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An evaluation of lifeplanning interventions : comparing a career development course with a personal development… Long, Bonita Clarice 1978

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AN EVALUATION OF LIFEPLANNING INTERVENTIONS: COMPARING A CAREER DEVELOPMENT COURSE WITH A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE AND LIFEPLANNING INTERVIEWS FOR WOMEN by Bonita C l a r i c e Long B.Ed.,. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978 (c) Bonita C l a r i c e Long, 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree th a t the Library shall make it freely available for r e f e r e n c e and study . I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of RHnratinn The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 Date rtLcP. i i ABSTRACT AN EVALUATION OF LIFEPLANNING INTERVENTIONS: COMPARING A CAREER DEVELOPMENT COURSE WITH A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE AND LIFEPLANNING INTERVIEWS FOR WOMEN The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y o f a t h r e e - d a y c a r e e r development c o u r s e compared w i t h a s i x - s e s s i o n p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e and one-hour l i f e -p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d t o women t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n -u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c o - o r d i n a t o r o f t h e C e n t r e ' s c a r e e r development program d e v e l o p e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a . o f s u c c e s s f o r t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s : 1. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d e x h i b i t n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s women's l i f e s t y l e s . 2. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d l e a r n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 3. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d s t r u c t u r e t h e i r t i m e t o i n c r e a s e non-t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s . 4. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d f i n d c e r t a i n components o f t h e c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n o t h e r s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n s were o f f e r e d t o a d u l t women i n t h e community. The c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s were e v a l u a t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n and w i t h r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g knowledge, a w a r e n e s s , p e r -c e p t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n and b e h a v i o r s o f t h e women r e l a t e d t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e they s h a r e d t h e same g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and were t h e same t a r g e t p o p u l a -t i o n . U s i n g c h i - s q u a r e , t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s were f o u n d t o be e q u i v a -l e n t on age and e d u c a t i o n b u t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t on m a r i t a l s t a t u s . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e , chi-square and the Wilcoxon signed-ranks t e s t were used to determine s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among means (pre-t e s t and follow-up) and d i f f e r e n c e s among the comparison groups four weeks f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t : 1. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n reported n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s f o r the career development course, the p e r s o n a l development course and the l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r -view p a r t i c i p a n t s . ; 2. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n reported n o n t r a d i t i o n a l behaviors f o r the career development course, the personal development course and the l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i -pants . 3. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n reported planning a b i l i t y . 4. The career development course was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s , n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e behaviors or planning a b i l i t y than the pers o n a l development course or the l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w s . Four weeks f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n 62% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s reported that they had a plan n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r t h e i r f u t u r e goals and 85% i n d i c a t e d that they f e l t much more p o s i t i v e about themselves. The o v e r a l l meaningfulness of the i n t e r v e n t i o n components was r a t e d h i g h l y and was maintained f o r the four-week follow-up p e r i o d . I t was concluded that the l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r women were e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s and i n i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM STATEMENT OF THE PURPOSE APPROACH OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS 5 Dependent V a r i a b l e s . 5 Program E v a l u a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 5 ASSUMPTIONS 6 HYPOTHESES . . . . . 6 DESCRIPTION OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS 7 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF SELECTED RELATED LITERATURE 9 THE LIFE-ROLE CHOICES OF WOMEN 9 The I n f l u e n c e of the Home-Career C o n f l i c t on L i f e - r o l e C h o i c e 9 A S h i f t i n L i f e - r o l e O r i e n t a t i o n 11 The E f f e c t L i f e - r o l e O r i e n t a t i o n has on Achievement 12 L i f e S t a g e s and D e v e l o p m e n t a l Trends 13 J. a g e v i 11 x 1 1 3 4 4 V R o l e C h o i c e and W e l l - B e i n g 14 Work and W e l l - b e i n g 16 D e v e l o p m e n t a l C o u n s e l l i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s . . . 18 THE GROWTH OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS . . 20 Co n c e p t s , Terms and D e f i n i t i o n s 20 F o r c e s B e h i n d the C a r e e r Development Programs 21 S u r v e y s o f C a r e e r Development Programs . . . 22 THE EVALUATION OF LIFEPLANNING PROGRAMS . . . 23 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s - D e s c r i p t i v e . . 24 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s - I n f o r m a l E v a l u a t i o n 26 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s - F o r m a l E v a l u a t o n 28 SUMMARY 37 CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 39 OVERVIEW 40 CONTENT OF COURSES AND INTERVIEWS 40 OVERVIEW OF EVALUATION STRATEGY 42 EVALUATION PROCEDURES 45 DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRES 47 HYPOTHESES . . . .' 50 ASSUMPTIONS 51 EVALUATION PROCEDURES: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES 52 SUMMARY 56 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 57 v i CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE 57 - - ANALYSES OF DATA FROM QUESTIONNAIRES IN RELATION TO EACH HYPOTHESES 60 DISCUSSION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF THE LIFEPLANNING INTERVENTIONS. 67 Observations 68 Effectiveness of the Interventions . . . . 70 E f f i c i e n c y of the Interventions 76 SUMMARY 82 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 83 SUMMARY 83 LIMITATIONS 84. CONCLUSIONS 85 IMPLICATIONS 85 RECOMMENDATIONS 86 REFERENCES 87 APPENDICES 95 A. TELEPHONE SURVEY 96 B. CALENDAR DESCRIPTIONS 98 C. LIFESTYLE ATTITUDE SCALE 100 D. PRETEST AND FOLLOW-UP PLANNING ABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE WITH ANSWER SHEET 102 E. PRETEST AND FOLLOW-UP LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST 105 F. POST-SESSION MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRES: A Career i n Your L i f e 108 Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l 109 Lifeplanning Interviews 110 G. GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND VALUE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM I l l v i i H. COURSE OUTLINE - A CAREER IN YOUR L I F E 115 T. COURSE OUTLINE - DEVELOPING PERSONAL POTENTIAL . . n l J . I N I T I A L AND SECOND CONTRACT 120 K. FOLLOW-UP MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRES A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 122 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 124 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 126 L. GENERAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE 128 M. OBSERVATION QHECKLIST ^ 133 N. TELEPHONE INSTRUCTIONS FOR LIFEPLANNING PARTICIPANTS 134 0. INTRODUCTION FOR COURSE PARTICIPANTS 135 P. COVERING LETTER FOR MAILED FOLLOW-UP FORMS . . . . 136 Q. TABULATION OF GENERAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE . 137 v i i i L I ST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. D a t e s of C o u r s e s and I n t e r v i e w s 43 2. O u t l i n e of D i f f e r e n c e s i n P r e s e n t a t i o n 43 3. Sample S i z e Used t o T e s t Each H y p o t h e s i s 52 4. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n S c h e d u l e 54 5. Comparison of M a r i t a l S t a t u s 58 6. ' Comparison of E d u c a t i o n A t t a i n e d 58 7. Comparison of Age Groups 59 8. Summary of C h i - s q u a r e T e s t s on Group Demographic D a t a 59 9. Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on t h e L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e 62 10. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e 62 11. Mean Number of N o n t r a d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s on the L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t -P r e t e s t and F o l l o w - u p 64 12. A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r N o n t r a d i t i o n a l L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r Change 64 13. Comparison of P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s on P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y 66 14. Comparison of P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s That: Got Worse, o r S t a y e d t h e Same and Improved on P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y 66 15. - F o l l o w - u p Responses to t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do You P r e s e n t l y Have a P l a n n i n g S t r a t e g y ? " 71 16. F r e q u e n c y of I n c r e a s e d N o n t r a d i t i o n a l L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r s by Item 71 i x 17. F o l l o w - u p Responses t o the Q u e s t i o n "Do You F e e l Any D i f f e r e n t l y ? " 74 18. G u i d a n c e , C o u n s e l l i n g and I n f o r m a t i o n Sought F o l l o w i n g the I n t e r v e n t i o n s 74 19. F o l l o w - u p Responses t o the Q u e s t i o n " D i d t he A d v e r t i s i n g G i v e You a C l e a r P i c t u r e . . ? " 76 20. M e a n i n g f u l n e s s t o P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w - u p P e r i o d s f o r "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " 78 21. M e a n i n g f u l n e s s t o P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w - u p P e r i o d s f o r " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " 79 22. M e a n i n g f u l n e s s t o P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d on I n i t i a l and F o l l o w - u p P e r i o d s f o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " I n t e r v i e w s 80 X LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. P r e - and Four-week F o l l o w - u p T e s t s 39 2. Model f o r E v a l u a t i o n 44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w i s h to e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e members of my committee Dr. P. D a v i d s o n , Dr. M. N e v i s o n and Dr. H. R a t z l a f f f o r t h e i r encouragement and comments th r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o c e s s . I a l s o w i s h t o thank c l o s e f r i e n d s and f a m i l y f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e the s t a f f a t C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d was a l s o much a p p r e c i a t e d . Most of a l l I would l i k e to e x p r e s s ray de e p e s t t h a n k s t o Dr. R. S c h u t z from whom I have l e a r n e d so much. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n As i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f women a r e s e e k i n g f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n and r e - e n t r y i n t o t h e w o r k f o r c e s p e c i a l programs and s e r v i c e s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s have been d e v e l o p e d ( A s t i n , 1976; Tom, I r o n s i d e & Hendry, 1975) t o smooth the t r a n s i t i o n of women fr o m home, to work and t o s c h o o l . Programs based on t h e workshop model have p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c l o s e i n t e r a c t i o n and m u t u a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w i t h one's p e e r s (Berman, G e l s o , G r e e n f e i g & H i r s c h , 1977; K a t z & Knapp, 1974). C h e s l e r (1972) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l modes of p s y c h o t h e r a p y may not be the a p p r o p r i a t e o r e f f e c t i v e means f o r women t o change. Women s h o u l d be viewed as " i n t r a n s i t i o n " and be p r o v i d e d s e r v i c e s t h a t f o c u s upon e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g toward c h o i c e of l i f e s t y l e ( B r o o k s , 1978). A means o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s u t i l i z i n g a b r o a d e r d e f i n i -t i o n o f c a r e e r development as " s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t over the l i f e - s p a n " ( Gysbers & Moore, 1975, p. 648) has been p o s t u l a t e d . I t has been found ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1978) t h a t women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s have a c o n t i n u i n g and s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r work l i v e s and p l a n s w h i c h has s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s (Hansen, 1974). W i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s (Berman e t a l . , 1977; T i c h e n o r , 1977) t h e r e has been a l a c k o f s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f such c o u r s e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y needed a r e d a t a r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c a r e e r c o u r s e s 1 and o t h e r t y p e s of a i d , o r of no a i d a t a l l . A l s o needed a r e d a t a on whether or n o t c a r e e r c o u r s e s p r o v i d e the k i n d o f h e l p a d u l t s f e e l they need (Babcock & Kaufman, 1976). Review of the l i t e r a t u r e produced l i t t l e i n t h e way o f s y s t e m a t i c c o m p a r i s o n s o f workshops o r group approaches i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o r of outcome c r i t e r i a t h a t can be u s e f u l l y employed ( N i c h o l s , 1974; R i c e & G o e r i n g , 1977). O b j e c t i f i a b l e c r i t e r i a c o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t s u p p o r -t i v e s e r v i c e s d e s i g n e d f o r r e t u r n i n g a d u l t s y i e l d an economic and s o c i a l p a y o f f t o t h e community and the u n i v e r s i t y ( R i c e & G o e r i n g , 1977). Edwards and G u t t e n t a g (1975) i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l s i t u a t i o n s when f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n was a p p r o p r i a t e , s p e c i f i c a l l y i f a program was new o r newly changed o r about t o change. A l l e v a l u a t i o n s i n v o l v e j u dgements, u s u a l l y c o m p a r a t i v e , about the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s and a d d r e s s such d e c i s i o n problems a s : I s t h i s program a good i d e a ? I f s o , what can we do to make i t work as w e l l as p o s s i b l e ? I f n o t , how can we d e v i s e something b e t t e r , g i v e n o ur c o n s t r a i n t s ? Program e v a l u a t i o n has come t o have many d i f f e r e n t meanings and o f t e n the terms e v a l u a t i o n and r e s e a r c h become e n t a n g l e d ( O e t t i n g , 1976). Program e v a l u a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o B l a c k w e l l and Bolman (1977) s h o u l d g i v e i n d i v i d u a l s and systems some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r m u t u a l growth and d e v e l o p -ment so t h a t they can f u n c t i o n o p t i m a l l y . The l i t e r a t u r e has no t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t p l a n n i n g l e s s e n s the t h r e a t o f e v a l u a t i o n ( B l a c k w e l l & Bolman, 1977) and has i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g n o t u s u a l l y c l a r i f i e d when l o o k i n g a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f e v a l u a t i o n ( C a r r , 1977). The e v a l u a t o r must be aware o f the whole c o n t e x t i n w h i c h e v a l u a t i o n must o c c u r and be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e v a l u a t o r 1 s i m p a ct 3 on t h a t c o n t e x t and to changes t h a t o c c u r as t h e e y a l u a t q r ' s work c o n t i n u e s . The purpose and method o f e v a l u a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s s t u d y . The e v a l u a t i o n method used i s based on Gottman and L e i b l u m ' s (1974) f i v e -p a r t f l o w c h a r t i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t he r e l e v a n c e and u s e f u l n e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n . One o f the endemic c o m p l a i n t s o f b o t h e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s and p o l i c y - m a k e r s i s t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s a r e so l i t t l e used i n the a c t u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s (Bennet & Lumsdaine, 1975). Statement o f P r o b l e m The C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (U.B.C.), o f f e r s c l a s s e s and s h o r t c o u r s e s t a i l o r e d t o f i t a v a r i e t y o f women's needs and i s d e s i g n e d t o f u r t h e r growth and encourage s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f women (Thorn, I r o n s i d e * & Hendry, 1975). A c a r e e r development program has r e c e n t l y grown out o f the d a y t i m e program w h i c h o f f e r s a wide v a r i e t y o f nondegree c o u r s e s f o r a d u l t s . I n i t s i n f a n c y , t h i s program i s s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e t a s k o f c r e a t i n g a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f what c a r e e r development encompasses. T h i s program was i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g a w o r t h w h i l e program t o e v a l -u a t e as i t was new and s e e k i n g answers t o t h e above q u e s t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d by Edwards and G u t t e n t a g ( 1 9 7 5 ) . One p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " was d e t e r m i n e d t o be the model w i t h w h i c h t o implement e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . A n o t h e r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and i n d i v i d u a l " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n were s e l e c t e d as c o m p a r i s o n models f o r they s h a r e d some of t h e same b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s , o b j e c t i v e s and t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n as the c a r e e r development c o u r s e ( E p s t e i n & T r i p o d i , 1977). 4 Statement o f t h e Pu r p o s e The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a t h r e e - d a y c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " compared to a s i x - s e s s i o n " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and one-hour " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d to a d u l t women t h r o u g h the C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C. Approach Through d i s c u s s i o n w i t h c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s , i n t e r v i e w e r s and t h e program c o - o r d i n a t o r , a c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s , c o n t e n t and h i s t o r y of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s was d e v e l o p e d . A p r e l i m i n a r y phone s u r v e y o f t h e c a r e e r c o u r s e ' s p a s t p a r t i c i p a n t s was u t i l i z e d t o more c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e program (Appendix A ) . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s as a d v e r t i s e d i n t he c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c a l e n d a r can be found i n App e n d i x B. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the two c o u r s e s and t h e i n t e r v i e w s on t h e knowledge, a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r s of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was examined. The two c o u r s e and i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s e l f - r e p o r t s i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s e l f - r e p o r t s asked f o r i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g demographic v a r i a b l e s , knowledge r e g a r d i n g p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y , l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s and ti m e s p e n t a t p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e a c t i v i t i e s . The e f f i c i e n c y o f the two c o u r s e s and t h e i n t e r v i e w s was d e t e r -mined by a s e l f - r e p o r t r a t i n g o f t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the c o u r s e and i n t e r v i e w c o n t e n t , and was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e end of each d a i l y s e s s i o n and f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w . 5 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Dependent V a r i a b l e s L i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e . T h i s d e a l s w i t h f e e l i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to a t r a d i t i o n a l (motherhood) or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ( c a r e e r ) o r i e n t a t i o n and w i l l be s e l f - r e p o r t e d i n r e s p o n s e to a 2 0 - i t e m L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e ( B u r n s , 1974). Appendix C. P l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . A measure of knowledge i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as measured by the s c o r e on t h e P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A p p e n d i x D. L i f e s t y l e b e h a v i o r s . B e h a v i o r s o r a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e of the r ange of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t women and mothers t y p i c a l l y engage i n . The p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and any change i n commitment w i l l be s e l f - r e p o r t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a 3 2 - i t e m L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t (Hands, 1974). Appendix E. Program E v a l u a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s E f f e c t i v e n e s s . Measures whether t h e program r e a c h e d t h e s t a t e d c r i t e r i a of s u c c e s s and i s based on the e f f e c t s t h e program s h o u l d have. The c r i t e r i a c a l l s ; f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n and measurement of a v a r i e t y of e f f e c t s r a n g i n g from p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and c o g n i t i o n s t o t y p e s of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e program w i l l be measured by the dependent v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d above ( L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e , P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t ) . E f f i c i e n c y . The s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of t h e d e s i g n of t h e program and/or the f a c t o r s t h a t p r e v e n t o r f a c i l i t a t e outcomes. E f f i c i e n c y w i l l be measured by s e l f - r e p o r t e d r a t i n g s of t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of the v a r i o u s components of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . A p p e n d i x F. 6 Ass u m p t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s and the program c o - o r d i n a t o r : 1. Knowledge a l o n e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o promote change. 2. A d u l t women need to p l a n f o r t h e i r l i f e s t y l e development. 3. Most p e o p l e l i k e t o work. 4. W i t h h e l p p e o p l e who h e s i t a t e can implement change. Hypotheses A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l r e p o r t a change i n a t t i t u d e f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , towards women's l i f e s t y l e s as i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s : 1. P a r t i c i p a n t s ' s c o r e s show a g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t he c o u r s e s "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " and " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s as measured by the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e . 2. "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show g r e a t e r g a i n as measured by the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e when compared w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l r e p o r t l i f e s t y l e changes r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s e d commitment t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e r o l e f u n c t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n more a c t i v i t i e s c e n t e r e d around j o b s , e d u c a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , community work, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p e r s o n a l g r o w t h g r o u p s . The changes a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s : 3. "A C a r e e r i n Yo u r L i f e " , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t he c o u r s e r e p o r t i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as measured on t h e L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . 4. "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t a g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s when compared t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c o u r s e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e -p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s as measured on t h e L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e an i n c r e a s e i n l i f e p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y as i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s : 5. "A C a r e e r i n Yo u r L i f e " , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s show a g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w as measured by t e s t s c o r e s on t h e P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 6. "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show g r e a t e r g a i n as measured by t e s t s c o r e s ' on t h e P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e when compared t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the F o l l o w i n g  C h a p t e r s T h i s t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s and an a p p e n d i x . The r e v i e w of s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e a p p e a rs i n C h a p t e r I I under t h r e e major h e a d i n g s . The h e a d i n g s a r e s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e growth of c a r e e r development programs, t h e l i f e - r o l e c h o i c e s of women and program e v a l u a t i o n o f l i f e p l a n n i n g programs f o r women. 8 C h a p t e r I I I c o n t a i n s the r e s e a r c h methodology and d i s c u s s i o n of the c o u r s e and i n t e r v i e w c o n t e n t , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h e e v a l u a t i o n p l a n and p r o c e d u r e s . The r e s u l t s of the e v a l u a t i o n appear i n C h a p t e r IV. C h a p t e r V i n c l u d e s a summary of the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s and c o n c l u s i o n s based on the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . Forms and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s appear i n the a p p e n d i x . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF SELECTED RELATED LITERATURE The r e v i e w of s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d under t h r e e m a j o r h e a d i n g s : S e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the l i f e - r o l e c h o i c e s o f women. As t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i n g and s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e of women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s on t h e i r work l i v e s and p l a n s r e c e n t f i n d i n g s a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . S e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the growth of c a r e e r development  programs. S i n c e the p a r t i c u l a r dilemmas women f a c e compound t h e d i f f i c u l t y t hey e x p e r i e n c e i n making l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s , t h e use of a new c a r e e r development program model as a f a c i l i t a t i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g c o n c e p t as w e l l as t h e f i n d i n g s of r e c e n t program s u r v e y s • w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . S e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d ' t o program e v a l u a t i o n o f l i f e p l a n n i n g  programs f o r women. There i s a p l e t h o r a o f c o u r s e s o f f e r e d t o women y e t v e r y l i t t l e adequate e v a l u a t i o n has t a k e n p l a c e i n o r d e r t o d e t e r -mine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y o f the programs. T h i s s e c t i o n r e v i e w s l i f e p l a n n i n g programs under t h e h e a d i n g s : L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r -v e n t i o n s - d e s c r i p t i v e , l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - i n f o r m a l , and l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . The L i f e - r o l e C h o i c e s of Women The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e Home-Career c o n f l i c t on L i f e - r o l e C h o i c e 9 10 Women today a r e f r e e t o choose f r o m a d i v e r s i t y and range o f r o l e o p t i o n s t h a t were g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e even i n the p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n . W h i l e they a r e encouraged by c h a n g i n g s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s to f u l f i l l t h e m s e l v e s and use t h e i r t a l e n t s i n work o u t s i d e the home, most women s t i l l w i s h t o marry and p u r s u e homemaking and p a r e n t i n g r o l e s a t some time i n t h e i r l i v e s . The r e a l i t y i s t h a t women do have t h e c h o i c e of whether or n o t t o work o u t s i d e t h e home, and t h a t t h e y have c h o i c e s about t h e k i n d o f work t h e y w i l l do ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1974b). Women's o r i e n t a t i o n t o work o u t s i d e the home w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h e i r l i f e - r o l e c h o i c e s must be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e f e m a l e c a r e e r c h o i c e s can be m e a n i n g f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1973). Thus th e c a r e e r v e r s u s m a r r i a g e o r i e n t a t i o n i n women i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e t o be s t u d i e d (Osipow, 1973). The c o n c e p t o f c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n has emerged i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on f e m a l e c a r e e r development i n an a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e how women i n c o r p o r a t e c a r e e r and homemaking r o l e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . R i c h a r d s o n (1974a) b r o a d l y d e f i n e d c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n as t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h women a r e committed t o and a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e work r o l e . The c o n s t r u c t p r o v i d e s one means of e x a m i n i n g the p r i o r i t i e s women p l a c e on an oc c u p a -t i o n a l r o l e a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t i m e . Female s e l f - e x p e c t a t i o n s about l i f e - r o l e s stem p a r t l y f r o m ambi-g u i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n c h o o s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l / v o c a t i o n a l pathways when m a r i t a l s t a t u s i s ambiguous, and p a r t l y f r o m husbands' a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r w o r k i n g w i v e s . '. The c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n t h a t m a r r i a g e o c c u p i e s i n women's f u t u r e p l a n s was i d e n t i f i e d by M i y a h i r a (1975).as one o f ' t h e ' p r i n c i p l e d i f f i c u l t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g the c a r e e r development of women. 11 . C o n f l i c t s a r e a p t t o c e n t e r on a l t e r n a t e r o u t e s t o s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t i n t e g r a t e d w i t h m a r r i a g e and o n i t h e degree of p r e s s u r e w i t h w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l can cope i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e , i f achievement seems e s s e n t i a l to s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t ( W e s t e r v e l t , 1978). M i l e s (1977) and Farmer (1971) have c o n c l u d e d t h a t t he s o u r c e of t h i s c o n f l i c t i s not t h e f a c t t h a t more tha n one r o l e i s open t o women (home v e r s u s c a r e e r ) b u t t h a t a c u l t u r a l l a g e x i s t s between s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t y and s o c i a l s a n c t i o n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n has been i d e n t i f i e d by Brooks (1978) as t r a n s i t i o n a l y e t i t i s c o m p l e x l y d e t e r m i n e d i n v o l v i n g c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l - m a r i t a l -f a m i l y p l a n n i n g i s s u e s ( B r o d s k y , 1978). R e s e a r c h on women's d e c i s i o n s about t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s i s needed (Bern, 1973) . R i c h a r d s o n (1978) p o i n t e d o u t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r o l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n women w i t h r e s p e c t t o f a m i l y and work r o l e s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t major s h i f t s i n t h e b e h a v i o r s , e x p e c t a -t i o n s and commitment t o t h e s e r o l e s have o c c u r r e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Few women c o n s i d e r new o p t i o n s and r o l e s o u t s i d e t h e home w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y ( B r o o k s , 1978) y e t women f a c i n g c o n f l i c t s between c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e a r e a t p r e s e n t n o t b e i n g h e l p e d t o r e s o l v e t h e s e c o n f l i c t s ( S u n i e w i c k , 1 9 7 1 ) . A S h i f t i n L i f e - r o l e O r i e n t a t i o n The l i t e r a t u r e on f e m a l e c a r e e r development r e f l e c t s a s h i f t t o -wards d u a l o r m u l t i p l e l i f e - r o l e c h o i c e s . A r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t e a r l i e r s t u d i e s i n c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n and l i f e - r o l e c h o i c e o f women tended t o d i c h o t o m i z e s u b j e c t s i n t o homemaking and c a r e e r o r i e n t e d groups o n l y and i g n o r e t h e d u a l r o l e o r compromise p o s i t i o n . I n 1958, Empey found t h a t i n h e r sample of high- s c h o o l s e n i o r s 80% of the young women p r e f e r r e d m a r r i a g e o v e r c a r e e r . I n 1968, M i n t z and P a t t e r s o n found t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f c o l l e g e women i n d i c a t e d a ge n u i n e i n t e r e s t i n a c a r e e r a l t h o u g h they d i d not see i t as a major g o a l . Rand and M i l l e r (1972) s u r v e y e d h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e women and found t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f g i r l s o p t e d f o r l i f e p l a n s t h a t combined a c a r e e r , m a r r i a g e and motherhood, c h o o s i n g t o work most of the t i m e . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s (Broverman e t a l . , 1972; Med n i c k & T a n g r i , 1972) have p o i n t e d out t h a t c a r e e r o r i e n t e d women do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e j e c t the f e m i n i n e r o l e ; i n s t e a d , t h e y t h i n k i n terms o f a d u a l r o l e of m a r r i a g e p l u s c a r e e r commitment. M a n i s and . M o c h i z u k i (1972) found t h a t w h i l e s e e k i n g change, most women a t t e n d i n g l i f e p l a n n i n g workshops want t o embrace t r a d i t i o n a l as w e l l as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g r o l e s . Rand and M i l l e r (1972) have s u g g e s t e d t h a t a new c u l t u r a l i m p e r a t i v e of m a r r i a g e p l u s c a r e e r may r e p l a c e t he p r e v i o u s homemaking o n l y conven-t i o n ( O l i v e r , 1975). I t has been c o n c l u d e d t h a t as c u l t u r a l b i a s e s a g a i n s t m a r r i e d w o r k i n g women r e l a x , young women a r e becoming more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and d e s i r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r l i f e - r o l e s (Rand & M i l l e r , 1972). The E f f e c t L i f e - r o l e O r i e n t a t i o n has on Achievement j Farmer and Bohn (1970) have r e p o r t e d a s t u d y i n w h i c h i n s t r u c t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o r e d u c e the home-career c o n f l i c t d i d i n f a c t r e s u l t i n h i g h s c o r e s on c a r e e r s c a l e s and l o w e r s c o r e s on homemaking s c a l e s of t he S t r o n g V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t B l a n k . V e t t e r (1973) c o n c l u d e d on the b a s i s of t h i s s t u d y and o t h e r d a t a , t h a t t h e l e v e l of c a r e e r i n t e r e s t 13 i n women would r i s e i f t he home-career c o n f l i c t would be r e d u c e d . Other s t u d i e s ( G r a y - S h e l l b e r g , V i l l a r e a l and St o n e , 1972) have found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Gordon and H a l l (1974) f o u n d t h a t t h e women's p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e male s t e r e o t y p e o f f e m i n i n i t y was t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r of v a r i o u s t y p e s of r o l e c o n f l i c t t h a t women e x p e r i e n c e d . I f women b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r a chievement s t r i v i n g s may t h r e a t e n t h e i r a f f i l i a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t m a l e s , t h e y may e x p e r i e n c e a n x i e t y and c o n f l i c t , even s a c r i f i c i n g competence and achievement r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . A l p e r (1974) has been s t u d y i n g t he r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e x - r o l e o r i e n -t a t i o n t o achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n women f o r more t h a n a decade and has found t h a t women w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e o r i e n t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s s c o r e l o w e r on achievement m o t i v a t i o n measures th a n women w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . L i f e S t a g e s and D e v e l o p m e n t a l Trends H a l l (1975) p r e d i c t e d and fo u n d t h a t woman's l i f e s t a g e would be r e l a t e d t o h e r r o l e p r e s s u r e s • ( w o r k , home, s e l f and t i m e ) , c o n f l i c t ' and s a t i s f a c t i o n . Age and number of r o l e s were n o t as s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to t h e s e v a r i a b l e s as was l i f e s t a g e . D i f f e r e n t i a l i m p a c t of v a r i o u s s o u r c e s o f c o n f l i c t s i n d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t a g e s were r e p o r t e d . Matthews and Tiedman (1964) examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e -s t y l e as d e f i n e d by h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , m a r r i a g e and c a r e e r p l a n s , development s t a g e and a t t i t u d e s toward c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e f o r a c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l sample o f 1,237 women i n Newton, M a s s a c h u s e t t s who had a t t e n d e d h i g h s c h o o l between 1943 and 1958. They found t h a t l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e and a t t i t u d e toward c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e were r e l a t e d w i t h a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d . The m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s a t each d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e p r e f e r r e d m a r r i a g e and n o n i n v o l v e m e n t i n c a r e e r f o r t h e m s e l v e s 10 y e a r s hence. T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by more r e c e n t r e s e a r c h by Rand and M i l l e r (1972) who found t h a t i n t e r e s t s and p l a n s t o e n t e r c o l l e g e tended to d e c r e a s e w i t h age. Harmon (1978) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h achievement and c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t age gr o u p s . At each l e v e l , women v o i c e d c o n c e r n o v e r managing b o t h a c a r e e r and f a m i l y . Of t h e c o l l e g e women, 30% f e l t t h a t managing a home w i t h a c a r e e r was too much and 68% c o n s i d e r e d the e f f e c t of work-i n g mothers on c h i l d r e n t o be bad (Rand & M i l l e r , 1972). Somewhat c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s were found by R i c h a r d s o n (1978) who s t u d i e d 70 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s and found t h a t t he g r e a t m a j o r i t y of t h e sample w i s h e d t o e n a c t work, m a r r i a g e and p a r e n t r o l e s i n t h e i r f u t u r e l i f e . M o r e o v e r, t h e y e x p e c t e d t o e n t e r the work r o l e f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by the m a r r i a g e and the p a r e n t r o l e s . A l t h o u g h work and m a r r i a g e r o l e s were p e r c e i v e d as more s a t i s f y i n g t h a n t h e p a r e n t r o l e s i n t h e s h o r t term f u t u r e , work was view e d as t h e l e a s t s a t i s f y i n g of the t h r e e r o l e s i n t he l o n g term f u t u r e . I n each c a s e , m a r r i a g e c o n s i s t e n t l y was co n -s i d e r e d t o be most s a t i s f y i n g . Thus, i t appears t h a t young women c o n t i n u e to e x p e c t t h a t m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y r o l e s w i l l be a more major s o u r c e of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s t h a n the work r o l e . R e s u l t s r e l e v a n t t o the l i f e p l a n v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t young women's f e e l i n g s about t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s have more impact on t h e i r l i f e p l a n p r e -f e r e n c e s than t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t h e work r o l e . R o l e C h o i c e and W e l l - b e i n g S t u d i e s of women who have adopted l i f e s t y l e s , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e r o l e s p r o v i d e s i n t e r e s t i n g behav-i o r a l and p e r s o n a l i t y d a t a . Logan (1973) s t u d i e d t h e r e s p o n s e s of a group of a c t i v e f e m i n i s t s and a c t i v e t r a d i t i o n a l women on the M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (MMPI). W h i l e the c l i n i c a l p r o f i l e s f o r b o t h groups r e v e a l e d e f f e c t i v e l y f u n c t i o n i n g p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o r , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two groups of women were o b t a i n e d . The f e m i n i s t s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l women on t h e Ego S t r e n g t h S c a l e and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r on t he D e p r e s s i o n , P s y c h a s t h a i i a and S o c i a l I n t r o v e r s i o n S c a l e s . Thus the f e m i n i s t s , compared t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l women, appeared t o be f u n c t i o n i n g a t a h i g h e r l e v e l of competence and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and, as a c o r r e l a t e o f t h i s h i g h e r l e v e l , were a l s o l e s s d e p r e s s e d and s o c i a l l y i n t r o v e r t e d . C h e r n i s s (1972) has p u b l i s h e d d a t a from h i s s t u d y of young women a c t i v e i n the women's l i b e r a t i o n movement and a c o m p a r i s o n group o f women matched on t h e b a s i s o f age, o c c u p a t i o n and m a r i t a l s t a t u s . The women's l i b e r a t i o n group were seen as s t r i v i n g t o maximize t h e i r own s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n w h i c h was h i g h l y v a l u e d . They d i s p l a y e d a q u a l i t y of v i g o r o u s a c t i v i t y and a s s e r t i v e n e s s w h i c h was h i g h l y g o a l - o r i e n t e d . . A d i s p o s i t i o n toward s t r u c t u r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e s e women and gave much of t h e i r a c t i v i t y t he q u a l i t y of p u r p o s i v e work. For the most p a r t , t he women's l i b e r a t i o n women had h i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m and a g r e a t e r sense of s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e t h a n the c o m p a r i s o n group. That women who v i e w t h e m s e l v e s i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ways a r e p s y c h o -l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r t h a n t h e i r more t r a d i t i o n a l s i s t e r s has been sup-p o r t e d by some of the c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n r e s e a r c h ( H e l s o n , 1972). Women whose s e l f - c o n c e p t s and r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s a r e o r i e n t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y 16 toward the homemaking ro l e have been found (Richardson, 1975) to have medium to low l e v e l s of self-esteem. Gump (1972) studied sex r o l e attitudes and psychological well-being i n terms of ego strength, happiness (Elation-depression) and achievement plans. The majority of 162 senior college women tested believed i t possible to assume the roles of wife and mother while pursuing e x t r a f a m i l i a l i n t e r e s t s . Women with t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s were not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from women pr i m a r i l y concerned with r e a l i z i n g t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l on the basis of happiness or r e l a t i o n s h i p s with men. However, the data suggested that ego strength may be negatively r e l a t e d to the adoption of the t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e . These fin d i n g s support Bardwick's (1971) con-tention regarding the ambivalence of women who pursue a t r a d i t i o n a l course of development i n a society that devalues t h i s feminine r o l e . Work and Well-being The r e l a t i o n s h i p of employment status to mental health symptoms was studied (Powell, 1977) i n 40 graduates of an Eastern woman's college who had been out of college 35 years and were i n t h e i r l a t e f i f t i e s at the time of the study. A l l subjects were married women i n the empty nest stage of l i f e . Women employed f u l l t i m e were found to have s i g n i f i -cantly lower symptom scores than women not employed outside the home with women employed part-time occupying an intermediate p o s i t i o n . While c o n f l i c t s between career and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n younger women may o f f s e t the increased self-esteem of career-oriented women, the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t of career involvement on mental health becomes apparent i n the l a t e r middle years. This f i n d i n g i s i n keeping with the higher self-esteem exhibited by career-oriented women i n Birnbaums' (1975) 17 s t u d y and w i t h B a r t ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g m a t e r n a l r o l e l o s s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t he b e s t s t r a t e g y f o r a woman co n c e r n e d about her m e n t a l h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g i s t o f o c u s h e r l i f e around work r a t h e r t h a n around c h i l d r e n , i f she has t o choose ( B a r n e t t and B a r u c h , 1976). Gove and Tudor (1973) argued t h a t h a v i n g two a r e n a s t o f u n c t i o n i n , work as w e l l as f a m i l y , i s what p r o t e c t s men fr o m m e n t a l i l l n e s s . M i y a h i r a (1975) summarized t h e s a l i e n t f i n d i n g s i n the f i e l d : 1. A l t h o u g h c a r e e r - c o m m i t t e d women tend t o d e l a y m a r r i a g e and d i f f e r i n t h e i r c o n c e p t of the homemaker from t r a d i t i o n a l l y -o r i e n t e d women, c a r e e r - c o m m i t t e d women a r e s t i l l v e r y m a r r i a g e o r i e n t e d . 2. M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s n o t c o n t i n g e n t s i m p l y upon the w i f e ' s employment s t a t u s , b u t i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by h e r a t t i t u d e toward w o r k i n g , the rewards d e r i v e d f r o m homemaking, j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , and the husband's o r i e n t a t i o n . 3. Husband's a t t i t u d e s toward h i s w i f e ' s employment c o n s t i t u t e one of t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g a woman's work s t a t u s , even among c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d w i v e s . 4. The p r e s e n c e o f younger c h i l d r e n i n the home tends t o a f f e c t n e g a t i v e l y a woman's d e c i s i o n t o work. 5. Husband's o r f a m i l y income appears t o i n f l u e n c e t h e l e n g t h of employment e x p e c t e d by w i v e s . 6. C a r e e r - o r i e n t e d women tend to have more e d u c a t i o n t h a n n o n c a r e e r -o r i e n t e d women, a l t h o u g h the v a l u e s t h a t women from b o t h o r i e n t a t i o n s seek f r o m t h e i r work a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Summary. The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t , a t l e a s t h i s t o r i c a l l y , women have a t t i t u d i n a l l y agreed t h a t t h e woman's p l a c e i s i n t h e home. How-e v e r , more r e c e n t s t u d i e s s u g g e s t e d a new t r e n d i n a t t i t u d e s . Women have now assumed a p o s e of w a n t i n g t o work, w h i l e a t t h e same time they tend t o c l u s t e r i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s and e x p r e s s u n c e r t a i n t y o ver t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the d u a l r o l e . 18 Some of the d a t a were c o n f l i c t i n g and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Not o n l y were r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s m a i n l y d e s c r i p t i v e b u t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n c o n s i s -t e n c i e s i n r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s and d e f i n i t i o n s were so w i d e s p r e a d as t o a l l b u t p r o h i b i t c o m p a r i s o n s among the v a r i o u s s t u d i e s o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of r e s u l t s . Lack o f c o h e s i o n r e f l e c t s the d i f f i c u l t y i n making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about a p o p u l a t i o n d i v e r s e i n s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l , f a m i l y demands, degree of sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , and o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . O v e r a l l , s ex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g a p p ears t o r e i n f o r c e homemaking as opposed t o c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n s i n women. T h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t e n d s t o r e s t r i c t r a t h e r t h a n a t t e n u a t e t he b e h a v i o r a l o p t i o n s f o r women. R e s e a r c h r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t women who see t h e m s e l v e s i n l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s tend t o be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r t h a n women who a c c e p t the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e . D e v e l o p m e n t a l C o u n s e l l i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s e a r c h on sex r o l e s s u g g e s t e d i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l - c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s a s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n t i n u e t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o n t i n u i n g and s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e o f women's t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s on t h e i r work l i v e s and p l a n s . Homemaking can be vie w e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e f e m a l e c a r e e r p r o c e s s as women can and do combine r o l e s . Women need t o c o - o r d i n a t e c a r e e r and f a m i l y p l a n n i n g . I n groups of men and women, whether t h e emphasis i s on c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n o r on s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d i s c u s s i n s p e c i f i c terms the impact s o c i e t a l change w i l l have on t h e i r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e l i v e s ( O l i v e r , 1975). Women need t o be aware of the v a r i e t y of l i f e s t y l e s and f a m i l y 19 and work p a t t e r n s from w h i c h they can choose and of p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d i n c h o o s i n g one p a t t e r n o v e r a n o t h e r . Hansen (1974) s u g g e s t e d t h a t one of the ways we can re d u c e r o l e c o n f l i c t i s t o be more a c c e p t i n g of a v a r i e t y o f l i f e p a t t e r n s and l i f e s t y l e s . The l i t e r a t u r e i s a l s o r e p l e t e w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e im p o r t a n c e of p r o v i d i n g f e m a l e r o l e models as a i d i n the a c c u l t u r a t i o n of women i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s f o r t h e y p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e and i n f o r m a t i o n . B r o d s k y (1978) s u g g e s t e d e n c o u r a g i n g women t o seek f u l f i l l i n g r o l e s based on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs and a b i l i t i e s and t o a i d women to move fr o m d e f i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g a s i n g l e s o c i a l r o l e t o a p e r i o d of r e l a t i v i s m i n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l woman's r o l e c h o i c e s a r e seen i n c o n t e x t o f h e r own l i f e p l a n s . From H a l l ' s (1975) s t u d y i t was see n t h a t d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o women a t d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s t a g e s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l t a s k s would be t o h e l p women cope w i t h r o l e c o n f l i c t and not t o f i g u r e out how t o m o t i v a t e them. P o s s i b l y t he a v a i l a b i l i t y of placement h e l p f o r the mature woman i n h e r 30's r e - e n t e r i n g t h e l a b o u r market may be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a i s i n g i n t h a t many women, f u l l y c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r s k i l l s and need t o work, a r e f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o f i n d work t h a t w i l l e n a b l e them t o u t i l i z e t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l . I t has been recommended t h a t women p o s s e s s an adequate base of i n f o r m a t i o n about the o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n w o r l d , an a b i l i t y t o a p p r a i s e one's a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s and a p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n and a t t i t u d e . By i d e n t i f y i n g the r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s t h a t i n h i b i t women, i t i s more 20 l i k e l y t h a t o p t i m a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s can be f o r m u l a t e d as w e l l as most e f f e c t i v e l y a p p l i e d . The i n t e n t i s t o f a c i l i t a t e t he r i g h t t o choose f r e e l y , h a v i n g been i n f o r m e d o f a l l t h e o p t i o n s . The Growth of C a r e e r Development Programs C o n c e p t s , Terms and D e f i n i t i o n s Many a t t e m p t s have been made t o d e f i n e c a r e e r development and most d e f i n i t i o n s have c o n s i d e r e d c a r e e r development i n r e f e r e n c e t o a l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r e e r development was vie w e d as o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . There have, however, been a t t e m p t s to d e f i n e c a r e e r development i n a much b r o a d e r c o n t e x t . C a r e e r development i s p r e s e n t l y seen as " s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r t h e l i f e span t h r o u g h t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of the r o l e s , s e t t i n g s , and e v e n t s o f a p e r s o n ' s l i f e " ( G y s b ers & Moore, 1975, p. 6 4 8 ) . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e p r o v i d e s a p e r s o n a l framework f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o h e l p them p l a n f o r t h e i r l i f e c a r e e r s . From t h i s framework c a r e e r i s v i e w e d b r o a d l y t o s t r e s s l i f e - r o l e s and l i f e s t y l e s , o c c u p a t i o n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d o n l y one p a r t o f c a r e e r (Hansen & G y s b e r s , 1975). L i f e s t y l e i s a term d e s c r i b i n g the c o n c e p t of how b e h a v i o r s r e l a t e t o b a s i c v a l u e s and p u r p o s e s . Eason (1972) s t a t e d t h a t , "A l i f e s t y l e i s an o v e r a l l way of l o o k i n g a t the w o r l d , a t t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , e n v i r o n m e n t , a t c o n c e p t s and i d e a s , a t p e o p l e and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and a t o n e s e l f " ( p . 1 2 8 ) . C a r e e r development i s v i e w e d as p a r t o f a l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s of human development and c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n i s what i s c o n s c i o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y done t o f a c i l i t a t e t h a t development, encompassing v e h i c l e s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g change and m a x i m i z i n g human p o t e n t i a l (Matthews, 1975). 21 F o r c e s Behind the C a r e e r Development Programs The e x t e n s i o n of the c a r e e r development c o n c e p t can be t r a c e d , i n p a r t , t o many s u b s t a n t i a l changes t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e i n s o c i e t y . S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l changes h ave l e d t o i n c r e a s e d e x p e c t a t i o n s and demands about modes of work and l i f e s t y l e ( V r i e n d , 1977). A t each s t a g e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , he o r she i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h s o c i e t a l p r o blems w h i c h may c r e a t e p e r s o n a l -"dilemmas. The l i t e r a t u r e has i d e n t i f i e d s u c h problems and t r e n d s as a f f e c t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t i n u e d development and a b i l i t y t o manage a c a r e e r . Such t r e n d s a s : 1. A c h a n g i n g meaning o f work. 2. M i d - l i f e c a r e e r changes. 3. B a l a n c i n g m u l t i p l e l i f e r o l e s . 4. T i g h t l a b o u r market. 5. R i s i n g l i v i n g c o s t s . 6. A com m u n i t y / s c h o o l s p l i t . 7. I n f o r m a t i o n d e f i c i t s f rom a c c e l e r a t i n g change. Demographic changes t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t women have a l s o been n o t e d (Lipman-Blueman, 1975; O l i v e r , 1975). Women a r e : 1. L i v i n g l o n g e r . 2. M a r r y i n g l a t e r . 3. H a v i n g fewer c h i l d r e n . 4. Heading more h o u s e h o l d s . 5. Encouraged and s u p p o r t e d by the women's movement. 6. L i v i n g a l o n e more o f t e n . E s p e c i a l l y n o t e w o r t h y i s the f a c t t h a t between 1965 and 1975 t h e fe m a l e l a b o u r f o r c e I n Canada i n c r e a s e d by 78%. Women now c o n s t i t u t e 36% o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e i n t h i s c o u n t r y and 44% of a l l women over the age of 15 worked i n 1975 (Labour Canada, 1976). I t i s p r o j e c t e d t h a t 9 out of 10 Ca n a d i a n women w i l l be i n the l a b o u r market f o r 25 y e a r s of t h e i r l i v e s . As i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f women work o u t s i d e the home, more i n t e r e s t i s b e i n g f o c u s e d on t h e i r c h a n g i n g r o l e s and on t h e p l a c e of work i n t h e i r l i v e s . 22 As o r i g i n a l c a r e e r c h o i c e s o f t e n were based upon temporary and i n a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d p r e m i s e s women need a s s i s t a n c e I n making p l a n s f o r p o t e n t i a l l y l o n g c a r e e r s o u t s i d e t he home ( V r i e n d , 1977). Women now f a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n commitment and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r t i m e . S u r v e y s o f C a r e e r Development Programs T h i s new co n c e p t of c a r e e r development has r e s u l t e d i n c h a n g i n g programs f o r women. The N a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n f o r R e s e a r c h on Women's E d u c a t i o n and Development i n 1974 s u r v e y e d 15 C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Women (C.E.W.) programs. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s were m a i l e d t o 649 of t h e t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ( 6 8 % ) . I n c l u d e d i n the s u r v e y were 153 (54%) of t h e i r s p o u s e s . They found t h a t t h e women were d i v e r s e , and t h a t t h e y f e l l i n t o two groups (home v e r s u s c a r e e r o r i e n t e d ) . Those t h a t were c a r e e r o r i e n t e d h e l d l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s , had more s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a l t h o u g h d i s s a t i s f i e d a t home, f e l t t h e y had f a m i l y s u p p o r t . Most of the women h e l d v e r y p r a g m a t i c g o a l s ( A s t i n , 1976). A r e c e n t C a n a d i a n s u r v e y ( W i l l i s , 1977) co n d u c t e d a t Humber C o l l e g e i n T o r o n t o i n c l u d e d 95 s e l f - s e l e c t e d , n o n s t u d e n t women and r e v e a l e d t h a t the c o u r s e s needed f o r women were ones t o r e i n f o r c e s e l f - c o n c e p t and t h a t l e d t o employment, r e t r a i n i n g o r r e - e n t r y . L i f e - s k i l l s as w e l l as c a r e e r g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g were r e q u e s t e d . I n 1974 the N a t i o n a l Survey of A d u l t C a r e e r P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p -ment Programs was implemented by the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h . They s u r v e y e d 367 programs o f w h i c h 32% were f o r women. They recom-mented t h a t i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o program e v a l u a t i o n and f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s be made i f a u t h o r i t i e s were e x p e c t e d t o u n d e r w r i t e such 23 programs ( H a r r i s o n and E r . t i n e , 1976). D e s p i t e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n b e i n g the most r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e ( A s t i n , 1976) commitment t o women's programs has been w i t h d r a w n a t t h e whim of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( W i l l i s , 1 9 7 7 ) . I n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the community the b e n e f i t t o s o c i e t y and the need f o r c o n t i n u i n g and expanding such programs adequate e v a l u a t i o n of me a s u r a b l e outcomes must be implemented. The E v a l u a t i o n of L i f e p l a n n i n g Programs f o r Women Women now have t i m e t o t a k e up a g a i n t h e e d u c a t i o n l e f t incom-p l e t e , t h e c a r e e r s n e g l e c t e d , and the p o t e n t i a l l e f t u n d e v e l o p e d . A r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e produced a v a r i e d l i s t o f t h e needs o f such women from vague d i s c o n t e n t t o l a c k of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g t h e l a b o u r market. A f r e q u e n t t y p e of e d u c a t i o n a l program (Thorn e t a l . , 1975) i s a group e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r women s h a r i n g s i m i l a r c o n c e r n s t h u s p r o v i d -i n g s u p p o r t i v e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and a i d n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l r o l e changes. T h i s p s y c h o e d u c a t o r model v i e w s t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r o l e and the h e l p i n g f u n c t i o n a s : C l i e n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ( o r a m b i t i o n ) ^ g o a l s e t t i n g ^ s k i l l t e a c h i n g . s a t i s f a c t i o n o r g o a l a c h i e v e m e n t . ( I v e y , 1976, p.~72) S y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n a l programs a r e a d v o c a t e d as ways of t e a c h i n g p e o p l e how t o a c h i e v e t h e i r own u n i q u e n e s s . Brooks (1978) i d e n t i f i e d t h e o v e r r i d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g g o a l o f such i n t e r v e n t i o n s as " c h o o s i n g a l i f e s t y l e " (p. 2 2 7 ) . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h i s r e p o r t e d on t h e v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t programs-b e i n g proposed t o meet women's needs by i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . B i r k and Tanney (1976) s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e s e a r c h be done on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such c o u n s e l l i n g programs. H i l l (1978) echoed t h a t p l e a , s t a t i n g t h a t r e s e a r c h needs t o be done t o d e t e r m i n e what t r e a t m e n t can e f f e c t i v e l y produce changes f o r d i f f e r e n t women, and the components of t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s need t o be t e s t e d t o see what f a c t o r s a r e a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e changes. As n o t a l l women p r o f i t e q u a l l y f r o m such programs, t h e s e a r c h f o r c l i e n t m o d e r a t o r s or v a r -i a b l e s t h a t moderate t r e a t m e n t outcomes needs t o c o n t i n u e t o be p a r t of the r e s e a r c h on programs f o r women. Hewson (1975) f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t f i e l d programs s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t h a t they a r e m e e t i n g th e p e r c e i v e d needs o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n o r d e r t o maximize t h e use of a v a i l a b l e e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s i n t he d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o f program e v a l u a t i o n , t he f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d as an a p p r a i s a l o f r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on l i f e p l a n n i n g programs. I t i s v i t a l t h a t program p l a n n e r s know w h i c h t e c h n i q u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o d e a l w i t h a g i v e n p r o b l e m , what e v i d e n c e t h e r e i s o f the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y , and what would be the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l consequences o f t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . ( E p s t e i n & T r i p o d i , 1977, p. 30) Such i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o h e l p f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e s t r a t e g y u l t i m a t e l y adopted f o r the program. The i d e n t i f i e d programs a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y and a r e r e v i e w e d under t h e f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s : L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - d e s c r i p t i v e , l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s -i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n , l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s - D e s c r i p t i v e Cochran and Warren (1976) d e s c r i b e d a c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g workshop f o r m a t f o r women s t a t i n g t h a t "The g r o u p - c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g a p p r o a c h 25 i s an i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o e x a m i n i n g and c h a l l e n g -i n g t h e r o l e s t h a t women assume" (p. 124). The b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s b e h i n d t h i s w o r k i n g model a r e t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s can a c t i v e l y and c r e a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r f u t u r e s and t h a t women s h o u l d p l a n f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e i r l i f e and c a r e e r needs and t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of t h e i r u n i q u e a b i l i t i e s . The s t a t e d p u r p o s e of t h i s workshop was t o a s s i s t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g a s p e c i f i c y e t f l e x i b l e p l a n f o r the f u t u r e . The a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d were l i f e l i n e , r o l e s t r i p p i n g , i n t e r e s t s , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and g o a l s e t t i n g . T e c h n i q u e s i n c o r p o r a t e d an e x p e r i e n t i a l - e d u c a t i o n a l f o r m a t w i t h l a r g e and s m a l l group l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s g i v e n i n f o u r - t o s i x - h o u r modules. Cochran and Warren (1976) warned o f a "cookbook" a p p r o a c h and i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e l e a d e r ' s s t y l e and purpose were i m p o r t a n t . A l t h o u g h t he p o p u l a t i o n was d e f i n e d and the c o n t e n t and t e c h n i q u e s c l e a r l y e x p l i c a t e d , no d a t a on t h i s workshop's e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y were a v a i l a b l e . Waters and Goodman (1977) d e s c r i b e d two c o u r s e s f o r a d u l t s . C a r e e r development was approached as a c y c l i c a l r a t h e r than a l i n e a r p r o c e s s w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n to t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s e s and s k i l l s . The g o a l was s t a t e d as h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s become more s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n e x p l o r i n g and p l a n n i n g t h e i r c a r e e r s and to p r o v i d e them w i t h the n e c e s s a r y t o o l s so th e y can be s e l f - d i r e c t e d . C a r e e r was d e f i n e d b r o a d l y to i n c l u d e l e i s u r e , e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n . The a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d were v a l u e t e c h n i q u e s f o r g a t h e r i n g and p e r s o n a l i z i n g i n f o r m a -t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The p o p u l a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y m i d d l e - c l a s s women, r a n g i n g i n age from 20 t o 60 w i t h the m a j o r i t y h a v i n g p o s t - h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . 26 The s e s s i o n s t o t a l e d 18 h o u r s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a d a p t i n g t h e agenda and t h e f o r m a t t o a younger p o p u l a t i o n and f o r p r e - r e t i r e m e n t a d u l t s were g i v e n . Waters and Goodman (1977) i n s i s t e d t h a t : The l o g i s t i c s a r e not c r i t i c a l b u t what seems i m p o r t a n t i s an atmosphere i n w h i c h i t i s a c c e p t a b l e f o r a d u l t s t o seek h e l p and to have some k i n d o f s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h . . . . (p. 343) No d a t a were r e p o r t e d on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y of t h i s work-shop . Summary of l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - d e s c r i p t i v e . L i f e p l a n n i n g workshop d e s i g n s s h a r e a b r o a d v i e w of c a r e e r development i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . V a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n , s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g around g o a l s and p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f such f o r m a t s . The above s t u d i e s (Cochran & Warren, 1976; Waters & Goodman, 1977) s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n t e n t was not as i m p o r t a n t as the atmosphere w h i c h may be r e f l e c t e d i n l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e and p u r p o s e of t h e program. L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s - I n f o r m a l E v a l u a t i o n S e tne (1977) d e s c r i b e d an e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l program f o r a d u l t women. The i n t e n d e d g o a l s were "The e x p l o r a t i o n . . . ( o f ) each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s , p r i m a r y modes of i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the w o r l d and of how h e r needs and v a l u e s a r e ( o r can be) e x p r e s s e d i n her e v e r y d a y l i f e " ( p . 2 3 4 ) . T h i s workshop was o f f e r e d t h r o u g h a community m e n t a l h e a l t h agency w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s r a n g i n g f r o m mid 20's t o mid 30's. They spent a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 h o u r s o v e r s i x - w e e k s e s s i o n s . T h i s e x p e r i e n t i a l - e d u c a t i o n a l workshop used t e s t i n g and s m a l l -27 group d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s . The workshop was e v a l u a t e d by i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n i n the f i n a l s m a l l - g r o u p s e s s i o n . The major c r i t i c i s m s were t h a t t h e group was too l a r g e (33 p a r t i c i p a n t s ) and the two-hour s e s s i o n s were too s h o r t . They f e l t the most b e n e f i c i a l a s p e c t s were t h e s m a l l - g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s and the v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n e x e r c i s e s . The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s were f a v o r a b l e and i n d i c a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n t h u s i a s t i c . There were no q u a n t i f i a b l e d a t a c o l l e c t e d on the e f f i c i e n c y or e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the workshop. M a n i s and M o c h i z u k i (1972) d e s c r i b e d a workshop f o r a d u l t women r e t u r n i n g to c o l l e g e . I t s aim was to remove the p s y c h o l o g i c a l b l o c k s t h a t keep women from the c h o i c e s they need t o make t o change l i f e s t y l e s , and t o g i v e them the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s e s s t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , t h e i r own s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s and the o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h e i r community. The s t a t e d g o a l s of the workshop were: 1. G i v e s u p p o r t , b u i l d t r u s t , s h a r e c o n c e r n s , r e l i e v e g u i l t , l e a r n t o work i n g r o u p s . 2. L e a r n to communicate, improve i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3. B u i l d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e l f and a b i l i t i e s . 4. E x e r c i s e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 5. L e a r n about o p p o r t u n i t i e s of o u t s i d e w o r l d : e d u c a t i o n , v o l u n t e e r , employment, and c r e a t i v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . (pp. 596-598) The t y p i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t was 38 y e a r s o l d and a mother of two o r t h r e e c h i l d r e n and had a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e ; however, the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s ranged from h i g h s c h o o l d r o p o u t s t o some w i t h g r a d u a t e d e g r e e s . The program c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y : s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n , t e s t i n g , and homework a s s i g n m e n t s . Emphasis was on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs of p a r t i c i p a n t s . E v a l u a t i o n was completed by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o l l o w - u p s u r v e y , 28 a l t h o u g h t h e time i n t e r v a l was n o t i n d i c a t e d . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the workshop had g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s i n g i v i n g s u p p o r t , d e c r e a s i n g i s o l a t i o n , s h a r i n g c o n c e r n s and i m p r o v i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . G o a l s e t t i n g was f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l w h i l e r e a d i n e s s t o t a k e t h e f i r s t s t e p even more so. Response i n d i c a t e d t h a t the workshop h e l p e d p a r t i c i p a n t s c l a r i f y g o a l s and improve t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t . One hundred p e r c e n t a t t e n d a n c e s u p p o r t e d the i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s t h a t the workshop was a s u c c e s s . The outcome measures were no t q u a n t i t a t i v e l y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , n o r d i d t h e y u t i l i z e p r e - and p o s t - m e a s u r e s , c o m p a r i s o n o r c o n t r o l g r o u p s . Summary of l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . Through i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s b o t h Manis and M o c h i z u k i (1972) and S e tne (1977) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s m a l l - g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h p e r m i t t e d s u p p o r t , r e d u c e d i s o l a t i o n and a f f o r d e d a s h a r i n g of c o n c e r n s was most b e n e f i c i a l . V a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were n o t e d as i m p o r t a n t and outcome measures of g o a l s e t t i n g and improved s e l f - c o n c e p t were d e s c r i b e d . Two-hour s e s s i o n s were c o n s i d r e d too s h o r t and l a r g e groups (33 p a r t i c i p a n t s ) not p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c i l i t a t i v e . L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s - F o r m a l E v a l u a t i o n R u b i n t o n (1977) r e p o r t e d on a program c a l l e d "New C a r e e r s f o r A d u l t s " w h i c h r a n s e v e r a l t i m e s d u r i n g the y e a r , b o t h e v e n i n g and day-t i m e . The s t a t e d g o a l s were to p r o v i d e c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g i n a sup-p o r t i v e group framework. The t a r g e t g r o u p s were a) e a r l y r e t i r e e s s e e k i n g second c a r e e r s b) women c o n t e m p l a t i n g r e - e n t e r i n g the o c c u p a -t i o n a l w o r l d b) v e t e r a n s and d) underemployed and unemployed a d u l t s . 29 The workshop f o c u s e d on t h r e e b r o a d a r e a s ; c a r e e r - p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , c a r e e r i n f o r m a t i o n and c a r e e r r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s . The s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e d u s i n g a s e l f - i n v e n t o r y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of work r e l a t e d s k i l l s , s e t t i n g s h o r t and l o n g term g o a l s , r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l on c a r e e r s and group s u p p o r t . E v a l u a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from d a t a on 75 p e o p l e . They c o m p l e t e d p r e and p o s t t e s t a s s e s s m e n t s and e v a l u a t i o n f o r m s . D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o o b t a i n e d . Of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s 82% were f e m a l e , the median age group was 27 t o 36 and most had h i g h s c h o o l o r above. E v a l u a t i o n of the e f f i c i e n c y of the workshop was based on i n f o r m a l group d i s c u s s i o n s and a f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 56% o f one group and 86% of the o t h e r group f e l t the workshops as a whole were v e r y h e l p f u l and i n f o r m a t i v e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the program was e v a l u a t e d by outcome measures of a t t i t u d e change as a s s e s s e d on a p r e - and p o s t - q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l s r e l a t i n g t o c a r e e r deeds ion-making and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' knowledge of how and where to l o o k f o r a j o b . F u r t h e r outcome measures about the d e c i s i o n s , p l a n s and a c t i o n u n d e r t a k e n were o b t a i n e d by a g o a l s e t t i n g form and a d e s c r i p -t i o n of p o s i t i v e s t e p s t a k e n o r t o be t a k e n as a r e s u l t of t h e workshop. C l a r i f y i n g g o a l s and d e v e l o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g g o a l s were c o n s i d e r e d by 75% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e workshop s e r i e s . A d i f f e r e n c e was found i n e v e n i n g and day p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h a t e v e n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o n s c i o u s of income s e c u r i t y and sought a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t a l l o w e d them to c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g and day p a r t i c i p a n t s 30 more a c t i v e l y sought e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o r employment. The a u t h o r s recommended t h a t a s i x - m o n t h to one-year f o l l o w - u p be done t o d e t e r -mine l o n g range e f f e c t s . A l t h o u g h i n c o r p o r a t i n g p r e - and post-measures t h i s s t u d y d i d not u t i l i z e c o m p a r i s o n o r c o n t r o l groups and t h e o u t -come measures were s e l f - r e p o r t e d a t t i t u d e changes. R i c e and G o e r i n g (1977) r e p o r t e d on two workshops f o r women based on a s t r u c t u r e d group c o u n s e l l i n g model d e v e l o p e d to f a c i l i t a t e change and p l a n n i n g based on v a l u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n , l i f e t i m e p l a n n i n g , d e c i s i o n -making and i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - e s t e e m . The c o n t e n t o f t h e c o u r s e s p r o g r e s s e d from: S p e c i f y i n g v a l u e s and v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n t o the p r o c e s s e s and t o o l s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o l i f e t i m e g o a l p l a n n i n g and time management t o s p e c i f i c d i d a c t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on j o b s , s c h o o l s , v o l u n t e e r work and how t o e n t e r each. (p. 58) The t e c h n i q u e s used were m i n i - l e c t u r e s , e x e r c i s e handouts and homework, w i t h s m a l l - g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n s and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r o l e m o d e l s . B o t h male and f e m a l e l e a d e r s were p r e s e n t . The c o u r s e s were a d v e r t i s e d i n community and u n i v e s i t y media. The f i r s t c o u r s e was 16 ho u r s ( f o u r s e c c e s s i v e days) and the o t h e r was 18 ho u r s ( t h r e e days over t h r e e w eeks). The s u b j e c t s were s e l f - s e l e c t e d w i t h t he m a j o r i t y of women m a r r i e d w i t h some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o u r s e s was e v a l u a t e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y w i t h b e h a v i o r a l outcome c r i t e r i a . R e s t r u c t u r i n g of ti m e and a c t i v i t y was r e c o r d e d n o t i n g how many women made s i g n i f i c a n t changes ( e . g . a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s , w o r k i n g , v o l u n t e e r w o r k ) . I t was found t h a t more than 75% made major changes w h i l e 50% r e t u r n e d t o c l a s s e s . An i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a s s e r t i v e n e s s was r e p o r t e d by 30% of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , 30% r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d knowledge of v a l u e s and g o a l s , w h i l e 35% r e p o r t e d u s i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o o l s i n o t h e r l i f e s i t u a -t i o n s . The e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c o u r s e was a s s e s s e d by r a t i n g t he mean-i n f u l n e s s o f v a r i o u s components a t t h e end o f t h e workshop and a t s i x -o r ten-month f o l l o w - u p s . Most h i g h l y r a t e d were r o l e models w i t h l e c t u r e s and homework a l s o h i g h l y r a t e d . The f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s showed l i t t l e change i n p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s o v e r t i m e . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e younger women w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n w o u l d r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r t i m e l e s s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s d i d n o t h o l d t r u e as most r e p o r t e d even g r e a t e r change i n a c t i v i t y (80%) and a g r e a t e r chang i n r e t u r n i n g t o c l a s s (60%) t h a n d i d t h e i r o l d e r c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s s t u d y d i d n o t u t i l i z e pre-measures and had no c o n t r o l g roup. The c o m p a r i s o n group was o f f e r e d a t a d i f f e r e n t t i m e and i n a d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n (community v e r s u s u n i v e r s i t y ) . However, t h e c o u r s e was v e r y c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e workshop measured by a q u a n t i t a t i v e b e h a v i o r a l outcome measure w h i l e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e workshop components was r e p o r t e d , by r a t i n g o f such and i n c l u d e d a f o l l o w - u p measure. Berman e t a l . (1977) r e p o r t e d on two s t u d i e s e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f i c a c y o f programs d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e needs o f a d u l t women. The s t u d i e s sought t o d e t e r m i n e i f changes t h a t would i n f l u e n c e women's l i f e s t y l e s c o u l d o c c u r by p r o v i d i n g a s u p p o r t i v e l e a r n i n g e n vironment r a t h e r t h e n t h r o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l o r group c o u n s e l l i n g . P r e - and p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n t r o l group d e s i g n s were employed i n b o t h s t u d i e s . The c o n t r o l groups were women on a w a i t i n g l i s t f o r t h e n e x t s e s s i o n . T h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y were randomly a s s i g n e d t o t h i s group. The groups were p o s t t e s t e d one month a f t e r the c o u r s e ended. A s u p p o r t i v e l e a r n i n g environment was d e s i g n e d t o a l l o w f o r s h a r i n g c o n c e r n s , i m p r o v i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and g o a l -s e t t i n g ( i n c o r p o r a t i n g a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g and p e r s o n a l v a l u e s a w a r e n e s s ) . Encouragement of new b e h a v i o r s was p r o v i d e d by group l e a d e r s and o t h e r members. The age range was from 20 t o 60 y e a r s w i t h an a v e r a g e age of 36. Most were mothers w i t h two c h i l d r e n and had some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . The c o u r s e r a n f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18 h o u r s w i t h b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l group t e c h n i q u e s used. One program was u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d and the o t h e r was a community agency-based program. Outcome measures f o r the u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d s e t t i n g were: V o c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g C h e c k l i s t , S e l f - c o n c e p t as L e a r n e r S c a l e , A t t i t u d e s Towards Women S c a l e , and Dogmatism ( r e c e p t i v i t y to new i n f o r m a t i o n ) . Outcome measures f o r the community-based program were: V o c a t i o n a l D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g C h e c k l i s t , I n v e n t o r y o f A t t i t u d e s and V a l u e s and the A t t i t u d e s Towards Women S c a l e . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e measures were r e p o r t e d . The e f f i c i e n c y of the programs were a n a l y z e d by i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . The a u t h o r s n o t e d t h a t r o l e models were an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w i t h i n t h e program as t h e l e a d e r s had p r e v i o u s l y made changes i n t h e i r own l i f e -r o l e s . B o t h programs had d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s on the p a r t i c i p a n t s . S p e c i f -i c a l l y i n E x p e r i m e n t 1 ( u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d ) t he most s a l i e n t e f f e c t was on the m a t u r i t y of the women's v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The most pronounced e f f e c t i n E x p e r i m e n t 2 (community-based) was on s e l f - c o n c e p t . 33 The d i f f e r e n c e s n o t e d were p o s t u l a t e d as b e i n g due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e of women i n the two programs: E x p e r i m e n t 1 had women who wanted o r were more r e c e p t i v e t o an e x p e r i e n c e f o s t e r i n g v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y and may have g r a v i t a t e d t o such a s e t t i n g w h i l e t h o s e who wanted p e r s o n a l growth e x p e r i e n c e s ( E x p e r i m e n t 2) chose a community s e t t i n g . I t was noted t h a t E x p e r i m e n t 2 p a r t i c i p a n t s had a h i g h e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l thus s u p p o r t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t they were no t as m o t i v a t e d towards e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n s . An a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y was t h a t women i n E x p e r i m e n t 1 were r e q u r i e d t o co m p l e t e a c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n p r o j e c t and may have been f o r c e d t o s e a r c h a c t i v e l y f o r v o c a t i o n a l g o a l s . However, d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s f o r s e l f -c o n c e p t were used and may have confounded c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e two grou p s . A d d i t i o n a l outcome t r e n d s were a p p a r e n t b u t t h e a u t h o r s r e g a r d e d i t as i n a p p r o p r i a t e to draw c o n c l u s i o n s from them. A l t h o u g h v a r i o u s p r e - and post-outcome measures were used to d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e s e programs, the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e programs was o n l y i n f o r m a l l y s u g g e s t e d by the a u t h o r s . T i c h e n o r (1977) r e p o r t e d on group c a r e e r p l a n n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s d e v e l o p e d by A. K i r n based on the " L i f e Work P l a n n i n g Workbook and Manual". T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d the immediate and l o n g - t e r m ( f i v e -month f o l l o w - u p ) e f f e c t s of t h e workshop on t h e l e v e l o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s as measured on Shostrom's P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y ( P . O . I . ) . The e x p e r i m e n t a l group c o n t a i n e d b o t h males and f e m a l e s , the c o n t r o l group was a w a i t l i s t group. No demographic d a t a were r e p o r t e d 34 on the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A Solomon f o u r - g r o u p d e s i g n w i t h h a l f p r e t e s t e d and a l l p o s t t e s t e d on the P.O.I, was u t i l i z e d . T h i s c o n t r o l l e d f o r the e f f e c t s o f p r e t e s t i n g . The workshop u s u a l l y was t h r e e days f o r 30 h o u r s i n c o r p o r a t i n g s m a l l g r o u p s , i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s , l i f e l i n e and many o t h e r e x e r c i s e s p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s p a p e r . Workshop t r a i n e r s were g i v e n d i r e c t i o n s f r o m a t r a i n i n g manual. The t r e a t m e n t group s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n the c o n t r o l group on a l l f i v e s c a l e s i d e n t i f i e d as r e l a t i n g t o c a r e e r p l a n n i n g . S i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s on two s c a l e s , i n n e r d i r e c t i o n and s e l f - r e g a r d , were r e p o r t e d Females 33 y e a r s and younger s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the time competence s c a l e t h a n t h o s e aged 34 and o l d e r . I t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age you t h i n k more about the p a s t and f u t u r e . The f i n d i n g s were r e t a i n e d o v e r f i v e months. The a u t h o r s a d v o c a t e d h a v i n g a s p e c i f i c s e t o f g o a l s f o r c l i e n t s and s e l e c t i n g o r d e s i g n i n g an e x p e r i m e n t t h a t f o c u s e s on t h o s e g o a l s . Thus t r e a t m e n t t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d , e l i m i n a t i n g to some e x t e n t d i f f e r e n t i a l outcomes t h a t were due to d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s was a c o n t r o l l e d s t u d y of outcome measures, t h e e f f i c i e n c y of the program was n o t e v a l u a t e d and t h e outcome measures were i n o n l y one m o d a l i t y . Hands (1974) e v a l u a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an e i g h t - w e e k c o u r s e f o r women i n a c h i e v i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s o f e n c o u r a g i n g movement away from t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of more autonomous and s e l f -a c t u a l i z i n g l i f e s t y l e s . The c o u r s e was d e s i g n e d to m o t i v a t e women t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r l i v e s i n terms o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , needs, 35 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They were encouraged to c l a r i f y and broaden th e i r l i f e p l a n s by exploring p o s s i b i l i t i e s for t h e i r involvement outside their homes. The women were i n t h e i r middle years and were housewives and mothers of middle-class socioeconomic status. Included i n the study were 52 women who completed the course while 36 controls were on a waiting l i s t . I t was not indicated i f they were randomly assigned to groups. The following effectiveness outcome measures were u t i l i z e d on pre-post- and six-month follow-up measures: 1. Personality Orientation Inventory (P.O.I.) 2. Feminism Scale v 3. M a r i t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Test 4. M a r i t a l Style 5. M a r i t a l Quality 6. Behavior Checklist 7. Survey of Husbands' Attitudes The P.O.I, r e s u l t s showed a weak groups e f f e c t although the p a r t i c i -pants increased i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g values such as autonomy and s e l f -esteem. Other r e s u l t s were reported changes i n l i f e s t y l e a c t i v i t i e s , f e e l i n g more s a t i s f i e d that needs were being met, enhanced m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a more feminist a t t i t u d e . Possible undersirable e f f e c t s were measured i n this study by the various m a r i t a l scales and the husbands' responses. Husbands reported s a t i s f a c t i o n with marriage did not change and although t h e i r e g a l i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s increased, behavior did not change. This study made good use of a " s i g n i f i c a n t other" and behavioral measures of change but reported no data on the e f f i c i e n c y of the work-shop . 36 Two f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e b r i e f l y r e p o r t e d because they f o c u s e d on f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . S m i t h and Evans (1973) and Babcock and Kaufman (1976) e v a l u a t e d s y s t e m a t i c l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s s t r u c t u r e d around the s t r a t e g y f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c o u r s e s were more e f f e c t i v e than i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g and no c o u n s e l l i n g i n f a c i l i t a t i n g v o c a t i o n a l development of c o l l e g e women as measured by s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , knowledge of s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o a chosen c a r e e r and p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y . They compared a v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e program ( f o r c r e d i t ) , i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g ( r e q u e s t e d ) and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s (random c l a s s ) . A l t h o u g h the s u b j e c t s were n o t m i d d l e - a g e d women s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d v a l i d and r e l i a b l e outcome measures, compared two t y p e s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h none and u t i l i z e d p r e - and pos t - m e a s u r e s . Summary of l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n . More f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l ( C a m p b e l l & S t a n l e y , 1963) i n n a t u r e , a r e r e p o r t e d above. None of the s t u d i e s found i n d i c a t e d random a s s i g n m e n t t o c o n t r o l and t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . Most o f the groups c o n s i s t e d o f m i d d l e - c l a s s , educated m o t h e r s , y e t none of t h e s t u d i e s employed s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The amount of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p o s s i b l e was l i m i t e d . O n ly because the degr e e t o w h i c h f i n d i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t i n t he v a r i o u s s t u d i e s and t h e degree t o w h i c h the p o p u l a t i o n s i n the s t u d i e s were matched i s some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p o s s i b l e . A l t h o u g h R u b i n t o n (1977) found day o r e v e n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n t g o a l s , t h i s was not s u p p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e . C o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g s e t t i n g were r e p o r t e d by R i c e and G o e r i n g (1977) and Berman et a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . B o th R i c e & G o e r i n g (1977) and T i c h e n o r (1977) 37 found age t o be a m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e . Hands (1974) and T i c h e n o r (1977) b o t h r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g v a l u e s o f p a r t i c i -p a n t s u t i l i z i n g t he same m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t (P.O.I.) . C l a r i f y i n g g o a l s and d e v e l o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s were s u p p o r t e d by measures of b e h a v i o r change (Hands, 1974; R i c e & G o e r i n g , 1977). Comparisons t o no c o u n s e l -l i n g , o r w a l k - i n i n t e r v i e w s s u p p o r t e d group s t r u c t u r e d a p p r o a c h e s as b e i n g most f a c i l i t a t i v e (Babcock & Kaufman, 1976; Sm i t h & Evans, 1973). i F o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s v a r i e d from one month (Berman e t a l . , 1977) t o t e n months ( R i c e & G o e r i n g , 1977) d i s c o u n t i n g t h e "warm glow e f f e c t " as r e s u l t s d i d n o t d e t e r i o r a t e o v e r t i m e . I n f o r m a l and f o r m a l e f f i c i e n c y e v a l u a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d t he impact of r o l e models on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s (Berman e t a l . , 1977; R i c e & G o e r i n g , 1977). Summary From the l i t e r a t u r e i t was found t h a t l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o m o t i v a t e women to e v a l u a t e t h e i r l i v e s i n terms of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , needs, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t o c l a r i f y and broaden t h e i r l i f e p l a n s by e x p l o r i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e i r home. These g o a l s were a c h i e v e d by a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n , t e s t i n g , home-work, v a l u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n , r o l e models and g o a l s e t t i n g . The p r i m a r y c o u n s e l l i n g c o n c e r n was t o f a c i l i t a t e c h o i c e s t h a t r e f l e c t t h e v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l and become e x p r e s s i o n s of a u n i q u e l i f e -s t y l e (Eason, 1972). The r e v i e w o f s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d some of t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y of l i f e s t y l e i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r women. I n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c o n c i l e r e s u l t s i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t 38 the p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used were o f t e n i n q u e s t i o n as few s t a n d a r d i z e d measures were employed. O t h e r measures s e l e c t e d seemed to bear q u e s t i o n a b l e a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the v a r i a b l e under s t u d y . W i t h the p l e t h o r a of t r e a t m e n t programs b e i n g proposed i n the domain of r e t u r n i n g o r r e - e n t r y women, d e s p i t e the u s u a l p r o b -lems of f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h i s b a d l y needed. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o seek e v i d e n c e about t h e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s t h a t s u c h programs a r e h a v i n g on women i n o r d e r f o r women to s e l e c t a program t o h e l p them w i t h s p e c i f i c needs. C a r e e r development d e f i n e d a s : a) a l i f e l o n g p r o c e s s of s e l f -c l a r i f i c a t i o n , b) a consequence of t h e p o s i t i o n one h o l d s i n a l i f e -t i m e , c) the v a r i o u s c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s one makes t o implement a l i f e s t y l e and d) as the ways work and l e i s u r e f i t i n w i t h the k i n d of p e r s o n one p e r c e i v e s o n e s e l f t o be, assumes t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of work i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to f a m i l y r o l e s and p a t t e r n s and t o m a t t e r s of c a r e e r - m a r r i a g e c o n f l i c t and commitment. The major purpose of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s to d e t e r m i n e i f changes, w h i c h would i n f l u e n c e women's l i f e s t y l e s c o u l d o c c u r t h r o u g h a sup-p o r t i v e c a r e e r development c o u r s e more r e a d i l y than t h r o u g h o n e - t o -one i n t e r v i e w s o r a p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e . I t i s a l s o the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o w h i c h s p e c i f i c components of the program work b e s t i n f a c i l i t a t i n g change and p l a n n i n g and the r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y o f outcomes over t i m e . CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Overvi e w The p u r p o s e of the s t u d y was t o e v a l u a t e t he e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t h r e e - d a y c a r e e r c o u r s e compared to a s i x - s e s s i o n p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e and i n d i v i d u a l one-hour l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w s f o r women i n terms o f c r i t e r i a - o f s u c c e s s d e v e l o p e d by the program c o - o r d i n a t o r o f the c a r e e r development program. The i n t e r v e n t i o n s were e v a l u a t e d by r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n t a i n e d i t e m s d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r -m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s about the c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e women who p a r t i c i p a t e d . Q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s p r i o r t o t h e workshop, d u r i n g the s e s s i o n , a t the end of each d a i l y s e s s i o n and f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the l a s t s e s s i o n . A m o d i f i e d C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y (1963, p. 47) non-e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l group r e s e a r c h d e s i g n ( F i g u r e 1) was u t i l i z e d . 