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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Transactional analysis ego states : subdivisions and definitions determined by latent partition analysis Kuijt, Jean Davidson 1978

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T/RANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS EGO STATES: SUBDIVISIONS AND DEFINITIONS DETERMINED BY LATENT PARTITION ANALYSIS by JEAN DAVIDSON KUIJT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1954 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE- FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s . a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE © UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l , J e a n p a v i d s o n BRITISH COLUMBIA 1978 K u i j t , 1978 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be al1 owed without my written permission. Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 SL7} 197* i i ABSTRACT T h i s study- was d e s i g n e d t o examine T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s (TA) p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' d e f i n i t i o n s o f ego s t a t e s and t o e s t a b l i s h c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h c a n be u s e d i n f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f ego s t a t e s . To a c h i e v e t h e s e p u r p o s e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample, o f TA e x p e r t s r e s i d e n t i n Canada and t h e U.S. was s u r v e y e d t o d e t e r m i n e what c a t e g o r i e s t h e y w o u l d use f o r c l a s s i f y i n g a s e t o f 97 b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s . A c a t e g o r i z a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y d e v e l o p e d by M i l l e r e t a l . (1967) was f o l l o w e d and l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s (LPA) was u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a r e c e i v e d f r o m 111 TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The LPA m o d e l f i t t e d t h e d a t a e x t r e m e l y w e l l w i t h a t e n - c a t e -g o r y s o l u t i o n b e s t s a t i s f y i n g t h e c r i t e r i a f o r g o o d n e s s - o f -f i t . The t e n l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s , c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o TA c o n s t r u c t s , were: OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t , Not-OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t , OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , Not-OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , Comput-i n g A d u l t , E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t , L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r ( L P ) , N a t u r a l C h i l d (NC), C o m p l i a n t C h i l d ( C C ) , and R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d (RC). As t h e number o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s was r e d u c e d t h e s e c o m b i n e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y t o f o r m C o n t r o l l i n g Parent., N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , A d u l t , F r e e C h i l d (LP + NC) , and A d a p t e d C h i l d (CC + RC). D e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h c a n o r c a n n o t be a s s i g n e d t o j u s t one c a t e -g o r y were i d e n t i f i e d . An Ego S t a t e Check L i s t was d e v e l o p e d f r o m 86 o f t h e d e s -c r i p t o r s w h i c h c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y . The t e s t i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e a u t h o r f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e and g i v e s i n c e r e t h a n k s : t o Bob C o n r y , whose, s k i l l s i n t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n , l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s and e d i t i n g (CA) c h a l l e n g e d me, whose i n g e n u i t y (LP) and e n t h u s i a s m (NC) added e n j o y m e n t t o my work, and who e n c o u r a g e d me when I was down (NP) , t o Todd R o g e r s , who i n t r o d u c e d me t o t h e t o o l s and i n t r i c a c i e s o f s t a t i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h d e s i g n (CA + LP) and who e x p e c t e d me t o do a good j o b ( C P ) , t o Norm Amundson, who f i r s t s u g g e s t e d t h a t I u s e an ego s t a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o measure g a i n s c o r e s i n g r o w t h g r o u p s (CA) and who p r o v i d e d me w i t h a m o d e l o f a good c o u n s e l l o r ( E A ) , t o J o b , who a p p r e c i a t e d my need s o w e l l (EA) t h a t he a g r e e d t o p a r e n t o u r f i v e c h i l d r e n and h a s - s u p -p o r t e d me i n a l l ways w h i l e I went away t o s t u d y , t o S t e v e , I a n , Dave, Tony and N i c o l a , whose E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t s have d e v e l o p e d so w e l l d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s , t o my p a r e n t s who gave me'a Be Perfect s c r i p t and t o Alan.who : showed me how t o c o n t r o l i t and e n j o y i t , t o B e r n i c e , who- s u f f e r e d t h r o u g h s e v e r a l d r a f t s and who u s e d a r i c h v a r i e t y o f ego s t a t e s i n i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h me, and f i n a l l y , t o t h e 111 TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s who gave my p r o j e c t p r i o r i t y l o n g enough t o s o r t , t h e d e c k s o f d e s -c r i p t o r s (CA and E A ) . To a l l t h e s e p e o p l e and o t h e r s who have h e l p e d a l o n g t h e way, I owe t h e s u c c e s s o f my s t u d y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r 1 THE PROBLEM • • • : , 1 Ego S t a t e T h e o r y ; • r : • . 2 Number o f Ego S t a t e s — — • : 5 D i a g n o s i s o f Ego S t a t e s — -. :— 8 S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s : • • : : 9 F u n c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s •—-— • : r — 11. De v e l o p m e n t o f Ego S t a t e s i n I n f a n t s : • :— 13 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y •—• T • 19 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s : : . 20 C h a p t e r 2 RELATED LITERATURE r • 22 C h i l d Ego S t a t e s • : : r 23 P a r e n t Ego S t a t e s •—• • : - : • 28 A d u l t Ego S t a t e s — • • • : : : • • 30 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Measurement o f Ego S t a t e s — : . 33 O b s e r v a t i o n U s i n g A u d i o and V i d e o T a p e s • • . 33 Measurement U s i n g P a p e r - a n d - P e n c i l T e s t s — • — 35 Measurement U s i n g Egograms • : : : • 37 Summary • T : : : - . 40 C h a p t e r 3 PROCEDURES : • 41 C a t e g o r i z a t i o n M e t h o d o l o g y — : — • • ••. : . 42 The F - s o r t • : •—: : • 42 L a t e n t P a r t i t i o n A n a l y s i s • • : 43 A n a l y s i s o f S o r t i n g B e h a v i o r : • 44 P r o b a b i l i t y o f J o i n t O c c u r e n c e ( S - M a t r i x ) — T — : 44 L a t e n t C a t e g o r i e s ( P h i M a t r i x ) —•; : 45 P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r y C o m b i n a t i o n (Omega M a t r i x ) • : • • • • — 47 P i l o t S t u d y — « • : r r - - - : 47 C o n t e n t Domain •—• < • - - • — , — ~ — . 48 Sample -•—-•-.—• — • — - — : — - — - i - 49 D i r e c t i o n s f o r S o r t i n g •— : : • r,—• . 50 R e s u l t s ; « •; T-. • : • — - — • • 51 V P o p u l a t i o n : : • : . 58 Sample • • : 58 S t r u c t u r e o f t h e S o r t i n g T a s k • • : - 63 C o n t e n t Domain —< — • : • • — 63 S o r t i n g Cue —•• : •. • 64 T a s k A d m i n i s t r a t i o n -• • : . 64 C h a p t e r 4 ANALYSES AND RESULTS : : 6 7 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Sample • — — • • 68 R e l a t i o n s h i p s among L e v e l s o f E x p e r t i s e , E d u c a t i o n , Employment and Number o f M a n i f e s t C a t e g o r i e s 6 8 L a t e n t P a r t i t i o n A n a l y s i s : • • 70 Number o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r i e s • •— 70 C o m p o s i t i o n o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r i e s :— -• 74 A n a l y s i s o f D e s c r i p t o r s i n P h i (L=10 c a t e g o r i e s ) 74 Items w i t h s t r o n g p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s . 74 Items w i t h m o d e r a t e p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s • : 77 P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r y C o m b i n a t i o n (Omega) — 78 T i t l e s o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r i e s 83 Use o f F u n c t i o n a l and S t r u c t u r a l T e r m i n o l o g y : 88 Comments f r o m S o r t e r s • • : 89 C h a p t e r 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS r-- 90 Summary o f P r o c e d u r e s ; • • : : 90 Summary o f R e s u l t s • 91 C o n c l u s i o n s • • • : • -• . 93 Use o f F u n c t i o n a l and S t r u c t u r a l T e r m i n o l o g y — 95 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y and Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h — • ~ • : 98 Ego S t a t e Check L i s t : • 98 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y ' : : • • 10 3 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y 104 B i b l i o g r a p h y 106 R e f e r e n c e N o t e s 111 v i A p p e n d i x I I n i t i a l S e t o f D e s c r i p t o r s (80) w i t h a priori C l a s s i f i c a t i o n --• • 113 A p p e n d i x I I F i n a l S e t o f D e s c r i p t o r s (97) w i t h a priori C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; 115 A p p e n d i x I I I P i l o t S t u d y : I n s t r u c t i o n s t o S o r t e r s 117 A p p e n d i x IV F i n a l S t u d y : I n s t r u c t i o n s t o S o r t e r s •. I 2 2 A p p e n d i x V P h i M a t r i c e s f o r L = 11... 4 — • 128 A p p e n d i x V I Ego S t a t e Check L i s t ' 13V A p p e n d i x V I I Comments f r o m S o r t e r s I 4 2 v i i L i s t of Tables 1. Berne's T e r m i n o l o g i c a l G r i d (1972) • 12 2. Ego S t a t e S u b d i v i s i o n s and D e s c r i p t o r s Used by TA Authors • : : : . 23 3. P i l o t Study: L a t e n t Category M a t r i x (Phi) : 52 4. P i l o t Study: P r o b a b i l i t y of L a t e n t Category Combination •, - : — • — • : — •. . 55 5. P i l o t Study: S t a b i l i t y of La t e n t C a t e g o r i e s as a F u n c t i o n of Number of C a t e g o r i e s * : -— 57 6. ITAA C e r t i f i c a t i o n Requirements • • • • •— 59 7. Sample S t r a t i f i e d by Region and E x p e r t i s e -. :— 61. 8. Demographic V a r i a b l e s : Cumulative Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n (percent) 1 : - - : 62 9 . Percentage of Returns i n the Sample • : 69 10. R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Demographic V a r i a b l e s and Number of M a n i f e s t C a t e g o r i e s • • -. 69 11. S t a b i l i t y of L a t e n t C a t e g o r i e s as a F u n c t i o n of the Number : --• : : : 76 12. P r o b a b i l i t y of L a t e n t Category Combination: L = 10 & 11 - - - r — , • : 79 13. P r o b a b i l i t y of L a t e n t Category Combination: L = 8 & 9 — • : — : • • — 80 14. P r o b a b i l i t y of L a t e n t Category Combination: L = 6 & 7 T— —, : -, : 81 15. P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t Category Combination: L = 4 & 5 < •: --• •; : 82 16. D e s c r i p t o r s i n A d u l t C a t e g o r i e s i n Order of Primary Loading •——•—-•— • • •— 87 17 . Ten Ego St a t e Model •—•. • : • ; -• -• 94 v i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1. B e r n e ' s (1957) ego s t a t e d i a g r a m s • • 3 2. S e c o n d - o r d e r a n a l y s i s o f ego s t a t e s : s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l ( B e r n e , 1961, 1972) 10 3. S e c o n d - o r d e r d i a g r a m o f t h e c h i l d ego s t a t e (James & Jongew a r d , 1971) • 12 4. D e v e l o p m e n t a l - b e h a v i o r a l d i a g r a m ( P a r r y , N ote 1) • 14 5. The e v e r - p r e s e n t p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e g r a t e d s e l f ( P a r r y , N o t e 2) • 16 6. F u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a j o r ego s t a t e s (Cheney, N o t e 3) '• • 27 7. An egogram (Dusay, 1977) -- 38 8. A r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e d e c k o f d e s c r i p t o r c a r d s b e f o r e and a f t e r s o r t i n g 50 9. R e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c e r t i f i e d members o f t h e ITAA i n Canada and USA 60 10. P l o t o f E i g e n v a l u e s f o r t h e f i r s t 15 l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s •—• • •— 71 11. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r e a c h number o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s • : 73 12. L a t e n t s t r u c t u r e as a f u n c t i o n o f number o f c a t e g o r i e s • 75 13. Ten f u n c t i o n a l ego s t a t e s w i t h i n t h e I n t e g r a t e d S e l f 97 14. T e n - s t a t e egogram o f a 37 y e a r o l d woman: mother o f p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , p a r t -t i m e t y p i s t , e x - s e c r e t a r y 100 15. T e n - s t a t e egogram o f a 45 y e a r o l d woman: g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t l i v i n g a p a r t f r o m h u s b and and f i v e c h i l d r e n 101 When F r e u d c r e a t e d t h e s c i e n c e o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s he and h i s p u p i l s i n t r o d u c e d many s c i e n t i f i c t e r m s w h i c h i n i t i a l l y were d e f i n e d o n l y v a g u e l y . L a t e r , many new t e r m s , i n c l u d i n g a l t e r a t i o n s , i n o l d o n e s , were i n s t i t u t e d and c o n c e p t s b o r r o w e d f r o m o t h e r s c i e n c e s o r f r o m t h e common l a n g u a g e were a l t e r e d b u t n e v e r p r o p e r l y r e d e f i n e d .... t h e t e r m s and c o n c e p t s o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ( o r any s c i e n c e ) , r e f l e c t i n g a dynamic d e v e l o p m e n t , were s u b j e c t e d t o c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I t . i s o u r b e l i e f t h a t t h e p r o p e r d e l i n e a t i o n o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t e r m i n o l o g y w i l l m a r k e d l y d e c r e a s e t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t , m i s c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h s e r i o u s l y c o m p l i c a t e t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h o s e who, r e p o r t what t h e y d i s c o v e r , c r i t i c i z e what t h e y a r e t a u g h t , and examine t h e d a t a t h e y r e c e i v e f r o m t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s . - L u d w i g E i d e l b e r g , 1968. "The q u e s t i o n i s , " s a i d A l i c e , "whether y o u can make words mean so many d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . " - L e w i s C a r r o l 1 C h a p t e r I THE PROBLEM The f i e l d o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l , A n a l y s i s , i s as b a d l y i n need o f d e f i n i t i o n now as. p s y c h o a n a l y s i s was i n 1968. E r i c B e r n e and h i s f o l l o w e r s went t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f F r e u d and h i s : many s c i e n t i f i c t e r m s i n i t i a l l y were d e f i n e d o n l y v a g u e l y ; new t e r m s were b o r r o w e d e i t h e r f r o m o t h e r s c i e n c e s o r f r o m t h e common l a n g u a g e , b u t . t h e i r u s e i n T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s was n e v e r p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h e t h e o r y o f ego s t a t e s . Many o f t h e t e r m s a r e u s e d d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s , o r t h e y a r e u s e d as l a b e l s w h i c h a r e n e v e r p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d . E n g l i s h and E n g l i s h (1958) e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t "knowledge o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o r a c c e p t e d m e a n i n g s o f words c a n d e c r e a s e f r i c t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o f communi-cating facte and ideas" ( p . v ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c c e p t e d m e a n i n g s o f t e r m s u s e d i n d i a g n o s i n g o r d i s c u s s i n g ego s t a t e s . Z e c h n i c h ( 1 9 7 6 ) , e d i t o r o f t h e Transactional Analysis Journal, d i s c u s s e d i n 2 an E d i t o r ' s N o t e t h e n e e d f o r a c o n s e n s u s on d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e r m s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i e l d . He warned " I f t h e same word i s u s e d t o c o n n o t e two o r more m e a n i n g s , i t c e a s e s t o be a p r o p e r t e c h n i c a l t e r m . Worse, i t c e a s e s t o be c l e a r , and t h e r e f o r e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v a l i d , and t h e r e f o r e u s e f u l i n d i s c o u r s e a b o u t t h e o r y o r p r a c t i c e " (p. 1 5 0 ) . Ego State Theory The c o n c e p t most b a s i c t o t h e t h e o r y o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s . ( T A ) i s t h a t p e o p l e ' s o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r c a n be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h ego state i s i n c o n t r o l . E r i c B e r n e , t h e f o u n d e r o f TA, s t a t e d i n 1957: An "ego s t a t e " may.be d e s c r i b e d p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y a as a c o h e r e n t s y s t e m o f f e e l i n g s , and o p e r a t i o n a l l y as a s e t o f c o h e r e n t b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s ; o r p r a g m a t i c a l l y , as a s y s t e m o f f e e l i n g s w h i c h m o t i v a t e s a r e l a t e d s e t o f b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . T h i s p a t i e n t had one ego s t a t e w h e r e i n he f e l t l i k e a l a w y e r and a c t e d l i k e a l a w y e r , and a n o t h e r w h e r e i n he f e l t l i k e a m a s o c h i s t i c c h i l d of a certain age and a c t e d l i k e s u c h a c h i l d (p. 2 9 4 ) . B e r n e , u s i n g t h e d i a g r a m shown i n F i g u r e 1.1, c a l l e d t h e l a w y e r b e h a v i o r " t h e a d u l t " and t h e c h i l d - l i k e b e h a v i o r " t h e c h i l d . " The p r o c e s s o f c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g ego s t a t e s he c a l l e d structural analysis. B e r n e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e " c h i l d " i s n o t synonymous w i t h t h e i d b u t i s a c o m p l e t e ego s t a t e i n i t s e l f w i t h i t s own " p s y c h i c s t r u c t u r e . " H e . t h e n c o n t i n u e s t o d i s c u s s t h e c a s e o f h i s p a t i e n t , t h e l a w y e r : 1.1 Two ego s t a t e s 1.2 T h r e e ego s t a t e s F i g u r e 1. B e r n e ' s (1957) ego s t a t e d i a g r a m s 4 M e a n w h i l e a new c o m p l i c a t i o n a r o s e . A f t e r a b o u t a y e a r i t became e v i d e n t t h a t c e r t a i n o f h i s a t t i t u d e s d i d n o t b e l o n g t o e i t h e r t h e " c h i l d " o r t h e " a d u l t , " as we i n c r e a s e d o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e components. T h e s e anomalous a t t i t u d e s were c o l l e c t e d and c r y s t a l -l i z e d i n t o a t h i r d ego s t a t e w h i c h came t o be c a l l e d t h e " p a r e n t " s i n c e t h e y were e v i d e n t l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f p a r e n t a l p r e j u d i c e s .... A t s u c h t i m e s as t h e p a t i e n t a d o p t e d t h e o u t l o o k o f one o f h i s p a r e n t s , he e x h i b -i t e d t h e c o m p l e t e ego s t a t e o f t h a t p a r e n t , o r a t l e a s t h i s v e r s i o n o f i t . He n o t o n l y r e b u k e d h i m s e l f ( i . e . h i s " c h i l d " ) f o r h a v i n g "mean t h o u g h t s , " b u t he t a l k e d a b o u t h a n d l i n g money t h e way h i s f a t h e r had, r a t h e r t h a n t h e way he h i m s e l f , as an a d u l t l a w y e r , was. a c c u s t o m e d t o do' ( i b i d , p. 2 9 9 ) . B e r n e ' s d i a g r a m t h e n c h anged t o i n c l u d e a t h i r d c i r c l e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e " p a r e n t " ( F i g . 1 . 2 ) . He h y p o t h e s i z e d a s t r u c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l i t y c o m p r i s i n g a p s y c h i c o r g a n c a l l e d t h e psyche w h i c h has s u b d i v i s i o n s . e a c h w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n s . The p s y c h e i s s a i d t o be. a complex s y s t e m w h i c h r e c e i v e s and o r d e r s i n f o r m a t i o n and makes t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e s o i t c a n be u s e d as an i n d i v d -u a l r e l a t e s t o a l l e l s e . The most p r i m i t i v e p a r t B e r n e c a l l e d t h e avcheopsyche ( o r C h i l d ) : i t o r g a n i z e s e v e n t s r e l a t e d t o b i o l o g i c a l needs and i s a s t o r a g e p l a c e f o r e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d t o s u c h n e e d s , c l o s e l y t i e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s " h u n g e r s " ; t h e C h i l d i s t h e o r g a n i z e r o f i n t e r n a l programming. The extevopsyche ( o r P a r e n t ) i s s a i d t o o r d e r t h e s t r u c t u r i n g o f e x t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n s ; i t h a n d l e s t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . t a u g h t by. a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s w h i c h a r e i n t e r n a l l y r e c o r d e d f o r u s e t h r o u g h o u t l i f e . The neopsyche ( o r A d u l t ) i s t h e o r g a n w h i c h i n t e -g r a t e s e x p e r i e n c e s , c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n a 5 b a l a n c e o f t h e i n p u t f r o m t h e a r c h e o p s y c h e , e x t e r o p s y c h e and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , and s y n t h e s i z i n g a r e s p o n s e w h i c h i s b a s e d on a n t i c i p a t e d c o n s e q u e n c e s . H o l l o w a y (1977) r e l a t e s t h e p s y c h i c o r g a n s t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g ego s t a t e s ( P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d ) as f o l l o w s : An ego s t a t e i s a dynamic f u n c t i o n a l d i s p l a y o r i g i n a t i n g as a r e s u l t o f t h e e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i , i n t e r n a l s t i m u l i , i n t e r n a l r e c o r d e d e v e n t s , and i n s t r u c t i o n s , and t h e d e g r e e o f s y n t h e s i s o r i n t e g r a t i o n o f w h i c h t h e p e r s o n i s c a p a b l e and has a t t a i n e d . Ego s t a t e s a r e b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s p l a y e d and a r e t h e n e t r e s u l t o f a l l one's i n t e r n a l p s y c h i c o p e r a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i n any g i v e n moment an ego s t a t e r e p r e s e n t s t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f and i n t h e PARENT, ADULT and CHILD (p. 1 8 1 ) . B e r n e (1961) d e f i n e d t h e t h r e e k i n d s o f ego s t a t e s : A Parental ego s t a t e i s a s e t o f f e e l i n g s . , a t t i t u d e s ' and b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s w h i c h r e s e m b l e t h o s e o f a p a r e n t a l f i g u r e .... The function o f t h e P a r e n t i s t o c o n s e r v e e n e r g y and d i m i n i s h a n x i e t y by making c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s " a u t o m a t i c " and r e l a t i v e l y u n s h a k e -a b l e .... The Adult ego s t a t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an autonomous s e t o f f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s ' a n d b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e a d a p t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t r e -a l i t y .... The Child ego s t a t e i s a s e t o f f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e r e l i c s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own c h i l d h o o d (p. 6 7 - 6 9 ) . Number of Ego States TA t h e o r i s t s , g e n e r a l l y u s e B e r n e ' s d e f i n i t i o n s o f . t h e P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d (P, A & C) and h i s b a s i c d i a g r a m o f t h e t h r e e ego s t a t e s w h i c h i s shown i n F i g u r e 1.2. T h e r e 6 i s l i t t l e a g r e e m e n t , however, on t h e t o t a l number o f ego s t a t e s . B e r n e (1961, p. 67-68) spoke o f . t h e P a r e n t b e i n g t y p i c a l l y e x h i b i t e d i n one o f two f o r m s : " t h e p r e j u d i c i a l P a r e n t " and " t h e nurturing P a r e n t . " H o l l o w a y (1974, p. 50) e x p r e s s e d , c o n c e r n t h a t u s e by TA c l i n i c i a n s o f t h e t e r m s " P r e j u d i c e d P a r e n t " and " N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t " may c a u s e some o f them t o become " c o n f u s e d and b e l i e v e t h e r e a r e two P a r e n t ego s t a t e s , when t h e r e i s o n l y one w h i c h i s o b s e r v e d t o have d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , however, he s t a t e d : " F u n c t i o n a l l y ^ and as an o b s e r v a b l e d i s p l a y , P a r e n t ego s t a t e s c a n g e n e r a l l y be d e s c r i b e d as either controlling o r nurturing .... I p r e f e r t o u s e t h e t e r m s . C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t and N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f P a r e n t ego s t a t e s " ( H o l l o w a y , 1977, p. 1 8 6 ) . M c Cormick (1977) a s k s w h e t h e r we have ... o n l y t h r e e ego s t a t e s , one P, one A and one C, o r do we have many P, A and C s t a t e s a v a i l a b l e f o r . r e a w a k e n i n g ? W h i l e we m i g h t ..want t o h o l d i n t h e o r y t o a s t r u c t u r a l m o d e l — t h a t i s , by p o s t u l a t i n g t h r e e p s y c h o b i o l o g i c a l l y d i s c r e t e s t r u c t u r e s , one f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e k i n d s o f s t a t e s , p e r h a p s w i t h s u b -s e c t i o n s f o r t h e s e c o n d o r d e r s t r u c t u r e s — f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s we a r e more i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e s ' c o h e r e n t s e t s o f f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r w h i c h may be numerous" (p. 2 6 ) . He - t h e n r e f e r s us t o B e r n e ' s (1961) a n a l o g y o f s t a c k e d c o i n s (p. 3 7 - 4 0 ) : On r e t i r i n g t o bed e a c h n i g h t we add a new "ego u n i t " t o t h e s t a c k . B e r n e b e l i e v e d t h a t a l o n g s e r i e s o f s i m i l a r s t a t e s (a whole s t a c k o f c o i n s ) c o u l d be f i x a t e d and t h e n reawakened as one a r c h a i c s t a t e . Cheney 7 (N o t e , 3 , F i g . 6) s p e a k s o f t h e many C h i l d , P a r e n t , and A d u l t ego s t a t e s w h i l e P e r k i n s o n (Note 4) s t a t e s , " T h e r e a r e no s u c h t h i n g s as sub-ego s t a t e s . E a c h a d u l t i n d i v i d -u a l has h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f ego s t a t e s t h a t we c a t e -g o r i z e as P a r e n t t y p e , A d u l t t y p e , C h i l d t y p e Ego S t a t e s . " James (1977) s a y s "iThe C h i l d ego s t a t e c a n a l s o be subdivided ..." (p. 51, e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . I n 1974, K a h l e r and C a p e r s i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t o f OK and Not-OK o f t h e P a r e n t ego s t a t e . I n 1977, K a h l e r e x t e n d e d t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n t o i n c l u d e OK and Not-OK a s p e c t s o f t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e as w e l l . T h i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n o f ego s t a t e s i n t o OK and Not-OK a s p e c t s ( o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s ) has b e e n u s e d by A v a r y (1976) , Edwards ( 1 9 7 6 ) , F r a n k l i n g (NSt-e 5 ) , and M a r s h ( 1 9 7 6 ) . P o r t e r (1975) d e f i n e d p o s i t i v e P a r e n t b e h a v i o r as " s u p p o r t i v e o f l i f e and h e a l t h " ; n e g a t i v e as " n o n - s u p p o r t i v e , i n h i b i t i n g o r d e s t r u c t i v e o f l i f e and h e a l t h . " Edwards (1976) s t a t e s , t h a t " P o s t i v e u s e s . o f an ego s t a t e i n t h i s c u l t u r e g e t need s met, a r e n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e t o s e l f and o t h e r s a n d a r e s i t u a t i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . N e g a t i v e u s e s f a i l i n some way t o meet t h e s e c r i t e r i a . " Thus i t i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r how many ego s t a t e s a r e s a i d t o e x i s t . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e P a r e n t ego s t a t e , b u t e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l t h r e e , James (1977) s a y s , Sometimes t h e P a r e n t ego s t a t e i s s p o k e n o f f u n c t i o n a l l y r a t h e r t h a n s t r u c t u r a l l y . S t r u c t u r e r e f e r s t o parts o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y ; f u n c t i o n r e f e r s t o how t h e p e r s o n i s p e r c e i v e d as f u n c t i o n i n g . 8 General terms used f o r f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of p a r e n t i n g behavior are " C r i t i c a l Parent" and "Nurturing Parent" .... I p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e t h i s way of c a t e g o r i z i n g the Parent i s incomplete .... Whereas the words " n u r t u r i n g " and " c r i t i c a l " are l i k e l y t o get the. p o i n t a c r o s s a t an i n t r o d u c t o r y l e v e l , a t a more p r e c i s e l e v e l , they may, not f i t a p a r t i c u l a r person. T h e r e f o r e , I work wi t h the s p e c i f i c words c l i e n t s use when they t a l k about t h e i r parents (p. 51). One. may conclude from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t TA p r a c t i -t i o n e r s agree t h a t there are three b a s i c types of ego s t a t e s : Parent, A d u l t and C h i l d . W i t h i n those main c a t e -g o r i e s , behaviors'may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t numbers of s u b c a t e g o r i e s depending on whether one i s a "lumper" ( p r e f e r s few c a t e g o r i e s each c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e number of d e s c r i p t o r s ) or a " s p l i t t e r " ( p r e f e r s more c a t e g o r i e s w i t h fewer items i n each). Diagnosis of Ego States One task of the TA t h e r a p i s t i s to diagnose a c l i e n t ' s ego s t a t e s . A c c o r d i n g to Berne (1961) p. 58) the d i a g n o s i s of ego s t a t e s i s a matter of "acuteness of o b s e r v a t i o n " and " i n t u i t i v e s e n s i t i v i t y . " The d i a g n o s i s of a P a r e n t a l ego s t a t e , f o r example, tends to proceed c l i n i c i k l l y y i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : The d i a g n o s i s i s f i r s t u s u a l l y made on the b a s i s of c l i n i c a l experience w i t h demeanors, g e s t u r e s , v o i c e s , v o c a b u l a r i e s and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s i s the behavioral d i a g n o s i s . The d i a g n o s i s i s 9 c o r r o b o r a t e d i f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f p a t t e r n s i s e s p e c i a l l y a p t t o be e l i c i t e d i n r e s p o n s e t o c h i l d -l i k e b e h a v i o r on t h e p a r t o f s o m e o n e , e l s e i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s t h e social o r operational d i a g n o s i s . I t i s f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t e d i f - t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n e v e n t u a l l y s t a t e e x a c t l y w h i c h p a r e n t a l f i g u r e o f f e r e d t h e p r o t o t y p e f o r t h e b e h a v i o r . T h i s i s t h e h i s t o r i c a l d i a g n o s i s . The d i a g n o s i s i s v a l i -d a t e d i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n f i n a l l y r e - e x p e r i e n c e i n f u l l i n t e n s i t y , w i t h l i t t l e w e a t h e r i n g , t h e moment o r e p o c h when he a s s i m i l a t e d t h e p a r e n t a l ego s t a t e . T h i s i s t h e phenomenological d i a g n o s i s (Berne 1961, p. 5 8 - 5 9 ) . D i a g n o s i s t a k e s t h e f o r m o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s b a s e d l a r g e l y on h i s t o r i c a l d i a g n o s i s , and functional a n a l y s i s b a s e d upon o b s e r v a t i o n o f t o n e s , words, g e s t u r e s , p o s t u r e and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . B e r n e ( 1 9 7 2 ) , J o i n e s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and P o r t e r (1975) a l l e m p h a s i z e t h e n e e d t o k e e p s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s e s s e p a r a t e . Structural analysis. D e t a i l e d h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s i s c a l l e d second-order s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . B e r n e (1961) u s e d t h e d i a g r a m i n F i g u r e 2.1 t o p o r t r a y s e c o n d - o r d e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e ego s t a t e s ; he d e s c r i b e d i t as f o l l o w s : On d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s " t h e C h i l d " i s f o u n d t o c o n s i s t o f an a r c h a i c P a r e n t , an a r c h a i c A d u l t and a s t i l l more a r c h a i c C h i l d .... Anyone f u n c t i o n i n g as an A d u l t s h o u l d i d e a l l y e x h i b i t t h r e e k i n d s o f t e n d e n c i e s : p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and r e s p o n s i v e - , n e s s , o b j e c t i v e d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g and e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; r e p r e s e n t i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y a r c h a e o p s y c h i c , n e o p s y c h i c and e x t e r o p s y c h i c e l e m e n t s " i n t e g r a t e d " i n t o t h e n e o p s y c h i c ego s t a t e .... ( i n t h e d i a g r a m o f t h e P a r e n t ( F i g u r e 2.1) b o t h t h e ' h o r i z o n t a l ' s e g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e P a r e n t i n t o C h i l d , A d u l t and P a r e n t , and t h e ' v e r t i c a l ' s e p a r a t i o n o f p a t e r n a l ' and m a t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s a r e shown) (p. 210-213) :. Mother F a t h e r NP = N u r t u r i n g Parent CP = C o n t r o l l i n g Parent A = A d u l t NC = AC = RC = N a t u r a l C h i l d Adapted C h i l d R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d 2.1 P s y c h o b i o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e 2.2 D e s c r i p t i v e f u n c t i o n s F i g u r e 2. Second-order a n a l y s i s of ego s t a t e s : s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l (Berne, 1961, 1972) o Functional analysis. A n o t h e r method o f i d e n t i f y i n g ego s t a t e s i s functional a n a l y s i s b a s e d on b e h a v i o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h B e r n e d i d n o t w r i t e much a b o u t f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s he d i d speak o f two p a r e n t a l s t y l e s o f f u n c t i o n i n g : - P r e j u d i c i a l and Nurturing, and two C h i l d s t y l e s : Natural and Adapted ( B e r n e , 1961, p. 67-69).; By t h e t i m e h i s l a s t book was p u b l i s h e d {What Do You Do After You Say Hello?) 19?2) , he had c h a n g e d t h e name P r e j u d i c i a l P a r e n t t o C o n t r o l l i n g Parent and he had s e p a -r a t e d Rebellious Child f r o m t h e r e s t o f A d a p t e d C h i l d (see F i g . 2 . 2 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y he d i d n o t e x p l a i n h i s r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g s o . Nor d i d he g i v e c o m p l e t e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e b e h a v i o r i n c l u d e d i n e a c h o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l s u b -d i v i s i o n s . He was d e f i n i t e , however, t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n s s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d by h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s and t h e f u n c t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s by v e r t i c a l l i n e s . L a t e r i n t h e book, B e r n e (1972) e x p r e s s e d h i s c o n c e r n t h a t s t r u c t u r a l o r b i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . i n TA was b e i n g c o n -f u s e d w i t h f u n c t i o n a l o r d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s , t h e f o r m e r t a k i n g a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o i n t o f v i e w and t h e l a t t e r a b e h a v i o r a l p o i n t o f v i e w . To c o r r e c t t h i s p r o b l e m he d e s i g n e d a t e r m i n o l o g i c a l g r i d , r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e 1. When d i s c u s s i n g ego s t a t e s . , t r a n s a c t i o n s , games o r s c r i p t s one s h o u l d f o l l o w one p a t h t h r o u g h t h e g r i d c o n -s i s t e n t l y i n e a c h d i s c u s s i o n . Thus when d i s c u s s i n g t h e C h i l d one e i t h e r t a l k s a b o u t P^ and A^ w h i c h B e r n e (1961) r e f e r s t o as t h e Electrodeeand t h e Professor, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o r one t a l k s a b o u t N a t u r a l and A d a p t e d C h i l d . 12 T a b l e 1 B e r n e ' s T e r m i n o l o g i c a l G r i d (1972) TRANSACTIONAL VALIDATING MODIFYING METHODOLOGY Ego S t a t e s O p e r a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r a l L o g i c a l ( B i o l o g i c a l ) T r a n s a c t i o n s P h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l Games H i s t o r i c a l F u n c t i o n a l E m p i r i c a l ( D e s c r i p t i v e ) S c r i p t s S o c i a l James and Jongeward (1971) d i d n o t f o l l o w B e r n e ' s r u l e , and i n s t e a d s a i d , "The C h i l d ego s t a t e d e v e l o p s i n t o t h r e e d i s c e r n a b l e p a r t s : t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d , t h e L i t t l e Professor, and t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d " ( p . . 1 2 7 ) . T h e i r s e c o n d - o r d e r d i a g r a m o f t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e a p p e a r s i n F i g u r e 3. E x p e r i e n c e s and p a r e n t a l t r a i n i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e C h i l d E m e r g i n g A d u l t i n t h e , C h i l d U n t r a i n e d i n f a n t i n t h e C h i l d F i g u r e 3. S e c o n d - o r d e r d i a g r a m o f t h e c h i l d ego s t a t e (James & Jo n g e w a r d , 1971) A more r e c e n t d i a g r a m has been d e v i s e d by P a r r y (Note 1) and i s r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g u r e 4. He has c o m b i n e d t h e use o f h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s f o r s t r u c t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h v e r t i c a l l i n e s t o i n d i c a t e f u n c t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s u n i t i n g them i n a D e v e l o p m e n t a l - B e h a v i o r a l D i a g r a m . Development of Ego States in Infants P a r r y . ( N o t e 2) u t i l i z e s t h e s t a g e s o f E r i k s o n (1959) i n e x p l a i n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ego s t a t e s . The: f i r s t i s s u e i s protection: t h e i n f a n t w i l l e i t h e r d e v e l o p a s e n s e o f t r u s t t h u s e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s e l f and o t h e r s as OK o r , l a c k i n g p r o t e c t i o n , t h e i n f a n t f e e l s not-OK and b e g i n s t o a d a p t t o a not-OK w o r l d . