t o f o l l o w h e r example. These a r e d e a l t w i t h as an a n a l y s i s o f an i n t e r p e r s o n a l e v e n t by p r o v i d i n g , a n e u t r a l , n o n - m o r a l i z i n g a n a l y s i s o f f e n d i n g no one and m a l i g n i n g n e i t h e r t h e o t h e r p e r s o n n o r t h e c h i l d . R a t h e r i t i s d w e l t upon as a f a c t t h a t t h i s i s what can and does happen i n l i f e . Wednesday- What D i d Someone Do T h a t You D i s l i k e d ? A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the p r e v i o u s day's a c t i v i t y so t h a t e a c h c h i l d g e t s a t u r n . Again the t e a c h e r reminds the c h i l d r e n t h a t these i n c i d e n t s occur mainly because t h e o t h e r p e r s o n does n o t know e x a c t l y how we a r e f e e l i n g . I t i s a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t sometimes' a c h i l d o r o t h e r p e r s o n may d e l i b e r a t e l y t r y t o make us f e e l b a d l y b e c a u s e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s he i s n o t l i k e d enough b u t t h a t t h i s b e h a v i o r changes once he l e a r n s how t o be n i c e and t o g e t p e o p l e t o l i k e him b e t t e r . Friday  Week Ik- - How  My  - What D i d Someone Do F o r Me T h a t I L i k e d ? T h i s c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e week's a c t i v i t y examines t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o r on t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The teacher demonstrates w i t h a r e a l p e r s o n a l example and s h a r e s why t h e e f f e c t o f t h e b e h a v i o r was l i k e d . She t h e n a s k s t h e c h i l d r e n to share t h e i r p o s i t i v e experiences w i t h t h e o t h e r s . D i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s as customary. Behavior  Affects  Others  Monday - Can You Show What You D i d T h a t Someone L i k e d ? Two or more c h i l d r e n a r r a n g e a d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n which they p l a y r o l e s p o r t r a y i n g a s i t u a t i o n i n which the l e a d c h i l d d i d something t h a t e a r n e d a n o t h e r ' s a p p r o v a l . The p r i n c i p a l c h i l d p l a y s h i m s e l f i n the d r a m a t i z a t i o n and he c o a c h e s t h e o t h e r c h i l d i n t h e r o l e o f t h e r e c i p i e n t . The f o c u s i s u p o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h a v i n g done s o m e t h i n g f o r someone and r e c e i v i n g a p p r o v a l f o r i t .  123  Wednesday- Can You Show What You D i d T h a t Someone L i k e d ? A c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n s so t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n get a t u r n . Friday  - Can l o u Show What l o u D i d T h a t Someone Disliked? S e v e r a l c h i l d r e n s e p a r a t e l y a r r a n g e demons t r a t i o n s one a f t e r a n o t h e r , i n v i t i n g one o r more o t h e r c h i l d r e n t o p o r t r a y a s s i g n e d r o l e s i n t h e e v e n t . The t e a c h e r h e l p s e a c h c h i l d t o s e t up and d i r e c t t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f h i s e v e n t . At t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f e a c h e n a c t m e n t t h e t e a c h e r comments on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h a v i n g done s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c a u s e s a n o t h e r t o f e e l b a d l y and o f which they t h e r e f o r e disapprove.  Week 1 5 - L e a r n i n g  to Offer Kind  Behavior  Monday - What C o u l d I Do F o r l o u ? The t e a c h e r i n f o r m s c h i l d r e n a b o u t n e e d s . She a l s o comments t h a t r a t h e r t h a n g u e s s i n g a b o u t what we m i g h t be a b l e t o do f o r a n o t h e r t h a t w o u l d make them f e e l good, t h e r e i s a b e t t e r way t o f i n d out by a s k i n g . The t e a c h e r d e m o n s t r a t e s w i t h a c h i l d . A f t e r t h e s e q u e n c e i s p e r f o r m e d , she a s k s t h e c h i l d i f t h i s d i d make him f e e l good. She then i n v i t e s the others to p a r t i c i p a t e s i m i l a r l y . E a c h r e q u e s t must be e a s y and p o s s i b l e t o f u l f i l l i m m e d i a t e l y and i t must be p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c h i l d g r a n t i n g t h e h e l p t o e i t h e r want t o , o r , n o t mind much i n doing i t . P r a i s e i s given f o r t h e i r unders t a n d i n g , c o o p e r a t i o n and t h e i r k i n d behavi o r t o each o t h e r . Wednesday- What C o u l d I Do F o r l o u ? C o n t i n u a t i o n w i t h the p r e v i o u s activity. Friday Week 16  - What C o u l d As f o r t h e  - Learning  t o Ask  day's  I Do F o r You? two p r e v i o u s d a y s .  f o r Kind  Behavior  Monday - What You C o u l d Do F o r Me. Needs a r e a g a i n d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e t e a c h e r r e m i n d i n g t h e c h i l d r e n t h a t p e o p l e need t h i n g s from each o t h e r from time t o time. What was now n e e d e d was p r a c t i s e i n a s k i n g  I2h  another person to do something f o r us that i s n i c e . The teacher a l s o t e l l s the c h i l d r e n that most people are a f r a i d to ask f o r somet h i n g they need u n t i l they have some pract i c e . A demonstration f o l l o w s w i t h c h i l d r e n i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . Wednesday- What You Could Do f o r Me. A c o n t i n u a t i o n of Monday's a c t i v i t y . The teacher provides a running commentary s t r e s s i n g the b a s i c i d e a that one of the best ways of r e c e i v i n g k i n d treatment from others i s simply to l e t the other person know what you need. F r i d a y - What You Could Do For Me. As before making sure that every c h i l d can p l a y the game and a l s o i s asked f o r kind behavior.  