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An evaluation of lifeplanning interventions : comparing a career development course with a personal development… Long, Bonita Clarice 1978

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AN EVALUATION OF LIFEPLANNING INTERVENTIONS:  COMPARING A  CAREER DEVELOPMENT COURSE WITH A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE AND LIFEPLANNING INTERVIEWS FOR WOMEN by B o n i t a C l a r i c e Long B.Ed.,. U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1978  (c)  B o n i t a C l a r i c e Long, 1978  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  I agree  that  the Library shall make it freely available for r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by his representatives. of  It  is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my  written permission.  Department of  RHnratinn  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date  rtLcP.  ii  ABSTRACT  AN E V A L U A T I O N OF L I F E P L A N N I N G INTERVENTIONS: COMPARING A CAREER DEVELOPMENT COURSE WITH A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT COURSE AND L I F E P L A N N I N G INTERVIEWS FOR WOMEN The p u r p o s e o f t h i s and  efficiency  study  of a three-day  with a six-session personal planning  developed  4.  development course  development course  a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  The c o - o r d i n a t o r  2. 3.  career  compared  and one-hour  life-  i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d t o women t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n -  uing Education  1.  was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of the Centre's  the following criteria.of  Columbia.  career  success  development program f o r these i n t e r v e n t i o n s :  P a r t i c i p a n t s should e x h i b i t n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards women's l i f e s t y l e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s should l e a r n a planning process. P a r t i c i p a n t s should s t r u c t u r e t h e i r time to i n c r e a s e nont r a d i t i o n a l behaviors. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d f i n d c e r t a i n components o f t h e c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n o t h e r s .  The i n t e r v e n t i o n s w e r e o f f e r e d t o a d u l t women i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . The c o u r s e s  and i n t e r v i e w s were e v a l u a t e d  responses obtained  by o b s e r v a t i o n  through questionnaires.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  were  knowledge, awareness,  per-  designed  to obtain information regarding  ceptions  o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n and b e h a v i o r s  nontraditional activities. they  shared  and w i t h  o f t h e women r e l a t e d t o  The c o m p a r i s o n groups were c h o s e n b e c a u s e  t h e same g o a l s ,  o b j e c t i v e s a n d w e r e t h e same t a r g e t  popula-  tion . Using  chi-square,  t h e comparison groups were found  l e n t on age and e d u c a t i o n status.  b u t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t o be  different  equiva-  on m a r i t a l  Analysis  of v a r i a n c e ,  c h i - s q u a r e and t h e W i l c o x o n s i g n e d - r a n k s  t e s t were used t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among means  (pre-  t e s t and f o l l o w - u p ) and d i f f e r e n c e s  among t h e c o m p a r i s o n groups  four  weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d  1.  2.  3. 4.  that:  There was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n r e p o r t e d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s f o r t h e c a r e e r development c o u r s e , the p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e and t h e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r view p a r t i c i p a n t s . ; There was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n r e p o r t e d n o n t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r s f o r t h e c a r e e r development c o u r s e , t h e p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e and t h e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i pants . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p o r t e d p l a n n i n g ability. The c a r e e r development c o u r s e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more effective i n increasing nontraditional l i f e s t y l e attitudes, n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e behaviors or planning a b i l i t y than t h e p e r s o n a l development c o u r s e o r t h e l i f e p l a n n i n g interviews.  Four weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n 62% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s reported 85%  t h a t they had a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y  f o r t h e i r f u t u r e g o a l s and  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they f e l t much more p o s i t i v e about t h e m s e l v e s .  o v e r a l l m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n components was r a t e d and was m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e four-week f o l l o w - u p  The  highly  period.  I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s  f o r women  were e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e a t t i t u d e s and i n increasing nontraditional  behaviors.  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  age  J.  L I S T OF TABLES  v i 11  L I S T OF FIGURES  x  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION TO THE  1  STUDY  INTRODUCTION  1  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  3  STATEMENT OF THE PURPOSE  4  APPROACH  4  OPERATIONAL D E F I N I T I O N OF TERMS  5  Dependent V a r i a b l e s Program E v a l u a t i o n  .  5  Procedures  5  ASSUMPTIONS HYPOTHESES  6 . . . . .  6  DESCRIPTION OF THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS  7  CHAPTER II  REVIEW OF SELECTED RELATED L I T E R A T U R E  9  THE L I F E - R O L E CHOICES OF WOMEN The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e H o m e - C a r e e r C o n f l i c t L i f e - r o l e Choice A Shift  i n Life-role  The E f f e c t L i f e - r o l e Achievement  Orientation  9 on 9 11  O r i e n t a t i o n has on  L i f e S t a g e s and D e v e l o p m e n t a l T r e n d s  12 13  V  R o l e C h o i c e and W e l l - B e i n g  14  Work a n d W e l l - b e i n g  16  Developmental Counselling  Implications  . . . 18  THE GROWTH OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS  . . 20  C o n c e p t s , Terms a n d D e f i n i t i o n s Forces Behind  the Career  20  Development  Programs  21  Surveys o f Career Development Programs THE EVALUATION OF L I F E P L A N N I N G PROGRAMS  . . . 22 . . . 23  Lifeplanning  Interventions  - Descriptive  Lifeplanning Evaluation  Interventions  -  Lifeplanning  Interventions  . . 24  Informal 26  - Formal  Evaluaton  28  SUMMARY  37  CHAPTER III  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  39  OVERVIEW  40  CONTENT OF COURSES AND INTERVIEWS  40  OVERVIEW OF EVALUATION STRATEGY  42  EVALUATION PROCEDURES  45  DEVELOPMENT OF QUESTIONNAIRES  47  HYPOTHESES  50  . . . .'  ASSUMPTIONS EVALUATION PROCEDURES: ANALYSES SUMMARY  51 DATA COLLECTION AND 52 56  CHAPTER IV  FINDINGS AND D I S C U S S I O N  57  vi  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE -  -  ANALYSES OF DATA FROM QUESTIONNAIRES RELATION TO EACH HYPOTHESES  57 IN 60  DISCUSSION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF THE LIFEPLANNING INTERVENTIONS. Observations E f f e c t i v e n e s s of the I n t e r v e n t i o n s  67 68  . . . .  E f f i c i e n c y of the I n t e r v e n t i o n s SUMMARY  70 76 82  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY, LIMITATIONS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  83  SUMMARY  83  LIMITATIONS  84.  CONCLUSIONS  85  IMPLICATIONS  85  RECOMMENDATIONS  86  REFERENCES  87  APPENDICES  95  A.  TELEPHONE SURVEY  96  B.  CALENDAR DESCRIPTIONS  98  C.  LIFESTYLE ATTITUDE SCALE  100  D.  PRETEST AND FOLLOW-UP PLANNING ABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE WITH ANSWER SHEET  102  PRETEST AND FOLLOW-UP LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST  105  POST-SESSION MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRES: A Career i n Your L i f e Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l L i f e p l a n n i n g Interviews  108 109 110  E.  F.  G.  GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND VALUE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  I l l  vii H.  COURSE OUTLINE - A CAREER I N YOUR L I F E  115  T.  COURSE OUTLINE - DEVELOPING PERSONAL POTENTIAL . .  J.  I N I T I A L AND SECOND CONTRACT  K.  FOLLOW-UP MEANINGFULNESS  n  l  120  QUESTIONNAIRES  A Career i n Your L i f e Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l Lifeplanning Interviews  122 124 126  L.  GENERAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE  128  M.  OBSERVATION QHECKLIST  N.  TELEPHONE INSTRUCTIONS FOR L I F E P L A N N I N G  ^  133  PARTICIPANTS  134  0.  INTRODUCTION  FOR COURSE P A R T I C I P A N T S  135  P.  COVERING LETTER FOR MAILED FOLLOW-UP FORMS . . . .  136  Q.  TABULATION OF GENERAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE  .  137  viii  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table  Page  1.  D a t e s o f C o u r s e s and  Interviews  2.  O u t l i n e of D i f f e r e n c e s i n P r e s e n t a t i o n  43  3.  Sample S i z e Used  52  4.  Data C o l l e c t i o n Schedule  54  5.  Comparison of M a r i t a l  58  to Test  C o m p a r i s o n o f Age  8.  Summary o f C h i - s q u a r e Demographic Data  9.  10.  11.  12.  13.  14.  15.  16.  Each H y p o t h e s i s  Status  6. ' C o m p a r i s o n o f E d u c a t i o n 7.  43  Attained  58  Groups  59  Tests  on  Group 59  M e a n s and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o n L i f e s t y l e Attitude Scale A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Attitude  for  the 62  Lifestyle 62  Mean Number o f N o n t r a d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s on t h e L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t P r e t e s t and F o l l o w - u p  64  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e L i f e s t y l e Behavior  64  for Nontraditional Change  Comparison of P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e on P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y  Scores 66  Comparison of P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e Scores That: Got W o r s e , o r S t a y e d t h e Same and I m p r o v e d on P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y - F o l l o w - u p R e s p o n s e s t o t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do P r e s e n t l y Have a P l a n n i n g S t r a t e g y ? " Frequency of I n c r e a s e d N o n t r a d i t i o n a l L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r s by I t e m  66  You 71  71  ix 17.  18.  19.  20.  21.  22.  Follow-up Responses t o the Q u e s t i o n "Do Y o u F e e l Any D i f f e r e n t l y ? "  74  G u i d a n c e , C o u n s e l l i n g and I n f o r m a t i o n Sought F o l l o w i n g t h e I n t e r v e n t i o n s  74  Follow-up Responses to the Q u e s t i o n "Did t h e A d v e r t i s i n g G i v e You a Clear P i c t u r e . .?"  76  Meaningfulness to P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e Obtained a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w - u p P e r i o d s f o r "A Career i n Your L i f e "  78  Meaningfulness to P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d at I n i t i a l and F o l l o w - u p P e r i o d s f o r "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  79  Meaningfulness to P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s on a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d on I n i t i a l a n d F o l l o w - u p P e r i o d s f o r "Lifeplanning" Interviews  80  X  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1.  P r e - and F o u r - w e e k F o l l o w - u p  2.  Model f o r E v a l u a t i o n  Tests  39 44  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish  t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e members o f my  c o m m i t t e e D r . P. D a v i d s o n , for I  their  D r . M. N e v i s o n  a n d D r . H. R a t z l a f f  e n c o u r a g e m e n t and comments t h r o u g h o u t  also wish  t o thank  this  process.  c l o s e f r i e n d s and f a m i l y f o r t h e i r  p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  continued  The s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e t h e s t a f f  at  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d was a l s o much a p p r e c i a t e d .  of  a l l I would  like  t o e x p r e s s ray d e e p e s t  f r o m whom I h a v e l e a r n e d s o much.  thanks  t o D r . R.  Most Schutz  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION TO THE  STUDY  Introduction  As i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s o f women a r e s e e k i n g and  re-entry into the workforce  universities  further education  s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s and s e r v i c e s i n  and c o l l e g e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d  (Astin,  1 9 7 6 ; Tom,  I r o n s i d e & H e n d r y , 1 9 7 5 ) t o s m o o t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f women f r o m  home,  to work and t o s c h o o l . Programs based on t h e workshop model have p r o v i d e d for  an o p p o r t u n i t y  c l o s e i n t e r a c t i o n and m u t u a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g w i t h one's  (Berman, G e l s o , G r e e n f e i g & H i r s c h , 1977; K a t z & Knapp, Chesler  (1972) suggested  t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l modes o f  peers  1974).  psychotherapy  may n o t b e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e o r e f f e c t i v e means f o r women t o c h a n g e . Women s h o u l d  be viewed a s " i n t r a n s i t i o n "  t h a t f o c u s upon e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (Brooks,  and be p r o v i d e d toward  choice of l i f e s t y l e  1978).  A means o f i n t e g r a t i n g  these  services utilizing  t i o n of career development as "self-development (Gysbers  services  over  & M o o r e , 1 9 7 5 , p. 6 4 8 ) h a s b e e n p o s t u l a t e d .  (Richardson,  1 9 7 8 ) t h a t women's  a broader  defini-  the l i f e - s p a n " I t has been  found  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s have a c o n t i n u i n g and  s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e o n t h e i r w o r k l i v e s and p l a n s w h i c h h a s s p e c i f i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r developmental With  a few e x c e p t i o n s  counselling strategies  (Berman e t a l . ,  1977; T i c h e n o r ,  has been a l a c k o f s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n o f such needed a r e d a t a r e g a r d i n g  the r e l a t i v e  1  (Hansen, 1974).  courses.  1977) t h e r e Particularly  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of career  courses  and  other  t y p e s o f a i d , o r o f no a i d a t a l l .  whether or not career need  courses provide  Also  the kind  needed a r e d a t a on  of help  adults  little  i n t h e way o f  comparisons o f workshops o r group approaches i n c o n t i n u i n g outcome c r i t e r i a  & G o e r i n g , 1977). tive  t h a t c a n be u s e f u l l y employed  Objectifiable criteria  services designed  payoff  f o r returning  could  e v a l u a t i o n was a p p r o p r i a t e ,  specifically  changed o r about t o change.  such d e c i s i o n problems a s :  an e c o n o m i c a n d  Program e v a l u a t i o n terms e v a l u a t i o n  Program e v a l u a t i o n  1977).  s e v e r a l s i t u a t i o n s when  The  I s t h i s p r o g r a m a good i d e a ?  I f s o , what c a n  I f n o t , how c a n we  devise  our constraints? h a s come t o h a v e many d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s a n d o f t e n  and r e s e a r c h  according  become e n t a n g l e d  (Oetting,  1976).  t o B l a c k w e l l and Bolman (1977) s h o u l d  skills  they can f u n c t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e has noted  of e v a l u a t i o n  that p a r t i c i p a n t planning  lessens  ( B l a c k w e l l & Bolman, 1977) and has i d e n t i f i e d  ( C a r r , 1977).  give develop-  optimally.  and t r a i n i n g n o t u s u a l l y c l a r i f i e d  evaluation  formal  i n v o l v e judgements, u s u a l l y  i n d i v i d u a l s a n d s y s t e m s some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r m u t u a l g r o w t h a n d ment so t h a t  social  o f a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s and a d d r e s s  we do t o make i t w o r k a s w e l l a s p o s s i b l e ? something b e t t e r , given  suppor-  i f a p r o g r a m was new o r n e w l y  A l l evaluations  comparative, about the d e s i r a b i l i t y  or  ( N i c h o l s , 1974; R i c e  demonstrate that  adults yield  (1975) i d e n t i f i e d  systematic  education  t o t h e community and t h e u n i v e r s i t y ( R i c e & G o e r i n g ,  E d w a r d s and G u t t e n t a g  the  they  (Babcock & Kaufman, 1976). Review of the l i t e r a t u r e produced  of  feel  The e v a l u a t o r  the threat  interpersonal  when l o o k i n g a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f  must be aware o f t h e w h o l e  i n w h i c h e v a l u a t i o n must o c c u r and b e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e v a l u a t o r s 1  context impact  3 on  t h a t c o n t e x t and to changes t h a t occur a s t h e e y a l u a t q r ' s work  continues. The The  purpose  and method o f e v a l u a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s  e v a l u a t i o n method used  i s based  on G o t t m a n a n d L e i b l u m ' s  part flow chart i n order to f a c i l i t a t e evaluation. and  (1974)  One o f t h e e n d e m i c c o m p l a i n t s o f b o t h e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s  actual decision-making process  (Bennet  Statement  Centre  (U.B.C.),  & Lumsdaine,  i s designed  tailored  t o f u r t h e r growth  women (Thorn, I r o n s i d e *  1975).  and e n c o u r a g e  & Hendry, 1975).  o f nondegree courses f o r a d u l t s .  program  In i t s infancy,  procedures. Potential"  Another  (1975).  One p a r t i c u l a r  t o be t h e model w i t h w h i c h  and i n d i v i d u a l " L i f e p l a n n i n g "  some o f t h e same b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s , the c a r e e r development course  i n Your  t o implement e v a l u a t i o n  interviews offered  as comparison  identified  c o u r s e "A C a r e e r  Continuing Education course "Developing  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n were s e l e c t e d  as  definition  as b e i n g a w o r t h w h i l e program t o e v a l -  u a t e a s i t was new a n d s e e k i n g a n s w e r s t o t h e a b o v e q u e s t i o n s  was d e t e r m i n e d  which  encompasses.  T h i s p r o g r a m was i d e n t i f i e d  by E d w a r d s a n d G u t t e n t a g  self-  A career  t h i s program i s s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e t a s k o f c r e a t i n g a working o f what c a r e e r development  Columbia  to f i ta variety of  d e v e l o p m e n t program has r e c e n t l y grown o u t o f t h e d a y t i m e o f f e r s a wide v a r i e t y  i n the  of Problem  o f f e r s c l a s s e s and s h o r t c o u r s e s  actualization of  used  f o r Continuing Education, University of B r i t i s h  women's n e e d s a n d  Life"  five-  t h e r e l e v a n c e and u s e f u l n e s s o f  p o l i c y - m a k e r s i s t h a t t h e e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s a r e so l i t t l e  The  study.  Personal through  models f o r they  shared  o b j e c t i v e s and t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n  (Epstein & Tripodi,  1977).  4 Statement  The  purpose  of the Purpose  of t h i s study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e  t h e e f f i c i e n c y and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a t h r e e - d a y c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " to  a s i x - s e s s i o n "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  "Lifeplanning" for  interviews offered  to adult  compared  c o u r s e and one-hour  women t h r o u g h  the Centre  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C.  Approach  Through d i s c u s s i o n w i t h course i n s t r u c t o r s ,  i n t e r v i e w e r s and t h e  program c o - o r d i n a t o r , a c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s , content  and h i s t o r y  o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s was d e v e l o p e d .  A preliminary  p h o n e s u r v e y o f t h e c a r e e r c o u r s e ' s p a s t p a r t i c i p a n t s was u t i l i z e d t o more c l e a r l y  d e f i n e t h e v a r i a b l e s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e program  A).  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s a s a d v e r t i s e d  in  A brief  t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c a l e n d a r c a n be found The  (Appendix  i n Appendix  B.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e two c o u r s e s a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w s o n t h e  k n o w l e d g e , a t t i t u d e a n d b e h a v i o r s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s was e x a m i n e d . The  two c o u r s e  and i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a s k e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s e l f - r e p o r t s interview.  immediately p r i o r  t o complete  to the course or  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s e l f - r e p o r t s a s k e d  f o r information  c o n c e r n i n g demographic v a r i a b l e s , knowledge r e g a r d i n g p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y , lifestyle The  a t t i t u d e s and t i m e s p e n t a t p a r t i c u l a r  lifestyle  activities.  e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e two c o u r s e s a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w s was d e t e r -  mined by a s e l f - r e p o r t  rating  of the meaningfulness  of v a r i o u s aspects  of  t h e c o u r s e and i n t e r v i e w c o n t e n t , and was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e end  of  each d a i l y  s e s s i o n and f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  the course or interview.  5  Operational  Dependent  traditional be  Scale  attitude.  This deals with  self-reported  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s as Questionnaire.  Appendix  engage i n .  the The  self-reported  (Hands, 1974).  have.  The  variety to  of  t y p e s of  will  be  Attitude  the  be  t h a t women and and  any  considered mothers  repre-  typically  change i n commitment  will  Checklist  E.  Procedures Measures whether i s b a s e d on  calls  ;  f o r the  specific activities. the  the  the  program reached  e f f e c t s the  observation  The  factors  The  and  effectiveness  dependent v a r i a b l e s  Planning A b i l i t y  m e a s u r e d by  various  the  Ability  the  program  s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of  of  described  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  the  Behavior  d e s i g n of  that prevent or f a c i l i t a t e  outcomes.  components of  the  ratings  of  interventions.  should  cognitions program  the  Checklist). program  Efficiency  the m e a n i n g f u l n e s s Appendix  a  above ( L i f e s t y l e  the  self-reported  stated  measurement of  e f f e c t s r a n g i n g f r o m p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and  Efficiency.  will  the P l a n n i n g  Behaviors or a c t i v i t i e s  Appendix  m e a s u r e d by  and/or the  s c o r e on  i n response to a 32-item L i f e s t y l e Behavior  s u c c e s s and  Scale,  and  D.  particular activity  criteria  of  the  range of a c t i v i t i e s  Effectiveness. criteria  a  C.  m e a s u r e d by  Appendix  Program E v a l u a t i o n  to  orientation  A measure of knowledge i n r e l a t i o n to  L i f e s t y l e behaviors. of  (career)  respect  i n response to a 20-item L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e  (Burns, 1974).  sentative  feelings with  (motherhood) or n o n t r a d i t i o n a l  Planning a b i l i t y .  be  Terms  Variables  Lifestyle  will  D e f i n i t i o n of  F.  of  6  Assumptions  The  following  basic  a s s u m p t i o n s were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o u r s e  i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e p r o g r a m  co-ordinator:  1.  Knowledge a l o n e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o promote change.  2.  A d u l t women n e e d  to plan f o r  3.  Most people l i k e  t o work.  4.  W i t h h e l p p e o p l e who h e s i t a t e  their lifestyle  can implement  development.  change.  Hypotheses  All  participants w i l l  to n o n t r a d i t i o n a l , following 1.  report  a change i n a t t i t u d e from t r a d i t i o n a l  t o w a r d s women's l i f e s t y l e s  Participants'  s c o r e s show a g a i n f o u r  the  Lifestyle Attitude  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  interviews  participants  participants  A l l participants w i l l  report  i n more a c t i v i t i e s  S c a l e when c o m p a r e d  with  lifestyle  changes r e f l e c t e d i n an  female r o l e functions  centered  around j o b s ,  and  education,  t r a i n i n g , community work, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  personal growth groups. hypotheses:  show g r e a t e r g a i n a s  interviews.  commitment t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l  professional  as measured by  i n the "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  c o u r s e and " L i f e p l a n n i n g "  participation  Personal  Scale.  measured by t h e L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e the  weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e  and " D e v e l o p i n g  P o t e n t i a l " and t h e " L i f e p l a n n i n g "  increased  by t h e  hypotheses:  c o u r s e s "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  2.  as i n d i c a t e d  The c h a n g e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  3.  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " , and  "Lifeplanning"  course report activities 4.  participants  increased  four  weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e  participation i n nontraditional  a s measured on t h e L i f e s t y l e  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " in nontraditional in  "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  participants  Behavior  report  Checklist.  a greater  increase  a c t i v i t i e s when c o m p a r e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s  t h e c o u r s e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e -  planning"  interviews  as measured on t h e L i f e s t y l e  Behavior  Checklist. A l l participants w i l l ability 5.  as i n d i c a t e d  by t h e f o l l o w i n g  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " , "Lifeplanning" the  course or interview  i n lifeplanning  hypotheses:  " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and  participants  Planning A b i l i t y 6.  demonstrate an increase  show a g a i n f o u r  weeks  a s measured by t e s t s c o r e s on t h e  Questionnaire.  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  participants  show g r e a t e r g a i n a s  measured by t e s t s c o r e s ' on t h e P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y when c o m p a r e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s Potential"  following  Questionnaire  i n the "Developing  c o u r s e and " L i f e p l a n n i n g "  Personal  interviews.  Description of the Following Chapters  This The  thesis  i s organized  review of selected  major headings.  into five  literature  c h a p t e r s and a n a p p e n d i x .  appears i n Chapter I I under  The h e a d i n g s a r e s e l e c t e d  literature  related  three tothe  growth of c a r e e r development programs, t h e l i f e - r o l e c h o i c e s of women a n d p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n  o f l i f e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r women.  8 Chapter I I I contains course  and  p l a n and IV.  the r e s e a r c h  interview content,  procedures.  The  m e t h o d o l o g y and  questionnaires  r e s u l t s of  C h a p t e r V i n c l u d e s a summary o f  conclusions  b a s e d on  appear i n the  the r e s e a r c h  appendix.  and  d i s c u s s i o n of the  the  evaluation  the e v a l u a t i o n appear i n Chapter the p r e v i o u s  findings.  chapters  F o r m s and  and  questionnaires  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF SELECTED RELATED LITERATURE  The major  review of s e l e c t e d  under  three  headings: Selected  As  l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  there  l i t e r a t u r e related to the l i f e - r o l e  i s a continuing  r o l e s on t h e i r work  and s u b t l e  lives  influence  and p l a n s r e c e n t  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o rdevelopmental counselling Selected  literature  related  choices  o f women's  with  interventions.  t o the growth of career  S i n c e t h e p a r t i c u l a r d i l e m m a s women f a c e  difficulty  they e x p e r i e n c e i n making  new  development program model as a f a c i l i t a t i n g  lifestyle  concept as w e l l as the f i n d i n g s of recent  traditional  findings are discussed  programs.  career  o f women.  development  compound t h e  choices,  the use of a and i n t e g r a t i n g  program s u r v e y s • w i l l be  discussed. Selected  literature  p r o g r a m s f o r women. yet very l i t t l e  r e l a t e d ' t o program e v a l u a t i o n  There i s a p l e t h o r a  adequate e v a l u a t i o n  mine t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  ventions  of courses offered  has taken place  the headings:  - descriptive, lifeplanning interventions  lifeplanning  interventions  - formal  t o women  i n order to deter-  or e f f i c i e n c y of the programs.  r e v i e w s l i f e p l a n n i n g programs under  of l i f e p l a n n i n g  This  section  Lifeplanning  - i n f o r m a l , and  evaluation.  The L i f e - r o l e C h o i c e s o f Women  The  Influence  o f t h e Home-Career c o n f l i c t 9  inter-  on L i f e - r o l e C h o i c e  10  Women t o d a y  a r e f r e e t o choose from a d i v e r s i t y and range o f  role options  t h a t were g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e even i n t h e p r e v i o u s  generation.  While  to  fulfill  they  themselves  m o s t women s t i l l  wish  r o l e s a t some t i m e  a r e encouraged by changing  and u s e t h e i r  societal  attitudes  t a l e n t s i n w o r k o u t s i d e t h e home,  t o m a r r y a n d p u r s u e homemaking a n d p a r e n t i n g  i n their  lives.  The r e a l i t y  i s t h a t women do h a v e  t h e c h o i c e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o w o r k o u t s i d e t h e home, a n d t h a t have c h o i c e s about t h e k i n d o f work t h e y w i l l do ( R i c h a r d s o n , Women's o r i e n t a t i o n of  their  life-role  c h o i c e s must be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e f e m a l e  the career versus marriage  The on  female  i n v e s t i g a t e d (Richardson,  career  1973).  Thus  o r i e n t a t i o n i n women i s a n i m p o r t a n t  t o be s t u d i e d (Osipow, concept  1974b).  t o w o r k o u t s i d e t h e home w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t  c h o i c e s c a n be m e a n i n g f u l l y  variable  they  1973).  o f c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n h a s emerged i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  career development i n an attempt  t o i n v e s t i g a t e how women  i n c o r p o r a t e c a r e e r a n d homemaking r o l e s i n t h e i r l i v e s .  Richardson  (1974a) b r o a d l y d e f i n e d c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n as t h e e x t e n t  to which  women a r e c o m m i t t e d  t o and a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e work r o l e .  p r o v i d e s o n e means o f e x a m i n i n g  The c o n s t r u c t  t h e p r i o r i t i e s women p l a c e o n a n o c c u p a -  t i o n a l r o l e a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n time. Female s e l f - e x p e c t a t i o n s about l i f e - r o l e s g u i t i e s involved i n choosing  by M i y a h i r a  (1975).as  ambi-  from husbands' a t t i t u d e s and  behaviors w i t h reference to t h e i r working that marriage  from  e d u c a t i o n a l / v o c a t i o n a l p a t h w a y s when  m a r i t a l s t a t u s i s ambiguous, and p a r t l y  position  stem p a r t l y  occupies  wives.  '. T h e c e n t r a l  i n women's f u t u r e p l a n s was i d e n t i f i e d  one o f ' t h e ' p r i n c i p l e d i f f i c u l t i e s  t h e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f women.  surrounding  11  .Conflicts are apt to center especially  self-fulfillment  on a l t e r n a t e r o u t e s  i n t e g r a t e d w i t h marriage  of p r e s s u r e w i t h w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l if  a c h i e v e m e n t seems e s s e n t i a l  Miles  (1977) and Farmer  conflict  (home v e r s u s  to s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  t h a t more t h a n  i t i s complexly  family planning  determined  issues  by Brooks  involving  (Brodsky,  Richardson  important  (1978) a s t r a n s i t i o n a l  1978). lifestyles  i s needed  t o f a m i l y a n d w o r k r o l e s may b e  r o l e s have o c c u r r e d  i n recent  expecta-  years.  women c o n s i d e r new o p t i o n s a n d r o l e s o u t s i d e t h e home w i t h o u t  difficulty and  social  i n that major s h i f t s i n t h e behaviors,  t i o n s and commitment t o t h e s e Few  i s o p e n t o women  (1978) p o i n t e d o u t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r o l e  i n women w i t h r e s p e c t  particularly  of t h i s  c a r e e r and p e r s o n a l - m a r i t a l -  R e s e a r c h o n women's d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e i r (Bern, 1973) .  