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The relationships among dilemma content, moral judgment and action choice in interaction with political… Karr, Mary Alice 1985

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THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG DILEMMA CONTENT, MORAL JUDGMENT AND ACTION CHOICE IN INTERACTION WITH POLITICAL ATTITUDE AND ETHICAL ATTITUDE by MARY ALICE KARR B.S., I l l i n o i s State University, 1970 M.S., I l l i n o i s State U n i v e r s i t y , 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February, 1985 ©  Mary A l i c e Karr, 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f my  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s for financial  gain  Bdncg-i'i&yiA  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall ' Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  It is thesis  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  thesis  I  Psyc^oloQ^y Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  The purpose of the study was to investigate the e f f e c t of s p e c i f i e d v a r i a t i o n i n dilemma content on the r e l a t i o n s h i p among e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , moral development and dilemma action choice. The moral development and action choice scores of i n d i v i d u a l s  who  d i f f e r e d in e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e were compared for two types  of  dilemmas,  the  Defining  Issues  Test  dilemmas  dilemmas, d i f f e r i n g i n terms of the action supported  and a l t e r n a t e  by authority.  Measures of e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e and moral development  were administered  subjects. measures  Results showed  that  to 68  high  school  subjects  and  35  of m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e moral  development  and  action  choice  university repeated scores  of  subjects who d i f f e r e d i n e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e d i d not vary  for the  related  two  dilemma  types.  Ethical  to moral development scores  a t t i t u d e was  for both  and Alternate Dilemmas Test, but only  to be  the Defining Issues  to u n i v e r s i t y  choice scores on the Defining Issues Test.  found  Test  subjects' a c t i o n  P o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was  found  to be related to only u n i v e r s i t y subjects' action choice scores on the Defining Issues Test. Stepwise  regression analysis indicated that the D Index was  the  best predictor of the Defining Issues Test action choice scores for the high school sample and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e was the best predictor for the u n i v e r s i t y sample. Limitations and implications of t h i s research^ace^disTsussed. ii  TABLE' OF  CONTENTS v i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT TABLE LIST  ,  i i  OF CONTENTS  i  OF TABLES  i  i V  Chapter I  INTRODUCTION Background Purposes  1  o f t h e Problem  1  o f t h e Study  15  The P r o b l e m Definition Research  16 o f Terms  18  Hypothesis  23  Main  Effects-Ethical Attitude  23  Main  Effects-Political  23  Interaction  E f f e c t s - D i l e m m a Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e  24  Interaction  Effects-Dilemma  24  Moral  Development-Action  Organization II  Attitude Type x P o l i t i c a l  Attitude  Choice  25  of the Dissertation  26  REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E Moral  Reasoning  27  and P o l i t i c a l  Methodological  Attitude  28  Issues  29  Political Attitude K o h l b e r g ' s Moral Judgment  Measure and P o l i t i c a l  Attitude  33 40  R e s t ' s M o r a l Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Hogan's M o r a l Judgment Measure and P o l i t c a l A t t i t u d e T e s t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M o r a l Judgment a n d P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Measures Summary o f M o r a l R e a s o n i n g a n d P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s  60 65  S t u d i e s o f Hogan's and K o h l b e r g ' s M o r a l Judgment D i m e n s i o n s Introduction S t u d i e s o f t h e P o l i t i c a l B i a s o f K o h l b e r g ' s S t a g e Scheme Summary  74 74 81 87  Studies  88  o f M o r a l Judgment  and Dilemma  V a r i a t i o n i n Dilemma P r o t a g o n i s t H y p o t h e t i c a l Dilemmas v e r s u s A c t u a l Prohibitive  Dilemmas  Summary Studies o f Moral Summary  Content Dilemmas  versus Prosocial  Judgment  a n d Dilemma  Summary  Dilemmas  Action  Choice  67 70  89 91 94 96 99 101 101  i i i  Ill  IV  V  METHODOLOGY  103  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Samples High S c h o o l Samples U n i v e r s i t y Sample Subjects Design o f t h e Study Procedures M e a s u r i n g Instruments Administration Data P r o c e s s i n g and A n a l y s i s Data P r o c e s s i n g Data A n a l y s i s Summary  104 104 104 105 107 108 108 120 121 121 122 124  RESULTS  125  Phase One Item and T e s t A n a l y s i s Phase Two - High S c h o o l Sample P r e l i m i n a r y Analyses A n a l y s i s o f Sex D i f f e r e n c e 2x2x2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s Phase Two - U n i v e r s i t y Sample Preliminary Analyses A n a l y s i s o f Sex D i f f e r e n c e 2x2x2 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s Summary  125 125 125 126 128 130 138 142 142 146 146 159 162  SUMMARY  Repeated Measures  Repeated Measures  OF RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND CONCLUSIONS  Summary o f R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n M o r a l Development - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e M o r a l Development - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e A c t i o n Choice - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e Action Choice - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e M o r a l Development - A c t i o n C h o i c e Conclus ions L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study Sample Measurement Methodology I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations o f t h e Study Implications Recommendations f o r Research  iv  165 165 166 171 177 180 181 185 189 189 190 191 192 193 198  LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Summary of Defining Issues Test Dilemmas  12  2 Summary of Alternate Dilemmas  98  3 High School Sample Test Statistics  127  4 High School Sample Correlation Matrix  129  5 High School Sample Means and Standard Deviations of the Two Dilemma Types for the Four Groups  131  6 High School Sample Summary Data - 2x2x2 Multivariate Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures  133  7 High School Sample Summary of Multiple Regression Analysis  140  8 University Sample Test Statistics  143  9 University Sample Correlation Matrix  145  10 Univeristy Sample Means and Standard Deviations of the Two Dilemma Types for the Four Groups  148  11 University Sample Summary Data - 2x2x2 Multivariate Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures  149  12 University Sample Summary of Data - 2x2 Multivariate Analysis of Variance  150  13 University Sample Summary of Multiple Regression Analysis  160  14 Summary of Hypotheses Tested for High School and University Sample  163  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The writer wishes to dedicate Dr.  Leslie  Carlton,  a mentor  t h i s study to the memory of the l a t e  and f r i e n d , whose high  regard  for  her  students i n s p i r e d them to express the best i n themselves. The Foster,  writer expresses her appreciation to her advisor, Dr. Stephen f o r h i s assistance  and d i r e c t i o n throughout  the study.  She  would also l i k e to thank Dr. LeRoy D. T r a v i s , Dr. Gordon Nelson, and Dr. Lawrence Walker for t h e i r support and advice i n areas of content. Appreciation the  study;  i s extended to Kathy Puharich f o r her assistance i n  to Nucha  services;  and to Cam  processing  services.  Kazakawitz  and Joan  MacDonald  of Island  The writer  Prentice  for their  Wordworks  i s particularly  typing  L t d . f o r word  grateful  to these  i n d i v i d u a l s for the long hours they worked to help meet deadlines. A  s p e c i a l recognition  of thanks  i s afforded  c i p a l s , teachers, and students whose cooperation  to the school  prin-  enabled the study to be  conducted. Appreciation  i s extended also to Dr. Stanley  Knight  f o r h i s calm  assurances and shrewd advice i n times of c r i s i s and to Brenda Knight for her  unerring  intuition,  sense of humour, and warmth.  Their  continued  encouragement and support throughout the course of the doctoral program were g r e a t l y appreciated Last,  and w i l l be long remembered.  but not l e a s t , a s p e c i a l thanks i s extended to Dr. Janice  Booth for helping the writer to keep problems i n proper perspective by frequent  reminders of the ultimate  goal.  vi  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Background t o the Problem  Cognitive behavior  have  developmental received  accounts of moral  widespread  attention  development from  educators (e.g., B l a s i , 1980; Damon, 1980; Lawrence,  and moral  psychologists 1980).  and  One reason  for t h i s attention i s that they attempt to bring coherence to the study of at l e a s t three fundamental problems r e l a t i n g to human morality: the problem of how morality i s acquired i n the course of development; the problem of moral consistency within i n d i v i d u a l s ; and the problem of how (and whether) i t i s appropriate t o order d i f f e r e n t types of human morality on a scale ranging from p r i m i t i v e to advanced. (Damon, 1980, p. 35) In addition, educators have been interest  i n moral  education  attracted to the research  and  their  desire  because of  t o understand  their  students better. Cognitive developmental approaches are characterized by an emphasis on the i n t e r n a l construction and reorganization of cognitive structures as the basis f o r the development tions  (Wilson  & Schochet,  1980).  p r i m a r i l y based upon Piaget's 1976,  of p a r t i c u l a r types of moral o r i e n t a Cognitive  developmental  (1965) and Kohlberg's (1964,  1981, 1983) moral development  research,  1969, 1971,  theories, has involved looking f o r  consistencies i n the use of moral reasoning  structures across d i f f e r e n t  2 situations  and  for  the  structures of reasoning  development with age.  of  progressively  more  adequate  In these theories, moral  structure  r e f e r s to a l o g i c a l organization of thinking, that i s , the form of moral reasoning  rather than the content.  which are  considered  to r e p r e s e n t  systems of thinking.  (morality  qualitatively  different logical  Based upon Piaget's theory that c h i l d r e n progress  from a heteronomous morality morality  Stages of development are proposed  of  (morality of constraint) to an  cooperation),  Kohlberg  postulated  a  autonomous six  stage  theory of moral development. In morality moral  contrast (e.g.,  to  Aronfreed,  norms and  experiences of  socialization 1976;  p r i n c i p l e s are social  on  the  situational cognitive  of  developmental  of  moral  reasoning  general  theories  of  Hoffman, 1970), basic  structures  arising  through  than through i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n (Kohlberg,  is  1976).  about  q u a l i t y and  From  factors extent  With the  justice,  deemphasized.  environmental  in  the the  moral  of cognitive  1976).  structures of moral reasoning  situations  learning  i n d i v i d u a l reasoning  and s o c i a l stimulation (Kohlberg,  by d e f i n i n g how  1971;  as  structures  perspective,  development are defined by the  The  Bandura,  i n t e r a c t i o n , rather  ontogenesis context  social  viewed  of rules that e x i s t as external focus  and  are considered  to a f f e c t action  r i g h t s and duties are to be understood i n concrete moral  (Kohlberg,  1976;  Rest, 1979a).  In opposition to t h i s view,  s o c i a l learning t h e o r i s t s contend that a d u a l i t y i n moral judgment  and  action e x i s t s and  are  provided  as one  Aronfreed, 1968  the  findings of Hartshorne and  source of empirical  i n his associates  evidence for t h i s  and Mischel & Mischel, 1976).  contention  (see  3 In a series of studies, Hartshorne and his associates (Hartshorne & May,  1928;  Hartshorne,  Shuttleworth,  1930)  knowledge was as  May  attempted  &  Mailer,  to  assess  1929; the  p r e d i c t i v e of moral behavior.  a q u a n t i t a t i v e dimension determined by  tudes  were  behavioral  reflective  of  adult  scores  extent  to  May  which  Moral knowledge was the  standards.  measures of deceit and  Hartshorne,  on  extent Low  &  moral defined  that one's  atti-  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  paper and  p e n c i l t e s t s of  "moral knowledge" were interpreted as i n d i c a t i n g that moral responding is  situation specific.  Blasi  (1980), a  However, i n more recent  significant  number of  studies  research  reviewed  were reported  to  by  have  found consistencies between moral judgment and a c t i o n . A crucial tion way  issue i n cognitive development theories i s the  between structure and to research  states,  on the  "a future  situations  that  fested  the  and  content.  (1979a) points  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of structure and  goal  i s to  a f f e c t the extent  However, Rest  identify  the  various  content.  the He  a t t r i b u t e s of t e s t  s t r u c t u r a l organizations  to which each of  distinc-  of thinking mani-  these a t t r i b u t e s a f f e c t them"  (pp. 68-69). Based on the extensive body of research r e l a t i n g to cognitive moral development Rest  and  (1979a)  complications 63).  Rest  particularly  has  reformulated  no  longer  tors to  Kohlberg's  considers  manner.  i t i s necessary  different  Kohlberg's moral  i n the model for the  "all-or-nothing" that  to  to  To  l o g i c a l organizations show the  extent  and  cognitive  both  and  theory,  accepted  "some  sake of a better empirical f i t "  characterize  use  theory  development  structures  to  occur  development, Rest  q u a l i t a t i v e descriptors  of thinking, and  in  (p. an  suggests to  depict  quantitative descrip-  degree to which d i f f e r e n t structures  are  4 operating.  Rest also acknowledges that cognitive assessment i s affected  by s p e c i f i c task, content, and response c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s i t u a t i o n , and thus, the manifestation of a p a r t i c u l a r cognitive structure i n one s e t t i n g gives only a p r o b a b i l i s t i c i n d i c a t i o n that i t would be manifest i n other s e t t i n g s . In addition, Rest (1979a) replaces Kohlberg's concept of a "simple stage model" with assumptions model.  a more complex model of development.  Many of the  of the simple stage model are not met by t h i s more complex  For example, i n Rest's model, a subject may advance i n several  organizations of thinking  simultaneously; the ascending  and descending  slopes of a l l the stage types may not be symmetrical or evenly spaced; the point of highest usage of a stage type may not be i t s point of f u l l e s t development; and no stage type may have a period of 100% usage and  each  stage type may not have a period when i t predominates.  The  term "stage type" i s used here because "stage" suggests that the subject i s e x c l u s i v e l y one type of response at a time. While  Rest  (1979a)  acknowledges  that  content  can influence the  structure that i s manifest i n responses, another concern that has been raised i s whether the stages postulated by Kohlberg 1976)  and adopted  structures  i n o v e r a l l terms by Rest (1979a) are r e a l l y cognitive  representing progressively  thinking  about  measured  consist  justice.  1970; Reid  S u l l i v a n , 1977).  more  An a l t e r n a t i v e  i n different  attitudes or o r i e n t a t i o n Hogan,  (e.g., 1969, 1971,  toward  kinds moral  adequate  view  organizations o f  i s that  of content  that  the stages as reflect  various  issues (e.g., Buck-Morss, 1975;  & Yanarella, 1980; Sampson,  1978; Simpson, 1974;  5 Kohlberg's levels: 4),  moral development  preconventional  (Stages  stages  are grouped  1 and 2 ) , conventional  and postconventional (Stages 5 and 6 ) .  (Stages  3 and  The following c h a r a c t e r i z a -  t i o n of the six moral stages i s presented by Kohlberg I.  into three major  (1971 ) :  Preconventional Level At t h i s l e v e l the c h i l d i s responsive to c u l t u r a l rules and labels of good and bad, r i g h t or wrong, but i n t e r prets these l a b e l s i n terms of either the p h y s i c a l or the h e d o n i s t i c consequences o f a c t i o n (punishment, reward, exchange of favors), or i n terms of the p h y s i c a l power of those who enunciate the rules and l a b e l s . The l e v e l i s divided into the following two stages: Stage 1 : The punishment and obedience o r i e n t a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l consequences of action determine i t s goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. Avoidance of punishment and unquest i o n i n g deference to power are valued i n t h e i r own r i g h t , not i n terms of respect f o r an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority (the l a t t e r being stage 4 ) . Stage 2: The i n s t r u m e n t a l r e l a t i v i s t orientation. Right a c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h a t which i n s t r u m e n t a l l y s a t i s f i e s one's own needs and o c c a s i o n a l l y the needs o f others. Human r e l a t i o n s are viewed i n terms l i k e those of the market p l a c e . Elements of f a i r n e s s , of r e c i p r o c i t y , and of equal sharing are present, but they are always interpreted i n a p h y s i c a l pragmatic way. Recip r o c i t y i s a matter of "you scratch my back and I ' l l scratch yours," not of l o y a l t y , g r a t i t u d e , or j u s t i c e . ^  II.  Conventional Level At t h i s l e v e l , maintaining the expectations of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s family, group, or nation i s perceived as valuable i n i t s own r i g h t , regardless of immediate and obvious consequences. The attitude i s not only one o f conformity to personal expectations and s o c i a l order, but of l o y a l t y to i t , of a c t i v e l y maintaining, supporting, and j u s t i f y i n g the order, and of i d e n t i f y i n g with the persons or group involved i n i t . At t h i s l e v e l , there are the following two stages: Stage 3: The interpersonal concordance or "good boynice g i r l " o r i e n t a t i o n . Good behavior i s that which pleases or helps others and i s approved by them. There i s much conformity to s t e r e o t y p i c a l images or what i s majority or "natural" behavior. Behavior i s frequently  6 judged by i n t e n t i o n — " h e means well" becomes important for the f i r s t time. One earns approval by being "nice." Stage 4: The "law and order" o r i e n t a t i o n . There i s o r i e n t a t i o n toward a u t h o r i t y , f i x e d r u l e s , and the maintenance of the s o c i a l order. Right behavior cons i s t s of doing one's duty, showing respect f o r authori t y , and maintaining the given s o c i a l order f o r i t ' s own sake. III.  Postconventional, Autonomous, or P r i n c i p l e d L e v e l At t h i s l e v e l , there i s a clear e f f o r t to define moral values and p r i n c i p l e s which have v a l i d i t y and applicat i o n apart from the authority of the groups or persons holding these p r i n c i p l e s , and apart from the i n d i v i d u al's own i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with these groups. This l e v e l has two stages: Stage 5: The s o c i a l - c o n t r a c t l e g a l i s t i c orientation, generally with u t i l i t a r i a n overtones. Right action tends to be defined i n terms of general i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , and standards which have been c r i t i c a l l y examined and agreed upon by the whole society. There i s a clear awareness of the r e l a t i v i s m of personal values and opinions and a corresponding emphasis upon procedural rules f o r reaching consensus. Aside from what i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y and democratically agreed upon, the r i g h t i s a matter of personal "values" and "opinion." The r e s u l t i s an emphasis upon the " l e g a l point of view," but with an emphasis upon the p o s s i b i l i t y of changing law i n terms of r a t i o n a l considerations of s o c i a l u t i l i t y (rather than freezing i t i n terms of stage 4 "law and order"). Outside the l e g a l realm, free agreement and contract i s the binding element of o b l i g a tion. This i s the " o f f i c i a l " imorality of the American government and c o n s t i t u t i o n . -  Stage 6: The u n i v e r s a l e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e o r i e n t a t i o n . Right i s defined by the decision of conscience i n accord with self-chosen e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s appealing to l o g i c a l comprehensiveness, u n i v e r s a l i t y , and consistency. These p r i n c i p l e s are abstract and e t h i c a l (the Golden Rule, the c a t e g o r i c a l imperative); they are not concrete moral r u l e s l i k e the Ten Commandments. At heart, these are ; universal p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e , of the r e c i p r o c i t y and e q u a l i t y of human r i g h t s , and of respect f o r the d i g n i t y of human beings as i n d i v i d u a l persons. (pp. 164-165) Two  structure-content  descriptions  (Levine,  used to c l a s s i f y  issues  1979a).  are relevant  First,  to Kohlberg's  the form-content  and explain the impact  bf the s o c i a l  stage  distinction i s environment on  7 moral  reasoning.  elicit  or i n h i b i t  The issue raised  i s whether  the generalization  t i o n a l moral thought.  cultural  of conventional  Second, the form-content  content can  and  postconven-  distinction  i s used to  explain what i s meant by stage of moral reasoning, that i s , stages are forms or structures of cognitive processes  which  internalized  relevant issue i s whether  stages,  cultural  content.  as described  The second  by Kohlberg,  represent  are independent  forms  of  of reasoning or  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l contents. In  regard to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of structure and content i n both  Kohlberg's  moral theory and h i s measurement of moral development, Emler  (1983 ) points out that, The moral dilemmas, employed t o e l i c i t s t y l e s o f moral thought, make core issues out of l i b e r a l values such as c i v i l r i g h t s and freedoms, property, the value of human l i f e and i n d i v i d u a l conscience, and each dilemma betrays the c e n t r a l l i b e r a l concern—the c o n f l i c t between i n d i v i d u a l conscience and a u t h o r i t y . (p. 61) One of the implications of Emler's discussion of l i b e r a l dilemma content is  that such  fested.  content  Concerning  affects  the moral reasoning that w i l l  the structure-content d i s t i n c t i o n  be mani-  i n Kohlberg's  theory, Emler (1983) states, Stages four, f i v e , and s i x , therefore, take the theory d i r e c t l y into the arena of p o l i t i c a l authority. Each of these stages represents a d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n regarding the basis f o r and l i m i t s of p o l i t i c a l legitimacy, though stages f i v e and s i x tend both to converge on a l i b e r a l p o s i t i o n . (p. 60) Thus, the d i f f e r e n c e between the structures of conventional and p r i n cipled  reasoning  i s viewed  by Emler  as a d i f f e r e n c e  i n ideological  content between conservatism and l i b e r a l i s m . The reasoning  distinction  between  conventional  has been described by Kohlberg  perspective  versus  and postconventional  moral  (1971) as a law-maintaining  a law-making p e r s p e c t i v e .  Conventional  moral  8  reasoning i s characterized by the maintenance of the r u l e s , expectations and conventions of society or authority j u s t because they are society's r u l e s , expectations or conventions. within  society and,  consequently,  The s e l f i s viewed to be immanently the status quo  However, the postconventional i n d i v i d u a l society's  rules  these r u l e s .  on  i s seldom challenged.  i s seen to base acceptance  general moral p r i n c i p l e s  of j u s t i c e  of  that underlie  The p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e are seen to place a focus on the  r i g h t s of humanity independent of c i v i l society and to imply the primacy of  liberty  or  civil  rights,  equality  of  opportunity  and  contract  (Kohlberg, 1971). Emler and Hogan (1981) suggested thinking o u t l i n e d by Kohlberg  that the " l i m i t a t i o n s " of Stage 4  (1971), that i s , "(a) i t defines no c l e a r  o b l i g a t i o n s to persons outside the order (for example, the nation-state) or to persons who  order; and  (b)  i t provides no r a t i o n a l guides to s o c i a l change, to the creation of  new  norms or  laws"  do not recognize the rules of one's own  (p. 200),  from conservatives.  are  simple  values  that d i s t i n g u i s h  According to Emler and Hogan (1981),  liberals  conservatives  are less l i k e l y to believe that they have o b l i g a t i o n s to persons who outside the system or opposed to i t s r u l e s , less the p o s s i b i l i t y ested  l i k e l y to b e l i e v e i n  of a r a t i o n a l basis for l e g a l reform,  in individual  rights than  in collective  are  and  security.  less  inter-  Liberals,  on  the other hand, are considered to be more i n c l i n e d to see the law as an instrument  for s o c i a l reform and to believe that i t should be used to  secure s o c i a l j u s t i c e to protect i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . Hogan  (1970) proposed  an  alternative  judgment and moral behavior to Kohlberg's  conceptualization of moral theory.  moral  Hogan claimed  that the d i f f e r e n c e s i n moral judgment are not to be understood  i n terms  9 of  cognitive development but rather i n terms of p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s  closely  tied  represented defined by and  to as  political a  ideology.  continuum  a preference  i n t u i t i v e moral  from  Principled  an  ethics  of  reasoning personal  style  is  conscience,  for making decisions on the basis of personal  feelings,  to  an  ethics  of  social  responsibility,  characterized by a preference for r e l y i n g on conventions, contracts and formal  agreements  1970).  According  relates  to  whereas,  a  the  as  a  means  to Hogan  higher  law  ethics  of  for  regulating s o c i a l  (1970),  the  morality, social  a  ethics  affairs  of personal  liberal  to  responsibility  is  p o s i t i v e law t r a d i t i o n , a conservative p o s i t i o n .  (Hogan,  conscience  radical  position;  equivalent  to  the  Both e t h i c a l attitudes  are considered to be equally defensible on moral grounds. Whereas both development  the  theory  critics  acknowledge  moral stages and p o l i t i c a l  and  proponents  that  ideology, they  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . interpret  evidence  Kohlberg's  moral  Kohlberg's  of  stages  relationship as  The  is a are not  Kohlberg's  relationship  (e.g., Emler,  Rothman  &  Lichter, theory  1983; 1978).  between of  political the  Emler & Hogan, 1981; the  between  c r i t i c s of Kohlberg's  confirmation  On  moral  i n agreement on  other  hand,  the  theory  ideology  political  theory and an i n d i c a t i o n of the confounding  content  Kohlberg's  a  there  of  and  bias  of  of structure and  Hogan & Emler, the  1978;  proponents  i n t e r p r e t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l  of  ideology  and moral reasoning as support for the construct v a l i d i t y of the theory (e.g., F i s h k i n , Keniston & MacKinnon, 1973; Smith & Block, 1968;  Fontana & Noel, 1973;  Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz 4VAnderson,  Haan,  1974).  10 From the viewpoint of Kohlberg's moral theory, moral reasoning i s tied  to p o l i t i c a l  ideology  i n that  which p o l i t i c s i s understood.  i t p a r t l y determines the terms i n  Rest (1979a) states,  Studies of p o l i t i c a l ideology have long recognized the important d i s t i n c t i o n between a maintenance-of-society view and a human-rights-and-equalitarian view. Discussion of "left" versus " r i g h t " p o l i t i c s (Tomkins 1963), Liberalism-Conservatism (Keniston 1968) and Authoritarianism (Adorno et a l . 1950) have a l l noted t h i s dimension of p o l i t i c a l ideology. The claim of moral judgment research i s that such differences i n p o l i t i c a l ideology i n part r e f l e c t a developmental d i f f e r e n c e , (p. 164) The  emphasis  overall  from  construal  the cognitive of  the  perceived to be relevant.  developmental  situation  and  the  perspective limitations  i s on of  the  what i s  The postconventional subject i s seen to bring  a more complex and sophisticated t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoint to the issues and to  comprehend the wider  social  and p o l i t i c a l  implications  of what i s  going on i n the s i t u a t i o n (Weinreich-Haste, 1983). In exploring the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral stages and the content of moral judgments,  consideration  needs  to be given  to the way  i n which  moral stages are assessed. With Kohlberg's measure, the subject's stage of moral  development  moral dilemmas. been  revised  by  scoring system. sion problem.  i s inferred  from responses made to hypothetical  The scoring procedures for the interview protocols have Kohlberg a number of times  since  his original  1958  A substantial r e v i s i o n was prompted by a stage-regresInitially,  Kohlberg interpreted the apparent regression  of some college subjects from Stage 4 or 5 to the r e l a t i v i s t i c egoism of Stage 2 as a t r a n s i t i o n a l phase, a "Stage 4 1/2" and  postconventional  morality  (Kohlberg &  between conventional  Kramer,  1969).  (1973a) l a t e r redefined stages to include A arid B substages:  Kohlberg Type A, a  normative order and u t i l i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n at each stage, and Type B, a  11 j u s t i c e and i d e a l - s e l f o r i e n t a t i o n . new  issue  scoring  system.  procedure r e p r e s e n t between (see  and  "structure"  Stage 4 1/2 became Stage 4B i n the  Kohlberg's modifications  of h i s scoring  s u c c e s s i v e attempts t o c l a r i f y  the d i f f e r e n c e  and content i n assessing the moral  criteria  used  Rest, 1979a) . Rest developed the Defining  Issues Test  (1974,  pencil,  alternative  to Kohlberg's  objectively  scored  measure of moral development.  In contrast  1979b) as a paper interview  to Kohlberg, Rest  (1979a)  maintained that the focus of h i s measure i s not on assessing structure independent of content, but on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of structure and content. Hypothetical moral dilemmas are used i n the Defining (Rest,  1974,  1979b):  three  of Kohlberg's dilemmas  Issues Test  are used and the  other three dilemmas are s i m i l a r i n content (see Table 1).  Instead of  answering open-ended questions about the dilemmas, the subject indicates a  p r e f e r e n c e from  several  stage  prototypic  statements  based  on  Kohlberg's stage topology by r a t i n g and ranking these statements. Different Defining Twelve  indices  Issues Test,  of moral that  development  i s , stage  of  dilemma.  P  Index  and D  Index.  importance i n making a decision i n  A stage score i s calculated by summing the weighted ranks  those statements which  stage.  scores,  from the  statements follow each dilemma and the subject rates and ranks  these statements i n terms of t h e i r the  can be derived  are considered to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of the  The P Index represents the sum of the weighted ranks given to  "principled"  items, i . e . , Stages  5A,  5B and 6.  More recently,  Rest  (1979a) has recommended the use of the D Index, a r e l i a b l e o v e r a l l index of moral development which uses information from a l l s i x stages.  The D  12 Table 1 A Summary of D e f i n i n g Issues Test Dilemmas  Heinz and the Drug - Heinz must decide whether or not .to steal a drug to save the l i f e of his wife who i s dying of cancer. Should Heinz s t e a l the drug? Student Take-over - The SDS (Students f o r a Democratic Society) take over the u n i v e r s i t y ' s administration b u i l d i n g to protest the u n i v e r s i t y president's decision, to r e t a i n an army t r a i n i n g program on campus. Should the students have taken over the administration b u i l d i n g ? Escaped P r i s o n e r - Mrs. Jones must decide whether to report a man to the p o l i c e who she recognized as an escaped prisoner. For eight years a f t e r escaping, the man has l i v e d an exemplary l i f e i n the community. Should Mrs. Jones report Mr. Thompson to the p o l i c e and have him sent back t o prison? The Doctor's Dilemma - A doctor has been asked by a terminally i l l patient for enough morphine to k i l l her. What should the doctor do? Webster - Mr. Webster, the owner and manager of a gas s t a t i o n , d i d not hire an O r i e n t a l mechanic because he was concerned about h i s customers who did not l i k e O r i e n t a l s . What should Mr. Webster have done? Newspaper - The p r i n c i p a l stopped the p u b l i s h i n g of a school newspaper that spoke out against the Vietnam War and school r u l e s . Should the p r i n c i p a l stop the newspaper?  Index represents an empirically weighted the  sum of the r a t i n g data for a l l  statements. Certain  Defining  consistencies i n the content of the dilemmas used  Issues  Test  (Rest,  1974,  1979b) are  evident.  A l l of  dilemmas involve a c o n f l i c t between o b l i g a t i o n to i n d i v i d u a l and  obligations to society.  Another s i m i l a r i t y  i n the the  conscience  i s that the claims by  i n d i v i d u a l s or minority groups for c e r t a i n r i g h t s are not supported l e g a l or established authority (see Table 1). in  which  individual  maintenance protecting  of the  rights  society  are  conflict  individual's  right  An example of a dilemma  protected  in  would  the  to  be  due  by  an  individual  situation  process  has  the  rights-  where impact  laws of  l i m i t i n g the powers of the p o l i c e and the protection given to society as a whole. This point can be made c l e a r e r by i l l u s t r a t i n g  how the s i x dilemmas  in the Defining Issues Test could be changed so that the emphasis i s on the  interest  of  social  welfare  i n d i v i d u a l or minority group.  rather  than  on  the  interest  of  an  The Heinz dilemma could be rewritten so  that the issue i s whether to v i o l a t e the i n d i v i d u a l druggist's property rights  i n the i n t e r e s t of s o c i a l welfare  as a whole.  In the Student  Take-over dilemma, the issue could be whether a group representing majority of students Escaped Prisoner  should take over the administration b u i l d i n g .  dilemma could be changed so that the concern  protection of the community  rather  a  The  i s the  than the prisoner's welfare.  The  Doctor's dilemma could be changed to a question of the protection of the doctor's  r i g h t s at the expense of the patient and other  The Webster dilemma could than d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . that  a majority  changes,  the  be a case of reverse  sick  people.  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n rather  F i n a l l y , the Newspaper dilemma could be changed so  group publishes  dilemmas  the school  represent  moral  r i g h t s and s o c i a l welfare as a whole.  paper.  conflicts  Even with between  these  individual  I t i s the focus of the issue i n  the dilemma that has been changed. The  "political  p o s i t i o n " i n the i n d i v i d u a l  rights-maintenance  of  society dilemma that i s supported  by the law or an authority f i g u r e may  affect  i s manifested.  the moral reasoning  servative  subject's  Test  reflect  may  conflict  that  responses  the fact  to the dilemmas  that  with p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l  the law biases.  The p o l i t i c a l l y i n the Defining  i s not perceived  conIssues  to be i n  I f the dilemma  involves a  s i t u a t i o n i n which the law or persons i n authority supports  individual  14 r i g h t s at the expense of s o c i a l welfare, the conservative subject may more ambiguous i n the  responses made to the moral dilemmas.  circumstance,  there may  that  Stage  i s not  liberal  4  subject may  Defining  Issues  be more of an "Law  tend  Test  and  Order."  to use  dilemmas  inclination  than  to prefer  Conversely,  higher  level  i n the  In  moral  the  this  reasoning  politically  reasoning  dilemmas  be  where  in  the  individual  r i g h t s are protected by l e g a l or established authority. Dilemma politically  content liberal  might be expected  may and  also  influence  conservative  the  action choices  subjects.  Conservative  made  by  subjects  to choose more actions i n compliance with authority i n  the Defining Issues  Test dilemmas than  liberal  subjects.  In dilemmas  where i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s are protected by l e g a l or established authority, liberal  subjects might be expected  to choose more actions i n compliance  with authority than conservative subjects. choices i n the two the  aspects  of  types of dilemmas may  a  situation  subject's p o l i t i c a l  that  may  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of action  increase our understanding affect  the  relationship  of  of a  a t t i t u d e and/or moral reasoning with the choice of  actions i n compliance with authority. The  effect  reasoning, Relevant  of  dilemma  political  to t h i s  content  a t t i t u d e and  discussion i s the  on  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among moral  action choice effect  of  has  dilemma  been  discussed.  content  on  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between Hogan's (1970) moral judgment dimension and moral reasoning to  be  (Rest, 1979a).  tied  to p o l i t i c a l  Hogan's moral judgment dimension i s considered attitude.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p of Hogan's (1970)  e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s with p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e i s explained i n two ways:  (a)  there  and  i s no  political  clear  way  functionally  a t t i t u d e domains, and  to d i s t i n g u i s h  (b) moral  and  between moral  political  judgment  are  15 both  reflections  of  a  person's  personality  (Emler  &  Hogan,  1981).  