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The relationships among dilemma content, moral judgment and action choice in interaction with political… Karr, Mary Alice 1985

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THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG DILEMMA CONTENT, MORAL JUDGMENT AND ACTION CHOICE IN INTERACTION WITH POLITICAL ATTITUDE AND ETHICAL ATTITUDE by MARY ALICE KARR B.S., I l l i n o i s State University, 1970 M.S., I l l i n o i s State University, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1985 © Mary Alice Karr, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Bdncg-i'i&yiA I Psyc^oloQ^y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall ' Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of specified variation in dilemma content on the relationship among ethical attitude, p o l i t i c a l attitude, moral development and dilemma action choice. The moral development and action choice scores of individuals who differed in ethical attitude or p o l i t i c a l attitude were compared for two types of dilemmas, the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and alternate dilemmas, differing in terms of the action supported by authority. Measures of ethical attitude, p o l i t i c a l attitude and moral develop-ment were administered to 68 high school subjects and 35 university subjects. Results of m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of variance repeated measures showed that moral development and action choice scores of subjects who differed in ethical attitude or p o l i t i c a l attitude did not vary for the two dilemma types. Ethical attitude was found to be related to moral development scores for both the Defining Issues Test and Alternate Dilemmas Test, but only to university subjects' action choice scores on the Defining Issues Test. P o l i t i c a l attitude was found to be related to only university subjects' action choice scores on the Defining Issues Test. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the D Index was the best predictor of the Defining Issues Test action choice scores for the high school sample and p o l i t i c a l attitude was the best predictor for the university sample. Limitations and implications of this research^ace^disTsussed. i i TABLE' OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i , ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES V C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTION 1 Background o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 Pu r p o s e s o f t h e Study 15 The P r o b l e m 16 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 18 Re s e a r c h H y p o t h e s i s 23 Main E f f e c t s - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e 23 Main E f f e c t s - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 23 I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s - D i l e m m a Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e 24 I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s - D i l e m m a Type x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 24 M o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t - A c t i o n C h o i c e 25 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e D i s s e r t a t i o n 26 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 27 M o r a l R e a s o n i n g and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 28 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l I s s u e s 29 P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 33 K o h l b e r g ' s M o r a l Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 40 R e s t ' s M o r a l Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 60 Hogan's M o r a l Judgment Measure and P o l i t c a l A t t i t u d e 65 T e s t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M o r a l Judgment and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Measures 67 Summary o f M o r a l R e a s o n i n g and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s 70 S t u d i e s o f Hogan's and K o h l b e r g ' s M o r a l Judgment Dimensions 74 I n t r o d u c t i o n 74 S t u d i e s o f t h e P o l i t i c a l B i a s o f K o h l b e r g ' s S t a g e Scheme 81 Summary 87 S t u d i e s o f M o r a l Judgment and Dilemma C o n t e n t 88 V a r i a t i o n i n Dilemma P r o t a g o n i s t 89 H y p o t h e t i c a l Dilemmas v e r s u s A c t u a l Dilemmas 91 P r o h i b i t i v e Dilemmas v e r s u s P r o s o c i a l Dilemmas 94 Summary 96 S t u d i e s o f M o r a l Judgment and Dilemma A c t i o n C h o i c e 99 Summary 101 Summary 101 i i i I l l METHODOLOGY 103 De s c r i p t i o n of the Samples 104 High School Samples 104 Un i v e r s i t y Sample 104 Subjects 105 Design of the Study 107 Procedures 108 Measuring Instruments 108 Administration 120 Data Processing and Analysis 121 Data Processing 121 Data Analysis 122 Summary 124 IV RESULTS 125 Phase One 125 Item and Test Analysis 125 Phase Two - High School Sample 125 Preliminary Analyses 126 Analysis of Sex Difference 128 2x2x2 M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures 130 Mu l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s 138 Phase Two - U n i v e r s i t y Sample 142 Preliminary Analyses 142 Analysis of Sex Dif f e r e n c e 146 2x2x2 M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures 146 Mu l t i p l e Regression Analysis 159 Summary 162 V SUMMARY OF RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSIONS 165 Summary of Results and Discussion 165 Moral Development - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e 166 Moral Development - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 171 Action Choice - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e 177 Action Choice - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 180 Moral Development - Action Choice 181 Conclus ions 185 Lim i t a t i o n s of the Study 189 Sample 189 Measurement 190 Methodology 191 Implications and Recommendations of the Study 192 Implications 193 Recommendations for Research 198 i v LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Summary of Defining Issues Test Dilemmas 12 2 Summary of Alternate Dilemmas 98 3 High School Sample Test Statistics 127 4 High School Sample Correlation Matrix 129 5 High School Sample Means and Standard Deviations of the 131 Two Dilemma Types for the Four Groups 6 High School Sample Summary Data - 2x2x2 Multivariate 133 Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures 7 High School Sample Summary of Multiple Regression 140 Analysis 8 University Sample Test Statistics 143 9 University Sample Correlation Matrix 145 10 Univeristy Sample Means and Standard Deviations of the 148 Two Dilemma Types for the Four Groups 11 University Sample Summary Data - 2x2x2 Multivariate 149 Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures 12 University Sample Summary of Data - 2x2 Multivariate 150 Analysis of Variance 13 University Sample Summary of Multiple Regression Analysis 160 14 Summary of Hypotheses Tested for High School and 163 University Sample v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to dedicate this study to the memory of the late Dr. Leslie Carlton, a mentor and friend, whose high regard for her students inspired them to express the best in themselves. The writer expresses her appreciation to her advisor, Dr. Stephen Foster, for his assistance and direction throughout the study. She would also like to thank Dr. LeRoy D. Travis, Dr. Gordon Nelson, and Dr. Lawrence Walker for their support and advice in areas of content. Appreciation i s extended to Kathy Puharich for her assistance in the study; to Nucha Kazakawitz and Joan Prentice for their typing services; and to Cam MacDonald of Island Wordworks Ltd. for word processing services. The writer i s particularly grateful to these individuals for the long hours they worked to help meet deadlines. A special recognition of thanks is afforded to the school prin-cipals, teachers, and students whose cooperation enabled the study to be conducted. Appreciation i s extended also to Dr. Stanley Knight for his calm assurances and shrewd advice in times of c r i s i s and to Brenda Knight for her unerring intuition, sense of humour, and warmth. Their continued encouragement and support throughout the course of the doctoral program were greatly appreciated and w i l l be long remembered. Last, but not least, a special thanks i s extended to Dr. Janice Booth for helping the writer to keep problems in proper perspective by frequent reminders of the ultimate goal. v i 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem Cognitive developmental accounts of moral development and moral behavior have received widespread attention from psychologists and educators (e.g., Blasi, 1980; Damon, 1980; Lawrence, 1980). One reason for this attention is that they attempt to bring coherence to the study of at least three fundamental problems relating to human morality: the problem of how morality i s acquired in the course of development; the problem of moral consistency within individu-als; and the problem of how (and whether) i t i s appropriate to order different types of human morality on a scale ranging from primitive to advanced. (Damon, 1980, p. 35) In addition, educators have been attracted to the research because of interest in moral education and their desire to understand their students better. Cognitive developmental approaches are characterized by an emphasis on the internal construction and reorganization of cognitive structures as the basis for the development of particular types of moral orienta-tions (Wilson & Schochet, 1980). Cognitive developmental research, primarily based upon Piaget's (1965) and Kohlberg's (1964, 1969, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1983) moral development theories, has involved looking for consistencies in the use of moral reasoning structures across different 2 situations and for the development of progressively more adequate structures of reasoning with age. In these theories, moral structure refers to a logical organization of thinking, that i s , the form of moral reasoning rather than the content. Stages of development are proposed which are considered to represent q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t l o g i c a l systems of thinking. Based upon Piaget's theory that children progress from a heteronomous morality (morality of constraint) to an autonomous morality (morality of cooperation), Kohlberg postulated a six stage theory of moral development. In contrast to socialization and social learning theories of morality (e.g., Aronfreed, 1976; Bandura, 1971; Hoffman, 1970), basic moral norms and principles are viewed as structures arising through experiences of social interaction, rather than through internalization of rules that exist as external structures (Kohlberg, 1976). With the focus on the ontogenesis of individual reasoning about justice, the situational context of moral reasoning is deemphasized. From the cognitive developmental perspective, environmental factors in moral development are defined by the general quality and extent of cognitive and social stimulation (Kohlberg, 1976). The structures of moral reasoning are considered to affect action by defining how rights and duties are to be understood in concrete moral situations (Kohlberg, 1976; Rest, 1979a). In opposition to this view, social learning theorists contend that a duality in moral judgment and action exists and the findings of Hartshorne and in his associates are provided as one source of empirical evidence for this contention (see Aronfreed, 1968 and Mischel & Mischel, 1976). 3 In a series of studies, Hartshorne and his associates (Hartshorne & May, 1928; Hartshorne, May & Mailer, 1929; Hartshorne, May & Shuttleworth, 1930) attempted to assess the extent to which moral knowledge was predictive of moral behavior. Moral knowledge was defined as a quantitative dimension determined by the extent that one's a t t i -tudes were reflective of adult standards. Low correlations between behavioral measures of deceit and scores on paper and pencil tests of "moral knowledge" were interpreted as indicating that moral responding i s situation specific. However, in more recent research reviewed by Blasi (1980), a significant number of studies were reported to have found consistencies between moral judgment and action. A crucial issue in cognitive development theories is the d i s t i n c -tion between structure and content. However, Rest (1979a) points the way to research on the interrelationship of structure and content. He states, "a future goal is to identify the various attributes of test situations that affect the structural organizations of thinking mani-fested and the extent to which each of these attributes affect them" (pp. 68-69). Based on the extensive body of research relating to cognitive moral development and particularly to Kohlberg's moral development theory, Rest (1979a) has reformulated Kohlberg's theory and accepted "some complications in the model for the sake of a better empirical f i t " (p. 63). Rest no longer considers cognitive structures to occur in an "all-or-nothing" manner. To characterize development, Rest suggests that i t is necessary to use both qualitative descriptors to depict different logical organizations of thinking, and quantitative descrip-tors to show the extent and degree to which different structures are 4 operating. Rest also acknowledges that cognitive assessment i s affected by specific task, content, and response characteristics of a situation, and thus, the manifestation of a particular cognitive structure in one setting gives only a probabilistic indication that i t would be manifest in other settings. In addition, Rest (1979a) replaces Kohlberg's concept of a "simple stage model" with a more complex model of development. Many of the assumptions of the simple stage model are not met by this more complex model. For example, in Rest's model, a subject may advance in several organizations of thinking simultaneously; the ascending and descending slopes of a l l the stage types may not be symmetrical or evenly spaced; the point of highest usage of a stage type may not be i t s point of ful l e s t development; and no stage type may have a period of 100% usage and each stage type may not have a period when i t predominates. The term "stage type" i s used here because "stage" suggests that the subject i s exclusively one type of response at a time. While Rest (1979a) acknowledges that content can influence the structure that i s manifest in responses, another concern that has been raised is whether the stages postulated by Kohlberg (e.g., 1969, 1971, 1976) and adopted in overall terms by Rest (1979a) are really cognitive structures representing progressively more adequate organizations of thinking about justice. An alternative view i s that the stages as measured consist in different kinds of content that reflect various attitudes or orientation toward moral issues (e.g., Buck-Morss, 1975; Hogan, 1970; Reid & Yanarella, 1980; Sampson, 1978; Simpson, 1974; Sullivan, 1977). 5 Kohlberg's moral development stages are grouped into three major levels: preconventional (Stages 1 and 2), conventional (Stages 3 and 4 ) , and postconventional (Stages 5 and 6). The following characteriza-tion of the six moral stages is presented by Kohlberg (1971 ) : I. Preconventional Level At this level the child is responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad, right or wrong, but inter-prets these labels in terms of either the physical or the hedonistic consequences of action (punishment, reward, exchange of favors), or in terms of the physical power of those who enunciate the rules and labels. The level i s divided into the following two stages: Stage 1 : The punishment and obedience orientation. The physical consequences of action determine i t s goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. Avoidance of punishment and unques-tioning deference to power are valued in their own right, not in terms of respect for an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority (the la t t e r being stage 4 ) . Stage 2: The instrumental r e l a t i v i s t o r i e n t a t i o n . Right action consists of that which instrumentally sa t i s f i e s one's own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Human relations are viewed in terms like those of the market place. Elements of fairness, of r e c i -procity, and of equal sharing are present, but they are always interpreted in a physical pragmatic way. Reci-procity i s a matter of "you scratch my back and I ' l l scratch yours," not of loyalty, gratitude, or justice.^ I I . Conventional Level At this level, maintaining the expectations of the individual's family, group, or nation i s perceived as valuable in i t s own right, regardless of immediate and obvious consequences. The attitude i s not only one of conformity to personal expectations and social order, but of loyalty to i t , of actively maintaining, support-ing, and justifying the order, and of identifying with the persons or group involved in i t . At this l e v e l , there are the following two stages: Stage 3: The interpersonal concordance or "good boy-nice g i r l " orientation. Good behavior i s that which pleases or helps others and i s approved by them. There i s much conformity to stereotypical images or what i s majority or "natural" behavior. Behavior i s frequently 6 judged by intention—"he means well" becomes important for the f i r s t time. One earns approval by being "nice." Stage 4: The "law and order" orientation. There i s or i e n t a t i o n toward authority, f i x e d r u l e s , and the maintenance of the social order. Right behavior con-sists of doing one's duty, showing respect for author-i t y , and maintaining the given social order for i t ' s own sake. III. Postconventional, Autonomous, or Principled Level At this level, there i s a clear effort to define moral values and principles which have v a l i d i t y and applica-tion apart from the authority of the groups or persons holding these principles, and apart from the individu-al's own identification with these groups. This level has two stages: Stage 5: The social-contract l e g a l i s t i c orientation, generally with u t i l i t a r i a n overtones. Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights, and standards which have been c r i t i c a l l y ex-amined and agreed upon by the whole society. There i s a clear awareness of the relativism of personal values and opinions and a corresponding emphasis upon procedural rules for reaching consensus. Aside from what i s constitutionally and democratically agreed upon, the right i s a matter of personal "values" and "opinion." The result i s an emphasis upon the "legal point of view," but with an emphasis upon the p o s s i b i l i t y of changing law in terms of rational considerations of social u t i l i t y (rather than freezing i t in terms of stage 4 "law and order"). Outside the legal realm, free agreement and contract i s the binding element of obliga-tion. This is - the " o f f i c i a l " imorality of the American government and constitution. Stage 6: The universal ethical principle orientation. Right i s defined by the decision of conscience in accord with self-chosen ethical principles appealing to logical comprehensiveness, universality, and consistency. These principles are abstract and ethical (the Golden Rule, the categorical imperative); they are not concrete moral rules like the Ten Commandments. At heart, these are ; universal principles of justice, of the reciprocity and equality of human rights, and of respect for the dignity of human beings as individual persons. (pp. 164-165) Two structure-content issues are relevant to Kohlberg's stage descriptions (Levine, 1979a). F i r s t , the form-content distinction i s used to classify and explain the impact bf the social environment on 7 moral reasoning. The issue raised i s whether cultural content can e l i c i t or inhibit the generalization of conventional and postconven-tional moral thought. Second, the form-content distinction i s used to explain what i s meant by stage of moral reasoning, that i s , stages are forms or structures of cognitive processes which are independent of internalized cultural content. The second relevant issue i s whether stages, as described by Kohlberg, represent forms of reasoning or different cultural contents. In regard to the interrelationship of structure and content in both Kohlberg's moral theory and his measurement of moral development, Emler (1983 ) points out that, The moral dilemmas, employed to e l i c i t s t y l e s of moral thought, make core issues out of l i b e r a l values such as c i v i l rights and freedoms, property, the value of human l i f e and individual conscience, and each dilemma betrays the central l i b e r a l concern—the conflict between individual conscience and authority. (p. 61) One of the implications of Emler's discussion of l i b e r a l dilemma content is that such content affects the moral reasoning that w i l l be mani-fested. Concerning the structure-content distinction in Kohlberg's theory, Emler (1983) states, Stages four, f i v e , and six, therefore, take the theory direct-ly into the arena of p o l i t i c a l authority. Each of these stages represents a distinct position regarding the basis for and limits of p o l i t i c a l legitimacy, though stages five and six tend both to converge on a l i b e r a l position. (p. 60) Thus, the difference between the structures of conventional and prin-cipled reasoning i s viewed by Emler as a difference in ideological content between conservatism and liberalism. The distinction between conventional and postconventional moral reasoning has been described by Kohlberg (1971) as a law-maintaining perspective versus a law-making perspective. Conventional moral 8 reasoning is characterized by the maintenance of the rules, expectations and conventions of society or authority just because they are society's rules, expectations or conventions. The self is viewed to be immanently within society and, consequently, the status quo is seldom challenged. However, the postconventional individual is seen to base acceptance of society's rules on general moral principles of justice that underlie these rules. The principles of justice are seen to place a focus on the rights of humanity independent of c i v i l society and to imply the primacy of liberty or c i v i l rights, equality of opportunity and contract (Kohlberg, 1971). Emler and Hogan (1981) suggested that the "limitations" of Stage 4 thinking outlined by Kohlberg (1971), that i s , "(a) i t defines no clear obligations to persons outside the order (for example, the nation-state) or to persons who do not recognize the rules of one's own order; and (b) i t provides no rational guides to social change, to the creation of new norms or laws" (p. 200), are simple values that distinguish l i b e r a l s from conservatives. According to Emler and Hogan (1981), conservatives are less l i k e l y to believe that they have obligations to persons who are outside the system or opposed to i t s rules, less l i k e l y to believe in the poss i b i l i t y of a rational basis for legal reform, and less inter-ested in individual rights than in collective security. Liberals, on the other hand, are considered to be more inclined to see the law as an instrument for social reform and to believe that i t should be used to secure social justice to protect individual rights. Hogan (1970) proposed an alternative conceptualization of moral judgment and moral behavior to Kohlberg's moral theory. Hogan claimed that the differences in moral judgment are not to be understood in terms 9 of cognitive development but rather in terms of personality differences closely tied to p o l i t i c a l ideology. Principled reasoning style i s represented as a continuum from an ethics of personal conscience, defined by a preference for making decisions on the basis of personal and intuitive moral feelings, to an ethics of social responsibility, characterized by a preference for relying on conventions, contracts and formal agreements as a means for regulating social affairs (Hogan, 1970). According to Hogan (1970), the ethics of personal conscience relates to a higher law morality, a l i b e r a l to radical position; whereas, the ethics of social responsibility i s equivalent to the positive law tradition, a conservative position. Both ethical attitudes are considered to be equally defensible on moral grounds. Whereas both the c r i t i c s and proponents of Kohlberg's moral development theory acknowledge that there i s a relationship between moral stages and p o l i t i c a l ideology, they are not in agreement on the interpretation of this relationship. The c r i t i c s of Kohlberg's theory interpret evidence of a relationship between p o l i t i c a l ideology and Kohlberg's moral stages as confirmation of the p o l i t i c a l bias of Kohlberg's theory and an indication of the confounding of structure and content (e.g., Emler, 1983; Emler & Hogan, 1981; Hogan & Emler, 1978; Rothman & Lichter, 1978). On the other hand, the proponents of Kohlberg's theory interpret the relationship between p o l i t i c a l ideology and moral reasoning as support for the construct v a l i d i t y of the theory (e.g., Fishkin, Keniston & MacKinnon, 1973; Fontana & Noel, 1973; Haan, Smith & Block, 1968; Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz 4VAnderson, 1974). 10 From the viewpoint of Kohlberg's moral theory, moral reasoning is tied to p o l i t i c a l ideology in that i t partly determines the terms in which p o l i t i c s is understood. Rest (1979a) states, Studies of p o l i t i c a l ideology have long recognized the impor-tant distinction between a maintenance-of-society view and a human-rights-and-equalitarian view. Discussion of " l e f t " versus "right" p o l i t i c s (Tomkins 1963), Liberalism-Conservat-ism (Keniston 1968) and Authoritarianism (Adorno et a l . 1950) have a l l noted this dimension of p o l i t i c a l ideology. The claim of moral judgment research i s that such differences in p o l i t i c a l ideology in part reflect a developmental difference, (p. 164) The emphasis from the cognitive developmental perspective i s on the overall construal of the situation and the limitations of what i s perceived to be relevant. The postconventional subject i s seen to bring a more complex and sophisticated theoretical viewpoint to the issues and to comprehend the wider social and p o l i t i c a l implications of what i s going on in the situation (Weinreich-Haste, 1983). In exploring the relationship of moral stages and the content of moral judgments, consideration needs to be given to the way in which moral stages are assessed. With Kohlberg's measure, the subject's stage of moral development is inferred from responses made to hypothetical moral dilemmas. The scoring procedures for the interview protocols have been revised by Kohlberg a number of times since his original 1958 scoring system. A substantial revision was prompted by a stage-regres-sion problem. I n i t i a l l y , Kohlberg interpreted the apparent regression of some college subjects from Stage 4 or 5 to the r e l a t i v i s t i c egoism of Stage 2 as a transitional phase, a "Stage 4 1/2" between conventional and postconventional morality (Kohlberg & Kramer, 1969). Kohlberg (1973a) later redefined stages to include A arid B substages: Type A, a normative order and u t i l i t a r i a n orientation at each stage, and Type B, a 11 justice and ideal-self orientation. Stage 4 1/2 became Stage 4B in the new issue scoring system. Kohlberg's modifications of his scoring procedure represent successive attempts to c l a r i f y the dif f e r e n c e between "structure" and content in assessing the moral c r i t e r i a used (see Rest, 1979a) . Rest developed the Defining Issues Test (1974, 1979b) as a paper and pencil, objectively scored alternative to Kohlberg's interview measure of moral development. In contrast to Kohlberg, Rest (1979a) maintained that the focus of his measure i s not on assessing structure independent of content, but on the interrelationships of structure and content. Hypothetical moral dilemmas are used in the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974, 1979b): three of Kohlberg's dilemmas are used and the other three dilemmas are similar in content (see Table 1). Instead of answering open-ended questions about the dilemmas, the subject indicates a preference from several stage prototypic statements based on Kohlberg's stage topology by rating and ranking these statements. Different indices of moral development can be derived from the Defining Issues Test, that i s , stage scores, P Index and D Index. Twelve statements follow each dilemma and the subject rates and ranks these statements in terms of their importance in making a decision in the dilemma. A stage score is calculated by summing the weighted ranks of those statements which are considered to be characteristic of the stage. The P Index represents the sum of the weighted ranks given to "principled" items, i.e., Stages 5A, 5B and 6. More recently, Rest (1979a) has recommended the use of the D Index, a reliable overall index of moral development which uses information from a l l six stages. The D 12 Table 1 A Summary of Defining Issues Test Dilemmas Heinz and the Drug - Heinz must decide whether or not .to steal a drug to save the l i f e of his wife who i s dying of cancer. Should Heinz steal the drug? Student Take-over - The SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) take over the university's administration building to protest the university president's decision, to retain an army training program on campus. Should the students have taken over the administration building? Escaped Prisoner - Mrs. Jones must decide whether to report a man to the police who she recognized as an escaped prisoner. For eight years after escaping, the man has lived an exemplary l i f e in the community. Should Mrs. Jones report Mr. Thompson to the police and have him sent back to prison? The Doctor's Dilemma - A doctor has been asked by a terminally i l l patient for enough morphine to k i l l her. What should the doctor do? Webster - Mr. Webster, the owner and manager of a gas station, did not hire an Oriental mechanic because he was concerned about his customers who did not like Orientals. What should Mr. Webster have done? Newspaper - The principal stopped the publishing of a school newspaper that spoke out against the Vietnam War and school rules. Should the principal stop the newspaper? Index represents an empirically weighted sum of the rating data for a l l the statements. Certain consistencies in the content of the dilemmas used in the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974, 1979b) are evident. A l l of the dilemmas involve a conflict between obligation to individual conscience and obligations to society. Another similarity i s that the claims by individuals or minority groups for certain rights are not supported by legal or established authority (see Table 1). An example of a dilemma in which individual rights are protected in an individual rights-maintenance of society conflict would be the situation where laws protecting the individual's right to due process has the impact of limiting the powers of the police and the protection given to society as a whole. This point can be made clearer by i l l u s t r a t i n g how the six dilemmas in the Defining Issues Test could be changed so that the emphasis i s on the interest of social welfare rather than on the interest of an individual or minority group. The Heinz dilemma could be rewritten so that the issue is whether to violate the individual druggist's property rights in the interest of social welfare as a whole. In the Student Take-over dilemma, the issue could be whether a group representing a majority of students should take over the administration building. The Escaped Prisoner dilemma could be changed so that the concern i s the protection of the community rather than the prisoner's welfare. The Doctor's dilemma could be changed to a question of the protection of the doctor's rights at the expense of the patient and other sick people. The Webster dilemma could be a case of reverse discrimination rather than discrimination. Finally, the Newspaper dilemma could be changed so that a majority group publishes the school paper. Even with these changes, the dilemmas represent moral conflicts between individual rights and social welfare as a whole. It i s the focus of the issue in the dilemma that has been changed. The " p o l i t i c a l position" in the individual rights-maintenance of society dilemma that i s supported by the law or an authority figure may affect the moral reasoning that i s manifested. The p o l i t i c a l l y con-servative subject's responses to the dilemmas in the Defining Issues Test may reflect the fact that the law is not perceived to be in conflict with particular p o l i t i c a l biases. If the dilemma involves a situation in which the law or persons in authority supports individual 14 rights at the expense of social welfare, the conservative subject may be more ambiguous in the responses made to the moral dilemmas. In this circumstance, there may be more of an inclination to prefer reasoning that i s not Stage 4 "Law and Order." Conversely, the p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l subject may tend to use higher level moral reasoning in the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than in the dilemmas where individual rights are protected by legal or established authority. Dilemma content may also influence the action choices made by p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l and conservative subjects. Conservative subjects might be expected to choose more actions in compliance with authority in the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than l i b e r a l subjects. In dilemmas where individual rights are protected by legal or established authority, l i b e r a l subjects might be expected to choose more actions in compliance with authority than conservative subjects. The investigation of action choices in the two types of dilemmas may increase our understanding of the aspects of a situation that may affect the relationship of a subject's p o l i t i c a l attitude and/or moral reasoning with the choice of actions in compliance with authority. The effect of dilemma content on the relationships among moral reasoning, p o l i t i c a l attitude and action choice has been discussed. Relevant to this discussion is the effect of dilemma content on the relationship between Hogan's (1970) moral judgment dimension and moral reasoning (Rest, 1979a). Hogan's moral judgment dimension is considered to be tied to p o l i t i c a l attitude. The relationship of Hogan's (1970) ethical attitudes with p o l i t i c a l attitude i s explained in two ways: (a) there i s no clear way functionally to distinguish between moral and p o l i t i c a l attitude domains, and (b) moral and p o l i t i c a l judgment are 15 both reflections of a person's personality (Emler & Hogan, 1981). Therefore, i t would be expected that subjects with an ethics of social responsibility or an ethics of personal conscience would respond to the two types of dilemmas in a manner similar to p o l i t i c a l l y conservative or l i b e r a l subjects, respectively. Hogan (1970) developed the Survey of Ethical Attitudes to measure the disposition to adopt either the ethics of personal conscience or the ethics of social responsibility. The items in this scale are concerned with attitude toward legal or social compliance, with responses advocat-ing compliance being scored as ethics of social responsibility. This would suggest that ethical attitudes as operationalized by Hogan (1970) would also be related to dilemma action choice. The interrelationship of structure and content in the assessment of moral development may affect moral development scores and the relation-ship of these scores with p o l i t i c a l attitude and ethical attitude. In exploring the question of dilemma content effects on the relationship among moral reasoning, p o l i t i c a l attitude, ethical attitude, and dilemma action choice, research using the Defining Issues Test can only directly confirm or disconfirm hypotheses about Rest's (1979a) reformulation of Kohlberg's theory. However, i t i s presumed that such research w i l l u l t i m a t e l y r e f l e c t on questions about Kohlberg's theory, i f only indirectly. Purposes of the Study It i s possible to alter dilemma content such as to specify whether i t i s compliance with authority or protection by authority of individual 16 rights that is at issue. Such specified variation can be related to scores on instruments designed to measure the constructs discussed above in ways that should illuminate the controversies noted. The purposes of this study are to determine the effect of specified variation in dilemma content on: a) moral development scores, b) dilemma action choice scores, c) the relationship between ethical attitude and moral development scores, d) the relationship between ethical attitude and dilemma action choice scores, e) the relationship between p o l i t i c a l attitude and moral development scores, f) the relationship between p o l i t i c a l attitude and dilemma action choice scores, and g) the relationship between moral development scores and dilemma action choice scores. The Problem Rest's (1979a) and Hogan's (1970) approaches to the study of moral reasoning represent two different perspectives concerning morality, i.e., cognitive developmental and t r a i t approach, respectively. Hogan (1970), c r i t i c a l of Kohlberg's moral stage theory, has developed an alternative conceptualization. Claiming Kohlberg's developmental theory 17 is p o l i t i c a l l y biased, Hogan (1970) suggested that the orientation to particular moral principles is related to p o l i t i c a l ideology. Rest (1979a), departing from Kohlberg's views concerning the structure-content distinction, acknowledged that various task character-i s t i c s may affect the moral structures that are manifested. This raises the question of whether varying the content of the dilemmas used to assess moral development in terms of this p o l i t i c a l dimension w i l l affect thei moral development scores obtained. The emphasis in the Defining Issues Test dilemmas i s on individual rights versus social welfare concerns. In addition, legal or estab-lished authority is in opposition to individual rights in the dilemmas. Would individuals who are conservative in p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l orientation or have an ethics of social responsibility orientation be less inclined to prefer Stage 4 "law and order" reasoning when individual rights are supported by legal or established authority at the expense of social welfare as a whole? Conversely, would p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l or ethics of personal conscience individuals be more l i k e l y to prefer Stage 4 "law and order" reasoning when individual rights are supported by authority? Further, would the choice of dilemma actions that were supported by authority vary as a result of dilemma content, p o l i t i c a l attitude or ethical attitude? One way to study this problem is to compare moral development scores on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and scores on- dilemmas in which the individual rights concerns are supported by legal or estab-lished authority. The moral development scores of individuals who d i f f e r in p o l i t i c a l attitude or ethical attitude can be compared for the two types of dilemmas,. By considering both "person" variables, that i s , 18 p o l i t i c a l attitude or ethical attitude, and "situation" variables, that i s , dilemma content, i t i s possible to investigate the interaction effect of p o l i t i c a l attitude or ethical attitude and dilemma content on moral development level and dilemma action choice. Definition of Terms Throughout the study various terms w i l l be used as defined below. Action Choice - Action choice refers to the action in the dilemma that the subject chooses to support. Compliance with Authority - From a cognitive-developmental per-spective, action choices cannot always be predicted by the individual's stage of reasoning since, in any one situation, a moral stage may be compatible with contrasting action alternatives (Rest, 1979a). However, Hogan (1970) defined ethical attitudes as the degree to which people perceive rules as having instrumental value and based the measurement of ethical attitudes on items dealing with attitude to legal or social compliance. For the purposes of this study, dilemma action choices which are supported by the law or a person generally considered to be in a position of authority, i.e., school principal, university administrator, and boss, are characterized as actions in compliance with authority. The actions in the Defining Issues Test that are considered to be in compliance with authority are: should not steal for the Heinz and the Drug dilemma, should report for the Escaped Prisoner dilemma, should not give overdose for the Doctor's dilemma, should not take over for Student Protest dilemma, should not hire for the Webster dilemma, and 19 should stop printing for the Newspaper dilemma. The compliance with authority actions in the alternate dilemmas are: should not steal for the Henry and the Drug dilemma, should not take over for the Student Revolt dilemma, should report for the Bully dilemma, should not perform surgery for Doctor's dilemma, should hire for the Winston dilemma, and should stop paper for the Paper dilemma. Conservatism - Two different definitions of "conservatism" are used in this study. The term "conservatism" is used in the broader sense of reported tendency to resist change and to prefer safe, traditional and conventional forms of institutions and behavior. It i s also used to refer to politico-economic conservatism, characterized by views in support of an i d e o l o g i c a l system including the following trends: general support of the status quo and for the importance of business enterprise, support of values generally regarded (in Anglo-America) to be conservative, desire to maintain a balance of power in which business i s dominant, labor subordinate, and the economic regulatory functions of government minimized; and general resistance to social change. The operational definition of conservatism in the broader sense of the term is scores at or above the median on The Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1970). Politico-economic conservatism i s operationalized as scores at or above the median on the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950). Conservatism i s referred to in the text as a high conservatism score. Ethical Attitude - An ethical attitude i s considered to be the disposition to employ a particular category of principled moral reason-ing in making moral judgments. The two ethical attitudes involved in making moral judgments are the ethics of social responsibility and the ethics of personal conscience. For the purposes of this study, the ethics of social responsibility w i l l be operationally defined as a score at or above the median and the ethics of personal conscience as a score below the median on the Survey of Ethical Attitudes (Hogan, 1970). Ethics of Personal Conscience - The ethics of personal conscience i s a viewpoint which deemphasizes the u t i l i t y of legal procedures and is variously known as "legal naturalism, the ethics of aspiration, or higher law morality" (Hogan & Dickstein, 1972b, p. 409), and "moral intuitionism" (Hogan, 1975a, p. 159). The operational definition of an ethics of personal conscience is a score below the median on the Survey of Ethical Attitudes (Hogan, 1970), and i s referred to in the text as a low ethics of social responsibility score. Ethics of Social Responsibility - The ethics of social responsibil-i t y refers to the belief in the instrumental value of the law and is related to "legal positivism, ethics of duty, or positive law morality" (Hogan & Dickstein, 1972b, p. 409), and "moral positivism" (Hogan, 1975a, p. 159). The operational definition of an ethics of social responsibility i s a score at or above the median on the Survey of Ethical Attitudes (Hogan, 1970), and i s referred to in the text as a high ethics of social responsibility score. Liberalism - Two different definitions of "liberalism" are used in this study. The term "liberalism" is used in the broader sense of not resistant to change and the tendency not to prefer safe, traditional and conventional forms of institutions and behavior. It i s also used to refer to politico-economic liberalism, characterized by an ideological system containing the following trends: opposition to the status gup, 21 tendency to think in sociological rather than moral-hereditarian terms, a tendency to identify with labor and the "common man" and to oppose the power of business, and support for the extension of the p o l i t i c a l and economic functions of government. The operational d e f i n i t i o n of liberalism, in the broader sense of the term, i s a score below the median on the Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1970). The operational definition of politico-economic liberalism i s a score below the median on the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950). Liberalism i s referred to in the text as a low conservatism score. Moral Development - Rest's moral development model represents a reformulation of Kohlberg's six-stage scheme. Although "stages" s t i l l represent qualitatively different logical systems of thinking, subjects are seen to manifest various organizations of thinking, in varying degrees under different conditions. Consequently, moral development i s defined as "an upward shift in the subject's distribution of responses, where 'upward' i s defined as increases in higher stages or types at the expense of lower types" (Rest, 1979a, p. 73). Moral Judgment - Moral judgment i s defined in two different ways, representing two different psychological approaches to the study of morality, that i s , in terms of developmental stages by Rest (1979a), and in terms of ethical attitudes by Hogan (1970). From Rest's cognitive development perspective, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of moral dilemma depends on the specific c r i t e r i a that are used in making moral judgments. Moral judgment i s defined as "the fundamental structure by which people perceive and make decisions about their rights and respon-s i b i l i t i e s " (Rest, 1979a, p. 76). On the other hand, from Hogan's t r a i t perspective, the moral judgment used i s essentially an irrational 22 process and is a function of various personality t r a i t s . The moral meaning of the dilemma i s external to the individual, rather than a function of the moral judgment used. Both authors use the term "moral judgment" to refer to either the act of judging or the result of judging. Moral Reasoning - The term "moral reasoning" i s used either to refer to the process of thinking about moral problems or the organiza-tion of ideas that are employed in or result from this process. Both Rest and Hogan use moral reasoning and moral judgment interchangeably as roughly equivalent terms. Moral Stages - The six moral stages in Kohlberg's and Rest's stage scheme represent qualitatively different logical systems of thinking. Moral Structure - Moral structure refers to a logical organization of thinking. The development of moral structures proceed through a series of six stages which, due to their logical interrelationships, form an invariant and culturally universal sequence. P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e - P o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e r e f e r s to i d e o l o g i c a l trends which appear to characterize conservatism and liberalism as contrasting approaches to p o l i t i c a l or politico-economic matters. For the purposes of this study, conservatism i s operationally defined as a score at or above the median and liberalism as a score below the median on the Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1970), or the P o l i t i c o -Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950). A number of research hypotheses follow from this analysis and are set forth below. These are grouped according to main effects and interactions for each variable. 23 Research Hypotheses  Main Effects - Ethical Attitude 1. Subjects with high ethics of social responsibility scores w i l l have significantly lower moral development levels as assessed by the Defining issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low ethics of social responsibility scores. 2. Subjects with high ethics of social responsibility scores w i l l choose significantly more actions in compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low ethics of social responsibility scores. 3. Subjects with high ethics of social responsibility scores w i l l have significantly higher moral development level as assessed by the alternate dilemmas than subjects with low ethics of social respon-s i b i l i t y scores. 4. Subjects with high ethics of social responsibility scores w i l l choose significantly fewer actions in compliance with authority on the alternate dilemmas than subjects with low ethics of social responsibility scores. Main Effects - P o l i t i c a l Attitude 5. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have significantly lower moral development level as assessed by the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores; 6. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose significantly more actions in compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. 24 7. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher moral develoment l e v e l as assessed by the alternate dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. 8. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s - Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e 9. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development l e v e l and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l have lower moral development l e v e l on the D e f i n i n g Issues Test dilemmas and higher moral development l e v e l on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. 10. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of subject's choices of action i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l choose more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and w i l l choose fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s - Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 11. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development l e v e l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e f or the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have lower moral development level on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and higher moral development level on the alternate dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. 12. • There w i l l be a significant difference in the relationship of subjects' choices of action in compliance with authority and p o l i t i c a l attitude for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose more actions in compli-ance with authority on the Defining Issues Test and w i l l choose fewer actions i n compliance with authority on the alternate dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. Moral Development - Action Choice 13a. The following variables w i l l individually and/or j o i n t l y s i g n i f i -cantly predict Defining Issues Test Action Choice Scores: Defining Issues Test moral development leve l , ethical attitude, p o l i t i c a l attitude, Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development level, sex and age. 13b. The Defining Issues Test moral development level w i l l account for a significantly greater proportion of the variance of Defining Issues Test action choice scores than ethical attitude, p o l i t i c a l a t t i -tude, Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development level, sex or age. 14a. The following variables w i l l individually and/or jo i n t l y s i g n i f i -cantly p redict Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice scores: Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development level, ethical attitude, p o l i t i c a l attitude, Defining Issues Test moral development leve l , age and sex. 26 14b. The Alternative Dilemmas Test moral development level w i l l account for a significantly greater proportion of the variance of Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice scores than ethical attitude, p o l i t i c a l attitude, Defining Issues Test moral development level, sex or age. Organization of the Dissertation This chapter includes a general background of the problem, a statement of the problem, purpose of the study, definitions of terms, and research hypotheses. Chapter two consists of a review of the related literature and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the study. The third chapter provides a description of the general design and specific research methods of the study. Chapter four presents the results of the study and an analysis of the data. The f i f t h chapter i s a summary of the findings with discussion including conclusions and implications for education and further research. 27 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The six stages of moral development in Kohlberg's (1964, 1969, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1983) cognitive developmental theory are assumed to represent q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t organizations of thinking. The assessment of Kohlberg's moral stages involves inferring the underlying organization of thinking from subjects' responses to moral dilemmas. In the assessment of cognitive stage structure, Rest (1979a) suggested that i t i s important to take into account various attributes of test situa-tions that affect the structural organization of thinking manifested. If the content of moral problems influences the subject's organiza-tion of thinking, particular similarities or differences in the dilemmas used in the assessment of moral development may be c r i t i c a l . By investigating the effect of specified variation of dilemma content on moral development scores, action choices, and the relationship of p o l i t i c a l attitude and ethical attitude with these variables, i t may be possible to gain a better understanding of the interrelationship of moral structure and content. A review of literature which i s pertinent to an investigation of the relationship of moral judgment, dilemma content, dilemma action 28 choice, p o l i t i c a l attitude, and ethical attitude follows. This l i t e r -ature consists of (a) studies of the relationship between moral reason-ing and p o l i t i c a l attitude, (b) studies of the relationship between Hogan*s and Kohlberg's moral judgment dimensions, (c) studies of the relationship between moral reasoning and dilemma content, and (d) studies of the relationship between moral reasoning and dilemma action choice. Moral Reasoning and P o l i t i c a l Attitude Contradictory interpretations of the relationship found between moral reasoning and p o l i t i c a l attitude have been given (e.g., Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz & Anderson, 1974; Emler & Hogan, 1981). From a cognitive developmental viewpoint, differences in p o l i t i c a l attitude in part r e f l e c t differences in moral development. C r i t i c s (e.g., Emler, 1983; Emler & Hogan, 1981) of Kohlberg's theory, however, view the relationship found between moral stages and p o l i t i c a l attitudes as evidence that stages represent orientations toward po l i t i c o - s o c i a l values rather than moral reasoning. Prior to reviewing the moral reasoning-political attitude research, a discussion is presented of methodological issues concerning the moral reasoning and p o l i t i c a l attitude measures employed in the reviewed studies. In addition, a brief overview of different characterizations of p o l i t i c a l attitudes, and, in particular, the liberalism-conservatism dimension, used in the studies is presented. In the studies reviewed, Kohlberg's, Rest's, and Hogan's measures of moral reasoning typically are employed. Therefore, the research 29 review i s organized in terms of the moral judgment measure used. In addition, studies of the test characteristics of Rest's and Hogan's measures in relation to p o l i t i c a l attitudes are reviewed. Finally, a summary of the findings of these studies i s presented. Methodological Issues A discussion of several methodological issues concerning the studies reviewed w i l l help to make clearer the implications of the findings regarding the relationship between moral reasoning and p o l i t i -cal attitude. The studies of the relationship of moral reasoning and p o l i t i c a l attitude that are reviewed cover a span of fifteen years. During this time, both Kohlberg (1969, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1983) and Rest (1974, 1979b) have modified their conceptions of moral reasoning. Kohlberg has made several changes in the original 1958 Moral Judgment Interview scoring system over the years. Kohlberg, Colby, and Damon (cited in Rest, 1979a) report that data scored by Kohlberg's 1958 system and by the 1978 system correlated only .39. Three different scoring procedures used with Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview are aspect scoring, intuitive issue scoring, and standardized issue scoring. Each of these procedures involves a different unit of analysis. The aspect scoring method defines moral stages in terms of twenty-five aspects, grouped under major sets, for example, rules, conscience, and welfare of others. Sentence scoring and story rating are two methods of scoring by aspect. With sentence scoring, the subject's statements are scored by aspect and stage based on stage prototypic statements included in the manual. A pr o f i l e of 30 stage usage is calculated from the percentage of statements at each stage. The story rating method involves assigning the subject's total story response to a stage. With the intuitive issue scoring procedure, the unit of analysis are issues representing types of content, for example, laws and rules, conscience, and authority. A subject's ideas on each issue are i n -t u i t i v e l y assigned a stage based on the definition of stage thinking for each issue. In the standardized issue scoring procedure, criterion concepts, representing the reasoning pattern that i s most distinctive of a given stage, are the unit of analysis. Criterion concepts are defined for each stage on each issue for each story in a standardized interview. The standardized interview probes only two issues for each of three stories. Several different indices of moral development have been used with the various scoring procedures. Stage typing involves assigning a subj ect to a single stage. However, since stage usage by a subj ect i s generally not limited to only one stage, subjects have been stage typed by predominant usage of a stage or in terms of the highest stage of substantial use. Another method of handling stage mixture has been to i n t u i t i v e l y weight a dominant and a minor stage of response. One d i f f i c u l t y with stage typing i s that information i s often thrown away. Reporting the percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage, that i s , percentage of usage of each stage, avoids this problem. Another index used by Kohlberg which preserves information about subjects' use of other stages i s the Moral Maturity Score (MMS). The Moral Maturity Score i s a weighted average of stage usage ranging from 100 to 600. This score i s calculated by multiplying the percent usage of each stage by i t s number, that i s , the Stage 1 percent i s multiplied by 1, the Stage 2 by 2, and so on, then adding the products. In the eight moral judgment-political attitude studies reviewed using Kohlberg's measure, six different scoring methods are used: (a) "pure" stage only, (b) percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage, (c) "pure" stage and "mixtures," (d) stage at which 25% of responses are given, (e) stage of predominant use, and (f) mean Moral Maturity Score. Based on the divergence in methodology of the studies using; Kohlberg's measure, a s t r i c t comparability of the findings i s not possible. Rest's Defining Issues Test (1974, 1979b) is used in five of the studies reviewed. Both stage scores and the P Index are used in these studies. A stage score i s calculated by summing the weighted ranks given to statements assumed to be representative of a particular stage. The four ranks for each dilemma are weighted by assigning four points to the statement ranked as f i r s t in importance in each dilemma; three points to the statement ranked as second; two points to the statement ranked third; and one point to the statement ranked fourth. Points are totaled across the six stories for each stage, and thus, scores are derived for each of the stages. The P Index is calculated by summing the scores of Stages 5A, 5B and 6. The P Index i s interpreted as the relative importance given to principled moral considerations in making a moral decision. Studies of the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the Defining Issues Test indices are discussed in Chapter 3. Rest (1979a) reported that while the r e l i a b i l i t y of the P Index i s generally in the .70's and • 80's, the r e l i a b i l i t y of the stage scores seldom are above the .50*s and .60's. 32 Another Defining Issues Test index that has been recommended by Rest (1979a) is the D Index, an overall index of moral development which uses information from a l l six stages. The D Index represents an empirically weighted sum of the rating data for a l l the dilemma state-ments. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the D Index i s reported as generally in the .70 's and .80's. The studies of Hogan*s (1970) moral judgment dimension and p o l i t i -cal attitude are more consistent because only one scoring method i s possible for the Survey of Ethical Attitudes. Hogan reported the para l l e l form r e l i a b i l i t y of the Survey of Ethical Attitudes to be .97 and .88 for two samples. In addition to the shortcomings of the measures of moral judgment used, the measurement of p o l i t i c a l attitude in the studies reviewed i s problematic. The limitations of studying p o l i t i c a l attitudes using the survey method has been discussed by Weissberg (1976). His major contention is that the research strategies and s t a t i s t i c s used lead the researcher away from highly consensual attitudes toward issues over which people disagree. Such highly consensual issues—as keeping the constitution and private property—are very important to most people, but they would have a low salience i f these issues are largely settled in a society. Controversial issues are required in a measure of p o l i t i c a l attitudes for a number of reasons (Weissberg, 1976). The very idea of "ideological" theme implies p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . Furthermore, a methodo-logical requirement of a "good" scale i s that i t must discriminate between different categories of people. If there is agreement on an issue, that question i s usually dropped from the scale. In addition, 33 there must be variance to explain or the common s t a t i s t i c a l procedures are meaningless. The definition and measurement of the p o l i t i c a l attitude construct i s d i f f i c u l t for a number of other reasons. The meaning of the terms " l i b e r a l " and "conservative" often s h i f t , depending upon the re-searcher's attitude and the p o l i t i c a l climate in which an issue i s raised. The particular issues which are the subject of controversy w i l l vary over time and for different groups of people. Most public issues are highly complex and can be construed as complexes of different value issues. Eleven of the 21 studies reviewed use unpublished measures of p o l i t i c a l orientation. The only published measure used in more than one study was the Rokeach (1960) D Scale (Alker & Poppen, 1973; Hogan, 1970; Lorr & Zea, 1977), a measure of the personality t r a i t of dogmatism.. Forty-eight different scales of p o l i t i c a l orientation are used and 81% of these are unpublished. One item self-report scales of liberalism-conservatism of dubious r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y are used in nine studies• P o l i t i c a l Attitude A problem in studying p o l i t i c a l attitude i s that i t i s a very loosely defined construct, definitions tending to vary from one study to another. Although several researchers have investigated the relation-ship of p o l i t i c a l attitude and moral reasoning, few of them have used the same measure of p o l i t i c a l attitude (e.g., Candee, 1976; Fontana & Noel, 1973; Snodgrass, 1975). In many cases, unpublished measures designed by the researcher were used. Therefore, a description of 34 various characterizations of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , s p e c i f i c a l l y the liberal-conservative dimension, w i l l be presented and discussed b r i e f l y below. Huntington (1957) outlines three c o n f l i c t i n g conceptions of conservatism, i.e., aristocratic, autonomous, and situational. Con-servatism i s defined by the aristocratic theory as the ideology of a specific h i s t o r i c a l movement; arising as a reaction to the French Revolution, liberalism, and the rise of the bourgeoisie. The autonomous theory holds that conservatism i s an autonomous system of ideas defined in terms of universal values such as justice, order, balance, and moderation which i s independent of any particular group or specific h i s t o r i c a l forces. The situational theory views conservatism as a system of ideas employed to j u s t i f y any established social order. Huntington (1957) argues that the situational theory provides the most adequate conception of the nature of conservatism. Huntington (1957) states, The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c elements of conservative thought--the "divine tactic" in history; prescription and tradition; the d i s l i k e of abstraction and metaphysics; the d i s t r u s t of individual human reason; the organic conception of society; the stress on the evi l in man [sic]; the acceptance of social d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n — a l l serve the overriding purpose of j u s t i f y -ing the established order. The essence of conservatism i s the rationalization of existing institutions in terms of history, God, nature and man [s i c ] . (p. 457) Conservatism i s considered to appear only when fundamental challenges are made to the existing society. From this viewpoint, Huntington (1957) maintained that the defense of existing l i b e r a l institutions w i l l require American liberals to lay aside l i b e r a l ideology and to accept the values of conservatism. 35 A distinction between positional and inherent ideologies i s also discussed by Huntington (1957). Conservatism, as a positional ideology, i s assumed to reflect the external environment of a group rather than i t s permanent internal character. Conservatism, used to j u s t i f y any existing order, does not promote a particular Utopia or ideal society. On the other hand, Huntington (1957) defined inherent ideology as the "theoretical expression of the interests of a continuing social group" (p. 467). Liberalism, as an ideational ideology, i s seen to evolve from one generation to the next, and thus, to represent an inherent ideology. Opposed to the situational view of conservatism, Harbour (1982) contended that conservatism cannot be defined solely in terms of opposition to fundamental changes in the social system. He rejected the idea that individuals who wish to preserve l i b e r a l , communist and semifascist institutions could a l l be labeled conservative. Harbour (1982) suggested that conservatism can be better understood in terms of i t s critique of modernity, with i t s trends toward secularization, rationalization, industrialization, centralization of power, and the decline of traditional religious, moral, cultural, and p o l i t i c a l values. Further, Harbour (1982) claimed that modern conservatives must attack what is now traditional in the name of older traditions. However, modern American conservatism is seen to have borrowed much from various dimensions of l i b e r a l thinking, particularly c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l notions of economic freedom. Classical liberalism has been described as a middle-class movement that sought to free business enterprise from the restraints of govern-ment (Laski, 1962; Rossiter, 1968). It appealed for constitutional guarantees, individual rights, and the sanctity of private property, 36 primarily for people of means. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, classical liberalism's methods and policies were progressively modified. Modern liberalism came to advocate c o l l e c t i v i s t means, invoking the state in aid of individuals and disadvantaged groups (Rossiter, 1968). Modern liberalism, in this transformation from earlier laissez-faire "individualism" to a s o c i a l i s t i c "collectivism," attempts to reconcile the pursuit of individuality with so c i a l i t y and membership in a community (Gaus, 1983). Modern liberalism i s described by Gaus (1983) in terms of the form that this reconciliation takes and the way in which the theory of human nature i s used to j u s t i f y liberal-democratic institutions. Gaus (1983) suggests that modern liberalism involves the reconception of notions to give them an important developmental dimen-sion. The reasons for repressing "anti-social" capacities are based on the grounds of the promotion of one's wider development. Further, modern lib e r a l s are seen to uphold liberty for a l l on the grounds of promoting human development. Spitz (1982) raised the question of whether p o l i t i c a l labels are meaningful since an individual can be conservative in some things and li b e r a l in others, conservative and l i b e r a l positions change, p o l i t i c a l parties change, and the meaning of p o l i t i c a l labels d i f f e r across national boundaries. He attempted to summarize a common core of meaning that transcends the diversity of contemporary l i b e r a l and conservative doctrines. He stated, In sum, then, what distinguishes liberalism from conservatism i s that, p o l i t i c a l l y , liberalism stands for democracy and the equality of man, while conservatism inclines toward oligarchy based on certain alleged inequalities of men [sic] ; economic-a l l y , liberalism represents the interests of the lower classes and defends vested property rights; i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , liberalism 37 i s committed to individual liberty and the freedoms of inquiry and expression, while conservatism is far more concerned with the applications of an already existing objective Truth and the consequent curbing of erroneous and pernicious doctrines. (Spitz, 1982, p. 39) P o l i t i c a l labels, as categories of analysis, are considered by Spitz (1982) to serve as a guide to rather than a specific description of p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . The English-Canadian context i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of the problem of defining the meaning of p o l i t i c a l labels. Horowitz (1966) avered that the liberalism of Canada's Liberal party cannot be identified with the liberalism of the American Democratic party because of significant difference in the p o l i t i c a l situation in the two countries. He identi-fied five un-American characteristics of English-Canada: (a) the presence of Tory ideology in the founding of English Canada by the Loyalists, and i t s continuing influence; (b) the power of Whiggery, or right-wing liberalism in Canada versus l i b e r a l democracy in the United States; (c) the ambivalent centrist character of left-wing liberalism in Canada versus the l e f t i s t position of left-wing liberalism in the United States; (d) the presence of an influential s o c i a l i s t movement in English-Canada; (e) the failure of left-wing liberalism in Canada to develop into a "nationalist cult" to the exclusion of either Toryism or Socialism. The three components of English-Canada p o l i t i c a l culture-conserv-atism, socialism, and liberalism—are considered to be interdependent on each other. The uniqueness of English-Canada, according to Horowitz (1966), arises from the fact that Canadian socialism has been strong enough to evoke a centrist response from liberalism, but, unlike European socialism, has not been strong enough to match or overshadow 38 liberalism. Horowitz (1966) described the language of the Liberal party of Canada as: ambiguous and ambivalent, presenting f i r s t i t s radical face and then i t s conservative face, urging reform and warning against hasty, ill-considered change, calling for increased state responsibility but stopping short of socialism openly, speaking for the common people but preaching the solidarity of classes. (p. 165) The p o l i t i c a l process i s seen to involve the center party moving to the right to deal with the conservative challenge when the l e f t i s weak, and moving to the l e f t when the l e f t i s strengthened to deal with that challenge. Horowitz (1966) pointed out that the Canadian Liberal party, unlike the Democratic party in the United States, does not claim to represent the opposition of society to domination by organized business but, rather, to be based on the reconciliation of a l l , the solidarity of the nation as against devisive "class parties" of right and l e f t . Several studies of p o l i t i c a l attitude have related conservatism and liberalism to underlying personality dynamics (for example, Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson & Sanford, 1950; McClosky, 1958; Wilson, 1973). Typically in these studies, conservatism has been associated with negative personality characteristics, e.g., authoritarianism, facism, racism, dogmatism, and r i g i d i t y . The methodology of these studies usually involved placing subjects along a scale from extreme conservatism to extreme liberalism based on their responses to questions concerning controversial social and personal problems. C r i t i c a l of the studies by Adorno and his associates (1950), Shils (1954) questioned their conceptualization of the liberalism-conservatism dimension. He argued that representing p o l i t i c a l attitudes as a unidimensional scheme is more appropriate for the nineteenth rather than the twentieth century. Shils (1954) pointed out that the researchers 39 failed to discriminate different types of outlook that are in disagree-ment with the views of the extreme right, e.g., l i b e r a l , l i b e r a l c o l l e c t i v i s t , radical, Marxist, et cetera. While the researchers have demonstrated a relationship between general disposition and particular p o l i t i c a l attitudes, they failed to observe the existence of an author-itarianism at the Left pole of the continuum like the authoritarianism of the Right. In a review of research on the relationships of liberalism and conservatism, Ziegler and Atkinson (1973) reported varied results. Six different positions regarding this relationship were discussed: (a) no systematic relationship between aspects of liberalism and conservatism (Converse, 1964); (b) a unidimensional ideological dimension described as liberalism-conservatism (or radicalism-conservatism) (Comrey & Newmeyer, 1965); (c) a strong relationship in the p o l i t i c a l sphere, but not the expected ones (Kerlinger, 1967; Axelrod, 1967); (d) a relation-ship only between narrowly defined topics (Kerr, 1952); (e) a strong relationship only for subjects who are informed and highly involved (Converse, 1964; McClosky, Hoffman, & O'Hara, 1960); and (f) relation-ships that are highly ideosyncratic, reflecting personal factors and situations (Converse, 1964). ziegler and Atkinson (1973) offered an integrating description to reconcile these alternative viewpoints. They proposed that some groups do act in terms of p o l i t i c a l ideology, and others do not. That i s , the more sophisticated persons tend to be the ones who find ideological considerations relevant and whose behavior i s , to some extent, guided by ideology. Disagreement also exists concerning the relationship of liberalism and radicalism (Kerlinger, 1984). Radicalism has been assumed to be a 40 phenomenon of the extreme l e f t and the polar opposite of conservatism. However, radicalism, centered in the opposition to existing i n s t i t u -tions, i s also viewed as opposed to both liberalism and conservatism (Kerlinger, 1984). Summary. A b r i e f overview of several viewpoints concerning p o l i t i c a l liberalism and conservatism has been presented. Much controversy exists over the meaning and nature of this p o l i t i c a l attitude dimension. Various positions concerning the relationship of conservatism and liberalism to the historical process and to each other were discussed. Although i t i s recognized that variation in the meaning of the p o l i t i c a l labels varies from one issue to another, from one time period to another, and from one place to another, there appears to be some agreement as to the basic premises of contemporary liberalism and conservatism. Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l Attitude Twelve studies are reviewed which use Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview in the investigation of the relationship of moral judgment, p o l i t i c a l attitude, and/or p o l i t i c a l activism. A study by Haan, Smith, and Block (1968) of p o l i t i c a l activism, centering on the Free Speech Movement (FSM) at Berkeley in 1964, has been widely c i t e d to support the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i n c i p l e d reasoning and p o l i t i c a l activism. The results of this study showed "strong associations between p o l i t i c a l protest, social action, and principled reasoning—qualified by the finding that premoral men also protest—and that young people of conventional moral reasoning are inactive" (Haan, Smith & Block, 1968, p. 198). Differences between 41 principled subjects and other subjects were reported in terms of family-social background and personality characteristics. In general, principled subjects tended to come from p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l families and to have positive personality characteristics. However, there are a number of methodological problems in the Haan et a l . (1968) study that render such conclusions problematic. A large part of the data collected were not used. The original analysis involved 54%; of the total sample, including only those subjects who could be assigned to one of five "pure" types of moral reasoning based on Kohlberg's stage scoring method. A written form of Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview was used and the subject's s k i l l in written expres-sion may have affected the responses given. In addition, very simple data analysis was used, consisting of the comparison of means and percentages of the moral reasoning groups. The data for the University of California FSM s i t - i n arrestees i s reported in terms of the proportion of the total sample. The fact that 75% of Stage 6 males and 86% of Stage 6 females of the total Stage 6 sample were arrested, as compared to 6% Stage 4 males and 12% Stage 4 females of the total Stage 4 sample, i s impressive. However, i t may also be misleading in suggesting that the majority of the U n i v e r s i t y of California students arrested were at the Stage 6 level. Actually, when the total group arrested is considered, only 7% of the arrested students were Stage 6, 19% were Stage 5, 43% were Stage 4, 25% were Stage 3, and 6% were Stage 2. Although the researchers explained the participation of non-principled students by reporting that most of the subjects at each stage level used different reasoning to support their participation in the FSM s i t - i n , no data were reported. 42 Subjects' self-descriptions formed the basis of the generalization about the differences in moral reasoning groups' personality character-i s t i c s and family background. Based on the mean differences in group responses on a biographical questionnaire and two Q-sorts, the research-ers (Haan, Smith, & Block, 1968) concluded that the principled groups "are concerned with their interpersonal obligations while they reject traditional values implicit in the Protestant Ethic" (p. 193). In contrast, conventional moral groups have "modeled themselves after their parents and have accepted the traditional values of American society" (p. 194). The premorals' "families" did not seem to encourage their children to evolve a sense of responsibility and autonomy" (p. 196). As suggested by Rothman and Lichter (1978), the self-descriptions may tap only the student's rationalization. Given the l i b e r a l ideology of the parents of student a c t i v i s t s , the student may be responding to items by giving appropriate ideological responses. In a related a r t i c l e , Block, Haan, and Smith (1968) proposed that "activism be defined independently of p o l i t i c a l ideology in order to extricate the correlates of activism from those of liberalism per se" (p. 208). However, the evidence suggests that activism and ideology are confounded in the FSM s i t - i n study (Haan, Smith* & Block, 1968). The subjects were asked to rate themselves on an 8-point Radical-Conserva-tiv e scale and on a 5-point Pro FSM scale. The findings were that the Premoral and Principled groups rated themselves p o l i t i c a l l y more radical and were strongly in support of the FSM. Conventional groups were more conservative and least in support of the FSM. Furthermore, principled subjects more often reported their families to be p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l . In summarizing the characteristics of student a c t i v i s t s , Block et a l . (1968) indicated that the "origins of student activists are in the economically, educationally, and socially privileged strata of American society" (p., 214) and that the "parents of a c t i v i s t students themselves tended to be p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l " (p. 215). The p o l i t i c a l activism of a high proportion of principled subjects was interpreted to mean that these students are more autonomous and are not guided by conventional wisdom. However, Simpson (1974) provided another interpretation. She stated, At the post-conventional level the principles displayed may simply be the learned values of a different and smaller reference group so well internalized that i t s members believe themselves to be functioning autonomously. (p. 94) The thinking or behavior of principled activists may be a function of their membership in a particular social group rather than a consequence of acting autonomously. In addition to the FSM a c t i v i s t , Haan et a l . (1968) sample included Peace Corp trainees, conservatives active in such organizations as California Conservatives for P o l i t i c a l Action, members of nonpolitical organizations and random groups of university students. Subjects completed a questionnaire on involvement in p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Although the conventional moral group i s reported to be "inactive," their participation in social service a c t i v i t i e s was not significantly different from other groups. The difference in activity level i s based primarily on the premoral and principled groups' greater involvement in p o l i t i c a l protest and radical social action (Rothman & Lichter, 1978) . Measurement issues aside, the finding that a large proportion of pre-moral subjects also participated in the FSM s i t - i n and in other p o l i t i c a l ! a c t i v i t i e s i s d i f f i c u l t to explain by Kohlberg's theory. 44 I n i t i a l l y , Kohlberg (1969) considered the university Stage 2 subject to have functionally regressed. He later changed his mind and eliminated the apparent regression through certain revisions in the stage de f i n i -tions, i.e. Stage 4 1/2 (Kohlberg, 1973a). A discussion of Kohlberg and Candee's (1984) reanalysis of the Haan et a l . (1968) data using the revised scoring system is presented later. In transition from conven-tional to postconventional morality, these subjects are considered to resemble in content young Stage 2 subjects, but their level of discourse i s more abstract and philosophical. Rothman and Lichter (1978) c r i t i c -ised the use of the "regression" explanation, suggesting that i t gives the impression the researchers want i t both ways. If radical students score at the postconventional level, i t i s because they adhere to higher standards; i f they score at preconventional level, i t i s because they regressed. In summary, the results of the Haan et a l . (1968) study show that Principled and Premoral groups d i f f e r from the Conventional moral group in characterizing themselves as more radical, more in support of the FSM, and more active in p o l i t i c a l protest. A larger proportion of the Premoral and Principled groups were arrested in the FSM s i t - i n than were Conventional subjects. The Premoral and Principled groups also described their families to be l i b e r a l more often than the Conventional Moral group. Various differences in personality profiles were reported for the three groups. . -Consistent with the findings of the Haan et a l . (1968) study, Fishkin, Keniston, and MacKinnon (1973) found that Stage 4 is s i g n i f i -cantly positively related to conservative ideology (r=.635, p_<.01) and negatively related to both violent radicalism (r=-.484, p<.01) and 45 peaceful radicalism (r=-.40, JD<.01). Postconventional reasoning was significantly negatively correlated with disagreement with conservative slogans (Stage 5, r=-.35, £<.01; Stage 6, r=-.40, _p_<.01), but not with agreement with radical slogans. Preconventional reasoning was s i g n i f i -cantly correlated only with violent radicalism (r=.34, JD<.01). Both the measurement of p o l i t i c a l ideology and moral reasoning was different from the Haan et a l . (1968) study. Fishkin et a l . (1973) measured p o l i t i c a l ideology by asking subjects to respond to a l i s t of 31 p o l i t i c a l slogans by indicating on a 5-point scale their extent of liki n g or disl i k i n g for each slogan, for example, "Make Love Not War," "Better Dead Than Red." Based on a principal-component analysis of slogan responses, three basic ideology scales and three derived scales were developed: Violent Radicalism, Peaceful Radicalism, Conservatism, General Radicalism, Radicalism versus Conservatism, and Agree Response Set. Instead of classifying students for "pure" stage level, Fishkin et a l . (1973) scored subjects' dilemma responses using Kohlberg's issue-scoring system. Percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage scores were calculated to permit correlational analysis. On the basis of these scores, subjects were c l a s s i f i e d as preconventional, conventional, or postcon-ventional . The researchers (Fishkin, Keniston, & MacKinnon, 1973.) concluded that their results were remarkably similar to those of the- Haan et a l . (1968) study. In both cases, preconventional and postconventional subjects tended to espouse a more radical ideology or action; and conventional moral subjects were associated with the least radical ideological or behavioral position. 46 P o l i t i c a l attitude was one of the psychological correlates of moral reasoning types considered by Sullivan and Quarter (1972). The subjects in their study were first-year male volunteers at the University of Toronto. The subjects were cl a s s i f i e d into five moral types based on their responses to Kohlberg's dilemmas. In addition to three types described in Kohlberg's stage scoring system, the researchers developed two hybrid type classifications, Principled Absolutists and Instrumental Relativists. Although the Principled Absolutists and Instrumental Relativists are usually c l a s s i f i e d as Kohlberg's Stage 4 and Stage 2, respectively, these two hybrid types were considered to have important differences from others c l a s s i f i e d as Stage 4 and Stage 2 in Kohlberg's scoring system. P o l i t i c a l attitude was measured by a specially constructed Issues Scale (Quarter, 1970) which focused on the subject's orientation toward p o l i t i c a l issues at the University of Toronto. Sullivan and Quarter (1972) concluded that Postconventional subjects tend, to have the most radical p o l i t i c a l attitudes, with Principled Absolutists and Instru-mental R e l a t i v i s t closest to Postconventionals i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s . The five moral types also di f f e r on personality t r a i t s , measured by the Omnibus Personality Inventory (Heist & Yonge, 1968). Sullivan and Quarter (1972) only reported the p o l i t i c a l attitude percentile ranks on the Issue Scale (Quarter, 1970) for the five moral types. The percentiles were calculated for the sample of 248 subjects employed by Quarter (1970). No tests of significance were reported. The Principled Absolutist, Instrumental Relativist and Postconventionals have p o l i t i c a l ideology percentile ranks of 70, 69, 68, respectively, 47 compared to Transitionals at the 56 percentile and Conventionals at the 40th percentile. The Principled Absolutist i s described as superficially resembling Stage 4 subjects because they base their choice on categorical obliga-tion to save l i f e , but the value of l i f e i s not "rule bound." Instru-mental Relativists are similar to Stage 2 subjects, but are "clearly committed to postconventional forms of action" (p. 154). The p o l i t i c a l ideology percentile scores suggest that Instrumental Relativists (Kohlberg's Stage 2) are closer to Postconventionals than to Conventionals in their p o l i t i c a l ideology. This finding i s consistent with that of Haan et a l . (1968) and Fishkin et a l . (1973). However, i t i s not known whether these differences represent random error or real differences because no significance tests are reported. Further evidence of a relationship between Kohlberg's moral stages and p o l i t i c a l ideology was provided by Fontana and Noel (1973), employ-ing a different measure of p o l i t i c a l ideology. The p o l i t i c a l ideology measure consisted of 10 Likert-type items, five items from the New Left Scale (Christie, Friedman, & Ross, 1969) and five conservatism items written by the researchers, and the ideology scores were used to divide the subjects into three groups, Left, Middle, and Right. P o l i t i c a l activism was measured by the subjects' indicating their frequency of participation in seven a c t i v i t i e s during the preceding year. Moral development was assessed in terms of percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage. The analysis of variance indicated that individuals on the Right were highest and those on the Left were lowest in Stage 4 reasoning. The correlation of ideology and Stage 4 reasoning was significantly 48 different than zero (r=-.35, p<.05). Although analysis of variance failed to yield an ideology difference for either Stage 2 or 6, the correlational analysis produced a significant relationship for Stage 2 (r=.23, £<.05). The results suggested that L e f t i s t are higher than Rightist in their use of Stage 2 reasoning. No substantial relationship was found between ideology and Stage 6 reasoning. Only minimal d i f f e r -ences were found in moral reasoning between student activists and students who were not a c t i v i s t . Fontana and Noel (1973) also investigated the moral reasoning among three university role groups, that i s , students, faculty, and admin-istrators. The researchers hypothesized that administrators would be highest in Stage 4 because of their role in preserving the organization and f a c i l i t a t i n g i t s smooth operation. Faculty were expected to be highest in Stage 5 and 6, and students to be highest in Stage 2. Whereas administrators were found to be higher in Stage 4 than faculty or students, there was no difference found in faculty and student moral reasoning. Faculty activists were higher in their use of Stage 5 and lower in Stage 2 than inactiv i s t s . In addition, faculty in the natural sciences were found to use more Stage 4 and less Stage 5 reasoning than faculty in the humanities and social sciences. Kohlberg's moral stages were related to measures of personality structure and i d e o l o g i c a l preference by Alker and Poppen (1973). Tomkin's (1964) Polarity Scale was used to measure ideology.- This scale consists of pairings of humanistic and normative views on a given topic. The subject may select one or the other alternative, or endorse both or reject both. The humanistic ideology i s characterized by a point of view in which human experience and human emotions are considered the 49 ultimate source for the discovery and ju s t i f i c a t i o n of values; whereas, a normative ideology emphasizes that value resides in external authori-ties or standards (Tomkin, 1964). Other measures employed were: the written version of Kohlberg's Moral Judgment measure (predominate stage was scored as actual stage), D Scale (Rokeach, 1960), Locus of Control Scale (Rotter, 1966), and the Machiavellianism Scale (Christie & Geis, 1970 ). To analyze the data, a nonmetric representational procedure was employed. A similarity was found in two-dimensional space between humanism or l e f t ideology and a choice of principled moral versus premoral orientation and a grouping between dogmatism and right ideol-ogy. In three-dimensional space, principled morality was grouped with Machiavellianism at one end of the bipolar axis while both dogmatism and humanism were at the other end. r The correlational analysis indicated that the overall measure of moral maturity was uncorrelated with any of the measures. However, principled versus premoral was significantly correlated with Tomkin*s Right (r=-.43, p_<.05), with Machiavellian Tactics Scale (r=-.35, p_<.05) and with personal externality locus of control (r=-.45, p_<.05). Alker and Poppen (1973) suggested that the principled moralist and the Machiavellian have in common choices which are free from constraints of conventional morality and both have authentic inclination. In contrast, humanism and normativism which are grouped along'with dogma-tism are "ready-made solutions to l i f e ' s dilemmas" (p. 665). They defined this axis of contrast as a locus of existential responsibility. The sweeping generalizations by Alker and Poppen (1973) do not appear to 50 be e n t i r e l y supported by t h e i r data, p a r t i c u l a r l y since the o v e r a l l moral maturity score d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e with any measure. Most of the studies of p o l i t i c a l activism and moral reasoning have involved u n i v e r s i t y students. Leming (1974), however, used a high school sample to i n v e s t i g a t e moral reasoning, sense of c o n t r o l , and s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m . The w r i t t e n form of K o h l b e r g ' s Moral Judgment Interview was used, which the researcher conceded may have caused many subjects to abbreviate t h e i r responses. A Moral Maturity Score (MMS) was c a l c u l a t e d by f i r s t i s s u e - s c o r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s , m u l t i p l y i n g the percentage usage of a p a r t i c u l a r stage by the ac t u a l stage i t s e l f , and then summing the product of t h i s m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . Subjects were also c l a s s i f i e d by stage used a majority of the time. Three groups were compared, that i s , Cambodian demonstrators (CAM), students involved i n the Community Issues Program (CIP), and a random sample of students (RAN). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n MMS was found f o r the three groups. The Cambodian demonstrators group consisted of students who were suspended for demonstrating i n s i d e the school against the war i n Vietnam i n May, 1970. Leming (1974) noted that the CAM group, whose activism involved breaking the r u l e s , had only 4% at Stage 4, whereas CIP had 22%. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the groups i n i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l , p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y , or sense of competence. These three concepts r e l a t e to the subject's f e e l i n g s about whether e f f o r t s to a f f e c t change are worthwhile. The lack- of s i g n i f i -cance could be p a r t i a l l y due to the f a c t that 65% of the subjects were at Stage 3. In a d d i t i o n to i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of subjects' moral development scores and p o l i t i c a l ideology, Candee (1976) explored the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these v a r i a b l e s to the subject's responses to a ques-t i o n n a i r e concerning two p o l i t i c a l events, the Watergate and L t . C a l l e y s i t u a t i o n s . The answers to the questionnaire were scored as e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t with human r i g h t s or with maintenance of conventions and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Examples of items on the Watergate-Calley Questionnaire (Candee, 1976), with the choices considered to be consistent with r i g h t s i n d i c a t e d , are: Do you approve or disapprove of L t . C a l l e y having been brought to t r i a l ? (Approve) (p. 1297) Do you consider C a l l e y g u i l t y or innocent of murder? (Guilty) (p. 1297) Daniel E l l s b e r g s t o l e top secret papers that belonged to the Pentagon because they contained information about the Vietnam War that he f e l t the p u b l i c should know. Was E l l s b e r g r i g h t to s t e a l the Pentagon Papers? (Yes) (p. 1297) The Rights Index, representing the percentage of choices c o n s i s t e n t with r i g h t s , was considered to be nonpartisan. In Candee's (1976) study, moral stage was defined as the highest stage at which the subject gave 25% of his/her responses on Kohlberg's moral judgment dilemmas. The measure of p o l i t i c a l ideology consisted of the subject r a t i n g themselves on a 9-point scale from h i g h l y conserva-t i v e to r a d i c a l , r e l a t i v e to others t h e i r own age. Six judges, three conservatives and three l i b e r a l s , were asked to complete the Watergate-C a l l e y questionnaire. The judges agreed 100 percent on the choices that were consistent with the concept of r i g h t s f o r 11 of the 20 items, and 5 of the 6 judges agreed for 6 items. Candee (1976) found that persons at each higher stage of moral reasoning more often made choices that were consistent with human r i g h t s and le s s often chose a l t e r n a t i v e s that were designed to maintain 52 conventions or i n s t i t u t i o n s ; means f o r stages 2-5 were .48, .57, .70, and .86, r e s p e c t i v e l y , F(3,356)=59.37, p_<.001, l i n e a r trend p_<. 