1978).  sanction.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n has been i d e n t i f i e d  involvement  (Westervelt,  that the source  one r o l e  degree  to achieve,  c a r e e r ) b u t that a c u l t u r a l l a g e x i s t s between  o p p o r t u n i t y and s o c i a l  yet  and o n i t h e  c a n cope i n o r d e r  (1971) have c o n c l u d e d  i s not the fact  to self-fulfillment,  marriage  (Suniewick,  A Shift The  (Brooks,  1 9 7 8 ) y e t women f a c i n g c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n  a r e at present  not being helped  conflicts  1971).  i nLife-role Orientation literature  on f e m a l e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t r e f l e c t s  wards d u a l o r m u l t i p l e l i f e - r o l e revealed  t o r e s o l v e these  career  that e a r l i e r  choices.  A review  a shift to-  of the l i t e r a t u r e  s t u d i e s i n c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n and l i f e - r o l e  c h o i c e o f women t e n d e d t o d i c h o t o m i z e c a r e e r o r i e n t e d groups o n l y and i g n o r e  s u b j e c t s i n t o homemaking and t h e d u a l r o l e o r compromise  position.  I n 1958,  Empey f o u n d  t h a t i n h e r sample o f high- s c h o o l  s e n i o r s 8 0 % o f t h e y o u n g women p r e f e r r e d m a r r i a g e 1968,  Mintz  indicated it  over  In  a n d P a t t e r s o n f o u n d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f c o l l e g e women  a genuine i n t e r e s t  as a major g o a l .  i n a career although  Rand a n d M i l l e r  they  (1972) s u r v e y e d  c o l l e g e women a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f g i r l s plans  career.  t h a t combined a c a r e e r , m a r r i a g e  d i d n o tsee  high  opted  s c h o o l and for  life  and motherhood, choosing t o  work most o f t h e t i m e . Several authors  (Broverman e t a l . , 1972; M e d n i c k & T a n g r i , 1972)  have p o i n t e d  o u t t h a t c a r e e r o r i e n t e d women do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e j e c t  the f e m i n i n e  role;  marriage  i n s t e a d , they  plus career  that while  seeking  commitment.  t h i n k i n terms o f a d u a l r o l e of M a n i s and . M o c h i z u k i  c h a n g e , m o s t women a t t e n d i n g l i f e p l a n n i n g  want t o embrace t r a d i t i o n a l a s w e l l a s s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g and  Miller  marriage tion  (1972) have s u g g e s t e d  1975).  against married liberal  Effect  I t has been concluded  working  i n their  (Rand & M i l l e r ,  The  t h a t a new c u l t u r a l  p l u s c a r e e r may r e p l a c e t h e p r e v i o u s  (Oliver,  high of  roles.  homemaking o n l y  that as c u l t u r a l  a t t i t u d e s and d e s i r e s c o n c e r n i n g  convenbiases  their  life-roles  1972).  a study  t o reduce t h e home-career c o n f l i c t  the Strong  Rand  imperative of  j  L i f e - r o l e O r i e n t a t i o n has on Achievement  scores  workshops  women r e l a x , y o u n g women a r e b e c o m i n g more  F a r m e r a n d Bohn ( 1 9 7 0 ) h a v e r e p o r t e d designed  (1972) found  on c a r e e r  s c a l e s and l o w e r  V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t Blank.  the b a s i s of t h i s  study  and o t h e r d a t a ,  i nwhich  instructions  d i di n fact result i n  scores  on homemaking  Vetter  scales  (1973) c o n c l u d e d  that the l e v e l of career  on interest  13  in  women w o u l d r i s e  Other s t u d i e s similar  i f t h e home-career c o n f l i c t w o u l d be r e d u c e d .  (Gray-Shellberg,  V i l l a r e a l and S t o n e , 1972) have found  results.  Gordon and H a l l male s t e r e o t y p e  ( 1 9 7 4 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e women's p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e  o f f e m i n i n i t y was t h e b e s t  of r o l e c o n f l i c t  t h a t women e x p e r i e n c e d .  a c h i e v e m e n t s t r i v i n g s may t h r e a t e n  p r e d i c t o r of various  types  I f women b e l i e v e t h a t  their  their a f f i l i a t i v e relationships,  p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t m a l e s , t h e y may e x p e r i e n c e conflict,  even s a c r i f i c i n g  Alper tation  competence and achievement r e l a t e d  (1974) h a s been s t u d y i n g  to achievement m o t i v a t i o n  has  found  t h a t women w i t h  and  beliefs  score  lower  a n x i e t y and activities.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of sex-role o r i e n -  i n women f o r more t h a n a d e c a d e a n d  t r a d i t i o n a l female o r i e n t a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s  o n a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n m e a s u r e s t h a n women  w i t h n o n t r a d i t i o n a l female o r i e n t a t i o n s . L i f e S t a g e s and D e v e l o p m e n t a l Hall related and to  ( 1 9 7 5 ) p r e d i c t e d a n d f o u n d t h a t woman's l i f e  to her r o l e pressures•(work,  satisfaction. these  sources  Trends  home, s e l f  stage would be  and t i m e ) , c o n f l i c t '  A g e a n d number o f r o l e s w e r e n o t a s s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d  v a r i a b l e s a s was l i f e  stage.  of conflicts i ndifferent  life  Differential stages were  impact of v a r i o u s reported.  Matthews and Tiedman (1964) examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t y l e as d e f i n e d by h i g h development stage  s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , m a r r i a g e and c a r e e r  and  who h a d a t t e n d e d  between 1943 and 1958. They f o u n d t h a t l i f e s t y l e  a t t i t u d e toward c a r e e r  trend.  plans,  and a t t i t u d e s toward c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e f o r a c r o s s -  s e c t i o n a l s a m p l e o f 1,237 women i n N e w t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s highschool  life-  choice  and m a r r i a g e were r e l a t e d w i t h a d e v e l o p m e n t a l  The m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s a t e a c h d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e  preferred  m a r r i a g e and n o n i n v o l v e m e n t  i n c a r e e r f o r t h e m s e l v e s 10 y e a r s  T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d b y more r e c e n t r e s e a r c h b y Rand a n d M i l l e r who f o u n d  that  w i t h age.  i n t e r e s t s and p l a n s t o e n t e r c o l l e g e  Harmon ( 1 9 7 8 )  A t each  (1972)  to decrease  also reported that d i f f e r e n t factors a r e  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h achievement groups.  tended  and c a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t age  l e v e l , women v o i c e d c o n c e r n o v e r m a n a g i n g b o t h a  c a r e e r and f a m i l y .  Of t h e c o l l e g e women, 3 0 % f e l t  t h a t managing a  home w i t h a c a r e e r was t o o much a n d 6 8 % c o n s i d e r e d t h e e f f e c t ing  m o t h e r s o n c h i l d r e n t o b e b a d (Rand Somewhat c o n f l i c t i n g  studied  70 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s  sample wished life. by  and found  they expected  that  t e r m f u t u r e , w o r k was v i e w e d  sidered  expect  of  satisfaction  about  their  ferences  i n their  future  followed  than t h e parent r o l e s satisfying  roles  i n the short  of the three r o l e s  I n e a c h c a s e , m a r r i a g e c o n s i s t e n t l y was c o n Thus, i t appears  t h a t y o u n g women c o n t i n u e  t h a t m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y r o l e s w i l l b e a m o r e m a j o r i n their adult lives  t o the l i f e  who  the great majority of the  A l t h o u g h work and m a r r i a g e  as the l e a s t  t o be most s a t i s f y i n g .  to  relevant  1972).  t o e n t e r t h e work r o l e f i r s t ,  t h e m a r r i a g e and t h e p a r e n t r o l e s .  t h e l o n g term f u t u r e .  of work-  r e s u l t s were f o u n d by R i c h a r d s o n (1978)  w e r e p e r c e i v e d a s more s a t i s f y i n g  in  & Miller,  t o e n a c t work, m a r r i a g e and p a r e n t r o l e s  Moreover,  hence.  plan variable  than t h e work r o l e .  indicated  about  t h e work  Results  t h a t y o u n g women's  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s h a v e more i m p a c t on t h e i r  than t h e i r f e e l i n g s  source  life  feelings  plan pre-  role.  R o l e C h o i c e and W e l l - b e i n g S t u d i e s o f women who h a v e a d o p t e d at  variance with  traditional  lifestyles,  a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s  female r o l e s p r o v i d e s i n t e r e s t i n g  behav-  ioral  and p e r s o n a l i t y d a t a .  Logan  (1973) s t u d i e d  a group o f a c t i v e f e m i n i s t s and a c t i v e Minnesota Multiphasic profiles  Personality  f o r both groups revealed  of b e h a v i o r ,  significant  were o b t a i n e d .  The f e m i n i s t s  scored  the  the Depression, Psychasthaiia f e m i n i s t s , compared  functioning as  a t a higher  While the c l i n i c a l  functioning  patterns  b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s o f women s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher Scale  than t h e  and s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and S o c i a l I n t r o v e r s i o n  lower  Scales.  t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l women, a p p e a r e d  Thus  t o be  l e v e l o f competence and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e a n d ,  a c o r r e l a t e of t h i s higher  socially  (MMPI).  effectively  t r a d i t i o n a l women o n t h e Ego S t r e n g t h on  t r a d i t i o n a l women o n t h e  Inventory  differences  the responses of  l e v e l , were a l s o  l e s s d e p r e s s e d and  introverted.  Cherniss  (1972) h a s p u b l i s h e d  d a t a f r o m h i s s t u d y o f y o u n g women  a c t i v e i n t h e women's l i b e r a t i o n movement and a c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p o f women m a t c h e d o n t h e b a s i s  o f a g e , o c c u p a t i o n and m a r i t a l s t a t u s .  women's l i b e r a t i o n  group were seen as s t r i v i n g  self-determination  w h i c h was h i g h l y v a l u e d .  of v i g o r o u s a c t i v i t y and a s s e r t i v e n e s s A d i s p o s i t i o n toward distinguished  t o maximize t h e i r  They d i s p l a y e d  w h i c h was h i g h l y  structure, organization  of p u r p o s i v e work.  F o r t h e most p a r t ,  had  higher  self-esteem  the  comparison group.  and a g r e a t e r  own  a quality  goal-oriented..  and r a t i o n a l  t h e s e women and g a v e much o f t h e i r  The  planning  a c t i v i t y the q u a l i t y  t h e women's l i b e r a t i o n  sense of s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e  women than  T h a t women who v i e w t h e m s e l v e s i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ways a r e p s y c h o logically ported  healthier  t h a n t h e i r more t r a d i t i o n a l  b y some o f t h e c a r e e r  whose s e l f - c o n c e p t s  sisters  o r i e n t a t i o n research  has been  sup-  (Helson, 1972).  and r o l e a s p i r a t i o n s a r e o r i e n t e d  consistently  Women  16 toward the homemaking r o l e have been found medium to low l e v e l s of s e l f - e s t e e m .  (Richardson,  1975) t o have  Gump (1972) s t u d i e d sex r o l e  a t t i t u d e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i n terms o f ego s t r e n g t h , happiness 162  ( E l a t i o n - d e p r e s s i o n ) and achievement p l a n s .  The m a j o r i t y of  s e n i o r c o l l e g e women t e s t e d b e l i e v e d i t p o s s i b l e t o assume the  r o l e s of w i f e and with  mother w h i l e p u r s u i n g e x t r a f a m i l i a l i n t e r e s t s .  t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s were n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  Women  from  women p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h r e a l i z i n g  t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l on the b a s i s  of  However, the d a t a  happiness or r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men.  that ego s t r e n g t h may be n e g a t i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e .  related  suggested  t o the a d o p t i o n of t h e  These f i n d i n g s support  Bardwick's (1971) con-  t e n t i o n r e g a r d i n g the ambivalence of women who pursue a t r a d i t i o n a l course  of development i n a s o c i e t y t h a t devalues  t h i s feminine  role.  Work and W e l l - b e i n g The was  r e l a t i o n s h i p of employment s t a t u s to mental h e a l t h symptoms  studied  (Powell, 1977) i n 40 graduates of an E a s t e r n woman's c o l l e g e  who had been out o f c o l l e g e 35 y e a r s and were i n t h e i r l a t e f i f t i e s a t the time of the study. nest stage of l i f e .  A l l s u b j e c t s were m a r r i e d women i n t h e empty  Women employed f u l l t i m e were found  to have  signifi-  c a n t l y lower symptom s c o r e s than women not employed o u t s i d e the home w i t h women employed p a r t - t i m e occupying  an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n .  While  c o n f l i c t s between c a r e e r and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n younger women may  o f f s e t t h e i n c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m of c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d women, the  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t of c a r e e r involvement in  the l a t e r m i d d l e y e a r s .  This finding  on mental h e a l t h becomes apparent i s i n keeping w i t h t h e h i g h e r  s e l f - e s t e e m exhibited by c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d women i n Birnbaums' (1975)  17  s t u d y and w i t h B a r t ' s (1971) f i n d i n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g role  maternal  loss. I t appears  that  t h e b e s t s t r a t e g y f o r a woman c o n c e r n e d  m e n t a l h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g i s t o f o c u s h e r l i f e than around  children,  Gove and Tudor  i f she has t o choose  (1973) argued  work as w e l l as f a m i l y , Miyahira  around  work  rather  ( B a r n e t t and B a r u c h ,  t h a t h a v i n g two a r e n a s  findings  1976).  to function i n ,  i s w h a t p r o t e c t s men f r o m m e n t a l  (1975) summarized t h e s a l i e n t  about h e r  illness.  i n the f i e l d :  1. A l t h o u g h c a r e e r - c o m m i t t e d women t e n d t o d e l a y m a r r i a g e a n d d i f f e r i n t h e i r c o n c e p t o f t h e homemaker f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d women, c a r e e r - c o m m i t t e d women a r e s t i l l v e r y m a r r i a g e oriented. 2. M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s n o t c o n t i n g e n t s i m p l y upon t h e w i f e ' s employment s t a t u s , b u t i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by h e r a t t i t u d e toward w o r k i n g , t h e r e w a r d s d e r i v e d f r o m homemaking, j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , and t h e h u s b a n d ' s o r i e n t a t i o n . 3. Husband's a t t i t u d e s toward h i s w i f e ' s employment c o n s t i t u t e one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g a woman's w o r k s t a t u s , e v e n among c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d w i v e s . 4. The p r e s e n c e o f y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e home t e n d s n e g a t i v e l y a woman's d e c i s i o n t o w o r k . 5. Husband's o r f a m i l y income appears employment e x p e c t e d by w i v e s .  to influence  to affect  the length of  6. C a r e e r - o r i e n t e d women t e n d t o h a v e more e d u c a t i o n t h a n n o n c a r e e r o r i e n t e d women, a l t h o u g h t h e v a l u e s t h a t women f r o m b o t h o r i e n t a t i o n s seek from t h e i r work a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Summary.  The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s  have a t t i t u d i n a l l y  agreed  that  t h e woman's p l a c e i s i n t h e home.  e v e r , more r e c e n t s t u d i e s s u g g e s t e d h a v e now a s s u m e d a p o s e o f w a n t i n g tend t o c l u s t e r over  that, at least h i s t o r i c a l l y ,  i n traditionally  a new t r e n d i n a t t i t u d e s .  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the dual  How-  Women  t o w o r k , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e  f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s and e x p r e s s role.  women  they  uncertainty  18  Some o f t h e d a t a w e r e c o n f l i c t i n g were r e s e a r c h  r e s u l t s mainly  tencies i nresearch all  designs  and c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  d e s c r i p t i v e butmethodological  inconsis-  and d e f i n i t i o n s were s o w i d e s p r e a d a s t o  b u t p r o h i b i t c o m p a r i s o n s among t h e v a r i o u s  of r e s u l t s .  Not o n l y  Lack o f cohesion  reflects  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about a p o p u l a t i o n  studies or generalizations  thed i f f i c u l t y  diverse  i n making  i n socioeconomic  level,  f a m i l y demands, d e g r e e o f s e x r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d educational  opportunity.  Overall, opposed  sex r o l e stereotyping  to career  tends t o r e s t r i c t women. less  o r i e n t a t i o n s i n women. rather  than attenuate  who a c c e p t  thesex r o l e  Developmental Counselling research  socialization  thebehavioral  options f o r  stereotype.  Implications considerations f o r  i n t e r v e n t i o n s as i t i simportant  t o continue  i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o n t i n u i n g a n d s u b t l e i n f l u e n c e o f women's  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s on t h e i r work l i v e s and p l a n s . viewed as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e female career and  process  t o b e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y h e a l t h i e r t h a n women  on sex r o l e s suggested important  developmental-counselling to take  This  R e s e a r c h r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t women who s e e t h e m s e l v e s i n  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s tend  The  a p p e a r s t o r e i n f o r c e homemaking a s  Homemaking c a n b e p r o c e s s a s women c a n  do combine r o l e s . Women n e e d t o c o - o r d i n a t e  career  and f a m i l y p l a n n i n g .  o f men a n d women, w h e t h e r t h e e m p h a s i s i s o n c a r e e r self-awareness,  i t i s important  to discuss  s o c i e t a l change w i l l have on t h e i r p r e s e n t 1975).  Women n e e d  I n groups  e x p l o r a t i o n o r on  i nspecific  terms t h e impact  and f u t u r e l i v e s  t o b e aware o f t h e v a r i e t y o f l i f e s t y l e s  (Oliver, and f a m i l y  19 and  work p a t t e r n s from which  involved  they c a n choose and o f p o t e n t i a l  i n c h o o s i n g one p a t t e r n o v e r a n o t h e r .  suggested  t h a t o n e o f t h e ways we c a n r e d u c e  more a c c e p t i n g o f a v a r i e t y The  of l i f e  Hansen  conflicts  (1974)  role conflict  i s t o be  p a t t e r n s and l i f e s t y l e s .  l i t e r a t u r e i salso replete with suggestions concerning the  importance  of p r o v i d i n g female  r o l e models as a i d i n the a c c u l t u r a t i o n  o f women i n t o n o n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s f o r t h e y p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e a n d information. Brodsky r o l e s based  (1978) s u g g e s t e d on t h e i r  i n d i v i d u a l needs and a b i l i t i e s  t o move f r o m d e f i n i n g period seen  of r e l a t i v i s m  e n c o u r a g i n g women t o s e e k  themselves i nwhich  fulfilling  a n d t o a i d women  as having a s i n g l e s o c i a l r o l e  a n i n d i v i d u a l woman's r o l e c h o i c e s a r e  i n c o n t e x t o f h e r own l i f e p l a n s . From H a l l ' s  support  ( 1 9 7 5 ) s t u d y i t was s e e n  that different  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o women a t d i f f e r e n t  organizational  career stages.  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l t a s k s w o u l d b e t o h e l p women c o p e w i t h r o l e and  to a  n o t t o f i g u r e o u t how t o m o t i v a t e  of placement  many women, f u l l y  utilize It  has  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  than consciousness r a i s i n g  conscious of t h e i r  i n t h e i r attempts  their  Possibly  h e l p f o r t h e m a t u r e woman i n h e r 3 0 ' s r e - e n t e r i n g t h e  l a b o u r m a r k e t may b e m o r e i m p o r t a n t  frustrated  them.  conflict  skills  and need  t o f i n d work t h a t w i l l  i n that  t o work, a r e enable  them t o  considerable potential. b e e n recommended t h a t women p o s s e s s  an adequate base of  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n w o r l d , an a b i l i t y t o a p p r a i s e one's a b i l i t i e s  a n d i n t e r e s t s and a p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n a n d  attitude. By  identifying  the r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s  t h a t i n h i b i t women, i t i s more  20  likely  t h a t o p t i m a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s c a n be f o r m u l a t e d  effectively  applied.  f r e e l y , having  The i n t e n t i s t o f a c i l i t a t e  been informed  The  as w e l l as most  the r i g h t  t o choose  of a l l the options.  Growth o f Career  Development Programs  C o n c e p t s , Terms and D e f i n i t i o n s Many a t t e m p t s  h a v e b e e n made t o d e f i n e c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d  most d e f i n i t i o n s have c o n s i d e r e d a lifelong  process.  occupational choice.  career development i n r e f e r e n c e t o  Traditionally  c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t was v i e w e d a s  There have, however, been attempts  c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n a much b r o a d e r  context.  p r e s e n t l y seen as "self-development  over  i n t e g r a t i o n of the r o l e s ,  and e v e n t s  (Gysbers  settings,  Career  the l i f e  to help  lifestyles,  occupation  (Hansen & G y s b e r s , 1975). o f how b e h a v i o r s  at and  them p l a n f o r t h e i r  is  relate  the p h y s i c a l setting,  being  life  a personal careers.  to stress  life-roles  o n l y one p a r t o f c a r e e r  and p u r p o s e s .  Eason  (1972)  i s a n o v e r a l l way o f l o o k i n g a t t h e w o r l d , environment, a t concepts  and i d e a s , a t p e o p l e  i n t e r a c t i o n and a t o n e s e l f " ( p . 1 2 8 ) . C a r e e r process  development  o f human d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c a r e e r  i s what i s c o n s c i o u s l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y done t o f a c i l i t a t e  that development, encompassing v e h i c l e s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g maximizing  life"  i s a term d e s c r i b i n g the concept  to basic values  viewed as p a r t of a l i f e l o n g  education  considered  Lifestyle  t h a t , "A l i f e s t y l e  social  span through t h e  of a person's  From t h i s framework c a r e e r i s v i e w e d b r o a d l y  stated  development i s  & M o o r e , 1 9 7 5 , p. 6 4 8 ) . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e p r o v i d e s  framework f o r i n d i v i d u a l s  and  to define  human p o t e n t i a l  (Matthews,  1975).  change and  21 Forces  Behind  The in  the Career  Development Programs  e x t e n s i o n o f t h e c a r e e r development concept c a n be t r a c e d ,  p a r t , t o many s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e t a k e n  S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  c h a n g e s h ave  l e d to increased  demands a b o u t modes o f w o r k a n d l i f e s t y l e stage  o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e ,  continued 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  ( V r i e n d , 1977).  -"dilemmas.  such problems and trends development and a b i l i t y  a f f e c t women h a v e a l s o b e e n  1975).  Women a r e :  Living  longer.  2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Marrying l a t e r . Having fewer c h i l d r e n . H e a d i n g more h o u s e h o l d s . E n c o u r a g e d a n d s u p p o r t e d b y t h e women's movement. L i v i n g a l o n e more o f t e n . noteworthy i s the f a c t  t h a t between 1965 and 1975 t h e  f o r c e I n Canada i n c r e a s e d by 78%. labour  f o r c e i n t h i s country  t h e a g e o f 15 w o r k e d i n 1 9 7 5 ( L a b o u r  t h a t 9 o u t o f 10 C a n a d i a n women w i l l of their  lives.  t h e home, m o r e i n t e r e s t on  Such t r e n d s a s :  1.  of the total  years  societal  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  t o manage a c a r e e r .  (Lipman-Blueman, 1975; O l i v e r ,  female labour  over  with  A changing meaning o f work. M i d - l i f e c a r e e r changes. Balancing multiple l i f e roles. Tight labour market. Rising l i v i n g costs. A community/school s p l i t . I n f o r m a t i o n d e f i c i t s from a c c e l e r a t i n g change.  Especially  36%  A t each  The l i t e r a t u r e h a s  as a f f e c t i n g  Demographic changes t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y noted  e x p e c t a t i o n s and  he o r she i s confronted  p r o b l e m s w h i c h may c r e a t e p e r s o n a l identified  place i ns o c i e t y .  Women now c o n s t i t u t e  a n d 4 4 % o f a l l women  Canada, 1976).  b e i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t f o r 25  A s i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s o f women w o r k i s being  t h e p l a c e o f work i n t h e i r  focused  lives.  I t i s projected  on t h e i r  outside  changing r o l e s and  22 As  original  inadequately plans  career  considered  for potentially  c h o i c e s o f t e n were based upon temporary and p r e m i s e s women n e e d a s s i s t a n c e I n m a k i n g  l o n g c a r e e r s o u t s i d e t h e home ( V r i e n d ,  Women now f a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n over  1977).  i n commitment a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  time.  Surveys of Career  Development Programs  T h i s new c o n c e p t o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t h a s r e s u l t e d i n c h a n g i n g p r o g r a m s f o r women. Education  T h e N a t i o n a l C o a l i t i o n f o r R e s e a r c h o n Women's  a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n 1974 s u r v e y e d  Women (C.E.W.) p r o g r a m s . to  Questionnaires  and i n t e r v i e w s were  649 o f t h e t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ( 6 8 % ) .  153  (54%)  of t h e i r  and  that they  fell  spouses. into  They f o u n d  two g r o u p s  15 C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  Included  career oriented).  t r a d i t i o n a l views,  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a l t h o u g h  a t home, f e l t  A recent Canadian survey  dissatisfied  pragmatic  (Willis,  were  t h a t t h e women w e r e d i v e r s e ,  (home v e r s u s  M o s t o f t h e women h e l d v e r y  mailed  i n the survey  Those t h a t were c a r e e r o r i e n t e d h e l d l e s s  support.  for  goals  h a d more  they had f a m i l y  (Astin,  1976).  1 9 7 7 ) c o n d u c t e d a t Humber  College  i n T o r o n t o i n c l u d e d 95 s e l f - s e l e c t e d , n o n s t u d e n t women a n d r e v e a l e d the courses  n e e d e d f o r women w e r e o n e s t o r e i n f o r c e s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d  t h a t l e d t o employment, r e t r a i n i n g o r r e - e n t r y . a s c a r e e r g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g w e r e In  that  Life-skills  as w e l l  requested.  1974 t h e N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f A d u l t C a r e e r  Planning  and D e v e l o p -  ment P r o g r a m s was i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h . They s u r v e y e d  367 p r o g r a m s o f w h i c h 3 2 % w e r e f o r women.  They recom-  mented t h a t i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o program e v a l u a t i o n and f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s b e made i f a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e e x p e c t e d  to underwrite  such  23  programs  ( H a r r i s o n and Er.tine,  Despite continuing educational service  1976).  e d u c a t i o n b e i n g t h e most r a p i d l y  (Astin,  1 9 7 6 ) c o m m i t m e n t t o women's p r o g r a m s h a s  b e e n w i t h d r a w n a t t h e whim o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n order  to j u s t i f y  for continuing  e v a l u a t i o n of measurable  The  (Willis,  1977).  and expanding  such programs  outcomes must be  implemented.  E v a l u a t i o n of L i f e p l a n n i n g Programs f o r Women  Women now h a v e t i m e t o t a k e u p a g a i n t h e e d u c a t i o n l e f t plete,  In  t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e community t h e b e n e f i t t o  s o c i e t y and t h e need adequate  expanding  t h e c a r e e r s n e g l e c t e d , and t h e p o t e n t i a l  review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e produced women f r o m v a g u e d i s c o n t e n t  a varied  list  left  incom-  undeveloped.  A  o f t h e needs o f such  t o l a c k o f knowledge  concerning thelabour  market. A f r e q u e n t type o f e d u c a t i o n a l program group ing  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r women s h a r i n g s i m i l a r  1975) i s a  concerns thus  s u p p o r t i v e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and a i d n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l  changes. the  (Thorn e t a l . ,  provid-  role  T h i s p s y c h o e d u c a t o r model v i e w s t h e c o u n s e l l i n g r o l e and  helping function as: Client d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n (orambition) ^goal setting s k i l l teaching . s a t i s f a c t i o n or goal achievement. ( I v e y , 1 9 7 6 , p.~72)  S y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n a l programs a r e a d v o c a t e d a s ways o f t e a c h i n g how  to achieve their  own u n i q u e n e s s .  Brooks  (1978)  c o u n s e l l i n g g o a l o f such i n t e r v e n t i o n s as "choosing a  lifestyle"  (p. 227). research i sreported  on t h e v a r i o u s  people  identified the  overriding  Little  ^  treatment  programs-  being proposed learning. on  t o meet women's n e e d s b y i n s t i t u t i o n s o f  B i r k and Tanney  the effectiveness  echoed t h a t p l e a ,  (1976) s u g g e s t e d  of such c o u n s e l l i n g  s t a t i n g that research  what t r e a t m e n t can e f f e c t i v e l y and  programs.  be done  Hill  (1978)  needs t o be done t o d e t e r m i n e  t h e components o f t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s need t o be t e s t e d  equally iables  t o s e e what  A s n o t a l l women  profit  from such programs, t h e search f o r c l i e n t moderators or v a r t h a t m o d e r a t e t r e a t m e n t outcomes needs t o c o n t i n u e t o be p a r t  the research  that  field  o n p r o g r a m s f o r women.  Hewson ( 1 9 7 5 ) f u r t h e r  programs should determine t h e e x t e n t  the p e r c e i v e d  that  they a r e meeting  to maximize the use of a v a i l a b l e e m p i r i c a l  t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o f program e v a l u a t i o n ,  selected  findings  the following  l i t e r a t u r e i s presented as an a p p r a i s a l of r e l a t e d  literature  suggested  needs o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  In order in  that research  p r o d u c e c h a n g e s f o r d i f f e r e n t women,  f a c t o r s a r e a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e changes.  of  higher  research  on l i f e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s .  I t i s v i t a l t h a t p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s know w h i c h t e c h n i q u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o d e a l w i t h a g i v e n p r o b l e m , what e v i d e n c e t h e r e i s o f t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y , and what would be t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . ( E p s t e i n & T r i p o d i , 1977, p. 30) Such i n f o r m a t i o n  i s also helpful i n evaluating  adopted f o r the program. intervention strategy Lifeplanning informal  C o c h r a n and Warren format  the  headings:  - descriptive, lifeplanning interventions  lifeplanning interventions  Interventions  ultimately  programs a r e considered  and a r e r e v i e w e d under t h e f o l l o w i n g  interventions  evaluation,  Lifeplanning  The i d e n t i f i e d  the strategy  - formal  -  evaluation.  - Descriptive  (1976) d e s c r i b e d  f o r women s t a t i n g t h a t  a career  counselling  "The g r o u p - c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g  workshop approach  25  i s an i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t lends ing  assumptions  t h i s w o r k i n g model a r e t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s c a n a c t i v e l y and  creatively  i n f l u e n c e t h e i r f u t u r e s and t h a t women s h o u l d  fulfillment  of t h e i r  unique a b i l i t i e s . participants  past  w e l l t o e x a m i n i n g and c h a l l e n g -  t h e r o l e s t h a t women a s s u m e " ( p . 1 2 4 ) . T h e b a s i c  behind  The  itself  life  and c a r e e r  described  experiences  n e e d s and t h e e x p r e s s i o n s  of t h e i r  T h e s t a t e d p u r p o s e o f t h i s w o r k s h o p was t o a s s i s t  i n developing  activities  plan f o r the  a s p e c i f i c y e t f l e x i b l e plan f o r the f u t u r e .  were  lifeline,  and g o a l s e t t i n g .  