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n p r o d u c e s t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d and t h e s e c o n d t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d ego s t a t e . I n t h e second, s t a g e , "by r e l y i n g on a b u d d i n g i n t u i t i v e c a p a c i t y t h e c h i l d b e g i n s t o s i z e up p e o p l e and e v e n t s and t h e A d u l t i n t h e c h i l d comes i n t o b e i n g " ( P a r r y , N o t e 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o E r i k s o n , The o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s s t a g e l i e s i n t h e m a t u r a t i o n o f t h e m u s c l e - s y s t e m , t h e c o n s e q u e n t a b i l i t y (and d o u b l y f e l t i n a b i l i t y ) t o c o o r d i n a t e a number o f h i g h l y c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i o n p a t t e r n s . s u c h as " h o l d i n g on" and " l e t t i n g go" and t h e enormous v a l u e w i t h w h i c h t h e s t i l l h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t c h i l d b e g i n s t o endow h i s autonomous w i l l (p. 6 7 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o P a r r y , t h e c h i l d who i s g i v e n permission f o r autonomy becomes c u r i o u s , a s s e r t i v e , and p l a y f u l ( N a t u r a l C h i l d ) w h i l e t h e c h i l d who l a c k s p e r m i s s i o n d e c i d e s i t i s w i s e s t t o a d a p t t o t h e demands o f h e r p a r e n t s N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t : G i v e s u n c o n d i t i o n a l s t r o k e s : w i t h p r o t e c t i o n , p e r m i s s i o n , p o t e n c y ; y o u ' r e OK m e s s a g e s . NP CP C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t : G i v e s c o n d i t i o n a l s t r o k e s : c r i t i c i s m , p u n i s h m e n t , w i t h d r a w a l o f l o v e ; y o u ' r e OK i f . messages. N a t u r a l C h i l d : E x p e r i e n c i n g potency o f s e l f , works and p l a y s w i t h o t h e r s . G i v e n permission f o r autonomy, i s c u r i o u s , a s s e r t i v e , p l a y f u l . G i v e n protection, e x p e r i e n c e s s e l f and o t h e r s as OK. Spooky "1 Spunky "1 S p a r k y A d a p t e d C h i l d : L o o k s t o o t h e r s f o r potency. L a c k i n g permission f o r autonomy, d e c i d e s i t i s w i s e s t t o a d a p t . L a c k i n g protection, i n f a n t f e e l s not-OK, b e g i n s t o a d a p t t o a not-OK w o r l d . F i g u r e 4. D e v e l o p m e n t a l - b e h a v i o r a l d i a g r a m ( P a r r y , Note 1) 15 ( A d a p t e d C h i l d ) . I n t h e t h i r d s t a g e , i n t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d ego s t a t e t h e p r e s c h o o l e r s e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r , own potency as t h e i r p h y s i c a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and command o f l a n g u a g e and s o c i a l s k i l l s i m p r o v e . P a r r y (Note 2) t h e n e x p l a i n s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d a t t h i s s t a g e : The c h i l d r e c e i v e s messages i n t u i t i v e l y .... t h a t v a r i o u s n a t u r a l forms o f e x p r e s s i o n r e s u l t i n o m inous, t h r e a t e n i n g , s pooky and e v e n c r a z y b e h a v i o r f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s ...; and d e c i d e s t o d i s o w n s u c h p a r t s o f h i m s e l f Where t h e r e had been, t h e r i c h s p o n t a n e o u s b e g i n n i n g s o f a Whole S e l f i n h i s N a t u r a l C h i l d , a s p l i t has t a k e n p l a c e i n t o a "me" and a "not-me", f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h o s e t h r e a t e n i n g a s p e c t s o f h i m s e l f as t h e Spook Parent (P^) . T hus p a r t o f what he i s w i l l i n g t o own as "me" i s , i n f a c t an i n t r o j e c t , a "not-me". He f i n d s h i m s e l f i n e v e n more o f a c o n t r a d i c t i o n : what he owns as "me" i s t h e "not-me" o f t h e P^ i n t r o -j e c t w h i c h l e a d s , i n t u r n , t o t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d (p. 10, e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . The p a r t o f t h e P a r e n t w h i c h complements t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d a c c o r d i n g t o P a r r y (Note 1) i s t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t w h i c h " g i v e s u n c o n d i t i o n a l s t r o k e s : w i t h p r o t e c t i o n , p e r m i s s i o n , p o t e n c y ; y o u ' r e OK m e s s a g e s . " The C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t , on t h e o t h e r hand, " g i v e s c o n d i t i o n -a l s t r o k e s : c r i t i c i s m , p u n i s h m e n t , w i t h d r a w a l o f l o v e ; you're.OK i f . . . . m e s s a g e s " (p. 2 1 ) . P a r r y ' s (Note 2) more r e c e n t t h r u s t has b e en t o r e l a t e ego s t a t e s t o t h e i d e a o f Self (see F i g u r e 5 ) . He s u g g e s t s t h a t ... t h e s p o n t a n e o u s , a c t i v e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e u n i f i e d S e l f , t h a t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e N u r t u r i n g F i g u r e 5 . The e v e r p r e s e n t p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e g r a t e d s e l f Parent Ego S t a t e , be termed the Responsible Self .... (and) the r e c e p t i v e dimension of the u n i t y might, be s a i d t o r e f e r t o the Responsive Self .... The d u a l i t y of the human response t o l i f e , then,.need not curse us t o e v e r l a s t i n g s e l f - d i v i s i o n . I t i s i n s t e a d a m a g n i f i c e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n t h a t f i n a l l y the o p p o s i t e s are r e c o n c i l e d i n every a c t of c r e a t i o n (p..29). The d u a l i t y of the human response t o l i f e has been c l a r i f i e d by. s p l i t - b r a i n theory (Dimond, 1974; G a l i n , 1976; G a l i n & O r n s t e i h , 1972; Gazzaniga, 1967, 1977; Sperry, 1970; Turkewi.tz ,1977) . When a person i s presented w i t h a non-verbal message which c o n t r a d i c t s . t h e v e r b a l message gi v e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s/he fac e s a dilemma: r e c e i v e the v e r b a l message which says "Of course, I love you" or the c o n f l i c t i n g message g i v e n w i t h t h e . f a c e , tone, and ge s t u r e s (out of awareness) which says "Get l o s t ! " G a l i n (1976) d e s c r i b e s what i s happening n e u r o l o g i c a l , l y : Each hemisphere i s exposed t o the same sensory i n p u t , but because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s , they each emphasize on l y one of the messages. The l e f t w i l l a ttend t o the v e r b a l cues because i t cannot e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n from the f a c i a l G e s t a l t e f f i -c i e n t l y ; the r i g h t w i l l a t t e n d t o the nonverbal cues because i t cannot e a s i l y understand the words. In e f f e c t , a d i f f e r e n t i n p u t has been d e l i v e r e d t o each hemisphere .... Xp. 14). Par r y (Note 2) a p p l i e s G a l i n ' s statementoof what i s happening n e u r o l o g i c a l l y t o h i s own theory of how the ego s t a t e s develop p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y : "This i s the source.of the s p l i t - b r a i n r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t . The words — the c u l t u r a l v a l u e system ••— say one t h i n g , and the e x p r e s s i o n s a y s s o m e t h i n g e l s e " (p. 2 1 ) . T h e s e a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e i n f a n t b e g i n s t o t r y t o p l e a s e t h e grown-, up by a t t e n d i n g t o t h e n o n - v e r b a l b e h a v i o r w h i l e p r e t e n d i n g t h a t t h e s p o k e n words a r e a l s o t r u e , c a u s i n g an u n n a t u r a l s p l i t between l e f t and r i g h t h e m i s p h e r e s o f t h e b r a i n . The ego s t a t e s a r e an u n p a r a l l e l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e d i v i d e d s e l f o p e r a t e s . When, i n s t e a d o f b e i n g o p t i m a l l y p r o t e c t e d and p e r m i t t e d t o e x p e r i e n c e what P e a r c e (1974, p. 31) c a l l s "body-k n o w i n g , " as t h e n e e d e d f i g u r e emerges s p o n t a n e o u s l y o u t o f t h e t o t a l g r o u n d , t h e c h i l d becomes prema-t u r e l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t h i s s u r v i v a l i s a t s t a k e and t h a t he c a n n o t t r u s t h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s . The e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s o r g a n i s m i c s e l f c o r r e s p o n d s t o h i s N a t u r a l C h i l d .... The N a t u r a l C h i l d , t h e n , . i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e h o m e o s t a t i c u n i t y o f t h e r i g h t and l e f t h e m i s p h e r e s w o r k i n g i n t h a t o r d e r , t h e r i g h t o p e n t o t h e w o r l d and p r o v i d i n g t h e g r o u n d , t h e n t h e l e f t s e l e c t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f i g u r e , o p e n i n g t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h e n c l o s i n g a r o u n d i t s c h o i c e . The A d a p t e d C h i l d , d i s -o r i e n t e d by s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d s u r v i v a l t h r e a t s , and h u r r i e d l y s e e k i n g t h e s o l u t i o n b e f o r e i t has p e r c e i v e d t h e a c t u a l p r o b l e m , r e v e r s e s t h e h o m e o s t a t i c p r i o r i t y o f r i g h t t o l e f t . S t a r t l e d , t h e s u r v i v a l and m a s t e r y -o r i e n t e d l e f t h e m i s p h e r e p r o c e s s i n g demands o f t h e r i g h t b r a i n p r o c e s s e s t h a t t h e y g e t t h e body r e -s p o n s e s i n g e a r . The l e f t h e m i s p h e r e e v e n d i c t a t e s i n i t s i m p o s s i b l y s l o w and u n t u n e d way, how t h e body, s h o u l d h r e s p o n d . The r e s u l t i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e con-, f u s i o n , a n x i e t y and i n e p t i t u d e o f t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d . The- c o n s c i o u s t h i n k i n g o f t h e l e f t h e m i s p h e r e c a n n o t a c t o r p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e immediacy w i t h w h i c h t h e r i g h t b r a i n p r o c e s s e s , a r e a b l e t o g r a s p t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e f o r t h e body — w i t h w h i c h i t i s more i n t o u c h t h a n t h e l e f t — and when i t t r i e s t o do so t h e t r a f f i c g e t s i m p o s s i b l y s n a r l e d ( P a r r y , N o t e 2, p. 2 3 - 2 5 ) . A c o n g r u e n t message, on t h e o t h e r hand, w h e t h e r i t be p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , c a n be p r o c e s s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by b o t h s i d e s o f t h e b r a i n . Then t h e bodymind u n i t y . c a n d e a l w i t h t h e i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s p o n t a n e o u s l y . 19 When t h a t o c c u r s t h e two modes o f i n f o r m a t i o n -p r o c e s s i n g c e a s e t o work a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r , and b e g i n t o work i n harmony and u n i t y . The h o l i s t i c , p a n o r a m i c , l a r g e l y r e c e p t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f t h e r i g h t h e m i s p h e r e — w h i c h i n c l u d e s what TA c a l l s t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e — t a k e s i n t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n , a p p r e c i a -t i v e l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y . I t • p e r c e i v e s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and p r o v i d e s c o n t e x t and b a c k g r o u n d .... The a c t i o n s o f t h e l e f t h e m i s p h e r e i n c l u d e what TA c a l l s t h e A d u l t and P a r e n t ego s t a t e s i n t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s f o r t h i n k i n g , a r t i c u l a t i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g on one, hand, and e v a l u a t i n g and o r d e r i n g p r i o r i t i e s on t h e o t h e r . T h u s , t h e two h e m i s p h e r e s , a c t i n u n i t y , t h e h o l i s t i c ( r i g h t ) , m o s t l y r e c e p t i v e l y as b a c k g r o u n d , and t h e a n a l y t i c ( l e f t ) a c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f i g u r e t h a t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f f r o m t h a t g r o u n d ... • ( P a r r y , N o t e 2, p. 2 3 ) . I n F i g u r e 5,. P a r r y has t h u s combined B e r n e ' s t h r e e c i r c l e PAC d i a g r a m ( F i g . 1.2) s h owing t h e p e r s o n a l i t y s p l i t i n t o t h r e e p a r t s w i t h t h e T a i C h i symbol s h o w i n g t h e p o s s i -b i l i t y o f r e u n i t i n g the. s e p a r a t e p a r t s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n t o t h e I n t e g r a t e d S e l f . Purpose of the Study The p u r p o s e o f . t h i s s t u d y i s t o s u r v e y p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e how. t h e y . c a t e g o r i z e and d e f i n e ego s t a t e s . P r a c t i t i o n e r s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h t h e y w i l l d i v i d e i n t o c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h t i t l e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t ego s t a t e s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e s e d a t a , w i l l i l l u m i n a t e u n d e r -l y i n g p a t t e r n s o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r d e s c r i p t o r s . I t . i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t some d e s c r i p t o r s , w i l l show e v i d e n c e o f h i g h a g r e e m e n t among t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r s and t h u s e a c h w i l l a p p e a r i n one c a t e g o r y o n l y . O t h e r d e s c r i p t o r s w i l l show t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r s have a s s i g n e d them t o v a r i o u s c a t e -g o r i e s . T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e an u n c l e a r p o s i t i o n f o r s u c h a d e s c r i p t o r i n ego s t a t e t h e o r y : t h e d e s c r i p t o r w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d ambiguous,, c o n t r o v e r s i a l , o r n o n - u s a b l e b e c a u s e i t a p p l i e s t o more t h a n one ego s t a t e . Thus t h e g o a l s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e t o d e l i n e a t e t h e c a t e g o r i e s common t o and u n d e r l y i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s 1 d e -f i n i t i o n s o f ego s t a t e s , t o l i s t t h e d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h b e l o n g t o one c a t e g o r y o n l y , and t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e , b e -h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h b e l o n g t o more t h a n one c a t e g o r y o r r e g a r d i n g w h i c h t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n . T h i s s t u d y w i l l p r e s e n t TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i t h c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h c a n be u s e d i n s e c o n d - o r d e r f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f ego s t a t e s . Implications for Transactional Analysis T h i s s t u d y w i l l p r e s e n t t h e f i e l d o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n s p r e s e n t l y i n u s e by TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s . T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s may be u s e d s e p a r a t e l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n : f o r e x ample, i n f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s a p r a c t i t i o n e r may d e c i d e t o u s e L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r and N a t u r a l C h i l d s e p a r a t e l y o r t o combine them i n t o a c a t e g o r y c a l l e d F r e e C h i l d ; t o u s e C o m p l i a n t C h i l d and R e b j e l l i i D R ^ A d a p t e d C h i l d . The t e r m Free Child w o u l d t h e n i n c l u d e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d and t h e L i t t l e P r o -f e s s o r ; t h e t e r m Adapted Child w o u l d i m p l y b e h a v i o r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o m p l i a n c e as w e l l as d i s o b e d i e n c e . Then when A d a p t e d C h i l d ( o r AC) i s u s e d e v e r y o n e f a m i l i a r w i t h TA w i l l know what i s meant. A n o t h e r r e s u l t o f t h i s study, w i l l be t o i d e n t i f y b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h , w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g t h e fram e o f r e f e r e n c e , do n o t a p p l y t o one ego s t a t e o n l y : f o r example, a f f e c t i o n a t e c o u l d i n c l u d e b e h a v i o r s o f a P a r e n t , A d u l t o r C h i l d ego s t a t e d e p e n d i n g on t h e c o n t e x t , w h i l e gives permission i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e P a r e n t , l o g i c a l and factual o f t h e A d u l t and playful o r timid o f t h e C h i l d . F i n a l l y , t h e l i s t o f d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h c l e a r l y b e l o n g t o o n l y one ego s t a t e c a n be u s e d i n m e a s u r i n g ego s t a t e s , t h u s e n s u r i n g b r o a d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s , o f Parent., A d u l t and Child. C h a p t e r 2 RELATED LITERATURE The many d i f f e r e n t ways o f c a t e g o r i z i n g and d e f i n i n g ego s t a t e s a r e examined i n t h i s c h a p t e r . D e s c r i p t o r s u s e d by t e n p u b l i s h e d a u t h o r s i n TA a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 2 a l o n g w i t h t h e i r c a t e g o r i e s and t i t l e s . The t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s o f ego s t a t e s — P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d — a r e t h e n d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o d i f f e r e n t ways o f l a b e l l i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o d i f f e r e n t ways o f p e r c e i v i n g c a t e g o r i e s g i v e n t h e same l a b e l . The c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and measurement o f ego s t a t e s . Two m a i n a p p r o a c h e s a r e u s e d : i n t u i t i v e and e m p i r i c a l . The f o r m e r i s u s e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f egograms w h i l e t h e l a t t e r u s e s . r a t i n g o f b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h u s e o f v i d e o t a p e s o r . p e n c i l and p a p e r t e s t s . . S t a t i s t i c a l e s t i m a t e s o f v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t s o n l y . T a b l e 2 igo S t a t e S u b d i v i s i o n s and B e h a v i o r a l D e s c r i p t o r s Used by TA A u t h o r s A u t h o r P a r e n t A d u l t c h i l d Aaundson, N.E. 1976 CONTROLLING P - r i g i d - e x a g g e r a t e s o t h e r s ' f a u l t s - s c o l d l n g - b o s s y NURTURING P - h e l p f u l - s u p p o r t i v e - p r o t e c t i v e ADULT - r a t i o n a l - c o g n l t l v e - p r o c e s s e s d a t a - c o m p u t e r - l i k e - c o o p e r a t i n g - f i g u r e s t h i n g s out FREE CHILD -spontaneous - f u n - l o v i n g - p l a y f u l - c r e a t i v e - u n i n h i b i t e d REBELLIOUS CHILD COMPLIANT CHILD - s t u b b o r n - c o m p l i a n t - h o s t i l e - c o n f o r m i n g - e x p r e s s e s anger - o b e d i e n t A v a r y , Bob 1976 FIRM, PROTECTIVE, OK CRITICAL P TOUCH ADULT - a u t h o r i t a t i v e - p r o t e c t s , l i m i t s - p u n i s h e s - d i r e c t s - h o l d s o t h e r s a c c o u n t a b l e CRITICAL, PIG P NOT-OK CRITICAL ' PERSECUTING - g i v e s o r d e r s - s e l f r i g h t e o u s - p e r s e c u t l n g -wants power o v e r o t h e r s KL'RTURINC P OK NURTLRANT P PERMISSION-GIVING - s e n s i t i v e t o needs o f o t h e r s - g i v e s s t r o k e s - c o m f o r t s - g i v e s p e r m i s s i o n RESCUINC NOT-OK NURTURANT HELPFUL CHILD - r e s c u i n g - o v e r p r o t e c t i v e - c o m p l a i n i n g -wants power o v e r o t h e r s (by h e l p i n g ) ADULT - o b j e c t i v e -problem-.--.olvlng - p r o v i d e s f a c t s -makes d e c i s i o n s - t h i n k s . - a c c o m p l i s h e s g o a l s f o r the C h i l d - s e e k s t r u t h -grows . - e s t i m a t e s p r o b a b i l i t i e s - s e e s r e a l meaning i n l i f e FREE CHILD NATURAL CHILD -spontaneous - i n v o l v e d , a l i v e - a c c e p t s and g i v e s s t r o k e s , s e n s i t i v e - r e a l f e e l i n g s ( g l a d , s a d , ir.ad) - e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s -autonomy, i n t i m a c y -ask f o r what you want -be y o u r s e l f HELPLESS CHILD ADAPTED, COMPLIANT NOT-OK CHILD - h e l p l e s s , s c a r e d - u n l o v a b l e , i n c o m p e t e n t - i n c a p a b l e , d e p r e s s e d - l o n e l y , p a s s i v e L I T TLE PROFESSOR ADULT IN THE CHILD, SPUNKY - l o o k s m i s c h i e v o u s - e x a m i n i n g , c u r i o u s -some r e b e l l i o n ( h e a l t h y ) - p r o v i d e s i d e a s and s u g g e s t i o n s - c r e a t i v e , aware - i n t u i t i v e - m a n i p u l a t i v e - l i k e s t o improve t h i n g s DEFENSIVE CHILD REBELLIOUS, HURTFUL VENGEFUL CHILD - p e r s e c u t e d v i c t i m - a n g r y , r e j e c t i n g - a r g u i n g - d i s a g r e e a b l e Berne t E r i c 1961, 1963, 1964, 1972. PREJUDICIAL P CRITICAL P - p r o h i b l t l v e ( 6 1 ) -dogrr.at l c - d i s a p p r o v i n g - p r e j u d l c e d ( 6 3 ) - c o n t r o l l i n g - c o r r e c t s o t h e r s - g i v e s o r d e r s ( 7 2 ) NATURAL P NURTURING P - s y m p a t h e t i c ( 6 1 ) - s u p p o r t i n g ( 6 3 ) - n a t u r a l l y ( b i o l o g i c a l l y ) n u r t u r i n g and p r o t e c t i v e ( 7 2 ) ETHOS - e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - c o u r a g e , l o y a l t y - s i n c e r i t y - r e l i a b i l l t y ( 6 1 ) PATHOS - p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s & r e s p o n s i v e n e s s - r e s p o n s i b l e f e e l i n g s toward h u m a n i t y ( 6 1 ) NATURAL CHILD FREE CHILD -autonomous r e b e l l i o u s n e s s - s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e - o b t a i n s g r a : i f i c a t l o n ( o l ) - i m p u l s i v e ( 6 3 ) - i n t u i t i o n - c r e a t i v i t y - spontaneous d r i v e and enjoyment(64) - s e l f e x p r e s s i v e (72) ADAPTED + REBEL - c o m p l i a n c e - w i t h d r a w a l ( 6 1 ) - a v o i d a n c e ( 6 3 ) - w h i n i n g - p r e c i o u s n e s s ( 6 4 ) THE PROFESSOR -shrewdness In a p p r a i s i n g and m a n i p u l a t i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s - i n t u i t i v e about p e o p l e ( 6 1 ) - f i g u r e s out what p e o p l e want -cops o u t ( 7 2 ) - o b j e c t i v e d a t a -p r o c e s s i n g ( 6 l ) - q u a l i t y t h i n k i n g i n making judgements - p r o b a b i l 1 t y e s t i m a t i n g - a p p r a i s e s e n v i r o n m e n t s - c o m p u t e r - l i k e ( 7 2 ) Dusay. J . K. 1977 CRITICAL P - c r i t i c i z e s - f i n d s f a u l t - p u n i t i v e - p r o t e c t i v e NURTURING P -promotes growth - p r o t e c t i v e - s m o t h e r i n g - i n h i b i t i n g ADULT - l o g i c - p r e c i s i o n - d e c i s i o n making -computer FREE CHILD - f u n - f r i v o l i t y - c r e a t i v i t y - spontaneous - i n t u i t i v e ADAPTED CHILD - c o n f o r m s , and o b e d i e n t -compromises -shows g u i l t and remorse - f o l l o w s d i r e c t i o n - s u b m i s s i v e , dependent - p s e u d o - r e b e l l i o u s ( a l w a y s s a y s "no" t o a u t h o r i t y ) Edwards P. 1976 CONTROLLING P - c r i t i c a l - d i s c i p l i n i n g - p r e j u d I c i a l - p u n i t i v e ( P o s i t i v e Uses) NURTURING P NATURAL P ( P o s i t i v e Uses) - p r o v i d e s p r o t e c -t i o n w i t h c a r i n g - c o m f o r t i n g - g i v e s d i r e c t i o n s - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' - p r o v i d e s p e r m i s -s i o n f o r a u t o n -omous b e h a v i o r - s p e a k s i m p e r a t i v e l y ( N e g a t i v e Uses) - d o m i n e e r i n g - h a r s h tones - c o n t e - p t u o u s g e s t u r e s - r e a s s u r i n g tone - g e s t u r e s open and embracing ( N e g a t i v e Uses) - s m o t h e r i n g - g r o w t h - i n h i b i t i n g - d o t i n g - p i t y i n g ADULT - r e c e i v e s , a n a l y z e s , and I n t e g r a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n - l o g i c a l and s y s t e m a t i c - t h i n k s and makes p r e d i c t i o n s about p e o p l e and e v e n t s NATURAL CHILD - c u r i o u s - c r e a t i v e - i n t u i t i v e - p l a y f u l -sensuous - e x p r e s s e s spontaneous f e e l i n g s -un i n h i b i t e d ( P o s i t i v e Uses) - F r e e C h i l d ( N e g a t i v e Uses) - s e l f - c e n t e r e d - g r e e d y - v a i n - I m p u l s i v e CONFORMING CHILD ( P o s i t i v e Uses) - s k i l l s f o r good c i t i z e n s h i p - a b i l i t y t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s ( N e g a t i v e Uses) - d o c i l i t y - s u b r a i s s i v e n e s s - c l i n g i n g - c r i n g i n g - w h i n i n g REBELLIOUS CHILD ( P o s i t i v e Uses) - c h a l l e n g i n g , - s a y s "no" t o i n a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t y ( N e g a t i v e Uses) - s u l k y , p o u t i n g -demanding - h u r t f u l - v i n d i c t i v e - s a y s "no" t o a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t y H o l l o w a y , V. 1974, 1977 DISCIPLINING P - p r o v i d e s s t r u c t u r i n g - s o u r c e o f "do's".and " d o n ' t s " - s o u r c e of c o n d 1 t l o n a l s t r o k e s ( p o s i t i v e & n e g a t i v e ) - r i g i d NURTURING P - s o u r c e o f u n c o n d i t i o n a l p o s i t i v e s t r o k e s - a t t i t u d e o f u n q u a l i f i e d c o n c e r n toward o t h e r s - r e a s s u r l n g ADULT - d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g - i n t e g r a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n - n e u t r a l s t r o k e s - p r e d i c t i o n o f consequences - c a p a c i t y f o r . a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g - r e a s o n a b l e FREE CHILD - c r e a t i v e , e x p r e s s i v e - s e l f - c e n t e r e d - i m p u l s i v e - u n b r i d l e d h a p p i n e s s , r a g e , d i s a p p o i n t m e n t - n a r c i s s i s t i c HELPFUL ADAPT 10) CHILD -mimics a " N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t " - o v e r i n d u l g e n t - i n t r u d e s on the growth and freedom o f o t h e r s -becomes a " r e s c u e r " - o v e r l y c o m p l i a n t HELPLESS ADAPTED CHILD - i n v i t e s r e s c u e as a v i c t i m - d i s p l a y s I n a b i l i t y and c o n f u s i o n - p a s s i v e HURTFUL ADAPTED CHILD - m i n i c s a " C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t " -angry and u n r e a s o n a b l e ( C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ) -becomes a p e r s e c u t o r - t h r e a t e n s - a g r e s s i v e James, M. and Jongeward, D. PREJUDICIAL P - c r i t i c a l - m o r a l i z i n g - p u n i t i v e - j u d g e m e n t a l - b o s s y - i n t i m l d a t i n g - o v e r p o w e r i n g - d o m i n e e r i n g - a u t h o r i t a r i a n NURTURING P - s y m p a t h e t i c - p r o t e c t i v e - o v e r s o l i c i t o u s - s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g - o v e r - i n d u l g e s o t h e r s ADULT - i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g - o r g a n i z e d - a d a p t a b l e -weighs .'acts -process.!s d a t a - t e s t s . r e a l i t y - p r e d i c t s consequences -autonomous - s e l f aware - t a k e s r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r t h o u g h t s , f e e l -i n g s & b e h a v i o r . -makes c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n s -aware of o t h e r s -aware o f w o r l d - b e h a v i c r c o n g r u -ent w i t h f e e l i n g s - r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s - a b l e t o be i n t i m a t e NATURAL CHILD - a f f e c t i o n a t e - i m p u l s i v e -sensuous -uncensored - c u r i o u s - f e a r f u l - s e l f - i n d u l g e n t - s e l f - c c n t e r e d - r e b e l l i o u s • a g r e s s i v e -do what I want - e x p r e s s i v e - p l a y f u l - s e l f i s h - s t a n d s up f o r own r i g h t s - f e e l s f r e e ADAPTED CHILD - c o m p l y i n g -wi t h d r n w i n g - p r o c r a s t i n a -copy o t h e r s - s u l k i n g -S ruc!ging - i n h i b i t e d -sha r i n g - c o o p e r a t i v e - s o c i a b l e - c u r t e o u s - a v o i d s c o n f r o n t a t i o n - f e e l s r.ot-OK - s o c i a l i z e d LITTLE PROFESSOR - I n t u i t i v e - c r e a t i v e l n g - m a n i p u l a t i v e - m a j l c a l t h i n k i n g - f i g u r e s t h i n g s out S t e i n e r , C. 1974 NURTURING - c o n f i d e n t - l o v i n g -competent I n n u r t u r i n g & p r o t e c t i o n -good magic - i n t i m a c y ADULT - r a t i o n a l i t y - l o g i c -awareness NATURAL CHILD PRINCE PRINCESS - s p o n t a n e i t y - i n t i m a c y ADAPTED CHILD BAD WITCH ELECTRODE PIG PARENT -bad c a g i c - o p p r e s s i o n L I T TLE FR0FSS30R - I n t u i t i o n -awareness 24 Child Ego States O p i n i o n i s d i v i d e d o v e r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e s . M o s t TA e x p e r t s u s e t h e t e r m Natural. Child ( B e r n e , 1961, 1972; J o n g e w a r d , 1976; M e i n i n g e r , 1973; S t e i n e r , 1974) o r Free Child (Amundson, 1976; Dusay, 1977; H o l l o w a y , 1977; W oollams, 1 9 7 4 ) . D e s c r i p t o r s u s e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s t o r e f e r t o N a t u r a l o r F r e e C h i l d and o t h e r ego s t a t e s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2. The o t h e r C h i l d f u n c t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y known by t h e t e r m Adapted Child. Some w r i t e r s s e p a r a t e A d a p t e d C h i l d i n t o Compliant Child and Rebellious Child (Amundson, 1976; A v a r y , 1976; D r y e , 1974; Edwards, 1976; E r n s t , 1 9 7 3 ) ; w h i l e o t h e r s make no s u c h s u b d i v i s i o n (Dusay, 1972, 1977; H o l l o w a y , 1977; James, 1977; James & J o n g e w a r d , 1971; Jo n g e w a r d , 1 9 7 6 ; . M e i n i n g e r , 1974; Woollams,, 1974) . B e r n e c h a n g e d h i s d e s i g n a t i o n f r o m an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d A d a p t e d C h i l d i n . 1961 t o t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f A d a p t e d C h i l d and R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d i n 1972 b u t he gave no r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g s o . One may i n f e r t h a t t h e r e b e l l i o u s a s p e c t s o f A d a p t e d C h i l d b e h a v i o r have been s e p a r a t e d o u t and t h a t A d a p t e d C h i l d t h e n c o n t a i n s o n l y c o m p l i a n t b e h a v i o r b u t t h i s i s n e v e r made c l e a r . S t e i n e r e q u a t e s . A d a p t e d C h i l d w i t h P.^  w h i c h he c a l l s t h e P i g P a r e n t (1974, p. 5 7 ) . The c o m p l i a n t f o r m o f t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d i s u s u a l l y s a i d t o i n c l u d e s u c h b e h a v i o r s a s s e e k i n g a p p r o v a l , w i t h -d r a w i n g , t i m i d i t y , h e l p l e s s n e s s and f e e l i n g g u i l t y . The 25 r e b e l l i o u s form, i n c l u d e s b e i n g s t u b b o r n , v e n g e f u l and h u r t -f u l . R e b e l l i o n i t s e l f i s sometimes, a s c r i b e d t o t h e N a t u r a l C h i l d ( B e r n e , 1961, James, 1977; James & J o n g e w a r d , 1 9 7 1 ) . James and J o n g e w a r d (1971) s e e r e b e l l i o n as b e i n g p o s i t i v e i f i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , n e g a t i v e i f s e l f - i n d u l g e n t . K a h l e r & C a p e r s (1974) c a l l t h e Vengeful Child t h a t p a r t o f t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d t h a t d i s p l a y s a n g e r , s p i t e f u l n e s s and not-OK r e b e l l i o n . H o l l o w a y . (1977) makes t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two t y p e s o f r e b e l l i o n q u i t e c l e a r : B e r n e as w e l l as some o t h e r a u t h o r s have o c c a s i o n -a l l y u s e d t h e t e r m rebellious c h i l d ego s t a t e . I p r e f e r t o a v o i d t h e t e r m r e b e l l i o u s b e c a u s e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A t . t i m e s r e b e l l i o u s i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e a s s e r t i v e natural q u a l i t i e s o f a S h i l d , w h i c h may a p p e a r as a F r e e C h i l d ego s t a t e . T h a t s o r t o f r e b e l l i o n seems t o me. t o be h e a l t h y and t o be e n c o u r a g e d . T h e r e i s a l s o a n o t h e r f o r m o f r e b e l l i o n w h i c h i s v i n d i c t i v e and at, t i m e s d e s t r u c t i v e and i s t h e r e s u l t o f programming o f t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d . T h a t f o r m o f r e b e l l i o n i s o n l y • r a r e l y u s e f u l and u s u a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e , i n . f a c t i t i s u l t i m a t e l y s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e (p. 1 8 7 ) . H o l l o w a y s e e s t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d as h a v i n g t h r e e f u n c -t i o n a l s t y l e s o r modes (1974, p. 54; 1977, p. 2 0 2 -205). The Helpful Child i s c o m p l i a n t and d u t i f u l ; t h e Helpless Child i s p a s s i v e o r s u l k y ; t h e Hurtful Child is d e v i o u s , d e s t r u c t i v e and e x p l o s i v e . The L i t t l e Professor i s a t e r m w i d e l y u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e t h e s e c o n d - o r d e r s t r u c t u r a l . e l e m e n t : t h e A d u l t i n t h e C h i l d ( A x ) (See F i g . 2.1) ( B e r n e , 1961; G o u l d i n g , 1977; H o l l a n d , 1969; James, 1977; J o i n e s , 1977; K a h l e r , 1977; L e v i n , ,-McClendon, 1977;. S t e i n e r , 1974; Woollams, 1974). A.few authors have r e l a t e d t h i s s t r u c t u r a l component of the c h i l d t o the f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of the C h i l d : N a t u r a l (or Free) C h i l d and Adapted C h i l d . S e v e r a l see the L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r as being e i t h e r Free C h i l d , f u n c t i o n i n g without f e a r of p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s , or Adapted C h i l d , complying w i t h the. par-ent i n her head or "psyching out" the b e s t way to get along (Berne, 1961; Amundson, 1977; Woollams, 1977). Cheney ( F i g . 6) d i v i d e s LP i n t o Gamey L i t t l e Professor and Creative L i t t l e Professor. James (1977) sees the Free C h i l d i n c l u d -i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the N a t u r a l C h i l d and the L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r . P a r r y ( F i g . 4) uses the name Spunky, c o i n e d by E n g l i s h (1972), to r e f e r to A^., P a r r y sees Spunky func-t i o n i n g sometimes a s • N a t u r a l and sometimes as Adapted C h i l d . Capers b e l i e v e s t h a t a l l human behavior s t a r t s w i t h the L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r as i n i t i a t o r (Kahler & Capers, 1974). Avary (1976) a l s o sees the L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r as a f u n c t i o n a l ego s t a t e . While Berne c o n s i s t e n t l y spoke,of A^ (the P r o f e s s o r ) as a second-order s t r u c t u r a l element and not as a f u n c t i o n a l ego s t a t e (see F i g . 2 ) , he d i d a s c r i b e c e r t a i n b ehaviors to the P r o f e s s o r (see Table 2). Thus, i n t h i s case, the l i n e between s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l elements i s again b l u r r e d . ' In summary, th e r e seems to be consensus on d i v i s i o n of C h i l d b e h a v i o r s i n t o Free C h i l d and Adapted C h i l d w i t h a f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e s u b d i v i s i o n of Free C h i l d i n t o N a t u r a l Consult ing Prob lem-so lv ing Organiz ing Adv is ing Objective Reasoning Rational Adapt ive Adult Educating Planning Estimating Integrating Contracting Evaluating Differentiating Deciding F i g u r e 6 . F u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a j o r ego s t a t e s (Cheney, to C h i l d and L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r , and o f A d a p t e d C h i l d i n t o C o m p l i a n t C h i l d and R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d . Parent, Ego States I t i s most common t o d i v i d e t h e P a r e n t f u n c t i o n s i n t o two p a r t s . M o s t w r i t e r s a p p e a r t o u s e B e r n e ' s (1961) t e r m N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t (NP) a p p r o x i m a t e l y as Edwards d o e s : " t h e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t p r o v i d e s p r o t e c t i o n w i t h c a r i n g , c o m f o r t -i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g " (1976) . Some w r i t e r s a g r e e w i t h Edwards t h a t t h e NP has a p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n (Amundson, 1976; B e r n e , 1972; James & Jo n g e w a r d , 1971; S t e i n e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . O t h e r w r i t e r s , however, g i v e t h e p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n t o o t h e r P a r e n t ego s t a t e s : K a h l e r (1977) and A v a r y (1976) t o OK C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ( w h i c h A v a r y a l s o c a l l s F i r m P a r e n t ) , F r a n k l i n g (Note 5) t o OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t . Some a u t h o r s d o n ' t m e n t i o n p r o -t e c t i o n i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f ego s t a t e s ( H o l l o w a y , 1976; M a r s h , 1976; W o o l l a m s , 1974) b u t Dusay (1977) g i v e s b o t h N u r t u r i n g and C r i t i c a l P a r e n t a p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n . A l l w r i t e r s a s c r i b e t h e p e r m i s s i o n - g i v i n g f u n c t i o n t o NP. A v a r y ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Edwards ( 1 9 7 6 ) , F r a n k l i n g ( N o t e 5 ) , K a h l e r (.1977) , and Ma r s h (1976) s p e a k o f t h e Not-OK. N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t as r e s c u i n g , o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e , s m o t h e r i n g and o v e r -p e r m i s s i v e . James and Jo n g e w a r d (1971) do n o t d i v i d e NP b u t speak o f n e g a t i v e f u n c t i o n s b e i n g o v e r - i n d u l g e n t , o v e r - s o l i c i t i o u s , and s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g . H o l l o w a y d o e s n o t s u b s c r i b e t o t h i s : f o r him t h e n e g a t i v e f u n c t i o n s a r e " p s e u d o - P a r e n t " and he has w r i t t e n t h a t " t h e H e l p f u l A d a p t e d C h i l d i s o f t e n m i s p e r c e i v e d as a N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ego s t a t e " (1977, p. 2 1 2 ) . The P a r e n t f u n c t i o n s o f c o n t r o l l i n g , c r i t i c i z i n g , d i s c i p l i n i n g and b e i n g p r e j u d i c e d a r e u s u a l l y . p u t i n t o a c a t e g o r y c a l l e d P r e j u d i c i a l P a r e n t ( B e r n e , 1961; James & J o n g e w a r d , 1971; P o r t e r , 1 9 7 5 ) , C r i t i c a l P a r e n t (Dusay, 1977; H a r r i s , 1976; James, 1 9 7 7 ) , o r C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t (Amundson, 1976; B e r n e , 1972; H o l l o w a y , 1977; Woollams, 1 9 7 4 ) . The c a t e g o r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o OK and Not-OK. p a r t s by A v a r y ( 1 9 7 6 ) , F r a n k l i n (Note 5 ) , and K a h l e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) . H o l l o w a y (1974) p e r c e i v e s t h e n e g a t i v e f o r m s o f b e h a v i o r t h a t B e r n e and James p l a c e i n t h e P r e j u d i c i a l o r C r i t i c a l P a r e n t ego s t a t e ( s e e T a b l e 2) as being- H u r t f u l A d a p t e d C h i l d b e h a v i o r . S t e i n e r (1974) a l s o c l a s s i f i e s t h e s e b e -h a v i o r s as coming f r o m t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e (P^) w h i c h he c a l l s W i t c h P a r e n t or. P i g . P a r e n t ( a l s o A d a p t e d C h i l d ) . I n s u m m a r y , t h e r e . s e e m s t o be g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t on t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f two m a i n s u b d i v i s i o n s ' o f P a r e n t b e h a v i o r : one d e f i n i t e l y t o be, c a l l e d N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , t h e o t h e r t o be c a l l e d C r i t i c a l o r C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t . A f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o OK and Not-OK s t y l e s o f b e h a v i o r i s u s e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f authors'. The l a b e l C r i t i c a l P a r e n t seems t o a p p l y more t o Not-OK P a r e n t b e h a v i o r s w h i l e C o n t r o l l i n g c a n i n c l u d e p o s i t i v e OK P a r e n t b e h a v i o r s as w e l l . R e c o g n i t i o n o f p o s i t i v e C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t b e h a v i o r s and n e g a t i v e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t b e h a v i o r s i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t ( s e e Tafele 1 ) . P r e -v i o u s l y C r i t i c a l ( o r P r e j u d i c i a l ) P a r e n t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e g a t i v e i f u s e d t o w a r d any b u t s m a l l c h i l d r e n , w h i l e N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t was. j u d g e d t o be p o s i t i v e i n . m o s t s i t u a t i o n s . Now b o t h n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s a r e r e c o g n i z e d f o r b o t h t y p e s o f P a r e n t ego s t a t e s . Adult Ego States E r i c B e r n e s u g g e s t e d a s e c o n d - o r d e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e A d u l t i n 1961 d i v i d i n g i t i n t o E t h o s , P a t h o s and (see F i g . 