Therefore, i t would be expected that subjects with an ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or an ethics of personal conscience would respond to the two types of dilemmas i n a manner s i m i l a r to p o l i t i c a l l y conservative or liberal  subjects, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Hogan (1970) developed the Survey of E t h i c a l Attitudes to measure the  d i s p o s i t i o n to adopt either the ethics of personal conscience or the  e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The items i n t h i s scale are concerned  with a t t i t u d e toward l e g a l or s o c i a l compliance, with responses advocating  compliance being scored as ethics of s o c i a l  responsibility.  This  would suggest that e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s as operationalized by Hogan (1970) would also be related to dilemma action choice. The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of structure and content i n the assessment of moral development  may  a f f e c t moral development  ship of these scores with p o l i t i c a l exploring  scores and the r e l a t i o n -  attitude and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e .  the question of dilemma content e f f e c t s  on the  In  relationship  among moral reasoning, p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , and dilemma action choice, research using the Defining Issues Test can only d i r e c t l y confirm or disconfirm hypotheses Kohlberg's ultimately  theory. reflect  about Rest's (1979a) reformulation of  However, i t i s presumed on  q u e s t i o n s about  that  such  Kohlberg's  research w i l l  theory, i f only  indirectly.  Purposes of the Study  It i s possible to a l t e r dilemma content such as to specify whether i t i s compliance with authority or protection by authority of i n d i v i d u a l  16 rights  that  i s at  issue.  Such s p e c i f i e d v a r i a t i o n  can  be  related  to  scores on instruments designed to measure the constructs discussed above in ways that should illuminate  the controversies noted.  The  purposes of  t h i s study are to determine the e f f e c t of s p e c i f i e d v a r i a t i o n i n dilemma content  on:  a)  moral development scores,  b)  dilemma action choice scores,  c)  the  relationship  between  ethical  attitude  and  moral  development  scores, d)  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h i c a l attitude and  dilemma action choice  scores, e)  the  relationship  between p o l i t i c a l  attitude  and  moral development  scores, f)  the  relationship  choice scores, g)  the  between  political  between  moral  attitude  and  dilemma  action  and  relationship  development  scores  and  dilemma  action choice scores.  The Problem  Rest's (1979a) and reasoning i.e.,  represent  cognitive  (1970),  critical  two  Hogan's (1970) approaches to the different  developmental and of  perspectives  concerning  morality,  t r a i t approach, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Kohlberg's moral  a l t e r n a t i v e conceptualization.  study of moral  stage  theory,  has  Hogan  developed  an  Claiming Kohlberg's developmental theory  17 is  politically  biased,  Hogan (1970) suggested  that the o r i e n t a t i o n to  p a r t i c u l a r moral p r i n c i p l e s i s related to p o l i t i c a l Rest  (1979a), d e p a r t i n g  ideology.  from Kohlberg's views c o n c e r n i n g  the  structure-content d i s t i n c t i o n , acknowledged that various task characteri s t i c s may the  a f f e c t the moral structures that are manifested.  question  assess  of whether varying the  moral  development  in  terms  content of  this  of  the  This r a i s e s  dilemmas used  political  dimension  to  will  a f f e c t thei moral development scores obtained. The rights  emphasis i n the Defining Issues Test dilemmas i s on  versus  social  welfare  concerns.  In  individual  addition, legal  or  estab-  l i s h e d authority i s i n opposition to i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s i n the dilemmas. Would i n d i v i d u a l s who  are conservative i n p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l  orientation  or have an e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r i e n t a t i o n be less to prefer Stage 4 supported  by  "law  legal  or  welfare as a whole? personal  and  order" reasoning when i n d i v i d u a l rights  established authority at the  expense of  Conversely, would p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l  conscience  i n d i v i d u a l s be more l i k e l y  would  authority  vary  the as  choice  of  a result  dilemma  actions that  of dilemma content,  are  social  or e t h i c s of  to prefer Stage 4  and order" reasoning when i n d i v i d u a l rights are supported Further,  inclined  "law  by authority?  were supported  by  political  a t t i t u d e or  compare moral  development  e t h i c a l attitude? One  way  scores on the which the lished differ  to  study  this  problem  Defining Issues  individual  authority.  i s to  Test dilemmas and  scores on- dilemmas i n  rights concerns are supported The  moral  development  scores  by  l e g a l or  estab-  of  individuals  who  i n p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e or e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e can be compared for the  two types of dilemmas,.  By considering both "person" v a r i a b l e s , that i s ,  18 political is,  a t t i t u d e or e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , and " s i t u a t i o n " v a r i a b l e s , that  dilemma  content,  i t i s p o s s i b l e to  investigate  the  interaction  e f f e c t of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e or e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and dilemma content on moral development l e v e l and dilemma action choice.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  Throughout the study various terms w i l l be used as defined below. Action Choice - Action choice r e f e r s to the action i n the dilemma that the subject chooses to support. Compliance with Authority  -  spective, action choices cannot stage of reasoning  From  a  cognitive-developmental  always be predicted by the  since, i n any one  s i t u a t i o n , a moral  individual's stage may  compatible with contrasting action a l t e r n a t i v e s (Rest, 1979a). Hogan  (1970) defined e t h i c a l  attitudes  as the  per-  be  However,  degree to which  people  perceive rules as having instrumental value and based the measurement of ethical  attitudes  on  items  dealing with  attitude  to  legal  or  social  compliance. For the purposes supported  by  the  law  of t h i s or  a  study, dilemma action choices which are person  generally considered  to  be  in  a  p o s i t i o n of authority, i . e . , school p r i n c i p a l , u n i v e r s i t y administrator, and boss, are characterized as actions i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y . The in  actions i n the Defining Issues Test that are considered to be  compliance  with authority are:  should not s t e a l  for the Heinz  and  the Drug dilemma, should report for the Escaped Prisoner dilemma, should not  give overdose  Student  for the  Doctor's  dilemma, should not take over f o r  Protest dilemma, should not h i r e  for the Webster dilemma,  and  19 should  stop p r i n t i n g  for the Newspaper dilemma.  The  authority actions i n the alternate dilemmas are: the Henry and  compliance  with  should not steal for  the Drug dilemma, should not take  over  for the  Student  Revolt dilemma, should report for the B u l l y dilemma, should not  perform  surgery f o r Doctor's dilemma, should hire f o r the Winston dilemma, and should stop paper for the Paper dilemma. Conservatism - Two in t h i s study.  The term "conservatism" i s used i n the broader sense of  reported tendency conventional refer  to  support general  d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of "conservatism" are used  to r e s i s t  forms of  change and to prefer safe, t r a d i t i o n a l  institutions  politico-economic of  an  ideological  support  of the  and  behavior.  conservatism, system  status quo  and  It i s also used  characterized by  including  the  for the  to  views  in  following trends:  importance  enterprise, support of values generally regarded  and  of  business  ( i n Anglo-America) to  be conservative, desire to maintain a balance of power i n which business i s dominant, labor subordinate, and the economic regulatory functions of government minimized;  and  general  resistance to  social  operational d e f i n i t i o n of conservatism i n the broader is  scores at or above the median on The  Patterson, scores Scale  1970).  at or  Conservatism  change.  The  sense of the term Scale  (Wilson  &  Politico-economic conservatism i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d as  above the  (Levinson, 1950).  median  on  the  Conservatism  Politico-Economic  Conservatism  i s referred to i n the text as a  high conservatism score. E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e - An  ethical  attitude  i s considered  to  be  the  d i s p o s i t i o n to employ a p a r t i c u l a r category of p r i n c i p l e d moral reasoning in making moral judgments.  The  two  ethical  attitudes involved i n  making moral judgments are ethics  of  personal  the  ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  conscience.  For  the  purposes of  the  t h i s study,  ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l be operationally defined  the  as a score  at or above the median and the ethics of personal conscience as a score below the median on the Survey of E t h i c a l Attitudes E t h i c s of Personal Conscience - The  (Hogan, 1970).  ethics of personal  conscience  i s a viewpoint which deemphasizes the u t i l i t y of l e g a l procedures and i s variously higher  known  law  as  "legal  morality"  intuitionism"  naturalism,  (Hogan  the  & Dickstein,  (Hogan, 1975a, p.  159).  The  ethics  of  1972b, p.  aspiration,  409),  operational  and  "moral  d e f i n i t i o n of  e t h i c s of personal conscience i s a score below the median on the of E t h i c a l Attitudes  (Hogan, 1970), and  or  an  Survey  i s r e f e r r e d to i n the text as a  low ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y score. E t h i c s of S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y - The ity  refers to the  b e l i e f i n the  ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l -  instrumental  value of the  law  r e l a t e d to " l e g a l p o s i t i v i s m , ethics of duty, or p o s i t i v e law (Hogan  & Dickstein,  1975a, p.  159).  responsibility  1972b,  The is a  E t h i c a l Attitudes  p.  409),  operational  score  at  or  and  "moral  d e f i n i t i o n of above the  (Hogan, 1970), and  median  ethics on  i s referred to  the  i n the  is  morality"  positivism" an  and  of  (Hogan, social  Survey text  of  as  a  high ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y score. L i b e r a l i s m - Two t h i s study.  The  d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of " l i b e r a l i s m " are used i n  term " l i b e r a l i s m " i s used in the  broader sense of  not  r e s i s t a n t to change and the tendency not to prefer safe, t r a d i t i o n a l and conventional  forms of  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  refer to politico-economic system containing  the  behavior.  It  l i b e r a l i s m , characterized  following  trends:  opposition  i s also by  used  to  an i d e o l o g i c a l  to the  status  gup,  21 tendency to think i n s o c i o l o g i c a l rather than moral-hereditarian  terms,  a tendency to i d e n t i f y with labor and the "common man" and to oppose the power of business, economic  functions  liberalism, median  and support  f o r the extension  o f government.  i n the broader  The o p e r a t i o n a l  sense of the term,  on the Conservatism  Scale  (Wilson  operational d e f i n i t i o n of politico-economic the median on the Politico-Economic  of the p o l i t i c a l and d e f i n i t i o n of  i s a score  & Patterson,  1970).  Conservatism Scale (Levinson,  reformulation  - Rest's moral  The  l i b e r a l i s m i s a score below  L i b e r a l i s m i s r e f e r r e d to i n the text as a low conservatism Moral Development  below the  1950).  score.  development model represents  of Kohlberg's six-stage scheme.  Although "stages"  a  still  represent  q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t l o g i c a l systems of t h i n k i n g , subjects  are  to manifest  seen  various  organizations  degrees under d i f f e r e n t conditions.  of thinking,  i n varying  Consequently, moral development i s  defined as "an upward s h i f t i n the subject's d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses, where 'upward' i s defined as increases i n higher  stages or types at the  expense of lower types" (Rest, 1979a, p. 73). Moral Judgment - Moral judgment i s defined i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, representing  two d i f f e r e n t  psychological  approaches  to the study of  morality, that i s , i n terms of developmental stages by Rest (1979a), and in terms of e t h i c a l  attitudes by Hogan (1970).  development p e r s p e c t i v e ,  From Rest's cognitive  t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f moral  dilemma depends on the s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a that are used i n making moral judgments.  Moral judgment i s defined as "the fundamental structure by  which people perceive and make decisions about t h e i r r i g h t s and responsibilities" perspective,  (Rest, 1979a, p. 76). the moral  judgment  On the other hand, from Hogan's t r a i t used  i s essentially  an  irrational  22 process  and i s a function  meaning of the dilemma  of various  i s external  function of the moral judgment judgment"  to r e f e r  traits.  to the i n d i v i d u a l ,  used.  to either  personality  The moral  rather than a  Both authors use the term "moral  the act o f judging  or the r e s u l t  of  judging. Moral Reasoning - The term  "moral  reasoning" i s used  either  to  refer to the process of thinking about moral problems or the organizat i o n of ideas that are employed  i n or r e s u l t from t h i s process.  Rest and Hogan use moral reasoning and moral judgment  Both  interchangeably as  roughly equivalent terms. Moral Stages - The s i x moral stages i n Kohlberg's and Rest's stage scheme represent q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t l o g i c a l systems of t h i n k i n g . Moral Structure - Moral structure refers to a l o g i c a l of  thinking.  series  The development  o f moral  structures  of s i x stages which, due to t h e i r  logical  organization  proceed through a interrelationships,  form an invariant and c u l t u r a l l y universal sequence. P o l i t i c a l Attitude - P o l i t i c a l trends  which  appear  to characterize  contrasting approaches to p o l i t i c a l the  attitude refers to ideological conservatism and  liberalism  or politico-economic matters.  as For  purposes of t h i s study, conservatism i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as a  score at or above the median and l i b e r a l i s m as a score below the median on the Conservatism Scale (Wilson & Patterson, 1970), or the P o l i t i c o Economic Conservatism Scale (Levinson, 1950). A number of research hypotheses follow from t h i s analysis and are set  forth  below.  These  are grouped  i n t e r a c t i o n s for each v a r i a b l e .  according  to main  effects  and  23 Research Hypotheses  Main E f f e c t s - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e 1.  Subjects with high ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y significantly Defining  lower moral  issues Test  dilemmas  social responsibility 2.  Subjects  with  high  development than  levels  scores w i l l have  as assessed  subjects with  by the  low ethics of  scores. ethics  of s o c i a l  responsibility  scores  will  choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low ethics of social responsibility 3.  scores.  Subjects with high ethics of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y significantly  higher moral  development  level  scores w i l l have  as assessed by the  alternate dilemmas than subjects with low ethics of s o c i a l  respon-  s i b i l i t y scores. 4.  Subjects  with  high  choose s i g n i f i c a n t l y the  alternate  responsibility  ethics  of s o c i a l  responsibility  scores  will  fewer actions i n compliance with authority on  dilemmas  than  subjects with  low ethics  of  social  scores.  Main E f f e c t s - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 5.  Subjects  with  high  conservatism  lower moral development l e v e l  scores  will  have  significantly  as assessed by the Defining Issues  Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores; 6.  Subjects  with  high conservatism  scores w i l l  choose  significantly  more actions i n compliance with authority on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism scores.  24 7.  Subjects  with  high  conservatism  h i g h e r moral develoment l e v e l  scores  Subjects fewer  with  high  actions  dilemmas than  in  have  significantly  as a s s e s s e d by t h e a l t e r n a t e  than s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m 8.  will  conservatism compliance  dilemmas  scores.  scores with  will  choose  a u t h o r i t y on  s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m  significantly the  alternate  scores.  I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s - Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e 9.  There w i l l  be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f moral  development  level  and  ethical  attitude  for  dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h s o c i a l will  and  higher  moral  development  dilemmas than s u b j e c t s w i t h low There  will  be  subject's ethical with  a  attitude  with  choose  of  types  responsibility  two  fewer  dilemmas  actions than  on  the  social responsibility  in  in  the  compliance  types  responsibility a u t h o r i t y on  level  difference  action  f o r the  high s o c i a l  alternate  significant  choices  compliance will  two  of  scores  have lower m o r a l development l e v e l on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t  dilemmas  10.  the  alternate  scores.  relationship  with  authority  scores w i l l  compliance  subjects  and  o f dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s choose more a c t i o n s i n  the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t dilemmas in  of  with  low  with  a u t h o r i t y on  social  and the  responsibility  scores.  I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s - Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e 11.  There w i l l development  be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e level  and  political  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral  attitude  for  the  dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h c o n s e r v a t i s m  two  types  scores w i l l  of have  lower moral development l e v e l on the Defining Issues Test dilemmas and  higher moral development l e v e l on the alternate dilemmas  subjects with low conservatism 12. • There  will  subjects'  be  a  scores.  significant  choices  of  than  difference in  action  in  the  compliance  relationship  with  authority  of and  p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e for the two types of dilemmas, that i s , subjects with high conservatism ance with fewer  authority on  actions  scores w i l l choose more actions i n complithe  Defining Issues  i n compliance  with  Test  and  a u t h o r i t y on  dilemmas than subjects with low conservatism  will  the  choose  alternate  scores.  Moral Development - Action Choice 13a. The  following v a r i a b l e s w i l l  i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or j o i n t l y  cantly p r e d i c t Defining Issues Test Action Choice Scores: Issues  Test moral development l e v e l ,  ethical  attitude,  signifiDefining political  a t t i t u d e , Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , sex  and  age. 13b. The Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l w i l l account for a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater proportion of the variance of Defining Issues Test  action choice  scores  than  ethical  attitude, p o l i t i c a l  tude, Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , sex or 14a. The  following v a r i a b l e s w i l l  cantly  i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or j o i n t l y  p r e d i c t A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  a c t i o n choice  Alternate Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l , e t h i c a l political age and  attitude,  sex.  attiage.  signifiscores: attitude,  Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l ,  26 14b. The A l t e r n a t i v e Dilemmas Test moral development l e v e l w i l l account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater proportion of the variance of Alternate Dilemmas Test action choice scores than e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e , p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , Defining Issues Test moral development l e v e l , sex or age.  Organization of the D i s s e r t a t i o n  This  chapter  includes  a  general  background  statement of the problem, purpose of the study, and  research  hypotheses.  related  literature  chapter  provides  Chapter  two  d e s c r i p t i o n of  research methods of the study.  the  review  for the study. general  a  d e f i n i t i o n s of terms,  consists of a  and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n a  of the problem,  design  of the  The and  third  specific  Chapter four presents the r e s u l t s of the  study and an analysis of the data.  The f i f t h chapter  i s a summary of  the findings with discussion i n c l u d i n g conclusions and implications f o r education and further research.  27  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  The 1971,  s i x stages  of moral  development  i n Kohlberg's  1976, 1981, 1983) cognitive developmental theory  represent  qualitatively  d i f f e r e n t organizations  (1964, 1969,  are assumed to  of thinking.  The  assessment of Kohlberg's moral stages involves i n f e r r i n g the underlying organization of thinking from subjects' responses to moral dilemmas.  In  the assessment of cognitive stage structure, Rest (1979a) suggested that it  i s important to take into account various  a t t r i b u t e s of t e s t s i t u a -  t i o n s that a f f e c t the s t r u c t u r a l organization of thinking manifested. If the content o f moral problems influences the subject's  organiza-  t i o n of thinking, p a r t i c u l a r s i m i l a r i t i e s or differences i n the dilemmas used  i n the assessment  investigating moral  possible  development  may  be c r i t i c a l .  By  the e f f e c t of s p e c i f i e d v a r i a t i o n of dilemma content on  development  political  of moral  scores,  action  choices,  and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  a t t i t u d e and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e with these v a r i a b l e s , i t may be to gain  a better  understanding  of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  moral structure and content. A review of l i t e r a t u r e which i s pertinent to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral  judgment,  dilemma  content,  dilemma  action  28 choice,  political  a t t i t u d e , and  e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e follows.  This  liter-  ature consists of (a) studies of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral reasoning  and  political  Hogan*s and  attitude,  (b)  Kohlberg's moral  relationship  between  studies of the  studies  of  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  judgment dimensions,  moral  reasoning  and  (c)  dilemma  studies  of  content,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral reasoning and  and  the (d)  dilemma action  choice.  Moral Reasoning and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e  Contradictory moral  reasoning  and  interpretations political  of  attitude  Cooper, Coder, Masanz & Anderson, 1974;  the  relationship  have been  found  given  (e.g.,  Emler & Hogan, 1981).  c o g n i t i v e developmental viewpoint, differences i n p o l i t i c a l part  reflect  1983;  Emler  differences &  relationship evidence  Hogan,  found  that  i n moral development.  1981)  between  stages  of  Kohlberg's  moral  represent  between  stages  Critics  theory, and  orientations  Rest, From a  attitude in  (e.g.,  Emler,  however, view  political toward  attitudes  the as  politico-social  values rather than moral reasoning. P r i o r to reviewing the moral r e a s o n i n g - p o l i t i c a l attitude  research,  a discussion i s presented of methodological issues concerning the moral reasoning  and  studies.  In addition, a b r i e f overview of d i f f e r e n t characterizations  of p o l i t i c a l  political  attitude  a t t i t u d e s , and,  measures  employed  i n p a r t i c u l a r , the  in  the  reviewed  liberalism-conservatism  dimension, used in the studies i s presented. In the of  moral  studies reviewed, Kohlberg's, Rest's, and  reasoning  typically  are  employed.  Hogan's measures  Therefore,  the  research  29 review  i s organized i n terms of the moral  addition,  studies of the test  judgment measure used.  characteristics  measures i n r e l a t i o n to p o l i t i c a l  In  of Rest's  and Hogan's  a t t i t u d e s are reviewed.  Finally, a  summary of the findings of these studies i s presented.  Methodological Issues A discussion studies  reviewed  of several will  help  methodological  t o make clearer  i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the the implications  of the  findings regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral reasoning and p o l i t i cal attitude. The  studies of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral  reasoning and p o l i t i c a l  a t t i t u d e that are reviewed cover a span of f i f t e e n years. time,  both  Kohlberg  (1969,  During t h i s  1971, 1976, 1981, 1983) and Rest  1979b) have modified t h e i r conceptions o f moral reasoning. made  several  scoring Rest,  changes  system  i n the o r i g i n a l  over the years.  1979a) report that  1958 Moral  Kohlberg,  (1974,  Kohlberg has  Judgment  Interview  Colby, and Damon ( c i t e d i n  data scored by Kohlberg's  1958 system  and by  the 1978 system correlated only .39. Three Judgment  different Interview  standardized different  issue  unit  scoring  procedures  are aspect  scoring,  scoring.  Each  of analysis.  used  with  intuitive  of these  The aspect  are two methods of scoring  scoring, the subject's statements on  stage prototypic  statements  Moral  scoring, and involves a  scoring method defines moral  example, r u l e s , conscience, and welfare of others. rating  issue  procedures  stages i n terms of twenty-five aspects, grouped  story  Kohlberg's  under major sets, f o r Sentence  by aspect.  scoring and  With  sentence  are scored by aspect and stage based  included i n the manual.  A p r o f i l e of  30 stage  usage  stage.  The  i s calculated from  the  percentage of  statements  at  story r a t i n g method involves assigning the subject's  each total  story response to a stage. With the  intuitive  issue scoring procedure, the  are issues representing types of content, conscience,  and  authority.  A  subject's  unit of analysis  for example, laws and ideas  on  each  issue  rules, are i n -  t u i t i v e l y assigned a stage based on the d e f i n i t i o n of stage t h i n k i n g f o r each i s s u e . In  the  standardized  issue scoring procedure,  representing the reasoning stage, each The  are the  stage  unit of  on  standardized  concepts,  pattern that i s most d i s t i n c t i v e of a given  analysis.  each issue  criterion  Criterion  for each  concepts are  defined  story i n a standardized  interview probes only  two  issues  for  for  interview.  each of  three  stories. Several d i f f e r e n t indices of moral development have been used with the  various  scoring  procedures.  subj ect to a s i n g l e stage.  Stage  typing  involves  assigning  However, since stage usage by a subj ect i s  generally not l i m i t e d to only one  stage, subjects have been stage  by predominant usage of a stage  or  substantial use. intuitively difficulty  with  i n terms of the  Another method of handling  weight  a  a  dominant  and  a minor  highest  typed  stage  of  stage mixture has been to stage  stage typing i s that information  of  response.  One  i s often thrown away.  Reporting  the percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage,  that i s , percentage of  usage  each  Another  of  Kohlberg is  the  stage,  avoids  this  problem.  index  used  which preserves information about subjects' use of other Moral  Maturity  Score  (MMS).  weighted average of stage usage ranging  The  Moral  Maturity  from 100 to 600.  Score  by  stages is a  This score i s  calculated by multiplying the percent usage of each stage by i t s number, that i s , the Stage  1 percent i s m u l t i p l i e d by 1, the Stage 2 by 2, and  so on, then adding the products. In  the  eight  moral  judgment-political  using Kohlberg's measure, s i x d i f f e r e n t "pure"  stage  only,  (b)  attitude  studies  reviewed  scoring methods are used:  percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage,  (c)  (a)  "pure"  stage and "mixtures," (d) stage at which 25% of responses are given, (e) stage of predominant the  use, and  (f) mean Moral Maturity Score.  Based  on  divergence i n methodology of the studies using; Kohlberg's measure, a  s t r i c t comparability of the findings i s not p o s s i b l e . Rest's Defining Issues Test (1974, studies reviewed. studies.  A  1979b) i s used  Both stage scores and the P Index  stage  score i s c a l c u l a t e d by  i n f i v e of the  are used in these  summing the weighted  ranks  given to statements assumed to be representative of a p a r t i c u l a r stage. The four ranks for each dilemma are weighted by assigning four points to the  statement  ranked  as  first  i n importance  i n each  points to the statement ranked as second; two  dilemma; three  points to the statement  ranked t h i r d ; and one point to the statement ranked fourth. totaled  across the  six stories  derived for each of the stages. the  scores of Stages 5A,  for each  stage, and thus, scores are  The P Index  5B and 6.  Points are  i s c a l c u l a t e d by summing  The P Index i s interpreted as the  r e l a t i v e importance given to p r i n c i p l e d moral considerations i n making a moral d e c i s i o n .  Studies of the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the Defining  Issues Test indices are discussed i n Chapter 3.  Rest (1979a) reported  that while the r e l i a b i l i t y of the P Index i s generally i n the .70's • 80's, the r e l i a b i l i t y and  .60's.  of the stage scores seldom  are above the  and .50*s  32 Another  Defining  Issues  Test  index that  has  been recommended  by  Rest (1979a) i s the D Index, an o v e r a l l index of moral development which uses  information  from  a l l six  e m p i r i c a l l y weighted sum ments.  The  .70 's and The cal  D  Index  represents  an  r a t i n g data for a l l the dilemma state-  of the D Index i s reported  as generally i n the  studies of Hogan*s (1970) moral judgment dimension and  attitude  are  for  parallel  more consistent  the  Survey  of  form r e l i a b i l i t y  .88 f o r two  The  method  scoring method i s Hogan  reported  the  of the Survey of E t h i c a l Attitudes to be  .97  shortcomings of the measures of moral judgment  has  been  discussed  i s that the research  researcher  away  from  highly  which people disagree. and  a t t i t u d e i n the  l i m i t a t i o n s of studying  contention  constitution  one  Ethical Attitudes.  used, the measurement of p o l i t i c a l problematic.  because only  politi-  samples.  In addition to the  survey  The  .80's.  possible  and  reliability  of the  stages.  by  political  Weissberg  strategies and  consensual  but they would have a low  (1976).  attitudes  very  attitudes using His  the  major  s t a t i s t i c s used lead  Such highly consensual  private p r o p e r t y — a r e  studies reviewed i s  toward  issues  issues—as  important  the over  keeping  the  to most people,  salience i f these issues are l a r g e l y s e t t l e d  in a s o c i e t y . Controversial  issues  are  required  in  a measure  attitudes for a number of reasons (Weissberg, 1976). " i d e o l o g i c a l " theme implies p o l i t i c a l logical  requirement  of  a  "good"  between d i f f e r e n t categories issue, that question  conflict.  scale  of people.  of  political  The very  idea of  Furthermore, a methodo-  i s that  i t must  If there  i s usually dropped from the  discriminate  i s agreement on scale.  an  In addition,  33 there must be variance to explain or the common s t a t i s t i c a l are  procedures  meaningless. The d e f i n i t i o n and measurement of the p o l i t i c a l  is difficult  for a number of other reasons.  "liberal"  and  searcher's  attitude  raised.  "conservative" often and  the  shift,  political  attitude construct  The meaning of the terms depending upon the  climate  i n which  an  re-  issue i s  The p a r t i c u l a r issues which are the subject of controversy w i l l  vary over time  and  for d i f f e r e n t groups of people.  Most p u b l i c issues  are highly complex and can be construed as complexes of d i f f e r e n t value issues. Eleven  of  the  21  studies  p o l i t i c a l orientation. study was Lorr  & Zea,  these  use  unpublished  measures  The only published measure used i n more than  the Rokeach (1960) D Scale (Alker & Poppen, 1973; 1977), a measure of the  Forty-eight d i f f e r e n t of  reviewed  scales of p o l i t i c a l  are unpublished.  conservatism  of  personality t r a i t  dubious  One  and  one 1970;  of dogmatism..  o r i e n t a t i o n are used and  item s e l f - r e p o r t  reliability  Hogan,  scales of  validity  are  of  81%  liberalism-  used  in  nine  i t is a  very  studies•  P o l i t i c a l Attitude A  problem  i n studying  political  attitude  i s that  loosely defined construct, d e f i n i t i o n s tending to vary from one study to another.  Although  ship of p o l i t i c a l the  several researchers have investigated the attitude  and moral reasoning,  same measure of p o l i t i c a l  Noel,  1973;  designed  by  Snodgrass, the  attitude  1975).  researcher  were  In  of them have used  (e.g., Candee, 1976;  many  used.  few  cases,  unpublished  Therefore,  relation-  a  Fontana & measures  description  of  34 various  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l  l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i v e dimension,  attitude,  s p e c i f i c a l l y the  w i l l be presented and discussed b r i e f l y  below. Huntington conservatism,  (1957) o u t l i n e s  three  i.e., aristocratic,  conflicting  autonomous,  servatism i s defined by the a r i s t o c r a t i c specific  historical  movement; a r i s i n g  conceptions of  and s i t u a t i o n a l .  Con-  theory as the ideology o f a  as a  reaction  Revolution, l i b e r a l i s m , and the r i s e of the bourgeoisie.  to the French The autonomous  theory holds that conservatism i s an autonomous system of ideas defined in  terms  of universal  moderation  which  historical  forces.  values  such  i s independent  as j u s t i c e ,  order,  of any p a r t i c u l a r  The s i t u a t i o n a l  theory  views  balance, and  group or s p e c i f i c conservatism  as a  system of ideas employed to j u s t i f y any established s o c i a l order. Huntington most  adequate  (1957) argues conception  that the s i t u a t i o n a l  of the nature  theory provides the  of conservatism.  Huntington  (1957) states, The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c elements o f c o n s e r v a t i v e thought--the "divine t a c t i c " i n h i s t o r y ; p r e s c r i p t i o n and t r a d i t i o n ; the d i s l i k e o f a b s t r a c t i o n and metaphysics; t h e d i s t r u s t o f i n d i v i d u a l human reason; the organic conception of society; the stress on the e v i l i n man [ s i c ] ; the acceptance of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n — a l l serve the overriding purpose of j u s t i f y ing the established order. The essence of conservatism i s the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n terms of h i s t o r y , God, nature and man [ s i c ] . (p. 457) Conservatism are  made  i s considered to appear only when fundamental challenges  to the e x i s t i n g  society.  From  this  viewpoint,  Huntington  (1957) maintained that the defense of e x i s t i n g l i b e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l require American l i b e r a l s to l a y aside l i b e r a l the values of conservatism.  ideology and to accept  35 A distinction  between p o s i t i o n a l  discussed by Huntington (1957). is  assumed to r e f l e c t  its  the  permanent i n t e r n a l  and  inherent  ideologies i s also  Conservatism, as a p o s i t i o n a l  ideology,  external environment of a group rather than  character.  Conservatism,  used  to  justify  any  e x i s t i n g order, does not promote a p a r t i c u l a r Utopia or ideal s o c i e t y . On  the other  "theoretical (p. 467).  hand, Huntington expression  (1957) defined  of the  inherent  ideology as  i n t e r e s t s of a continuing s o c i a l group"  L i b e r a l i s m , as an i d e a t i o n a l ideology, i s seen to evolve from  one generation to the next, and thus, to represent an inherent Opposed contended  to  that  the  situational  conservatism  view of  cannot  conservatism,  be  defined  that  i n d i v i d u a l s who  semifascist  institutions  wish  could  to  a l l be  (1982) suggested that conservatism its  critique  of  rationalization,  modernity,  preserve  liberal,  ideology.  Harbour  solely  opposition to fundamental changes i n the s o c i a l system. idea  the  in  (1982)  terms  of  He r e j e c t e d the communist  labeled conservative.  and  Harbour  can be better understood i n terms of  with  i t s trends  industrialization,  toward s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ,  centralization  of  power,  and  the  decline of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s , moral, c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l values. Further, what  Harbour  i s now  (1982) claimed  traditional  i n the  modern American conservatism dimensions of l i b e r a l  that modern conservatives must name of  older  traditions.  attack  However,  i s seen to have borrowed much from various  thinking, p a r t i c u l a r l y c l a s s i c a l  liberal  notions  of economic freedom. C l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l i s m has been described as a middle-class movement that sought to free business ment  (Laski, 1962;  guarantees,  enterprise from the r e s t r a i n t s of govern-  Rossiter,  individual  rights,  1968). and  the  It  appealed  s a n c t i t y of  for c o n s t i t u t i o n a l private  property,  36 primarily  f o r people  twentieth  century,  of means.  