role  stripping,  interests,  Techniques i n c o r p o r a t e d an  e x p e r i e n t i a l - e d u c a t i o n a l format w i t h l a r g e and s m a l l group l e a r n i n g experiences  given i n f o u r - t o s i x - h o u r modules.  Cochran and Warren  (1976) warned o f a "cookbook" a p p r o a c h and i n s i s t e d s t y l e and purpose were i m p o r t a n t . and  the content  and t e c h n i q u e s  Although  clearly  that the leader's  t h e p o p u l a t i o n was d e f i n e d  e x p l i c a t e d , no d a t a  on t h i s  workshop's e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y were a v a i l a b l e . W a t e r s a n d Goodman ( 1 9 7 7 ) d e s c r i b e d  two c o u r s e s  C a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t was a p p r o a c h e d a s a c y c l i c a l process  w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n to t e a c h i n g  r a t h e r than a l i n e a r  processes  and s k i l l s .  g o a l was s t a t e d a s h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s become m o r e i n e x p l o r i n g and p l a n n i n g necessary broadly  t o o l s so they  were v a l u e  and The  careers  education  techniques  them w i t h t h e  C a r e e r was d e f i n e d  and v o c a t i o n .  f o r gathering  The  self-directed  and t o p r o v i d e  c a n be s e l f - d i r e c t e d .  to include l e i s u r e ,  described tion  their  for adults.  The a c t i v i t i e s  and p e r s o n a l i z i n g  informa-  decision-making.  p o p u l a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y m i d d l e - c l a s s women, r a n g i n g  f r o m 20 t o 60 w i t h  the majority having  post-high  school  i n age  education.  26  The  sessions  t o t a l e d 18 h o u r s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g b o t h l a r g e a n d s m a l l  group a c t i v i t i e s .  Suggestions f o r adapting  to a younger p o p u l a t i o n  t h e agenda and t h e f o r m a t  and f o r p r e - r e t i r e m e n t  W a t e r s a n d Goodman ( 1 9 7 7 ) i n s i s t e d  a d u l t s were  given.  that:  The l o g i s t i c s a r e n o t c r i t i c a l b u t w h a t seems i m p o r t a n t i s an a t m o s p h e r e i n w h i c h i t i s a c c e p t a b l e f o r a d u l t s t o s e e k h e l p a n d t o h a v e some k i n d o f s y s t e m a t i c a p p r o a c h . . . . (p. 343) No d a t a w e r e r e p o r t e d  on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y  of t h i s  work-  shop .  Summary o f l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s - d e s c r i p t i v e . workshop designs education,  vocation  group a c t i v i t i e s , are  share a broad view of career and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s .  decision-making  development i n c l u d i n g Value c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,  around g o a l s  an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f such formats.  and p l a n n i n g  The above s t u d i e s  W a r r e n , 1 9 7 6 ; W a t e r s & Goodman, 1 9 7 7 ) s u g g e s t e d as  important  Lifeplanning  small  activities  (Cochran &  that content  was n o t  a s t h e a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h may b e r e f l e c t e d i n l e a d e r s h i p  s t y l e and p u r p o s e o f t h e program.  Lifeplanning Interventions - Informal Setne  (1977) d e s c r i b e d  p r o g r a m f o r a d u l t women. (of)  an e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l  The i n t e n d e d  each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s ,  the w o r l d  Evaluation  g o a l s w e r e "The e x p l o r a t i o n . . .  p r i m a r y modes o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h  a n d o f how h e r n e e d s a n d v a l u e s  i n her everyday l i f e "  (p.234).  developmental  a r e ( o r c a n be) e x p r e s s e d  T h i s w o r k s h o p was o f f e r e d t h r o u g h a  community m e n t a l h e a l t h agency w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s r a n g i n g to mid 30's. This  They s p e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  f r o m mid 20's  12 h o u r s o v e r s i x - w e e k  sessions.  e x p e r i e n t i a l - e d u c a t i o n a l workshop used t e s t i n g and s m a l l -  27 group d i s c u s s i o n  techniques.  The w o r k s h o p was e v a l u a t e d small-group session. too  large  The m a j o r c r i t i c i s m s were  that  (33 p a r t i c i p a n t s ) a n d t h e t w o - h o u r s e s s i o n s  They f e l t  t h e most b e n e f i c i a l a s p e c t s were  and t h e v a l u e favorable  clarification  exercises.  i n the f i n a l  t h e g r o u p was were t o o s h o r t .  the small-group  discussions  The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s were  and i n d i c a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n t h u s i a s t i c .  q u a n t i f i a b l e data c o l l e c t e d the  by i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n  There  on t h e e f f i c i e n c y o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  workshop. M a n i s and M o c h i z u k i  returning  to college.  (1972) d e s c r i b e d  a workshop f o r a d u l t  I t s a i m was t o remove  t h e y n e e d t o make t o c h a n g e  and  to assess their  to give  skills  2. 3. 4. 5.  the opportunity  and a b i l i t i e s and t h e o p t i o n s  The s t a t e d 1.  them  goals  of t h e workshop  women  the psychological  t h a t k e e p women f r o m t h e c h o i c e s  The  w e r e no  situation,  blocks lifestyles,  t h e i r own  a v a i l a b l e t o them i n t h e i r  community.  were:  Give support, b u i l d t r u s t , share concerns, r e l i e v e g u i l t , l e a r n t o work i n g r o u p s . L e a r n t o communicate, improve i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B u i l d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e l f and a b i l i t i e s . Exercise decision-making. Learn about o p p o r t u n i t i e s of o u t s i d e world: education, volunteer, e m p l o y m e n t , and c r e a t i v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . ( p p . 596-598)  t y p i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t was 38 y e a r s o l d a n d a m o t h e r o f two o r t h r e e  c h i l d r e n and had a t t e n d e d ranged from h i g h s c h o o l program c o n s i s t e d  c o l l e g e ; however,  d r o p o u t s t o some w i t h  of three  types of a c t i v i t y :  t e s t i n g , a n d homework a s s i g n m e n t s .  the educational  levels  graduate degrees.  The  s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n ,  Emphasis was o n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  needs o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . Evaluation  was c o m p l e t e d b y a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  follow-up  survey,  28  although that  the  t i m e i n t e r v a l was  t h e w o r k s h o p had  isolation,  sharing  G o a l s e t t i n g was step  greatest  fairly  goals  a success.  in this  study,  The  r e s u l t s showed  and  The nor  to take  the workshop  improve t h e i r  the  decreasing  interpersonal relations.  successful while readiness  attendance supported  reported  improving  Response i n d i c a t e d that  participants clarify  w o r k s h o p was  indicated.  success i n g i v i n g support,  c o n c e r n s and  e v e n more s o .  percent  not  the  first  helped  self-concept.  One  hundred  informal evaluation r e s u l t s that  the  outcome measures were not q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d i d they u t i l i z e pre-  and  post-measures,  comparison or c o n t r o l groups.  Summary o f  lifeplanning interventions - informal  evaluation.  T h r o u g h i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s b o t h M a n i s and Setne (1977) d e t e r m i n e d support,  reduced  beneficial. and  that  i s o l a t i o n and  described.  Lifeplanning  techniques  s e t t i n g and  particularly  Interventions - Formal  Rubinton  (1977) r e p o r t e d  A d u l t s " which ran The  a sharing  on a p r o g r a m c a l l e d the y e a r , career  p o r t i v e group framework.  The  seeking  women c o n t e m p l a t i n g  t i o n a l world  b) v e t e r a n s  and  too  short  "New  important were  large  groups  Careers  for  b o t h e v e n i n g and  counselling in a  t a r g e t g r o u p s w e r e a)  d)  and  most  Evaluation  s t a t e d g o a l s were to p r o v i d e  b)  c o n c e r n s was  were n o t e d as  u n d e r e m p l o y e d and  day-  sup-  early retirees  re-entering  the  unemployed  and  permitted  facilitative.  s e v e r a l times during  second c a r e e r s  of  improved s e l f - c o n c e p t  Two-hour s e s s i o n s w e r e c o n s i d r e d  (33 p a r t i c i p a n t s ) n o t  (1972)  small-group i n t e r a c t i o n which  afforded  Value c l a r i f i c a t i o n  outcome measures of g o a l  time.  the  Mochizuki  occupaadults.  29 The  workshop focused  career  on  i n f o r m a t i o n and  three broad areas;  career-planning strategies,  career r e l a t e d concerns.  The  strategies included  u s i n g a s e l f - i n v e n t o r y , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of work r e l a t e d s k i l l s , s h o r t and  long  term g o a l s , r e s o u r c e  m a t e r i a l on  careers  and  setting  group  support. E v a l u a t i o n was pre on  and  obtained  p o s t t e s t a s s e s s m e n t s and  these  school or  t h e m e d i a n age  the  g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s and o f one  g r o u p and  whole were v e r y  efficiency a final  86%  of  h e l p f u l and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  Significant  to and  of  27  Of  completed  Descriptive  data  the p a r t i c i p a n t s 82%  t o 36  and  m o s t had  deeds i o n - m a k i n g and  the o t h e r  high  goals  considered  by  the workshop  75%  and of  indicated that  the w o r k s h o p s as  evaluated  on a p r e - and  by  a  outcome measures  post-questionnaire.  confidence  levels relating  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' k n o w l e d g e o f how  taken  informal  and  to  where  outcome measures about the d e c i s i o n s , by  o r t o be  developing  a goal setting taken  f o r m and  as a r e s u l t of  the  a descripworkshop.  s t r a t e g i e s f o r implementing goals  the p a r t i c i p a n t s as  plans  were  the major c o n t r i b u t i o n of  series.  A d i f f e r e n c e was  found  i n evening  p a r t i c i p a n t s were conscious  alternatives  b a s e d on  informative.  a c t i o n undertaken were o b t a i n e d  Clarifying  Results  group f e l t  t h e p r o g r a m was  Further  t i o n of p o s i t i v e s t e p s  t h e w o r k s h o p was  questionnaire.  f i n d i n g s were i n c r e a s e d  look f o r a job.  evening  They  e v a l u a t i o n forms.  g r o u p was  of a t t i t u d e change as a s s e s s e d  career  75 p e o p l e .  above.  E v a l u a t i o n of  The  on  p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o o b t a i n e d .  were f e m a l e ,  56%  from data  that allowed  and  day  participants in  of income s e c u r i t y and  them t o c o n t i n u e  w o r k i n g and  that  sought  day p a r t i c i p a n t s  30 more a c t i v e l y  sought e d u c a t i o n a l  training  o r employment.  recommended t h a t a s i x - m o n t h t o o n e - y e a r f o l l o w - u p mine l o n g range e f f e c t s . this  study  Although  The  authors  be done t o d e t e r -  incorporating pre-  and post-measures  d i d n o t u t i l i z e c o m p a r i s o n o r c o n t r o l groups and t h e o u t -  come m e a s u r e s w e r e s e l f - r e p o r t e d a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s . R i c e and G o e r i n g  (1977) r e p o r t e d  o n two w o r k s h o p s f o r women b a s e d  on a s t r u c t u r e d g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l d e v e l o p e d and  planning  based on v a l u e s  clarification,  making and i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - e s t e e m .  to f a c i l i t a t e  change  lifetime planning, decision-  The c o n t e n t  of the courses  progressed  from: S p e c i f y i n g v a l u e s and v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s e s and tools of decision-making t o l i f e t i m e g o a l p l a n n i n g and t i m e management t o s p e c i f i c d i d a c t i c i n f o r m a t i o n o n j o b s , s c h o o l s , v o l u n t e e r w o r k a n d how t o e n t e r e a c h . ( p . 58) The  techniques  used were m i n i - l e c t u r e s , e x e r c i s e h a n d o u t s and  homework, w i t h s m a l l - g r o u p  i n t e r a c t i o n s and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r o l e models.  B o t h male and f e m a l e l e a d e r s were p r e s e n t . in  community and u n i v e s i t y m e d i a .  (four  women m a r r i e d The  w i t h some c o l l e g e  attending  the m a j o r i t y of  R e s t r u c t u r i n g of time and a c t i v i t y  volunteer work).  t h a n 7 5 % made m a j o r c h a n g e s w h i l e  over  was e v a l u a t e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  n o t i n g how many women made s i g n i f i c a n t  c l a s s e s , working,  was 16 h o u r s  education.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the courses  recorded  were a d v e r t i s e d  (three days  The s u b j e c t s were s e l f - s e l e c t e d w i t h  w i t h b e h a v i o r a l outcome c r i t e r i a .  in  course  s e c c e s s i v e d a y s ) a n d t h e o t h e r was 18 h o u r s  three weeks).  was  The f i r s t  The c o u r s e s  50% r e t u r n e d  changes  I t was f o u n d to classes.  (e.g. t h a t more An i n c r e a s e  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a s s e r t i v e n e s s was r e p o r t e d b y 3 0 % o f t h e  participants,  30% r e p o r t e d  increased  knowledge of v a l u e s  and g o a l s ,  w h i l e 35% reported  using decision-making  t o o l s i n other  life  situa-  tions . The  e f f i c i e n c y of the course  was a s s e s s e d  by r a t i n g  t h e mean-  i n f u l n e s s o f v a r i o u s components a t t h e end o f t h e w o r k s h o p and a t s i x or  ten-month f o l l o w - u p s .  Most h i g h l y r a t e d were r o l e models w i t h  l e c t u r e s a n d homework a l s o h i g h l y r a t e d . showed l i t t l e It  their  most r e p o r t e d in  change i n p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s over  was e x p e c t e d  restructure  time l e s s .  The  This hypothesis  even g r e a t e r change i n a c t i v i t y  study  time.  d i d not hold (80%)  than d i d t h e i r older  true as  and a g r e a t e r  chang  counterparts.  d i d n o t u t i l i z e p r e - m e a s u r e s a n d h a d no c o n t r o l g r o u p .  c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p was o f f e r e d a t a d i f f e r e n t  location  questionnaires  t h a t t h e y o u n g e r women w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n w o u l d  r e t u r n i n g t o c l a s s (60%) This  The f o l l o w - u p  (community v e r s u s  carefully described  university).  time and i n a d i f f e r e n t  However, t h e c o u r s e  was v e r y  and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e workshop measured by  a q u a n t i t a t i v e b e h a v i o r a l outcome measure w h i l e t h e e f f i c i e n c y  of the  w o r k s h o p c o m p o n e n t s was r e p o r t e d , b y r a t i n g o f s u c h a n d i n c l u d e d a follow-up  measure.  Berman e t a l . (1977) r e p o r t e d e f f i c a c y o f programs designed  o n two s t u d i e s e v a l u a t i n g t h e  t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f a d u l t women.  The  s t u d i e s s o u g h t t o d e t e r m i n e i f c h a n g e s t h a t w o u l d i n f l u e n c e women's lifestyles rather Pre-  could occur  by p r o v i d i n g a s u p p o r t i v e  l e a r n i n g environment  then through t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l o r group c o u n s e l l i n g .  and p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l  c o n t r o l group d e s i g n s  were employed i n b o t h  studies.  T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s w e r e women o n a w a i t i n g l i s t  f o r the next  session.  T h e r e w a s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o  t h i s group.  The g r o u p s were p o s t t e s t e d  one month a f t e r t h e c o u r s e  ended. A supportive  l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t was d e s i g n e d  sharing  concerns, improving  setting  (incorporating assertiveness  awareness).  The  was p r o v i d e d  used.  18 h o u r s w i t h b o t h l a r g e a n d s m a l l  Decision-making C h e c k l i s t , Self-concept and Dogmatism  s e t t i n g were:  as Learner Scale,  (receptivity  Decision-making C h e c k l i s t , Inventory A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d s Women S c a l e .  The  Vocational  Attitudes  t o new i n f o r m a t i o n ) .  Outcome m e a s u r e s f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d p r o g r a m w e r e :  measures were  and t h e o t h e r  program.  Outcome m e a s u r e s f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d  Women S c a l e ,  education.  One p r o g r a m was u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d  a community agency-based  The  by group  two c h i l d r e n a n d h a d some c o l l e g e  course r a nf o r approximately  Towards  values  a g e r a n g e was f r o m 20 t o 60 y e a r s w i t h a n a v e r a g e a g e o f 3 6 .  group techniques was  t r a i n i n g and p e r s o n a l  members.  Most were mothers w i t h The  i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and g o a l -  E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f new b e h a v i o r s  l e a d e r s and o t h e r  to allow f o r  Vocational  o f A t t i t u d e s and V a l u e s and t h e  Reliability  and v a l i d i t y  of these  reported.  e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e programs were analyzed  authors noted  by i n f o r m a l  t h a t r o l e models were an important  program as t h e l e a d e r s  evaluation.  factor within the  h a d p r e v i o u s l y made c h a n g e s i n t h e i r own l i f e -  roles . Both programs had d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . ically on  i nExperiment  the maturity  1 (university-based)  t h e most s a l i e n t  o f t h e women's v o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  Specif-  e f f e c t was The most  p r o n o u n c e d e f f e c t i n E x p e r i m e n t 2 ( c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d ) was o n s e l f - c o n c e p t .  33  The  d i f f e r e n c e s noted  type  were p o s t u l a t e d as b e i n g due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t  o f women i n t h e two p r o g r a m s :  E x p e r i m e n t 1 h a d women who w a n t e d  o r w e r e more r e c e p t i v e t o a n e x p e r i e n c e and  may h a v e g r a v i t a t e d t o s u c h  p e r s o n a l growth experiences I t was n o t e d education  fostering vocational maturity  a s e t t i n g w h i l e t h o s e who w a n t e d  (Experiment  2) c h o s e a c o m m u n i t y  t h a t Experiment 2 p a r t i c i p a n t s had a h i g h e r  i n general  not as motivated  thus  supporting the hypothesis  t o w a r d s e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n s .  p o s s i b i l i t y was t h a t women i n E x p e r i m e n t  setting.  l e v e l of  t h a t they  were  An a l t e r n a t i v e  1 were r e q u r i e d t o complete  a c a r e e r e x p l o r a t i o n p r o j e c t a n d may h a v e b e e n f o r c e d t o s e a r c h  actively  for vocational goals.  self-  concept  However, d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s f o r  w e r e u s e d a n d may h a v e c o n f o u n d e d c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e two  groups. A d d i t i o n a l outcome t r e n d s were a p p a r e n t it  a s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m them.  p r e - and p o s t - o u t c o m e m e a s u r e s w e r e u s e d of  but the authors Although  to determine  various  the effectiveness  t h e s e p r o g r a m s , t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p r o g r a m s was o n l y  suggested  regarded  informally  by t h e a u t h o r s .  Tichenor  (1977) r e p o r t e d on group c a r e e r p l a n n i n g  experiences  developed  b y A. K i r n b a s e d o n t h e " L i f e Work P l a n n i n g W o r k b o o k a n d  Manual".  This study  month f o l l o w - u p )  i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e immediate and l o n g - t e r m  (five-  e f f e c t s o f t h e workshop on t h e l e v e l o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g  a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s as measured on Shostrom's P e r s o n a l Orientation Inventory The  experimental  (P.O.I.). group c o n t a i n e d b o t h males and f e m a l e s , t h e  c o n t r o l g r o u p was a w a i t l i s t  group.  No d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a w e r e r e p o r t e d  34  on  the participants.  and  A Solomon f o u r - g r o u p  design with half  a l l p o s t t e s t e d o n t h e P . O . I , was u t i l i z e d .  pretested  This controlled f o r  the e f f e c t s o f p r e t e s t i n g . The  w o r k s h o p u s u a l l y was t h r e e d a y s f o r 30 h o u r s i n c o r p o r a t i n g  s m a l l groups,  i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s , l i f e l i n e a n d many o t h e r  p r e v i o u s l y reported i n t h i s paper. d i r e c t i o n s from a t r a i n i n g The five  treatment  Workshop t r a i n e r s were  given  manual.  group scored h i g h e r  scales identified  exercises  as r e l a t i n g  than  t h e c o n t r o l group on a l l  to career planning.  Significant  i n c r e a s e s o n two s c a l e s , i n n e r d i r e c t i o n a n d s e l f - r e g a r d , w e r e r e p o r t e d Females 33 y e a r s and younger s c o r e d time competence s c a l e than  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e  t h o s e a g e d 34 a n d o l d e r .  I t was p o s t u l a t e d  t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age y o u t h i n k more about t h e p a s t and f u t u r e . The  f i n d i n g s were r e t a i n e d over  having an  a  specific  experiment  efficiency  on those g o a l s .  eliminating  t h a t were due t o d i f f e r e n t Although  The a u t h o r s  advocated  s e t o f g o a l s f o r c l i e n t s and s e l e c t i n g  that focuses  c o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d ,  f i v e months.  or designing  Thus t r e a t m e n t  t o some e x t e n t d i f f e r e n t i a l  techniques outcomes  experiences.  t h i s was a c o n t r o l l e d  study  o f outcome measures, t h e  o f t h e p r o g r a m was n o t e v a l u a t e d a n d t h e o u t c o m e  measures  were i n o n l y one m o d a l i t y . Hands (1974) e v a l u a t e d  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f an eight-week  f o r women i n a c h i e v i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s o f e n c o u r a g i n g  course  movement away f r o m  t r a d i t i o n a l s e x r o l e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f more a u t o n o m o u s a n d s e l f actualizing  lifestyles.  evaluate their  T h e c o u r s e was d e s i g n e d  l i v e s i n terms o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s ,  t o m o t i v a t e women t o interests,  needs,  35 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and and  relationships.  broaden t h e i r l i f e p l a n s by  involvement o u t s i d e The  list.  clarify  exploring p o s s i b i l i t i e s for their  women were i n t h e i r m i d d l e y e a r s and  were 52 women who  to  t h e i r homes.  mothers of m i d d l e - c l a s s  waiting  They were encouraged  socioeconomic s t a t u s .  completed  I t was  were housewives  not  I n c l u d e d i n the  the course w h i l e 36  and study  c o n t r o l s were on  a  i n d i c a t e d i f they were randomly a s s i g n e d  to groups. The  following  p o s t - and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s outcome measures were u t i l i z e d  P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory Feminism S c a l e M a r i t a l S a t i s f a c t i o n Test Marital Style Marital Quality Behavior C h e c k l i s t  7.  Survey of Husbands' A t t i t u d e s  Other r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  changes i n l i f e s t y l e  that needs were b e i n g met,  a more f e m i n i s t a t t i t u d e .  e f f e c t s were measured i n t h i s study by the husbands' r e s p o n s e s . change and  b e h a v i o r d i d not  particiself-  activities,  enhanced m a r i t a l  Possible  the v a r i o u s  Husbands r e p o r t e d  undersirable  marital scales  and  s a t i s f a c t i o n with marriage  although t h e i r e g a l i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e s  increased,  change.  T h i s study made good use measures of change but shop .  v  i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g v a l u e s such as autonomy and  f e e l i n g more s a t i s f i e d  d i d not  (P.O.I.)  P.O.I, r e s u l t s showed a weak groups e f f e c t a l t h o u g h the  pants i n c r e a s e d esteem.  pre-  six-month f o l l o w - u p measures:  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  The  on  of a " s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r "  reported  no d a t a on  and  behavioral  the e f f i c i e n c y of the work-  36 Two f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e b r i e f l y on  female students.  S m i t h and Evans  (1976) e v a l u a t e d  systematic  the  decision-making.  strategy The  for  reported  focused  (1973) and Babcock and Kaufman  learning experiences structured  r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s provided  w e r e more e f f e c t i v e  because they  than i n d i v i d u a l  evidence that  around  the courses  c o u n s e l l i n g a n d no c o u n s e l l i n g i n  f a c i l i t a t i n g v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o l l e g e women a s m e a s u r e d b y s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , knowledge of s e l f planning  activity.  credit),  individual counselling  (random c l a s s ) . specifically, compared  i nrelation  t o a c h o s e n c a r e e r and  They c o m p a r e d a v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e p r o g r a m ( r e q u e s t e d ) and c o n t r o l  (for  subjects  A l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t m i d d l e - a g e d women  these s t u d i e s  reported  valid  two t y p e s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h  and r e l i a b l e  outcome measures,  none and u t i l i z e d  p r e - and  post-measures. Summary o f l i f e p l a n n i n g formal 1963)  evaluations, i n nature,  interventions - formal  generally quasi-experimental  a r e reported  above.  (Campbell &  None o f t h e s t u d i e s  random a s s i g n m e n t t o c o n t r o l and t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . consisted  of middle-class,  in  limited. thevarious  Stanley,  found  indicated  Most o f the groups  T h e amount o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p o s s i b l e  Only because t h e degree t o w h i c h f i n d i n g s were studies  More  e d u c a t e d m o t h e r s , y e t none o f t h e s t u d i e s  employed s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . was  evaluation.  consistent  and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e p o p u l a t i o n s  i n the  s t u d i e s w e r e m a t c h e d i s some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n p o s s i b l e . Although Rubinton different goals, regarding  (1977) found day o r e v e n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s  t h i s was n o t s u p p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e .  s e t t i n g were r e p o r t e d  et a l . (1977).  Both Rice  by R i c e  & Goering  and G o e r i n g  Conflicting  reported results  (1977) and Berman  (1977) and T i c h e n o r  (1977)  37 found  age t o be a m o d e r a t i n g  (1977) b o t h pants  t h e same m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t  g o a l s and d e v e l o p i n g  ling,  (Hands, 1974; R i c e & G o e r i n g ,  1977).  or w a l k - i n i n t e r v i e w s supported  Follow-up t e n months  (P.O.I.) .  s t r a t e g i e s were supported  b e i n g most f a c i l i t a t i v e i  Hands (1974) and T i c h e n o r  reported increase i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g values of p a r t i c i -  utilizing  change  variable.  Clarifying  by measures of b e h a v i o r  C o m p a r i s o n s t o no c o u n s e l -  group s t r u c t u r e d approaches as  (Babcock & Kaufman, 1976; Smith  & Evans,  1973).  s t u d i e s v a r i e d f r o m one month (Berman e t a l . , 1977) t o  (Rice & Goering,  1 9 7 7 ) d i s c o u n t i n g t h e "warm g l o w  as r e s u l t s d i d n o t d e t e r i o r a t e o v e r evaluations reflected  the impact  time.  effect"  I n f o r m a l and f o r m a l  efficiency  of r o l e models on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  (Berman e t a l . , 1977; R i c e & G o e r i n g ,  1977).  Summary  From t h e l i t e r a t u r e were designed  to motivate  their a b i l i t i e s , and  to c l a r i f y  for  their  achieved  women t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r  and b r o a d e n t h e i r  by a c t i v i t i e s  counselling  that lifeplanning interventions lives  i n terms of  i n t e r e s t s , n e e d s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  involvement  work, v a l u e s  i t was f o u n d  i n areas such  clarification, concern  life  p l a n s by e x p l o r i n g  o u t s i d e t h e i r home.  possibilities  These g o a l s  as s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n ,  testing,  r o l e m o d e l s and g o a l s e t t i n g .  was t o f a c i l i t a t e  were  choices that r e f l e c t  The  primary  the value  o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d become e x p r e s s i o n s o f a u n i q u e style  (Eason, The  for  women.  life-  1972).  review  in determining  home-  of selected l i t e r a t u r e  indicated  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y  I n attempting  to r e c o n c i l e r e s u l t s  some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i f e s t y l e i n t e r v e n t i o n s  i t became a p p a r e n t  that  38  the psychometric  p r o p e r t i e s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used were o f t e n i n  q u e s t i o n as few s t a n d a r d i z e d measures were employed. selected  seemed  under study. in  With  the p l e t h o r a of treatment  experimentation  i s important  program t o h e l p Career  them w i t h s p e c i f i c  proposed  effects  of career-marriage  prob-  needed.  that  f o r women t o s e l e c t a  needs. a) a l i f e l o n g  process  of s e l f ina  life-  a n d d e c i s i o n s o n e makes t o i m p l e m e n t  a n d d) a s t h e w a y s w o r k and l e i s u r e f i t i n w i t h  of work i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d  The  i s badly  b) a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e p o s i t i o n o n e h o l d s  of p e r s o n one p e r c e i v e s o n e s e l f  matters  about t h e s p e c i f i c  o n women i n o r d e r  c) the v a r i o u s choices  a lifestyle  the kind  t o b e , assumes t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n  t o f a m i l y r o l e s and p a t t e r n s and t o  conflict  and commitment.  major purpose of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s to determine i f changes,  w h i c h w o u l d i n f l u e n c e women's l i f e s t y l e s p o r t i v e c a r e e r development course interviews or a  i n t e n t i o n of t h i s  the r e l a t i v e  could occur  more r e a d i l y  than  p e r s o n a l development course.  stability  i nfacilitating  o f outcomes over  time.  through through  a supone-to-  I t i s also the  e v a l u a t i o n t o p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t  components o f t h e program work b e s t and  programs b e i n g  type of r e s e a r c h  development d e f i n e d a s :  clarification, time,  this  t o seek evidence  such programs a r e h a v i n g  one  to thev a r i a b l e  t h e d o m a i n o f r e t u r n i n g o r r e - e n t r y women, d e s p i t e t h e u s u a l  lems o f f i e l d It  to bear q u e s t i o n a b l e a p p l i c a b i l i t y  Other measures  into which  specific  change and p l a n n i n g  CHAPTER I I I  RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY  Overview  The  p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o e v a l u a t e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a three-day p e r s o n a l development course  career  course  t h e e f f i c i e n c y and  compared  to a s i x - s e s s i o n  and i n d i v i d u a l one-hour  lifeplanning  i n t e r v i e w s f o r women i n t e r m s o f c r i t e r i a - o f s u c c e s s  developed  the program c o - o r d i n a t o r o f t h e c a r e e r development program. i n t e r v e n t i o n s were e v a l u a t e d naires.  by responses obtained  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n t a i n e d  items  designed  mation r e g a r d i n g knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s o r i n t e r v i e w and a c t i v i t i e s n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  to participants prior  session.  A modified  1  0 0 Figure  1.  3  during  ( 1 9 6 3 , p. 4 7 ) n o n -  ( F i g u r e 1) was u t i l i z e d .  0  0  Pre-and Four-week Follow-up 39  Question-  t o t h e workshop,  0 X  infor-  about the course  C a m p b e l l and S t a n l e y  X  question-  s e s s i o n and f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  e q u i v a l e n t c o n t r o l group r e s e a r c h d e s i g n  0  The  to obtain  o f t h e women who p a r t i c i p a t e d .  t h e s e s s i o n , a t t h e end o f e a c h d a i l y the l a s t  through  by  Tests  40  Content  The  a r e s u l t of The  f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n was  g o a l s and  f o c u s of such  achieve  able  objectives  their  i n t e r v i e w s was  If  left  value as  to help  participants  strategies  g a i n the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e they need to they must u n d e r t a k e  be  themselves  to o t h e r s .  