001. When the r e s u l t s were compared on the basis of candidate preference the pattern of choice by moral stage was the same within each camp. Candidate preference was measured by subjects i n d i c a t i n g whether they favored Richard Nixon or George McGovern i n the 1972 e l e c t i o n . Candee (1976) noted that there was an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of moral reasoning and candidate preference on p o l i t i c a l choice. In comparing r e s u l t s on the ba s i s of candidate choice, the greatest d i f f e r e n c e involved the follow-ing i s s u e s : impeachment of Nixon, whether Kalmbach was responsible f o r ; • I c o l l e c t i n g hush money when he was t o l d by a superior to do so, whether E l l s b e r g was r i g h t to s t e a l the Pentagon iPapers, and whether the crimes of E l l s b e r g " s taking the Pentagon Papers and Hunt and Liddy t a k i n g papers from E l l s b e r g ' s p s y c h i a t r i s t were b a s i c a l l y the same. Candee (1976) suggested that where "the fact s are most ambiguous, i n d i v i d u a l s are most influenced by t h e i r general p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s i n i n t e r -a c t i o n with t h e i r moral reasoning" (p. 1300). Candee (1976) reported low c o r r e l a t i o n s between moral stage and p o l i t i c a l ideology, r(370)=.29, and between moral stage and Candidate Preference, r(370)=.27. The p o l i t i c a l ideology scores were obtained by asking subjects to rate themselves, r e l a t i v e to others t h e i r own age. The Rights Index was found to c o r r e l a t e much higher with moral stage, p o l i t i c a l ideology, and Candidate Preference, r(370)=.57,- r(370)=.45, and r(370)=.53, r e s p e c t i v e l y . In a m u l t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s , the add i t i o n of moral stage s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a -t i o n . Candee (1976) concluded that persons at each higher stage of moral reasoning more often made choices that were consistent with human 53 r i g h t s and less often chose a l t e r n a t i v e s that were designed to maintain conventions or i n s t i t u t i o n s . Further support f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kohlberg's moral stages and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was provided by H o l s t e i n (1976). Using a sample of upper-class adolescents and t h e i r parents, Ho l s t e i n (1976) reported a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r groups d i f f e r i n g i n moral judgment s c o r e s based on K o h l b e r g ' s measure. A t t i t u d e s toward the following s i x s o c i o p o l i t i c a l issues were assessed: wiretapping, f a i r housing, gun c o n t r o l , c a p i t a l punishment, medicare and abortion. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o moral judgment groups was based on Kohlberg's gl o b a l issue s c o r i n g . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that a l l p r i n c i p l e d Stage 5 subjects had higher l i b e r a l i s m scores than conven-t i o n a l Stage 3 or 4 s u b j e c t s . A l l Stage 4 subjects were r e l a t i v e l y conservative. In a d d i t i o n , a sex d i f f e r e n c e i n Stage 3 subjects' p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was reported. Stage 3 females were found to be more l i b e r a l than Stage 3 males. Stage 3 males were more conservative than e i t h e r Stage 4 or 5 males. Several follow-up studies of Haan, Smith, and Block's (1968) study of p o l i t i c a l activism and moral judgment have been conducted (Abramowitz & N a s s i , 1981; Kohlberg & Candee, 1984; Nassi & Abramowitz, 1979; N a s s i , Abramowitz, & Youmans, 1983). Although the r e s u l t s of these studies d i f f e r i n some respects from the o r i g i n a l Haan et a l . (1968). study, the r e s e a r c h e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s to p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p among p o l i t i c a l activism, p o l i t i c a l ideology, and moral j udgment. In three studies, e i t h e r those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Haan et a l . (1968) study or cohorts of these subjects were contacted over a 54 decade l a t e r (Abramowitz & Nassi, 1981; Nassi & Abramowitz, 1979; Nassi, Abramovich & Youmans, 1983). Based on the subjects' responses to a s i m i l a r questionnaire as the one used i n the 1968 study, l e v e l of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , p o l i t i c a l ideology, moral development, and other p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . D i f f e r e n t measures of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and p o l i t i c a l ideology were included i n the questionnaire, for example, a 14-item measure of subjects' perceptions of the s e v e r i t y of world and n a t i o n a l problems, c o n s i s t i n g of three f a c t o r s (Urban-Fiscal Threats, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Human Rights, and P u b l i c I n t e r e s t ) ; Kerpelman's (1972) revised version of the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950); and a P o l i t i c a l A c t i v i t y Scale (Kerpelman, 1972). Subjects were assigned to moral stages based on predominant stage of usage. Percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage scores were also employed in the Nassi et a l . (1983) study. P r e t e s t measures from the Haan et a l . (1968) study were a c c e s s i b l e f o r comparison with posttest measures for only 11 subjects i n Nassi and Abramowitz's (1979) study. The major conclusions of t h i s study were that the former FSM a c t i v i s t showed a reduction i n t h e i r l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l e s s r a d i c a l ideology, between r a d i c a l i s m and l i b e r a l i s m . In terms of p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t moral reasoning l e v e l for the 11 subjects, no s h i f t i n moral reasoning occurred in three cases, a downward s h i f t occurred in s i x cases, and an upward s h i f t i n two. The researchers point out a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r study, for example, small sample s i z e , absence of a c o n t r o l group, and regression a r t i f a c t s . The Abramowitz and Nassi (1981) study focused on psychosocial c o r r e l a t e s of activism p e r s i s t e r s and nonpersisters for a sample of 30 55 former Berkeley FSM activists with a mean age of 34.4 years. No difference was found in moral development between currently more and less involved arrestees. Persisters were less l i k e l y to endorse conservative philosophy, tended to characterize themselves as more radical, and registered stronger approval of the FSM Movement than nonpersisters. Nassi, Abramowitz, and Youmans (1983) mailed questionnaires to former Berkeley students who had been enrolled during the 1964 Free Speech Movement. Percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage scores were calcu-lated based on subjects' written responses to Kohlberg's dilemmas. Although the same scoring system as used by Fishkin et a l . (1973) was employed, no subject was found to be at the preconventional l e v e l . Four of the six p o l i t i c a l ideology and activism dimensions were found to differentiate postconventional from conventional moral reason-ers, that i s , Political-Economic Conservatism, Radicalism Self-rating, P o l i t i c a l Activity, and Concern for Urban-Fiscal Threats. No s i g n i f i -cant difference was found for concern about International Human Rights or Public Interests. Using the percentage-of-moral reasoning by stage, Stage 3 was found to be significantly correlated with Conservatism (r=.24, £<.05); Stage 4 with Conservatism (r=.39, j3<.001), Radicalism (r=-.31, p<.01) and Concern for Urban-Fiscal Threats (r=.38, p_<.001); Stage 5 with Conservatism (r=-.44, jg<.01), Radicalism (r=.33, p< .01) and Urban-Fiscal Threats (r=-.42, ja<.001); and Stage 6 with Conservatism (r=-.32, £<.01) and P o l i t i c a l Activity (r=.32, p<.01). Nassi et a l . (1983) view these results as cross-validating the relationship between the moral and p o l i t i c a l domains across developmental periods and p o l i t i c a l eras. 56 Seme of the same c r i t i c i s m of the o r i g i n a l Haan et a l . (1968) study would also apply to these follow-up s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , the gener-a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s are l i m i t e d by the low response r a t e (30 out of 104 questionnaires were returned i n the 1983 Abramowitz and Nassi study, and 76 out of 320 i n the 1983 Nassi et a l . study), small sample s i z e (N=15 i n the 1979 Nassi and Abramowitz study), and unrepresenta-tiveness of the samples used. In contrast to the other follow-up studies, Kohlberg and Candee (1984) reanalyzed the data c o l l e c t e d by Haan et a l . (1968) using a re v i s e d stage scoring system. In r e s c o r i n g the written dilemma re-sponses of Haan et a l . (1968) subjects, Kohlberg and Candee (1984) found that there were no subjects who scored at Stages 2, 5, or 6. The absence of Stage 2 subjects i s explained i n terms of scoring r e v i s i o n that d i s t i n g u i s h e s "sophomoritis" r e l a t i v i s m from Stage 2. S i m i l a r l y , the absence of Stage 6 subjects i s due to a scoring r e v i s i o n that eliminates Stage 6 from the scoring system although i t s t i l l e x i s t s as a t h e o r e t i c a l stage. Stage 4/5 and Stage 5 subjects could not be d i s t i n -guished on the written form of the interview. In the r e a n a l y s i s of the 1968 data, Kohlberg and Candee (1984) te s t e d two hypotheses concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral judgment and a c t i o n . The f i r s t hypothesis was that a monotonic r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between moral judgment and a c t i o n . In support of t h i s hypothesis, they found that at each higher stage of moral reasoning a greater proportion of subjects sat i n : Stage 3, 10%; Stage 3/4, 31%; Stage 4, 44%; and Stage 4/5, 73%. This i s i n contrast to the Haan et a l . (1968) f i n d i n g of a bimodal r e l a t i o n s h i p with a greater proportion of subjects at the preconventional and p r i n c i p l e d stages involved i n the s i t - i n . 57 The second hypothesis tested by Kohlberg and Candee (1984) was that a greater consistency between deontic judgment, that i s , judgment of what i s morally r i g h t , and action e x i s t s at higher stages of moral reasoning. They claimed that, persons at each higher stage of moral reasoning are more l i k e l y to act r e s p o n s i b i l i t y [sic] , that i s , to act i n accord with choices about s i t u a t i o n s that they judged to be r i g h t when they were somewhat removed from the s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f . (p. 56) Furthermore, the claim was made that the content of an action can be defined as being moral, and not j u s t the form of the judgment accompany-ing the a c t i o n . The p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e are considered to have the function of leading to agreement i n deontic judgment given agreement on the f a c t s . For example, i n the Free Speech Movement s i t u a t i o n , the d e c i s i o n to s i t - i n by Stage 5 subjects i s considered to be r i g h t i n both form and content. Support for t h i s claim i s provided by the f i n d i n g that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between deontic choice and moral stage for the 1968 sample was also monotonic, that i s , Stage 3, 36% thought i t was c l e a r l y r i g h t to s i t - i n ; Stage 3/4, 50%; Stage 4, 62%; and Stage 4/5, 83%. To t e s t the hypothesis of consistency, the subjects were grouped according to t h e i r deontic choice. No subject who judged i t d e o n t i c a l l y wrong sat i n . However, among the sub j ects who thought i t was r i g h t to s i t - i n , a greater proportion at each higher stage of moral reasoning d i d so, that i s , Stage 3, 23%; Stage 3/4, 54%; Stage 4, 63%; and Stage 4/5, 75%. Thus, the second hypothesis was also supported. To account for the act of s i t t i n g - i n when i t occurred among lower-stage subjects, Kohlberg and Candee (1984) examined the e f f e c t of substage. In the revised scoring system, a Type A and B substage i s 58 defined for each stage based on a l e v e l - o f - d i s c o u r s e d i s t i n c t i o n . Two features d i s t i n g u i s h a Type B substage from a Type A substage: (a) that i t i s p r e s c r i p t i v e (a judgment of duty governing what one says one would do), and (b) that the duty i s u n i v e r s a l or u n i v e r s a l i z e a b l e . They hypothesized that Type B subjects at every stage would s i t - i n more often than would t h e i r Type A counterparts. This i s based on the p r o p o s i t i o n that Type B subjects i n t u i t i v e l y make moral judgments that have many of the formal and content c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of judgments made by Stage 5 subjects. The r e s u l t s show that at each higher stage and at each type closer to B, a greater proportion of subjects s a t - i n , for example, Stage 4A, 21% s a t - i n ; Stage 4-ambiguous B, 53%; and Stage 4B, 67%. Kohlberg and Candee's (1984) p r o p o s i t i o n that moral stage i n f l u -ences moral action (1) through d i f f e r e n c e s i n deontic choice, and (2) through judgments of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y appear to be supported by the re a n a l y s i s of the Haan et a l . (1968) data. Although the stage scoring r e v i s i o n appears to have solved the stage regression problem of the o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s of the Haan et a l . (1968) study, other problems a r i s e from the new scoring system. For example, the r e l a t i v e r a r i t y of the p r i n c i p l e d stages because of the new stringency i n d e f i n i n g these stages (Gibbs, 1979). The researchers (Kohlberg & Candee, 1984) pointed out that the 1968 data were c o l l e c t e d two months a f t e r the s i t - i n took place. Conse-quently the deontic choices (judgments of what i s morally r i g h t ) and supporting j u s t i f i c a t i o n s may have been influenced by whether or not the subjects d i d s i t - i n . Another l i m i t a t i o n discussed was the s i m i l a r i t y i n content of the dilemmas i n v o l v i n g c i v i l disobedience used to assess stages and the actual s i t u a t i o n of c i v i l disobedience. Consequently, the question could be r a i s e d as to whether the consistency found between moral reasoning and action i s due to content consistency only. As an answer to t h i s argument, the researchers maintain that not a l l the subjects who chose the " c i v i l l y disobedient" a l t e r n a t i v e on the dilemmas were scored as Type B or c o n s i s t e n t l y performed the moral action i n r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . However, t h i s contention appears to be counter to t h e i r f i n d i n g that a larger proportion at each stage l e v e l who chose the " c i v i l l y disobedient" option d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s i t - i n . Summary. In the studies reviewed, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral stages, measured by Kohlberg's scale, and various i n d i c e s of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e has been i n v e s t i g a t e d . A number of researchers (Abramowitz & Nassi, 1981; Block, Haan, & Smith, 1968; Haan, Smith, & Block, 1968; Kohlberg & Candee, 1984; Nassi & Abramowitz, 1979; Nassi, Abramowitz, & Youmans, 1983) focused on the moral reasoning of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement a c t i v i s t s . These a c t i v i s t s had i l l e g a l l y occupied a u n i v e r s i t y administration b u i l d i n g i n 1964 to protest the banned use of u n i v e r s i t y grounds f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and recruitment for p o l i t i c a l causes. Leming's (1974) student a c t i v i s t s were high school students who had protested the Vietnam War by a school s i t - i n i n May, 1970. P o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was measured as a c o n s e r v a t i s m - r a d i c a l i s m dimension (Candee, 1976; F i s k i n , Keniston, & MacKinnon, -1973; Haan, Smith, & Block, 1968; S u l l i v a n & Quarter, 1972), as a conservatism-l i b e r a l i s m dimension (Holstein, 1976; Nassi, Abramowitz, & Youmans, 1983), as a Right-Left dimension (Fontana & Noel, 1973), and as Human-i s t i c versus Normative Ideology (Aiken & Poppen, 1973). Moral stages 60 were also r e l a t e d to a Rights Index based on responses to a Watergate-C a l l e y Questionnaire (Candee, 1976). In general, the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a low to moderate r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral stages and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s . However, a number of methodological and conceptual problems i n these studies warrant a cautious i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of the r e s u l t s . Rest's Moral Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e The Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974, 1979b) was used i n four o f the s t u d i e s reviewed t h a t i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f moral judgment and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . Rest and his associates (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral reasoning, as measured by the Defining Issues Test P Index, and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . The two scales of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e used, a Law and Order Test devised by the researchers and P a t r i c k ' s 1971 L i b e r t a r i a n Democracy Test ( c i t e d in Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz & Anderson, 1974) were chosen because the items i n these scales were beli e v e d to r e f l e c t the t h e o r e t i c a l d i v i s i o n between Stage 4's law and order o r i e n t a t i o n and Stage 5 and 6's p r i n c i p l e d morality. S p e c i f i c a l l y , "law and order" p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was defined by the number of responses made by the subject which "advocated excessive powers to a u t h o r i t i e s or support of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system at the disproportionate expense of c i v i l r i g h t s or i n d i v i d u a l welfare" (Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz- & Anderson, 1974, p. 494). The Law and Order Test (Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz & Anderson, 1974) consisted of 15 p u b l i c p o l i c y issues, such as "Under present laws i t i s p o s s i b l e for someone to escape punishment on the grounds of l e g a l 61 technicalities even though the person may have confessed to performing the crime. Are you in favor of a tougher policy for treating crimin-als?" (p. 494). Patrick's Libertarian Democracy Test designed to measure democratic p o l i t i c a l orientation, was comprised of five state-ments, for example, "People should not be allowed to march on public streets in support of better rights and opportunities for Negroes" (cited in Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz, & Anderson, 1974, p. 495). For both measures, subjects were asked to indicate degree of agreement or disagreement to the statements on a 5-point scale. In this study, data were collected from student samples ranging in educational level from ninth grade to graduate school. The significant correlations between the P Index and the Law and Order Test for three samples were -.60 (N=193), -.48 (N=51), and -.46 (N=85). The correla-tion of P Index and Libertarianism using one sample was also s i g n i f i -cant, r(191)=-.63. The correlations of P Index with attitude measures for ninth-grade students were lower than correlations obtained for the total sample, but were s t i l l significantly different than zero, that i s , P Index with Law and Order, r=-.23, j3<.05 and with Libertarianism, r=.37, £<.01. In an investigation of candidate preference and moral judgment, G. Rest (cited in Rest, 1979a) developed two indices of candidate prefer-ence. The Overall Issue Orientation was based on the subjects' indica-tion of preference for either U.S. President Ford's or Carter's stand on nine issues, for example, defense spending, and a rating of importance of the issues. The Total Personality Preference Score was based on responses to 43 items concerning the candidates' personalities, for exmple, "Ford i s not very intelligent for a President," "Carter would 62 spend too much of the taxpayer's money i f elected President" (Rest, 1979a, p. 193). Subjects were also asked to indicate party a f f i l i a t i o n and liberalism-conservatism, however, information about these indices was not given. The Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979b) was used as a measure of moral judgment. A significant relationship was found between the Defining Issues Test moral judgment scores and candidate preference for a sample of 120 university students and adults. Subjects with higher Stage 4 scores preferred Ford's issue stands over Carter's, r (120)=.22, j3<.01, and also regarded themselves as more conservative, r (120)=.25, p_<.01. A significant curvilinear relationship indicated that subjects in the middle range of the Defining Issues Test tended to favor Ford's stand on the issues and his personality, whereas subjects in the upper and lower ranges of the Defining Issues Test favored Carter. The actual vote of the subjects was also curvilinearly related to the Defining Issues Test scores, with subjects in lower and higher ranges of the Defining Issues Test voting for Carter and those in the middle, voting for Ford, Chi-square(4)=10.90, p<.028. In predicting Issue Orientation and Candidate preference, multiple regression analyses indicated that party a f f i l i a t i o n was the most powerful single variable; demographics and liberalism-conservatism did 2 not lower the R s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i f dropped from the regression. However, dropping moral judgment from the equation was significant both in predicting Issue Orientation and Candidate preference, F=2.56, £<.025, and F=3.24, p_<.025, respectively. Rest (1979a) pointed out that Democrats may not always draw from people in the high and low ranges of moral judgment, and Republicans 63 from the middle range. He sta t e s , "the type of e l e c t i o n , the candi-dates, and the issues are l i k e l y to vary the way i n which moral judgment r e l a t e s to a t t i t u d e s and voting" (p. 194). In a study i n South A f r i c a with male u n i v e r s i t y students (Fincham & B a r l i n g , 1979), Wilson and Patterson's (1970) Conservatism Scale was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the P Index of the D e f i n i n g Issues Test, but not with the conventional moral score. In another study of moral reasoning and p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , using a B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t y sample, Emler, Renwick, and Malone (1983) found the Defining Issues Test to c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with s e v e r a l subscales of the New L e f t Scale (Gold, C h r i s t i e , & Friedman, 1976). The New L e f t Scale was designed to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v e student from other students. The " T r a d i t i o n a l Moralism" subscale, one of f i v e included i n the scale, purportedly taps a "conservative, status quo view of s o c i e t y , emphasizing t r a d i t i o n a l values about the worth of hard work, antipathy to new ideas, and the n e c e s s i t y of maintaining order-by the use of p o l i c e force i f necessary" (Gold, C h r i s t i e , & Friedman, 1976, p. 25). A t y p i c a l statement for each; subscale i n the Gold et a l . (1976) New L e f t Scale i s : (a) T r a d i t i o n a l Moralism -"Police should not h e s i t a t e to use force to maintain order" (p. 17); (b) Machiavellian T a c t i c s — "The best way to handle people i s to t e l l them what they want to hear" (p. 18); (c) Machiavellian Cynicism - "Most people i n government are not r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems of the average man [ s i c ] " (p. 19); (d) New L e f t Philosophy - "The United States needs a complete r e s t r u c t u r i n g of i t s basic i n s t i t u t i o n s " (p. 21); and (e) Revolutionary T a c t i c s - "Extensive reform i n socie t y only serves to perpetuate the e v i l s ; i t w i l l never solve problems" (p. 22). 64 Emler et a l . (1983) found that the P Index correlated negatively with Traditional Moralism (r=-.49, j3<.001), and Machiavellian Tactics (r=-.42, £<.001), but positively with New Left Philosophy (r=-.39, j3<.001); and Stage 4 correlated positively with Traditional Moralism (r=.60, £<.001) and Machiavellian Tactics (r=.37, £<.001), but negative-ly with New Left Philosophy (r=-.52, p<.001) and Revolutionary Tactics (r=-.36, p_<.001). Subjects were also divided into three groups on the basis of responses to a 5-point rating scale ranging from very right wing to very l e f t wing. One-way analysis of variance revealed that the three groups differed significantly for both Stage 4 and P Index scores. Other findings of the Emler et a l . (1983) study are discussed later in this chapter. Summary. The findings of the studies of moral stages, measured by Rest's (1974, 1979b) Defining Issues Test, and p o l i t i c a l attitude appear to indicate that moral stages are related to p o l i t i c a l attitude. Rest et a l . (1974) found the P Index of the Defining Issues Test to be significantly correlated with scores on the Law and Order Test (Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz, & Anderson, 1974) and Patrick's 1971 Libertarian Democracy Test (cited in Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz & Anderson, 1974). P Index scores were also reported to be significantly correlated with scores on Wilson and Patterson's (1970) Conservatism Scale (Fincham & Barling, 1979) and Gold et al.'s (1968) New Left Scale (Emler, Renwick, & Malone, 1983). Evidence of a curvilinear relationship between moral stages and both candidate preference (Carter versus Ford) and voting behavior was also reported by Rest (1979a). 65 Hogan's Moral Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Hogan's (1970) Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , a measure of moral judgment, and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f i v e of the studies reviewed. To a s c e r t a i n the construct v a l i d i t y of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Hogan compared the responses of groups known to d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the law. He found that h i s t e s t d i s c r i m i n a t e d very strongly between policemen and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t (Hogan, 1970), between ROTC seniors and student a c t i v i s t s (Hogan, 1970), and between conservative, moderate, and r a d i c a l f r a t e r n i t i e s (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a). He considered these groups to use d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a i n j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r moral d e c i s i o n s . C o r r e l a t i o n of the scores on the Survey and. those on the C a l i f o r n i a Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1964) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers, 1962) i n d i c a t e d c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between e n d o r s e r s o f the two v i e w p o i n t s . Persons scoring high on the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were cha r a c t e r i z e d as h e l p f u l , dependable, conventional, and r e s i s t a n t to change. Persons scoring low on the Survey were found to be independent, innovative, r e b e l l i o u s , and unconventional. The two forms of the Survey were also found by Hogan (1970) to c o r r e l a t e .45, p_<.01, and .3 5, p_<.01, with the C a l i f o r n i a F Scale (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswick, Levinson & Sanford, 1950), a measure of antidemocratic tendencies and conservatism. Evidence supporting the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o l i t i c a l ideology and Hogan's two e t h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s was provided by Snodgrass (1975). S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were reported for the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (high scores on the Survey of E t h i c a l Attitudes) and three features of ideology: liberalism-conservatism (r=.55, p_<.001), 66 law and order ideology (r=.59, JD<.001) and sentencing s e v e r i t y (r=.33, 2<.001). Snodgrass (1975) concluded, "These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that i n accordance with an et h i c s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , conservatives have a greater respect for the u t i l i t y of r u l e s i n r e g u l a t i n g human conduct and a greater tendency to a t t r i b u t e blame to the i n d i v i d u a l rather than the s o c i e t a l environment" (p. 195). Lorr and Zea (1977) r a i s e d the question of whether the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, 1970) i s a measure of moral judgment or a measure of l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e . These researchers administer-ed several measures to American c o l l e g e students and American bank employees and blue c o l l a r workers. These measures included the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , two measures of l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i s m , that i s , the S o c i a l A t t i t u d e Scale ( S u z i e d e l i s & L o r r , 1973) and the Interpersonal S t y l e Inventory (Lorr & Youniss, 1973), as well as the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale (Rokeach, 1960), a 10-item dogmatism scale and a scale of open-mindedness. On the basi s of p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s of the data, they concluded that the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s measures the same construct as a good scale of liberalism-conservatism. Woll and Cozby (1976) in v e s t i g a t e d whether the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s was p r i m a r i l y a measure of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l preference or a scale of moral judgment. Scores on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s were c o r r e l a t e d with responses on the following two items: , What i s your opinion regarding President Ford's pardon of Richard Nixon? (p. 185) Complete and unconditional amnesty should be extended to a l l d r a f t evaders. (p. 185) They hypothesized that i f the Survey i s a c t u a l l y measuring s t y l e s of moral judgment, the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would be associated with negative a t t i t u d e s toward both the Nixon pardon and amnesty. However, i f i t i s measuring p o l i t i c a l preferences, the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would be associated with a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the pardon of Ni>xon and a negative a t t i t u d e toward amnesty. Based on t h e i r f i n d i n g that c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (high scores associated with the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) and the pardon and amnesty items were -.32, p_<.01, and +.36, £<.001, respec-t i v e l y , Woll and Cozby (1976) concluded that subjects were responding to the p o l i t i c a l content rather than the moral import of the i s s u e s . However, these authors d i d not go far enough, because i t i s s t i l l not known what j u s t i f i c a t i o n s u n d e r l i e the responses made to the two items. Summary. In a d d i t i o n to studies (Hogan, 1970; Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a) to e s t a b l i s h the construct v a l i d i t y of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s as a measure of both e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , two other studies (Lorr & Zea, 1977; Woll & Cozby, 1976) attempted to determine whether the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s was a measure of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e or a measure of moral judgment. The Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s was found to d i s t i n g u i s h between groups, such as policemen and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t , and to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with various measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . Test C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Moral Judgment and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Measures In studying the psychometric pr o p e r t i e s of the Defining Issues Test and the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , researchers (Emler, Renwick, & Malone, 1983; McGeorge, 1975; Meehan, Woll, & Abbott, 1979) have found that subjects' scores w i l l vary on these measures i f they are given i n s t r u c t i o n s to respond from alternate p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s or to give 68 an unfavorable impression. These f i n d i n g s r a i s e questions concerning the v a l i d i t y of the measures. Meeham, et a l . (1979) suggested that the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e i s a measure of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e rather than moral judgment. They found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e scores between standard i n s t r u c t i o n s and both conservative r o l e - p l a y i n g and l i b e r a l r o l e - p l a y i n g . The mean score f o r conservative r o l e play was 26.48, f or l i b e r a l r o l e play, 8.88, and for the two standard i n s t r u c t i o n groups, 16.96 and 16.78. Although i n s t r u c t i o n s to give a favorable impression d i d not a f f e c t scores, the unfavorable impression group had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . The mean scores of the group f o r standard i n s t r u c -t i o n was 17.16 and 16.52, with i n s t r u c t i o n to give favorable impression was 17.56, and with i n s t r u c t i o n to give unfavorable impression was 21.16. Meehan et a l . (1979) hypothesized that the reason the scores d i d not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y with i n s t r u c t i o n s to give a favorable impres-sion i s because, under standard i n s t r u c t i o n s , subjects may attempt to create a favorable impression of themselves. Evidence that subjects were able to modify t h e i r moral judgment responses on the Defining Issues Test when i n s t r u c t e d to respond as extreme conservative or extreme r a d i c a l was presented by Emler et a l . (1983). In t h i s study, subjects were grouped as Left-wing, Moderate, and Right-wing on the basi s of s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a -t i o n , that i s , r a t i n g on a 5-point s c a l e . These s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s were v a l i d a t e d with scores on the r e v i s e d New L e f t Scale (Gold, C h r i s t i e & Friedman, 1976). The subjects completed the Defining Issues Test twice, once from t h e i r own perspective and once from the perspective of an extreme conservative or an extreme r a d i c a l . Both right-wing and 69 moderate students s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased t h e i r P scores and decreased t h e i r Stage 4 scores when they responded as a r a d i c a l . Emler et a l . (1933) contended that the fa c t that right-wingers were able to reproduce the higher P scores more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l e f t -wingers supported t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that Stage 4 and 5 moral reason-ing r e f l e c t s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i o p o l i t i c a l ideology. They argued that the r e s u l t s are not a r e s u l t of subjects choosing responses d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r own because there was no evidence of higher variances. In a d d i t i o n , moderates were able to modify t h e i r responses i n the required i d e o l o g i c a l d i r e c t i o n . The a b i l i t y of subjects to "fake good" or "fake bad" on the Defining Issues Test was i n v e s t i g a t e d by McGeorge (1975). S i m i l a r to the r e s u l t s f o r the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , subjects were able to s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t h e i r scores when asked to fake bad, but were unable to fake upward. This f i n d i n g was viewed as support for the general theory of a sequence of c o g n i t i v e stages of development. In defense of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Johnson and Hogan (1981) claimed that a l l t e s t s are forms of s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n . Although Meehan et a l . ' s (1979) r e s u l t s point out the confounding of l i b e r a l i s m -conservatism and moral judgment, Johnson and Hogan (1981) argued th a t a l l measures of moral judgment w i l l be confounded with p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . I t i s t h e i r view that the v a l i d i t y of the Survey, of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s i s not discontinued because a l l p o l i t i c a l judgments are moral judgments. On the other hand, Thorton and Thornton (1983) presented another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Emler et a l . ' s (1983) r e s u l t s . They argued that the f a c t right-wingers can fake good as left-wingers on the Defining Issues Test does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e that they understand 70 the arguments endorsed by l e f t wingers. They suggested that r i g h t wingers "may think of l e f t wingers as given to fancy sounding, but rather vague j u s t i f i c a t i o n s of a n t i - a u t h o r i t y views" (Thorton & Thorton, 1983, p. 78) . Summary. Two studies (Emler, Renwick, & Malone, 1983; Meehan, Woll, & Abbott, 1979) have demonstrated that subjects are able to a l t e r t h e i r scores on moral judgment measures when i n s t r u c t e d to respond as a l i b e r a l or a conservative. However, the question about how t h i s r e s u l t i s to be in t e r p r e t e d remains unresolved. Summary of Moral Reasoning and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Studies The conceptual and methodological shortcomings of many of the studies reviewed require that t h e i r f i n d i n g s be viewed p r i m a r i l y as exploratory i n nature. In general, a low to moderate a s s o c i a t i o n was found between conventional moral reasoning and conservatism. A l a r g e r proportion of Stage 2 and p r i n c i p l e d subjects was found to be associated with p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m and with a l i b e r a l or r a d i c a l ideology. Hogan's (1970) e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was also found to have a low to moderate a s s o c i a t i o n with conservatism. Both the Defining Issues Test and the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s were found to be susc e p t i b l e to conservative or l i b e r a l r o l e - p l a y i n g , that i s , when the subjects were i n s t r u c t e d to respond to these measures as a conservative or l i b e r a l t h e i r scores changed i n the expected d i r e c t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n s to give an unfavorable response were also found to a f f e c t scores, although i n s t r u c t i o n s to give a favorable response were not. 71 The c o r r e l a t i o n s of moral judgment and p o l i t i c a l ideology i n the studies reviewed ranged from .22 to .68. Although c o r r e l a t i o n s as low as .22 may be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t within a d e f i n a b l e l i m i t , they may not have p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . For example, a c o r r e l a t i o n of .22 i n d i c a t e s l e s s than 5% of the variance i n the measures i s common to both. A c o r r e l a t i o n t h i s low may be a function of random c o v a r i a t i o n due to the poor r e l i a b i l i t y of the measures used. Measurement e r r o r may also attenuate the c o r r e l a t i o n , and a stronger r e l a t i o n s h i p may be present than i s i n d i c a t e d . Few researchers included information concerning the r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the measures used. Measurement err o r due to the poor r e l i a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures, the moral judgment measures, or both, may have obscured or attenuated the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral judgment and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . In a d d i t i o n , the subjects i n these studies were t y p i c a l l y u n i v e r s i t y students. Such age homogeneous samples may also have attenuated the c o r r e l a t i o n s . The amount of variance i n the scores w i l l a f f e c t the c o r r e l a t i o n because i t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the standard deviations of the v a r i a b l e being estimated. Whenever the d i s p e r s i o n of scores v a r i e s , the c o r r e l a t i o n changes. Another problem with the use of c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s that c o r r e l a t i o n s may not r e f l e c t a t t i t u d i n a l consistency (Weissberg, 1976). A s t a t i s t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n between two v a r i a b l e s u s u a l l y means that one v a r i a b l e can be predicted from the other with better -than random p r o b a b i l i t y . A high c o r r e l a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e when l i b e r a l s on one item are conservative on the second item. Conversely, a low c o r r e l a t i o n may e x i s t when there i s high a t t i t u d i n a l consistency. For example, subjects may be i n a l i b e r a l category on one item and i n a l i b e r a l category for 72 the second, but the r e l a t i v e orderings of the subjects are not p a r a l l e l f o r the two items. In a d d i t i o n , a modal d i s t r i b u t i o n may i n d i c a t e high a t t i t u d i n a l consistency, but the Pearson r recomes misleading as the variance remaining to be explained shrinks. Another methodological issue may account for the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral judgment and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures. I f the items i n Rest's (1979b) and Hogan's (1970) moral judgment measures and the various measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e are examined, an overlap i n the content of the statements i s evident. Most of the measures have some statements c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e toward a u t h o r i t y and/or the law. Although i n Kohlberg's measure, the statements are made by the student and scored by the examiner, the scoring system d i s t i n g u i s h e s stages of development according to the c r i t e r i a used for e i t h e r opposing or supporting the law or authority. In the studies of p o l i t i c a l a ctivism, the d i f f e r e n c e between conventional moral subjects and those at Stage 2 and Stage 6 i s also i n terms of whether or not they were w i l l i n g to break the law. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between moral reasoning groups i n terms of s o c i a l service a c t i v i t i e s . In the moral judgment measures and the p o l i t i c a l a c t ivism behavior, there i s also an overlap i n content. N i c h o l l s , L i c h t , and Pe a r l (1982) i n d i c a t e d that when there i s content overlap between two scales or between a scale and nontest behavior, the scale can be used to p r e d i c t performance. 'The problem occurs when a scale i s used to e s t a b l i s h whether an aspect of a con-s t r u c t i s r e l a t e d to that construct when that aspect i s already a part of the sc a l e . For example, the conventionalism of Stage 4 i s an aspect 73 of conservatism. S i m i l a r l y , the nonconventionalism of the other stages i s r e l a t e d to the c i v i l disobedience of the 1960*s. Although t h e o r e t i c a l l y i t i s p o s s i b l e for an i n d i v i d u a l to oppose au t h o r i t y and use Stage 4 reasoning to j u s t i f y a c t i o n choice, the dilemma choice i s more l i k e l y to be influenced by one's conventional or nonconventional b e l i e f s i n a s i t u a t i o n where opposition to authority i s c e n t r a l to the dilemma. For example, a greater proportion of subjects who used Stage 2 or p r i n c i p l e d c r i t e r i a i n the moral judgment measure were involved i n c i v i l disobedience (Haan, Smith & Block, 1968). Their d e c i s i o n to oppose authority could be a function of t h e i r moral reason-ing, t h e i r nonconventionality or both. This i s d i f f i c u l t to t e s t because co n v e n t i o n a l i t y i s taken to be a developmental aspect of moral judgment (Rest, 1979a). A research design which focuses on the a s s o c i a t i o n of these two constructs does not permit disconfirmation of the hypotheses. I f the content of the conservatism scale that i t has i n common with Stage 4 conventionalism i s removed, then the construct v a l i d i t y of the conserv-atism scale i s i n question. N i c h o l l s et a l . (1982) s t a t e : " I f a research design does not permit disconfirmation of a t h e s i s , i t cannot enable support of that t h e s i s " (p. 576). A l t h o u g h c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y i s an a s p e c t o f both the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral judgment constructs, moral judgment may-be more or l e s s influenced by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . Candee (1976) observed that i n ambiguous s i t u a t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s are more influenced by t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . An i m p l i c a t i o n for f u r t h e r research i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the i n t e r a c t i o n of the moral judgment and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s i n d i f f e r e n t contexts. 74 Studies of Hogan's and Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Dimensions The r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral judgment has been discussed. E t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s , representing p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l and conservative viewpoints, are conceptualized by Hogan (1970) to be moral judgment s t y l e s having equal moral adequacy. Their assumed a s s o c i a t i o n with Kohlberg's Stage 5 and Stage 6 i s thought to i n d i c a t e that K o h l b e r g ' s Moral Judgment S c a l e measures p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r than c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s and that Kohlberg's stage scheme r e f l e c t s a l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l b i a s . A review i s presented of the studies i n v e s t i -gating Hogan's claims that (a) the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s i s a measure of moral judgment, and (b) Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Scale i s confounded with p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . An i n t r o d u c t i o n to these studies i s followed by a research review and summary. Introduction Hogan*s (1970, 1973, 1975a, 1975b) conceptualization of moral judgment i s relevant to t h i s study because of the focus he places on l e g a l and s o c i a l compliance i n d e f i n i n g moral judgments and on the r e l a t i o n s h i p he postulates between moral judgment and p o l i t i c a l a t t i -tude. According to Hogan (1975b), moral judgment s t y l e "has to do with the degree to which people regard r u l e s as a u s e f u l means f o r ordering and r e g u l a t i n g t h e i r l i v e s , i . e . , the degree to which people perceive r u l e s as having instrumental values" (p. 6 ) . Both the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and Kohlberg's measure of moral judgment are considered to be confounded with p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e (Johnson & Hogan, 1981). Johnson and Hogan (1981) st a t e : 75 Rather, we regard m o r a l i t y and p o l i t i c s as i n e v i t a b l y i f ambiguously intertwined. A l l p o l i t i c a l judgments are moral judgments because they u l t i m a t e l y r e s t on choices about human values. Not a l l moral judgments are p o l i t i c a l judgments, but many are. (p. 61) Another reason given by Johnson and Hogan (1981) f o r the close r e l a t i o n -ship of moral and p o l i t i c a l judgments i s that both are r e f l e c t i o n s of a person's p e r s o n a l i t y . Hogan (1970 ) i n i t i a l l y devised the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s to v e r i f y h i s hypotheses that Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview was biased towards a l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l philosophy; and that i t was a p r o j e c t i v e measure of p e r s o n a l i t y rather than c o g n i t i v e development (Johnson & Hogan, 1981). Hogan (1970) considers Kohlberg's Stage 5 and Stage 6 to r e f l e c t , i n part, the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a conservative perspective, and the e t h i c s of personal conscience, a l i b e r a l to r a d i c a l perspective. Hogan (1970) developed the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s as a more r e l i a b l e measure of the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d i n Kohlberg's Stage 5 and Stage 6. In constructing the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Hogan (1970) used statements quoted from h i s t o r i c a l adherents of two categories of moral judgments, f o r example, Rousseau, Burke, and John Stuart M i l l . Hogan considers the use of such statements as support for the v a l i d i t y of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s as a measure of moral judgment. Agreement with these statements i s seen as i n d i c a t i n g a f f i n i t y with a p a r t i c u l a r viewpoint. The following are representative weighted-continuum a t t i t u d e items, with scoring for the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n d i c a t e d : Items from Form A 1. Rebellion may be a sign of maturity. Score +1 f o r Dis-agree or Disagree Strongly. 