classical  In the l a t e  liberalism's  nineteenth and e a r l y  methods  and p o l i c i e s  were  progressively modified. Modern l i b e r a l i s m came to advocate c o l l e c t i v i s t means, invoking the state i n a i d of i n d i v i d u a l s and disadvantaged groups (Rossiter, Modern faire  1968). liberalism,  "individualism"  in this to a  transformation from  socialistic  earlier  "collectivism,"  laissez-  attempts  to  r e c o n c i l e the pursuit of i n d i v i d u a l i t y with s o c i a l i t y and membership i n a community (Gaus, 1983).  Modern l i b e r a l i s m i s described by Gaus (1983)  in terms of the form that t h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n takes and the way i n which the  theory  of human  institutions.  nature  i s used  to j u s t i f y  liberal-democratic  Gaus (1983) suggests that modern l i b e r a l i s m involves the  reconception of notions t o give them an important developmental dimension. the  The reasons f o r repressing " a n t i - s o c i a l " capacities are based on  grounds  of the promotion  modern l i b e r a l s  of one's  wider  are seen to uphold l i b e r t y  development.  Further,  f o r a l l on the grounds of  promoting human development. Spitz  (1982) raised  the question of whether p o l i t i c a l  meaningful since an i n d i v i d u a l liberal parties  can be conservative  i n some things and  i n others, conservative and l i b e r a l p o s i t i o n s change, change,  and the meaning  national boundaries.  of p o l i t i c a l  labels  political  differ  across  He attempted to summarize a common core of meaning  that transcends the d i v e r s i t y o f contemporary doctrines.  l a b e l s are  liberal  and conservative  He stated,  In sum, then, what distinguishes l i b e r a l i s m from conservatism i s that, p o l i t i c a l l y , l i b e r a l i s m stands f o r democracy and the equality of man, while conservatism i n c l i n e s toward oligarchy based on c e r t a i n alleged i n e q u a l i t i e s o f men [ s i c ] ; economica l l y , l i b e r a l i s m represents the i n t e r e s t s of the lower classes and defends vested property r i g h t s ; i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , l i b e r a l i s m  37 i s committed to i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and the freedoms of i n q u i r y and expression, while conservatism i s far more concerned with the a p p l i c a t i o n s of an already e x i s t i n g objective Truth and the consequent curbing of erroneous and pernicious doctrines. (Spitz, 1982, p. 39) Political  labels,  (1982) to  serve  political  as as  categories of a guide  a n a l y s i s , are  to rather than  a specific  English-Canadian  context  defining the meaning of p o l i t i c a l  is illustrative labels.  Spitz  d e s c r i p t i o n of  liberalism  of  the  American  d i f f e r e n c e i n the p o l i t i c a l five  un-American  of  Tory  Democratic  ideology  party  i n the  of  founding  Loyalists,  and  right-wing  l i b e r a l i s m i n Canada versus  the  problem  i d e n t i f i e d with  because  s i t u a t i o n i n the two  characteristics  of  of  Horowitz (1966) avered that  the l i b e r a l i s m of Canada's L i b e r a l party cannot be  presence  by  realities.  The  fied  considered  of  countries.  significant He  identi-  English-Canada: of  the  (a)  the  English Canada by  the  i t s continuing influence; (b) the power of Whiggery, or  States; (c) the ambivalent  l i b e r a l democracy i n the  United  c e n t r i s t character of left-wing l i b e r a l i s m i n  Canada versus the l e f t i s t p o s i t i o n of left-wing l i b e r a l i s m i n the United States;  (d)  the  English-Canada; develop  presence (e) the  of  an  failure  influential  socialist  of left-wing l i b e r a l i s m  movement  in  i n Canada to  into a " n a t i o n a l i s t c u l t " to the exclusion of either Toryism or  Socialism. The  three components of English-Canada  political  culture-conserv-  atism, s o c i a l i s m , and l i b e r a l i s m — a r e considered to be interdependent each other.  The  (1966), arises enough  to  uniqueness of  from the  evoke  a  fact  centrist  European s o c i a l i s m , has  English-Canada,  that Canadian response  from  according  s o c i a l i s m has liberalism,  to  Horowitz  been but,  on  strong unlike  not been strong enough to match or overshadow  38 liberalism.  Horowitz (1966) described the language of the L i b e r a l party  of Canada as: ambiguous and ambivalent, presenting f i r s t i t s r a d i c a l face and then i t s conservative face, urging reform and warning against hasty, i l l - c o n s i d e r e d change, c a l l i n g f o r increased state r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but stopping short of s o c i a l i s m openly, speaking f o r the common people but preaching the s o l i d a r i t y of c l a s s e s . (p. 165) The p o l i t i c a l process  i s seen to involve the center party moving to the  r i g h t to deal with the conservative challenge when the l e f t i s weak, and moving  to the l e f t  challenge. unlike  when the l e f t  to deal  with  that  Horowitz (1966) pointed out that the Canadian L i b e r a l party,  the Democratic party  represent  i s strengthened  i n the United  States,  does not claim to  the opposition of society to domination by organized  business  but, rather, to be based on the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of a l l , the s o l i d a r i t y of the nation as against devisive "class p a r t i e s " of r i g h t and l e f t . Several studies of p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e have r e l a t e d conservatism and liberalism  to underlying  Frenkel-Brunswik, 1973). with  Levinson  Typically negative  facism,  p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics &  i n these  dogmatism,  1950; McClosky,  studies, conservatism  personality  racism,  Sanford,  characteristics, and r i g i d i t y .  studies u s u a l l y involved placing subjects conservatism concerning  ( f o r example, 1958;  Wilson,  has been associated  e.g.,  authoritarianism,  The methodology along  Adorno,  a scale  of  from  these  extreme  to extreme l i b e r a l i s m based on t h e i r responses to questions  c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l and personal problems.  C r i t i c a l of the studies by Adorno and h i s associates (1950), S h i l s (1954) questioned  t h e i r conceptualization of the liberalism-conservatism  dimension.  argued  He  that  representing  political  attitudes  as a  unidimensional  scheme i s more appropriate f o r the nineteenth rather than  the twentieth  century.  Shils  (1954) pointed out that the researchers  39 f a i l e d to discriminate d i f f e r e n t types of outlook that are i n disagreement  with  the views  collectivist,  of the extreme  right,  r a d i c a l , Marxist, et cetera.  demonstrated a r e l a t i o n s h i p between general  e.g., l i b e r a l ,  liberal  While the researchers have disposition  and p a r t i c u l a r  p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s , they f a i l e d to observe the existence of an authori t a r i a n i s m at the Left pole of the continuum l i k e  the authoritarianism  of the Right. In  a review  conservatism,  of research  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of l i b e r a l i s m and  Ziegler and Atkinson  (1973) reported v a r i e d r e s u l t s .  d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s regarding t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p were discussed: systematic  r e l a t i o n s h i p between aspects o f l i b e r a l i s m  (Converse,  1964);  as  (b) a unidimensional  Six  (a) no  and conservatism  i d e o l o g i c a l dimension described  liberalism-conservatism (or radicalism-conservatism)  (Comrey &  Newmeyer, 1965); (c) a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere, but not the expected  ones (Kerlinger, 1967; Axelrod, 1967); (d) a r e l a t i o n -  ship only between narrowly relationship (Converse, ships  that  situations  only  defined topics (Kerr,  for subjects  who  are informed  1952);  (e) a strong  and highly involved  1964; McClosky, Hoffman, & O'Hara, 1960); and ( f ) r e l a t i o n are highly (Converse,  ideosyncratic, r e f l e c t i n g 1964).  ziegler  personal  and Atkinson  f a c t o r s and  (1973) offered an  integrating d e s c r i p t i o n to r e c o n c i l e these a l t e r n a t i v e viewpoints. proposed that some groups do act i n terms of p o l i t i c a l others do not.  They  ideology, and  That i s , the more sophisticated persons tend to be the  ones who f i n d i d e o l o g i c a l considerations relevant and whose behavior i s , to some extent, guided by ideology. Disagreement also exists concerning and r a d i c a l i s m (Kerlinger, 1984).  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i b e r a l i s m  Radicalism has been assumed to be a  40 phenomenon of the extreme l e f t and the polar opposite of However, radicalism, tions,  centered  in the  opposition to  i s also viewed as opposed to both  conservatism.  existing  liberalism  and  institu-  conservatism  (Kerlinger, 1984). Summary. political  A brief  liberalism  controversy  exists  overview  and over  a t t i t u d e dimension.  of  several viewpoints  conservatism the  meaning  Various p o s i t i o n s  has  been  and  concerning  presented.  nature  of  this  Much political  concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  conservatism and l i b e r a l i s m to the h i s t o r i c a l process and to each other were discussed.  Although i t i s recognized that v a r i a t i o n i n the meaning  of the p o l i t i c a l  l a b e l s v a r i e s from one issue to another, from one  period to another,  and  from one  place to another, there appears  some agreement as to the basic premises  time to be  of contemporary l i b e r a l i s m  and  conservatism.  Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Twelve  studies are  Interview i n the  reviewed  which use  Kohlberg's  Moral  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral  Judgment judgment,  p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e , and/or p o l i t i c a l activism. A study by  Haan, Smith,  and  Block  (1968) of p o l i t i c a l activism,  centering on  the Free  Speech Movement (FSM)  been w i d e l y  cited  support  reasoning "strong  and  political  the  activism.  associations between  principled  that  (Haan,  young  relationship The  political  r e a s o n i n g — q u a l i f i e d by  protest—and inactive"  to  people  Smith & Block,  the  of  at Berkeley  results  of  p.  this  social  198).  moral  has  principled study  showed  action,  that premoral men  conventional  1968,  between  protest, finding  i n 1964,  reasoning  and also are  Differences between  41 principled  subjects  and  f a m i l y - s o c i a l background  other  subjects  were  and personality  reported  in  characteristics.  terms  of  In general,  p r i n c i p l e d subjects tended to come from p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l f a m i l i e s and to have p o s i t i v e personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, there are a number of methodological problems i n the Haan et a l . (1968) study that render such conclusions problematic. part  of  involved  the  data  collected  54%; of the t o t a l  were  sample,  not  used.  including  The only  original those  A large analysis  subjects  who  could be assigned to one of f i v e "pure" types of moral reasoning based on Kohlberg's stage scoring method. Judgment Interview was  A written form of Kohlberg's Moral  used and the subject's s k i l l  i n written expres-  sion may have affected the responses given. In addition, very simple data analysis was used, c o n s i s t i n g of the comparison of means and percentages of the moral reasoning groups. data for the University of C a l i f o r n i a FSM in terms of the proportion of the t o t a l  sit-in  sample.  The  arrestees i s reported The fact that 75% of  Stage 6 males and 86% of Stage 6 females of the t o t a l  Stage 6 sample  were arrested, as compared to 6% Stage 4 males and 12% Stage 4 females of the t o t a l misleading  Stage 4 sample,  i s impressive.  in suggesting that  the m a j o r i t y  However, i t may  also be  o f the U n i v e r s i t y  C a l i f o r n i a students arrested were at the Stage 6 l e v e l .  of  A c t u a l l y , when  the t o t a l group arrested i s considered, only 7% of the arrested students were Stage 6, 19% were Stage 5, 43% were Stage 4, 25% were Stage 3, and 6% were Stage 2.  Although the researchers explained the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of non-principled  students by  reporting that most of the subjects at  each stage l e v e l used d i f f e r e n t reasoning to support t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the FSM s i t - i n , no data were reported.  42 Subjects' s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s  formed the basis of the generalization  about the differences i n moral reasoning groups' istics  and  family background.  personality character-  Based on the mean differences i n group  responses on a biographical questionnaire and two Q-sorts, the researchers  (Haan, Smith,  "are concerned traditional  & Block,  with t h e i r  values  1968)  that the p r i n c i p l e d  groups  interpersonal obligations while they  reject  implicit  concluded  i n the  Protestant E t h i c "  (p.  193).  contrast, conventional moral groups have "modeled themselves parents (p.  and  194).  after their  have accepted the t r a d i t i o n a l values of American The  premorals'  "families"  d i d not  In  society"  seem to encourage  their  children to evolve a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and autonomy" (p. 196). suggested  by Rothman and L i c h t e r  (1978), the s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s may  only the student's r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  Given the l i b e r a l  parents of student a c t i v i s t s , the student may giving appropriate i d e o l o g i c a l In  a related  "activism  be  tap  ideology of the  be responding to items by  responses.  a r t i c l e , Block, Haan, and Smith (1968) proposed  defined independently  of p o l i t i c a l  e x t r i c a t e the correlates of activism from (p. 208).  As  that  ideology i n order  those of l i b e r a l i s m per  to se"  However, the evidence suggests that activism and ideology are  confounded i n the FSM  s i t - i n study (Haan, Smith*  subjects were asked to rate themselves t i v e scale and on a 5-point Pro FSM  on an 8-point  scale.  The  Premoral and P r i n c i p l e d groups rated themselves and were strongly i n support of the FSM.  & Block,  1968).  The  Radical-Conserva-  findings were that the p o l i t i c a l l y more r a d i c a l  Conventional groups were more  conservative and l e a s t i n support of the FSM.  Furthermore,  subjects more often reported t h e i r families to be p o l i t i c a l l y  principled liberal.  In summarizing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of student a c t i v i s t s , Block et al.  (1968) indicated that the  economically,  " o r i g i n s of student a c t i v i s t s are i n the  educationally, and  society" (p., 214)  s o c i a l l y p r i v i l e g e d s t r a t a of American  and that the "parents of a c t i v i s t students themselves  tended to be p o l i t i c a l l y l i b e r a l " high  proportion  of  (p. 215).  p r i n c i p l e d subjects  these students are more autonomous and wisdom.  The p o l i t i c a l activism of a  was  interpreted  are not  However, Simpson (1974) provided  to mean  guided by  that  conventional  another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  She  stated, At the post-conventional l e v e l the p r i n c i p l e s displayed may simply be the learned values of a d i f f e r e n t and smaller reference group so well i n t e r n a l i z e d that i t s members believe themselves to be functioning autonomously. (p. 94) The  thinking or behavior of p r i n c i p l e d a c t i v i s t s may  be  a function  of  t h e i r membership i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l group rather than a consequence of acting autonomously. In addition to the FSM Peace  Corp  trainees,  conservatives  C a l i f o r n i a Conservatives organizations  and  the  active  for P o l i t i c a l  random  completed a questionnaire Although  a c t i v i s t , Haan et a l . (1968) sample included  conventional  groups  such  organizations  as  Action, members of n o n p o l i t i c a l students.  Subjects  on involvement i n p o l i t i c a l - s o c i a l  activities.  moral  of  in  group  university  i s reported was  to not  be  "inactive,"  their participation in social  service a c t i v i t i e s  d i f f e r e n t from other groups.  The d i f f e r e n c e i n a c t i v i t y l e v e l i s based  p r i m a r i l y on the premoral and p r i n c i p l e d groups' greater  significantly  involvement i n  p o l i t i c a l protest and r a d i c a l s o c i a l action (Rothman & L i c h t e r , 1978) . Measurement issues aside, the pre-moral  subjects  also  political! activities  is  finding that a large proportion  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the difficult  to  FSM  explain  sit-in by  and  Kohlberg's  in  of  other theory.  44 I n i t i a l l y , Kohlberg  (1969) considered the u n i v e r s i t y Stage 2 subject to  have f u n c t i o n a l l y regressed. the  He  l a t e r changed h i s mind and eliminated  apparent regression through c e r t a i n r e v i s i o n s i n the  t i o n s , i . e . Stage 4 1/2  (Kohlberg, 1973a).  Candee's (1984) reanalysis of the  Haan et  revised scoring system i s presented  later.  tional  to postconventional  stage  defini-  A discussion of Kohlberg a l . (1968) data In t r a n s i t i o n  morality, these  subjects are  and  using  the  from convenconsidered  to  resemble i n content young Stage 2 subjects, but t h e i r l e v e l of discourse i s more abstract and p h i l o s o p h i c a l . Rothman and L i c h t e r (1978) c r i t i c ised the use of the "regression" explanation, suggesting that i t gives the impression the researchers want i t both ways.  If r a d i c a l  students  score at the postconventional l e v e l , i t i s because they adhere to higher standards;  i f they  score  at preconventional  level,  i t i s because  they  regressed. In summary, the r e s u l t s of the Haan et a l . (1968) study show that P r i n c i p l e d and Premoral groups d i f f e r from the Conventional moral group in  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g themselves as more r a d i c a l , more i n support  FSM,  and more active i n p o l i t i c a l protest.  of  the  A larger proportion of the  Premoral and P r i n c i p l e d groups were arrested in the FSM  s i t - i n than were  Conventional subjects. The Premoral and P r i n c i p l e d groups also described their  families  group.  to  Various  be  liberal  more often  than  the  Moral  differences i n p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s were reported f o r  the three groups. Consistent  Conventional  .  with  Fishkin, Keniston,  the  findings of  the  Haan  and MacKinnon (1973) found  et  -  a l . (1968)  study,  that Stage 4 i s s i g n i f i -  c a n t l y p o s i t i v e l y related to conservative ideology (r=.635, p_<.01) and negatively  related  to  both  violent  radicalism  (r=-.484, p<.01)  and  45 r a d i c a l i s m (r=-.40, JD<.01).  peaceful  Postconventional  reasoning was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y negatively correlated with disagreement with slogans  conservative  (Stage 5, r=-.35, £<.01; Stage 6, r=-.40, _p_<.01), but not  agreement with r a d i c a l slogans.  Preconventional  with  reasoning was s i g n i f i -  cantly c o r r e l a t e d only with v i o l e n t r a d i c a l i s m (r=.34, JD<.01). Both the measurement of p o l i t i c a l different  political  slogans by i n d i c a t i n g on a 5-point  were developed: General  scale t h e i r  extent o f  for each slogan, f o r example, "Make Love Not War,"  Dead Than Red."  slogan responses,  (1973)  ideology by asking subjects t o respond to a l i s t of  l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g "Better  F i s h k i n et a l .  from the Haan et a l . (1968) study.  measured p o l i t i c a l 31  ideology and moral reasoning was  Based  on a principal-component  analysis o f  three basic ideology scales and three derived scales V i o l e n t Radicalism, Peaceful Radicalism,  Radicalism,  Radicalism versus  Conservatism,  Conservatism,  and Agree Response  Set. Instead of c l a s s i f y i n g students for "pure" stage l e v e l , F i s h k i n et al.  (1973)  scored  scoring system. to  permit  subjects' dilemma responses using Kohlberg's i s s u e -  Percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage  correlational  subjects were c l a s s i f i e d  analysis.  scores were c a l c u l a t e d  On the basis  as preconventional,  o f these  scores,  conventional, or postcon-  ventional . The  researchers  ( F i s h k i n , Keniston,  & MacKinnon,  1973.)  concluded  that t h e i r r e s u l t s were remarkably s i m i l a r to those of the- Haan et a l . (1968) subjects  study.  In both  tended  conventional  cases,  to espouse  moral  subjects  preconventional  a more were  i d e o l o g i c a l or behavioral p o s i t i o n .  radical  associated  and postconventional  ideology with  or action; and  the least  radical  46 P o l i t i c a l attitude was one of the psychological  c o r r e l a t e s of moral  reasoning types considered by S u l l i v a n and Quarter (1972). in  their  study  Toronto. their  The  were  first-year  male volunteers at the  subjects were c l a s s i f i e d  responses  to Kohlberg's  into  dilemmas.  f i v e moral  In  addition  The subjects University  of  types based  on  to three  types  described i n Kohlberg's stage scoring system, the researchers developed two hybrid type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , P r i n c i p l e d Absolutists and Instrumental Relativists. Relativists  Although are usually  the  Principled  classified  r e s p e c t i v e l y , these two hybrid differences scoring  political  attitude was  issues  (1972) concluded  mental a  Stage 4 and Stage  2,  types were considered to have important  measured by a s p e c i a l l y constructed Issues  which focused on the subject's o r i e n t a t i o n  at the U n i v e r s i t y that  attitudes,  Relativist  closest  The  five  with  Principled  Sullivan  moral  and Quarter  Absolutists  types  also  differ  on  Quarter  (1972) only reported the p o l i t i c a l  (1970).  No  Instru-  political traits,  Inventory (Heist & Yonge, 1968).  The p e r c e n t i l e s were calculated Quarter  and  personality  p e r c e n t i l e ranks on the Issue Scale (Quarter, 1970)  employed by  and  to Postconventionals i n t h e i r  measured by the Omnibus Personality Sullivan  of Toronto.  toward  Postconventional subjects tend, to have the most  political  ttitudes.  types.  Instrumental  system.  (Quarter, 1970)  radical  as Kohlberg's  and  from others c l a s s i f i e d as Stage 4 and Stage 2 i n Kohlberg's  Political Scale  Absolutists  attitude  for the f i v e moral  for the sample of 248 subjects  t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e were reported.  The P r i n c i p l e d A b s o l u t i s t , Instrumental R e l a t i v i s t and Postconventionals have p o l i t i c a l  ideology p e r c e n t i l e ranks of 70, 69,  68,  respectively,  47 compared to T r a n s i t i o n a l s at the 56 percentile and Conventionals at the 40th p e r c e n t i l e . The P r i n c i p l e d Absolutist i s described as s u p e r f i c i a l l y  resembling  Stage 4 subjects because they base t h e i r choice on c a t e g o r i c a l  obliga-  t i o n to save l i f e , but the value of l i f e  Instru-  mental R e l a t i v i s t s  are  similar  i s not "rule bound."  to Stage 2 subjects, but  are  "clearly  committed to postconventional forms of action" (p. 154). The p o l i t i c a l  ideology p e r c e n t i l e scores suggest that Instrumental  R e l a t i v i s t s (Kohlberg's Stage 2) are closer to Postconventionals than to Conventionals  in their p o l i t i c a l  ideology.  This f i n d i n g i s consistent  with that of Haan et a l . (1968) and Fishkin et a l . (1973). is  However, i t  not known whether these d i f f e r e n c e s represent random error or  real  differences because no s i g n i f i c a n c e tests are reported. Further evidence of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kohlberg's moral stages and p o l i t i c a l ing  ideology was  provided by Fontana and Noel  a d i f f e r e n t measure of p o l i t i c a l  ideology.  The  (1973), employ-  political  ideology  measure consisted of 10 Likert-type items, f i v e items from the New Scale  (Christie,  Friedman,  & Ross,  1969)  and  five  conservatism  Left items  written by the researchers, and the ideology scores were used to divide the  subjects into  activism was participation  three  groups,  measured by the in  seven  Left,  activities  during  the  Right. their  preceding  Political  frequency year.  of  Moral  percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage.  analysis of variance indicated that i n d i v i d u a l s on the Right  were highest and The  and  subjects' i n d i c a t i n g  development was assessed in terms of The  Middle,  correlation  those on the L e f t of  ideology  and  were lowest  Stage 4  i n Stage 4  reasoning  was  reasoning.  significantly  48  different failed  than  zero  (r=-.35, p<.05).  an  ideology d i f f e r e n c e  to y i e l d  correlational  analysis produced  (r=.23, £<.05).  The  Although  for either  results  suggested  were  found  students who  i n moral  Stage 2 or 6,  that L e f t i s t  the  reasoning  are  higher  than  No substantial r e l a t i o n s h i p  found between ideology and Stage 6 reasoning.  ences  of variance  a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r Stage 2  R i g h t i s t i n t h e i r use of Stage 2 reasoning. was  analysis  between  Only minimal student  differ-  activists  and  were not a c t i v i s t .  Fontana and Noel (1973) also investigated the moral reasoning among three  university  istrators.  The  role  groups,  that i s , students,  researchers hypothesized  faculty,  and  admin-  that administrators would  be  highest i n Stage 4 because of t h e i r role i n preserving the organization and  facilitating  highest  in  i t s smooth operation.  Stage  5  and  6,  and  Faculty were expected  students  to  be  highest  to  be  i n Stage  2.  Whereas administrators were found to be higher i n Stage 4 than or students, there was reasoning.  faculty  no d i f f e r e n c e found in f a c u l t y and student moral  Faculty a c t i v i s t s were higher i n t h e i r  lower i n Stage 2 than i n a c t i v i s t s .  use of Stage 5  and  In addition, f a c u l t y i n the n a t u r a l  sciences were found to use more Stage 4 and less Stage 5 reasoning than f a c u l t y in the humanities and s o c i a l sciences. Kohlberg's structure  and  moral  stages  ideological  were related p r e f e r e n c e by  to measures of Alker  and  personality  Poppen  Tomkin's (1964) P o l a r i t y Scale was used to measure ideology.-  (1973).  This scale  consists of p a i r i n g s of humanistic and normative views on a given t o p i c . The subject may reject  both.  select one or the other a l t e r n a t i v e , or endorse both or The  humanistic  ideology i s characterized by a point of  view i n which human experience  and  human emotions are considered  the  49 ultimate  source f o r the discovery and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of values; whereas,  a normative ideology  emphasizes that value resides i n external a u t h o r i -  t i e s or standards (Tomkin, 1964).  Other measures employed were:  the  written version of Kohlberg's Moral Judgment measure (predominate stage was scored Scale  as actual stage), D Scale  (Rotter,  (Rokeach, 1960), Locus of Control  1966), and the Machiavellianism  Scale  ( C h r i s t i e & Geis,  1970 ). To  analyze  employed.  A  humanism  the data,  similarity  or l e f t  ideology  a nonmetric was  found  representational  i n two-dimensional  and a choice  procedure was space  between  of p r i n c i p l e d moral  versus  premoral o r i e n t a t i o n and a grouping between dogmatism and r i g h t i d e o l ogy.  In three-dimensional  Machiavellianism  space, p r i n c i p l e d morality was grouped with  at one end of the b i p o l a r axis while both dogmatism and  humanism were at the other end. r  The  c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis  moral maturity principled Right  was uncorrelated  indicated that with  the o v e r a l l measure of  any of the measures.  versus premoral was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  c o r r e l a t e d with  (r=-.43, p_<.05), with Machiavellian T a c t i c s Scale  and with personal Alker  However, Tomkin*s  (r=-.35, p_<.05)  e x t e r n a l i t y locus of control (r=-.45, p_<.05).  and Poppen (1973) suggested that the p r i n c i p l e d moralist and  the Machiavellian have i n common choices which are free from constraints of  conventional  morality  and both  have  authentic  inclination.  In  contrast, humanism and normativism which are grouped along'with dogmatism  are "ready-made  solutions  to l i f e ' s  dilemmas"  (p. 665).  They  defined t h i s axis of contrast as a locus of e x i s t e n t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The sweeping generalizations by Alker and Poppen (1973) do not appear to  50 be  entirely  supported  by  their  data,  particularly  since  the  overall  moral m a t u r i t y s c o r e d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h any measure. Most o f t h e s t u d i e s o f p o l i t i c a l involved school  university sample  to  social-political Judgment  students.  moral  activism.  The  caused  many s u b j e c t s  Score  (MMS)  multiplying stage  was the  itself,  Leming  investigate  I n t e r v i e w was  used,  to  and  then  by  summing  S u b j e c t s were a l s o c l a s s i f i e d  the  of  form  a  high  control,  of  the  Moral have  Maturity  responses,  s t a g e by this  and  may  A Moral  issue-scoring  product  of  conceded  responses.  a particular  the  used  of Kohlberg's  researcher  their  first  usage  however,  r e a s o n i n g , sense  which  calculated  and moral r e a s o n i n g have  (1974),  written  abbreviate  percentage  activism  the  actual  multiplication.  by s t a g e used a m a j o r i t y o f t h e t i m e .  Three groups were compared, t h a t i s , Cambodian d e m o n s t r a t o r s (CAM), students sample for  involved  of  the  i n the  students  three who  the  i n Vietnam  war  (RAN).  groups.  students  whereas CIP had  groups  in internal  competence. whether  The  i n May,  In  I s s u e s Program  significant  Cambodian  (CIP),  difference  demonstrators  22%.  1970.  There  locus  of  and  i n MMS  group  a random was  Leming  (1974)  noted  were no  control,  political  the  or  i n the  sense  These t h r e e c o n c e p t s r e l a t e t o the s u b j e c t ' s f e e l i n g s  efforts  to a f f e c t  change due  are w o r t h w h i l e .  to the  fact  t h a t 65%  The  lack- o f  CAM  a t Stage  differences  efficacy,  of  against  that  had o n l y 4%  significant  found  consisted  f o r demonstrating i n s i d e the school  i n v o l v e d breaking the r u l e s ,  cance c o u l d be p a r t i a l l y a t Stage  No  were suspended  group, whose a c t i v i s m 4,  Community  of  about  signifi-  of the subjects  were  3. addition  development  to  scores  investigating and  political  the  relationship  ideology,  Candee  of  subjects'  (1976)  moral  explored  the  relationship tionnaire  o f these  variables  t o the s u b j e c t ' s responses  c o n c e r n i n g two p o l i t i c a l  situations.  The  consistent  with  institutions.  answers  human Examples  e v e n t s , t h e Watergate and L t . C a l l e y  t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  rights  or with  o f items  t o a ques-  maintenance  scored  as  either  o f conventions  on t h e W a t e r g a t e - C a l l e y  and  Questionnaire  (Candee, 1976), w i t h t h e c h o i c e s c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  rights  indicated, are: Do you approve o r d i s a p p r o v e o f L t . C a l l e y h a v i n g been to t r i a l ? (Approve) ( p . 1297) Do you c o n s i d e r C a l l e y g u i l t y o r i n n o c e n t o f murder? (p. 1297)  brought  (Guilty)  D a n i e l E l l s b e r g s t o l e t o p s e c r e t papers t h a t b e l o n g e d t o t h e Pentagon because t h e y c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e Vietnam War t h a t he f e l t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d know. Was E l l s b e r g r i g h t to s t e a l t h e Pentagon Papers? (Yes) ( p . 1297) The  R i g h t s Index, r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e  of choices consistent  with  r i g h t s , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n o n p a r t i s a n . In  Candee's  (1976) s t u d y , m o r a l  stage  was d e f i n e d as t h e h i g h e s t  stage  a t which t h e s u b j e c t gave 25% o f h i s / h e r r e s p o n s e s  moral  judgment dilemmas.  the  subject rating  tive  to r a d i c a l ,  conservatives  The measure o f p o l i t i c a l  themselves  relative  on a 9 - p o i n t  to others t h e i r  and t h r e e l i b e r a l s ,  Calley questionnaire.  The judges  t h e 6 judges agreed Candee  (1976)  own  were asked agreed  Kohlberg's  ideology consisted of from  age.  highly  conserva-  S i x judges,  t o complete  three  t h e Watergate-  100 p e r c e n t on t h e c h o i c e s t h a t  were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f r i g h t s of  scale  on  f o r 11 o f t h e 20 i t e m s , and 5  for 6 items.  found  that  persons  a t each  higher  stage  of  moral  r e a s o n i n g more o f t e n made c h o i c e s t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h human r i g h t s and  less  often  chose  alternatives  that  were  designed  to  maintain  52 conventions and  or i n s t i t u t i o n s ;  means  f o r stages  2-5 were  .48, .57, .70,  .86, r e s p e c t i v e l y , F(3,356)=59.37, p_<.001, l i n e a r t r e n d p_<. 001. When the r e s u l t s were compared on t h e b a s i s o f c a n d i d a t e  the  pattern  Candidate favored  of choice  preference  stage  was measured  was  candidate  b a s i s of candidate  on p o l i t i c a l  choice.  hush money when he was t o l d  from  to steal  In comparing  most  t h e Pentagon  political  asking The  Rights  Index was ideology,  r(370)=.53,  addition tion.  and between  Candee  and Candidate  stage  (1976)  a r e most  ambiguous,  taking Candee  individuals  orientations i n inter-  between moral  moral  stage  stage  and  and  Candidate  i d e o l o g y s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d by  relative  Preference,  to others  their  own age.  with moral  stage,  r(370)=.57,- r(370)=.45,  In a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , t h e  significantly  concluded  and L i d d y t h e same.  t o c o r r e l a t e much h i g h e r  respectively.  o f moral  basically  political  The p o l i t i c a l  found  and Hunt  low c o r r e l a t i o n s  r(370)=.29,  r(370)=.27.  I  ( p . 1300).  s u b j e c t s t o r a t e themselves,  political and  reported  ideology,  Preference,  on t h e  by a s u p e r i o r t o do s o , whether  were  general  a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r moral r e a s o n i n g " (1976)  •  Papers  t h a t where " t h e f a c t s  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r  Candee  results  t h e P e n t a g o n i P a p e r s , and whether t h e c r i m e s  Ellsberg's psychiatrist  (1976) suggested are  Candee  choice, the greatest d i f f e r e n c e involved the f o l l o w -  Ellsberg"s taking  papers  they  impeachment o f N i x o n , whether Kalmbach was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  E l l s b e r g was r i g h t of  camp.  whether  i n t h e 1972 e l e c t i o n .  ;  collecting  indicating  each  t h a t t h e r e was an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f moral r e a s o n i n g and  preference  issues:  t h e same w i t h i n  by s u b j e c t s  R i c h a r d N i x o n o r George McGovern  (1976) noted  ing  by m o r a l  preference  that  increased persons  the m u l t i p l e  a t each  higher  correlastage  of  m o r a l r e a s o n i n g more o f t e n made c h o i c e s t h a t were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h human  53 rights  and  less  conventions or Further  often  of  reported  support  i n moral  Attitudes  toward  abortion.  was  judgment  global  principled  Stage  Stage  3  conservative.  5  or 4 In  based  (1976).  attitude  on  (1976)  for  Kohlberg's  moral  Using a  parents, Holstein  political  moral  scoring. had  addition,  groups  measure.  i s s u e s were a s s e s s e d :  judgment  The  a  groups  results  sex  4  scores  subjects  difference  was  in  that  than  were  Stage  and  based  indicated  higher l i b e r a l i s m A l l Stage  reported.  t h a n Stage 3 m a l e s .  Kohlberg's  c o n t r o l , c a p i t a l punishment, m e d i c a r e  subjects.  a t t i t u d e was  their  six sociopolitical  into  subjects  in  scores  h o u s i n g , gun  issue  between  p r o v i d e d by H o l s t e i n  difference  Classification  Kohlberg's  liberal  relationship  the f o l l o w i n g  wiretapping, f a i r  political  the  attitude  significant  differing  tional  for  u p p e r - c l a s s a d o l e s c e n t s and a  were d e s i g n e d t o m a i n t a i n  institutions.  s t a g e s and p o l i t i c a l sample  chose a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t  on all  conven-  relatively 3  subjects'  Stage 3 f e m a l e s were found t o be more  Stage 3 males  were more c o n s e r v a t i v e  than  e i t h e r Stage 4 o r 5 m a l e s . Several of  f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s o f Haan, Smith, and B l o c k ' s (1968) s t u d y  political  & Nassi,  1981;  Abramowitz, differ  activism  and m o r a l judgment  K o h l b e r g & Candee, 1984;  & Youmans,  1983).  i n some r e s p e c t s  have been c o n d u c t e d N a s s i & Abramowitz,  Although  from the o r i g i n a l  researchers  considered  relationship  among  their  political  findings  activism,  the  results  of  (Abramowitz 1979;  these  Nassi, studies  Haan e t a l . (1968). s t u d y , t h e to  provide support  political  ideology,  f o r the  and  moral  j udgment. In al.  three  (1968)  studies,  study  or  either  t h o s e who  cohorts of  these  had p a r t i c i p a t e d subjects  were  i n t h e Haan e t  c o n t a c t e d over  a  54 decade l a t e r Abramovich similar  (Abramowitz & N a s s i ,  & Youmans,  questionnaire  sociopolitical other  1983).  Based  as  one  the  activity,  activity  questionnaire,  for  the  example,  severity of  factors  world  (Urban-Fiscal  Interest);  Scale  (Kerpelman,  1972).  predominant  stage  the  used  in  a  subjects' the  ideology,  1968  were  14-item measure o f  and  national  (Levinson,  1950);  Subjects of  were  usage.  