2 ) . B e r n e d e s c r i b e s t h e s e t h r e e ways o f f u n c t i o n i n g as f o l l o w s : -I t a p p e a r s t h a t i n many c a s e s c e r t a i n c h i l d l i k e q u a l i t i e s become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e i n a manner d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s .... I t c a n be o b s e r v e d t h a t c e r t a i n p e o p l e when f u n c t i o n i n g qua A d u l t have a charm and o p e n n e s s o f n a t u r e w h i c h i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h a t e x h i b i t e d b y c h i l d r e n . A l o n g w i t h t h e s e go c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b l e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d t h e r e s t o f h u m a n i t y w h i c h may be subsumed u n d e r t h e c l a s s i c a l t e r m " p a t h o s " . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e m o r a l q u a l i t i e s w h i c h a r e u n i v e r s a l l y e x p e c t e d o f p e o p l e who u n d e r t a k e grown-up r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s u c h a t t r i b u t e s as c o u r a g e , s i n c e r i t y , l o y a l t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , and w h i c h meet n o t mere l o c a l p r e j u d i c e b u t w o r l d - w i d e e t h o s .... T r a n s a c t i o n a l l y , t h i s means t h a t anyone f u n c t i o n i n g as an A d u l t s h o u l d i d e a l l y e x h i b i t t h r e e k i n d s o f t e n d e n c i e s : p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and r e s p o n s i v e -n e s s , o b j e c t i v e d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g , and e t h i c a l r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y ( B e r n e , 1961, p. 1 9 4 -195). James and Jongeward (1971) expanded on Berne's i d e a of the Integrated Adult. James d i s c u s s e s i t again i n her r e c e n t book.Techniques in Transactional Analysis (1977): "Persons whose A d u l t ego s t a t e s are i n t e g r a t e d process data r a t i o n a l l y and they a l s o e x h i b i t c e r t a i n c h i l d - l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e t h i c a l concerns. Seemingly these q u a l i t i e s are f i l t e r e d from the Parent and C h i l d through the A d u l t ego s t a t e " (1977, p. 53). McCormick (1977), i n h i s new monograph Ego States, p o i n t s out the d i s t i n c t i o n Berne makes between b i o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e and b e h a v i o r a l f u n c t i o n u s i n g h o r i z o n t a l d i v i s i o n s i n h i s diagrams to i n d i c a t e s t r u c t u r e and v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s f o r f u n c t i o n . McCormick draws our a t t e n t i o n a l s o to the f a c t t h a t i n h i s l a s t book, What Do Io:u Do After You.Say Hello? (1972), Berne was, d e f i n i n g s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s as "the d i s t i n g u i s h - . i n g of one, f e e l i n g - a n d - b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n from another" (p. 13) s t r e s s i n g the phenomenological and o p e r a t i o n a l and not the p s y c h o b i o l o g i c a l . Thus the l i n e between s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of ego s t a t e s begins t o b l u r . Most authors, however (Amundson, 1976; Avary, 1976; Dusay, 1977; Edwards, 1976; H a r r i s , 1976; S t e i n e r , 1974; Woollams,. 1974), regard the A d u l t ego s t a t e as u n d i v i d e d , and as con-t a i n i n g o n l y the l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l , computing f u n c t i o n s which K e r t e s z and Savorgnan (Note 6) f i r s t c a l l e d technics. G i l l e s p i e (1976), i n his- a r t i c l e Feelings in the Adult Ego State, s t a t e d t h a t "James and Jongeward came out un-e q u i v o c a l l y w i t h the p o s i t i o n t h a t the A d u l t per se i s an e m o t i o n l e s s ego s t a t e d e v o i d o f f e e l i n g s . " On t h e c o n t r a r y , James and J o n g e w a r d (1971) have s a i d "We b e l i e v e t h a t unless integrated, t h e A d u l t f u n c t i o n s o n l y as a d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g m a c h i n e .... T h e r e f o r e , we t h i n k i t . i s t h e i n t e g r a t e d A d u l t t h a t c o n t a i n s A d u l t f e e l i n g s and e t h i c s as w e l l as t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and a b i l i t y " (p. 271, e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . G i l l e s p i e s p e a k s o f t h e " p u r e f o r m " o f t h e A d u l t as b e i n g u n c o n -t a m i n a t e d and u n i n t e g r a t e d . James c l a r i f i e s t h i s c o n c e p t i n h e r book by s a y i n g " I f t h e A d u l t i s n o t i n t e g r a t e d i t i s e i t h e r c o n t a m i n a t e d o r has s u c h r i g i d ego s t a t e b ound-a r i e s t h a t t h e p e r s o n i s n o t i n t o u c h w i t h t h e P a r e n t and C h i l d components o f p e r s o n a l i t y " (1977, p . 5 4 ) . She g o e s on t o s t a t e t h a t "What i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember i s t h a t p e o p l e who a r e i n t h e i r A d u l t ego s t a t e may have feelings . The. A d u l t i s n o t m e r e l y a m a c h i n e ; t h e A d u l t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s and has f e e l i n g s a b o u t i n v o l v e m e n t i n them" (1977, p . 55, e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . C a m p b e l l (Note 7) s e e s two d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n s i n t h e A d u l t : the. a b i l i t y . t o e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as compute. T h u s , she c a l l e d t h e p r e v i o u s l y ' u n d e s c r i b e d f u n c t i o n a l A d u l t ego s t a t e t h e Experiencing Adult w h i l e t h e , o t h e r m i g h t be c a l l e d Computing Adult. Krumper (1977) c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e A d u l t . as c o m p u t e r and w o u l d t h u s d i v i d e . t h e A d u l t i n t o Ac ( t h e f u n c t i o n o f memory r e f e r r e d t o as c o n t e n t ) and Aa ( t h e f u n c t i o n o f c o m b i n i n g raw b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o as a s s o c i a t i v e ) . P a r r y , (Note 2) s e e s t h e A d u l t o p e r a t i n g i n b o t h t h e a c t i v e mode as p a r t o f t h e R e s p o n s i b l e S e l f 33 (Computing A d u l t ) and i n t h e r e c e p t i v e mode i n t h e R e s p o n s i v e S e l f ( E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t ) . I n c o n c l u s i o n , w h i l e few a u t h o r s have s u b d i v i d e d t h e A d u l t i n t o f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , and most have d e s c r i b e d i t as t h e "computer," many a u t h o r s have a s c r i b e d b e h a v i o r s t o t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e w h i c h a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i d e a o f t h e A d u l t as co m p u t e r . T h u s , C a m p b e l l ' s d i s t i n c -t i o n between E x p e r i e n c i n g and Computing f u n c t i o n s o f t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e s may be t i m e l y . I d e n t i . f i c a t i o n and Measurement of Ego States Observation Using Audio and Video Tapes Thomson (1972) p i o n e e r e d i n , s h o w i n g t h a t o b s e r v e r s c o u l d be t r a i n e d t o c l a s s i f y b e h a v i o r s a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h ego s t a t e was f u n c t i o n i n g a t any one time., He u s e d a u d i o - t a p e s e g -ments o f g r o u p t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y b e en r a t e d by a p a n e l o f TA e x p e r t s as t o w h i c h ego s t a t e was d e m o n s t r a t e d on e a c h t a p e segment. Thomson was s u c c e s s f u l i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t ego s t a t e s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d by n a i v e n o r m a l s u b j e c t s and n a i v e p s y c h i a t r i c i n p a t i e n t s — i . e . , t h e y a g r e e d w i t h t h e TA e x p e r t s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s — • once t h e c o n c e p t s o f ego s t a t e s had been e x p l a i n e d t o them. The m a i n c r i t i c i s m o f Thomson's (1972) s t u d y was t h a t he d i d n o t i n c l u d e i n h i s t a p e segments s a m p l e s o f n u r t u r -i n g P a r e n t . o r happy C h i l d b e h a v i o r ( H u r l e y , 1973) . Thomson h a s , i n f a c t , a c k n o w l e d g e d t h i s weakness i n h i s s t u d y and 34 recommended t h a t i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h s a m p l e s o f a l l s u b -t y p e s o f P a r e n t and C h i l d p h r a s e s be i n c l u d e d . S i n c e P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d a l l d i s p l a y a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f b e h a v i o r s , i t i s o b v i o u s l y , i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s u b t y p e s o f e a c h be o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d and be r e p r e s e n t e d i n any s e t o f i t e m s p u r p o r t i n g t o measure ego s t a t e s . Two r e c e n t s t u d i e s ( P e t e r s o n , N o t e 8.; Sowder & Brown, 1977) have u s e d v i d e o t a p e s as a means o f o b s e r v i n g b e h a v -i o r and c o d i n g i t a c c o r d i n g t o ego s t a t e s d i s p l a y e d . P e t e r s o n ' s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s c o v e r e d g e n e r a l a t t r i -b u t e s , movements and g e s t u r e s , f a c i a l demeanor, v o c a b u l a r y and c o n t e n t , and s p e e c h q u a l i t y f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e ego s t a t e s he i n c l u d e d ( C r i t i c a l P a r e n t , N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , A d u l t , N a t u r a l C h i l d and A d a p t e d C h i l d ) . Sowder*s (Note 9) P a r e n t and A d u l t ego s t a t e s had t h e same l a b e l s b u t t h e C h i l d c a t e g o r i e s t h e y u s e d were F r e e C h i l d and A d a p t i v e C h i l d . He - i d e n t i f i e d L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r as a t h i r d C h i l d ego s t a t e b u t s t a t e d : I t . w a s d e c i d e d t o d e l e t e t h i s c a t e g o r y b e c a u s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t as a p e r s o n m a t u r e s w i t h age and t h e L i t t l e Professor f u n c t i o n s s u b s i d e o r t h e y f o r m a team w i t h t h e Adult. T h i s makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e L i t t l e Professor f r o m t h e Adult (p. 39) . P e t e r s o n (Note 8) r e p o r t e d " s i g n i f i c a n t " i n t e r o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t f o r A d a p t e d C h i l d , C r i t i c a l P a r e n t and A d u l t , a l t h o u g h t h e s t a t i s t i c s were n o t i n c l u d e d . I n t h e c a s e o f N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t and N a t u r a l . C h i l d , f e w e r r e s p o n s e s and 35 more pure examples were s a i d t o have been i n c l u d e d i n the t r a i n i n g tapes so t h a t these two ego s t a t e s were more d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y i n the t e s t tapes. Sowder and Brown (1977) accepted the hypothesis t h a t ego s t a t e s of an i n d i v i d u a l can be r e l i a b l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d by persons knowledgeable i n TA concepts. Measurement Using Paper-and-Pencil Tests H a l l (Note 10), Coffman (1972), and White and Frank (1972) have c o n s t r u c t e d p a p e r - a n d - p e n c i l t e s t s f o r measuring Parent, A d u l t and C h i l d ego s t a t e s . None of the i n s t r u -ments has been p u b l i s h e d and l i t t l e i s known about t h e i r v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . S e v e r a l other r e s e a r c h e r s have c o n s t r u c t e d instruments measuring second-order ego s t a t e s (Amundson, 1976; B l a c k , Note 11; Daley, 1973; Kealy, Note 12; McCarley, Note 13; P r i c e , 1975) but the success of each has been l i m i t e d . The main problem i s one of d e f i n i t i o n : TA authors each have t h e i r own, way of s u b d i v i d i n g Parent, A d u l t , and C h i l d (P, A & C) b e h a v i o r , and i n some cases behavior regarded as Parent by one, person w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as C h i l d by another (see Table 2). Thus r e s e a r c h e r s must choose t h e i r . s u b -d i v i s i o n s of P, A & C and the subsequent d e f i n i t i o n s from those g i v e n by the v a r i o u s authors who e x p l a i n t h e i r terms: Berne (1961), H a r r i s (1961), James (1977), James and Jongeward (1971), Jongeward (1976) , S t e i n e r (1974), and Woollams (1974). The instrument, t h e r e f o r e , can o n l y be u s e d by t h o s e TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s who. a c c e p t t h e d e f i n i t i o n s , g i v e n f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t e s t . P r i c e (1975) r e f e r r e d to. t h i s d i f f i c u l t y when he u s e d D a l e y ' s (1973) i n s t r u m e n t as a c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y measure o f h i s own P s y c h i c E n e r g y P r o f i l e . He s t a t e s : "even t h o u g h D a l e y r e p o r t e d i n s t r u m e n t j u d g e c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m .36 t o .66, t h i s researcher did not have any information pertaining to the d e f i n i t i o n s or descriptions of ego states used in his research. The two i n s t r u m e n t s ( o r j u d g e s ) may'or may n o t h a v e * i n t e n d e d to. measure t h e same t h i n g " ( P r i c e , 1975, p. 244, e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . K e a l y (Note 12) began c o n s t r u c t i n g h i s s c a l e by c h o o s i n g 20 i t e m s t o r e p r e s e n t e a c h s u b - s c a l e b u t un-w a r r a n t e d d e p e n d e n c e on t h e c r i t e r i a . o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i c a u s e d him t o l o s e s i g h t o f h i s - d e f i n i t i o n s : h e . r e j e c t e d some.items w h i c h were c r u c i a l t o h i s c o n s t r u c t . F o r exampl c r e a t i v i t y a p p e a r s i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f N a t u r a l C h i l d , b u t none o f t h e e i g h t NC i t e m s r e f l e c t s c r e a t i v i t y . Thus t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y t h a t K e a l y a c h i e v e d by h a v i n g h i g h i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y on c h o i c e o f i t e m s was l o s t by e m p l o y i n g s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i a d e s i g n e d t o p r o d u c e h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n -s i s t e n c y i n t h e s u b - s c a l e s . To d e v e l o p an i n s t r u m e n t f o r m e a s u r i n g h e t e r o g e n e o u s c o n s t r u c t s s u c h as ego s t a t e s i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k a t b e s t , b u t t o a t t e m p t s u c h a c o n s t r u c -t i o n w i t h o u t u s i n g c l e a r o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s i s s e l f - d e f e a t i n g . 37 Measurement Using Egograms Dusay (1972) d e v i s e d "a r e l a t i o n s h i p d i a g r a m o f (the) d i f f e r e n t e g o - s t a t e p a r t s , one t o a n o t h e r , " c a l l e d an egogram, shown i n F i g u r e 7. Egograms " r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e n s -i t y and f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s t i m u l i e m a n a t i n g f r o m an e g o -s t a t e , and t h e y p r o v i d e v i s u a l s y m b o l s o f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t e g o - s t a t e s " (Dusay, 1972, p . 1 3 4 ) . The ego s t a t e s r e f e r r e d t o b y Dusay a r e P r e j u d i c e d P a r e n t ( P P ) , N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t (NP) , A d u l t ( A ) , . F r e e C h i l d ( F C ) , and A d a p t e d C h i l d ( A C ) , b u t nowhere i n h i s a r t i c l e d i d he s t a t e what b e h a v i o r s t y p i f i e d t h e s e ego s t a t e s . I n h i s new book, Egograms, Dusay (1977) d e v o t e s no m o r e , t h a n f i v e l i n e s t o d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s chosen, ego s t a t e s : o n l y " two d e s c r i p t o r s p e r s u b -s c a l e a r e p r o v i d e d . I n - w r i t i n g a b o u t u s e s o f egograms, two a u t h o r s (Karpman, 1974; S & h i f f , 1974) f o l l o w e d D u say's d u b i o u s example and a l s o n e g l e c t e d t o d e f i n e t h e i r t e r m s . I n h i s c h a p t e r on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f egograms, Dusay (1977) g i v e s t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s , among o t h e r s : — D r a w w h a t e v e r y o u " s e n s e " o r " f e e l " i s t h e most p r e d o m i n a n t p a r t o f t h a t p e r s o n , and draw i t i n w i t h a v e r t i c a l c o lumn. ( T h i s w i l l be t h e h i h ' i g h e s t column.) — N e x t draw y o u r h u n c h o f t h e l o w e s t . p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y as i t . i s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e o t h e r s . ( T h i s w i l l be t h e l o w e s t column.) — F i l l i n t h e o t h e r l i n e s - d o n ' t w o r r y a b o u t t h e e x a c t h e i g h t s o f t h e columns b e c a u s e t h i s i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p d i a g r a m (p. 1 7 ) . 38 CP NP FC AC F i g u r e 7 . An egogram (Dusay, 1977) S t e i n e r (1974) a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s an egogram, n o t i n g t h a t "Dusay's o r i g i n a l egogram shows t h e A d a p t e d C h i l d i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r . W i t h due r e s p e c t t o Dusay's c o n t r i b u t i o n I have made, t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f LP f o r AC s i n c e , i n my o p i n i o n , t h e PP and AC a r e t h e same ego s t a t e " (p. 5 7 ). Thus i t seems t o m a t t e r l i t t l e what l a b e l s a r e g i v e n t h e b a r s on an egogram, f o r t h e y a r e n o t me a s u r e d o b j e c t i v e l y i n any e v e n t . Dusay r e c o g n i z e d t h i s when he n o t e d : " A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s am a z i n g c o n s i s t e n c y and a g r e e -ment among e x p e r i e n c e d T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s t s i n p r e p a r i n g p a t i e n t s ' egograms, a t p r e s e n t t h e r e i s o n l y p a r t i a l s c i e n t i f i c and A d u l t c r i t e r i a f o r m a k i n g t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n s . T h i s l e a d s t h e a u t h o r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e ju d g e m e n t s a r e c o n c e i v e d i n t u i t i v e l y " ( 1 9 7 2 , p. 1 3 5 ) . A p p a r e n t l y Dusay t r a i n s o b s e r v e r s t o c o n s t r u c t egograms b u t has n o t i n d i c a t e d how he goes a b o u t i t . He does s t a t e v e r y c l e a r l y h i s j u d g e -ment a b o u t t h e u s e o f r u l e d p a p e r and p e r c e n t a g e m a r k s: " T h i s A d u l t a p p r o a c h l o o k s s c i e n t i f i c ; however, l a b o r i n g o v e r p e r c e n t a g e s may r u i n t h e i n t u i t i v e f o r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o draw a m e a n i n g f u l p o r t r a i t and i s b e s t a v o i d e d " (1977, p . 18) . J o n g e w a r d and James ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a f t e r an e x h a u s t i v e d e s -c r i p t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f ego s t a t e s , i n t r o d u c e an e x e r c i s e f o r p e o p l e t o draw t h e i r own egograms " e s t i m a t i n g y o u r use. o f ego s t a t e f u n c t i o n s on a p e r c e n t a g e b a s i s a d d i n g up t o 100%" (p. 8 9 ) . They i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e egogram w i l l l i k e l y be d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . J o n g e w a r d and James u s e s i x c a t e g o r i e s : N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , C r i t i c a l P a r e n t , A d u l t , A d a p t e d C h i l d , L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r and N a t u r a l C h i l d . Sowder and Brown (1977) have u s e d egograms i n a more o b j e c t i v e manner: o b s e r v e r s ' r e p o r t s o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t d e m o n s t r a t e d i n e a c h ego s t a t e was u s e d as raw d a t a f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f egograms. Thus t h e h e i g h t s o f t h e f i v e columns w o u l d add up t o 100%, as d i d t h o s e o f J o n g e w a r d and James. M a r s h and Drennan (1976) have m o d i f i e d t h e egogram t o i n c l u d e columns a b o v e . t h e z e r o l i n e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e "OK t o s e l f and o t h e r s " and columns b e l o w t h a t a r e "Not-OK t o s e l f a n d / o r o t h e r s " . A number o f d e s c r i p t o r s a r e g i v e n f o r e a c h ego s t a t e ( b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e ) and t h e h e i g h t s o f t h e columns t o t a l t o r e p r e s e n t 100% o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s time.; 40 Summary The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f e f f o r t s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d and o n - g o i n g ( H e y e r , N o t e 14; F r a n k l i n , N o t e 5) t o c r e a t e ego s t a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and b e h a v i o r a l c o d i n g schemes i l l u s t r a t e s t h e n eed f o r an o b j e c t i v e p r o c e d u r e f o r . m e a s u r -i n g ego s t a t e s : i n t u i t i o n , a l b e i t c l i n i c a l l y i n s p i r e d , i s s i m p l y i n s u f f i c i e n t and i n a p p r o p r i a t e . B e f o r e an i n s t r u m e n t c a n s a t i s f y e v e n a p o r t i o n o f TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s , w i d e l y a p -p l i c a b l e d e f i n i t i o n s must b e , s p e c i f i e d and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . C h a p t e r 3 PROCEDURES A p r o c e d u r e f o r s o r t i n g s t i m u l i i n t o c a t e g o r i e s known as categorization methodology has been employed by M i l l e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( M i l l e r , F o w l k e s and L a m b e r t , 1967; M i l l e r , W i l e y , W o l f e and C o n r y , 1 9 7 5 ) . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g d a t a - a n a l y t i c s y s t e m , known as latent partition analysis3 was d e v i s e d by W i l e y ( 1 9 6 7 ) . C a t e g o r i z a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y and l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s have been u s e d t o examine s i m i l a r i t i e s among t e a c h e r s ' c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1967) and o f f a c i l i t a t i n g s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g i n t h e c l a s s r o o m ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1 9 6 7 ) . E v a n s (1970) r e p o r t s on s t u d i e s e x a m i n i n g j u d g e m e n t a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n -t i a l s c a l e s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s o f a s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r s . . P a t s u l a (Note 15) f o u n d c h i l d r e n ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f word, d e f i n i t i o n s t o be i n c l o s e a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p a r t i t i o n i n g p o s t u l a t e d by E v a n e c h k o ( 1 9 7 0 ) , where d e f i n i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i m i l a r i f t h e y gave meaning t o d i f f e r e n t words i n t h e same manner. C o n r y (Note 16) s t u d i e d i n d i v i d -u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o r t i n g o f homogeneous and h e t e r o g e n e o u s s e t s o f v e r b a l s t i m u l i and p h o t o g r a p h s o f c r y s t a l s . No s t u d i e s a r e known, t o have u s e d c a t e g o r i z a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y and l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s t o examine d e f i n i t i o n s i n u s e by p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n any f i e l d . T h i s s t u d y w i l l examine t h e c a t e g o r i e s u n d e r l y i n g TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f a s e t o f b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s t o a r r i v e a t a s e t o f w i d e l y a c c e p t e d c a t e g o r i e s and d e f i n i t i o n s . Categorization Methodology I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' d e f i n i t i o n s o f TA ego s t a t e s a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y d e s c r i b e d by M i l l e r e t a l . (1967) w i l l be u s e d . The m e t h o d o l o g y i s com-p o s e d o f two t e c h n i q u e s : t h e F - s o r t . f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s (LPA) f o r d a t a s u m m a r i z a t i o n . The F-sort-The F - s o r t i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g c a t e g o r i c a l ( n o m i n a l ) j u d g e m e n t s m a n i f e s t e d when s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m a s e r i e s o f s o r t i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f a g i v e n s e t o f s t i m u l i . ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . The s u b j e c t s a r e a s k e d t o sbiDt t h e s t i m u l i i n t o c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e among t h e c o n t e n t u n i t s . They a r e a s k e d t o l a b e l t h e i r c a t e -g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a t h e y u s e i n g r o u p i n g t h e c o n t e n t u n i t s . No r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e p l a c e d on t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s o r t h e number o f u n i t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . S o r t e r s . a r e f r e e t o c r e a t e and d e f i n e t h e i r own, s e t s o f c a t e g o r i e s , g u i d e d o n l y by t h e d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n them, f o r e x ample: " S o r t t h e d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s i n t e r m s o f y o u r v i e w s o f b e h a v i o r s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g TA ego s t a t e s " ( A p p e n d i x I V ) . Latent P a r t i t i o n Analysis • L a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s (LPA) i s b a s e d on a p r o b -a b i l i s t i c m o d e l f o r a. s o r t e r ' s b e h a v i o r d u r i n g t h e p e r -f o r m a n c e o f an F - s o r t ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . The d a t a f o r LPA a r e s e q u e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t i t i o n s o f t h e same s e t o f i t e m s , and t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n w h i c h u n d e r l i e s t h e s e t o f m a n i f e s t p a r t i t i o n s . The i t e m s a r e assumed t o be a s s i g n e d t o m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o i n d e p e n d e n t , d i s c r e t e p r o b a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s ( W i l e y , 1 9 6 7 ) . F - s o r t and LPA a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d i n v e s t i g a t i n g c a t e -g o r i c a l d a t a and i d e n t i f y i n g e m p i r i c a l l y t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among s o r t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s — i n t h i s c a s e , p e r c e p t i o n s o f TA e g o s t a t e s . By s o r t i n g d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o s i m i l a r i t y g r o u p i n g s , i n d i v i d u a l TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i l l m a n i -f e s t t h e i r own d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e ego s t a t e s . The substance and structure o f s o r t e r s ' c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s w i l l be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d by LPA. By s u b s t a n c e i s meant t h e c o n t e n t e l e m e n t s o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . By s t r u c t u r e 44 i s meant t h e number and s i z e o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e c a t e g o r i e s ( M i l l e r , e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . Analysis. of Sorting Behavior To r e a c h a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s * p e r c e p t u a l f rameworks r e g a r d i n g ego s t a t e s , i t . i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s ' o f a number o f s o r t e r s . T h i s i s p r e d i c a t e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i l l have c o m m o n a l i t i e s i n t h e i r c a t e g o r i e s : t h e y u s e many o f t h e same t e r m s t o d e s c r i b e ego s t a t e s and have s i m i l a r b a c k g r o u n d s i n t h e t h e o r y o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s b e -c a u s e o f h a v i n g t a k e n t h e same e x a m i n a t i o n s s e t by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s . A s s o c i a t i o n ( I T A A ) . P r o b a b i l i t y of Joint Oocurenoe (S-Matrix) The f i r s t s u m m a r i z a t i o n s o f d a t a f o r t h e l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s , a r e i n t h e f o r m o f a m a t r i x c a l l e d S ( M i l l e r , e t a l . , 1975),p. 1 1 2 ) . S =• t h e j o i n t p r o p o r t i o n m a t r i x An S - m a t r i x has as many rows and columns as t h e r e a r e c o n -t e n t u n i t s , i n t h i s c a s e 100. An S - m a t r i x i s s y m m e t r i c , and t h e d i a g o n a l e n t r i e s a r e 1.0. An e n t r y i n an S - m a t r i x c o r r e s p o n d s t o a p a i r o f c o n t e n t u n i t s , and i s t h e p r o -p o r t i o n o f s o r t e r s i n whose m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s t h o s e two c o n t e n t u n i t s were combined. An S - m a t r i x i s a r e d u c t i o n 45 o f t h e d a t a o f t h e s o r t i n g e x p e r i m e n t , b e c a u s e t h e c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s c a n n o t be r e c o n -s t r u c t e d f r o m S. Latent Categories (Phi Matrix) M i l l e r e t a l . (1975) g i v e a s i m p l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m a t i o n o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s : . I f t h e r e were two m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f a. s e t o f c o n t e n t u n i t s , t h e n one m i g h t c o n s i d e r l o o k i n g a t t h e r e f i n e m e n t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n d e f i n e d by them — t h a t i s , a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f two s e t s . I f t h e r e a r e f i v e c o n t e n t u n i t s : A, B, C, . D, E and t h e two c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s a r e : (AB) (CDE) (ABC) (DE^ i t h e n t h e r e f i n e m e n t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s : (AB) (C) (DE). The r e f i n e m e n t , c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i s t o f t h e c o n t e n t u n i t s t h a t - b o t h s o r t e r s f o u n d s i m i l a r . I n LPA t e r m i n o l o g y , t h e r e f i n e m e n t c a t e g o r i e s a r e c a l l e d latent c a t e g o r i e s . The l a t e n t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n e a c h o f t h e m a n i f e s t c a t e -g o r i e s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t e a c h m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r y i s e i t h e r a l a t e n t c a t e g o r y o r a u n i o n o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . The c o n t e n t u n i t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s between t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e a l l d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n s between c o n t e n t u n i t s i n b o t h m a n i -f e s t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s (p. 1 1 3 ) . The m a t h e m a t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l a t e n t c a t e -g o r i z a t i o n i s i n the. form, o f a m a t r i x c a l l e d ( P h i ) : (J) = t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r y m a t r i x P h i has as many rows as t h e r e a r e c o n t e n t u n i t s and as many columns as t h e r e a r e l a t e n t categories''". E a c h row o f P h i c o r r e s p o n d s t o a c o n t e n t u n i t and i n d i c a t e s w h i c h o f t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s t h e c o n t e n t u n i t b e l o n g s t o . The e n t r i e s , c a l l e d l o a d i n g s , a r e p r o b a b i l i t i e s t h a t t h e i t e m w i l l be j o i n e d w i t h i t e m s i n a n o t h e r c a t e g o r y . L o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n one and l e s s t h a n z e r o a r e i n d i c a t i o n s o f c l o s e n e s s o f f i t o f t h e m o d e l . As a t h e o r e t i c a l optimum, t h e row w o u l d have a 1 i n t h e column c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h a t l a t e n t c a t e g o r y and O's i n t h e o t h e r columns'. I n p r a c t i c e , t h e e s t i m a t e s w i l l n o t be s o c l e a r and w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e manner o u t l i n e d by M i l l e r e t a l . , (1975): a. .. estimates from .50 t o 1.50.should be c o n s i d e r e d as '1' s i g n i f y i n g membership i n the correspond-i n g c a t e g o r i e s ; b. estimates from .20 to .50 should be c o n s i d e r e d ambiguous: t h e r e f o r e , t e n t a t i v e membership should be s i g n i f i e d by the h i g h e s t e n t r y w i t h i n t h i s range i n the row; c. estimates below .20 should be c o n s i d e r e d as '0 1 s i g n i f y i n g t h a t the.verb i s a non-member of the corresponding l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s (p. 18). Ttie number- --'of .latentrcafeegordesi'isddeGideaibyifollowingea aSmberpof stepsh.e.Cl-^Atheoi^ U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , D i v i s i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l Research S e r v i c e s , Computer.Program SCAL06 w i l l i n i t i a l l y s e l e c t , a number of c a t e g o r i e s , L,.such t h a t each f a c t o r w i l l . h a v e an eig e n v a l u e g r e a t e r than 1.00;. (2) the f i t of the model con-t a i n i n g L. i a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s can f u r t h e r be examined t o determine whether most numbers i n the P h i matrix are between 0 and 1.0 w i t h as few and as sm a l l n e g a t i v e numbers as pos-s i b l e — the number of l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s may be a d j u s t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r t o determine the f i t ; (3) numbers i n the co n f u s i o n m a t r i x . s h o u l d a l s o range from 0.0 t o 1.0, P r o b a b i l i t y of Latent Category Combination (Omega Matrix) A t h i r d matrix r e s u l t s from LPA c a l l e d £[ (Omega): SI = the c o n f u s i o n matrix The Omega matrix has as many rows and columns' as, there are l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s / and i s symmetric. A number i n Omega corresponds t o a,pair of l a t e n t , c a t e g o r i e s and i s the prob-a b i l i t y , averaged over s o r t e r s , o f the l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s being merged i n ma n i f e s t p a r t i t i o n s . More,exactly, i t i s the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t any p a r t i c u l a r p a i r of content, u n i t s from each l a t e n t category w i l l have been put i n the. same m a n i f e s t category ( M i l l e r , 1967, p. 115). A d i a g o n a l e n t r y of Omega r e f e r s t o a s i n g l e l a t e n t category and i s the prob-a b i l i t y t h a t a g i v e n p a i r of items from the l a t e n t c a t e g o r y w i l l be put tog e t h e r . When t h a t p r o b a b i l i t y i s h i g h , the d e s c r i p t o r s and t h e i r . l a t e n t category may be c o n s i d e r e d c o h e s i v e . P i l o t Study In the s p r i n g of 1977 a p i l o t study was, undertaken t o t e s t the use of s o r t i n g procedures as a method of a n a l y s -i n g TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' d e f i n i t i o n s of ego s t a t e s . The p l a n was to p r e s e n t . a d u l t s f a m i l i a r w i t h TA theory w i t h a s e t of computer c a r d s , each p r i n t e d w i t h a b e h a v i o r a l des-. c r i p t o r i n the form, of an a d j e c t i v e , verb or phrase. They were asked t o s o r t the d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o , P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d ego s t a t e s and t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s . The 51 s o r t e d d e c k s were t h e n a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , D i v i s i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s , Computer Program SCAL06. The p r o g r a m was r u n s e v e r a l t i m e s ; e a c h t i m e a d i f f e r e n t number o f c a t e g o r i e s was c a l l e d f o r i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . C a t e g o r i e s were e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o p u b l i s h e d TA t h e o r y . Content Domain, An i n i t i a l l i s t o f a d j e c t i v e s , v e r b s and p h r a s e s d e s c r i b i n g b e h a v i o r was g e n e r a t e d by r e f e r e n c i n g p u b l i s h e d works i n T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s ( T a b l e 2 ) , o t h e r p s y c h o -l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s , R o g e t ' s Thesaurus and f r o m d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s . , E i g h t y d e s c r i p t o r s were" s e l e c t e d f o r t h e p i l o t s t u d y . An a priori c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u t i l i z i n g common TA ego s t a t e c o n s t r u c t s , was u s e d t o g u i d e t h e i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n o f d e s c r i p t o r s . The c a t e g o r i e s u s e d were: 1. N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t 2. C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t 3. A d u l t 4. N a t u r a l C h i l d 5. C o m p l i a n t C h i l d 6., R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d . No • a t t e m p t was-made" t o choose, e q u a l numbers o f d e s c r i p t o r s f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y ( s e e . A p p e n d i x I f o r t h e a priori c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n ) . 49 Sample Decks o f d e s c r i p t o r s were s o r t e d by 51 people.^ ~-c o n v e r s a n t w i t h TA t h e o r y . S o r t e r s i n c l u d e d members o f t h e L e t h b r i d g e , R e g i n a and V a n c o u v e r TA s e m i n a r s , d e l e g a t e s t o a TA workshop i n Edmonton/ g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n C o u n s e l l i n g a t . U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C./ p l u s a few g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n ego s t a t e r e s e a r c h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Directions for. Sorting Members, o f t h e sample were f i r s t r e q u e s t e d t o s o r t t h e d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d c a t e g o r i e s , o r t o p l a c e them i n a R e j e c t C a t e g o r y i f t h e d e s c r i p t o r seemed t o b e l o n g t o more t h a n one ego s t a t e o r i f i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o d e c i d e on a c a t e g o r y f o r t h a t d e s c r i p t o r . The s o r t e r s were a s k e d t o g i v e a r e a s o n f o r r e j e c t i n g , any d e s c r i p t o r . The s e c o n d s t e p was f o r s o r t e r s t o s u b d i v i d e t h e i r o r i g i n a l P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d c a t e g o r i e s i f and as t h e y w i s h e d . F i n a l l y t h e y were a s k e d t o g i v e t i t l e s t o t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I I f o r t h e d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s ) . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d e c k o f d e s c r i p t o r s b e f o r e , and a f t e r s o r t i n g i s shown i n F i g u r e 8.. Results L a t e n t P a r t i t i o n A n a l y s i s (LPA) was u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a i n o r d e r t o s u m m a r i z e . i t i n s u c h a way. t h a t t h e m a j o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n , t h e d a t a w o u l d be BEFORE WHITE'DESCRIPTOR CARDS B L A N K Y E L L O W C A R D S B L U E I D C A R D EXTRA YELLOW CARDS AFTER WHITE DESCRIPTOR CAROS / / YELLOW CARD WITH SORTER'S CATEGORY TITLE WHITE DESCRIPTOR CARDS YELLOW CARD WITH SORTER'S CATEGORY TITLE / / BLUE VD CARD F i g u r e 8 A r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e Deck B e f o r e and A f t e r S o r t i n g made a p p a r e n t . ' The f i r s t s u m m a r i z a t i o n i n LPA i s a J o i n t P r o p o r t i o n M a t r i x (S) w h i c h shows t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s o r t e r s i n whose c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s e a c h p a i r o f i t e m s a p p e a r e d i n t h e same m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r y . The LPA p r o g r a m c o n t i n u e s by s u m m a r i z i n g t h e J o i n t P r o p o r t i o n M a t r i x i n t o a number o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . On t h e f i r s t r u n — w i t h t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s u n s p e c i f i e d -- t h e a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d 13 l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . The e i g e n v a l u e s were examined t o d e t e r m i n e where t h e n a t u r a l b r e a k came i n numbers o f c a t e g o r i e s . On t h e s e c o n d r u n 8 c a t e g o r i e s were r e q u e s t e d , and on t h e t h i r d 7. S e v e n c a t e g o r i e s p r o d u c e d t h e s m a l l e s t number o f n e g a -t i v e l o a d i n g s w i t h no o t h e r a p p a r e n t a n o m a l i e s . I t was t h e n c o n s i d e r e d t h a t 7 l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s b e s t d e s c r i b e d t h e m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s p r o d u c e d . b y t h e s o r t e r s . The com-p u t e r l i s t e d t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s i n a P h i M a t r i x , w i t h e a c h i t e m a s s i g n e d t o t h e c a t e g o r y f o r w h i c h i t had t h e h i g h e s t l o a d i n g ( c a l l e d a p r i m a r y l o a d i n g ) . Items w i t h p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s o f l e s s t h a n .50 a n d / o r s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g s o f .20 o r more were c o n s i d e r e d t o be ambiguous. The d e s c r i p t o r c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n -ed f r o m t h e p i l o t s t u d y i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3. T h i s S i n c e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s o r t i n g i n t h e p i l o t study, d i d n o t c o m p l e t e l y c o n f o r m t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s s e t down by M i l l e r e t a l . , ( 1 9 7 5 ) , r e s u l t s o f LPA o f t h e s e d a t a c a n o n l y be u s e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f a t r e n d i n t h e s o r t i n g . Table 3 P i l o t Study: P h i M a t r i x n = 51 L = 7 c a t e g o r i e s Suggested Category T i t l e 1. N u r t u r i n g Parent 2. C o n t r o l l i n g Parent 3. Computing A d u l t 4.. E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t 5. Free C h i l d 6. R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d 7. Compliant C h i l d Items Item Loadings on Latent Categories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Rescuing 69 19 16 -30 6 - 1 3 5. H e l p f u l 80 - 9 - 1 0 47 - 8 5 3 2 9 . A l l o w i n g 80 -95 -3 - 9 45 - 7 - 3 2 1 2 . Caring 4 - 8 1 9 - 1 - 1 - 2 4 5 . P r o t e c t i v e 101 10 4 - 1 3 2 - 1 - 1 1 5 . Sympathetic 109 - 3 5 - 1 3 2 0 1 3 5 . N u r t u r i n g 115 - 4 5 - 1 3 2 1 - 1 4 2 . Comforting 115 - 4 5 - 1 3 2 1 - 1 4 6 . O v e r - P r o t e c t i v e 45 4b 9 25 5 -• 2 3 78 . Reactionary - 3 68 - 3 - 2 6 27 4 34 . D i r e c t i n g 9 76 - 6 32 -• 5 -• 6 - 2 7 9 . Conservative 10 82 - 2 1 2 -• 2 -• 3 1 7 2 . A u t h o r i t a t i v e 0 83 5 24 -• 3 -• 6 - 1 6 9 . T r a d i t i o n a l 1 1 88 - 1 - 2 1 -• 6 1 7 4 . Dominant - 5 93 - 1 3 37 -• 2 -- 7 0 4 8 . Bossy - 8 r01 - 9 16 -• 2 1 2 2 1 9 . R i g i d - 6 * .04 - 3 5 -• 1 1 - 4 4. C o n t r o l l i n g - 1 : .08 - 4 10 -• 2 -• 5 - 2 7 5 . P r e j u d i c e d - 2 LI 5' - 2 0 2 2 0 43 . C r i t i c i z e s Others - 1 '' .1 3 - 1 4 1 0 - 1 54. Punishing - 1 .7 2 - 1 2 1 -- 3 - 3 6 0 . P e r s e c u t i n g - 3 .7 3 - 1 4 2 -- 2 0 6 8 . A u t o c r a t i c • - 2 .8 6 - 1 7 2 -- 3 - 1 3 6 . Dogmatic - 2 : L9 3 - 1 5 2 -- 5 - 2 4 9 . Goal Oriented 1 10 b l 35 -- 3 0 0 5 8 . Makes Decis i o n s - 3 - I 81 25 -- 3 0 0 5 3 . Organizes 3 7 84 3 4 -- 1 0 6 7 . Plans Ahead 1 1 84 9 0 0 0 6 5 . O b j e c t i v e 0 - 1 91 8 3 0 0 9. Solves Problems 2 • 1 96 - 6 3 2 1 3 0 . Estimates P r o b a b i l i t i e s 2 • 1 102 - 8 3 1 ' 1 4 0 . L o g i c a l and F a c t u a l 2 0 103 - 9 2 1 1 5_6,_ Thinks A n a l y t i c a l l y _ _ 2 _ 0 .. _104 - 1 1 3 1 .. 2 : 6 2 . Powerful - 7 53 - 1 6 b2 -- 3 4 - 7 2 5 . S o c i a b l e 1 - 2 - 2 1 65 41 -- 7 1 2 4 7 . Open to New Information - 7 • 4 56 66 --10 1 - 3 7 1 . S e n s i t i v e t o Others' Needs 56 • -10 -24. 83 -- 4 1 4 5 2 . Good Leader 9 2 17 87 --13 3 - 6 6. Ask f o r What You Want - 1 2 - 4 6 92 24 2 - 6 73 . Experiences R e l a t i o n s h i p s - 1 2 • •1 -27 95 44 -- 8 1 3 7 . A s s e r t i v e - 1 0 3 9 99 0 -- 1 - 3 4 4 . Autonomous - 1 3 • 4 30 100 -- 9 -- 2 - 5 2 2 . R e s p e c t f u l of Others' Rights 23 - 9 - 6 100 --16 5 7 2 4 . E t h i c a l l y Responsible - 2 1 2 0 101 -- 1 3 -- 5 0 63 . Aware of Others 1 • 8 - 1 4 125 -- 8 -- 1 1 5 5 . F l e x i b l e - 4 • 7 3 126 -- 5 -- 6 - 2 5 0 . S e l f Aware - 1 4 • 8 1 1 128 1 3 0 - 3 59 . Do What You Want 6 0 9 30 54 1 5 ..- 5 1 7 . S e l f - i n d u l g e n t 0 • 1 • 1 - 2 63 38 1 32 . Takes Risks - 5 • 4 - 2 46 64 5 - 1 38 . A f f e c t i o n a t e 2 1 - 1 2 39 V- 1 - 1 2 1 . I n t u i t i v e 1 0 7 - 6 75 - 3 6 1 . T r u s t i n g 5 • 2 - 5 1 7 76 • - 1 1 1 8. C r e a t i v e - 3 0 - 3 17 90 -- 7 - 1 1 1 . Curious 1 0 5 - 1 4 ' LQ1 1 0 2 7 . Expressive - 1 0 0 1 2 .03 -- 9 0 4 1 . Unaware of Time - 2 2 - 3 5 .09 1 - 3 7 0 . Sensual 0 0 2 - 4 .11 1 - 1 7 6 . Spontaneous - 1 1 1 - 5 ; .13 -- 4 - 2 3 3 . U n i n h i b i t e d 1 0 7 - 1 6 : .13 4 - 3 1 4 . E n t h u s i a s t i c 3 1 5 - 1 7 ' .16 -- 3 1 2 6 . P l a y f u l 1 1 5 - 1 6 : [17 -- 4 1 1 8 . M a n i p u l a t i v e - 2 1 1 - 7 1 8 5 4U 20 66 . D i s t r u s t s Others 3 25 - 4 - 7 -- 9 64 22 20.' Passive-Aggressive 0 • 1 - 1 - 8 -- 9 70 33 7 7 . Vengeful 0 7 1 - 3 -- 4 L05 - 4 8 0 . R e b e l l i o u s 1 • 8 3 - 7 8 .13 --11. 28 . Stubborn • ] _ • • • . 6 - 1 1 -- 6 L20 - 7 3 9 . P e s s i m i s t i c - 5 44 - 7 22 -- 3 7 45 6 4 . Depressed 0 • 1 - 1 1 0 23 \3 1 3 . Withdraws .- 1 • 1 2 0 2 8 )2 5 7 . Anxious 0'"' "2 - 4 1 0 ""--' 2"" 6 94 1 6 . Self-Conscious - 1 1 1 4 -- 1 1 ' L02 1 0 . F e a r f u l 1 • 3 5 - 1 3 1 2 -- 1 ' .02 5 1 . Doubts S e l f - 2 1 - 3 • 8 -- 5 -- 2 ' .06 2 3 . Passive 2 • 2 0 - 1 -- 2 -- 6 ' .08 3. Feels G u i l t y - 2 1 - 5 1 1 -- 4 --io ; L09 7. Obedient 0 • 3 3 - 7 -- 3 --lo • LO ' 1. Seeks Approval 0 - 3 3 7 -- 2 6 '2 3 1 . Timid 0 • 3 4 - 9 -- 1 --10 ' .8 Items are l i s t e d i n each category from weakest t o st r o n g e s t Loadings have been m u l t i p l i e d by 1 0 0 t a b l e c o n s i s t s o f 80 rows c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e 80 d e s -c r i p t o r s , and s e v e n columns d e f i n i n g s e v e n l a t e n t c a t e -g o r i e s . The d e s c r i p t o r s a r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o . t h e i r membership i n t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . I n e a c h g r o u p t h e d e s c r i p t o r s a r e o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o the. c o n f i d e n c e w i t h w h i c h t h e y c a n be a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . O r d e r i n g o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s was b a s e d on a t h e o r e t i c a l d e c i s i o n r a t h e r t h a n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t r e n g t h , o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s . . I n - t h e f i r s t row o f t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y t h e d e s c r i p t o r comforting has a l o a d i n g o f 1.15 on i t s own c a t e g o r y w i t h o n l y s m a l l e n t r i e s f o r o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s f i r s t l a t e n t c a t e g o r y i s i n f e r r e d t o c o n s i s t o f comforting, nurturing, sympathetic, protective3 caring, allowing, helpful, and rescuing. The f i r s t f i v e c l e a r l y b e l o n g o n l y t o l a t e n t c a t e g o r y 1, w h i l e allowing and helpful have s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g s on c a t e g o r y 4. Rescuing i s l e s s c l e a r , w i t h a l o a d i n g o f .19 on c a t e g o r y 2 and -.30 on c a t e g o r y 4 ( f o r more e x p l a n a t i o n o f rescuing s e e T a b l e 3 ) . The d e s c r i p t o r s . o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e , manipulative, and pessimistic, have t h e i r h i g h e s t e n t r i e s between .20 and .50 and a r e t h e r e f o r e ambiguous; t h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e s e d e s c r i p t o r s c a n n o t be p r e c i s e l y a s s i g n e d t o any l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . A m b i g u i t y o c c u r s when c o n t e n t u n i t s a r e n o t s o r t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y by a l l t h e s o r t e r s , a t l e a s t , n o t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e r i v e d s e t o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . S i x o f t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d e d v e r y w e l l t o TA ego s t a t e s as d e f i n e d by v a r i o u s , a u t h o r s . The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n e d a . m i x t u r e o f i t e m s t h a t have p r e v i o u s l y . b e e n a s c r i b e d t o o t h e r ego s t a t e s — e . g . , sociable has been a s c r i b e d t o N a t u r a l C h i l d and i n d e e d has a s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g on NC — o r i t e m s w h i c h have n o t been i n c l u d e d p r e v i o u s l y i n d e f i n i t i o n s o f ego s t a t e s — e.g./ assertive w h i c h has no s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g on a n o t h e r c a t e -gory, and y e t was o n l y r e j e c t e d by 3 s o r t e r s . A new s u b -d i v i s i o n o f t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e seems t o have a p p e a r e d . I n t h e Omega M a t r i x , T a b l e 4, t h i s new c a t e g o r y t e n d s t o o v e r l a p w i t h t h e c a t e g o r y p r e s e n t l y c a l l e d A d u l t . T h i s c a t e g o r y has been l a b e l l e d Experiencing Adult as i t seems t o c o n f o r m t o C a m p b e l l ' s (Note 7) p o s t u l a t e d f u n c t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e . The o t h e r A d u l t c a t e -g o r y h as been c a l l e d Computing Adult. The e s t i m a t e d Omega M a t r i x f o r t h e 5 1 - s o r t e r p i l o t -s t u d y d a t a i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 4. I n t h e c a s e o f t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y , GA, a b o u t 96% o f t h e s o r t e r s w o u l d g r o u p t o g e t h e r any p a i r o f d e s c r i p t o r s d e f i n e d as members o f t h a t l a t e n t c a t e g o r y . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 36% o f t h e s o r t e r s w o u l d have g r o u p e d d e s c r i p t o r s f r o m GA w i t h d e s c r i p t o r s f r o m EA. From t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e c a t e g o r y . EA t o merge w i t h CA, FC and NP, i t c a n be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o r t e r s d i f f e r e d as t o t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e d e s c r i p -t o r s i n t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r y l a b e l l e d as E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , a s no t h e o r i s t . h a s y e t T a b l e 4 P i l o t S t u d y : Omega M a t r i x P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r y C o m b i n a t i o n CP NP CA EA FC C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t 59 N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t 8 77 C o m p u t i n g A d u l t 3 0 96 E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t 6 12 36 36 F r e e C h i l d 1 1 0 13 71 R e b e l l i o u s , C h i l d 8 1 o, 5 14 C o m p l i a n t C h i l d 5 2 1 6 7 N o t e : F o r t h i s m a t r i x : n = ..51 s u b j e c t s i = 80 i t e m s L = 7 c a t e g o r i e s RC CC p u b l i s h e d an ego s t a t e s u b d i v i s i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e EA c a t e g o r y . A R e j e c t c a t e g o r y was a l l o w e d u n d e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t some, d e s c r i p t o r s w o u l d n o t a p p l y , t o one ego. s t a t e o n l y . Some s o r t e r s g ave d e t a i l e d r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r r e j e c -t i o n s . The most common r e a s o n was t h a t an i t e m c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a l l t h r e e ego s t a t e s . Some s o r t e r s were v e r y s p e c i f i c i n s t a t i n g where t h e o v e r l a p l a y : e . g . pessimistic was r e j e c t e d by 3 s o r t e r s b e c a u s e o f an o v e r -l a p between P a r e n t and C h i l d . O n l y 6 o u t o f • t h e 80 i t e m s were r e j e c t e d by as many as 20% o f t h e s o r t e r s . T h e s e were t h e n c h a n g e d o r d e l e t e d f r o m t h e f i n a l l i s t o f d e s c r i p t o r s 1 . Some d e s c r i p t o r s were l e f t o u t o f t h e f i n a l l i s t b e c a u s e o f s e m a n t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s reactionary was f r e q u e n t l y p l a c e d i n a C h i l d c a t e g o r y , x b i k e l y l y b e c a u s e o f t h e p o s s i b l e r o o t " r e a c t " . The l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s were q u i t e s t a b l e : as t h e number o f - c a t e g o r i e s c h a n g e d f r o m t e h n t o s i x , a l l b u t f o u r o f t h e d e s c r i p t o r s s t a y e d i n t h e same l a t e n t c a t e g o r y throughout,. The d e t a i l e d , r e s u l t s r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e 5 show t h a t exper-iences,, relationships and sociable a p p e a r i n F r e e C h i l d when 10 c a t e g o r i e s were r e q u e s t e d , i n E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t when 9, 8, and 7 c a t e g o r i e s were r e q u e s t e d , and i n F r e e C h i l d a g a i n when o n l y 6 c a t e g o r i e s were r e q u e s t e d . B o t h o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t o r s were e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e f i n a l l i s t o f d e s c r i p t o r s . T a b l e 5 P i l o t Study: S t a b i l i t y of L a t e n t C a t e g o r i e s as the Number Changes Number of L a t e n t C a t e g o r i e s Requested •Descriptors 10 9 8 A u t h o r i t a t i v e D i r e c t i n g Dominant C o n s e r v a t i v e T r a d i t i o n a l C o n t r o l l i n g Powerful +CP -+CP +CP • P r e j u d i c e d A u t o c r a t i c P e r s e c u t i n g Dogmatic R i g i d P u n i s h i n g . C r i t i c i z e s Others Bossy R e a c t i o n a r y -CP -CP -CP CP CP O v e r p r o t e c t i v e Rescuing i " " -NP -NP Comforting N u r t u r i n g Sympathetic C a r i n g P r o t e c t i v e A l l o w i n g H e l p f u l S e n s i t i v e to Others Needs +NP +NP (EA) NP (EA) NP (EA) NP (EA) Thinks A n a l y t i c a l l y L o g i c a l & F a c t u a l E s t i m a t e s P r o b a b i l i t i e s Solves Problems Obj e c t i v e Organizes Plans Ahead Makes D e c i s i o n s Goal O r i e n t e d CA CA CA CA A S e l f Aware Autonomous Aware of Others F l e x i b l e A s s e r t i v e Ask f o r What You Want R e s p e c t f u l of Others R i g h t s E t h i c a l l y R e s p o n s i b l e Open to New I n f o r m a t i o n Good.Leader EA EA EA EA S o c i a b l e Experiences R e l a t i o n s h i p s . A f f e c t i o n a t e Unaware of Time Sensual E n t h u s i a s t i c Do What You Want P l a y f u l Spontaneous U n i n h i b i t e d E x p r e s s i v e T r u s t i n g S e l f Indulgent Takes Ris k s P e s s i m i s t i c FC FC (CC) FC (CC) FC ( C O FC I n t u i t i v e Curious C r e a t i v e LP Stubborn R e b e l l i o u s V e n g e f u l P a s s i v e A g g r e s s i v e D i s t r u s t s Others M a n i p u l a t i v e RC RC RC RC RC Timid Seeks Approval Obedient F e e l s G u i l t y P a s s i v e Doubts S e l f S e l f Conscious F e a r f u l Anxious Withdraws Depressed CC CC CC CC CC Key to A b b r e v a t i o n s + = P o s i t i v e or OK - = Negative or Not OK CP = C o n t r o l l i n g Parent NP = N u r t u r i n g Parent A = A d u l t EA = E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t CA = Computing A d u l t FC = Free c h i l d LP = L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r RC = Rebel C h i l d CC = Compliant C h i l d 58 Examination, of the set of 10 categories showed a separation into i d e n t i f i a b l e ego state constructs with some having only two or three representative descriptors. It seemed obvious that the categories Not-OK Nurturing Parent and L i t t l e Professor needed more descriptors i n order to test whether or not they could be regarded as vi a b l e . Final Study: Population The population of i n t e r e s t i n the f i n a l study i s a l l those TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s c e r t i f i e d by the International Trans-actional Analysis Association resident i n Canada and USA. The levels of c e r t i f i c a t i o n are detailed i n Table 6 . Regional d i s -t r i b u t i o n of the population i s presented i n Figure 9 . Sample A s t r a t i f i e d random sample consisting of approximately one-^fourth of the resident population i n the United States and Canada was used i n the study. The. popu-l a t i o n was s t r a t i f i e d by region and by l e v e l of expertise to produce the sample of 220 individuals described i n Table 7. A l l CSFTM's were included along with one-fourth of every other group. Respondents were asked to i d e n t i f y t h e i r years of experience i n TA, highest degree, and form of.employment. Degrees were categorized as Medical Doctor, Doctorate (including Ph.D., Ed.D., Doctor of D i v i n i t y ) , Degree i n So c i a l Table 6 C e r t i f i c a t i o n Requirements of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Transactional Analysis A s s o c i a t i o n CLINICAL MEMBER (CM) SPECIAL FIELDS MEMBER (SFM) 50 hours advanced t r a i n i n g 150 hours experience 50 hours of supervision by a Teaching Member p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a TA seminar pass w r i t t e n and o r a l examinations T r a i n i n g , experience and-examinations i n c l i n i c a l treatment f i e l d t r a i n i n g , experience and examinations i n s p e c i a l l y designated n o n - c l i n i c a l f i e l d PROSPECTIVE TEACHING MEMBER (CPTM or SFPTM) - complete two years as a c e r t i f i e d member - r e g i s t e r a contract with the ITAA for super-v i s i o n and t r a i n i n g by a sponsor (CTM or SFTM) TEACHING MEMBER (TM) - possess graduate degree i n a healing a r t s profession or have 6 years' f u l l - t i m e p r a c t i c a l experience - during a period of 3 years or more: - teach a 101 -in the presence of a Teaching Member - accrue 50 hours of supervision - accrue 700 hours of TA teaching and t r a i n i n g - accrue 1000 hours of.experience - sponsor and t r a i n two trainees - p u b l i s h i n p r o f e s s i o n a l journals or make pre-sentation at summer conference - pass w r i t t e n and o r a l examinations CLINICAL TEACHING MEMBER (CTM) - f u l f i l l the requirements f o r TM's i n a c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g i n c l u d i n g counsel-l i n g and psychotherapy SPECIAL' FIELDS TEACHING MEMBER (SFTM) - f u l f i l l the requirements f o r TM's i n a s p e c i a l l y designated non-c l i n i c a l f i e l d - complete other p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n -ing i n the chosen f i e l d o Work (M.S.W., B.S.W.), N u r s i n g (R.N., M.N.E.), o t h e r M a s t e r ' 5 ' D e g r e e s (J4.A. , M . S c , M.Ed., M a s t e r o f D i v i n i t y ) , and B a c h e l o r ' s D e g r e e s (B.A., B . S c , e t c . ) . Employment was. c a t e g o r i z e d as P r i v a t e P r a c t i c e , U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g , E m p l o y e d by an Ag e n c y , B u s i n e s s o r S c h o o l T e a c h i n g , S t u d e n t o r Unemployed. T h e s e d a t a a r e summarized i n T a b l e 8. T a b l e 7 Sample S t r a t i f i e d by R e g i o n s and E x p e r t i s e ( S a m p l i n g R a t i o = %f R e g i o n CSFTM CTM/SFTM CPTM/SFPTM CM/SFM ' TOTAL N o r t h - W e s t 0 3 3 8 14 C e n t r a l C a l i f . 4 7 9 11 31 South-West 0 3 6 14 23 P l a i n s & Mtns. 2 2 9. 18 31 Mid-West 0 5 10 17 32 C e n t r a l 0 2 8 17 27 N o r t h - E a s t 0 3 8 16 27 S o u t h - E a s t 0 3 10 22 35 T o t a l 6 28 63 123 220 F o r CSFTM, a new c a t e g o r y i n ITAA c e r t i f i c a t i o n , a 100% s a m p l i n g r a t i o was u s e d . T a b l e 8 Dem o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s : C u m u l a t i v e F r e q u e n c y D i s t r i b u t i o n ( p e r c e n t ) Code 1 2 3 • 4 5 . 6 E x p e r t i s e 60.2 87.6 99.1 100.00 E d u c a t i o n 5.3 16.8 52.2 69.9 79.6 100.00 . Employment 3.5 12.4 2 8.3 40.7 100.0 Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 CM/SFM CPTM/SFPTM CTM/SFTM CSFTM RN BA/BS e t c . MA/MEd. e t c . BSW/MSW MD PhD/D. D i v S t u d e n t / U n e m p l o y e d B u s i n e s s / T e a c h i n g A g e n c y / C h u r c h , e t c . U n i v . / C o l l e g e T e a c h i n g P r i v a t e P r a c t i c e > i v a L a I'' • . c t i c t Structure of the Sorting Task The s o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d f o r t h e F - s o r t i n t h e f i n a l s t u d y were t h o s e o u t l i n e d by M i l l e r e t a l . (1975) Content Domain A f t e r t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e p i l o t s t u d y had been a n a l y s e d t h e l i s t o f d e s c r i p t o r s was m o d i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h o s e d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h were r e j e c t e d by more t h a n two p i l o t s t u d y s u b j e c t s , t h o s e d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h s w i t c h e d f r o m one c a t e g o r y t o a n o t h e r as t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s was. c h a n g e d (see T a b l e 5 ) , and t h o s e d e s c r i p t o r s w i t h s i m i l a r d e n o t a t i v e m eanings were e x c l u d e d . S i n c e t e n r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g , t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r e d i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y , t h e s e became t h e a priori c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r d e s c r i p t o r s f o r t h e f i n a l s t u d y ( A p p e n d i x I I ) . D e s c r i p t o r s were added t o s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s t o c r e a t e a f i n a l l i s t o f 97 d e s c r i p t o r s c o n -s i s t i n g o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 i t e m s p e r c a t e g o r y , w i t h t h e c a t e g o r i e s b e i n g : 1. OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t 2. Not-OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t 3. OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t 4. Not-OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t 5. Computing A d u l t 6. E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t 7. F r e e C h i l d 8. L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r 9. R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d 10. C o m p l i a n t C h i l d 64 Sorting Cue The s o r t i n g cue i s the c r i t e r i o n s tatement which d i r e c t s and f o c u s e s s o r t e r s ' d e c i s i o n s as they m a n i p u l a t e the s t i m u l i ( M i l l e r , e t a l . . , 1975, p . 10 ) . The s o r t i n g cue i n t h i s s t u d y was " P u t t o g e t h e r t h o s e d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h you t h i n k are characteristic of the same ego states or sub-ego states. I f two b e h a v i o r s c a n ' t be grouped t o g e t h e r or you doubt t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y , , keep them s e p a r a t e " ( S o r t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n s , - A p p e n d i x I V ) . Task Administration The d e s c r i p t o r s were randomized and punched on com-p u t e r c a r d s . Each deck was then pseudo-randomly o r d e r e d by c u t t i n g i t i n t o q u a r t e r s , h a l v e s o r t h i r d s , hand s h u f f l i n g , c u t t i n g a g a i n and s h u f f l i n g a g a i n . T h u s , the d e s c r i p t o r s w i l l have been p r e s e n t e d t o each s o r t e r i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r . A f t e r m a n i p u l a t i o n by the s o r t e r s , the c a r d s can be d i r e c t l y e n t e r e d i n t o a c a r d r e a d e r and the d a t a t r a n s m i t t e d i m m e d i a t e l y t o the computer f o r r e d u c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . The c a r d arrangement b e f o r e and a f t e r s o r t i n g i s shown i n F i g u r e 8. S i n c e s o r t e r s i n the p i l o t s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e d no d i f f i c u l t y i n f o l l o w i n g the w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s , s o r t e r s i n the f i n a l sample were p r e s e n t e d w i t h s i m i l a r i n s t r u c -t i o n s s p e c i f y i n g the t a s k o b j e c t i v e s and sequence of s o r t i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n s (Appendix. IV) . The i n s t r u c t i o n s emphasize the s o r t i n g c u e , t ime r e q u i r e d , n a t u r e of the s t i m u l i , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s as i m p l i e d by t h e s o r t i n g c u e . D i r e c t i o n s and s t a t e m e n t s g i v e n by t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i l l e m p h a s i z e t h e f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s a d a p t e d f r o m M i l l e r e t a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) : A. The p u r p o s e o f t h e s o r t i n g i s t o o b t a i n t h e s o r t e r ' s own v i e w s w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i mposed by t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . B. . S o r t e r s s h o u l d e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s by s o r t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t o r s ' i n t o g r o u p s ; t h e c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t o f g r o u p f o r m a t i o n b e i n g t h e s o r t e r s ' judgement, a b o u t w h e t h e r two o r more d e s c r i p t o r s form, a g r o u p b e c a u s e o f s i m i l a r i t y . T h i s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r own, v i e w s o f what b e h a v i o r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f what ego s t a t e s . C. The s o r t e r s s h o u l d p r o c e e d s t e p - b y - s t e p , c o n -s i d e r i n g e a c h d e s c r i p t o r one a t a t i m e , r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o a t t e n d t o a l l d e s c r i p t o r s , s p r e a d o u t en masse. D. - G r o u p i n g a d e s c r i p t o r w i t h one o r more o t h e r s s h o u l d n o t o c c u r i f t h e s o r t e r h as some d o u b t as. t o t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y . " I f i n d o u b t k eep t h e d e s c r i p t o r s ' s e p a r a t e " . D e s c r i p t o r s c a n be s o r t e d i n t o one and o n l y one c a t e g o r y . S o r t e r s may f o r m any number o f c a t e g o r i e s and may p u t any number o f d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o a c a t e g o r y . T e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r y t i t l e s c a n be made by a s o r t e r on t h e c a r d s w h i l e s o r t i n g . . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t a s k , t h e y a r e a s k e d t o f i n a l i z e t h e i r c a t e g o r y t i t l e s t o h e l p t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e s -c r i b e and i n t e r p r e t t h e l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e s i d e n t i f i e d l a t e r by LPA. In t h e f i n a l s t u d y a s t a n d a r d l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i was u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e s o r t e r s ' c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s . I n t h e p i l o t s t u d y , LPA was n o t f u l l y a p p l i c a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e s o r t e r s t o b e g i n t h e t a s k by s o r t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t o r s f i r s t i n t o t h r e e " s u p e r c a t e g o r i e s " o f P a r e n t , A d u l t , and C h i l d and o n l y l a t e r i n t o s u b c a t e g o r i e s . I n t h e f i n a l s t u d y , however, s o r t e r s were i n s t r u c t e d t o c r e a t e as many c a t e g o r i e s as t h e y w i s h , and t h u s t h e r e s u l t i n g d a t a a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a n a l y s i s by LPA. C h a p t e r 4 ANALYSES AND RESULTS R e s u l t s o f d a t a a n a l y s e s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r . a . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a m p l e , i n c l u d i n g a n a l y s e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among l e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e , . e d u c a t i o n , employment, and number o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s . b. A n a l y s i s o f s o r t e r s ' t i t l e s o f t h e i r m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f d e t e r m i n i n g common and u s e f u l l a b e l s f o r ego s t a t e s . The s o r t e r s ' t i t l e s were a l s o a n a l y s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r u s e o f s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l t e r m i n o l o g y . c. L a t e n t P a r t i t i o n A n a l y s i s o f a s e t o f b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s s o r t e d by c e r t i f i e d members o f ITAA: the. number and c o m p o s i t i o n o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s 68 w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e t h e m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s o f . t h e s o r t e r s ; t h e c o n f i d e n c e w i t h w h i c h d e s c r i p t o r s c a n be a s s i g n e d t o a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y ; t h e p r o b -a b i l i t y o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r y c o n f u s i o n s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample R e s p o n s e s were o b t a i n e d f r o m 125 members o f t h e sample ( t o t a l = 2 2 0 ) ; o f t h e s e 111 r e t u r n e d s o r t e d d e c k s o f b e -h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s . The r e t u r n r a t e f o r t h e s a m p l e . i s summarized i n T a b l e 9, w h i c h shows t h a t t h e r e was an e q u i t -a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s r e g i o n s and a c r o s s l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e , t h o u g h t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n among t h e l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e w i t h i n e a c h r e g i o n . . Relationships among Levels of' Expertise} Education, Employ-ment and Number of Manifest Categories C o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 10. No c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t ( e*r = .05) between number. o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e s o r t e r s and l e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e , e d u c a t i o n o r employ-ment. L e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e , however, was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d («< = .05) w i t h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and employ-ment: i . e . ^ t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d t h a t TM's w i l l have MD's o r Ph.D's and be i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e . C u m u l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f e x p e r t i s e , e d u c a t i o n and employ-ment a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e 8. A f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n 69 T a b l e 9 P e r c e n t a g e o f R e t u r n s i n t h e Sample E x p e r t i s e R e g i o n CSFTM CTM/SFTM CPTM/SFPTM CM/SFM TOTAL 1. N o r t h - W e s t - 66.7 100.0 50.0 64.3 2. C e n t r a l C a l i f . 75.0 85.7 22.2 63.6 58.1 3. South-West - 0-0 33.3 35.7 30.4 4. Mtns. & P l a i n s 0.0 0.0 55.6 50.0 46.7 5. Mid-West - - 40.0 60.0 • 52.9 53.1 6. C e n t r a l - 50.0 87.5 64.7 67.9 7. N o r t h - E a s t - 33.3 87.5 81.3 77.8 8. S o u t h - E a s t - 66.7 50.0 59.1 58.8 T o t a l 50.0 46.4 55.6 60.2 56.8 T a b l e 10 R e l a t i o n s h i p s among Demographic V a r i a b l e s and Number o f M a n i f e s t C a t e g o r i e s E x p e r t i s e E d u c a t i o n Employment N o . C a t e g o r i e s E x p e r t i s e 1.00 .22 .16 .03 E d u c a t i o n .22* 1.00 .12 .09 * Employment .16 .12 1.00 .04 No. C a t e g o r i e s .03 .09 .04 1.00 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 o f t h e number o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s u s e d by s o r t e r s a p p e a r s i n F i g u r e 10. I n summary, i t c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e x p e r t i s e among t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t t h e sample c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h a t t h e r e i s no a p p a r e n t b i a s i n number o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o l e v e l o f e x p e r t i s e , e d u c a t i o n o r employment. Latent P a r t i t i o n Analysis Number of Latent Categories Ten s e p a r a t e l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e 111 s e t s o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s , e a c h r e q u e s t i n g a d i f f e r e n t number o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . P h i m a t r i c e s o f t h e e i g h t r u n s w h i c h p r o d u c e d l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i a b l e 3 as TA c o n s t r u c t s a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x V. The f i r s t r u n r e q u e s t e d t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s e q u a l t o t h e number o f l a t e n t r o o t s e q u a l t o o r g r e a t e r t h a n 1.0. T h i s p r o d u c e d 10 c a t e g o r i e s which-_wer.e.'-yery s i m i l a r t o t h e a -priori c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x I I . The l a t e n t r o o t s ( e i g e n v a l u e s ) were t h e n examined and p l o t t e d . As F i g u r e 10 shows, a b r e a k i n t h e c u r v e comes between 10 and 11 l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e r e s e m b l e s t h e " s c r e e " t e s t ( C a t t e l l , 1966) and s u p p o r t s t h e " l a t e n t r o o t s ^ 1" t e s t i n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t 10 i s t h e b e s t E n t i r e s i n a l l r e s u l t s o f L a t e n t P a r t i t i o n A n a l y s i s a r e e s t i -mated p r o b a b i l i t i e s . I n t h e t a b l e s o f t h i s r e p o r t , t h e y have been r o u n d e d t o two d e c i m a l p l a c e s . a n d m u l t i p l i e d by 100. 71 F i g u r e 10. P l o t o f e i g e n v a l u e s f o r t h e f i r s t 15 l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s number of c a t e g o r i e s t o f i t these data but i t a l s o shows a ;-,distinct break between r o o t s 5 and 6. For purposes of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the number of c a t e g o r i e s (L) was both r a i s e d and lowered u n t i l the composition of the c a t e g o r i e s no lon g e r resembled any t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s 4 or u n t i l t here were other i n d i c a t i o n s of l a c k of f i t . As shown i n the P h i matrices, f o r L = 11 and L = 10 (Appendix V ) , the category which matches the TA ego s t a t e o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as Compliant C h i l d splitsiihfcowwhataappear to be OK and Not-OK segments. Even though these cannot be con s i d e r e d t o be t r u e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the pr e v i o u s c r i t e r i a , they might be c a l l e d " i n c i p i e n t " l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s : i . e . they are i n d i c a t i v e of the tr e n d toward d i v i s i o n of the Adapted C h i l d i n t o OK and Not-OK a s p e c t s . When the number of c a t e g o r i e s was changed from L' = 11 to L = 12, the h i g h e s t n e g a t i v e e n t r y i n P h i changed from -.23 t o -.33, the number of r o t a t i o n s rose from 8 t o 14 and the three e n t r i e s i n the 12th category (seeksstruth 1,', ,s einaLGS'lIyyrespSnsdibae?" anddrespegtfMu©fo6thefes^sri-gfits)' ' do not appear t o r e p r e s e n t an i d e n t i f i a b l e TA c o n s t r u c t . When L was changed from 4 t o 3, the h i g h e s t n e g a t i v e e n t r y changed from -.11 to -.27, P h i was reduced to non-. sense w i t h items appearing t o have hig h e r secondary l o a d i n g s Goodness of f i t i s i n d i c a t e d by the s i z e and number of e n t r i e s i n P h i and Omega having v a l u e s g r e a t e r than one and l e s s than zero, and by the number of r o t a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o f i t Vhe modelt-Tlot'tifienid'acTla'. t h a n p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s and w i t h an e n t r y i n Omega o f 15.67 a l l o f w h i c h a r e i m p o s s i b l e i n LPA. Thus i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e s o r t e r s ' m a n i f e s t p a r t i t i o n s c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o t h e t h r e e b a s i c ego s t a t e s o f P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d . By r e f e r r i n g t o F i g u r e 11 one c a n s e e t h a t o n l y one s o r t e r u s e d t h r e e m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s , t h e mode was f i v e and t h e mean 7.5 i n a p o s i t i v e l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n . Number o f s o r t e r s Number o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s F i g u r e 11. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r e a c h number o f m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e LPA i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e t e n l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h combine h i e r a r c h i c a l l y t o f o r m f i v e h i g h e r - o r d e r c a t e g o r i e s . From L = 10 t o L = 4, p r o g r e s s i v e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r . Composition of Latent Categories • The R h i m a t r i c e s y i e l d e d by t h e a n a l y s e s f r o m L = 4 t o L = 11 a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x V.^' A summary o f t h e l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e d e s c r i p t o r s as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 12. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g t e n c a t e g o r y s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s 97 i t e m s e t o f b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 11 w h i c h shows t h e l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e o f ego s t a t e s as t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s r e q u e s t e d i s c h a n g e d f r o m 10 t o 4. Analysis of Descriptors in Phi: 10 Category Model P r i m a r y l o a d i n g s o f i t e m s have been d e s i g n a t e d by M i l l e r e t a l . (1967) as strong (90+), moderate (60 - 89) o r weak (30 - 5 9 ) . I t c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e P h i M a t r i x r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x V t h a t 59 i t e m s had s t r o n g l o a d i n g s , 26 m o d e r a t e , and 5 had weak l o a d i n g s on t h e i r p r i m a r y c a t e g o r i e s . Items with- strong primary loadings. None o f t h e 66 i t e m s w i t h s t r o n g p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s have s u b s t a n t i a l ( g r e a t e r t h e n .20) s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e d e s -c r i p t o r s i n EA. T h r e e o f t h e d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h l o a d s t r o n g l y The computer p r o g r a m SCAL06 ( U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1971) l i s t s t h e o r d e r o f i t e m s i n a c a t e g o r y w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t a t t h e b o t t o m and t h e w e a k e s t a t t h e t o p . F o r p u r p o s e s o f c o n s i s t e n c y , t h i s o r d e r w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a b l e s . 75 N C LP O K N P > O K N P Not-OK N P o Not-OK N P C A > C A E A > EA O K N P Not-OK NP O K N P OK N P Not. OK Not-OK NP 9 NP N C LP OK „ CC NOT OK C C IP • RC 10 RC CC CC RC RC _8 _7 Number, o f c a t e g o r i e s F i g u r e 12. L a t e n t s t r u c t u r e as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s Table 11 S t a b i l i t y of Latent Categories as a Function of Number of Categories Number of Latent Categories Requested Descriptors . 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 T r a d i t i o n a l Gives Orders A u t h o r i t a t i v e Corrects Others D i r e c t i n g D i s c i p l i n e s Others +CP C o n t r o l l i n g Condescending C r i t i c i z e s Others Bossy Rigid A u t o c r a t i c • Prejudiced Persecuting P u n i t i v e Dogmatic -CP CP CP CP CP CP ' P ' S e l f - S a c r i f i c i n g Indulges Others Doting Rescuing O v e r s o l i c i t o u s Over-Protective Smothering -NP -NP -NP -NP -NP F a c i l i t a t e s Others Shows Empathy S e n s i t i v e to Others' Needs P r o t e c t i v e Gives Permission Caring Sympathetic Encourages Others Comforting Reassuring +NP +NP +NP +NP +NP NP Goal Oriented Makes Decisions Defines R e a l i t y Plans Ahead Systematic Solves Problems Organizes Gathers Data Thinks A n a l y t i c a l l y L o g i c a l and Factual Objective Estimates P r o b a b i l i t i e s CA ' CA A . A A A A I n t r o s p e c t i v e Seeks Truth F l e x i b l e Self-Aware Autonomous Aware of Others Cooperates E t h i c a l l y Responsible Respectful of Others' Rights A s s e r t i v e Ask f o r What I Want W i l l i n g to Take Risks EA EC +NP +NP +NP (P) T r u s t i n g I do What I Want Expressive Impulsive U n i n h i b i t e d Spontaneous Unaware of Time Sensual P l a y f u l NC NC NC FC FC FC FC Magical Thinking Curious Imaginative Creative Inventive Ingenious Uses Hunches I n t u i t i v e LP LP LP Manipulates Others Secure Within a Structure Passive F e a r f u l Withdraws " Obedient Conforming Doubts S e l f Self-Conscious Seeks Approval Depressed Anxious Feels G u i l t y Timid CC CC CC CC AC AC AC Pr o c r a s t i n a t e s P a s s i v e l y R e s i s t a n t . Sulks Holds Grudges Bad Tempered Stubborn Vengeful Disobedient R e b e l l i o u s RC RC RC RC Key to Abbreviations + = OK - = Not-OK CP = C o n t r o l l i n g Parent NP Nurturing Parent CA Computing Adult EA Experiencing Adult NC = Natural C h i l d LP L i t t l e Professor FC = Free C h i l d = NC + LP CC = Compliant C h i l d RC = Reb e l l i o u s C h i l d AC = Adapted C h i l d = CC + RC Items ambiguous or category membership unclear on EA, respectful of others' r i g h t s , a s s e r t i v e , and ask for what I want, have s u b s t a n t i a l s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g s and, i n d e e d , when CA and EA c a t e g o r i e s merge t o f o r m A , a t L. = 8 ( t h o s e t h r e e i t e m s a p p e a r i n t h e c a t e g o r y on w h i c h t h e y have t h e i r s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g . Items with moderate primary loadings. Of t h e 26 i t e m s w i t h m o d e r a t e p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s , 6 had no s u b s t a n t i a l s e c o n d -a r y l o a d i n g w h i l e t h e o t h e r 20 had one s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g o v e r j 2 0 . I n t h e c a s e o f w i l l i n g to take r i s k s and e t h i c a l l y responsible, t h e d e s c r i p t o r s were a s s i g n e d t o o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s a t L = 8 i n t h e f o r m e r c a s e and L = 4 i n t h e l a t t e r . The o t h e r m o d e r a t e — l o a d i n g d e s c r i p t o r s r e m a i n e d s t a b l e a s t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s was c h a n g e d . Items with weak primary loadings. O n l y 5 o f t h e 97 i t e m s had weak p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s . F a c i l i t a t e s others had an almost, e q u a l c h a n c e o f b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o NP o r EA w i t h 52% 6 o f t h e v a r i a n c e b e i n g e x p l a i n e d by t h e LPA. I n t h e c a s e o f i n t r o s p e c t i v e o n l y 38% o f t h e v a r i a n c e was e x p l a i n e d and t h e two l o a d i n g s were on EA and CA. Two i t e m s f r o m LP. a r e ambiguous: curious had a s u b s t a n t i a l s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g on NC, magical thinking on CC. T h e r e was l e a s t a g r e e m e n t on t h e p l a c i n g o f manipulates others: b e s i d e s a weak p r i m a r y l o a d i n g on CC, i t a l s o l o a d e d on RC and LP. T h u s , t h e r e i s no c l e a r a g r e e m e n t among t h e s o r t e r s ' as t o t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e f i v e i t e m s w i t h weak p r i m a r y l o a d i n g s . V a l u e s o f 1 - A i n P h i r e f l e c t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d f o r e a c h i t e m . 78' P r o b a b i l i t y of Latent Category Combination (Omega) The Omega matrix f o r the ten-category l a t e n t s t r u c t u r e appears i n Table 12. Diagonal e n t r i e s i n Omega r e p r e s e n t the cohesiveness of the l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s . Thus CA i s the most cohesive category with a p r o b a b i l i t y o f .92 t h a t the items from CA w i l l have been p l a c e d w i t h each other i n mani-f e s t c a t e g o r i e s . EA i s the l e a s t cohesive category w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y of .44 t h a t i t s items w i l l have been s o r t e d t o g e t h e r . The o f f - d i a g o n a l e n t r i e s i n Omega r e p r e s e n t p r o b a b i l -i t i e s t h a t items i n two d i f f e r e n t l a t e n t . c a t e g o r i e s w i l l appear together i n s o r t e r s ' m anifest c a t e g o r i e s . Thus the items i n EA were as l i k e l y . t o appear with items from CA as with other items from EA: the two c a t e g o r i e s can be s a i d t o have a s t r o n g tendency t o merge. Even s t r o n g e r tendencies to.merge are shown by CC and RC, OK CP and Not-OK CP, and by NC and LP. The l a t e n t category NC a l s o showed a tendency to merge wit h EA. R e s u l t s of these tendencies can be seen i n F i g u r e 12 which shows the c a t e g o r i e s which merge as the number of l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s i s reduced from t en to f i v e . The f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s t o j o i n are OK CP and Not-OK CP. In the second stage, EA s p l i t s up wit h e i g h t i t e m s . j o i n i n g CA, three going t o NC and one to NP. In each case the items which changed t h e i r category assignments had s u b s t a n t i a l l o a d i n g s on the c a t e g o r i e s they moved t o . The p r o b a b i l i t i e s of cohesion and confus-ion as L i s reduced from 11 t o 4 are giv e n i n T a b l e s l ' l S t o 1-5. Some T a b l e 12 P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r y C o m b i n a t i o n L=10&11 C a t e g o r y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 OK CP 1 . 65 Not-OK CP 2 . 51 78 Not-OK NP 3 . i i 21 80 OK NP 4 . 18 8 40 83 CA 5 . 9 1 0 4 92 EA 6 . 10 4 5 15 44 44 NC 7 . 0 1 1 0 2 22 87 LP 8. 0 1 1 2 5 20 57 81 CC 9 . 2 6 9 1 0 9 9 8 78 RC 1 0 . 4 11 8 2 1 7 11 9 51 74 1 2 3 4 5- 6 7 8 9 10 OK CP 1 . 65 Not-OK CP 2 . 50 79 Not-OK NP 3 . n 21 81 OK NP 4 . 18 8 40 82 CA 5 . 9 1 0 4 91 EA 6. 10 4 5 15 46 46 NC 7 . 0 0 1 0 i 24 90 LP 8. 0 1 1 2 4 21 58 80 OK CC 9 . 4 7 10 4 1 10 9 8 74 Not-OK CC 1 0 . 2 6 . 8 1 1 7 9 9 66 82 RC 1 1 . 5 11 8 2 1 6 11 9 42 53 Key t o A b b r e v i a t i o n s CP = C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t NP = N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t CA = C o m p u t i n g A d u l t EA = E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t NC = N a t u r a l C h i l d LP = L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r FC = F r e e C h i l d AC = A d a p t e d C h i l d CC = C o m p l i a n t C h i l d RC = R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d T a b l e 13 P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r y C o m b i n a t i o n L = 9&8 C a t e g o r y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CP 1. 67 Not-OK NP 2. 17 86 OK NP 3. 11 39 79 CA 4. 3 0 4 94 EA 5. 7 5 15 43 41 NC 6. 0 1 0 2 21 88 LP 7. 0 1 1 5 19 58 81 CC 8. 5 9 1 0 8 9 8 78 RC 9. 9 8 1 1 6 11 9 52 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 CP 1. 65 Not-OK NP 2. 17 92 OK NP 3. 11 36 68 A 4. 4 - l 10 74 NC 5. 1 0 4 10 76 LP 6. 1 0 4 9 54 80 CC 7. 5 9 3 4 10 9 71 RC 8. 9 9 1 1 10 9 50 78 Key t o A b b r e v i a t i o n s CP = C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t NP = N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t CA = C o m p u t i n g A d u l t EA = E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t NC = N a t u r a l C h i l d LP = L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r FC = F r e e C h i l d AC = A d a p t e d C h i l d CC = C o m p l i a n t C h i l d RC = R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d T a b l e 14 P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t C a t e g o r y C o m b i n a t i o n L = 7&6 C a t e g o r y 1 2 3 4 5 6 CP 1. 65 Not-OK NP 2. 17 92 OK NP 3. 11 36 68 A 4. 4 I 10 75 FC 5. 1 0 4 10 65 CC 6. 5 9 3 4 9 71 RC 7. 9 8 1 1 10 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 CP 1. 64 Not-OK NP 2. 17 91 OK NP 3. 11 36 69 A 4. 4 -1 10 75 FC 5. 1 1 4 10 64 AC 6. 6 9 2 3 10 64 Key t o A b b r e v i a t i o n s CP = C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t NP = N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t CA = C o m p u t i n g A d u l t EA = E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t NC = N a t u r a l C h i l d LP = L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r FC = F r e e C h i l d AC = A d a p t e d C h i l d CC = C o m p l i a n t C h i l d RC = R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d T a b l e 15 P r o b a b i l i t y o f L a t e n t . C a t e g o r y C o m b i n a t i o n L.= 5&4 C a t e g o r y 1 2 3 4 CP 1. •* 63 NP 2. 13 57 A 3. 4 7 75 FC 4. 1 3 64 AC 5. 7 4 2 9 _1 _2 _3 _4 P 1. 36 A 2. 5 FC 3. 2 10 63 A C 4. 6 2 10 65 Key t o A b b r e v i a t i o n s CP = C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t NP = N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t . CA = C o mputing A d u l t EA = E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t NC = N a t u r a l C h i l d LP = L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r FC = F r e e C h i l d AC = A d a p t e d C h i l d CC = C o m p l i a n t C h i l d RC = R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d 83 c o h e s i o n i s l o s t e a c h t i m e two c a t e g o r i e s merge: CP a t L = 9 has t h e same c o h e s i v e n e s s as OK CP - at;.'. - L=10 ( 6 7 ) , w h i l e Not-OK CP had 78. When EA (44) s p l i t s up, A a t L = 8 has 74 compared t o CA's c o h e s i v e n e s s o f 93 a t L.= 9; NC go e s f r o m 87 a t L = 9 t o 76 a t L = 8 when j o i n e d by t h e t h r e e EA i t e m s and OK NP go e s f r o m 79 t o 68. The same t r e n d c o n t i n u e s as L i s f u r t h e r r e d u c e d and c a n be f o l l o w e d i n T a b l e s . 1 3 t o 16. The' f i n a l change f r o m L = 5 t o L = 4 r e d u c e s t h e c o -h e s i v e n e s s o f CP (64) and NP (58) t o a low o f 37 f o r P, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e was. l i t t l e t e n d e n c y t o s o r t i t e m s f r o m CP and NP t o g e t h e r . As CC s p l i t s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e change f r o m L - 10 t o L = 11, t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o h e s i v e n e s s c h a n g e s o n l y s l i g h t l y : CC (79) s p l i t s i n t o OK CC (74) and Not-OK CC ( 8 2 ) , w i t h b o t h c a t e g o r i e s s h o w i n g a s t r o n g t e n d -e n c y t o merge w i t h RC (42 and 53 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . One c r i t e r i o n o f t h e f i t o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s and o f unambiguous s o r t i n g d a t a i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o r d e r i n g t h e c a t e g o r i e s so t h a t t h e s u b s t a n t i a l ( g r e a t e r t h a n .20) o f f -d i a g o n a l e n t r i e s i n Omega a p p e a r c l o s e t o t h e d i a g o n a l . By e x a m i n i n g T a b l e s XZ t o I S , one may o b s e r v e t h a t i n a l l t h e Omega m a t r i c e s ' , L = 11 ... 4, t h e o r d e r o f c a t e g o r i e s i s c o n s t a n t and t h e s u b s t a n t i a l c o n f u s i o n s a r e a l l a d j a c e n t t o t h e d i a g o n a l s . T i t l e s of Latent Categories S i n c e t h e m a j o r g o a l o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y i s t o p r e -s e n t an o v e r v i e w o f ego s t a t e s u b d i v i s i o n s , s e l e c t i o n o f l a b e l s f o r t h e l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . F o l l o w i n g t h e l e a d o f M i l l e r e t a l . ( 1 9 6 7 ) , t h e d a t a u s e d t o name t h e c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i s t e d o f a) t h e b e h a v i o r a l d e s -c r i p t o r s , b) t h e P h i and Omega m a t r i c e s , and c) t h e t i t l e s w h i c h s o r t e r s a p p l i e d t o t h e i r m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s . A l s o i n t h i s s t u d y , a f o u r t h s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n was u s e d : t h e t i t l e s u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The s c i e n t i f i c p r o b l e m i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f naming f a c t o r s i n a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , e x c e p t t h a t i n f a c t o r a n a l y s i s t h e r e i s no p a r a l l e l t o t h e s o r t e r s ' m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r y t i t l e s , w h i c h a r e o f v a l u e i n naming LPA c a t e g o r i e s . I n t h e t e n c a t e g o r y s o l u t i o n , s i n c e 9 0 o f t h e 9 7 d e s c r i p t o r s a p p e a r e d i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s p r e d i c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , i t was n o t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y t h e c a t e g o r i e s The c a t e g o r i e s and s o r t e r s ' t i t l e s were t h e n e x a m i n e d c l o s e l y t o s e l e c t t h e f i n a l t i t l e s . I n t h e c a s e o f Nurturing Parent t h e r e was no d i f f i c u l t y : 75 s o r t e r s u s e d t h a t t i t l e w h i l e o t h e r s u s e d i n i t i a l s o n l y , s t r u c t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n s s u c h as P i n P o r l a b e l s s u c h as s m o t h e r i n g , r e s c u i n g , a p p r o p r i a t e , o v e r l y p r o t e c t i v e , h e l p f u l and u n h e l p f u l , f o r one o r o t h e r o f t h e two N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t (NP) c a t e g o r i e s . W h i l e 12 s o r t e r s u s e d P o s i t i v e and N e g a t i v e t o d e s i g n a t e t h e NP s u b c a t e g o r i e s , 17 u s e d OK and Not-OK. F o r t h i s r e a s o n and b e c a u s e OK and Not-OK a r e t e r m s a l r e a d y i n com-mon u s e t o d e s i g n a t e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s , OK and Not-OK w e r e c h o s e n . The n o n - N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t s u b d i v i s i o n s were more p r o b l e m a t i c . T h e r e was a d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e l a b e l C r i t i c a l P a r e n t (46 s o r t e r s ) o v e r t h e n e x t most p o p u l a r , Con-t r o l l i n g P a r e n t ( 2 3 ) , w i t h o t h e r names b e i n g p r e j u d i c e d , d i s -c i p l i n i n g , p r o t e c t i v e , p u n i t i v e and p e r s e c u t i n g . The p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s were, t h e n compared; D i s c i p l i n e s Others Dogmatic Directing Punitive A u t h o r i t a t i v e Persecuting Corrects Others Prejudiced Gives Orders Autocratic Traditional Rigid Bossy ( l o a d s on b o t h ) C r i t i c i z e s Others C o n t r o l l i n g Condescending The l a b e l " c r i t i c a l " seems t o o s p e c i f i c to. c o v e r a l l t h e s e d e s c r i p t o r s and i t has a p e j o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n i n p r e s e n t u s a g e w h i c h w o u l d p r e c l u d e i t s u s e t o c o n n o t e p o s i -t i v e p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r s . The d e s c r i p t o r " c o n t r o l l i n g , " w h i c h l o a d s on b o t h c a t e g o r i e s , c o v e r s a l l t h e d e s c r i p t o r s w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n s o f " t r a d i t i o n a l " and " r i g i d . " T h u s , i t was d e c i d e d t o name t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s OK and Not-OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t . Naming t h e C h i l d c a t e g o r i e s was s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e x c e p t f o r R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d . C o m p l i a n t C h i l d , u s e d 20 t i m e s , had o n l y one c o m p e t i t o r , C o n f o r m i n g C h i l d , w h i c h was o n l y u s e d t w i c e . R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d was u s e d 26 t i m e s , R e b e l , , 5 , and V e n g e f u l , 6. A l t h o u g h some a u t h o r s have s e r i o u s m i s g i v i n g s 86 about the use of the term " R e b e l l i o u s " (e.g. Holloway, 1974), the name does seem t o be i n common use; i t denotes non-compliance and i t a p p l i e s to a l l behaviors i n the category except f o r vengeful and holds grudges. Thus the c o u n t e r p a r t of Compliant C h i l d i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d and the two j o i n t o g e t h e r to form Adapted C h i l d (used by 7 8 s o r t e r s ) . N a t u r a l C h i l d was used 46 times, Free C h i l d 44 times. L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r was the o n l y name, except f o r A^, t h a t was g i v e n t h a t category when i t was separate. One s o r t e r used the same d e s i g n a t i o n as James (1977) t h a t Free C h i l d equals N a t u r a l C h i l d p l u s L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r . I t was d e c i d e d t o use the terms i n t h i s way, so t h a t i n F i g u r e 12 N a t u r a l C h i l d and L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r combine to form Free C h i l d . The A d u l t c a t e g o r i e s were examined l a s t because a new A d u l t category has a p p a r e n t l y emerged. Only seven of the 111 s o r t e r s d i v i d e d the A d u l t i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , which were named I n t e g r a t e d A d u l t , S e l f , Berne's I d e a l , and James' second-order A d u l t . The o n l y other name used was. A d u l t . Thus, i t was necessary to examine the two c a t e g o r i e s of b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s b e f o r e naming the c a t e g o r i e s . The l i s t of items assigned to these c a t e g o r i e s appears i n Table 16 w i t h s t r e n g t h of the primary l o a d i n g s . The more cohesive A d u l t category corresponds to A^ (Berne, 1961) , Technics (Kertecsz and Savorgnan,, Note 6) , Computer (Avary, 1976) and Computing A d u l t from the p i l o t study f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . The new category appears to ,Table 16 D e s c r i p t o r s i n A d u l t C a t e g o r i e s i n Order of Primary Loadings COMPUTING ADULT 1 c Strong Loading 'Estimates P r o b a b i l i t i e s Obj ective Logical and Factual Thinks A n a l y t i c a l l y Gathers Data Systematic Organizes Solves Problems EXPERIENCING ADULT Q Strong Loading Cooperates Aware of Others Respectful of Others' Rights F l e x i b l e Assertive Ask for What I Want Autonomous Moderate Loading*" Plans Ahead Defines Reality Makes Decisions Goal Oriented Moderate Loading" * Self-aware W i l l i n g to- Take Risks E'thmcally Responsible * Seeks Truth Weak Loading * Introspective a P r o b a b i l i t y of cohesion of Computing A d u l t = .93 k P r o b a b i l i t y of cohesion of E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t = .44 c Strong Loading = .90+ Moderate Loading = .60 to .89 e Weak Loading = .30 t o .59 * Loads on.both A d u l t c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d t o a c o m b i n a t i o n of,E=th.Qs and P a t h o s ( B e r n e , 1961), t h e I n t e g r a t e d A d u l t (James &•.Jongeward, 1971), and t h e E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t ( C a m p b e l l , N o t e 7; P a r r y , N o t e 2) w h i c h a l s o emerged i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h . The t i t l e s C omputing A d u l t (CA) and E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t (EA) seem t o e x p r e s s t h e d i c h o t o m y between b e h a v i o r s t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f s o r t e r s a s s i g n e d t o an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d A d u l t ego s t a t e . Use of Functional and Structural Terminology The t i t l e s o f t h e s o r t e r s ' m a n i f e s t c a t e g o r i e s were r a t e d by B e r n e ' s d e f i n i t i o n s o f s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l t e r m i n o l o g y . O n l y 4% u s e d s t r i c t l y s t r u c t u r a l l a b e l s s u c h as C^, A^, P^, A 2 , P 2 ( o r C i n P, A i n P,. P i n P) . A l m o s t h a l f (48%) u s e d s t r i c t l y f u n c t i o n a l l a b e l s , s u c h as C r i t i c a l , C o n t r o l l i n g &/or N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , and A d a p t e d , F r e e , N a t u r a l , C o m p l i a n t &/or R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d e t c . A n o t h e r 24% u s e d o n l y f u n c t i o n a l l a b e l s b u t t h e y a d d e d L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o B e r n e , was, a s t r u c t u r a l c a t e g o r y , n o t a, f u n c -t i o n a l one'. The two k i n d s o f l a b e l s were e v e n more m i x e d by a n o t h e r 19% who u s e d f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e P a r e n t and s t r u c t u r a l f o r one o r more, o f t h e C h i l d ego s t a t e s . A f i n a l 5% o f t h e t i t l e s were u n c l a s s i f i a b l e . Comments• from Sorters A number o f s o r t e r s i n c l u d e d c o n s t r u c t i v e comments w i t h t h e i r r e t u r n s . They a r e r e p r o d u c e d verbatim i n A p p e n d i x V I . 90 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter includes a summary of procedures, a sum-mary of r e s u l t s , conclusions., implications of the study and recommendations for further research. Summary of Procedures The purposes of t h i s study have been to c l a r i f y terms used i n the f i e l d of Transactional Analysis, to describe ego states, and to esta b l i s h categories of behavioral descriptors which can be used i n functional analysis of ego states. The study was designed to delineate common categories underlying p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' d e f i n i t i o n s of ego states, to determine which descriptors are c l e a r l y a f f i l i a t e d with just one, category, and to i d e n t i f y those descriptors which are ambiguous with respect to category membership — regarding which there i s c o n f l i c t i n g opinion among expert judges. To address these purposes, a s t r a t i f i e d random sample was drawn from those c e r t i f i e d members of the International 91 T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s A s s o c i a t i o n who r e s i d e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. The p o p u l a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r l e v e l s o f e x p e r t i s e and e i g h t g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s . One-f o u r t h of- t h e names i n e a c h g r o u p were drawn randomly., w i t h t h e s m a l l e s t . g r o u p s . b e i n g o v e r - s a m p l e d . T h i s p r o d u c e d a t a r g e t sample s i z e o f 220. E a c h member o f t h e sample was s e n t a p a c k a g e c o n t a i n i n g 97 b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s , b l a n k t i t l e c a r d s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s o r t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o ego s t a t e s . R e s p o n s e s ' w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m 125 members o f t h e s ample, of•whom 111 r e t u r n e d d e c k s s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s were g e n e r -a t e d f r o m a s e a r c h . o f t h e TA l i t e r a t u r e , o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s , R o g e t ' s Thesaurus and, t a l k s w i t h TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s . A s e t o f 80 b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s was t e s t e d i n a p i l o t s t u d y ; t h e l i s t was t h e n r e v i s e d and e x p a n d e d t o f o r m t h e f i n a l s e t o f 97 d e s c r i p t o r s . Summary of the Results The LPA m o d e l s f i t t e d t h e s o r t e d d a t a g e n e r a t e d by 111 TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s e x t r e m e l y w e l l . Ten l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r e d , c o r r e s p o n d i n g c l e a r l y t o t h e s e TA c o n s t r u c t s : OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t , Not-OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t , OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , Not-OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , C o mputing A d u l t , E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t , N a t u r a l C h i l d , L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r , Com-p l i a n t C h i l d and R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d . E v e r y . l a t e n t c a t e g o r y c o u l d r e a d i l y be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a b e l u s e d i n t h e p u b l i s h e d TA l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f " E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t , " w h i c h has been u s e d o n l y i n two u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r s ( C a m p b e l l , N o t e 7, and P a r r y , N o t e 2) and "Computing A d u l t " w h i c h has b e en c o i n e d d b y . t h e r e s e a r c h e r . As t h e number o f l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s was r e d u c e d , t h e o r i g i n a l t e n c a t e g o r i e s combined h i e r a r c h i c a l l y t o p r o d u c e f i v e h i g h e r - o r d e r c a t e -g o r i e s : N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t , A d u l t , F r e e C h i l d and A d a p t e d C h i l d . W h i l e t h e two P a r e n t c a t e g o r i e s combined w h e n , o n l y f o u r l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s were r e q u e s t e d , t h e C h i l d c a t e g o r i e s n e v e r d i d merge, and i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t j u s t t h e t h r e e b a s i c TA c a t e g o r i e s -- P a r e n t , A d u l t and C h i l d — f r o m t h e s e d a t a . Of t h e s e t . o f 97 b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s , 66 were i d e n t -i f i e d w h i c h l o a d e d s t r o n g l y on j u s t one c a t e g o r y e a c h . A n o t h e r 6 d e s c r i p t o r s e x h i b i t e d m o d e r a t e l o a d i n g s on j u s t one c a t e g o r y b u t no o t h e r s u b s t a n t i a l l o a d i n g s . The o t h e r 25 d e s c r i p t o r s , were l o a d e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y on more t h a n one, category... Of t h e s e , only- f i v e were j u d g e d ambiguous, i n t h e ten. c a t e g o r y s o l u t i o n and o n l y one i n t h e f i v e c a t e g o r y s o l u t i o n . W i t h f e w e r t h a n f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , . t h e l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n was t o o g r o s s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e d a t a . W h i l e 57% o f t h e s o r t e r s c o n s i s t e n t l y l i m i t e d t h e i r t i t l e s t o e i t h e r s t r u c t u r a l o r f u n c t i o n a l t e r m s , o n e - f o u r t h u s e d L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r a l o n g w i t h f u n c t i o n a l l a b e l s and one-f i f t h u s e d v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l t e r m s . S i m u l t a n e o u s u s e o f s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l t e r m s d i d n o t a p p e a r w i t h i n P a r e n t o r A d u l t e g o . s t a t e s b u t o n l y i n t h e C h i l d . Conclusions The s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t l a t e n t p a r t i t i o n a n a l y s i s , o f s o r t e d s e t s o f b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s c o u l d be u s e d t o d e l i n e a t e t h e c a t e g o r i e s common t o and u n d e r l y i n g TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s 1 d e f i n i -t i o n s o f ego s t a t e s has been s u b s t a n t i a t e d . The e x t r e m e c o n s i s t e n c y w h i c h t h e r e s u l t s d i s p l a y e d as t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s was c h a n g e d , t h e s m a l l number o f ambiguous d e s -c r i p t o r s , and t h e s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g u n d e r l y i n g c o m m o n a l i t y o f ego s t a t e s among p r a c t i -t i o n e r s i n t h e f i e l d . The c l o s e r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y u s i n g a l a r g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample and an expanded s e t o f d e s c r i p t o r s , e s t a b l i s h e s v a l i d i t y 1 f o r t h e Ten Ego S t a t e M o d e l w h i c h i s r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e 17. I t i n c l u d e s t h o s e 88 d e s c r i p t o r s w h i c h c o u l d be a s s i g n e d w i t h c o n f i d e n c e t o a s i n g l e . c a t e g o r y . A f t e r d e s c r i p t o r s were added t o the, two w e a k e s t c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y , L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r and Not-OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , t h e y r e m a i n e d as s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s u n t i l t h e 7 and 5 c a t e g o r y m o d e l s , a t r w h i c h t i m e t h e y combined w i t h N a t u r a l C h i l d and OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s t r o n g e s t t e n d e n c y t o w a r d c o m b i n a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s was shown by t h e OK and Not-OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t c a t e g o r i e s , w h i c h combined i n t h e n i n e c a t e g o r y m o d e l . A new c a t e g o r y , E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t , emerged i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y and has r e a p p e a r e d i n t h e f i n a l study., Of t h e Table 17 Ten Ego State Model PARENT CONTROLLING PARENT OK C o n t r o l l i n g Parent-Corrects Others Gives Orders A u t h o r i t a t i v e Traditional Directing D i s c i p l i n e s Others Not-OK C o n t r o l l i n g Parent Prejudiced .Autocratic Persecuting Punitive Sossy C r i t i c i z e s Others Dogmatic Rigid Condescending NURTURING PARENT OX Nurturing Parent Encourages Others Gives Permission Shows Empathy Protective Comforting Reassuring Sympathetic Caring ADULT Computing Adult Defines Reality Plans Ahead Objective Makes Decisions Thinks A n a l y t i c a l l y Organizes Goal Oriented Gathers Data Logical and Factual Estimates P r o b a b i l i t i e s Solves Problems Systematic Experiencing Adult Cooperates Respectful of Others' Rights I Ask for What I Want Aware of Others F l e x i b l e Self-aware Autonomous Assertive W i l l i n g to Take Risks E t h i c a l l y Responsible CHILD FREE CHILD L i t t l e Professor Ingenious Uses Hunches Imaginative I n t u i t i v e Creative Inventive Natural C h i l d Uninhibited Expressive Play fuI Trusting Impulsive Sensual Spontaneous I Do What I Want Unaware of Time ADAPTED CHILD Compliant C h i l d Conforming Depressed Anxious Doubts Self ' Timid Passive SeIf-conscious Withdraws Feels Guilty FearfuI Obedient Seeks Approval Rebellious C h i l d Procrastinate s Holds Grudges Bad Tempered Sulks Rebellious Venae fu I Di s obedient Stubborn Passively Resists Not-OK Nurturing Parent Over s o l i c i t o u s Smothering S e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g Indulges Others Over-Protective Rescuing Doting f o u r t e e n d e s c r i p t o r s a s s i g n e d t o EA i n t h e a -priori c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n o f d e s c r i p t o r s , o n l y two f a i l e d t o a p p e a r i n EA i n t h e t e n c a t e g o r y m o d e l , and both, o f them — shows empathy and s e n s i t i v e to others ' needs — had s u b s t a n t i a l s e c o n d a r y l o a d -i n g s on EA. A n o t h e r d e s c r i p t o r f r o m NP., f a c i l i t a t e s others, l o a d e d a l m o s t e q u a l l y on EA and NP. Two d e s c r i p t o r s f r o m EA w h i c h l o a d e d a l m o s t as h i g h l y on CA were seeks truth and i n t r o s p e c t i v e . The l a t t e r h ad t h e l e a s t c l a r i t y o f a l l 97 d e s c r i p t o r s i n terms o f t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e LPA m o d e l . T h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y l e s s a g r e e m e n t among p r a c t i t i o n e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e p l a c e m e n t o f i n t r o s p e c t i v e t h a n o f any o t h e r d e s c r i p t o r u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A s e t o f t h r e e d e s c r i p t o r s c o n s i s t e n t l y l o a d e d on EA u n t i l EA combined w i t h CA t o f o r m A. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t t h e s e t h r e e — a s s e r t i v e , w i l l i n g to. take r i s k s and ask for what, I want — had a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e i n g com-b i n e d w i t h o t h e r i t e m s f r o m EA b u t a low p r o b a b i l i t y o f b e i n g c o m b i n e d w i t h i t e m s f r o m CA. T h e r e was a m o d e r a t e c h a n c e o f t h e i r b e i n g combined w i t h i t e m s f r o m NC w h i c h t o o k p r e c e d e n c e when EA was no l o n g e r a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y . Use of Functional and'Structural Terminology I n v i e w o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r 1 where t h e need t o keep s t r u c t u r a l t e r m s and a n a l y s i s s t r i c t l y s e p a r a t e f r o m f u n c -t i o n a l t e r m s and a n a l y s i s was d e m o n s t r a t e d , i t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o a n a l y s e t h e s o r t e r s ' c a t e g o r y t i t l e s f r o m t h a t v i e w p o i n t . S o r t e r s were n o t t o l d w h e t h e r t o u s e s t r u c t u r a l o r f u n c t i o n a l 96 ego s t a t e l a b e l s and a number of them commented on t h a t f a c t . Some s o r t e r s chose one or the o t h e r form of t e r m i n o l o g y and some mixed the two. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the d e s c r i p t o r s were behavioral a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o TA t h e o r y , the form o f a n a l y s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r b e h a v i o r s i s f u n c t i o n a l (or d e s c r i p t i v e ) a n a l y s i s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of the s o r t e r s (48%) used f u n c t i o n a l t i t l e s e x c l u s i v e l y but 43% used a c o m b i n a t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l t i t l e s . The most common c o m b i n a -t i o n (24% of the sample) was to add L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r t o those ego s t a t e s p r e v i o u s l y known as f u n c t i o n a l . T h i s e x p l a i n s the appearance of L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r as a l a t e n t c a t e g o r y among a l l the o t h e r l a t e n t c a t e g o r i e s which have f u n c t i o n a l t i t l e s . I f i n t u i t i v e , uses hunches, ingenious e t c . , can be c o n s i d -e r e d to r e p r e s e n t b e h a v i o r s r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , then the L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r ego s t a t e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f u n c t i o n a l r a t h e r than s t r u c t u r a l . The f i n a l s e t o f t e n f u n c t i o n a l ego s t a t e s a l o n g w i t h the t i t l e s and the b e h a v -i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s on which t h e r e i s a h i g h degree of c o n -s e n s u s , are l i s t e d i n T a b l e 17. A p o r t r a y a l of these ego s t a t e s i s r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g u r e 13. A diagram of the ten f u n c t i o n a l ego s t a t e model combined w i t h P a r r y ' s (Note 2) i d e a of the R e s p o n s i v e and R e s p o n s i b l e S e l f i s p o r t r a y e d i n F i g u r e 13. In t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the I n t e g r a t e d S e l f one sees the C h i l d and E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t ego s t a t e s as R e s p o n s i v e : i . e . u s i n g the p r o c e s s e s of the r i g h t hemisphere and the r e c e p t i v e mode of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F i g u r e 13. Ten f u n c t i o n a l ego s t a t e s w i t h i n t h e I n t e g r a t e d S e l f A l t e r n a t i v e l y t h e P a r e n t and Computing A d u l t ego s t a t e s a r e s e e n as R e s p o n s i b l e : i . e . u s i n g t h e a c t i v e f o c u s s i n g dimen-s i o n o f t h e S e l f w h i c h t a k e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s a c t i o n s . The d i a g r a m has t h e same d i s a d v a n t a g e s as o t h e r s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s : t h e s t r u c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e n o t as d i s -c r e t e as t h e y a r e p o r t r a y e d . The OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t , w h i l e p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , a l s o shows some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p o n s i v e n e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , what F i g u r e 13 does i s t o show t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e i n t o i t s r e s p o n s i b l e (CA) and r e s p o n s i v e (EA) a s p e c t s . Implications of the Study and Recommendations for Further Research A f r u i t f u l l i n e o f r e s e a r c h w o u l d be t o r e p l i c a t e t h i s s t u d y a f t e r f i v e y e a r s t o compare LPA r e s u l t s and see w h e t h e r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o r s t r e n g t h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s has c h a n g e d . I f t h e u s e o f t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e A d u l t ego s t a t e i n t o C o m p u t i n g A d u l t and E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t becomes w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , one c o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t t h e d e s c r i p t o r s now l o o s e l y a t t a c h e d t o EA: a s s e r t i v e , w i l l i n g to take r i s k s , and shows empathy, may become f i r m members o f t h a t c a t e g o r y . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o h e s i o n f o r EA w o u l d t h e n i n c r e a s e , and t h a t o f c o n f u s i o n w o u l d d e c r e a s e . I f t h e d i v i s i o n s between OK and Not-OK CP and NP become w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , t h e n t h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e two c a t e -g o r i e s t o be merged w o u l d be r e d u c e d . I n t h e meantime, t h e Ten Ego S t a t e M o d e l seems t h e b e s t way t o d i v i d e t h e b e h a v i o r s d e s c r i b e d by t h e 88 d e s c r i p t o r s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 17. Ego State Check L i s t U s i n g t h e w i d e l y a p p l i c a b l e d e f i n i t i o n s o f ego s t a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s s t u d y , an Ego S t a t e Check L i s t h as been d e v e l o p e d f r o m a r a n d o m l y o r d e r e d s e t o f d e s c r i p t o r s t a k e n f r o m T a b l e 17. Two d e s c r i p t o r s have been o m i t t e d b e c a u s e t h e y seemed t o c o y e r a number o f more s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s : rescuing and defines r e a l i t y . A few were c h a n g e d t o make them more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a d u l t s : e . g o b e d i e n t t o law-abiding, dis-obedient t o breaks rules. A s c o r i n g key has been d e v e l o p e d w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a Ten S t a t e Egogram. Two sample egograms a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n F i g u r e s 14 and 15 w i t h p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p r o f i l e s . The n e x t i m p o r t a n t s t e p s f o r r e s e a r c h w i l l be t o s t u d y t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c h e c k l i s t , t o r e v i s e i t , and t o e s t a b l i s h norms. B o t h s u b s t a n t i v e and p s y c h o m e t r i c i s s u e s must be a d d r e s s e d . The s u b s t a n t i v e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : g i v e n t h a t t h e 10 ego s t a t e s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a t h i r d - o r d e r s u b d i v i s i o n o f f i v e s e c o n d - o r d e r t h e o r e t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s w h i c h a r e i n t u r n p a r t s o f t h r e e b a s i c ego s t a t e s , w o u l d i t be a p p r o p r i a t e t o combine t h e t e n ego s t a t e s i n t o f i v e f o r f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s ? E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e two sample egograms shows g r e a t d i f -f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l between OK and Not-OK p a r t s o f CP and NP: i n F i g u r e 14, one c a n s e e t h a t t o a v e r a g e 9 and 2 t o g i v e a s c o r e o f 5.5 on CP and NP w o u l d be a s e r i o u s m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . S i m i l a r l y , o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d show j u s t as g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s between CA and EA, NC and L P , o r CC and RC. T h u s , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e n c a t e g o r i e s i n t o f i v e o r t h r e e d o e s n o t seem t o be a p p r o p r i a t e i n f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i B e f o r e t h e Ego S t a t e Check L i s t can. be c o n s i d e r e d a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t , however, a number o f p s y c h o m e t r i c i s s u e s s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d . S t a b i l i t y m e a s u r e s s u c h as 100 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 / / / 0 / O K N o t -O K O K N o t -O K N C C C RC C P N P F C A C F i g u r e 15. Ten-state egogram of a 45 year o l d woman: graduate student l i v i n g a p a r t from her husband and f i v e c h i l d r e n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n : The combination of h i g h OK N u r t u r i n g Parent and low C o n t r o l l i n g Parent i n d i c a t e s a person w i t h a h e a l t h y concern f o r o t h e r s but l i t t l e need t o c o n t r o l them. High scores on Computing A d u l t i n d i c a t e s a person who i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d being o r i e n t e d t o s o l v i n g problems e f f e c t i v e l y . High E x p e r i e n c i n g A d u l t i n d i c a t e s a person who i s c o o p e r a t i v e , a s s e r t i v e , empathic and independent. High L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r i n d i c a t e s a person who i s c r e a t i v e , i n g e n i o u s and i n t u i t i v e . High N a t u r a l C h i l d i n d i c a t e s a person who i s spontaneous, e x p r e s s i v e and enjoys l i f e . Low average scores on Compliant C h i l d and R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d i n d i c a t e s a person who i s w e l l s o c i a l i z e d , h i g h i n s e l f - e s t e e m but not b l i n d l y obedient. 101 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 71 V. O K / N o t -O K C P / O K 0, N o t -O K N P C A E A F i g u r e 14. T e n - s t a t e egogram o f a 37 y e a r o l d woman: mo t h e r o f p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , p a r t - t i m e t y p i s t , e x - s e c r e t a r y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n : T h i s p e r s o n s p e n d s a l o t o f t i m e c o n t r o l l i n g and n u r t u r i n g o t h e r s i n c o n s t r u c t i v e ways ( h i g h OK C o n t r o l l i n g P a r e n t and h i g h OK N u r t u r i n g P a r e n t ) . T h i s p e r s o n i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d b e i n g o r i e n t e d t o s o l v i n g p r o -b l e m s e f f e c t i v e l y ( h i g h C o m p u t i n g A d u l t ) . H i g h E x p e r -i e n c i n g A d u l t i n d i c a t e s a p e r s o n who i s c o o p e r a t i v e , a s s e r t i v e , e m p a t h i c and i n d e p e n d e n t . Low a v e r a g e C o m p l i a n t C h i l d and R e b e l l i o u s C h i l d i n d i c a t e s someone who i s w e l l - s o c i a l i z e d b u t h i g h i n s e l f e s t e e m and n o t b l i n d l y o b e d i e n t . An a v e r a g e s c o r e on F r e e C h i l d i n d i c a t e s someone who g i v e s more c o n c e r n t o o t h e r s t h a n t o s e l f . 102 t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y on g r o u p s n o t u n d e r g o i n g t r e a t m e n t w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e . I f t h e Ego S t a t e C h e c k . L i s t i s u s e d i n a g r o u p — where members a r e w e l l know t o e a c h o t h e r — t o r a t e a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l , i n t e r - j u d g e r a t i n g s c o u l d a l s o be u s e d t o examine t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e h e t e r o g e n e o u s n a t u r e o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e t e n ego s t a t e s m i g h t l i m i t t h e u t i l i t y o f me a s u r e s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . On t h e o t h e r hand, one way o f v a l i d a t i n g t h e Ten S t a t e Egogram w o u l d be t o a n a l y s e t h e p r o f i l e s o f s u b j e c t s i n b o t h u n s e l e c t e d and s e l e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n s t o examine c o r r e l a t i o n s among i t e m s and s u b s c a l e s . C o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s between Ego S t a t e Check L i s t s u b s c a l e s and o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s w o u l d be v a l u a b l e . A u t h o r s have r e f e r r e d t o t h e egogram as a r e l a t i o n s h i p d i a g r a m (Dusay, 1977), as a measure o f t h e u s e o f ego s t a t e f u n c t i o n s a d d i n g up t o 100% (Jongeward & James, 1973). I n t h e c a s e o f t h e Ego S t a t e Check L i s t and o t h e r ego s t a t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a s c a l e s h o u l d be d e v i s e d w h i c h w i l l measure t h e energy level o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t : e . g . " l a w - a b i d i n g " and " b r e a k s r u l e s " a r e two b e h a v i o r s d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o e a c h o t h e r . A r e s p o n d e n t who answers h i g h on b o t h w o u l d be c o n -s i d e r e d t o have a h i g h e n e r g y l e v e l , low on b o t h t o have a low e n e r g y l e v e l . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f low and h i g h e n e r g y l e v e l s c o u l d t h e n be s t u d i e d . The q u e s t i o n w o u l d be w h e t h e r ^ energy l e v e l i s a p a r t i c u l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n t h i s t e s t , o f b i a s e s o r 103 s t y l e s i n r e s p o n s e . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n w o r t h y o f r e s e a r c h i s w h e t h e r more r e l i a b l e egograms a r e p r o d u c e d when r e s p o n d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o r a t e t h e g e n e r a l f r e q u e n c y o f t h e b e h a v i o r s o r t h e i r f r e q u e n c i e s i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s : e . g . a t home, a t work e t c . F i n a l l y , a l a r g e c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n s t u d y c o u l d be u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h norms f o r t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l o r f o r s p e c i - . f i c p o p u l a t i o n s s u c h as p o l i c e , m o t h e r s o f p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s e t c . The Ego S t a t e Check L i s t i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m i s a d v i s e d f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y . C o p i e s o f t h e s c a l e and a s c o r i n g s e r v i c e a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e a u t h o r . The Ego S t a t e Check L i s t may be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u s e as a s e l f - r a t i n g s c a l e o r f o r r a t i n g o t h e r s . I t c o u l d be u s e d as a p r e t e s t when a c l i e n t e n t e r s c o u n s e l l i n g — e . g . , t o e s t a b l i s h a b a s e l i n e o r t o s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o n t r a c t between t h e c o u n s e l l o r and c l i e n t . The Ego S t a t e Check L i s t c o u l d a l s o be u s e d i n t h e r a p y y t o compare a c l i e n t ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n w i t h t h e p e r -c e p t i o n o f t h e t h e r a p i s t o r w i t h t h a t o f t h e t h e r a p y g r o u p . A n o t h e r u s e w o u l d be t o measure p r o g r e s s on a c o n t r a c t o r t o measure change o f c l i e n t s i n t h e r a p y o r n o n - t h e r a p y g r o u p s ( e . g . s e l f - h e l p o r g r o w t h g r o u p s ) . Limitations of the Study I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be l i m i t e d by t h e p u r p o s e s as s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r 1. TA 104 p r a c t i t i o n e r s were a s k e d t o s o r t a g i v e n s e t o f b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o a s many m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s as t h e y c h o s e i n o r d e r t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r v i e w o f ego s t a t e s . No a t t e m p t was made t o a d d r e s s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c -t u r e o r t o d i s c u s s t h e p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f ego s t a t e s as p s y c h i c o r g a n s . The i n t e n t was t o c l a r i f y ego s t a t e t e r m i n o l o g y s o t h a t one c o u l d i n f e r f r o m t h e t i t l e o f an ego s t a t e a c l u s t e r o f b e h a v i o r s w h i c h w o u l d b e : . i n c l u d e d . The f a c t t h a t a PAC model d i d n o t a p p e a r was a f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h p r e -c l u d e d t h e u s e o f s u p e r - c a t e g o r i e s : i t s a y s n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e PAC s t r u c t u r e . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y I d e a l l y , t h e s t u d y w o u l d have been g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f c e r t i f i e d members o f t h e ITAA r e s i d e n t i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . B e c a u s e W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n s had t o be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e sample due t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y , b e c a u s e o f low r e s p o n s e i n some s e c t i o n s o f t h e sample — e s p e c i a l l y S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a — and h i g h r e s p o n s e i n o t h e r s N o r t h - e a s t e r n U.S. and Canada — t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t r e s p o n s e - b i a s has i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d f u r t h e r t h a t t h e Ten Ego S t a t e M o d e l w i t h i t s a c c o m p a n y i n g d e s c r i p t o r s i s a t b e s t o n l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o Canada and U.S. As S c h i f f ( A p p e n d i x V I , 1) p o i n t e d o u t i n h i s comments on t h e s t u d y . 105 The terminology used t o d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ego s t a t e systems w i l l of n e c e s s i t y , being be-h a v i o r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , be c u l t u r a l l y determined. For example, while we do t a l k about people being c r i t i c a l ' from t h e i r parent ego s t a t e system, i n some c u l t u r e s people are almost never c r i t i c a l from parent but almost e x c l u s i v e l y from c h i l d . In other c u l t u r e s the r e v e r s e i s t r u e . T h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l n e s s cannot be a d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , of an ego s t a t e system, s i n c e the model i s supposed t o be a t r a n s c u l t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e r n a l dynamics of a l l human beings. Before the Ten Ego St a t e Model, the 86 d e s c r i p t o r s , and the Ego S t a t e Check L i s t can be a p p l i e d t o oth e r c u l t u r e s , r e s e a r c h must e s t a b l i s h t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY Amundson, N.E. Transactional Analysis with children, V a n c o u v e r : Amundson, 1976. ( A v a i l a b l e f r o m a u t h o r , Dept. o f Coun-s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., V a n c o u v e r , B.C.) A v a r y , B. " F u n c t i o n a l ego s t a t e s " , 1976. C h a r t a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h Transactional Pubs, San F r a n c i s c o . B e r n e , E . 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P e r s o n a l communication. J u l y , 1977. 6. K e r t e s z , R. & Savorgnan, J.A. of the U n i v e r s i t y of Buenos A i r e s , F a c u l t y , o f Medicine, are c r e d i t e d by James & Jongeward (1971) wi t h the f i r s t use of the term " t e c h n i c s . " 7. Campbell, A. The e x p e r i e n c i n g a d u l t : the a d u l t ego s t a t e , a new p e r s p e c t i v e . Paper presented a t the Regina T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s Seminar, Regina, Saskatchewan, March, 1977. 8. P a r r y , T.A. P e r s o n a l communication, February 1978. 9. Sowder, W.F.'Experimentation i n "Transactional Amalysis. Unpublished t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Alabama i n H u n t s v i l l e , 1976. 10. H a l l , A.J. P r e d i c t i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l behaviour by Berne's ego s t a t e psychology. Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of P o r t l a n d , 1963. 11. B lack, R. C o n s t r u c t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s ego s t a t e i n v e n -t o r y - a t e s t of c h i l d r e n ' s ego s t a t e f u n c t i o n i n g as d e f i n e d by T.A. Unpublished M.Ed, paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1976 12. Kealy, L. P e r s o n a l response q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1976. 13. McCarley, D. Ego s t a t e i n v e n t o r y . Unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1971. 14. Heyer, R. P e r s o n a l Communication, S a u s a l i t o , C a l i f . 1977. 112 15. P a t s u l a , R.B. C h i l d r e n ' s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f word d e f i n i t i o n s . U n p u b l i s h e d M.Ed, t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a , 1972. 16. C o n r y , R.F. E f f e c t s o f c o g n i t i v e s t y l e d i f f e r e n c e s and s t i m u l u s f a c t o r s on f r e e s o r t i n g b e h a v i o r . U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1973. 113 APPENDIX I I n i t i a l S e t o f D e s c r i p t o r s (80) w i t h a priori C l a s s i f i c a t i o n I N I T I A L CONTROLLING PARENT A u t o c r a t i c C r i t i c i z e s O t h e r s Dogmatic P e r s e c u t i n g P u n i s h i n g P r e j u d i c e d C o n t r o l l i n g R i g i d B o s s y T r a d i t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e Dominant R e a c t i o n a r y P o w e r f u l NURTURING PARENT C o m f o r t i n g . -N u r t u r i n g S y m p a t h e t i c P r o t e c t i v e C a r i n g A l l o w i n g R e s c u i n g H e l p f u l S e n s i t i v e t o Others' Needs Over P r o t e c t i v e APPENDIX I DESCRIPTORS (80) WITH A PRIORI ADULT T h i n k s A n a l y t i c a l l y L o g i c a l & F a c t u a l E s t i m a t e s P r o b a b i l i t i e s S o l v e s Problems O r g a n i z e s Obj e c t i v e P l a n s Ahead Makes D e c i s i o n s Open t o New I n f o r m a t i o n G o a l O r i e n t e d F l e x i b l e S e l f - A w a r e Aware of Ot h e r s Autonomous A s s e r t i v e Good Leader E t h i c a l l y R e s p o n s i b l e A u t h o r i t a t i v e SSIFICATION NATURAL CHILD P l a y f u l S e n s u a l E n t h u s i a s t i c U n i n h i b i t e d Spontaneous S o c i a b l e Unaware of Time E x p r e s s i v e A f f e c t i o n a t e T r u s t i n g Takes R i s k s S e l f I n d u l g e n t Do What You Want E x p e r i e n c e s R e l a t i o n s h i p s Ask F o r What You Want C r e a t i v e C u r i o u s I n t u i t i v e REBEL CHILD St u b b o r n R e b e l l i o u s V e n g e f u l D i s t u r b s O t h e r s P a s s i v e - A g g r e s s i v e M a n i p u l a t i v e COMPLIANT CHILD T i m i d Obedient S e e k s " A p p r o v a l P a s s i v e Doubts S e l f F e e l s G u i l t y A n x i o u s S e l f - C o n s c i o u s F e a r f u l Withdraws Depressed R e s p e c t f u l of O t h e r s ' R i g h t s P e s s i m i s t i c 115 APPENDIX I I F i n a l S e t o f D e s c r i p t o r s ' (97) w i t h a priori C l a s s i f i c a t i o n APPENDIX I I FINAL SET OF DESCRIPTORS (97) WITH A PRIORI CLASSIFICATION 'OK- CONTROLLING PARENT C o r r e c t s Others Gives Orders T r a d i t i o n a l D i r e c t i n g D i s c i p l i n e s C o n t r o l l i n g NOT-OK CONTROLLING PARENT Pr e j u d i c e d A u t o c r a t i c P e r s e c u t i n g P u n i t i v e Bossy C r i t i c i z e s Others . Dogmatic R i g i d OK NURTURING PARENT Gives P e r m i s s i o n Encourages • F a c i l i t a t e s S u p p o rtive P r o t e c t i v e Comforting Sympathetic C a r i n g . NOT-OK NURTURING PARENT S e l f - S a c r i f i c i n g O v e r - S o l i c i t o u s Smothering Condescending Doting Indulges Others O v e r - P r o t e c t i v e Rescuing [COMPUTING ADULT Seeks Tr u t h Defines R e a l i t y Plans Ahead O b j e c t i v e Makes D e c i s i o n s Thinks A n a l y t i c a l l y Organizes Goal O r i e n t e d Gathers Data L o g i c a l & F a c t u a l Estimates P r o b a b i l i t i e s Solves Problems Systematic EXPERIENCING ADULT Shows Empathy Cooperative A u t h o r i t a t i v e S e n s i t i v e to Others Needs Aware of Others F l e x i b l e S e l f Aware Autonomous A s s e r t i v e W i l l i n g to Take Ris k s E t h i c a l l y Responsible Ask For What I Want R e s p e c t f u l of Others R i g h t s I n t r o s p e c t i v e REBEL CHILD P r o c r a s t i n a t e s Holds Grudges . Bad Tempered Sulks R e b e l l i o u s V e n g e f u l Disobedient Stubborn P a s s i v e l y R e s i s t a n t [FREE CHILD Impulsive Sensual Spontaneous I Do What I Want Unaware of Time U n i n h i b i t e d E x p r e s s i v e P l a y f u l T r u s t i n g LITTLE PROFESSOR M a g i c a l T h i n k i n g Ingenious Uses Hunches Imaginative I n t u i t i v e Manipulates Others Curious C r e a t i v e I n v e n t i v e COMPLIANT CHILD Conforming Secure Within a S t r u c t u r e Depressed Anxious Doubts S e l f Timid P a s s i v e S e l f - C o n c i o u s Withdraws F e e l s G u i l t y F e a r f u l Obedient . Seeks Approval 117 APPENDIX I I I P i l o t S t u d y : I n s t r u c t i o n s t o S o r t e r s 119 I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r S o r t i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o Ego S t a t e s P l e a s e c h e c k t o see t h a t y o u r d e c k c o n t a i n s a l l t h e components shown i n D i a g r a m 1. S e t a s i d e t h e ID c a r d , t h e y e l l o w c a r d s and a l l t h e s t r i p e d c a r d s . You w i l l n o t need them u n t i l l a t e r . W H I T E C H A R A C -T E R I S T I C S C A R D S P E A C H - S T R I P E CARDS R E D - S T R I P E C A R D S GREEW-STRIPE CARDS YELUOW-STRIPE CARDS yELLOW CARDS I D CARD D i a g r a m 1 A r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e Deck B e f o r e S o r t i n g  P l e a s e c a r r y o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s ONE STEP AT A TIME. 1. Take a q u i c k l o o k t h r o u g h t h e r e m a i n i n g c a r d s t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be s o r t e d . 2. P l a c e t h e f o u r Y e l l o w C a r d s f a c e up on t h e t a b l e i n f r o n t o f you i n t h e o r d e r f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t : P a r e n t , A d u l t , C h i l d . R e j e c t ( o v e r - l a p p i n g , u n d e c i d e d e t c ) . 120 3. B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e f i r s t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C a r d , c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f b e h a v i o r b e l o n g i n g t o one o f t h e t h r e e ego s t a t e s . I f  i t b e l o n g s t o more t h a n one o r y o u c a n n o t d e c i d e , p l a c e  i t i n t h e REJECT p i l e . F o l l o w t h e same p r o c e d u r e f o r e a c h o f t h e o t h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C a r d s . 4. Now t a k e a l l o f t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C a r d s a s s i g n e d t o t h e P a r e n t c a t e g o r y . S e p a r a t e t h e P a r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o as many s u b - c a t e g o r i e s as y o u t h i n k a p p r o p r i a t e ; i f y o u f e e l t h e y s h o u l d be l e f t i n one c a t e g o r y , do s o . S t a c k t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C a r d s b e l o n g i n g t o e a c h P a r e n t s u b - c a t e g o r y and p l a c e a Y e l l o w - S t r i p e r C a r d on t o p o f e a c h s t a c k . L a b e l t h e Y e l l o w - S t r i p e C a r d s w i t h t h e name t h a t y ou u s e t o d e s i g n a t e e a c h s u b - c a t e g o r y o f t h e P a r e n t ego s t a t e . S t a c k t h e P a r e n t s u b - c a t e g o r i e s one on t o p o f t h e o t h e r and p l a c e t h e Y e l l o w P a r e n t C a r d on t o p . D i s c a r d any e x t r a Y e l l o w - S t r i p e C a r d s . 5. N e x t t a k e a l l t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C a r d s a s s i g n e d t o t h e A d u l t c a t e g o r y and p r o c e e d t o d i v i d e them i n t o one o r more s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . P l a c e a G r e e n - S t r i p e C a r d on t o p o f e a c h s t a c k and l a b e l e a c h w i t h y o u r name f o r e a c h s u b - c a t e g o r y . S t a c k them i n one p i l e w i t h t h e Y e l l o w A d u l t C a r d on t o p . 6. Take a l l t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C a r d s a s s i g n e d t o t h e C h i l d c a t e g o r y and p r o c e e d t o d i v i d e them i n t o one o r more s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . P l a c e a R e d - S t r i p e C a r d on t o p o f e a c h s t a c k and l a b e l e a c h w i t h y o u r name f o r t h e s u b -c a t e g o r y . S t a c k them i n one p i l e w i t h t h e Y e l l o w C h i l d C a r d on t o p . 7. Take t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C a r d s f r o m t h e R e j e c t p i l e . R e c o n s i d e r e a c h t o see w h e t h e r o r n o t i t c o u l d f i t i n one o f t h e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s y o u have c r e a t e d . I f n o t , t h e n c o l l e c t t o g e t h e r t h o s e t h a t y ou have r e j e c t e d f o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s ; w r i t e t h e r e a s o n on an O r a n g e - S t r i p e C a r d and p l a c e one on t o p o f e a c h p i l e . S t a c k t h e R e j e c t p i l e s on t o p o f e a c h o t h e r and p l a c e t h e Y e l l o w R e j e c t C a r d on t o p . 8. P l a c e t h e s t a c k s on t o p o f e a c h o t h e r i n t h e o r d e r f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m o f P a r e n t , A d u l t , C h i l d , R e j e c t . 122 APPENDIX IV F i n a l S t u d y : I n s t r u c t i o n s t o S o r t e r s 124 STUDY OF DEFINITIONS OF TA EGO STATES DIRECTIONS TO SORTERS A. E x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t : I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e f i e l d o f T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s t h a t t e c h n i c a l t e r m s mean t h e same t o a l l who u s e them. I n t h e p a s t t h i s has n o t been t r u e f o r t h e t e r m i n o l o g y u s e d i n naming ego s t a t e s and t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e what s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t amongst TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' d e f i n i t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o h e l p w i t h t h i s , p l e a s e s o r t t h e d e s c r i p t o r s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f y o u r v i e w o f ego s t a t e s and t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w . T h i s w i l l l i k e l y t a k e a b o u t 45-60 m i n u t e s . P l e a s e d o n ' t d i s c u s s t h e p r o j e c t w i t h anyone e l s e b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g i t . I f y o u w i s h t o d i s c u s s i t w i t h y o u r c o l l e a g u e s o r f r i e n d s a f t e r w a r d s and s e n d me y o u r comments p l e a s e do s o . I hope y o u w i l l be a b l e t o r e t u r n t h e s o r t e d d e c k w i t h i n a week. B. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r S o r t i n g B e h a v i o r a l D e s c r i p t o r s i n t o Ego S t a t e C a t e g o r i e s :  P l e a s e c a r r y o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s ONE STEP AT A TIME 1. Check t o s e e t h a t y o u r d e c k c o n t a i n s a l l t h e com-p o n e n t s shown i n D i a g r a m 1. 2. F i l l i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d on t h e B l u e ID c a r d . 3. S e t a s i d e t h e B l u e ID c a r d and t h e Y e l l o w c a r d s . You won't need them u n t i l l a t e r . B l u e ID C a r d W h i t e D e s c r i p t o r C a r d s B l a n k Y e l l o w C a r d s D i a g r a m 1 A r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e Deck • B e f o r e S o r t i n g ' APPENDIX V P h i M a t r i c e s f o r L PHI MATRIX NO. CATEGORIES = 11 STIMULUS 1-•DELTA**2 1 7 . TRUSTING 0.722 0.835 90. I 00 WHAT I WANT 0.617 0.862 5. EXPRESSIVE C.876 0.952 3 . I « D U L S I V E C.765 0.971 21 . UNINHIRITEO 0.903 1.003 80. SPONTANEOUS 0.931 1.020 68. UNAWARE OF TIME 0.827 1.035 71 . SENSUAL 0.926 1 .045 69. PLAYFUL 0.958 1 .059 87. T R AO I T 1 O N A L 0.477 0.027 41 . GIVES ORDERS 0.716 -0.008 1 . . CORRECTS OTHERS 0.711 0.012 60. AUTHORITATIVE 0.671 -0.008 97. DIRECTING 0.639 - 0 . 0 1 5 24. DISCIPLINES OTHERS 0.790 0 .022 13. CCNTROLL ING 0.709 0 .008 53. CONDESCENDING 0.590 0.004 46. CRITICIZES OTHERS C.79C 0.012 84 . BOSSY 0.658 -0.005 4 4 . RIGID 0.732 - 0 . 0 0 6 45. AUTOCRATIC 0.824 0.001 50. PREJUDICED 0.869 0.010 92. PERSECUTING 0.811 -0.014 26. PUNITIVE 0.375 0.011 11 . DOGMATIC 0 . 9 3 3 -0.000 34. WITHDRAWS 0.803 0.023 95. PASS! V E 0.842 -0.041 85. COUSTS SELF 0.854 -0.022 36. FEARFUL 0.698 0.182 17. SELF-CONSCIOUS C. 849 -0.021 76. FEELS GUILTY 0.931 -0.032 9 3 . TIMID 0.952 - 0 . 0 0 4 47. C E D R E S S E D 0.941 -0.029 23. ANXIOUS 0.919 0.014 79. MANIPULATES OTHERS 0.415 -0.172 57. MAGICAL THINKING 0.390 0.117 62. CURIOUS C.783 0.506 9 . IMAGINATIVE 0.847 0.320 37. CREATIVE 0.864 0.276 16. I N V E N T I V E C.813 -0.070 12. INGENIOUS 0.902 -0.077 63. USES HUNCHES 0.846 -0.143 3 2 . INTUIT I V E 0.933 -0.107 78. PROCRASTINATES 0.775 -0.051 38. PASSIVELY RES IS T AN 0.762 - 0 . 0 4 9 . SULKS 0 . 8 ^ 4 - 0 .058 61  HOLDS GRUDGES 0.723 -0.089 81 . STUBBORN 0.693 0.094 42. BAD TEMPERED 0.702 -0.010 10. VENGEFUL 0.799 - 0 . 0 1 9 28. REBELLIOUS 0.837 0.029 73. DISOHEDIE N T C. 844 0.070 54. SEEK S APPROVAL 0 . R68 -0.026 35. SECURE WITHIN A ST 0. 574 0.191 29. r. CM FORMING O.Rl 0 - 0 . 0 40 19. OBEDIENT 0.874 - 0 . 0 3 2 4 . INTROSPECT I V E 0.377 0.010 25. SEEKS TRUTH 0 . 5 9 5 - 0.111 89. ETWTCALLY R cSPONSI 0.480 -0.139 91. WILLING TO TAKE Rl 0.615 0.380 43. S E L F - A W A P E 0.554 0.015 65. ASK FOR WHAT I W A N 0.620 0.491 52. AUTONOMOUS 0.557 0.136 6 6 . RESPECTFUL OF OTHE C.484 - 0 . 2 2 0 15. FLEXIBLE 0.554 -0.088 39. ASSE°TIVE 0.512 0.258 70. CnOPE°ATES C.540 -0.145 14. AWAOF OF OTHERS 0.513 -0.201 31. FACILITATES OTHERS 0. 522 -0.103 75. SHOWS EMPATHY 0.530 0.034 67. SENSITIVE TO OTHER 0.601 -0.131 59. PROTECT IVE 0.73 0 0.036 56. GIVES PERMISSION 0.797 0 .004 33. SYMPATHETIC C.840 0.032 20. ' CA° IMG 0.83 I 0.016 30. ENCOURAGES OTHERS 0.860 0.013 6. COMFORTING C.93 8 0.040 6 4 . REASSURING 0.954 0.034 22. GOAL ORIENTED 0.708 -0.049 55. MAKES DECISIONS 0.719 -0.0 29 40. DEFINES REALITY 0.754 -0.017 8. PLANS AHEAD 0 . BB5 -0.047 77. SOLVES PROBLEMS 0.917 -0.004 72. ORGANIZES C.832 0.011 58. SYSTEMATIC 0.908 0.008 2. GATHEPS DATA 0.973 0.012 83 . THINKS ANALYTICALL 0.976 0.021 27. LOGICAL A N D FACTUA 0.988 0.026 51. CBJECTIVE G.988 0.026 74. ESTIMATES PROBABIL 0.988 0.026 86. SELF-SACRIFICING 0.637 0.005 18. INDULGES OTHERS 0.6B5 -0.023 88. DOTING 0.778 0.018 32. RESCUING C.795 -0.003 96. CVERSOLICITOUS 0.831 -0.029 4 9 . OVER-PROTECTIVE 0.911 0.007 48. SMOTHERING 0.939 0.003 -0. 014 0.028 -0. 009 0.010 -0. 003 -0.000 0. 023 -0.001 -0.001 0.6S7 0. 836 0. 898 0. 906 1. 138 1.214 0. 393 -0. 116 0. 094 -0. 119 -0. 015 0. C82 0.026 -0.157 -0.075 -0.026 0.003 0.012 0. 018 001 010 002 005 004 -0 0 0 0 0 -0.003 0. 0 84 0.009 0. 009 0. 003 0.011 -0. 004 0. 010 -0.013 0. COS 0.019 0. 031 0.025 -0.022 -0.001 C75 -0 0. 023 -0. 001 -0. 001 -0.012 0. C23 -0. 015 -0.020 -0.021 0. 107 0. 423 -0.042 -0.106 -0. 029 -0.017 0.114 -0. 045 0. 109 -0.011 -0.110 -0.045 -0. 073 -0.176 0. 244 0. 123 -0.C80 -0. 056 -0.022 0. 016 -0. 007 0. 080 -0. 026 0.121 -0. 009 -0.023 0. 062 -0. 018 -0.035 -0.032 -0.030 -0.030 -0.030 0.034 -0. 013 -0.060 -0.003 0. 038 0*012 -0. 019 0.003 -0.028 0.009 -0.009 0.012 0.006 -0.010 0.009 0.003 0.136 0.265 0. 194 0.146 -0.231 -0.151 0.678 0.799 0.952 0.956 0.960 0.9 73 1.051 1.103 1.116 1.116 -0.004 -0.015 0.038 -0.009 -0.012 0.006 -0.002 0.0 04 0.008 0.063 -0.016 0.003 O.COO -0.006 -0.002 -0.011 0.004 -0.005 -0.05B -0.073 -0.066 0.070 -0.021 0. 184 0.022 -0.056 -0.061 -0.011 -0.00? 0.019 0.003 0. 003 -0.033 -0.U49 0.012 0.059 0.002 -0.014 -0.060 0.0 22 -0.042 -0.026 0.042 0.023 0.023 0.105 -O.IOL -0.06 9 0 .049 0.023 0.019 -0.020 -0.006 -0.026 -0.004 -0.054 -0.004 0.001 -0.022 0.034 0.012 0.012 0. 010 0.010 0.010 -0.065 -0.015 0.053 0.006 -0.072 0.010 0.015 -0.072 -0.063 -0.052 0.094 -0.005 0.038 -0.006 0.021 0.015 -0.106 0.051 0.036 -0.034 -0.040 0.043 -0.020 0.037 0.018 0.111 0.093 -0.049 0.013 -0.062 -0. 045 -0.018 0. 879 0.893 0.941 0.977 0.988 1.011 1 .070 1.171 1.219 0.346 0. 117 -0.076 0.006 -0.032 -0.003 -0.038 -0.015 -0.011 0.487 0.3 78 0.5 06 -0.090 -0.123 -0. 145 -0.014 -0.121 -0. 154 0.313 -0.056 -0.003 -0.024 0.029 0.047 -0.020 0.062 0.031 0.036 0.068 -0.123 0.057 0. 109 -0.206 0.045 -0.005 0.041 0.024 0.010 -0.040 0.030 0.009 0.001 0.012 -0.008 -0.021 0.023 -0.006 0.023 0.000 -0.005 -0.035 -0.001 0.001 -0.005 -0.005 -0.005 -0.037 -0.016 0.008 0.013 0.046 -0.024 -0.013 0.021 -0. 134 -0.008 -0.101 0.003 -0.001 -0.079 -0.021 -0.012 0.002 -0.009 0.016 0.001 -0.011 0.016 0.022 -0.003 0.002 0.010 -0.020 -0.023 -0.002 -0.007 0. 008 -0.000 -0.044 -0.014 0.022 -0.040 0.016 -0.017 -0.015 -J.024 -0.017 0.390 0.484 0.578 0.782 0. 840 1 .039 1.111 1. 114 1. 168 0.040 0.011 .-=Tr.-026 -0.0 15 0.009 -0.026 -0.016 0.017 -0.007 0. 017 -0.065 0.009 -0. 01 0 -0.029 0.255 -0.010 0.043 0.004 -0.041 0.019 -0.014 -0 .035 -0.002 0.027 -0.016 -0.003 -0.003 -0.016 0.005 -0.058 -0 .012 0.101 0.055 -0.002 -0.038 0.043 -0.030 -0.037 0.041 0.148 -0.038 -0.113 -0.024 -0.065 -0.099 -0 .069 -0. 109 0.239 0.010 -0.014 -0.022 -0.012 -0.003 0.005 -0.003 -0.012 0.179 -0.030 0.049 -0.045 -0.021 -0.040 0.045 -0.006 -0.010 0. 176 -0.083 -0.053 0.023 0.032 -0.041 0.013 -0.022 -0.029 -0.033 -0.052 0.022 -0.022 0.066 0.038 0.006 0. 100 0.023 0. 126 -0.026 0.057 0. 119 0.090 -0.071 -0. 120 0.056 0.296 0.065 -0.023 0.004 -0.034 -0.004 -0. 018 -0.016 8 0.122 0.017 0. 150 -0.005 -0.004 0.003 -0.137 -0.068 -0.063 -0.084 0.072 -0. 063 0.032 0.117 -0.115 -3.106 -0.013 -0.053 0. 029 0.05 7 0.090 -0.027 0.033 -0.079 0.306 0.027 0.013 -0.044 0.056 •-3.323 -0.004 -0.044 0.023 0.003 -0.102 -0. 157 -0.111 -0.033 -0. 064 0. 377 0.040 0.060 -0.03 8 0.015 0.012 0.009 0.00 1 0.022 0.013 0.032 O . O l f l 0.024 0.039 -0.097 -0.025 -0.030 -0 .082 0.094 -0.039 0.007 -0.0J9 0.003 0.001 -0.020 0.020 -0.003 0.017 -0.010 -0.000 0.002 0.008 0.006 -0.001 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.009 -0.000 0.013 0.027 0.008 0.008 -0.011 -0.006 -0.003 0.001 10 -0.043 0.021 -0.052 0.004 -0.000 0.004 0.063 0.032 0.030 -0.014 -0.060 -0.011 -0.015 0.055 -0.043 0.020 0.017 0.016 -0.004 -0.030 -0.024 0.007 -0.004 0.044 -0.001 -0.012 -0.011 0.016 -0.031 0.016 -0.003 0.017 -0.016 -0.007 0.028 0.060 0.053 -0.014 0.001 0.019 -0.020 0.001 -0.024 0.700 -0.114 -0. 048 -0.002 0.01 8 0 .726 -0.014 -0.02 8 -0.005 0.003 0. 778 -0. 192 0.053 -0.003 -0.030 0.975 0.119 0.119 -0.026 -0.058 1 .023 0.022 -0.014 -0.002 0.007 1 .032 0. 014 0.077 -0.014 -0.033 1 .087 -0 . 06 9 0.016 0 .004 -0.009 1.140 0.026 -0.038 0.014 0.016 1 .147 0.064 -0.103 0.016 0.048 -0.001 0. 796 -0. 049 -0.020 0.017 -0.006 0.900 0.018 -0.017 0.016 -0.003 1.062 -0. 3<V9 0.010 0.020 0.040 1.083 0.02 7 -0.009 -0.019 11 -0.019 -0.003 -0.011 0.013 -0.001 -0.004 -0.011 -0.001 -0.009 0.058 0 .023 0.031 -0.013 0.015 -0.041 -0.019 0.321 -0.025 -0 .019 -0.007 -0.020 -0.049 -0.002 -0.039 -0 .016 -0.003 0.005 -0.013 -0.019 0.003 0.003 -0.005 0.003 0.002 -0.009 -0.009 -0.009 -0.000 -0.001 0.003 0.002 -0.001 0.002 0.010 0.004 0.014 0.022 -0.010 0.014 0 .001 -0.005 -0.014 0.007 -0.037 0 .019 -0.007 0.107 -0.003 0.151 0.395 -0.065 0.352 0.027 f 0.02B 0.019 -0.078 0. 536 -0.018 0.424 -0.011 -0.075 0.003 -0.010 0.725 0.205 0.036 -0 .049 j 0.151 -0.041 -0.127 0.953 -0.106 -0.155 0.025 \ 0.085 -0.011 -0. 097 0. 361 -0.074 0.2 10 0.012 \ -0.074 -0.044 -0.046 0.949 -0.133 -0.189 0 .040 ( -0.032 0.007 -0.145 0.966 -0.132 0.107 0.031 ( -0.073 0.019 0.235 1.011 0.259 -0.135 -0.042 i 0.092 0.004 -0.102 1.012 -0.031 0.105 -0.015 i i -0.009 -0.015 -0.163 1.017 - 0 . I b l -0.147 0.049 -0.071 0 .015 0.507 1.127 -0.097 -0. 104 -0 .003 0.095 0.003 -0.044 1.214 0.037 -0.110 -0.002 -0.061 0.032 0.076 -0.003 -0.013 0.012 -0.022 -0.016 -0.011 -0.008 -0.044 -0.026 -0.004 -0.032 0. 002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.007 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.011 -0.004 -0.005 -0.004 0.003 0.004 0.008 0.010 -0.000 0.004 -0 .004 0.010 0.006 0.002 -0.006 -0.005 -0.001 0.002 -0.007 -0.000 0.009 -0. 000 -0.001 0 .00 3 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.001 -0.019 0 .029 0.003 -0.022 0.033 -0.001 -0.009 -0 .013 -0.027 -0. 020 -0.017 0.033 -0.010 -0.014 -0.010 -0.016 0.001 0.042 -0.036 -0.002 -0.052 0.001 0.002 0.034 -0.004 -0.002 0.005 0.005 0.005 0. 143 0.087 -0.064 0. 022 -0.004 -0. 034 -0.055 0.531 0.243 0. 51 3 -0.148 -0.01 1 -0.135 0.059 0.009 -0.164 -0.131 0.439 0.426 0.086 0.242 0. 006 -0.066 -0.05 1 -0.055 -0.106 -0.124 -0. 124 -0.124 -0.001 0.039 0.006 -0.009 0.087 -0.044 -0.040 0.595 0.096 -0.023 0.764 -0.038 -0.041 0. 796 -O.I 77 -0.083 0.335 0.021 0 .059 0.977 0.011 -0.026 1.021 0.044 0 .046 1.028 -0.050 -0 .039 1.034 0.011 -0.013 1.089 0.042 0.011 1 .09 3 0.034 0.019 -0.04 7 0. 635 0.001 -0 .036 0 .662 -0 .001 0.001 0.351 -0.005 -0.004 0.962 0.009 -0.004 1.001 0.001 -0.017 1.010 0.013 0.021 1.023 -0.003 0.010 1.062 -0.003 0.012 1.088 -0.002 0.014 1.103 -0 .002 0.014 1.103 -0.002 0.014 1.103 -0.002 0.090 -0.007 0.834 0.128 -0.024 0.340 0.124 -0.003 0.917 -0.026 0.005 1.004 -0.117 -0.040 1 .067 -0.030 0.025 1 .081 -0.022 0.023 1.096 K J I P H I M A T R I X NO. CATEGORIES • 10 STIMULUS 1-0ELTA**2 1 2 3 7. TRUSTING 0.717 0.848 0.088 -0.013 90. I DO WHAT I WANT 0.617 0.882 -0.096 0.028 5. EXPRESSIVE 0.876 0.974 -0.015 -0.CC9 3. IMPUI SI VE 0.765 0.997 0.047 0.010 21. UNINHIBITED 0.903 1.026 -0. 027 -0.003 30. SPONTANEOUS 0.931 1 .046 -0.003 -0.001 68. UNAWARE OF TIME 0.826 1.053 0.039 0.024 71. SENSUAL 0.926 1 .068 0. 016 -0.000 69. PLAYFUL 0.958 1 .083 0.006 -0.000 79. MANIPULATES OTHERS 0.415 -0.174 0. 406 0.083 35. SECURE WITHIN A ST 0.483 0 .161 0.768 0.033 95. PASSIVE 0. 832 -0.028 0.913 0.008 36. FEARFUL 0.679 0 .204 0. 543 -0. 005 29. CONFORMING 0.682 -0.074 0.962 -0.006 34 . WITHORAWS 0.798 0.035 0. 967 -0.006 19. OBEDIENT 0. 739 -0 .064 0. 967 -0.010 1 7. SELF-CCNSCIOUS C.839 -0 .007 1.037 0.007 54. SEEKS APPROVAL 0.818 -0 .049 1. 047 - 0.008 85. DOUBTS SELF 0.849 -0 .012 1.057 -0.021 47. PEPPESSED C.908 -0.007 1. 094 -0.001 23. ANXIOUS 0.877 0.037 1. C95 -0.CC9 76. FEELS GUILTY 0.924 -0.019 1. 1 18 -0.001 93. TIMID 0.942 0.009 1. 150 0.001 87. TRADITIONAL 0.472 0.018 0.063 0.694 41. GIVES ORDERS 0.714 -0.003 -0. 029 0.830 1 . CORRECTS OTHERS 0.711 0.014 -0.010 0.894 6 0 . AUTHORITATIVE 0.671 -0.009 -0.013 0.902 97. DIRECT ING 0.640 -0.015 -0.013 1. 134 24. DISCIPLINES OTHERS 0.790 0.022 0. 011 1.209 13. CONTROLLING 0.709 0.005 -0. 004 0.391 53. CONDESCENDING 0.590 0 .006 0. 016 -0.116 4 6 . CRITICIZES OTHERS C.79C 0.012 -0.008 0.093 84. BOSSY 0.658 -0.002 0. C77 -0.1 19 44. RIGID 0.731 -0.002 0.040 -0.016 4 5 . AUTOCRATIC 0.824 0.001 -0. 034 0.081 50. PREJUDICED 0.369 0.0 10 -0. 008 0.025 92. PER SECUTING 0.810 -0.017 -0.004 -0.156 26. PUNITIVE 0.874 .0.007 -0. 007 -0.074 11. DOGMATIC 0.933 -o.noo -0.013 -0.027 78. PROCRASTINATES C.768 -0.041 0. 3 80 0.017 30. PASSIVELY RES IS TAN 0.761 -0.044 0. 362 0.030 94. SULKS 0.820 -0.043 0.322 0.021 61. HOLDS GRUDGES 0.719 -0.095 0.013 - 0 . 021 81 . STUBBORN 0.691 0.092 -0. 105 0.000 42. SAD TEMPERED 0.701 -0.012 -0. 140 -0.074 10. VENGEFUL 0.800 -0.017 -0. C83 0. 023 73. DISOBEDIENT 0.338 0^065. -0. 0.93 0 ,D01 28. REBELLIOUS 0. 834 0.025' -0.098 -0.000 5 7 . MAGICAL THINKING 0.381 0.108 0.404 0.011 62. CURIOUS 0.731 9. IMAGINATIVE 0.847 37. CREATIVE C.P64 16. INVENTIVE 0.814 12. INGENIOUS 0.902 63. USES HUNCHES 0.846 82. INTUITIVE 0.933 31. FACILITATES OTHERS 75. SHOWS EMPATHY 67. SENSITIVE TO OTHER 59. PROTECTIVE 56. GIVFS PFRMISSION 33. SYMPATHETIC 20. CAP ING 30. ENCOURAGES OTHERS 6. COMFORTING 64. REASSURING 4. INTROSPECTIVE 25. SEEKS TRUTH 89. ETHICALLY RESPONS! 91. WILLING TO TAKE R l 43. SELF-AWARE 52. AUTONOMOUS 65. ASK F0° WHAT I WAN 39. ASSERTIVE 15. FLEXIBLE 66. RESPECTFUL OF OTHE 14. AWARE OF OTHERS 70. COOPERATES 22. GOAL ORIENTED C.708 55. MAKES DECISIONS 0.719 40. DEFINES REALITY 0.754 8. PLANS AHEAD c.fles 7 7 . SOLVES PROBLEMS 0.916 72. ORGANIZES 0.831 58. SYSTEMATIC 0.906 2. GATHERS DATA C.972 83. THINKS ANALYTICALL C.975 27. LOGICAL AND FACTUA 0.987 51. OBJECTIVE C.9e7 74. ESTIMATES PROBABIL C.987 86. SELF-SACRIFICING 0.635 18. INDULGES OTHERS 0.685 88. DOTING 0.777 32. RESCUING 0.795 96. CVERSOLICITOUS C.830 49. OVER-PROTECTIVE 0.911 48. SMOTHERING C.938 522 529 601 730 796 C.840 0.83 1 0.860 0.938 0.954 0.376 0.593 0.479 0.607 0.549 C.547 0.616 0.496 0.546 0.483 0.507 0.520 0.511 0.327 0.280 -0.069 -0.079 -0.145 -0.110 -0.095 0.040 -0.123 0.034 0 .001 0.031 0.018 0.013 0.038 0 .031 0.013 -0.098 -0.128 0.412 0 .037 0.165 0.524 0.293 -0.064 -0.216 -0.178 -0.143 -0.045 -0.020 -0.017 -0.042 -0.005 0.008 0.004 0.010 0 .017 0 .022 0.022 0 .022 -0.000 -0.026 0.021 -0.003 -0.027 0.007 0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0. CI 7 -0. 027 -0.032 -0. 023 -0.012 -0. 039 0.008 -0.015 0. 002 -0.006 0.029 -0. C05 -0.006 0. 007 0.001 156 049 059 093 -0.095 -0 -0 109 C51 0.092 0. C80 0. C53 0. 048 0. 217 0.003 -0.024 -0. 006 -0. 031 0. 007 0.006 0. 005 0. CC5 0. 010 0. 012 0.012 <J. 012 0.096 0. 063 -0. 052 0.033 0. 037 -0.054 -0.064 0.010 0.003 0.011 -C.005 O.OIC -0.013 0.008 -C.046 -0.074 -0.177 0.244 0. 123 -0.08C -0. 056 -0.021 0.016 -0.006 -0.021 0.104 0.419 -0.045 -0.108 -0.020 -0.032 0.104 -0.047 0.112 -0.1 13 -0.009 0.C79 -0.027 0.121 -0.009 - 0 . 022 0.063 -0.017 -0.034 -0.031 -0.029 -0.025 -0.029 0.035 -0.017 -0.060 -0.003 0.037 C.01? -0.019 0.004 -0.028 0.010 -0.009 0.012 0.006 -0.010 0.009 0.008 0.068 0.006 -0.016 -0.011 0.026 -0.004 0.010 -0.013 -0.005 0.038 0.001 0.004 0.006 -0.003 0.140 0.266 0. 