the c o u r s e s or i n t e r v i e w s were s u c c e s s f u l they s h o u l d have  following 1. 2. 3. 4.  e f f e c t s on  the  P a r t i c i p a n t s should e x h i b i t n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s towards women's l i f e s t y l e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s should learn a planning process. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d s t r u c t u r e t h e i r t i m e t o i n c r e a s e nontraditional behaviors. P a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d f i n d c e r t a i n components of t h e c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n o t h e r s .  The  "Career  i n Your L i f e "  o f f e r e d once b e f o r e i n the p r e v i o u s f a l l an e x p e r i e n c e d  instructor  to  assist participants  to  establish a priority  t e r m and was  i n lifeplanning.  i n defining  their  o f g o a l s and  c o u r s e was  The  life  w o r k s h o p was  and  each p a r t i c i p a n t  by  designed  work g o a l s i n o r d e r  a p l a n to a c h i e v e these g o a l s .  to t h o r o u g h l y examine her  c a r e e r p a t h i n t e r m s o f d i r e c t i o n and  first  conducted  course c o n s i s t e d of a sequence of s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s  encouraged  the  participants:  Career development.  The  The  G.  t h e y a r e and w h a t t h e y w a n t , l e a r n  t o know w h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h a t c a n be  courses  t h a t were e v e n t u a l l y developed  c o u r s e s and  e n d s and  Develop-  to implement  t h i s program e v a l u a t i o n appear i n Appendix  l e a r n m o r e a b o u t who  and  Interviews  s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a of c a r e e r development f o r a d u l t s .  assumptions,  to  and  f u n c t i o n of the program c o - o r d i n a t o r of the Career  ment P r o g r a m , C e n t r e and  of Courses  satisfaction.  which  lifestyle  and  Participants  41 learned  from  their  own  e x p e r i e n c e s and  T h e y w o r k e d a l o n e , i n p a i r s and group.  The  f o c u s was  understanding w a n t s and  from  sharing with others.  s m a l l groups as w e l l as  i n the  on e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t d e v e l o p i n g a n  of her  experience, achievements,  h o p e s f o r t h e f u t u r e , and  skills,  using this  total  in-depth values,  i n f o r m a t i o n to  interests, develop  a personal action plan. The and An  c o u r s e was  o f f e r e d o n a w e e k e n d , F r i d a y 7 - 10p.m.,  S u n d a y , 9 a.m. o u t l i n e of  t o 4 p.m.,  been o f f e r e d through  w h e n e v e r t h e r e was and  The  the u n i v e r s i t y  qualified  d e s c r i b e d a s one  and  to respond  "Developing  enrollment.  instructor  of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s the b u i l d i n g  as a b a s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n  and  and  to b r i n g about f a m i l y and  identity,  of c o n f i d e n c e .  to l e a r n i n g  friends.  The  through  course  to e v a l u a t e t h e i r  s i t u a t i o n and  change.  and  i n ideas f o r changing  The  c o u r s e was  format  P a r t i c i p a n t s were f r e e  were encouraged to keep a j o u r n a l  specific rich  The  life  and  to  to d e a l in  to begin p l a n n i n g f o r  c o n t e n t were both  and  was  s t r u c t u r e d group  ways o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g , t o become more a s s e r t i v e ,  order  It  of awareness of  e x p l o r e new  a n g e r and  course  change  i n a s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere.  and  course  an  The  experiences  with conflict  com-  repeated  i n s t r u c t o r was  i n adult education.  t h a t h e l p s f o c u s on how  s e l f w i t h o t h e r s , and  the s p e c i f i c  s i n c e 1971  The  to r e s i s t a n c e to change from  explored dimensions  campus.  Personal Potential"  Continuing Education  sufficient  was  designed  h e l d on  F.  P e r s o n a l development.  experienced  was  t h e c o u r s e a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x H and  ponents appear i n Appendix  has  and  Saturday  skill-oriented  growing.  o f f e r e d on s i x T u e s d a y s f r o m  9:30  a.m.  t o 12:30  p.m.  a t t h e Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e  (downtown).  An o u t l i n e of t h e  c o u r s e appears i n Appendix I and t h e s p e c i f i c  components appear i n  A p p e n d i x F.  Lifeplanning been o f f e r e d  interviews.  The " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s  through Continuing  E d u c a t i o n f o r a number o f y e a r s , a n d  w e r e c o n d u c t e d by e x p e r i e n c e d , q u a l i f i e d They were a d v e r t i s e d a strategy on  counsellors  as a chance t o c l a r i f y  for attaining  them.  have  life  or s o c i a l  goals  Individual interviews  and d e v e l o p were  t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus o r i n t h e Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e  T h e r e was a f e e o f $10 w h i c h may b e w a i v e d  workers.  arranged (downtown).  i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The  p u r p o s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was s t a t e d a s : 1. To e x p l o r e for you.  your ideas  about which d i r e c t i o n  i s appropriate  2. To d e v e l o p a p l a n t o i m p l e m e n t y o u r i d e a s . 3. To g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f a c i l i t i e s i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e t h e Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e . The  specific activities  and components o f t h e i n t e r v i e w were u n i q u e t o  the p a r t i c i p a n t and t h e i n t e r v i e w e r .  Some o f t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s a r e l i s t e d  i n A p p e n d i x F.  Summary. adults  These c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s ,  i n t h e community and m a i n l y a d v e r t i s e d  E d u c a t i o n b r o c h u r e and c a l e n d a r . workshop g i v e n ,  t i m e and f o l l o w - u p  c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s setting,  time,  through the Continuing  Table 1 i n d i c a t e s the dates, date.  type of  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e  a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 2.  These f a c t o r s  c o s t s , group o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t ,  Overview of the E v a l u a t i o n  The  t h e n , were o f f e r e d t o  and e x e r c i s e  include format.  Strategy  e v a l u a t i o n was b a s e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g m o d e l  (Figure  2) w h i c h  43 Table 1 D a t e s o f C o u r s e s and I n t e r v i e w s  Group  A Career i n Your  Date  Life  Developing Personal Lifeplanning  J u n e 16,  Potential  Interviews  Hours  1 7 , 18  Followup  17  July  13  - J u n e 20  18  July  11  J u n e 12,21,22,28 J u l y 6, 1 0 , 12  1  July  14,21 28 2, 8  May 16  Aug.  Table Outline  Factor  Date  of Differences  2 in  Presentation  A Career i n Your L i f e  Developing P o t e n t i a l  Cost:  $75  $40  $10 ( w a i v e d )  Approach:  face to face,  face to face,group  face to face  group  Lifeplanning  individual Exercises:  lecture/discussion practice s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s projective techniques  lecture/discussion practice s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s p r o j e c t i v e techniques  Setting:  University  Downtown  varied  Downtown o r University  Hours;  17  18  1  44  was  adapted  from t h e model p r o p o s e d by Gottman and L e i b l u m  "Treatment" i s considered e v a l u a t o r and " c l i e n t "  t h e program e v a l u a t o r , " t h e r a p i s t " t h e  the decision-maker.  > Problem  Assessment  A. D e s i g n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s y s t e m : D e c i d e whom t o s e e . 1'ind o u t how d e c i s i o n was made t o come t o t r e a t m e n t ; how i t f e e l s t o b e t h e r e s e e k i n g h e l p ( t o g e t h e r ) ; s p e c i f y c l i e n t and t h e r a p i s t e x p e c t a t i o n s about treatment process.  B >  C. D a t a c o l l e c t i o n . ment p a c k a g e .  Contract  9  Initial Efforts  (1974).  Administer  problem  assess-  Negotiate therapeutic contract; the a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e t h e r a p i s t t o work on agreed-upon D. p r o b l e m s ( c o n s e n s u s i n t h e s y s t e m ) i n c l u d i n g a n a g r e e m e n t a b o u t t h e manner o f t r e a t ment .  Therapy E.  B e g i n i n i t i a l change e f f o r t s . Set object i v e s ; design data-gathering procedures; the measurement package.  F.  R e s ]. s t a n c e >  G. 1. M o s t l y iables  H. R e t u r n  s u b j e c t var-  G. 2. M o s t l y i n t e r - ) actional var iables  t o D o r A, vezi s s e s s , r e n e g o t i a t e .  I . M o n i t o r change; a s s e s s t h e impact o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s , t e r m i n a t i o n and f o l l o w - u p . F i g u r e 2.  Model f o r E v a l u a t i o n  45 Carr  (1977) s u p p o r t e d  program e v a l u a t i o n  t h i s model i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the  process.  method o r m e t h o d s d e s i g n e d meaningful information  He d e f i n e d  program e v a l u a t i o n  a s "a  specifically  f o r the purpose of  providing  to decision-makers to a i d i n resource  and p r o c e s s m o d i f i c a t i o n "  (Carr,  between d e c i s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g The  Carr  1 9 7 7 , p. 1 1 5 ) .  evaluation  distinquished  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  two p r o c e s s e s o f p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n r e l e v a n t  to t h i s  activity.  study  were:  1.  Process evaluation: ( f o r m a t i v e ) f o c u s e s on d i s c o v e r i n g t h r o u g h f e e d b a c k the s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of the d e s i g n of the program, to m o n i t o r on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f f a i l u r e , s u c h a s w h a t f a c t o r s may p r e v e n t o r f a c i l i t a t e p e o p l e u s i n g t h e program. A t t h e same t i m e i t i s d i r e c t e d a t d e s c r i b i n g why the program worked w e l l , o r the e f f i c i e n c y of the program.  2.  P r o d u c t e v a l u a t i o n : (summative) the f o c u s o f t h i s t y p e of program e v a l u a t i o n i s on e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Does t h e p r o g r a m reach i t s stated objectives? Emphasis i n product e v a l u a t i o n i s o f t e n on m e a s u r e m e n t w i t h e x p l i c i t c o n c e r n s t o d e v e l o p c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o b j e c t i v e s h a v e b e e n met. (p. 116).  identified  progress  the s k i l l s  through the steps  ing, reflection  necessary f o r the evaluator  that "helping  and s u m m a r i z i n g .  effective  skills...are  Also  critical  e v a l u a t i o n model"  identified  education  She e x p l o r e d conversely  Carr  active  Carr  listen-  reiterates  to the development of a v i t a l  and  (p. 118).  c l i e n t was  Procedures  the program c o - o r d i n a t o r  p r o g r a m s , Women i n Management and C a r e e r the e x p e c t a t i o n s  was  facilitate  suggested nonjudgemental  or problem-solving.  Evaluation  The  to  o u t l i n e d i n the above model:  approaches such as b r a i n - s t o r m i n g  uing  Carr  allocation  presented with  of the program e v a l u a t o r ' s  f o r two  contin-  Development. role  and  an o v e r v i e w o f t h e p r o c e s s o f program  46  evaluation.  Through t h e above mentioned p r o c e s s e s s  she  her i n i t i a l  explored  An  initial  Your L i f e " criteria  of  the s p e c i f i c  program, Career  (Appendix J ) using  f o r t h e m o d e l was n e g o t i a t e d initiated.  the course  appropriate  o f c o n c e r n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  implemented The  i n order  A telephone  survey  designed  a data-gathering  appears i n Appendix J .  the courses  viewers.  obtained  gathering  i n order  Following  Two c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s w e r e  identified,  i n f o r m a t i o n about the goals  device  and  The  content  i n s t r u c t o r s and  inter-  ( A p p e n d i x D) w a s d e v e l o p e d b y a  t o have an u n o b t r u s i v e  measure o f p l a n n i n g  course  ability.  each m e e t i n g between t h e program e v a l u a t o r and t h e  program c o - o r d i n a t o r munication,  implemented due t o t h e  f o l l o w i n g t h e above p r o c e d u r e  and i n t e r v i e w s f r o m t h e c o u r s e  A data  instructor  procedure w i t h the  P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s .  program e v a l u a t o r of  of her career  group.  A new c o n t r a c t was n e g o t i a t e d  "Developing  f o r success  o f p a s t p a r t i c i p a n t s was  program c o - o r d i n a t o r w h i c h c o u l d n o t be f u l l y  and  the evaluator  to f u r t h e r a s c e r t a i n relevant v a r i a b l e s f o r study.  program e v a l u a t o r  lack of a w a i t l i s t  for establishing  Through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h  e v e n t u a l l y developed c r i t e r i a  to her l e v e l  "A C a r e e r i n  and t h e p r o c e s s  the program c o - o r d i n a t o r  development program.  Development,  concern.  contract  of success  1977),  c o n c e r n s f o r t h e p r o g r a m s f o r w h i c h s h e was  r e s p o n s i b l e and i d e n t i f i e d as h e r m a i n f o c u s  (Carr,  i n order  to f a c i l i t a t e  direct  and a c c u r a t e  a summary o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was r e c o r d e d  com-  and p r e s e n t e d f o r  comments o r ammendments. F o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d b y a s s e s s i n g of  the course  the e f f i c i e n c y  and i n t e r v i e w components and by s u p p l y i n g  qualitative  information  for future planning  and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g -  evaluation  u s e d was a s s e s s e d b y p r e -  behaviors,  a t t i t u d e s and p l a n n i n g  criteria  of  Results  and p o s t - o u t c o m e measures o f  ability  the  which represent  were r e p o r t e d  p e r i o d i c a l l y t o t h e program  Whether t h e c r i t e r i a  co-ordinator  on-going feedback f o r program  o f success were o b t a i n e d  through  c o u r s e s o r i n t e r v i e w s was d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s o f e m p i r i c a l  data which consisted  of a s e r i e s of questionnaires  Development of  L i f e s t y l e Attitude Scale. type s c a l e d e v e l o p e d by Burns t o w a r d women's l i f e s t y l e s .  A 20-item counterbalanced L i k e r t ( 1 9 7 4 ) was u s e d  t o measure a t t i t u d e s  The s c a l e p u r p o r t s  having  t o do w i t h  Content  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  spheres  I n d e p e n d e n c e and m a r i t a l o b l i g a t i o n s .  C r i t e r i a - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y was r e p o r t e d attitude scale correlated  behaviors r e l a t i n g  t o measure t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  o r i e n t a t i o n o f women.  domains range from t h e v o c a t i o n a l , e d u c a t i o n a l to i s s u e s  and forms.  Questionnaires  (motherhood), n o n t r a d i t i o n a l (career)  the  desired  success.  to a s s i s t i n r e v i s i o n s and t o p r o v i d e planning.  Summative  by Burns  (1974).  S c o r e s on  ( r = .53) s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h  to l i f e s t y l e .  The a l p h a  self-reported  c o - e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y  was  .889. B u r n s (1974) warned however, o f p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s o f  the  s c a l e a s h e r s a m p l e t e s t e d was c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y o f y o u n g e r  students.  A p p e n d i x C.  L i f e s t y l e Behavior C h e c k l i s t . pre  female  The a c t i v i t y  c h e c k l i s t used i n  a n d p o s t t e s t i n g f o r e a c h g r o u p was d e v e l o p e d b y H a n d s ( 1 9 7 5 ) t o  assess behaviors i n d i c a t i n g actual l i f e s t y l e naire included  changes.  The  a c h e c k l i s t o f 32 b e h a v i o r s o r a c t i v i t i e s  question-  considered  48 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h women a n d m o t h e r s typically  engage.  i n t e r e s t which  Included i n the t o t a l a r e s e v e r a l items of primary  pertain  t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' c o m m i t m e n t t o h e r own p e r -  s o n a l development and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n traditional to  lifestyle.  i n d i c a t e which  and t o a more a c t i v e ,  On t h e p r e - m e a s u r e t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e  of the l i s t e d behaviors or a c t i v i t i e s  pated  i n during the l a s t  asked  t o r e p o r t whether t h e behavior o r a c t i v i t y  or  "stayed The  of  they  partici-  I n t h e post-measure, they "increased",  were "decreased"  c h e c k l i s t was c h o s e n b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c r i t e r i a a n d c o n t e n t and i n t e r v i e w s , a s w e l l a s by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e l e v a n t  factors indicated reviewed  Pilot  instructors,  The c h e c k l i s t  i n t e r v i e w e r s and t h e program  A p p e n d i x E.  testing.  Four  Psychology  i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e .  by t h e c o u r s e  co-ordinator.  women.  f o u r weeks.  asked  t h e same" i n t h e p a s t f o u r w e e k s f o r a l l 32 i t e m s .  the courses  was  less  The b e h a v i o r  were s t u d e n t s  c h e c k l i s t was p i l o t  i n the master's  tested with ten  program i n C o u n s e l l i n g  a t U.B.C. a n d s i x w e r e e m p l o y e e s a t t h e C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n -  uing Education.  They f o u n d  the form  easy  to complete  and h a d no  suggestions f o r r e v i s i o n . Planning A b i l i t y Questionnaire. asked  respondents  required course  to order i n l o g i c a l  to establish a goal.  instructor  o f "A C a r e e r  The e i g h t - i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e sequence t h e p l a n n i n g  T h i s i n s t r u m e n t was d e v e l o p e d  steps by t h e  i n Your L i f e " as an u n o b t r u s i v e  measure o f p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y based on t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t and g o a l s . The  post-measure form a l s o attempted  respondents  t o e s t a b l i s h whether o r n o t t h e  p r e s e n t l y had a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r t h e f u t u r e .  A p p e n d i x D.  49  P o s t - s e s s i o n .Meaningfulness Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . designed to  to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the  participants.  (Specific course  questionnaire  to the c o u r s e  meaningful".  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  elements of Appendix  was  t h e i r course  considered  various  on  as q u e s t i o n s  very meaningful" reviewed as  by  listing  concerning  behaviors  f e l t d i f f e r e n t l y about  the c o u r s e  instructors,  Information  developed  s u c h as  themselves.  The  types  course  instructors  important  desired  identical  feedback.  components  The  well  of c o u n s e l l i n g lives,  Perceptions  of  and  whether  the  course  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  i n t e r v i e w e r s and  Questionnaire.  program  reviewed  co-ordinator.  to  the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of  determine  This  survey  questionnaire  to o b t a i n demographic i n f o r m a t i o n from the 2 and  15  (age,  education the  and  three  groups.  m a r i t a l s t a t u s ) were used  sample  characteristics.  L. testing.  The  General  t e s t e d w i t h 35 women a t t e n d i n g The  rate  ."extremely  the most  changes i n t h e i r  Q u e s t i o n s 1,  Pilot  to  K.  General  Appendix  the  the  the p o s t - s e s s i o n m e a n i n g f u l n e s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e as  or i n t e r v i e w were a l s o s e l f - r e p o r t e d .  was  to  or i n t e r v i e w f o r w h i c h they  i n f o r m a t i o n sought, s i g n i f i c a n t  Appendix  from  F.  were l i s t e d  by  components  Respondents were asked  Follow-up Meaningfulness Questionnaire.  they  were  meaningfulness  or i n t e r v i e w ) w h i c h were o b t a i n e d  1 to 5 from "not  i n t e r v i e w e r s and  sessions'  listed  i n s t r u c t o r s or i n t e r v i e w e r s .  e a c h on a s c a l e o f  and  The  These items  wording of  some o f  Information  a Continuing  the q u e s t i o n s  was  Questionnaire Education  changed on  was  evening  pilot course.  the b a s i s of  their  comments and some q u e s t i o n s were d e l e t e d as not being r e l e v a n t . O b s e r v a t i o n Form.  O b s e r v a t i o n of the courses was  f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of content and manner p r e s e n t e d . the i n t e r v i e w s was judged  c a r r i e d out  O b s e r v a t i o n of  to be o b t r u s i v e and was not c a r r i e d o u t .  The o b s e r v a t i o n c h e c k l i s t was  compiled  by the course i n s t r u c t o r s and  the program c o - o r d i n a t o r and i n c l u d e d environmental f a c t o r s as w e l l as group and i n d i v i d u a l p r o c e s s e s .  Appendix M.  Hypotheses Null  Form Hypothesis  1.  Participants-  a t t i t u d e s c o r e s show no  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the cours.es, "'A Career i n Your Life",  "Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s  as measured  by the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e .  Hypothesis statistically  2.  "A Career i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e cViange as measured  by the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e when compared w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the "Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " course and " L i f e p l a n n i n g "  inter-  views . H y p o t h e s i s 3.  "A Career i n Your L i f e " ,  "Developing P e r s o n a l  P o t e n t i a l " and " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v e n t i o n s r e p o r t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  i n c r e a s e i n degree  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as measured on the L i f e s t y l e Behavior  Checklist.  Hypothesis statistically  4.  "A Career i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s when compared  to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the course  51  "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l " m e a s u r e d on  the L i f e s t y l e  Hypothesis Potential"  and  significant s c o r e s on  5.  Behavior  Career  "Lifeplanning"  i n t e r v i e w s as  Checklist.  i n Your L i f e " ,  "Developing  " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s show no  g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  Personal  statistically  t h e c o u r s e a s m e a s u r e d by  test  the P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Hypothesis statistically  6.  "A  Career  i n Y o u r L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s show  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a s m e a s u r e d by  the P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y in  "A  and  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e when c o m p a r e d  the "Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l "  c o u r s e and  no  test scores  to the  on  participants  "Lifeplanning"  interviews.  Assumptions  The  preceding hypotheses  a r e based  on c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s .  the e x t e n t  that they are a c c u r a t e , these assumptions  permit  acceptance  of  indicate  null  hypotheses  tions  s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d .  are i n a c c u r a t e , they l i m i t  drawn from or  the a l t e r n a t e hypotheses  where r e s u l t s  To  the the  the extent that these  assump-  t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h may  the r e s u l t s of the study i n terms of e i t h e r  the a l t e r n a t e  To  the  be  null  hypotheses.  Assumptions 1.  T h a t t h e s a m p l e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f women e n r o l l i n g  in  p l a n n i n g courses or i n t e r v i e w s through  the C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y  Columbia.  2. sensitive  of B r i t i s h  -That t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a s u r i n g to r e f l e c t  i n s t r u m e n t s used  are  a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n s t r u c t s they  life-  adequately are  52  purported 3.  t o measure. That  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e g r o u p s f o u r w e e k s  the i n t e r v e n t i o n s were a r e s u l t 4.  That  of d i f f e r e n t  following  interventions.  t h e i n s t r u c t o r s h i r e d by t h e C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  Depart-  ment w e r e c a p a b l e o f t e a c h i n g t o w a r d s t h e same g o a l s .  Evaluation Procedures:  Selection The  D a t a C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s  o f t h e Sample p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l l s e l f - s e l e c t e d .  13 women and two men a t t e n d e d  the "Career  Initially  i n Your L i f e "  a t o t a l of course.  The  two m a l e s d a t a w e r e d i s c a r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y a n d o n e woman was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r the follow-up study. Potential"  course,  22 women i n i t i a l l y  f i v e women n o t c o m p l e t i n g i n c l u d e d were t h e f i r s t collection The  final  I n the "Developing  schedule,  the course.  registered  f o r the class  with  The " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s  12 i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d  one p e r s o n  Personal  during the data  was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e f o l l o w - u p .  s a m p l e ( T a b l e 3) c o n s i s t e d o f a t o t a l o f 40 women a s s u b j e c t s  w i t h m i s s i n g d a t a on a n y o f t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s h y p o t h e s i s b e i n g d e l e t e d from  i n c l u d e d by each  the analyses.  Table 3 Sample S i z e Used  t o Test Each  Group  A Career  i n Your  Developing  Hypothesis  Life  Personal  Lifeplanning  Hypothesis  Potential  Interviews  12 17 11  1 to 6  53 C o l l e c t i o n of Data from  Participants  The L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r  C h e c k l i s t , L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e and  the G e n e r a l  I n f o r m a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were g i v e n t o p a r t i c i p a n t s  immediately  prior  were c o n t a c t e d N).  to the course  by t e l e p h o n e  or interview.  i n i t i a l l y to o b t a i n t h e i r  The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s t u d y ,  courses  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n  t h e s e s s i o n a t a t i m e when t h e i n s t r u c t o r be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e .  Ability  to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s  arranged  f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  by group c o n s e n s u s d u r i n g  Those unable or m a i l e d  t o a t t e n d were e i t h e r  the course  the f i r s t  collection  schedule  The  post-  post-Planning  Questionnaire o r i n t e r v i e w and w e r e  s e s s i o n of the course.  seen i n d i v i d u a l l y by t h e e v a l u a t o r  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (see Appendix P ) .  w e r e made a t m a i n t a i n i n g s t a n d a r d  i t to  Questionnaire  session or interview.  Checklist, L i f e s t y l e Attitude Scale,  The  during  or c o u n s e l l o r judged  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and f o l l o w - u p M e a n i n g f u l n e s s  were a d m i n i s t e r e d  (Appendix  (see Appendix 0 ) .  The p o s t - s e s s i o n M e a n i n g f u l n e s s  was g i v e n a t t h e end o f e a c h d a i l y L i f e s t y l e Behavior  consent  s o l i c i t a t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i o n and  i n s t r u c t i o n s were i d e n t i c a l f o r b o t h Planning A b i l i t y  Lifeplanning participants  I n a l l cases  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures.  a p p e a r s on T a b l e  attempts The  data  4.  Data A n a l y s i s All recoded  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d were coded and a 10% random to check coder  were analyzed Sciences  reliability  by t h e s t a n d a r d  (no e r r o r s were f o u n d ) .  The  data  S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l  (1975).  P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s were performed of  subsample  to determine  the sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the three groups.  the c o m p a r a b i l i t y  The  nonparametric  54 Table  4  Date C o l l e c t i o n  Ins trument  Schedule  Source  Time  Interviews with co-ordinator, c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s and i n t e r viewers  Investigator  P r i o r to course interviews  Telephone Survey  Investigator  Prior  General Information Questionnaire Behavior Checklist L i f e s t y l e Attitude Scale  Participants  P r i o r to courses interviews  Planning A b i l i t y  Participants  A p p r o p r i a t e time i n the courses or interviews  Participant  During  Participants  End o f d a i l y sessions  Participants  F o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g last session  Questionnaire  Observation Meaningfulness  Questionnaire  Followup Measures: L i f e s t y l e Behavior Checklist Planning A b i l i t y Questionnaire L i f e s t y l e Attitude Scale Meaningfulness Questionnaire  chi-square marital  status,  t e s t was u s e d  to determine  e d u c a t i o n and age  f o r the following  to determine  or  courses  o f t h e groups on  statistical  sig-  hypotheses:  H y p o t h e s e s 1 and 2 ( d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e : e x a m i n e d by a two-way r e p e a t e d  to course  groups.  The a l p h a l e v e l o f p ^ . . 0 5 was u s e d nificance  equivalence  or  lifestyle  measures a n a l y s i s  attitude)  were  of v a r i a n c e w i t h an omnibus  55  F_.  The  t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n groups c o n s t i t u t e the t h r e e l e v e l s of  between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r , tute  the  two  l e v e l s of  t h e p r e - and  the w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r .  m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was study  as  i t has  analysis  posttesting occasions of  constirepeated  considered appropriate i n this  more p o w e r w i t h s m a l l s a m p l e s t h a n  ( B u c k & M c L e a n , 1975;  Use  the  multivariate  L e v i n & M a r a s c u i l o , 1977;  Schutz,  1978). H y p o t h e s e s 3 and examined by order  t o c h a n g e on  e x a m i n e d by  o m n i b u s F_. of  The  the B e h a v i o r  was  found  were  a two-way r e p e a t e d  p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y ) were  l e v e l s of  on e x a m i n i n g  to  measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e w i t h  three comparison groups c o n s t i t u t e the  t h e two  the  Checklist.  6 (dependent v a r i a b l e :  the between s u b j e c t s f a c t o r ,  constitute  l i f e s t y l e behaviors)  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e means on  H y p o t h e s e s 5 and be  (dependent v a r i a b l e :  a one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e s t w i t h t h r e e g r o u p s i n  to determine  responses  4  and  t h e p r e - and  three  levels  posttesting occasions  the w i t h i n s u b j e c t s f a c t o r .  However, i t  the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t the  l a c k e d h o m o g e n i e t y o f v a r i a n c e and  groups  w i t h unequal sample s i z e s  this  made  t h e F_ s t a t i s t i c i n a p p r o p r i a t e . Hypothesis pairs, that and  signed-ranks  e x a m i n e d by  test  the nonparametric  (Ferguson,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p r e - and ranked  1976,  p.  392).  Wilcoxon  matched-  This test requires  p o s t t e s t i n g o c c a s i o n s be  calculated  w i t h a l l t i e d p a i r s d e l e t e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Hypothesis The  5 was  6 was  analyzed  s c o r e s were analyzed  t h e same o r d i d n o t  by  the nonparametric  t e s t of  chi-square.  as f r e q u e n c i e s c o m p a r i n g t h o s e p e o p l e  improve t h e i r  score  t o t h o s e who  improved  who their  stayed  planning  ability  scores.  A significant  chi-square  implies the  e x i s t e n c e o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two v a r i a b l e s o f g r o u p membership and p l a n n i n g  ability.  Summary  This Your L i f e "  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d course,  to evaluate  the three-day  the s i x - s e s s i o n "Developing  "A C a r e e r i n  Personal  Potential"  course  a n d t h e o n e - h o u r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s f o r women a t t h e  Centre  f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C.  The r e s e a r c h  methodology,  h y p o t h e s e s , a s s u m p t i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n p l a n and p r o c e d u r e s were sented  i n this  chapter.  pre-  CHAPTER I V  FINDINGS AND  The r e s u l t s f r o m in  DISCUSSION  the analyses of the questionnaires a r e presented  t h i s chapter i n three sections:  analyses of the data i n r e l a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the sample,  t o the hypotheses  o f t h e s t u d y and  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c o u r s e s o r interviews i n relation of  t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s and f o l l o w - u p e v a l u a t i o n  them.