76 2. A man's ( s i c ) conscience i s a b e t t e r guide to conduct than whatever the law might say. Score +1 f o r Disagree or Disagree Strongly. 3. Right and wrong can be meaningfully defined only by the law. Score +1 for Disagree, Uncertain, Agree or Agree Strongly. 4. There are times when any man ( s i c ) should decide to break the r u l e s . Score +1 for Agree, Uncertain, Disagree, Disagree Strongly. (Hogan, 1970, p. 207) Two assumptions that appear to underlie Hogan's (1970) measure are that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who endorse a statement are doing so f o r the same reasons and that these reasons w i l l be consistent with the point of view of a p a r t i c u l a r philosopher. However,, i n d i v i d u a l s may endorse such i statements as "An unjust law should not be obeyed" (Hogan, 1970, p. 207) f o r various reasons, f o r example, s e l f i n t e r e s t or the good of s o c i e t y . In the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979b), subjects are asked to choose among d i f f e r e n t statements i n terms of t h e i r importance i n making a moral d e c i s i o n i n a dilemma. The choice of statements, representing d i f f e r e n t moral stage judgments, i s used to dis c r i m i n a t e among i n d i v i d u -als who are using d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a i n making a d e c i s i o n . Whether or not the i n d i v i d u a l chooses to comply with l e g a l or est a b l i s h e d authority i s not included i n the assessment of moral judgment because, from Rest's (1979a) perspective, the same moral choice may be j u s t i f i e d by d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a and d i f f e r e n t moral actions may be compatible with the same moral judgment. Another assumption that appears to underli e both the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the Defining Issues Test i s that everyone who endorses a statement i n t e r p r e t s that statement i n the same manner. Based on extensive interviewing of subjects on the dilemma, Rest (1979a) considered the statements used to be representative of the issues r a i s e d 77 by subjects and the way the issues are discussed. However, Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview involves probing the subject for elaboration and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r statements before they are scored. The assessment of moral judgment by Hogan (1970) and Rest (1979a) r e f l e c t s t h e i r d i f f e r e n t perspectives of morality. From Rest's (1979a) c o g n i t i v e developmental approach, "Without judgment, an a c t i o n , no matter how b e n e f i c i a l , would not be moral" ( B l a s i , 1980, p. 4 ) . On the other hand, Hogan (1973), representing a t r a i t approach, considers m o r a l i t i e s to be systems of r u l e s external to people. Moral action i s viewed as e s s e n t i a l l y i r r a t i o n a l and d i f f e r e n t from nonmoral action only i n content and the s o c i a l function served. According to B l a s i (1980), such an approach f a i l s to recognize the f u n c t i o n of c o g n i t i o n i n the c r e a t i o n of meaning and determination of t r u t h . He s t a t e s : The moral meaning, i n f a c t , i s considered to be already present i n the action tendencies and to be o b j e c t i v e l y deter-mined e i t h e r by t h e i r function for the i n d i v i d u a l and for the species or by a r b i t r a r y conventions. The question of t r u t h i s regarded as i r r e l e v a n t i n t h i s context. (p. 3) For Hogan (1970), the p r a c t i c a l endpoint of moral development i s s o c i a l conformity. The way i n which "moral maturity" i s defined also r e l a t e s to one's conception of morality. According to Hogan's model (1973), the i d e a l endpoint of moral development i s moral maturity, defined i n terms of optimal placement on the f i v e dimensions; the p r a c t i c a l endpoint i s s o c i a l conformance, which can be explained i n terms of these dimensions. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two endpoints i s seen i n the f a c t that while the morally mature t y p i c a l l y conform to r u l e s of conduct, a l l those who conform are not n e c e s s a r i l y mature.) (p. 230) The f i v e dimensions i n Hogan's (1973) model are: moral knowledge, moral judgment, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy, and autonomy. 78 The moral judgment dimension measured by the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, 1970) i s assumed to r e f l e c t two c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s which are neutral with regard to t h e i r e t h i c a l import. However, Hogan (1974) i n d i c a t e d there i s considerable evidence that persons at e i t h e r end of t h i s dimension are le s s than morally mature. Hogan (1974 ) st a t e s : Extreme i n t u i t i o n i s t s have i n s u f f i c i e n t regard for the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s of others. Extreme advocates of the i n s t r u -mental value of law tend doggedly to defend the status quo. And the two p o s i t i o n s r e f l e c t one of the great d i a l e c t i c a l antinomies i n the h i s t o r y of l e g a l and s o c i a l philosophy. (p. 114) Hogan (1973) concluded that the most morally mature i n d i v i d u a l s c l u s t e r i n the center of the dimension. The moral adequacy of the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s i s evaluated in terms of behavior rather than in terms of the formal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r i n c i p l e s used. Kohlberg (1971) made the p h i l o s o p h i c a l claim that a l a t e r stage i s " o b j e c t i v e l y " preferable or more adequate by c e r t a i n moral c r i t e r i a . The endpoint of development according to Kohlberg's moral theory i s the making of moral decisions that are i n accord with e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s appealing to l o g i c a l comprehensiveness, u n i v e r s a l i t y , and consistency. Hogan (1970) contended that the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s i n h i s moral judgment dimension, s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and personal conscience, appear to form a part of the d i s t i n c t i o n between Kohlberg's Stage 5 and 6, r e s p e c t i v e l y . On t h i s b a s i s , he r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Kohlberg's theory i n terms of whether the stages represent content rather than structure and whether the l a t e r stages are more adequate than e a r l i e r ones. Further, the question of whether Kohlberg's theory i s p o l i t i c a l l y biased i s r a i s e d because of the suggested r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e (Hogan, 1970). 79 R e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , Hogan's and Kohlberg's conceptualization of the p r i n c i p l e d stages d i f f e r substan-t i a l l y . The e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s considered by Hogan (1970) to r e f l e c t p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l contract and the view that "the most de f e n s i b l e c r i t e r i a for evaluating s o c i a l action are the e x i s t i n g l e g a l system and the general welfare of so c i e t y " (p. 206). Commenting on the e t h i c s of personal conscience, Hogan (1975a) s t a t e s , "Moral i n t u i t i o n i s m emphasizes what the person perceives as the r i g h t t h i n g f o r him or her personal l y to do, without great regard for es t a b l i s h e d norms and conventions" (p. 159). Implied i n these statements i s a view of morali t y as representing a dichotomy between conformity and noncon-formity. This i s contrasted with the co n v e n t i o n a l - p r i n c i p l e d stage d i s t i n c -t i o n made by Rest (1975b): The basis of moral o b l i g a t i o n and r i g h t s according to conven-t i o n a l t h i n k i n g i s the maintenance of one's s o c i a l system and l o y a l t y to established i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In contrast, p r i n c i p l e d t h i n k i n g appreciates the need f o r s o c i a l structure and s t a b i l i z e d expectations among people but also appreciates that s o c i e t i e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be arranged i n many p o s s i b l e ways and that each way, i n e f f e c t , maximizes c e r t a i n values and minimizes c e r t a i n others, (p. 88) Moral p r i n c i p l e s are viewed i n Kohlberg's moral theory as providin g a perspective to take i n judging what to do. By promoting the kinds o f claims which are u n i v e r s a l i z a b l e , Boyd (1979) s t a t e s : The moral point of view i s not determined by my i n t e r e s t s ; nor i s i t determined by the other's i n t e r e s t s . I t i s , r a t h e r , seen as above both our p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s — i n the sense of our shared point of view on both. (p. 122) An important d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i n Kohlberg* s theory between values having u n i v e r s a l p r e s c r i p t i v e a p p l i c a b i l i t y , and values s p e c i f i c to a given s o c i e t y . 80 When the opposite pole of the moral judgment continuum i s the e t h i c s of personal conscience, representing i n d i v i d u a l s who are "above the law," the emphasis i n the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y appears to be toward duty to obey the e x i s t i n g law, rather than the "law-making" aspect of s o c i a l contract. One d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s apparent con-formity-nonconformity dichotomy i s that i t does not account for various types of nonconformity. While some nonconformists may only have t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t i n mind, there are others who protest norms that are unjust or i n c o n s i s t e n t with i d e a l s o c i a l goals. Further, Kohlberg (1976) pointed out that following one's conscience as against following the law need not i n d i c a t e postconventional reasoning. He stated: To a Jehovah's Witness, who has gone to j a i l for "conscience," conscience may mean God's law as i n t e r p r e t e d by h i s r e l i g i o u s sect or group rather than the standpoint of any i n d i v i d u a l o r i e n t e d to u n i v e r s a l moral p r i n c i p l e s or values. (p. 37) With regard to Kohlberg's stage scheme, the e t h i c s of personal con-science seems more consistent with Stage 2 and the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with Stage 4. Autonomy i s one of the f i v e dimensions i n Hogan's (1975) model of moral conduct. The concept of autonomy, as used by Hogan (1975) r e l a t e s to the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l r u l e s such that moral behavior i s independent of external c o n t r o l s . Hogan (1975a) stated: An autonomous person may also refuse to comply with the r u l e s on occasion, but only because he or she regards such compli-ance as contrary to the long-range welfare of the group. His or her noncompliance i s therefore for s o c i a l , not personal reasons, (p. 163) However, Hogan's measure of moral judgment, the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , does not d i s c r i m i n a t e between personal and s o c i a l reasons f o r noncompliance. 81 Studies of the P o l i t i c a l Bias of Kohlberg's Stage Scheme Hogan (1970) and others (e.g., Emler, 1983; Hogan & Emler, 1978) considered Kohlberg's stage scheme to have a l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l bias. To demonstrate the p o l i t i c a l bias of Kohlberg's moral stages, the relation-ship of Hogan's (1970) ethical attitudes, assumed to represent p o l i -t i c a l l y l i b e r a l and conservative ethical orientations, to Kohlberg's moral stages has been investigated. To empirically validate the Survey of Ethical Attitudes, Hogan (1970) compared "natural groups which are in some ways self-selected for the attitudes under study" (p. 207), for example, p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t and police o f f i c e r s . These groups are assumed to use different c r i t e r i a for making moral judgments. Although the groups may have different a t t i -tudes about legal compliance, they may j u s t i f y their response with either conventional or principled moral reasoning. In addition, the a b i l i t y of the test to discriminate between these two groups does not necessarily indicate that different moral principles are the basis for the difference in the two groups. The relationship proposed by Hogan (1970) between ethical attitudes and Kohlberg's stages has been investigated by means of correlational studies. Using the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974), Nardi and Tsujimoto (1979) found the ethics of social responsibility to be associated with Stage 4 (r=.46, p_<.001); whereas the ethics ,of personal conscience was found to be associated with Stage 4 1/2 (Antiestablish-ment) (r=-.21, p_<.01), Stage 5A (r=-.23, p_<.01), and Stage 5B (r=-.32, j3<.001). For three different samples, Gutkin and Suis (1979) also found that scores on the Survey of Ethical Attitudes (Hogan, 1970) were significantly positively correlated with Stage 4 morality (r=.351, 82 j3<.01; r=.263, JD<.05; r=.393, p<.01); and s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a tively c o r r e l a t e d with the P Index (r=-.275, 2<.Q5; £=-.234, _p<*05? £=-.265, j3<.05). These find i n g s were based on the use of the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974). In the study using Kohlberg's measure, D e l l and Jurkovic (1978) d i d not f i n d any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and moral stage scores. This f i n d i n g may be explained by the f a c t that there was l i t t l e variance i n the stage scores, 90% of the sample was reported to be Stage 3 or Stage 4. Contrary to Hogan's (1970) claim that the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e to Kohlberg's Stage 5 and 6, the research evidence suggests that the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y tends to be r e l a t e d to Stage 4 and the e t h i c s of personal conscience to Stage 5 or p r i n c i p l e d reasoning (P Index). Although there i s some evidence that e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s are r e l a t e d to Kohlberg's stages, t h i s f i n d i n g does not, i n i t s e l f , e s t a b l i s h that Kohlberg's stages are p o l i t i c a l l y biased. From the perspective of Kohlberg's theory, t h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that those subjects who endorse the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y tend to be developmentally l e s s mature i n t h e i r moral judgments than those subjects who endorse an e t h i c s of personal conscience. Therefore, i t i s necessary to i n v e s t i -gate Kohlberg's claim that l a t e r stages are morally more adequate than e a r l i e r ones. One avenue taken i n pursuing the answer to the question of the moral adequacy of Hogan's e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s or Kohlberg's moral stages was to compare p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who d i f f e r on these dimensions. Johnson and h i s associates (Johnson, Hogan, Zenderman, Caliens & Rogolsky, 1981) stated: 83 F i r s t , i t appears that p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as well as reason-i n g a b i l i t y are involved in moral judgments. Second, Stage 6 i s not an i n e v i t a b l e moral advance over Stage 5, because p o s i t i v e and negative p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s are associated with both forms of moral reasoning. (p. 370-371) However, other researchers (e.g., Haan, Smith, & Block, 1968; S u l l i v a n & Quarter, 1972) point to d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to support the moral adequacy of higher stages. Most of the p e r s o n a l i t y evidence i s c o r r e l a t i o n a l which leaves unexplained the causal d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i . e . e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e determines p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e , v i c e versa, or they share common determinants. A l t e r n a t i v e explanations could be that p e r s o n a l i t y (a) a f f e c t s the l e v e l of p r i n c i p l e d m o r a l i t y obtained, (b) i s a con-sequence of the l e v e l of p r i n c i p l e d morality obtained, (c) influences the moral reasoning s t y l e manifested, or (d) r e l a t e s to moral content, but not to moral s t r u c t u r e . Another approach used to in v e s t i g a t e t h i s question was to compare groups known to d i f f e r i n moral conduct. Persons convicted of crimes would be expected to score at the ends of the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s continu-um and the most morally mature i n d i v i d u a l s would have mid-range scores according to Hogan*s (1970, 1974) view. Al s o , i f both e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s are equally defensible on moral grounds then the scores of prisoners and probationers would be expected to be evenly d i s t r i b u t e d over the two ends of the continuum. Although the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, 1970) was found to dis c r i m i n a t e between p o l i c e (M=23.7) and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t (M=8.7) (Hogan, 1970); between p o l i c e (M=21.76), p o l i c e s c i e n c e majors (M=21.68), and students (M=14.06) (Carlton & Sutton, 1975); and between prisoners (M=20.87) and col l e g e students (f*=15.69) (Hartnett & Shumate, 84 1980), the scores of prisoners on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s were not compared to the scores of p o l i c e . However, i f the mean scores of prisoners and p o l i c e are compared across the d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s , the scale does not appear to di s c r i m i n a t e between the two groups. These two groups, as judged by t h e i r moral conduct i n complying with r u l e s , would be expected to d i f f e r i n moral maturity as defined by Hogan (1970). A study comparing these two groups would be needed to confirm t h i s e x t r a p o l a t i o n . Within Hogan's model of moral conduct (1973, 1975a, 1975b), the v a r i a t i o n i n moral conduct of policemen and prisoners may be explained i n terms of other dimensions, f o r example, empathy, autonomy, s o c i a l i z a -t i o n . However, the moral judgment dimension proposed by Hogan (1970) does not appear to discriminate between the two groups. Whereas p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s and prisoners may both break the law, they appear to have opposing e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s . Although Kohlberg's stage theory i s able to account for prisoners and p o l i c e being at the same stage of moral development, f o r example, both have a Stage 4 law and order o r i e n t a t i o n , other explanations may be a v a i l a b l e . P o l i c e and pri s o n e r s may share by and large the same p o l i t i c a l ideology. The moral adequacy of Hogan's e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s and Kohlberg's moral stages has also been teste d by c o r r e l a t i n g Hogan's, Kohlberg's or Rest's measures with another index of moral maturity (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a; Nardi & Tsujimoto, 1979; Tsujimoto & Nardi, 1978).- Hogan and Di c k s t e i n (1972a) developed a scale, Measure of Moral Values, to measure moral maturity. With t h i s measure, i n d i v i d u a l s were asked to make written responses to 15 statements i n d i c a t i n g what t h e i r r e a c t i o n would most l i k e l y be i f the person they were having a conversation with made 85 the statement. Examples of items on the Measure of Moral Values (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a) are: The FBI has i t s hands t i e d i n many cases because of the unreasonable opposition of some people to wire tapping. (p. 210 ) The new housing law i s u n f a i r . Why should I be forced to take i n tenants that I f i n d undesirable? (p. 210) The p o l i c e should be encouraged in t h e i r e f f o r t s to apprehend and p r o s e c u t e homosexuals. Homosexuality t h r e a t e n s t h e foundations of our so c i e t y . (p. 211) With t h i s measure, subjects' responses to 15 statements are scored using the following scoring elements: (a) concern for the s a n c t i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l (b) judgments based on the s p i r i t rather than the l e t t e r of the law (c) concern for the welfare of s o c i e t y as a whole (d) capacity to see both sides of an i s s u e . (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a, p. 211) A response i s assigned two points i f any one of the four scoring elements i s c l e a r l y present and one point i f any of the four s c o r i n g elements could be e a s i l y and r e a d i l y i n f e r r e d . Based on the c o r r e l a t i o n of subjects' scores on the Measure of Moral Values and Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Hogan and D i c k s t e i n (1972a) conclude that persons with an e t h i c s of personal conscience tend to make more mature moral judgments (r=-.34, j><.05), thus r e f u t i n g t h e i r hypothesis that persons with mid-range scores on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s are more morally mature. , The Measure of Moral Values (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a) was also used as a dependent v a r i a b l e i n two studies comparing Hogan's and Kohlberg's measures (Nardi & Tsujimoto, 1979; Tsujimoto & Nardi, 1978). The Measure of Moral Values was found by Tsujimoto and Nardi (1978) to be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Hogan's (1970) Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s 86 (r(170 )=.288) and each of Kohlberg's stages measured by Rest's (1974) Defining Issues Test (r(170)=.227 for Stage 5A; r(170)=.262 for Stage 5B; and r(170)=-.183 f o r Stage 3 ) . Nardi and Tsujimoto (1979) found that moral maturity, when assessed by the Measure of Moral Values (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a), was c u r v i l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d to the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s . This represents the only empirical support for Hogan's hypothesis that the highest l e v e l of moral maturity i s found i n the middle of the moral judgment dimension. One d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a t i n g an independent measure to t e s t the assumptions of Hogan's (1970) or Kohlberg's/Rest's perspectives of moral judgment i s that an independent measure would be based on a t h i r d perspective and would r a i s e a d d i t i o n a l questions about which perspective should be accepted as the most adequate. The scoring elements of the Measure of Moral Values (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a) appear to be more consistent with Kohlberg's moral judgment perspective than with Hogan's (1970). In a d d i t i o n , the g l o b a l scoring of responses on the Measure of Moral Values (Hogan & D i c k s t i e n , 1972a) reduces the variance that may e x i s t and could obscure r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n moral maturity. For example, an i n d i v i d u a l ' s response may be scored as containing only one of the four scoring elements such as the capacity to see both sides of an issue, but not any of the other three scoring elements. Nevertheless, t h i s i n d i v i d u a l would be given the same score as an i n d i v i d u a l whose response included a l l four scoring elements. 87 Summary A comparison was made of the t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions underlying Hogan's (1970) and Rest's (1974, 1979b) moral judgment measures. A d i s c u s s i o n was also presented concerning several issues r e l a t i n g to Hogan's (1970) proposed r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s and Kohlberg's moral stages. The research evidence i n d i c a t e s that scores on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e (a) discriminate between various groups (e.g., p o l i c e and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s ) (Carlson & Sutton, 1975; Hartnett & Shumate, 1980; Hogan, 1970); (b) p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e with Stage 4 scores and negatively c o r r e l a t e with Stage 5 scores or the P Index, i n d i c a t i n g that the e t h i c s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s associated with Stage 4 and the e t h i c s of personal conscience with Stage 5 or p r i n c i p l e d reasoning (Gutkin & Suis, 1979; Nardi & Tsujimoto, 1979); (c) c o r r e l a t e with both negative and p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y character-i s t i c s (Hogan, 1970; Johnson, Hogan, Zonderman, Callens & Rogolsky, 1981); and (d) negatively c o r r e l a t e with scores on the Measure of Moral Values, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s u b j e c t s who endorse the e t h i c s o f p e r s o n a l conscience are more "morally mature" than those who endorse the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 197.2a; Nardi & Tsujimoto, 1979; Tsujimoto & Nardi, 1978). From the research evidence presented, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to resolve the issue of whether or not Kohlberg's moral stages are p o l i t i c a l l y biased. An a l t e r n a t i v e conclusion could be that subjects with a conservative 88 ethical orientation are developmentally less mature in their moral judgments than subjects with a l i b e r a l ethical orientation. The comparison of the two views on the nature of Kohlberg's stages, that i s , as hierarchically related organizations of thinking versus pol i t i c o - s o c i a l values, directs attention to c r i t i c a l aspects of each view. Implicit in Hogan's (1970) position are the assumptions that statements about values are understood in the same manner by everyone and that actions have the same meaning for a l l individuals. Concerning the cognitive developmental position, not enough is known about the interaction of particular structure with other "person" and "situation" variables. A clear implication for further research i s to focus on the interrelationship of moral structure and moral content in making moral decisions. Studies of Moral Reasoning and Dilemma Content The assessment of moral judgment, approached from a cognitive-developmental perspective, involves d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the underlying organization of thinking used from the content of the individual's moral judgment. A consistency in the individual's moral structure i s assumed, although the content of the moral judgment may vary. However, in Rest's (1979a) model of moral judgment, i t is acknowledged that the particular content and properties of the problem may influence the particular moral structure that is manifested. Several researchers have investigated the effect of differing dilemma content on moral reasoning. Three areas of dilemma content research w i l l be reviewed: (a) variation in dilemma protagonist, (b) 89 h y p o t h e t i c a l dilemmas v e r s u s a c t u a l dilemmas, and (c) p r o h i b i t i v e dilemmas versus p r o s o c i a l dilemmas. V a r i a t i o n i n Dilemma Protagonist Levine (1976) inve s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of two dilemma content variables! on conventional moral reasoning: the i d e n t i t y of the pro-tagonist implicated i n the moral dilemmas and the content of the moral dilemmasi. Four of the nine dilemmas i n Kohlberg's 1958 interview were modified i n order to present dilemmas i n which the protagonist i n the dilemmas was (a) a stranger of the same sex, (b) a best f r i e n d of the • i same sex;, and (c) the respondent's mother. The three questionnaire treatments were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d to a sample of 680 f i r s t - y e a r sociology students (mean age=18.6 y e a r s ) . Subsamples of 100 were randomly drawn for each of the three treatments. The questionnaires were scored using Kramer's (1968) sentence-coding scoring technique and percent-response scores for Stages 3 and 4 were computed. A Sex X Treatment X Dilemma a n a l y s i s of variance was computed f o r Stage 3 and Stage 4 response r a t e s . The Stage 3 response rate under the primary-other treatment was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n compari-son with the f i c t i t i o u s - o t h e r t r e a t m e n t , F (2 ,294 ) =1 9.2 3 , p_<.001. Conversely, the Stage 4 response rate was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower for the best f r i e n d and mother treatments than f o r . the f i c t i -t ious-other treatment, F(2,294 )=13.10, p_< .001. For both Stage 3 and Stage 4, the response rate v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one moral dilemma to another, F(3,882 )=6.79, p_<.001 and F(3,882 )=3.78, p_<.01, re s p e c t i v e -l y . 90 Levine (1976) concluded that Stage 3 moral reasoning i s more l i k e l y to be employed and Stage 4 reasoning i s l e s s l i k e l y to be employed when the respondents judge dilemmas i m p l i c a t i n g t h e i r primary others. In a d d i t i o n , d i f f e r e n t moral dilemmas function to increase or decrease response rate coded at Kohlberg's conventional stages. The protagonist's i d e n t i t y i n the dilemmas was also the v a r i a b l e considered by Rybash, Roodin, and Lonky (1981). These researchers i n v e s t i g a t e d whether moral judgments would d i f f e r when the main charac-t e r of the dilemmas i n the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974) was the s e l f rather than a hypothetical other. A modified Defining Issues Test was constructed i n such a way that each subject was required to assume the r o l e of the protagonist i n the moral dilemma. E i t h e r the same ver s i o n or the two d i f f e r e n t versions of the t e s t were administered on two separate occasions, one week apart, to the subjects, 100 c o l l e g e sophomores e n r o l l e d i n a psychology course. A 2 x 2 repeated measures a n a l y s i s of variance - Type of Test (standard versus modified) x Time of Test (Week 1 versus Week 2) - was conducted on the data from subjects given both versions of the t e s t . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f or Type of Test, F( 1,46)=10.56, p_<.005, i n d i c a t i n g that higher P scores were obtained by subjects i n the standard other-oriented v e r s i o n of the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974) than obtained by subjects i n the modified, s e l f - o r i e n t e d v e r s i o n . The researchers suggested that higher stage scores for moral judgments on the standard version may be a consequence of the subject's a f f e c t i v e distance from the problem. The emotional n e u t r a l i t y involved i n making a d e c i s i o n i n the other-oriented v e r s i o n may allow the i n d i v i d u a l to deal with the problem on a more abstract l e v e l . 91 The gender of the protagonist i n Kohlberg's dilemmas was v a r i e d i n a study by Bussey and Maughan (1982). A sample of A u s t r a l i a n u n i v e r s i t y students were administered e i t h e r the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of three of Kohlberg's dilemmas, with male protagonists, or a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n with female protagonists. Based on Kohlberg's 1977 scoring system, subjects were assigned global scores. A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found between sex of subject and sex of protagonist, F(1,32)=6.53, p<.05. While males scored higher ; i than females on Kohlberg's standard dilemmas, both male and female scores were the same on the dilemmas with female protagonists. Bussey and Maughan (1982) off e r e d the explanation that males see the female characters' actions as stemming from expressive reasons and responded at a lower l e v e l of moral reasoning. Hypothetical Dilemmas versus A c t u a l Dilemmas The correspondence between stages of moral reasoning about hypo-t h e t i c a l dilemmas and a c t u a l dilemmas was studied by Haan (1975). In t h i s study, the subjects were 310 Berkeley undergraduates who were e n r o l l e d during the 1964 Free Speech Movement C r i s i s . A comparison was made of the students' moral reasoning scores on f i v e of Kohlberg's moral dilemmas and on a Free Speech Movement Questionnaire. Haan (1975) found that two-thirds of the students were assessed at a d i f f e r e n t stage of reasoning—45% higher and 20% l o w e r — f o r the actual s i t u a t i o n than they were for the hypothetical dilemmas. Haan state s , "The thrust of these analyses i s that there are systematic d i f f e r e n c e s — a p p a r e n t l y a t t r i b u t -able to nonmoral c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s — b e t w e e n g i v i n g a 92 st o r y character f i c t i t i o u s moral advice and formulating and acting on advice for oneself" (Haan, 1975, p. 269). On the same theme of h y p o t h e t i c a l dilemmas v e r s u s r e a l - l i f e dilemmas, Kohlberg, Scharf, and Hickey (1972) reported that a sample of 34 p r i s o n e r s displayed s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores (p_<.05) on Kohlberg's hyp o t h e t i c a l dilemmas than they d i d on a set of dilemmas designed to r e f l e c t moral c o n f l i c t s experienced i n the prison s e t t i n g i n which they were l i v i n g . Leming (1975) explored the influence of two aspects of dilemmas content on moral reasoning, c l a s s i c a l dilemmas versus p r a c t i c a l dilem-mas, and dilemmas written i n the judgment mode versus dilemmas written i n the d e l i b e r a t i o n mode. Kohlberg's dilemmas were considered to be c l a s s i c a l , with the s i t u a t i o n s and characters removed from the subject's l i f e space. In these dilemmas, the moral choice i s already made and the subject i s asked to evaluate the action made (judgment mode). Another v e r s i o n of Kohlberg's c l a s s i c a l dilemmas was written so that they were i n the present tense and the moral choice was s t i l l open ( d e l i b e r a t i o n mode). As an a l t e r n a t i v e to Kohlberg's c l a s s i c a l dilemmas, Leming (1975) developed three p r a c t i c a l dilemmas which contained c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s l i k e l y to be found within the subject's l i f e space, that i s , l y i n g to parents, cheating, and peer group c o n f l i c t . These dilemmas were also written i n both the judgment mode and the d e l i b e r a t i o n mode. The subj ects, 60 eighth and twelveth grade students,' were i n t e r -viewed on the 12 d i f f e r e n t dilemmas, three within each of the four forms of moral reasoning. Kohlberg's 1972 moral maturity score was computed for each subject on a l l four forms of moral reasoning. For the a n a l y s i s of the data, K i r k ' s (1968) multiple f a c t o r s repeated measures s p l i t - p l o t 93 design was used. The mean moral maturity score f o r a l l subjects was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n the judgment mode than i n the d e l i b e r a t i o n mode. Although no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for dilemma type was found, two i n t e r a c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t , Mode x Dilemma and Grade x Mode x Dilemma. The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were the r e s u l t of the t w e l f t h grade subjects' lower Moral Maturity Scores on the p r a c t i c a l moral dilemmas written i n the d e l i b e r a t i o n mode. Based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s study, Leming (1975) recommended a moral education program that includes the use of p r a c t i c a l dilemmas written i n the d e l i b e r a t i o n mode. A comparison of adolescents' (ages 13 t o 17) moral reasoning on Ko h l b e r g ' s dilemmas, new dilemmas w r i t t e n to " p u l l " i n t e r p e r s o n a l reasoning and game s i t u a t i o n s was made by Haan (1978). An i n t e r p e r s o n a l mo r a l i t y i s proposed by Haan (1978) i n which "moral s o l u t i o n s are achieved through dialogues that s t r i v e f o r balanced agreements among p a r t i c i p a n t s " (p. 286). Kohlberg's formal moral judgment theory i s viewed as one branch of in t e r p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y . Moral reasoning was assessed using Kohlberg's scoring system and a scoring system based on a developmental i n t e r p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y scheme devised by the researcher. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r two Kohlberg dilemmas was .51 (N=56) and for two inter p e r s o n a l moral dilemmas was .46 (N=56). Moral scores represented the modal l e v e l s of reasoning used e i t h e r i n the interview format or from a l l statements made i n one game. The moral .scores were transformed to continuous scores by weighting the major score by 3 and, when both a major and minor score was assigned, by 2 and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although formal reasoning was found to be used more often i n the hypoth e t i c a l dilemmas than interpersonal reasoning, the l e v e l of formal reasoning was lower than the l e v e l of interpersonal reasoning. In the 94 game s i t u a t i o n s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l reasoning was used more frequently, but the l e v e l s for formal and int e r p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y d i d not d i f f e r . Haan (1978) also found that black adolescents were more advanced i n i n t e r -personal than i n formal reasoning, but for whites the pattern was reversed. Haan (1978) suggested that interpersonal morality represents the more fundamental way i n which people morally r e l a t e , and formal m o r a l i t y i s one p a r t i c u l a r branch of int e r p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y used i n s p e c i a l kinds of rule-governed, impersonal s i t u a t i o n s . Dilemmas i n v o l v i n g the issue of abortion were i n v e s t i g a t e d by G i l l i g a n (1982) to explore the moral reasoning of women. The subjects i n t h i s study were 29 women considering abortion, who were r e f e r r e d by abortion and pregnancy counseling s e r v i c e s . These women were i n t e r -viewed twice concerning the abortion issue and were also asked to resolve three h y p o t h e t i c a l moral dilemmas, i n c l u d i n g Kohlberg's Heinz dilemma. G i l l i g a n (1982) found that while several of the women used postconventional reasoning concerning the abortion i s s u e , none of them used p r i n c i p l e d reasoning as determined from the hypothetical dilemmas. The f i n d i n g that women score lower on Kohlberg's dilemmas i s explained by G i l l i g a n (1982) i n terms of women's d i f f e r i n g conception of mor a l i t y . Women are seen to d i f f e r i n having a ps y c h o l o g i c a l l o g i c of r e l a t i o n s h i p s rather than a formal l o g i c of f a i r n e s s . P r o h i b i t i v e Dilemmas versus P r o s o c i a l Dilemmas Eisenberg-Berg (1979) has characterized Kohlberg's d i l emmas as p r o h i b i t i v e dilemmas concerned with laws, r u l e s , a u t h o r i t y , and formal o b l i g a t i o n s , i n contrast to p r o s o c i a l dilemmas that are concerned with s e l f . v e r s u s other-centered need s a t i s f a c t i o n . To compare the two types 95 of moral reasoning, Eisenberg-Berg (1979) developed p r o s o c i a l dilemmas i n v o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s between the main character's own wants, needs, and desires and those of a needy other. An example of a p r o s o c i a l dilemma used by Eisenberg-Berg (1979) i s one in which i n d i v i d u a l s had to choose between sharing or not sharing food with another town, which had been flooded, when sharing would r e s u l t i n t h e i r being very hungry them-selves. Responses were coded as one of 16 e m p i r i c a l l y derived categor-i e s , f o r example, concern with punishment, concern for r e c i p r o c i t y , r o l e taking, reference to r i g h t s and j u s t i c e . On the b a s i s of the c a t e g o r i e s used, subjects were scored as one of four p r o s o c i a l stages. Eisenberg-Berg (1979) reported that elementary and high school students' reasoning about p r o s o c i a l dilemmas i s more l i k e l y to r e f l e c t i n t e r n a l i z e d s t a n d a r d s than i s t h e i r r e a s o n i n g about p r o h i b i t i v e dilemmas. She suggested that t h e o r e t i c a l conclusions based on research about p r o h i b i t i o n - o r i e n t e d moral judgments cannot n e c e s s a r i l y be generalized to moral reasoning about aspects of p r o s o c i a l behavior. These r e s u l t s were supported i n a study by Kurdek (1981), using a sample of high school and c o l l e g e students. These students were administered the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979), Eisenberg-Berg's (1979) p r o s o c i a l dilemmas, as well as a measure of perspective-taking a b i l i t y and Hogan's (1969) Empathy Scale. Both the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and the p r o s o c i a l dilemmas were scored using Eisenberg-Berg's (1979) categories and a measure s i m i l a r to the P Index was derived by computing a percentage of responses which r e f l e c t e d a strongly i n t e r n a l -i z e d moral o r i e n t a t i o n . 96 The data i n d i c a t e d that the mean percentage of p r i n c i p l e d reasoning on the p r o s o c i a l dilemmas was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than oh the p r o h i b i -t i v e dilemmas, t( 104)=-11.41, p_<.000. Mature moral reasoning i n both p r o h i b i t e d and p r o s o c i a l areas was found to be r e l a t e d to high s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y and to high perspective-taking a b i l i t y . Kurdek (1981) concluded that subjects have higher moral maturity i n p r o s o c i a l moral reasoning than i n p r o h i b i t i v e moral reasoning when moral maturity i s defined by the extent one possesses an i n t e r n a l i z e d code of e t h i c s . However, Kurdek pointed out that the nature of the i n t e r n a l i z e d code may be d i f f e r e n t for the p r o s o c i a l and p r o h i b i t i v e i s s u e s . Summary In the studies reviewed, moral judgment was found to vary with changes i n the content of the dilemmas. When the protagonist of the dilemma was changed to a primary other (Levine, 1976) or the s e l f (Rybash, Roodin, & Lonky, 1981), subjects tended to use moral reasoning at a lower l e v e l . When the protagonist i n the dilemmas was a female, only males were found to decrease i n l e v e l of moral reasoning (Bussey & Maughan, 1982). In general, moral reasoning was found to be higher for Kohlberg's hy p o t h e t i c a l dilemmas than for " r e a l - l i f e " or " p r a c t i c a l " dilemmas (Kohlberg, Scharf, & Hickey, 1972; Leming, 1975). However,^ women were found by G i l l i g a n (1982) to be lower i n moral reasoning on Kohlberg's dilemmas than on abortion i s s u e s . Haan (1978) found that i n t e r p e r s o n a l reasoning was used more often i n game s i t u a t i o n s than i n h y p o t h e t i c a l dilemmas. In a comparison of reasoning in an actual s i t u a t i o n of c i v i l 97 disobedience and in Kohlberg's dilemmas, Haan (1975) found a d i f f e r e n c e for two-thirds of the subjects, 46% higher, 20% lower. F i n a l l y , when p r o h i b i t i v e and p r o s o c i a l dilemmas were compared, subjects were found to have higher moral maturity on p r o s o c i a l dilemmas (Eisenberg-Berg, 1979; Kurdek, 1981). Evidence that dilemma content influences moral judgments has been presented i n the above studies. However, none of these studies has addressed c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the dilemmas used by Kohlberg and Rest and the infl u e n c e of t h i s content on the assessment of moral judgments. A content a n a l y s i s of the Defining Issues Test dilemmas (see Table 1) reveals that i n a l l the diiemmas, the protagonist must decide whether a s p e c i a l case should be made i n the i n t e r e s t of one i n d i v i d u a l or a minority group rather than i n the i n t e r e s t of s o c i a l welfare as a whole. In the dilemmas, the following i n d i v i d u a l s or minority groups are the focus of concern: Heinz's wife i n the Heinz dilemma; SDS and Faculty i n the Student Take-over dilemma; escaped prisoner i n the Escaped Prisoner dilemma; p a t i e n t i n the Doctor dilemmas; the O r i e n t a l mechanic i n the Webster dilemma; and the student group i n the Newspaper dilemma. The focus on the needs or concerns of p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s or minority groups i s accentuated by another s i m i l a r i t y . In a l l the dilemmas, these needs or concerns are not supported by l e g a l or estab-l i s h e d a u thority. If the dilemmas were changed i n such a way that the i n t e r e s t of i n d i v i d u a l s or minority groups are not p i t t e d against l e g a l or e s t a b l i s h e d authority, would subjects who wished to address these needs or concerns j u s t i f y t h e i r decisions i n the same way? 98 The following table i s a summary of dilemmas, p a r a l l e l to those i n the Defining Issues Test, i n which i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s are protected by l e g a l or e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y : Table 2 Summary of A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Henry and the Drug - Henry must decide whether or not to s t e a l the formula f o r a new drug to prevent a s c i e n t i s t from s e l l i n g i t to other people. Henry had. become very v i o l e n t and nearly k i l l e d h i s wife a f t e r t aking the drug. Should Henry s t e a l the drug? Student Revolt - A large group of u n i v e r s i t y students take over the u n i v e r s i t y ' s administration b u i l d i n g to protest the u n i v e r s i t y p r e s i -dent's d e c i s i o n to r e t a i n the Students for Revolution (SFR) warfare t r a i n i n g program on campus. Should the students have taken over the administration building? B u l l y - Mrs. Smith must decide whether or not to report a group of neighborhood men to the p o l i c e for beating up and k i l l i n g a man known to be a b u l l y and c r i m i n a l although he had never been convicted of a crime. Should Mrs. Smith report the men to "the p o l i c e ? Doctor - A doctor must decide whether to perform surgery on a woman who refuses to sign the papers allowing the surgery to proceed, knowing tha t she w i l l die i f surgery i s not performed. What should the doctor do? Mr. Winston - Mr. Winston, the owner and manager of a business company, did not h i r e an accountant who was white because he was concerned about h i s customers who were members of mi n o r i t y groups. What should Mr. Winston have done? Paper - The p r i n c i p a l stopped the p u b l i s h i n g of a school newspaper that supported the government's m i l i t a r y spending and school r u l e s , such as the r u l e banning punk c l o t h e s . The p r i n c i p a l gave as a reason that i t i n t e r f e r e d with the i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s of some students who d i d not agree with the opinion of the paper. Should the p r i n c i p a l stop the newspaper? By comparing responses of subjects to these dilemmas and to the dilemmas in the Defining Issues Test (see Table 1), content e f f e c t s on the moral reasoning manifested may be explored. 