and  a  assigned  included  moral  Abramowitz's that  the  former  political between moral  and  level  i n three  their  study,  group, and The correlates  for  regression Abramowitz of  major showed  liberalism. for the  The  11  a  Activity  Scale  based  In  a  terms  s u b j e c t s , no  researchers small  of  scores  of  p o i n t out  study  their  and  i n moral  size,  absence  were of  ideology, posttest reasoning  i n s i x cases,  a number o f  and  level  radical  pretest  shift  i n Nassi  this  in  less  occurred  sample  on  were a c c e s s i b l e  subjects  reduction  a downward s h i f t  example,  11  conclusions  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  cases,  i n two.  The  activist  r a d i c a l i s m and  upward s h i f t of  FSM  activity  reasoning  occurred  study.  Public  study.  p o s t t e s t measures f o r o n l y  (1979)  and  stages  P r e t e s t measures from t h e Haan e t a l . (1968) study f o r comparison w i t h  the  three  Percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage  were a l s o employed i n the N a s s i e t a l . (1983)  of  Politico-Economic  Political to  and  perceptions  Rights,  the  a of  in  c o n s i s t i n g of  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Human  (1972) r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f  level  measures  subjects'  problems,  to  development,  Different  ideology  Nassi,  responses study,  moral  investigated.  political  Threats,  Kerpelman's  Conservatism  and  N a s s i & Abramowitz, 1979; on  political  p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s were  sociopolitical  of  1981;  and  an  limitations  of  a control  artifacts. and  Nassi  (1981)  activism persisters  and  study  focused  nonpersisters  on  for a  psychosocial sample o f  30  55 former  Berkeley  difference less  was  involved  conservative radical,  FSM  activists  found  i n moral  arrestees. philosophy,  and  with  mean  development  Persisters tended  registered  a  to  stronger  age  of  between  were  less  of  years.  currently likely  characterize  approval  34.4  to  themselves  the  FSM  more  No and  endorse as  more  Movement  than  nonpersisters. Nassi, former  Abramowitz,  Berkeley  based  Youmans  students who  Speech Movement. lated  and  on  had  subjects'  employed, no subject was of the  been  enrolled  written  responses  questionnaires to  during the  Percent-moral-reasoning-by-stage  Although the same scoring system  Four  (1983) mailed  to  1964  scores were  Kohlberg's  as used by Fishkin  Free calcu-  dilemmas.  et a l . (1973)  was  found to be at the preconventional l e v e l .  six p o l i t i c a l  ideology and  activism  dimensions  were  found to d i f f e r e n t i a t e postconventional from conventional moral reasoners,  that  i s , Political-Economic  Political  Activity,  cant d i f f e r e n c e was or  and Concern  3  was  found  (r=.24, £<.05);  No  signifi-  International Human Rights  Using the percentage-of-moral reasoning by stage, to  Stage  (r=-.31, p<.01) and  Radicalism S e l f - r a t i n g ,  for Urban-Fiscal Threats.  found for concern about  Public Interests.  Stage  Conservatism,  be  significantly  correlated  4 with Conservatism  Concern  with  Conservatism  (r=.39, j3<.001), Radicalism  f o r Urban-Fiscal Threats  (r=.38,  p_<.001);  Stage 5 with Conservatism (r=-.44, jg<.01), Radicalism (r=.33, p< .01) Urban-Fiscal (r=-.32,  Threats  £<.01) and  (r=-.42,  ja<.001);  and  Stage  Political  Activity  (r=.32,  (1983) view these r e s u l t s as c r o s s - v a l i d a t i n g the  moral  and  p o l i t i c a l eras.  political  domains  6 with  p<.01).  and  Conservatism Nassi et a l .  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  a c r o s s developmental  periods  and  56 Seme o f the same c r i t i c i s m o f t h e o r i g i n a l Haan e t a l . (1968) would  also  apply  to  these  follow-up  studies.  In  a d d i t i o n , the  a l i z a b i l i t y o f the f i n d i n g s are l i m i t e d by t h e low  response  of  Abramowitz  104  questionnaires  study, size  and  76  (N=15  out  of  i n the  were 320  1979  returned  i n the  Nassi  i n the  1983  and  1983  gener-  r a t e (30 and  study),  and  out  Nassi  Nassi et a l . study), small  Abramowitz  study  sample  unrepresenta-  t i v e n e s s o f the samples used. In (1984)  contrast  to  reanalyzed  revised  stage  the  the  scoring  other  data  follow-up  collected  system.  In  s t u d i e s , Kohlberg  by  Haan  et  that  there  absence o f that the  were  no  subjects  Stage  2 subjects  who  scored  i s explained  d i s t i n g u i s h e s "sophomoritis" absence  of  Stage  6  at  subjects  is  due  written  2,  i n terms o f  guished In tested  the  reanalysis of  of  The  the  f i r s t hypothesis judgment and  t h a t a t each h i g h e r  subjects sat  Stage 4/5, of  and  2.  a  scoring  refound  6.  The  revision  Similarly,  revision  it still  that  e x i s t s as  S t a g e 5 s u b j e c t s c o u l d not be  1968  hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g  between moral found  S t a g e 4/5  or  a  a  distin-  on the w r i t t e n form o f the i n t e r v i e w .  two  action.  stage.  dilemma  scoring  Stage  e l i m i n a t e s Stage 6 from the s c o r i n g system a l t h o u g h theoretical  5,  from  to  using  and Candee (1984)  Stages  relativism  Candee  a l . (1968)  r e s c o r i n g the  sponses o f Haan e t a l . (1968) s u b j e c t s , K o h l b e r g  and  73%.  a bimodal  in: This  the  was  Kohlberg  relationship  In s u p p o r t  Stage 3/4,  Candee  relationship  31%;  S t a g e 4,  a greater proportion of  and p r i n c i p l e d s t a g e s  and  exists they  a greater proportion 44%;  i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e Haan e t a l . (1968) with  (1984)  of t h i s hypothesis,  stage o f m o r a l r e a s o n i n g 10%;  and  o f moral judgment  t h a t a monotonic  action.  Stage 3,  relationship  preconventional  data,  i n v o l v e d i n the  finding  subjects at  sit-in.  and  the  57 The a  second h y p o t h e s i s  greater  what  is  consistency  morally  reasoning.  t e s t e d by K o h l b e r g  between  right,  and  deontic action  and Candee (1984) was  judgment,  exists  at  that  that  i s , judgment  higher  stages  of  of  moral  They c l a i m e d t h a t ,  persons a t each h i g h e r s t a g e o f moral r e a s o n i n g are more l i k e l y to act r e s p o n s i b i l i t y [sic] , that i s , to act i n accord w i t h c h o i c e s about s i t u a t i o n s t h a t t h e y judged t o be r i g h t when t h e y were somewhat removed from t h e s i t u a t i o n itself. (p. 56) Furthermore,  the  c l a i m was  d e f i n e d as b e i n g m o r a l , ing  the  action.  The  made t h a t  the  and not j u s t the  principles  of  content  of  an  a c t i o n can  form o f t h e judgment accompany-  justice  are  considered  f u n c t i o n o f l e a d i n g to agreement i n d e o n t i c judgment g i v e n the  facts.  For  example,  d e c i s i o n t o s i t - i n by form  and  content.  that  the  relationship  1968  sample  clearly  was  right  in  the  Speech  Movement  to  have  Support  for this  between  sit-in;  claim  situation,  deontic  Stage  that 3/4,  i s provided  choice  and  50%;  by  stage  36%  thought  S t a g e 4,  62%;  and  on the  i n both  the  moral  i s , Stage 3,  the  agreement  Stage 5 s u b j e c t s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be r i g h t  a l s o monotonic,  to  Free  be  finding for it  Stage  the was 4/5,  83%. To  test  the  hypothesis  of  c o n s i s t e n c y , the  according to t h e i r deontic choice. wrong s a t i n . sit-in,  However, among the  s u b j e c t who  sub j e c t s who  a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n a t each h i g h e r  s o , t h a t i s , Stage 3, 75%.  No  23%;  Stage 3/4,  Thus, t h e second h y p o t h e s i s To  account  lower-stage substage.  act  of  s u b j e c t s , Kohlberg  and  In  the  for  the  was  subjects judged  thought  Stage 4,  also  supported.  sitting-in  r e v i s e d s c o r i n g system,  grouped  i t deontically i t was  right  to  stage o f m o r a l r e a s o n i n g d i d  54%;  Candee  were  63%;  when  it  and  Stage  occurred  (1984) examined t h e a Type  A  and  B  4/5,  among  effect  substage  of is  58 defined  f o r each  stage based  on a l e v e l - o f - d i s c o u r s e  f e a t u r e s d i s t i n g u i s h a Type B substage it  i s prescriptive  do),  from a Type A s u b s t a g e :  Two  (a) t h a t  ( a judgment o f duty g o v e r n i n g what one says one would  and (b) t h a t  hypothesized  distinction.  t h e duty  i s universal  or u n i v e r s a l i z e a b l e .  They  t h a t Type B s u b j e c t s a t every s t a g e would s i t - i n more o f t e n  than would t h e i r Type A c o u n t e r p a r t s .  T h i s i s based  on t h e p r o p o s i t i o n  t h a t Type B s u b j e c t s i n t u i t i v e l y make moral judgments t h a t have many o f the  formal  subjects.  and c o n t e n t The r e s u l t s  characteristics  o f judgments  show t h a t a t each h i g h e r  stage  c l o s e r t o B, a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s s a t - i n , 4A,  made  by  Stage  and a t each  ences moral through  f o r example, Stage  and Candee's action  judgments  (1984)  (1) t h r o u g h of  p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t moral  differences  responsibility  i n deontic  appear  t o be  stage  influ-  c h o i c e , and (2)  supported  by t h e  r e a n a l y s i s o f t h e Haan e t a l . (1968) d a t a .  Although  revision  appears  r e g r e s s i o n problem  original  a n a l y s i s o f the Haan e t a l . (1968) s t u d y , o t h e r problems  t h e new  principled (Gibbs,  solved  s c o r i n g system.  the stage  F o r example, t h e r e l a t i v e  rarity  s t a g e s because o f t h e new s t r i n g e n c y i n d e f i n i n g t h e s e  of the arise  of the stages  r e s e a r c h e r s ( K o h l b e r g & Candee, 1984) p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e 1968  were  quently  t o have  t h e stage s c o r i n g  1979).  The data  type  21% s a t - i n ; Stage 4-ambiguous B, 53%; and Stage 4B, 67%. Kohlberg  from  5  collected  the deontic  two months choices  after  (judgments  the s i t - i n o f what  took  place.  i s morally  Conse-  right)  and  s u p p o r t i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n s may have been i n f l u e n c e d by whether o r not t h e subjects d i d s i t - i n . content stages  Another l i m i t a t i o n d i s c u s s e d was t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n  o f t h e dilemmas and t h e a c t u a l  involving  situation  civil  of c i v i l  disobedience disobedience.  used  to  assess  Consequently,  the question  c o u l d be r a i s e d  moral r e a s o n i n g As all  an  the  to  this  were  scored  to  their  chose  the  to content  argument, t h e  chose t h e  in real-life  counter who  answer  a c t i o n i s due  s u b j e c t s who  dilemmas action  and  as t o whether the c o n s i s t e n c y found  as  Type  that  "civilly  researchers  B  or  that  not  a l t e r n a t i v e on  the  c o n s i s t e n t l y performed  However, t h i s a  only.  maintain  " c i v i l l y disobedient"  situations.  finding  consistency  contention  larger proportion  disobedient"  option  at  did  between  the  moral  appears t o  each  stage  participate  be  level in  the  sit-in. Summary. stages,  In  measured by  activism  and  researchers  the  Berkeley  protest  1968;  political  banned  Speech a  of  and  i n d i c e s of  investigated.  focused  Movement  (Candee, Block,  1976;  on  the  recruitment  grounds for  moral  These  administration  1968;  measured  Fiskin,  Sullivan  liberalism  dimension  (Holstein,  1983), as  a Right-Left  dimension  Normative  Ideology  &  A  moral  political number  for  the  political  as  a  in  had  1964  distribution  causes. had  to of  Leming's  protested  the  conservatism-radicalism &  Quarter,  1972),  Nassi,  (Fontana (Aiken  activists  of  1970.  Keniston,  1976;  1979;  reasoning  building  of  Haan,  N a s s i & Abramowitz,  activists.  university  a t t i t u d e was  of  B l o c k , Haan, & Smith, 1968;  by a s c h o o l s i t - i n i n May,  versus  various  & Candee, 1984; 1983)  relationship  a c t i v i s t s were h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who  Political  istic  the  been  1981;  university  use  literature  Vietnam War  &  & Youmans,  Free  (1974) s t u d e n t  Smith,  s c a l e , and  a t t i t u d e has  Kohlberg  occupied  the  dimension  Kohlberg's  reviewed,  (Abramowitz & N a s s i ,  Abramowitz,  illegally  studies  political  Smith, & B l o c k , Nassi,  the  MacKinnon, -1973; as  a  conservatism-  Abramowitz,  & Noel,  & Poppen,  &  1973), and 1973).  Haan,  Youmans, as Human-  Moral  stages  60 were a l s o Calley a  to  a  Questionnaire  low  to  activism and  related  moderate  and  Rights  (Candee,  Index based on 1976).  relationship  political  g e n e r a l , the  between  attitudes.  moral  studies  the  studies  judgment and  moral  and  Issues  reviewed  and  his as  The  (cited  and  political subject the  6's  which  1974,  or p.  The 1974)  of  political  methodological interpreta-  the  used  in  relationship  four  of  of  moral  (1974)  investigated  the  Defining  scales  of  the  r e s e a r c h e r s and  the  Issues  political  relationship  Test P  attitude  Patrick's  1971  items  i n these  scales  morality.  defined  "advocated  by  the  excessive  system  at  individual welfare"  the  law  used,  to  a  powers t o  of  Law  1974)  reflect  order o r i e n t a t i o n  S p e c i f i c a l l y , "law number  and  Libertarian  were b e l i e v e d and  of  Index,  i n R e s t , Cooper, Coder, Masanz & A n d e r s o n ,  was  social  1979b) was  two  principled  attitude  existing  rights  it  1974,  t h e o r e t i c a l d i v i s i o n between Stage 4's 5  and  Attitude  investigated  measured by  were chosen because the  Stage  indicate  attitude.  Order T e s t d e v i s e d by  the  (Rest,  associates  attitude.  Democracy T e s t  Test  that  political  reasoning,  political  Watergate-  results.  Defining  Rest  stages  warrant a c a u t i o u s  R e s t ' s M o r a l Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l The  a  findings  However, a number  c o n c e p t u a l problems i n t h e s e  t i o n o f the  In  responses to  responses  authorities  disproportionate  and  and  order"  made by  or  the  support  expense  (Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz- &  of  of  civil  Anderson,  494). Law  and  consisted  i s possible  of for  Order  Test  15 p u b l i c someone t o  (Rest, policy  Cooper, issues,  Coder, such as  escape punishment on  Masanz  &  Anderson,  "Under p r e s e n t the  grounds o f  laws legal  61 t e c h n i c a l i t i e s even though the person may the crime. als?"  Are you i n favor of a tougher  (p.  494).  Patrick's  measure democratic  political  ments, f o r example, "People streets  have confessed to  in  support  of  policy  Libertarian  should not be  better  rights  for t r e a t i n g c r i m i n -  Democracy  o r i e n t a t i o n , was  Test  comprised  allowed  and  disagreement  designed  to  of f i v e  state-  to march on  public  opportunities for Negroes"  ( c i t e d i n Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz, & Anderson, 1974, both measures, subjects were asked  performing  p. 495).  For  to i n d i c a t e degree of agreement or  to the statements on a 5-point s c a l e .  In t h i s study, data were c o l l e c t e d from student samples ranging i n educational l e v e l from ninth grade to graduate c o r r e l a t i o n s between the P Index and the Law samples were -.60  (N=193), -.48  t i o n of P Index and cant, r(191)=-.63. for  ninth-grade  total  The  significant  and Order Test for three  (N=51), and -.46  L i b e r t a r i a n i s m using one The  school.  (N=85).  sample was  The  correla-  also  signifi-  c o r r e l a t i o n s of P Index with a t t i t u d e measures  students were lower than c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained for the  sample, but were s t i l l  i s , P Index with Law  significantly different  than  zero, that  and Order, r=-.23, j3<.05 and with L i b e r t a r i a n i s m ,  r=.37, £<.01. In  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of candidate preference and moral judgment, G.  Rest ( c i t e d i n Rest, ence.  1979a) developed  two  indices of candidate p r e f e r -  The Overall Issue Orientation was based on the subjects' i n d i c a -  t i o n of preference for e i t h e r U.S.  President Ford's or Carter's stand on  nine issues, f o r example, defense  spending,  of  the  issues.  responses  to  43  The  Total  items  and  a r a t i n g of  Personality Preference  concerning  the  exmple, "Ford i s not very i n t e l l i g e n t  candidates'  Score  was  importance based  personalities,  on for  for a President," "Carter would  62 spend  too  much of  1979a, p.  193).  the  taxpayer's money i f elected President"  Subjects were also asked to indicate party  and  liberalism-conservatism,  was  not  given.  The  however,  Defining  Issues  information Test  about  (Rest,  (Rest,  affiliation  these  1979b) was  indices  used  as  a  measure of moral judgment. A significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  found between the  Test moral judgment scores and candidate university preferred also  students Ford's  and  issue  adults. stands  preference  Subjects  with  significant  curvilinear  Issues  for a sample of  higher  Stage 4  120  scores  (120)=.22, j3<.01,  over Carter's, r  regarded themselves as more conservative,  Defining  r  r e l a t i o n s h i p indicated  and  (120)=.25, p_<.01. that  subjects  in  A the  middle range of the Defining Issues Test tended to favor Ford's stand  on  the issues and his p e r s o n a l i t y , whereas subjects i n the upper and lower ranges of the Defining Issues the subjects was scores, with Test  Test  favored  Carter.  The  actual vote of  also c u r v i l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d to the Defining Issues  subjects i n lower and higher ranges of the Defining  voting  for  Carter  and  those  in  the  middle,  voting  Test Issues  for  Ford,  Chi-square(4)=10.90, p<.028. In p r e d i c t i n g Issue Orientation and regression powerful  analyses  indicated  that  Candidate preference,  party  s i n g l e v a r i a b l e ; demographics and  affiliation  was  multiple the  liberalism-conservatism  most did  2 not  lower  the  R  significantly,  i f dropped  from  However, dropping moral judgment from the equation in  predicting  Issue  Orientation  and  Candidate  £<.025, and F=3.24, p_<.025, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Rest (1979a) pointed out that Democrats may people i n the  high  and  low  ranges of moral  was  the  regression.  s i g n i f i c a n t both  preference,  not  F=2.56,  always draw from  judgment, and  Republicans  63 from  the  middle  range.  He  states,  d a t e s , and the i s s u e s a r e l i k e l y  "the  type  of  t o v a r y the way  r e l a t e s t o a t t i t u d e s and v o t i n g " ( p .  election,  found  1979),  t o be  Wilson  and  significantly  194).  Patterson's correlated  another  study  British  university  using  a  found  the  Left  Scale  Left  was  with  the  from  of  i n c l u d e d i n the  quo hard  other  society,  work,  antipathy  order-by  the  Friedman, Gold  et  use  1976,  of  p.  Test  P  people  want  to  to  new  A  average man  [sic]"  needs a complete  best  (1983)  with s e v e r a l 1976).  political  The  active  subscale,  one  not  of  the  is:  way  to  (c)  really  (d) New  never  about t h e  necessity of  worth  handle  (Gold,  Christie,  Traditional  people  in  i s to t e l l  i n the  -  i t s basic institutions"  them "Most the  United States (p. 21);  i n s o c i e t y only serves  s o l v e problems"  (b)  problems o f  L e f t P h i l o s o p h y - "The  & the  Moralism  Machiavellian Cynicism  interested  of  maintaining  f o r each; s u b s c a l e  (a)  "Extensive reform  i t will  values  f o r c e t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r " (p. 17);  18);  restructuring  the e v i l s ;  Malone  Moralism"  statement  Scale  (p.  (e) R e v o l u t i o n a r y T a c t i c s perpetuate  the  i f necessary"  typical  "The  (p. 19);  and  force  Left  hear" are  and  orientation,  significantly  traditional  ideas,  police  25).  i n government  was  s c a l e , p u r p o r t e d l y taps a " c o n s e r v a t i v e , s t a t u s  a l . (1976) New  they  Renwick,  "Traditional  " P o l i c e s h o u l d not h e s i t a t e t o use  what  political  differentiate  The  emphasizing  Machiavellian Tactics —  Emler,  Scale  &  score.  and  to c o r r e l a t e  to  (Fincham  Index o f t h e D e f i n i n g  S c a l e ( G o l d , C h r i s t i e , & Friedman,  students.  view o f  reasoning  sample,  designed  student five  moral  D e f i n i n g Issues  s u b s c a l e s o f the New New  of  students  (1970) C o n s e r v a t i s m  I s s u e s T e s t , but not with the c o n v e n t i o n a l moral In  candi-  i n which m o r a l judgment  In a study i n South A f r i c a w i t h male u n i v e r s i t y Barling,  the  (p. 2 2 ) .  and to  64 Emler et a l . (1983) found with  Traditional  Moralism  (r=-.42,  £<.001),  j3<.001);  and Stage  that the P Index correlated negatively  (r=-.49, j3<.001),  but p o s i t i v e l y 4 correlated  with  and Machiavellian T a c t i c s  New  Left  Philosophy  (r=-.39,  positively  with  Traditional  Moralism  (r=.60, £<.001) and Machiavellian T a c t i c s (r=.37, £<.001), but negativel y with New L e f t Philosophy (r=-.36, p_<.001).  (r=-.52, p<.001) and Revolutionary T a c t i c s  Subjects were also divided into three groups on the  basis of responses  to a 5-point  wing to very l e f t wing.  rating  scale ranging from very  right  One-way analysis of variance revealed that the  three groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y for both Stage 4 and P Index scores. Other  findings of the Emler et a l . (1983) study are discussed l a t e r i n  t h i s chapter. Summary.  The findings of the studies of moral stages, measured by  Rest's (1974, 1979b) Defining Issues Test, and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e appear to  indicate that moral stages are r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l  et  a l . (1974)  found  attitude.  the P Index of the Defining Issues  s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated  with  scores on the Law and Order  Rest  Test  to be  Test  (Rest,  Cooper, Coder, Masanz, & Anderson, 1974) and P a t r i c k ' s 1971 L i b e r t a r i a n Democracy Test ( c i t e d i n Rest, Cooper, Coder, Masanz & Anderson, 1974). P  Index scores were also reported to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  scores on Wilson  and Patterson's (1970) Conservatism  correlated Scale  with  (Fincham  &  B a r l i n g , 1979) and Gold et a l . ' s (1968) New Left Scale (Emler, Renwick, & Malone, 1983). stages  and both  Evidence of a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral candidate  preference  behavior was also reported by Rest  (Carter versus  (1979a).  Ford) and voting  65 Hogan's M o r a l Judgment Measure and P o l i t i c a l The measure  r e l a t i o n s h i p of of  moral  f i v e o f the To  their very  judgment,  studies  ascertain  Attitudes,  Hogan  attitudes strongly  between  the  toward  and  1972a).  considered  and  the  moral  Persons  characterized change.  with  California  two  activists  groups  between  on  to  ethical  that  the  (Hogan,  use  endorsers  dependable,  low  on  the  of  F  the  a in  (high  three  of  different  scores  ideology:  the  of  social  The  on  the  criteria  scores  two  of  by  1964)  certain  to  Survey  .3 5, p_<.01, Levinson  &  conservatism. ideology  and  (1975).  e t h i c s of s o c i a l  Ethical  liberalism-conservatism  were  independent,  Snodgrass  f o r the  the  resistant  p_<.01, and  provided  Survey  on  forms o f the  political  in  viewpoints.  and  a n t i d e m o c r a t i c t e n d e n c i e s and  was  Dickstein,  responsibility  two  .45,  of  between  indicated  the  in  1970),  I n v e n t o r y (Gough, 1962)  S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were r e p o r t e d responsibility  and &  Frenkel-Brunswick,  relationship  differ  (Hogan,  (Hogan  of  Ethical  discriminated  Survey were found t o be  (Adorno,  orientations  to  1970),  conventional,  unconventional.  Scale  of  test  activist  (Myers,  ethics  known  his  Correlation  Hogan (1970) t o c o r r e l a t e  supporting  features  investigated  Survey  groups  fraternities  Indicator  1950), a measure o f  Evidence Hogan's  Type  r e b e l l i o u s , and  found by  Sanford,  was  the  political  radical  these  helpful,  were a l s o the  and  of  found  and  of  C a l i f o r n i a Psychological  high  as  He  student  Persons s c o r i n g  innovative,  law.  differences  scoring  responses  decisions.  the  Myers-Briggs  personality  Ethical Attitudes,  attitude  validity  policemen  moderate,  Survey and. those on  the  the  conservative,  their  political  construct  compared  ROTC s e n i o r s  justifying  and  (1970) Survey o f  reviewed.  between  He  Hogan's  Attitude  Attitudes)  (r=.55,  and  p_<.001),  66 law  and o r d e r  2<.001).  Snodgrass  accordance greater  ideology  with  respect  a greater  (r=.59, JD<.001) and s e n t e n c i n g  (1975) c o n c l u d e d ,  an  ethics  responsibility,  indicate  that i n  conservatives  have  tendency t o a t t r i b u t e blame t o the i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r  Lorr  and Zea (1977) r a i s e d  Attitudes  several  employees  a  (Hogan,  measures  and b l u e  to  than t h e  195). the question  1970)  American  collar  o f whether  i s a measure  measure o f l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e . ed  results  (r=.33,  f o r t h e u t i l i t y o f r u l e s i n r e g u l a t i n g human c o n d u c t and  s o c i e t a l environment" (p.  Ethical  of  "These  severity  o f moral  judgment  These r e s e a r c h e r s  college  workers.  t h e Survey o f  students  These measures  and  or a  administer-  American  included  bank  t h e Survey  o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , two measures o f l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i s m ,  that  Social  Interpersonal  Attitude  Scale  (Suziedelis  S t y l e Inventory  (Lorr & Youniss,  Scale  1960), a  (Rokeach,  mindedness. they  Attitudes a  scale  1973), as w e l l as t h e Rokeach Dogmatism  10-item  that  t h e Survey  as a good s c a l e o f  Woll  1973) and t h e  dogmatism  scale  and a s c a l e  and Cozby  (1976)  of Ethical Attitudes  liberalism-conservatism. investigated  whether  was p r i m a r i l y a measure o f p o l i t i c a l  o f moral  judgment.  measures t h e same  Scores  t h e Survey  and s o c i a l  on t h e Survey  What i s your o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g R i c h a r d Nixon? (p. 185) Complete and u n c o n d i t i o n a l d r a f t evaders. ( p . 185) hypothesized  that  President  amnesty s h o u l d  i f t h e Survey  moral judgment, t h e e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  of Ethical  preference or  of Ethical  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e s p o n s e s on t h e f o l l o w i n g two i t e m s :  They  o f open-  On t h e b a s i s o f p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a ,  concluded  construct  & Lorr,  i s , the  Ford's  Attitudes  ,  pardon  be extended  to  of  a l l  i s a c t u a l l y measuring  styles of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would be  associated  with  negative  attitudes  toward  However, i f i t i s measuring responsibility pardon  would be  o f Ni>xon and  finding  associated  pardon  and  the  the  political  associated  Nixon  with a p o s i t i v e  a negative attitude  with  amnesty  the  items  ethics  were  pardon  and  amnesty.  p r e f e r e n c e s , the e t h i c s o f  toward  t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e Survey  scores  tively,  both  of  -.32,  amnesty.  toward  Based  their  of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s  (high  responsibility) and  +.36,  and  £<.001,  However, t h e s e  respec-  content  rather  than  authors  d i d not  go  the  moral  import  f a r enough, because  of  the  issues.  i t is still  known what j u s t i f i c a t i o n s u n d e r l i e t h e r e s p o n s e s made t o t h e two Summary. to  Attitudes two  other  In a d d i t i o n  establish  the  (Lorr  determine  whether  the  political  attitude  Ethical  Attitudes  policemen  to  studies  and  &  a  was  1977; of  measure  found  political  ethical  Zea,  Survey  or  (Hogan,  construct v a l i d i t y  as a measure o f b o t h studies  to  activist,  w i t h v a r i o u s measures o f p o l i t i c a l  1970;  of  attitude  and  the  Malone, that  Hogan &  the and  Ethical of  distinguish and  to  items.  Ethical attitude,  attempted  to  a  measure  of  judgment.  The  Survey  of  between  groups,  such  as  Attitudes  moral  of  political 1976)  not  Dickstein,  Survey  W o l l & Cozby,  be  was  significantly  correlated  attitude.  T e s t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M o r a l Judgment and P o l i t i c a l In  the  W o l l and Cozby (1976) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s u b j e c t s were r e s p o n d i n g t o  political  1972a)  the  on  social  p_<.01,  attitude  social  A t t i t u d e Measures  s t u d y i n g the p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s o f the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t Survey 1983;  subjects'  of  Ethical  McGeorge, scores  i n s t r u c t i o n s t o respond  Attitudes,  1975; will  researchers  (Emler,  Meehan, W o l l , & A b b o t t ,  vary  on  t h e s e measures  from a l t e r n a t e p o l i t i c a l  1979)  i f they  Renwick,  &  have  found  are  given  orientations or to give  68 an  unfavorable  impression.  These  findings  raise  questions  concerning  t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e measures. Meeham, e t a l . (1979) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e is  a measure  found  of p o l i t i c a l  a significant standard  i n s t r u c t i o n s and b o t h  liberal  role-playing.  26.48, f o r l i b e r a l 16.96  impression  The mean  and 16.78.  17.56,  21.16. not sion  effect.  under  with  that  subjects  the D e f i n i n g  conservative  (1983). and  In t h i s  Right-wing  with  Friedman,  1976).  extreme  role  their  scores  t o give  a  give  unfavorable  group had a  conservative  impression  may  impres-  attempt t o  of themselves. were  Issues  able  t o modify  Test  when  radical  subjects  were  their  moral  instructed  was p r e s e n t e d grouped  scale.  on t h e r e v i s e d New  perspective an  was  the scores d i d  a favorable  i n s t r u c t i o n s , subjects  on a 5 - p o i n t  or  instruc-  impression  t h a t t h e reason  was  favorable  favorable  and once  extreme  judgment  t o respond  by Emler  as L e f t - w i n g ,  as  et  al.  Moderate, orienta-  These s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s were Left  Scale  (Gold,  The s u b j e c t s completed the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s own  play  instruction  on t h e b a s i s o f s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l  validated  from  r o l e - p l a y i n g and  impression  i n s t r u c t i o n s to give  o r extreme  study,  t i o n , that i s , rating  once  to  standard  create a favorable impression  on  scores  o f t h e group f o r s t a n d a r d  instruction  instruction  significantly  i s because,  responses  Attitude  i n s t r u c t i o n s to give  scores, the unfavorable  The mean s c o r e s  and w i t h  Evidence  They  f o r conservative  Meehan e t a l . (1979) h y p o t h e s i z e d  change  extreme  conservative  score  Although  t i o n was 17.16 and 16.52, w i t h was  judgment.  r o l e p l a y , 8.88, and f o r t h e two s t a n d a r d  d i d not a f f e c t  significant  than moral  d i f f e r e n c e i n the Survey o f E t h i c a l  between  groups,  attitude rather  from  radical.  Christie  &  Test  twice,  the perspective  o f an  Both  right-wing  and  69 moderate  students  significantly  increased their  t h e i r Stage 4 s c o r e s when t h e y responded Emler e t a l . (1933) contended able  to  wingers ing  reproduce supported  reflects  argued  the  higher  their  different  from  variances.  their  are not own  the  Issues  results  fake  Test  f o r the  significantly to  of  more  that  in  characteristic  Stage 4 and  lower t h e i r  upward.  This  of  5 moral  sociopolitical  there  was  no  leftreason-  ideology.  evidence  They  responses of  their  higher  responses  direction. to  "fake  investigated  Survey  decreased  a r e s u l t of subjects choosing  subjects was  and  radical.  In a d d i t i o n , moderates were a b l e t o modify  ability  Defining  scores  because  i n the r e q u i r e d i d e o l o g i c a l The  P  differences  t h a t the r e s u l t s  scores  t h a t the f a c t t h a t r i g h t - w i n g e r s were  interpretation  individual  as a  P  of E t h i c a l  good"  by  or  "fake  McGeorge  Attitudes,  bad"  (1975).  on  Similar  to  s u b j e c t s were a b l e  to  s c o r e s when asked t o f a k e bad, but were  finding  was  viewed  as  the  support  for  the  unable general  t h e o r y o f a sequence o f c o g n i t i v e s t a g e s o f development. In  defense  of  the  (1981) c l a i m e d t h a t  Survey  a l l tests  of  Ethical  Attitudes,  Johnson  are forms o f s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n .  Meehan e t a l . ' s (1979) r e s u l t s p o i n t out the c o n f o u n d i n g conservatism all  measures  attitude.  moral  On  the  Johnson  judgment view t h a t  other  interpretation  the  Defining  of  judgment,  will  and be  Hogan  fact  of  Thorton  Emler  et  can  and  liberalismargued  with  I s s u e s T e s t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  good  Thornton  as  indicate  that  political Ethical  judgments a r e (1983)  a l . ' s (1983) r e s u l t s . fake  Hogan  Although  t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e Survey, o f  hand,  right-wingers  of  (1981)  confounded  i s not d i s c o n t i n u e d because a l l p o l i t i c a l  judgments. another  moral  It i s their  Attitudes  that  and  and  moral  presented  They  argued  l e f t - w i n g e r s on that  they  the  understand  70 the  arguments  wingers  "may  endorsed think  of  by  left  left  wingers.  wingers  They  as g i v e n  suggested  t o fancy  r a t h e r vague j u s t i f i c a t i o n s o f a n t i - a u t h o r i t y v i e w s " 1983,  right  sounding, but  (Thorton & Thorton,  p . 78) . Summary.  Two  W o l l , & Abbott, their  that  studies  Renwick,  1979) have demonstrated  s c o r e s on moral  liberal  (Emler,  that  &  Malone,  s u b j e c t s are able t o a l t e r  judgment measures when i n s t r u c t e d  or a conservative.  1983; Meehan,  However, t h e q u e s t i o n about  t o respond how t h i s  as a  result  i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d remains u n r e s o l v e d .  Summary o f M o r a l R e a s o n i n g The studies  conceptual reviewed  exploratory found  and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  require  i n nature.  between  and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s  that  their  findings  c o n v e n t i o n a l moral  be viewed  many  of the  primarily  association  r e a s o n i n g and c o n s e r v a t i s m .  A  as was  larger  s u b j e c t s was found t o be a s s o c i a t e d  a c t i v i s m and w i t h a l i b e r a l  (1970) e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  of  In g e n e r a l , a low t o moderate  p r o p o r t i o n o f Stage 2 and p r i n c i p l e d with p o l i t i c a l  shortcomings  responsibility  or r a d i c a l  was a l s o  ideology.  found  Hogan's  t o have a low t o  moderate a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c o n s e r v a t i s m . Both  the Defining  I s s u e s T e s t and t h e Survey  were  found  that  i s , when t h e s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d  as  a  conservative or  direction. to  t o be s u s c e p t i b l e  affect  were n o t .  liberal  of Ethical  to conservative or l i b e r a l  their  t o respond  scores  Attitudes  role-playing,  t o t h e s e measures  changed  i n the  expected  I n s t r u c t i o n s t o g i v e an u n f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e were a l s o scores,  although  instructions  to give a  favorable  found  response  71 The  correlations  studies as  .22  may  r e v i e w e d ranged may  not  due  than  Few  researchers  political  may  have o b s c u r e d  typically  university  have a t t e n u a t e d affect  dispersion  the  of  be  in  a  statistical can  probability.  and  the  a  measures of  the  addition,  students.  is  as  low they .22  common  to  covariation  relationship  correlation of  the  not  with  may  may  be  on  liberal  poor r e l i a b i l i t y  in  judgment  these  studies  were  samples may  also  homogeneous  is  being  directly  i n the  and  scores  related  estimated.  use  of  correlational  a t t i t u d i n a l consistency  from  variables  the  other  i s possible  second i t e m .  c a t e g o r y on  both,  moral  amount o f v a r i a n c e it  or  of  to  the  Whenever  the  c o r r e l a t i o n changes.  correlation the  The  reliabilities  judgment measures,  subjects age  between two  predicted  A high  the  variable  reflect  the  relationship of  because  the  to the  one  analysis  when l i b e r a l s  and  For  -than on  in a liberal  one  random  one  correlation  example,  that  1976).  means t h a t  better  C o n v e r s e l y , a low  item  is  (Weissberg,  usually  with  when t h e r e i s h i g h a t t i t u d i n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . in a  the  limit,  random  concerning  moral  Such  correlations.  association  conservative  in  Measurement e r r o r  stronger  Measurement e r r o r due  In  problem  be  correlations  a definable  function  information  s c o r e s v a r i e s , the  c o r r e l a t i o n s may  be  may  ideology  example, a c o r r e l a t i o n o f  variance  attenuated the  deviations  Another  exist  the  included  or  attitude.  variable  of  For  a t t i t u d e measures, the  political  standard  Although  s i g n i f i c a n t within  correlation,  t h e measures used.  are  .68.  political  indicated.  the  may  5%  the  p r e s e n t than i s  A  to  and  poor r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e measures used.  attenuate  will  judgment  .22  c o r r e l a t i o n t h i s low  t o the  of  from  statistically  less  A  also  be  moral  have p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  indicates both.  of  item may  subjects  category  for  72 the  second, b u t t h e r e l a t i v e  for  the two i t e m s .  attitudinal  orderings o f the subjects  In a d d i t i o n ,  consistency,  a modal d i s t r i b u t i o n may i n d i c a t e  but the Pearson  v a r i a n c e r e m a i n i n g t o be e x p l a i n e d Another  methodological  between moral judgment  various  measures o f p o l i t i c a l  content  o f t h e statements  statements Although and  and  may  and p o l i t i c a l  (1979b)  Hogan's  concerning  r  recomes m i s l e a d i n g  high  as t h e  shrinks.  