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Sample  The d a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d given immediately  prior  through  the General  Survey  to the course or i n t e r v i e w .  Questionnaire  Data on age,  m a r i t a l s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n were t a b u l a t e d and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e g r o u p s w e r e e x a m i n e d b y t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t f o r independence. Table (includes:  5 shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e s  t h e "A C a r e e r  married"  or "married" f o r  The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f " o t h e r t h a n m a r r i e d ' s " i n Your L i f e "  The c o m p a r i s o n 6.  "other than  s i n g l e , d i v o r c e d , widowed, s e p a r a t e d )  each group.  i n Table  of persons  course.  o f t h e amount o f e d u c a t i o n f o r e a c h g r o u p  The g r o u p s a p p e a r r e l a t i v e l y  p r o p o r t i o n having•completed  attended  appears  s i m i l a r with the largest  university or college.  The group d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r age r a n g e a p p e a r s i n T a b l e 57  7.  The  58  Table  5  Comparison o f M a r i t a l  Group  A Career  i n Your  Developing  Lifeplanning  Other than Married  Married  83.3%  16.7%  12  41.2%  58.8%  17  36.4%  63.6%  11  52.5%  47.5%  40  Life  Personal  Potential  Interviews TOTAL  Table  A Career  High  i n Your L i f e  Developing  Personal Potential  Lifeplanning  Interviews TOTAL  N  6  Comparison o f Education  Group  Status  Attained  School or Below  Some C o l l e g e o r University  16.7%  50.0%  29.4%  23.5%  27.3%  18.2%  54.5%  25.0%  30.0%  45.0%  Completed University or College  33.3% 47.1%  59 Table  7  C o m p a r i s o n o f Age Groups  Group  A Career  i n Your  Developing Lifeplanning  15 - 30  Life  Personal  Potential  Interviews TOTAL  31-40  41 a n d o v e r  N  41.7%  33.3%  25.0%  12  17.6%  29.4%  52.9%  17  45.5%  27.3%  27.3%  11  32.5%  30.0%  37.5%  40  Table  8  Summary o f C h i - s q u a r e T e s t s o n G r o u p D e m o g r a p h i c  Demographic  Marital  Data  Status  Chi-square df  . 2  6.597  Education  4  3.439  Age  4  3.993  Significant  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  a  Data  median age group  ranged  f r o m 31 - 40 y e a r s f o r a l l g r o u p s .  Although the "Developing Personal this study,  the s t a t i s t i c a l  P o t e n t i a l " group  was  t e s t does n o t r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s - a summary o f t h e d a t a o n g r o u p in  age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s  among t h e t h r e e Further  and e d u c a t i o n .  chi-square analyses revealed and t h e t h r e e  status.  no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p  dependent v a r i a b l e s  Attitude, L i f e s t y l e Behavior, Planning necessary  differences  Significant differences  groups were found f o r m a r i t a l  between m a r i t a l s t a t u s  older i n  Ability)  (Lifestyle  thus i t i s not  t o c o n t r o l f o r between group d i f f e r e n c e s  in' subsequent  analyses.  Summary. college of  T h e t y p i c a l woman was i n h e r m i d - t h i r t i e s , h a d some  e d u c a t i o n a n d may o r may n o t s t i l l  two c h i l d r e n .  she this  would  be m a r r i e d w i t h  an average  I f s h e was a " C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t ,  t y p i c a l l y be " o t h e r  than married".  I t w o u l d seem t h a t i n  s a m p l e t h e y o u n g e r , more i n d e p e n d e n t woman was a t t r a c t e d  career  development  to the  program.  Analyses of Data from Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n R e l a t i o n t o Each Hypothesis  Several  c o m p a r i s o n s among g r o u p s w e r e p o s s i b l e .  The comparisons  that were o f s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study were t h e comparisons among t h e " C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " g r o u p , " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l and each  "Lifeplanning"  interviews.  The r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d  Potential"  relevant to  hypothesis. Hypothesis 1 states  statistically  t h a t ; p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s c o r e s show n o  s i g n i f i c a n t gain  f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  t h e c o u r s e s "A  Career i n Your L i f e " , planning"  interviews  "Developing Personal  P o t e n t i a l " and  as measured by the L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e  T a b l e 9 shows g r o u p means f o r a l l t h r e e indicating the  that a l l groups gained  pretest  indicated  session  greater  i n nontraditional attitudes  t o t h e f o u r week f o l l o w - u p  session.  s c o r e on t h e L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e  pretest  the  t e s t of d i f f e r e n c e As the  concluded  i n favour of the a l t e r n a t e . I t can  show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  that;  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  significant difference  by t h e L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e S c a l e  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the "Developing Personal  The by  partici-  participants  i n a t t i t u d e change as  when c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and t h e  interviews.  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  i n the session  groups i n t e r a c t i o n (Table 10). Therefore t h e n u l l Hypothesis 2  was n o t r e j e c t e d . the  change  the course or interview.  Hypothesis 2 states  "Lifeplanning"  d i d help  t h e i r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s a s m e a s u r e d up t o  f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  measured  The F - r a t i o f o r  F - r a t i o f o r s e s s i o n means was s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e  the courses or interviews  p a n t s by i n c r e a s i n g  sessions.  o f s e s s i o n means was 4.63 w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t  1 was r e j e c t e d  that  was p e r f o r m e d  and f o l l o w - u p  r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s a p p e a r i n T a b l e 10.  be  A low score  among g r o u p means f o r t h e t o t a l  The  n u l l Hypothesis  from  nontraditional attitudes.  to determine s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  .05.  Scale.  comparison groups,  A two-way r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  at 2Z  "Life-  reported  I t was c o n c l u d e d  increase  in lifestyle  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " g r o u p w i t h  that  there  was no d i f f e r e n c e i n  a t t i t u d e when c o m p a r i n g t h e the "Developing Personal  Potential"  Table  9  Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o n t h e L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e  Group  Pretest Mean  Scale  3  Followup Mean S .D.  S.D.  A Career i n Your L i f e  45.83  13.34  43.83  13 .79  Developing  52.82  13.89  51.41  15 .45  45.09  12.15  43.23  11..96  Personal  Lifeplanning  3  Potential  Interviews  A low score i n d i c a t e s n o n t r a d i t i o n a l ( p o s s i b l e r a n g e 20 t o 100)  Table Analysis  Source  Between  (Groups)  Within  attitudes  10  of Variance f o r L i f e s t y l e A t t i t u d e  df  2  MS  •  562.89  37  360.33  F  1.56  Sessions  (pre/post)  1  56.66  4.63  Sessions  x Groups  2  .62  .05  37  12.25  Within  Significant  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  3  63 g r o u p and  the  "Lifeplanning"  Hypothesis 3 states P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and following increase  the  as m e a s u r e d on The  17,  "A  Career i n Your L i f e " ,  "Lifeplanning" reported  change s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t e d  19,  no  the L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r  23,  26,  as  27,  30,  weeks  statistically significant activities  Checklist.  change i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  indicated  29,  "Developing  p a r t i c i p a n t s .four  participation in nontraditional  traditional activities 13,  that;  interventions  i n d e g r e e of  group.  31.  by  the  The  following  response  a v e r a g e number o f a v e r a g e number o f  decreased were s u b t r a c t e d  from the  that  increased.  c h a n g e s c o r e means ( T a b l e 11)  that  they were a l l g r e a t e r  t h a n z e r o s u g g e s t i n g an  A one-way a n a l y s i s t h e r e was  performed  e  as  indicated  following  the  sessions.  T a b l e 12,  revealed  on  the  The  the  a significant F-ratio  traditional activities  as  their  i t was  i n d i c a t i v e of  The  the  sessions.  to determine i f  four  summarized  f o r t h e mean e f f e c t  (greater  non-  nontraditional  analysis,  n u l l H y p o t h e s i s 3.  reflected a s i g n i f i c a n t increase  revealed in  L i f e s t y l e Behavior Checklist  r e s u l t s of  .0.1), t h u s r e j e c t i n g t h e  reported  t e s t was  a s i g n i f i c a n t chang .;in p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  activities  p_ ^  of v a r i a n c e  activities  increase  t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l g r o u p s f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  items:  activities  that  Examining the  non-  (F =  weeks in 36.58,  g r a n d mean  than zero) i n  non-  a v e r a g e of  group  the  means. Hypothesis 4 states reported pation the  no  statistically  that;  "A  Career i n Your L i f e "  significant difference  participants  i n degree of  partici-  i n n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s when c o m p a r e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s  c o u r s e " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and  "Lifeplanning"  in  inter-  \  64  Table  11  Mean Number o f N o n t r a d i t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s o n t h e L i f e s t y l e B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t - P r e and F o l l o w u p  Group Pretest  A Career  i n Your  Life  Followup I n c r e a s e D e c r e a s e Same  Change  S.D  3..23  2 .17  .42  6,.25  1..75  1.91  Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l  3..85  1 .83  .54  6..65  1 .29  1.49  Lifeplanning  3,.29  1 .55  .19  7..27  1..36  .92  Decreases  s u b t r a c t e d from i n c r e a s e s  Table Analysis  Source  Mean Between  (Groups)  Within  Significant  12  of Variance f o r Nontraditional B e h a v i o r Change  df  MS  Lifestyle  F  1  83.36  36.58  2  .79  .35  27  2.28  a t the .05 l e v e l  a  65  v i e w s a s m e a s u r e d by  the L i f e s t y l e Behavior C h e c k l i s t .  ( T a b l e 12)  t h a t t h e r e was  indicated  g r o u p means. concluded  The  from  null  no  H y p o t h e s i s 4 was  these r e s u l t s  The  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among not r e j e c t e d  and  Hypothesis 5 states P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " and  a s m e a s u r e d by  test  t h a t ; "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " ,  planning a b i l i t y  i f t h e r e was  the f o u r weeks.  H y p o t h e s i s 5 ,was  t h a t o f t h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s who  ability  over  v i e w s had It  no  s h o u l d be  t o +12.  not r e j e c t e d .  t h e r e was  The  results  (W = 4 7 2 . ^ — I t was  to rank  no s i g n i f i c a n t The  order  gain i n planning  courses or  statistically  inter-  ability.  these  results  t e s t n e c e s s i t a t e s a l a r g e r e d u c t i o n i n sample  Hypothesis 6 states  -057).  concluded  i n helping participants gain i n planning  by d i s c a r d i n g a l l t i e d - p a i r s  show no  f r o m -5  t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when i n t e r p r e t i n g  that the Wilcoxon  was  T a b l e 13 s u m m a r i z e s t h e p r e -  the f o u r weeks f o r t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . effect  Questionnaire.  i n i t i a l l y were unable  the p l a n n i n g process c o r r e c t l y ,  interview  significant gain i n  significant gain i n planning a b i l i t y  T h e r e f o r e the n u l l  statis-  signed-ranks test  a statistically  p o s t - d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s which ranged  i n d i c a t e no  the course or  s c o r e s on t h e P l a n n i n g A b i l i t y  over  and  "Developing  " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s showed no  nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs  used to determine  and  Career  interviews.  s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g  The  i n "A  to p a r t i c i p a n t s i n "Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l "  participants i n "Lifeplanning"  tically  i t was  t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e p o r t e d  i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n when c o m p a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Your L i f e "  results  size  data.  t h a t ; "A C a r e e r  i n Your L i f e "  participants  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a s m e a s u r e d by  test  scores  66  Table  13  Comparison of P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e Scores Planning A b i l i t y  Scores  N_  Increased  14  Decreased  6  Stayed  20  t h e same TOTAL  17 w e r e p e r f e c t  a  40  scores  Table  14  Comparison o f P r e - P o s t - D i f f e r e n c e Scores t h a t : o r S t a y e d t h e Same a n d I m p r o v e d on P l a n n i n g  Got W o r s e / S t a y e d  Group  A Career  i n Your  Developing  Life  Personal  Lifeplanning  on  Potential  Interviews  TOTAL  58%  Same  Got worse, Ability  Improved  N  42%  12  82%  18%  17  45%  55%  11  62%  38%  40  67  on  the Planning  participants  Questionnaire  P o t e n t i a l " c o u r s e and  interviews.  nonparametric chi-square  was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y increase  when c o m p a r e d t o t h e  i n the "Developing Personal  "Lifeplanning" The  Ability  significant  i n planning  ability.  t h o s e who d i d w o r s e o r s t a y e d  t e s t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e g r o u p s and T a b l e 14 shows a g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n o f  t h e same and t h o s e who i m p r o v e d  their  2 score.  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d  thus the n u l l participants planning  H y p o t h e s i s 6 was n o t r e j e c t e d .  = 2.67, p_  I t was c o n c l u d e d  .30), that  i n a l l g r o u p s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n i n c r e a s e d  a b i l i t y when c o m p a r e d w i t h  Summary. 1.  ( X  each  other.  The r e s u l t s w a r r a n t t h e f o l l o w i n g  A l l three  conclusions:  lifeplanning interventions contributed  t o an  increase  t o an  increase  in nontraditional lifestyle attitudes. 2.  A l l three  lifeplanning interventions contributed  in participation i n nontraditional 3. a gain  None o f t h e t h r e e i n planning  4.  activities.  lifeplanning interventions contributed  to  ability.  The l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  not more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s " D e v e l o p i n g Potential"  or " L i f e p l a n n i n g " interviews  attitudes,  activities  or planning  was  Personal  i n increasing nontraditional  ability.  D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s and E f f i c i e n c y of t h e L i f e p l a n n i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n s  Pertinent discussed  information  i n relation  from formal  and i n f o r m a l  observation i s  to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  68  Observations Participants.  P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked  on t h e General  Survey  Questionnaire  t o i n d i c a t e w h a t o n e b e s t w o r d d e s c r i b e s how t h e y w e r e  feeling prior  t o s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e o r i n t e r v i e w .  ( 7 4 % ) o f women d e s c r i b e d t h e i r negative  (list  f e e l i n g was t h a t o f " c o n f u s i o n " .  the "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  than p a r t i c i p a n t s The  themselves  of d e s c r i p t o r s attached to Appendix  quently stated of  f e e l i n g s about  i n the other  group  Q).  The most  fremore  indicated negative  feelings  groups.  q u e s t i o n on t h e G e n e r a l Survey  a l l t h r e e groups  as being  Proportionally  asking participants  w h a t p r o m p t e d them t o s i g n up f o r t h i s c o u r s e r e s u l t e d in  The m a j o r i t y  to indicate  i n participants  s u g g e s t i n g a need f o r h e l p i n " o r d e r i n g t h e i r  lives". Appendix on  Q c o n t a i n s a summary a n d c o m p l e t e  t a b u l a t i o n f o r each  item  the General Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P a r t i c i p a n t s expressed  i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n the  c o u r s e s t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n and q u e s t i o n s a l t h o u g h more o f t h e p a r t i c i pants  i n the "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  q u i e t and u n r e s p o n s i v e t h a n i n t h e " C a r e e r Situation.  may  i nYour L i f e "  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " was i n i t i a l l y  a m i d - w e e k s e s s i o n b u t was c h a n g e d registrants.  course were  initially course.  advertised f o r  t o a weekend due t o l a c k o f  The c o u r s e s a n d i n t e r v i e w s w e r e h e l d i n l a t e s p r i n g  have c u r t a i l e d  registration.  The " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l "  c o u r s e was h e l d w e e k d a y m o r n i n g s w h i c h p r o b a b l y r e s t r i c t e d pants  to nonworking  anytime  which  women w h e r e a s " L i f e p l a n n i n g "  partici-  i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d  b e t w e e n 10 a.m. a n d 4 p.m. a n d t o o k o n l y o n e h o u r .  Therefore  69  working  o r nonworking  attended felt  the l i f e p l a n n i n g  that  the convenience  t h i s attendance.  More than h a l f  t h e women who  i n t e r v i e w s were i n f a c t w o r k i n g .  c o u r s e and  i n t e r v i e w s w e r e m o s t o f t e n r e q u e s t e d a s was t h e  location.  Material.  A l l of the a c t i v i t i e s  and e x e r c i s e s i n t h e c o u r s e s had  been p r e v i o u s l y used w i t h s i m i l a r groups  and i n c l u d e d v a l u e  t i o n , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , l i f e t i m e g o a l p l a n n i n g and s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on j o b s , Appendix  clarificadidactic  s c h o o l , and work ( c o u r s e o u t l i n e s appear i n  H, I ) .  Presentation. T a b l e 2.  I t was  o f t h e downtown l o c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o  The " D e v e l o p i n g P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l "  the " L i f e p l a n n i n g " downtown  women c o u l d a t t e n d .  D i f f e r e n c e s have been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I ,  The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were t h e l e n g t h ,  the type  o f c o n t a c t and c o s t .  The c o n c e n t r a t e d time and h i g h e r c o s t o f t h e  "Career  c o u r s e may h a v e b e e n p r o h i b i t i v e f o r many women.  The  i n Your L i f e "  "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  participants Life"  over a longer p e r i o d  course offered of time.  support of f e l l o w  T h e "A C a r e e r  i n Your  c o u r s e c o n t a i n e d p a r t i c i p a n t m o d e l s o f w o r k i n g women.  "Lifeplanning" privacy  The  i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d one-to-one c o n t a c t , c o n v e n i e n c e and  t h a t may h a v e e l i m i n a t e d  however they l a c k e d peer f e e d b a c k  the fear of d i s c u s s i o n w i t h peers, and s u p p o r t .  Summary The m a j o r i t y o f women w e r e f e e l i n g v e r y n e g a t i v e , g e n e r a l l y about  their  selections, The  life  confus  s i t u a t i o n and i n d i c a t e d a need f o r h e l p i n making  changing,  i m p r o v i n g o r becoming  "unstuck".  three interventions offered a v a r i e t y  of advantages  and d i s -  70  advantages t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s regarding content.  "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  co-ordinator  l o c a t i o n , time, c o s t and  c o u r s e was t h o u g h t b y t h e p r o g r a m  t o b e more e f f e c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g c h a n g e t h a n t h e  "Developing Personal  P o t e n t i a l " course or " L i f e p l a n n i n g "  interviews  b e c a u s e t h e c o n t e n t was t h e m o s t s p e c i f i c a l l y n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y  (career)  oriented,  Effectiveness  of the Interventions  Lifestyle attitude. views were s u c c e s s f u l  I t was c o n c l u d e d  i nhelping  that  the courses or i n t e r -  p a r t i c i p a n t s change by i n c r e a s i n g  t h e i r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t t i u d e s a s m e a s u r e d up t o f o u r w e e k s the  course or interview.  groups were f a i r l y  E x a m i n i n g t h e g r o u p means showed t h a t t h e  nontraditional  ( T a b l e 9) a t t h e i n i t i a l  Thus t h e l i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s r e s u l t e d a d d i t i o n a l support for r o l e r e d e f i n i t i o n . of  the increasing  women.  i nparticipants  This  t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e more  she i s and t h e b r o a d e r h e r b e h a v i o r a l  lifeplanning interventions  well-being  and i n c r e a s e d  Planning  Ability.  were n o t s u c c e s s f u l the  the  ordered  psychologically  options.  Therefore the  examined appear t o c o n t r i b u t e  behavioral  options  i n increasing planning  tothe  f o r women.  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  c o u r s e s and i n t e r v i e w s .  initially  gaining  may a l s o b e i n d i c a t i v e  n o n t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s a n i n d i v i d u a l h o l d s t h e more  three  pretesting.  a c c e p t a n c e by s o c i e t y o f more androgynous r o l e s f o r  According  healthy  following  ability  the interventions a s i t was t a u g h t i n  A s a l a r g e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  the planning  (42.5%)  s e q u e n c e c o r r e c t l y i t w o u l d seem  that  i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e may b e t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f b a r r i e r s o r b l o c k s t o  implementing plans as w e l l as teaching  the planning  process.  This  71  c o n t e n t i o n was  supported  and  instructors.  the  course  planning No  ability  criteria  d i f f e r e n c e was  a follow-up  by  question  t h e v e r b a l comments o f An  alternate explanation  d i d not  adequately  f o u n d among g r o u p s on p l a n n i n g  asking  "Do  you  15)  evenly  distributed  a  plan, while  they a  that "Developing  had  67%  of  "A  p r e s e n t l y have a p l a n n i n g  who  goals?"  strategy  revealed  h a v e and  t h o s e who  do  not  have  73%  that  C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s had  Checklist.  interview  A l l three  (Table  w h e r e c h a n g e was "Making p l a n s  16).  Of  the n o n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e  expected,  to a t t e n d  in  t o f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the course items  the l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e occured  school  i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e " and  "Read m a g a z i n e s , p e r i o d i c a l s , b o o k s " .  an  increase  or  identified  i n Item Item  More s p e c i f i c a l l y  the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each group r e p o r t e d  Item  i n t e r v e n t i o n s were  i n helping participants increase their participation  n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s up  17  26  almost  50%  i n I t e m 17  and  26. It  should  be  noted  t h a t the f o l l o w - u p  many p e o p l e w e r e on h o l i d a y s , c h i l d r e n o u t universities  responses  The  on  t o I t e m 29  sional school  in  however  plan.  effective  and  ability.  ability,  t h e " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d by  a p l a n , and  the  P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l " p a r t i c i p a n t s were  between those  L i f e s t y l e Behavior  of  i s that  measure p l a n n i n g  f o r your f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l / v o c a t i o n a l / o r personal (Table  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  semester break. and  f u l l t i m e or  r e s u l t s of  30  of  s c h o o l and  This would  "Attending  affect  some c o l l e g e s particularly  c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y or  profes-  parttime".  the behavior  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s own  t o o k p l a c e mid-summer when  i n c r e a s e s showed an  education  as w e l l as  (Item  increased 31)  "Making  interest plans  72  Table Followup  R e s p o n s e s t o t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do Y o u P r e s e n t l y h a v e a Planning Strategy?"  Group  A Career  i n Your L i f e  Developing  Personal Potential  Lifeplanning  15  Interviews TOTAL  Yes  No  N  67%-  33%  12  47%  53%  17  73%  27%.  11  62%  38%  40  Table  16  Frequency o f Increased N o n t r a d i t i o n a l L i f e s t y l e Behaviors By I t e m  Item  Group  A Career  i n Your  Developing  Life  Personal Potential  Lifeplanning  Interviews TOTAL  Numbers  N  13  17  19  23  26  27  29  30  31  2  6  1  4  5  2  0  0  4  12  1  7  3  5  9  0  1  0  5  17  0  5  1  3  5  0  0  0  3  11  3  18  5  12  19  2  1  0  12  40  73  for outside  e m p l o y m e n t " and  opportunities This  for greater  r e f l e c t e d a more a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t  s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and  f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Hands' Follow-up Questions.  participants  responded  about y o u r s e l f interview?"  In  to the  the  "A  terms of f u r t h e r a t t i t u d i n a l question,  d i d 88%  Potential"  the  P a r t i c i p a n t s who who  responded  73%  (85%),  94%  greater  n e s s of v a l u e s  and  results  and  of  you  a r e s u l t of  the  and  were asked  i n d i c a t e d that  the  q u e s t i o n . " H a v e you  (Table  processes learned  c h a n g e was  i n the  returned  to s c h o o l , work, or  information  T h e r e was  no  and  course or  shows t h e f r e q u e n c y o f  application  t h i s may  counsellor  who  be  that  directed  in their  course or  interview.  more p e r s o n a l  them s p e c i f i c a l l y  partici-  personal  with  largest proportion.  they r e c e i v e d  lives.  question.  h a v i n g been u t i l i z e d the  explana-  self-reported assistance  t o f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the  participants utilizing  and  leaving a relationship.  a practical  d i f f e r e n c e among g r o u p s t o t h i s  using  interview?"  p r o c e s s e s i n making d e c i s i o n s  s e r v i c e s were i n d i c a t e d as  t i o n of  o r more a w a r e -  decision  p a n t s s o u g h t i n t h e a r e a s o f g u i d a n c e , c o u n s e l l i n g and  planning"  those  a positive  the p a r t i c i p a n t s checked " y e s "  of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d  regarding  28  17).  to " s p e c i f y " of  made any  tions included  of  92%  goals.  of  g r o u p s up  or  Personal  self-confidence,  t h a t 72%  T a b l e 18  differently  t h i s course  "Developing  showed  Thus a m a j o r i t y  f e e l any  " L i f e p l a n n i n g " group  assertiveness,  In response to the information  of  answered "yes"  change s u c h as  the  "Do  earlier.  changes,  Career i n Your L i f e " p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  r e s p o n d e d a f f i r m a t i v e l y , as g r o u p and  growth.  (1974) s t u d y d i s c u s s e d  a n d / o r y o u r s i t u a t i o n as  Of  personal  in  A  total  the An  contact  growth  "Life-  explanawith  to s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e .  the  T a b l e 17 F o l l o w u p R e s p o n s e s t o t h e Q u e s t i o n "Do Y o u F e e l A n y D i f f e r e n t l y ? "  Group  A Career  i n Your  Yes  Life  No  N  92%  8%  12  Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l  88%  12%  16  Lifeplanning Interviews  73%  27%  11  85%  15%  40  TOTAL  one p e r s o n d i d n o t r e s p o n d  Table Guidance,  C o u n s e l l i n g and I n f o r m a t i o n Sought Following the I n t e r v e n t i o n s  Group  A Career i n Your  18  Assistance  Life  Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l Lifeplanning Interviews TOTAL  Some p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s p o n d e d one t y p e o f a s s i s t a n c e  Sought  N  8  12  7  17  13  11  28  t o more t h a n  a  40  a  75  I t was  c l e a r from the responses to the q u e s t i o n  t i s i n g g i v e you is  a c l e a r p i c t u r e of what to e x p e c t ? "  i n n e e d o f more i n f o r m a t i o n  involved  i n c o u r s e s and  interviews  E d u c a t i o n Department. negatively  to  about the  offered  (Table  that  the the  adverconsumer  s e r v i c e s , c o n t e n t and  More t h a n h a l f of  this question  "Did  through the  concepts  Continuing  the p a r t i c i p a n t s responded  19).  Summary The  r e s u l t s supported  ventions  the  were e f f e c t i v e i n meeting  n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and that had  a planning  to s c h o o l  o r w o r k and  cesses learned  school,  had  criteria  of  lifeplanning inters u c c e s s of  I n a d d i t i o n , i t was  a viable goal  often  the  first  interventions.  of  one  e l s e i n order  information  their readiness, v a r i a b l e and  planning  of d i s c u s s i n g  return pro-  frequently  to r e t u r n to  interviews  and  transi-  goals. change  spacing  e x p l a i n why  contact,  experience with  s i m i l a r n e e d s when  capacity and  and  some-  understanding.  were a t s i m i l a r  a t t e n t i o n , n e e d and  to  classes  formats f a c i l i t a t e  t h e m e a n i n g o f an  to d e v e l o p a c o g n i t i v e  t h i s may  sample  to c o n c l u d e t h a t what i s needed i s the  a s e l e c t i o n of  essential:  and  taken i n moving toward l i f e t i m e  Even though p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e s e c o u r s e s and  to  Because the most  f o r a l l g r o u p s was  b e e n shown t h a t a v a r i e t y o f  availability  found  f o r a l a r g e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f women i n  step  w o u l d seem r e a s o n a b l e  increasing  interventions participants in this  made p r a c t i c a l u s e  t h r o u g h the  the  is  the  i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t r e t u r n i n g  I t has it  that  f o r f u t u r e g o a l s , many w e r e p l a n n i n g  change i n a c t i v i t y  represents tion,  strategy  the  behaviors.  f o u r weeks f o l l o w i n g the  reported  conclusion  entering  age-stage-situations  f o r investment  s t r u c t u r i n g of  the r e s u l t s d i d not  were  interventions show t h a t  the  76  Table  19  F o l l o w u p Responses t o the Q u e s t i o n Did the G i v e You a C l e a r P i c t u r e . . . " : :  Group  A Career  i n Your  Advertising  Yes  Life  No  N  33.3%  66.7%  12  Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l  62.5%  37.5%  16  Lifeplanning Interviews  27.3%  72.7%  11  41.0%  59.0%  39  TOTAL  One  person  d i d not  respond  c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t c o u r s e "A than e i t h e r  a  Career  i n Y o u r L i f e " was  the "Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l "  or  more  effective  "Lifeplanning"  interviews. A l a c k o f c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and ventions indicated  a need f o r an i n t e g r a t i n g  values, assumptions, ventions are l i k e (Matthews,  1975,  o b j e c t i v e s and  "random m a t e r i a l s p.  652).  as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter adequate  public  expectation f o r these  educaton  An  goals.  concept based  inter-  on  stated  A t t h e moment s u c h  inter-  i n s e a r c h of a p h i l o s o p h y "  integrating  I I , could offer  c a r e e r development  program  such a s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d  regarding t h i s broader  concept  of " c a r e e r "  occurs.  E f f i c i e n c y of the I n t e r v e n t i o n s T a b l e 20 shows 12 s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e " C a r e e r course rated  f o r meaningfulness  i n Your  b y p a r t i c i p a n t s on a L i k e r t  Life"  S c a l e of  1 to 5 where a r a t i n g of fairly  small:  the  5 was  range of  ( s e t t i n g : music, posters)  high.  the  initial  t o 4.1  r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e n ment and the  b r a g g i n g , and  follow-up  last  column p r e s e n t s  across sessions T a b l e 21  and  the  "Developing Personal  d r a w i n g up in  trios,  in  r a t i n g s at  the  given The  small  slight  to  given  can  be  a high  specific  small:  (homework) t o 4.1  Higher  d r a w i n g up  session  a plan,  achieve-  detected  The  content  components of  could  the  range of  a plan.  and to  Although a  seen w i t h  exercises shift  a lower  t h e mean a c r o s s c o n t e n t was  the  r a n g e d f r o m 3.0  T a b l e 22 interviews fairly  shows t h e  rated  small:  exercises)  w h i c h r e f l e c t e d no  f i n d i n g s on  12  for meaningfulness.  the  t o 4.8  range of  initial  The  same  a t t i t u d e s and  (4.2)  was  higher  (3.6,  3.7).  skills.  than the  initial  r a t i n g s f o r the  f o u r week f o l l o w - u p  the  "Lifeplanning"  r a t i n g s v a r i e d f r o m 3.4  This  two  (3.7).  