99 Studies of Moral Judgment and Dilemma A c t i o n Choice Moral judgment and moral action are considered to be d i s t i n c t but r e l a t e d constructs i n c o g n i t i v e development theory. Rest (1979a) contended that stages, as general moral c r i t e r i a , provide the i n t e r -p r e t i v e framework f o r d e f i n i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . The way the moral c o n f l i c t i s construed may lead an i n d i v i d u a l to favor one a c t i o n over another. However, i n any one s i t u a t i o n , a moral stage may be compatible with c o n t r a s t i n g action a l t e r n a t i v e s . Consequently, the ac t i o n choices can not always be predicted by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s stage of moral reasoning. Rest (1979a) stated: To p r e d i c t the r e l a t i o n of moral judgment to behavior, one must do a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t i v e framework of a given stage, and how that framework i s l i k e l y to i n t e r a c t with features of a p a r t i c u l a r moral problem i n disposing to an a c t i o n . (p. 260) Rest (1979a) suggested that the c o r r e l a t i o n between moral stage and a c t i o n choice w i l l be higher when one action makes more sense from a p r i n c i p l e d moral perspective and the other a c t i o n makes more sense from a conventional moral pe r s p e c t i v e . In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n of moral reasoning with dilemma action choice, Rest (1979a) reported that Kohlberg i n h i s e a r l y 1958 work found a nonlinear r e l a t i o n s h i p between stages of moral reasoning and action choices. For example i n the Heinz dilemma, Kohlberg found that Stage 1 was associated with advocating not s t e a l i n g the drug, Stage 2 with s t e a l i n g , Stage 3 and 4 with ambiguity, Stage 5 with s t e a l i n g , and Stage 6 with d e f i n i t e l y s t e a l i n g . Using the Defining Issues Test, a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p has been reported between moral reasoning and action choices, defined e i t h e r as 100 " h u m a n i t a r i a n - l i b e r a l " (Cooper, 1972), or as "aligned to e s t a b l i s h e d authority" (Martin, Shafto, & Van Deinse, 1977). The "humanitarian-l i b e r a l " pattern i s based on the action choices that moral philosophy and p o l i t i c a l science doctoral students tend to make in the s i x Defining Issues Test dilemmas (Cooper, 1972). The s i x act i o n choices that Cooper (1972) characterizes as a "humanitarian-liberal" pattern are a l l choices of actions that are not aligned with a u t h o r i t y . Martin and h i s colleagues (1977)! argued that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral reasoning and action choices i n the Defin i n g Issues Test dilemmas i n d i c a t e s t h a t : i n some cases, c e r t a i n decisions seemed to " a t t r a c t " reasons associated with higher stages. In other words, one d e c i s i o n would be more l i k e l y to be compatible with p r i n c i p l e d reason-i n g (Stages 5 and 6) than the opposite decisions would be. (pp. 466-467) Rest (1979a) maintained that moral reasoning should not be completely independent of moral d e c i s i o n . His view i s that "form i s r e l a t e d to content, but i s not reducible to content" (p. 160). To support t h i s statement, Rest (1979a) provided evidence that reasoning and choice, although c o r r e l a t e d , are d i s t i n c t and, as v a r i -ables, behave d i f f e r e n t l y . He reported that for a sample of 160 high school and u n i v e r s i t y students, the P Index c o r r e l a t e d much higher with age (£=.62), comprehension (£=.60), and Law and Order A t t i t u d e (-.60) than d i d action choice (£=.29, r=.20, and £=-.31, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Rest suggested that action choice i s not more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with the P Index (£=.34), because the r e l a t i o n i s not s t r i c t l y l i n e a r . He points out that when action choice f l i p - f l o p s back and f o r t h through the order of the stages, the c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be highest i f one course of a c t i o n 101 i s s trongly favored by the lower stages and the opposite course of action i s strongly favored by the higher stages. Summary The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the choice of action i n a dilemma and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of that action has been i n v e s t i g a t e d . A r e l a t i o n s h i p was reported between "humanitarian-liberal" action choices and p r i n c i p l e d reasoning (Rest, 1979a). The "hu m a n i t a r i a n - l i b e r a l " action choices were a l l actions that were not i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y . Martin et a l . (1977) also reported a r e l a t i o n s h i p between choices of dilemma actions that were i n compliance with authority and moral reasoning. The d e c i s i o n to comply with a u t h o r i t y may be influenced by a number of f a c t o r s . In the Defining Issues Test dilemmas, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e or e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e may i n t e r a c t with dilemma content to influence the de c i s i o n that i s made. In a dilemma i n which i n d i v i d u -a l r i g h t s are protected by l e g a l a u t h o r i t y , the l i b e r a l subject may choose to comply with the law. On the other hand, when the issue of i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s i s placed i n opposition to l e g a l a u t h o r i t y , the l i b e r a l i n d i v i d u a l may be expected not to comply. Conversely, the conservative subject may also choose to comply or not to comply depend-ing on whether l e g a l authority protects the issue supported by that p o l i t i c a l point of view. Summary The moral judgment l i t e r a t u r e has been examined i n four areas r e l a t e d to t h i s study. Research was reviewed which explored the 102 r e l a t i o n s h i p of dilemma content and moral judgment, as well as action choice and moral judgment. Furthermore, evidence of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among moral judgment, p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e were i d e n t i f i e d and discussed. Questions w e r e i r a i s e d concerning the e f f e c t of s p e c i f i e d dilemma content on moral judgment, action choice, and on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral judgment and two "person" v a r i a b l e s , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e . These questions form the basi s f o r the research hypotheses addressed by the procedures discussed in the next : i chapter. 103 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Chapter two presented a review of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t to the V hypotheses and provided j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the study. Chapter three presents a d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample, the design of the study, which includes an explanation of measuring instruments and t e s t administration procedure, and an o u t l i n e of data processing and a n a l y s i s . The major questions addressed by the study are: (a) Is there an i n t e r a c t i o n of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral dilemma content on moral development scores? (b) Is there an i n t e r a c t i o n of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral dilemma content on compliance with authority action scores? (c) Is there an i n t e r a c t i o n of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral dilemma content on moral development scores? (d) Is there an i n t e r a c t i o n of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral dilemma content on compliance with a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n scores? (e) Can compliance with authority a c t i o n scores be pre d i c t e d from knowledge of subjects' e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , and moral development scores. 104 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Samples High school and u n i v e r s i t y student volunteers p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study. High School Sample The high school population i n the study was defined by enrolment i n a Grade 11 Law course. The Grade 11 Law course i s o f f e r e d as an e l e c t i v e to any student and no p r e r e q u i s i t e s are required. Students who enrol i n the Law course are representative of the t o t a l school popula-t i o n i n terms of grade-point average. This course was s e l e c t e d to ensure a s i m i l a r general background i n law-related issues. In a d d i t i o n , the topi c of the study was considered relevant to the content presented i n the course. The s e l e c t i o n of the secondary schools i n the school d i s t r i c t wherein data were gathered was dependent on permission for the study being granted by the p r i n c i p a l of the school and the teacher of the Law c l a s s . Consent was given by s i x of the eight schools o f f e r i n g the Grade 11 Law course. Two p r i n c i p a l s refused permission, one because a s u b s t i t u t e teacher would be taking the place of the regular teacher of the c l a s s , and the other because of p a r t i c u l a r time c o n s t r a i n t s i n -volved. , U n i v e r s i t y Sample The u n i v e r s i t y student population was d e l i m i t e d by enrolment i n Education courses at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia during the summer session immediately subsequent to the school term involved i n the 105 high school study. The s e l e c t i o n of the Education courses was dependent on permission being granted by the i n s t r u c t o r s . Sub j ects The study was conducted i n two phases and the subjects involved i n each phase are described. Phase One. The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p i l o t study phase of the study were 47 student volunteers i n two Grade 11 Law classes i n a suburban, B r i t i s h Columbia secondary school. Comprising the sample were 29 females and 18 males with a mean age of 16.76 years (SD=.71) and an age range of 15 years o l d to 18 years o l d . Phase Two - High School Sample. The high school p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Phase Two of the study c o n s i s t e d o f 94 high school student volunteers e n r o l l e d i n f i v e Grade 11 Law cl a s s e s i n suburban, B r i t i s h Columbia secondary schools. Nine subjects were excluded from the study because they d i d not complete a l l the measures. Of those who completed a l l the measures, 17 subjects were excluded because they d i d not properly complete the Defining Issues Test and/or the Alternate Dilemmas Test. The Defining Issues Test responses of 14 subjects (16%) and the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test responses of 13 subjects (15%) contained one or more of the following e r r o r s : (a) more than eight e r r o r s or more than two s t o r i e s with i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n ranking and r a t i n g - of dilemma statements; (b) r a t i n g same number of the scale more than' nine times; and (c) M Scores, based on r a t i n g and ranking meaningless items too high, of eight or more. Eighty-two percent of the subjects excluded because of i n c o n s i s t e n -c i e s on the moral development measures made err o r s on both the D e f i n i n g 106 Issues Test and Alternate Dilemmas Test. The mean D Index and action choice scores of those deleted from the study were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y from those not deleted. Rest (1979a) i n d i c a t e d that the l o s s of questionnaires on the b a s i s of the M Score and the Consistency Check i s i n the 2 to 15% range, although l a r g e r losses have occurred with disadvantaged or unmotivated groups. He recommended excluding the subject with e r r o r s because i t gives c l e a r e r r e s u l t s and better r e l i a b i l i t y than l e a v i n g a l l the subjects i n . S i x t y - e i g h t subjects (36 females, 32 males) were included i n the study. Their mean age was 17.15 years (SD=.85) and ranged from 16 t o 20 years of age. Phase Two - U n i v e r s i t y Sample. The u n i v e r s i t y sample consisted of 57 u n i v e r s i t y student volunteers e n r o l l e d i n Education courses at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Thirteen of these subjects d i d not complete one or more of the four measures employed i n the study. The mean scores on the measures completed by the subjects who were excluded because of missing data were compared to the mean scores obtained by subjects not excluded from the study and no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. Of those subjects who completed a l l the measures, nine subjects were excluded because they d i d not properly complete the D e f i n i n g Issues Test and/or the Alternate Dilemmas Test. The Defining -Issues Test responses of seven subjects (16%) and the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test responses of f i v e subjects (11%) contained one or more of the following e r r o r s : (a) more than eight e r r o r s or more than two s t o r i e s with i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n ranking and r a t i n g of dilemma statements; (b) r a t i n g 107 same number of the scale more than nine times; and (c) M Scores, based on r a t i n g and ranking meaningless items too high, of eight or more. T h i r t y - t h r e e per cent of the subjects excluded from the study because of i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s on the moral development measures made errors on both the Defining Issues Test and the Alternate Dilemmas Test, 44% only on the Defining Issues Test, and 22% only on the Alternate Dilemmas Test. The mean D Index and ac t i o n choice scores of those deleted from the study due to errors were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y from those not deleted. The loss of questionnaires f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample on the basis of the M Score and the consistency check i s on the outer l i m i t of the 2 to 15% range i n d i c a t e d by Rest (1979a). As recommended by Rest (1979a), the subjects with errors were excluded from the study to gain c l e a r e r r e s u l t s and better r e l i a b i l i t y . T h i r t y - f i v e subjects were included i n the study (21 females, 14 males). The mean age of the u n i v e r s i t y subjects i n the study was 31.94 years (SD=7.56), ranging i n age from 20 years to 50 years. Their mean years of education was 16.54 years (SD=1.58). Design of the Study This study i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of dilemma content on moral development l e v e l and choice of actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y , as well as on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e to these v a r i a b l e s . 108 P rocedures The study was conducted i n two phases. Phase One of the study involved the p i l o t t e s t i n g of the al t e r n a t e dilemmas used to measure moral judgment. This provided the opportunity to discover misleading or confusing aspects of the dilemmas and the stage statements that followed each dilemma. In phase two, subjects were administered the measurement instruments used to address the questions r a i s e d i n the study. The studies of moral development, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , and dilemma content reviewed i n chapter two have t y p i c a l l y involved u n i v e r s i t y students. To v a l i d a t e and extend the g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s of relevant studies, both a high school sample and unversity sample were employed i n the present study. These two samples were considered separately i n t e s t i n g the hypotheses of the study because they are not viewed to be representative of the same population. The two samples d i f f e r i n age and education, but also l i k e l y v a r i e d on other v a r i a b l e s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e and socioeconomic status. Further, the u n i v e r s i t y sample i s more r e s t r i c t i v e than the high school sample i n that many high school students do not pursue post-secondary education and s p e c i f i c a l l y a career i n the education f i e l d . Measuring Instruments 1. D e f i n i n g Issues Test The Defining Issues Test developed by James Rest (1979b) was used as a measure of the development of moral judgment. This t e s t c o n s i s t s of s i x moral dilemmas presented in story format, each followed by twelve p r o t o t y p i c stage statements. The statements that follow each st o r y 109 represent d i f f e r e n t ways of construing the most important problem i n the dilemma, and are considered by Rest (1979b) to exemplify the d i s t i n c t i v e reasoning of a p a r t i c u l a r stage. Immediately following the moral dilemma story, a question i s asked about whether the character i n the story should take an action s p e c i f i c to each dilemma, f o r example, "Should Heinz s t e a l the drug?" The subject chooses one of the three options, for example, "Should take the a c t i o n , " "Can't decide," or "Should not take the a c t i o n . " In addition to choosing an a c t i o n choice, the subjects are asked to rate and rank the twelve issue statements that follow each dilemma story. These statements are to be rated and ranked i n terms of the importance of each consideration i n making d e c i s i o n about what ought to be done. A 5-item L i k e r t scale, ranging from "Great importance" to "No importance," i s used f o r the r a t i n g of the statements. Subjects are also asked to s e l e c t the four most important statements and rank them from "Most Important Reason" to "Fourth Most Important Reason." The r e l i a b i l i t y of each subject's responses on the Defining Issues Test i s checked on the basis of a Consistency Check. The Consistency Check involves a comparison of a subject's r a t i n g s and rankings of dilemma statements f o r each dilemma. For example, i f a subject ranks an item f i r s t , then h i s or her r a t i n g s for that item should have no other items higher. The data are discarded i f the Consistency Check i n d i c a t e s (a) there are i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n r a t i n g s and rankings on more than two s t o r i e s , or i f the number of i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s on any story exceeds eight instances; and (b) i f two s t o r i e s have more than nine items rated the same. The data are also discarded i f the M Score exceeds e i g h t . The M Score i s based on the r a t i n g and ranking of meaningless items. 110 Several indices of moral development can be derived from the Defining Issues Test. The relevant i n d i c e s for the present study are: Stage Scores, P Index, and D Index. A Compliance with Authority Score devised by the researcher based on the subject's a c t i o n choices was also c a l c u l a t e d f o r the purposes of t h i s study. Stage Scores. The Stage Scores i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e importance given to d i f f e r e n t stage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n making a moral d e c i s i o n . The Stage Score i s determined by f i r s t assigning four points to the items ranked f i r s t , three points to the items ranked second, two points to the items ranked t h i r d , and one point to the items ranked fourth. Since the items are designated as representing a p a r t i c u l a r stage, stage scores can be obtained by t o t a l l i n g the points across the s i x s t o r i e s f o r each stage. P Index. The P Index i s i n t e r p r e t e d as the r e l a t i v e importance given to p r i n c i p l e d moral considerations i n making a moral d e c i s i o n . The P Index i s c a l c u l a t e d by adding together the Stage Scores of Stages 5A, 5B, and 6. D Index. Unlike the P Index, which does not incorporate informa-t i o n from the e a r l i e r stages, the D Index i s an o v e r a l l index of development. The D Index r e f l e c t s the preference f o r p r i n c i p l e d reasoning over conventional and preconventional reasoning. The d e r i v a -t i o n of the D Index i s based on the assumptions t h a t : (a) both persons and moral reasons can be assigned scale values on a s i n g l e underlying continuum of moral development; and (b) persons attach the most impor-tance to statements which express a l e v e l of moral reasoning which i s nearest t h e i r own l e v e l of reasoning. 111 The computation of the D Index involves f i r s t , standardizing the subject's r a t i n g of each item by subtracting the mean of the subject's item r a t i n g , s u btracting an item mean computed on a standardization sample, and adding i n the grand mean computed from the same standardiza-t i o n sample; second, m u l t i p l y i n g each transformed r a t e by i t s appropri-ate f a c t o r score; and t h i r d , summing a l l the subject's r a t i n g scores. The f a c t o r score c o e f f i c i e n t s , or item weights, are estimates of item s c a l e values, with higher stage reasons having higher weights. The standardization sample (Rest, 1979b), used to obtain estimates of item weights and item means, consisted of 1,080 subjects, ranging i n age from 15 to 82 and i n education from j u n i o r high school to graduate school. Compliance with A u t h o r i t y Score. A f t e r each dilemma, a question i s asked about whether the subject would support a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n of a character i n the dilemma story. A Compliance with Authority Score i s : c a l c u l a t e d based on the subject's responses to these questions. One point i s given for each of the following choices: should not s t e a l f o r the Heinz and the Drug dilemma, should not take over for Student Take-over dilemma, should report f o r the Escaped Prisoner dilemma, should not give overdose for the Doctor's dilemma, should not h i r e for the Webster dilemma, and should stop p r i n t i n g for the Newspaper dilemma. This Score was devised by the researcher. . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y S tudies. Two extensive reviews (Davison & Robins, 1978; Rest, 1979a) present evidence for the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the Stage Score, P Index, and D Index of the Defining Issues Test. 112 Davison and Robbins (1978) report the f i n d i n g s of several studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the i n d i c e s of Rest's (1979b) Defin i n g Issues Test. Based on a sample of 160 j u n i o r high, senior high, c o l l e g e , and graduate student, the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s of the following in d i c e s were reported: Stage 2 (r=.50), Stage 3 (r=.51), Stage 4 (r=.52), P Index (r=.77) and D Index (r=.79). T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s were also reported f or two samples. The f i r s t sample c o n s i s t e d of 123 s u b j e c t s a t t e n d i n g moral e d u c a t i o n programs. Subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 56 years o l d and educational l e v e l ranged from j u n i o r high to c o l l e g e . Based on a r e t e s t i n g i n t e r v a l from one week to f i v e months, r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were reported for : Stage 2, r=.44; Stage 3, r=.55; Stage 4, r=.61; P Index, r=.82; and D Index, r=.87. Ninth graders (N=19) and A u s t r a l i a n c o l l e g e students (N=46) made up the second sample. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s reported for t h i s sample were: Stage 2, r=.62; Stage 3, r==.66; Stage 4, r=.76; P Index, r=.76; and D Index, r=.76. A c o g n i t i v e developmentalist claim i s that there i s a moderate r e l a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e with moral judgment, however, moral judgment i s a d i s t i n c t aspect of i n t e l l e c t u a l development (Rest, 1979a). In a review of 15 studies c o r r e l a t i n g the P Index with measures of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , Rest (1979a) reported that of 52 c o r r e l a t i o n s , 83%. are i n the .20's to .50's range, confirming the claim of a moderately high c o r r e l a -t i o n . The subjects i n the 15 studies included students from j u n i o r high to graduate l e v e l , delinquents, and nonstudent a d u l t s . To support the hypothesis that understanding accompanies preference for high stage statements, the Defining Issues Test was c o r r e l a t e d with 113 measures of comprehension of social-moral issues. The m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e Comprehension of Moral Issues Test (Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz & Anderson, 1974) was designed to t e s t comprehension of such concepts as s o c i a l contract, l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y , and due process of law. Rest (1979a) reported that f o r nine studies using the Comprehension of Moral Issues Test and the P Index of the Defining Issues Test, the average c o r r e l a t i o n was .51. The samples i n these studies included students, delinquents, and nonstudent adults ranging i n age from 14 t o 49 years o l d . Rest (1979a) i n t e r p r e t s the f i n d i n g s as evidence that the way subjects; judge moral issues i s r e l a t e d to t h e i r c o g n i t i v e comprehension. i Evidence of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Defining Issues Test and measures; of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s i s viewed by Rest (1979a) as an i n d i c a t i o n that moral judgment i s not a value-neutral i n t e l l e c t u a l i z -ing s k i l l . Rest et a l . (1974) found that the Defining Issues Test P Index and the Law and Order Test c o r r e l a t e d -.60 f o r a sample of 160 j u n i o r high, senior high, c o l l e g e , and graduate students; -.48 for a sample of 65 j u n i o r and senior high school students; and -.46 f o r a sample of nonstudent a d u l t s . The Defining Issues Test was also compared to another measure of moral judgment, Kohlberg's t e s t . Rest (1979a) reported the c o r r e l a t i o n s of the P Index and Kohlberg's stage scores range from .17 to .78 f o r seven studies. The highest c o r r e l a t i o n was found f o r a sample of 45 physicians using Kohlberg's 1976 s c o r i n g system and the lowest c o r r e l a -t i o n for a sample of 74 low academic j u n i o r high students. Rest (1979a) suggests that the lower c o r r e l a t i o n s are found f o r homogeneous samples where the range of scores tend to be r e s t r i c t e d . 114 Davison and Robbins (1978) reported c o r r e l a t i o n s of the D Index of the Defining Issues Test with measures of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , r=.47, p_<.01; with the Comprehension of Moral Issues Test, r=.63, p<.01; and with the Law and Order Test, r=-.49, j3<.01. The sample used included 160 students ranging from junior high to the graduate school l e v e l . They also reported that the D Index c o r r e l a t e s with Kohlberg's interview scores for a sample of 74 ninth-graders, r=.20, and 139 c o l l e g e stu-dents, r=.35. However, when both groups were considered together, the c o r r e l a t i o n was .70, suggesting that the majority of the common variance i n the t o t a l sample can be accounted for by the measures common age i trends. Another source of support f o r the construct v a l i d i t y of the Defining Issues Test i s evidence of age trends i n scores. The l o n g i t u d -i n a l data of two studies were reported by Davison and Robbins (1978). In one study, 20 grade nine and 33 grade 11 students were t e s t e d i n 1972, 1974, and 1976. Over the four years, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n t h e i r Stage 2 and 3 scores and a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n t h e i r Stage 5A and 5B scores: F=20.06, £<.01 f o r the P Index, and F=24.86, £<.01 for the D Index. A d i f f e r e n t pattern was reported f o r the second study i n v o l v i n g a sample of 21 junior and senior high school students. Only the scores f o r Stage 3 (F=2.90, p<.01) and the D Index (F=2.64, £<.05) were s i g n i f i c a n t . Summary. Support for the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of- the various i n d i c e s of the Defining Issues Test has been presented. The v a l i d a t i n g c r i t e r i a included evidence of the f o l l o w i n g : i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t y , t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , c o r r e l a t i o n with measures of 115 c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , comprehension of moral issues, s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s , and Kohlberg's moral judgment measure, and age trends. 2. A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Instrument Thi s measure has been constructed by the researcher to provide a l t e r n a t e dilemmas to those used i n the Defining Issues Test. The alt e r n a t e dilemmas are written to d i f f e r from the Defining Issues Test dilemmas i n the following way. In the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas, the focus i s whether to make a s p e c i a l case i n the i n t e r e s t of s o c i a l welfare or the majority group rather than i n the i n t e r e s t of i n d i v i d u a l or minority group r i g h t s . Legal or established authority i s i n support of i n d i v i d u -a l or minority group r i g h t s i n the al t e r n a t e dilemmas rather than i n opposition to these r i g h t s . Each of the alternate dilemmas i s followed by twelve stage proto-t y p i c statements s i m i l a r to the Defining Issues Test statements except for minor wording changes made to f i t the changed dilemmas. The statements are written to p a r a l l e l the Defining Issues Test statements, consequently the number and order of the statements at each stage i s i d e n t i c a l to those i n the Defining Issues Test. The same i n s t r u c t i o n s are given to subjects as are given f o r the Defining Issues Test. The moral development scoring i n d i c e s used f o r the Defining Issues Test are also used f o r the al t e r n a t e dilemmas instrument. These i n d i c e s are Stage Scores, P Index, and D, Index. In a d d i t i o n , a Compliance with Authority Score f o r the alt e r n a t e dilemmas i s c a l c u l a t e d by g i v i n g one point for each of the following choices: should not s t e a l f o r the Henry and the Drug dilemma, should not take over for the Student Revolt dilemma, should report for the B u l l y 116 dilemma, should not perform surgery f o r Doctor's dilemma, should h i r e for the Winston dilemma, and should stop paper for the Paper dilemma. The r e l i a b i l i t y of each subject's responses on the Alternate Dilemmas Test i s checked on the basis of ,a Consistency Check using the same c r i t e r i a as used for the Defining Issues Test. The subject's protocol was eliminated i f : (a) there are i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n r a t i n g s and rankings on more than two s t o r i e s , or i f the number of i n c o n s i s t e n -c i e s on any story exceeds eight instances; and (b) i f two s t o r i e s have more than nine items rated the same. An M Score of eight or more w i l l also r e s u l t i n the data being discarded. The M Score i s based on the r a t i n g and ranking of meaningless items. 3. Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Form B The Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s was developed by Hogan (1970) to measure the d i s p o s i t i o n to adopt a p a r t i c u l a r e t h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , e i t h e r the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (high score) or the e t h i c s of personal conscience (low score). The 35 items i n t h i s scale are concerned with a t t i t u d e toward l e g a l and s o c i a l compliance. Responses involve degree of agreement or disagreement with various item statements or a choice of statements which i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e toward various actions i n v o l v i n g compliance or noncompliance. Hogan (1970) reported the p a r a l l e l form r e l i a b i l i t y of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s i n an i n i t i a l sample of respondents as ,.97, and i n a subsequent sample as .88. To a s c e r t a i n the v a l i d i t y of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Hogan (1970) compared the responses of groups known to d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the law. He found that h i s t e s t d iscriminated very strongly between policemen and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s and between ROTC 117 Seniors and student a c t i v i s t s . In another study (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972b), the t e s t was found to d i s c r i m i n a t e between f r a t e r n i t i e s that were classed on the basis of campus stereotypes as conservative, moderate, and r a d i c a l . These groups were considered to use d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a i n j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r moral d e c i s i o n s . In t h i s study, the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be opera-t i o n a l l y defined as a score at or above the median for each sample on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s . Conversely, the e t h i c s of personal conscience w i l l be o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as a score below the median f o r each sample on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s . 4. P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Questionnaire The P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Questionnaire administered to the high school subjects i n Phase Two of the study consisted of two s e c t i o n s : A s i x item I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale (Blake, Johnston & E l k i n s , 1981 ) and ten items taken from the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950). The two measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e were admin-i s t e r e d to the high school sample to obtain a more r e l i a b l e measure of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . However, as a r e s u l t of the low c o r r e l a t i o n found between the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale and the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale for the high school sample, r(76)=-.25, p<.05, only the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale scores were u t i l i z e d i n the data analyses. 4A. I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale The I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m S c a l e was d e s i g n e d by B l a k e , Johnston, and E l k i n s (1981) to tap d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ideologies of free e n t e r p r i s e (Individualism) and s o c i a l i s m ( C o l l e c t i v i s m ) . This scale includes two forced-choice dichotomous items and four agree-disagree 118 items. An example of an agree-disagree item i s , "Let's face i t , most unemployed people could f i n d a job i f they r e a l l y wanted to" (Blake, Johnston & E l k i n s , 1981). Possible scores range from 0 to 6, with higher scores representing greater support for " c o l l e c t i v i s t " s o l u t i o n s . Although data on the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s measure were not reported, i t s v a l i d i t y i s supported by the f i n d i n g that adherents of the two major p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s , S o c i a l C r e d i t and New Democrats, were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by p o s i t i o n s on the s c a l e , based on a sample of 1,050 B r i t i s h Columbian vo t e r s . For the high school sample i n Phase Two of t h i s study, I n d i v i d u a l -ism w i l l be o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as a score on the Scale below the median and C o l l e c t i v i s m as a score on the Scale at or above the median. 4B. Politico-Economic Conservatism The Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale was designed by Levinson (1950) to measure politico-economic ideology along a l i b e r a l i s m - c o n -servatism dimension, with high scores representing conservatism and low scores, l i b e r a l i s m . Subjects are asked to express the degree of t h e i r agreement or disagreement along a s i x - p o i n t L i k e r t format f o r ten statements. Four of the fourteen items i n the Second Form of the Scale were eliminated because of t h e i r United States content. Levinson (1950) reported the average r e l i a b i l i t y for the Second Form of the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale to be .70 f o r three samples of u n i v e r s i t y students and a sample of Service Club Men. An item analysis i n d i c a t e d the measure has an o v e r - a l l d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power of 2.08. The f i n d i n g that Service Club Men made the highest score for Conservatism i s provided as support for the v a l i d i t y of the measure. Further v a l i d a t i o n i s provided in the form of case studies i n which two 119 subjects' responses on the Scale and on interview p r o t o c o l s are com-pared. For the high school sample i n Phase Two of t h i s study, Conservatism w i l l be o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as a score on the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale at or above the median and L i b e r a l i s m as a score on the Scale below the median. 5. Conservatism Scale The Conservatism Scale administered to the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n Phase Two of the study was developed by Wilson and Patterson (1970). "Conservatism" i s presumed by the authors to be a p e r s o n a l i t y dimension and a general f a c t o r underlying the e n t i r e f i e l d of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . The Conservatism Scale was administered to the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n place of the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures used for the high school sample. The d e c i s i o n to use the Conservatism Scale was made when i t was discovered that both the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale and P o l i t i c o -Economic Conservatism Scale had low i n t e r n a l c onsistencies r e l i a b i l i t i e s for the high school sample. The f i f t y items of the Conservatism Scale c o n s i s t of b r i e f l a b e l s or "catch-phrases" representing various f a m i l i a r and c o n t r o v e r s i a l issues with response options of "Yes," "?" and "No." Each item i s rated on a three-point L i k e r t - t y p e scale, i . e . l i b e r a l response=0, ambiguous response=1, and conservative response=2. The range of p o s s i b l e scores i s 0 to 100 (the higher the more cons e r v a t i v e ) . Wilson (1973) reported the i n t e r n a l consistency c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r nine samples from four countries ( t o t a l of 2,022 subjects) ranged from .83 to .94, with one exception of .63 f o r a sample of A u s t r a l i a n army c o n s c r i p t s . Wilson (1973) also reported t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s of .89 120 f o r a sample of female education students and .94 f o r German psychology students. The Conservatism Scale i s reported to be free of acquiescence response bias (Cloud & Vaughn, 1969) and le s s s u s c e p t i b l e to the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response set (Orpen, 1971). The construct v a l i d i t y of the measure was supported by four studies which compared groups known to d i f f e r on the conservatism dimension (Wilson, 1973).. Schneider and Minkman ( c i t e d i n Wilson, 1973) also found c o r r e l a t i o n s of .51 and .43 between the Conservatism Scale t o t a l scores and subjects' s e l f - r a t i n g s on two global p o l i t i c a l s c a l e s . Based upon a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s on a sample of 200 B r i t i s h males, Wilson (1970) claimed support f o r the unidimensional nature of the Conservatism Scale as a measure of a general f a c t o r of conservatism. For the u n i v e r s i t y student sample i n phase two of t h i s study, Conservatism was o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as a score at or above the median on the Conservatism Scale and L i b e r a l i s m as a score below the median on the Conservatism Scale. Administration Phase One. The unrevised Alternate Dilemmas Test was group-administered by the researcher to a p i l o t sample of students i n two d i f f e r e n t Grade 11 Law c l a s s e s . The time required for completion of the instrument was approximately 30 minutes. The remainder of. c l a s s time was used to discuss the instrument with the students. Phase Two - High School Sample. In Phase Two, the main high school sample was administered the Defining Issues Test, the Alternate Dilemmas Test, and the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s . ' In a d d i t i o n , t h i s sample was 121 given the P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Questionnaire, c o n s i s t i n g of the Individu-a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale and the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale. A l l the measures were group-administered by the researcher and/or a tr a i n e d research a s s i s t a n t . The measures were presented randomly to each subject except for a s t i p u l a t e d minimum of a 48 hour period of time between completion of the two d i f f e r e n t dilemma instruments and with a maximum of a 5-day period f o r completion of a l l four measures. In general, the time required was two 45-minute periods. Regular c l a s s time was used f o r a l l high school subjects. Phase Two - U n i v e r s i t y Sample. In Phase Two, the u n i v e r s i t y sample was administered the Defining Issues Test, the Alternate Dilemmas Test, and the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s . The measure of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e given to t h i s sample was the Conservatism Scale. The four measures were group-administered by the researcher and/or a t r a i n e d research a s s i s t a n t . The measures were presented randomly to each subject except for a s t i p u l a t e d minimum of a 48 hour period of time between completion of the two d i f f e r e n t dilemma instruments and with a maximum of a 5-day period for completion of a l l four measures. The u n i v e r s i t y students were tested e i t h e r during regular c l a s s time or at other times scheduled by the researcher, depending on the response of the course i n s t r u c t o r . Data Processing and A n a l y s i s Data Processing A l l measures were hand-scored and coded by a research a s s i s t a n t . The Defining Issues Test and Alternate Dilemmas Test were also scored by 122 the computer using a program adapted from a model program by Davison et a l . (1979). The Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures were computer scored using the Laboratory of Education Research Test A n a l y s i s Package, LERTAP (Nelson, 1974). Scores obtained by hand sco r i n g of the measures were v e r i f i e d with scores obtained by computer scoring of the measures. Data A n a l y s i s Phase One. The following analyses were completed i n Phase One: — t a b l e s of frequency counts for the dilemma statement r a t i n g s , rankings, and behavioral choices. — an item a n a l y s i s of the Alternate Dilemmas Test using the S t a t i s -t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l Sciences (SPSSX) computer programs (SPSSX Inc., 1983) . a content analysis of the dilemmas and dilemma statements using the written and spoken comments made about the Alternate Dilemmas Test by the subjects. Phase Two. Data from the two samples i n phase two were analyzed separately. The high school and u n i v e r s i t y sample were considered to represent d i f f e r e n t populations, d i f f e r i n g i n age, education, and on other v a r i a b l e s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e and socioeconomic status. Many high school students do not pursue post-secondary education and the u n i v e r s i t y sample i s further r e s t r i c t e d by i n c l u d i n g only students who are i n Education courses. The following analyses were completed separately i n phase two for each of the samples: 123 an item analysis of the Defining Issues Test and the Alternate Dilemmas for each of the following i n d i c e s : Stage Scores, P Index, D Index, and Compliance with Authority Action Score. The a n a l y s i s was performed using SPSSX computer programs (SPSSX Inc., 1983). an item analysis of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , the Individu-a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale, the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale, and the Conservatism Scale using the LERTAP (Nelson, 1970) computer program. z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s t o p e r m i t a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the strength of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the constructs being measured. t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e for Sex e f f e c t on moral development l e v e l , Compliance with Authority Score, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . a 2 x 2 x 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures. P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e (High C o n s e r v a t i s m , Low Conservatism) and E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e (High S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Low S o c i a l Responsi-b i l i t y ) were used as between-subject f a c t o r s . Dilemma Type (Defining Issues Test, Alternate Dilemmas Test) was used as a w i t h i n - s u b j e c t r e p e a t e d measures f a c t o r . The two dependent v a r i a b l e s were moral development l e v e l (D Index) and action choice (Compliance with Authority Score). a stepwise m u l t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s using a SPSSX (1983) computer program analyzing action choice (Defining Issues Test) as a function of moral development l e v e l (Defining Issues Test D Index), p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral development l e v e l (Alternate Dilemmas D Index), sex, and age. 124 — a m u l t i p l e regression analysis using SPSSX (1983) computer program analyzing action choice (Alternate Dilemmas Test) as a function of moral development l e v e l (Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index), p o l i t i c -a l a t t i t u d e , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral development l e v e l (Defining Issues Test D Index), sex, and age. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s u l t s of these data analyses i s reported i n chapter four. Summary A d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample and the design of the study has been presented. An explanation of the procedure used for t e s t administration included information about the measures employed i n the study, i . e . , Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979b), Alternate Dilemmas Test (researcher-designed), Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, 1970), Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950), I n d i v i d u a l / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale (Blake, Johnston, & E l k i n s , 1981), and Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1970). F i n a l l y , data processing and analyses were o u t l i n e d . 125 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Chapter four i s devoted to the presentation of the r e s u l t s of both phases of the study. Phase one represents the p i l o t t e s t i n g of the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas instrument and the r e s u l t s of the item and t e s t a n a l y s i s of the unrevised a l t e r n a t e dilemmas are reported. The hypothe-ses of the study were teste d i n phase two with a high school student sample and a u n i v e r s i t y student sample. The r e s u l t s f o r phase two of the study are presented separately for each sample i n r e l a t i o n to the hypotheses that were t e s t e d . Phase One Item and Test A n a l y s i s An item analysis of the unrevised alternate dilemmas was performed. Frequency counts of dilemma statement r a t i n g s and rankings i n d i c a t e d a need for r e v i s i o n of some dilemma statements. In a d d i t i o n , a content an a l y s i s based on subjects' written and spoken comments was made. Information from these analyses was used i n making r e v i s i o n s to the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas. 126 Phase Two - High School Sample The r e s u l t s of the data analyses f o r the high school sample are presented i n r e l a t i o n to the hypotheses that were t e s t e d . Preliminary Analyses An item analysis for the high school sample was performed f o r each of the four i n d i c e s of the Defining Issues Test and the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test, i . e . , Stage Scores, P Index, D Index, and Action Choice (Compliance with Authority Score), as well as the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m S c a l e and P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c Conservatism Scale. Means and standard deviations of the Defining Issues Test (D Index and Action Choice), A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test (D Index and Action Choice), Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m S c a l e and Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale are presented for the high school sample i n Table 3. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s are also presented i n Table 3 for the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures. The t e s t s t a t i s t i c s of the high school sample f o r the Stage Scores and P Index of the Defining Issues Test and A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test are presented i n Appendix B (see Table B-1). Although the Stage Scores and P Index are not used i n the a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study, information regarding these i n d i c e s are reported because of -their common use in the research l i t e r a t u r e . D i v i d i n g the sample on the basis of a median score of 17 on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , r e s u l t e d i n 38 subjects being grouped as high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and 30 subjects as low e t h i c s of Table 3 High School Sample Test S t a t i s t i c s (N — 68) D Index Ac t i o n SEA IC PEC DIT ADT DIT ADT M 17.04 4.07 39.71 18.00 18.21 2.65 2.43 SD 4.39 , 1.21 6.57 5.98 6.20 1.16 1.14 REL .68 .34 .32 Notes: SEA = Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s IC = I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale DIT = Defining Issues Test ADT = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test PEC = Politico-Economic Conservatism REL = Internal Consistencies R e l i a b i l i t y s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( e t h i c s of personal conscience). The high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e p o n s i b i l i t y group had a mean score on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s of 20.00 (SD=2.57 ), whereas the low e t h i c s of s o c i a l responsi-b i l i t y group had a mean of 13.30 (SD=3.20). As a r e s u l t of the low c o r r e l a t i o n found between the two measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e used with the high \ school sub j ects, that i s , the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale and the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale, r_(66)=-.25, jp<.05, only the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale scores were used to group subjects as high conservatism or low con-servatism ( l i b e r a l i s m ) . The p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e groups, formed on the basis of the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale median score of 40, consisted of 36 subjects i n the high conservatism group and 32 subjects i n the low conservatism group. The mean score of the high conservatism 128 group on the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale was 44.61 (SD=4.05), while the low conservatism group's mean score was 34.19 (SD=3.92). Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d to permit a preliminary i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the strength of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the constructs being measured. The data were inspected to determine i f the planned analyses were appropriate. The c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of the measures used with the high school sample i s presented i n Table 4. The c o r r e l a t i o n matrix for the Stage Scores and P Index i s presented in Appendix B (see Table B-2). The c o r r e l a t i o n analyses for the high school sample i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Defining Issues Test and Alternate Dilemma Test D Index scores, r(66)=.69, £<.001, and action choice scores, r(66)=.39, p<.001. Further, the c o r r e l a t i o n between the Defining Issues Test D Index and Action Choice scores was found to have s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , r(66)=.40, p_<.001. However, the Alternate Dilemma D Index was not found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the Alternate Dilemmas Test a c t i o n choice scores although i t was with the Defining Issues Test action choice scores, r(66)=.32, p_<.01. Neither e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e nor p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the two moral development measures' D Index or Action Choice scores. A n a l y s i s of Sex Differences Tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e were performed for the high school sample to determine whether the sex v a r i a b l e could be disregarded i n subsequent analyses. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between males and 129 Table 4 High School Sample C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix (N = 68) D Index A c t i o n i SEA IC PEC DIT ADT DIT ADT SEA IC PEC D Index DIT ADT A c t i o n DIT ADT 1.00 -.01 .05 -.21 -.22 . 13 .12 1.00 -.25* .08 .05 .06 .06 1.00 -.01 -.01 .02 .02 1.00 .69*** .40*** .18 1.00 .32** .19 1 .00 .39*** 1.00 Note: DIT ADT SEA IC PEC * ** *** Defining Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale £<.05 p<.01 p_<. 001 females i n moral development l e v e l (D Index) or action choice (Compli-ance with Authority Score) for e i t h e r the Defining Issues Test or the Alternate Dilemmas Test. In a d d i t i o n , there was no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e on any of the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures used with the high school sample. Consequently, the sex v a r i a b l e was not included i n any of the high school sample analyses that follow. i 130 2 x 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Variance Repeated Measures A 2 x 2 x 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures was performed for the high school sample to t e s t the hypotheses of the study. The two between-subject f a c t o r s were E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e (High S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Low S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e (High Conservatism, Low Conservatism) and the within-subject f a c t o r was dilemma type (Defining Issues Test dilemmas, a l t e r n a t e dilemmas). The two dependent v a r i a b l e s were moral development l e v e l (D Index) and ac t i o n choice (Compliance with Authority Score). The moral development l e v e l and action choice means and standard deviations of the two dilemma types for the high school groups are presented in Table 5. This information for the high school sample i s presented with the P Index as the dependent v a r i a b l e i n Appendix B (see Table B-3). In t e r a c t i o n s between subject's e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e / p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and dilemma content for both moral development l e v e l and action choice were pre d i c t e d . Scores on the Defining Issues Test and the Alternate Dilemmas Test were hypothesized to vary i n terms of the subjects' e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . The dilemma type by e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was predicted to c o n s i s t of subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores having lower moral develop-ment l e v e l and choosing more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test than on the Alternate Dilemmas Test t-han subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. I t was expected that subjects with high conservatism and low conservatism scores would perform i n a s i m i l a r manner to subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l 131 Table 5 High School Sample Means and Standard Deviations  of the Two Dilemma Types for the Four Groups E t h i c s of E t h i c s of S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Personal Conscience Conservatism L i b e r a l i s m Conservatism L i b e r a l i s m n = 21 n = 17 n = 15 n = 15 M SD M SD M SD M SD D Index DIT 18.69 4.59 14.50 5.12 18.48 6.69 20.53 6.60 ADT 17.93 5.81 14.97 6.20 19.02 3.88 21.48 7.21 A c t i o n , DIT 2.76 1.14 2.77 1.15 2.47 1.30 2.53 1.13 ADT 2.67 1.24 2.29 1.21 2.07 .88 2.60 1.12 Note: DIT = Defining Issues Test ADT = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores, respec-t i v e l y . In a d d i t i o n , main e f f e c t s were predicted for each dilemma type. On the Defining Issues Test, subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r esponsi-b i l i t y scores were hypothesized to have lower moral development l e v e l and to choose more actions i n compliance with authority than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. S i m i l a r l y , subjects with high conservatism scores were also hypothesized to score lower i n moral development and choose more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test than subject with low conservatism scores. 132 On the other hand, the D Index and action choice scores on the Alter n a t e Dilemmas Test were hypothesized to be i n the opposite d i r e c -t i o n to the score on the Defining Issues Test for the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e groups. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores, or high conservatism scores, were pr e d i c t e d to have higher moral development l e v e l and to choose fewer actions i n compliance with authority on the Al t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores, or low conservatism scores. The r e s u l t s f o r the high school subjects w i l l f i r s t be discussed i n terms of the hypotheses concerning i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s and then main e f f e c t s . In Table 6, a summary of the r e s u l t s of the an a l y s i s f o r the high school sample i s presented. A summary of the ana l y s i s using the P Index as a dependent v a r i a b l e i s presented i n Appendix B (B-4). Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e . It was hypothesized that dilemma type would i n t e r a c t with e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r both the moral development and action choice v a r i a b l e s . The following hypothesis was made about the dilemma type by e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r the moral development v a r i a b l e . 9. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development l e v e l and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l have lower moral development l e v e l on the Defin i n g Issues Test dilemmas and higher moral development l e v e l on the alternate dilemmas than subjects with low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. In a d d i t i o n , the following hypothesis was made about the dilemma type by e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t for action choice scores. 133 Table 6 High School Sample Summary Data 2 x 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Variance Repeated Measures M u l t i v a r i a t e U n i v a r i a t e H o t e l l i n g s Equiv Moral Dev A c t i o n T " F (df) £ F £ F £ ETH .16 5.04(2,63) .009 6.07 .016 .83 .364 POL .01 .40(2,63) .673 .59 .446 .02 .897 ETH X POL .08 2.53(2,63) .088 5.12 .027 1.06 .308 DIL .04 1.12(2,63) .332 .13 .724 2.02 .160 DIL X ETH .01 .34(2,63) .711 .65 .425 .10 .758 DIL X POL .01 .27(2,63) .767 .53 .468 .00 .996 DIL X ETH x POL .03 1.01(2,63) .371 .12 .732 1.81 .183 Note: ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e DIL = Dilemma Type 10. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of subject's choices of action i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l choose more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and w i l l choose fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures of Table 6 i n d i c a t e d a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t dilemma type by e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n 134 e f f e c t for the set of dependent v a r i a b l e s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development l e v e l or action choice and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas. Thus, hypotheses nine and ten are not confirmed for the high school sample. Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e . Dilemma ty p e by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were hypothesized f o r both the moral development and a c t i o n choice v a r i a b l e s . The hypothesis for the dilemma type by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r moral developent i s : 11. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development l e v e l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have lower moral development l e v e l of the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and higher moral development l e v e l on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. The following hypothesis concerns the dilemma type by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r the action choice v a r i a b l e . 12. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of subjects' choices of action i n compliance with authority and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose more actions i n compli-ance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test and w i l l choose fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y on the, a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. When the dependent v a r i a b l e s are taken together i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of variance repeated measures for the high school sample, there was a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t dilemma type by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . Thus, hypotheses 11 and 12, concerning the dilemma type by 135 p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f or moral development l e v e l or a c t i o n choice, were not supported for the high school sample. E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e . E t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , e f f e c t s for the moral develop-ment and action choice v a r i a b l e s were hypothesized for both dilemma types. The following hypotheses were made about the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e for the Defining Issues Test. Hypothesis one concerns the moral development v a r i a b l e and h y p o t h e s i s two, the a c t i o n c h o i c e v a r i a b l e . 1. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. 2. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The hypotheses concerning the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t on the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test moral development scores (hypothesis three) and a c t i o n choice scores (hypothesis four) follow: 3. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher moral development l e v e l as assessed by the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l respon-s i b i l i t y scores. 4. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on 136 the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures of Table 6 examining the e f f e c t of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s on the set of dependent v a r i a b l e s shows a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the set of dependent v a r i a b l e s (D Index and Compliance with Authority Score) considered together, F(2,63 )=5. 04, P<.009. Inspection of the un i v a r i a t e F r a t i o s reveals a s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r only the moral develop-ment v a r i a b l e , F(1,64)=6.07, £<.016. Inspection of the mean moral development scores i n d i c a t e that hypothesis one, i n which subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r esponsi-b i l i t y s c o r e s are p r e d i c t e d to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral * development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores, i s supported for the high school sample. However, hypotheses two, concerning the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r Defining Issues Test action choice scores i s not suported for the high school sample. N e i t h e r o f the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g moral development l e v e l and a c t i o n choice for the Alternate Dilemmas Test (hypotheses three and four) were supported by the data a n a l y s i s . Although the d i f f e r e n c e between the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups i n moral development l e v e l was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i n s p e c t i o n of the mean scores i n d i c a t e d that the d i f f e r e n c e was not i n the d i r e c t i o n hypothe-s i z e d for the Alternate Dilemmas Test. I t was predicted that subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores would have s i g n i f i c a n t -l y higher moral development l e v e l on the Alternate Dilemmas Test than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y score. Contrary to 137 expectations, subjects with high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores had lower moral development l e v e l on the Alternate Dilemmas Test than subjects with low e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores. P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e . P o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t s f o r each dilemma type's moral development and action choices scores were hypothesized. The hypotheses f o r the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t s f o r the Defining Issues Test moral development score (hypothesis f i v e ) and a c t i o n choice scores (hypothesis six) are: 5. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. 6. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measure examining the e f f e c t of P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s on moral development and action choice v a r i a b l e s , considered together, d i d not show s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance. Neither hypothesis f i v e nor s i x i s confirmed by the r e s u l t s o f the data a n a l y s i s for the high school sample. The hypotheses for the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t s for the Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development scores (hypothesis seven) and action choice scores (hypothesis eight) are: 7. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r moral development l e v e l as a s s e s s e d by the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. 138 8. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. C o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s f o r p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and the Defining Issues Test moral development and action choice scores, the data a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that there was no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and the Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development and action choice scores. Thus, hypotheses seven and eight, concerning the Alternate Dilemmas Test, were not confirmed by the r e s u l t s of the analysis for the high school sample. Summary. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores were found to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral development l e v e l on the Defining Issues Test than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l responsi-b i l i t y scores (hypothesis one). Hypotheses 2 t o 12 were not confirmed by the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s for the high school sample. M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses Two stepwise m u l t i p l e regression analyses were performed f o r the high school sample with the dependent v a r i a b l e the action choice scores of e i t h e r the Defining Issues Test or the Alternate Dilemmas Test. It was hypothesized that the best p r e d i c t o r of a c t i o n choice f o r each dilemma type would be the respective dilemma type D Index score. Further, the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , Alternate Dilemma Test moral development, sex and age v a r i a b l e s were expected to add s i g n i f i c a n c e to the regression equation. D e f i n i n g Issues Test A c t i o n Choice. Using the Compliance with Authority scores derived from the Defining Issues Test as the dependent 139 v a r i a b l e and scores from moral development l e v e l (Defining Issues Test D Index), p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral development l e v e l (Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index) , sex, and age as independent v a r i -ables, a mul t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s using a stepwise procedure was conducted to a s c e r t a i n how much of the variance of the Defin i n g Issues Test Action Choice scores was accounted f or by the independent v a r i a b l e s described. A summary of the stepwise m u l t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s using the Defining Issues Test action choice score as the dependent v a r i a b l e i s presented i n Table 7. The following two hypotheses concern the p r e d i c t i o n of the Defining Issues Test compliance with a u t h o r i t y action choice score: 13a. The following v a r i a b l e s w i l l i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or j o i n t l y s i g n i f i -c a n t l y p r e d i c t Defining Issues Test a c t i o n choice scores: D e f i n i n g Issues Test moral development l e v e l , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , sex and age. 13b. The Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l w i l l account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater proportion of the variance of Defining Issues Test a c t i o n choice scores than e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i -tude, Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , sex and age. The high school stepwise regression a n a l y s i s revealed that the Defining Issues Test D Index i s the best p r e d i c t o r of the Defining Issues Test compliance with authority a c t i o n choice score', accounting for 16% of the variance. Thus, hypothesis 13b i s supported by the data a n a l y s i s . However, hypothesis 13a i s not confirmed since none of the other v a r i a b l e s considered contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the regression equation a f t e r the Defining Issues Test D Index was entered. 140 Table 7 Summary of the High School Sample Regression A n a l y s i s ; D e f i n i n g Issues Test A c t i o n Choice Score as Dependent V a r i a b l e V a r i a b l e s i n Equation Var i a b l e s Not i n Equation V a r i a b l e 2 Entered Beta R df F V a r i a b l e s Beta In P a r t i a l Simple r_ 1. DD .395 .156 1 ,66 12 .19*** ; SEA .224 .238 -.130 PEC .020 .022 .016 AD .087 .069 .317** SEX -.219 -.237 -. 172 AGE -.075 -.081 -.037 Note: DD = Defining Issues Test D Index SEA = Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s PEC = Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale AD = Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index * p_<.05 ** p_<.01 *** £<.001 A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test A c t i o n Choice. Using the Compliance with Authority; scores derived from the Alternate Dilemmas Test as the dependent v a r i a b l e and scores from moral development l e v e l (Alternate Dilemmas D Index), p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral develop-ment l e v e l (Defining Issues Test D Index), sex, and age as independent v a r i a b l e s , a m u l t i p l e regression analysis using a stepwise procedure was conducted f o r the high school sample to as c e r t a i n how much of the variance of the Alternate Dilemmas Test Action Choice was accounted for by the independent v a r i a b l e s described. The following two hypotheses 141 were made concerning the p r e d i c t i o n of the Alternate Dilemmas Test compliance with authority action choice score: 14a. The following v a r i a b l e s w i l l i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or j o i n t l y s i g n i f i -c a n t l y p r e d i c t A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e s : Alternate Dilemmas Test Moral Development L e v e l , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l , sex and age. 14b. The Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l w i l l account for a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater proporation of the variance of A l t e r -nate Dilemmas Test a c t i o n choice scores than e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l , sex and age. None of the v a r i a b l e s were found to contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the regression equation for the Alternate Dilemmas Test a c t i o n choice score, t h e r e f o r e , hypotheses 14a and 14b were not supported for the high school sample. Summary. The mul t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s f o r the high school sample revealed that the Defining Issues Test D Index i s the best p r e d i c t o r of the Defining Issues Test compliance with authority score. The following v a r i a b l e s d i d not contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the regres-sion equation of the Defining Issues Test action choice score a f t e r the Defining Issues Test D Index was entered: e t h i c a l attitude., p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index, sex and age. -None of the v a r i a b l e s considered were found to contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the regression equation for the Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice score. 142 Phase Two - U n i v e r s i t y Sample The r e s u l t s of the data analysis for the high school sample have been presented in r e l a t i o n to the hypotheses of the study. The univer-s i t y sample r e s u l t s w i l l also be presented i n r e l a t i o n to these same hypotheses. Preliminary Analyses An item analysis f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample was performed f o r each of the four i n d i c e s of the Defining Issues Test and the Alternate Dilemmas Test, i . e . , Stage Scores, P Index, D Index, and Action Choice (Compliance with Authority Score), as well as the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the Conservatism Scale. Means and standard deviations of the Defining Issues Test (D Index and Action Choice), A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test (D Index and Action Choice), Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , and the Conservatism Scale are presented for the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n Table 8. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures are also presented i n Table 8. The u n i v e r s i t y t e s t s t a t i s t i c s for the Stage Scores and P Index of the Defining Issues Test and Alternate Dilemmas Test are presented i n Appendix C (see Table C-1). Although the Stage Scores and P Index are not used i n the an a l y s i s i n .this study, information regarding these i n d i c e s are reported because of -their common use i n the research l i t e r a t u r e . 143 Table 8 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Test S t a t i s t i c s (N = 35) D Index A c t i o n SEA CS - DIT ADT DIT ADT M 16.91 36.00 28.80 27.62 1.91 3.26 SD 5.11 12.25 8.80 7.29 1.22 1.09 REL .77 .82 Note: SEA = Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e CS = Conservatism Scale DIT = Defining Issues Test ADT = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test The e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample, based on the median score of 17 on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , consisted of 19 subjects i n the high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y group and 16 subjects i n the low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y group ( e t h i c s of personal conscience). The high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y group had a mean score on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s of 2 0.68 (SD=2.47), whereas the low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y group had a mean score of 12.94 (SD=3.52). The p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e groups, formed on the basis of the median score of 40 on the Conservatism Scale, consisted of 18 subjects i n the high conservatism group and 17 subjects i n the low conservatism ( l i b -eralism) group. The high conservatism group had a mean score of 45.50 (SD=7.32) and the low conservatism group had a mean score of 25.44 (SD=7.26) on the Conservatism Scale. 144 In addition, Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d for the u n i v e r s i t y sample to permit a preliminary i n v e s t i g a -t i o n of the strength of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the constructs being measured. The c o r r e l a t i o n matrix was inspected to determine i f the planned an a l y s i s was appropriate. The c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of the measures used in phase two of the study f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample i s presented i n Table 9. A u n i v e r s i t y c o r r e l a t i o n matrix i n c l u d i n g the Stage Scores and P Index i s also presented i n Appendix C (see Table C-2). The c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses i n d i c a t e d that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Defining Issues Test and A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test D Index scores for the u n i v e r s i t y sample was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , r_(33)=.77, j3<.001. The Defining Issues Test D Index was also found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y nega-t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , r(33)=-.53, £<.001, and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , r(33)=-.48, j3<.01, i n d i c a t i n g that low D Index scores were associated with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores and high conservatism scores. S i m i l a r l y , the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test D Index was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , r(33)=-.52, 2<.001, and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , r(33)=-.56, JD<.001. Although the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d , r(33)=.44, p<.01, there was a greater s i g n i f i c a n c e for the c o r r e l a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and the Defining Issues Test action choice score, r(33)=.54, p<.001, than for e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and the Defining Issues a c t i o n choice score, r(33)=.34, j2<.05. Further, the Alternate Dilemmas Test action score was not 145 Table 9 U n i v e r s i t y Sample C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix (N = 35) SEA CS D Index Acti o n DIT ADT DIT ADT SEA 1.00 CS .44** 1.00 D Index DIT -.53*** -.48** 1.00 ADT -.52*** -.56*** .77*** 1.00 Action DIT .34* .54*** -.20 -.24 1.00 ADT -.01 -.16 .23 .12 .26 1.00 Note: DIT = Defining Issues Test ADT = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test SEA = Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s CS = Conservatism Scale * £<.05 ** p<.01 *** p<.001 s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with e i t h e r e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e found f or the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the D Index of the two dilemma types and the a c t i o n choice scores of e i t h e r the Defining Issues Test or the Alternate Dilemmas Test. However, the u n i v e r s i t y f i n d i n g s for the d i f f e r e n t i n d i c e s of moral development i n terms of t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n with the Defining Issues 146 Test action choice scores were not c o n s i s t e n t . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between the Defining Issues Test a c t i o n choice score and the Defining Issues Test Stage 4 Score, r(33)=.67, £<.001, and P Index, r(33)=-.53, £<.001, as well as the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test Stage 4 score, r(33)=.44, and P Index, r(33)=-.40, JD<.05 (see Table C-2). A n a l y s i s of Sex D i f f e r e n c e s Tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e were performed to determine whether the sex v a r i a b l e could be disregarded i n subsequent analyses for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between males and females i n moral development l e v e l (D Index), action choice (Compliance with Authority Score), e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . Conse-quently, the sex v a r i a b l e was not included i n any of the u n i v e r s i t y sample analyses that f o l l o w s . 2 x 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Variance Repeated Measures A 2 x 2 x 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures was performed for the u n i v e r s i t y samples. The two between-subject f a c t o r s were E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e (High S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Low S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e (High Conservatism, Low conservatism), and the within-subject f a c t o r was dilemma type (Defining Issues Test dilemmas, a l t e r n a t e dilemmas). The two dependent v a r i a b l e s were moral development l e v e l (D Index) and action choice (Compliance with Authority Score). This a n a l y s i s was performed to t e s t the hypotheses of the study. 147 The means and standard deviations of moral development l e v e l and action choice scores, assessed by the two dilemma types, are presented fo r the groups i n the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n Table 10. The information for the u n i v e r s i t y sample i s also presented with the P Index as the dependent v a r i a b l e i n Appendix C (see Table C-3). In the present study, the i n t e r a c t i o n of dilemma content and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e on moral development and action choice scores was i n v e s t i g a t e d . It was p r e d i c t e d that subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores, or high conservatism scores, would have lower moral development l e v e l and choose fewer actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test than on the Alternate Dilemmas t e s t than subject with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y score, or low conservatism scores. Main e f f e c t s for each dilemma type were also i n v e s t i g a t e d . For the Defining Issues Test, i t was predicted that subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores would have lower moral development l e v e l and choose more actions i n compliance with authority than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. S i m i l a r l y , i t was p r e d i c t e d that subjects with high conservatism scores would have lower moral development l e v e l and choose more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test than subjects with low conservatism scores. With the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test, i t was predicted that subjects with high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores, or high p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e scores, would have higher moral development l e v e l and choose fewer actions i n compliance with authority than subjects with low e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores, or low p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e scores. 148 Table 10 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Means and Standard Deviations  of the Two Dilemma Types f o r the Four Groups E t h i c s of E t h i c s of S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Personal Conscience Conservatism L i b e r a l i s m Conservatism L i b e r a l i s m n = 13 n = 6 n = 5 n = 11 M SD M SD M SD M SD D Index DIT 24.08 7.36 28.95 5.16 28.12 9.02 34.62 9.28 ADT 24.08 6.49 26.20 5.97 26.71 4.40 33.01 7.39 Acti o n DIT 2.54 .88 1.83 .75 2.40 1.34 1.00 1.26 ADT 3.62 .65 2.83 .75 2.60 1.52 3.36 1.36 Note: DIT = Defining Issues Test ADT = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample are f i r s t discussed i n terms of the hypotheses concerning i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s and second, main e f f e c t s . In Table 11, a summary of the r e s u l t s of the u n i v e r s i t y sample an a l y s i s i s presented. A summary for the u n i v e r s i t y sample i s also presented f or the P Index as a dependent v a r i a b l e i n Appendix C (see Table C-4). Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e . - The i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s for the u n i v e r s i t y sample i s complicated by the f i n d i n g of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e e f f e c t , m u l t i v a r i a t e F(2,30)=3.43, p<.05. 149 Table 11 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Summary Data 2 x 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures M u l t i v a r i a t e Univariate H o t e l l i n q s Equiv F (df) 2 Moral F Dev £ Ac t i o n F p_ ETH .50 7.54(2,30) .002 8.62 .006 3.62 .066 POL .29 4.36(2,30) .022 3.95 .056 3.02 .092 ETH X POL .02 .32(2,30) .730 .36 .555 .45 .508 DIL 1.31 19.62(2,30) .000 1.43 .241 40.53 .000 DIL X ETH .07 1.09(2,30) .349 .11 .737 2.25 .144 DIL X POL .14 2.17(2,30) .132 .56 .461 4.32 .046 DIL X ETH x POL .23 3.43(2,30) .046 .36 .555 6.03 .020 Note: ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e DIL = Dilemma Type This e f f e c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r only the action choice v a r i a b l e as in d i c a t e d by the u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , F(1,31)=6.03, p<.02. Inspection of the mean scores f o r action choice f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample reveals that there was a greater d i f f e r e n c e i n ac t i o n choice scores between the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups and the two p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e groups on the Defining Issues Test than on the Al t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test. To i n v e s t i g a t e the Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n f u r t h e r a separate m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance was performed f o r each dilemma type f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample. A summary of the analysis i s presented i n Table 12. 150 Table 12 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Summary of Data 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Variance: Defining Issues Test M u l t i v a r i a t e Univariate H o t e l l i n q s Equiv Moral Dev Ac t i o n T" F (df) F £ F £ ETH .45 6.72(2,30) .004 6.64 .015 5.89 .021 POL .38 5.70(2,30) .008 3.74 .062 6.92 .013 ETH x POL .03 .45(2,30) .642 .08 .781 .79 .380 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Variance: Al t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test M u l t i v a r i a t e Univariate H o t e l l i n g s Equiv Moral Dev Ac t i o n T* F (df) £ F £ F £ ETH .31 4.62(2,30) .018 8.17 .008 .45 .508 POL .10 1.52(2,30) .235 2.90 . 100 .04 .844 ETH X POL .14 2.03(2,30) .149 .77 .386 3.89 .058 Note: ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e A comparison of the r e s u l t s of the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance for each dilemma type for the u n i v e r s i t y sample revealed that the s i g n i f i c a n c e found f or eit h e r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t for ac t i o n choice scores i s l i m i t e d to the Defining Issues Test. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test revealed that neither the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e nor p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r action choice scores was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 151 f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test, although there was s i g n i f i c a n c e f or the moral development v a r i a b l e assessed by t h i s measure. Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e . I t was hypothesized that dilemma type would i n t e r a c t with e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e for both the moral development , and action choice v a r i a b l e s . The following hypothesis concerns the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r moral development l e v e l . 9. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development l e v e l and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l have lower moral development l e v e l on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and higher moral development on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The hypothesis f o r the dilemma type by e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t for action choice i s : 10. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of subject's choices of action i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e f or the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l choose more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test and w i l l choose fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures examining the dilemma type by e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t revealed that there was a lack of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for the set of dependent v a r i a b l e s (moral development l e v e l , a c t i o n choice) considered together. Therefore, hypotheses nine and ten, r e l a t i n g to the dilemma type by 152 e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , were not supported by the r e s u l t s of the analysis f or the u n i v e r s i t y sample. Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e . P r e d i c t i o n s were made that dilemma type would i n t e r a c t with p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r the moral development and a c t i o n choice v a r i a b l e s . The hypothesis for the dilemma type by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r moral development i s : 11. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development l e v e l and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have lower moral development l e v e l of the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and higher moral development l e v e l on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. The following hypothesis concerns the dilemma type by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t on action choice score. 12. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of subjects' choices of action i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose more actions i n compli-ance with authority on the Defining Issues Test and w i l l choose fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures .of Table 11 examining the dilemma type by p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t i n d i c a t e d that there was no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the set of dependent v a r i a b l e s (moral development l e v e l , a ction choice) considered together. Thus, hypotheses 11 and 12, concerning the dilemma type by 153 p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , are not supported f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample. E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e . In a d d i t i o n to i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , main e f f e c t s for the moral development and a c t i o n choice v a r i a b l e s were hypothesized f o r each dilemma type. In terms of the Defining Issues Test, the hypothesis for the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r moral development l e v e l i s : 1. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The hypothesis f o r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r action choice on the Defining Issues Test i s : 2. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. In the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures of Table 11, the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o found f o r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t on action scores can be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that both the Defining Issues Test and the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test action choice scores were pooled together i n the a n a l y s i s . The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance for each dilemma type -of Table 12 revealed that there i s a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r dilemma action choice scores on the Defining Issues Test, but not on the Alternate Dilemmas Test. 154 Inspection of the mean moral development and action choice scores for the u n i v e r s i t y sample revealed that subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores were lower i n moral development l e v e l and chose fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y than subjects with low et h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores f o r the Defining Issues Test. Consequently, both hypotheses one and two, concerning the e f f e c t of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e on the Defining Issues Test moral development and action choice v a r i a b l e s , are supported for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. For the Alternate Dilemma Test, the following hypothesis was made i n respect to the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r moral development l e v e l . 3. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher moral development l e v e l as assessed by the al t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l re-s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The hypothesis f o r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice score i s : 4. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the alternate dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample (see Table 11) i n d i c a t e d that there was a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t for the Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development score. This s i g n i f i c a n c e was also confirmed by the m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of variance f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test 155 (see Table 12). However, inspection of the mean scores f o r the A l t e r -nate Dilemmas Test D Index revealed that the s i g n i f i c a n c e was not i n the d i r e c t i o n hypothesized. The hypothesized e f f e c t of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development scores, that i s , subjects with high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores would have higher moral development l e v e l on the Alt e r n a t e Dilemmas Test than subjects with low e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores (hypothesis t h r e e ) , i s not supported for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. The data a n a l y s i s also i n d i c a t e d that there i s not a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n Alternate Dilemmas Test action scores f o r the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups. Therefore, hypothesis four, concerning the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r Alternate Dilemmas Test a c t i o n choice, i s not confirmed for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e . P o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t s were pr e d i c t e d f or the moral development and action choice v a r i a b l e s for each dilemma type. For the Defining Issues Test, the hypothesis f or the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t f o r moral development i s : 5. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. The hypothesis for the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t for ac t i o n choice f o r the Defining Issues Test i s : 6. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. 156 The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures of Table 11 examining the e f f e c t of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e d i f f e r -ences on the set of dependent v a r i a b l e s shows a s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the set of dependent v a r i a b l e s (D Index and Compliance with Authority Score) considered together, F(2,30 )=4.36, ja<.022. Inspection of the u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o s revealed that neither the moral development nor ac t i o n choice v a r i a b l e s are s i g n i f i c a n t , although they both approach s i g n i f i c a n c e , F(1,31)=3.95, £<.056 : and F(1,31)=3.02, £<.092. The u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o f o r the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t on the moral development v a r i a b l e was found not to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t by the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures. The separate m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance for each dilemma type also revealed that t h i s e f f e c t was not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r e i t h e r the Defining Issues Test or the Alt e r n a t e Dilemmas Test, although both approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F( 1,31 )=3.74, £<.09 and F(1,31)=2.90, £<.10, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Thus, hypothesis f i v e , concerning p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and the Defining Issues Test moral development scores, was not supported for the univer-s i t y sample. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r each dilemma type revealed that the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t for action scores on the Defining Issues Test, u n i v a r i a t e F( 1,31 )=6.92, p_<.013, but not the Alternate Dilemmas Test, u n i v a r i a t e F(1,31)=.04, pC.844. The action scores f o r the two types of dilemmas were pooled i n the m u l t i -v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measure of Table 11 i n t e s t i n g the main e f f e c t s , accounting f or the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t for action choice i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . 157 The mean ac t i o n choice scores for the u n i v e r s i t y subjects i n d i c a t e that subjects with high conservatism scores chose fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y than subjects with low conservatism scores for the Defining Issues Test. This d i f f e r e n c e was found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t for the Defining Issues Test, consequently hypothesis s i x i s supported for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. The Alternate Dilemmas Test hypotheses for the e f f e c t of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i n r e l a t i o n to moral development and action scores are: 7. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r moral development l e v e l as a s s e s s e d by the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. 8. Subjects with high conservatism scores w i l l choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. The r e s u l t s of the analyses f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n d i c a t e d that the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development and action choice v a r i -ables. Therefore, the hypotheses concerning p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and the Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development and action choice v a r i a b l e s , hypotheses seven and eight, are not confirmed for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. Dilemma Type. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures of Table 11 revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t dilemma type e f f e c t for the dependent v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , F(2 , 30) = 19.62, p_<.001. However, only the u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o for action choice was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F(2,30 )=40.53, p_<.001. The action choice mean scores are s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the Alternate Dilemmas Test than on the Defining 158 Issues Test. This r e s u l t was not p r e d i c t e d i n the i n i t i a l hypotheses, but i t i s discussed i n the next chapter. Summary. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures i n d i c a t e d that there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f or the action choice v a r i a b l e . However, the Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e , Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e , and E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were not found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance for each type of dilemma revealed that e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e main e f f e c t s for the action choice v a r i a b l e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant for the Defining Issues Test (p_<.021) but not f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test (p_<.508). The a c t i o n choice scores on the D e f i n i n g Issues Test were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher for subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores than for subjects with low e t h i c s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s c o r e s . F u r t h e r , s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h conservatism scores chose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test than subjects with low conservat-ism scores (p_<.013). In r e l a t i o n to moral development scores, the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures for the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s on the moral development v a r i a b l e (p_< .006). The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s - o f variance for each dilemma type revealed that the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t f or both the Defining Issues Test and A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t moral development s c o r e s (p_<.015 and p_<.008, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores were found to 159 have lower moral development l e v e l than subjects with low e t h i c s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. However, the d i f f e r e n c e between the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups for the Alternate Dilemmas Test moral develop-ment score was not i n the d i r e c t i o n hypothesized. M u l t i p l e Regression Analyses Stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were performed f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample with the dependent v a r i a b l e the action choice score of e i t h e r the Defining Issues Test or the Alternate Dilemmas Test. The best p r e d i c t o r of the action choice scores for each dilemma type was hypothesized to be the respective dilemma type D Index score. It was also hypothesized that e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test D Index score, sex and age would add s i g n i f i -cance to the regression equation. D e f i n i n g Issues Test A c t i o n Choice. Using the Compliance with Authority scores derived from the Defining Issues Test as the dependent v a r i a b l e and scores from moral development l e v e l (Defining Issues Test D Index), p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral development l e v e l (Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index), sex and age as independent v a r i a b l e s , a m u l t i p l e regression analysis using a stepwise procedure was conducted to a s c e r t a i n how much of the variance of the Defining Issues Test action choice would be accounted for by the independent v a r i a b l e s described. A summary of the stepwise m u l t i p l e regression a n a l y s i s using the Defining Issues Test action choice score as the dependent v a r i a b l e for the u n i v e r s i t y sample i s presented i n Table 13. 160 Table 13 Summary of the U n i v e r s i t y Sample Regression A n a l y s i s : D e f i n i n g Issues Test A c t i o n Choice Score as Dependent V a r i a b l e V a r i a b l e s i n Equation Va r i a b l e s Not i n Equation V a r i a b l e ^ Entered Beta R df F V a r i a b l e s Beta In P a r t i a l Simple r 1. CS .542 .294 1,33 13.77*** DD .083 .086 -. 199 SEA .128 .137 .343* AD .097 .096 -.238 SEX -.027 -.031 -.136 AGE .077 .091 . 129 Note: DD = Defining Issues Test D Index SEA = Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s CS = Conservatism Scale AD = Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index * £<.05 ** p<.01 *** £<.001 The following hypotheses were made about the p r e d i c t i o n of the Defining Issues Test compliance with a u t h o r i t y action choice score: 13a. The following v a r i a b l e s w i l l i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or j o i n t l y s i g n i f i -c a n t l y p r e d i c t Defining Issues Test action choice scores: Def i n i n g Issues Test moral development l e v e l , e t h i c a l attitude./ p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , sex and age. 13b. The Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l w i l l account for a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater proportion of the variance of Defining Issues 161 Test action choice scores than e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i -tude, Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , sex or age. When a l l the v a r i a b l e s were allowed to enter the regression equation on the basis of t h e i r strength of r e l a t i o n s h i p with the dependent measure, p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e e n t e r e d the e q u a t i o n f i r s t accounting for 29% of the t o t a l variance. No other v a r i a b l e was found to c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n a f t e r t h e p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e was entered. Therefore, hypotheses 13a and 13b were not supported for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test A c t i o n Choice U s i n g the Compliance w i t h A u t h o r i t y s c o r e s d e r i v e d from the Alte r n a t e Dilemmas Test as the dependent v a r i a b l e and scores from moral development l e v e l (Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index), p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral development l e v e l (Defining Issues Test D Index), sex and age as independent v a r i a b l e s , a m u l t i p l e regression analysis using a stepwise procedure was conducted to a s c e r t a i n how much of the variance of the Alternate Dilemmas Test Action Choice was accounted for by the v a r i a b l e s described. The hypotheses f or the p r e d i c t i o n of the Alternate Dilemmas Test compliance with a u t h o r i t y action choice are: 14a. The following v a r i a b l e s w i l l i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or j o i n t l y s i g n i f i -c a n t l y p r e d i c t A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n chcrice s c o r e s : Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s , Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l , sex and age. 162 14b. The Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l w i l l account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater proportion of the variance of Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice scores than e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l , sex or age. None of the v a r i a b l e s was found to account for a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the variance of the Alternate Dilemmas Action Choice scores. Thus hypotheses 14a and 14b were also not supported for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. Summary. The best p r e d i c t o r of Defining Issues Test a c t i o n choice 2 scores for the high school sample was the D Index, R =.16, and for the 2 u n i v e r s i t y sample, p o l i t i c a l attitude,; R =.29. Summary In phase two, the high school and u n i v e r s i t y data were analyzed separately to t e s t the hypotheses of the study. A summary of the hypothesis t e s t r e s u l t s for both samples i s presented i n Table 13. With the high school sample, only hypothesis one was supported. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores were found to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral development l e v e l on the Defining Issues Test than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. This same hypothesis was also supported for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. However, unl i k e the high school subjects, u n i v e r s i t y subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores chose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores, thus, sup-p o r t i n g hypothesis two. Another hypothesis supported for the u n i v e r s i t y 163 Table 13 Summary of Results of Hypothesis T e s t i n g f o r High School  and U n i v e r s i t y Samples Hypothesis High School U n i v e r s i t y E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e E f f e c t 1. DIT - D Index 2. DIT - Action Choice 3. ADT - D Index 4. ADT - Action Choice s ns ns ns s s ns ns P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e E f f e c t 5. DIT - D Index 6. DIT - Action Choice 7. ADT - D Index 8. ADT - Action Choice ns ns ns ns ns s ns ns Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e E f f e c t 9. DIT & ADT - D Index ns 10. DIT & ADT - Ac t i o n Choice ns ns ns Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e E f f e c t 11. DIT & ADT - D Index 12. DIT & ADT - Action Choice ns ns ns ns P r e d i c t i o n of Action Choice 13a. DIT - A l l 13b. DIT - DIT D Index 14a. ADT - A l l 14b. ADT - ADT D Index ns s ns ns ns ns ns ns Note: s = S i g n i f i c a n t ns = Not s i g n i f i c a n t DIT = Defining Issues Test ADT = Alt e r n a t e Dilemmas Test 164 sample was hypothesis s i x . Subjects with high conservatism scores chose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. An unpredicted f i n d i n g was that university, subjects' action choice scores on the Alternate Dilemmas Test were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than t h e i r a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e s on the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t , u n i v a r i a t e F(1,31 )=40.53, £<.001. The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s f o r the h i g h s c h o o l sample i n d i c a t e d that the Defining Issues Test D Index was the best p r e d i c t o r 2 of the Defining Issues Test a c t i o n choice scores, R -.16. The best 2 p r e d i c t o r for the u n i v e r s i t y sample was p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , R =.29. 165 CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of the study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of s p e c i f i e d v a r i a t i o n i n dilemma content on moral development and a c t i o n choice scores. In addition, the e f f e c t of t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n dilemma content on the r e l a t i o n s h i p among e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral development, and action choice scores was examined. Summary of Results and Discussion The study consisted of two phases: phase one involved the p i l o t t e s t i n g of the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas; phase two of the study addressed the questions concerning the e f f e c t of dilemma content on (a) moral develop-ment l e v e l and action choice, (b) the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of dilemma content, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e on moral development l e v e l and action choice, and (c) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral develop-ment l e v e l and action choice i n two d i f f e r e n t age groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . The following measures were employed i n phase two of the study: the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979b); the Alternate Dilemmas Test designed by the researcher; and the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, 1970). In a d d i t i o n , the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950), and the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale (Blake, Johnston, & 166 E l k i n s , 1981) were employed with the high school sample, and the Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1970) with the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n phase two of the study. The subjects who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n phase one of the study included 47 high school student volunteers e n r o l l e d i n Grade 11 Law c l a s s e s . In phase two, complete data were a v a i l a b l e from 68 high school student volunteers e n r o l l e d i n Grade 11 Law c l a s s e s , and 35 u n i v e r s i t y student volunteers e n r o l l e d i n Education courses at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Results are summarized for moral development l e v e l and action choice. Moral Development - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e In the present study, i t has been hypothesized that the i n d i v i d u -a l ' s e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e would i n t e r a c t with dilemma content to i n f l u e n c e moral development s c o r e s . However, c o u n t e r t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures for the two samples in d i c a t e d that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral development scores (D Index) for the two types of dilemmas. Previous research (Nardi & Tsujimoto, 1979; Gutkin & Suis, 1979) had i n d i c a t e d that higher scores on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, 1970) were associated with lower scores on the Defining Issues Test. Nardi and Tsujimoto (1979) found that the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the Defining Issues Test Stage 4 score, r=.46, jo<.001, whereas, the e t h i c s of personal conscience was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with Stage 5A, r=-.23, p_<.01, 167 and Stage 5B, £=-.32, £<.001. Gutkin and Suis (1979) reported s i m i l a r r e s u l t s for three samples, f i n d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and Stage 4, (r=.351, £<.01, £=.263, p_<.05, and £=.393, £< .01) and s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Survey and the P Index, (r=-.275, p_<.05, £=-.234, £<.05, and £=-.265, p_<.05). Both of these studies involved u n i v e r s i t y students. These f i n d i n g s were supported i n the present study using the D Index. In add i t i o n , stage scores and the P Index were c a l c u l a t e d (see Appendices B and C) i n order to make comparisons with other s t u d i e s . For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with Stage 2, r(1,33)=.61, £<.001 and Stage 4, £(1,33)=.43, £<.01, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with Stage 5A, £( 1,33 )=-.37, £<.05; Stage 5B, £(1,33)=-.42, £<.05; Stage 6, £( 1,33 )=-.34, £<.05; and the P Index, r( 1,33 )=-.55, £<.001. Thus, the conclusion that the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y tends to be associated with Stage 2 and Stage 4 statements on the Defining Issues Test and the et h i c s of personal conscience with Stages 5A, 5B, 6, and the P Index (the sum of Stage 5A, 5B, and 6 scores) i s supported. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and scores on the Defining Issues Test for the high school sample were i n the same d i r e c t i o n , but s i g n i f i c a n t only f o r Stage 4, £(1,66)=.29, £<.05; Stage 5A, £( 1,66 )=-.27, £<.05; and the P Index, £( 1,66 )=-.27, ,£<.05. A p o s s i b l e reason f o r the lower s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r these c o r r e l a t i o n s when compared to the c o r r e l a t i o n s for the u n i v e r s i t y subjects i s that there was less variance i n the stage scores of high school subjects. The high school subjects tended to have higher Stage 3 168 and 4 scores and lower Stage 5A, 5B, 6 and P Index scores than univer-s i t y subjects (see Appendices B and C). When the dilemma content was changed, i t was thought that the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p would change, with higher scores on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s being associated with higher moral develop-ment scores. Inspection of the data revealed that, i n f a c t , subjects with high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower moral develop-ment l e v e l on the Alternate Dilemmas Test than those with low e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores ( i . e . , e t h i c s of personal conscience). The alternate dilemmas were written to d i f f e r from the dilemmas i n the Defining Issues Test such that i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s were supported rather than opposed by l e g a l or e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y . In the Defining Issues Test, the dilemmas were assumed to r e f l e c t an i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s -s o c i a l welfare c o n f l i c t with i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s opposed by l e g a l or es t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y . E t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , appears to represent a preference for e i t h e r statements that advocated compliance or noncompliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y , w i t h items advocating compliance being scored as e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the Defining Issues Test was assumed to be based on the preference of subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores f o r dilemma statements that r e f e r r e d to the e x i s t i n g l e g a l system or conventions as the basis of moral decisions or that promote s o c i a l welfare concerns over i n d i v i d u -a l s ' r i g h t s . In Rest's measure, the preference for statements that appeal, to higher p r i n c i p l e s are scored as representing higher, p r i n c i p l e d stages. 169 The following statements are among those for the Heinz dilemma i n the Defining Issue Test (Rest, 1979b): Whether a community's laws are going to be upheld (Stage 4 ) . Whether the law i n t h i s case i s g e t t i n g i n the way of the most basic claim of any member of societ y (Stage 5A). Whether s t e a l i n g i n such a case w i l l b r i n g about more t o t a l good for the whole so c i e t y or not (Stage 5A) (p. 2). The subject i s asked to rate and rank these statements according to how important they are i n making a d e c i s i o n i n the dilemma. By changing the dilemmas i n a way that i n d i v i d u a l s ' r i g h t s were protected by authority, i t was hypothesized that the decisions of subjects with high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores would be more ambiguous and that they would tend to prefer statements that r e f e r to issues other than compliance with a u t h o r i t y . Conversely, i t was thought that the preference of subjects with an e t h i c s of personal conscience (low e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores) for higher stage statements on the Defining Issues Test would change i f l e g a l or e s t a b l i s h e d authority was on the side of i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s i n the dilemmas. In t h i s case, these subjects would then tend to choose more statements that imply issues i n v o l v i n g l e g a l or s o c i a l compliance. The la c k of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e found for a Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n a number of ways. I t may be that a r e a l i n t e r a c t i o n e x i s t s but the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were inadequate i n d i s c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and dilemmas content for moral development scores. The a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were written to p a r a l l e l the dilemmas i n the Defining Issues Test. The stage statements used were s i m i l a r to those i n the Defining Issues Test with only minor changes made to f i t the 170 dilemma. An assumption was that the same issues are relevant f o r both types of dilemmas. While Rest (1979a) claims to have based the use of statements for each dilemma on extensive interviewing of subjects, t h i s same procedure was not used for the alt e r n a t e dilemmas. The alt e r n a t e dilemmas may have been aligned too c l o s e l y with the Defining Issues Test dilemmas, thus obscuring any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s that might have been revealed i f a d i f f e r e n t , more independently derived set of dilemma statements was used. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that subjects d i d not perceive the dilemmas as posing an i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s - s o c i a l welfare c o n f l i c t . The important questions that they may have considered i n the dilemmas may have been i r r e l e v a n t to the issues r a i s e d i n the present study. E t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , conceptualized as e i t h e r an o r i e n t a t i o n toward a personal i n t u i t i v e notion of moral i t y or toward a r e l i a n c e on e x i s t i n g law and t r a d i t i o n as the c r i t e r i a f o r making moral d e c i s i o n s , may be too broad a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a person's e t h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Such a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n may ignore important d i f f e r e n c e s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r i e n t a t i o n toward moral c o n f l i c t i n d i f f e r e n t contexts or d i f f e r e n c e s between persons i n the same context. Persons may d i f f e r i n t h e i r moral judgments r e l a t i v e to moral content, but not i n terms of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e as measured by the instrument used i n t h i s study. The f a c t that moral development scores of i n d i v i d u a l s who d i f f e r i n e t h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n d i d not change as a r e s u l t of the s p e c i f i e d v a r i a -t i o n i n dilemma content d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n to another iss u e , that i s , the basis of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e to moral development scores on the Defining Issues Test. To the extent that both the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the Defining Issues Test seek to measure a "law 171 and order" o r i e n t a t i o n , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may represent not a moral judgment dimension but a conventionalism versus nonconventionalism dimension. While both Rest (1979a) and Hogan (1970) purport to measure more than j u s t t h i s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two measures may be dependent on the degree that both measure t h i s aspect. Summary. In t h i s study, an attempt was made to r e l a t e moral development scores not only to s p e c i f i c content, but also to a person's e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i n i n t e r a c t i o n with s p e c i f i c content. The f i n d i n g of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r such an i n t e r a c t i o n may be a consequence of several f a c t o r s . However, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e was found to be r e l a t e d to moral development scores. Moral Development - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures d i f f e r e d for the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. For the high school sample, both the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e main e f f e c t and i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t were found to be not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . One d i f f i c u l t y i n making any inferences from t h i s f i n d i n g i s that the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e used were very low. While the r e l i a b i l i t y of the P o l i t i c o -Economic Conservatism Scale has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r other groups (see Levinson, 1950), some of the statements included i n the meas.ure may not have had relevance for the subjects i n t h i s sample. Because of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y with the measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e used i n the high school sample, the Conservatism Scale (Wilson S Patterson, 1970) was used f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample. The i n t e r n a l 172 consi s t e n c i e s r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s measure with the u n i v e r s i t y sample was .82. Based on data from the u n i v e r s i t y sample, the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t for p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e when the two dependent v a r i a b l e s were considered together, F(2,30)=4.36, p<.02, but the u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o for moral development was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t although i t approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F(2,30)=3.95, p<.06. Previous studies have reported s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and Defining Issues Test moral development scores (Emler, Renwick, & Malone, 1983; Fincham & B a r l i n g , 1979; Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz, & Anderson, 1974). Rest et a l . (1974) reported s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n s between the P Index and a Law and Order Test for three samples which ranged i n educational l e v e l from nint h grade to graduate school, r(191)=-.60, r(49)=-.48, and r(83)=-.46. He a l s o r e p o r t e d a lower, but s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n for a sample of ninth grade students, r=-.23, D<.05. The negative c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e that the higher moral development l e v e l as assessed by the P Index i s associated with low law and order scores. Fincham and B a r l i n g (1979) also found the P Index and Wilson and Patterson's (1970) Conservatism Scale to be negatively c o r r e l a t e d , r(54)=-.22, p<.05. Using the New L e f t Scale (Gold, C h r i s t i e , & Friedman, -1976), Emler et a l . (1983) reported s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the T r a d i t i o n a l Moralism subscale and Stage 4 scores, r=.60, jp_<.001, as well as the P Index, r=-.49, _p_<.001. The New L e f t Philosophy subscale was also found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with Stage 4 173 scores, r=-.52, £<.001 and the P Index, r=.39, £<.001. T r a d i t i o n a l moralism r e l a t e s to a conservative, status quo view of s o c i e t y and New L e f t Philosophy to disenchantment with current s o c i e t y . The d i r e c t i o n of the c o r r e l a t i o n s supports the conclusion that Stage 4 scores tend to be associated with high conservatism scores and the P Index with low conservatism scores. The c o r r e l a t i o n s found i n the present study between the Conservat-ism Scale and the D Index scores of both the Defining Issues Test, r(33)=-.53, £<.001, and the Alternate Dilemmas Test, r(33)=-.52, £<.001, for the u n i v e r s i t y sample support previous f i n d i n g s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s found between the Conservatism Scale and other i n d i c e s of moral develop-ment, that i s , the stage scores and P Index (see Table C-2) of univer-s i t y subjects also r e p l i c a t e previous f i n d i n g s . The Conservatism Scale was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with the Defining Issues Test Stage 4 score, r(33)=.57, £<.001; Stage 5A, r(33)=-.60, £<.001; Stage 5B, r(33)=-.39, £<.05; and the P Index, r(33)=-.64, £<.001. However, there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s found between the p o l i t i c a l a t t t i t u d e measures and any of the moral develop-ment in d i c e s f o r the high school sample (see Table 4 and Table B-2). The I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale (Blake, Johnston & E l k i n s , 1981) and the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950.) were used as measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e for the high school sample. Item a n a l y s i s of these measures revealed low i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s r e l i a b i l -i t i e s for both measures, .34 for the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale and .32 f o r the Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale. With the use of measures with low r e l i a b i l i t y , measurement error may obscure lawful r e l a t i o n s that e x i s t . There are a number of p o s s i b l e explanations for the poor r e l i a b i l -i t y of the two measures, such as, i n s u f f i c i e n t number of items, inade-quate sampling of content, relevance of items to current s i t u a t i o n , and ambiguity of t e s t items. However, c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subjects i n the high school sample may also explain the low t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y scores. If subjects have not developed a c o n s i s t e n t p o s i t i o n toward c e r t a i n issues, they may randomly endorse items repre-senting d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s . Further, the subjects, varying i n t h e i r understanding of the issues, may i n t e r p r e t and endorse items i n a manner not r e l a t e d to the dimension being measured. Moral stages, assessed by Kohlberg's Interview measure, have also been found to be r e l a t e d to scores on various measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e (e.g., Alker & Poppen, 1973; Candee, 1976; F i s h k i n , Keniston & Mackinnoh, 1973; Fontana & Noel, 1973; S u l l i v a n S. Quarter, 1972). In general, the f i n d i n g s of these studies support the conclusion that Stage 4 scores tend to be associated with high conservatism scores and Stage 5 and 6 scores with low conservatism scores. Stage scores on Kohlberg's interview measure have also been found to be r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m (Haan, Smith & Block, 1968). Haan et a l . (1968) reported that a higher proportion of subjects at the preconventional and postconventional l e v e l s p a r t i c i p a t e d 'in the Free Speech Movement S i t - i n than subjects at the conventional l e v e l . In a r e a n a l y s i s of the Haan et a l . (1968) data, Kohlberg and Candee (1984), using a r e v i s e d scoring system, found a greater proportion of subjects at each higher stage sat i n , Stage 3, 10%; Stage 3/4, 31%; 175 Stage 4, 44%; Stage 4/5, 73%. They also found that among subjects who thought i t was r i g h t to s i t - i n , a greater proportion at each higher stage of moral reasoning did so, Stage 3, 23%; Stage 3/4, 54%; Stage 4, 63%; and Stage 4/5, 75%. The Free Speech Movement demonstration represented an act of c i v i l disobedience opposed by the u n i v e r s i t y administration. As such, the measures of moral development and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m share s i m i l a r content. The r e l a t i o n s h i p found between moral development and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s m may represent a conventionalism-nonconventionalism dimension rather than a conventional reasoning - p r i n c i p l e d reasoning dimension. Hogan's (1970) Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s has also been found to be r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures (Hogan, 1970; L o r r & Zea, 1977; Snodgrass, 1975). Hogan (1970) reported that the two forms of the Survey c o r r e l a t e d .45, JD<.01, and .35, p<.01, with the C a l i f o r n i a F Scale (Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik & Levinson, 1950), a measure of a n t i -democratic tendencies and conservatism. However, Hogan (1970) pointed out that the mean score on the C a l i f o r n i a F Scale for the group was low, and thus, the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e that high Survey scores are a s s o c i -ated with low to moderate scores for the F Scale and low Survey scores with very low scores on the F Scale. Snodgrass (1975) also reported s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e and three measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e : l i b e r a l i s m - c o n s e r v a t i s m , r=. 55, p_<.001; law and o r d e r ideology, r=.59, p<.001; and sentence s e v e r i t y , r=.33, p<.001. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores ( e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) are associated with conservatism, a law and order ideology and greater sentence s e v e r i t y f o r c r i m i n a l s . 176 In the present study, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e cor-r e l a t i o n was found between the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the Conservatism Scale for the u n i v e r s i t y sample, r(33)=.44, p_<.01. This r e s u l t s supports the conclusions of previous studies that the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y tends to be associated with high conservatism scores and the e t h i c s of personal conscience with low conservatism scores. E t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores on the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s were not found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with scores on the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures used for the high school sample. A p o s s i b l e explanation for the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the poor r e l i a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures used. F a i l u r e to f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of dilemma content and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e for the moral development v a r i a b l e may also be a consequence of the p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures used i n the study. i n a d d i t i o n , the s p e c i f i c dilemmas included i n the Alternate Dilemmas Test may not have addressed issues on which l i b e r a l and conservatives s t r o n g l y d i f f e r . Summary. The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance with repeated measures i n d i c a t e d that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of dilemma content and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e on moral development scores f o r e i t h e r high school or u n i v e r i s t y samples. However, the Conservatism Scale was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with both the Defining Issues Test and the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test. P o s s i b l e explanations f o r the f i n d i n g s were presented. 177 A c t i o n Choice - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e Divergent f i n d i n g s were obtained from the data analyses of the two d i f f e r e n t samples. M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures i n d i c a t e d that e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the Defining Issues Test action choice scores or the A l t e r -nate Dilemmas Test action choice scores f o r high school subjects. However, f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample, the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance repeated measures i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . Further analysis revealed that there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n action choice scores for subjects with d i f f e r e n t e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s on the Defining Issues Test but not on the Alternate Dilemmas Test • I t was hypothesized that i n the Defining Issues Test dilemmas, i n which i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s are opposed by l e g a l or es t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y , subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores ( i . e . , e t h i c s of personal conscience) would tend to choose fewer actions that comply with authority; but i n the Alternate dilemmas, i n which i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s are supported by l e g a l or e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y , they would tend to choose more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y . In that case, i t would be expected that these i n d i v i d u a l s would have lower compliance with authority scores on the Defining Issues Test than on the Alternate dilemmas t e s t . The mean action choice scores for u n i v e r s i t y subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were consistent with t h i s expectation; M=1.44, SD=1.41 for the Defining Issues Test a c t i o n choice and M=3.12, SD=1.41 f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice. 178 The hypothesis that subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l responsi-b i l i t y would choose more actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test than on the Alternate Dilemmas Test was not confirmed. The high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y subjects d i d not s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n action choice f o r the two dilemmas; M=2.32, SD=.89 for the Defining Issues Test a c t i o n choice score and M=3.37, SD=.76 f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test a c t i o n choice score. One i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g i s that i n d i v i d u a l s with high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores tend to choose actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y more often than subjects who have low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores f o r dilemmas i n which i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s are opposed by au t h o r i t y ( i . e . , D efining Issues Test dilemmas). However, i n dilemmas where i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s are not opposed by authority, there i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n the choice of actions i n compliance with authority for the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s . However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the u n i v e r s i t y data a n a l y s i s i s complicated by a number of f a c t o r s . U n i v e r s i t y subjects tended to choose more actions i n compliance with authority f o r the alt e r n a t e dilemmas and thus there was l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y i n action choice scores f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test than for the Defining Issues Test. This could be a consequence of the s p e c i f i c dilemmas included i n the Alternate Dilemmas Test. There may be more consensus about the action choices i n the alt e r n a t e dilemmas because of considerations other than the authority issue r a i s e d i n t h i s study. Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that the source of aut h o r i t y i n the dilemma may be perceived by the subject as other than that used for determining the compliance with authority action score i n the present study. 179 F i n a l l y , a ction choice, as a measure of compliance, i s subject to c r i t i c i s m concerning r e l i a b i l i t y . Where variance i s foreshortened, the p o s s i b i l i t y of obtaining a high r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t ( e i t h e r i n t e r n a l consistency or s t a b i l i t y ) i s l i m i t e d . Measurement error may attenuate r e l a t i o n s h i p s that would be present i f a f u l l range of dilemma action choices were presented. The high school subjects' action choices were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t for the two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups on the Defining Issues Test, M=2.50, SD=1.20 f o r the low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (personal consience) group; and M=2.76, SD=1.13 for the high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y group; or on the Alternate Dilemmas Test, _M=2.33, SD=1.03 f o r the low s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y group and M=2.50, SD=1.23 for the high s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y group. Further, there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the act i o n choice scores on the two dilemma types. This, i s in c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of the u n i v e r s i t y subjects who showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n choice d i f f e r e n c e s for e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups on the Defining Issues Test and between the two dilemma types. The high school subjects' mean action choice scores on both the Defining Issues Test and Alternate Dilemmas Test, M=2.65, SD=1.16 and M=2.43, SD=1.14, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f a l l between the u n i v e r s i t y subjects' mean score on the Alternate Dilemmas Test, M=1.91, SD=1.22 and mean score on the Alternate Dilemmas Test, M=3.26, SD=1.09. The d i f f e r e n c e between the high school and u n i v e r s i t y sample i n terms of action choice scores i s d i f f i c u l t to explain because the two groups d i f f e r on a number of dimensions not considered i n t h i s study. One p o s s i b i l i t y i s that high school subjects are l e s s committed to any 180 one p o s i t i o n when making action choices. Further research i s required before any conclusions can be drawn from t h i s f i n d i n g . Summary. While no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and action choice scores for the high school sample, a s i g n i f i c a n t Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found for u n i v e r s i t y subjects a c t i o n choice scores. Subjects with low e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores ( e t h i c s of personal conscience) chose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test than on the Alternate Dilemmas Test, but subjects with high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n ac t i o n choice scores f o r the two dilemma types. Several reservations concerning the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s were presented. A c t i o n Choice - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e The r e l a t i o n s h i p found between p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and action choice scores d i f f e r e d for the two samples. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s found i n the ana l y s i s of the high school data. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found f o r the u n i v e r s i t y sample. Sim i l a r to the r e s u l t s for e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , u n i v e r s i t y subjects with low conservatism scores ( l i b e r a l i s m ) were found to choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y on the Defining Issues Test, M=1.29, SD=1. 16, than on the Alternate Dilemmas Test; M=3.-18, SD= 1.19. F u r t h e r , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between subjects with high and low conservatism scores f o r Defining Issues Test action choices but. not for the Alternate Dilemmas Test a c t i o n choice scores. 181 The same issues r a i s e d concerning the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s f o r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e are also relevant here. The adequacy of the A l t e r n a t e Dilemma Test dilemmas and action choices i s subject to c r i t i c i s m on the grounds of both r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . A d d i t i o n a l f questions can be r a i s e d about the measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . The la c k of s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e f o r the high school sample may be a function of the poor r e l i a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measure. Summary. A s i m i l a r pattern of r e s u l t s f o r the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e was found for the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e i n terms of action choice scores f o r both high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. Moral Development - A c t i o n Choice In terms of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development (D Index) and action choice (Compliance with Authority Score), the r e s u l t s of the data analyses v a r i e d for the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. M u l t i p l e regression analyses, using the stepwise procedure, i n d i c a t e d for the high school sample that the Defining Issues Test D Index accounted f o r 16% of the variance of the Defining Issues Test action choice scores, but none of the v a r i a b l e s considered accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of variance of the A l t e r n a t e Dilemma Test a c t i o n choice scores. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, the only v a r i a b l e that accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of the variance was p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e which account-ed for 29% of the variance of the Defining Issues Test action choice scores. 182 Other studies (Cooper, 1972; Martin, Shafto, & Van Deinse, 1977) have reported a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral development and dilemma action choice: Cooper (1972) determined t h a t mpral p h i l o s o p h y and p o l i t i c a l science doctoral students tended to make the same action choices i n the Defining Issues Test dilemmas: that i s , they advocated s t e a l f o r the Heinz and the Drug dilemma, takeover for the Student Take-over dilemma, not report f o r the Escaped Prisoner dilemma, euthanasia f o r Doctor dilemma, equal opportunity h i r i n g for the Webster dilemma and not stop p r i n t i n g for the Newspaper dilemma. Cooper developed a "humanitarian-l i b e r a l " pattern score, ranging from 0 to 6. He found that the "humani-t a r i a n - l i b e r a l " score was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d .34 with the P Index for 160 high school and u n i v e r s i t y subjects. The opposing action decisions to those defined as "humanitarian-l i b e r a l " by Cooper (1972) were considered by Martin et a l . (1977) to represent alignment with authority, with the exception of the Webster dilemma. Martin et a l . (1977) found that i n f i v e dilemmas (Webster i s the exception), subjects who decided to a l i g n with e s t a b l i s h e d authority had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher Stage 4 scores (p_<.05) than d i d those who went against e s t a b l i s h e d authority. The sample used included j u n i o r high, high school and co l l e g e students. The compliance with authority a c t i o n choice score employed i n the present study i s based on dilemma actions which are considered to represent compliance with a law or a person i n authority, that i s , u n i v e r s i t y administrator, boss, and p r i n c i p a l . A high score f o r compliance with authority would mean a low score on Cooper's humani-t a r i a n - l i b e r a l s c a l e . For example, the d e c i s i o n to s t e a l i n the Heinz 183 and the Drug dilemma would be scored zero for compliance with a u t h o r i t y but scored 1 f o r the humanitarian-liberal p a t t e r n . In the present study, the D Index was used rather than the Stage Scores and P Index. However, these scores were c a l c u l a t e d to allow comparison with other studies (see Appendices B and C). The D Index was developed l a t e r and was not generally used u n t i l a f t e r 1977 (Rest, 1979a). The D Index, as an o v e r a l l measure of moral development, incorporates information included i n Stage Scores and the P Index and i s thus taken to be more i n c l u s i v e and a more v a l i d measure of moral development. For the u n i v e r s i t y subjects i n t h i s study, no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -t i o n was found between the D Index scores and compliance with a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n choice scores. However, the Defining Issues Test Stage 4, Stage 5A, 5B and P Index scores of u n i v e r s i t y subjects were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the Defining Issues Test a c t i o n scores, r(33)=.67, p<.001; r(33)=.44, £<.01; r(33)=-.50, £<.01; r(33)=-.53, £<.001, r e s p e c t i v e l y (see Table C-2), thus supporting the f i n d i n g s of Martin et a l . (1977) and Cooper (1972). The lack of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the D Index and the compliance with a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n choice scores for the u n i v e r s i t y sample may be a r e s u l t of the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of action choice and Stage 4 statements and the negative c o r r e l a t i o n of a c t i o n choice and Stage 5A and 5B statements being obscured when the stage information i s combined i n the D Index. However, the same pattern of r e s u l t s occurred for the c o r r e l a t i o n s between stage scores and other v a r i a b l e s , e t h i c a l atttude and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , but the P Index and D 184 Index for each sample r e f l e c t e d the same r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r these v a r i -ables . The high school sample also d i f f e r e d from the u n i v e r s i t y sample i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p found between moral development i n d i c e s and ac t i o n choice scores. For high school subjects, the Defining Issues Test D Index was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the Defining Issues Test action choice score, r(66)=.40, p_<.001, but not with the stage scores or P Index. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of action choice scores and moral development for the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples may be r e l a t e d to the l e v e l of moral development of the two groups. The mean D Index score was 18.00 (SD=5.98) for the high school sample and 28.80 (SD=8.80) for the u n i v e r s i t y sample, i n d i c a t i n g a wide spread i n moral development l e v e l . On the other hand, the mean Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e scores were not as disparate f o r the two samples, M-17.04, SD=4.39 for the high school sample and M=16.91, SD=5.11 for the univer-s i t y sample. The same may be true of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , but the means can not be compared because d i f f e r e n t measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e were used for the two samples. Summary. The r e s u l t s of the an a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral development and ac t i o n choice scores v a r i e d depending on the index of moral development l e v e l used. For the high school sample, the Defining Issues Test D Index was found to account f o r 16% of the variance of the Defining Issues Test action choice scores. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, the D Index was found to be not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with the Defining Issues Test action scores, however the Stage 4 scores and P Index were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with these action scores. None of. 185 the v a r i a b l e s considered, accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of variance of the Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice scores. Further research may be necessary to adequately explain these i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . Conclusions The e f f e c t of s p e c i f i e d v a r i a t i o n i n dilemma content on moral development, a c t i o n choice, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e to these v a r i a b l e s , as well as the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f moral development and action choice, has been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study and the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The subjects' measured moral development l e v e l does not vary o v e r a l l between the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and the a l t e r -n a t i v e dilemmas as scored by conventional means. 2. The fin d i n g s concerning subjects' choices of actions i n compliance with authority f o r the two dilemma types are not e n t i r e l y c onsis-tent for the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. a. For the high school sample, the a c t i o n choice scores of subjects d i d not d i f f e r f o r the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and the al t e r n a t e dilemmas. b. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, subjects chose more actions i n compliance with authority for the al t e r n a t e dilemmas than f o r the Defining Issues Test dilemmas. 3. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test i s substantiated. Subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores have a 186 higher moral development l e v e l than subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The f i n d i n g s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral development l e v e l d i d not d i f f e r for the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and the alternate dilemmas. For both types of dilemma content, subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores have higher moral development l e v e l than subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. The f i n d i n g s regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and dilemma action choice are not c o n s i s t e n t for the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. a. For the high school sample, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and dilemma ac t i o n choice i s not r e l a t e d . b. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e i s r e l a t e d to the choice of actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y for the Defining Issues Test dilemmas. Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores chose more actions i n compliance with authority for the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores. However, subjects' compliance with authority scores f o r the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were not r e l a t e d to e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e scores. P o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i s not r e l a t e d to moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test D Index or the Alternate Dilemmas Test D Index. The f i n d i n g s regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n choice d i f f e r for the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. 187 a. There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n choice for the high school sample. b. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and the Defining Issues Test action choice scores. Subjects with high conservatism scores chose more action i n compliance with authority f o r the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores. However, there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and compliance with a u t h o r i t y scores on the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas. The f i n d i n g s concerning the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of the dilemma type, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s are d i f f e r e n t for the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. a. For the high school sample, there i s no i n t e r a c t i o n of dilemma type, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e on action choice scores. b. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, subjects with low e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores chose fewer actions i n compliance with authority f o r the Defining Issues Test than f o r the Alternate Dilemmas Test, but subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y scores d i d not d i f f e r i n t h e i r a c t i o n choice scores for the two dilemma types. Further, subjects with low conservatism scores chose fewer actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test than on the Alternate Dilemmas Test, but subjects with high conservatism scores d i d not d i f f e r i n action choice scores for the two dilemma types. The a s s o c i a t i o n of moral development l e v e l and action choice v a r i e d for the two samples. 188 a. For the high school sample, higher moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test D Index i s r e l a t e d to the choice of actions i n compliance with authority for the Defining Issues Test dilemmas. The Stage 4 score and P Index are not r e l a t e d to the action choice for e i t h e r type of dilemma, that i s , Defining Issues Test dilemmas or alternate dilemmas. b. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, moral development l e v e l as assessed by the Defining Issues Test D Index i s not r e l a t e d to the choice of actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y f or e i t h e r dilemma type, that i s , Defining Issues Test dilemmas and alt e r n a t e dilemmas. However, the Stage 4 score and P Index are r e l a t e d to the choice of actions i n compliance with authority for the Defining Issues Test dilemmas. The best p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e f or action choice d i f f e r s f o r the two samples. a. For the high school sample, the Defining Issues Test D Index i s a better p r e d i c t o r of the Defining Issues Test compliance with a u t h o r i t y scores than e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , A lternate Dilemmas Test D Index, sex or age. b. For the u n i v e r s i t y sample, p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i s a be t t e r p r e d i c t o r of the Defining Issues Test compliance with a u t h o r i t y score than the D Index of the Defining Issues Test or Alternate Dilemmas Test, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , sex or age. 189 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s of t h i s study are subject to l i m i t a t i o n s of sampling, measurement, and methodology. Sample The high school sample i n the study can be described i n terms of the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a. E n r o l l e d in a Grade 11 Law c l a s s i n a suburban B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s t r i c t . b. Ranged i n age from 16 to 20 with a median age of 17.07. c. V o l u n t a r i l y completed a l l measures. The u n i v e r s i t y sample i n the study has the following c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s : a. E n r o l l e d i n educational courses at The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia during the summer. b. Ranged i n age from 20 t o 50 with a median age of 31.25. c. Ranged i n educational l e v e l from f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y to graduate l e v e l with a median years of education of 16.33. d. V o l u n t a r i l y completed a l l measures. These samples are not representative of a l l high school and u n i v e r s i t y students and, t h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the study are l i m i t e d to those students who f i t within the above sample d e s c r i p t i o n s . A fu r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n of the study i s a p o s s i b l e sampling bias due to the l o s s of subjects because of missing data or the improper complet-ion of the measurement instruments used. 190 Measurement Measurement i n s t r u m e n t s used i n any study p r e s e n t t h e i r own Limi t a t i o n s on the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . The Defining Issues Test i s a "paper and p e n c i l " o b j e c t i v e l y scored a l t e r n a t i v e to Kohlberg's interview measure of moral development. Each of the s i x dilemmas i n the Defining Issues Test i s followed by stage prototypic statements which subjects rate and rank. As such, subjects' preference for various stage statements i s r e s t r i c t e d to those included i n the measure. The a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were designed to p a r a l l e l the dilemmas i n the Defining Issues Test and the number and order of the various stage statements were the same as i n the Defining Issues Test. Consequently, subjects are also r e s t r i c t e d i n the Alternate Dilemmas Test to stage statements included i n the measure. In considering the r e s u l t s concerning moral development and dilemma content, i t i s important to recognize the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t h i s type of measurement. The type of dilemmas and stage statements included i n the measure may r e s t r i c t the responses made by the subject. As a r e s u l t , the subjects' scores on the measure may have l i m i t e d general-i z a t i o n . However, i t should be noted that an important reason for t h i s study was to explore the e f f e c t of varying dilemma content on subjects' moral development scores. Another l i m i t a t i o n of the Defining Issues Test format i s the complexity of the response task for the measure. Subjects must f i r s t rate the statements i n terms of t h e i r importance in making a d e c i s i o n i n the dilemma, and then rank the four most important statements f or each dilemma. Rest (1979b) recommended excluding subjects' p r o t o c o l s that show i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the r a t i n g and ranking of the statements. Rest 191 (1979b) i n d i c a t e d that the l o s t data due to the consistency check i s u s u a l l y i n the range of 2% to 15%. Sampling b i a s , due to the l o s s of subjects as a r e s u l t of the consistency check, may a f f e c t the f i n d i n g s of the study. On the other hand, i f subjects' p r o t o c o l s that have in c o n s i s t e n c i e s are not excluded from a study, the f i n d i n g s may also be biased. The Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures, the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m S c a l e , P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c Conservatism Scale, and the Conservatism Scale are also paper and p e n c i l o b j e c t i v e l y scored measures. In general, item responses i n these measures involve the i n d i c a t i o n of agreement or disagreement with various statements or "catch-phrases." Results should, t h e r e f o r e , be considered i n r e l a t i o n to the type of task involved i n c l a s s i f y i n g subjects i n terms of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . In a d d i t i o n , the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale and P o l i t i c o -Economic Conservatism Scale scores r e f l e c t e d r e l a t i v e l y low i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s r e l i a b i l i t i e s and t h i s means that measurement e r r o r may attenuate any r e l a t i o n s h i p s that may e x i s t . Methodology The c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses i n t h i s study a f f o r d l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e s u l t s to the d e s c r i p t i o n of strengths of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . y • The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of variance must be considered with caution because of the a r t i f i c i a l dichotomy of two continuous v a r i a b l e s , that i s , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . The median score was the s p e c i f i e d point used to d i v i d e the subjects i n terms of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . A l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s 192 approach to grouping subjects i s that subjects who scored s l i g h t l y above and s l i g h t l y below the median score w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t groups although they may have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Another l i m i t a -t i o n to t h i s approach i s that considerable variance i s l o s t when a v a r i a b l e that can take on a range of values i s dichotomized. This may mean lowered c o r r e l a t i o n s with other v a r i a b l e s and even n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s when i n fac t the teste d r e l a t i o n s may be s i g n i f i c a n t . A p a r t i a l remedy for t h i s involves the use of c o r r e l a t i o n a l and regression analyses reported herein. However, the nature of the instruments as noted above may well have truncated the range of scores obtained as compared to the p o s s i b l e range of scores i f more h i g h l y r e l i a b l e measures of the constructs i n question were obtainable. L i m i t a t i o n s of the study have been presented and have been con-sidered when s t a t i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations of the study. Implications and Recommendations of the Study This study r a i s e s the issue of the e f f e c t of dilemma content on the assessment of moral development. Relevant to the p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a t i o n i n dilemma content studied was the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e to moral development and dilemma a c t i o n choices using d i f f e r e n t dilemma types w i l l be discussed i n r e l a t i o n to the t e s t i n g of the theory and p o t e n t i a l educational uses. Recommendations -of the study w i l l be discussed i n r e l a t i o n to research design. 193 Implications T e s t i n g of the theory. The r e s u l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of moral development and action choice, and the i n t e r a c t i o n of dilemma content, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e with these v a r i a b l e s , has i m p l i c a t i o n s for Rest's (1979a) and Hogan's (1970) conceptions of moral judgment. E t h i c a l a t t i t u d e was found to be r e l a t e d to the D Index (moral development l e v e l ) of both the D e f i n i n g Issues Test and A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test. This f i n d i n g draws a t t e n t i o n to a common aspect that i s assessed by Rest's and Hogan's respective measures of moral judgment, the Defining Issues Test and the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s . With the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Hogan (1970) sought to discriminate between those who prefer personal, i n t u i t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r making moral d e c i s i o n s and those who p r e f e r to r e l y on e x i s t i n g laws and t r a d i t i o n . On the basis of the Defining Issues Test D Index, subject's responses are evaluated i n terms of a continuum from an o r i e n t a t i o n of punishment and obedience, to one of maintaining the family and s o c i a l order, and to one of making appeals to moral p r i n c i p l e s . The c r i t i c a l dimension that appears to be part of both perspectives i s the r e l a t i v e importance of e x i s t i n g laws and t r a d i t i o n to an i n d i v i d u a l i n r e s o l v i n g moral c o n f l i c t . Previous studies (e.g., Haan, Smith & Block, 1968, Woll & Cozby, 1976) i n d i c a t e d t h a t K o h l b e r g ' s moral stages and Hogan's e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and activism. The same c r i t e r i a of "law and order" i s also an aspect t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s l i b e r a l i s m from conservatism as defined by these researchers. Further, p o l i t i c a l a c t i vism i s generally defined by c i v i l disobedience or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the e x i s t i n g establishment. Thus, the r e l a t i o n s h i p found between 194 the p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e measures and the two moral judgment measures may be a function of the extent that each assesses preference for e x i s t i n g laws and t r a d i t i o n as c r i t e r i a f o r making d e c i s i o n s . However, concluding from the evidence that the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and the Defining Issues Test are measuring the same thing does not seem to be warranted. The Defining Issues Test i s purported to measure more than the r e l a t i v e preference f o r the moral c r i t e r i a of conformity to l e g a l or s o c i a l norms; rather i t i s assumed to measure d i f f e r e n c e s i n the structures of reasoning that underlie conformance or nonconformance. Rest's model of moral judgment acknowledges t h a t nonconformance may be based on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of reasoning. One i n d i v i d u a l may not conform on the b a s i s of concern for peer pressure and another to protest unjust treatment. On the other hand, the evidence also does not appear to warrant the conclusion that the e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l e s s "morally mature" than the e t h i c s of personal conscience. Just as i n d i v i d u a l s may vary on the b a s i s of t h e i r nonconformity, they may also use d i f f e r e n t reasoning to j u s t i f y t h e i r conformity to e s t a b l i s h norms. For example, they may j u s t i f y t h e i r actions on the b a s i s of punishment or on p r i n -c i p l e s of s o c i a l c o n t r a c t . Neither the Defining Issues Test nor the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i -tudes d i r e c t l y assesses the choice of action i n a dilemma; .but instead focus on preference for various statements. In the present study, a Compliance with A u t h o r i t y action score was c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of choice of actions i n the Defining Issues Test dilemmas that were i n compliance with the law or person i n a u t h o r i t y . The action choice score was found to be r e l a t e d to e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and 195 dilemma content for the u n i v e r s i t y sample, but not for the high school sample. One i m p l i c a t i o n of the divergent f i n d i n g s f o r the high school and u n i v e r s i t y sample i s that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the v a r i a b l e s under study may depend on c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample used, f o r example, l e v e l of moral development, age, and educational l e v e l . An i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i n the present study was that the Defining Issues Test action choice score was r e l a t e d to the D Index for the high school sample, but not for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. Further, the action choice scores were found to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to u n i v e r s i t y sub-j e c t s ' Stage 4 scores and negatively r e l a t e d to t h e i r P Index scores. This has i m p l i c a t i o n s for the use of the d i f f e r e n t i n d i c e s of the Defining Issues Test i n studies of moral choice and behavior and for the r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y of the d i f f e r e n t moral development i n d i c e s . P o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was the only dilemma content v a r i a b l e considered i n the present study. This v a r i a b l e may not be important to the subject i n construing the dilemma. Other content s i m i l a r i t i e s , however, may have relevance to the subject i n making responses to the dilemmas, but are not considered. From the c o g n i t i v e developmental perspective of Rest (1979a), a person's reasons or motives must be examined before an act may be considered moral. However, from Hogan's perspective, m o r a l i t y may be determined without reference to the person's thought. An i m p l i c a t i o n of the i n t e r p l a y of the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , dilemma content and moral development v a r i a b l e s with regard to the choice of a c t i o n s i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y i s t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o both Kohlberg's stages of reasoning and the content of reasoning may provide 196 the basis f or a better understanding of the moral decision-making process. Education. Kohlberg's moral reasoning approach i s one of the major value education programs i n the schools today (Gow, 1980; Lockwood, 1978). Moral education programs based on Kohlberg's approach t y p i c a l l y involve classroom discussions i n a problem-solving format designed to induce the i n d i v i d u a l to think about the reasoning used i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s . By seeing the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and inadequacies i n a way of th i n k i n g , the i n d i v i d u a l i s encouraged to f i n d new ways of r e s o l v i n g moral c o n f l i c t s . The Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974, 1979b) has been used to evaluate moral education programs and i n t e r v e n t i o n studies (see review by Lawrence, 1980). In assessing the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of educational programs, the pro p e r t i e s of the Defi n i n g Issues Test define the kinds of evidence that w i l l be used to i n d i c a t e growth i n moral development. An examination of various assumptions underlying Kohlberg's/Rest's cogni-t i v e development approach and the Defining Issues Test by educators i s important for judging the a d v i s a b i l i t y of such moral education programs and for i n t e r p r e t i n g the meaning of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s moral development score. Hogan (1970) had challenged Kohlberg's assumption that moral stages r e p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i v e l y more advanced and q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t stuctures of reasoning. Hogan (1970) proposed that Kohlberg's higher moral stages are equivalent to e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s representing p o l i t i c a l -l y l i b e r a l or conservative p o s i t i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Hogan's (1970) and Rest's (1979a) measures of moral judgment was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n 197 the present study. The comparison of the d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l view-points underlying the Defining Issues Test (1979b), based on Kohlberg's si x stage scheme, and Hogan's (1970) measure of moral judgment, the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , was undertaken to h i g h l i g h t the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. An i m p l i c a t i o n of the present study f o r educators i s that the two d i f f e r e n t approaches to m o r a l i t y are not v a l u e - n e u t r a l . Both approaches r e f l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n to law and conventions, and to p o l i t i c -a l conservatism and l i b e r a l i s m . Further, each approach i s l i m i t e d to the dimension of morality that i s addressed by the theory. The Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1979a) i s concerned with moral reasoning about j u s t i c e and the Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s with o r i e n t a t i o n toward laws and t r a d i t i o n with regard to conformance and nonconformance. Findings of c o g n i t i v e developmental research has s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r educators, not only for important program " a p p l i c a t i o n s " or evaluation, but also f or increasing the understanding of students' development. However, the meaning of a student's moral development score derived from the Defining Issues Test i s subject to various conceptual and methodo-l o g i c a l c onsiderations. In the present study, the question was r a i s e d about whether or not dilemma content a f f e c t s moral development scores on the Defining Issues Test. Although dilemma content was not found to i n f l u e n c e moral development scores i n the present study, awareness of po s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n and/or t e s t e f f e c t s are important i n . i n t e r p r e t i n g scores. 198 Recommendations f o r Research The exploratory nature of the present study does not permit d e f i n i t i v e answers to the questions r a i s e d . However, several areas of further research are suggested by the f i n d i n g s of the study. The a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were written to p a r a l l e l the dilemmas i n the Defining Issues Test. Lack of a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n moral development scores derived from the two d i f f e r e n t dilemma types may be an a r t i f a c t of such f a c t o r s as the p a r t i c u l a r dilemmas used i n the Alter n a t e Dilemma Test, the use of issue statements s i m i l a r to those i n the Defining Issues Test or the s p e c i f i c law-authority issue r a i s e d by the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas. This p o s s i b i l i t y could be i n v e s t i g a t e d by comparing the assessment of moral development with Kohlberg's dilemmas presented i n an interview format with a l t e r n a t e dilemmas presented i n a s i m i l a r format. The r e s u l t s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e with moral development and dilemma action choices v a r i e d with the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples. The d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s f o r the two samples may be a consequence of using d i f f e r e n t measures of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e . A recommendation for further research would be to use the same measure of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e for both samples. In a d d i t i o n to the v a r i a t i o n i n f i n d i n g s f o r p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , the high school and u n i v e r s i t y samples d i f f e r e d i n terms of the r e l a -t i o n s h i p found among dilemma ac t i o n choices, dilemma type, e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral development. The inconsistency i n fi n d i n g s suggest that research i s needed to in v e s t i g a t e the d i f f e r e n c e of high school and u n i v e r s i t y subjects i n p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and i n responses to the al t e r n a t e dilemmas. 199 Conclusions concerning moral judgment have been based p r i m a r i l y on research i n v o l v i n g students samples as i n the present study. Further research i s needed to explore the questions r a i s e d i n the present study using nonstudent samples representing a wider range of ages and occupa-t i o n s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t would be a study of the d i f f e r e n c e s of p o l i c e and c r i m i n a l s ' a t t i t u d e s toward compliance with authority and p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l i s s u e s . In the present study, v a r i a b l e s such as socio-economic status and age were not explored. Further research i s needed to assess the e f f e c t of such v a r i a b l e s on moral development, p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e . The e f f e c t s of h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s toward p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i s m or conservatism i n North America on p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l p o l i c y having moral repercussions i s another subject f o r research suggested by the present study. In a d d i t i o n , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and s o c i a l p o l i c i e s need to be further explored. The need for f u r t h e r research on subjects' compliance with a u t h o r i -t y action choices i s also suggested by the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study. 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Instead of f e e l i n g b e t t e r , they would become very v i o l e n t . Since i t was a newly discovered drug, there was no law against s e l l i n g i t . Henry was one of the f i r s t people who bought the drug. A f t e r taking the drug, Henry became very v i o l e n t towards h i s wife and nearly k i l l e d her. He knew the many other people would buy the drug. He t o l d the s c i e n t i s t about the e f f e c t that the drug had on him and asked him not to s e l l the drug to anyone e l s e . But the s c i e n t i s t s a i d , "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from i t . " So Henry became desperate and thought about breaking in t o the s c i e n t i s t ' s lab to s t e a l a l l of the drug and the formula to protect other people. Should Henry s t e a l the drug? (Check one). Should s t e a l i t Can't decide Should not s t e a l i t 213 HENRY STORY I/ #/ W ty ty £7 3 ty a s / * v/ =9 v «7 On the l e f t hand side of the page check one of the spaces by each question to i n d i c a t e i t s importance. 1. Whether a community's laws are going to be upheld. 2. Isn't i t only natural for a l o v i n g husband to care so much for h i s wife and people l i k e her that he'd s t e a l ? 3. Is Henry w i l l i n g to r i s k g e t t i n g shot as a burglar or going to j a i l for the chance that s t e a l i n g the drug might protect other people? 4 . Whether Henry i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l w r e s t l e r , or has considerable influence with p r o f e s s i o n a l w r e s t l e r s . 5. Whether Henry i s s t e a l i n g for himself or doing t h i s s o l e l y to protect other people. 6. Whether the s c i e n t i s t ' s r i g h t s to h i s discovery have to be respected. 7. Whether the essence of l i v i n g i s more encompassing than the termination of dying, s o c i a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y . 8. What values are going to be the basis for governing how people act towards each other. 9. Whether the s c i e n t i s t i s going to be allowed to hide behind a worthless law which only protects those who harm other people anyhow. 10. Whether the law in t h i s case i s g e t t i n g in the way of the most basic claims of members of s o c i e t y . 11. Whether the s c i e n t i s t deserves to be robbed for being so greedy and c r u e l . 12. Would s t e a l i n g i n such a case bring about more t o t a l good for the whole so c i e t y or not. From the l i s t of questions above, s e l e c t the four most important: Most important Third most important Second most important Fourth most important 214 STUDENT REVOLT At the U n i v e r s i t y of A.D., a group of students c a l l e d Students f o r Revolution (SFR) beli e v e that any means should be used to overthrow a government i f i t s p o l i c i e s were not acceptable to them. The SFR r e g u l a r l y t r a i n e d i n methods of warfare. Many students at the univer-s i t y didn't agree with the SFR. The students thought that the SFR should not be allowed to hold meetings at the u n i v e r s i t y . 1 In agreement with these students, the professors voted to ban the SFR from the u n i v e r s i t y . But the President of the U n i v e r s i t y stated that he wanted to continue to allow the SFR to have t h e i r meetings on campus. So, one day l a s t A p r i l , hundreds of students walked i n t o the Un i v e r s i t y ' s Administration b u i l d i n g and t o l d everyone else to get out. They sa i d they were doing t h i s to force the U n i v e r s i t y to stop the Students f o r Revolution (SFR) from meeting on the u n i v e r s i t y campus. Should the students have taken over the administration building? (Check one) Yes, they should take i t over Can't decide No, they should not take i t over . 215 STUDENT REVOLT 1. Are the students doing t h i s to r e a l l y help other people or are they doing i t j u s t for kicks? 2. Do the students have any r i g h t to take over property that doesn't belong to them. 3. Do the students r e a l i z e that they might be arrested and f i n e d , and even expelled from school? 4. Would taking over the b u i l d i n g i n the long run benefit more people to a greater extent? 5. Whether the president stayed within the l i m i t s of h i s a u t h o r i t y i n ignoring the f a c u l t y vote. 6. W i l l the take-over anger the p u b l i c and give a l l students a bad name. 7. Is t a k i n g over a b u i l d i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e ? 8. Would allowing one student take-over encourage many other student take-overs. 9 . Did the president bring t h i s misunderstanding on h i m s e l f by being so unreasonable and uncooperative. 10. Whether running the u n i v e r s i t y ought to be i n the hands of a few administrators or in the hands of a l l the people. 11. Are the students following p r i n c i p l e s which they believe are above the law. 12. Whether or not u n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n s ought to be respected by students. From the l i s t of questions above, s e l e c t the four most important: Most important Third most important Second most important Fourth most important BULLY A man had been committing crimes f o r 10 years. However, there was never enough evidence to convict him. A f t e r committing many crimes i n one area, he moved on to another area of the country and took on the name of Roberts. He l i v e d i n t h i s area f o r 8 years and during t h i s time, he had been unemployed. He l i v e d o f f what he could s t e a l from other people. He b u l l i e d others, l i e d , cheated and sta r t e d f i g h t s f o r no reason. Then one day, Mrs. Smith, an o l d neighbour saw a group o f men from the community beat up and k i l l Mr. Roberts. She had heard about Mr. Roberts' a c t i v i t i e s . She recognized the men who were in the group that k i l l e d him. Should Mrs. Smith report the men to the po l i c e ? (Check one) Should report the men Can't decide Should not report the men. 217 BULLY 1. Hasn't Mr. Roberts been bad enough for such a long time to prove he isn't a good person? 2. Whether allowing the men to escape punishment for a crime would encourage more crime? 3. Wouldn't we be better off without legal rights for people l i k e Mr. Roberts and the oppression of our legal system? • 4. Whether or not the law ought to be respected. 5. Would society be f a i l i n g what Mr. Roberts or the men should f a i r l y expect? 6. What benefits would prisons be apart from society? 7. How could anyone be so cruel and heartless as to k i l l a man? 8. Would i t be fair to a l l the prisoners who had to go to j a i l for their crimes i f these men were not reported? 9. Was Mrs. Smith an enemy of these men or was she thinking of other people? 10. Wouldn't i t be a citizen's duty to report a crime, regardless of the circumstances? 11. How would the w i l l of the people and the public best be served? 12. Would reporting these men do any good for society or protect anybody? From the l i s t of questions above, select the four most important: Most important Third most important Second most important Fourth most important 218 DOCTOR A lady had been i n a bad car accident and needed surgery i n order to l i v e . She was i n t e r r i b l e pain, but the surgery could save her l i f e . She refused to sign the papers to allow the surgery to proceed. She also refused to t e l l anyone her name so that her family could be contacted. Without her permission, the doctor could not l e g a l l y perform the surgery. She said she couldn't stand the pain and that she wanted to die anyway. What should the doctor do? (Check one) Should go ahead with the surgery and save her l i f e Can't decide Should not perform the surgery 219 1. Whether the woman's family would be in favor of the surgery i f they knew about i t . 2. Is the doctor obligated by the same laws as everybody else i f performing the surgery would be saving her l i f e ? ._, 3. Whether people would be much better off without society regimenting their liv e s and even their deaths. 4. Whether the doctor could make i t appear l i k e she had given permission. 5. Does the doctor have the r i g h t to force continued existence on those who don't want to live? 6. What is the value of death prior to society's perspective on personal value? 7. Whether the doctor has sympathy for the woman's suffering or cares more about what society might think. 8. Is allowing another's l i f e to end ever a responsible act of cooperation? 9. Whether only God should decide when a person's l i f e should end. 10. What values the doctor has set for himself in his own personal code of behavior? 11. Can society afford to l e t everybody end their l i v e s when they want to? 12. Can society allow suicides or mercy k i l l i n g and s t i l l protect the lives of individuals who want to live? From the l i s t of questions above, select the four most important: M o s t important Third most important Second most important Fourth most important 220 MR. WINSTON Mr. Winston was the owner and manager of a business company. He wanted to h i r e another accountant and there seemed to be many good accountants around. Many of the ap p l i c a n t s had the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s needed for the job. One of the app l i c a n t s , Mr. Banner, was from a minority group. While Mr. Winston himself didn't care whether the accountant was from a minority group, he was concerned about h i s customers. Many of Mr. Winston's customers were people of d i f f e r e n t races and n a t i o n a l i t i e s . He was a f r a i d they would take t h e i r business elsewhere i f he didn't h i r e someone from a minority group. Mr. Winston decided to h i r e Mr. Banner for the job and to t e l l the other applicants who were white that the job had been f i l l e d . One of the a p plicants accused Mr. Winston of u n f a i r h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . He f e l t he had been discriminated against because of h i s race. What should Mr. Winston have done? (Check one) Should have h i r e d Mr. Banner Can!t decide Should not have h i r e d him. 221 MR. WINSTON 1. Does the owner of a business have the r i g h t to make his own business d e c i s i o n s or not? 2. Whether there i s a law that f o r b i d s reverse d i s c r i m i n a t i o n in h i r i n g for jobs on the basis of race. 3. Whether Mr. Winston i s p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t whites himself or whether he means nothing personal in refusing the job. 4. Whether h i r i n g a good accountant or paying a t t e n t i o n to h i s customers' wishes would be best for h i s business? 5. What i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ought to be r e l e v -ant i n deciding how s o c i e t y ' s r o l e s are f i l l e d ? 6. Whether the greedy and competitive c a p i t a l i s t i c system ought to be completely abandoned. 7. Do a m a j o r i t y of people i n Mr. Winston's so c i e t y f e e l l i k e h i s customers or are a major-i t y against reverse d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h i r i n g ? 8. Whether h i r i n g men l i k e Mr. Banner would use t a l e n t s and eventually be good for s o c i e t y in the long run. 9 . Would refusing the job to a white applicant be c o n s i s t e n t with Mr. Winston's own moral b e l i e f s ? 10. Could Mr. Winston be so hard-hearted as to refuse the job to any of the white a p p l i c a n t s knowing how much i t means to them? k __ 11. Whether the C h r i s t i a n value to be kind to your f e l l o w man appl i e s in t h i s case. 12. If someone's competent, shouldn't he be hired regardless of what you get from the customers? From tne l i s t of questions above, s e l e c t the four most important: Most important Third most important Second most important Fourth most important PAPER Mike, a senior i n high school, wanted to publish a mimeographed newspaper for students so that he could promote school s p i r i t . He wanted to support the government's p o l i c i e s of m i l i t a r y spending and to support some of the school's r u l e s , l i k e the r u l e f o r b i d d i n g students from wearing punk c l o t h e s . When Mike was s t a r t i n g h i s newspaper, he asked h i s p r i n c i p a l f o r permission. The p r i n c i p a l said i t would be a l l r i g h t i f before every p u b l i c a t i o n Mike would turn i n a l l h i s a r t i c l e s f o r the p r i n c i p a l ' s approval. Mike agreed and turned i n several a r t i c l e s for approval. The p r i n c i p a l approved a l l of them and Mike published two issues of the paper i n the next two weeks. But the p r i n c i p a l had not expected that Mike's newspaper would receive so much a t t e n t i o n . A few students were so upset by the paper that they began to organize protests against the .punk clothes r e g u l a t i o n and other school r u l e s . Angry parents of these students objected to Mike's opinions. They phoned the p r i n c i p a l t e l l i n g him that the newspaper was too p a t r i o t i c and should not be published. As a r e s u l t o f the r i s i n g excitement, the p r i n c i p a l ordered Mike to stop p u b l i s h i n g . He gave as a reason that Mike's a c t i v i t i e s i n t e r f e r e d with the i n d i v i d u -a l r i g h t s of some students. -Should the p r i n c i p a l stop the newspaper? (Check one) ' Should stop i t Can't decide Should not stop i t . 223 1. Is the principal more responsible to students or to parents? 2. Did the p r i n c i p a l give his word that the newspaper could be published for a long time, or did he just promise to approve the newspaper one issue at a time? 3. Would the students continue to protest even i f the principal stopped tne newspaper? 4. When a right of an individual in the school is threatened, does the principal have the right to give an order to students? 5. Does tne principal have the freedom of speech to say "no" in this case? 6. If the principal stopped the newspaper would he be preventing f u l l discussion of student views? 7. Whether the principal's order would make Mike lose faith in the principal. 8. Whether Mike was really concerned about another student's opinion and supported i n d i v i d u a l rights. 9. What effect would stopping the paper have on the students' education in c r i t i c a l thinking and judgment? 10. Whether Mike was in any way violating the r i g h t s of others in publishing his own opinions. 11. Whether the principal should be influenced by some angry parents when i t is the principal that knows best what is going on in the school. 12. Whether Mike was using the newspaper to s t i r up hatred and discontent. From the l i s t of questions above, select the four most important: Most important Third most important Second most important Fourth most important APPENDIX B HIGH SCHOOL SAMPLE - STAGE SCORES AND P INDEX 225 Table B-1 High School Sample Test S t a t i s t i c s f o r  Stage Scores and P Index (N=68) Def i n i n g Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test M SD M SD Stage 2 5.74 3.70 3.96 3.17 Stage 3 12.44 5.62 11.78 5.17 Stage 4 18.93 6.56 20.59 6.77 Stage 5A 12.31 6.10 13.15 6.20 Stage 5B 2.60 2.31 2.49 2.37 Stage 6 2.28 2.17 2.49 2.36 P Index 17.19 7.58 18.12 7.80 226 Table B-2 High School Sample C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r  Stage Scores and P Index (N = 68) SEA IC PEC D Index Ac t i o n DIT ADT DIT ADT Defini n g Issues Test Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5A Stage 5B Stage 6 P Index .06 .10 .29* -.27* -.15 -.02 -.27* Alternate Dilemmas Test Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5A Stage 5B Stage 6 P Index .11 -.06 .27* -.23 .02 -.09 -.20 -.00 .04 .06 -.15 .04 -.02 -. 11 .11 -.06 .05 .11 .01 .27* .00 . 15 -.09 . 10 .06 -.03 .04 .05 -.01 .02 .06 -.05 .01 -.04 -.05 ..36** -.36** -.21 .58*** .42*** .28* .67*** -.22 -.22 -.30* .34** .26* .40*** .47*** Note: SEA = Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s IC = I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale PEC = Politico-Economic Conservatism DIT = Defin i n g Issues Test ADT = Alternate Dilemmas Test * p_<.05 ** p<.01 *** 2<.001 -.35** -.18 -.27* .50*** .40*** .19 .58*** -.24 -.26* ..39*** .56*** .33** .45*** .69** •• 17 -.13 .00 .11 .06 .22 .17 .00 -.28* .08 .03 .04 .33** .13 -.08 -.14 .01 .09 . 15 .15 . 16 •. 18 .04 .01 .01 . 12 .19 . 10 227 Table B-3 High School Sample Means and Standard Deviations f o r  the P Index f o r Two Dilemma Types f o r the Four Groups E t h i c s of S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Conservatism n = 21 M SD L i b e r a l i s m n = 17 M SD E t h i c s of Personal Conscience Conservatism n = 15 M SD L i b e r a l i s m n = 15 M SD P Index DIT 17.48 ADT 16.43 Action DIT 2.76 ADT 2.67 6.77 13.29 7.33 15.18 1. 14 1.24 2.76 2.29 5.64 7.06 1.15 1.21 Note: DIT = Def i n i n g Issues Test ADT = Alternate Dilemmas Test 19.33 9.25 19.07 7.77 20.07 8.04 21.87 7.67 2.47 1.30 2.53 1.13 2.07 .88 2.60 1.12 228 Table B-4 High School Sample Summary Data fo r P Index and A c t i o n Choice 2 x 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Variance Repeated Measures M u l t i v a r i a t e U n i v a r i a t e H o t e l l i n g s Equiv T F (df) P Index Action Choice F p_ F 2 ETH POL ETH x POL DIL DIL x ETH DIL x POL .15 .01 .03 .05 .02 .04 DIL x ETH x POL .03 4.69(2,63;) .30(2,63) .88(2,63) 1.63(2,63) .49(2,63) 1.26(2,63) .92(2,630 .013 .742 .419 i .205 .615 .291 .405 7.11 .52 1.14 1.36 .89 2.56 .07 .010 .474 .290 .247 .350 .115 .788 .83 .02 1.06 2.02 .10 .00 1.81 .364 .897 .308 . 160 .758 .996 .183 Note: ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e DIL = Dilemma Type APPENDIX C UNIVERSITY SAMPLE - STAGE SCORES AND P INDEX 230 Table C-1 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Test S t a t i s t i c s f o r  Stage Scores and P Index (N=35) Defining Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test M SD M SD Stage 2 2.06 2.03 2.09 1.67 Stage 3 6.83 5.27 7.97 4.56 Stage 4 17.31 8.01 15.77 7.69 Stage 5A 18.40 5.77 16.46 6.87 Stage 5B 5.71 3.24 5.23 2.49 Stage 6 5.63 3.62 7.26 4.04 P Index 29.74 8.61 28.94 9.19 I 231 Table C-2 U n i v e r s i t y Sample C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r Stage Scores and P Index (N = 35) D Index Ac t i o n SEA CS DIT ADT DIT ADT Defining Issues Test Stage 2 .61*** .03 -.54*** -.54*** _ . 0 5 > 0 6 Stage 3 .07 .19 -.31 -.19 -.08 -.06 Stage 4 .43** .57*** -.44** -.48** .67*** -.02 Stage 5A -.37* -.60*** .47** .43** -.44** .17 Stage 5B -.42* -.39* .48** .44** -.50** -.30 Stage 6 -.34* -.22 .66*** .40* -.11 -.01 P Index -.55*** -.64*** .78*** .62*** -.53*** -.01 Alternate Dilemmas Test Stage 2 .47** .15 -.47** -.52** .12 -.03 Stage 3 -.10 .17 -.04 -.29 -.04 .03 Stage 4 .67*** .57*** -.58*** -.63*** .44** -.10 Stage 5A -.40* -.52*** .23 .54*** -.36* -.03 Stage 5B -.63*** -.42* .42* .51** -.26 -.04 Stage 6 -.29 -.25 .67*** .57*** -.14 .06 P Index -.60*** -.62*** .58*** .79*** -.40* .04 Note: SEA = Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s CS = Conservatism Scale DIT = Defin i n g Issues Test ADT = Alternate Dilemmas Test * £<. 05 ** £<.01 *** £< . 001 232 Table C-3 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Means and Standard Deviations f o r P Index f o r Two Dilemma Types f o r the Four Groups E t h i c s of S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Conservatism (n=13) M SD L i b e r a l i s m (n=6) M SD E t h i c s of Personal Conscience Conservatism (n=5) M SD L i b e r a l i s m (n=11) M SD P Index DIT 24.00 ADT 24.31 Action DIT 2.54 6.82 30.67 6.56 27.20 8.99 24.83 7.55 27.40 ADT 3.62 .88 1.83 .65 2.83 .75 2.40 .75 2.60 5.63 37.18 7.37 5.13 37.36 5.82 1.34 1.00 1.26 1.52 3.36 1.36 Note: DIT = Defining Issues Test ADT = Al t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test 233 Table C-4 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Summary Data f o r P Index  and A c t i o n Choice 2 x 2 x 2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Variance Repeated Measures M u l t i v a r i a t e U nivariate H o t e l j i n g s Equiv P Index Action Choice T F (df) £ F £ F £ ETH .67 9.98(2,30) .000 18.56 .000 3.62 .066 POL .34 5.17(2,30) .012 8.67 .006 3.02 .092 ETH X POL .09 1.34(2,30) .278 2.07 .160 .45 .508 i DIL 1.31 19.62(2,30) .000 .40 .530 40.53 .000 DIL X ETH .10 1.47(2,30) .245 .52 .478 2.25 .144 DIL X POL .17 2.58(2,30) .092 1.52 .226 4.32 .046 DIL X ETH x POL .26 3.88(2,30) .032 1.26 .270 6.03 .020 Note: ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e DIL = Dilemma Type 

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