issue  Rest's  a r e not p a r a l l e l  (1970)  account  a t t i t u d e measures. moral  attitude  judgment  relationship  I f the items i n  measures  a r e examined,  i s evident.  attitude  f o r the  and t h e  an o v e r l a p  i n the  Most o f t h e measures have  toward  authority  and/or  some  the law.  i n K o h l b e r g ' s measure, t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e made by t h e s t u d e n t  scored  by t h e examiner,  development  according  to  the scoring  the  system  criteria  used  distinguishes for either  stages o f  opposing  or  s u p p o r t i n g the law o r a u t h o r i t y . In  the  studies  of  political  c o n v e n t i o n a l moral s u b j e c t s terms o f whether  significant difference  of  social  political  between  t o b r e a k t h e law.  There  found between m o r a l r e a s o n i n g groups  activities.  Licht,  overlap  behavior,  In t h e moral  the scale  when a  struct  i s related  the scale.  and P e a r l  between  occurs  of  difference  judgment  was  i n terms  measures  and t h e  a c t i v i s m b e h a v i o r , t h e r e i s a l s o an o v e r l a p i n c o n t e n t .  Nicholls, content  the  and t h o s e a t Stage 2 and S t a g e 6 i s a l s o i n  o r n o t t h e y were w i l l i n g  no  service  activism,  scale  two  scales  can be used i s used  to that  (1982) or  between  to predict  to establish  construct  F o r example,  indicated a  when  scale  performance.  whether  when t h a t  that  there i s  and n o n t e s t 'The problem  an a s p e c t o f a con-  aspect i s already  a part  t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i s m o f S t a g e 4 i s an a s p e c t  73 of  conservatism.  S i m i l a r l y , the  is  r e l a t e d to the  civil  Although authority  nonconventionalism of the  d i s o b e d i e n c e o f the  use  dilemma c h o i c e  Stage  4  reasoning  i s more l i k e l y  t o be  stages  i n d i v i d u a l to  oppose  1960*s.  theoretically i t i s possible  and  other  for  to  an  justify  influenced  by  action  who  to  used  the  dilemma.  Stage 2  were i n v o l v e d  or  For  example, a g r e a t e r  principled criteria  in c i v i l  disobedience  d e c i s i o n t o oppose a u t h o r i t y ing,  their  because  A  nonconventionality  conventionality  judgment  could  (Rest,  1979a).  research  design  constructs  does  content  the  of  not  which  permit  be  both. to  be  focuses  scale  i s removed, then t h e  atism  in  research  is  design  question.  does not  enable support of that Although attitude less  and  i n f l u e n c e d by  (1976)  observed  influenced research political  by  is  permit  in  attitude variables  in  common w i t h  of  a  is  an  aspect moral  of  the  Stage  4  conserv-  state:  "If  a  t h e s i s , i t cannot  both  the  political  judgment may-be more  situations  orientations.  the  two  If  v a l i d i t y of the (1982)  moral  these  i t has  al.  test  576).  ambiguous  investigate  of  hypotheses.  et  reason-  attitude in particular situations.  their political to  aspect  of  Their  to  the  constructs,  political  difficult  of  construct  measure  1968).  association  is  subjects  o f t h e i r moral is  disconfirmation  t h e s i s " (p.  judgment  that  the  Nicholls  conventionality moral  on  of  judgment  a developmental  that  conventionalism scale  This  or  authority  proportion moral  a function  disconfirmation  conservatism  the  to  (Haan, Smith & B l o c k ,  or  i s taken  in  the  one's c o n v e n t i o n a l  n o n c o n v e n t i o n a l b e l i e f s i n a s i t u a t i o n where o p p o s i t i o n central  choice,  interaction  in different  individuals  An  implication  of  the  contexts.  moral  Candee  are  for  or  more  further  judgment  and  74 S t u d i e s o f Hogan's and K o h l b e r g ' s M o r a l Judgment  The  relationship  discussed.  Ethical  of p o l i t i c a l attitudes,  attitude  and moral  representing  with  s t y l e s having equal moral  Kohlberg's  Kohlberg's cognitive liberal gating  Stage  Moral  Hogan's  6  (1970) t o be  Their  is  assumed  thought  to  stage  judgment,  (a) and  the  Survey  of  (b) K o h l b e r g ' s  attitude.  f o l l o w e d by a r e s e a r c h r e v i e w and  An  Moral  moral  association that  rather  than  scheme  Ethical  and  indicate  personality  Kohlberg's  been  liberal  reflects  review i s presented o f the s t u d i e s  claims that  with p o l i t i c a l  Stage  that  A  adequacy.  S c a l e measures  and  bias.  measure o f m o r a l confounded  and  Judgment  differences  political  5  judgment has  politically  c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s , are c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Hogan judgment  Dimensions  a  investi-  Attitudes  Judgment  is  a  Scale i s  i n t r o d u c t i o n to these s t u d i e s i s  summary.  Introduction Hogan*s judgment legal  i s relevant  and  social  relationship tude.  (1970,  he  1973, to  1975a,  this  compliance  postulates  A c c o r d i n g t o Hogan  the  degree  t o which  and  regulating  their  1975b)  s t u d y because in  defining  between  moral  (1975b), m o r a l  people lives,  conceptualization  regard rules i . e . , the  moral  confounded  with p o l i t i c a l  Hogan (1981) s t a t e :  attitude  f o c u s he  judgments and  judgment s t y l e  moral  places  and  on  political "has  on the  atti-  t o do  with  as a u s e f u l means f o r o r d e r i n g  degree  and K o h l b e r g ' s measure o f moral  the  judgment  r u l e s as h a v i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s " (p. 6 ) . Attitudes  of  of  t o which  people p e r c e i v e  Both t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l  judgment are c o n s i d e r e d t o  (Johnson & Hogan, 1981).  Johnson  be and  75 R a t h e r , we r e g a r d m o r a l i t y and p o l i t i c s as i n e v i t a b l y i f ambiguously i n t e r t w i n e d . A l l p o l i t i c a l judgments a r e moral judgments because t h e y u l t i m a t e l y r e s t on c h o i c e s about human values. Not a l l moral judgments a r e p o l i t i c a l judgments, b u t many a r e . ( p . 61) Another r e a s o n g i v e n by Johnson ship o f moral  and p o l i t i c a l  and Hogan (1981) f o r t h e c l o s e  judgments  relation-  i s that both are r e f l e c t i o n s o f a  person's p e r s o n a l i t y . Hogan  (1970 ) i n i t i a l l y  verify  h i s hypotheses  biased  towards  projective  a  that  liberal  measure  of  6  to reflect,  conservative  to radical  Ethical  Attitudes  reflected  political  Moral  Judgment  philosophy; rather  than  and  Attitudes to Interview  that  cognitive  was  i t was  a  development  Hogan (1970) c o n s i d e r s K o h l b e r g ' s Stage 5 and  i n part,  perspective,  liberal  t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l  Kohlberg's  personality  (Johnson & Hogan, 1981). Stage  devised  and  the e t h i c s  of social  the e t h i c s  perspective.  Hogan  as a more r e l i a b l e  of  responsibility,  personal  a  conscience, a  (1970) d e v e l o p e d t h e Survey o f  measure  of the e t h i c a l  attitudes  i n K o h l b e r g ' s S t a g e 5 and S t a g e 6.  In c o n s t r u c t i n g  t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l  statements  quoted  from h i s t o r i c a l  judgments,  f o r example,  Rousseau,  Attitudes,  Hogan (1970) used  a d h e r e n t s o f two c a t e g o r i e s o f m o r a l Burke,  and J o h n  Stuart  Mill.  Hogan  c o n s i d e r s t h e use o f such s t a t e m e n t s as s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l with  Attitudes  as a measure o f moral  t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i s seen as i n d i c a t i n g  viewpoint.  The f o l l o w i n g  judgment.  affinity  Agreement  with a p a r t i c u l a r  a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e weighted-continuum  items, with s c o r i n g f o r the e t h i c s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  attitude  indicated:  Items from Form A 1.  R e b e l l i o n may be a s i g n o f m a t u r i t y . agree o r D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y .  S c o r e +1  f o r Dis-  76  that  2.  A man's ( s i c ) c o n s c i e n c e i s a b e t t e r g u i d e t o conduct t h a n whatever t h e law might s a y . S c o r e +1 f o r D i s a g r e e o r Disagree Strongly.  3.  R i g h t and wrong law. S c o r e +1 Strongly.  4.  There a r e times when any man ( s i c ) s h o u l d d e c i d e t o break the r u l e s . S c o r e +1 f o r Agree, U n c e r t a i n , D i s a g r e e , Disagree Strongly. (Hogan, 1970, p . 207)  Two  assumptions t h a t  can be m e a n i n g f u l l y d e f i n e d o n l y by t h e f o r D i s a g r e e , U n c e r t a i n , Agree o r Agree  appear  t o u n d e r l i e Hogan's (1970) measure a r e  a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who endorse  a statement  a r e d o i n g so f o r t h e same  r e a s o n s and t h a t t h e s e r e a s o n s w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p o i n t o f v i e w of  a particular  philosopher.  However,, i n d i v i d u a l s  may  endorse  such  i statements as "An u n j u s t law s h o u l d n o t be obeyed" f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , f o r example, In  the Defining  Issues Test  choose among d i f f e r e n t a moral d e c i s i o n  i n a dilemma.  who  are using  not the i n d i v i d u a l i s not i n c l u d e d  different  1970, p . 207)  s e l f i n t e r e s t o r t h e good o f s o c i e t y . (Rest,  1979b),  subjects  s t a t e m e n t s i n terms o f t h e i r  d i f f e r e n t moral s t a g e judgments, als  (Hogan,  a r e asked t o  importance i n making  The c h o i c e o f s t a t e m e n t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g i s used t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among  criteria  i n making a d e c i s i o n .  Whether o r  chooses t o comply w i t h l e g a l o r e s t a b l i s h e d  i n t h e assessment o f m o r a l judgment  individu-  authority  because, from R e s t ' s  (1979a) p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e same moral c h o i c e may be j u s t i f i e d by d i f f e r e n t criteria moral  and d i f f e r e n t  moral  actions  may  be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h  that  appears  to underlie  t h e same  judgment. Another  Ethical endorses  assumption  Attitudes a  and t h e D e f i n i n g  statement  interprets  both  t h e Survey  of  Test  i s that  everyone  who  statement  i n the  Issues  that  same  Based on e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g o f s u b j e c t s on t h e dilemma, R e s t c o n s i d e r e d t h e statements used t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i s s u e s  manner. (1979a) raised  77 by  s u b j e c t s and  Moral and  the  Judgment  way  the  Interview  statements  assessment o f m o r a l  reflects  their  discussed.  involves probing  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r The  i s s u e s are  judgment by  m a t t e r how  b e n e f i c i a l , would not be m o r a l " Hogan  m o r a l i t i e s t o be  content  such  an  and  rules  irrational  social fails  c r e a t i o n o f meaning and  to  "Without  Rest  (1979a)  From R e s t ' s  (1979a)  trait  and d i f f e r e n t  recognize  the  an  1980,  action,  p. 4 ) .  approach,  e x t e r n a l to people.  function served.  scored.  judgment,  a  Kohlberg's  for elaboration  (1970) and  (Blasi,  representing  systems o f  the  approach  approach,  (1973),  viewed as e s s e n t i a l l y in  Hogan  d i f f e r e n t perspectives of morality.  developmental  hand,  subject  b e f o r e t h e y are  cognitive  other  the  However,  Moral  On  no the  considers action i s  from nonmoral a c t i o n o n l y  According function of  determination of t r u t h .  He  to B l a s i  (1980),  cognition in  the  states:  The m o r a l meaning, i n f a c t , i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be already p r e s e n t i n the a c t i o n t e n d e n c i e s and t o be o b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r mined e i t h e r by t h e i r f u n c t i o n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l and f o r t h e s p e c i e s o r by a r b i t r a r y c o n v e n t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n o f t r u t h i s r e g a r d e d as i r r e l e v a n t i n t h i s c o n t e x t . (p. 3) F o r Hogan  (1970),  the p r a c t i c a l  endpoint  o f moral development  is social  conformity. The  way  i n which "moral m a t u r i t y "  conception of morality.  i s defined also r e l a t e s to  A c c o r d i n g t o Hogan's model  one's  (1973),  the i d e a l endpoint o f moral development i s moral m a t u r i t y , d e f i n e d i n terms o f o p t i m a l placement on the f i v e d i m e n s i o n s ; the p r a c t i c a l endpoint i s s o c i a l conformance, which can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s . The relationship between the two e n d p o i n t s i s seen i n the f a c t t h a t w h i l e t h e m o r a l l y mature t y p i c a l l y conform t o r u l e s o f conduct, a l l t h o s e who conform are not n e c e s s a r i l y mature.) (p. 230) The  f i v e d i m e n s i o n s i n Hogan's (1973) model a r e :  judgment, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy, and  autonomy.  moral knowledge, m o r a l  78 The  moral  Attitudes  judgment  (Hogan, 1970)  are n e u t r a l with indicated  there  t h i s dimension  dimension  measured  by  the  i s assumed t o r e f l e c t two  regard  to t h e i r  i s considerable  ethical evidence  import.  Survey  Ethical  cognitive styles  which  However, Hogan  (1974)  t h a t persons  are l e s s than m o r a l l y mature.  of  at either  end  of  Hogan (1974 ) s t a t e s :  Extreme i n t u i t i o n i s t s have i n s u f f i c i e n t r e g a r d f o r t h e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s o f o t h e r s . Extreme advocates o f the i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e o f law t e n d doggedly t o defend t h e s t a t u s quo. And the two p o s i t i o n s r e f l e c t one o f t h e g r e a t d i a l e c t i c a l a n t i n o m i e s i n the h i s t o r y o f l e g a l and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y . (p. 114) Hogan in  (1973) c o n c l u d e d  the  center  of  the  a t t i t u d e s i s evaluated  t h a t the most m o r a l l y mature i n d i v i d u a l s  cluster  dimension.  ethical  The  moral  i n terms o f b e h a v i o r  f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p r i n c i p l e s Kohlberg  (1971) made the  "objectively" The  endpoint  making  of  preferable or  i n terms o f  more  adequate  are  in  (1970) contended t h a t the two  by  certain  accord  and  Kohlberg's rather than is  theory  than  earlier  in  terms  s t r u c t u r e and ones.  politically  of  the  i s raised  between e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e  he  whether  whether  Further,  biased  basis,  the  and  raised  principles  a t t i t u d e s i n h i s moral  form a p a r t o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between K o h l b e r g ' s this  personal  questions  conscience, Stage 5  the  stages  represent  later  stages  are  and p o l i t i c a l  of  the  attitude  suggested  and  concerning  more  q u e s t i o n o f whether K o h l b e r g ' s because  i s the  consistency.  appear t o  On  is  criteria.  ethical  dimension,  respectively.  responsibility  stage  moral t h e o r y  with  ethical  moral  judgment  6,  the  used.  comprehensiveness, u n i v e r s a l i t y ,  social  the  philosophical claim that a l a t e r  decisions that  a p p e a l i n g to l o g i c a l  of  r a t h e r than  o f development a c c o r d i n g to K o h l b e r g ' s  moral  Hogan  adequacy  content adequate theory  relationship  (Hogan, 1970).  79 Representing Kohlberg's tially.  different theoretical perspectives,  conceptualization The e t h i c s  (1970) t o r e f l e c t most  defensible  legal on  of social  criteria  of  for evaluating  personal  welfare  contract  or her p e r s o n a l l y  and  conventions"  social  action  of society"  conscience,  Hogan  morality  as  t o do, w i t h o u t g r e a t  ( p . 159).  representing  a  substan-  Implied  dichotomy  Hogan  are the e x i s t i n g  (p. 206). (1975a)  states,  "Moral  f o r e s t a b l i s h e d norms  statements  between  Commenting  as t h e r i g h t t h i n g f o r  regard  i n these  by  and the view t h a t " t h e  i n t u i t i o n i s m emphasizes what t h e p e r s o n p e r c e i v e s him  differ  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s considered  p r i n c i p l e s of social  system and the g e n e r a l  the ethics  o f the p r i n c i p l e d stages  Hogan's a n d  i s a view o f  conformity  and noncon-  formity. This  i s contrasted  t i o n made by R e s t  with the c o n v e n t i o n a l - p r i n c i p l e d  stage  distinc-  (1975b):  The b a s i s o f moral o b l i g a t i o n and r i g h t s a c c o r d i n g t o convent i o n a l t h i n k i n g i s t h e maintenance o f one's s o c i a l system and l o y a l t y t o e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In c o n t r a s t , p r i n c i p l e d t h i n k i n g a p p r e c i a t e s t h e need f o r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and s t a b i l i z e d e x p e c t a t i o n s among p e o p l e b u t a l s o a p p r e c i a t e s t h a t s o c i e t i e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be a r r a n g e d i n many p o s s i b l e ways and t h a t each way, i n e f f e c t , maximizes c e r t a i n v a l u e s and m i n i m i z e s c e r t a i n o t h e r s , ( p . 88) Moral  p r i n c i p l e s a r e viewed  perspective claims  t o take  i n K o h l b e r g ' s moral  i n judging  what t o do.  theory  as p r o v i d i n g  a  By p r o m o t i n g t h e k i n d s o f  which a r e u n i v e r s a l i z a b l e , Boyd (1979) s t a t e s :  The m o r a l p o i n t o f view i s n o t d e t e r m i n e d b y my i n t e r e s t s ; n o r i s i t determined by t h e o t h e r ' s i n t e r e s t s . I t i s , rather, seen as above b o t h o u r p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s — i n t h e sense o f our shared p o i n t o f view on b o t h . ( p . 122) An  important  having given  distinction  universal society.  i s made  i n Kohlberg* s t h e o r y  prescriptive applicability,  and v a l u e s  between specific  values to a  80 When ethics  opposite  of personal  t h e law," be  the  conscience,  duty  of  to  obey  social  of  the  moral  judgment  representing  or  existing  in  One  While  mind,  there  i n c o n s i s t e n t with  (1976) p o i n t e d out t h e law need not  law,  rather  than  with  ideal  who  social  the  this  are  the  "above  may  apparent  goals.  for various  norms  indicate postconventional reasoning.  their  that  Further, as  con-  o n l y have  protest  t h a t f o l l o w i n g one's c o n s c i e n c e  "law-making"  account  some n o n c o n f o r m i s t s others  who  is  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y appears t o  difficulty  are  continuum  individuals  dichotomy i s t h a t i t does not  nonconformity.  self-interest unjust  the  contract.  formity-nonconformity types  of  t h e emphasis i n the e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  toward  aspect  pole  are  Kohlberg  against following He  stated:  To a Jehovah's Witness, who has gone t o j a i l f o r " c o n s c i e n c e , " c o n s c i e n c e may mean God's law as i n t e r p r e t e d by h i s r e l i g i o u s s e c t o r group r a t h e r than the s t a n d p o i n t o f any individual o r i e n t e d t o u n i v e r s a l moral p r i n c i p l e s o r v a l u e s . (p. 37) With  regard  science  to  Kohlberg's  seems more  consistent  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h Stage Autonomy i s one m o r a l conduct. to  the  The  stage  with  the  Stage  2  ethics and  the  of  personal  ethics  of  consocial  4.  o f the concept  internalization  scheme,  of  five  dimensions  i n Hogan's (1975) model  of  o f autonomy, as used by Hogan (1975) r e l a t e s social  independent o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s .  rules  such  that  moral  behavior  is  Hogan (1975a) s t a t e d :  An autonomous p e r s o n may a l s o r e f u s e t o comply w i t h the r u l e s on o c c a s i o n , b u t o n l y because he o r she r e g a r d s such c o m p l i ance as c o n t r a r y t o the long-range w e l f a r e o f the group. His o r her noncompliance i s t h e r e f o r e f o r s o c i a l , not p e r s o n a l reasons, ( p . 163) However,  Hogan's  measure  of  moral  judgment,  the  A t t i t u d e s , does not d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s o n a l and noncompliance.  Survey  of  Ethical  s o c i a l reasons  for  81 Studies of the P o l i t i c a l Bias of Kohlberg's Stage Scheme Hogan  (1970) and others (e.g., Emler,  1983;  Hogan & Emler,  1978)  considered Kohlberg's stage scheme to have a l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l b i a s .  To  demonstrate the p o l i t i c a l bias of Kohlberg's moral stages, the r e l a t i o n ship of  Hogan's  tically  liberal  (1970) e t h i c a l and  attitudes,  conservative  ethical  assumed to represent orientations,  poli-  to Kohlberg's  moral stages has been i n v e s t i g a t e d . To  empirically  validate  the  Survey  of  Ethical  Attitudes,  Hogan  (1970) compared "natural groups which are i n some ways s e l f - s e l e c t e d f o r the  attitudes under study" (p. 207), f o r example, p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t  police o f f i c e r s .  These groups are assumed to use d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a f o r  making moral judgments. tudes  about  either  legal  Although the groups may  compliance,  conventional  ability  and  of the t e s t  they  or p r i n c i p l e d  may  moral  have d i f f e r e n t  justify  their  reasoning.  atti-  response  with  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  to discriminate between these two groups does not  n e c e s s a r i l y indicate that d i f f e r e n t moral p r i n c i p l e s are the basis f o r the  d i f f e r e n c e i n the two groups. The r e l a t i o n s h i p proposed by Hogan (1970) between e t h i c a l attitudes  and Kohlberg's stages has been  investigated by means of c o r r e l a t i o n a l  studies.  Using  the  Issues  Tsujimoto  (1979)  found  Defining the  ethics  of  Test  (Rest,  social  1974),  Nardi  responsibility  and  to  be  associated with Stage 4 (r=.46, p_<.001); whereas the ethics ,of personal conscience was  found to be associated with Stage 4 1/2  ment) (r=-.21, p_<.01), Stage 5A j3<.001). that  (Antiestablish-  (r=-.23, p_<.01), and Stage 5B  (r=-.32,  For three d i f f e r e n t samples, Gutkin and Suis (1979) also found  scores  significantly  on  the  Survey  positively  of  Ethical  correlated  Attitudes  with  Stage  (Hogan, 4  1970)  morality  were  (r=.351,  82 j3<.01;  correlated j3<.05). Test  (Rest,  the P  Ethical  scores,  findings  1974).  the  90%  Contrary  of  t o Hogan's  Kohlberg's  ethics  of  ethics  of  Stage  social  study  f i n d any and  that  was  05  of  the  £=-.265,  Defining  measure,  This  little  variance  was  that  the  conscience  use  negatively  _p<* ?  scores.  reported  responsibility  personal  the  using Kohlberg's  there  6,  on  stage  (1970) c l a i m and  significantly  Issues  Dell  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  moral  sample  5  and  (r=-.275, 2<.Q5; £ = - . 2 3 4 ,  the  fact  the  p<.01);  were based  In  Attitudes by  r=.393, Index  (1978) d i d not  explained  to  with These  Jurkovic of  JD<.05;  r=.263,  to  be  t h e two  Stage  ethical  research evidence  tends to  t o be  Stage  related  5  or  finding in  3  Survey may  the  or  and  be  stage  Stage  attitudes suggests  4.  relate  that  the  t o S t a g e 4 and  the  principled  reasoning  (P  Index). A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t to  Kohlberg's  stages, t h i s  Kohlberg's  stages  Kohlberg's  theory,  endorse  the  ethics  are  gate  earlier One moral was  to  claim  that  that tend  the  related  stages  of  subjects  who  developmentally endorse  Therefore, i t i s necessary to  later  that  perspective  those t o be  are  establish  judgments than t h o s e s u b j e c t s who  of personal conscience.  Kohlberg's  From  indicates  responsibility  attitudes  in itself,  biased.  finding  social  l e s s mature i n t h e i r m o r a l ethics  does n o t ,  politically  this of  finding  ethical  a r e m o r a l l y more  an  investi-  adequate  than  ones. avenue  adequacy  taken of  i n pursuing  Hogan's e t h i c a l  compare p e r s o n a l i t y  dimensions.  Johnson  C a l i e n s & Rogolsky,  and  1981)  the  attitudes  profiles his  answer  of  the  question  of  o r K o h l b e r g ' s moral  individuals  associates  stated:  to  (Johnson,  who  differ  Hogan,  on  the  stages these  Zenderman,  83 F i r s t , i t appears t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as w e l l as r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y a r e i n v o l v e d i n moral judgments. Second, Stage 6 i s n o t an i n e v i t a b l e moral advance over S t a g e 5, because p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d with b o t h forms o f moral r e a s o n i n g . ( p . 370-371) However, o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s Quarter,  1972) p o i n t  ( e . g . , Haan, Smith, & B l o c k ,  to differences  s u p p o r t t h e moral adequacy o f h i g h e r Most  of  unexplained attitude  the personality  the causal  determines  (a)  affects  sequence  but  n o t t o moral  reasoning  Another  the  relationship,  structure,  vice  of principled morality  o f the l e v e l  moral  of  i s correlational  of p r i n c i p l e d morality  s t y l e manifested,  which  or they  be t h a t  obtained,  personality  (c)  influences  t o moral  content,  structure.  approach used  known t o d i f f e r  to investigate  i n moral  t h i s question  conduct.  was t o compare  Persons c o n v i c t e d  o f crimes  would be e x p e c t e d t o s c o r e a t t h e ends o f t h e e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s um  and t h e most m o r a l l y mature  probationers  defensible would  continu-  i n d i v i d u a l s would have mid-range  a c c o r d i n g t o Hogan*s (1970, 1974) view. are e q u a l l y  share  (b) i s a c o n -  obtained,  o r (d) r e l a t e s  leaves  i . e . ethical  versa,  A l t e r n a t i v e explanations could  the level  the  groups  direction  characteristics to  stages.  evidence  personality  common d e t e r m i n a n t s .  i n personality  1968; S u l l i v a n &  Also,  i f both e t h i c a l  scores  attitudes  on m o r a l grounds then t h e s c o r e s o f p r i s o n e r s  be e x p e c t e d  t o be e v e n l y  distributed  over  and  t h e two  ends o f t h e continuum. A l t h o u g h t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s discriminate (Hogan,  between  1970);  police  between  (M=21.68), and s t u d e n t s prisoners  (M=23.7)  police  and  political  (M=21.76),  (M=14.06) ( C a r l t o n  (M=20.87) and c o l l e g e  (Hogan, 1970) was found t o  students  police  & Sutton,  activist  (M=8.7)  science  majors  1975); and between  (f*=15.69) ( H a r t n e t t  & Shumate,  84 1980), not  the scores o f p r i s o n e r s  compared  prisoners  on t h e Survey  to the scores o f p o l i c e .  and p o l i c e  s c a l e does n o t appear  a r e compared  expected  study  to d i f f e r  comparing  Attitudes  across  the d i f f e r e n t  studies, the  conduct  i n complying  These two  with r u l e s ,  i n m o r a l m a t u r i t y as d e f i n e d by Hogan  these  two  groups  were  However, i f t h e mean s c o r e s o f  t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e two groups.  g r o u p s , as judged by t h e i r moral be  of Ethical  would  be  needed  to  would  (1970).  confirm  A  this  extrapolation. Within variation  Hogan's model  i n moral  o f moral  conduct  conduct  o f policemen  (1973,  1975a,  1975b),  and p r i s o n e r s may be e x p l a i n e d  i n terms o f o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s , f o r example, empathy, autonomy, tion. does  However, t h e m o r a l n o t appear  political  discriminate  dimension between  proposed  t h e two  socializa-  by Hogan  groups.  (1970) Whereas  a c t i v i s t s and p r i s o n e r s may b o t h break t h e law, t h e y appear t o  have  opposing  able  t o account  moral  to  judgment  the  ethical  for prisoners  development,  orientation,  attitudes.  Although Kohlberg's  and p o l i c e  f o r example,  both  being  have  a  stage  theory i s  a t t h e same  Stage  o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s may be a v a i l a b l e .  4  Police  stage o f  law and  order  and p r i s o n e r s  may share by and l a r g e t h e same p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y . The moral  moral  adequacy  o f Hogan's  s t a g e s has a l s o been t e s t e d  ethical  attitudes  and  Kohlberg's  by c o r r e l a t i n g Hogan's, K o h l b e r g ' s o r  R e s t ' s measures w i t h another index o f m o r a l m a t u r i t y (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 1972a; N a r d i & T s u j i m o t o , Dickstein moral  & Nardi,  1978).-  Hogan and  (1972a) d e v e l o p e d a s c a l e , Measure o f M o r a l V a l u e s , t o measure  maturity.  written  1979; T s u j i m o t o  With  this  measure,  r e s p o n s e s t o 15 statements  most l i k e l y be i f t h e p e r s o n  individuals  indicating  t h e y were h a v i n g  were  what t h e i r  asked  t o make  reaction  would  a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h made  85 the s t a t e m e n t . & Dickstein,  Examples o f items on the Measure o f Moral V a l u e s  (Hogan  1972a) a r e :  The FBI has i t s hands t i e d i n many c a s e s because of u n r e a s o n a b l e o p p o s i t i o n o f some p e o p l e t o w i r e t a p p i n g . 210 ) The new h o u s i n g law i s u n f a i r . Why s h o u l d I be i n t e n a n t s t h a t I f i n d u n d e s i r a b l e ? (p. 210)  the (p.  f o r c e d to take  The p o l i c e s h o u l d be encouraged i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o apprehend and p r o s e c u t e h o m o s e x u a l s . Homosexuality threatens the f o u n d a t i o n s o f our s o c i e t y . ( p . 211) With t h i s measure, s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o 15 s t a t e m e n t s are s c o r e d u s i n g the following (a) (b)  elements:  concern f o r the s a n c t i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l judgments based on the s p i r i t r a t h e r than the t h e law concern f o r the w e l f a r e o f s o c i e t y as a whole c a p a c i t y t o see b o t h s i d e s o f an i s s u e . D i c k s t e i n , 1972a, p . 211)  (c) (d)  A  scoring  response  is  assigned  two  i f any  and  point  elements  i s clearly  elements  c o u l d be e a s i l y and r e a d i l y  Based Moral  on  Values  the and  present  points  correlation Survey  of  one  of  one  of  i f any  letter  (Hogan  the  of  of  &  four  scoring  four  scoring  the  inferred.  subjects'  Ethical  s c o r e s on  Attitudes,  the  Hogan  Measure  and  of  Dickstein  (1972a) c o n c l u d e t h a t p e r s o n s w i t h an e t h i c s o f p e r s o n a l c o n s c i e n c e t e n d t o make more mature moral hypothesis  that  persons  judgments (r=-.34, j><.05), thus r e f u t i n g  w i t h mid-range  s c o r e s on  the  Survey  A t t i t u d e s are more m o r a l l y mature. The used  as  Measure a  of  dependent  Moral  Values  variable  K o h l b e r g ' s measures ( N a r d i  Measure o f M o r a l V a l u e s was  be  correlated  Hogan's  Ethical  , (Hogan two  & Dickstein, studies  & T s u j i m o t o , 1979;  The  with  in  of  their  found by (1970)  1972a) was  comparing  also  Hogan's  Tsujimoto & N a r d i ,  and  1978).  T s u j i m o t o and N a r d i (1978) t o  Survey  of  Ethical  Attitudes  86 (r(170 )=.288) and Defining 5B;  and  Issues  each  Test  r(170)=-.183  of Kohlberg's (r(170)=.227  f o r Stage  s t a g e s measured  f o r Stage  3).  Nardi  5A;  by  Rest's  r(170)=.262  and  Tsujimoto  (1974)  for  Stage  (1979)  found  t h a t m o r a l m a t u r i t y , when a s s e s s e d by t h e Measure o f M o r a l V a l u e s & Dickstein,  1972a),  Attitudes.  This  hypothesis  that  was  curvilinearly related  represents  the  highest  level  m i d d l e o f t h e m o r a l judgment One  difficulty  assumptions judgment  in  the  empirical  moral  support  maturity  is  Ethical  for  Hogan's  found  in  the  creating  an  independent  measure  to  test  the  o f Hogan's (1970) o r K o h l b e r g ' s / R e s t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s o f m o r a l  is  that  an  independent  scoring 1972a)  elements appear  measure  would  be  based  on  a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s about which  s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d as the most  Dickstein,  of  t o the Survey o f  dimension.  p e r s p e c t i v e and would r a i s e  The  only  (Hogan  third  perspective  adequate.  of to  a  the  be  Measure  more  of  Moral  consistent  judgment p e r s p e c t i v e than w i t h Hogan's (1970).  with  Values  (Hogan  Kohlberg's  In a d d i t i o n ,  &  moral  the  global  s c o r i n g o f r e s p o n s e s on the Measure o f Moral V a l u e s  (Hogan & D i c k s t i e n ,  1972a)  could  reduces  differences may  be  the  i n moral  variance  that  maturity.  s c o r e d as c o n t a i n i n g  may  For  o n l y one  example, o f the  as the c a p a c i t y t o see b o t h s i d e s o f an three  scoring  elements.  exist  and an four  obscure  individual's scoring  response  elements  such  i s s u e , but not any o f the o t h e r  Nevertheless, t h i s  individual  would be  t h e same s c o r e as an i n d i v i d u a l whose response i n c l u d e d a l l f o u r elements.  real  given scoring  87 Summary A  comparison  Hogan's  (1970)  discussion Hogan's  was  and  was  Rest's  also  (1970)  made  of  the  (1974,  presented  proposed  theoretical 1979b) m o r a l  concerning  relationship  K o h l b e r g ' s moral s t a g e s .  The  assumptions judgment  several  between  issues  ethical  research evidence  underlying  measures.  A  relating  to  attitudes  and  i n d i c a t e s that scores  on  t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e (a)  discriminate activists)  between  various  (Carlson  &  groups  Sutton,  (e.g.,  1975;  police  Hartnett  &  and  political  Shumate,  1980;  Hogan, 1970); (b)  positively with  Stage 5 scores  social  Suis,  conscience  1979;  the  (Hogan, 1970;  1981);  and  ethics  of  Tsujimoto,  From t h e issue  Index,  that are  social 1979;  research  and  scores who  "morally  Tsujimoto  conclusion  Stage 4 and  positive  on  mature"  the  reasoning  ethics of ethics of (Gutkin  &  personality character-  presented,  be  Measure the  than  of  Moral  e t h i c s of  those  who  Values, personal  endorse  the  (Hogan & D i c k s t e i n , 197.2a; N a r d i  & Nardi,  could  the  endorse  that  &  1978).  i t i s not  o f whether or not K o h l b e r g ' s m o r a l  alternative  i n d i c a t i n g that the  Johnson, Hogan, Zonderman, C a l l e n s & R o g o l s k y ,  responsibility  evidence  negatively correlate  1979);  negative  subjects  more  and  Stage 5 or p r i n c i p l e d  n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e with  conscience  P  scores  i s associated with  with  both  istics  indicating  An  Stage 4  Nardi & Tsujimoto,  c o r r e l a t e with  (d)  or  responsibility  personal  (c)  c o r r e l a t e with  stages  p o s s i b l e to r e s o l v e the are p o l i t i c a l l y  subjects  with  a  biased.  conservative  88 ethical  orientation  are  developmentally l e s s  mature  in their  moral  judgments than subjects with a l i b e r a l e t h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The comparison of the two views on the nature of Kohlberg's stages, that  i s , as  hierarchically  politico-social view.  related  values, d i r e c t s  Implicit  i n Hogan's  organizations  attention  of  to c r i t i c a l  (1970) p o s i t i o n  are the  thinking  aspects of each assumptions  statements about values are understood i n the same manner by and that actions have the same meaning for a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . the  cognitive  developmental  position,  not  enough  that  everyone  Concerning  i s known about  i n t e r a c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r structure with other "person" and variables.  versus  the  "situation"  A clear implication for further research i s to focus on the  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of moral structure and moral content i n making moral decisions.  Studies of Moral Reasoning and Dilemma Content  The  assessment  of moral  developmental p e r s p e c t i v e ,  judgment,  approached  from  involves distinguishing  a  the  cognitiveunderlying  organization of thinking used from the content of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s moral judgment.  A consistency i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s moral structure i s assumed,  although the content of the moral judgment may vary. (1979a) model of moral judgment,  i t i s acknowledged  content and properties of the problem may  However, i n Rest's that the p a r t i c u l a r  influence the p a r t i c u l a r moral  structure that i s manifested. Several dilemma  researchers  have  content on moral  research w i l l  be reviewed:  investigated  reasoning.  the  Three  (a) v a r i a t i o n  effect  of  differing  areas of dilemma content  i n dilemma protagonist,  (b)  89 hypothetical  dilemmas  versus  dilemmas v e r s u s p r o s o c i a l  actual  dilemmas,  and  (c)  prohibitive  two  dilemma  dilemmas.  V a r i a t i o n i n Dilemma P r o t a g o n i s t Levine  (1976)  v a r i a b l e s ! on tagonist  the  c o n v e n t i o n a l moral  modified  Four  of  i n order  dilemmas  was  to  (a) a  •  dilemmas  n i n e dilemmas  present  the  and  identity  the  content  i n Kohlberg's  dilemmas  s t r a n g e r o f the  of  i n which  same sex,  and  treatments  (c)  were  sociology  the  (b)  drawn  the  respondent's  randomly  students  percent-response A Sex X Stage 3 and  distributed  (mean  f o r each  mother.  age=18.6 of  the  to  with  three  ly.  promoral  protagonist in friend  of  the the  a  three  sample  of  the  the  another,  was  found  Stage best  and  680  Subsamples  treatments.  The  first-year  of  100  s c o r i n g technique  The  o f v a r i a n c e was  Stage 3 response  treatment, rate  mother  and  computed  for  r a t e under  the  was  found  treatments  significantly  F(3,882 )=6.79, p_<.001 and  compari-  F (2 ,294 ) =1 9.2 3 , p_<.001.  F(2,294 )=13.10, p_< .001. rate varied  were  questionnaires  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n  response  friend  treatment, response  4  questionnaire  3 and 4 were computed.  rates.  fictitious-other  the  tious-other  to  treatment  the  for  s c o r e s f o r Stages  Stage 4 r e s p o n s e  Conversely,  Stage 4,  the  i n t e r v i e w were  The  years).  Treatment X Dilemma a n a l y s i s  primary-other  lower  of  o f the  a best  were s c o r e d u s i n g Kramer's (1968) s e n t e n c e - c o d i n g  son  1958  content  i  sex;,  randomly  the  effect  reasoning:  i m p l i c a t e d i n the moral  dilemmasi.  