APPENDIX  METHODS I N HUMAN CURRICULUM.,  B  DEVELOPMENT  F I R S T GRADE,  LEVEL  126  LEVEL 1 ACTIVITIES AS USED IN THE STUDY The same r u l e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and l i s t e n i n g as o u t l i n e d i n the K i n d e r g a r t e n A c t i v i t i e s are used. M o d e l l i n g and r e i n forcement p r i n c i p l e s are continued as w e l l . Unit  I  S i x Weeks on Awareness: F e e l i n g s , Thoughts, and Behavior (Simple and Mixed)  Week 1 -  P l e a s a n t F e e l i n g s and Unpleasant F e e l i n g s Monday - Having Good F e e l i n g s  Wednesday- Having Nice F e e l i n g s and Bad F e e l i n g s , Too F r i d a y - I F e l t Good and Bad About Something Week 2 -  P l e a s a n t Thoughts and Unpleasant Thoughts Monday - Having Nice Thoughts  Wednesday- Having A Nice Thought and a Bad Thought F r i d a y - I Had a Nice Thought and a Bad Thought About Something Week 3 -  P o s i t i v e Behavior and Negative Behavior Monday - P o s i t i v e Behavior  Wednesday- Negative Behavior F r i d a y - P o s i t i v e and Negative Aspects of Given Behavior Week h -  Having Mixed F e e l i n g s About Something Monday - Having Mixed F e e l i n g s About Something  Wednesday- What I L i k e and D i s l i k e About  School  F r i d a y - What I L i k e and D i s l i k e About the Way I Do Things Week 5 -  Having Mixed Thoughts About Something Monday - Thinking of Something Nice That You Would  Wednesday- I Had a Bad Thought Friday  - I Thought of Something Bad i n One Way, Good i n Another  127  Week 6 -  P o s i t i v e and N e g a t i v e A s p e c t s o f G i v e n B e h a v i o r s Monday - P o s i t i v e and N e g a t i v e A s p e c t s Behavior  Wednesday-  Friday  Unit  II  Something F o r Me  Happened, Good F o r Me and Bad  - Something Happened, Good F o r Me and Bad F o r Someone E l s e  S i x Weeks o n M a s t e r y : S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , s u f f i c i e n c y and E f f e c t i v e n e s s  Week 7 -  Mastery  Wednesday-  Week 8 -  What  - Why  Mastery  I s I t Good F o r Us?  i n Math  Wednesday-  Week 9 -  Mean?  I s I t U s e d F o r and How Do Y o u Use I t ?  Monday - Bead  Friday  Self-  i n Language  Monday - What Does t h e Word  Friday  of Given  Skills  Counting  Adding  Beads  - C o u n t i n g and A d d i n g  My Powers To Be and Do' Monday - E n e r g y  WednesdayFriday  I s The A b i l i t y  To Work  S e l f - c o n t r o l I s t h e Power t h i n g T h a t You Can Do  - H a v i n g Many K i n d s  To Not Do Some-  of Self-control  Week 10 - I Can Do T h i n g s F o r M y s e l f Monday - T h i n g s About D r e s s i n g WednesdayFriday  Some T h i n g s Myself  - Something Myself  Week 1 1 - How I Got What  I Can Do F o r M y s e l f  At S c h o o l That  I'm V e r y  Proud  I Can Do F o r  That  I Can Do By  I Needed  Monday - I Was A b l e  t o Get What  I Needed  128  Wednesday- I C o u l d n ' t G e t What I Needed Friday Week 12 - How  - How  I Got What I Needed  I Got I n t o T r o u b l e  Monday  - I D i d n ' t Know I ' d Get I n t o T r o u b l e  Wednesday- I Knew I ' d G e t I n t o T r o u b l e I f I D i d I t Friday Unit  - Somebody G o t Me  Into Trouble  I I I S i x Weeks on S o c i a l U n d e r s t a n d i n g : How P e o p l e A f f e c t Each Other  Week 13  - Getting  and G i v i n g A p p r o v a l  Monday - I D i d S o m e t h i n g T h a t Somebody  Liked  Wednesday- Somebody D i d S o m e t h i n g T h a t I L i k e d Friday Week lh  - We D i d S o m e t h i n g F o r E a c h O t h e r  - Getting Monday  and G i v i n g  - Somebody D i d S o m e t h i n g T h a t I D i d N o t Like  WednesdayFriday  Disapproval  I D i d S o m e t h i n g T h a t Somebody D i d N o t Like  - We E a c h D i d S o m e t h i n g The O t h e r D i d N o t Like  Week 15 - G i v i n g a n d E a r n i n g A p p r o v a l F o r K i n d B e h a v i o r Monday  - What C o u l d I Do F o r You?  Wednesday- What Y o u C o u l d Do F o r Me Friday Week 16 - G e t t i n g Monday  - Commitment Attention - How  Wednesday- How Friday  Review  - How  I Got Somebody To P a y A t t e n t i o n To Me Somebody Got Me To G i v e Them A t t e n t i o n I F e l t When I D i d N o t G e t A t t e n t i o n  129  Week 1 7 - 1  Can Make You F e e l Good or Bad Monday - How I Can Make You F e e l Good  Wednesday- I Can Make You F e e l Good Or Bad F r i d a y - I Can Make You F e e l Good Or Bad Week 18 - Being Included  or Excluded  Monday - Somebody L e t Me Play; Let Me P l a y Wednesday- I Let Somebody Play; Play Friday  Somebody Did Not Somebody Let Me  - We Made Room For One More  APPENDIX C  ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS, .DEFINITIONS OF IMMATURE AND MATURE BEHAVIORS ON KEISTER PUZZLE BOX, SHEET, AND  THE  KEISTER RATING  COPIES OF TESTS  131 Admihlstrat1on Directions  of  Tests  f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the K e i s t e r  Puzzle  Box  The c h i l d i s welcomed and a l l o w e d t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e room and. w i t h t h e v i d e o t a p e e q u i p m e n t . The equipment i n p a r t i c u l a r i s shown c a r e f u l l y . E a c h c h i l d i s e n c o u r a g e d t o l o o k t h r o u g h t h e camera v i e w f i n d e r and i s t o l d t h a t he c a n see h i m s e l f b r i e f l y i n a few moments on t h e t e l e v i s i o n m o n i t o r i n t h e room. "Today y o u c a n p l a y a game. You can t r y t o s o l v e a p u z z l e and w h i l e y o u do t h a t , I am g o i n g t o v i d e o t a p e y o u so t h a t I can l o o k a t how y o u t r i e d t o do t h e p u z z l e . Would y o u l i k e t o see y o u r s e l f on T.V.? H e r e , l e t me show y o u . " A b r i e f t a p i n g o f t h e c h i l d w h i l e he l o o k s a t t h e e q u i p m e n t and t a l k s t o t h e t e s t e r i s made ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 15 s e c o n d s ) . T h i s t a p i n g i s p l a y e d b a c k f o r h i m and he i s a l l o w e d to t a l k about i t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 m i n u t e s ) . I f the c h i l d has o t h e r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e e q u i p ment, t h e s e a r e a n s w e r e d b r i e f l y and s i m p l y . The c h i l d i s s e a t e d a t a s m a l l low p r i m a r y t a b l e t h e t e s t e r s i t s n e x t t o h i m , n e a r enough t o d i s p l a y t h e Box and i t s c o n t e n t s w i t h o u t c r o w d i n g t h e c h i l d .  and Puzzle  "I am g o i n g t o show y o u t h e P u z z l e Box now. I am g o i n g t o u n l a t c h t h e l i d and open i t up. I n s i d e t h e box a r e d i f f e r e n t wooden s h a p e s a l l b r i g h t l y p a i n t e d . See t h e s a i l b o a t and t h e h o u s e ? (The c h i l d i s a l l o w e d t o l o o k a t t h e c o n t e n t s f o r 5 s e c o n d s . ) You c a n s e e how a l l t h e p i e c e s f i t f l a t i n t o t h e b o t t o m o f t h e box and I c a n c l o s e and l a t c h t h e l i d l i k e t h i s . Now I am g o i n g t o t u r n t h e box u p s i d e down and dump a l l t h e shapes o n t o t h e t a b l e l i k e t h i s . You c a n t r y t o p u t a l l t h e p i e c e s b a c k i n t o t h e box i n j u s t a m i n u t e . (The empty box i s p l a c e d w i t h t h e b o t t o m o f t h e box i n t o w h i c h t h e p u z z l e p i e c e s a r e p u t , n e a r e s t t h e c h i l d . ) See i f y o u can p u t a l l t h e p i e c e s b a c k i n t o t h e box so t h a t t h e y w i l l l i e f l a t , t o o . You h a v e 12 m i n u t e s . You may s t a r t now." At  2 minutes:  At k m i n u t e s :  "You a r e d o i n g f i n e . " I f t h e c h i l d a p p e a r s n e r v o u s , encouragement i s g i v e n . " T r y t h e p u z z l e . L e t me see y o u t r y . I t h i n k y o u c a n do i t . " "You a r e r e a l l y d o i n g w e l l . " I f t h e c h i l d a p p e a r s d i s c o u r a g e d because of the d i f f i c u l t y , the f o l l o w i n g comment i s made: " I l i k e t h e way y o u t r y . See i f y o u can p u t a n o t h e r p i e c e i n . "  At 6 minutes:  "You c e r t a i n l y t r y h a r d . You h a v e 6 m i n u t e l e f t . See i f y o u c a n g e t a n o t h e r p i e c e i n .  