and  spread across r a t i n g s  to suggested b i b l i o g r a p h y ,  exploring  rating  change.  components of  (suggested b i b l i o g r a p h y ) .  consistently given  The  t o 4.1  The  initial  (group d i s c u s s i o n s  be  the  for meaningfulness.  o v e r a l l mean r a t i n g s f o r s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t a c r o s s s e s s i o n s  follow-up  in  rating.  Higher r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t l y g i v e n and  3.2  4.0. 13  also fairly  was  group a c t i v i t i e s ,  shift  P o t e n t i a l " course rated  follow-up  t o d r a w i n g up  A  f i n d i n g s on  group d i s c u s s i o n the  from  o v e r a l l mean r a t i n g f o r s p e c i f i c  f r o m 3.0  a plan).  ratings varied  guided fantasy  s p r e a d a c r o s s r a t i n g s was ratings varied  the  r a n g e d f r o m 3.2  depicts  spread across r a t i n g s  ( s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s ) . to  lifeline.  ratings with  The  Higher r a t i n g s  was  (written were  one-to-one c o n t a c t , rating across courses  r a t i n g changed  and  content  respectively  to a range  of  78 Table  20  Meaningfulness to P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s o n a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w u p P e r i o d s f o r "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  Course  Content  Initial (3 d a y s )  Followup (4 w e e k s )  Mean A c r o s s Sessions  4.1  3,.8  4,.0  Current d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s  3.3  3..5  3..3  Lifeline  3.8  3..8  3..8  4.0  3..7  3..8  What do I l i k e t o do and How do I know I'm d o i n g i t  3.5  3..5  3..5  Ideal  attainment - guided f a n t a s y '  3.5  4..3  4..0  Ideal  a t t a i n m e n t - c a r e e r -- p e r s o n a l  3.6  3..4  3..5  3.4  3..1  3..2  3.5  3..4  3..5  3.2  3..3  3..3  3.,4  3.,4  3.6  3.,4  3..5  3.4  3.,1  3..2  3..5  3.,5  S m a l l 'group  Achievements  Career  activities  and b r a g g i n g  map  Decision-making Setting:  music,  worksheet posters  Journals Planning Book  ' process  table  N Mean A c r o s s  3.4  12 Content  12 3.6  79 Table  21  Meaningfulness to P a r t i c i p a n t s : Mean R a t i n g s o n a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w u p Periods f o r "Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l "  Course  Content  Initial (.6 d a y s )  Followup (4 w e e k s )  Mean A c r o s s Session s  3.9  4.0  3.9  3.4  3.6  3.5  4.0  4.1  4.0  Beginning feedback s e s s i o n  3.7  3.9  3.8  R e l a x a t i o n and c e n t e r i n g  3.3  3.6  3.4  Group  4.1  4.4  4.1  D i d a c t i c s e s s i o n - theme o r new c o n c e p t  3.8  3.6  3.8  Homework  3.0  2.9  3.0  Handout  3.8  3.3  3.6  D r a w i n g up a p l a n  4.1  3.9  3.9  3.9  3.9  3.5  3.5  3.7  3.7  Demonstration Journal  o f new  skill  writing  Exercises  i n pairs,  trios, etc.  discussion  Exploring  values  Suggested  books  3.9 3.6  12  N Mean A c r o s s  '  Content  12 3.7  80 Table  22  Meaningfulness to P a r t i c i p a n t s ; Mean R a t i n g s o n a 5 - P o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e O b t a i n e d a t I n i t i a l and F o l l o w u p Periods f o r "Lifeplanning" Interviews  Interview  Content  Initial (1 h o u r )  Followup (4 w e e k s )  Mean A c r o s s Sessions  3 .4  2.5  3,.0  Timeline  4 .5  2.0  3..3  Fantasizing  3..8  2.6  3.. 1  Exploring  interests  4 .4  4.2  4,.3  Exploring  Values  4..3  4.0  4..2  3,.7  4.0  3..8  4 .8  3.9  4..3  Referrals  4,.0  3.7  3..8  D r a w i n g up a p l a n  4..4  4.8  4..5  One-to-one c o n t a c t  4,.6  4.6  4..6  skills  4,.6  4.0  4..3  circumstances  4,,4  3.6  4.,0  3.7  3.,9  Written  Problem  exercises  Solving  Suggested  bibliography  Exploring attitudes & Exploring l i f e N Mean A c r o s s  11 Content  11 4,.2  81  2.0 up  t o 4.8  with  a p l a n r a t e d as h i g h e s t .  discussed had  the one-to-one c o n t a c t  earlier  a plan at  regarding  This  remaining  i s consistent with  group c o m p a r i s o n s of  the four-week f o l l o w - u p  session.  of " L i f e p l a n n i n g " p a r t i c i p a n t s than the o t h e r and  also rated  the p l a n n i n g  h i g h and  process  drawing  the f i n d i n g s  those  who  A greater two  proportion  g r o u p s had  a  plan  as b e i n g most m e a n i n g f u l to  them.  Summary Various  contents  i m m e d i a t e and  of  long-term  the courses perceptions  o r i n t e r v i e w s were compared on  t h e i r meaningfulness to  on  the  participants. Both courses follow-up  period.  anticipated evident  tended This  i n an  initial  evaluation.  the f o l l o w - u p  overall ratings.  I t was  the  effect  This halo  four-week  normally  e f f e c t may had  be more  T h e i r r a t i n g s tended t o lower r a t i n g was  concluded  that  as h i g h as the  the  more  two  direct  slightly courses  t h r e e group's r a t i n g s were  similar. Of  the  two  courses,  Content that r e f l e c t e d  a c t i o n was  rated consistently high.  reflecting  e x p l o r a t i o n of v a l u e s ,  tently  rated  The and  the h a l o  over  t h e " L i f e p l a n n i n g " g r o u p who  their counsellor.  o v e r a l l although  their rating  seems t o d i s p e l  i n the r a t i n g s of  contact with  quite  to m a i n t a i n  Across  peer support  a l l three groups  a t t i t u d e s and  and  inter-  activities  s k i l l s were c o n s i s -  high.  specific  c o m p o n e n t s a s d e l i n e a t e d by  program c o - o r d i n a t o r  d i d not  appear  the elements that f a c i l i t a t e  or  of s u c c e s s .  of success  As  the c r i t e r i a  inhibit  the course i n s t r u c t o r s  to a d e q u a t e l y achieving  discriminate  the programs' c r i t e r i a  becomes more r e f i n e d b a s e d  on  82 continuous program m o n i t o r i n g identified one  to e n s u r e d e c i s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g  s u c h c o m p o n e n t may  courses  more r e l e v a n t  be  the  on  components c o u l d feedback. For  going s o c i a l contact  be  example  that  the  facilitate.  Summary  In order any  given  woman i t i s s u g g e s t e d  developed In order  that preassessment instruments  t o do  t h i s f u r t h e r d a t a n e e d s t o be  these i n t e r v e n t i o n s increased  i n c r e a s i n g n o n t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and  considered  an  For  suggests that personnel with  blocks,  behaviors,  well-being  t h e y may  an  be  adequate r e f e r r a l  p l a n n e d and  be  impasse  a l t e r n a t i v e to psychotherapy.  the programs should  be  This  s t a f f e d by  qualified  s y s t e m as w e l l as b u i l t  in  procedures.  A broadly  defined  program of  s e t of v a l u e s ,  career  development program could  c o u r s e s and  s e r v i c e s u n i f i e d by  assumptions, goals  of f o r m a t s the program c o u l d s u c h i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s as c)  psychological  many p e o p l e c a u g h t i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l  t h e s e i n t e r v e n t i o n s o f f e r an  integrated  the  a l t e r n a t i v e to psychotherapy where therapy would  inappropriate.  evaluation  c o l l e c t e d on  c l i e n t moderators t h a t e f f e c t outcomes.  In that  style,  be  t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i n t e r v e n t i o n w o u l d be m o s t u s e f u l .  b a r r i e r s and  by  to d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i n t e r v e n t i o n i s most h e l p f u l f o r  and  begin to t a i l o r  t h e a)  t i m e a v a i l a b l e and  objectives.  d)  needs of  goals.  offer  an  an  underlying  With a v a r i e t y  i t s services  t h e p e r s o n , b)  t o meet learning  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY, L I M I T A T I O N S , CONCLUSIONS, I M P L I C A T I O N S AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary  The  purpose of t h i s  efficiency  of a three-day  s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d course  to a s i x - s e s s i o n "Developing "Lifeplanning" Continuing  developed  course  at theU n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  and one-hour the Centre f o r  Columbia.  s p e c i a l programs and s e r v i c e s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s have been  little  or outcome c r i t e r i a  in  Personal Potential"  compared  t o s m o o t h t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f women f r o m home, t o w o r k a n d  school, very  The  i n Your L i f e "  i n t e r v i e w s o f f e r e d t o a d u l t women t h r o u g h  Education  Although  "A C a r e e r  Centre  comparisons of approaches  h a s . been employed.  f o r Continuing  lifeplanning,  to a s s i s t  i n t h e way o f s y s t e m a t i c  Education  o f f e r s courses  and s e r v i c e s  p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c a r e e r p l a n n i n g f o r women  them i n t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b l e a c t i o n f o r t h e i r  A c a r e e r development program which r e c e n t l y evolved  future  lifestyle.  from t h e i r  daytime  p r o g r a m was s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e t a s k o f d e l i n e a t i n g a s e t o f a s s u m p tions, values A review  and o b j e c t i v e s f o r i t s program. of the l i t e r a t u r e  ventions designed broadening  of l i f e  to f a c i l i t a t e plans  should  indicated that l i f e p l a n n i n g self-assessment,  inter-  c l a r i f i c a t i o n and •  be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a b r o a d l y  c a r e e r development program.  83  defined  84  As  t h e s e c o u r s e s and  interviews  assumptions, objectives  and  comparison models.  interventions  community. on  12  "A  The  A l l subjects  target  shared  p a r t i c i p a n t s and  Pre-  and  were compared u s i n g nonparametric  The  r e s u l t s of  the  the  c a r e e r development program.  The  components of  response to a r a t i n g s c a l e  Personal  participants.  the  activities,  three  of v a r i a n c e  to c r i t e r i a  perceived the  four  the  groups and  the  the W i l c o x o n s i g n e d - r a n k s  a n a l y s e s were r e l a t e d  the v a r i o u s  as  in  t h e i r present  r e s p o n s e s of  c h i - s q u a r e and  The  in  interview  repeated measures a n a l y s i s  t e s t s of  basic  d a t a were c o l l e c t e d "Developing  "Lifeplanning"  planning a b i l i t y .  same  they were s e l e c t e d  p a r t i c i p a n t s , 17  11  the  were w i d e l y a d v e r t i s e d  p o s t - m e a s u r e s w e r e o b t a i n e d on  a t t i t u d e s and  women o f  population  w e r e s e l f - s e l e c t e d and  Career i n Your L i f e "  Potential"  some o f  test.  f o r success  meaningfulness to  interventions  weeks f o l l o w i n g  was  the  of the  self-reported course  or  interview.  Limitations  The  s t u d y was  1.  I t was  a desire  for  e n e r g y , and  d a t a and 3.  not  the  and  to  possible  program.  financial  of m o t i v a t i o n 2.  subject  the  following limitations:  to o b t a i n  c o n t r o l g r o u p s who  Self-selected  commitment a r e  also  p e r h a p s more l i k e l y  subjects  who  likely  t o be  to i n s t i t u t e  Informattonwas obtained  through the  i s therefore  the  subject  to  E x p e r i m e n t a l m o r t a l i t y may  f o l l o w - u p was  not  d o n e on  subjects  use  expressed  make a  time,  higher i n  self-reported  l i m i t a t i o n s of  self-reported  d i d not  level  change.  of  have a f f e c t e d who  had  the  results  complete the  data.  as  course.  85  4.  The p l a n n i n g  ability  measure o f p l a n n i n g  c r i t e r i a may n o t h a v e b e e n a n a d e q u a t e  ability.  Conclusions  I t h a s been d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h i s ventions 2)  were a b l e  increase  to  1) i n c r e a s e  strategy  for  that  lifeplanning inter-  nontraditional lifestyle  nontraditional lifestyle  t o d r a w up a p l a n n i n g  study  activities,  their future  attitudes,  3 ) m o t i v a t e women lifestyle,  a n d 4)  c h a n g e women's f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s f r o m n e g a t i v e t o p o s i t i v e . The  s t u d y d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t women i n c r e a s e d  plan, tive The  or that  t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e "  than "Developing Personal study a l s o demonstrated  week p e r i o d .  their a b i l i t y to  Overall  was m o r e e f f e c -  Potential" or "Lifeplanning"  the s t a b i l i t y  o f outcomes a f t e r a f o u r  t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s were h i g h l y r a t e d  f o r meaning-  f u l n e s s , a r a t i n g w h i c h was m a i n t a i n e d f o u r w e e k s f o l l o w i n g vention  and w h i c h i n d i c a t e d  client  satisfaction.  r e v e a l whether gains f o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " greater  h a d t h e women h a d more c o n t a c t  interviews.  the i n t e r -  The s t u d y does n o t  interviews  would have been  hours.  Implications  The  f i n d i n g s of ' t h i s s t u d y have t h e f o l l o w i n g  1.  Further  implications:  w o r k s h o u l d b e d o n e t o a s s i s t women i n t a k i n g a more  active role i n their lifeplanning. 2.  Lifeplanning  interventions  i n t e r e s t e d women a n d s h o u l d 3.  Lifeplanning  include  interventions  should c o n t i n u e t o be o f f e r e d t o b o t h group and i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s . should be o f f e r e d  under t h e  86  i n t e g r a t i n g program of of  activities 4.  related  Women need  career  career  to awareness, e x p l o r a t i o n  to b e t t e r understand  Continued  evaluation  Evaluation  p r o c e d u r e s as  goals  are  that 6.  link  and  preparation.  the b r o a d e r d e f i n i t i o n of  development.  5.  are  development t h a t encompasses a v a r i e t y  easily accessible  s u c h p r o g r a m s n e e d s t o be  described  more r e s p o n s i v e  Lifeplanning  the  of  in this  to the  interventions to the  community w i t h  the  study help  develop  i n s t i t u t i o n and  need  p u b l i c and  done. program  i t s clients.  to e x i s t i n l o c a t i o n s n o n t h r e a t e n i n g and  which  will  help  campus.  Recommendations  B a s e d on  the  f i n d i n g s of  the  mendations f o r f u r t h e r research 1.  Studies  ventions style,  varying 4.  w o u l d be  to d e t e r m i n e the  on  comparing the  Studies  effectiveness  helful  f e m a l e ) w o u l d be  lifeplanning inter-  of  value.  a t t i t u d e s w o u l d be  e f f e c t s of of  of  of  of  value.  e d u c a t i o n w o u l d be  basic  helpful.  d i f f e r e n t types  of  implemented.  to determine c l i e n t moderators that style,  helpful.  interventions  lifeplanning in  cost/benefit  s h o u l d be  (i.e. learning  life-  l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t of l i f e p l a n n i n g  i n schools  to d e t e r m i n e the  recom-  (socio-economic, geographic,  effectiveness  to determine the  interventions  Studies  of  'compared t o p s y c h o t h e r a p y . w o u l d b e - o f  p r o g r a m s and  Studies  following  suggested:  l i f e s t y l e b e h a v i o r s and  t y p e s and  lifeplanning 6.  s t r u c t u r e , m a l e and  Studies  educational 5.  to d e t e r m i n e the  Studies  interventions 3.  are  for d i f f e r e n t populations  family  2.  p r e s e n t study the  e f f e c t outcomes  needs of p e r s o n ,  time  avail-  87  able, goals, etc.). 7.  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L . A d e v e l o p m e n t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n i n g o f women's c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e a t t i t u d e s and l i f e p l a n s . Journal of Vocational B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 2 , 2, 3 1 7 - 3 3 1 . R i c e , J . K . , & G o e r i n g , M. L . Women i n t r a n s i t i o n . A l i f e p l a n n i n g workshop m o d e l . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Women, D e a n s , A d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d C o u n s e l o r s J o u r n a l , 1977, 4 0 ( 2 ) , 57-62. R i c h a r d s o n , M. S. S e l f - c o n c e p t s a n d r o l e c o n c e p t s i n t h e c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n o f c o l l e g e women ( D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1972). D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1 9 7 3 , 33^, ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 3 - 9 0 4 0 ) R i c h a r d s o n , M. S. The d i m e n s i o n s o f c a r e e r a n d w o r k o r i e n t a t i o n i n c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 4 , _5> 1 6 1 - 1 7 2 . ( a ) R i c h a r d s o n , M. S. V o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y i n c o u n s e l i n g g i r l s a n d y o u n g women. M e a s u r i n g v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y f o r c o u n s e l i n g and e v a l u a t i o n . National V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , 1974, 135-143. (b) R i c h a r d s o n , M. S. S e l f - c o n c e p t s a n d r o l e c o n c e p t s i n t h e c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n o f c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l o f ' C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 5 , j^2(2) , 1 2 2 126. R i c h a r d s o n , M. S., & A l p e r t , J . L . R o l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o l l e g e women: Work, m a r r i a g e and p a r e n t r o l e s . p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t E a s t e r n P s y c h o l o g i c a l Association Meeting. Wash. D . C : March, 1978. R u b i n t o n , N. New c a r e e r s f o r a d u l t s . 1977, 2 5 ( 4 ) , 364-368.  The V o c a t i o n a l  Guidance  Quarterly,  S c h u t z , R. W. S p e c i f i c problems i n t h e measurement o f change: Longitudi n a l s t u d i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s , and m u l t i v a r a t e a n a l y s e s . In D. M. L a n d e r s & R. W. C h r i s t i n a ( E d s . ) , P s y c h o l o g y o f M o t o r B e h a v i o r and S p o r t - 1 9 7 7 . C h a m p a i g n , 1 1 1 . : Human K i n e t i c s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 8 . S e t n e , V. L . A n e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m f o r a d u l t women. The V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 7 7 , 2j>(3) , 2 3 2 - 2 3 7 . S m i t h , D. R., & E v a n s , J . R. C o m p a r i s o n o f e x p e r i e n t i a l g r o u p g u i d a n c e and i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l i n g a s f a c i l i t a t o r s o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 3 , 2Q, 2 0 2 - 2 0 7 .  94  S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sc i e n c e s McGraw-Hill, 1975.  (2nd Ed.).  New York:  Suniewick, N. Beyond the f i n d i n g s : Some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e . In H. S. A s t i n , N. Suniewick & S. Dweck ( E d s . ) , Women: A B i b l i o g r a p h y on T h e i r E d u c a t i o n and C a r e e r s . Wash., D . C : Human S e r v i c e s P r e s s , 1971. Thom, P., I r o n s i d e , A., & Hendry, E. The Women's Resources C e n t r e , an e d u c a t i o n a l model f o r c o u n s e l l i n g women. A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , 1975, 129-132. T i c h e n o r , J . M. L i f e work p l a n n i n g : A group c a r e e r program The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, ^ 6 ( 1 ) , 54-59. V e t t e r , L. Career c o u n s e l i n g 1973, 4, 54-67.  f o r women.  V r i e n d , T. J . The case f o r women. 1977, 25(4), 329-331.  The C o u n s e l i n g  evaluated.  Psychologist,  The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y ,  Waters, E . , & Goodman, J . Career c o u n s e l i n g f o r a d u l t s : Why, when, where, how. The V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 1977, ^ 5 ( 4 ) , 337-343. W e s t e r v e l t , E. M. A t i d e i n the a f f a i r s of women: The p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact of feminism on educated women. I n W. Harmon et a l . ( E d s . , ) , C o u n s e l i n g Women. Monterey: B r o o k s / C o l e , 1978. W i l l i s , J . Women's c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n : 1977, V ( l ) , 12-15.  Back to f r i l l s ?  Branching Out,  W i n t e r s , C. J . , & Sorensen, J . I n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n i n women. In S. H. Osipow ( E d . ) , Emerging Women: Career A n a l y s i s arid Outlook. Columbus, Ohio: C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1975.  APPENDICES  95  A P P E N D I X A.  Telephone A Career Hi,  my name i s  96  Questionnaire i n Your  . I'm a w o r k e r f r o m  Life  the Continuing  Education  D e p a r t m e n t , a t U.B.C. h e l p i n g them do a f o l l o w u p s t u d y w i t h p e o p l e have taken you  the course  "A C a r e e r  i n Your L i f e " .  a r e doing a t present w i t h your  when y o u  enrolled  questions over your  in  We a r e i n t e r e s t e d  c a r e e r p l a n s and t h e c o n c e r n  the course.  I would a l s o l i k e  t h e phone t h a t would  i n how  you had  t o a s k y o u some  take about f i v e minutes,  e x p e r i e n c e and f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e c o u r s e .  who  concerning  I am i n t e r e s t e d i n  h e a r i n g a l l t h e comments t h a t y o u h a v e a b o u t t h e p r o g r a m , b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d negative.  I f you w i s h ,  confidential. the  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u g i v e me w i l l  The i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m  i n f o r m a t i o n from a p p r o x i m a t e l y  Education staff w i l l will  the i n t e r v i e w w i l l  o n l y see the f i n a l  pass the i n f o r m a t i o n from  Continuing Education s t a f f . which  you would p r e f e r :  A t the'end  to have  strictly  be combined w i t h  15 o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Continuing  r e p o r t w i t h the averaged  n o t see the d a t a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any s p e c i f i c  w i s h , we w i l l  be  this  individual.  d a t a and Or, i f you  i n t e r v i e w back to the  o f the i n t e r v i e w I ' l l a s k you  the i n f o r m a t i o n remain  confidential or  not. Assigned  Client  Confidentiality  No. requested:  1.  How o l d a r e y o u ?  2.  What i s y o u r  3.  What was y o u r  marital primary  Yes  No  status? reason  f o r a t t e n d i n g t h i e workshop?  4. - What one w o r d c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how y o u w e r e f e e l i n g e n r o l l e d i n the course? 5.  Had a n y m a j o r c h a n g e s o c c u r e d  i n your  life  prior  a t the time you  t o t h e workshop?  6.  How  d i d you  find  out  about the  course?  7.  D i d the workshop h e l p i d e n t i f y a r e a s i n y o u r l i f e i n w h i c h you t o make some c h a n g e s ? I f s o , w h a t a r e a s emerged?  8.  Since  9.  What f a c t o r s i n t h e w o r k s h o p w e r e m o s t h e l p f u l i n w o r k i n g your goals?  the workshop what a r e a s were you  10. What d i d y o u 11. W o u l d y o u  l e a r n from the  able  t o make some c h a n g e s  12.  Did  13.  Do y o u p r e s e n t l y h a v e a p l a n n i n g educational goals?  14.  Did the  the a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e you workshop?  15.  How  r e l e v a n t do  16.  Have you  17.  Have you s o u g h t c o u n s e l l i n g o r a s s i s t a n c e workshop? Where?  18.  Where w o u l d y o u now y o u n e e d e d more?  19.  What k i n d o f h e l p do y o u f e e l y o u d e c i s i o n s about your f u t u r e ?  m i g h t need  20.  Were t h e f o l l o w i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y :  a) c)  2 1 . What was 22.  Do y o u Life"?  you  career  feel  towards  else?  increase?  s t r a t e g y f o r your f u t u r e career  a c l e a r p i c t u r e of what t o e x p e c t  t h i s w o r k s h o p was  seek c a r e e r  your o v e r a l l  be  planning  c o u n s e l l i n g by  have s u g g e s t i o n s  23. Would you planning? Do  had  you  in?  workshop?  recommend t h i s w o r k s h o p t o someone  your knowledge of c a r e e r  wanted  impression  any  t o you  other  from  personally?  means?  i n career  planning  since  c o u n s e l l i n g o r a s s i s t a n c e i f you  of  f o r improving  interested i n attending  or  to continue  the  felt  making  l o c a t i o n b) p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s t i m e d) l e n g t h e) c o s t . the workshop? the  (one  c o u r s e "A  word)  Career i n Your  s i m i l a r workshops i n  career  w i s h to keep t h i s c o n f i d e n t i a l ?  Thank you f o r y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n t o d a y . We a p p r e c i a t e y o u s h a r i n g y o u r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e c o u r s e . The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t y o u and o t h e r s h a v e p r o v i d e d w i l l h e l p us t o i m p r o v e o u r s e r v i c e s and provide b e t t e r c o u r s e s f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Do y o u h a v e any questions?  APPENDIX  B.  98  CALENDAR DESCRIPTIONS A Career If  In Your  you're  sorting and  s t u c k i n y o u r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and  t h i n g s out  don't  then you need h e l p i n f i g u r i n g  d e v e l o p i n g a p l a n on how  B e f o r e you self  Life  to get  know w h e r e t o  out where you're  You  will  and  achievements  and  a f o c u s e d e x a m i n a t i o n o n w h a t y o u w a n t t o do w i t h y o u r  activities will you  through  h e l p you  p l a n g o a l s and  T h e r e a r e no  a s s e s s i n g your  interests,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p a p e r and  see  p l a n how  to g i v e  the e x p e r i e n c e o f knowing what you  g a i n t h i s knowledge by  pencil  t h e t o t a l p i c t u r e and to achieve  pre-requisites necessary  i s n o t a c a d e m i c i n n a t u r e and  going  there.  r u n o f f i n s e v e r a l d i r e c t i o n s a t o n c e , you need  t h e t i m e , t h e p l a c e and  start  from  your-  want.  abilities, tests, evaluation life.  this  These  self-knowledge  them. to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n t h i s workshop, i t  p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s are not  a p a r t of  the  format. The  attention  i s on y o u , how  you have l i v e d  your  e x p e r i e n c e o f f i n d i n g o u t w h a t y o u w a n t t o do Judy  life  and  how  to enjoy  the  now.  Cavanagh  F r i d a y , J u n e 16,  7-10  p.m.  Sat. J u n e 17 and Sun. J u n e 1 8 , 9 a.m. M i l d r e d B r o c k L o u n g e , UBC Campus $75. E n r o l m e n t L i m i t e d . Lifeplanning  Resources  p.m.  Interviews  A chance to c l a r i f y Individual  - 4  life  i n t e r v i e w s may C e n t r e , 1144  g o a l s and  develop  be a r r a n g e d  R o b s o n S t . $10  on  a strategy for attaining  t h e UBC  (May  them.  campus o r i n t h e Women's  be w a i v e d  i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s )  (cont'd) Developing  CALENDAR DESCRIPTION P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l f o r Growth and Change:  T a l k i n g about change i s easy: requires both to  a c c o m p l i s h i n g i t i s more d i f f i c u l t ,  c o u r a g e and s k i l l .  identity, course  to r e s i s t a n c e t o change  I t explores dimensions  from  of self-awareness  and  a w a r e n e s s o f s e l f w i t h o t h e r s , and b u i l d i n g c o n f i d e n c e .  i s designed  group e x p e r i e n c e s  as a b a s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n  to l e a r n i n g  i n a s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere.  anger,  You a r e f r e e  order  to e v a l u a t e your  change. for  and c e n t e r i n g , a n d y o u a r e e n c o u r a g e d  The f o r m a t  changing  This popular and  will  and  life  to explore conflict  t o keep a j o u r n a l i n  s i t u a t i o n and t o b e g i n p l a n n i n g f o r s p e c i f i c  and c o n t e n t  are both  skill-oriented  and r i c h  i n ideas  growing.  program has been o f f e r e d w i t h v a r i a t i o n  be r e p e a t e d  Clare Buckland,  The  through s t r u c t u r e d  new ways o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g , b e c o m i n g more a s s e r t i v e , d e a l i n g w i t h and  and  T h i s p r o g r a m h e l p s y o u f o c u s on how  b r i n g a b o u t change and t o r e s p o n d  f a m i l y and f r i e n d s .  Beginnings  from  time  t o t i m e when  EdD  6 T u e s d a y s , May 16 t o J u n e 20 9:30 a.m. - 12:30 p.m. Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t e r , 1111 R o b s o n S t . $40 e a c h . E n r o l m e n t L i m i t e d  each year  there i s s u f f i c i e n t  s i n c e 1971, registration.  APPENDIX C .  100  Assigned  Number  L I F E STYLES FOR WOMEN This q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s o n y o u r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d l i f e s t y l e s f o r women. Y o u a r e t o a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s b y d a r k e n i n g t h e number o f t h e a n s w e r o f t h e numbered s e c t i o n o f t h e s h e e t . These answers r a n g i n g from s t r o n g l y a g r e e t o s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d e s c r i b e how y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e statement. Some o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s may n o t f i t y o u r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , i f s o , a n s w e r a s i f y o u h a d t h e c h o i c e now i n y o u r l i f e . 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly A g r e e UnDisStrongly Agree decided agree Disagree 1. I w o u l d h a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f difficulty b e i n g a m o t h e r a n d a h o u s e w i f e 24 h o u r s a day. 1 2 3 4 5 2.  3.  I e x p e c t t o move t o a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a w h e r e my f u t u r e h u s b a n d ' s w o r k takes us.  1  I t h i n k t h a t a c a r e e r w i l l b e my l i f e and e v e r y t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g m a r r i a g e , o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be b u i l t a r o u n d i t .  1  4. B e i n g  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  6. I b e l i e v e i n s t o p p i n g my c a r e e r when I have a c h i l d .  1  2  3  4  5  7. I m u s t a c h i e v e i n a c a r e e r t o f e e l complete, perhaps to f e e l a l i v e I n e e d p r i d e i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l accomplishments.  1  2  3  4  5  8. When I g e t m a r r i e d , my i n t e r e s t w i l l b e u n i t y i n t h e home, I w i l l p u t my r o l e as w i f e and mother f i r s t .  1  2  3  4  5  9. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o me t o f u n c t i o n a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n my c a r e e r  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  11.  existence.  4  2  10.  i sa selfish  2  3  1  5.  single  2  I e x p e c t a c a r e e r t o b e b a s i c t o my s u r v i v a l (independence, s e c u r i t y ) .  S o m e t i m e i n my l i f e I e x p e c t a f u l l t i m e mother.  t o be  I have the s t r e n g t h t o f i g h t a g a i n s t s e x - r e l a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h e man's world.  101  1 Strongly Agree 12. B e i n g a m o t h e r w i l l a s a woman.  a c t u a l i z e me 1  13. I m u s t b e w o r k i n g t o k e e p a l e r t and m a i n t a i n my s e l f - i m a g e .  1  14. I f I d o n ' t h a v e c h i l d r e n , I w i l l have m i s s e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f my l i f e .  1  15. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o me t o b e s e l f supporting. I d o n ' t e x p e c t someone t o s u p p o r t me i n t h e f u t u r e .  1  16. T h e s t a t e m e n t "A Woman's P l a c e i s i n t h e Home" i s g e n e r a l l y c o r r e c t .  1  17. A w o r k i n g woman i s p r o b a b l y a b e t t e r companion t o h e r husband. 1 18. A v m o t h e r w i t h p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t b e away f r o m home a t a job.  1  19. I t h i n k h o u s e w o r k w o u l d become v e r y d u l l a n d b o r i n g f o r me.  1  20. J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s o f t e n c a u s e d by h a v i n g t h e m o t h e r a t w o r k . ' 1  2 Agree  3 Undecided  4 DisAgree  5 Strongly Disagree  APPENDIX D. 102 A s s i g n e d No. DO YOU KNOW HOW  TO PLAN?  How d o e s o n e go a b o u t p l a n n i n g ? On t h i s p a g e i s a l i s t o f e i g h t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r r a n g e d i n random o r d e r . Order t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e q u e n c e y o u w o u l d f o l l o w i f y o u w e r e d o i n g some p l a n n i n g . G i v e a 1 to t h e a c t i v i t i y you would s t a r t w i t h , through t o 8 f o r t h e l a s t a c t i v i t y i n your p l a n n i n g sequence.  PLANNING A C T I V I T I E S  PLANNING SEQUENCE  A.  Decide  on y o u r b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n .  B.  S t a t e w h a t y o u w a n t t o make a c c o m p l i s h o r make h a p p e n .  C. . S i z e up y o u r p r e s e n t  different,  situation.  D.  S e t a time sequence f o r your c o u r s e o f a c t i o n .  E.  Check p r o g r e s s and a d j u s t y o u r p l a n as n e c e s s a r y .  F.  Determine advantages course of a c t i o n .  G.  Put plan of action  H.  Think about  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f each  into  effect.  a l l the p o s s i b l e courses of a c t i o n .  103 A s s i g n e d No.  DO YOU KNOW HOW  A.  TO PLAN?  How d o e s o n e go a b o u t p l a n n i n g ? On t h i s p a g e i s a l i s t o f e i g h t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r r a n g e d i n random o r d e r . O r d e r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e q u e n c e y o u w o u l d f o l l o w i f y o u w e r e d o i n g some planning. G i v e a 1 t o t h e a c t i v i t y you would s t a r t w i t h , through t o 8 f o r the l a s t a c t i v i t y i n your p l a n n i n g sequence.  