same  investigated  to  be  than For  from  significantly f o r . the  both one  Stage moral  ficti3  and  dilemma  F(3,882 )=3.78, p_<.01, r e s p e c t i v e -  90 Levine  (1976) c o n c l u d e d  t o be employed and the  respondents  addition,  Stage 4  judge  different  t h a t Stage 3 m o r a l r e a s o n i n g reasoning  dilemmas  moral  i s less  likely  implicating their  dilemmas  function  to  r e s p o n s e r a t e coded a t K o h l b e r g ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l The  protagonist's  considered  by  investigated ter  of  the  Rybash,  dilemmas  was  constructed  the  role  two  of  or  separate  and  Defining  i n such a way protagonist  two  in  different  occasions,  that  one  2  x  2  repeated  week  to  apart,  (standard versus conducted There  on  was  the  a  modified) data  x  from  significant  than  researchers the  standard  distance a  by  subjects  test the  analysis of  subjects effect  suggested  that  v e r s i o n may  Test  in  the  a The  given  d e a l w i t h t h e problem on  characwas  Either  the Test  the  same  were a d m i n i s t e r e d subjects,  variance  both  f o r Type  stage  -  100  Type  on  college  of  Test,  emotional  of  of  a more a b s t r a c t l e v e l .  the  Test -  was  test.  F( 1,46)=10.56,  by s u b j e c t s i n the (Rest,  1974)  version.  f o r m o r a l judgments the  neutrality  v e r s i o n may  of  Week 2)  versions  self-oriented  scores  consequence  other-oriented  researchers  r e q u i r e d t o assume  (Week 1 v e r s u s  modified,  higher be  from the problem.  decision  i n the  variable  1974)  o t h e r - o r i e n t e d v e r s i o n of the D e f i n i n g Issues T e s t  obtained  the  D e f i n i n g Issues  p_<.005, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t h i g h e r P s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d standard  decrease  course.  Time o f  main  In  or  These  dilemma.  the  measures  also  (Rest,  A modified  moral  others.  when the main  Test  versions of  sophomores e n r o l l e d i n a p s y c h o l o g y A  was  each s u b j e c t was  the  employed when  primary  (1981).  Issues  likely  stages.  judgments would d i f f e r  i n the  t o be  increase  dilemmas  Lonky  a hypothetical other.  the  the  i n the  Roodin,  whether moral  s e l f r a t h e r than  version  identity  i s more  allow  subject's  The on  affective  i n v o l v e d i n making the  individual  to  91 The  gender o f the p r o t a g o n i s t i n K o h l b e r g ' s  a s t u d y by Bussey and Maughan (1982). students  were  Kohlberg's  administered  dilemmas, w i t h  female p r o t a g o n i s t s .  either  dilemmas was  varied in  A sample o f A u s t r a l i a n u n i v e r s i t y the  original  version  male p r o t a g o n i s t s , o r  Based on K o h l b e r g ' s  of  three  a revised version  1977  s c o r i n g system,  of with  subjects  were a s s i g n e d g l o b a l s c o r e s . A and  significant  interaction  effect  was  found  sex o f p r o t a g o n i s t , F(1,32)=6.53, p<.05.  between  sex  of  subject  While males s c o r e d  higher  ;i than  females  on  s c o r e s were the and  Maughan  characters' a lower  Kohlberg's same on  (1982)  standard  the  dilemmas,  dilemmas w i t h  o f f e r e d the  and  female  female p r o t a g o n i s t s .  Bussey  explanation  both  that  males  a c t i o n s as stemming from e x p r e s s i v e r e a s o n s  l e v e l o f moral  male  see and  the  female  responded a t  reasoning.  H y p o t h e t i c a l Dilemmas v e r s u s A c t u a l Dilemmas The thetical this  correspondence dilemmas  study,  the  and  stages  a c t u a l dilemmas  subjects  e n r o l l e d d u r i n g the made o f the  between  1964  were  Free  310  of was  moral  reasoning  s t u d i e d by  Berkeley  s c o r e s on  two-thirds  reasoning—45% were f o r the analyses able  to  of  the  higher  students and 20%  were  lower—for  h y p o t h e t i c a l dilemmas.  i s that there nonmoral  are  assessed the  who  f i v e of Kohlberg's  at  a  Haan (1975) different  actual situation  Haan s t a t e s ,  In were  A comparison  dilemmas and on a F r e e Speech Movement Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . that  hypo-  (1975).  undergraduates  Speech Movement C r i s i s .  s t u d e n t s ' moral r e a s o n i n g  Haan  about  "The  was  moral found  stage than  thrust of  of  they these  systematic d i f f e r e n c e s — a p p a r e n t l y a t t r i b u t -  characteristics  of  the  participants—between  giving  a  92 story  character  advice  fictitious  moral  advice  and f o r m u l a t i n g  and a c t i n g on  f o r o n e s e l f " (Haan, 1975, p . 2 6 9 ) .  On  t h e same  theme  dilemmas, K o h l b e r g ,  of hypothetical  Scharf,  and H i c k e y  dilemmas  versus  real-life  (1972) r e p o r t e d t h a t a sample o f  34 p r i s o n e r s d i s p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  s c o r e s (p_<.05) on K o h l b e r g ' s  hypothetical  s e t o f dilemmas  dilemmas  r e f l e c t moral were  content  in  conflicts  they  d i d on a  experienced  i n the p r i s o n s e t t i n g  designed  i n which  to they  living. Leming  mas,  than  (1975)  on m o r a l  explored  reasoning,  and dilemmas w r i t t e n the d e l i b e r a t i o n  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f two a s p e c t s classical  dilemmas v e r s u s  practical  i n t h e judgment mode v e r s u s  mode.  Kohlberg's  dilemmas  were  o f dilemmas dilem-  dilemmas w r i t t e n considered  t o be  c l a s s i c a l , w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r s removed from t h e s u b j e c t ' s life  space.  In t h e s e dilemmas, t h e moral c h o i c e i s a l r e a d y made and t h e  subject  i s asked  version  o f Kohlberg's  in  the present  mode).  As  (1975)  tense  an  likely  cheating,  c h o i c e was s t i l l  t o Kohlberg's  practical  t o be found  (judgment mode).  Another  dilemmas was w r i t t e n so t h a t they  and t h e moral  three  to parents,  t h e a c t i o n made  classical  alternative  developed  situations lying  to evaluate  open  classical  dilemmas  which  and peer  group  (deliberation  dilemmas,  contained  within the subject's l i f e conflict.  were  Leming conflict  space,  that i s ,  These  dilemmas  were a l s o w r i t t e n i n both t h e judgment mode and t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n mode. The  subj e c t s ,  60 e i g h t h  and t w e l v e t h  grade  s t u d e n t s , ' were  inter-  viewed on t h e 12 d i f f e r e n t dilemmas, t h r e e w i t h i n each o f t h e f o u r forms o f moral  reasoning.  Kohlberg's  1972 moral m a t u r i t y  f o r each s u b j e c t on a l l f o u r forms o f m o r a l r e a s o n i n g .  s c o r e was computed For the a n a l y s i s  o f t h e d a t a , K i r k ' s (1968) m u l t i p l e f a c t o r s r e p e a t e d measures  split-plot  93 design found  was used. t o be  The mean moral  significantly  d e l i b e r a t i o n mode. was found,  maturity  higher  Although  The s i g n i f i c a n t  moral dilemmas w r i t t e n  interaction  study,  mode  new  Based  (ages  dilemmas  written  to " p u l l "  achieved  through  participants"  (p. 286).  transformed  formal  "moral  moral  on  interpersonal  An i n t e r p e r s o n a l  f o r balanced  solutions are  agreements  judgment Moral  scheme d e v i s e d  f o r two K o h l b e r g  levels  dilemmas  was  o f reasoning  a l l statements  to continuous  among  theory i s  reasoning  was  made  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  dilemmas was .51 (N=56) and .46  used  i n one game.  s c o r e s by w e i g h t i n g  (N=56). either  Moral  scores  i n the interview  The moral .scores were  the major  s c o r e by 3 and,  a major and minor s c o r e was a s s i g n e d , by 2 and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Although hypothetical reasoning  strive  reasoning  s c o r i n g system and a s c o r i n g system based on a  reliability  t h e modal  i n which  of interpersonal morality.  i n t e r p e r s o n a l moral  o r from  when b o t h  that  interpersonal morality  test-retest  represented  (1978)  Kohlberg's  using Kohlberg's  developmental  format  Haan  dialogues  as one branch  two  by  on t h e r e s u l t s  13 t o 17) m o r a l  i s proposed  for  type  a m o r a l e d u c a t i o n program t h a t  morality  The  f o r dilemma  dilemmas w r i t t e n i n t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n mode.  of adolescents'  dilemmas,  mode.  and game s i t u a t i o n s was made by Haan (1978).  assessed  i n the  e f f e c t s were t h e r e s u l t o f  reasoning  viewed  than  was  M a t u r i t y S c o r e s on t h e p r a c t i c a l  Leming (1975) recommended  comparison  Kohlberg's  Moral  i n the d e l i b e r a t i o n  i n c l u d e s the use o f p r a c t i c a l A  i n t h e judgment  no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t  t h e t w e l f t h grade s u b j e c t s ' lower  this  f o r a l l subjects  two i n t e r a c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t , Mode x Dilemma and Grade x  Mode x Dilemma.  of  score  formal  reasoning  dilemmas than  was lower  than  was found  t o be used  interpersonal reasoning,  the l e v e l  more o f t e n  i n the  the l e v e l o f formal  of interpersonal reasoning.  In t h e  94 game s i t u a t i o n s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l the  l e v e l s f o r formal  (1978) a l s o personal  than  reversed. the  found  more  adolescents  reasoning,  i n which  were more  advanced  interpersonal  people  frequently, but  d i d not d i f f e r .  but f o r whites  (1978) suggested t h a t way  more  i n inter-  the pattern  morality  morally  Haan  relate,  of interpersonal  was  represents and  morality  formal  used i n  kinds o f rule-governed, impersonal s i t u a t i o n s .  Dilemmas Gilligan  involving  the issue  (1982) t o e x p l o r e  this  of  t h e moral  and pregnancy twice  resolve  three  dilemma.  counseling  concerning  Gilligan  postconventional  (1982) found  reasoning  used p r i n c i p l e d r e a s o n i n g The explained  finding  that  by G i l l i g a n  morality.  moral  concerning  investigated  o f women.  The s u b j e c t s  women were  and were  also  several  score  the abortion  lower  issue,  on  Kohlberg's  (1982) i n terms o f women's d i f f e r i n g  Women a r e seen  to differ  r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r than a f o r m a l  asked  to  Heinz  o f t h e women  used  none o f them  as d e t e r m i n e d from t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l women  inter-  i n c l u d i n g Kohlberg's  while  by  who were r e f e r r e d by  These  issue  dilemmas, that  were  abortion,  services.  the abortion  hypothetical  abortion  reasoning  s t u d y were 29 women c o n s i d e r i n g  abortion viewed  black  i s one p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h  special  in  that  fundamental  morality  was used  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y  i n formal  Haan  reasoning  dilemmas.  dilemmas i s conception o f  i n having a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  logic of  logic of fairness.  P r o h i b i t i v e Dilemmas v e r s u s P r o s o c i a l Dilemmas Eisenberg-Berg prohibitive obligations,  dilemmas  (1979)  has c h a r a c t e r i z e d  concerned  i n contrast  s e l f . v e r s u s other-centered  with  Kohlberg's  d i l emmas  laws, r u l e s , a u t h o r i t y ,  t o p r o s o c i a l dilemmas t h a t need s a t i s f a c t i o n .  as  and f o r m a l  are concerned  with  To compare t h e two t y p e s  95 of  moral  reasoning,  involving  Eisenberg-Berg  conflicts those  between the  desires  and  of  used by  Eisenberg-Berg  between  sharing  or  (1979) d e v e l o p e d  main  character's  a needy o t h e r . (1979) i s one  not  sharing would  own  wants, needs,  i n which i n d i v i d u a l s had  food  with  another  when  result  in  their  selves.  Responses were coded as one  of  16  to  town, which  being  very  choose  had  been  hungry  empirically derived  them-  categor-  f o r example, c o n c e r n w i t h punishment, c o n c e r n f o r r e c i p r o c i t y ,  t a k i n g , r e f e r e n c e t o r i g h t s and used, s u b j e c t s were s c o r e d Eisenberg-Berg students'  internalized dilemmas. about  (1979)  reasoning  reported  that  than  is their  g e n e r a l i z e d t o moral r e a s o n i n g  of  high  administered  the  school  and  Defining  dilemmas  and and  college Issues as  study  Test  well  as  (Rest, a  (1979) c a t e g o r i e s  p r o s o c i a l dilemmas and  a measure  were  similar  1979), of  research  students  to the  were  perspective-taking  using P  a  Eisenberg-Berg's  Both t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s scored  be  behavior.  (1981), u s i n g  These  measure  reflect  necessarily  Kurdek  computing a p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n s e s which r e f l e c t e d i z e d moral o r i e n t a t i o n .  based on  of p r o s o c i a l by  to  school  about p r o h i b i t i v e  cannot  students.  Hogan's (1969) Empathy S c a l e . the  categories  high  i s more l i k e l y  judgments  in a  and  conclusions  about a s p e c t s  were s u p p o r t e d  (1979) p r o s o c i a l dilemmas, ability  elementary  reasoning  suggested t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l  These r e s u l t s  the b a s i s of the  role  of four p r o s o c i a l stages.  p r o h i b i t i o n - o r i e n t e d moral  sample  On  about p r o s o c i a l dilemmas  standards  She  justice.  as one  and  example o f a p r o s o c i a l dilemma  flooded,  ies,  sharing  An  p r o s o c i a l dilemmas  Test  Eisenberg-Berg's  Index was  derived  by  a strongly internal-  96 The on  d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e o f p r i n c i p l e d r e a s o n i n g  the p r o s o c i a l  tive  dilemmas,  prohibited  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than oh the  t ( 104)=-11.41, p_<.000.  and  sensitivity  dilemmas was  prosocial  areas  was  Mature moral  found  to be  and t o h i g h p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g  prohibi-  reasoning i n both  related  to h i g h  social  ability.  Kurdek (1981) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s u b j e c t s have h i g h e r moral m a t u r i t y i n p r o s o c i a l moral r e a s o n i n g than i n p r o h i b i t i v e m o r a l r e a s o n i n g when m o r a l maturity i s defined  by the e x t e n t one  p o s s e s s e s an  internalized  ethics.  However, Kurdek p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  code may  be d i f f e r e n t  f o r the p r o s o c i a l  and p r o h i b i t i v e  code o f  internalized  issues.  Summary In  the  studies  changes  i n the  dilemma  was  (Rybash, at  reviewed,  content  changed  Roodin,  a lower  of  to  a  & Lonky,  level.  moral  judgment  was  found  In  vary  t h e dilemmas.  When t h e  protagonist  primary  (Levine,  1976)  1981),  other  s u b j e c t s tended  When the p r o t a g o n i s t  i n the  or  with  of  the  the self  t o use m o r a l r e a s o n i n g dilemmas  o n l y males were found t o d e c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f moral Maughan,  to  was  a  female,  r e a s o n i n g (Bussey &  1982). g e n e r a l , moral  hypothetical (Kohlberg, found by  dilemmas  dilemmas.  than  for  Scharf, & Hickey,  Gilligan  dilemmas than on reasoning  r e a s o n i n g was  was  abortion  used  In a comparison  Leming,  lower  issues.  more o f t e n  t o be  "real-life"  1972;  (1982) t o be  found  "practical"  1975).  i n moral  Haan  or  higher f o r Kohlberg's  However,^ women were  r e a s o n i n g on  (1978) found t h a t  i n game s i t u a t i o n s  dilemmas  than  o f r e a s o n i n g i n an a c t u a l  Kohlberg's  interpersonal  in hypothetical  situation  of  civil  97 d i s o b e d i e n c e and i n K o h l b e r g ' s dilemmas, Haan  (1975) found  a difference  f o r t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e s u b j e c t s , 46% h i g h e r , 20% l o w e r . Finally,  when  prohibitive  and p r o s o c i a l  dilemmas  were  compared,  s u b j e c t s were found t o have h i g h e r m o r a l m a t u r i t y on p r o s o c i a l (Eisenberg-Berg, Evidence presented  dilemmas  1979; Kurdek, 1981).  that  dilemma  i n t h e above  addressed c e r t a i n  content  influences  studies.  similarities  However,  m o r a l judgments has been  none  o f these  studies  has  i n t h e dilemmas used by K o h l b e r g and Rest  and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s c o n t e n t on t h e assessment o f m o r a l judgments. A content  a n a l y s i s o f the D e f i n i n g  Issues Test  dilemmas  (see Table  1) r e v e a l s t h a t  in all  t h e diiemmas, t h e p r o t a g o n i s t must d e c i d e whether  a  should  be made  special  case  i n the i n t e r e s t  o f one i n d i v i d u a l  or a  m i n o r i t y group r a t h e r than i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e as a whole. In  t h e dilemmas,  focus o f concern: the  the following  individuals  or minority  H e i n z ' s w i f e i n t h e H e i n z dilemma; SDS and F a c u l t y i n  Student Take-over dilemma; escaped p r i s o n e r  dilemma;  mechanic  Webster dilemma; and the s t u d e n t group i n t h e Newspaper  dilemma.  minority  focus  i n the Doctor  on t h e needs  groups  dilemmas;  i n t h e Escaped P r i s o n e r  the O r i e n t a l  The  patient  groups a r e t h e  or concerns  i s accentuated  by  dilemmas, t h e s e needs o r c o n c e r n s lished  authority.  established  another  similarity.  I f t h e dilemmas were changed  authority,  would  individuals In  a r e n o t s u p p o r t e d by l e g a l  interest of individuals or minority or  of particular  i n such  who  wished  a l l  or the  or estab-  a way t h a t t h e  groups a r e n o t p i t t e d  subjects  i n the  against  legal  t o address  these  needs o r c o n c e r n s j u s t i f y t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i n t h e same way?  98 The the  following table  D e f i n i n g Issues  i s a summary o f dilemmas, p a r a l l e l  Test,  i n which  individual  rights  are  to those i n protected  by  l e g a l or e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y :  Table 2 Summary o f A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  Henry and t h e Drug - Henry must d e c i d e whether o r not t o s t e a l the f o r m u l a f o r a new d r u g t o p r e v e n t a s c i e n t i s t from s e l l i n g i t t o o t h e r people. Henry had. become v e r y v i o l e n t and n e a r l y k i l l e d h i s w i f e a f t e r t a k i n g the d r u g . Should Henry s t e a l the drug? S t u d e n t R e v o l t - A l a r g e group o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s t a k e over t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g t o p r o t e s t the u n i v e r s i t y p r e s i d e n t ' s d e c i s i o n t o r e t a i n t h e S t u d e n t s f o r R e v o l u t i o n (SFR) warfare t r a i n i n g program on campus. S h o u l d the s t u d e n t s have taken o v e r the administration building? B u l l y - Mrs. Smith must d e c i d e whether o r not t o r e p o r t a group o f n e i g h b o r h o o d men t o t h e p o l i c e f o r b e a t i n g up and k i l l i n g a man known t o be a b u l l y and c r i m i n a l a l t h o u g h he had never been c o n v i c t e d o f a c r i m e . S h o u l d Mrs. Smith r e p o r t t h e men t o "the p o l i c e ? D o c t o r - A d o c t o r must d e c i d e whether t o p e r f o r m s u r g e r y on a woman who r e f u s e s t o s i g n the papers a l l o w i n g the s u r g e r y t o p r o c e e d , knowing t h a t she w i l l d i e i f s u r g e r y i s not p e r f o r m e d . What s h o u l d the d o c t o r do? Mr. Winston - Mr. Winston, t h e owner and manager o f a b u s i n e s s company, d i d not h i r e an a c c o u n t a n t who was white because he was concerned about h i s customers who were members o f m i n o r i t y groups. What s h o u l d Mr. Winston have done? P a p e r - The p r i n c i p a l stopped the p u b l i s h i n g o f a s c h o o l newspaper t h a t s u p p o r t e d t h e government's m i l i t a r y s p e n d i n g and s c h o o l r u l e s , such as t h e r u l e banning punk c l o t h e s . The p r i n c i p a l gave as a r e a s o n t h a t i t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s o f some s t u d e n t s who d i d not agree w i t h the o p i n i o n o f the p a p e r . Should the p r i n c i p a l s t o p t h e newspaper?  By  comparing responses  o f s u b j e c t s t o these dilemmas and  i n the D e f i n i n g Issues T e s t r e a s o n i n g m a n i f e s t e d may  be  (see T a b l e explored.  1), c o n t e n t  t o the  dilemmas  e f f e c t s on t h e m o r a l  99 S t u d i e s o f M o r a l Judgment and Dilemma A c t i o n C h o i c e  Moral related  judgment  and  moral  constructs  in  cognitive  contended pretive moral over  that  stages,  framework  conflict  defining  However,  with  in  moral reasoning.  not  moral  an  one  theory.  criteria,  particular  lead  any  contrasting  a c t i o n c h o i c e s can  a  are c o n s i d e r e d t o be  development  general  i s c o n s t r u e d may  another.  compatible  for  as  action  situation,  action  provide  to  a  but  (1979a)  the The  interway  f a v o r one  moral  alternatives.  always be p r e d i c t e d by t h e  Rest  Rest  situation.  individual  distinct  stage  the  action may  be  Consequently, individual's  the  stage  of  (1979a) s t a t e d :  To p r e d i c t t h e r e l a t i o n o f moral judgment t o b e h a v i o r , one must do a l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r interpretive framework o f a g i v e n s t a g e , and how t h a t framework i s l i k e l y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h f e a t u r e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l problem i n d i s p o s i n g t o an a c t i o n . ( p . 260) Rest  (1979a)  action  suggested  choice  will  be  that higher  the  correlation  when one  p r i n c i p l e d moral p e r s p e c t i v e and  between  action  moral  makes more  stage  sense  and  from  t h e o t h e r a c t i o n makes more sense  a  from  a c o n v e n t i o n a l moral p e r s p e c t i v e . In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n o f moral r e a s o n i n g w i t h action work and  choice,  found action  Rest  a nonlinear choices.  t h a t Stage 1 was 2  with  and  (1979a)  stealing,  relationship  For  reported  that between  stages  of  1958  reasoning  Stage  4 with  ambiguity,  dilemma,  moral  early  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d v o c a t i n g not s t e a l i n g the d r u g , and  Heinz  in his  found  3  i n the  Kohlberg  Kohlberg  Stage  example  Stage 6 w i t h d e f i n i t e l y Using  reported  dilemma  Stage 5 w i t h  stealing.  the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t , a s i g n i f i c a n t  between moral  stealing,  reasoning  and  action  r e l a t i o n s h i p has  been  choices, defined either  as  100 "humanitarian-liberal" authority" liberal" and  (Martin,  pattern  political  (Cooper,  Shafto,  i s based  science  1972),  on t h e a c t i o n  doctoral  and  between moral  "aligned  1977).  choices  The  that  established  "humanitarian-  moral  The s i x a c t i o n c h o i c e s  as a " h u m a n i t a r i a n - l i b e r a l "  h i s colleagues  reasoning  to  philosophy  s t u d e n t s t e n d t o make i n t h e s i x D e f i n i n g  of a c t i o n s that are not a l i g n e d with Martin  as  & Van D e i n s e ,  I s s u e s T e s t dilemmas (Cooper, 1972). (1972) c h a r a c t e r i z e s  or  pattern  Cooper  are a l l choices  authority.  (1977)! argued  and a c t i o n  that  choices  that  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n the Defining  Issues  Test  dilemmas i n d i c a t e s t h a t : i n some c a s e s , c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s seemed t o " a t t r a c t " r e a s o n s a s s o c i a t e d with higher stages. In o t h e r words, one d e c i s i o n would be more l i k e l y t o be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p r i n c i p l e d r e a s o n i n g (Stages 5 and 6) than t h e o p p o s i t e d e c i s i o n s would b e . (pp. 466-467) Rest  (1979a) m a i n t a i n e d  independent  o f moral  that  moral  decision.  reasoning  H i s view  content, but i s not r e d u c i b l e t o content" To  support  reasoning  this  and c h o i c e ,  statement, although  ables,  behave d i f f e r e n t l y .  school  and u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ,  age  (£=.62),  than  d i d action  suggested Index out of  comprehension  that  choice action  (£=.34), because  that  the stages,  (p.  n o t be  "form  completely  i s related to  160).  (1979a)  provided  evidence  that  are d i s t i n c t  and, as  vari-  that  f o r a sample o f 160  t h e P Index c o r r e l a t e d much h i g h e r  (£=.60),  and Law and Order  r=.20, and £ = - . 3 1 ,  i s n o t more h i g h l y  the r e l a t i o n  when a c t i o n c h o i c e  i s that  correlated,  He r e p o r t e d  (£=.29, choice  Rest  should  Attitude  respectively).  high with  (-.60) Rest  c o r r e l a t e d with the P  i s not s t r i c t l y  linear.  He  points  f l i p - f l o p s back and f o r t h t h r o u g h t h e o r d e r  the c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l  be h i g h e s t  i f one c o u r s e o f a c t i o n  101 is  strongly  action  favored  by t h e lower  stages  i s s t r o n g l y f a v o r e d by t h e h i g h e r  and  the opposite  course  of  stages.  Summary The  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the choice  justification  of that  reported  between  reasoning  (Rest,  all  actions  (1977)  that  also  of action  a c t i o n has been i n v e s t i g a t e d .  "humanitarian-liberal" 1979a).  action  with  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  dilemma  choices  and p r i n c i p l e d  action choices  authority. choices  t h a t were i n compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y and m o r a l  and t h e  A r e l a t i o n s h i p was  The " h u m a n i t a r i a n - l i b e r a l "  were n o t i n compliance  reported  in a  Martin  were  et a l .  o f dilemma  actions  reasoning.  The d e c i s i o n t o comply w i t h a u t h o r i t y may be i n f l u e n c e d by a number of  factors.  political  In the D e f i n i n g  Issues  Test  i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n t h a t i s made.  al  rights  are protected  t o comply w i t h  individual liberal  rights  legal  i s placed be  In a dilemma i n which i n d i v i d u -  authority,  On t h e o t h e r  i n opposition  expected  content  the l i b e r a l hand, to  when  legal  n o t t o comply.  subject  may  the i s s u e o f  authority,  the  Conversely, the  s u b j e c t may a l s o choose t o comply o r n o t t o comply depend-  on whether  political  by  t h e law.  i n d i v i d u a l may  conservative ing  the individual's  a t t i t u d e o r e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e may i n t e r a c t w i t h dilemma  to  choose  dilemmas,  legal  authority  protects  the issue  supported  by  that  point o f view.  Summary  The related  moral to  this  judgment study.  literature Research  has  been  examined  was  reviewed  which  i n four explored  areas the  102 relationship choice  and  among  moral  identified of the  of  dilemma  moral  judgment.  judgment, and  specified  c o n t e n t and  dilemma  Furthermore,  political  discussed.  moral  and  ethical  research  hypotheses  moral  judgment,  attitude.  These  a d d r e s s e d by  the  ethical  well  as  action  action  relationships attitude  c o n c e r n i n g the choice,  "person" v a r i a b l e s ,  q u e s t i o n s form  the b a s i s  procedures discussed :i  chapter.  and  Questions w e r e i r a i s e d  c o n t e n t on  as  evidence o f the  attitude,  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m o r a l judgment and two  attitude  judgment,  were effect  and  on  political f o r the  i n the  next  103  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY  Chapter  two p r e s e n t e d  a review  o f the l i t e r a t u r e  pertinent t o the  V hypotheses presents  and p r o v i d e d  a description  justification  f o r the study.  o f t h e sample,  the design  i n c l u d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s procedure, The  major  questions  of ethical  development  scores?  Is  addressed  on moral development  from  which  and t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  attitude  by t h e study and moral  on compliance  with  t h e r e an i n t e r a c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l  scores?  o f t h e study,  scores?  (e) Can compliance of subjects'  m o r a l development  dilemma  ( a ) I s t h e r e an content  scores.  with  attitude  an i n t e r a c t i o n with  (c)  content  of p o l i t i c a l  authority action  authority a c t i o n scores attitude,  moral  a t t i t u d e and  and m o r a l dilemma  on compliance  ethical  on  a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n scores?  (d) I s t h e r e  and m o r a l dilemma c o n t e n t  knowledge  are:  ( b ) I s t h e r e an i n t e r a c t i o n o f e t h i c a l  dilemma c o n t e n t  attitude  three  and an o u t l i n e o f d a t a p r o c e s s i n g and a n a l y s i s .  interaction  moral  Chapter  political  be p r e d i c t e d a t t i t u d e , and  104 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Samples  High  school  and  university  student volunteers p a r t i c i p a t e d  in this  study.  H i g h S c h o o l Sample The a  h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n the s t u d y was  Grade  11  Law  course.  e l e c t i v e t o any enrol  i n the  tion  in  ensure  course  of  o f the  wherein  Law  course  i s offered  no p r e r e q u i s i t e s a r e r e q u i r e d .  are  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  grade-point  average.  This  total  course  study was  as  Students  school  was  an who  popula-  selected  to  In  addition,  c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o the c o n t e n t  presented  selection data  of  were  the  secondary  gathered  was  b e i n g g r a n t e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l class. Law  Consent was course.  substitute the  11  in  course.  The  11  Grade  a s i m i l a r g e n e r a l background i n l a w - r e l a t e d i s s u e s .  the t o p i c in the  s t u d e n t and  Law  terms  The  d e f i n e d by enrolment  class,  g i v e n by Two  teacher and  the  dependent o f the  other  on  in  the  school  permission  s c h o o l and  district  f o r the  study  the t e a c h e r o f the  Law  s i x o f the e i g h t s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g t h e Grade  principals  would be  schools  refused  t a k i n g the because  of  permission,  p l a c e of the particular  because  a  regular teacher  of  time  one  constraints i n -  volved.  ,  U n i v e r s i t y Sample The Education  university courses  student at  The  summer s e s s i o n immediately  population University  was of  d e l i m i t e d by  British  enrolment  Columbia  subsequent t o the s c h o o l term  during  in the  i n v o l v e d i n the  105 high school study.  The  s e l e c t i o n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s was  on p e r m i s s i o n b e i n g g r a n t e d by t h e  dependent  instructors.  Subj ects The  s t u d y was  conducted  i n two  phases and  the  subjects involved in  each phase a r e d e s c r i b e d . Phase One.  The  were 47  student  British  Columbia  females range  and  participants  v o l u n t e e r s i n two secondary  enrolled  of in  secondary  Law  classes  in a  the  sample  Comprising of  - H i g h S c h o o l Sample. the  study  five  Grade  schools.  16.76  measures, complete  17  years  Issues  statements; M  with (b)  study  suburban, were  29  (SD=.71) and an  age  Scores,  in  Test  responses  errors:  of  same number on  the  of  14  rating  British  from  the  they  in  ranking  of  the  and  in  Columbia  study  because  completed  a l l the  did  not  properly  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas subjects  13 s u b j e c t s (15%)  (a) more t h a n  inconsistencies  based  because  and/or  participants  suburban,  Of t h o s e who  excluded Test  school  school student v o l u n t e e r s  s u b j e c t s were e x c l u d e d  were  rating  high  high  a l l the measures.  following  stories  94  classes  Dilemmas T e s t r e s p o n s e s  more o f t h e  (c)  Law  D e f i n i n g Issues  Defining  Alternate  11  subjects  the  The  consisted of  Nine  t h e y d i d not complete  and  school.  11  s t u d y phase o f the  o f 15 y e a r s o l d t o 18 y e a r s o l d .  Phase Two  two  Grade  18 males w i t h a mean age  Phase Two  The  i n the p i l o t  eight and  (16%)  and  the  c o n t a i n e d one  e r r o r s o r more rating - of  s c a l e more than' n i n e  ranking  Test.  meaningless  or  than  dilemma times;  items  too  h i g h , o f e i g h t o r more. Eighty-two  p e r c e n t o f the s u b j e c t s e x c l u d e d because o f  c i e s on t h e m o r a l  inconsisten-  development measures made e r r o r s on b o t h t h e D e f i n i n g  106 Issues  Test  choice  scores  different  the  Alternate  of  those  Dilemmas T e s t .  deleted  statistically  Rest of  and  from those  the  not  mean D  study  were  Index not  and  action  significantly  deleted.  (1979a) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l o s s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h e  M  Score  and  the  Consistency  although  l a r g e r l o s s e s have  groups.  He  gives  from  The  recommended  clearer  results  Check  occurred  excluding and  with  the  better  is  in  the  2  disadvantaged  subject  with  reliability  to or  15%  range,  unmotivated  errors  than  basis  because  leaving  it  all  the  in  the  subjects i n . Sixty-eight study. years  T h e i r mean age of  (36  was  females,  17.15  32  years  males) were  (SD=.85) and  included  ranged from 16 t o  20  u n i v e r s i t y sample c o n s i s t e d  of  age.  Phase Two 57  subjects  - U n i v e r s i t y Sample.  u n i v e r s i t y student  University complete  of  one  British or  on  because  missing  subjects  not  Columbia.  more o f  mean s c o r e s of  volunteers  the  The  e n r o l l e d i n Education Thirteen  excluded  were  from  these  f o u r measures employed  the measures completed by data  of  compared  the  study  the to  and  subjects i n the  s u b j e c t s who  the no  mean  courses  at  The  did  not  study.  were  scores  The  excluded  obtained  statistically  by  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s were found. Of  those  were e x c l u d e d Test  and/or  responses  of  responses of errors:  subjects  who  because they the  five  (a)  inconsistencies  more  Dilemmas  subjects  subjects than  i n ranking  a l l the  measures,  nine  subjects  d i d not p r o p e r l y complete t h e D e f i n i n g  Alternate  seven  completed  (16%)  (11%) eight and  Test. and  contained errors  rating  or  The  the one  D e f i n i n g -Issues  Alternate  Dilemmas  or more o f t h e  more  than  two  Test Test  following  stories  o f dilemma s t a t e m e n t s ;  Issues  (b)  with rating  107 same number on  rating  o f t h e s c a l e more than  and r a n k i n g meaningless  Thirty-three  per  cent  of  nine times;  and ( c ) M S c o r e s ,  based  items t o o h i g h , o f e i g h t o r more. the  subjects  excluded  from  the  study  because o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s on t h e moral development measures made e r r o r s on  both  the D e f i n i n g Issues  Test  and t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t , 44%  o n l y on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t , and 22% o n l y on t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Test. the  The mean D Index and a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e s o f t h o s e  study  due t o e r r o r s  were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different  deleted  from  statistically  from t h o s e n o t d e l e t e d . The  loss  o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  of  t h e M Score  to  15% range i n d i c a t e d by Rest  the  sample on t h e b a s i s  and t h e c o n s i s t e n c y check i s on t h e o u t e r l i m i t  subjects with  errors  were  (1979a).  As recommended by Rest  excluded  from  the study  of the 2 (1979a),  to gain  clearer  r e s u l t s and b e t t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Thirty-five males). years  s u b j e c t s were  included  The mean age o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y  (SD=7.56), r a n g i n g  i n the study  (21  females,  14  s u b j e c t s i n t h e study was 31.94  i n age from 20 y e a r s  t o 50 y e a r s .  T h e i r mean  y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n was 16.54 y e a r s (SD=1.58).  D e s i g n o f t h e Study  This  study  development l e v e l well to  investigated  effect  o f dilemma  and c h o i c e o f a c t i o n s i n compliance  as on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  these  the  variables.  of ethical  attitude  content  on  moral  w i t h a u t h o r i t y , as  and p o l i t i c a l  attitude  108 P rocedures The involved moral  study the  was  conducted  pilot  judgment.  testing  i n two  of  the  phases.  Phase  alternate  One  dilemmas  of  the  used  to  study  measure  T h i s p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c o v e r m i s l e a d i n g or  c o n f u s i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e dilemmas and t h e stage statements t h a t f o l l o w e d each dilemma.  In phase two,  s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d the measurement  i n s t r u m e n t s used t o address t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n the s t u d y . The  studies  attitude, involved tions  and  considered they two  are not viewed  variables  such  university that  employed  differ as  sample  content  studies, in  separately  samples  development,  in  t o be  i n age  To  both  the  a  testing  high  the  and  two  hypotheses of  the  the  sample  These of  political  have  extend  school  study.  representative  two the  typically  generaliza-  and  unversity  samples study  were  because  same p o p u l a t i o n .  The  and e d u c a t i o n , b u t a l s o l i k e l y v a r i e d on o t h e r and  socioeconomic  restrictive  many h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s do  not  than  the  pursue  and s p e c i f i c a l l y a c a r e e r i n the e d u c a t i o n  Measuring  attitude,  i n chapter  validate  present  intelligence i s more  ethical  reviewed  students.  relevant  were  moral  dilemma  university  of  sample  of  status. high  F u r t h e r , the  school  sample  post-secondary  in  education  field.  Instruments  1.  Defining Issues Test  The  Defining  Issues Test developed  as a measure o f t h e development  o f moral  by James Rest judgment.  (1979b) was  This test  consists  o f s i x moral dilemmas p r e s e n t e d i n s t o r y f o r m a t , each f o l l o w e d by prototypic  stage  statements.  The  statements  that  follow  used  each  twelve story  109 represent d i f f e r e n t  ways o f c o n s t r u i n g the most i m p o r t a n t problem  dilemma, and are c o n s i d e r e d by R e s t reasoning of a p a r t i c u l a r Immediately about to  (1979b) t o e x e m p l i f y t h e d i s t i n c t i v e  stage.  following  the moral  dilemma s t o r y ,  whether t h e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s t o r y  each  dilemma,  s u b j e c t chooses action," In rate  one  rank  be done.  twelve  statements  are  A 5-item L i k e r t  asked  i s used  to  select  from "Most Important The  issue  reliability  i s checked  on  involves  a  scale,  f o r the the  statements  to  o f each c o n s i d e r a t i o n  importance,"  be  steal  the  drug?"  The  action."  first,  then  rated  that and  r a n g i n g from  rating  f o u r most  of  the  o f each the b a s i s  h i s o r her  items h i g h e r .  The  (a) t h e r e are  inconsistencies  statements.  important  statements  a C o n s i s t e n c y Check.  of  a  and  i f two  "No  Subjects  are  and  same.  d a t a are a l s o  rank  them  The  Consistency of  F o r example, i f a s u b j e c t ranks  an  for that  and  Issues  rankings  i n ratings  stories  to  Reason."  subject's ratings  ratings  the  to  s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e s on t h e D e f i n i n g of  of  what ought  i t e m s h o u l d have no o t h e r  d a t a are d i s c a r d e d i f the C o n s i s t e n c y Check  instances;  dilemma  "Great importance"  and  indicates  r a n k i n g s on more t h a n  s t o r i e s , o r i f the number o f i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s on  The  each  i n terms  about  Reason" t o " F o u r t h Most Important  comparison  (b)  follow  ranked  i n making d e c i s i o n  dilemma s t a t e m e n t s f o r each dilemma. item  Heinz  o f t h e t h r e e o p t i o n s , f o r example, "Should t a k e t h e  the  These  importance  Check  "Should  specific  a d d i t i o n t o c h o o s i n g an a c t i o n c h o i c e , t h e s u b j e c t s are asked t o  story.  Test  example,  a q u e s t i o n i s asked  s h o u l d t a k e an a c t i o n  "Can't d e c i d e , " o r "Should not t a k e the  and  also  for  i n the  any  s t o r y exceeds  have more t h a n n i n e  items  d i s c a r d e d i f the M Score exceeds  Score i s based on t h e r a t i n g and r a n k i n g o f m e a n i n g l e s s  items.  eight  rated  eight.  two  the  The  M  110 Several Defining  indices  of  Issues Test.  moral  development  The  relevant  S t a g e S c o r e s , P Index, and  D Index.  can  indices  be  derived  from  the  f o r the present study are:  A Compliance  with Authority  Score  d e v i s e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r based on t h e s u b j e c t ' s a c t i o n c h o i c e s was calculated  f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y .  Stage Scores. given The  to  The  different  Stage  Score  the  items  Stage  stage  Scores  indicate  characteristics  i s determined  i t e m s ranked f i r s t , to  by  the  relative  i n making  first  assigning  four  t h r e e p o i n t s t o the items ranked  ranked  third,  and  one  point  to the  for  can  be  o b t a i n e d by  totalling  the  points  importance  a moral  decision.  points  to  second, two  i t e m s ranked  S i n c e the i t e m s a r e d e s i g n a t e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r scores  also  the  points fourth.  stage, stage  across the  six stories  each s t a g e . P Index.  given  to  The  P  principled  The P Index  Index moral  i s calculated  i s interpreted considerations  as  the  relative  i n making  importance  a moral  decision.  by a d d i n g t o g e t h e r t h e Stage S c o r e s o f Stages  5A, 5B, and 6. D Index. tion  from  the  development. reasoning  Unlike earlier The  D  and moral  reasons  continuum  o f moral  to  stages, Index  over c o n v e n t i o n a l  t i o n o f t h e D Index  tance  t h e P Index, which D  reflects  Index the  is  incorporate an  overall  preference  can be  assigned scale  development; which  level  for  and p r e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g .  i s based on t h e assumptions t h a t :  statements  n e a r e s t t h e i r own  the  does not  and  v a l u e s on  of reasoning.  o f moral  index  of  principled The  deriva-  (a) b o t h p e r s o n s  a single  (b) p e r s o n s a t t a c h  express a l e v e l  informa-  underlying  t h e most  impor-  r e a s o n i n g which i s  111 The  computation  subject's rating item  rating,  sample, and tion  of  of each  subtracting adding  factor  score;  The  factor  score  item an  Index by  involves  first,  The  s u b t r a c t i n g the mean o f t h e  item  and  third,  mean  summing  coefficients,  or  computed  item weights and 15  t o 82  a l l the  item  s t a g e reasons  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample  from  standardizing  on  a  the  subject's  standardization  i n the grand mean computed from the same s t a n d a r d i z a -  s c a l e values, with higher  age  D  sample; second, m u l t i p l y i n g each t r a n s f o r m e d  ate  of  the  (Rest,  i n education  i t s appropri-  subject's rating  weights, having  are  estimates  higher  1,080  scores. of  item  weights.  1979b), used t o o b t a i n  item means, c o n s i s t e d o f and  r a t e by  estimates  subjects, ranging  from j u n i o r h i g h  school to  in  graduate  school. Compliance w i t h A u t h o r i t y S c o r e . asked  about  character  whether  i n the  calculated  based  p o i n t i s given the  Heinz  and  the  subject story.  on  subject's  f o r each o f the the  would  dilemma the  A f t e r each dilemma, a q u e s t i o n i s  A  support  Compliance responses  a  specific  with  to  Drug dilemma,  should  not  take  Authority  these  following choices:  action of  over  Score i s :  questions.  s h o u l d not  One  steal  f o r Student  dilemma, s h o u l d r e p o r t f o r the Escaped P r i s o n e r dilemma, s h o u l d  give  overdose  dilemma, and was  Doctor's  dilemma, s h o u l d not  should stop p r i n t i n g  hire  Reliability  and V a l i d i t y S t u d i e s . 1979a)  present  This  Score  . Two  e x t e n s i v e reviews  evidence  for  the  (Davison  reliability  &  Robins,  1978;  validity  o f the Stage S c o r e , P Index, and D Index o f the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  Test.  Rest,  not  f o r t h e Webster  f o r the Newspaper dilemma.  d e v i s e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  for  Take-  over  f o r the  a  and  112 Davison  and  investigating  Robbins  the  (1979b) D e f i n i n g senior of  high,  the  reliability  college,  following  programs.  and  graduate  indices  were  reliabilities  consisted  of  the  on  one  for:  of  a  of  the  sample  student, the  (r=.77)  and D Index  123  reported  subjects  160  internal  Stage  were a l s o  several  indices  of  reported:  2  week t o  Stage  2,  five  months,  r=.44; Stage  3,  studies  of  Stage  3  (r=.79).  f o r two  samples.  moral  coefficients  educational interval  were  r=.61; P  The  education  Based on a r e t e s t i n g  r=.55; S t a g e 4,  high,  consistencies  (r=.50),  attending  reliability  Rest's  junior  S u b j e c t s ' ages ranged from 16 t o 56 y e a r s o l d and  l e v e l ranged from j u n i o r h i g h t o c o l l e g e . from  findings  validity  Based  (r=.52), P Index  Test-retest sample  and  Issues Test.  (r=.51), S t a g e 4  first  (1978) r e p o r t  reported  Index,  r=.82;  and D Index, r=.87. N i n t h g r a d e r s (N=19) and A u s t r a l i a n the  second  sample  sample.  were:  The  Stage 2,  test-retest  r=.62; Stage 3,  c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s (N=46) made up  reliabilities  reported  r==.66; Stage 4,  for  r=.76; P  this  Index,  r=.76; and D Index, r=.76. A  cognitive  developmentalist  claim  i s that  r e l a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h m o r a l judgment, a  distinct  aspect  of  intellectual  there  is  a  moderate  however, m o r a l judgment  development  (Rest,  1979a).  In  is a  r e v i e w o f 15 s t u d i e s c o r r e l a t i n g t h e P Index w i t h measures o f c o g n i t i v e ability,  Rest  .20's t o .50's tion. to  (1979a)  reported  that  o f 52  correlations,  83%. a r e i n t h e  range, c o n f i r m i n g t h e c l a i m o f a m o d e r a t e l y h i g h  The s u b j e c t s i n t h e 15 s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d  g r a d u a t e l e v e l , d e l i n q u e n t s , and nonstudent  correla-  s t u d e n t s from j u n i o r  high  adults.  To s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g accompanies p r e f e r e n c e for  high  s t a g e s t a t e m e n t s , t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t was  correlated  with  113 measures o f  comprehension  Comprehension Anderson, social  of  1974)  Moral  was  contract,  that  Issues  the  correlation  was  delinquents, old.  to  (Rest,  P  Index o f The  The  Cooper,  t e s t comprehension  authority,  the  samples  nonstudent  (1979a)  Test  issues.  and  due  f o r nine studies using  .51.  and  Rest  Issues  legitimate  and  social-moral  designed  (1979a) r e p o r t e d Test  of  i n these  adults  interprets  ranging  the  of  Issues  in  Masanz  age  as  &  such c o n c e p t s of  law.  Test,  the  14  evidence  students,  t o 49  that  subjects; j u d g e m o r a l i s s u e s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c o g n i t i v e  Moral  average  included from  as  Rest  Comprehension o f  studies  findings  Coder,  process  the  Defining  multiple-choice  years  the  way  comprehension.  i  Evidence measures; o f an  of  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  social  and  political  skill.  Index  and  Rest the  junior  high,  sample  of  et  Law  senior  65  junior  sample o f nonstudent The  Defining  a l . (1974)  and  Order  high, and  found  Test  the  seven  P  senior  Test  was  Kohlberg's  The  highest  using Kohlberg's  f o r a sample o f 74  suggests t h a t where t h e  the  that  and  high  Rest  the  graduate  school  (1979a) as  a  Issues  Test  sample  of  students;  students;  and  intellectualiz-  Defining for  Test  and  P 160  -.48  for  a  -.46  for  a  adults.  Issues  and  studies.  physicians tion  Index  Issues  a value-neutral  c o r r e l a t e d -.60  college,  m o r a l judgment, K o h l b e r g ' s t e s t . of  Defining  a t t i t u d e s i s viewed by  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t moral judgment i s not  ing  the  low  lower  range o f s c o r e s  also Rest  stage  compared  scores  scoring  range  c o r r e l a t i o n s are  measure  from  .17  to  for  a  system and  the  lowest  found  restricted.  of  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  found  academic j u n i o r h i g h  t e n d t o be  another  (1979a) r e p o r t e d  c o r r e l a t i o n was 1976  to  students.  .78  sample  of  for 45  correla-  Rest  (1979a)  f o r homogeneous  samples  114 Davison the  and  Defining  p_<.01; w i t h with 160  the  Robbins  Issues the  Law  Test  with  Comprehension  and  students  (1978) r e p o r t e d  Order  ranging  from  measures of  Test,  c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the  Moral  of  cognitive  Issues  Test,  r=-.49, j3<.01.  junior  high  to  The  the  D Index  ability,  used  graduate  for  a  sample  dents,  r=.35.  the  74  ninth-graders,  However, when b o t h  c o r r e l a t i o n was in  of  total  .70,  suggesting  sample  can  be  r=.20,  and  school  139  level.  interview  college  groups were c o n s i d e r e d  and  included  They a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e D Index c o r r e l a t e s w i t h K o h l b e r g ' s scores  r=.47,  r=.63, p<.01;  sample  of  stu-  together,  the  t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the common v a r i a n c e  accounted  f o r by  the  measures  common  age  i  trends. Another  source  of  support  for  D e f i n i n g Issues Test i s evidence inal In  data  one  1972,  of  study, 1974,  decrease their  two  in  Stage  20  and  their 5A  5B  f o r the  Only  i n d i c e s of the criteria  the  and  33  Over  the  four  2  and  3  scores: D  by  A  11  years,  scores  and  and  The  a  were  was  a  for  the  j u n i o r and  longitud(1978).  tested  in  increase  in  Index,  and  reported  for  P  p a t t e r n was  the  significant  significant  £<.01  of  Robbins  students there  different  f o r Stage 3  validity  i n scores.  Davison  grade  F=20.06,  Index.  construct  trends  reported  nine  scores  senior high  (F=2.90, p<.01) and  the  school D  Index  significant.  Support  f o r the  D e f i n i n g Issues  included  reliability,  o f age  i n v o l v i n g a sample o f 21  (F=2.64, £ < . 0 5 ) were Summary.  were  Stage  and  second s t u d y  students.  grade 1976.  F=24.86, £<.01 the  studies  the  evidence  test-retest  of  reliability T e s t has the  and  of- the  been p r e s e n t e d .  following:  reliability,  validity  The  internal  correlation  with  various  validating consistency  measures  of  115 cognitive  ability,  attitudes,  and K o h l b e r g ' s m o r a l judgment measure, and age t r e n d s .  2.  comprehension  of  moral  issues,  social-political  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas I n s t r u m e n t  This  measure  has been  alternate  dilemmas  alternate  dilemmas  constructed  t o those  used  are w r i t t e n  dilemmas i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way.  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  i n the Defining  to differ  from  Issues  the D e f i n i n g  group  rather  group r i g h t s . al  Legal  or minority  than  o p p o s i t i o n t o these  for  statements minor  rights  i n t h e a l t e r n a t e dilemmas  identical The Defining the  over  to  to p a r a l l e l  Test.  and o r d e r  Issues These  The m o r a l Test  a Compliance w i t h  not s t e a l  or the  of individuthan i n  f o r t h e Henry  f o r t h e Student  Revolt  statements  except  dilemmas. Test  The  statements,  a t each  stage i s  Test.  to subjects  development used  Authority  proto-  Issues  o f t h e statements  are also  one p o i n t  Test  stage  f i t t h e changed  the Defining  i n d i c e s a r e Stage  c a l c u l a t e d by g i v i n g  should  made  same i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n  instrument.  is  changes  t h e number  Issues  Test  rather  by t w e l v e  Issues  t o those i n t h e D e f i n i n g Issues  Defining  addition,  i s followed  s i m i l a r to the Defining  are written  consequently  Issues  rights.  wording  statements  The  i n the i n t e r e s t o f i n d i v i d u a l o r minority  Each o f the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas typic  Test.  welfare  o r e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y i s i n support  group  provide  In t h e a l t e r n a t e dilemmas, t h e focus i s  whether t o make a s p e c i a l case i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f s o c i a l majority  to  as a r e g i v e n  the  indices  used f o r  f o r the a l t e r n a t e  dilemmas  Scores, Score  scoring  for  P Index, and D, Index.  In  f o r the a l t e r n a t e  dilemmas  f o r each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  choices:  and the Drug dilemma,  dilemma,  should  report  should  not take  for the Bully  116 dilemma,  should not perform  f o r t h e Winston The  dilemma, and s h o u l d s t o p paper  reliability  of  each  Dilemmas T e s t i s checked same  criteria  protocol and cies  was  as used  subject's  if:  (a) t h e r e  r a n k i n g s on more than two s t o r i e s , on any s t o r y  result  rating  exceeds  eight  Issues  the same.  e i t h e r the e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  concerned  with  (low  attitude  Attitudes  to  adopt  was  a  developed  particular  responsibility score).  toward  i n v o l v i n g compliance o r Hogan  The  legal  35  a subsequent  i s based  indicate  by Hogan  ethical  items  and s o c i a l  will  on t h e  (1970) t o  orientation,  in this  compliance.  with v a r i o u s item  scale  are  Responses statements  a t t i t u d e toward v a r i o u s a c t i o n s  noncompliance.  (1970) r e p o r t e d t h e p a r a l l e l  of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s  o r more  have  (high score) or the e t h i c s o f  i n v o l v e degree o f agreement o r disagreement o r a c h o i c e o f statements which  i n ratings  items.  Survey  disposition  The s u b j e c t ' s  The M Score  The  of Ethical  Test.  An M Score o f e i g h t  S u r v e y o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Form B  conscience  Alternate  and (b) i f two s t o r i e s  3.  personal  the  o r i f t h e number o f i n c o n s i s t e n -  i n the data being discarded.  the  on  hire  dilemma.  are i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  instances;  and r a n k i n g o f m e a n i n g l e s s  measure  should  f o r t h e Paper  responses  f o r the D e f i n i n g  eliminated  dilemma,  on t h e b a s i s o f ,a C o n s i s t e n c y Check u s i n g t h e  more than n i n e items r a t e d also  surgery f o r Doctor's  i n an i n i t i a l  form  reliability  o f t h e Survey  sample o f r e s p o n d e n t s  as ,.97, and i n  sample as .88.  To a s c e r t a i n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , Hogan (1970)  compared  attitudes strongly  toward between  the  responses  t h e law. policemen  He and  of found  groups that  political  known  to  h i s test activists  differ  in  their  discriminated  very  and between  ROTC  117 Seniors  and  student  1972b),  the  test  were  classed  moderate, criteria  on  and  was  found  the  basis  radical.  in justifying  In t h i s tionally the  activists.  study,  defined  Survey  of  conscience  as  to  study  (Hogan  d i s c r i m i n a t e between  of  These  another  campus  groups  & Dickstein,  fraternities  stereotypes  as  were c o n s i d e r e d  that  conservative,  to  use  different  t h e i r moral d e c i s i o n s .  the  ethics of  a score  Ethical  will  In  social  at or  responsibility  above the  Attitudes.  median  Conversely,  will  be  f o r each  the  opera-  sample  e t h i c s of  on  personal  be o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as a s c o r e below t h e median f o r  each sample on t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s . 4.  P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e Questionnaire  The  Political  Attitude  s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i n Phase Two six  item  ten  (Levinson,  1950).  data  high  taken The  study  the  two  measures o f  (Blake,  political  sample t o o b t a i n  However, as  a result  of  f o r the  Politico-Economic  high  school  Conservatism  high  Johnston  &  A  Elkins,  Conservatism  Scale  a t t i t u d e were  admin-  measure  of  the  low  correlation  and  the  Politico-Economic  sample,  Scale  the  sections:  a more r e l i a b l e  I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale Scale  to  c o n s i s t e d o f two  from the P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c  school  attitude.  Conservatism the  items  t o the  political between  o f the  administered  Individualism/Collectivism Scale  1981 ) and  istered  Questionnaire  found  r(76)=-.25, p<.05,  scores  were  utilized  only  in  the  analyses. 4A.  Individualism/Collectivism Scale  The  I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale  Johnston,  and  enterprise includes  designed  E l k i n s (1981) t o t a p d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  (Individualism)  two  was  forced-choice  and  socialism  dichotomous  and  Blake,  ideologies of free  (Collectivism).  items  by  four  This  scale  agree-disagree  118 items.  An  example o f  unemployed Johnston higher  people  &  could  Elkins,  agree-disagree  find  a  1981).  job  item  validity  i s , "Let's  i f they  Possible  really  scores  s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g g r e a t e r support  Although its  an  range  face  i t , most  wanted  to"  from  to  0  by t h e  with  reported,  f i n d i n g t h a t a d h e r e n t s o f the two  provincial parties,  S o c i a l C r e d i t and New  by p o s i t i o n s on  s c a l e , based on  the  6,  for " c o l l e c t i v i s t " solutions.  d a t a on the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s measure were not i s supported  (Blake,  major  Democrats, were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  a sample o f  1,050  British  Columbian  voters. F o r the ism  will  high  be  school  operationally defined  median and C o l l e c t i v i s m 4B.  Politico-Economic to  servatism scores,  measure  liberalism. or  statements.  a  score  Conservatism  high  Subjects  disagreement Four o f the  Scale  Form  of  samples  the of  (1950)  along  fourteen  asked a  to  express  i n the  students  average  2.08.  The  Conservatism  finding  that  i s provided  Further v a l i d a t i o n  below  the  as  and  a  sample  Levinson  support i n the  the  and  degree o f  Likert  format  low  their  for  Second Form o f t h e  ten Scale  content.  Scale of  to  for  be  Service  the  .70 Club  Second  for  three  Men.  An  an o v e r - a l l d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power  S e r v i c e Club Men  i s provided  by  a liberalism-con-  reliability  Conservatism  i t e m a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d the measure has of  Scale  designed  along  six-point  items  the  Politico-Economic university  the  scores representing conservatism are  reported  was  ideology  were e l i m i n a t e d because o f t h e i r U n i t e d S t a t e s Levinson  on  study, I n d i v i d u a l -  Conservatism  politico-economic  dimension, with  agreement  as  of t h i s  as a s c o r e on the S c a l e a t o r above the median.  Politico-Economic  The (1950)  sample i n Phase Two  for  the  made t h e h i g h e s t validity  form o f case  of  the  score  for  measure.  s t u d i e s i n which  two  119 subjects'  responses  on t h e S c a l e  and on i n t e r v i e w  protocols  a r e com-  pared. F o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l sample i n Phase Two o f t h i s s t u d y , will  be  operationally  Conservatism the  Scale  Phase  score  on  the  Politico-Economic  and L i b e r a l i s m as a s c o r e on  and  Two  place  t h a t both  the high  or  by W i l s o n  fifty  issues with  field of social attitudes.  S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d  t o the u n i v e r s i t y  a t t i t u d e measures  used  response=1,  S c a l e had low i n t e r n a l  sample i n  f o r the high  school  S c a l e was made when i t was and P o l i t i c o -  consistencies  o f the Conservatism representing  Scale  reliabilities  various  consist of brief  familiar  Likert-type scale, i . e . l i b e r a l  and c o n s e r v a t i v e  response=2.  labels  and c o n t r o v e r s i a l  response o p t i o n s o f "Yes," " ? " and "No."  a three-point  (1970).  sample.  items  "catch-phrases"  and P a t t e r s o n  the I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale  school  sample i n  t o be a p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n  The d e c i s i o n t o use t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m  Economic C o n s e r v a t i s m  The  developed  to the u n i v e r s i t y  factor underlying the entire  the p o l i t i c a l  discovered  for  was  administered  i s presumed by t h e authors  Conservatism  of  sample.  Scale  o f t h e study  a general The  Scale  Conservatism  "Conservatism"  Each i t e m  response=0,  i s rated ambiguous  The range o f p o s s i b l e  scores  0 t o 100 ( t h e h i g h e r t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e ) . Wilson  nine .83  a  a t o r above t h e median  Conservatism  The  is  as  S c a l e below t h e median. 5.  on  defined  Conservatism  samples  (1973) from  t o .94, w i t h  conscripts.  reported  the i n t e r n a l  four c o u n t r i e s one e x c e p t i o n  Wilson  (total  consistency  coefficients for  o f 2,022 s u b j e c t s )  o f .63 f o r a sample  ranged  from  o f A u s t r a l i a n army  (1973) a l s o r e p o r t e d t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .89  120 for  a sample o f female  students. response  The  e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s and  Conservatism  which  b i a s ( C l o u d & Vaughn, 1969)  construct v a l i d i t y  compared  (Wilson, found  groups  1973)..  s c o r e s and  (1970)  Conservatism For  known  .51  to and  and  differ  claimed  support  the  (cited  between t h e  analysis  on  for  university was  conservatism in  Wilson,  Conservatism  dimension 1973)  also  Scale  total  global p o l i t i c a l  scales.  Based  a  British  males,  the  sample o f 200  unidimensional  sample  in  phase  nature  of  the  conservatism.  two  of  this  study,  o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as a s c o r e a t o r above t h e median  on the C o n s e r v a t i s m the C o n s e r v a t i s m  student  effects  s u p p o r t e d by f o u r s t u d i e s  S c a l e as a measure o f a g e n e r a l f a c t o r o f  the  Conservatism  components  acquiescence  1971).  on  Minkman  .43  free of  psychology  l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o the  s e t (Orpen,  s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - r a t i n g s on two  upon a p r i n c i p a l Wilson  of  and  o f the measure was  Schneider  correlations  f o r German  S c a l e i s r e p o r t e d t o be  o f s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y response The  .94  S c a l e and L i b e r a l i s m  as a s c o r e below t h e median  on  Scale.  Administration Phase One. administered  The  by  the  d i f f e r e n t Grade 11 Law instrument was  used  was  researcher classes.  approximately  30  Alternate to The  a  pilot  minutes.  sample was  - H i g h S c h o o l Sample.  Dilemmas sample  of  Test  was  students  groupin  two  time r e q u i r e d f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f the  t o d i s c u s s the i n s t r u m e n t w i t h the  Phase Two  Test,  unrevised  The  remainder  of. c l a s s  time  students.  In Phase Two,  t h e main h i g h s c h o o l  a d m i n i s t e r e d the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t , t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  and t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s .  ' In a d d i t i o n , t h i s  sample  was  121 given  the P o l i t i c a l  Attitude Questionnaire,  c o n s i s t i n g of the Individu-  a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m S c a l e and t h e P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c C o n s e r v a t i s m All trained  t h e measures were g r o u p - a d m i n i s t e r e d research  assistant.  each s u b j e c t except  The measures  o f t h e two d i f f e r e n t  dilemma  maximum o f a 5-day p e r i o d f o r c o m p l e t i o n  Phase Two - U n i v e r s i t y Sample.  and  the D e f i n i n g Issues  assistant.  each s u b j e c t except  time  sample Test,  The measure o f p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e Scale. by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  The measures were p r e s e n t e d  and/or  randomly t o  f o r a s t i p u l a t e d minimum o f a 48 hour p e r i o d o f t i m e  completion  o f t h e two d i f f e r e n t  university  o r a t other  a  Regular  T e s t , t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  maximum o f a 5-day p e r i o d f o r c o m p l e t i o n The  and w i t h  subjects.  f o u r measures were g r o u p - a d m i n i s t e r e d  trained research  between  instruments  o f a l l f o u r measures.  g i v e n t o t h i s sample was t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m  a  randomly t o  In Phase Two, t h e u n i v e r s i t y  t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s .  The  presented  t h e time r e q u i r e d was two 45-minute p e r i o d s .  c l a s s t i m e was used f o r a l l h i g h s c h o o l  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  were  and/or a  f o r a s t i p u l a t e d minimum o f a 48 hour p e r i o d o f t i m e  between c o m p l e t i o n  In g e n e r a l ,  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  Scale.  students  times  r e s p o n s e o f t h e course  were  scheduled  dilemma i n s t r u m e n t s  and w i t h  a  o f a l l f o u r measures.  tested  either  during  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ,  regular  depending  class on t h e  instructor.  D a t a P r o c e s s i n g and A n a l y s i s  Data P r o c e s s i n g All The  measures  were hand-scored  and coded  by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t .  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t and A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t were a l s o s c o r e d by  122 the  computer u s i n g  al.  (1979).  The  a program adapted  from a model program by  Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and  the  measures were computer s c o r e d u s i n g the L a b o r a t o r y Test  A n a l y s i s Package, LERTAP  scoring  of  the  (Nelson,  measures were v e r i f i e d  1974). with  Davison  political attitude  of Education  Scores  scores  et  obtained  obtained  by  Research by  hand  computer  s c o r i n g o f t h e measures.  Data A n a l y s i s  —  Phase One.  The  tables  frequency  of  rankings, —  an  item  tical  and  a n a l y s i s of  (SPSSX Inc., a content  by t h e  represent other high  and  university  ratings,  choices. A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  the  statement  One:  Social  Sciences  (SPSSX)  using  the  computer  Statisprograms  dilemma statements u s i n g  the  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  Test  subjects. Data  The  high  from  the  school  two and  populations,  samples  i n phase  university  sample  differing  such  as  intelligence  students  do  not  sample  are i n Education  pursue  and  in  age,  by  two  were  analyzed  were c o n s i d e r e d education,  socioeconomic  post-secondary  i s further restricted  and  status.  education  including only  to on  Many  and  the  students  who  courses.  f o l l o w i n g analyses  each o f t h e  dilemma  spoken comments made about t h e  different  school  the  a n a l y s i s o f the dilemmas and  variables  The  for  the  for  i n Phase  1983) .  Phase Two. separately.  counts  behavioral  Package  written  f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s were completed  samples:  were completed  s e p a r a t e l y i n phase  two  for  123 an  item  analysis  of  the  Defining  Dilemmas f o r each o f the D  Index, and  was  Issues  Test  following indices:  Compliance w i t h  Authority  and  the  Alternate  Stage S c o r e s ,  Action  Score.  The  performed u s i n g SPSSX computer programs (SPSSX Inc.,  an  item  a n a l y s i s o f the  the  Index,  analysis  1983).  Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , the  a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale, the P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c and  P  Individu-  Conservatism  C o n s e r v a t i s m S c a l e u s i n g the LERTAP ( N e l s o n ,  1970)  Scale,  computer  program. zero-order  correlation coefficients  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the being  measured.  tests  of  with  permit  a  preliminary  s t r e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e  significance for  Compliance  to  Authority  Sex  effect  Score,  on  moral  ethical  constructs  development  attitude  level,  and  political  repeated  measures.  attitude. a  2 x 2  x 2  Political Ethical  multivariate  Attitude  Attitude  bility)  were  (Defining  (High  used  Issues  within-subject  (High  analysis  as  between-subject  Test,  Alternate  repeated  computer a  program  function  Index), level  multiple  of  political  Conservatism)  Test)  factor.  level  Social  factors.  Dilemmas  measures  Responsi-  Dilemma was  The  used  two  (D Index) and  and  Type as  a  dependent  action  choice  SPSSX  (1983)  Score).  regression  analyzing  moral  Low  S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Low  (Compliance w i t h A u t h o r i t y stepwise  variance  Conservatism,  v a r i a b l e s were moral development  a  of  analysis  action choice  development  attitude,  level  ethical  using  a  ( D e f i n i n g Issues (Defining  Issues  a t t i t u d e , moral  ( A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas D I n d e x ) , sex,  and  age.  Test) Test  as D  development  124 —  a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g SPSSX analyzing  action choice  ( A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t )  m o r a l development l e v e l al  attitude,  ethical  I s s u e s T e s t D Index),  (1983) computer  as a f u n c t i o n  ( A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t D Index),  attitude, sex,  and  moral  development  level  of  politic(Defining  age.  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f these d a t a a n a l y s e s i n chapter  program  i s reported  four.  Summary  A  d e s c r i p t i o n of  presented. included  An  the  sample  and  the  design  of  the  about  the  measures  employed  in  D e f i n i n g Issues Test  (Rest,  designed),  E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, 1970),  (Blake,  Survey o f Scale  Johnston,  Patterson,  has  been  e x p l a n a t i o n o f the p r o c e d u r e used f o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  information  Conservatism  study  1970).  1979b), A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  (Levinson, &  the  Elkins,  1950),  1981),  and  study,  (researcher-  Politico-Economic  Individual/Collectivism Conservatism  F i n a l l y , d a t a p r o c e s s i n g and  i.e.,  Scale  Scale  (Wilson  a n a l y s e s were o u t l i n e d .  &  125  CHAPTER IV  RESULTS  Chapter phases  of  f o u r i s devoted  the  alternate  study.  dilemmas  to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f  Phase  one  instrument  represents  and  the  the  results  pilot of  testing  the  item  a n a l y s i s o f the u n r e v i s e d a l t e r n a t e dilemmas are r e p o r t e d . ses  of  sample the  the  study  and  were t e s t e d i n phase  a university  study  are  hypotheses  presented  student  two  sample.  with  The  s e p a r a t e l y f o r each  a  high  results sample  both  of  and  The  the test  hypothe-  school  f o r phase in relation  student two to  of the  t h a t were t e s t e d .  Phase  One  Item and T e s t A n a l y s i s An  i t e m a n a l y s i s o f the u n r e v i s e d a l t e r n a t e dilemmas was  Frequency need  counts  o f dilemma  for revision  analysis  based  Information alternate  from  of  on  some dilemma subjects'  these  dilemmas.  statement  statements.  written  analyses  ratings  was  and used  and In  spoken  rankings  performed. indicated  addition,  a  comments  was  i n making  revisions  a  content made. to  the  126  The  results  presented  - High School  the  analyses  data  Sample  for  the  item  the  four  a n a l y s i s f o r the indices  of  high  the  Dilemmas T e s t , i . e . , Stage  school  Defining  Scores, Score),  Issues  Index, D as  well  Individualism/Collectivism Scale  standard  Ethical  Politico-Economic i n Table presented  attitude Stage  Conservatism 3.  The  in  Table  measures.  The  Scores  P  and  Scores  and  P  i n the r e s e a r c h Dividing  Survey high  of  the  Ethical  e t h i c s of  Scale  internal 3  the  and  Alternate  Action  Survey  of  Choice Ethical  Politico-Economic  Test  (D  (D Index and A c t i o n  presented  the  ethical  statistics  Index o f  Index  are  f o r the  consistencies test  for  test  Index  Choice),  the  of  the  are  not  attitude high  i n the  and  school  D e f i n i n g Issues  used  high  Test  and  and  school  reliabilities  i n Appendix B (see T a b l e B-1).  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g these use  the  f o r each  Attitudes, Individualism/Collectivism Scale  Dilemmas T e s t are p r e s e n t e d Stage  as  d e v i a t i o n s o f the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  and A c t i o n C h o i c e ) , A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  the  are  Scale.  Means and  of  and  Index, and  Attitudes,  also  sample  performed  Test  with  Conservatism  Authority  P  sample was  (Compliance  sample  school  Analyses  An  Survey  high  i n r e l a t i o n to the hypotheses t h a t were t e s t e d .  Preliminary  of  of  Phase Two  are  political sample  for  Alternate  Although  analysis in this  the  study,  i n d i c e s are r e p o r t e d because o f - t h e i r common  literature. sample  on  the  basis  of  a median  A t t i t u d e s , r e s u l t e d i n 38  social  responsibility  and  30  score  of  subjects  being  subjects  as  low  17  on  the  grouped  as  ethics  of  Table 3 H i g h S c h o o l Sample T e s t S t a t i s t i c s  (N —  68)  D Index SEA  M  17.04  SD  4.39  REL  ,  .68  Notes:  SEA IC DIT ADT PEC REL  social of  IC  DIT  ADT  DIT  ADT  4.07  39.71  18.00  18.21  2.65  2.43  1.21  6.57  5.98  6.20  1.16  1.14  responsibility  social  bility  ( e t h i c s of personal  reponsibility  group had  As  .32  Survey of E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s Individualism/Collectivism Scale D e f i n i n g Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c Conservatism Internal Consistencies R e l i a b i l i t y  A t t i t u d e s o f 20.00  of  PEC  .34  = = = = = =  group had  o f the  low  Individualism/Collectivism  Scale  the  The  high  Survey o f  low e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  Ethical  responsi-  found  between the  the  high \ school  and  the  two  sub j e c t s ,  measures  t h a t i s , the  Politico-Economic  Conservatism  Scale,  r_(66)=-.25, jp<.05, o n l y t h e P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c C o n s e r v a t i s m  scores  were  servatism basis  of  used  low  group  (liberalism). the  subjects  The  as  political  Politico-Economic  c o n s i s t e d o f 36 i n the  to  high  conservatism  a t t i t u d e groups,  Conservatism  Scale  s u b j e c t s i n the h i g h c o n s e r v a t i s m  conservatism  group.  ethics  (SD=3.20).  correlation  a t t i t u d e used w i t h  conscience).  a mean s c o r e on  (SD=2.57 ), whereas the  a mean o f 13.30  a result  political  Action  The  or  low  con-  formed  on  the  score  of  40,  median  group and  mean s c o r e o f the  Scale  high  32  subjects  conservatism  128 group on  the  Politico-Economic  w h i l e t h e low  conservatism  Pearson P r o d u c t  Conservatism  Scale  group's mean s c o r e was  Moment c o r r e l a t i o n  was  44.61  34.19  coefficients  (SD=4.05),  (SD=3.92).  were c a l c u l a t e d t o  permit  a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the  s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  among  the  The  constructs  determine matrix Table  i f the  being  planned  measured.  analyses  o f the measures used w i t h 4.  