A t 9 m i n u t e s : "You h a v e 3 m i n u t e s A t 12 m i n u t e s : his  "You may  The c h i l d classroom.  stop  left."  now."  i s t h a n k e d f o r c o m i n g and  i s taken  back  133 D e f i n i t i o n s ' of Immature and" Mature Responses Immature Responses The  (1937)  f o l l o w i n g behaviors have been d e s c r i b e d by K e i s t e r  as immature or u n d e s i r a b l e i n terms of the Puzzle  Box  Test. 1.  R e t r e a t from the task, or g i v i n g up almost at once without e x p l o r i n g many of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s o l u t i o n s : (For the puzzle box t e s t allow 5 minutes , on the assumption t h a t i t i s obvious to the c h i l d t h a t there are a number of ways of going at the problem and he could not be e x p l o r i n g them a l l i f he t r i e d f o r l e s s than 5 minutes.)  2.  Repeated and numerous requests f o r h e l p : . . . i f the c h i l d requests help f o r more than one-half of the t o t a l time of the t e s t , i . e . 6 minutes.  3-  M a n i f e s t a t i o n s of d e s t r u c t i v e behavior w i t h i n t e n t to harm the o b j e c t s or persons connected w i t h the difficulty.  h.  R a t i o n a l i z i n g : Not more than two r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s given during the 12 minute experimental p e r i o d .  5.  Exaggerated emotional responses, such as c r y i n g , s u l k i n g , y e l l i n g and/or motor m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of anger.  Mature Responses The f o l l o w i n g behaviors were i d e n t i f i e d by the as mature behaviors Puzzle Box 1.  researcher  i n terms of p u z z l e - s o l v i n g behavior  on  the  Test. Attempts to s o l v e alone without v e r b a l or non-verbal expressions i n d i c a t i n g any request f o r h e l p ; p e r s i s tence which shows involvement i n c o n t i n u i n g with the problem (eg. p u t t i n g the puzzle pieces i n the box, or t a k i n g them out to rearrange t h e i r p o s i t i o n ; a p p a r e n t l y engaged i n t h i n k i n g of a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e gies f o r r e s o l u t i o n of the problem.  13>+  2.  D i s p l a y s i n t e r e s t i n p u z z l e as g a u g e d b y a n a n i mated f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n or by s u b j e c t ' s examination o f space i n box or of the pieces , perhaps manipul a t i n g the puzzle pieces i n the a i r preparatory to p l a c i n g i n box.  3.  T a l k s i n a f r i e n d l y way w h i l e to solve puzzle.  h.  No e m o t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s at s o l u t i o n .  continuing i n  but  efforts  efforts  directed  K e i s t e r Puzzle Rating Sheet Minutes  Behavior  No  1  overt attempt  Attempts to s o l v e alone Asks another  to s o l v e  Asks f o r h e l p Destructive  behavior  Rationalizes D i s p l a y s • i n t e r e s t i n puzzle No  emotional  manifestations  Sulks Cries Whines Yells Motor m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of anger Talks i n f r i e n d l y way attempting to s o l v e Solves  puzzle  while  2  3  +  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  136 BEHAVIOR RATINGS OF PUPILS  -School  District  Dntm  Tecich?r'» Nome.  G  r  o  d  e  Subject and period  Note to the Teocher One of the most important and useful kinds of information obtained by the school is the teacher's professional judgment o f children's behavior. Teachers see children over a period of time in a variety of situations, in stress situations, in work, and in play. The teacher's observation and judgment have been sharpened by his professional training and day-to-day experience with the normal behavior of children. Often the teacher's rating can be the single most useful index of a pupil's growth and development. Few professional persons, no matter how well trained, can make ratings of others with absolute certainty and complete comfort. Don't spend too much time worrying about whether your rating for a particular child is "right" or "wrong." M a k e your best judgment of each student and go on to the next. As you will see, these ratings are made in a way somewhat different from any you might have done before. The instructions on the inside of this folder will explain how to proceed.  Prepared by and  ELI  M.  BOWER,  California State Department of Mental Hygiene,  NADINE  M.  LAMBCRT,  California State Department of Education  © Copyright, 1962, California State Department of Education  Diitributed. for rewarch u « > , by Educational T«ttlng S.rvlee, P r o t o n , N. J.  • lo* Ang*)w, CalKomlo  INSTRUCTIONS  137  1. Copy the names of all your pupils in the appropriate spaces on the right-hand edge of the inside back cover so that all names will be visible to you when you make your ratings. 2. There are eight narrow pages, each with a pyramid grid and a one-sentence description of behavior. Your ratingjob on each of these eight pages is to locate every pupil in your class on a scale that runs from "most like" the pupil described to "least l i k e " him. Let us use the first narrow page as an example. The statement below the pyramid (Statement A) reads: This pupil gets into fights or quarrels with other pupils. Look at your list of pupils and identify those who you think are most like the pupil referred to in the statement. Y o u will note there are only two boxes at the extreme right of the pyramid (Column 7) on the narrow page. Choose the two pupils who are most like the pupil in the statement and write their names in the boxes in Column 7 of the pyramid, one name to a box. Now, look at your list of students and identify those who are least like the pupil in Statement A below the pyramid. Choose the two pupils who are least like the pupil in the statement and write their names in the boxes in Column 1 of the pyramid, one name to a box. 3. Now, return to your list of students and again identify from the remaining students those who are most like the pupil mentioned in the statement. These will be pupils who show this behavior to a great degree but not to the extreme found in the two pupils listed in Column 7. Write their names in the boxes of Column 6 of the pyramid. 