194 0.147 -0.232 -0.152 -0.051 0.254 -0.018 0.050 0.004 -0.037 0.0 10 -0.016 -0.037 0.296 0.096 0. 182 0.068 0. 107 06 7 062 O i l 068 014 009 0.041 0.036 0.065 -0.027 0.04 0 -0.009 -0.006 -0.006 -0. 01 I 0.015 -0.133 -0.010 -0.100 0.003 -O.COO -0.032 -0.022 -0.013 0.388 -0.090 -0.010 -0.033 -0.026 -0.042 -0.044 0.020 -0.009 0.022 -0 .015 -0.006 -0.015 -0.012 -0.005 -0.005 0.018 0.000 -0.011 0.017 0.681 0.002 0.020 0. 802 -0.054 -0.002 0.956 -0.009 0.003 0.960 0.109 0.012 0.963 0. 065 -0.017 0.978 -0.005 -0 .023 1.056 -0.035 -0.001 1.108 0.033 -0.009 1.120 -0.037 0.006 1.121 -0. 038 -0.001 -0.060 0.730 0 .045 -0.073 0.742 0.013 -0.067 0.818 -0.017 0.072 0.959 -0.019 -0.020 1.019 0.006 0.186 1.026 -0 .027 0.022 1.095 -0.015 -0.060 1. 130 -0.012 -0 .0 55 1.131 0.013 . 0.007 0.012 0.006 0.004 0.023 0.015 0.030 0.018 0.024 0.002 -0. 050 0.012 0.019 -0.028 0.C07 -0.047 0.009 -0.047 0.015 0.023 0.028 0.013 0.016 0.080 -0.092 -0.022 -0. 032 -0.084 0. 095 -0.039 0. 009 -0.007 • 0.005 0. 004 -0.021 0.022 -0.006 0.015 -0.010 0.003 0. 000 0.010 -0.032 -0.005 -0.017 0.006 0.011 0.010 8 0.171 -0.001 0.154 -0.043 -0.028 -0.025 -0.139 -0.089 -0.085 -0.109 0.295 -0.045 -0.029 0.273 -0.003 0.350 -0. 079 0.179 -0.076 -0.086 -0.123 -0.043 -0.097 -0.016 0.042 -0.082 0.04 5 0.134 -0.127 -0.102 -0.027 -0.067 0.007 0.031 0.098 -0.038 0.056 -0.06 7 0. 005 -0.119 -0. 059 .044 .167 .005 . 394 .001 -0*06.8 -0.018 -0.071 0.021 -0.060 0.013 0.001 0.010 0.056 0.031 0.029 0.034 -0.110 0.029 0.022 -0.124 0.017 -0.162 0.055 -0.08 1 0.044 0.052 0 .068 0.030 0.056 -0.046 -0.044 -0.003 -0.020 0.051 -0.038 0.015 0.022 0.021 0.037 -0.017 -0.027 0.011 -0.016 0.034 -0.002 0 .055 0.026 0.021 -0.080 -0.007 -0.044 -0.003 0.025 . 0.002 -0.014 -0.020 0.470 : 0.003 -0.073 0.018 0.004 -0.028 0.571 0.023 -0.095 0 .036 -0.000 -0. 022 0.779 0. 009 -0.05 0 -0.012 -0.006 -0.016 0 .835 0.007 -0.06 9 -0.005 -0.002 0.000 1.0 36 -0. 010 0.063 0.024 -0.011 0.003 1 .106 -0.006 0. 03 8 -0.023 0.004 -0.002 1.110 -0.003 0.05 2 0 .002 -0.005 -0. 012 1. 162 0.001 -0.045 -0.025 0.024 0.023 0.106 -0.101 -0.069 0.050 0.023 0.019 -0.021 -0. 006 0.010 -0.033 -0 .049 0.011 0.059 -0.014 0.002 -0.042 0.022 -0.057 0.042 -0.020 -0.025 -0.004 - 0.054 -0.004 0.002 -0.022 0.035 0.012 0.012 0.010 0.010 0.010 -0.064 -0.014 0.052 0.006 -0.072 0.0 10 0.015 0.017 0.006 0.013 -0.005 0.003 0.005 0.003 -0.006 -0.007 -0.005 -0.015 0. 036 0.013 -0.014 0.01 1 0.037 -0.025 0.021 0.030 0.002 0.026 -0.032 -0.001 0.000 -0.003 0.015 -0. 005 -0.007 -0.008 -0. 006 -0.008 -0. 009 -0.009 -0.009 -0.034 0.021 0.011 -0.022 0.038 0.003 -0.003 -0 .057 0.034 0.080 -0.008 -0.015 0.011 -0.021 -0.016 -0.011 -0.010 0.104 0.034 -0.069 0.161 0.094 -0.019 -0.065 0.005 0 .102 -0.075 0.105 -0.030 -0.043 -0.022 -0.004 -0.029 0.001 -0.003 -0 .004 -0.009 -0.003 -0.004 -0.004 -0.004 -0.016 -0.007 -0.002 -0.004 0.004 0.005 0.009 0.590 0. 759 0. 790 0.879 0. 967 1.014 1.021 1. 026 1.082 1.0R4 -0.071 -0. 016 0.202 -0.100 -0.071 -0.125 -0.131 -0.152 -0.028 0. 243 0.036 -0.113 -0.050 -0.035 0.001 -0.003 -0.005 -0. 01 7 0.0 13 0. 009 0.012 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.533 0.237 0.519 -0.147 0.012 -0. 135 0.062 0. 014 -0.16 3 -0.123 0.107 -0. 029 -0.164 0.020 0.002 0.042 -0.049 0.011 0 .039 0.029 10 -0.012 -0.003 -0.009 0.010 -0.001 -0.006 -0.008 -0.001 -0.009 -0.010 -0.005 -0.007 -0.033 0.055 -0.012 0.031 -0.008 0.030 -0.019 -0.010 -0.019 -0.007 -0.016 0.066 0.024 0.029 -0.012 0.017 -0.043 .018 .320 .027 .022 .011 .019 -0.050 0.001 -0.037 -0.015 0.000 -0.001 0.001 0.028 -0.006 0.017 0.000 -0.007 -0.001 0.001 .004 .001 .001 .003 .003 -0.001 0.002 -0.029 -0.043 -0.086 0.059 -0.024 0.046 -0.039 -0.013 0.012 0.021 0.083 0.124 125 026 115 029 019 0.438 0.339 0.031 0.608 0.450 -0.015 0. 730 0.051 -0.051 0.794 -0.114 0.016 . 0.822 0.244 0.006 0. 905 0. 154 0.022 0.91 8 -0.159 0.035 0.939 -0.091 0.038 0.970 0. 146 -0.022 1. 104 -0.154 -0.035 1. 194 -0.074 -0.009 1.292 -0.156 0.008 0.453 0.635 0.003 0.411 0.676 -0.0C3 0.084 0 .851 -0.004 0.222 0.874 0.007 0.004 0.999 0.003 -0. 068 1 . 006 0.015 -0.040 1.013 -0.000 -0.059 1 .060 -0.002 -0.110 1.03 4 -0.000 -0.126 1.098 -0.000 -0.126 1.098 -0.000 -0.126 1.098 -0. 300 0.047 -0.029 0.841 0.067 -0.036 0.045 -0.018 0.008 0.916 -0.006 0.003 1 .1)06 0.079 -0.033 1.067 -0.057 0.029 1.083 -0.060 0.031 1.098 o PHI MATRIX N O . C A T E G O R I E S * 9 STIMULUS 1-DELTA**2 1 2 3 4 5 6 79. MAN IPULATE S OTHERS 0.414 0.407 -0. 176 0.290 0.385 0.146 0.016 35. SECURE WITHIN A ST 0.483 0.771 0.160 -0.096 -0.089 0.025 -0.052 95. PASSIVE 0.832 0.916 -0.029 0.180 -0.010 -0.009 0.017 36. FEARFUL 0.679 0.945 0.202 -0.063 -0.033 -0.016 0.020 29. CONFORMING 0.68 1 0.965 -0. 071 -0.105 -0.024 0.014 -0.037 34. WITHDRAWS 0. 798 0.969 0.035 0.066 -0.042 -0.010 0.007 19. CBEO IENT 0.738 0.970 -0.C61 -0.060 -0.041 -0.009 -0.058 17. SELF-CCNSCIOUS 0.839 1 .039 -0.008 0.009 0.019 -0.007 0.013 54. SEEKS APPROVAL C.818 1 .050 -0.047 -0.067 -0.007 -0.017 -0.052 85. COURTS SELF 0.849 1.060 -0.010 -0.013 0.023 0.023 0.011 47. DEPRESSED 0.903 I .097 -0.008 -0.009 -0.015 0.001 0.025 23. ANXIOUS 0.877 1.098 0. 037 -0.041 -0.006 -0.001 0 .029 76. FEELS GUILTY 0.924 1.121 -0.019 -0.036 -0.015 0. 005 0.014 93. TIMID C.942 1 .153 0.009 -0.065 -0.012 -0.001 0 .019 7. TRUSTING 0.717 0 .083 0.843 -0.05C 0.016 -0.010 0. 003 90. I DO WHAT I WANT 0.616 -0.096 0.874 0.250 -0.135 -0.003 0.023 5. EXPRESSIVE 0.876 -0.015 0. 968 -0.017 -0.010 0.001 0.004 3. IMPULSIVE 0.764 0 .043 0.988 0.043 -0.101 0.003 0.012 21 . UNINHIRI TED 0.Q03 -0.027 1. 019 0.004 0.002 0.014 0 .026 80. SPONTANEOUS 0.931 -0.003 1. 038 -0.037 -0.001 0.009 0.013 63. UNAWARE OF TIME 0.825 0.039 1.044 0.007 -0.084 0.016 0.043 71 . SENSUAL 0.926 0.016 1. 060 -0.C17 -0.023 0.015 0.024 69. PLAYFUL 0.958 0 .006 1. 075 -0.037 -0.014 0. 013 0.030 78. PROCRASTINATES 0.767 0.382 -0.044 0.722 0.043 -0.043 0.021 38. PASSIVELY RESISTAN 0.760 0 .364 -0.047 0.734 0.010 -0. 04 3 0.014 94. SULKS C.818 0.324 -0.046 0.810 -0.019 -0.050 0.022 61. HOLDS GRUDGES 0.719 0.014 -0. C92 0.956 -0.017 0.058 -0.042 81. STUBBORN 0.690 -0.104 0.091 1.012 0.C05 -0.017 -0.000 42. EAD TEMPERED C.698 -0.138 -0. 005 1.025 -0.023 0.136 -0.043 10. VENGEFUL 0.800 -0.082 -0.019 1.087 -0.016 0.046 0.012 73. DISOBEDIFNT 0.837 -0.092 0.062 1.121 -0.013 -0.057 0.021 28. RESELL IOUS 0. 833 -0.097 0. 023 1.122 0.012 -0.054 0.019 57. MAGICAL THINKING 0.381 62. CURIOUS 0.780 9. IMAGINATIVE 0.846 37. CREATIVE C.863 16. INVENTIVE 0.814 12. INGENIOUS 0.901 63. USES HUNCHES C.S46 82. INTUITIVE 0.932 97. OIRECTING C.420 8 7 . TRA1ITI0N4L 0.419 53. CONDESCENDING 0.564 24. CISCIPLINES OTHERS 0.550 60. AUTHORITATIVE 0.577 84. BOSSY C.6G9 1. CORRECTS OTHERS 0.6L6 4 1 . GIVES ORDERS 0.644 44. RIGID C.698 92. PEPSECUTIN G ; : 0.73B 13. . CONTP'OLL I NG 0.713 46. CRITICIZES OTHERS 0.774 45. AUTOCRATIC 0.802 26. PUNITIVE C.819 50. PREJUDICED 0.336 11. DOGMATIC 0.885 0.405 -0.005 -0 .006 -0.017 -0.027 -0.031 0.107 0. 506 0.324 0.277 -0.023 -0.011 -0.011 0.063 0.017 0.008 -0.012 0.079 — 0 . 0 i 0 -0.027 0.041 -0.002 -0 .002 -0.007 -0 .032 -0.007 -0.007 -0.012 -0.069 -0.079 -0.143 -0. 110 -0.065 -0. 012 0.025 -0. C35 -0.046 0.022 — 0 • C i J -0.036 0. 018 0. 012 -0.000 0. C26 0.017 0. 031 0. 029 0. 022 -0.022 -0.029 -0.023 -0.018 O.OCO 0.002 -0.002 -0.013 -0.058 -0.054 -0.034 -0.063 -0.042 0.131 -.0. 044 0.0C7 0.083 0.060 -0.004 0.0C4 0.010 -0.013 -0.017 -0.016 3 1 . FACILITATES OTHERS 0.513 -0.039 -0. C87 6 7 . SENSITIVE TO OTHER 0.567 -0 .0 15 -0.103 75. SHOWS EMPATHY 0.520 0.008 0. C48 59. PROTECTIVE 0.726 0.002 0.022 56. GIVES PERMISSION 0. 797 -0.006 -0.003 33. SYMPATHETIC 0.832 0.029 0.037 20. CARING 0.822 -0.006 0.024 30. ENCOURAGES OTHERS C.855 -0.006 0.017 64. REASSURING 0.951 0.001 0.034 6. COMFORTING 0.937 0.007 0.039 4. INTROSPECTIVE 0.376 0 .157 0. 015 25. SEEKS TRUTH 0.593 -0.050 -0.102 9 1 . WILLING TO TAKE Rl 0.604 -0.093 0.414 43. SELF-AWARE 0.540 -0.094 0. 047 89. ETHICALLY RESPONSI 0.471 -0.060 -0.144 52. AUTONOMOUS 0.546 -0.109 0. 167 65. ASK FOR V'HAT I WAN 0.612 -0.051 0.525 15. FLEXIBLE 0.54O -0.080 -0.057 39. ASSERTIVE 0.497 -0.093 0. 238 66. RESPECTFUL OF OTHE 0.483 0.052 -0.215 14. AWARE OF OTHERS 0.487 -0.047 -0. 162 70. COOPERATES 0.512 0.2 18 -0.136 22. GOAL ORIENTED C.708 0.003 -0. C43 55. MAKES DECISIONS 6.719 -0.025 -0. 018 40. DEFINES REALITY C. 749 -0.006 -0.C25 8. PLANS AHEAD 0.835 -0.031 -0. 042 72. ORGAN I ZES 0.878 0.006 0.003 77. SOLVES PROBLEMS 0.916 0.007 -0. 005 58. SYS TEM AT IC 0.906 0.005 0. C04 2. GATHERS DATA 0.972 0.005 0.010 83. THINKS ANALYTIC ALL 0.975 0.010 0. 017 27. LOGICAL AND FACTUA 0.987 0.013 0.021 51. C8JECTIVF 0.987 0.013 0. 021 74. ESTIMATES PR03ARIL 0.987 0.013 0. 021 86. SELF-SACPIFICING C.628 0.097 -0.006 18. INDULGES OTHERS 0.683 0.063 -0.028 88. DOTING 0.777 -0.051 0. 020 32. >RESCUING C.789 0.034 -0. 008 96. CVERS0L1CIT0US 0.814. 0.039 —0.C34 49. OVER-PROTECTIVE 0.900 -0.053 0.001 48. SMOTHERING 0.930 -0.063 0. 000 0.024 0.028 0.014 -0.015 -0.000 0. 012 0.010 -0.001 -0.002 -0.0C5 -0.012 0.032 -0.009 0.020 -0.003 0.041 -0.020 0.036 0.019 0.003 0.037 -0.026 -0.003 0.00 3 -0.010 0.015 -0.011 -0.005 -0.CC8 -0.006 -0.0C8 -0.009 -0.009 -0.OC9 -0.039 0.019 0.012 -0.026 C.021 -0.002 -0.006 0.468 0.570 0.777 0.833 1.036 1.105 1.110 1.161 -0.041 -0.022 0.009 -0.017 -0.022 0.025 ~ 0 • C 0 5 -0.024 -0.005 0.008 0.017 0.011 -0.014 0.020 0.010 0.013 -0.050 0.091 0.090 -0.014 -0.015 0.016 -0.015 -0.011 -0.006 -0.009 0.106 0.034 0.166 0. 101 -0.076 -0.015 -0.060 0.109 0.006 -0.071 0.115 -0.072 -0.044 -0.020 -0.009 -0.028 -0.007 0.001 -0.005 -0.009 -0.004 -0.005 -0.005 -0.005 -0.019 -0.008 -0.003 -0.007 -0.0C1 0.001 0.006 -0.002 0.018 0.007 0.009 -0.005 -0.001 -0.005 0.005 0.687 0.723 0. 7A3 0. 829 0. 899 0.908 0.94 6 0.969 0. 998 1.029 1.050 1.086 1.094 1.114 1. 130 1.154 -0.044 -0.072 -0.062 0.082 0.007 -0.033 -0.049 -0.022 -0.032 -0.028 -0.016 0.036 -0.046 -0. 050 0.271 -0.055 -0.048 -0.044 0.019 -0.007 -0.086 -0.067 0.030 -0. 036 0.045 -0.015 0.036 -0.012 0.028 -0.009 -0.005 -0.004 -0.004 -0.004 -0.028 -0.021 0.017 0.021 -0.026 0.041 0.020 0.009 0.030 0.013 0.013 -0.012 -0.004 -0.006 0.005 0.137 0.1 99 -0.062 0.317 0. 122 -0 .082 C . 12 9 0.041 -0.065 -0.110 -0.012 -0.054 -0.076 -0.073 --0.046 -0.092 0.577 0.746 0 .750 0. 949 1.011 1.016 1 .02 2 I .037 1.105 1.109 -0.035 -0.007 -0.128 -0. 112 0.263 -0.149 -0.159 -0.060 -0.153 0.245 -0 .012 -0.150 -0.042 -0.047 0.029 -0.005 0.003 -0.004 0.019 0.009 0.014 0.016 0.016 0.016 0.106 0.133 0.125 -0 .014 -0.091 -0.011 -0.007 7 -0.096 0.310 -0.041 -0.029 0.2 74 -0.009 0.354 -0.C77 0.181 -0.087 -0.083 -0.123 -0.044 -0.098 0. 172 0.012 0.156 -0. 037 -0 .029 -0.025 -0. 133 -0.091 -0.087 -0.109 -0.042 -0.029 0. 162 0.010 0.063 0.007 -0. C60 -0.010 -0.073 -0.096 -0.052 -0.069 0.061 0.040 0 .047 -0.047 0.430 0. 159 -0. 129 0.201 0.271 -0.113 .0.141 0.240 -0.062 -0.087 -0.062 -0.133 0.031 -0.190 -0.130 -0. 105 0. 526 0.453 0.213 -0.080 0.043 -0.172 0.033 -0.00 3 -0.137 -0.171 0.447 0. 664 0.306 0.810 0.368 0.933 0.938 0.982 1 .005 1.170 1.180 1.324 0.496 0.422 0.132 0.233 -0.042 0.004 -0.043 -0.065 -0.116 -0.131 -0.131 -0.131 0.075 -0.077 --0.026 0.009 0-116 -0.C33 -0.049 8 0.029 -0.109 0.027 0.021 -0.120 0.017 -0.157 0.053 -0.079 0.045 0.050 0.067 0.029 0.05 5 9 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 6 1 0.050 0. 020 0.016 0.076 -0. 008 -0.03 3 -0.005 0.022 *-0.001 0.017 0.034 -0.013 -0.007 0.023 -0. 024 0.002 -0.026 -0.019 -0.092 0.051 -0.120 -0. 077 0.04 1 -0.06L -0.093 0.011 0.026 0. 006 0.04 0 -0.005 0.06 8 0.037 0.030 114 138 019 000 00 6 051 04 0 116 032 0.040 0.33 7 0.435 -0.108 0.254 0.021 0.153 -0.153 0.151 -0.099 -0. 159 -0.054 -0.149 0.62 1 0.669 0.3 28 0.363 0.986 0. 987 1.001 1.04 8 1.072 1. 085 1.085 1.385 O i l 039 -0.069 0.017 -0.058 0.011 0.001 0.010 0.052 0.03 0 0. 023 0.03 5 0.038 009 001 042 022 027 -0.012 0.033 -0.013 -0.011 -0.013 -0.007 -0.018 -0.007 -0.013 -0.005 0.004 -0.003 -0.008 -0.01 8 -0.005 -0.012 -0.013 -0.016 -0.012 0 .035 -0.012 0.041 -0.007 -0.018 -0.010 -0.005 -0.010 -0.005 -0.006 0.002 -0.002 0.000 -0.003 -0. 193 -0.049 0.383 -0.249 -0.157 0.072 -0.116 -0.105 0.065 0.112 -0.040 0.028 0.042 0.061 0.026 0.C74 0.002 -0.016 -0.009 0.016 -0.034 0.076 -0.007 0.010 0.035 0. 021 0.039 -0.026 0.037 0.043 -0. 110 0.038 0.054 0.007 0.030 -0.031 0.039 0.032 -0.009 0.006 -0.032 0 .008 -0.005 0.002 -0.000 -0.001 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 -0.002 0.791 0.809 0.838 0.956 0.999 1.024 1.046 CM P H I M A T R I X N O . C A T E G O R I E S = 8 S T I M U L U S l - D E L T A * * 2 7 9 . M A N I P U L A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 4 1 3 3 5 . S E C U R E W I T H I N A S T 0 . 4 8 0 9 5 . P A S S I V E 0 . 8 3 0 3 6 . F E A R F U L 0 . 6 7 4 3 4 . W I T H D R A W S 0 . 7 9 6 2 9 . C O N F O R M I N G C . 6 7 7 1 9 . O B E D I E N T 0 . 7 2 9 1 7 . S E L F - C O N S C I O U S 0 . 8 3 4 8 5 . D O U B T S S E L F 0 . B 4 4 2 3 . A N X I O U S 0 . 8 6 8 5 4 . S E E K S A P P R O V A L 0 . 8 1 8 4 7 . C E D R E S S E D 0 . 9 0 2 7 6 . F E E L S G U I L T Y 0 . 9 2 1 9 3 . T I M I D 0 . 9 3 5 3 9 . A S S E R T I V E 0 . 4 2 5 9 1 . W I L L I N G T O T A K E R I 0 . 5 6 1 6 5 . A S K F O P W H A T I W A N 0 . 5 5 2 9 0 . I D O W H A T I W A N T 0 . 6 1 3 7 . T R U S T I N G 0 . 7 1 8 3 . I M P U L S I V E 0 . 7 5 6 5 . E X P R E S S I V E 0 . 8 7 7 6 8 . U N A W A R E O F T I M E 0 . 8 0 6 2 1 . U N I N H I 8 I T E O 0 . S 9 5 8 C . S P O N T A N E O U S 0 . 9 2 2 7 1 . S E N S U A L 0 . 9 1 1 6 9 . P L A Y F U L 0 . 9 4 3 7 8 . P R O C R A S T I N A T E S 0 . 7 6 6 3 8 . P A S S I V E L Y R E S I S T A N 0 . 7 6 0 9 4 . S U L K S 0 . 8 1 9 6 1 . H O L D S G R U D G E S C . 7 0 8 8 1 . S T U B B O R N 0 . 6 3 9 4 2 . B A D T E M P E R E D C . 6 9 4 1 0 . V E N G E F U L 0 . 7 9 8 2 8 . P E 8 E L L I O U S 0 . 8 3 2 7 3 . D I S O B E D I E N T 0 . 8 3 7 5 7 . M A G I C A L T H I N K I N G 0 . 3 7 8 6 2 . C U R I O U S 0 . 7 7 4 9 . I M A G I N A T I V E 0 . 8 4 4 3 7 . C R E A T I V E C . 3 6 0 1 6 . I N V E N T I V E 0 . 8 1 4 1 2 . I N G E N I O U S 0 . 9 0 2 6 3 . U S E S H U N C H E S 0 . 8 4 7 8 2 . I N T U I T I V E 0 . 9 3 2 9 7 . D I R E C T I N G 0 . 4 1 3 8 7 . T R A D I T I O N A L 0 . 4 1 9 5 3 . C O N D E S C E N D I N G 0 . 5 6 3 2 4 . C I S C I P L I N E S O T H E R S 0 . 5 5 1 8 4 . B O S S Y 0 . 6 0 3 6 0 . A U T H O R I T A T I V E 0 . 5 7 4 1 . C O R R E C T S O T H E R S 0 . 6 1 6 4 1 . G I V E S O R D E R S 0 . 6 4 1 4 4 . R I G I D 0 . 6 9 8 9 2 . P E R S E C U T I N G 0 . 7 3 7 1 3 . C O N T R O L L I N G C . 7 1 I ' : 6 . C R I T I C I Z E S O T H E R S C . 7 7 1 , 4 5 . A U T O C R A T I C 0 . 8 0 2 , 2 6 . P U N I T I V E C . 8 1 3 5 0 . P R E J U D I C E D 0 . B 3 2 1 1 . C O C A T I C 0 . 8 8 3 6 6 . R E S P E C T F U L O F O T H E 0 . 3 9 0 3 1 . F A C I L I T A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 5 0 7 7 5 . S H O W S E M P A T H Y 0 . 5 2 1 6 7 . S E N S I T I V E T O O T H E R 0 . 5 6 0 5 9 . P R O T E C T I V E C . 7 1 4 3 3 . S Y M P A T H E T I C 0 . 8 1 1 5 6 . G I V E S " E M I S S I O N 0 . 7 9 2 2 0 . C A R I N G 0 . P 1 7 3 0 . E N C O U R A G E S O T H E R S 0 . 8 4 6 6 . C O M F O R T I N G 0 . 9 1 2 6 4 . R E A S S U R I N G 0 . 9 3 0 8 6 . S E L F - S A C R I F I C I N G 0 . 6 2 5 1 8 . I N D U L G E S O T H E R S 0 . 6 7 9 8 8 . ' 0 0 T I N G • 0 . 7 7 7 3 2 . R E S C U I N G 0 . 7 8 6 9 6 . O V E R S O L I C I T O U S 0 . 8 0 2 4 9 . O V E R - P R O T E C T I V E 0 . P 9 S 4 8 . S M O T H E R I N G C . 9 2 9 8 9 . E T H I C A L L Y P E S P O N S I 0 . 4 3 0 7 0 . C O O P E R A T E S 0 . 3 6 6 1 4 . A W A R E O F O T H E R S 0 . 3 7 8 4 . I N T P O S P E C T I V E 0 . 3 7 ? 5 2 . A U T O N O M O U S 0 . 4 9 4 1 5 . F L E X I B L E 0 . 4 R 0 4 3 . S E L C - A W A R E 0 . 5 0 7 2 5 . S E E K S T R U T H C . 5 3 0 2 2 . G O A L O R I E N T E D 0 . 7 0 7 5 5 . M A K E S D E C I S I O N S C . 7 2 0 4 0 . C E F I N E S R E A L I T Y 0 . 7 4 3 7 2 . O R G A N I Z E S 0 . 8 5 4 8 . P L A N S A H E A D 0 . 8 8 3 5 8 . S Y S T E M A T I C C . 8 8 0 7 7 . S O L V E S P R O B L E M S C . 8 9 7 8 3 . T H I N K S A N A L Y T I C A L L 0 . 9 3 8 2 . G A T H E R S D A T A 0 . 9 4 2 2 7 . L O G I C A L A N O F A C T U A 0 . 9 4 7 5 1 . O B J E C T I V E 0 . 9 4 7 7 4 . E S T I M A T E S P R O B A B I L 0 . 9 4 7 1 0 . 4 1 4 0 . 8 5 1 0 . 9 5 4 0 . 9 8 2 1 . 0 1 4 1 . 0 5 4 1 . 0 7 0 1 . 0 7 7 1 . 0 9 7 1 . 1 2 9 1 . 1 2 9 1 . 1 3 5 1 . 1 6 3 1 . 1 9 2 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 1 1 3 0 . 1 0 4 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 4 9 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 3 B 5 0 . 3 7 6 0 . 3 3 6 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . 1 0 8 - 0 . 1 3 3 - 0 . 0 8 3 - 0 . 1 0 3 - 0 . 1 0 5 0 . 4 1 1 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 6 5 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 3 _ A /"j o a - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 9 2 0 9 0 1 6 0 2 3 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 1 1 7 0 . 0 8 2 - 0 . 0 5 3 0 . 0 4 5 0 . 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 . 0 6 5 0 . 0 4 7 0 . 4 0 2 0 . 1 1 0 0 . 2 1 1 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 4 5 2 - 0 . 2 2 1 0 . 2 3 8 - 0 . 0 5 6 0 . 1 9 6 0 . C 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . C 5 1 - 0 . O i l - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . C 4 9 - 0 . C 5 1 - 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 5 3 9 0 . 6 3 6 0 . 7 8 4 0 . 9 5 4 0 . 5 5 9 1 . 0 6 5 1 . 0 9 3 1 . 0 9 3 1 . 1 0 1 1 . 1 2 2 1 . 1 2 8 1 . 1 4 5 - 0 . C 7 8 - 0 . 0 6 4 - 0 . 0 5 8 - 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 1 0 9 0 . C 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 3 1 0 . C 6 1 0 . 0 9 2 0 . 5 2 6 0 . 3 4 1 0 . 2 3 6 - 0 . 0 6 4 - 0 . 0 7 7 - 0 . 1 4 7 - 0 . 1 3 0 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 0 . - 0 . C C 7 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . C 2 4 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . C 7 9 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . C 2 9 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . C 1 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 2 4 0 . C 0 5 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 1 4 9 0 . C S O 0 . 0 9 2 0 . 3 7 9 0 . 1 4 7 0 . 2 1 6 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . C 5 5 - 0 . C 7 3 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . C 7 3 - 0 . 0 7 1 - 0 . C 7 9 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . C 7 9 - 0 . C 7 9 - 0 . 0 7 9 3 0 . 2 9 1 - 0 . 1 C 8 0 . 1 8 4 - 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 7 2 - 0 . 1 1 7 - 0 . 0 7 8 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 7 3 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 4 8 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 5 6 - 0 . 0 7 4 0 . 2 5 4 - 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 7 1 4 0 . 7 2 0 0 . 7 9 3 0 . 9 1 6 0 . 9 8 6 0 . 9 9 2 1 . 0 5 8 1 . 0 9 4 1 . 0 9 8 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 0 -o.oao - 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 7 0 0 . 1 3 7 - 0 . 0 5 6 - O . C 5 0 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 8 6 0 . 0 6 5 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 1 5 O . 0 C 9 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 C 5 - 0 . 0 0 7 - C . C 6 8 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 4 7 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 . 1 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 2 5 4 0 . 3 8 7 - 0 . 0 8 5 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 1 8 0 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 1 4 0 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 1 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 4 6 9 0 . 5 6 8 0 . 7 8 0 0 . 8 3 6 1 . 0 4 5 1 . 1 1 5 1 . 1 2 0 1 . 1 7 0 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 5 C . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 8 ' - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 1 7 C . 0 0 8 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 5 0 - 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 9 2 0 . 0 9 8 - 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 6 3 - 0 . 0 4 5 0 . 1 3 2 0 . 1 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 1 2 2 0 . 1 1 2 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 5 5 0 . 1 4 1 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 8 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 1 4 6 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 5 9 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 7 2 1 0 . 7 4 2 0 . 7 5 4 0 . 8 5 2 0 . 9 1 2 0 . 9 2 7 0 . 9 6 7 0 . 9 9 8 1 . 0 0 7 1 . 0 3 3 1 . 0 6 0 1 . 0 9 ! l . l l l 1 . 1 1 6 1 . 1 3 6 1 . 1 6 2 0 . 0 6 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 5 8 - 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 0 6 8 - 0 . 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 3 2 3 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 6 6 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 8 6 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 5 1 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 2 3 7 0 . 2 5 0 - 0 . 1 0 0 0 . 3 3 7 - 0 . 1 2 1 0 . 1 9 0 0 . 1 6 8 0 . 0 9 3 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 1 4 4 - 0 . 0 3 3 ..g t'2r)~t - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 1 3 2 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 1 3 0 0 . 5 2 4 0 . 7 3 0 0 . 8 5 2 0 . 9 1 5 1 . 0 0 1 1 . 0 4 8 0 9 6 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 4 7 1 5 3 0 . 1 3 9 0 . 1 7 1 0 . 1 3 7 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 5 8 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 4 7 4 0 . 1 3 3 0 . 2 4 3 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 1 3 3 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 1 0 7 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 8 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 7 5 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 0 9 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 3 0 9 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 2 1 3 - 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 3 8 3 . 2 5 1 . 0 3 2 . 1 6 9 . 1 1 9 , 1 1 8 0 . 0 7 0 0 . 1 1 7 - 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 7 8 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 8 3 - 0 . 1 1 3 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 1 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 6 4 0 . 7 5 8 0 . 7 7 5 0 . 8 6 1 0 . 9 2 1 0 . 9 4 9 0 . 9 9 1 1 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 1 6 3 - 0 . 0 7 0 - 0 . 0 5 0 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 2 8 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 3 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 3 . 3 2 8 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . ) 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 4 1 4 0 . 2 9 0 0 . 3 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 4 1 - 3 . 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 4 1 - 3 . 0 7 6 - 0 . 0 7 6 - 0 . 0 6 5 - 3 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 8 1 0 0 1 3 0 2 3 0 7 3 2 1 0 0 3 0 . 3 1 6 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 0 4 7 - 0 . 0 6 5 - 0 . 0 6 4 0 . 0 6 1 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 1 9 4 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . C 0 9 - 0 . 3 5 7 - 0 . 3 1 6 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 3 1 4 - 3 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 3 2 8 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 4 3 6 0 . 3 8 4 0 . 3 4 6 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 9 7 - 0 . 0 9 1 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 3 8 3 - 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 1 0 8 - 0 . 0 9 8 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 9 2 4 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 4 7 5 0 . 5 4 0 0 . 5 7 3 0 . 6 1 9 0 . 6 6 9 0 . 6 9 9 0 . 7 2 3 0 . 8 5 3 0 . 9 7 3 0 . 9 8 8 1 . 0 0 9 1 . 0 9 4 1 . 1 0 7 1 . 1 1 0 1 . 1 2 2 1 . 1 5 0 1 . 1 5 2 1 . 1 5 5 1 . 1 5 5 1 . 1 5 5 P H ! M A T R I X M O . C A T E G O R I E S = 7 S T I M U L U S 1 - D E L T A « * 2 1 2 57. M A G I C A L T H I N K I N G 0 . 3 4 2 0 . 5 4 9 0.414 3 « . A S S E R T I V E 0 . 4 1 3 0 . 5 9 4 0 . 0 2 8 65. A S K F O R W H A T I W A N 0 . 5 1 1 0 . 7 8 4 0. C 5 5 9 1 . W I L L I N G T O T A K E R I 0 . 5 6 0 0 . 8 4 4 0 . 0 0 1 9 0 . I 0 0 W H A T I W A N T 0 . 5 3 0 0 . 8 5 7 - 0 . 1 2 5 6 3 . U S E S H U N C H E S 0 . 5 2 6 0 . 9 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 1 6 . I N V E N T I V E 0 . 5 5 4 0 . 9 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 8 2 . I N T U I T I V E C . 5 8 6 0 . 9 6 6 0 . 0 0 4 1 2 . I N G E N I O U S 0 . 6 0 0 0 . 9 7 2 - 0 . 0 0 7 3. I M P U L S I V E 0 . 6 6 4 1 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 1 1 7 . T R U S T I N G 0 . 6 7 1 1 . 0 1 6 0 . C 8 7 6 8 . U N A W A R E O F T I M E 0 . 7 1 4 1 . 0 5 5 - 0 . C 1 4 3 7 . C R E A T I V E 0 . 7 5 5 1 . 0 9 7 - 0 . 0 2 2 6 2 . C U R I O U S 0 . 7 5 9 1 . 0 9 9 - 0 . 0 2 8 9 . I M A G I N A T I V E 0 . 7 6 4 1 . 1 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 2 5 . F X P R E S S I V E 0 . 8 0 7 1 . 1 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 6 2 1 . U N I N H I B I T E D 0 . 8 2 7 1 . 1 4 4 - 0 . C 6 6 7 1 . S E N S U A L 0 . 8 3 1 1 . 1 4 6 - 0 . 0 3 2 8 0 . S P O N T A N E O U S 0 . 8 4 9 1 . 1 6 2 - 0 . C 4 2 69. P L A Y F U L 0 . 8 6 4 1 . 1 7 2 - 0 . C 4 2 79. M A N I P U L A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 3 5 8 0 . 1 4 1 0 . 4 2 3 3 5 . S E C U R E W I T H I N A S T 0 . 4 6 9 0 . 1 7 3 0 . 8 4 0 9 5 . P A S S I V E C . 8 3 0 - 0 . 0 6 7 0 . 9 5 1 3 6 . F E A R F U L 0 . 6 6 9 0 . 1 7 6 0 . 5 7 3 3 4 . W I T H D R A W S 0 . 7 9 6 - 0 . 0 1 6 1 . 0 0 8 29. C O N F O R M I N G 0 . 6 7 7 - 0 . 0 3 7 1 . 0 5 0 19. O B E D I E N T 0 . 7 2 9 - 0 . 0 2 0 1 . C 6 5 17. S E L F - C O N S C I O U S 0 . 8 3 4 - 0 . 0 2 7 1 . C 7 3 8 5 . C O ' J B T S S E L F 0 . 8 4 4 - 0 . 0 2 8 1 . 0 9 4 2 3 . A N X I O U S 0 . 8 6 8 - 0 . 0 1 6 1 . 1 2 4 5 4 . S E E K S A P P R O V A L 0 . 8 1 8 - 0 . 0 2 1 1 . 1 2 5 4 7 . D E P R E S S E D 0 . 9 0 3 - 0 . 0 6 3 1 . 1 3 1 7 6 . F E E L S G U I L T Y 0 . 9 2 2 - 0 . 0 6 4 1 . 1 6 3 9 3 . T I M ! D C . 9 3 5 - 0 . 0 4 5 1 . 1 3 7 7 8 . P R O C R A S T I N A T E S 0 . 7 6 4 - 0 . 0 4 5 0 . 3 8 7 3 8 . P A S S I V E L Y R E S I S T A N 0 . 7 5 9 - 0 . 0 6 1 0 . 3 7 7 9 4 . S U L K S 0 . 8 1 8 - 0 . 0 8 3 0 . 3 3 6 6 1 . H O L D S G R U D G E S 0 . 7 0 8 - 0 . 0 7 4 0 . C 4 6 8 1 . S T U B B O R N C . 6 9 0 0 . 1 1 2 - 0 . 1 0 8 4 2 . B A D T E M P E R E D 0 . 6 9 4 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 1 3 2 1 0 . V E N G E F U L 0 . 7 9 8 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 8 2 28. R E B E L L I O U S 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 1 0 1 7 3 . D I S O B E D I E N T 0 . 3 3 7 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 1 0 5 97. D I R E C T I N G 0 . 4 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . C 4 2 8 7 . T R A O I T I O N A L 0 . 4 1 9 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 8 5 5 3 . C O N D E S C E N D I N G 0 . 5 6 3 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 0 24. D I S C I P L I N E S O T H E R S 0 . 5 5 1 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . C 3 2 8 4 . B O S S Y 0 . 6 0 8 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 6 5 60. A U T H O R I T A T I V E C . 5 7 4 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . C 2 2 1 . C O R R E C T S O T H E R S 0 . 6 1 6 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 C 7 41. G I V E S O R D E R S 0 . 6 4 1 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 44. R I G I O 0 . 6 9 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 3 3 92. P E R S E C U T I N G 0 . 7 3 7 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 13. C O N T R O L L I N G 0 . 7 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 2 46. C R I T I C I Z E S O T H E R S 0 . 7 7 1 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . C 2 8 45. A U T O C R A T I C 0 . R 0 2 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 3 2 2 6 . P U N I T I V E 0 . 8 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 6 50. P R E J U D I C E D 0 . 8 3 2 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 8 11. D O G M A T I C 0 . 8 8 3 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 3 0 8 9 . E T H I C A L L Y R E S P O N S I 0 . 4 2 9 - 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 4 6 66. P E S P E C T F U L O F O T H E 0 . 3 7 9 - 0 . 0 1 5 0. 2 0 7 31. F A C I L I T A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 5 0 7 - 0 . 0 4 0 0. C 1 5 75. S H O W S E M P A T H Y 0 . 5 2 1 0 . 1 7 4 0 . 0 2 3 67. S E N S I T I V E T O O T H E R C . 5 5 7 0 . 0 7 4 0 . 0 4 1 59. P R O T E C T I V E 0 . 7 1 4 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 2 5 33. S Y M P A T H E T I C C . B U - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 1 56. G I V E S P E R M I S S I O N 0 . 7 9 2 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 1 8 20. C A R I N G 0 . 8 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 1 7 30. E N C O U R A G E S O T H E R S 0 . 8 4 6 -0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 2 5 6. C C M F O R T I N G 0 . 9 1 2 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 3 6 64. R E A S S U R I N G 0 . 9 3 0 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 3 7 70. C O O P E R A T E S 0 . 3 6 2 0 . 1 2 1 0 . 3 9 6 14. A W A P E O F O T H E R S 0 . 3 7 6 0 . 2 2 9 0 . 1 1 0 4. I N T R O S P E C T I V E C . 3 7 1 0 . 2 1 2 0 . 2 1 1 52. A I J T C N C M O U S 0 . 4 8 7 0 . 4 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 3 1 5 . F L E X I B L E C . 4 3 0 0 . 2 8 0 0 . 0 4 1 43. S E L F - A W A R E 0 . 5 0 8 0 . 3 4 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 25. S E E K S T R U T H 0 . 5 8 0 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 0 2 1 2 2 . G O A L O R I E N T E D C . 7 C 7 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 4 5 5 5 . M A K E S D E C I S I O N S 0 . 7 2 0 0 . 0 2 3 0 . C 0 5 40. O F F I N E S R E A L I T Y 0 . 7 * 3 - 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 2 0 ' 72. O R G A N ! Z E S 0 . 8 5 4 - 0 . 0 8 1 - 0 . 0 3 5 8. P L A N S A H E A D ^ 0 . 8 8 4 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 3 3 58. S Y S T E M A T I C 0 . 8 8 0 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 3 8 77. S O L V E S P R O B L E M S 0 . 8 9 6 - 0 . 0 7 0 - 0 . 0 2 8 83. T H I N K S A N A L Y T I C A L L 0 . 9 3 8 - 0 . 0 8 6 - 0 . 0 4 4 2. G A T H E R S D A T A 0 . 9 4 2 - 0 . 0 8 4 - 0 . 0 4 2 27. L O G I C A L A N D F A C T U A 0 . 9 4 7 - 0 . 0 8 6 - 0 . C 4 4 51. O B J E C T I V E 0 . 9 4 7 - 0 . 0 8 6 - 0 . 0 4 4 74. E S T I M A T E S P O O B A B I L C . 9 4 7 - 0 . 0 8 6 - 0 . 0 4 4 86. S E L F - S A C R I F I C I N G 0 . 6 2 5 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 1 1 7 18. I N D U L G E S O T H E R S 0 . 6 7 9 - 0 . 0 1 2 0. 0 8 2 88. C O T I N G 0 . 7 7 7 0 . 0 2 2 -0 . 0 5 3 32. R E S C U I N G 0 . 7 8 6 .-0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 4 5 96. O V E R S O L I C I T O U S 0 . 8 0 2 0.007 0. 0 6 7 4.9. C V E R - P R O T E C T I V E 0.898 0.005 -0 . 0 5 3 46. S M O T H E R I N G C.929 0.007 -0 . 0 6 5 3 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 5 1 0 . 2 6 7 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 8 1 - 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 4 9 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 2 7 6 - 0 . 1 0 2 0 . 1 8 3 - 0 . 0 5 0 0 . 0 7 3 - 0 . 1 1 8 - 0 . 0 7 8 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 7 5 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 7 1 3 0 . 7 2 1 0 . 7 9 5 0 . 9 1 8 0 . 9 9 1 0 . 9 9 6 1 . 0 6 2 1 . 0 9 7 1 . 1 0 2 - 0 . 0 8 1 - 0 . 0 6 1 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 7 2 0 . 1 3 7 - 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 8 7 0 . 0 6 6 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 6 7 C . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 9 9 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . C 3 3 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 9 - C . 0 C 7 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 1 5 • 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 9 4 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 8 0 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 1 4 0 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 1 4 6 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 5 8 0 . 7 2 1 0 . 7 4 2 0 . 7 5 4 0 . 8 5 1 0 . 9 1 2 0 . 9 2 7 0 . 9 6 6 0 . 9 9 8 1 . 0 0 7 1 . 0 3 7 1 . 0 5 9 1 . 0 9 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 5 1 . 1 3 5 1 . 1 6 2 0 . 3 2 3 0 . 0 6 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 5 8 - 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 0 6 8 - 0 . 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 5 3 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 6 6 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 1 8 5 -0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 8 -0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 3 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 2 3 6 0 . 2 4 9 - 0 . 1 0 0 0 . 3 8 5 - 0 . 1 2 1 0 . 1 8 9 0 . 1 6 7 0 . 0 9 8 - 0 ; 0 9 0 - 0 . 1 4 4 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 9 7 - 0 . 0 8 0 - 0 . 1 3 1 - 0 . 0 8 7 - 0 . 1 3 0 0 . 4 7 2 0 . 5 2 2 0 . 7 2 7 0 . 8 4 9 0 . 9 1 1 0 . 9 9 8 1 . 0 4 5 1 . 0 9 3 1 . 1 0 6 1 . 1 0 9 1 . 1 4 4 1 . 1 4 9 0 . 1 3 3 0 . 2 4 7 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 1 3 7 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 1 0 7 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 7 7 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 6 1 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 8 7 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 8 9 - 0 . 0 8 9 - 0 . 0 3 9 0 . 1 3 8 0 . 1 7 0 0 . 1 3 7 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 5 8 -0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 0 6 - 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 4 0 7 0 . 2 9 7 0 . 2 3 1 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 6 8 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . C 6 9 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 7 8 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 8 0 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 0 8 4 - 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 2 - O . O l l - O . O l l - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 1 9 3 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 5 6 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 0 3 " - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 4 7 2 0 . 4 3 3 0 . 3 3 1 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 5 0 - 0 . 0 9 5 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 1 0 7 - 0 . 0 9 7 0 . 5 3 5 0 . 5 6 6 0 . 6 1 1 0 . 6 6 1 0 . 6 9 0 0 . 7 1 4 0 . 8 4 5 0 . 9 6 6 0 . 9 3 0 1 . 0 0 1 1 . 0 3 6 1 . 0 9 9 1 . 1 0 1 1 . 1 1 3 1 . 1 4 1 1 . 1 4 3 1 . 1 4 7 1 . 1 4 7 1 . 1 4 7 0 . C 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 4 7 0 . 0 0 5 -0 . 0 4 4 -0 . 0 1 4 -0. 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 4 0 O . O l l 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 2 1 3 - 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 3 8 3 - 0 . 2 5 1 0 . 0 8 2 - 0 . 1 6 9 - 0 . 1 1 9 - 0 . 1 1 8 0 . . 0 7 0 0 . 1 1 7 - 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 7 8 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 8 3 - 0 , 1 6 2 - 0 . 1 1 3 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 1 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 5 3 0 . 0 6 4 - 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 0 5 0 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 7 5 8 0 . 7 7 5 0 . 8 6 1 0 . 9 2 2 0 . 9 5 0 0 . 9 9 2 1 . 0 1 3 Us P H I M A T R I X N O . C A T E G O R I E S = 6 S T I M U L U S 1 - D E L T A * * Z 7 9 . M A N I P U L A T E S O T H E R S C . 3 5 9 3 5 . S E C U R E W I T H I N A S T 0 . 4 1 3 ' 4 2 . e A O T E M P E R E D 0 . 4 4 2 8 1 . S T U B B O R N 0 . 4 4 2 1 0 . V E N G E F U L 0 . 5 1 8 6 1 . H O L D S G R U D G E S C . 5 2 4 2 8 . R E B E L L I O U S 0 . 5 2 7 7 3 . D I S O B E D I E N T 0 . 5 2 8 3 6 . F E A R F U L 0 . 6 1 2 2 9 . C O N F O R M I N G 0 . 5 9 3 1 9 . C B E D I E N T 0 . 6 5 3 3 8 . P A S S I V E L Y R E S I S T A N 0 . 6 9 2 7 8 . P R O C R A S T I N A T E S 0 . 7 0 0 9 4 . S U L K S 0 . 7 2 4 5 4 . S E E K S A P P R O V A L 0 . 7 3 5 3 4 . W I T H D R A W S 0 . 7 6 2 1 7 . S E L F - C O N S C I O U S C . 7 8 3 8 5 . C O U R T S S E L F 0 . 7 8 5 2 3 . A N X I O U S 0 . 8 0 0 9 5 . P A S S I V E C . 8 2 0 4 7 . C E P R E S S E D 0 . 3 4 1 7 6 . F E E L S G U I L T Y 0 . 8 4 7 9 3 . T I M I D 0 . 3 5 1 1 0 . 6 8 9 0 . 7 6 6 0 . 7 7 2 0 . 7 9 2 0 . 8 8 1 0 . 8 8 6 0 . 8 9 3 0 . 3 9 4 0 . 9 5 0 0 . 9 6 5 1 . 0 1 8 1 . 0 5 1 1 . 0 5 4 1 . 0 7 6 1 . 0 8 3 1 . 1 0 3 1 . 1 2 0 1 . 1 2 0 1 . 1 3 1 1 . 1 4 8 1 . 1 6 3 1 . 1 6 3 1 . 1 7 0 2 0 . 1 4 9 0 . 1 6 1 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 1 5 1 0 . C 0 9 - 0 . 0 3 7 0 . C 8 1 0 . 0 8 6 0 . 1 6 5 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . C 3 9 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 7 0 - 0 . C 7 5 - 0 . C 7 6 - 0 . C 5 9 3 0 . 1 5 0 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 2 1 7 0 . 0 5 8 0 . 1 2 6 0 . 1 3 7 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 5 4 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 7 . - 0 . C 3 9 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 4 7 5 7 . M A G I C A L T H I N K I N G 0 . 3 3 1 0 . 4 0 4 3 9 . A S S E R T I V E 0 . 4 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 8 6 5 . A S K F O R W H A T I W A N 0 . 5 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 4 9 1 . W I L L I N G T O T A K E R l C . 5 6 0 - 0 . 0 5 2 9 0 . I D O W H A T I W A N T 0 . 5 0 8 0 . 1 1 3 6 3 . U S E S H U N C H E S 0 . 5 2 6 - 0 . 0 3 0 1 6 . I N V E N T I V E 0 . 5 5 3 - 0 . 0 3 2 8 2 . I N T U I T I V E 0 . 5 8 6 - 0 . 0 3 5 1 2 . I N G E N I O U S 0 . 6 0 0 - 0 . 0 3 6 3 . I M P U L S I V E 0 . 6 6 4 0 . 0 8 0 7 . T R U S T I N G 0 . 6 6 9 0 . 0 5 2 6 8 . U N A W A R E O E T I M E C . 7 1 4 0 . 0 2 4 3 7 . C R E A T I V E 0 . 7 5 5 - 0 . 0 5 2 6 2 . C U R I O U S 0 . 7 5 9 - 0 . 0 5 5 9 . I M A G I N A T I V E C . 7 6 4 - 0 . 0 4 4 5 . E X P R E S S I V E 0 . 3 0 7 - 0 . 0 3 1 2 1 . U N I N H I B I T E D C . 8 2 7 - 0 . 0 4 2 7 1 . S E N S U A L 0 . 8 3 2 - 0 . 0 1 9 8 0 . S P O N T A N E O U S 0 . 8 5 0 - 0 . 0 5 3 6 9 . P L A Y F U L 0 . 8 6 4 - 0 . 0 4 3 9 7 . D I R E C T I N G 0 . 4 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 8 8 7 . T R A D I T I O N A L 0 . 4 1 6 0 . 0 2 5 5 3 . C O N D E S C E N D I N G 0 . 5 A 2 - 0 . 0 3 0 . 2 4 . D I S C I P L I N E S O T H E R S 0 . 5 4 3 - 0 . 0 4 0 8 4 . B O S S Y C . 6 0 7 0 . 1 8 6 6 0 . A U T H O R I T A T I V E 0 . 5 7 2 - 0 . 0 3 8 1 . C O R R E C T S O T H E R S 0 . 6 1 4 - 0 . 0 4 . 3 4 1 . G I V E S O R D E R S 0 . 6 4 0 - 0 . 0 1 2 ' 4 4 . R I C I D 0 . 6 9 S 0 . 1 0 6 9 2 . P E R S E C U T I N G 0 . 7 3 7 0 . 0 3 6 1 3 . C O N T R O L L I N G 0 . 7 U - 0 . 0 2 1 4 6 . C R I T I C I Z E S O T H E R S 0 . 7 7 0 - 0 . 0 2 4 4 5 . A U T O C R A T I C 0 . 8 0 2 - 0 . 0 3 3 2 6 . P U N I T I V E 0 . 8 1 3 - 0 . 0 4 4 5 0 . P R E J U D I C E D 0 . 8 3 2 - 0 . 0 4 3 1 1 . D O G M A T I C 0 . 8 8 3 - 0 . 0 « > 8 9 . E T H I C A L L Y R E S P O N S I 0 . 4 2 3 - 0 . 0 0 3 6 6 . R E S P E C T F U L O F O T H E 0 . 3 7 5 0 . 1 5 1 3 1 . F A C I L I T A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 5 0 7 0 . 0 1 7 7 5 . S H O W S E M P A T H Y C . 5 2 1 0 . 0 3 2 6 7 . S E N S I T I V E T O O T H E R 0 . 5 5 7 0 . 0 4 3 5 9 . P R O T E C T I V E 0 . 7 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 4 3 3 . S Y M P A T H E T I C 0 . 8 0 9 0 . 0 2 2 5 6 . G I V E S P E R M I S S I O N 0 . 7 9 I - 0 . 0 0 9 2 0 . C A R I N G C . 8 1 5 0 . 0 0 1 3 0 . E N C O U R A G E S O T H E R S 0 . 8 4 5 - 0 . 0 1 4 6 . C O M F O R T I N G 0 . 9 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 3 6 4 . R E A S S U R I N G 0 . 9 2 8 - 0 . 0 1 8 8 6 . S E L F - S A C R I F I C I N G 0 . 6 2 1 0 . 0 7 7 1 8 . I N D U L G E S O T H E R S 0 . 6 7 9 0 . 0 9 4 8 8 . D O T I N G 0 . 7 7 7 - 0 . 0 4 6 3 2 . R E S C U I N G 0 . 7 8 4 0 . 0 1 6 9 6 . O V E R S O L I C I T O U S 0 . 8 0 2 0 . 0 8 2 4 9 . C V c R - P R O T E C T I V E 0 . 8 9 8 - 0 . 0 6 0 4 8 . S M O T H E R I N G C . 9 2 9 - 0 . 0 7 5 7 0 . C O O P E R A T E S 0 . 3 4 6 0 . 3 1 5 1 4 . A W A R E O F O T H E R S 0 . 3 7 5 0 . 0 7 5 4 . I N T R O S P E C T I V E C . 3 6 3 0 . 1 8 6 5 2 . A U T r N O " O u s 0 . 4 3 7 - 0 . 0 1 3 1 5 . F L E X I B L E C . 4 B C 0 . 0 1 9 4 3 . S E L F - A w A P E 0 . 5 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 7 2 5 . S E E K S T R U T H 0 . 5 8 0 0 . 0 2 0 2 2 . G O A L O R I E N T E D 0 . 7 0 7 0 . 0 2 9 5 5 . M A K E S D E C I S I O N S 0 . 7 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 2 4 0 . D E F I N E S R E A L I T Y C . 7 4 2 - 0 . 0 1 9 7 2 . O R G A N I Z E S 0 . 