0 X 1 0 0 0 0 X 3 0 F i g u r e 1. Pre-and Four-week F o l l o w - u p T e s t s 39 40 C o n t e n t of C o u r s e s and I n t e r v i e w s The f u n c t i o n of the program c o - o r d i n a t o r of the C a r e e r D e v e l o p -ment Program, C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n was t o implement c o u r s e s and s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a of c a r e e r development f o r a d u l t s . The v a l u e a s s u m p t i o n s , g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s t h a t were e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s program e v a l u a t i o n appear i n Appendix G. The f o c u s of such c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s was t o h e l p p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n more about who they a r e and what they want, l e a r n s t r a t e g i e s to a c h i e v e t h e i r ends and g a i n the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e they need to be a b l e t o know what r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s they must u n d e r t a k e t h e m s e l v e s and what can be l e f t to o t h e r s . I f t h e c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s were s u c c e s s f u l they s h o u l d have the f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t s on the p a r t i c i p a n t s : 1. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d e x h i b i t n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards women's l i f e s t y l e s . 2. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d l e a r n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 3. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d s t r u c t u r e t h e i r t i m e t o i n c r e a s e non-t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s . 4. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d f i n d c e r t a i n components of t h e c o u r s e s or i n t e r v i e w s more e f f e c t i v e than o t h e r s . C a r e e r development. The " C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e was f i r s t o f f e r e d once b e f o r e i n t h e p r e v i o u s f a l l term and was c o n d u c t e d by an e x p e r i e n c e d i n s t r u c t o r i n l i f e p l a n n i n g . The workshop was d e s i g n e d to a s s i s t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d e f i n i n g t h e i r l i f e and work g o a l s i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h a p r i o r i t y o f g o a l s and a p l a n to a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s . The c o u r s e c o n s i s t e d of a sequence of s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h encouraged each p a r t i c i p a n t t o t h o r o u g h l y examine her l i f e s t y l e and c a r e e r p a t h i n terms o f d i r e c t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s 41 l e a r n e d from t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s and from s h a r i n g w i t h o t h e r s . They worked a l o n e , i n p a i r s and s m a l l groups as w e l l as i n t h e t o t a l g roup. The f o c u s was on each p a r t i c i p a n t d e v e l o p i n g an i n - d e p t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of her e x p e r i e n c e , a c h i e v e m e n t s , s k i l l s , v a l u e s , i n t e r e s t s , wants and hopes f o r the f u t u r e , and u s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e v e l o p a p e r s o n a l a c t i o n p l a n . The c o u r s e was o f f e r e d on a weekend, F r i d a y 7 - 10p.m., S a t u r d a y and Sunday, 9 a.m. t o 4 p.m., and was h e l d on the u n i v e r s i t y campus. An o u t l i n e of the c o u r s e a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x H and the s p e c i f i c com-ponents appear i n Appendix F. P e r s o n a l development. The " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e has been o f f e r e d t h r o u g h C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n s i n c e 1971 and r e p e a t e d whenever t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t e n r o l l m e n t . The i n s t r u c t o r was an e x p e r i e n c e d and q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The c o u r s e was d e s c r i b e d as one t h a t h e l p s f o c u s on how t o b r i n g about change and t o r e s p o n d t o r e s i s t a n c e t o change from f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . I t e x p l o r e d d i m e n s i o n s of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and i d e n t i t y , of awareness of s e l f w i t h o t h e r s , and the b u i l d i n g of c o n f i d e n c e . The c o u r s e was d e s i g n e d as a b a s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n t o l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s t r u c t u r e d group e x p e r i e n c e s i n a s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere. P a r t i c i p a n t s were f r e e t o e x p l o r e new ways of communicating, t o become more a s s e r t i v e , t o d e a l w i t h c o n f l i c t and anger and were encouraged to keep a j o u r n a l i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r l i f e s i t u a t i o n and t o b e g i n p l a n n i n g f o r s p e c i f i c change. The f o r m a t and c o n t e n t were b o t h s k i l l - o r i e n t e d and r i c h i n i d e a s f o r c h a n g i n g and g r o w i n g . The c o u r s e was o f f e r e d on s i x Tuesdays from 9:30 a.m. t o 12:30 p.m. a t t h e Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e (downtown). An o u t l i n e of t h e c o u r s e appears i n Appendix I and the s p e c i f i c components appear i n Appendix F. L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w s . The " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s have been o f f e r e d t h r o u g h C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r a number of y e a r s , and were co n d u c t e d by e x p e r i e n c e d , q u a l i f i e d c o u n s e l l o r s o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s . They were a d v e r t i s e d as a chance t o c l a r i f y l i f e g o a l s and d e v e l o p a s t r a t e g y f o r a t t a i n i n g them. I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s were a r r a n g e d on the u n i v e r s i t y campus o r i n the Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e (downtown). There was a f e e of $10 whi c h may be waived i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w was s t a t e d a s : 1. To e x p l o r e y o u r i d e a s about w h i c h d i r e c t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r you. 2. To d e v e l o p a p l a n t o implement y o u r i d e a s . 3. To g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about f a c i l i t i e s i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e . The s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s and components of the i n t e r v i e w were u n i q u e t o the p a r t i c i p a n t and the i n t e r v i e w e r . Some of t h e s e components a r e l i s t e d i n A ppendix F. Summary. These c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s , t h e n , were o f f e r e d t o a d u l t s i n the community and m a i n l y a d v e r t i s e d t h r o u g h the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n b r o c h u r e and c a l e n d a r . T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t he d a t e s , type of workshop g i v e n , time and f o l l o w - u p d a t e . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 2. These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e s e t t i n g , t i m e , c o s t s , group or i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t , and e x e r c i s e f o r m a t . Overview o f the E v a l u a t i o n S t r a t e g y The e v a l u a t i o n was based on t h e f o l l o w i n g model ( F i g u r e 2) w h i c h 43 T a b l e 1 Dates of Cou r s e s and I n t e r v i e w s Group Date Hours F o l l o w u p Date A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e June 16, 17, 18 17 J u l y 13 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l May 16 - June 20 18 J u l y 11 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s June 12,21,22,28 1 J u l y 14,21 J u l y 6, 10, 12 28 Aug. 2, 8 T a b l e 2 O u t l i n e o f D i f f e r e n c e s i n P r e s e n t a t i o n F a c t o r A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e D e v e l o p i n g P o t e n t i a l L i f e p l a n n i n g C o s t : $75 $40 $10 (waived) A pproach: f a c e t o f a c e , group f a c e t o f a c e , g r o u p f a c e t o f a c e i n d i v i d u a l E x e r c i s e s : l e c t u r e / d i s c u s s i o n l e c t u r e / d i s c u s s i o n v a r i e d p r a c t i c e p r a c t i c e s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s S e t t i n g : U n i v e r s i t y Downtown Downtown o r U n i v e r s i t y H o u r s ; 17 18 1 44 was adapted from the model proposed by Gottman and L e i b l u m ( 1 9 7 4 ) . " Treatment" i s c o n s i d e r e d t he program e v a l u a t o r , " t h e r a p i s t " t he e v a l u a t o r and " c l i e n t " the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r . P r o b l e m Assessment C o n t r a c t I n i t i a l Therapy E f f o r t s A. D e s i g n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system: D e c i d e whom t o see. > 1'ind out how d e c i s i o n was made to come t o B > t r e a t m e n t ; how i t f e e l s t o be t h e r e seek-i n g h e l p ( t o g e t h e r ) ; s p e c i f y c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t e x p e c t a t i o n s about t r e a t m e n t p r o c e s s . C. Data c o l l e c t i o n . A d m i n i s t e r p r o b l e m a s s e s s -ment package. N e g o t i a t e t h e r a p e u t i c c o n t r a c t ; the a l l i a n c e w i t h t he t h e r a p i s t t o work on agreed-upon D. problems (consensus i n t h e system) i n c l u d -i n g an agreement about t h e manner of t r e a t -ment . 9 B e g i n i n i t i a l change e f f o r t s . S et o b j e c -E. t i v e s ; d e s i g n d a t a - g a t h e r i n g p r o c e d u r e s ; the measurement package. F. Res] .stance > G. 1. M o s t l y s u b j e c t v a r -i a b l e s G. 2. M o s t l y i n t e r - ) a c t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s H. R e t u r n t o D or A, vez i s s e s s , r e n e g o t i a t e . I . M o n i t o r change; a s s e s s t he impact o f i n t e r -v e n t i o n s , t e r m i n a t i o n and f o l l o w - u p . F i g u r e 2. Model f o r E v a l u a t i o n 45 C a r r (1977) s u p p o r t e d t h i s model i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the program e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . He d e f i n e d program e v a l u a t i o n as "a method o r methods d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the p u r p o s e of p r o v i d i n g m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o a i d i n r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n and p r o c e s s m o d i f i c a t i o n " ( C a r r , 1977, p. 115). C a r r d i s t i n q u i s h e d between d e c i s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g e v a l u a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i t y . The two p r o c e s s e s of program e v a l u a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y were: 1. P r o c e s s e v a l u a t i o n : ( f o r m a t i v e ) f o c u s e s on d i s c o v e r i n g t h r o u g h f e e d b a c k the s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of the d e s i g n of the program, to m o n i t o r on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s p o s s i b l e a r e a s of f a i l u r e , such as what f a c t o r s may p r e v e n t o r f a c i l i t a t e p e o p l e u s i n g t h e program. At the same time i t i s d i r e c t e d a t d e s c r i b i n g why th e program worked w e l l , o r the e f f i c i e n c y of t h e program. 2. P r o d u c t e v a l u a t i o n : (summative) t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t y p e of program e v a l u a t i o n i s on e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Does the program r e a c h i t s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s ? Emphasis i n p r o d u c t e v a l u a t i o n i s o f t e n on measurement w i t h e x p l i c i t c o n c e r n s t o d e v e l o p c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether o b j e c t i v e s have been met. (p. 116). C a r r i d e n t i f i e d the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e e v a l u a t o r t o f a c i l i t a t e p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e s t e p s o u t l i n e d i n the above model: a c t i v e l i s t e n -i n g , r e f l e c t i o n and s u m m a r i z i n g . A l s o C a r r s u g g e s t e d n o n j u d g e m e n t a l approaches such as b r a i n - s t o r m i n g o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . C a r r r e i t e r a t e s t h a t " h e l p i n g s k i l l s . . . a r e c r i t i c a l t o the development of a v i t a l and e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n model" (p. 118). E v a l u a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s The i d e n t i f i e d c l i e n t was the program c o - o r d i n a t o r f o r two c o n t i n -u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs, Women i n Management and C a r e e r Development. She e x p l o r e d the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the program e v a l u a t o r ' s r o l e and c o n v e r s e l y was p r e s e n t e d w i t h an o v e r v i e w of the p r o c e s s of program 4 6 e v a l u a t i o n . Through the above mentioned p r o c e s s e s s ( C a r r , 1977), she e x p l o r e d her i n i t i a l c o n c e r n s f o r the programs f o r w h i c h she was r e s p o n s i b l e and i d e n t i f i e d the s p e c i f i c program, C a r e e r Development, as h e r main f o c u s o f c o n c e r n . An i n i t i a l c o n t r a c t (Appendix J ) u s i n g the c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " f o r t h e model was n e g o t i a t e d and the p r o c e s s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s i n i t i a t e d . Through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e e v a l u a t o r the program c o - o r d i n a t o r e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d c r i t e r i a f o r s u c c e s s a p p r o p r i a t e t o her l e v e l of c o n c e r n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h e r c a r e e r development program. A t e l e p h o n e s u r v e y o f p a s t p a r t i c i p a n t s was implemented i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r a s c e r t a i n r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s f o r s t u d y . The program e v a l u a t o r d e s i g n e d a d a t a - g a t h e r i n g p r o c e d u r e w i t h the program c o - o r d i n a t o r w h i c h c o u l d not be f u l l y implemented due t o t h e l a c k o f a w a i t l i s t group. A new c o n t r a c t was n e g o t i a t e d f o l l o w i n g t h e above p r o c e d u r e and a p p ears i n Ap p e n d i x J . Two co m p a r i s o n groups were i d e n t i f i e d , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . The program e v a l u a t o r o b t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the g o a l s and c o n t e n t of the c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s from the c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s and i n t e r -v i e w e r s . A d a t a g a t h e r i n g d e v i c e ( A ppendix D) was d e v e l o p e d by a c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r i n o r d e r to have an u n o b t r u s i v e measure of p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . F o l l o w i n g each m e e t i n g between the program e v a l u a t o r and the program c o - o r d i n a t o r i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e d i r e c t and a c c u r a t e com-m u n i c a t i o n , a summary of t h e i n t e r v i e w was r e c o r d e d and p r e s e n t e d f o r comments o r ammendments. F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n was conducted by a s s e s s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y o f the c o u r s e and i n t e r v i e w components and by s u p p l y i n g q u a l i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r f u t u r e p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g - Summative e v a l u a t i o n used was a s s e s s e d by p r e - and post-outcome measures of b e h a v i o r s , a t t i t u d e s and p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y w h i c h r e p r e s e n t d e s i r e d c r i t e r i a of s u c c e s s . R e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d p e r i o d i c a l l y t o t h e program c o - o r d i n a t o r t o a s s i s t i n r e v i s i o n s and t o p r o v i d e o n - g o i n g f e e d b a c k f o r program p l a n n i n g . Whether t h e c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the c o u r s e s or i n t e r v i e w s was d e t e r m i n e d on the b a s i s o f e m p i r i c a l d a t a w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and for m s . Development of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e . A 2 0 - i t e m c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d L i k e r t t y p e s c a l e d e v e l o p e d by Burns (1974) was used t o measure a t t i t u d e s toward women's l i f e s t y l e s . The s c a l e p u r p o r t s t o measure the t r a d i t i o n a l ( motherhood), n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ( c a r e e r ) o r i e n t a t i o n of women. Content domains range from the v o c a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l s p h e r e s to i s s u e s h a v i n g to do w i t h Independence and m a r i t a l o b l i g a t i o n s . C r i t e r i a - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y was r e p o r t e d by Burns ( 1 9 7 4 ) . S c o r e s on the a t t i t u d e s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d ( r = .53) s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h s e l f - r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o r s r e l a t i n g to l i f e s t y l e . The a l p h a c o - e f f i c i e n t o f r e l i a b i l i t y was .889. Bu r n s (1974) warned however, of p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s o f the s c a l e as her sample t e s t e d was c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y o f younger f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . A p p e n d i x C. L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . The a c t i v i t y c h e c k l i s t used i n p r e and p o s t t e s t i n g f o r each group was de v e l o p e d by Hands (1975) t o a s s e s s b e h a v i o r s i n d i c a t i n g a c t u a l l i f e s t y l e changes. The q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i n c l u d e d a c h e c k l i s t o f 32 b e h a v i o r s o r a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d 48 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e ra n g e of a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h women and mothe r s t y p i c a l l y engage. I n c l u d e d i n the t o t a l a r e s e v e r a l i t e m s of p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t w h i c h p e r t a i n to the respondents'commitment t o her own p e r -s o n a l development and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and t o a more a c t i v e , l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e . On the pre-measure the s u b j e c t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e which of the l i s t e d b e h a v i o r s o r a c t i v i t i e s they p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n d u r i n g the l a s t f o u r weeks. I n the post-measure, they were asked t o r e p o r t whether t h e b e h a v i o r o r a c t i v i t y " i n c r e a s e d " , " d e c r e a s e d " or " s t a y e d the same" i n the p a s t f o u r weeks f o r a l l 32 i t e m s . The c h e c k l i s t was chosen by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c r i t e r i a and c o n t e n t of the c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s , as w e l l as by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e d i n the r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The c h e c k l i s t was r e v i e w e d by the c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s , i n t e r v i e w e r s and the program c o - o r d i n a t o r . A p p e n d i x E. P i l o t t e s t i n g . The b e h a v i o r c h e c k l i s t was p i l o t t e s t e d w i t h t e n women. Four were s t u d e n t s i n the m a s t e r ' s program i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t U.B.C. and s i x were employees a t the C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n -u i n g E d u c a t i o n . They found the form easy t o co m p l e t e and had no s u g g e s t i o n s f o r r e v i s i o n . P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The e i g h t - i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked r e s p o n d e n t s to o r d e r i n l o g i c a l sequence t h e p l a n n i n g s t e p s r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a g o a l . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was d e v e l o p e d by the c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r o f "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " as an u n o b t r u s i v e measure of p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y based on the c o u r s e c o n t e n t and g o a l s . The post-measure form a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h whether o r n o t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p r e s e n t l y had a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r the f u t u r e . A p p e n d i x D. 49 P o s t - s e s s i o n .Meaningfulness Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These i t e m s were d e s i g n e d to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e s s i o n s ' m e a n i n g f u l n e s s to p a r t i c i p a n t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e l i s t e d v a r i o u s components ( S p e c i f i c to the c o u r s e or i n t e r v i e w ) w h i c h were o b t a i n e d from t h e c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s o r i n t e r v i e w e r s . Respondents were asked to r a t e each on a s c a l e of 1 t o 5 from "not v e r y m e a n i n g f u l " t o . " e x t r e m e l y m e a n i n g f u l " . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e v i e w e d by t h e c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s and i n t e r v i e w e r s and was c o n s i d e r e d as l i s t i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t elements of t h e i r c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w f o r w h i c h they d e s i r e d f e e d b a c k . A p p e n d i x F. F o l l o w - u p M e a n i n g f u l n e s s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The i d e n t i c a l components were l i s t e d on t h e p o s t - s e s s i o n m e a n i n g f u l n e s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e as w e l l as q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g b e h a v i o r s such as t y p e s of c o u n s e l l i n g -i n f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t , s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e i r l i v e s , and whether they f e l t d i f f e r e n t l y about t h e m s e l v e s . P e r c e p t i o n s of t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w were a l s o s e l f - r e p o r t e d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e v i e w e d by the c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s , i n t e r v i e w e r s and program c o - o r d i n a t o r . A p pendix K. G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e v e l o p e d t o o b t a i n demographic i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . Q u e s t i o n s 1, 2 and 15 (age, e d u c a t i o n and m a r i t a l s t a t u s ) were used to d e t e r m i n e the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p endix L. P i l o t t e s t i n g . The G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t t e s t e d w i t h 35 women a t t e n d i n g a C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n e v e n i n g c o u r s e . The w o r d i n g of some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s was changed on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r comments and some questions were deleted as not being relevant. Observation Form. Observation of the courses was ca r r i e d out for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of content and manner presented. Observation of the interviews was judged to be obtrusive and was not c a r r i e d out. The observation c h e c k l i s t was compiled by the course i n s t r u c t o r s and the program co-ordinator and included environmental factors as well as group and i n d i v i d u a l processes. Appendix M. Hypotheses N u l l Form Hypothesis 1. Participants- a t t i t u d e scores show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gain four weeks following the cours.es, "'A Career i n Your L i f e " , "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l " and "Lifeplanning" interviews as measured by the L i f e s t y l e Attitude Scale. Hypothesis 2 . "A Career i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e cViange as measured by the L i f e s t y l e Attitude Scale when compared with p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l " course and "Lifeplanning" i n t e r -views . Hypothesis 3. "A Career in Your L i f e " , "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l " and "Lifeplanning" p a r t i c i p a n t s four weeks following the interventions reported no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n no n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as measured on the L i f e -s t y l e Behavior Checklist. Hypothesis 4. "A Career i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s reported no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s when compared to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the course 51 " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s as measured on the L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . H y p o t h e s i s 5. "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the c o u r s e as measured by t e s t s c o r e s on the P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . H y p o t h e s i s 6. "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e as measured by t e s t s c o r e s on the P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e when compared to the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . A s s u m p t i o n s The p r e c e d i n g h y p o t h e s e s a r e based on c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s . To the e x t e n t t h a t they a r e a c c u r a t e , t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s p e r m i t t h e a c c e p t a n c e of the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s e s where r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e the n u l l h y p o t h e s e s s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e assump-t i o n s a r e i n a c c u r a t e , they l i m i t the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h may be drawn f r o m the r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y i n terms of e i t h e r t h e n u l l o r the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s e s . A s s u m p t i o n s 1. That the sample i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of women e n r o l l i n g i n l i f e -p l a n n i n g c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s t h r o u g h the C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2. -That the p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s used a r e a d e q u a t e l y s e n s i t i v e to r e f l e c t a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n s t r u c t s they a r e 52 p u r p o r t e d t o measure. 3. That the d i f f e r e n c e s among the groups f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n s were a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s . 4. That the i n s t r u c t o r s h i r e d by the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t -ment were c a p a b l e of t e a c h i n g towards the same g o a l s . E v a l u a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s : Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s S e l e c t i o n of the Sample The p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l l s e l f - s e l e c t e d . I n i t i a l l y a t o t a l of 13 women and two men a t t e n d e d the " C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e . The two males d a t a were d i s c a r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y and one woman was not a v a i l a b l e f o r the f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . I n the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e , 22 women i n i t i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d f o r t h e c l a s s w i t h f i v e women n o t c o m p l e t i n g t h e c o u r s e . The " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s i n c l u d e d were the f i r s t 12 i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s c h e d u l e , one p e r s o n was not a v a i l a b l e f o r the f o l l o w - u p . The f i n a l sample ( T a b l e 3) c o n s i s t e d of a t o t a l of 40 women as s u b j e c t s w i t h m i s s i n g d a t a on any of the dependent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d by each h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g d e l e t e d from the a n a l y s e s . T a b l e 3 Sample S i z e Used t o T e s t Each H y p o t h e s i s Group H y p o t h e s i s 1 t o 6 A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 12 17 11 53 C o l l e c t i o n of Data from P a r t i c i p a n t s The L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t , L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e and the G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were g i v e n t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o the c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w . L i f e p l a n n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e i n i t i a l l y to o b t a i n t h e i r c o n s e n t (Appendix N ) . The i n t r o d u c t i o n to the s t u d y , s o l i c i t a t i o n of c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n s were i d e n t i c a l f o r b o t h c o u r s e s (see A p p e n d i x 0 ) . The P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g the s e s s i o n a t a time when the i n s t r u c t o r o r c o u n s e l l o r j u d g e d i t t o be the most a p p r o p r i a t e . The p o s t - s e s s i o n M e a n i n g f u l n e s s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n a t the end of each d a i l y s e s s i o n o r i n t e r v i e w . The p o s t -L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t , L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e , p o s t - P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f o l l o w - u p M e a n i n g f u l n e s s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a d m i n i s t e r e d f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w and were a r r a n g e d by group consensus d u r i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n of the c o u r s e . Those u n a b l e t o a t t e n d were e i t h e r seen i n d i v i d u a l l y by the e v a l u a t o r or m a i l e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (see Appendix P ) . I n a l l c a s e s a t t e m p t s were made a t m a i n t a i n i n g s t a n d a r d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s c h e d u l e a p p e a r s on T a b l e 4. Data A n a l y s i s A l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d were coded and a 10% random subsample r e c o d e d t o check c o d e r r e l i a b i l i t y (no e r r o r s were f o u n d ) . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d by t h e s t a n d a r d S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( 1 9 7 5 ) . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d to d e t e r m i n e the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t h r e e g r o u p s . The n o n p a r a m e t r i c 54 T a b l e 4 Date C o l l e c t i o n S c h e d u l e I n s trument Source Time I n t e r v i e w s w i t h c o - o r d i n a t o r , c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s and i n t e r -v i e w e r s T elephone Survey G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n Q u e s t i o n -n a i r e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e O b s e r v a t i o n M e a n i n g f u l n e s s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e F o l l o w u p Measures: L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e M e a n i n g f u l n e s s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n v e s t i g a t o r I n v e s t i g a t o r P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t P a r t i c i p a n t s P r i o r t o c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w s P r i o r to c o u r s e P r i o r to c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s A p p r o p r i a t e time i n th e c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s D u r i n g c o u r s e s End o f d a i l y s e s s i o n s P a r t i c i p a n t s F o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g l a s t s e s s i o n c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used t o d e t e r m i n e e q u i v a l e n c e o f t h e groups on m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n and age g r o u p s . The a l p h a l e v e l o f p ^ ..05 was used t o d e t e r m i n e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s : Hypotheses 1 and 2 (dependent v a r i a b l e : l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e ) were examined by a two-way r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e w i t h an omnibus 55 F_. The t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n groups c o n s t i t u t e the t h r e e l e v e l s of t h e between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r , the p r e - and p o s t t e s t i n g o c c a s i o n s c o n s t i -t u t e the two l e v e l s of the w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r . Use of r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s s t u d y as i t has more power w i t h s m a l l samples t h a n m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s (Buck & McLean, 1975; L e v i n & M a r a s c u i l o , 1977; S c h u t z , 1978). Hypotheses 3 and 4 (dependent v a r i a b l e : l i f e s t y l e b e h a v i o r s ) were examined by a one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e s t w i t h t h r e e groups i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the means on the r e s p o n s e s t o change on the B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . H y potheses 5 and 6 (dependent v a r i a b l e : p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y ) were to be examined by a two-way r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e w i t h omnibus F_. The t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s c o n s t i t u t e t h e t h r e e l e v e l s of the between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r , and the p r e - and p o s t t e s t i n g o c c a s i o n s c o n s t i t u t e the two l e v e l s o f t h e w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r . However, i t was found on e x a m i n i n g the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e groups l a c k e d homogeniety of v a r i a n c e and w i t h u n e q u a l sample s i z e s t h i s made the F_ s t a t i s t i c i n a p p r o p r i a t e . H y p o t h e s i s 5 was examined by the n o n p a r a m e t r i c W i l c o x o n matched-p a i r s , s i g n e d - r a n k s t e s t ( F e r g u s o n , 1976, p. 3 9 2 ) . T h i s t e s t r e q u i r e s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between p r e - and p o s t t e s t i n g o c c a s i o n s be c a l c u l a t e d and r a n k e d w i t h a l l t i e d p a i r s d e l e t e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 6 was a n a l y z e d by the n o n p a r a m e t r i c t e s t of c h i - s q u a r e . The s c o r e s were a n a l y z e d as f r e q u e n c i e s comparing t h o s e p e o p l e who s t a y e d t h e same o r d i d n o t improve t h e i r s c o r e to t h o s e who improved t h e i r p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y s c o r e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t c h i - s q u a r e i m p l i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two v a r i a b l e s of group membership and p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . Summary T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e t h r e e - d a y "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e , the s i x - s e s s i o n " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and the one-hour " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s f o r women a t t h e C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C. The r e s e a r c h methodology, h y p o t h e s e s , a s s u m p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n p l a n and p r o c e d u r e s were p r e -s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s f r o m the a n a l y s e s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s : c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the sample, a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s o f the s t u d y and d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s and f o l l o w - u p e v a l u a t i o n of them. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Sample The d a t a were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the G e n e r a l Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o t h e c o u r s e or i n t e r v i e w . D a t a on age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n were t a b u l a t e d and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and t h e group s were examined by t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t f o r independence. T a b l e 5 shows the p e r c e n t a g e s of p e r s o n s " o t h e r t h a n m a r r i e d " ( i n c l u d e s : s i n g l e , d i v o r c e d , widowed, s e p a r a t e d ) o r " m a r r i e d " f o r each group. The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f " o t h e r t h a n m a r r i e d ' s " a t t e n d e d the "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e . The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e amount o f e d u c a t i o n f o r each group a p p e a r s i n T a b l e 6. The groups appear r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r w i t h t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n h a v i n g • c o m p l e t e d u n i v e r s i t y o r c o l l e g e . The group d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r age range appears i n T a b l e 7. The 57 58 T a b l e 5 Comparison o f M a r i t a l S t a t u s Group Other th a n M a r r i e d N M a r r i e d A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 83.3% 16.7% 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 41.2% 58.8% 17 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 36.4% 63.6% 11 TOTAL 52.5% 47.5% 40 T a b l e 6 Comparison o f E d u c a t i o n A t t a i n e d Group H i g h S c h o o l o r Below Some C o l l e g e o r U n i v e r s i t y Completed U n i v e r s i t y o r C o l l e g e A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 16.7% D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 29.4% L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 27.3% 50.0% 23.5% 18.2% 33.3% 47.1% 54.5% TOTAL 25.0% 30.0% 45.0% 59 T a b l e 7 Comparison of Age Groups Group 15 - 30 3 1 - 4 0 41 and o v e r N A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 41.7% 33.3% 25.0% 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 17.6% 29.4% 52.9% 17 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 45.5% 27.3% 27.3% 11 TOTAL 32.5% 30.0% 37.5% 40 T a b l e 8 Summary o f C h i - s q u a r e T e s t s on Group Demographic Data Demographic Data C h i - s q u a r e d f M a r i t a l S t a t u s . 2 6.597 a E d u c a t i o n 4 3.439 Age 4 3.993 S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l median age group ranged from 31 - 40 y e a r s f o r a l l g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " group was o l d e r i n t h i s s t u d y , the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t does n o t r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s - a summary of t h e d a t a on group d i f f e r e n c e s i n age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e groups were found f o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s . F u r t h e r c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a r i t a l s t a t u s and t h e t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s ( L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e , L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r , P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y ) t h u s i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l f o r between group d i f f e r e n c e s i n ' subsequent a n a l y s e s . Summary. The t y p i c a l woman was i n h e r m i d - t h i r t i e s , had some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n and may o r may n o t s t i l l be m a r r i e d w i t h an a v e r a g e of two c h i l d r e n . I f she was a " C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t , she would t y p i c a l l y be " o t h e r t h a n m a r r i e d " . I t would seem t h a t i n t h i s sample the younger, more i n d e p e n d e n t woman was a t t r a c t e d t o t h e c a r e e r development program. A n a l y s e s o f Data from Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n R e l a t i o n t o Each H y p o t h e s i s S e v e r a l c o m p a r i s o n s among group s were p o s s i b l e . The c o m p a r i s o n s t h a t were of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y were the co m p a r i s o n s among the " C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " g r o u p , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . The r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d r e l e v a n t t o each h y p o t h e s i s . H y p o t h e s i s 1 s t a t e s t h a t ; p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s c o r e s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e s "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e -p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s as measured by the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e . T a b l e 9 shows group means f o r a l l t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a l l groups g a i n e d i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s from the p r e t e s t s e s s i o n t o the f o u r week f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n . A low s c o r e i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s . A two-way r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was pe r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among group means f o r the t o t a l s c o r e on the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e p r e t e s t and f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s appear i n T a b l e 10. The F - r a t i o f o r the t e s t of d i f f e r e n c e of s e s s i o n means was 4.63 w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t 2 Z .05. As the F - r a t i o f o r s e s s i o n means was s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e n u l l H y p o t h e s i s 1 was r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r of the a l t e r n a t e . I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the c o u r s e s or i n t e r v i e w s d i d h e l p change p a r t i c i -p a n t s by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s as measured up t o f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the c o u r s e or i n t e r v i e w . H y p o t h e s i s 2 s t a t e s t h a t ; "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e change as measured by the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e when compared w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the s e s s i o n by groups i n t e r a c t i o n ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l H y p o t h e s i s 2 was not r e j e c t e d . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e i n l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e when comparing the "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " group w i t h t h e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " T a b l e 9 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s on the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e 3 Group P r e t e s t Mean S.D. F o l l o w u p Mean S .D. A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 45.83 13.34 43.83 13 .79 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 52.82 13.89 51.41 15 .45 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 45.09 12.15 43.23 11. .96 3 A low s c o r e i n d i c a t e s ( p o s s i b l e range 20 t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s 100) T a b l e 10 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S ource d f MS F Between (Groups) 2 • 562.89 1.56 W i t h i n 37 360.33 S e s s i o n s ( p r e / p o s t ) 1 56.66 4.63 3 S e s s i o n s x Groups 2 .62 .05 W i t h i n 37 12.25 S i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l 63 group and the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " g roup. H y p o t h e s i s 3 s t a t e s t h a t ; "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s .four weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s r e p o r t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as measured on the L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . The change s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t e d change i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n non-t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as i n d i c a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e i t e m s : 13, 17, 19, 23, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31. The a v e r a g e number of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t d e c r e a s e d were s u b t r a c t e d from t h e a v e r a g e number of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t i n c r e a s e d . E x a m i n i n g t h e change s c o r e means ( T a b l e 11) r e v e a l e d t h a t they were a l l g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o s u g g e s t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n non-t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l g r o u p s f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e i r s e s s i o n s . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t was p e r f o r m e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t chang e.;in p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as i n d i c a t e d on t h e L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the s e s s i o n s . The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s , summarized i n T a b l e 12, r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o f o r the mean e f f e c t (F = 36.58, p_ ^ .0.1), thus r e j e c t i n g t h e n u l l H y p o t h e s i s 3. The g r a n d mean r e p o r t e d r e f l e c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e ( g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o ) i n non-t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as i t was i n d i c a t i v e of t h e a v e r a g e of the group means. H y p o t h e s i s 4 s t a t e s t h a t ; "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n d e g r e e of p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s when compared to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c o u r s e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r -\ 64 T a b l e 11 Mean Number o f N o n t r a d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s on the L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t - P r e and F o l l o w u p Group P r e t e s t F o l l o w u p I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e Same Change S.D A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 3. .23 2 .17 .42 6, .25 1. .75 1.91 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 3. .85 1 .83 .54 6. .65 1 .29 1.49 L i f e p l a n n i n g 3, .29 1 .55 .19 7. .27 1. .36 .92 De c r e a s e s s u b t r a c t e d f r o m i n c r e a s e s T a b l e 12 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r N o n t r a d i t i o n a l L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r Change Source df MS F Mean 1 83.36 3 6 . 5 8 a Between (Groups) 2 .79 .35 W i t h i n 27 2.28 S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l 65 v i e w s as measured by the L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . The r e s u l t s ( T a b l e 12) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among group means. The n u l l H y p o t h e s i s 4 was not r e j e c t e d and i t was c o n c l u d e d from t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n when comparing p a r t i c i p a n t s i n "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . H y p o t h e s i s 5 s t a t e s t h a t ; "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s showed no s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w as measured by t e s t s c o r e s on t h e P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The n o n p a r a m e t r i c W i l c o x o n m a t c h e d - p a i r s s i g n e d - r a n k s t e s t was used t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n i n p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y o v e r the f o u r weeks. T a b l e 13 summarizes t h e p r e -and p o s t - d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s w h i c h ranged f r o m -5 t o +12. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e no s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n i n p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y (W = 4 7 2 . ^ — -057). T h e r e f o r e the n u l l H y p o t h e s i s 5 ,was n o t r e j e c t e d . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t of t h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s who i n i t i a l l y were u n a b l e t o r a n k o r d e r t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o r r e c t l y , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n i n p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y o v er the f o u r weeks f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . The c o u r s e s or i n t e r -v i e w s had no e f f e c t i n h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s g a i n i n p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . I t s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t the W i l c o x o n t e s t n e c e s s i t a t e s a l a r g e r e d u c t i o n i n sample s i z e by d i s c a r d i n g a l l t i e d - p a i r s d a t a . H y p o t h e s i s 6 s t a t e s t h a t ; "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e as measured by t e s t s c o r e s 66 T a b l e 13 Comparison o f P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s on P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y S c o r e s N_ I n c r e a s e d 14 Dec r e a s e d 6 2 0 a S t a y e d the same TOTAL 40 17 were p e r f e c t s c o r e s T a b l e 14 Comparison o f P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e s t h a t : Got wo r s e , o r S t a y e d the Same and Improved on P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Group Got Worse/Stayed Same Improved N A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 58% 42% 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 82% 18% 17 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 45% 55% 11 TOTAL 62% 38% 40 67 on the P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e when compared t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . The n o n p a r a m e t r i c c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e groups and i n c r e a s e i n p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . T a b l e 14 shows a group c o m p a r i s o n of th o s e who d i d worse o r s t a y e d the same and t h o s e who improved t h e i r 2 s c o r e . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found ( X = 2.67, p_ . 3 0 ) , thus the n u l l H y p o t h e s i s 6 was n o t r e j e c t e d . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l groups showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n c r e a s e d p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y when compared w i t h each o t h e r . Summary. The r e s u l t s w a r r a n t the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. A l l t h r e e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s . 2. A l l t h r e e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 3. None of the t h r e e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a g a i n i n p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . 4. The l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " was not more e f f e c t i v e than the i n t e r v e n t i o n s " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s i n i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s , a c t i v i t i e s o r p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . D i s c u s s i o n o f the E f f e c t i v e n e s s and E f f i c i e n c y  of the L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s P e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n from f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . 68 O b s e r v a t i o n s P a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked on t h e G e n e r a l Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o i n d i c a t e what one b e s t word d e s c r i b e s how they were f e e l i n g p r i o r t o s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w . The m a j o r i t y (74%) o f women d e s c r i b e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s about t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g n e g a t i v e ( l i s t of d e s c r i p t o r s a t t a c h e d t o App e n d i x Q). The most f r e -q u e n t l y s t a t e d f e e l i n g was t h a t o f " c o n f u s i o n " . P r o p o r t i o n a l l y more of the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " group i n d i c a t e d n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the o t h e r g r o u p s . The q u e s t i o n on t h e G e n e r a l Survey a s k i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o i n d i c a t e what prompted them t o s i g n up f o r t h i s c o u r s e r e s u l t e d i n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l t h r e e groups s u g g e s t i n g a need f o r h e l p i n " o r d e r i n g t h e i r l i v e s " . A p p endix Q c o n t a i n s a summary and co m p l e t e t a b u l a t i o n f o r each i t e m on the G e n e r a l Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c o u r s e s t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n and q u e s t i o n s a l t h o u g h more of t h e p a r t i c i -p a n t s i n t h e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e were i n i t i a l l y q u i e t and u n r e s p o n s i v e t h a n i n the " C a r e e r i n Yo u r L i f e " c o u r s e . S i t u a t i o n . "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " was i n i t i a l l y a d v e r t i s e d f o r a mid-week s e s s i o n b u t was changed t o a weekend due t o l a c k o f r e g i s t r a n t s . The c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d i n l a t e s p r i n g w h i c h may have c u r t a i l e d r e g i s t r a t i o n . The " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e was h e l d weekday mornings w h i c h p r o b a b l y r e s t r i c t e d p a r t i c i -p a n t s to nonworking women whereas " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d a n y t i m e between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. and took o n l y one h o u r . T h e r e f o r e 69 w o r k i n g o r nonworking women c o u l d a t t e n d . More th a n h a l f t he women who a t t e n d e d the l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w s were i n f a c t w o r k i n g . I t was f e l t t h a t t he c o n v e n i e n c e of the downtown l o c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s a t t e n d a n c e . The " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s were most o f t e n r e q u e s t e d as was the downtown l o c a t i o n . M a t e r i a l . A l l of t h e a c t i v i t i e s and e x e r c i s e s i n t h e c o u r s e s had been p r e v i o u s l y used w i t h s i m i l a r groups and i n c l u d e d v a l u e c l a r i f i c a -t i o n , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , l i f e t i m e g o a l p l a n n i n g and s p e c i f i c d i d a c t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on j o b s , s c h o o l , and work ( c o u r s e o u t l i n e s appear i n App e n d i x H, I ) . P r e s e n t a t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s have been d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , T a b l e 2. The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were the l e n g t h , the ty p e of c o n t a c t and c o s t . The c o n c e n t r a t e d time and h i g h e r c o s t o f t h e "C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e may have been p r o h i b i t i v e f o r many women. The " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e o f f e r e d s u p p o r t of f e l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s o ver a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e . The "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e c o n t a i n e d p a r t i c i p a n t models of w o r k i n g women. The " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d one-to-one c o n t a c t , c o n v e n i e n c e and p r i v a c y t h a t may have e l i m i n a t e d t he f e a r of d i s c u s s i o n w i t h p e e r s , however they l a c k e d peer f e e d b a c k and s u p p o r t . Summary The m a j o r i t y of women were f e e l i n g v e r y n e g a t i v e , g e n e r a l l y c o n f u s about t h e i r l i f e s i t u a t i o n and i n d i c a t e d a need f o r h e l p i n making s e l e c t i o n s , c h a n g i n g , i m p r o v i n g o r becoming " u n s t u c k " . The t h r e e i n t e r v e n t i o n s o f f e r e d a v a r i e t y of advant a g e s and d i s -70 a d vantages t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g a r d i n g l o c a t i o n , t i m e , c o s t and c o n t e n t . "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e was thought by the program c o - o r d i n a t o r t o be more e f f e c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g change than the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s because t h e c o n t e n t was the most s p e c i f i c a l l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y ( c a r e e r ) o r i e n t e d , E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the I n t e r v e n t i o n s L i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o u r s e s o r i n t e r -v i e w s were s u c c e s s f u l i n h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s change by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t t i u d e s as measured up t o f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w . E x a m i n i n g the group means showed t h a t t h e groups were f a i r l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ( T a b l e 9) a t the i n i t i a l p r e t e s t i n g . Thus t h e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n p a r t i c i p a n t s g a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s may a l s o be i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i n c r e a s i n g a c c e p t a n c e by s o c i e t y of more androgynous r o l e s f o r women. A c c o r d i n g t o the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e more n o n t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s an i n d i v i d u a l h o l d s t h e more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h y she i s and t h e b r o a d e r h e r b e h a v i o r a l o p t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e t h e t h r e e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s examined appear t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e w e l l - b e i n g and i n c r e a s e d b e h a v i o r a l o p t i o n s f o r women. P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s were not s u c c e s s f u l i n i n c r e a s i n g p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y a s i t was t a u g h t i n the c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s . As a l a r g e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s (42.5%) i n i t i a l l y o r d e r e d t h e p l a n n i n g sequence c o r r e c t l y i t would seem t h a t the i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e may be t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f b a r r i e r s o r b l o c k s t o i m p l e m e n t i n g p l a n s as w e l l as t e a c h i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s 71 c o n t e n t i o n was s u p p o r t e d by t h e v e r b a l comments of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and the c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s . An a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a d i d n o t a d e q u a t e l y measure p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . No d i f f e r e n c e was found among groups on p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y , however a f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n a s k i n g "Do you p r e s e n t l y have a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r y o u r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l / v o c a t i o n a l / o r p e r s o n a l g o a l s ? " r e v e a l e d ( T a b l e 15) t h a t " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " p a r t i c i p a n t s were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between t h o s e who have and t h o s e who do n o t have a p l a n , w h i l e the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d by 73% t h a t they had a p l a n , and 67% of "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s had a p l a n . L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t . A l l t h r e e i n t e r v e n t i o n s were e f f e c t i v e i n h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c r e a s e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s up t o f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w ( T a b l e 1 6 ) . Of the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e i t e m s i d e n t i f i e d where change was e x p e c t e d , the l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e o c c u r e d i n Item 17 "Making p l a n s to a t t e n d s c h o o l i n the near f u t u r e " and Item 26 "Read ma g a z i n e s , p e r i o d i c a l s , books". More s p e c i f i c a l l y a l m o s t 50% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each group r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n Item 17 and Item 26. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the f o l l o w - u p t o o k p l a c e mid-summer when many p e o p l e were on h o l i d a y s , c h i l d r e n out of s c h o o l and some c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s on semester b r e a k . T h i s would a f f e c t p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s p o n s e s to Item 29 and 30 " A t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s -s i o n a l s c h o o l f u l l t i m e or p a r t t i m e " . The r e s u l t s of t h e b e h a v i o r i n c r e a s e s showed an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s own e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as ( I t e m 31) "Making p l a n s 72 T a b l e 15 F o l l o w u p Responses t o t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do You P r e s e n t l y have a P l a n n i n g S t r a t e g y ? " Group Yes No N A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 67%- 33% 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 47% 53% 17 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 73% 27%. 11 TOTAL 62% 38% 40 T a b l e 16 Frequency o f I n c r e a s e d N o n t r a d i t i o n a l L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r s By Item Item Numbers Group N 13 17 19 23 26 27 29 30 31 A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 2 6 1 4 5 2 0 0 4 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 1 7 3 5 9 0 1 0 5 17 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 0 5 1 3 5 0 0 0 3 11 TOTAL 3 18 5 12 19 2 1 0 12 40 73 f o r o u t s i d e employment" and r e f l e c t e d a more a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g r e a t e r s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Hands' (1974) s t u d y d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . F o l l o w - u p Q u e s t i o n s . I n terms of f u r t h e r a t t i t u d i n a l changes, p a r t i c i p a n t s responded to t h e q u e s t i o n , "Do you f e e l any d i f f e r e n t l y about y o u r s e l f and/or your s i t u a t i o n as a r e s u l t of t h i s c o u r s e or i n t e r v i e w ? " Of the "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s , 92% responded a f f i r m a t i v e l y , as d i d 88% of the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " group and 73% of the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " group ( T a b l e 1 7 ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s who answered " y e s " and were asked t o " s p e c i f y " of t h o s e who responded ( 8 5 % ) , 94% i n d i c a t e d t h a t the change was a p o s i t i v e change such as g r e a t e r a s s e r t i v e n e s s , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , o r more aware-ness of v a l u e s and g o a l s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n . " H a v e you made any d e c i s i o n u s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o c e s s e s l e a r n e d i n t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w ? " r e s u l t s showed t h a t 72% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s checked " y e s " and e x p l a n a -t i o n s i n c l u d e d r e t u r n e d t o s c h o o l , work, or l e a v i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Thus a m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o c e s s e s i n making d e c i s i o n s i n t h e i r l i v e s . There was no d i f f e r e n c e among groups to t h i s q u e s t i o n . T a b l e 18 shows the f r e q u e n c y of s e l f - r e p o r t e d a s s i s t a n c e p a r t i c i -p a n t s sought i n the a r e a s of g u i d a n c e , c o u n s e l l i n g and p e r s o n a l growth groups up t o f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the c o u r s e or i n t e r v i e w . A t o t a l of 28 s e r v i c e s were i n d i c a t e d as h a v i n g been u t i l i z e d w i t h the " L i f e -p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s u t i l i z i n g the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n . An e x p l a n a -t i o n of t h i s may be t h a t they r e c e i v e d more p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r who d i r e c t e d them s p e c i f i c a l l y t o s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . T a b l e 17 F o l l o w u p Responses t o t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do You F e e l Any D i f f e r e n t l y ? " Group Yes No N A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 92% 8% 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 88% 12% 1 6 a L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 73% 27% 11 TOTAL 85% 15% 40 one p e r s o n d i d n o t respond T a b l e 18 Gu i d a n c e , C o u n s e l l i n g and I n f o r m a t i o n Sought F o l l o w i n g the I n t e r v e n t i o n s Group A s s i s t a n c e Sought N A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 8 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 7 17 L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 13 11 TOTAL 2 8 a 40 Some p a r t i c i p a n t s responded t o more tha n one t y p e o f a s s i s t a n c e 75 I t was c l e a r f r o m t h e r e s p o n s e s to t h e q u e s t i o n " D i d the a d v e r -t i s i n g g i v e you a c l e a r p i c t u r e of what to e x p e c t ? " t h a t the consumer i s i n need of more i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e r v i c e s , c o n t e n t and c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d i n c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Department. More t h a n h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s responded n e g a t i v e l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n ( T a b l e 1 9 ) . Summary The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r -v e n t i o n s were e f f e c t i v e i n m e e t i n g the c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s of i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t was found t h a t f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s sample had a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r f u t u r e g o a l s , many were p l a n n i n g t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l o r work and had made p r a c t i c a l use of i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o -c e s s e s l e a r n e d t h r o u g h the i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Because t h e most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d change i n a c t i v i t y f o r a l l groups was p l a n n i n g t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t r e t u r n i n g t o c l a s s e s r e p r e s e n t s a v i a b l e g o a l f o r a l a r g e c r o s s - s e c t i o n of women i n t r a n s i -t i o n , o f t e n t h e f i r s t s t e p t a k e n i n moving toward l i f e t i m e g o a l s . I t has been shown t h a t a v a r i e t y of f o r m a t s f a c i l i t a t e change and i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e to c o n c l u d e t h a t what i s needed i s the c o n t a c t , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d i s c u s s i n g the meaning of an e x p e r i e n c e w i t h some-one e l s e i n o r d e r to d e v e l o p a c o g n i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Even though p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r needs when e n t e r i n g t h e s e c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s and were a t s i m i l a r a g e - s t a g e - s i t u a t i o n s t h e i r r e a d i n e s s , a t t e n t i o n , need and c a p a c i t y f o r i n v e s t m e n t were v a r i a b l e and a s e l e c t i o n of s p a c i n g and s t r u c t u r i n g of i n t e r v e n t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l : t h i s may e x p l a i n why the r e s u l t s d i d not show t h a t the 76 T a b l e 19 F o l l o w u p Responses t o the Q u e s t i o n : : D i d t h e A d v e r t i s i n g G i v e You a C l e a r P i c t u r e . . . " Group Yes No N A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e 33.3% 66.7% 12 D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 62.5% 37.5% 1 6 a L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 27.3% 72.7% 11 TOTAL 41.0% 59.0% 39 One p e r s o n d i d n o t respond c a r e e r development c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " was more e f f e c t i v e t h a n e i t h e r the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . A l a c k of c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p e c t a t i o n f o r t h e s e i n t e r -v e n t i o n s i n d i c a t e d a need f o r an i n t e g r a t i n g c o n c e p t based on s t a t e d v a l u e s , a s s u m p t i o n s , o b j e c t i v e s and g o a l s . At the moment such i n t e r -v e n t i o n s a r e l i k e "random m a t e r i a l s i n s e a r c h of a p h i l o s o p h y " (Matthews, 1975, p. 652). An i n t e g r a t i n g c a r e e r development program as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I , c o u l d o f f e r such a s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d adequate p u b l i c e d u c a t o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s b r o a d e r c o n c e p t of " c a r e e r " o c c u r s . E f f i c i e n c y o f the I n t e r v e n t i o n s T a b l e 20 shows 12 s p e c i f i c a spects of the " C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " c o u r s e r a t e d f o r m e a n i n g f u l n e s s by p a r t i c i p a n t s on a L i k e r t S c a l e of 1 t o 5 where a r a t i n g of 5 was h i g h . The s p r e a d a c r o s s r a t i n g s was f a i r l y s m a l l : the range of the i n i t i a l r a t i n g s v a r i e d f r o m 3.2 ( s e t t i n g : m u s i c , p o s t e r s ) to 4.1 ( s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s ) . H i g h e r r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e n t o the s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s , a c h i e v e -ment and b r a g g i n g , and l i f e l i n e . A s l i g h t s h i f t can be d e t e c t e d i n the f o l l o w - u p r a t i n g s w i t h g u i d e d f a n t a s y g i v e n a h i g h r a t i n g . The l a s t column p r e s e n t s the o v e r a l l mean r a t i n g f o r s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t a c r o s s s e s s i o n s and ranged f r o m 3.2 t o 4.0. T a b l e 21 d e p i c t s the f i n d i n g s on 13 s p e c i f i c components of the " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e r a t e d f o r m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . The s p r e a d a c r o s s r a t i n g s was a l s o f a i r l y s m a l l : t h e r ange of i n i t i a l r a t i n g s v a r i e d from 3.0 (homework) t o 4.1 (group d i s c u s s i o n s and d r a w i n g up a p l a n ) . H i g h e r r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e n t o e x e r c i s e s i n t r i o s , group d i s c u s s i o n and d r a w i n g up a p l a n . A l t h o u g h a s h i f t i n r a t i n g s a t the f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n c o u l d be seen w i t h a l o w e r r a t i n g g i v e n to d r a w i n g up a p l a n , the mean a c r o s s c o n t e n t was the same ( 3 . 