4. Again, return to your list of pupils and identify other pupils who are least like the pupil mentioned in the statement on the bottom of the page. These will be pupils who show this behavior to a very slight degree but somewhat more than the two in Column 1. Place their names in the boxes of Column 2 of the pyramid. Continue in this manner until all names have been used. 5. When you have completed the ratings, you should have on the right pupils most like the pupil in the statement, and on the left those who are least like the pupil i n the statement. For example, for the first statement, pupils who seldom, if ever, fight or quarrel will be in columns on the left side of the paper and pupils who fight or quarrel quite a lot (or at least enough to be noticed by you) will be on the right side. The pupils who are average or "not extreme i n either direction" with respect to the described behavior will fall into the larger middle categories. 6. Use the boxes shown with dotted lines only if you have a large class and find you do not have enough spaces for all your students. Be sure that each pupil's name is placed in only one box. Some teachers check off names on the class list with light pencil marks to keep track of names used. 7. Try your best to complete the boxes in Columns 1 and 7 first, Columns 2 and 6 second, and i n Columns 3 and 5 last. If you cannot completely fill these columns, use dashes to indicate that the boxes have not been overlooked or omitted. Some teachers who have small classes or insufficient contact with some children may find it necessary to omit names in several of the boxes. If you feel uncertain about placing a child near either extreme of the rating scale, place his name in the middle column, Column 4. When you have completed the ratings, the name of every child in your class should be found i n one of the boxes in one of the seven columns of the pyramid. Unused boxes should have dashes in them. 8. When you finish with your rating on the first statement of behavior, go on to the others, repeating the procedure just described. Complete your ratings on all eight statements of behavior—rating every pupil in your class on every statement—before you undertake the scoring.  I LEAST LfKC  MOST UKf I  This pupil gets into fights or quarrels with other pupils more often than others.  1  2  3  4 |  5  6  7 MOST LIKE  LEAST LIKE  B. This pupil has to be coaxed or forced to work or play with other pupils. He or she will actively .avoid having any contact with classmates.  '  2  3  4 I  5  6  7 MOST UKE  LEAST LIKE  This pupil has difficulty in learning school subjects.  7 LEAST LIKE  MOST UKE  D . This pupil makes unusual or inappropriate responses during normal school activities. His behavior is unpredictable.  1  2  3  4  5  | LEAST UKE  6  7 MOST met  |  E. This pupil works extremely hard in learning school subjects to the exclusion of any other interests or activities. This pupil pours al! his energies into school work.  1^3  j  i  9  1  1  2  3  4  5  I LEAST LIKE  6  7 MOST UKE  J  F. This pupil behaves in ways which are dangerous to self or others. This pupil will get into situations in which he or she may be hurt or frightened.  1  2  3  4  5  6  | LEAST UKE  7 MOST UKE  I  G. This pupil is unhappy or depressed. He or she may cry easily, be inattentive, or daydream.  r  2  3  5  4 |  LEAST LIKE  6  7 MOST LIKE  r  |  H. This pupil becomes upset or sick often, especially when faced with a difficult school problem or situation.  STATEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR  lk6  STATEMENT  STATEMENT  STATEMENT  STATEMENT  STATEMENT  STATEMENT  STATEMENT  STATEMENT  A  B  c  D  E  F  G  H  Total  Name of Pupil  Sex  XI —  u- | <*)  Q|Ulrs co I n  —  t  er  ht  1  U) «_*  3  JC  .C  -o •a  OJ  VU  </i  ~  JS  '—  to  c  -5  OJ JC w  '5. c  -—  ur  the  OA  '•J O t 0 c  c  -a  XT  Ji « 2 S JC  -5  •o  «_ .y O J= u _ U. O rj c  o i.  •a =i  §  —  a & E. "E. c E ° 61) JC c  O w > ^  PJ  rt ° >. 5,  *- ib <Z %.12 c v c: c  \  The Class Pictures (Peer Rating—Kindergarten to Grade 3) Description  work with the class while you administer Clans PIC' After you have completed the Behavior Rating of tures. The actual administration should always be Pupils, your next step in screening is to plan for addone by you. If you are able to organize the class into ministration of the peer ratings. The peer rating instruworking groups, Class Pictures may be administered ment for kindergarten and primary grades, The Class to a few individuals daily during such work periods Pictures, must be given to each child in your class —but you will decide for yourself how best to accomindividually, following the instructions given on page 8. This may take fifteen to twenty minutes of time for ' plish this task. On the test each child is asked to consider which of each child. Administration of The Class Pictures to his classmates is niost like the child in everyone of the the entire class, however, may be spread over a period twenty situations. Some children will pick twenty of lime—up to, but not exceeding, one month. different names. Others may name one or two peers Administer the instrument to children one at a time for several or many different items. Still others may when the rest of the class is engaged in scat work of make no response for one or more items (within the some kind or occupied in other activities which do not 15-sccond time limit set in the instructions for adminisrequire constant supervision. Such a schedule will tering, page 8.) Do not expect any fixed pattern of require a minimum of interruption in your regular responses. teaching program. Read the instructions for adminWhen the responses for every child in the class are istering and scoring The Class Pictures before you start. collected, the teacher can tally the number of times a (See pages 8 and 9.) particular child is chosen for each of the twenty The Class Pictures are composed of twelve picture pictures. The total number of times a child is chosen cards with a total of twenty scoring items (one or two for all of the pictures indicates how clearly or how items on a card). Five of the items are pictures of boys vividly he is "seen," or perceived, by his peers. in situations related to emotionally maladjusted beThe number of times a pupil is picked for the ten havior; live arc pictures of girls in situations related to negative pictures indicates the degree to which he or emotionally maladjusted behavior; five are pictures she is negatively perceived by his peers. By dividing of boys in situations related to positive or neutral types the number of times a child is picked for the ten of behavior; and live are pictures of girls in situations negative pictures by the total number of times he is related to positive or neutral types of behavior. picked for all twenty of the pictures, a per cent, indiThe Class Pictures have been developed as a means cating the ratio of negative perception by peers, is of analyzing, in a systematic and measurable way, obtained and used in screening. how children are perceived or "seen" by their peers. The mean or average number of negative