PLANNING A C T I V I T I E S  B,  PLANNING SEQUENCE  A.  Decide  on y o u r b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n .  B.  S t a t e w h a t y o u w a n t t o make a c c o m p l i s h o r make h a p p e n .  C.  S i z e up y o u r p r e s e n t  D.  S e t a time sequence f o r your c o u r s e o f a c t i o n .  E.  C h e c k p r o g r e s s and a d j u s t y o u r p l a n a s n e c e s s a r y .  F.  Determine advantages course of action.  G.  Put plan of action  H.  Think about  different,  situation.  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f each  into  effect.  a l l the p o s s i b l e courses of a c t i o n .  Do y o u p r e s e n t l y h a v e a p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y f o r y o u r educational or personal goals? Yes If yes, please  No specify:  future career,  104  DO YOU KNOW HOW  TO PLAN?  THE PLANNING PROCESS  1.  S i z e up y o u r p r e s e n t  situation.  2.  S t a t e w h a t y o u w a n t t o make d i f f e r e n t , happen.  3.  T h i n k about  4.  Determine action.  5.  D e c i d e on t h e b e s t c o u r s e o f a c t i o n .  6.  S e t a time sequence f o ryour a c t i o n  7.  P u t your p l a n o f a c t i o n i n t o  8.  Check p r o g r e s s and a d j u s t your p l a n as n e c e s s a r y .  a c c o m p l i s h o r make  a l l the possible courses of action.  advantages  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f each c o u r s e o f _y  plan.  effect.  APPENDIX  E. 105 Assigned  N6._  L I F E S T Y L E BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST L i s t e d b e l o w a r e a number o f a c t i v i t i e s . Please p l a c e a check ( X ) i n the space n e x t to each a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h you have p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t f o u r w e e k s . N o t a l l a c t i v i t i e s may b e a p p l i c a b l e .  1. E n t e r t a i n c o u p l e s i n my home i n t h e e v e n i n g s . 2. Cook. 3. A t t e n d Home and S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n m e e t i n g s . 4. S l e e p some d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e . 5. T a k e s p e c i a l l e s s o n s ( a r t , m u s i c , t e n n i s , e t c . ) . 6. T a k e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s ( n o n - c r e d i t ) . 7. Do h o u s e w o r k . 8. A t t e n d church.9. P l a y b r i d g e i n a women's b r i d g e g r o u p i n t h e d a y t i m e . 10. S e x u a l r e l a t i o n s . 11. P a i n t , s c u l p t , w r i t e , do c r a f t s o r o t h e r c r e a t i v e p r o j e c t s . '12. G a r d e n i n g . 13. E m p l o y e d o u t s i d e t h e home on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . 14. S e r v e as a den m o t h e r , homeroom m o t h e r , o r s p o n s o r o f some c h i l d r e n ' s group or a c t i v i t y . 15. Sew some o f my own o r my f a m i l y ' s c l o t h e s . 16. A s s i s t my h u s b a n d i n h i s b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n . 17. M a k i n g p l a n s t o a t t e n d s c h o o l i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . 18. Have a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e w i t h o t h e r c o u p l e s . 19. Do v o l u n t e e r w o r k i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . 20. A t t e n d a c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g g r o u p . 2 1 . Do c h u r c h w o r k ( t e a c h c l a s s , e t c . ) . 22. Spend t i m e w i t h my c h i l d r e n o r g r a n d c h i l d r e n . 23. Go o u t s o c i a l l y i n t h e e v e n i n g s w i t h women f r i e n d s . 24. Spend t i m e w i t h h u s b a n d ( i f u n m a r r i e d , w i t h men friends). 25. P l a y g o l f , t e n n i s , e t c . 26. R e a d m a g a z i n e s ; p e r i o d i c a l s , b o o k s . 27. E m p l o y e d o u t s i d e t h e h o u s e on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s . 28. A t t e n d t e a s , l u n c h e o n s , e t c . d u r i n g the. d a y . 29. A t t e n d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l p a r t - t i m e . 30. A t t e n d c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e . 31. M a k i n g p l a n s f o r o u t s i d e employment i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . _32. O u t i n g s w i t h t h e w h o l e f a m i l y .  106 Assigned  No;  L I F E S T Y L E BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST L i s t e d b e l o w a r e a number o f a c t i v i t i e s . P l e a s e p l a c e a c h e c k m a r k (. X ) i n the space next to each a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h you have p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t f o u r w e e k s , i n d i c a t i n g f o r a l l 32 i t e m s w h e t h e r t h i s a c t i v i t y h a s i n c r e a s e d , d e c r e a s e d o r s t a y e d t h e same. Some o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s may n o t be a p p l i c a b l e t o y o u r l i f e s t y l e - p l e a s e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y h a v e s t a y e d t h e same. I n the p a s t f o u r weeks t h i s b e h a v i o r : Increased/decreased/stayed t h e same 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6: 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.  E n t e r t a i n c o u p l e s i n my home i n t h e evenings. Cook. A t t e n d Home and S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n meetings. S l e e p some d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e . Take s p e c i a l l e s s o n s ( a r t , m u s i c , e t c ) . Take a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s ( n o n c r e d i t ) Do h o u s e w o r k . Attend church. P l a y b r i d g e i n a women's b r i d g e g r o u p i n the daytime. Sexual r e l a t i o n s . P a i n t , s c u l p t , w r i t e , do c r a f t s o r other creative projects. Gardening. E m p l o y e d o u t s i d e t h e home on a p a r t time b a s i s . S e r v e as a den m o t h e r , homeroom m o t h e r o r s p o n s o r o f some c h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p . Sew some o f my own o r my f a m i l y ' s clothes. A s s i s t my h u s b a n d i n h i s b u s i n e s s o r profession. Making p l a n s to a t t e n d s c h o o l i n the near f u t u r e . Have a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e w i t h o t h e r c o u p l Do v o l u n t e e r w o r k i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . Attend a c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g group. Do c h u r c h w o r k ( t e a c h c l a s s , e t c . ) . Spend t i m e w i t h my c h i l d r e n o r g r a n d children . Go o u t s o c i a l l y i n t h e e v e n i n g s w i t h women f r i e n d s . Spend t i m e w i t h my h u s b a n d ( i f u n m a r r i e d w i t h men friends). Play golf, tennis, etc. Read m a g a z i n e s , p e r i o d i c a l s , b o o k s . E m p l o y e d o u t s i d e t h e h o u s e on a f u l l t i m e basis.  107  Increased/decreased/stayed  the  same 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.  Attend teas, luncheons, e t c . during the day. Attend college, u n i v e r s i t y or professional school part-time. Attend c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y or professional school f u l l - t i m e . M a k i n g p l a n s f o r o u t s i d e employment i n the f u t u r e . Outings w i t h the whole f a m i l y .  APPENDIX F. 108 Assigned 1. P o s t s e s s i o n : A Career i n Your  Life  Date:  MEANINGFULNESS Please indicate  No.  t o what degree  QUESTIONNAIRE  you found  today's  session meaningful?  Some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t h a v e b e e n a p a r t o f t o d a y ' s session. about  Please c i r c l e  t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how y o u  the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t w^te  Not v e r y S m a l l Group Current "How  a  p a r t of today's  meaningful  Activities  Dissatisfactions  Achievements  session.  Extremely  2  3  4  5  2  3  4  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  d i d I g e t t o w h e r e I am" - Life line and B r a g g i n g  "What do I l i k e t o do a n d how d o I know I'm d o i n g i t "  2  3  4  5  I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t - Guided  2  3  4  5  Ideal attainment - Career/Personal  2  3  4  5  Career  2  3  4  5  Map  D e c i s i o n Making Setting:  Music, Posters  Journals Planning Book  Worksheets  Process  Table  Fantasy  2  5  2  5  2  5  2  5  2  5  Do y o u h a v e a n y comments o r s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t  today's  feel  session?  meaningful  109 Post  session:  Developing Personal  Potential  Assigned  No.  Date:  MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e i n d i c a t e to what d e g r e e you found t o d a y ' s s e s s i o n m e a n i n g f u l ? Some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t h a v e b e e n a p a r t o f t o d a y ' s session. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how you f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t of today's s e s s i o n . Not  very  meaningful  Extremely  meaningfu  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4 1  2  3  5  4 1  2  3  5  4 1  2  3  5  4 Exploring values  1  2  3  5  4 Suggested books  1  2  3  5  D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f new  skill  (modeling)  Journal writing Exercises  in pairs,  Beginning  feedback session  Relaxation  and  trios,  etc.  centering  Group d i s c u s s i o n D i d a c t i c s e s s i o n - theme f o r (new c o n c e p t ) . Homework (was  c h a l l e n g i n g and  session  worked  at i t ) . Handout  ,  D r a w i n g up  Do  you  a plan  h a v e any  comments o r  suggestions  about today's  session?  110 1. P o s t i n t e r v i e w :  Lifeplanning  Interview Assigned  No.  Date: MEANINGFULNESS  QUESTIONNAIRE  A. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o w h a t d e g r e e y o u f o u n d t o d a y ' s i n t e r v i e w m e a n i n g f u l ? Some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t h a v e b e e n a p a r t o f t o d a y ' s session. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how y o u f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t of today's i n t e r v i e w .  Not v e r y  1  Extremely 2  5  2  4  5  Fantasizing  2  4  5  Exploring  Interests  2  4  5  Exploring  values  2  4  5  2  4  5  2  4  5  2  4  5  plan  2  4  5  contact  2  4  5  2  4  5  2  4  5  Time  exercises  line  Problem s o l v i n g Suggested b i b l i o g r a p h y  (books)  Referrals D r a w i n g up a One-to-one Exploring  aptitudes  Exploring  life  and  skills  circumstances  3  meaningful  4  Written  B.  meaningful  Do y o u h a v e a n y comments o r s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t t o d a y ' s  session?  APPENDIX G. . THE The Continuing  goal of  GOAL OF  information that w i l l  Development Program of  at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  the community w i t h a c c e s s  that are  CAREER DEVELOPMENT  the Career  Education  I l l  skills  congruent with  e q u a l l y to p r o v i d e  needed  d e c i s i o n s can dialogued, when one  r e a l i s m and  o n l y be made when one  provide  and  life  both  picture.  choices has  and  a r e a s must The  of a c t i o n .  Career  be  p l a n and  i m p l e m e n t t h e i r own  the challenge  and  experienced,  D e c i s i o n s c a n be  made  encouragement,  decide  among  i s synonymous t o l i f e ,  l i f e s p a n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t e n c o m p a s s e s t h e human e x p e r i e n c e  c h a n g i n g r o l e s o f s o c i e t y and  and  Choices  explored, assessed,  t o c h o o s e and  plans.  knowledge  decisions.  facilitated.  i n f o r m a t i o n , to help people  decisions  the i n d i v i d u a l s c a r e e r - l i f e  a p i c t u r e of knowledge, p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y ,  p o s s i b l e stimulus/ courses fore,  a total  t o p l a n a r e b a s e d on  compared, developed  has  Columbia i s to  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o make c h o i c e s and  C a r e e r - l i f e p l a n s m u s t be v i e w e d as a w h o l e and evaluated  for  t o e d u c a t i o n a l , d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o u n s e l l i n g and  enable  i n t e g r a t e d and  the C e n t e r  to i n d i v i d u a l s  there-  and  i s to search  journey.  Program  Co-ordinator  the out  ?  S t a t e m e n t by Program C o - o r d i n a t o r Continuing Education  ,,„  CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM - O B J E C T I V E S  Participants w i l l :  l e a r n decision-making  skills.  make b e t t e r c h o i c e s / d e c i s i o n s . be  provided  consider  new f i e l d s o f e n d e a v o u r .  manage t h e i r be  w i t h a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s .  time b e t t e r .  exposed t o r o l e  models.  learn  to plan better.  learn  to see t h e i r  potential.  r e c e i v e encouragement and  support.  be  and r e s e a r c h .  s t i m u l a t e d b y new i d e a s  be p r o v i d e d a f o r u m f o r c o n f u s i o n , b o r e d o m a n d uncertainty. learn  to handle s t r e s s b e t t e r .  g a i n a sense o f d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r lives. be  their  aware o f t r a d e - o f f s and compromise.  be a b l e t o d e a l w i t h the j o b .  i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s on  p l a n f o r advancement and p r o m o t i o n . be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r and a c o m m o n a l i t y .  with people of mutual  interest  examine t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and c o n s i d e r what changes w o u l d h e l p them l i v e more f u l f i l l e d lives. e x a m i n e a n d p r a c t i c e new b e h a v i o r s them c l o s e r t o t h e i r g o a l s .  which w i l l  bring  l e a r n t o p l a n so t h e y have a s e n s e o f c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n regarding t h e i r l i f e ' s aim. be p r o v i d e d t h e s t i m u l u s a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o c o n s i d c r e a t i n g t h e i r own c a r e e r s .  Participants w i l l :  H3 be  motivated,  be  challenged.  A MAJOR INGREDIENT OF THESE COURSES I S THE EMPHASIS ON THE PERSON SECONDLY THE  S K I L L S AND  AND  JOB.  VALUES AND  ASSUMPTIONS  1.  Most people l i k e  to work.  2.  Most people a r e r e a l i z i n g t h a t they w i l l work f o r a l o n g b e c o m i n g a w a r e t h a t t h e y w a n t 'more' o u t o f a j o b .  3.  The a u t h o r i t a r i a n w o r k e t h i c i s c h a n g i n g and w o r k e r s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o r e a l i z e t h e i r v a l u e s and e x p e c t more f r o m t h e i r w o r k d a y .  4.  B e c a u s e o f t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e o f women a n d men w h i c h h a s c r e a t e d new e x p e c t a t i o n s , more i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o home and f a m i l y o f s i n g l e people, people are needing help i n organizing t h e i r career l i f e , due t o p r e s s u r e s o f t i m e , c h a n g i n g m a r k e t c o n d i t i o n s e t c .  5.  W i t h an i n c r e a s i n g d i v o r c e r a t e , t h e i m p a c t and trauma r e s u l t i n g f r o m such has f o r c e d p e o p l e to a s s e s s t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n r e : c a r e e r and l i f e .  6.  B e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s i n g new v a l u e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s w h i c h f o c u s o n i n d i v i d u a l i t y , a s s e r t i v e n e s s , l i f e s t a g e s , p e o p l e a r e c u r i o u s and l e a n i n g towards t h e s e a s p i r a t i o n s i n the hope t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , w i l l r e s u l t i n s o l v i n g , coping with l i f e ' s d a i l y difficulties.  7.  Because the s o c i a l t r e n d i s l e a n i n g toward s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t people a r e more w i l l i n g t o e x p e r i m e n t and e x p l o r e o p t i o n s n e v e r b e f o r e considered.  8.  B e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g b e l i e f and l e g a l i z i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s a s s e e n b y u n i o n s , p a i d p a t e r n i t y / m a t e r n i t y l e a v e , H.R.A., w o r k e r s a r e t a k i n g and e x p e c t i n g more c o n t r o l a n d d e s i g n o f t h e i r w o r k l i f e i . e . , c o m p r e s s e d work week, p a i d e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e .  9.  W h e r e a s p e o p l e u s e d t o w o r k f o r a l i v i n g , w o r k e r s new f o c u s i s from that of earning to that of challenge, s a t i s f a c t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i o n , c a m a r a d e r i e and v a l u e i n c e n t i v e s , . a n d v i e w i t h t h e s e n s e o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s e n s e o f a j o b w e l l d o n e .  t i m e and a r e  f  114  10.  M o s t p e o p l e h e s i t a t e and d o u b t  t h e i r p o t e n t i a l and p r o m o t i o n  ability.  11.  W i t h h e l p p e o p l e who h e s i t a t e c a n i m p l e m e n t  12.  A l l p e o p l e s h o u l d e n j o y and h a v e d i g n i t y and r e s p e c t r e g a r d l e s s o f job function.  13.  I f p e o p l e p u t t h e m s e l v e s down and h o l d t h e m s e l v e s b a c k b e c a u s e o f c o n d i t i o n i n g and u n c e r t a i n t y o v e r t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s e l f , p l u s w o r k c o n d i t i o n s i . e . b o s s e s , c o l l e a g u e s , may be more i n t e r e s t e d in p r o d u c t i o n (goal) r a t h e r than promoting o r encouraging i n d i v i d u a l s .  15.  A l o t o f p e o p l e o n l y w a n t a j o b t h a t p r o v i d e s a w e e k l y p a y c h e q u e and sense o f camaraderie ( I a c c e p t t h a t v a l u e ) b u t I have a sense o f o b l i g a t i o n t o r e a c h them t o c o n s i d e r a r e t h e y g e t t i n g e n o u g h o u t o f their job/life. I n lower paying, support s e r v i c e s , there i s a l o t of b i c k e r i n g and m e a n n e s s , t h e r e s u l t o f n o n - c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s t h a t are d i s p l a y e d i n b e h a v i o r s o f j e a l o u s y . putdowns, as a r e s u l t o f frustration. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l o o k a t q u a l i t y o f work l i f e .  16.  A l o t o f men i n p o w e r p o s i t i o n s a c t o u t o f c o n d i t i o n i n g and a r e n o n conscious, non-thinking i n assumptions.  17.  Change o f o r d e r i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r many men b e c a u s e i t f o r c e s them to e x a m i n e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c h a n g e i n women's l i f e p a t t e r n s a r e t o a l a r g e p a r t i g n o r e d , d i s c o u n t e d b y men.  18.  B e c a u s e o f a d u l t l i f e - s t a g e s p e o p l e a r e l o o k i n g more and a s k i n g more a b o u t w h a t t h e y w a n t f r o m l i f e and c a n more r e a d i l y a d m i t t o b o r e d o m and c o n f u s i o n .  19.  I n s t i t u t i o n s a r e p a r t o f the p r o c e s s o f h e l p i n g people examine d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and one m a j o r t o o l we h a v e t o p e r s u a d e p e o p l e t o c h a n g e i s t o c a l l on t h e i r s e n s e o f j u s t i c e .  c h a n g e and a c t i o n .  CHALLENGES  One o f t h e b i g g e s t p r o b l e m s you  g e t me a  their  own.  i s t o MOVE p e o p l e f r o m t h e c o n c e p t o f :  job - to providing  them w i t h  the s k i l l s ,  Can  e t c . t o do i t o n  APPENDIX  115  H.  COURSE OUTLINE A CAREER IN YOUR L I F E Session  1:  Welcome - I c e - b r e a k e r ; "The P a r t y " Use o f S t r o n g - C a m p b e l l t y p e s : investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional, r e a l i s t i c . People went to the c o r n e r t h e y were most drawn t o . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - Workshop o v e r v i e w , o b j e c t i v e s , tions . Current  themes,  expecta-  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s - L i s t of a l l c o m p l a i n t s . Purpose - a s t a r t i n g p l a c e , know w h a t y o u d o n ' t w a n t .  Homework:  Session  focus,  a) T a k e c u r r e n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s and t u r n i n t o p o s i t i v e attributes. b) J o u r n a l r e f l e c t i o n s ( j o u r n a l s u s e d c o n t i n u o u s l y througho u t w e e k e n d , f o r w r i t i n g o n e ' s own t h o u g h t s , r e a c t i o n s to t h e e x e r c i s e s . ) . c) How do I s e e t h e r e s t o f my life. A i d s i n c l a r i t y o f w h a t one w a n t s t o a c h i e v e b e f o r e death. W r i t i n g s t r e t c h e s the i m a g i n a t i o n .  2:  Administration How  d i d I g e t t o w h e r e I am? Purpose t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s , an t o r y of one's l i f e ' t o d a t e . Drawing a l l events from hood t o p r e s e n t t h a t have been s i g n i f i c a n t .  P l a y b r e a k - p a r t i c i p a n t takes- t h e r e s t t h r o u g h an A c h i e v e m e n t s - Draw o u t d e t a i l one.  invenchild-  activity  s e v e n t h a t h a v e b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t and  describe  Lunch Bragging  - w o r k i n g i n g r o u p s , t a k e t h e one the o t h e r s t h a t you were good.  a c h i e v e m e n t and  convince  Your f u n c t i o n a l / t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s . T a k e t h e one a c h i e v e m e n t and go t h r o u g h t h e s k i l l c a t e g o r i e s and u s i n g two c o l o r s c h e c k i f y o u t h o u g h t t h e s k i l l was u s e d . One c o l o r - s k i l l u s e d and e n j o y e d . Working i n groups (see handout). Play  break  116  What do I l i k e to do and how do I know I'm d o i n g i t ? I am d o i n g : L i s t 10, rank importance - use symbol c o d i n g . A 0 C? K F B W 3 $  -  alone others something you want someone you l o v e do, l o v e d o i n g i t . anyone e l s e know you l i k e to do t h i s . f r e e l y chosen would l i k e to be b e t t e r a t i t . work o r i e n t e d i f you would not have t r i e d , t h r e e or more y e a r s ago. c o s t over $5.00 date you l a s t d i d i t .  Homework - Your f u n c t i o n a l / t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s . W r i t e up s i x o t h e r s and checkoff s k i l l s . Handout - What do I want out of a job?  Session 3 Administration I d e a l a t t a i n m e n t s - guided f a n t a s y ( a i d s i n p r i o r i t y Play  clarification).  break  Attainments:  a) to h e l p t i e t o g e t h e r the p r e v i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of an i n v e n t o r y of a l l you want to do b e f o r e you d i e . b) 10 p e r s o n a l development, 10 c a r e e r development assign p r i o r i t y c) P i c t o r i a l account - l i s t a t t a i n m e n t s  Lunch P l a n n i n g - Do you know how Career Map  to?  (see handout).  - worked i n groups, u s i n g a l l i n f o r m a t i o n that had gathered s i n c e F r i d a y n i g h t . - explored options  been  D e c i s i o n workshee - (see handout) Implementation - buddy system, c o n t a c t s l i s t (200 names o f people who would know you, addresses (how they can h e l p ) , o r g a n i z a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , develop a resume. Play  break  Goodbye  APPENDIX I . 117 COURSE OUTLINE DEVELOPING POTENTIAL FOR  Session  GROWTH AND  CHANGE  1:  Introduction:  Coffee  Done i n p a i r s , w i t h a s t r a n g e r . Introduce s e l f to p a r t n e r i n terms o f : a) o n e t h i n g I v a l u e / l i k e about myself b) one t h i n k I h o p e t o g a i n f r o m t h i s program. Be p r e p a r e d t o i n t r o d u c e p a r t n e r t o t h e g r o u p , s h a r i n g that information. I n t r o d u c t i o n s to the group. Expectations/goals r e c o r d e d on newsprint. Ground r u l e s t h a t h e l p the group t o f u n c t i o n w e l l were o u t l i n e d .  Break  Stretching, F o c u s on  relaxation, centering.  self,  using  list  of a d j e c t i v e s  (3-part  exercise).  Shared  in  three's. Journal Writing:  I n t r o d u c t i o n , handouts  (2)  Homework. Session  2:  Sharing:  Journals  and  d i s c u s s i o n s of  dreams.  Communication s k i l l s : Listening a) s o m e t h i n g I e n j o y ( p a i r s ) b) s o m e t h i n g I f i n d d i f f i c u l t c h e c k - "do y o u mean Coffee  (demonstration ?" ( p a i r s )  of  perception  break c) a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g - d e m o n s t r a t i o n , e x e r c i s e  in  triads.  Stretching, relaxation, centering. Exercise:  N o n - v e r b a l d r a w i n g - "How in  Handouts:  I experience  three's.  Reading l i s t ,  aids  to  feedback.  m y s e l f now,"  sharing  118 Session  3: Feedback Communication e x e r c i s e : Observing behavior feeling " and c h e c k i n g o u t . Discussion Fantasy:  of "risking"  openness.  "The s t u m p , t h e c a b i n ,  Coffee  Break  Shared  fantasy  " I imagine you a r e  J o h a r i Window d e m o n s t r a t i o n . the stream."  A contiuum of communication patterns from avoidance to a s s e r t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o "How I c a r e f o r m y s e l f , How I c a r e f o r o t h e r s , a n d how I d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e a t hand." P r a c t i c e o f " I " messages i n t h r e e ' s . Session  4: Feedback Discussion  o n t h e two a s p e c t s  o f t h e program -  cognitive/conceptual  i n p u t and t h e n o n - r a t i o n a l s y m b o l i c , i n t u i t i v e component. These two a s p e c t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to l e f t side/ r i g h t side of the b r a i n . Work r e C o n f l i c t : a) s e n t e n c e s t e m s , s h a r e d i n t h r e e ' s and f e e d b a c k t o t h e w h o l e g r o u p ; comments o n s p e c i a l i s s u e s f o r women. Coffee  break  b) d i a g r a m a t b l a c k b o a r d r e : t w o d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e to our style/mode of handling c o n f l i c t : assertive/ u n a s s e r t i v e and c o - o p e r a t i v e / u n c o - o p e r a t i v e . These dimensions i n t e r a c t t o p r o d u c e L o s e / l o s e , l o s e / w i n , w i n / l o s e and w i n / w i n results. c) d i s c u s s i o n r e w o r k i n g t o w a r d a " c o l l a b o r a t i v e " mode ( w i n / w i n ) i f o n l y o n e p e r s o n i n a p a r t n e r s h i p i s a i m i n g at t h i s . An e x e r c i s e f o c u s i n g on c h a n g i n g o u r s e l v e s r a t h e r than demanding t h e o t h e r person change. Concepts from f a m i l y therapy shared r e : " s e l f - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . Relaxation Session  - pleasurable  fantasy.  5: Feedback Anger - presented  concepts i n three  parts.  1) S i t u a t i o n - g e n e r a t e d ( t i m e self-generated (endless, draining) with f e a r , g r i e f , and j o y o r l o v e .  l i m i t e d ) anger v e r s u s same a p p l i c a t i o n t o  2) A n g e r a s a s e c o n d a r y e m o t i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o t h r e a t .  119  outward Coffee  3) H a n d l i n g a n g e r : t u r n i n g i t i n w a r d and t u r n i n g i t (many ways o f e x p r e s s i n g i t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y ) D i s c u s s i o n .  Break  Centering exercise: "What a r e y o u e x p e r i e n c i n g ? " What a r e y o u h o p i n g for? What a r e y o u a f r a i d o f ( o r a v o i d i n g ) ? " Questions repeated at l e a s t three times i n sequence, working i n p a i r s , change r o l e s a f t e r t h r e e m i n u t e s . Enright  Session  e x e r c i s e r e : c o n v e r i n g " h a v e t o ' s " t o " c h o o s e t o " , and a t u n - a c t e d upon g o a l s .  looking  6:  Feedback P l a n n i n g Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - A n s w e r sh e e t - s e l f - d i s c o v e r y w o r k s h e e t w o r k on f o r t e n m i n u t e s q u i e t l y , a l o n e w i t h s e l f , f o l l o w e d by t w e n t y m i n u t e s more i n g r o u p s o f t h r e e ' s . Coffee  break  Energizing  techniques  W o r k s h e e t on  planning  from  Shiatsu  next  steps.  Discussion - sharing. R e v i e w e d o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s and s h a r e d p r o g r e s s . S i g n up s h e e t f o r s h a r i n g o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and k e e p i n g i n t o u c h . F a l l programs l i s t e d . Closed  s i t t i n g i n c i r c l e and h o l d i n g h a n d s s i l e n t l y , " a s g i v e r s and r e c e i v e r s " , l o o k i n g a t e a c h o t h e r and s i l e n t l y g i v i n g appreciation.  APPENDIX J . 120 I N I T I A L CONTRACT  On t h e p a r t o f E i l e e n H e n d r y , C o - o r d i n a t o r , C a r e e r C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C.  Development,  1.  A l l o w Bonnie Long t o conduct a survey c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " .  of past p a r t i c i p a n t s of the  2.  A g r e e t o f o l l o w t h e method o f r a n d o m l y a s s i g n i n g e n t e r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n Y o u r L i f e " (May 9.10,11) a s o u t l i n e d i n the a t t a c h e d document.  3.  E n l i s t the co-operation of the course i n s t r u c t o r s i n order to o b t a i n c o u r s e d e s c r i p t i o n s and g o a l s and t o a d m i n i s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  4.  I n d i v i d u a l s n o t s e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c p a t e i n t h e May 9-11 w o r k s h o p w i l l be g i v e n an i d e n t i c a l workshop w i t h i n 6 weeks.  5.  Obtain permission to administer questionnaires to L i f e p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d p a r t i c i p a n t s o f o n e o t h e r C.E.E. c o u r s e .  On t h e p a r t o f B o n n i e . L o n g , P r o g r a m E v a l u a t o r 1.  Keep t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f a l l d a t a pants .  2.  Agree t o assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e s i g n , a n a l y s i s , and p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y .  3.  A g r e e t o make a v a i l a b l e a l l r e p o r t s o n r e s e a r c h a s t h e y available.  4.  Agree t o use the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d Thesis requirements.  The  above c o n t r a c t i s open t o change a t t h e r e q u e s t  E i l e e n Hendry,  Co-ordinator  Bonnie Long, Program E v a l u a t o r  concerning  from t h i s  the project  partici-  implementation,  become  r e s e a r c h t o meet  of either  party.  121 SECOND CONTRACT On t h e p a r t o f E i l e e n H e n d r y , C o - o r d i n a t o r , for Continuing  Education,  Career  Development,  Center  U.B.C.  1.  A l l o w Bonnie Long t o conduct a survey c o u r s e "A C a r e e r i n y o u r L i f e " .  of past p a r t i c i p a n t s  2.  Enlist course  3.  Obtain permission to administer questionnaires to l i f e - p l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e c o u r s e "Developing Personal Potential".  the co-operation of the course i n s t r u c t o r s i n order to o b t a i n d e s c r i p t i o n s and g o a l s and t o a d m i n i s t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  On t h e p a r t o f B o n n i e L o n g , P r o g r a m  Evaluator  1.  Keep t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y o f a l l d a t a participants.  2.  A g r e e t o assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e s i g n , a n a l y s i s , and p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y .  3.  A g r e e t o make a v a i l a b l e a l l r e p o r t s on r e s e a r c h available.  4.  Agree t o use the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d Thesis requirements.  The  above c o n t r a c t i s open t o change a t t h e r e q u e s t  Eileen  of the  Hendry,  Co-ordinator  Bonnie Long, Program  Eyaluator  concerning  the project  implementation,  as they  become  f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h , t o meet  of either  party.  APPENDIX o T , •, •, 2. F o l l o w - u p :  „ Career  122  K.  • T-r i n Your L i f e  Assigned  V  No.  Date:  MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE A.  P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o what d e g r e e y o u f o u n d t h e c o u r s e m e a n i n g f u l ? Some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t h a v e b e e n a p a r t o f y o u r sessions. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how y o u f e e l about the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t o f your c o u r s e . Not  very  ingful  Extr  ely  2  3  4  5  2  3  4  5  2  3  4  5  2  3  4  5  "What do I l i k e t o do a n d how do I know I'm d o i n g i t "  2  3  4  5  I d e a l attainment - guided f a n t a s y  2  3  4  5  S m a l l Group Current "How  Activities  Dissatisfactions  d i d I g e t t o where I - Life line  Achievements  am"  and b r a g g i n g  Ideal attainment - Career/personal  L  2  3  4  5  Career  L  2  3  4  5  L  2  3  4  5  I  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  1  2  3  4  5  Map  D e c i s i o n Making Setting:  Worksheets  Music, Posters  Journals Planning Book B.  Process  Table Have y o u s o u g h t  i n f o r m a t i o n or guidance  s o u r c e s i n t h e p a s t f o u r weeks  (since  meaningful  from any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  this  course)?  Please  indicate  w i t h a check mark. a. educational counseling b. vocational counseling c. marriage counseling d. personal counseling e. p e r s o n a l g r o w t h g r o u p s f. Other ( s p e c i f y ) g. None over  123  - 2 C.  What l i f e c h a n g e s , i f a n y , ( s i n c e the c o u r s e ) ?  have  you e x p e r i e n c e d  i n the P a s t Four  marriage s e p a r a t i o n from husband ( w i f e ) end o f i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p divorce engaged to marry b i r t h of a c h i l d death i n f a m i l y  major i l l n e s s birthday moved vacation c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home i n c r e a s e i n pay other (specify:)  D.  H a v e y o u made any d e c i s i o n s u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n the course? Yes No If yes, please specify:  E.  