7 ) . The o v e r a l l mean r a t i n g s f o r s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t a c r o s s s e s s i o n s and f o l l o w - u p ranged from 3.0 t o 4.1 w h i c h r e f l e c t e d no change. T a b l e 22 shows the f i n d i n g s on 12 components of t h e " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s r a t e d f o r m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . The s p r e a d a c r o s s r a t i n g s was f a i r l y s m a l l : the range of i n i t i a l r a t i n g s v a r i e d f r o m 3.4 ( w r i t t e n e x e r c i s e s ) to 4.8 ( s u g g e s t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y ) . H i g h e r r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e n t o s u g g e s t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y , one-to-one c o n t a c t , and e x p l o r i n g a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . T h i s i n i t i a l r a t i n g a c r o s s c o n t e n t (4.2) was h i g h e r than the r a t i n g s f o r t h e two c o u r s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y (3.6, 3 . 7 ) . The f o u r week f o l l o w - u p r a t i n g changed to a r a n g e of 78 T a b l e 20 M e a n i n g f u l n e s s t o P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w u p P e r i o d s f o r "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " C ourse C o n t e n t I n i t i a l (3 days) F o l l o w u p (4 weeks) Mean A c r o s s S e s s i o n s S m a l l 'group a c t i v i t i e s 4.1 3, .8 4, .0 C u r r e n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s 3.3 3. .5 3. .3 L i f e l i n e 3.8 3. .8 3. .8 Achi e v e m e n t s and b r a g g i n g 4.0 3. .7 3. .8 What do I l i k e t o do and How do I know I'm d o i n g i t 3.5 3. .5 3. .5 I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t - gui d e d f a n t a s y ' 3.5 4. .3 4. .0 I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t - c a r e e r -- p e r s o n a l 3.6 3. .4 3. .5 C a r e e r map 3.4 3. .1 3. .2 D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w o r k s h e e t 3.5 3. .4 3. .5 S e t t i n g : m u s i c , p o s t e r s 3.2 3. .3 3. .3 J o u r n a l s ' 3.4 3. ,4 3. ,4 P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s 3.6 3. ,4 3. .5 Book t a b l e 3.4 3. ,1 3. .2 N 12 12 Mean A c r o s s C o n t e n t 3.6 3. .5 3. ,5 79 T a b l e 21 M e a n i n g f u l n e s s to P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w u p P e r i o d s f o r " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " C o u rse C o n t e n t I n i t i a l (.6 days) F o l l o w u p (4 weeks) Mean A c r o s s S e s s i o n s D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f new s k i l l 3.9 4.0 3.9 J o u r n a l w r i t i n g 3.4 3.6 3.5 E x e r c i s e s i n p a i r s , t r i o s , e t c . 4.0 4.1 4.0 B e g i n n i n g f e e d b a c k s e s s i o n 3.7 3.9 3.8 R e l a x a t i o n and c e n t e r i n g 3.3 3.6 3.4 Group d i s c u s s i o n 4.1 4.4 4.1 D i d a c t i c s e s s i o n - theme o r new c o n c e p t 3.8 3.6 3.8 Homework 3.0 2.9 3.0 Handout 3.8 3.3 3.6 Drawing up a p l a n 4.1 3.9 3.9 E x p l o r i n g v a l u e s ' 3.9 3.9 3.9 Suggested books 3.6 3.5 3.5 N 12 12 Mean A c r o s s C o n t e n t 3.7 3.7 3.7 80 T a b l e 22 M e a n i n g f u l n e s s t o P a r t i c i p a n t s ; Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w u p P e r i o d s f o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " I n t e r v i e w s I n t e r v i e w C o n t e n t I n i t i a l (1 h o ur) F o l l o w u p (4 weeks) Mean A c r o s s S e s s i o n s W r i t t e n e x e r c i s e s 3 .4 2.5 3, .0 T i m e l i n e 4 .5 2.0 3. .3 F a n t a s i z i n g 3. .8 2.6 3. . 1 E x p l o r i n g i n t e r e s t s 4 .4 4.2 4, .3 E x p l o r i n g V a l u e s 4. .3 4.0 4. .2 P r o b l e m S o l v i n g 3, .7 4.0 3. .8 Suggested b i b l i o g r a p h y 4 .8 3.9 4. .3 R e f e r r a l s 4, .0 3.7 3. .8 Drawing up a p l a n 4. .4 4.8 4. .5 One-to-one c o n t a c t 4, .6 4.6 4. .6 E x p l o r i n g a t t i t u d e s & s k i l l s 4, .6 4.0 4. .3 E x p l o r i n g l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s 4, ,4 3.6 4. ,0 N 11 11 Mean A c r o s s C o n t e n t 4, .2 3.7 3. ,9 81 2.0 t o 4.8 w i t h the one-to-one c o n t a c t r e m a i n i n g h i g h and d r a w i n g up a p l a n r a t e d as h i g h e s t . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r r e g a r d i n g group c o m p a r i s o n s of t h o s e who had a p l a n a t the four-week f o l l o w - u p s e s s i o n . A g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s than the o t h e r two groups had a p l a n and a l s o r a t e d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as b e i n g most m e a n i n g f u l to them. Summary V a r i o u s c o n t e n t s of the c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s were compared on immediate and l o n g - t e r m p e r c e p t i o n s on t h e i r m e a n i n g f u l n e s s t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . B o t h c o u r s e s tended to m a i n t a i n t h e i r r a t i n g o ver the four-week f o l l o w - u p p e r i o d . T h i s seems to d i s p e l the h a l o e f f e c t n o r m a l l y a n t i c i p a t e d i n an i n i t i a l e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s h a l o e f f e c t may be more e v i d e n t i n the r a t i n g s of the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " group who had more d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r c o u n s e l l o r . T h e i r r a t i n g s tended t o l o w e r s l i g h t l y o v e r a l l a l t h o u g h the f o l l o w - u p r a t i n g was as h i g h as t h e two c o u r s e s o v e r a l l r a t i n g s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the t h r e e group's r a t i n g s were q u i t e s i m i l a r . Of the two c o u r s e s , C o n t e n t t h a t r e f l e c t e d peer s u p p o r t and i n t e r -a c t i o n was r a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h . A c r o s s a l l t h r e e groups a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t i n g e x p l o r a t i o n of v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s were c o n s i s -t e n t l y r a t e d h i g h . The s p e c i f i c components as d e l i n e a t e d by t h e c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s and program c o - o r d i n a t o r d i d not appear to a d e q u a t e l y d i s c r i m i n a t e t h e e lements t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o r i n h i b i t a c h i e v i n g the programs' c r i t e r i a of s u c c e s s . As the c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s becomes more r e f i n e d based on 82 c o n t i n u o u s program m o n i t o r i n g more r e l e v a n t components c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d to e n s u r e d e c i s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g f e e d b a c k . F o r example one such component may be the on g o i n g s o c i a l c o n t a c t t h a t t h e c o u r s e s f a c i l i t a t e . Summary I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i n t e r v e n t i o n i s most h e l p f u l f o r any g i v e n woman i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r e a s s e s s m e n t i n s t r u m e n t s be d e v e l o p e d to d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i n t e r v e n t i o n would be most u s e f u l . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s f u r t h e r d a t a needs t o be c o l l e c t e d on the b l o c k s , b a r r i e r s and c l i e n t m o d e r a t o r s t h a t e f f e c t outcomes. I n t h a t t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n c r e a s e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g by i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r s , they may be c o n s i d e r e d an a l t e r n a t i v e t o p s y c h o t h e r a p y where t h e r a p y would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . F o r many p e o p l e caught i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l impasse t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s o f f e r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o p s y c h o t h e r a p y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the programs s h o u l d be p l a n n e d and s t a f f e d by q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l w i t h an adequate r e f e r r a l system as w e l l as b u i l t i n e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . A b r o a d l y d e f i n e d c a r e e r development program c o u l d o f f e r an i n t e g r a t e d program of c o u r s e s and s e r v i c e s u n i f i e d by an u n d e r l y i n g s e t of v a l u e s , a s s u m p t i o n s , g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . W i t h a v a r i e t y of f o r m a t s the program c o u l d b e g i n t o t a i l o r i t s s e r v i c e s t o meet such i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s as t h e a) needs of t h e p e r s o n , b) l e a r n i n g s t y l e , c) time a v a i l a b l e and d) g o a l s . CHAPTER V SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t he e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y of a t h r e e - d a y c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " compared t o a s i x - s e s s i o n " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and one-hour " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d t o a d u l t women t h r o u g h t he C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l t h o u g h s p e c i a l programs and s e r v i c e s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s have been d e v e l o p e d to smooth t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f women fr o m home, t o work and s c h o o l , v e r y l i t t l e i n the way of s y s t e m a t i c c o m p a r i s o n s of approaches or outcome c r i t e r i a h a s . been employed. The C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n o f f e r s c o u r s e s and s e r v i c e s i n l i f e p l a n n i n g , p e r s o n a l development and c a r e e r p l a n n i n g f o r women to a s s i s t them i n t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n f o r t h e i r f u t u r e l i f e s t y l e . A c a r e e r development program w h i c h r e c e n t l y e v o l v e d f r o m t h e i r d a y t i m e program was s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the t a s k of d e l i n e a t i n g a s e t of assump-t i o n s , v a l u e s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r i t s program. A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r -v e n t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t , c l a r i f i c a t i o n and • b r o a d e n i n g of l i f e p l a n s s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a b r o a d l y d e f i n e d c a r e e r development program. 83 84 As t h e s e c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s shared some of t h e same b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s , o b j e c t i v e s and t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n t h e y were s e l e c t e d as c o m p a r i s o n models. The i n t e r v e n t i o n s were w i d e l y a d v e r t i s e d i n the community. A l l s u b j e c t s were s e l f - s e l e c t e d and d a t a were c o l l e c t e d on 12 "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s , 17 " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " p a r t i c i p a n t s and 11 " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s . P r e - and p o st-measures were o b t a i n e d on t h e i r p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s , a t t i t u d e s and p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . The r e s p o n s e s of t h e t h r e e groups were compared u s i n g r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and t h e n o n p a r a m e t r i c t e s t s of c h i - s q u a r e and the W i l c o x o n s i g n e d - r a n k s t e s t . The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s were r e l a t e d t o c r i t e r i a f o r s u c c e s s o f t h e c a r e e r development program. The p e r c e i v e d m e a n i n g f u l n e s s t o the women of the v a r i o u s components of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s was s e l f - r e p o r t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a r a t i n g s c a l e f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w . L i m i t a t i o n s The s t u d y was s u b j e c t t o the f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s : 1. I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n c o n t r o l groups who had e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r the program. S e l f - s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s who make a t i m e , energy, and f i n a n c i a l commitment a r e a l s o l i k e l y t o be higher i n l e v e l o f m o t i v a t i o n and p erhaps more l i k e l y t o i n s t i t u t e change. 2. I n f o r m a t t o n w a s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the use of s e l f - r e p o r t e d d a t a and i s t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t t o the l i m i t a t i o n s of s e l f - r e p o r t e d d a t a . 3. E x p e r i m e n t a l m o r t a l i t y may have a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s as f o l l o w - u p was not done on s u b j e c t s who d i d not c o m p l e t e t h e c o u r s e . 85 4. The p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a may n o t have been an adequate measure o f p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y . C o n c l u s i o n s I t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h i s s t u d y t h a t l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r -v e n t i o n s were a b l e t o 1) i n c r e a s e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s , 2) i n c r e a s e n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a c t i v i t i e s , 3) m o t i v a t e women to draw up a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r t h e i r f u t u r e l i f e s t y l e , and 4) change women's f e e l i n g s about t h e m s e l v e s from n e g a t i v e t o p o s i t i v e . The s t u d y d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t women i n c r e a s e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p l a n , o r t h a t t he i n t e r v e n t i o n "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " was more e f f e c -t i v e t h a n " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s . The s t u d y a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f outcomes a f t e r a f o u r week p e r i o d . O v e r a l l t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s were h i g h l y r a t e d f o r meaning-f u l n e s s , a r a t i n g w h i c h was m a i n t a i n e d f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g t he i n t e r -v e n t i o n and w h i c h i n d i c a t e d c l i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . The s t u d y does n o t r e v e a l whether g a i n s f o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s would have been g r e a t e r had t h e women had more c o n t a c t h o u r s . I m p l i c a t i o n s The f i n d i n g s of ' t h i s s t u d y have the f o l l o w i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s : 1. F u r t h e r work s h o u l d be done t o a s s i s t women i n t a k i n g a more a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e i r l i f e p l a n n i n g . 2. L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be o f f e r e d to i n t e r e s t e d women and s h o u l d i n c l u d e b o t h group and i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . 3. L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s s h o u l d be o f f e r e d under t h e 86 i n t e g r a t i n g program of c a r e e r development t h a t encompasses a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to awareness, e x p l o r a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n . 4. Women need t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the b r o a d e r d e f i n i t i o n of c a r e e r development. 5. C o n t i n u e d e v a l u a t i o n of such programs needs to be done. E v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s as d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s t u d y h e l p d e v e l o p program g o a l s t h a t a r e more r e s p o n s i v e to t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s c l i e n t s . 6. L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s need to e x i s t i n l o c a t i o n s w h i c h a r e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c and n o n t h r e a t e n i n g and w i l l h e l p l i n k the community w i t h the campus. Recommendations Based on t h e f i n d i n g s of the p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g recom-mendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e s u g g e s t e d : 1. S t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r -v e n t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s ( s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , g e o g r a p h i c , l i f e -s t y l e , f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , male and f e m a l e ) would be of v a l u e . 2. S t u d i e s to d e t e r m i n e the l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t of l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s on l i f e s t y l e b e h a v i o r s and a t t i t u d e s would be h e l p f u l . 3. S t u d i e s comparing the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n t e r v e n t i o n s of v a r y i n g t y p e s and 'compared to p s y c h o t h e r a p y . w o u l d be-of v a l u e . 4. S t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t s of l i f e p l a n n i n g i n b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l programs and i n s c h o o l s of e d u c a t i o n would be h e l p f u l . 5. S t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e the c o s t / b e n e f i t of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s s h o u l d be implemented. 6. S t u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e c l i e n t m o d e r a t o r s t h a t e f f e c t outcomes would be h e l f u l ( i . e . l e a r n i n g s t y l e , needs of p e r s o n , t i m e a v a i l -87 able, goals, etc.). 7. 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S e l f - c o n c e p t s and r o l e c o n c e p t s i n the c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n of c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l o f ' C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1975, j^2(2) , 122-126. R i c h a r d s o n , M. S., & A l p e r t , J . L. R o l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o l l e g e women: Work, m a r r i a g e and p a r e n t r o l e s . paper p r e s e n t e d a t E a s t e r n P s y c h o -l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n M e e t i n g . Wash. D.C: March, 1978. R u b i n t o n , N. New c a r e e r s f o r a d u l t s . The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, 2 5 ( 4 ) , 364-368. S c h u t z , R. W. S p e c i f i c problems i n the measurement o f change: L o n g i t u d -i n a l s t u d i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s , and m u l t i v a r a t e a n a l y s e s . I n D. M. L a n d e r s & R. W. C h r i s t i n a ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o l o g y o f Motor B e h a v i o r  and S p o r t - 1977. 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Adult Leadership, 1975, 129-132. Tichenor, J . M. L i f e work planning: A group career program evaluated. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1977, ^ 6(1), 54-59. Vetter, L. Career counseling for women. The Counseling Psychologist, 1973, 4, 54-67. Vriend, T. J . The case for women. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1977, 25(4), 329-331. Waters, E., & Goodman, J . Career counseling for adults: Why, when, where, how. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 1977, ^ 5(4), 337-343. Westervelt, E. M. A tide in the a f f a i r s of women: The psychological impact of feminism on educated women. In W. Harmon et a l . (Eds.,), Counseling Women. Monterey: Brooks/Cole, 1978. W i l l i s , J . Women's continuing education: Back to f r i l l s ? Branching Out, 1977, V ( l ) , 12-15. Winters, C. J . , & Sorensen, J . Individual factors related to career o r i e n t a -tion i n women. In S. H. Osipow (Ed.), Emerging Women: Career Analysis arid Outlook. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l Publishing Co., 1975. APPENDICES 95 APPENDIX A. 96 Telephone Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e H i , my name i s . I'm a worker from the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Department, a t U.B.C. h e l p i n g them do a f o l l o w u p s t u d y w i t h p e o p l e who have t a k e n the c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n how you a r e d o i n g a t p r e s e n t w i t h y o u r c a r e e r p l a n s and the c o n c e r n you had when you e n r o l l e d i n the c o u r s e . I would a l s o l i k e to a s k you some q u e s t i o n s o v e r the phone t h a t would take about f i v e m i n u t e s , c o n c e r n i n g your e x p e r i e n c e and f e e l i n g s about the c o u r s e . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n h e a r i n g a l l the comments t h a t you have about the program, b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e . I f you w i s h , the i n f o r m a t i o n you g i v e me w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . The i n f o r m a t i o n from the i n t e r v i e w w i l l be combined w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n s t a f f w i l l o n l y see the f i n a l r e p o r t w i t h the averaged d a t a and w i l l n o t see the d a t a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l . Or, i f you w i s h , we w i l l pass the i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s i n t e r v i e w back to the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n s t a f f . A t the'end o f the i n t e r v i e w I ' l l a s k you wh i c h you would p r e f e r : to have the i n f o r m a t i o n r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l o r n o t . A s s i g n e d C l i e n t No. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y r e q u e s t e d : Yes No 1. How o l d a r e you? 2. What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? 3. What was y o u r p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r a t t e n d i n g t h i e workshop? 4. - What one word c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how you were f e e l i n g a t the ti m e you e n r o l l e d i n the c o u r s e ? 5. Had any major changes o c c u r e d i n your l i f e p r i o r t o the workshop? 6. How d i d you f i n d out about the c o u r s e ? 7. D i d the workshop h e l p i d e n t i f y a r e a s i n y o u r l i f e i n w h i c h you wanted to make some changes? I f s o , what a r e a s emerged? 8. S i n c e the workshop what a r e a s were you a b l e t o make some changes i n ? 9. What f a c t o r s i n the workshop were most h e l p f u l i n w o r k i n g towards y o u r g o a l s ? 10. What d i d you l e a r n from the workshop? 11. Would you recommend t h i s workshop to someone e l s e ? 12. D i d y o u r knowledge of c a r e e r p l a n n i n g i n c r e a s e ? 13. Do you p r e s e n t l y have a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r y o u r f u t u r e c a r e e r o r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s ? 14. D i d the a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e you a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f what t o e x p e c t f r o m the workshop? 15. How r e l e v a n t do you f e e l t h i s workshop was t o you p e r s o n a l l y ? 16. Have you had c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g by any o t h e r means? 17. Have you sought c o u n s e l l i n g o r a s s i s t a n c e i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g s i n c e the workshop? Where? 18. Where would you now seek c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g o r a s s i s t a n c e i f you f e l t you needed more? 19. What k i n d of h e l p do you f e e l you m i ght need to c o n t i n u e making d e c i s i o n s about y o u r f u t u r e ? 20. Were the f o l l o w i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y : a) l o c a t i o n b) p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s c) time d) l e n g t h e) c o s t . 21. What was y o u r o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e workshop? (one word) 22. Do you have s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g the c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " ? 23. Would you be i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t e n d i n g s i m i l a r workshops i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g ? Do you w i s h to keep t h i s c o n f i d e n t i a l ? Thank you f o r y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n today. We a p p r e c i a t e you s h a r i n g y o u r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s about the c o u r s e . The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t you and o t h e r s have p r o v i d e d w i l l h e l p us t o improve our s e r v i c e s and p r o v i d e b e t t e r c o u r s e s f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? APPENDIX B. 98 CALENDAR DESCRIPTIONS A C a r e e r I n Your L i f e I f y o u ' r e s t u c k i n y o u r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and don't know where t o s t a r t s o r t i n g t h i n g s out t h e n you need h e l p i n f i g u r i n g out where y o u ' r e g o i n g and d e v e l o p i n g a p l a n on how t o get t h e r e . B e f o r e you r u n o f f i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s a t once, you need to g i v e y o u r -s e l f t h e t i m e , t h e p l a c e and the e x p e r i e n c e o f knowing what you want. You w i l l g a i n t h i s knowledge by a s s e s s i n g y o u r i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and a c h i e v e m e n t s t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t s , e v a l u a t i o n and a f o c u s e d e x a m i n a t i o n on what you want t o do w i t h y o u r l i f e . These a c t i v i t i e s w i l l h e l p you see the t o t a l p i c t u r e and from t h i s s e l f - k n o w l e d g e you p l a n g o a l s and p l a n how t o a c h i e v e them. There a r e no p r e - r e q u i s i t e s n e c e s s a r y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s workshop, i t i s n o t academic i n n a t u r e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s a r e n o t a p a r t of the f o r m a t . The a t t e n t i o n i s on you, how you have l i v e d y o u r l i f e and how to e n j o y the e x p e r i e n c e of f i n d i n g out what you want t o do now. Judy Cavanagh F r i d a y , June 16, 7 - 1 0 p.m. S a t . June 17 and Sun. June 18, 9 a.m. - 4 p.m. M i l d r e d B r o c k Lounge, UBC Campus $75. E n r o l m e n t L i m i t e d . L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s A chance to c l a r i f y l i f e g o a l s and d e v e l o p a s t r a t e g y f o r a t t a i n i n g them. I n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s may be a r r a n g e d on the UBC campus o r i n t h e Women's Res o u r c e s C e n t r e , 1144 Robson S t . $10 (May be w a i v e d i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) ( c o n t ' d ) CALENDAR DESCRIPTION D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l f o r Growth and Change: B e g i n n i n g s T a l k i n g about change i s easy: a c c o m p l i s h i n g i t i s more d i f f i c u l t , and r e q u i r e s b o t h courage and s k i l l . T h i s program h e l p s you f o c u s on how to b r i n g about change and t o re s p o n d to r e s i s t a n c e t o change f r o m f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . I t e x p l o r e s d i m e n s i o n s o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and i d e n t i t y , awareness of s e l f w i t h o t h e r s , and b u i l d i n g c o n f i d e n c e . The c o u r s e i s d e s i g n e d as a b a s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n to l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s t r u c t u r e d group e x p e r i e n c e s i n a s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere. You a r e f r e e t o e x p l o r e new ways o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g , becoming more a s s e r t i v e , d e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t and a n g e r , and c e n t e r i n g , and you a r e encouraged t o keep a j o u r n a l i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e y o u r l i f e s i t u a t i o n and t o b e g i n p l a n n i n g f o r s p e c i f i c change. The f o r m a t and c o n t e n t a r e b o t h s k i l l - o r i e n t e d and r i c h i n i d e a s f o r c h a n g i n g and g r o w i n g . T h i s p o p u l a r program has been o f f e r e d w i t h v a r i a t i o n each y e a r s i n c e 1971, and w i l l be r e p e a t e d from time t o t i m e when t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t r e g i s t r a t i o n . C l a r e B u c k l a n d , EdD 6 Tuesdays, May 16 to June 20 9:30 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. Women's Re s o u r c e s C e n t e r , 1111 Robson S t . $40 each. E n r o l m e n t L i m i t e d APPENDIX C . 100 A s s i g n e d Number L I F E STYLES FOR WOMEN T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s on your a t t i t u d e s toward l i f e s t y l e s f o r women. You a r e t o answer the q u e s t i o n s by d a r k e n i n g the number o f t h e answer o f t h e numbered s e c t i o n o f the s h e e t . These answers r a n g i n g from s t r o n g l y agree t o s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d e s c r i b e how you f e e l about the s t a t e m e n t . Some of the s t a t e m e n t s may n o t f i t y o u r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , i f s o , answer as i f you had the c h o i c e now i n you r l i f e . 1 2 3 4 5 S t r o n g l y Agree Un- D i s - S t r o n g l y Agree d e c i d e d a g r e e D i s a g r e e 1. I would have a g r e a t d e a l o f d i f f i c u l t y b e i n g a mother and a h o u s e w i f e 24 hours a day. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I e x p e c t t o move t o a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a where my f u t u r e husband's work t a k e s us. 1 2 3 4 5 3. I t h i n k t h a t a c a r e e r w i l l be my l i f e and e v e r y t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g m a r r i a g e , o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be b u i l t around i t . 1 2 3 4 5 4. B e i n g s i n g l e i s a s e l f i s h e x i s t e n c e . 1 2 3 4 5 5. I e x p e c t a c a r e e r to be b a s i c t o my s u r v i v a l ( i n d e p e n d e n c e , s e c u r i t y ) . 1 2 3 4 5 6. I b e l i e v e i n s t o p p i n g my c a r e e r when I have a c h i l d . 1 2 3 4 5 7. I must a c h i e v e i n a c a r e e r t o f e e l c o m p l e t e , perhaps to f e e l a l i v e I need p r i d e i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . 1 2 3 4 5 8. When I get m a r r i e d , my i n t e r e s t w i l l be u n i t y i n t h e home, I w i l l p u t my r o l e as w i f e and mother f i r s t . 1 2 3 4 5 9. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o me to f u n c t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n my c a r e e r 1 2 3 4 5 10. Sometime i n my l i f e I e x p e c t t o be a f u l l t i m e mother. 1 2 3 4 5 11. I have the s t r e n g t h t o f i g h t a g a i n s t s e x - r e l a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s i n the man's w o r l d . 1 2 3 4 5 101 1 2 3 4 5 S t r o n g l y Agree Undecided D i s - S t r o n g l y Agree Agree D i s a g r e e 12. B e i n g a mother w i l l a c t u a l i z e me as a woman. 1 13. I must be w o r k i n g t o keep a l e r t and m a i n t a i n my s e l f - i m a g e . 1 14. I f I don't have c h i l d r e n , I w i l l have m i s s e d the most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f my l i f e . 1 15. I t i s i m p o r t a n t to me to be s e l f -s u p p o r t i n g . I don't e x p e c t some-one to s u p p o r t me i n t h e f u t u r e . 1 16. The s t a t e m e n t "A Woman's P l a c e i s i n the Home" i s g e n e r a l l y c o r r e c t . 1 17. A w o r k i n g woman i s p r o b a b l y a b e t t e r companion t o h e r husband. 1 18. Avmother w i t h p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t be away from home a t a j o b . 