selections The responses of most pupils to the pictures will not of emotionally handicapped boys and girls bas been surprise you. Some responses, however, may seem found to be significantly different from the mean unrealistic and inappropriate. Accept each child's renumber of negative selections in the general school sponses without comment unless the child obviously population of that grade and sex. Consequently, the misunderstands directions. Your role during the adminper cent of negative perception has been found to istration of The Class Pictures is one of test proctor be a reliable indicator of those children whose beand recorder of responses. havior, as observed by peers, indicates some degree of The Class Pictures are used with children who have emotional difficulty. The higher the per cent, th not yet learned to read or write well. Therefore, the greater the possibility that the child has emotional responses of each child.will need to be recorded problems. The per cent of negative selections on Tfve individually by you. You will, of course, have to make Class Pictures, when combined with teacher ratings and special provision for the rest of the class while you are self ratings, has been found effective in primary grades administering Class Pictures to individual children. for screening children with emotional handicaps. If an additional school person is available, he may  lh8  Administration In the administration of The Class Pictures, you should proceed in the following manner: Announce to the class that they will be playing a game with some pictures in the next few days, and, since many boys and girls cannot as yet write, very well, you will be playing the game with each child individually. Use a table other than your own desk and set it apart somewhat from the rest of the class. On the table or desk place a set of The Class Pictures and a pad of "Recording Forms for The Class Pictures." While the pictures are administered, the child should have his back toward the class so that the other children are not directly visible to him. When the child is seated and ready to begin, SAY: "1 am going to show you pictures about school. In each picture you will see arrows pointing to children who will be acting as some children do in this class. I want you to look at each picture and tell me who in this class might act like the boy or girl in the picture. Use your imagination and try to think of someone in your class who might be acting like the boys and girls in these pictures. Now, let's try this one."  With the third card in hand, point to A r r o w 3 and 3. S A Y : "Who could this be having fun on the swings?" Record response. Place the third card face down and pick up the fourth card. Point to Arrow 4 and 4. S A Y : "Who could this be chasing this boy and trying to hit him?" Place the fourth card face down and continue in this \ way with the rest of the cards. 5. "Who could this be, playing ball with the other children?" 6. "Who could this be, fighting with this other boy?" 7. "Who could this be, playing kick-ball with other children?" 8. "Who could this be, this unhappy child watching other children play?" 9. "Who could this be, carrying milk back to the class?" 10. "Who could this sick child be, in the nurse's office?"  11. "Who could this happy child be?" As the pupil gives you his choice, write the names of 12. "Who could this child be who is being brought to the children selected, in the spaces provided, making school by her mother?" certain you write each name on the correct numbered line (line 1 for Arrow 1, and so on). I f there is no 13. "Who could this be, playing on the bars?" response for a picture in an interval of 15 seconds, draw a line in that space and go on to the next arrow. 14. "Who could this child be who seems to have a stomach-ache?" Pick up the first card (Arrow l)and point to Arrow 1. 15. "Who could this be, wulking along with her friends?" 1. S A Y : "Who could this be, sitting at his desk listening to the teacher?" Fnter the name suggested, on line 1 16. "Who could this be, fighting with another child?" ' of the recording sheet. Place the first card face down 17. "Who could this be, working quietly at the tabic?" and turn over the second card. 18. "Who could this be, playing with toys while the rest Point to Arrow 2 and of the class is working?" 2. S A Y : "Who could this be talking to her friend while 19. "Who could this be, playing tether-ball?" the teacher is explaining something to the class?" Record response. Place the second card face down and" 20. "Who could this be. being told by the teacher not to do something?" pick up the third card.  1^9 Modifications The  The C h a p t e r h,  basic only  i n Administration  Class  cards  n e u t r a l b e h a v i o r were d i s p l a y e d . items.  Pictures  procedures remained the p i c t u r e  The t o t a l number  formed h i s s c o r e .  of  t h e same. As n o t e d i n  depicting  p o s i t i v e or  These a r e t h e odd-numbered  of selections received  by a  child  150  A Picture G a m e (Self Rating—Kindergarten to Grade 3) Description A Picture Game is designed to give a measure of young children's perception of self. It is used along with the Behavior Rating of Pupils (teacher rating) and The Class Pictures (peer rating) to identify pupils who are vulnerable to, or handicapped by, emotional problems. A Picture Game consists of 66 pictures, including two sample pictures. Each picture is illustrative of normal home and school relationships and events. With the exception of the two sample cards and the first ten pictures, each picture is emotionally neutral in the portrayal of the relationship or event. The child is asked to sort each picture into one of two categories: "This is a happy picture" or "This is a sad picture." The sorting is done by placing each picture in the "happy" or "sad" side of a two-compartment box which has a happy face shown on one compartment and a sad face on the other. The child categorizes each picture in accordance with his perception of it. The first ten pictures the child sorts are stereotypes: obviously happy or obviously sad situations. The purpose of including them in the test items is to check on each pupil's understanding of the task. If a child sorts  10  the first ten pictures correctly, you can be fairly sure that he has understood the process well enough for you to use his score in screening. If, on the other hand, he does not sort the first ten pictures correctly, you will need to meet with him individually and ask him to sort the pictures again for you, making certain that he understands the process. Some children rlmose to place pictures differently from others. If you find that such children understand the process but continue, on re-administration, to sort the pictures in an independent fashion, make a note of it on the "Class Record Sheet," and use the child's score in screening. A Picture Gome can be administered to your <:h\' as a group ,by providing each child with the special two-compartment box and a set of pictures. There ate separate forms of A Picture Game for boys and f j i U . The boys' form is printed on blue cards, contained in is blue box. The girls' form is on pink cards, contained in a pink box. It should take about one half hour to administer A Picture Game to your class, including time for distribution and collection.  