Do y o u f e e l any d i f f e r e n t l y r e s u l t of the course? Yes No_ If yes, please specify:  F.  Did the  G.  Do  the a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e you course? Yes No you  h a v e any  suggestions  about y o u r s e l f and/or your  a c l e a r p i c t u r e as  f o r improving  Weeks  the  processes  learned  situation  to what to expect  course?  as  a  from  124 Follow-up: Developing Personal P o t e n t i a l  A s s i g n e d No. Date:  MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o what d e g r e e y o u f o u n d t h e c o u r s e m e a n i n g f u l ? Some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t h a v e b e e n a p a r t o f y o u r s e s s i o n s P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were a p a r t o f your c o u r s e .  D e m o n s t r a t i o n of new (modeling)  skill  Journal writing  2  3  4  5  Exercises  2  3  4  5  2  3  4  5  R e l a x a t i o n and c e n t e r i n g  2  3  4  5  Group d i s c u s s i o n  2  3  4  5  Homework (was c h a l l e n g i n g and worked a t i t )  2  3  4  Handout  2  3  4  2  3  4  Exploring values  2  3  4  Suggested  2  3  4  i n pairs, trios, etc.  Beginning feedback  session  D i d a c t i c s e s s i o n - theme f o r s e s s i o n (new c o n c e p t s )  Drawing  up a p l a n  books  Have y o u s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e f r o m a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t h e p a s t f o u r weeks? P l e a s e i n d i c a t e w i t h a c h e c k mark. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.  educational counselling vocational counselling marriage counselling personal counselling p e r s o n a l growth groups other (specify) none  sources  125  C.  What l i f e c h a n g e s , i f (since the course)  any,  have  you  erienced  H a v e y o u made a n y d e c i s i o n s i n the course? If  E.  yes,  Yes please specify:  yes,  Yes please specify:  home  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o c e s s e s  learned  No  Do y o u f e e l any d i f f e r e n t l y r e s u l t of the course? If  using  t h e P a s t F o u r Weeks?  major i l l n e s s birthday moved vacation children leaving f i r e d from job other ( s p e c i f y : )  marriage s e p a r a t i o n from husband ( w i f e ) end o f i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p divorce Engaged t o m a r r y b i r t h of a c h i l d death in family  D.  in  about y o u r s e l f  and/or  y o u r s i t u a t i o n as a  No  F.  Did the  the a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e you a c l e a r course? Yes No '  G.  Do y o u h a v e any s u g g e s t i o n s  for  picture  improving  the  as t o w h a t  course?  to expect  from  126 2. F o l l o w - u p L i f e p l a n n i n g  Interview  A s s i g n e d No. Date:  MEANINGFULNESS QUESTIONNAIRE A. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e t o w h a t d e g r e e y o u f o u n d t h e i n t e r v i e w m e a n i n g f u l ? Some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s may n o t h a v e b e e n a p a r t o f y o u r interview session. P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e number t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h how y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w e r e a p a r t o f y o u r interview. Not Written  very  meaningful 2  exercises  Extremely 3  4  5  3  4  5  Fantasizing  3  4  5  Exploring  interests  3  4  5  Exploring  values  3  4  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  plan  3  4  5  contact  3  4  5  3  4  5  3  4  5  Time  line  Problem  solving  Suggested b i b l i o g r a p h y  (books)  Referrals D r a w i n g up a One-to-one Exploring  aptitudes  Exploring  life  and  skills  circumstances  meaningful  Have y o u s o u g h t i n f o r m a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e f r o m any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t h e p a s t f o u r weeks? P l e a s e i n d i c a t e w i t h a c h e c k mark. a. b. c. d. e. f. g.  educational counselling vocational counselling marriage counselling personal counselling personal growth groups other (specify)_ none  sources  127  What l i f e  changes, i f any, have you e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e past f o u r _major i l l n e s s birthday moved _vacation _ c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home _ i n c r e a s e i n pay f i r e d from j o b other (specify)^  weeks?  jnarriage _ s e p a r a t i o n from husband ( w i f e ) _end o f i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p divorce _engaged t o m a r r y _birth of a child death i n f a m i l y  Have y o u made a n y d e c i s i o n s u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the interview? Yes No ' If  yes,  please  Yes  Did the  yes,  please  learned  specify:  Do y o u f e e l a n y d i f f e r e n t l y r e s u l t of the interview?  If  and p r o c e s s e s  about y o u r s e l f and/or your s i t u a t i o n as a  No  specify:_  t h e a d v e r t i s i n g g i v e y o u a c l e a r p i c t u r e as t o what t o e x p e c t interview? Yes  Do y o u h a v e s u g g e s t i o n s  No  f o r improving  the interview?  from  128  APPENDIX L . GENERAL INFORMATION  QUESTIONNAIRE  Assigned No. CENTRE FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE  SURVEY P l e a s e do not write i n this column  1.  In what age group are you?  15 21 26 31 36 41 .46  20 - 25 - 3e - 35 - 40 - 45 . -.50 -55 : 56.: and over T  5!  2.  What l e v e l i n school have you completed  ( I n d i c a t e only one).  04  High school or below. stiine c o l l e g e some u n i v e r s i t y completed c o l l e g e completed u n i v e r s i t y 3.  Have you taken other courses o f f e r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n or diplomas? Yes Mo I f "yes" please s p e c i f y :  4.  05"  06  In the s c h o o l i n g which you have taken up to and I n c l u d i n g grade 12,. what kind o f courses d i d you take that were your choice? . . Mainly commercial/vocational Mainly academic Mixture - commercial/vocational/academic Other combination (please s p e c i f y ) 07  5.  6.  I f you took any s c h o o l i n g beyond grade 12, what kinds of courses were they? [ Commercial/vocational General Academic Professional other (please s p e c i f y : ) not a p p l i c a b l e .; Have you ever worked f o r pay? Yes NO I f 'no" please go on to question 7.  6 i . I f you answered "yes" p l e a s e . i n d i c a t e type of j o b ( s ) and l e n g t h ( s ) of time a t each (beyond the years o f your schooling).'  08 09  To If 12  13  "14  15  16  129  Please do not write i n this column 7.  I f you had a choice, which would you p r e f e r to work: P a r t time job-3haring f l e x hours compressed work week other ( s p e c i f y : )  8.  Y7 -r-g 19 -^Q  I f you have an income of your own, please i n d i c a t e from what sourse: job. job.and other spouse ._ spouse and o t h e r r e l a t i v e s ^ i n c l u d i n g l e g a c i e s , " h e l p i n g out", but _ not f o r work) • r e l a t i v e s and other • government a s s i s t a n c e . investments other, (please s p e c i f y : ) not a p p l i c a b l e 22  9.  How  much per annum, do you get approximately? _ _ Below $7,000 . $7,000 to 15,000 $15,COO to 18,000 $18,000 to 21,000 •_ _.$21,000 to 24,000 $24,000 to 28,000 $28,000 or above i  10.  Who  do'you regard as the most important  . 23  person- i n your l i f e besides. -  y o u r s e l f ( i n d i c a t e only one)? •. spouse children friend parents other .(please s p e c i f y : ) 11.  How much personal o r moral support would you say that you r e c e i v e from the most important person in- youc l i f e ? . extremely supportive a great d e a l quite a b i t some ...J little • . very l i t t l e none 12. On a d a i l y , continuing b a s i s , from where do. you get most of your -general news or information? (please i n d i c a t e only one) radio newspapers • .television b u l l e t i n boards o r o t h e r -posted signs journals .... people around you ... other ( s p e c i f y ) '_  -j-j  26_  130  3 P l e a s e do not write i n this 13.  14  15.  16.  With whom do you discuss your ideas about your l i f e and what you d o ° ^ or p l a n to do? (Please i n d i c a t e o n l y one) spouse friends relatives children ' oounselor other (please s p e c i f y ) : ' 27 Has there been anyone i n your l i f e who has taken a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n your career plans? Yes (please s p e c i f y : ) No 28 What i s your m a r i t a l status? s i n g l e (never married) divorced widow j n a r r i e d ( i n c l u d i n g commonlaw) _separated ( l i v i n g apart) 29 Does your spouse work continuously o r most of the time? Yes No Not a p p l i c a b l e 30  U l n n  17. .In r e l a t i o n to y o u r s e l f , what l e v e l o f education has your spouse? 31  18.  19.  More than you equal to you l e s s than y o u r s e l f not a p p l i c a b l e Do you have any c h i l d r e n ? Yes No I f "no" please go on to question 21.  21.  '  .  :  .•••>*•  How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 1  20.  .  2  3  4  5  6 or more  Are your c h i l d r e n c u r r e n t l y : pre school ( p u b l i c ) attending school ., c o l l e g e , or u n i v e r s i t y not at home What i s your t o t a l family income approximately per year? $5,000 or under • $6,000 - $10,000 $11,000 - $15,000 $16,000 - $20,000 " $21,000 - $25,000 •• , •• $26,000 - $30,000 $30,000 - or more . .  33 34 — 36  L  22.  T7  Are you c o n s i d e r i n g or can you f o r s e e a time whenyou might consider . taking some courses or other type of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y ? Yes d e f i n i t e l y maybe soon maybe l a t e r No . ... . 38 If your choice i s "no".go on to question 33 23. " Would your c o n s i d e r a t i o n to undertake a course or some type o f , l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y depend on plans f o r q u a l i f y i n g and g e t t i n g a new kind, of Job or s t a r t i n g a new career? Yes No Don't know 39  131  Please do not w r i t e In t h i s • colurm 24,  What kinds of courses do you need; Skills: communication interviewing supervision A s s e r t i v e n e s s " __ Problem S o l v i n g Leadership Dther: (Specify:)  Knowledge: Information new books Research Didactic teaching: New and developing areas i . e . "game s i m u l a t i o n  Personal Development: Values C l a r i f i c a t i o n exploration alternatives . attitudes • support stress ; interests Other: ( s p e c i f y )  etc.  40 48 57 4? 58 42 50. 59  31  43  60 6T  44 1 2  "45 53 62  Organizational 46 54 63 development Other: ( s p e c i f y ) 47 55 64 5? 25.  26.  26i 27.  28.  -What time category i s best f o r you?" evenings 5 - 7 .fni4 day , 6 - 8 ~ 7 -''9 ' '' ' Weekends: Friday 7 - 1 0 Sat. 9-4 Sun. 9-4 ; ,  TT M  T  W  T  F  S  '  ;  I f you would l i k e to take some courses what kind- of h e l p do you think you n i g h t need f i r s t ? ' i n o r d e r t o p l a n y o u r f u t u r e ) general assessment of i n t e r e s t s f o r personal development ' hobbies or volunteer experience quidance, c o u n s e l l i n g , and education assessment a i d i n s e l e c t i o n and planning o f courses • •• longer term career planning •• don't know Where wou d you go f o r t h e above l i s t e d h e l p ? I f choices were o f f e r e d , would you p r e f e r p a r t - t i n e (few hours per * week) or f u l l - t i m e ( f i v e f u l l days per week).courses? (Please i n d i c a t e onlyr one) Part-time F u l l time don't knew 1  What t i n e s of the year are best f o r you i n taking e i t h e r or f u l l - t i m e courses? Spring Summer Fall  "  0  3  1  66  72-  67  73  68  74  70  "75 76  •=H78 79 80  Card 2  04 05 —A / 06 07  part-time Winter 08  09  To TT 29.  What kind'of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n ' i s best f o r you under your present circumstances: seminars think tank lectures reporting group d i s c u s s i o n " home assignments cp.se s t u d i e s workshop follow-up r o l e play sharing support  Ta Tf 14  TT  ,T6  TT  Te T9 20 IT  132 .5 30.. How  31.  much would you be w i l l i n g to pay 1 day per s e s s i o n 7 hours $ 2 hours $  Would your employer be w i l l i n g to pay —  32.  Y  e  S  —  N  per: Weekend 20 hours  Do not vrrito i n t h i s column $  22  ~25  f o r your courses?  °  " *6 :  What would be the most important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n your t a k i n g a course (aside from the s u b j e c t of the course)? finances time l o c a t i o n of course child-care transportation none don't know  _ 30 -— 32 33 -^r  33. From what or whom d i d you hear of t h i s workshop (or i n t e r v i e w ) ? relative frieu: bulletin (Cont.Ed.Calendar) newspaper Radio other ( s p e c i f y : )  35  -36-  34.  Please i n d i c a t e your b i r t h order? f i r s t born with brothers or s i s t e r s . only c h i l d second c h i l d aidaie child l a s t born  35.  Old you always f e e l you vould wor!: outside the home at some time i n your l i f e ? Yes Mo 38  36.  When d i d ycu f i r s t begin to make career or work plans? childhood teens e a r l y twenties 30 - 40 years 40 - 50 years over 50 Not a p p l i c a b l e  37. 38.  37  39.  twenties 39 to  What prompted you to s i g n up f o r t h i s course or interview? improve s k i l l s . . . , job advancement inters t -\, , . , . . .„ other ( s p e c i f y ) curiosity  1 1 2 1  2 2  3 3 3  40 41 — 42  3  Please i n d i c a t e ( c i r c l e ) on the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e - how about your e a r l y s c h o o l i n g : h i g h l y motivated very s u c c e s s f u l very enjoyable  40.  late  What one word could best d e s c r i b e how you were f e e l i n g p r i o r s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s course (or i n t e r v i e w ) ?  x  4 4 4  you  felt  5 not very motivated 5 unsuccessful 5 not very enjoyable  43 1^4 -— 45 -TJT 47  Given your present l i f e / c a r e e r s i t u a t i o n , which of the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s , best describes you ( s e l e c t only one p l e a s e ) . selecting  impn~ving  changing  23  stuck 49  27  APPENDIX  M.  OBSERVATION C H E C K L I S T :  Date: Location: Instructor: Type of Group: Number i n a t t e n d a n c e : Did  the  group:  Appear i n t e r e s t e d Participate  -  in discussion  Get  involved  Ask  questions -  i n personal application  Environment: S i z e o f t h e room Ventilation Light  -  -  Seating  -  Extraneous  sounds -  Speaker: Interested  i n topic  -  Spoke c l e a r l y Responsive  -  to the group  -  133  APPENDIX N Telephone  Introduction  Lifeplanning  Hi,  my name i s  134  Interviews  , I'm a w o r k e r f r o m t h e c o n t i n u i n g  D e p a r t m e n t , a t U.B.C. h e l p i n g  them do a s p e c i a l s t u d y  with  t h e women who  s i g n up f o r " L i f e p l a n n i n g " i n t e r v i e w s a t t h e Women's R e s o u r c e s  We w o u l d l i k e  to gather  some i n f o r m a t i o n  i n t e r v i e w and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s . w i t h you once a g a i n  from you before  One m o n t h l a t e r  t o s e e how y o u ' r e d o i n g  Education  Center.  you have your  we w o u l d l i k e  t o meet  and i f t h i n g s have changed f o r  you.  All  the information w i l l  be h a n d l e d  i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d anonymous m a n n e r .  We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g o u t w h a t y o u n e e d , w h a t y o u e n j o y , are  If  i n order  and who y o u  t o g i v e y o u t h e s e r v i c e and programs y o u want.  you a r e w i l l i n g  h a l f an hour before  to p a r t i c i p a t e , I'd l i k e  t o meet w i t h y o u f o r a b o u t  y o u r i n t e r v i e w and f o r a few m i n u t e s i m m e d i a t e l y  afterwards.  APPENDIX 0.  •  EVALUATION INTRODUCTION The finding  continuing education  out what you  g i v e you  need, what you  the programs you We  would l i k e  workshop which w i l l appreciate having  to gather  help  you  so do This  manner.  not  appointed  space.  and  i n order.  be  Your f i r s t  t i m e on handled  each  assured  T h a t way  the  of to  we  can be  to  We  the  would  Please  response i s often  question. and  the l a s t t h r e e numbers of y o u r t e l e p h o n e  i n t e r v i e w ends.  item, please  i n order  prior  in a confidential  will  you  are  complete the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  s e t of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h ones you  If  you  importance  of f u t u r e programs.  T h i s number i s n e c e s s a r y  of forms from each  who  the  some i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m y o u  spend a l o t of  put  enjoy,  i n the p l a n n i n g  information w i l l  Please  recognized  want.  work t h r o u g h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e the b e s t  s t a f f has  o n l y so  t h a t we  complete a f t e r of having  anonymous  number i n  can match  the c o u r s e  a complete  the  this  or set  individual.  h a v e any  f e e l free  comments on  to p l a c e  questionnaire.  )  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  o r on  any  individual  them i n t h e u n u s e d m a r g i n o r a t t h e end  of  APPENDIX P.  136  COVERING LETTER FOR FOLLOW-UP FORMS  Dear  : Please find  enclosed  f o u r f o l l o w u p forms f o r y o u t o c o m p l e t e and  r e t u r n i n t h e e n c l o s e d , stamped e n v e l o p e . questionnaires i n order. spend a l o t  Your f i r s t  response  i s often the best  s o do n o t  o f time on each q u e s t i o n .  This information w i l l P l e a s e i n d i c a t e as your telephone  P l e a s e work through t h e  number.  be h a n d l e d  i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d anonymous manner.  a s s i g n e d number t h e l a s t  three d i g i t s  o f your  T h i s i s t o a s s u r e u s t h a t we h a v e a c o m p l e t e s e t o f  forms from you. Thank y o u f o r y o u r our  report findings w i l l  end  o f August.  participation be s e n t  i n this  study.  to a l l participants  Yours  A w r i t t e n copy o f some t i m e n e a r t h e  truly,  Bonnie Long per E i l e e n Hendry C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , W.B.C. Encl.  (.4)  APPENDIX  Q.  137  QUESTIONNAIRE TABULATION  T o t a l number of questionnaires returned completed: 40 DPP - Developing P o t e n t i a l ; LP - L i f e p l a n n i n g The groups are coded by l e t t e r as f o l l o w s : CIYL - Career In your L i f e . Group S i z e : Questions and Responses  1 2  CIYL  1 7  DPP  n  4  LP  In what age group are you? a) 15. - 30 b) 31 - 40 c) 41 - 56 and over  0  TOTALS  13 12 15  T o t a l : 40 2.  What l e v e l i n school have you completed? a) high school or below b) some c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y c) completed c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y  10 12 18  T o t a l : 40 Have you taken other courses o f f e r i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n or diplomas? a) yes  20  T o t a l : 20*  *20 d i d not respond In the s c h o o l i n g which you have taken up to and i n c l u d i n g grade 12, what kind of courses d i d you take that were your choice? a) mainly commercial/vocational b) mainly academic c) mixture-commercial/voc./academic d) other combinations  0  2  .1  9 2 1  11 1 1  10 0 0  *2- d i d not respond  T o t a l : 38*  I f you took any s c h o o l i n g beyong grade 12, what kinds of courses were they? a) commercial/vocational b) general academic c) p r o f e s s i o n a l d) other  8 17 21 3 1  f) not a p p l i c a b l e *some answered more than once Have you ever worked f o r pay? a) yes b) no  "3 30 3 2  T o t a l : 50*  12  16 1  11  39 1  T o t a l : 40  138 2 Questions and Responses (Continued!  Totals, per Response Group S i z e :  61.  I f you answered "yes" please Indicate type of job(s) and length(s) of time at each (beyond your years of s c h o o l i n g ) . a) p r o f e s s i o n a l b) s e r v i c e c) commercial  Cm 12  7 1 4  DPP 17  5 4 6  LP 11  TOTALS 40  17 6 15  5 1 5 Total:  38  Number of years worked ranged from 2 to 45. I f you had a choice, which would you p r e f e r to work: a) part time b) j o b - s h a r i n g c) f l e x hours d) compressed work week e) other  2 1 7 2 1  9 1 6 0 0  13 2 19 4 1  Total:  * 1 d i d not respond I f you have an income of your own, please i n d i c a t e from what source: a) job b) job and other c) spouse d) spouse and other e) government a s s i s t a n c e f ) investments g) other  2 0 6 2 0  8 1 1 0 0 1 0  2 3 3 1 0 1 2  6 1 0 0 1 0 0  16 5 4 1 1 2 2 T o t a l : 31*  *9 d i d not respond How much per annum do you get approximately? a) below 7,000 b) $7,000 t o $15,000 c) $15,000 to $18,000 d) $18,000 to $21,000 e) $21,000 to $24,000 f ) $24,000 to $28,000 g) $28,000 or above  3 3 1 0 0 2 1  7 4 1 0 0 0 1  *11 d i d not respond Who do you regard as the most important person i n your l i f e besides y o u r s e l f ? 2 a) spouse 2 b) c h i l d r e n 4 c) f r i e n d 3 d) parents 1 e) other *2 d i d not respond  39 *  1 3 1 0 0 1 0 Total:  7 3 5 2 0  6 1 2 0 0 Total:  11 10 3 0 0 3 2 29*  15 6 11 5 1 38*  139 3  „ „ r„ ~* J Questions and Responses (Continued . 11.  T o t a l s per Response CIYL Group Size:12  DPP 17  LP .' ,Xl  TOTALS "'. 40  How much personal or moral support would you say that you receive from the most important person i n your l i f e ? a) b) c) d) e) f)  extremely supportive a great deal quite a b i t some little very l i t t l e  1 7 5 3 0 .1 .  3 1 4 3 1 0.  3 3 2 1 0 1 .  TOTAL; 39*  *1 d i d not respond On a d a i l y b a s i s , from where do you get most of your general news or information? a) b) c) d) e) f)  radio newspapers television b u l l e t i n boards or other posted s i g n s Journals people around you  g)  other  7 11 11 7 1 . 2  6 2 1 0 0 3 .0  .  6  5 7 0 0 1 3 . .1.  17 13 1 0 1 7 1  4 0 0 0 1 0  T o t a l : 40 13.  With your a) b) c) d) e) f)  whom do you discuss your ideas about l i f e and what you do or plan to do? spouse friends relatives children counselor other  1 8 2 0 1 0  .0 14 0 1 0 1  4 5 6 • 28 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 2 T o t a l : 39 *  6 5  12 5  5 4  *1 d i d not respond 14.  Has there been anyone i n your l i f e who has taken a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n your career plans? a) yes (please s p e c i f y : ) b) no *o AIA * A *2 d i d not respond  15.  What i s your m a r i t a l status? a) single.divorced.widow,separated b) married  ~  10 2  7 10  23 14 Total:  4 7  37* *  21 19 T o t a l : 40  16.  Does your spouse work continuously or most of the time? a) yes b) no c) not a p p l i c a b l e  4 0 8  11 2 4  7 0 4  22 2 16 T o t a l : 40  140 Questions and Responses (Continued)  T o t a l per.Response Group S i z e :  17.  CIYL 12  DPP 17  LP 11  1 4 0 7  8 3 2 4  5 2 1 3  In r e l a t i o n to y o u r s e l f , what l e v e l of education has your spouse? a) more than you b) equal to you c) l e s s than y o u r s e l f d) not a p p l i c a b l e  TOTALS 40  14 9 3 14 T o t a l : 40  18 Do you have any c h i l d r e n ? a) Yes b) No  3 9  13 3  7 4  * 1 d i d not respond  23 16  T o t a l :: 39 *  19. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? a) one b) two c) three d) four e) f i v e f ) s i x or more  0 2 1 •0 0 0  3 7 1 0 2 1  1 5 1 0 0 0  4 14 3 0 2 1  T o t a l : 24 20.  Are a) b) c)  your c h i l d r e n c u r r e n t l y : pre school ( p u b l i c ) attending s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , o r not a t home  university  0 3 0  2 9 3  3 2 2  5 14 5  T 6 t a l : 24 21,  What i s your t o t a l family income approximately per year? a) $5,000 or under b) $6,000 - $10,000 c) $11,000 - $15,000 d) $16,000 - $20,000 e) $21,000 - $25,000 f ) $26,000 - $30,000 g) $30,000 - $ or more  1 1 3 1 0 4 1  2 3 2 3 0 2 5  * 2 d i d not respond 22.  Are you c o n s i d e r i n g or can you forsee a time when you might consider taking some courses or other type of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y ? a) yes, d e f i n i t e l y 1.1 b) maybe soon 1 c) maybe l a t e r 0 d) no 0  0 1 2 1 2 2 2  3 5 7 5 2 8 8  T o t a l : 38 *  11 4 2 0  10 1 0 0  32 6 2 0  T o t a l : 40  141  5  Questions and Responses (Continued) Group S i z e : 23.  T o t a l s per Response CIYL 12  DPP 17  Would your c o n s i d e r a t i o n to undertake a course or some type of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y depend on plans f o r q u a l i f y i n g and g e t t i n g a new kind of job or s t a r t i n g a new career? a) yes b) no c) don't know  LP 11  10 0 1 Total:  *1 d i d not respond 24.  26 10 3 39*  What kind of courses do you need? Skills: a) communication b) i n t e r v i e w i n g c) s u p e r v i s i o n d) a s s e r t i v e n e s s e) problem s o l v i n g f) l e a d e r s h i p g) other Personal development: a) values c l a r i f i c a t i o n b) e x p l o r a t i o n c) a l t e r n a t i v e s d) a t t i t u d e s e) support f) s t r e s s g) i n t e r e s t s h) other Knowledge: a) information b) new books c) research d) d i d a c t i c teaching e) new and developing areas f) game simulation g) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development h) other  *No 25.  TOTALS 40  11 6 3 5 9 7 5 0 10 5 4 4 4 2 3 5 0 9 4 2 2 0 0 5 5 0  15 8 1 1 12 3 4 1 14 5 6 5 6 5 7  0 2 6 5 6 6 4 1 3  1 2 6 1 4 2 3 7 5  2 2 0 2 3 2 2 1 8 2 3 3 0 0 2 2 2 7 4 2 0 0 0 1 3 2  1 11 7 1 1 2 0 2 4 0  31 16 4 8 24 12 11 2 32 12 13 12 10 7 12 10 3 27 15 5 3 2 0 8 12 2  totals available  What time category i s best f o r you? a) evenings 5 r- 7 6-8 b) evenings 7-9 c) evenings d) weekends F r i . 7-10 e) weekends Sat. 9-4 9-4 f) weekends Sun. g) f u l l days - Monday h) f u l l days - Tuesday 1) f u l l days - Wednesday  4 3 5 3 4 1 5 6 6  5 7 17 9 14 9 12 14 14  142  6  Questions and Responses  (Continued)  T o t a l s per Responses  Group S i z e :  j) k) 1) m)  full full full full  days days days days  -  CIYL 12  DPP 17  Thursday Friday Saturday Sundays  LP 11  6 2 0 1  14 8 4 4 Total:  * T o t a l s not a v a i l a b l e 26.  TOTALS 40  I f you would l i k e to take some courses what k i n d of help do you think you might need f i r s t ( i n order to plan f o r your future)? a) general assessment of i n t e r e s t s f o r personal development 4 b) hobbies or volunteer experience 1 c) guidance, c o u n s e l l i n g , and e d u c a t i o n a l assessment 5 d) a i d i n s e l e c t i o n and planning courses 5 e) longer term career planning 5 f ) don't know 1  6 0  7 0  17 1  7 2 3 3  8 3 7 0  20 10 15 4  1 2 0 0 14  3 4 0 0 4  4 8 1 4 23  * T o t a l s not a v a i l a b l e 261.  Where would you go f o r the above l i s t e d help? a) WRC b) UBC c) colleges e) p r i v a t e agencies f) don't know  0 2 1 4 5  Total: 27. part-time or f u l l - t i m e courses?' a) part-time b) f u l l - t i m e c) don't know  prefer 10 2 0  13 1 1  5 1 4 Total:  *2 d i d not respond 28.  40  What times of the year a r e best f o r you i n t a k i n g e i t h e r part-time or f u l l - t i m e courses? a ) spring b) summer c) f a l l d) winter  4 2 9 8  *Respondents i n d i c a t e d more than oni~  9 3 9 10  5 3 8 11 Total:  28 4 5 38*  18 8 26 29  143 7  Questions and Responses  (Continued) Group S i z e :  29.  T o t a l s per CIYL 12  What kind of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s best f o r you under your present circumstances? a) seminars b) l e c t u r e s c) group d i s c u s s i o n s d) case studies e) r o l e play f) think tank g) r e p o r t i n g h) home assignments i ) workshop follow-up j ) sharing support  DPP 17  5 3 7 2 3 3 0 2 4 3  6 7 12 1 1 2 1 0 1 6  Responses  LP 11  TOTAL 40  5 7 5 3 1 3 1 5 2 3  16 17 24 6 5 8 2 7 7 12  * T o t a l s not a v a i l a b l e 30.  How much would you be w i l l i n g to pay per session: a) 1 day, 7 hours Range $10 - 50 b) 2 hours $ 4 - 25 c) weekend,20 hours $20 - 99+ (many responses i n d i c a t e d that they could't answer as i t depended on the course)  31.  Would your employer be w i l l i n g to pay f o r your course? a) yes b) no  2 7  2 6  1 4 Total:  32.  What would be the most important cons a t i o n i n your taking a course? , a) finances •b) time c) l o c a t i o n of course d) c h i l d care e) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f ) none g) don't know  3 7 3 0 0 2 1  5 8 6 3 0 3  0 6 9 2 0 1 1  0  * T o t a l s not a v a i l a b l e 33.  From what or whom did you hear of t h i s workshop (or interview)? a) r e l a t i v e b) f r i e n d c) b u l l e t i n d) newspaper e) r a d i o f ) other 1  3  5 17 22  8 21 12 5 0 6 2  Total:  0 2 5 1 0 3  1 2 6  1 4 4  3  1 1 3  0 2 Total:  *2 d i d not respond  *  Totals:  2 8 15 5 1 8 38*  144  8  Questions and Responses (Continued)  T o t a l s per Response  Group Size:  34.  CIYL 12  Please i n d i c a t e your b i r t h order? a) f i r s t born with b r o t h e r s / s i s t e r s b) only c h i l d c) second c h i l d d) middle c h i l d e) l a s t born  6 1 0 4 1  DPP 17  LP 11  4  TOTALS 40  4 0 2 2 3  2 4 2 4  14 3 6 8 8  *1 d i d not respond 35.  Total:  Did you always f e e l you would work o u t s i d e the home at some time i n your l i f e ? ) yes 9 b) no 2  11 5  a  10 1  *2 d i d not respond 36.  T  When d i d you f i r s t begin to make career or work plans? a) childhood b) teens c) e a r l y twenties d) l a t e twenties e) 30-40 f) 40-50 g) over 50 h) not a p p l i c a b l e  2 9 1 0 0 0 0 0  3 8 1  38.  What one word could best d e s c r i b e how were f e e l i n g p r i o r to s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s course or interview? a) p o s i t i v e or i n d i f f e r e n t b) negative What prompted you to s i g n up f o r t h i s course or interview? a) improve s k i l l s b) i n t e r e s t c) c u r i o s i t y d) job advancement e) other  Please i n d i c a t e on the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e you f e l t about your e a r l y schooling? a) motivated - Highly 1 2 3 4 not very 5 *11 d i d not respond  a  l  .  30 8 3 & t  7 19 5 2 4 1 0 1  3 0 3 1 0 0  2 1 0 0 1 Total:  39*  you  5 7  2 .14  4 6. . Total:  0 3 0 2 8  6 5 6 0 5  0 3 2 1 5  *4 d i d not respond 39.  t  2 2  1 d i d not respond 37.  o  39*  Total:  11 .27 38 6 11 8 3 18 . 36 *  how 4 4 2 0 0 . 1 . —  7 2 0 2  2 3 1 0 .1  13 9 3 2 2 Total:  Z9~*  145  Questions and Responses  (Continued) Group Size:  39.  (continued) b) S u c c e s s f u l - very 1 2 3 4 unsuccessful  5  Totals CIYL 12  2 6 2 0 0  per Response  DPP 17  LP 11  2 5 0 1 1  4 3 2 0 0  *12 d i d not respond c)  Enjoyable - very  not very  1 2 3 4 5  *5 d i d not respond 40.  TOTALS 40  8 14 4 1 1 T o t a l : 28*  3 3 4 1 0  4 2 2 0 1  11 7 11 3 3 T o t a l : 35*  Given your present l i f e / c a r e e r s i t u a t i o n , which of the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s , best describes you: a) s e l e c t i n g b) improving c) changing d) stuck *5 d i d not respond  9 5 10 11 Total:  "Comments f o r questions 14,33,37,38 are l i s t e d on the attached sheets.  35*  146 LIFEPLANNING  INTERVIEWS  COMMENTS  Q u e s t i o n 14: H a s t h e r e b e e n a n y o n e i n y o u r p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n your c a r e e r plans? spouse, Questions  33:  life  who h a s t a k e n a  husband, f r i e n d s / f a m i l y , p a r e n t s ,  relatives.  F r o m w h a t o r whom d i d y o u h e a r o f t h i s w o r k s h o p ? lecture  ( s t r e s s ) , TV.  Q u e s t i o n 3 7 : What o n e w o r d c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how y o u w e r e p r i o r t o s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ?  feeling  depressed, h o p e f u l , u n s e t t l e d , undecided, confused,' o p t i m i s t i c , confused, confused, excited, confused, d e p r e s s e d , unwanted c o n f u s e d . Question 38:  What p r o m p t e d y o u t o s i g n up f o r t h i s A n x i e t y about f u t u r e . Alternatives. Search f o r guidance. Need a c h a n g e . P l a n my f u t u r e . To h e l p me f i n d a j o b , p e r h a p s which t o search.  A CAREER I N YOUR L I F E  Question 14: interest  i d e a s f o r a new a r e a i n  COMMENTS  Has t h e r e b e e n a n y o n e i n y o u r  i n your  interview/  l i f e who h a s t a k e n a p a r t i c u l a r  career plans? e m p l o y e r / s p o u s e / p a r e n t / f r i e n d s , mother and f a t h e r , p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s , c o u n s e l l o r , f r i e n d , f r i e n d s .  Q u e s t i o n 33:  F r o m w h a t o r whom d i d y o u h e a r o f t h i s  workshop?  p r o g r a m d i r e c t o r / f r i e n d , a n o t h e r C.E, c o u r s e , Women's R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e , C o u n s e l o r , Women's R e s o u r s e s Centre. Q u e s t i o n 3 7 : What o n e w o r d c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how y o u w e r e f e e l i n g to s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ?  prior  searching, bewildered, putting i ttogether, frustrated, confused, confused, agonizing over career plans, scared, a i m l e s s , good, u n s a t i s f i e d , i m p a t i e n t , e x c i e t e m e n t .  147 Question  38:  What p r o m p t e d y o u t o s i g n up f o r t h i s  course ?  b e w i l d e r e d , change c a r e e r , d i r e c t i o n , h e l p i n d e c i s i o n making, c o u n s e l l o r s recommendation, e x p l o r e o p t i o n s , l a c k of self-motivation.  DEVELOPING PERSONAL POTENTIAL  Question interest  COMMENTS  14: Has t h e r e b e e n a n y o n e i n y o u r i n your career plans?  l i f e who h a s t a k e n a p a r t i c u l a r  c o u n s e l l o r , c l o s e f r i e n d s , f r i e n d s , husband, f r i e n d s / f a m i l y , WRC, f r i e n d , h u s b a n d , v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s , d a u g h t e r , doctor f r i e n d , friend, friend. Q u e s t i o n 3 3 : Prom w h a t o r whom d i d y o u h e a r WRC,WRC,Counsellor library.  of this  workshop?  WRC, C l a r e B u c k l a n d ,  previous course,  Question 3 7 : What o n e w o r d c o u l d b e s t d e s c r i b e how y o u w e r e f e e l i n g to s i g n i n g up f o r t h i s c o u r s e ?  prior  f r u s t r a t e d , l o s t , u n s e t t l e d , confused, confused, bored, a m b i v a l e n t , undecided, r e s t l e s s , becoming r e - d i r e c t e d , expectant, apprehensive, unsettled, lonely, excited, mixed-up, depressed, fed-up, bored. Questons 38:  What p r o m p t e d y o u t o s i g n up f o r t h i s  course?  WRC, n e e d t o o r d e r l i f e b e t t e r , c l a r i f y g o a l s , i m p r o v e l i f e g e n e r a l l y , s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t , g u i d a n c e and h e l p .  

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