8 5 3 - 0 . 0 2 3 8 . P L A N S A H E A D 0 . 8 8 3 - 0 . 0 1 5 5 8 . S Y S T E M A T I C 0 . 8 8 0 - 0 . 0 2 2 7 7 . S O L V E S P R O B L E M S 0 . 8 9 6 - 0 . 0 1 2 8 3 . T H I N K S A N A L Y T I C A L L 0 . 9 3 7 - 0 . 0 2 2 2 . G A T H E R S D A T A 0 . 9 4 2 - 0 . 0 2 2 2 7 . L O G I C A L A N D F A C T U A 0 . 9 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 2 5 1 . O B J E C T I V E C . 9 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 2 7 4 . E S T I M 4 T E S P R 0 8 A B I L 0 . 9 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 5 4 8 0 . 5 9 6 0 . 7 8 6 0 . 8 4 7 C . 8 7 3 0 . 9 0 9 0 . 5 2 9 0 . 9 7 1 0 . 9 7 7 1 . 0 1 4 1 . 0 2 0 1 . C 6 4 1 . 1 0 4 1 . 1 0 6 1 . 1 1 0 1 . 1 3 5 1 . 1 5 4 1 . 1 5 5 1 . 1 7 0 1 . 1 3 1 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . C 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 0 0 . C H - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 3 0 . C 0 6 - 0 . C 3 4 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 1 7 6 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . C 1 7 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 3 5 . 0 0 2 . 0 1 3 , 0 2 3 . 0 0 3 , 0 0 7 0 . C 0 6 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 1 1 3 0 . 2 2 7 0 . 2 0 9 0 . 4 0 7 0 . 2 8 0 0 . 3 4 3 0 . 0 5 4 - 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . C 8 1 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . C 8 0 - 0 . C 7 1 - 0 . 0 8 6 - 0 . 0 8 5 - 0 . 0 8 7 - 0 . 0 8 7 - 0 . 0 8 7 - 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 7 7 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . C 1 2 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 7 1 9 0 . 7 4 1 0 . 7 5 9 0 . 8 5 2 0 . 9 2 7 0 . 9 3 0 0 . 9 7 0 1 . 0 0 5 1 . 0 2 1 1 . 0 5 1 1 . 0 6 8 1 . 1 0 1 1 . 1 2 1 1 . 1 2 5 1 . 1 4 5 1 . 1 7 2 0 . 3 2 0 0 . 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 5 1 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 0 5 4 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 5 0 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 1 7 0 . C 1 9 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 6 6 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . C 2 7 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 3 6 4 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 6 4 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 3 0 . C 0 6 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 5 1 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 3 3 5 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 2 4 3 0 . 2 5 6 - 0 . 0 9 6 0 . 3 9 1 - 0 . 1 2 3 0 . 1 9 5 0 . 1 7 2 0 . 1 0 1 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 1 4 4 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 9 5 - 0 . 0 7 8 - 0 . 1 2 9 - 0 . 0 8 4 - 0 . 1 2 7 0 . 4 7 6 0 . 5 2 9 0 . 7 2 7 0 . 8 4 8 0 . 9 1 1 0 . 9 9 7 1 . 0 4 2 1 . 0 9 1 1 . 1 0 4 1 . 1 0 7 1 . 1 4 1 I . 1 4 6 0 . 1 4 4 0 . 1 7 2 0 . 1 3 5 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 1 2 - O . O l l 0 . 1 4 6 0 . 2 5 1 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 2 5 0 . 1 3 9 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 1 0 7 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 6 3 - 0 . 0 7 6 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 0 8 2 - 0 . 0 9 2 - 0 . 0 9 2 - 0 . 0 9 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 4 5 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 0 - O . O l l - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 2 1 6 - 0 . 0 5 8 0 . 3 3 2 - 0 . 2 5 3 0 . 0 B 2 - 0 . 1 7 1 - 0 . 1 2 1 - 0 . 1 1 9 0 . 0 7 0 0 . 1 1 7 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 7 7 0 . 0 3 9 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 1 6 4 - 0 . 1 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 1 0 6 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 0 6 6 0 . 7 5 6 0 . 7 7 5 0 . 0 6 2 0 . 9 2 1 0 . 9 5 0 0 . 9 9 2 1 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 4 0 9 0 . 3 0 0 0 . 2 8 3 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 6 5 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 7 0 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 7 7 - 0 . 0 5 8 - 0 . 0 7 8 - 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 1 9 6 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 4 7 - 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 3 0 9 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 4 7 4 0 . 4 3 7 0 . 3 3 0 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 0 5 0 - 0 . 0 9 7 - 0 . 0 9 2 - 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 1 0 9 - 0 . 0 9 9 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 2 1 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 5 4 3 0 . 5 6 7 0 . 6 1 5 0 . 6 6 1 0 . 6 9 1 0 . 7 1 4 0 . 8 4 4 0 . 9 6 6 0 . 9 7 9 I . 0 0 0 1 . 0 8 4 1 . 0 9 7 1 . 0 9 9 1 . 1 1 1 1 . 1 3 8 1 . 1 4 0 1 . 1 4 4 1 . 1 4 4 1 . 1 4 4 r f P H I M A T R I X N O . C A T E G O R I E S = 5 S T I M U L U S 1 - D E L T A * * 2 I 2 3 4 5 7 9 . M A N I P U L A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 3 5 8 0 . 6 8 3 0 . 1 5 0 0 . 1 5 0 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 2 6 3 5 . S E C U R E W I T H I N A S T 0 . 4 1 2 0 . 7 6 2 0 . 1 6 3 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 0 8 4 2 . P A D T E M P E R E D 0 . 4 4 1 0 . 7 7 9 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 2 2 7 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 3 0 8 1 . S T U B B O R N 0 . 4 4 2 0 . 7 9 4 0 . 1 5 1 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 4 0 1 0 . V E N G E F U L 0 . 5 1 8 0 . 8 3 3 0 . C 1 0 0 . 1 2 9 - 0 . 3 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 2 6 1 . H O L D S G R U D G E S 0 . 5 2 4 0 . 8 9 0 - 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 1 4 3 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 3 2 8 . R E S E L L I O U S 0 . 5 2 7 0 . 8 9 5 0 . C 8 1 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 2 7 3 . D I S 0 8 E D I E N T 0 . 5 2 9 0 . B 9 6 0 . C 8 6 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 3 6 3 6 . F E A R F U L 0 . 6 1 0 0 . 9 4 8 0 . 1 6 7 - 0 . 0 5 9 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 3 2 9 . C O N F O R M I N G 0 . 5 9 3 0 . 9 6 7 - 0 . C 5 1 - 0 . 0 C 3 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 6 8 1 9 . O B E D I E N T 0 . 6 5 3 I . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 3 8 3 8 . P A S S I V E L Y R E S I S T A N 0 . 6 9 2 1 . 0 5 2 - 0 . C 3 5 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 2 6 7 3 . P R O C R A S T I N A T E S 0 . 7 0 0 1 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 2 8 9 4 . S U L K S 0 . 7 2 4 1 . 0 7 7 - 0 . C 5 4 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 3 5 4 . S E E K S A P P R O V A L 0 . 7 3 5 1 . 0 8 5 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 3 4 2 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 8 3 4 . W I T H D R A W S 0 . 7 6 1 1 . 1 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 3 9 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 6 1 7 . S E L F - C O N S C I O U S C . 7 8 2 1 . 1 2 0 - 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 9 8 5 . D O U B T S S E L F 0 . 7 8 4 1 . 1 2 1 - 0 . C 3 7 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 3 2 3 . A N X I O U S 0 . 7 9 9 1 . 1 3 1 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 4 8 - 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 5 9 5 . P A S S I V E 0 . 8 1 9 1 . 1 4 8 - 0 . 0 6 8 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 3 2 4 7 . D E P R E S S E D 0 . 8 4 0 1 . 1 6 4 - 0 . C 7 3 - C . 0 4 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 4 7 6 . F E E L S G U I L T Y C . 8 4 6 1 . 1 6 8 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 4 9 3 . T I M I D 0 . S 5 0 1 . 1 7 0 - 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 5 0 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 9 5 7 . M A G I C A L T H I N K I N G 0 . 3 3 1 0 . 4 0 5 0 . 5 4 6 3 9 . A S S E R T I V E 0 . 4 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 5 9 6 6 5 . A S K F O R W H A T I W A N 0 . 5 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 7 3 5 9 1 . W I L L I N G T O T A K E R l 0 . 5 6 0 - 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 8 4 5 9 0 . I 0 0 W H A T I W A N T 0 . 5 0 7 0 . 1 1 5 C . 8 7 0 6 3 . U S E S H U N C H E S 0 . 5 2 6 - 0 . 0 3 1 0 . 9 0 7 1 6 . I N V E N T I V E C . 5 5 3 - 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 9 2 6 8 2 . I N T U I T I V E 0 . 5 8 6 - 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 9 6 3 1 2 . I N G E N I O U S 0 . 6 0 0 - 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 9 7 5 3 . I M P U L S I V E 0 . 6 6 3 0 . 0 8 4 1 . 0 1 0 7 . T R U S T I N G 0 . 6 6 9 0 . 0 5 1 1 . 0 1 8 6 8 . U N A W A R E O F T I M E 0 . 7 1 3 0 . 0 2 7 1 . 0 6 0 3 7 . C R E A T I V E 0 . 7 5 4 - 0 . 0 5 1 I . 1 0 1 6 2 . C U R I O U S 0 . 7 5 9 - 0 . 0 5 3 1 . 1 0 3 9 . I M A G I N A T I V E C . 7 6 4 - 0 . 0 4 3 1 . 1 0 7 5 . E X ° R E S S I V E ' 0 . 8 0 7 - 0 . 0 3 2 1 . 1 3 2 2 1 . U N I N H I B I T E D 0 . 8 2 6 - 0 . 0 3 9 1 . 1 5 0 7 1 . S E N S U A L 0 . 8 3 0 - 0 . 0 1 5 1 . 1 5 1 8 0 . S P O N T A N E O U S 0 . 8 4 9 - 0 . 0 5 0 1 . 1 6 6 6 9 . P L A Y F U L 0 . 8 6 3 - 0 . 0 4 6 1 . 1 7 7 9 7 . D I R E C T I N G 0 . 3 5 7 - 0 . 0 7 2 - 0 . C 0 4 8 7 . T R A D t T I O N A L 0 . 3 9 5 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 4 2 4 . D I S C I P L I N E S O T H E R S 0 . 4 4 8 - 0 . 0 8 4 - 0 . 0 0 1 5 3 . C O N D E S C E N D I N G 0 . 5 0 4 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 3 6 0 . A U T H O R I T A T I V E C . 5 2 9 - 0 . 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 0 2 1 . C O R R E C T S O T H E R S 0 . 5 8 5 - 0 . 0 7 2 . 0 . C 0 3 8 4 . B O S S Y 0 . 6 0 6 0 . 1 9 5 0 . 0 1 7 4 1 . G I V E S O R D E R S 0 . 6 1 8 - 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 0 2 4 4 . R I G I D 0 . 6 9 9 0 . 1 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 5 1 3 . C O N T R O L L I N G C . 7 C 8 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 0 4 9 2 . P E R S E C U T I N G 0 . 7 3 3 0 . 0 4 8 - 0 . 0 0 6 4 6 . C R I T I C I Z E S O T H E R S 0 . 7 7 2 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . A U T O C R A T I C 0 . 8 0 4 - 0 . 0 3 2 0 . C l l 2 6 . P U N I T I V E 0 . 8 1 3 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 C 3 5 0 . P R E J U D I C E D C . 8 3 3 - 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 0 2 1 1 . D O G M A T I C 0 . 8 8 3 - 0 . 0 3 9 0 . 0 0 3 6 6 . R E S P E C T F U L O F O T H E 0 . 3 2 9 0 . 1 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 7 8 9 . E T H I C A L L Y R E S P O N S I 0 . 3 7 2 - 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 1 9 7 0 . C O O P E R A T E S 0 . 3 4 0 Q . 3 0 2 0 . 1 1 7 1 4 . A W A R E O F O T H E R S C . 3 6 9 0 . 0 6 0 0 . 2 3 1 4 . I N T R O S P E C T I V E 0 . 3 6 7 0 . 1 8 8 0 . 2 0 6 5 2 . A U T O N O M O U S 0 . 4 8 8 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 4 0 5 1 5 . F L E X I B L E , 0 . 4 7 7 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 2 8 2 4 3 . S E L F - A W A P F 0 . 5 0 3 - 0 . 0 2 9 N 0 . 3 4 1 2 5 . S E E K S T R U T H C . 5 7 8 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 5 7 2 2 . G O A L C R I F N T E D 0 . 7 0 7 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 1 6 5 5 . M A K E S D E C I S I O N S 0 . 7 1 9 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 1 9 4 0 . D E F I N E S R E A L I T Y 0 . 7 4 2 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 6 4 7 2 . O P G A N I Z E S 0 . 8 4 7 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . C 8 6 5 8 . S Y S T E M A T I C 0 . 8 7 3 - 0 . 0 1 5 - • 0 . 0 8 5 8 . P L A N S A H E A D C . 8 8 0 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 7 8 7 7 . S O L V E S P R O B L E M S 0 . 8 3 9 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . C 7 6 8 3 . ' T H I N K S A N A L Y T I C A L ' L C . 9 2 8 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 9 2 2 . G A T H E R S D A T A 0 . 9 3 3 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 9 0 2 7 . L O G I C A L A N D F A C T U A 0 . 9 3 7 . - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 9 3 5 1 . O B J E C T I V E 0 . 9 3 7 - - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 9 3 7 4 . F S T I M A T E S P P O B A B I L 0 . 9 3 7 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 9 3 3 1 . F A C I L I T A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 4 6 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 8 9 6 . O V E R S O L I C I T O U S 0 . 4 1 2 0 . 1 7 8 - 0 . 0 3 1 3 2 . R E S C U I N G 0 . 4 3 7 0 . 1 0 3 - 0 . 0 3 9 8 6 . S E L F - S A C R I F 1 C I N G G . 4 2 9 0 . 1 4 7 - 0 . 0 3 0 7 5 . S H O W S E M P A T H Y 0 . 4 6 2 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 1 8 9 4 9 . O V E R - P R O T E C T I V E 0 . 4 8 5 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 0 3 4 1 8 . I N D U L G E S O T H E R S 0 . 4 8 3 0 . 1 6 4 - 0 . C 4 1 4 8 . S M O T H E R I N G 0 . 4 9 5 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 3 3 6 7 . S E N S I T I V E T O O T H E R 0 . 4 7 7 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 9 0 8 8 . D O T I N G 0 . 5 1 2 0 . 0 3 6 - 0 . 0 1 0 5 9 . P R O T E C T I V E 0 . 6 4 4 - 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 2 2 5 6 . G I V E S P E R M I S S I O N 0 . 6 9 1 - 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 . 0 1 9 2 0 . C A R I N G 0 . 7 1 6 - 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 1 3 3 0 . E N C O U R A G E S O T H E R S 0 . 7 5 4 - 0 . 0 5 4 - 0 . 0 0 6 3 3 . S Y M P A T H E T I C 0 . 7 5 9 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 0 4 6 . C O M F O R T I N G 0 . 8 2 2 - 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 2 5 6 4 . R E A S S U R I N G 0 . 8 4 5 - 0 . 0 5 6 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 C 7 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 4 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 6 9 1 0 . 7 2 5 0 . 7 9 9 0 . 8 1 4 0 . 9 0 1 0 . 9 5 1 0 . 9 5 1 0 . 9 9 0 1 . 0 4 2 1 . 0 7 4 1 . 0 8 1 1 . 1 2 0 1 . 1 3 9 1 . 1 5 0 1 . 1 6 3 1 . 1 9 7 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 2 7 7 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . C 3 9 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 5 3 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 2 7 - 0 . 0 5 9 0 . 1 1 2 0 . 1 4 1 0 . 0 6 4 - 0 . 1 0 1 0 . 1 7 2 0 . 0 7 8 0 . 1 5 4 - 0 . 0 9 8 0 . 1 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 . 1 0 6 - 0 . 0 8 0 - 0 . 0 8 9 - 0 . 0 9 5 - 0 . 0 9 6 - 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 4 1 9 0 . 3 0 4 0 . 2 8 8 - 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 6 5 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 7 5 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 0 8 2 - 0 . 0 7 8 - 0 . 0 6 0 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 8 4 - 0 . 0 8 7 - 0 . 0 7 2 - 0 . 0 8 7 0 . 2 4 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 5 3 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 3 0 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 4 8 2 0 . 5 2 3 0 . 5 6 2 0 . 5 8 9 0 . 6 1 4 0 . 6 6 7 0 . 7 0 8 0 . 7 1 9 0 . 8 6 1 0 . 9 7 3 0 . 9 8 2 1 . 0 0 4 1 . 0 7 7 1 . 0 9 3 1 . 0 9 5 1 . 1 0 4 1 . 1 2 9 1 . 1 3 2 1 . 1 3 5 1 . 1 3 5 1 . 1 3 5 0 . 4 2 4 - 0 . 0 8 1 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 3 7 7 0 . 0 9 2 - 0 . 0 9 6 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 9 9 0 . 1 0 6 - 0 . 0 9 3 - 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 4 7 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 1 0 . - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 0 4 5 0 . 2 0 3 0 . 1 6 3 0 . 2 4 4 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 5 7 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 1 6 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 0 7 2 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 7 3 - 0 . 3 5 7 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 6 3 - 0 . 0 6 9 0 . 4 3 9 0 . 3 3 7 0 . 0 8 1 0 . 2 1 2 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 8 7 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 3 3 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 4 8 - 0 . 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 5 3 - 0 . 0 5 5 - 0 . 0 5 6 - 0 . 0 5 6 0 . 7 2 3 0 . 7 8 6 0 . 8 1 9 0 . 8 3 0 0 . 8 6 5 0 . 8 6 6 0 . 8 7 6 0 . 8 8 5 0 . 9 9 9 0 . 9 1 1 1 . 0 6 1 I . 1 0 2 1 . 1 4 0 1 . 1 6 4 1 . 1 7 3 1 . 2 2 3 1 . 2 3 9 P H I M A T R I X N O . C A T E G O R I E S = 4 7 9 . 3 5 . 4 2 . 3 1 . 1 0 . 6 1 . 2 8 . 7 3 . 3 6 . 2 9 . 1 9 . 3 8 . 7 8 . 9 4 . 5 4 . 3 4 . 1 7 . e s . 2 3 . 9 5 . 4 7 . 7 6 . 9 3 . S T I M U L U S 1 - 0 E L T A * * 2 M A N I P U L A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 3 . 5 4 S E C U R E W I T H I N A S T P A D T E M P E R E D S T U B B O R N V E N G E F U L H O L O S G R U D G E S R E B E L L I O U S 0 1 S 0 8 E D I E N T F E A R F U L C O N F O R M I N G C B E D I E N T 0 . 4 1 2 0 . 4 3 2 0 . 4 4 1 0 . 5 1 6 0 . 5 2 2 0 . 5 2 7 C . 5 2 8 0 . 6 0 9 0 . 5 3 9 0 . 6 4 9 P A S S I V E L Y R E S I S T A N 0 . 6 9 1 P R O C R A S T I N A T E S S U L K S S E E K S A P P R O V A L W I T H D R A W S S E L c - C O N S C I O U S D O U B T S S E L F A N X I O U S P A S S I V E D E P R E S S E D F E E L S G U I L T Y T I M I D 0 . 7 0 0 0 . 7 2 3 0 . 7 3 2 , 7 5 9 . 7 8 0 . 7 8 4 . 7 9 7 . 8 1 7 . 8 3 7 0 . 8 4 4 0 . 3 4 7 0 . 6 8 1 0 . 7 4 9 0 . 7 7 2 0 . 7 8 4 0 . 8 7 2 0 . 8 7 8 0 . 8 8 1 0 . 8 8 3 0 . 9 3 0 0 . 9 4 6 0 . 9 9 7 1 . 0 3 5 1 . 0 3 9 1 . 0 5 3 1 . 0 6 4 1 . 0 8 3 1 . 0 9 9 1 . 1 0 1 1 . 1 1 0 1 . 1 2 7 1 . 1 4 1 1 . 1 4 6 1 . 1 4 3 2 0. 1 4 6 0 . 1 5 4 0. 0 2 5 0 . 1 4 9 0 . 0 0 6 - 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 8 0 0 . 0 3 5 0 . 1 7 0 - 0 . 0 4 7 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 5 4 - 0 . 0 3 2 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 6 7 - 0 . C 7 1 - 0 . C 7 3 - 0 . 0 5 5 3 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 C 6 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . C 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 C 8 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 C 5 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 3 4 0 . 1 4 7 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 2 3 1 0 . 0 3 7 0 . 1 3 1 0 . 1 5 6 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 6 8 0 . 0 7 1 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 0 5 - C . 0 2 6 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 4 7 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 2 4 - 0 . 0 5 0 5 7 . 3 9 . 6 5 . 9 1 . 9 0 . 6 3 . 1 6 . 3 2 . 1 2 . 3 . 7 . 6 8 . 3 7 . 6 2 . 9 . 5 . 2 1 . 7 1 . 8 0 . 6 9 . M A G I C A L T H I N K I N G 0 . 3 3 1 A S S E R T I V E 0 . 4 0 8 A S K F O R W H A T I W A N 0 . 5 0 9 W I L L I N G T O T A K E R l 0 . 5 5 9 I D C W H A T I W A N T U S E S H U N C H E S I N V E N T I V E I N T U I T I V E I N G E N I O U S I M P U L S I V E T R U S T I N G U N A W A R E O F T I M E C R E A T I V E C U 3 I O U S I M A G I N A T I V E E X P R E S S I V E U N I N H I B I T E D S E N S U A L S P O N T A N E O U S P L A Y F U L C . 5 0 6 0 . 5 2 6 0 . 5 5 3 0 . 5 8 5 C . 5 9 9 0 . 6 6 2 C . 6 6 9 0 . 7 1 2 0 . 7 5 3 C . 7 5 8 0 . 7 6 3 0 . P O 6 0 . 8 2 5 0 . 8 2 9 C . 8 4 7 0 . 8 6 1 0 . 3 9 8 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 0 7 - 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 1 1 4 - 0 . 0 2 9 - 0 . 0 3 1 - 0 . 0 3 4 - 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 8 4 0 . 0 5 0 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 4 1 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 1 3 - 0 . 0 4 8 - 0 . 0 4 3 0 . 5 5 1 0 . 5 9 8 0 . 7 9 3 0 . 8 5 1 0 . 8 7 6 0 . 9 1 4 C . 5 3 2 0 . 9 7 5 0 . 9 3 2 1 . 0 1 7 1 . 0 2 6 1 . C 6 7 1 . 1 0 3 1 . 1 1 0 1 . 1 1 4 1 . 1 4 0 1 . 1 5 7 1 . 1 5 8 1 . 1 7 4 1 . 1 8 4 - 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 4 1 8 0 . 3 0 6 0 . 2 8 9 - 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 0 4 4 - 0 . 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 1 9 - 0 . 0 7 6 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 0 8 4 - 0 . 0 8 0 - 0 . 0 6 2 - 0 . 0 8 1 - 0 . 0 4 5 -o.oe6 - C . G 8 9 - 0 . 0 7 4 - 0 . 0 9 0 - 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 8 4 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 0 9 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . 0 1 9 6 6 . R E S P E C T F U L O F O T H E C . 2 8 9 7 0 . C O O P E R A T E S 0 . 3 4 0 1 4 . A W A R E O F O T H E R S 0 . 3 5 9 4 . I N T R O S P E C T I V E 0 . 3 6 6 5 2 . A U T O N O M O U S 0 . 4 3 5 1 5 . ' F L E X I B L E - 0 . 4 7 7 4 3 . S E L F - A W A R E 0 . 5 0 7 2 5 . S E E K S T R U T H 0 . 5 7 7 2 2 . G O A L O R I E N T E D 0 . 7 C 3 . 5 5 . M A K E S D E C I S I O N S 0 . 7 1 9 4 0 . O E F I N E S R E A L I T Y 0 . 7 3 8 7 2 . O R G A N I Z E S 0 . B 4 0 5 8 . S Y S T E M A T I C 0 . 3 6 9 8 . P L A N S A H E A D 0 . 8 7 9 7 7 . S O L V E S P R O B L E M S 0 . B B 6 8 3 . T H I N K S A N A L Y T I C A L L 0 . 9 ? 4 2 . G A T H E R S D A T A C . 9 3 0 2 7 . L O G I C A L A N D F A C T U A 0 . 9 3 3 5 1 . O B J E C T I V E 0 . 9 3 3 7 4 . E S T I M A T E S P R O B A B I L 0 . 9 3 3 3 1 . F A C I L I T A T E S O T H E R S 0 . 3 1 7 8 9 . F T H I C A L L Y P E S P O N S I 0 . 3 7 4 7 5 . ' S H O W S E M P A T H Y 0 . 2 3 1 6 7 . S E N S I T I V E T O O T H E R C . 2 2 8 9 7 . O I R E C T I N G 0 . 2 6 9 8 6 . S E L F - S A C P I F I C I N G 0 . 2 5 9 9 6 . O V E R S O L I C I T O U S 0 . 2 8 6 1 8 . I N D U L G E S O T H E R S 0 . 3 0 7 3 2 . R E S C U I N G 0 . 3 0 9 2 0 . C A R I N G 0 . 3 0 8 ' 5 6 . G I V E S P E R M I S S I O N 0 . 3 3 0 3 3 . S Y M P A T H E T I C 0 . 3 3 5 3 0 . E N C O U R A G E S O T H E R S 1 C . 3 4 6 8 4 . P O S S Y 0 . 3 9 2 8 8 . D O T I N G 0 . 3 4 3 8 7 . T R A D I T I O N A L 0 . 3 4 9 4 B . S M O T H E R I N G 0 . 3 4 7 4 9 . O V E P - P » O T E C T ! V E C . 3 5 1 5 9 . P R O T E C T I V E 3 . 3 5 5 6 . C O M F O R T I N G C . 3 5 8 6 4 . R E A S S U R I N G , 0 . 3 6 8 6 0 . A U T H O R I T A T I V E 0 . 3 7 0 ' 2 4 . D I S C I P L I N E S O T H E R S 0 . 3 7 1 4 1 . G I V E S O R D E R S 0 . 4 0 1 1 . C O R R E C T S O T H E R S C . 4 1 8 1 3 . C O N T R O L L I N G C . 4 2 3 4 4 . R I G I O 0 . 4 5 1 9 2 . P E R S E C U T I N G 0 . 4 5 7 5 3 . C O N D E S C E N D I N G 0 . 4 5 1 4 6 . C R I T I C I Z E S O T H E R S 0 . 4 6 2 2 6 . P U N I T I V E C . 4 8 4 4 5 . A U T O C R A T I C C . 4 9 0 5 0 . P R E J U D I C E D 0 . 5 0 3 1 1 . D O G M A T I C C . 5 2 8 0 . 0 9 4 0 . 2 9 3 0 . 0 4 9 0 . 1 8 6 - 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 2 7 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 1 2 1 0 . 2 4 2 0 . 2 0 7 0 . 4 0 7 0 . 2 8 7 0 . 3 4 4 0 . 0 5 6 - 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 5 C 5 0 . 5 7 1 0 . 6 0 4 0 . 6 1 7 0 . 6 7 1 0 . 7 1 6 0 . 7 2 4 0 . 8 6 5 0 . 9 7 5 0 . 4 2 9 0 . 0 6 0 0 . 1 5 6 - 0 . 0 0 8 - C . 0 0 9 0 . 0 7 3 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 1 0 8 0 . 0 3 9 - 0 . 0 0 1 0 . 0 1 9 0 . 9 8 7 - 0 . 0 . 4 3 - 0 . 0 1 7 - 0 . C 6 7 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 2 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 1 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 5 1 - 0 . 0 4 8 - 0 . 0 4 7 - 0 . 0 4 3 - 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 1 0 2 0 . 1 3 5 0 . 1 1 7 0 . 0 6 7 - 0 . 0 9 6 - 0 . 1 0 5 - 0 . 0 6 6 - 0 . 1 0 9 0 . 2 1 8 - 0 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 1 4 - 0 . 0 0 0 - 0 . 1 0 8 - 0 . 1 1 4 - 0 . 1 1 4 - 0 . 0 4 2 - 0 . 0 6 9 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 4 7 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 1 3 8 0 . 0 7 9 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 4 - 0 . 0 0 1 - 0 . 0 9 1 - 0 . C 8 3 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . C 7 9 - 0 . 0 9 5 - 0 . 0 9 3 - 0 . 0 9 6 - 0 . 0 9 6 - 0 . 0 9 6 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 5 0 . 2 2 3 0 . 1 2 6 - 0 . 0 2 3 0 . C 0 1 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 8 - 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 5 9 0 . C 2 6 0 . 0 4 4 0 . C 4 1 - 0 . 0 1 3 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 1 0 - 0 . 0 0 3 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 . C 1 8 0 . 0 2 4 ' 0 . C 3 1 - C . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 1 8 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . 0 2 3 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 0 2 8 - 0 . C 3 7 - 0 . 0 4 0 - 0 . 0 2 5 - 0 . 0 3 5 - 0 . 0 3 5 1 . 0 0 7 1 . 0 7 9 1 . 0 9 6 1 . 1 0 2 1 . 1 0 9 1 . 1 3 4 1 . 1 3 7 1 . 1 3 9 1 . 1 3 9 0 . 4 6 1 0 . 5 2 9 0 . 1 4 0 0 . 1 5 5 0 . 2 1 2 - 0 . 0 3 7 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 3 8 - 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 4 1 0 . 0 8 2 0 . 0 1 8 0 . 0 8 0 - 0 . 0 7 3 - 0 . 0 5 2 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 0 6 1 - 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 1 7 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 4 6 - 0 . 0 2 1 - 0 . 0 0 2 - 0 . 0 1 5 - 0 . 0 7 3 - C . C 7 8 - 0 . 0 8 1 - 0 . 0 7 9 - 0 . 0 8 5 - 0 . 0 8 9 - 0 . 0 4 5 - 0 . 0 8 7 - 0 . 0 8 7 0 . 0 2 2 - 0 . 0 3 0 - 0 . 3 1 9 - 0 . 0 2 0 - 0 . 0 7 5 - 0 . 0 8 1 - 0 . 0 7 8 - 0 . 0 8 2 - 0 . 0 8 2 1 . 1 3 9 - 0 . 0 8 2 0 . 6 1 1 0 . 6 2 3 0 . 6 8 6 0 . 7 1 9 0 . 7 8 9 0 . 8 4 3 0 . 8 5 9 0 . 8 9 9 0 . 9 2 0 0 . 9 2 0 0 . 9 4 6 0 . 9 6 7 0 . 9 6 8 C . 9 7 8 0 . 9 8 3 0 . 9 8 9 0 . 9 9 2 0 . 9 9 6 1 . 0 0 1 1 . 0 0 2 1 . 0 1 4 1 . 0 1 4 t . 0 2 8 1 . 0 6 0 1 . 0 8 8 1 . 0 9 3 1 . 0 9 3 1 . 1 2 0 1 . 1 2 6 1 . 1 4 0 1 . 1 6 9 1 . 1 7 5 1 . 1 9 3 1 . 2 2 2 137 APPENDIX VI Ego S t a t e Check L i s t 138 EGO STATE CHECK L I S T I n s t r u c t i o n s P l e a s e do n o t w r i t e o r mark on t h i s b o o k l e t . I n d i c a t e y o u r a n swers on t h e answer b o o k l e t as e x p l a i n e d b e l o w . P l e a s e c o n s i d e r e a c h d e s c r i p t o r i n t h e l i s t — d e c i d e how f r e q u e n t l y t h e b e h a v i o r d e s c r i b e d i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f y o u o r t h e p e r s o n y o u a r e r a t i n g . On t h e answer s h e e t you w i l l f i n d a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e on w h i c h t o i n d i c a t e your, r e s p o n s e . The a p p r o x i m a t e p r o p o r t i o n s ' o f p e o p l e c h o o s i n g e a c h p o s i t i o n on t h e s c a l e i s i n d i c a t e d u n d e r n e a t h t h e s c a l e t o g i v e y o u some i d e a o f where t o p l a c e y o u r s e l f o r t h e p e r s o n y o u a r e r a t i n g . A l m o s t N o t R a r e l y O f t e n i-Aiways T r u e T r u e T r u e T r u e I — f - — — V t 1 — 1 -I 5% 10% 20% 30% 20% 10% 5% Be s u r e t h a t t h e number o f t h e d e s c r i p t o r a g r e e s w i t h t h e number on t h e answer s h e e t . I f y o u c hange an. answer p l e a s e be s u r e t o e r a s e t h e mark c o m p l e t e l y . I f y o u a r e n o t s u r e o f t h e m e a n i n g o f a word, p l e a s e a s k o r l o o k i t up i n a d i c t i o n a r y . (§) 1978; by J e a n D. K u i j t 139 Ego S t a t e Check L i s t : Question Sheet How f r e q u e n t l y are these behaviors c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the person you are r a t i n g ? The p o i n t s between, the l a b e l l e d p o i n t s p r o v i d e an in-between p l a c e f o r you t o use. C i r c l e your choice on the accompanying answer, b o o k l e t . Almost Not R a r e l y Often i.A-1 ways-True True True True I 1 -I- -M »- 1 1. C o r r e c t s Others 11. Ingenious 2. Gathers Information 12. Aware of Others C o n s c i o u s l y 3. Impulsive 13. F l e x i b l e 4. Expresses Emotions 14. I n v e n t i v e 5: •Comforts Others 15. S e l f - c o n s c i o u s 6. T r u s t s Others 16. Indulges Others 7. Plans Ahead 17. Law- A b i d i n g 8. Imaginative 18. C a r i n g 9. Vengeful 19. U n i n h i b i t e d 10. Dogmatic 20. Goal O r i e n t e d 140 N o t T r u e I R a r e l y T r u e 1 O f t e n . T r u e - I A l m o s t .Always T r u e — I 21. A n x i o u s 22. D i s c i p l i n e s O t h e r s 23. P a s s i v e 24. P u n i t i v e 25. L o g i c a l and F a c t u a l 26. R e b e l l i o u s 27. C o n f o r m i n g 28. E n c o u r a g e s O t h e r s 29. P a m p e r i n g 30. S y m p a t h e t i c 41. A u t o c r a t i c 42. C r i t i c i z e s O t h e r s 43. D e p r e s s e d 44. S m o t h e r i n g 45. O v e r - p r o t e c t i v e 46. P r e j u d i c e d 47. O b j e c t i v e 48. I n d e p e n d e n t 49. P a t r o n i z i n g 50. S e e k s A p p r o v a l 31. W i t h d r a w s 32. F e a r f u l 33. C r e a t i v e 34. P a s s i v e l y R e s i s t a n t 35. A s s e r t i v e 36. D i r e c t i n g 37. G i v e s - O r d e r s 38. Bad Tempered 39. S e l f - a w a r e 40. R i g i d 51. Makes D e c i s i o n s 52. G i v e s P e r m i s s i o n 53. S y s t e m a t i c 54. P r o t e c t i v e 55. A u t h o r i t a t i v e 56. H o l d s G r u d g e s . 57. Uses Hunches 58. R e a s s u r i n g 59. I A s k f o r What I Want 60. R e s p e c t f u l o f O t h e r s R i g h t s l 141 A l m o s t Not R a r e l y O f t e n K A l w a y s T r u e T r u e T r u e T r u e I ' — I — ' — I *- 1 61. L o s e s T r a c k o f Time 81. E t h i c a l l y R e s p o n s i b l e 62. P - i a y f u l 82. I Do What I Want 63. C o o p e r a t e s 83. W i l l i n g t o Take R i s k s 64. S e n s u a l 84. P e r s e c u t e s O t h e r s 65. O r g a n i z e s 85. T i m i d 66. B r e a k s R u l e s 86. S u l k s 67. O v e r s o l i c i t o u s 68. Shows Empathy 69. F e e l s G u i l t y 70. S o l v e s P r o b l e m s 71. P 71. P r o c r a s t i n a t e s 72. S p o n t a n e o u s 73. S t u b b o r n 74. I n t u i t i v e 75. T h i n k s A n a l y t i c a l l y 76. B o s s y 77. D o u b t s S e l f 78. S e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g 79. T r a d i t i o n a l 80. D o t i n g APPENDIX V I I Comments f r o m S o r t e r s ID. " A B 21014 C V £ f H Good p r o j e c t , I had expected t h a t some day, a f t e r r e a d i n g T.A. J o u r n a l s and v a r i a t i o n s on ego s t a t e s , t h a t e v e n t u a l l y t h e r e was going t o be a s e t of ego s t a t e s f o r every t h e r a p i s t . H o p e f u l l y you can h e l p stop t h a t t r e n d . My o n l y problem was c l a s s i f y i n g f o u r words, a l s o went over t h i s w i t h two o t h e r people i n the c l i n i c . A u t o c r a t i c - CP or a C s t a t e Encouraging - A-P-C (any major s t a t e ) F a c i l i t a t e s o t h e r s - (any major s t a t e ) Cooperates - (any major s t a t e ) ID. « A B 46135 C V £ f H The s t r u c t u r e of the r e s e a r c h paradigm somewhat l i m i t s my a b i l i t y t o respond. Most of the d e s c r i p t o r s r e l a t e t o f u n c t i o n r a t h e r than s t r u c t u r e . Thus I am u s i n g f u n c t i o n a l terms (NP, CP, A, AC, NC). However, a g i v e n d e s c r i p t o r might p r o p e r l y f a l l i n t o more than one category, e.g. both AC and NC may be i n t u i t i v e . P r o p e r l y , i n t u i t i o n i s a p r o c e s s of A i / but I'm not w i l l i n g t o mix s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , as t h i s has i n the p a s t l e d t o a g r e a t d e a l of c o n f u s i o n , which i s p robably why you're doing the study i n the f i r s t p l a c e . Again, f o r example, AC i s not an ego s t a t e , i t i s P-j^  and/or A^ and/or C^ adapting a t a g i v e n time. 145 ID. 42064 I t was n o t s p e c i f i e d w h e t h e r s t r u c t u r a l o r f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f e g o s t a t e s was d e s i r e d . I c h o s e t o u s e f u n c t i o n a l b e c a u s e I u s e t h e s e c o n c e p t s somewhat more f r e q u e n t l y . I c o u l d r e a s s e m b l e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s m e n t i o n e d however, i n t o s t r u c t u r a l s t a t e s . I am c o n c e r n e d t h a t y o u w i l l g e t more v a r i a t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h i s r a t h e r t h a n o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f i d i o s y n c r a t i c d e f i n i t i o n s . My own t h e o r y i s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s programmed b y F r e e C h i l d ( N a t u r a l C h i l d ) and A d u l t and P a r e n t f u n c t i o n s a n d A d a p t e d a r e a v e n u e s F r e e C h i l d u s e s as a p p r o p r i a t e , b u t do n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s i n i t i a t e b e h a v i o r o r make d e c i s i o n s . The e n t i r e t a s k p r o v i d e d me w i t h an u n -e x p e c t e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e v i e w my own t h e o r y . B e c a u s e o f t h i s I have made new m a t e r i a l s f o r my g r o u p ( s ) r e S c r i p t M a t r i x a n d h a v e c l a r i f i e d much f o r m y s e l f and them. I used ego s t a t e f u n c t i o n s (CP, NP, A, FC, AC) as the b a s i s f o r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , r a t h e r than s t r u c t u r e (PI, A l , C l , e t c . ) . The d i r e c t i o n s are u n c l e a r as to whether i t i s s t r u c t u r a l or f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n t h a t i s being c a l l e d f o r . I found t h a t some white cards would b e t t e r f i t i n t o the s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n , but I r e f u s e to mix up the two. ID. * A B 43807 C V £ F H Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e.g. "Unaware of Time", apply t o a l l C h i l d ego s t a t e s . My view of ego s t a t e s : Parent comes i n two f l a v o r s : (a) n u r t u r a n t , and (b) p u n i t i v e . A d u l t : one f l a v o r o n l y . C h i l d : t h r e e f l a v o r s : (a) Free C h i l d - f r e e of A d u l t i n f l u e n c e , (b) Adaptive C h i l d - under P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and r e a c t s - p o s i t i v e l y t o i t , (c) D e f i a n t C h i l d under P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and does the e xact o p p o s i t e of what i s wanted or expected. In 7 years of p r a c t i c e , I have found these d i s -t i n c t i o n s both necessary and s u f f i c i e n t . 147 ID. * 48070 A B C V £ f H : _ ) I've checked t h i s p r o j e c t out w i t h seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s . Have f o l l o w i n g comments. 1. A r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n t o p l a c e b e h a v i o r a l components poses r i g i d t h i n k i n g and r i g i d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 2. S e v e r a l b e haviors can be t r i g g e r e d from: a. h i s t o r i c a l b. b i o l o g i c a l c. e x p e r i e n t i a l d. s o c i a l background 3. Based on above same b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n c o u l d be c h i l d or parent. i . e . N u r t u r i n g c o u l d be NP i n c o r p o r a t e d , c o u l d be Adapted C h i l d (P2) and L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r (C2) f i n d i n g ways to manipulate. 4. No d i r e c t i o n s were g i v e n as t o f i r s t / s e c o n d order s t r u c t u r a l breakdown or d e s c r i p t i v e breakdown of ego s t a t e s . ID. ** A B 34123 . C V £ F 6, H I am aware t h a t I have used f u n c t i o n s f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s except L i t t l e P r o f e s s o r and these c o u l d be i n c l u d e d under N a t u r a l C h i l d . Bad tempered c o u l d be R e b e l l i o u s AC or CP P e r s e c u t o r . T r a d i t i o n a l c o u l d be any Parent. R i g i d c o u l d be CP or AC. I have added one category "Berne's i d e a l " a t the end f o r d e s c r i p t o r s t h a t Berne may have used f o r the "cured" a d u l t . I t f i t s the person who can use a l l ego s t a t e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y most of the time w i t h the A d u l t as the execu-t i v e . I l i k e people who p l a y and n u r t u r e and do not stay i n t h e i r A d u l t . 148 ID. " A B 47054 C V £ F H Had d i f f i c u l t y d e f i n i n g your t i t l e s - they have many meanings depending on f a m i l y and c u l t u r a l s c r i p t s - I am not sure how you c o u l d have made your d e s c r i p t o r cards more e x p l i c i t but i t w i l l cause much c o n f u s i o n i n the r e -sponses as each respondent d e f i n e s your des-c r i p t o r s . I d i d not check my s e l e c t i o n s w i t h anyone but I asked f i v e TA p r a c t i t i o n e r s about your d e s c r i p t o r s and r e c e i v e d f i v e d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s on what your r e c e p t o r s meant. I was not sure i n what sense you used "Aware of Others". 1. Awareness to adapt t o others demands AC 2. Aware of others needs NP 3. I n t u i t i v e l y aware FC I put i t i n 1 put without any f e e l i n g o f knowing what you meant. I found i t d i f f i c u l t i n s e v e r a l o t h e r s t o know where you were coming from. For i n s t a n c e -"Gives P e r m i s s i o n " - the a d u l t g i v e s p e r m i s s i o n to be; the parent g i v e s p e r m i s s i o n t o do; and " S e n s i t i v e t o Others Needs" i s 1. a f u n c t i o n of s u r v i v a l f o r the adapted c h i l d . 2. a f u n c t i o n of c a r i n g f o r the n u r t u r i n g p arent. A s s e r t i v e : 1. The c o n t r o l l i n g parent must be a s s e r t i v e 2. The adapted c h i l d uses a s s e r t i v e n e s s as a c o n t r o l l i n g d e v i c e . 3. We teach the n u r t u r i n g parent t o be a s s e r t i v e . 4. The f r e e c h i l d uses a s s e r t i v e n e s s as a way of e n j o y i n g freedom. I D . * 47020 A B C V £ F H | i j 1 i U U m a m a i i j v . - ~ - — c  d e s c r i p t i v e t h e r e f o r e would p r e f e r d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r i e s f o r ego s t a t e s , i . e . NP/CP AC/FC t o subsystems. However, I found the e x e r c i s e i n t e r e s t i n g and a c h a l l e n g e f o r me to i d e n t i f y P-j. vs C j Fun t o be i n c l u d e d . A l l the b e s t w i t h your p r o j e c t . I D . " A B 47203 > C V £ F 6, H C l e a r l y , there are many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s u b d i v i d i n g the c a t e g o r i e s . I chose ( a f t e r some thought) t o put r e s c u i n g i n as a f u n c t i o n of N u r t u r i n g Parent ( r a t h e r than Adapted C h i l d ) because r e s c u i n g i s experienced t r a n s a c t i o n a l l y from Parent t o C h i l d . I look forward t o s e e i n g the r e s u l t s . I D . * A B : 43181 C V £ F H Maybe i t i s p a r t of what your study i s about but I found i t d i f f i c u l t t o know whether t o f o l l o w a s t r u c t u r a l o r f u n c t i o n a l diagram. I chose a s t r u c t u r a l model a l a Bob P h i l l i p t o use. C e r t a i n l y s o r t i n g would be d i f f e r e n t i f done f u n c t i o n a l l y . i ID- ** 36118 A REFUSAL C V F G, H My* f i r s t i mpression i s t h a t I am not w e l l s u i t e d f o r the p r o j e c t s i n c e I FIRMLY b e l i e v e t h a t the n o m i n a l i z a t i o n s and verbs and phrases on the cards are e n t i r e l y too u n s p e c i f i e d t o r e f e r t o anything other than each respondent's h a l l u c i n a t i o n s . I k i n d l y request t h a t you f i n d another person - one with more time, e s p e c i a l l y . I u s u a l l y a v o i d a t t a c h i n g such u n s p e c i f i e d phrases t o events which I e x p e r i e n c e . Example -I have NO i d e a what meaning t o apply to u n i n h i b i t e d , t r u s t i n g , c a r i n g , r i g i d , e t c . as they apply t o ego s t a t e s . An ego s t a t e i s a complex process of thoughts, f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r s . Most of the words i n t h i s packet c o u l d apply t o i n d i v i d u a l s ' i n s e v e r a l ego s t a t e s . ex: p a s s i v e , r i g i d , d i r e c t i n g , d e c i d i n g f e a r f u l , e t c . a s s e r t i v e , e t c . I t s a h e a l t h y undertaking and I c e r t a i n l y wish you luck - I imagine t h a t y o u ' l l p r i m a r i l y d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r b i a s about how to use these words as l a b e l s f o r e x p e r i e n c e . And i t w i l l be f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t " r e s -c u i n g " w i l l be i n c l u d e d as P or NP, and uses hunches w i l l be A-^  or LP, e t c . I b e l i e v e t h i s i s r e f l e c t i v e of a jargon t r a p and the p a r t i c -u l a r t r a n c e t h a t T.A. generates. A b e t t e r way t o procede would be to p r o v i d e sensory e x p e r i -ence (not words) and t e s t our c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s from a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l and f e e l i n g data. I hope these remarks p r o v i d e some understanding of my n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 

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