i  1 5 1  Administration  Scoring  You should have enough pink boxes and sets of pink cards for each girl in your class and enough blue boxes and sets of blue cards for each boy. Distribute a box and a set of cards to each boy and girl along with small pieces of scratch paper on which they will write . their names to put into their boxes when they have finished the game. Y o u may, if you wish, distribute papers with the names already written on them. When all the children arc ready, say to the class:  To score A Picture Game you will need "Class Record Sheet—A Picture Game" and all the boxes, into which the students sorted the picture cards. Complete the identifying information at the top of the "Class Record Sheet" and write the names of the boys and girls in the spaces provided. Note that boys and girls are listed separately. Next, count the number of cards in the "happy" compartment of the first pupil's box and record that number in the column headed "Total No. of Happy Pictures" on your "Class Record Sheet," opposite the pupil's name.  "We are going to play a picture game. Open your boxes. Notice that on the inside of the box cover there are two pictures. On the left is a picture of a sad boy or a sad girl. On the right, there is a picture of a happy boy or a happy girl. Each of you also has a set o f picture cards. Girls have pink picture cards and pink boxes and boys have blue cards and blue boxes. Some of the pictures will seem sad to you and some of them will seem happy. You are to decide which arc the sad pictures and which arc the happy ones. "Look at picture A. Is that a happy picture or a sad picture? (Hu// for class response.) Yes, that is a happy picture. Put it in the compartment under the happy face—at your right hand. "Look at Picture B. Is that a happy picture or a sad picture? (Wait for  class response.) Yes, that is a sad  picture. Put it in the compartment under the sad f a c e — at your left hand. "The game is for you to look at all the pictures in your set and decide which ones are happy pictures and which are sad pictures. "Place the sad pictures in the compartment under the picture of the sad boy or girl. Place the happy pictures in the compartment under the picture of the happy boy or girl. Y o u will probably all choose different pictures as happy or sad. I expect that. Play the game by yourself and don't work with your neighbor. "When you are finished with all the pictures, place the ' slip of paper with your name on it in one of the compartments; it docs not matter which. Then close your box and wait for mc to pick it up." Collect the boxes one by one, as the children complete the task, and place them out of sight until class is dismissed for the day. When you are ready to score them, take your "Class Record Sheet for A Picture Game," and turn to the instructions for "Scoring."  The first ten columns of the "Class Record Sheet" provide a check to see if a pupil has understood the instructions. When you have finished counting and recording the number of pictures the pupil has placed in the "happy" compartment, note where he placed each picture numbered one through ten (1-10). A child's placement of each of these ten pictures .should correspond with the "M" (happy) or "S" (sail) at the top of the column on the "Class Record Sheet." " I I " indicates that most children sec the picture as happy; "S" indicates that most children see the picture as sad. Where a child's placement does not correspond with the "H" or "S" at the top of the column, place an " X " in that square. Put an " X " in every square where the pupil's choice disagrees with the selection indicated at the top of the column. If a pupil has three or more "X's," there is a strong possibility that the child misunderstood the directions or cannot grasp the concepts of "happy" or "sad." In any case, the test should be re-administered with the instructions explained individually to the chi Ul. The fact that you have administered the test a second time should then be noted in the column under "Comments" and the number in the "Total No. of Happy Pictures" column should be that counted in the second administration. The two sample cards, A and B. and the first ten cards, unlike the other cards, are supposed to be what an average child sees as "happy" or "sad." If a pupil sorts out cards A and B and the first ten pictures as most children do, you can be fairly confident that he understood how to take the test. Hut if he has three or more choices which disagree with the average choices indicated on the "Class Record Sheet," you should suspect that he has not sorted the rest of the pictures according to the instructions and you will need to give him individual help in a re-administration of A Picture Game.  11  152 Name  ; Flr»t N « m c  Age  •'  Lmt  Boy Or Girl  (Circle one)  Ntmt  School  Grade  Date  P R I M A R Y FORM —Grades 1 to 3  T H E  S T O R Y  O F  T O M M Y  This is the story of Tommy. Tommy is about your age, he lives at home with his mother and father, he goes to school, he likes to play games, and now and then he has to make up his mind about things as they happen. This story is also about you because we want to know what you would do if you were Tommy. Now in the story, each time that Tommy has to make up his mind what to do, he will have FOUR choices. After you read each of these four choices, pick out what you would choose first if YOU were Tommy, and then what you would choose second, third, and finally what you would choose last. As you read the story, or the teacher reads the story out loud for you, and you come to a part where Tommy has to make up his mind what to do, you will stop and read the four choices first, and then write in the brackets the numbers 1, 2, 3 or 4 after each of the four choices, that is in the order that you would choose them if you were Tommy. Therefore, you will write write write write  1 after 2 after 3 after 4 after  what what what what  you choose you choose you choose you choose  to to to to  do do second do third do last  first  ( ( ( (  1 ) 2 ) 3) 4)  Before you begin, you should know that there are no right or wrong answers. The only right choices are those that you would make if you were Tommy, and the order in which you make them from one to four. Are you ready?  