1 19. I t h i n k housework would become v e r y d u l l and b o r i n g f o r me. 1 20. J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s o f t e n caused by h a v i n g the mother a t work. ' 1 APPENDIX D. 102 A s s i g n e d No. DO YOU KNOW HOW TO PLAN? How does one go about p l a n n i n g ? On t h i s page i s a l i s t o f e i g h t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r r a n g e d i n random o r d e r . Order t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the sequence you would f o l l o w i f you were d o i n g some p l a n n i n g . G i v e a 1 to the a c t i v i t i y you would s t a r t w i t h , t h r o u g h to 8 f o r t h e l a s t a c t i v i t y i n y o u r p l a n n i n g sequence. PLANNING ACTIVITIES PLANNING SEQUENCE A. D e c i d e on y o u r b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . B. S t a t e what you want to make d i f f e r e n t , a c c o m p l i s h o r make happen. C. . S i z e up you r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . D. S e t a ti m e sequence f o r y o u r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . E. Check p r o g r e s s and a d j u s t y o u r p l a n as n e c e s s a r y . F. D e t e r m i n e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f each c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . G. P u t p l a n o f a c t i o n i n t o e f f e c t . H. T h i n k about a l l the p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . 103 A s s i g n e d No. DO YOU KNOW HOW TO PLAN? A. How does one go about p l a n n i n g ? On t h i s page i s a l i s t o f e i g h t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r r a n g e d i n random o r d e r . Order t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the sequence you would f o l l o w i f you were d o i n g some p l a n n i n g . G i v e a 1 to the a c t i v i t y you would s t a r t w i t h , t h r o u g h t o 8 f o r the l a s t a c t i v i t y i n y o u r p l a n n i n g sequence. PLANNING ACTIVITIES PLANNING SEQUENCE A. D e c i d e on y o u r b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . B. S t a t e what you want to make d i f f e r e n t , a c c o m p l i s h o r make happen. C. S i z e up you r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . D. Set a time sequence f o r y o u r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . E. Check p r o g r e s s and a d j u s t y o u r p l a n as n e c e s s a r y . F. D e t e r m i n e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f each c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . G. P u t p l a n o f a c t i o n i n t o e f f e c t . H. T h i n k about a l l the p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . B, Do you p r e s e n t l y have a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r you r f u t u r e c a r e e r , e d u c a t i o n a l o r p e r s o n a l g o a l s ? Yes No I f y e s , p l e a s e s p e c i f y : 104 DO YOU KNOW HOW TO PLAN? THE PLANNING PROCESS 1. S i z e up you r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . 2. S t a t e what you want t o make d i f f e r e n t , a c c o m p l i s h o r make happen. 3. T h i n k about a l l the p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . 4. Det e r m i n e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f each c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . _y 5. D e c i d e on the b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . 6. S e t a ti m e sequence f o r y o u r a c t i o n p l a n . 7. P u t you r p l a n o f a c t i o n i n t o e f f e c t . 8. Check p r o g r e s s and a d j u s t y o u r p l a n as n e c e s s a r y . APPENDIX E. 105 A s s i g n e d N6._ LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST L i s t e d below a r e a number o f a c t i v i t i e s . P l e a s e p l a c e a check ( X ) i n the space n e x t to each a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h you have p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g the p a s t f o u r weeks. Not a l l a c t i v i t i e s may be a p p l i c a b l e . 1. E n t e r t a i n c o u p l e s i n my home i n t h e e v e n i n g s . 2. Cook. 3. A t t e n d Home and S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g s . 4. S l e e p some d u r i n g the d a y t i m e . 5. Take s p e c i a l l e s s o n s ( a r t , m u s i c , t e n n i s , e t c . ) . 6. Take a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s ( n o n - c r e d i t ) . 7. Do housework. 8. A t t e n d church.-9. P l a y b r i d g e i n a women's b r i d g e group i n the d a y t i m e . 10. S e x u a l r e l a t i o n s . 11. P a i n t , s c u l p t , w r i t e , do c r a f t s o r o t h e r c r e a t i v e p r o j e c t s . '12. G a r d e n i n g . 13. Employed o u t s i d e t h e home on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . 14. S e r v e as a den mother, homeroom mother, o r s p o n s o r o f some c h i l d r e n ' s group o r a c t i v i t y . 15. Sew some of my own or my f a m i l y ' s c l o t h e s . 16. A s s i s t my husband i n h i s b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n . 17. Making p l a n s t o a t t e n d s c h o o l i n the near f u t u r e . 18. Have a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e w i t h o t h e r c o u p l e s . 19. Do v o l u n t e e r work i n t h e community. 20. A t t e n d a c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g group. 21. Do c h u r c h work ( t e a c h c l a s s , e t c . ) . 22. Spend time w i t h my c h i l d r e n o r g r a n d c h i l d r e n . 23. Go o u t s o c i a l l y i n the e v e n i n g s w i t h women f r i e n d s . 24. Spend time w i t h husband ( i f u n m a r r i e d , w i t h men f r i e n d s ) . 25. P l a y g o l f , t e n n i s , e t c . 26. Read m a g a z i n e s ; p e r i o d i c a l s , books. 27. Employed o u t s i d e the house on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s . 28. A t t e n d t e a s , l u n c h e o n s , e t c . d u r i n g the. day. 29. A t t e n d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l p a r t - t i m e . 30. A t t e n d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e . 31. M a k i n g p l a n s f o r o u t s i d e employment i n the n e a r f u t u r e . _32. O u t i n g s w i t h the whole f a m i l y . 106 A s s i g n e d No; LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST L i s t e d below a r e a number of a c t i v i t i e s . P l e a s e p l a c e a check mark (. X ) i n the space n e x t to each a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h you have p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g the p a s t f o u r weeks, i n d i c a t i n g f o r a l l 32 i t e m s whether t h i s a c t i v i t y has i n c r e a s e d , d e c r e a s e d or s t a y e d the same. Some of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s may n o t be a p p l i c a b l e t o y o u r l i f e s t y l e - p l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h a t they have s t a y e d the same. I n the p a s t f o u r weeks t h i s b e h a v i o r : I n c r e a s e d / d e c r e a s e d / s t a y e d the same 1. E n t e r t a i n c o u p l e s i n my home i n t h e e v e n i n g s . 2. Cook. 3. A t t e n d Home and S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g s . 4. S l e e p some d u r i n g the d a y t i m e . 5. Take s p e c i a l l e s s o n s ( a r t , m u s i c , e t c ) . 6: Take a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s ( n o n c r e d i t ) 7. Do housework. 8. A t t e n d c h u r c h . 9. P l a y b r i d g e i n a women's b r i d g e group i n t h e d a y t i m e . 10. S e x u a l r e l a t i o n s . 11. P a i n t , s c u l p t , w r i t e , do c r a f t s o r o t h e r c r e a t i v e p r o j e c t s . 12. G a r d e n i n g . 13. Employed o u t s i d e t h e home on a p a r t -time b a s i s . 14. S e r v e as a den mother, homeroom mother o r sponsor of some c h i l d r e n ' s group. 15. Sew some of my own o r my f a m i l y ' s c l o t h e s . 16. A s s i s t my husband i n h i s b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n . 17. Making p l a n s t o a t t e n d s c h o o l i n the n e a r f u t u r e . 18. Have a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e w i t h o t h e r c o u p l 19. Do v o l u n t e e r work i n t h e community. 20. A t t e n d a c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g group. 21. Do c h u r c h work ( t e a c h c l a s s , e t c . ) . 22. Spend t i m e w i t h my c h i l d r e n o r g r a n d -c h i l d r e n . 23. Go o u t s o c i a l l y i n the e v e n i n g s w i t h women f r i e n d s . 24. Spend t i m e w i t h my husband ( i f u n m a r r i e d w i t h men f r i e n d s ) . 25. P l a y g o l f , t e n n i s , e t c . 26. Read m a g a z i n e s , p e r i o d i c a l s , books. 27. Employed o u t s i d e the house on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s . 1 0 7 I n c r e a s e d / d e c r e a s e d / s t a y e d the same 28. A t t e n d t e a s , l u n c h e o n s , e t c . d u r i n g the day. 29. A t t e n d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l p a r t - t i m e . 30. A t t e n d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e . 31. M a k i n g p l a n s f o r o u t s i d e employment i n the f u t u r e . 32. O u t i n g s w i t h the whole f a m i l y . APPENDIX F. 108 1. P o s t s e s s i o n : A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e A s s i g n e d No. Date: MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e i n d i c a t e to what degree you found t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n m e a n i n g f u l ? Some of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t have been a p a r t o f t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n . P l e a s e c i r c l e t he number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how you f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w^te a p a r t o f to d a y ' s s e s s i o n . Not v e r y m e a n i n g f u l S m a l l Group A c t i v i t i e s C u r r e n t D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s "How d i d I g e t t o where I am" - L i f e l i n e A c h ievements and B r a g g i n g "What do I l i k e t o do and how do I know I'm d o i n g i t " I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t - Guided F a n t a s y I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t - C a r e e r / P e r s o n a l C a r e e r Map D e c i s i o n Making Worksheets S e t t i n g : M u s i c , P o s t e r s J o u r n a l s P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s Book T a b l e 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 E x t r e m e l y m e a n i n g f u l 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Do you have any comments or s u g g e s t i o n s about t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n ? 109 P o s t s e s s i o n : D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l A s s i g n e d No. D a t e : MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e i n d i c a t e to what degree you found t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n m e a n i n g f u l ? Some of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t have been a p a r t of t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n . P l e a s e c i r c l e the number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how you f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t of t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n . Not v e r y m e a n i n g f u l E x t r e m e l y meaningfu D e m o n s t r a t i o n of new s k i l l ( m odeling) 1 2 3 J o u r n a l w r i t i n g 1 2 3 E x e r c i s e s i n p a i r s , t r i o s , e t c . 1 2 3 B e g i n n i n g f e e d b a c k s e s s i o n 1 2 3 R e l a x a t i o n and c e n t e r i n g 1 2 3 Group d i s c u s s i o n 1 2 3 D i d a c t i c s e s s i o n - theme f o r s e s s i o n (new c o n c e p t ) . 1 2 3 Homework (was c h a l l e n g i n g and worked a t i t ) . 1 2 3 Handout , 1 2 3 Drawing up a p l a n 1 2 3 E x p l o r i n g v a l u e s 1 2 3 Suggested books 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Do you have any comments or s u g g e s t i o n s about t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n ? 110 1. P o s t i n t e r v i e w : L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w A s s i g n e d No. Date: MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE A. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o what degree you found t o d a y ' s i n t e r v i e w m e a n i n g f u l ? Some of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t have been a p a r t o f t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n . P l e a s e c i r c l e the number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how you f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t o f today's i n t e r v i e w . W r i t t e n e x e r c i s e s Time l i n e F a n t a s i z i n g E x p l o r i n g I n t e r e s t s E x p l o r i n g v a l u e s P r o b l e m s o l v i n g S uggested b i b l i o g r a p h y (books) R e f e r r a l s Drawing up a p l a n One-to-one c o n t a c t E x p l o r i n g a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s E x p l o r i n g l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s Not v e r y m e a n i n g f u l 1 2 E x t r e m e l y m e a n i n g f u l 3 4 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 B. Do you have any comments o r s u g g e s t i o n s about t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n ? APPENDIX G. . I l l THE GOAL OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT The g o a l o f the C a r e e r Development Program o f the C e n t e r f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t o p r o v i d e the community w i t h a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n a l , d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u n s e l l i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l e n a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s to make c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e i n t e g r a t e d and c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c a r e e r - l i f e p l a n s . C a r e e r - l i f e p l a n s must be viewed as a whole and b o t h a r e a s must be e v a l u a t e d e q u a l l y t o p r o v i d e a t o t a l l i f e p i c t u r e . The knowledge and s k i l l s needed to p l a n a r e based on c h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s . C h o i c e s and d e c i s i o n s can o n l y be made when one has e x p l o r e d , a s s e s s e d , e x p e r i e n c e d , d i a l o g u e d , compared, d e v e l o p e d and f a c i l i t a t e d . D e c i s i o n s can be made when one has a p i c t u r e o f knowledge, p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y , encouragement, r e a l i s m and i n f o r m a t i o n , t o h e l p p e o p l e t o choose and d e c i d e among p o s s i b l e s t i m u l u s / c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . C a r e e r i s synonymous t o l i f e , t h e r e -f o r e , l i f e s p a n c a r e e r development encompasses t h e human e x p e r i e n c e and the c h a n g i n g r o l e s o f s o c i e t y and t h e c h a l l e n g e t o i n d i v i d u a l s i s t o s e a r c h o u t ? p l a n and implement t h e i r own j o u r n e y . Program C o - o r d i n a t o r Statement by - ,,„ Program C o - o r d i n a t o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM - OBJECTIVES P a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l : l e a r n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s k i l l s . make b e t t e r c h o i c e s / d e c i s i o n s . be p r o v i d e d w i t h a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . c o n s i d e r new f i e l d s o f endeavour. manage t h e i r time b e t t e r . be exposed t o r o l e models. l e a r n t o p l a n b e t t e r . l e a r n t o see t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . r e c e i v e encouragement and s u p p o r t . be s t i m u l a t e d by new i d e a s and r e s e a r c h . be p r o v i d e d a forum f o r c o n f u s i o n , boredom and u n c e r t a i n t y . l e a r n t o h a n d l e s t r e s s b e t t e r . g a i n a sense o f d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r l i v e s . be aware o f t r a d e - o f f s and compromise. be a b l e t o d e a l w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s on the j o b . p l a n f o r advancement and p r o m o t i o n . be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r w i t h p e o p l e o f m u t u a l i n t e r e s t and a commonality. examine t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and c o n s i d e r what changes would h e l p them l i v e more f u l f i l l e d l i v e s . examine and p r a c t i c e new b e h a v i o r s w h i c h w i l l b r i n g them c l o s e r t o t h e i r g o a l s . l e a r n t o p l a n so th e y have a sense o f c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e i r l i f e ' s aim. be p r o v i d e d t h e s t i m u l u s and encouragement t o c o n s i d c r e a t i n g t h e i r own c a r e e r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l : H 3 be m o t i v a t e d , be c h a l l e n g e d . A MAJOR INGREDIENT OF THESE COURSES IS THE EMPHASIS ON THE PERSON AND SECONDLY THE SKILLS AND JOB. VALUES AND ASSUMPTIONS 1. Most p e o p l e l i k e to work. 2. Most p e o p l e a r e r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e y w i l l work f o r a l o n g t i m e and a r e becoming aware t h a t t h e y want 'more' out of a j o b . 3. The a u t h o r i t a r i a n work e t h i c i s c h a n g i n g and w o r k e r s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t h e i r v a l u e s and e x p e c t more from t h e i r work day. 4. Because of the c h a n g i n g r o l e o f women and men w h i c h has c r e a t e d new e x p e c t a t i o n s , more i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o home and f a m i l y o f s i n g l e p e o p l e , p e o p l e a r e n e e d i n g h e l p i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r c a r e e r l i f e , due t o p r e s s u r e s o f t i m e , c h a n g i n g market c o n d i t i o n s e t c . 5. W i t h an i n c r e a s i n g d i v o r c e r a t e , t h e impact and trauma r e s u l t i n g from s u c h has f o r c e d p e o p l e t o a s s e s s t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n r e : c a r e e r and l i f e . 6. Because of i n c r e a s i n g new v a l u e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s w h i c h f o c u s on i n d i v i d u a l i t y , a s s e r t i v e n e s s , l i f e s t a g e s , p e o p l e a r e c u r i o u s and l e a n i n g towards t h e s e a s p i r a t i o n s i n the hope t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , w i l l r e s u l t i n s o l v i n g , c o p i n g w i t h l i f e ' s d a i l y d i f f i c u l t i e s . 7. Because t h e s o c i a l t r e n d i s l e a n i n g toward s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t f p e o p l e a r e more w i l l i n g t o e x p e r i m e n t and e x p l o r e o p t i o n s n e v e r b e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d . 8. Because o f the i n c r e a s i n g b e l i e f and l e g a l i z i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s as seen by u n i o n s , p a i d p a t e r n i t y / m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , H.R.A., w o r k e r s a r e t a k i n g and e x p e c t i n g more c o n t r o l and d e s i g n o f t h e i r work l i f e i . e . , c o m p r e s s e d work week, p a i d e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e . 9. Whereas p e o p l e used t o work f o r a l i v i n g , w o r k e r s new f o c u s i s from t h a t o f e a r n i n g t o t h a t o f c h a l l e n g e , s a t i s f a c t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i o n , c a m a r a d e r i e and v a l u e i n c e n t i v e s , . a n d v i e w i t h t h e sense o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and sense o f a j o b w e l l done. 114 10. Most p e o p l e h e s i t a t e and doubt t h e i r p o t e n t i a l and p r o m o t i o n a b i l i t y . 11. W i t h h e l p p e o p l e who h e s i t a t e can implement change and a c t i o n . 12. A l l p e o p l e s h o u l d e n j o y and have d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t r e g a r d l e s s o f jo b f u n c t i o n . 13. I f p e o p l e put t h e m s e l v e s down and h o l d t h e m s e l v e s back because o f c o n d i t i o n i n g and u n c e r t a i n t y o v e r t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of s e l f , p l u s work c o n d i t i o n s i . e . b o s s e s , c o l l e a g u e s , may be more i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o d u c t i o n ( g o a l ) r a t h e r than p r o m o t i n g o r e n c o u r a g i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . 15. A l o t o f p e o p l e o n l y want a j o b t h a t p r o v i d e s a w e e k l y pay cheque and sense o f c a m a r a d e r i e ( I a c c e p t t h a t v a l u e ) b u t I have a sense o f o b l i g a t i o n to r e a c h them to c o n s i d e r a r e t h e y g e t t i n g enough out o f t h e i r j o b / l i f e . I n l o w e r p a y i n g , s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s , t h e r e i s a l o t o f b i c k e r i n g and meanness, the r e s u l t o f n o n - c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s t h a t a r e d i s p l a y e d i n b e h a v i o r s o f j e a l o u s y . putdowns, as a r e s u l t o f f r u s t r a t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l o o k a t q u a l i t y o f work l i f e . 16. A l o t o f men i n power p o s i t i o n s a c t out o f c o n d i t i o n i n g and a r e non-c o n s c i o u s , n o n - t h i n k i n g i n a s s u m p t i o n s . 17. Change of o r d e r i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r many men because i t f o r c e s them to examine t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e change i n women's l i f e p a t t e r n s a r e t o a l a r g e p a r t i g n o r e d , d i s c o u n t e d by men. 18. Because o f a d u l t l i f e - s t a g e s p e o p l e a r e l o o k i n g more and a s k i n g more about what they want from l i f e and can more r e a d i l y admit t o boredom and c o n f u s i o n . 19. I n s t i t u t i o n s a r e p a r t o f the p r o c e s s o f h e l p i n g p e o p l e examine d i s c r i m -i n a t i o n and one major t o o l we have t o persuade p e o p l e t o change i s to c a l l on t h e i r sense o f j u s t i c e . CHALLENGES One o f the b i g g e s t problems i s t o MOVE p e o p l e f r o m the c o n c e p t o f : Can you get me a j o b - t o p r o v i d i n g them w i t h the s k i l l s , e t c . t o do i t on t h e i r own. APPENDIX H. 115 COURSE OUTLINE A CAREER IN YOUR L I F E S e s s i o n 1: Welcome - I c e - b r e a k e r ; "The P a r t y " Use of S t r o n g - C a m p b e l l t y p e s : i n v e s t i g a t i v e , a r t i s t i c , s o c i a l , e n t e r p r i s i n g , c o n v e n t i o n a l , r e a l i s t i c . P e o p l e went to the c o r n e r t h e y were most drawn t o . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - Workshop o v e r v i e w , o b j e c t i v e s , f o c u s , themes, e x p e c t a -t i o n s . C u r r e n t D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s - L i s t o f a l l c o m p l a i n t s . Purpose - a s t a r t i n g p l a c e , know what you don't want. Homework: a) Take c u r r e n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s and t u r n i n t o p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s . b) J o u r n a l r e f l e c t i o n s ( j o u r n a l s used c o n t i n u o u s l y t h r o u g h -out weekend, f o r w r i t i n g one's own t h o u g h t s , r e a c t i o n s to the e x e r c i s e s . ) . c) How do I see the r e s t o f my l i f e . A i d s i n c l a r i t y o f what one wants t o a c h i e v e b e f o r e d e a t h . W r i t i n g s t r e t c h e s the i m a g i n a t i o n . S e s s i o n 2: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n How d i d I g e t t o where I am? P u r p o s e - t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s , an i n v e n -t o r y o f one's l i f e ' t o d a t e . Drawing a l l e v e n t s f r o m c h i l d -hood to p r e s e n t t h a t have been s i g n i f i c a n t . P l a y b r e a k - p a r t i c i p a n t takes- t h e r e s t t h r o u g h an a c t i v i t y A c h i e v e m e n t s - Draw out seven t h a t have been s i g n i f i c a n t and d e s c r i b e d e t a i l one. Lunch B r a g g i n g - w o r k i n g i n g r o u p s , t a k e the one achievement and c o n v i n c e t h e o t h e r s t h a t you were good. Your f u n c t i o n a l / t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s . Take t h e one achievement and go t h r o u g h t h e s k i l l c a t e g o r i e s and u s i n g two c o l o r s check i f you thought the s k i l l was used. One c o l o r - s k i l l used and e n j o y e d . W o r k i n g i n groups (see h a n d o u t ) . P l a y b r e a k 116 What do I l i k e to do and how do I know I'm doing i t ? I am doing: L i s t 10, rank importance - use symbol coding. A - alone 0 - others C? - something you want someone you love do, love doing i t . K - anyone else know you l i k e to do t h i s . F - f r e e l y chosen B - would l i k e to be better at i t . W - work oriented 3 - i f you would not have t r i e d , three or more years ago. $ - cost over $5.00 - date you l a s t did i t . Homework - Your func t i o n a l / t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s . Write up s i x others and checkoff s k i l l s . Handout - What do I want out of a job? Session 3 Administration Ideal attainments - guided fantasy (aids in p r i o r i t y c l a r i f i c a t i o n ) . Play break Attainments: a) to help t i e together the previous a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of an inventory of a l l you want to do before you d i e . b) 10 personal development, 10 career development assign p r i o r i t y c) P i c t o r i a l account - l i s t attainments Lunch Planning - Do you know how to? (see handout). Career Map - worked in groups, using a l l information that had been gathered since Friday night. - explored options Decision workshee - (see handout) Implementation - buddy system, contacts l i s t (200 names of people who would know you, addresses (how they can help), organization information, develop a resume. Play break Goodbye APPENDIX I . COURSE OUTLINE 117 DEVELOPING POTENTIAL FOR GROWTH AND CHANGE S e s s i o n 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n : Done i n p a i r s , w i t h a s t r a n g e r . I n t r o d u c e s e l f t o p a r t n e r i n terms o f : a) one t h i n g I v a l u e / l i k e about m y s e l f b) one t h i n k I hope to g a i n from t h i s program. Be p r e p a r e d to i n t r o d u c e p a r t n e r t o the group, s h a r i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t r o d u c t i o n s to t h e group. E x p e c t a t i o n s / g o a l s r e c o r d e d on n e w s p r i n t . Ground r u l e s t h a t h e l p the group t o f u n c t i o n w e l l were o u t l i n e d . C o f f e e B r e a k S t r e t c h i n g , r e l a x a t i o n , c e n t e r i n g . Focus on s e l f , u s i n g l i s t o f a d j e c t i v e s ( 3 - p a r t e x e r c i s e ) . Shared i n t h r e e ' s . J o u r n a l W r i t i n g : I n t r o d u c t i o n , handouts (2) Homework. S e s s i o n 2: S h a r i n g : J o u r n a l s and d i s c u s s i o n s o f dreams. Communication s k i l l s : L i s t e n i n g a) s o m e t h i n g I e n j o y ( p a i r s ) b) something I f i n d d i f f i c u l t ( d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n check - "do you mean ?" ( p a i r s ) C o f f e e b r e a k c) a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i o n , e x e r c i s e i n t r i a d s . S t r e t c h i n g , r e l a x a t i o n , c e n t e r i n g . E x e r c i s e : N o n - v e r b a l d r a w i n g - "How I e x p e r i e n c e m y s e l f now," s h a r i n g i n t h r e e ' s . Handouts: R e a d i n g l i s t , a i d s t o f e e d b a c k . 118 S e s s i o n 3: Feedback Communication e x e r c i s e : O b s e r v i n g b e h a v i o r " I i m a g i n e you a r e f e e l i n g " and c h e c k i n g o u t . D i s c u s s i o n o f " r i s k i n g " openness. J o h a r i Window d e m o n s t r a t i o n . F a n t a s y : "The stump, the c a b i n , t he s t r e a m . " C o f f e e Break Shared f a n t a s y A c o n t i u u m o f communication p a t t e r n s f r o m a v o i d a n c e t o a s s e r t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o "How I c a r e f o r m y s e l f , How I c a r e f o r o t h e r s , and how I d e a l w i t h t he i s s u e a t hand." P r a c t i c e o f " I " messages i n t h r e e ' s . S e s s i o n 4: Feedback D i s c u s s i o n on t h e two a s p e c t s o f the program - c o g n i t i v e / c o n c e p t u a l i n p u t and the n o n - r a t i o n a l s y m b o l i c , i n t u i t i v e component. These two a s p e c t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to l e f t s i d e / r i g h t s i d e o f t h e b r a i n . Work r e C o n f l i c t : a) s e n t e n c e stems, s h a r e d i n t h r e e ' s and f e e d b a c k to the whole group; comments on s p e c i a l i s s u e s f o r women. C o f f e e b r e a k b) d i a g r a m a t b l a c k b o a r d r e : two d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o our s t y l e / m o d e o f h a n d l i n g c o n f l i c t : a s s e r t i v e / u n a s s e r t i v e and c o - o p e r a t i v e / u n c o - o p e r a t i v e . These d i m e n s i o n s i n t e r a c t t o produce L o s e / l o s e , l o s e / w i n , w i n / l o s e and w i n / w i n r e s u l t s . c) d i s c u s s i o n r e w o r k i n g toward a " c o l l a b o r a t i v e " mode (win/win) i f o n l y one p e r s o n i n a p a r t n e r s h i p i s a i m i n g a t t h i s . An e x e r c i s e f o c u s i n g on c h a n g i n g o u r s e l v e s r a t h e r than demanding the o t h e r p e r s o n change. Concepts f r o m f a m i l y t h e r a p y s h a r e d r e : " s e l f - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . R e l a x a t i o n - p l e a s u r a b l e f a n t a s y . S e s s i o n 5: Feedback Anger - p r e s e n t e d c o n c e p t s i n t h r e e p a r t s . 1) S i t u a t i o n - g e n e r a t e d ( t i m e l i m i t e d ) anger v e r s u s s e l f - g e n e r a t e d ( e n d l e s s , d r a i n i n g ) w i t h same a p p l i c a t i o n t o f e a r , g r i e f , and j o y o r l o v e . 2) Anger as a s e c o n d a r y emotion i n r e s p o n s e to t h r e a t . 119 3) H a n d l i n g a n ger: t u r n i n g i t i n w a r d and t u r n i n g i t outward (many ways of e x p r e s s i n g i t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y ) D i s c u s s i o n . C o f f e e B r e ak C e n t e r i n g e x e r c i s e : "What a r e you e x p e r i e n c i n g ? " What a r e you h o p i n g f o r ? What a r e you a f r a i d of ( o r a v o i d i n g ) ? " Q u e s t i o n s r e p e a t e d a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s i n sequence, w o r k i n g i n p a i r s , change r o l e s a f t e r t h r e e m i n u t e s . E n r i g h t e x e r c i s e r e : c o n v e r i n g "have t o ' s " t o "choose t o " , and l o o k i n g a t u n - a c t e d upon g o a l s . S e s s i o n 6: Feedback P l a n n i n g Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - Answer s work on f o r t e n m i n u t e s q by twenty m i n u t e s more i n h e e t - s e l f - d i s c o v e r y w o r k s h e e t -u i e t l y , a l o n e w i t h s e l f , f o l l o w e d groups o f t h r e e ' s . C o f f e e b r e a k E n e r g i z i n g t e c h n i q u e s from S h i a t s u Worksheet on p l a n n i n g n e x t s t e p s . D i s c u s s i o n - s h a r i n g . Reviewed o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s and s h a r e d p r o g r e s s . S i g n up s h e e t f o r s h a r i n g o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and k e e p i n g i n t o u c h . F a l l programs l i s t e d . C l o s e d s i t t i n g i n c i r c l e and h o l d i n g hands s i l e n t l y , "as g i v e r s and r e c e i v e r s " , l o o k i n g a t each o t h e r and s i l e n t l y g i v i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n . APPENDIX J . 120 I N I T I A L CONTRACT On the p a r t o f E i l e e n Hendry, C o - o r d i n a t o r , C a r e e r Development, C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C. 1. A l l o w B o n n i e Long t o conduct a s u r v e y o f p a s t p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " . 2. Agree to f o l l o w the method o f randomly a s s i g n i n g e n t e r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Your L i f e " (May 9.10,11) as o u t l i n e d i n the a t t a c h e d document. 3. E n l i s t t he c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n c o u r s e d e s c r i p t i o n s and g o a l s and t o a d m i n i s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 4. I n d i v i d u a l s not s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c p a t e i n t h e May 9-11 workshop w i l l be g i v e n an i d e n t i c a l workshop w i t h i n 6 weeks. 5. O b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n t o a d m i n i s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r -v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s o f one o t h e r C.E.E. c o u r s e . On the p a r t o f B o n n i e . L o n g , Program E v a l u a t o r 1. Keep the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f a l l d a t a c o n c e r n i n g the p r o j e c t p a r t i c i -p a n t s . 2. Agree t o assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d e s i g n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . 3. Agree t o make a v a i l a b l e a l l r e p o r t s on r e s e a r c h as th e y become a v a i l a b l e . 4. Agree t o use the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from t h i s r e s e a r c h t o meet T h e s i s r e q u i r e m e n t s . The above c o n t r a c t i s open t o change a t t h e r e q u e s t o f e i t h e r p a r t y . E i l e e n Hendry, C o - o r d i n a t o r B o n n i e Long, Program E v a l u a t o r 121 SECOND CONTRACT On the p a r t o f E i l e e n Hendry, C o - o r d i n a t o r , C a r e e r Development, C e n t e r f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C. 1. A l l o w B o n n i e Long t o conduct a s u r v e y o f p a s t p a r t i c i p a n t s of the c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n y o u r L i f e " . 2. E n l i s t the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n c o u r s e d e s c r i p t i o n s and g o a l s and t o a d m i n i s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 3. O b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n t o a d m i n i s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o l i f e - p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e c o u r s e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " . On t h e p a r t o f B o n n i e Long, Program E v a l u a t o r 1. Keep the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f a l l d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s . 2. Agree to assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e s i g n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and p u b l i c a t i o n o f the s t u d y . 3. Agree t o make a v a i l a b l e a l l r e p o r t s on r e s e a r c h as th e y become a v a i l a b l e . 4. Agree t o use the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h , to meet T h e s i s r e q u i r e m e n t s . The above c o n t r a c t i s open t o change a t the r e q u e s t o f e i t h e r p a r t y . E i l e e n Hendry, C o - o r d i n a t o r B o n n i e Long, Program E y a l u a t o r APPENDIX K. 122 o T , •, •, „ • V T - r A s s i g n e d No. 2. F o l l o w - u p : C a r e e r i n Your L i f e D a t e : MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE A. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o what degr e e you found t h e c o u r s e m e a n i n g f u l ? Some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t have been a p a r t o f y o u r s e s s i o n s . P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how you f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t o f yo u r c o u r s e . Not v e r y S m a l l Group A c t i v i t i e s C u r r e n t D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s "How d i d I get t o where I am" - L i f e l i n e A c h i e v e m e n t s and b r a g g i n g "What do I l i k e t o do and how do I know I'm d o i n g i t " I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t - g u i d e d f a n t a s y I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t - C a r e e r / p e r s o n a l C a r e e r Map D e c i s i o n Making Worksheets S e t t i n g : M u s i c , P o s t e r s J o u r n a l s P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s Book T a b l e B. Have you sought i n f o r m a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e f r o m any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s i n t h e p a s t f o u r weeks ( s i n c e t h i s c o u r s e ) ? P l e a s e i n d i c a t e w i t h a check mark. a. e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g b. v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g c. m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l i n g d. p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l i n g e. p e r s o n a l growth groups f. O ther ( s p e c i f y ) g. None i n g f u l 2 2 2 2 2 2 L 2 L 2 L 2 I 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 E x t r 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 e l y m e a n i n g f u l 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 o v e r - 2 -123 C. What l i f e changes, i f any, have you ( s i n c e the c o u r s e ) ? m a r r i a g e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m husband ( w i f e ) end o f i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p d i v o r c e engaged to marry b i r t h o f a c h i l d d e a t h i n f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e P a s t Four Weeks maj o r i l l n e s s b i r t h d a y moved v a c a t i o n c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home i n c r e a s e i n pay o t h e r ( s p e c i f y : ) D. Have you made any d e c i s i o n s u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o c e s s e s l e a r n e d i n t h e c o u r s e ? Yes No I f y e s , p l e a s e s p e c i f y : E. Do you f e e l any d i f f e r e n t l y about y o u r s e l f and/or y o u r s i t u a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f the c o u r s e ? Yes No_ I f y e s , p l e a s e s p e c i f y : F. D i d the a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e you a c l e a r p i c t u r e as t o what to e x p e c t from t h e c o u r s e ? Yes No G. Do you have any s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g the c o u r s e ? 124 F o l l o w - u p : D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l A s s i g n e d No. Date: MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e i n d i c a t e to what degree you found the c o u r s e m e a n i n g f u l ? Some of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t have been a p a r t o f you r s e s s i o n s P l e a s e c i r c l e t he number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how you f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t o f you r c o u r s e . Demonstration of new s k i l l (modeling) J o u r n a l w r i t i n g E x e r c i s e s i n p a i r s , t r i o s , e t c . Beginning feedback s e s s i o n R e l a x a t i o n and c e n t e r i n g Group d i s c u s s i o n D i d a c t i c session - theme f o r session (new concepts) Homework (was c h a l l e n g i n g and worked at i t ) Handout Drawing up a plan E x p l o r i n g values Suggested books 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 Have you sought i n f o r m a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e from any o f the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s i n t he p a s t f o u r weeks? P l e a s e i n d i c a t e w i t h a check mark. a. e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g b. v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g c. m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g d. p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g e. p e r s o n a l growth groups f . o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) g. none 125 C. What l i f e c h a n g e s , i f a n y , have you ( s i n c e t h e c o u r s e ) m a r r i a g e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m husband ( w i f e ) end o f i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p d i v o r c e Engaged t o m a r r y b i r t h o f a c h i l d d e a t h i n f a m i l y e r i e n c e d i n t h e P a s t F o u r Weeks? m a j o r i l l n e s s b i r t h d a y moved v a c a t i o n c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home f i r e d f r o m j o b o t h e r ( s p e c i f y : ) D. Have you made any d e c i s i o n s u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o c e s s e s l e a r n e d i n t h e c o u r s e ? Y e s No I f y e s , p l e a s e s p e c i f y : E. Do you f e e l any d i f f e r e n t l y a b o u t y o u r s e l f a n d / o r y o u r s i t u a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h e c o u r s e ? Y e s No I f y e s , p l e a s e s p e c i f y : F . D i d the a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e you a c l e a r p i c t u r e as t o what to e x p e c t f r o m t h e c o u r s e ? Y e s No ' G. Do y o u have any s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e c o u r s e ? 2. F o l l o w - u p L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w 126 A s s i g n e d No. Date: MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE A. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o what degree you found t h e i n t e r v i e w m e a n i n g f u l ? Some of the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may not have been a p a r t o f y o u r i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n . P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how you f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t o f y o u r i n t e r v i e w . W r i t t e n e x e r c i s e s Time l i n e F a n t a s i z i n g E x p l o r i n g i n t e r e s t s E x p l o r i n g v a l u e s P r o b l e m s o l v i n g Suggested b i b l i o g r a p h y (books) R e f e r r a l s D rawing up a p l a n One-to-one c o n t a c t E x p l o r i n g a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s E x p l o r i n g l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s Not v e r y m e a n i n g f u l 2 E x t r e m e l y m e a n i n g f u l 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 Have you sought i n f o r m a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e from any of t h e f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s i n t h e p a s t f o u r weeks? P l e a s e i n d i c a t e w i t h a c h e c k mark. a. e d u c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g b. v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g c . m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g d. p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g e. p e r s o n a l growth groups f . o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) _ g. none 127 What l i f e changes, i f any, have you e x p e r i e n c e d i n the p a s t f o u r weeks? j n a r r i a g e _ s e p a r a t i o n f r o m husband ( w i f e ) _end o f i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p d i v o r c e _engaged to marry _ b i r t h o f a c h i l d d e a t h i n f a m i l y _major i l l n e s s b i r t h d a y moved _ v a c a t i o n _ c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home _ i n c r e a s e i n pay f i r e d f rom j o b o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) ^ Have you made any d e c i s i o n s u s i n g t he i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o c e s s e s l e a r n e d i n the i n t e r v i e w ? Yes No ' I f y e s , p l e a s e s p e c i f y : Do you f e e l any d i f f e r e n t l y about y o u r s e l f and/or y o u r s i t u a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r v i e w ? Yes No I f y e s , p l e a s e s p e c i f y : _ D i d the a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e you a c l e a r p i c t u r e as to what t o e x p e c t from the i n t e r v i e w ? Yes No Do you have s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t he i n t e r v i e w ? APPENDIX L. 1 2 8 GENERAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE Assigned No. CENTRE FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE SURVEY 1. In what age group are you? 15 T 20 21 - 25 26 - 3e 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 - 45 . .46 -.50 5! -55 : 56.: and over 2. What l e v e l i n school have you completed (Indicate only one). High school or below. stiine college some university completed college completed university 3. Have you taken other courses offering c e r t i f i c a t i o n or diplomas? Yes Mo If "yes" please specify: Please do not write i n this column 04 05" 06 4. In the schooling which you have taken up to and Including grade 12,. what kind of courses did you take that were your choice? . . Mainly commercial/vocational Mainly academic Mixture - commercial/vocational/academic Other combination (please specify) 5. I f you took any schooling beyond grade 12, what kinds of courses were they? [ Commercial/vocational General Academic Professional other (please specify:) not applicable .; 6. Have you ever worked for pay? Yes NO If 'no" please go on to question 7. 6 i . I f you answered "yes" please.indicate type of job(s) and length(s) of time at each (beyond the years of your schooling).' 07 08 09 To I f 12 13 "14 15 16 129 Please do not write i n this column 7. If you had a choice, which would you prefer to work: Part time Y7 job-3haring -r-g fle x hours compressed work week 19 other (specify:) -^Q 8. If you have an income of your own, please indicate from what sourse: job. job.and other spouse ._ spouse and other relatives ^including legacies,"helping out", but _ not for work) • relatives and other • government assistance . investments other, (please specify:) not applicable 22 9. How much per annum, do you get approximately? _ _ Below $7,000 . $7,000 to 15,000 $15,COO to 18,000 $18,000 to 21,000 •_i_.$21,000 to 24,000 $24,000 to 28,000 . $28,000 or above 23 10. Who do'you regard as the most important person- i n your l i f e besides. -yourself (indicate only one)? • . spouse children friend parents other .(please specify:) 11. How much personal or moral support would you say that you receive from the most important person in- youc l i f e ? . extremely supportive a great deal quite a b i t some ...J l i t t l e • . very l i t t l e -j-j none 12. On a d a i l y , continuing basis, from where do. you get most of your -general news or information? (please indicate only one) radio newspapers • .television b u l l e t i n boards or other -posted signs journals .... people around you ... other (specify) '_ 26_ 130 3 Please do not write i n this 13. With whom do you discuss your ideas about your l i f e and what you d o ° ^ U l n n or plan to do? (Please indicate only one) spouse friends relatives children ' oounselor other (please specify): ' 27 Has there been anyone i n your l i f e who has taken a p a r t i c u l a r interest in your career plans? 14 18. Yes (please specify:) No 15. What i s your marital status? single (never married) divorced widow 28 jnarried (including commonlaw) _separated ( l i v i n g apart) 16. Does your spouse work continuously or most of the time? Yes No Not applicable 29 30 17. .In relation to yourself, what l e v e l of education has your spouse? 31 More than you . ' . : equal to you less than yourself not applicable Do you have any children? Yes No If "no" please go on to question 21. .•••>*• 19. How many children do you have? 1 2 3 4 5 6 or more 33 20. Are your children currently: pre school (public) 34 attending school ., college, or university — not at home 21. What i s your total family income approximately per year? 36 $5,000 or under • $6,000 - $10,000 $11,000 - $15,000 L $16,000 - $20,000 " $21,000 - $25,000 •• , •• $26,000 - $30,000 T7 $30,000 - or more . . 22. Are you considering or can you forsee a time whenyou might consider . taking some courses or other type of learning ac t i v i t y ? Yes d e f i n i t e l y maybe soon maybe later No . ... . 38 If your choice i s "no".go on to question 33 23. " Would your consideration to undertake a course or some type of , learning a c t i v i t y depend on plans for qualifying and getting a new kind, of Job or starting a new career? Yes No Don't know 39 131 Please do not write In this • colurm 24, What kinds of courses do you need; S k i l l s : communication interviewing supervision Assertiveness " __ Problem Solving Leadership Dther: (Specify:) Personal Development: Values C l a r i f i c a t i o n exploration alternatives . attitudes • support stress ; interests Other: (specify) Knowledge: Information new books Research Didactic teaching: New and develop-ing areas i . e . "game simulation etc. Organizational development Other: (specify) 40 48 57 4? 58 42 50. 59 43 31 60 44 1 2 6T "45 53 62 46 54 63 47 55 64 5? 25. -What time category i s best for you?" evenings 5 - 7 .fni4 day TT , 6 - 8 ~ M T W T F S " 0 3 1 7 -''9 ' ' ' ' ' Weekends: Friday 7 - 1 0 Sat. 9 - 4 Sun. 9 - 4 ; , ; 26. 26i 27. I f you would l i k e to take some courses what kind- of help do you think you night need f i r s t ? ' i n order to plan your future) general assessment of interests for personal development ' hobbies or volunteer experience quidance, counselling, and education assessment aid i n selection and planning of courses • • longer term career planning • • don't know Where wou 1d you go f o r the above l i s t e d help? If choices were offered, would you prefer part-tine (few hours week) or full-time (five f u l l days per week).courses? (Please indicate onlyr one) Part-time F u l l time don't knew 28. What tines of the year are best for you i n taking either part-time or full-time courses? Spring Summer F a l l Winter 29. What kind'of learning situation' i s best for you under your present circumstances: seminars think tank lectures reporting group discussion " home assignments cp.se studies workshop follow-up role play sharing support 66 72-67 73 68 74 70 "75 76 •=H-78 79 80 Card 2 per — -* A / 04 05 0607 08 09 To TT Ta Tf 14 TT ,T6 TT Te T9 20 IT .5 132 Do not vrrito i n this column 30.. How much would you be w i l l i n g to pay per: 1 day per session Weekend 7 hours $ 2 hours $ 20 hours $ 22 23 31. Would your employer be w i l l i n g to pay for your courses? ~25 — Y e S — N ° ":*6 27 32. What would be the most important consideration in your taking a course (aside from the subject of the course)? finances time _ location of course 30 child-care -— transportation none don't know 33. From what or whom did you hear of this workshop (or interview)? -^r re l a t i v e f r i e u : b u l l e t i n (Cont.Ed.Calendar) newspaper Radio other (specify:) 34. Please indicate your bi r t h order? f i r s t born with brothers or s i s t e r s . only child second child aidaie child l a s t born 32 33 35 -36-35. 36. 37 Old you always f e e l you vould wor!: outside the home at some time in your l i f e ? Yes Mo 38 When did ycu f i r s t begin to make career or work plans? childhood teens early twenties late twenties 30 - 40 years 40 - 50 years over 50 Not applicable 39 37. What one word could best describe how you were feeling prior to signing up for this course (or interview)? 40 38. What prompted you to sign up for this course or interview? improve s k i l l s . . . 41 , job advancement inters t -\, , . , . — . . „ other ( s p e c i f y ) 42 curiosity x 3  43 39. Please indicate (circle) on the following scale - how you f e l t 1^4 about your early schooling: -— 45 highly motivated 1 2 3 4 5 not very motivated -TJT very successful 1 2 3 4 5 unsuccessful very enjoyable 1 2 3 4 5 not very enjoyable 47 40. Given your present life/career situation, which of the following situations, best describes you (select only one please). selecting impn~ving changing stuck 49 APPENDIX M. 133 OBSERVATION CHECKLIST: D a t e : L o c a t i o n : I n s t r u c t o r : Type of Group: Number i n a t t e n d a n c e : D i d the group: Appear i n t e r e s t e d -P a r t i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n -Get i n v o l v e d i n p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n Ask q u e s t i o n s -E n v i r o n m e n t : S i z e of the room -V e n t i l a t i o n -L i g h t -S e a t i n g -E x t r a n e o u s sounds -Speaker: I n t e r e s t e d i n t o p i c -Spoke c l e a r l y -R e s p o n s i v e t o t h e group -APPENDIX N Telephone I n t r o d u c t i o n L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v i e w s 134 H i , my name i s , I'm a worker from the c o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Department, a t U.B.C. h e l p i n g them do a s p e c i a l s t u d y w i t h t h e women who s i g n up f o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s a t the Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t e r . We would l i k e t o g a t h e r some i n f o r m a t i o n from you b e f o r e you have y o u r i n t e r v i e w and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s . One month l a t e r we would l i k e to meet w i t h you once a g a i n to see how yo u ' r e d o i n g and i f t h i n g s have changed f o r you. A l l t he i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h a n d l e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous manner. We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g o u t what you need, what you e n j o y , and who you a r e i n o r d e r t o g i v e you t h e s e r v i c e and programs you want. I f you a r e w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e , I'd l i k e t o meet w i t h you f o r about h a l f an hour b e f o r e y o u r i n t e r v i e w and f o r a few m i n u t e s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s . APPENDIX 0. • EVALUATION INTRODUCTION The c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s t a f f has r e c o g n i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e of f i n d i n g out what you need, what you e n j o y , and who you a r e i n o r d e r t o g i v e you the programs you want. We would l i k e t o g a t h e r some i n f o r m a t i o n from you p r i o r t o the workshop w h i c h w i l l h e l p i n the p l a n n i n g of f u t u r e programs. We would a p p r e c i a t e h a v i n g you c o m p l e t e the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P l e a s e work t h r o u g h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r . Your f i r s t r e s p o n s e i s o f t e n the b e s t so do n o t spend a l o t o f t i m e on each q u e s t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h a n d l e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous manner. P l e a s e put t h e l a s t t h r e e numbers of y o u r t e l e p h o n e number i n the a p p o i n t e d space. T h i s number i s n e c e s s a r y o n l y so t h a t we can match t h i s s e t o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h ones you w i l l c o m p l e t e a f t e r the c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w ends. That way we can be a s s u r e d o f h a v i n g a c o m p l e t e s e t of forms from each i n d i v i d u a l . I f you have any comments on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r on any i n d i v i d u a l i t e m , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o p l a c e them i n the unused m a r g i n o r a t t h e end of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . ) APPENDIX P. COVERING LETTER FOR FOLLOW-UP FORMS 136 Dear : P l e a s e f i n d e n c l o s e d f o u r f o l l o w u p forms f o r you t o complete and r e t u r n i n t h e e n c l o s e d , stamped e n v e l o p e . P l e a s e work t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n o r d e r . Your f i r s t r e s p o n s e i s o f t e n t h e b e s t so do n o t spend a l o t o f time on each q u e s t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h a n d l e d i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l and anonymous manner. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e as you r a s s i g n e d number t h e l a s t t h r e e d i g i t s o f y o u r t e l e p h o n e number. T h i s i s t o a s s u r e us t h a t we have a complete s e t of forms f r o m you. Thank you f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . A w r i t t e n copy o f our r e p o r t f i n d i n g s w i l l be s e n t t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s some ti m e n e a r the end o f Au g u s t . Y o u r s t r u l y , E n c l . (.4) Bo n n i e Long p e r E i l e e n Hendry C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , W.B.C. APPENDIX Q. 137 QUESTIONNAIRE TABULATION Total number of questionnaires returned completed: 40 DPP - Developing Potential; LP - Lifeplanning The groups are coded by l e t t e r as follows: CIYL - Career In your L i f e . Questions and Responses Group Size: 1 2 1 7 n 4 0 CIYL DPP LP TOTALS In what age group are you? a) 15. - 30 b) 31 - 40 c) 41 - 56 and over 2. What l e v e l in school have you completed? a) high school or below b) some college/university c) completed college/university 13 12 15 Total: 40 10 12 18 Total: 40 Have you taken other courses offering c e r t i f i c a t i o n or diplomas? a) yes *20 did not respond In the schooling which you have taken up to and including grade 12, what kind of courses did you take that were your choice? 20 Total: 20* a) mainly commercial/vocational 0 2 .1 "3 b) mainly academic 9 11 10 30 c) mixture-commercial/voc./academic 2 1 0 3 d) other combinations 1 1 0 2 *2- did not respond If you took any schooling beyong grade 12, what kinds of courses were they? a) commercial/vocational b) general academic c) professional d) other f) not applicable *some answered more than once Total: 38* 8 17 21 3 1 Total: 50* Have you ever worked for pay? a) yes b) no 12 16 1 11 39 1 Total: 40 138 2 Questions and Responses (Continued! Totals, per Response Cm DPP LP TOTALS Group Size: 12 17 11 40 61. If you answered "yes" please Indicate type of job(s) and length(s) of time at each (beyond your years of schooling). a) professional 7 5 5 17 b) service 1 4 1 6 c) commercial 4 6 5 15 Total: 38 Number of years worked ranged from 2 to 45. If you had a choice, which would you prefer to work: a) part time 2 9 2 13 b) job-sharing 1 1 0 2 c) fle x hours 7 6 6 19 d) compressed work week 2 0 2 4 e) other 1 0 0 1 * 1 did not respond Total: 39 * If you have an income of your own, please indicate from what source: a) job 8 2 6 16 b) job and other 1 3 1 5 c) spouse 1 3 0 4 d) spouse and other 0 1 0 1 e) government assistance 0 0 1 1 f) investments 1 1 0 2 g) other 0 2 0 2 Total: 31* *9 did not respond How much per annum do you get approximately? a) below 7,000 3 7 1 11 b) $7,000 to $15,000 3 4 3 10 c) $15,000 to $18,000 1 1 1 3 d) $18,000 to $21,000 0 0 0 0 e) $21,000 to $24,000 0 0 0 0 f) $24,000 to $28,000 2 0 1 3 g) $28,000 or above 1 1 0 2 *11 did not respond Total: 29* Who do you regard as the most important person i n your l i f e besides yourself? a) spouse 2 7 6 15 b) children 2 3 1 6 c) friend 4 5 2 11 d) parents 3 2 0 5 e) other 1 0 0 1 *2 did not respond Total: 38* 3 139 „ „ r„ ~* J Totals per Response Questions and Responses (Continued CIYL DPP LP TOTALS . Group Size:12 17 .' ,Xl "'. 40 11. How much personal or moral support would you say that you receive from the most important person in your l i f e ? a) extremely supportive 3 1 3 7 b) a great deal 1 7 3 11 c) quite a b i t 4 5 2 11 d) some 3 3 1 7 e) l i t t l e 1 0 0 1 f) very l i t t l e 0. .1 . 1 . . 2 *1 did not respond TOTAL; 39* On a daily basis, from where do you get most of your general news or information? a) radio 6 5 6 17 b) newspapers 2 7 4 13 c) television 1 0 0 1 d) b u l l e t i n boards or other posted signs 0 0 0 0 e) Journals 0 1 0 1 f) people around you 3 3 1 7 g) other .0 . . .1. 0 1 Total: 40 13. With whom do you discuss your ideas about your l i f e and what you do or plan to do? a) spouse 1 .0 4 5 b) friends 8 14 6 • 28 c) relatives 2 0 0 2 d) children 0 1 0 1 e) counselor 1 0 0 1 f) other 0 1 1 2 Total: 39 * *1 did not respond 14. Has there been anyone in your l i f e who has taken a particular interest in your career plans? a) yes (please specify:) 6 12 5 23 b) no 5 5 4 14 *o AIA * A ~ Total: 37* *2 did not respond * 15. What i s your marital status? a) single.divorced.widow,separated 10 7 4 21 b) married 2 10 7 19 Total: 40 16. Does your spouse work continuously or most of the time? a) yes 4 11 7 22 b) no 0 2 0 2 c) not applicable 8 4 4 16 Total: 40 140 Questions and Responses (Continued) Total per.Response Group Size: CIYL 12 17. In relation to yourself, what l e v e l of education has your spouse? a) more than you b) equal to you c) less than yourself d) not applicable 18 Do you have any children ? a) Yes b) No * 1 did not respond 19. How many children do you have? a) one b) two c) three d) four e) f ive f) six or more 20. Are your children currently: a) pre school (public) b) attending school,college,or university c) not at home 21, 22. What i s your t o t a l family income approximately per year? a) $5,000 or under b) $6,000 - $10,000 c) $11,000 - $15,000 d) $16,000 - $20,000 e) $21,000 - $25,000 f) $26,000 - $30,000 g) $30,000 - $ or more * 2 did not respond Are you considering or can you forsee a time when you might consider taking some courses or other type of learning activity? a) yes, d e f i n i t e l y 1 b) maybe soon c) maybe late r d) no DPP 17 LP 11 TOTALS 40 1 8 5 14 4 3 2 9 0 2 1 3 7 4 3 14 Total: 40 3 13 7 23 9 3 4 16 Total: : 39 * 0 3 1 4 2 7 5 14 1 1 1 3 • 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 Total: 24 0 2 3 5 3 9 2 14 0 3 2 5 T6tal: 24 1 2 0 3 1 3 1 5 3 2 2 7 1 3 1 5 0 0 2 2 4 2 2 8 1 5 2 8 Total: 38 * .1 11 10 32 1 4 1 6 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 Total : 40 1 4 1 5 Questions and Responses (Continued) Totals per Response CIYL DPP LP TOTALS Group Size: 12 17 11 40 23. Would your consideration to undertake a course or some type of learning a c t i v i t y depend on plans for qualifying and getting a new kind of job or starting a new career? a) yes b) no c) don't know *1 did not respond 24. What kind of courses do you need? 10 0 1 26 10 3 To t a l : 39* S k i l l s : 11 15 2 31 a) communication 6 8 2 16 b) interviewing 3 1 0 4 c) supervision 5 1 2 8 d) assertiveness 9 12 3 24 e) problem solving 7 3 2 12 f) leadership 5 4 2 11 g) other 0 1 1 2 Personal development: 10 14 8 32 a) values c l a r i f i c a t i o n 5 5 2 12 b) exploration 4 6 3 13 c) alternatives 4 5 3 12 d) attitudes 4 6 0 10 e) support 2 5 0 7 f) stress 3 7 2 12 g) interests 5 2 10 h) other 0 1 2 3 Knowledge: 9 11 7 27 a) information 4 7 4 15 b) new books 2 1 2 5 c) research 2 1 0 3 d) didactic teaching 0 2 0 2 e) new and developing areas 0 0 0 0 f) game simulation 5 2 1 8 g) organizational development 5 4 3 12 h) other 0 0 2 2 *No totals available 25. What time category i s best for you? a) evenings 5 r- 7 0 1 4 5 b) evenings 6 - 8 2 2 3 7 c) evenings 7 - 9 6 6 5 17 d) weekends F r i . 7-10 5 1 3 9 e) weekends Sat. 9-4 6 4 4 14 f) weekends Sun. 9-4 6 2 1 9 g) f u l l days - Monday 4 3 5 12 h) f u l l days - Tuesday 1 7 6 14 1) f u l l days - Wednesday 3 5 6 14 6 142 Questions and Responses (Continued) Group Size: Totals per Responses CIYL 12 DPP 17 j) f u l l days - Thursday k) f u l l days - Friday 1) f u l l days - Saturday m) f u l l days - Sundays * Totals not available 26. 27. 28. I f you would l i k e to take some courses what kind of help do you think you might need f i r s t (in order to plan for your future)? a) general assessment of interests for personal development 4 b) hobbies or volunteer experience 1 c) guidance, counselling, and educational assessment 5 d) aid i n selection and planning courses 5 e) longer term career planning 5 f) don't know 1 *Totals not available 261. Where would you go for the above l i s t e d help? a ) WRC b) UBC c) colleges e) private agencies f) don't know part-time or full-time courses?' a) part-time b) full-time c) don't know *2 did not respond What times of the year are best for you in taking either part-time or full-time courses? a ) spring b) summer c) f a l l d) winter 6 2 0 1 6 0 7 2 3 3 LP 11 7 0 8 3 7 0 TOTALS 40 14 8 4 4 Total: 17 1 20 10 15 4 0 1 3 4 2 2 4 8 1 0 0 1 4 0 0 4 5 14 4 23 Total: 40 prefer 10 13 5 28 2 1 1 4 0 1 4 5 Total: 38* 4 9 5 18 2 3 3 8 9 9 8 26 8 10 11 29 *Respondents indicated more than oni~ Total: 143 7 Questions and Responses (Continued) Totals per Responses CIYL DPP LP TOTAL Group Size: 12 17 11 40 29. What kind of learning situation i s best for you under your present circumstances? a) seminars 5 6 5 16 b) lectures 3 7 7 17 c) group discussions 7 12 5 24 d) case studies 2 1 3 6 e) role play 3 1 1 5 f) think tank 3 2 3 8 g) reporting 0 1 1 2 h) home assignments 2 0 5 7 i) workshop follow-up 4 1 2 7 j) sharing support 3 6 3 12 *Totals not available Totals: * 30. How much would you be w i l l i n g to pay per session: a) 1 day, 7 hours Range $10 - 50 b) 2 hours $ 4 - 25 c) weekend,20 hours $20 - 99+ (many responses indicated that they could't answer as i t depended on the course) 31. Would your employer be w i l l i n g to pay for your course? a) yes 2 2 1 5 b) no 7 6 4 17 Tota l : 22 32. What would be the most important cons ation in your taking a course? , a) finances •b) time c) location of course d) c h i l d care e) transportation f) none g) don't know *Totals not available 33. From what or whom did you hear of this workshop (or interview)? a) relati v e b) friend c) 1 b u l l e t i n d) newspaper e) radio f) other 3 *2 did not respond 3 5 0 8 7 8 6 21 3 6 9 12 0 3 2 5 0 0 0 0 2 3 1 6 1 0 1 2 Total: 0 1 1 2 2 2 4 8 5 6 4 15 1 3 1 5 0 1 0 1 3 3 2 8 Total: 38* 8 144 Questions and Responses (Continued) Totals per Response Group CIYL DPP LP TOTALS Size: 12 17 11 40 34. Please indicate your bi r t h order? a) f i r s t born with brothers/sisters 6 4 4 14 b) only child 1 2 0 3 c) second c h i l d 0 4 2 6 d) middle c h i l d 4 2 2 8 e) l a s t born 1 4 3 8 *1 did not respond Total: 39* 35. Did you always feel you would work outside the home at some time in your l i f e ? a) yes 9 11 10 30 b) no 2 5 1 8 *2 did not respond T o t a l . 3 & t 36. When did you f i r s t begin to make career or work plans? a) childhood 2 3 2 7 b) teens 9 8 2 19 c) early twenties 1 1 3 5 d) late twenties 0 0 2 2 e) 30-40 0 3 1 4 f) 40-50 0 1 0 1 g) over 50 0 0 0 0 h) not applicable 0 0 1 1 1 did not respond Total: 39* 37. What one word could best describe how you were feeling prior to signing up for this course or interview? a) positive or indifferent 5 2 4 11 b) negative 7 .14 6. .27 38. What prompted you to sign up for this . course or interview? Total: 38 a) improve s k i l l s 0 6 0 6 b) interest 3 5 3 11 c) cur i o s i t y 0 6 2 8 d) job advancement 2 0 1 3 e) other 8 5 5 18 *4 did not respond Tot a l : . 36 * 39. Please indicate on the following scale how you f e l t about your early schooling? a) motivated - Highly 1 4 7 2 13 2 4 2 3 9 3 2 0 1 3 4 0 2 0 2 not very 5 0 . 1 . .1 2 *11 did not respond — Total: Z9~* 145 Questions and Responses (Continued) Group Size: CIYL 12 Totals per Response DPP 17 LP 11 TOTALS 40 39. (continued) b) Successful - very 1 2 3 4 unsuccessful 5 *12 did not respond c) Enjoyable - very 1 2 3 4 not very 5 40. *5 did not respond Given your present l i f e / c a r e e r situation, which of the following situations, best describes you: a) selecting b) improving c) changing d) stuck *5 did not respond 2 6 2 0 0 3 3 4 1 0 2 5 0 1 1 4 3 2 0 0 4 2 2 0 1 8 14 4 1 1 Total: 28* 11 7 11 3 3 Total: 35* 9 5 10 11 Total: 35* "Comments for questions 14,33,37,38 are l i s t e d on the attached sheets. 146 LIFEPLANNING INTERVIEWS COMMENTS Q u e s t i o n 14: Has t h e r e been anyone i n y o u r l i f e who has t a k e n a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n y o u r c a r e e r p l a n s ? spouse, husband, f r i e n d s / f a m i l y , p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s . Q u e s t i o n s 33: From what o r whom d i d you he a r o f t h i s workshop? l e c t u r e ( s t r e s s ) , TV. Q u e s t i o n 37: What one word c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how you were f e e l i n g p r i o r t o s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? d e p r e s s e d , h o p e f u l , u n s e t t l e d , u n d e c i d e d , c o n f u s e d , ' o p t i m i s t i c , c o n f u s e d , c o n f u s e d , e x c i t e d , c o n f u s e d , d e p r e s s e d , unwanted c o n f u s e d . Q u e s t i o n 38: What prompted you t o s i g n up f o r t h i s i n t e r v i e w / A n x i e t y about f u t u r e . A l t e r n a t i v e s . S e a r c h f o r g u i d a n c e . Need a change. P l a n my f u t u r e . To h e l p me f i n d a j o b , perhaps i d e a s f o r a new a r e a i n w h i c h t o s e a r c h . A CAREER IN YOUR L I F E COMMENTS Q u e s t i o n 14: Has t h e r e been anyone i n y o u r l i f e who has t a k e n a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n you r c a r e e r p l a n s ? e m p l o y e r / s p o u s e / p a r e n t / f r i e n d s , mother and f a t h e r , p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s , c o u n s e l l o r , f r i e n d , f r i e n d s . Q u e s t i o n 33: From what o r whom d i d you he a r o f t h i s workshop? program d i r e c t o r / f r i e n d , a n o t h e r C.E, c o u r s e , Women's Re s o u r c e s C e n t r e , C o u n s e l o r , Women's R e s o u r s e s C e n t r e . Q u e s t i o n 37: What one word c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how you were f e e l i n g p r i o r to s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? s e a r c h i n g , b e w i l d e r e d , p u t t i n g i t t o g e t h e r , f r u s t r a t e d , c o n f u s e d , c o n f u s e d , a g o n i z i n g o v e r c a r e e r p l a n s , s c a r e d , a i m l e s s , good, u n s a t i s f i e d , i m p a t i e n t , e x c i e t e m e n t . 147 Q u e s t i o n 38: What prompted you to s i g n up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? b e w i l d e r e d , change c a r e e r , d i r e c t i o n , h e l p i n d e c i s i o n -making, c o u n s e l l o r s recommendation, e x p l o r e o p t i o n s , l a c k of s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n . DEVELOPING PERSONAL POTENTIAL COMMENTS Q u e s t i o n 14: Has t h e r e been anyone i n y o u r l i f e who has tak e n a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n you r c a r e e r p l a n s ? c o u n s e l l o r , c l o s e f r i e n d s , f r i e n d s , husband, f r i e n d s / f a m i l y , WRC, f r i e n d , husband, v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s , d a u g h t e r , d o c t o r f r i e n d , f r i e n d , f r i e n d . Q u e s t i o n 33: Prom what o r whom d i d you hear o f t h i s workshop? WRC,WRC,Counsellor WRC, C l a r e B u c k l a n d , p r e v i o u s c o u r s e , l i b r a r y . Q u e s t i o n 37: What one word c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how you were f e e l i n g p r i o r to s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? f r u s t r a t e d , l o s t , u n s e t t l e d , c o n f u s e d , c o n f u s e d , b o r e d , a m b i v a l e n t , u n d e c i d e d , r e s t l e s s , becoming r e - d i r e c t e d , e x p e c t a n t , a p p r e h e n s i v e , u n s e t t l e d , l o n e l y , e x c i t e d , mixed-up, d e p r e s s e d , f e d - u p , b o r e d . Questons 38: What prompted you to s i g n up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ? WRC, need to o r d e r l i f e b e t t e r , c l a r i f y g o a l s , improve l i f e g e n e r a l l y , s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t , g u i d a n c e and h e l p . 

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