NOW  TURN THE PAGE.  153  Tommy goes to school now. In the morning when Tommy gets up, he dresses and gets ready for school. This morning he was not able to find his other shoe. Tommy looked everywhere but he could not find it. He was afraid he might be late for school, and so he finally decided to: ask his mother to help him find his other shoe  (  )  just wait in his room until his mother comes  (  )  blame his sister for putting it in the wrong place  (  )  wear his other pair of shoes that were in the closet  (  )  After breakfast, Tommy was off to school. He had his books under his arm but as he arrived at the school grounds, he found that he forgot his gym shoes. It was too late to run back home. Tommy thought about what he should do and at last decided to:  take gym with only socks on  (  )  hope the teacher would not notice he did not have his gym shoes  (  )  expect that mother might remember to bring them at recess  (  )  say that he does not feel well and miss the gym class  (  )  The school bell rang and the children began to enter the school. Tommy was going to his room and as he got to the door, he playfully grabbed Billy's cap and threw it in the air. It landed on the light shade and stayed there. Just then the teacher walked in. Tommy saw the teacher and he decided to: walk to his seat and hope the teacher did not really see him  (  )  say it was Billy's fault because he was pushing  (  )  ask the teacher if he could get the janitor to get the cap down  (  )  tell the teacher he was sorry since she would understand  (  )  I5h The teacher started the first lesson for the day. The children took out their reading books and some of the children were asked to stand up and read aloud. Johnny was the first to read. He was a very good reader and he made very few mistakes. Later it was Tommy's turn. Tommy was not able to read some words too well, and as the teacher tried to help Tommy with these words, he decided to: listen carefully so as to know how to say them the next time  (  )  tell the teacher that he knows the words all right  (  )  read more slowly so the teacher could help him with the hard words  (  )  stop at every long word so the teacher would pronounce it  (  )  The next class was art. In Tommy's grade the teacher asked the children to draw a picture. Tommy is very good at art and the teacher usually shows Tommy's work to the class. As Tommy started on his drawing this morning, he decided he would: draw another horse since he can do this best  v  .(  )  draw a new picture which he had never drawn before  (  )  wait to see what the other children started to draw  (  )  ask the teacher to help him get started on something  (  )  At recess, most of the children in Tommy's class play tag. Freddie was " i t " this time. After chasing some other children, Freddie started to chase Tommy. Tommy could also run pretty fast, but when he got near the fence he tripped. Freddie caught him and tagged him anyway, so now Tommy was " i t . " Tommy decided to: go and sit down and not play anymore  (  )  just get up and start to chase someone else  (  )  say it wasn't fair since he tripped and fell  (  )  go and ask the teacher to settle it  (  )  155  The last class before lunch was arithmetic. Tommy likes number work although it gets pretty hard sometimes. This morning the class had some number work to do by themselves at their desks. Tommy got most of the questions but some were too hard. He was not sure what to do about the hard questions so he decided to: raise his hand to get help from the teacher  (  )  sit quietly and not say anything  (  )  leave the hard questions for the next day  (  )  keep trying to figure out the hard questions by himself  (  )  At noon, Tommy goes home for lunch, and so does L a r r y who lives a few houses from Tommy. They usually go home together. On their way home, Tommy asked Larry if he would like to see his new bicycle. Since Larry rides a bicycle well, he said yes, and when they got to Tommy's house, Larry asked Tommy if he could try out his new bicycle. Tommy decided to: let Larry have a short ride up and down the street  (  )  say " N o " because Larry might scratch his bicycle  (  )  (  )  (  )  tell Larry that he has to ask his mother tell Larry that his bicycle is too new  first  After lunch, Tommy went back to school. The class was having gym this afternoon, and this time Tommy did remember to bring his gym shoes. During gym, the children do exercises and play games. Also some of the children are allowed to play on the bars, and some even hang head down holding on by their knees. Tommy was not sure whether he should try this and finally decided to: just watch the others do it since it is dangerous  (  )  maybe try it some other time  (  )  climb up to the bar and try it himself  (  )  ask the teacher to help him so he wouldn't fall  (  )  156  After school, Tommy came right home because he had to go with his mother to the doctor. Tommy was going for a check-up, but he might be getting a needle as well. He did not want to go very much, so he decided to: go even if the needle does sting a bit  (  )  say he feels quite well and does not need to see a doctor  (  )  ask the doctor if his mother could come in with him  (  )  try to get out of going this time  (  )  Tommy's father usually plays with him after supper, and this day he asked Tommy if he would like to play catch. Tommy quickly got his ball and glove and he and his father went out to the back yard. Tommy is just learning how to catch a ball, so sometimes he misses quite a few. This time Tommy was missing almost every catch. He war not too happy about this and after a while decided to: say that it must be the new glove that makes him drop the ball  (  )  step closer to his father, so as to practice on short throws  (  )  hope his father wouldn't be too angry at him  (  )  ask his father again to show him how to catch the ball  (  )  After playing catch, Tommy had to go inside. Tommy played with his toys for a while, and then had to get ready for bed. He put on his pajamas, washed his face and hands, and brushed his teeth. Tommy has been taught to say his prayers before going to sleep. However, Tommy was pretty tired this night and thought he would: hope that nothing really bad will happen  (  )  say his prayers because they are important to him  (  )  say his prayers tomorrow night instead  (  )  ask his mother to help him say his prayers this time  (  )  When Tommy was finished, he jumped into bed and soon was fast asleep. Tomorrow, Tommy was most probably going to have another busy day. And that is the end of the story.  INSTITUTE OF CHILD STUDY SECURITY  157 Security Category  THE STORY OF TOMMY —Score Sheet No. 1 IS 1. shoe  DA  INS  7. arithmetic  IDS  IDS  INS  INS  DA  DA IS EZ 8. bicycle  IS 2. gym shoes IS  IS  INS  INS  IDS  IDS  DA 3. cap  DA 9. gym  INS  INS  DA  DA  IS  IS  IDS  IDS  4. reading  is  IDS  10. doctor  IS I  :  DA  DA  IDS  IDS  INS  INS  5. art  11. playing ball  DA  DA  IS  is  INS IDS 6. playing tag  rz  INS IDS 12. prayers  INS  INS  IS  IS  DA  C  DA  IDS  IDS 12  R IS — Independent Security IDS — Immature Dependent Security DA — Deputy Agent  12  A N  12  K  INS — Insecurity  12 Total  12  12  12  12  SCORING S H E E T  TEST—Primary Form  158 TIIK S T O R Y O F T O M M Y — Score Sheet No. 2  Security  Consistency Score  Score  Rank  Security  X  Category 1  2 0  3 1  Mean  Y-  Y  Z  4 4  9 30  IS 1  0  1  4 30  IDS 4  1  0  1  DA  30 9  4  1  0  INS  30 120 Total YMnlt.iply hy  -14  Cor.sist.pnry Srnrp Pprrpntilp Total 7 Multiply hv 5 Divide hy  Copyright, 1964 \c\ F. Grapko, Ph.D. tute of Child Study versity of Toronto foronto, Canada  100  minus  Seriirit.v  Srnrp  Pprrpntilp  12  APPENDIX D  SAMPLE BEHAVIORAL  PROTOCOLS  FROM KEISTER PUZZLE BOX  160  SAMPLE BEHAVIORAL PROTOCOLS FROM PUZZLE BOX TEST Subject:  THE  Female, k i n d e r g a r t e n  Begins  immediately  and s t a r t s to t a l k . "Oh, enjoy h e r s e l f . too?" Has  to p i c k up blocks with both hands t h i s i s f u n ! " Smiles, appears to  "I l i k e p u z z l e s . Do you have other p u z z l e s ,  box n e a r l y f i l l e d  w i l l not f i t .  "Oh,  and r e a l i z e s t h a t the  sailboat  t h i s won't work." Grasps box w i t h  hands, turns i t upside down and  both  s t a r t s again. Same speed of  movements w i t h hands and eyes, a s s e s s i n g the space a v a i l a b l e and the shapes l e f t . Continues No  "Oh,  t h i s i s kinda hard, but i t ' s f u n . "  w i t h the same p h y s i c a l responses  i n order to s o l v e .  slowing of pace, although stops momentarily f o r assessment  and moves i n c h a i r o c c a s i o n a l l y . Uses both hands and continues to t a l k i n a f r i e n d l y way  throughout  at i n t e r v a l s - eg.  "I have puzzles at home. Mine aren't made of wood. They're jig-saw p u z z l e s . " On being t o l d that the time i s up, asks i f she c o u l d come back another Subject:  she  day to t r y again.  Male, k i n d e r g a r t e n  Looks unhappily at examiner, moves i n c h a i r to s i t sideways i n order not to face desk or to see or touch p u z z l e . Looks at T.V. to pout  camera momentarily, then looks at f l o o r . Seems  (lower l i p j u t s out, corners of mouth turned down).  Looks at examiner and pushes l i p s together so that corners of mouth turned down even more - g l a r e s f o r a moment i n r e s ponse to the i n v i t a t i o n to t r y and looks away from examiner.  161  Negative  a f f e c t continues  though he looks a t other o b j e c t s ,  examines book s h e l v e s , but continues  t o s i t on edge of c h a i r ,  grasping c h a i r with both arms and hands a t h i s ' s i d e s , h e l d stiffly,  s t i l l p o s i t i o n e d away from p u z z l e . When spoken t o  again w i l l not look at examiner nor w i l l he respond v e r b a l l y . When asked i f he would r a t h e r leave t o go back t o c l a s s , nods head a f f i r m a t i v e l y , gets out of c h a i r , continues  l o o k i n g down  and moves d i r e c t l y to door, a v o i d i n g a l l contact on way back to  class.  Subject:  Male, f i r s t  grade  When t o l d he can begin,glances goes on t o task. Leans forward, i n box and p i c k s up another  b r i e f l y a t camera, then  p i c k s up a p i e c e , p l a c e s i t  with, slow, d e l i b e r a t e , steady  movements. Solemn, i n t e n t look upon h i s f a c e . R e a l i z e s l a s t b l o c k won't f i t without  p i c k i n g i t up; moves some of the  p i e c e s around i n the box i n order t o t r y t o accomodate the b l o c k . Gauges space and p o s i t i o n s b l o c k above i n t o space, then lowers i t and t r i e s t o push i t i n . "Hmmmm, t h i s i s hard." Takes out a l l the b l o c k s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p l a c i n g them on the t a b l e . Re-examines shapes; solemn look on face remains. T o t a l l y absorbed; does not look up when a n o i s e heard  i n hallway.  t i n u e s working m e t h o d i c a l l y . Solves p u z z l e . Smiles and looks at examiner without  broadly  v e r b a l i z i n g . When asked i f he  had  l i k e d doing the p u z z l e , he smiles again, nodding head  and  says  "Yes."  Con-  162 Subject:  Female, f i r s t  grade  Begins by s t a r i n g at puzzle f o r some time. on face one  of u n c e r t a i n t y , even apprehensive.  examiner s e v e r a l times  and,  Expression  Looks at  though says n o t h i n g , conveys  f e e l i n g of wanting h e l p . D i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n again at puzzle p i e c e s , s e l e c t s one, it  i n box,  the house, and very h e s i t a n t l y places  moving i t i n t o a corner. Takes hand away from  b l o c k , h e s i t a t e s l e a v i n g hand p o i s e d above i t , looks at exami n e r ; seems to seek approval or reassurance. Puts hand back on b l o c k and moves i t t e n t a t i v e l y to another  c o r n e r , looks at  examiner a g a i n . Stops. Body tensed, knees pressed  together,  other hand clenched i n b a l l . Slowly moves b l o c k i n t o of box.  middle  Stares at i t , then looks at examiner and back again  to  the b l o c k . P i c k s up f i s h - s h a p e d block from t a b l e , looks at  it  i n her hand and very h e s i t a n t l y puts i t i n t o box beside  the  house. F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n very unhappy, d e j e c t e d , seems c l o s e to t e a r s . Squeezes eyes shut. Test Subject:  stopped.  Male, k i n d e r g a r t e n  (Talks v o l u b l y from the time he leaves c l a s s , shows immediate i n t e r e s t i n T.V. be shown how  set and,  a f t e r being promised  he'll  i t works i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l a f t e r t e s t , i s ready  to t a c k l e p u z z l e . ) S t a r t s to move blocks r a p i d l y i n t o box one hand to b e g i n w i t h but soon s t a r t s to use two  using  as he pushes  b l o c k s i n t o p l a c e . Moves v i g o r o u s l y , shaking and moving h i s c h a i r and  the t a b l e with h i s body movement. Stands up s e v e r a l  times as he continues  to work. Pleasant f a c i a l  expression.  163  Talks c o n s t a n t l y . Samples: "I got a new baby b r o t h e r . You got any l i t t l e  boys? I'm not l i t t l e  anymore. Boy, look at  t h i s t r u c k ! (To h i m s e l f ) Hey, why won't t h i s go i n ? This i s hard." Stands up f o r a b e t t e r look and decides i n s t a n t l y to empty the box and s t a r t over. day l i k e You  I do? Do you l i k e  "Do you come t o s c h o o l every-  school? What kinda c a r i s t h i s ?  g o t t a car? My Dad's got a b i g Mercury. Oh, boy, I'm  g e t t i n g i t now. But that won't go i n . I t won't work. Aah! (an e x p r e s s i o n of d i s g u s t ) . " Dumps box's contents again and starts  over immediately.  l o t s a k i d s get t h i s  " I t ' s hard but I'm gonna win. Did  right?"  

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