The  presented  the  matrix  correlation  statistical  significance  Issues  Test  £<.001,  and  correlation was  analyses  and  for  Alternate  action  choice  between t h e found  to  high school  for  the  the  relationship  Dilemma scores,  high  Test  statistical  scores  c o r r e l a t e d with  although  scores,  i t was  r(66)=.32,  attitude  measures  with  p_<.01. were  the the  D  Tests  correlation in  Scores  is  and  sample  between  Index  Test  D  P  Index  not  p<.001. Index and  t o be  Neither  ethical  significantly  Test  attitude  correlated  with  a  Defining r(66)=.69,  Action  r(66)=.40,  found  Issues  the  Further,  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t Defining  indicated  scores,  significance,  development measures' D Index o r A c t i o n C h o i c e  A n a l y s i s o f Sex  The  to  sample i s p r e s e n t e d  school  r(66)=.39,  However, t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemma D Index was significantly  Stage  inspected  B-2).  D e f i n i n g Issues  have  were  appropriate.  f o r the  i n Appendix B (see T a b l e  The  scores  correlation  were  data  the  Choice p_<.001.  statistically action action nor the  choice choice  political two  moral  scores.  Differences  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were performed  determine  whether  analyses.  There  the was  sex no  v a r i a b l e could  significant  f o r the be  high  school  disregarded  d i f f e r e n c e found  in  sample t o subsequent  between males  and  129 Table  4  H i g h S c h o o l Sample C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x  (N =  68)  D Index  Action  i  SEA  SEA IC PEC D  IC  PEC  DIT  ADT  1.00 -.01 .05  1.00 -.25*  1.00  -.21 -.22  .08 .05  -.01 -.01  1.00 .69***  .06 .06  .02 .02  .40***  DIT  ADT  Index DIT ADT  1.00  Action DIT ADT  . 13 .12  PEC  * ** ***  £<.05 p<.01 p_<. 001  females ance  i n moral  with  Alternate  not  with  development  Authority Dilemmas  d i f f e r e n c e on used  .18  D e f i n i n g Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s Individualism/Collectivism Scale P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c Conservatism Scale  DIT ADT SEA IC  Note:  the  any  Test.  (D  for either In  Index) o r the  action choice  Defining  a d d i t i o n , there  was  Issues no  of the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e or p o l i t i c a l  high  i n c l u d e d i n any  i  Score)  level  school  sample.  o f the h i g h  1 .00 .39***  .32** .19  Consequently,  the  Test  1.00  (Complior  the  significant  sex  a t t i t u d e measures sex  variable  s c h o o l sample a n a l y s e s t h a t f o l l o w .  was  130 2 x 2 x 2  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Repeated Measures  A 2 x 2 x 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e p e a t e d measures performed  for  study.  The  the  two  high  (High Conservatism,  two  type  Low  Low  The  moral  deviations  the  two  presented  i n T a b l e 5.  presented  with the P  Table  Ethical  of  Attitude  the (High  and  the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r  moral  alternate  development  was  dilemmas).  level  (D  The  Index)  and  level  dilemma This  and  action  types  for  information  c h o i c e means  the  high  f o r the  school  high  Index as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e  and  standard  groups  school  are  sample  i n Appendix B  is  (see  B-3). Interactions  and  hypotheses  with A u t h o r i t y Score).  development  of  the  were  T e s t dilemmas,  were  a c t i o n c h o i c e (Compliance  test  factors  Conservatism)  variables  to  S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) and P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e  ( D e f i n i n g Issues  dependent  sample  between-subject  Social Responsibility,  dilemma  school  was  between  dilemma c o n t e n t  were p r e d i c t e d . Dilemmas ethical attitude  Test  were and  high ethics of s o c i a l  Issues  Test  with  ethics  of  subjects perform  the  political effect  and  action  Test  and  the A l t e r n a t e  D e f i n i n g Issues to  vary  in  attitude.  was  p r e d i c t e d to  responsibility  terms  The  with in  a  than  social  high similar  on  the  conservatism manner  to  of  dilemma consist  scores having  the type  of  lower  and  scores.  low  subjects  I t was  conservatism with  choice  subjects' by  ethical  subjects moral  with  develop-  w i t h a u t h o r i t y on  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  responsibility  attitude  level  and c h o o s i n g more a c t i o n s i n compliance  Defining low  on  hypothesized  interaction  ment l e v e l  attitude/political  f o r b o t h m o r a l development  Scores  attitude  subject's e t h i c a l  high  the  t-han s u b j e c t s expected scores  ethics  of  that would  social  131 Table 5 H i g h S c h o o l Sample Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e Two Dilemma Types f o r t h e F o u r Groups  E t h i c s of Social Responsibility Conservatism Liberalism n = 21 n = 17 M  SD  M  Ethics of Personal Conscience Conservatism Liberalism n = 15 n = 15  SD  M  SD  M  SD  D Index DIT  18.69  4.59  14.50  5.12  18.48  6.69  20.53  6.60  ADT  17.93  5.81  14.97  6.20  19.02  3.88  21.48  7.21  Action  ,  DIT  2.76  1.14  2.77  1.15  2.47  1.30  2.53  1.13  ADT  2.67  1.24  2.29  1.21  2.07  .88  2.60  1.12  scores,  respec-  Note:  DIT ADT  = D e f i n i n g Issues Test = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  responsibility  and  low  ethics  of  social  responsibility  tively. In a d d i t i o n , main e f f e c t s were p r e d i c t e d f o r each dilemma t y p e .  On  the D e f i n i n g Issues T e s t , s u b j e c t s with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i bility  scores  and  choose more  to  were h y p o t h e s i z e d  of  lower  moral  with  social  scores.  low  with  high conservatism development  have  a c t i o n s i n compliance  with  moral  ethics  to  and  responsibility  s c o r e s were a l s o  development  a u t h o r i t y than Similarly,  hypothesized  to  choose more a c t i o n s i n compliance  score  level  subjects subjects lower  in  with a u t h o r i t y  on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t than s u b j e c t w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m  scores.  132 On  the other  Alternate tion and  hand,  Dilemmas T e s t  the D  Index  and a c t i o n  were h y p o t h e s i z e d  t o t h e s c o r e on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s political  attitude  responsibility have  higher  compliance with  scores,  moral  with  groups.  Test  level  for the ethical  with  conservatism  development  scores  high  scores,  and t o choose  ethics  of social  responsibility  scores,  direc-  attitude  of  social  were p r e d i c t e d t o fewer  a u t h o r i t y on t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  low e t h i c s  on t h e  t o be i n the o p p o s i t e  Subjects  or high  choice  actions i n  than  subjects  o r low c o n s e r v a t i s m  scores. The r e s u l t s f o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s w i l l terms  o f the hypotheses  effects. high  concerning  interaction  In T a b l e 6, a summary o f t h e r e s u l t s  s c h o o l sample  i s presented.  Index as a dependent v a r i a b l e  Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e . i n t e r a c t with e t h i c a l  and  action  choice variables.  the  dilemma  development 9.  type  and t h e n  o f the a n a l y s i s  main  f o r the  i n Appendix B ( B - 4 ) .  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d  that  a t t i t u d e f o r both t h e moral  The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s attitude  interaction  dilemma  development  was made  effect  about  f o r the moral  be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m o r a l  development dilemmas,  level  and  ethical  attitude  f o r t h e two  that i s , subjects with high s o c i a l  types  responsibility  of  scores  have lower m o r a l development l e v e l on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t  dilemmas dilemmas In  effects  variable.  There w i l l  will  by e t h i c a l  be d i s c u s s e d i n  A summary o f t h e a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e P  i s presented  t y p e would  first  and  higher  moral  development  than s u b j e c t s w i t h low s o c i a l  level  on  responsibility  the  alternate  scores.  a d d i t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s was made about t h e dilemma  ethical attitude interaction effect  f o r action choice scores.  type by  133  Table 6 H i g h S c h o o l Sample Summary Data  2 x 2 x 2  M u l t i v a r i a t e Analysis of Variance  Repeated Measures  Multivariate  Univariate  F  6.07  .016  .83  .364  .59  .446  .02  .897  .088  5.12  .027  1.06  .308  1.12(2,63)  .332  .13  .724  2.02  .160  T"  Equiv F (df)  ETH  .16  5.04(2,63)  .009  POL  .01  .40(2,63)  .673  .08  2.53(2,63)  .04  ETH  X  POL  DIL  Action  M o r a l Dev F £  Hotellings  £  £  DIL  X  ETH  .01  .34(2,63)  .711  .65  .425  .10  .758  DIL  X  POL  .01  .27(2,63)  .767  .53  .468  .00  .996  DIL  X  ETH  1.01(2,63)  .371  .12  .732  1.81  .183  Note:  10.  x POL  ETH POL DIL  = Ethical Attitude = P o l i t i c a l Attitude = Dilemma Type  There  will  subject's ethical with  .03  be  a  choices  attitude  high  significant  social  of  action  f o r the  two  choose  alternate  in types  fewer  dilemmas  actions than  the in  in  compliance of  will  Defining  with  relationship  of  authority  and  with  is,  subjects  choose more a c t i o n s  Issues Test  compliance  subjects  the  dilemmas, t h a t  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores  c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a u t h o r i t y on will  difference  with  low  dilemmas  authority  social  in  on  and the  responsibility  scores. The indicated  multivariate  a n a l y s i s of variance  a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t dilemma t y p e by  r e p e a t e d measures o f T a b l e ethical  6  attitude interaction  134 effect  f o r the  difference  set  found  of  in  dependent  the  variables.  relationship  a c t i o n c h o i c e and e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e hypotheses  n i n e and  interaction  effects  were  11.  There w i l l  was  hypothesized  type  for  The h y p o t h e s i s  level  and  political  moral development l e v e l  f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s concerns  There  will  be  a  choices  political  attitude  of  for  the  ance  with  action  actions  dependent  on  dilemma  types  scores w i l l  the  alternate  of have  dilemmas  dilemmas  than  scores.  in  difference in  the  in  compliance  attitude  with  are  with  authority  taken  Test  and  a u t h o r i t y on  s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m variables  relationship  choose more a c t i o n s i n  D e f i n i n g Issues  compliance  the  of and  t y p e s o f dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s  scores w i l l  a u t h o r i t y on  dilemmas than  two  t h e dilemma t y p e by p o l i t i c a l  f o r the two  high conservatism  the  f o r the  moral  f o r moral d e v e l o p e n t i s :  attitude  level  significant  with  When  the  f o r the a c t i o n c h o i c e v a r i a b l e .  subjects'  fewer  political  o f the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t  h i g h e r m o r a l development  interaction effect 12.  Thus,  sample.  by  both  or  be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m o r a l  s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m The  level  t y p e s o f dilemmas.  dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h c o n s e r v a t i s m  and  significant  development  Dilemma  attitude interaction effect  development  lower  no  f o r the h i g h s c h o o l  Attitude.  development and a c t i o n c h o i c e v a r i a b l e s . type by p o l i t i c a l  moral  f o r the two  ten are not c o n f i r m e d  Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l attitude  of  There  together  will  the,  complichoose  alternate  scores. in  the m u l t i v a r i a t e  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e p e a t e d measures f o r the h i g h s c h o o l sample, t h e r e was  a  effect.  nonsignificant Thus,  dilemma  hypotheses  11  type and  by 12,  political  attitude  concerning  the  interaction  dilemma  type  by  135 political  attitude  interaction  a c t i o n c h o i c e , were not Ethical Attitude. ment  and  action  effect  supported Ethical  choice  f o r moral  development  f o r the h i g h s c h o o l attitude,effects  variables  were  level  or  sample.  f o r the moral  hypothesized  for  develop-  both  dilemma  types. The variable moral  following for  the  hypotheses  Defining  development  were  Issues  variable  made  about  Test.  and  the  ethical  Hypothesis  hypothesis  two,  one the  attitude  concerns action  the  choice  variable. 1.  Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l significantly Defining  lower  Issues  moral  Test  social responsibility 2.  Subjects choose the  with  high  D e f i n i n g Issues  The Alternate  hypotheses  Test  subjects  as  assessed  with  low  by  social  responsibility  i n compliance  dilemmas than  the  with  subjects with  ethical  Dilemmas T e s t m o r a l development (hypothesis  ethics  scores  low  attitude  scores  effect  (hypothesis  on  three)  assessed  Subjects  with  choose  high  significantly  on  moral  development  subjects with  ethics  the and  four) f o l l o w :  significantly  scores.  will  e t h i c s of  scores w i l l  sibility  of  authority  Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y higher  the  scores.  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas than  4.  of  actions  concerning  a c t i o n choice scores 3.  than  level  have  scores.  more  social responsibility  development  dilemmas  ethics  significantly  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores w i l l  of  social  level  low  as  e t h i c s of  social  responsibility  fewer a c t i o n s i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h  by  have the  respon-  scores  will  a u t h o r i t y on  136 the  alternate  dilemmas  responsibility The  results  measures  of  the  considered  univariate  multivariate  variables  together,  F ratios  Inspection hypothesis bility  analysis  scores  the  are  moral  of  variance  social  repeated  predicted  as a s s e s s e d  to  school  ethical  sample.  attitude effect  not s u p o r t e d  of  the  development  level  (hypotheses  three  Although  school  four)  level  was  indicated that  have  choice  subjects  with  significantly  that  responsi-  lower  moral *  T e s t dilemmas  scores,  h y p o t h e s e s two,  is  than  supported  concerning  the  Alternate  supported  significant,  t h e d i f f e r e n c e was  ethics of  concerning  by  the  Dilemmas data  moral Test  analysis.  t h e two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups i n m o r a l  statistically  development  low  develop-  indicate  ethics of social  for the  level social  on  i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e mean  not i n t h e d i r e c t i o n I t was  with high e t h i c s o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y moral  the  sample.  f o r t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t .  higher  scores  responsibility  were  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  development  of  the moral  a t t i t u d e hypotheses  action  and  Authority  Inspection  f o r only  high  However,  ethical  and  with  f o r D e f i n i n g Issues Test a c t i o n choice scores i s  f o r the high  Neither  P<.009.  by t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  for  high  significance for  Compliance  development  subjects with  low e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  ly  ethics of  £<.016.  subjects with the  and  F(2,63 )=5. 04,  mean  i n which  level  (D Index  reveals a significance  of  one,  development  sized  low  v a r i a b l e s shows a s t a t i s t i c a l  ment v a r i a b l e , F(1,64)=6.07,  scores  with  o f T a b l e 6 examining t h e e f f e c t o f e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s  s e t o f dependent  Score)  subjects  scores.  on t h e s e t o f dependent the  than  predicted that  s c o r e s would have  score.  subjects  significant-  the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  responsibility  hypothe-  Test  Contrary  than to  137 e x p e c t a t i o n s , s u b j e c t s with h i g h e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s c o r e s had development  level  on  the  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t than  lower m o r a l  subjects with  low  e t h i c a l attitude scores. Political Attitude.  Political  t y p e ' s m o r a l development and The  action choices  hypotheses f o r the p o l i t i c a l  Issues  T e s t moral development  scores  (hypothesis  5.  Subjects lower  with  moral  Subjects  high  with  as  with  Dilemmas  choice scores 7.  Subjects higher  and  Defining  action  choice  of  moral  variance  moral  the  will  repeated  Defining  five  nor  the  significantly  Defining  development  high  examining  subjects with  show s t a t i s t i c a l by  the  the  action  signifi-  results  of  sample. attitude effects  scores  (hypothesis  f o r the A l t e r n a t e seven)  and  action  are:  conservatism  development  Issues  scores.  measure  s i x i s confirmed  Issues  scores.  choose  conservatism  t o g e t h e r , d i d not  (hypothesis eight) with  by  significantly  A t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s on moral development and  hypothesis  dilemmas than  dilemma  hypothesized.  have  a u t h o r i t y on  hypotheses f o r the p o l i t i c a l Test  each  f o r the  conservatism  s u b j e c t s w i t h low  analysis  will  assessed  scores  the d a t a a n a l y s i s f o r the h i g h s c h o o l The  five)  scores  conservatism  choice v a r i a b l e s , considered Neither  level  i n compliance  e f f e c t of P o l i t i c a l  cance.  (hypothesis  s u b j e c t s w i t h low  high  T e s t dilemmas than multivariate  s c o r e s were  attitude effects  conservatism  development  more a c t i o n s  The  score  for  six) are:  T e s t dilemmas than 6.  attitude effects  level  scores as  will  assessed  low c o n s e r v a t i s m  have by  scores.  significantly the  alternate  138 8.  Subjects fewer  with  high  actions  dilemmas than Consistent Defining data  compliance  subjects with  with  Issues  Test  the  action  choice  Alternate analysis  scores.  Dilemmas  authority  for  development  political  for  the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t moral development  and  Thus, hypotheses seven and  the  school  not  no  statistical  confirmed  bility  scores  lower m o r a l  subjects with  (hypothesis  eight, concerning  by  the  Two high of  stepwise  school  of  one).  low  Hypotheses  responsibility  development  ethics of 2 to  12  by t h e r e s u l t s o f the a n a l y s i s f o r the h i g h s c h o o l  M u l t i p l e Regression  results  the  sample.  significantly than  choice  the  significance  was  have Test  alternate  a t t i t u d e and  action  found  Issues  the  the  were  and  Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l  Defining  on  significantly  scores.  Summary. to  choose  scores,  Test,  f o r the h i g h  will  low c o n s e r v a t i s m  findings  moral  a t t i t u d e and  scores with  analysis i n d i c a t e d that there  political  were  in  conservatism  level  scores on  the  social  responsi-  were not  confirmed  sample.  Analyses multiple  sample w i t h  regression  analyses  were  t h e dependent v a r i a b l e t h e  performed  for  action choice  the  scores  e i t h e r the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t o r the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t . It  was  hypothesized  each dilemma type Further, Test  the  moral  would  ethical  that be  the  the  sex  s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h e r e g r e s s i o n  and  political age  scores derived  type  attitude,  variables  action choice  were  D  Index  Alternate expected  for  score. Dilemma to  add  equation.  D e f i n i n g Issues Test A c t i o n Choice. Authority  predictor of  r e s p e c t i v e dilemma  attitude,  development,  best  from t h e  Using  D e f i n i n g Issues  the  Compliance  Test  as t h e  with  dependent  139 variable Index),  and s c o r e s political  (Alternate ables,  from m o r a l development l e v e l attitude,  Dilemmas  a multiple  conducted  Index) ,  attitude,  moral  sex, and  age  analysis using  a  t o a s c e r t a i n how much o f t h e v a r i a n c e  described.  as  development  level  independent  vari-  stepwise  procedure  of the D e f i n i n g  was  Issues  s c o r e s was a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e independent v a r i a b l e s  A summary o f t h e s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g  Defining  i s presented The  D  regression  T e s t A c t i o n Choice  the  Test  ethical  ( D e f i n i n g Issues Test D  Issues  Test  i n Table  action choice  score  as the dependent v a r i a b l e  7.  f o l l o w i n g two hypotheses concern  the p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e D e f i n i n g  I s s u e s T e s t compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n c h o i c e 13a. The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s w i l l  individually  score:  and/or  jointly  c a n t l y p r e d i c t D e f i n i n g Issues Test a c t i o n choice Issues  Test  attitude,  moral  development  level,  ethical  signifi-  scores:  Defining  attitude,  political  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t m o r a l development l e v e l ,  sex and  age. 13b.  The D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t moral development l e v e l w i l l significantly Test  The Defining Issues for  greater proportion of the variance of Defining  action choice  tude,  scores  high Issues  school Test  compliance  regression  D  i s the best  Index with  authority  attitude,  analysis  contributed  score',  the  Defining  accounting by t h e d a t a  s i n c e none o f t h e  significantly  a f t e r t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t D Index was  that  the  13b i s s u p p o r t e d  13a i s n o t c o n f i r m e d  atti-  sex and age.  revealed  choice  Issues  political  predictor of  action  Thus, h y p o t h e s i s  However, h y p o t h e s i s  v a r i a b l e s considered  equation  ethical  stepwise  16% o f t h e v a r i a n c e .  other  than  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t m o r a l development l e v e l ,  Test  analysis.  account f o r a  to the regression  entered.  140  Table 7 Summary o f t h e H i g h S c h o o l Sample R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s ; Defining  I s s u e s T e s t A c t i o n C h o i c e S c o r e as Dependent V a r i a b l e  Variables  Variable Entered Beta  1. DD  V a r i a b l e s Not i n E q u a t i o n  i n Equation  .395  2  R  df  .156  1 ,66  F  Variables  12 .19***  ;  = = = =  * ** ***  Simple r_  Partial  SEA  .224  .238  -.130  PEC  .020  .022  .016  .087  .069  .317**  SEX  -.219  -.237  -. 172  AGE  -.075  -.081  -.037  AD  N o t e : DD SEA PEC AD  Beta In  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t D Index Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s Politico-Economic Conservatism Scale A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t D Index  p_<.05 p_<.01 £<.001  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t A c t i o n C h o i c e . Authority; dependent  scores variable  derived  from  and s c o r e s  Dilemmas D Index), p o l i t i c a l ment l e v e l  (Defining  Issues  the from  Alternate  moral  attitude, Test  Using  Dilemmas  development  ethical  D Index),  t h e Compliance Test  level  with  as t h e  (Alternate  a t t i t u d e , moral  develop-  s e x , and age as independent  variables, a multiple regression  a n a l y s i s u s i n g a s t e p w i s e p r o c e d u r e was  conducted  sample  variance by  f o r the high of the Alternate  t h e independent  school  Dilemmas T e s t  variables  described.  to ascertain Action  how  much  of the  C h o i c e was a c c o u n t e d f o r  The f o l l o w i n g  two  hypotheses  141 were  made  concerning  the  prediction  of  compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n c h o i c e 14a.  The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s w i l l cantly  predict  Alternate  the  Alternate  Dilemmas  score:  individually  Dilemmas  and/or  Test  jointly  signifi-  choice  scores:  action  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t Moral Development L e v e l , e t h i c a l political sex 14b.  attitude,  Defining  Test  Issues  Test  moral  attitude,  development  level,  and age.  The A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas for  a  nate  significantly Dilemmas  political sex  Test  attitude,  Test  moral  greater action  development  proporation choice  Defining  will  of the variance  scores  Issues  level  Test  than moral  account  of  ethical  Alter-  attitude,  development  level,  and age.  None o f the v a r i a b l e s were found t o c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e regression equation  f o r t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n c h o i c e  score,  t h e r e f o r e , h y p o t h e s e s 14a and 14b were n o t s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e h i g h  school  sample. Summary. sample  revealed  predictor The  The  multiple  that  the  o f the D e f i n i n g  regression  Defining Issues  analysis  Issues  Test  Test  compliance  f o r the h i g h D  Index  with  sion equation Defining attitude, variables  o f the D e f i n i n g Issues  Issues  Test  D Index was  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas considered  r e g r e s s i o n equation  were  Test found  Test  action choice  entered: D Index, to  ethical sex and  contribute  i s the  authority  f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s d i d not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  school best  score.  to the regresscore  a f t e r the  attitude.,  political  age.  -None o f t h e  significantly  f o r the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n c h o i c e  to the score.  142 Phase Two - U n i v e r s i t y Sample  The  results  been p r e s e n t e d sity  sample  of the data  in relation  results  analysis f o r the high  school  t o the hypotheses o f t h e s t u d y .  will  also  be  presented  in relation  sample  have  The u n i v e r t o these  same  hypotheses.  Preliminary  of  An  item  the  four  Analyses a n a l y s i s f o r the u n i v e r s i t y indices  of  the Defining  Dilemmas T e s t , i . e . , Stage (Compliance  with  Scores,  Authority  Score),  A t t i t u d e s and t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m Means and s t a n d a r d  sample was performed Issues  for  of Ethical  as  well  reliabilities are  also presented  Stage  Scores  and P  i n Table Index  Dilemmas T e s t a r e p r e s e n t e d Stage  Scores  and P Index  information regarding these use  i n Table  f o r the e t h i c a l  i n the research  of  Choice Ethical  Scale.  d e v i a t i o n s o f the D e f i n i n g Issues  sample  the Alternate  as t h e Survey  Test  (D Index  (D Index and A c t i o n  Choice),  A t t i t u d e s , and the C o n s e r v a t i s m  the u n i v e r s i t y  and  P Index, D Index, and A c t i o n  and A c t i o n C h o i c e ) , A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t Survey  Test  f o r each  8.  Scale  The i n t e r n a l  The u n i v e r s i t y  of the D e f i n i n g  test  Issues  a t t i t u d e measures statistics  Test  i n Appendix C ( s e e T a b l e C - 1 ) . a r e n o t used  presented  consistencies test  a t t i t u d e and p o l i t i c a l  8.  are  and  f o r the  Alternate  Although t h e  i n t h e a n a l y s i s i n .this  study,  i n d i c e s a r e r e p o r t e d because o f - t h e i r common  literature.  143 Table 8 U n i v e r s i t y Sample T e s t S t a t i s t i c s  (N = 35)  D Index  M SD REL  Note:  SEA CS DIT ADT  The median  = = = =  SEA  CS  - DIT  ADT  DIT  16.91  36.00  28.80  27.62  1.91  3.26  7.29  1.22  1.09  5.11  12.25  .77  .82  8.80  ethical  a t t i t u d e groups f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y sample, b a s e d on t h e  s c o r e o f 17 on t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s , c o n s i s t e d o f 19 i n the high  subjects  i n t h e low e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  personal  conscience).  ethics  of  The h i g h  social  responsibility  responsibility  ethics of social  group  group  and  16  (ethics of  responsibility  group  a mean s c o r e on t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s o f 2 0.68 (SD=2.47),  whereas t h e low e t h i c s o f s o c i a l of  ADT  Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e Conservatism Scale D e f i n i n g Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  subjects  had  Action  responsibility  group had a mean  score  12.94 (SD=3.52). The  political  a t t i t u d e groups,  s c o r e o f 40 on t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m high  conservatism  eralism) (SD=7.32)  group.  group  formed  Scale,  conservatism  and the low c o n s e r v a t i s m  (SD=7.26) on t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m  Scale.  o f t h e median  c o n s i s t e d o f 18 s u b j e c t s  and 17 s u b j e c t s  The h i g h  on t h e b a s i s  i n t h e low c o n s e r v a t i s m  i nthe (lib-  group had a mean s c o r e o f 45.50  group  had  a mean  score  o f 25.44  144 In  addition,  calculated tion  of  for  the  measured.  the  analysis  measures  used  Stage  Scores  of  was  in  and  9.  P  matrix  two A  permit  was  of  the  is  the  inspected  for  to  the  presented  in  investiga-  determine  matrix  being if  matrix  university  correlation  were  constructs  correlation  study  also  coefficients  a preliminary  among  The  university  Index  correlation  relationships  appropriate.  phase  Table  Moment  sample to  the  correlation  planned  in  Product  university  strength The  presented  Pearson  the  of  the  sample  including  Appendix  C  (see  is the  Table  C-2). The  correlational  Defining  Issues Test  university Defining tively  was  attitude,  attitude,  found  Index  with  to  was  ethical  be  the  found  attitude, j3<.01,  Index  to  scores  of  the  for  the  of  The  s i g n i f i c a n t l y nega-  r(33)=-.53,  £<.001,  Index  social responsibility  scores  the  that  Alternate  political  low  and  D  s i g n i f i c a n t l y negatively and  be  indicating  Similarly,  r ( 3 3 ) = - . 5 2 , 2<.001,  relationship  s i g n i f i c a n t , r_(33)=.77, j3<.001.  with high e t h i c s scores.  that  Dilemmas T e s t D  also  r(33)=-.48,  high conservatism  Index  Alternate  D  s c o r e s were a s s o c i a t e d and  indicated  statistically  Test  correlated  political  and  sample was  Issues  analyses  Dilemmas T e s t  correlated  with  attitude,  D  ethical  r(33)=-.56,  JD<.001. A l t h o u g h the found  to  greater Defining ethical j2<.05.  be  ethical attitude  significantly  significance Issues  for  Test  attitude Further,  and  the  action the  the  and  political  correlated, correlation choice  Defining Alternate  attitude  r(33)=.44, of  score,  p<.01,  political  there  attitude  r(33)=.54, p<.001,  Issues a c t i o n Dilemmas  variables  Test  choice score, action  were was  a  and  the  than  for  r(33)=.34,  score  was  not  145 Table 9 U n i v e r s i t y Sample C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x  (N = 35)  D Index SEA  SEA  CS  Action  DIT  ADT  DIT  ADT  1.00 1.00  .44**  CS D Index DIT  -.53***  -.48**  ADT  -.52***  -.56***  1.00 .77***  1.00  Action DIT  .34*  ADT  Note:  .54***  -.01  DIT ADT SEA CS  = = = =  * ** ***  -.16  -.20  -.24  1.00  .23  .12  .26  1.00  or  political  Defining Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s Conservatism Scale £<.05 p<.01 p<.001  significantly  correlated  with  either  ethical  attitude  attitude. There between  was  the D  no  statistical  Index  either  the  of  significance  t h e two  scores  of  Defining  Test.  However, t h e u n i v e r s i t y  dilemma  Issues  types  Test  findings  found  or  f o r the  and the  the  correlations  action  Alternate  for the d i f f e r e n t  choice Dilemmas  indices  moral development i n terms o f t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e D e f i n i n g  of  Issues  146 Test  action choice  cant  c o r r e l a t i o n s were  choice  score  £<.001,  and  Dilemmas  and P  Test  (see T a b l e  scores  the  Index, Stage 4  were not  found  consistent.  between  Defining  Issues  r(33)=-.53, score,  the  Defining  Test  Stage  £<.001,  r(33)=.44,  Statistically  as  and  P  Issues 4  well  Test  Score, as  signifiaction  r(33)=.67,  the  Alternate  Index, r(33)=-.40, JD<.05  C-2).  A n a l y s i s o f Sex D i f f e r e n c e s Tests variable  significance  c o u l d be  sample.  There  females with  of  were performed  disregarded  was  no  i n subsequent a n a l y s e s  significant  i n m o r a l development l e v e l  Authority  quently,  the  Score), sex  sample a n a l y s e s  2 x 2 x 2  ethical  variable  t o d e t e r m i n e whether  d i f f e r e n c e found (D I n d e x ) ,  a t t i t u d e or  was  not  included  in  any  sex  f o r the  university  between  males  action choice  political  the  (Compliance  attitude. of  and  the  Conse-  university  that follows.  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e p e a t e d Measures  A 2 x 2 x 2 m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e p e a t e d measures p e r f o r m e d f o r the u n i v e r s i t y The  two  Conservatism, dilemma two  type  dependent  action  samples.  between-subject  Responsibility,  choice  Low Low  Social  f a c t o r s were E t h i c a l  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) and  conservatism),  ( D e f i n i n g Issues variables  and  Test  were  (Compliance  was  with  the  Political  p e r f o r m e d to t e s t the h y p o t h e s e s o f the  Score).  study.  Social  factor  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas).  development  Authority  (High  Attitude  within-subject  dilemmas,  moral  Attitude  level This  (D  (High was The  Index)  and  analysis  was  147 The action  means and  choice  for  the  for  the  standard  scores,  groups  assessed  i n the  university  deviations of by  university  sample  is  the  two  sample  also  moral  dilemma t y p e s , i n Table  presented  dependent v a r i a b l e i n Appendix C (see T a b l e In ethical choice high  the  present  a t t i t u d e or scores  ethics  scores,  was of  would  study,  the  political  social have  lower  moral  of  P  and  presented  information Index  moral  dilemma  as  the  scores,  development  content  development  predicted  responsibility  are  The  the  level  C-3).  a t t i t u d e on I t was  10.  with  interaction  investigated.  development  that  or  level  and  and  action  subjects  high and  with  conservatism choose  fewer  a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y on the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t than the  Alternate  responsibility  Dilemmas  test  subject  s c o r e , o r low c o n s e r v a t i s m  Main e f f e c t s  responsibility  scores  would  have  lower  low  e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  development  with  level  high  and  with would  the  high  ethical  have  compliance  Alternate  higher with  of  Dilemmas  Test,  development  authority  s c o r e s , o r low p o l i t i c a l  For  than  would  subjects  i t was  the  have  i n compliance  or  i t was high  lower  with  level  subjects  attitude scores.  and with  choose low  attitude fewer ethical  with  moral  authority  predicted that  political  level  predicted  s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m  a t t i t u d e scores, moral  social  development  Similarly,  scores  choose more a c t i o n s  moral  a u t h o r i t y than  scores.  conservatism  on the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t than With  ethics  p r e d i c t e d that subjects with high e t h i c s of  choose more a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h  subjects  low  scores.  and  that  with  f o r each dilemma t y p e were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d .  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t , i t was social  than  on  scores. subjects scores,  actions  in  attitude  148 T a b l e 10 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e Two Dilemma T y p e s f o r t h e F o u r Groups  Ethics of Social Responsibility Conservatism n = 13 M SD  Ethics of Personal Conscience  Liberalism n = 6 M SD  Conservatism n=5 M SD  Liberalism n = 11 M SD  D Index DIT  24.08  7.36  28.95  5.16  28.12  9.02  34.62  9.28  ADT  24.08  6.49  26.20  5.97  26.71  4.40  33.01  7.39  DIT  2.54  .88  1.83  .75  2.40  1.34  1.00  1.26  ADT  3.62  .65  2.83  .75  2.60  1.52  3.36  1.36  Action  Note:  DIT = D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t ADT = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  The  results  discussed  analysis  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  i n terms o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g  second, main university sample  o f the  effects.  sample  i s also  In T a b l e  analysis  presented  11,  a  f o r the P  Index  o f the r e s u l t s  A summary as  are  first  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s and  summary  i s presented.  sample  of the  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  a dependent  variable  in  Appendix C ( s e e T a b l e C - 4 ) . Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e  x P o l i t i c a l Attitude.  - The  inter-  p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y sample i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e finding Attitude  of  statistical  x Political  significance  Attitude  f o r the  Dilemma  effect, multivariate  Type  x  Ethical  F(2,30)=3.43, p<.05.  149 T a b l e 11 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Summary D a t a  2 x 2 x 2  Multivariate Analysis  o f V a r i a n c e Repeated Measures  Multivariate  Univariate  Equiv F (df)  Hotellinqs  M o r a l Dev F £  2  F  Action p_  ETH  .50  7.54(2,30)  .002  8.62  .006  3.62  .066  POL  .29  4.36(2,30)  .022  3.95  .056  3.02  .092  ETH X POL  .02  .32(2,30)  .730  .36  .555  .45  .508  1.31  19.62(2,30)  .000  1.43  .241  40.53  .000  DIL DIL  X ETH  .07  1.09(2,30)  .349  .11  .737  2.25  .144  DIL  X POL  .14  2.17(2,30)  .132  .56  .461  4.32  .046  DIL  X ETH x POL  .23  3.43(2,30)  .046  .36  .555  6.03  .020  the  action  Note:  This  ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e DIL = Dilemma Type  effect  i s significant  i n d i c a t e d by t h e u n i v a r i a t e Inspection reveals  that  scores  between  t h e two  groups  Dilemmas  Test.  Political of  was  was  ethical  a  interaction performed  greater  attitude  the Defining  To i n v e s t i g a t e  Attitude  variance  sample.  on  there  choice  variable  as  a n a l y s i s , F(1,31)=6.03, p<.02.  o f t h e mean s c o r e s f o r a c t i o n  sample  attitude  f o r only  Issues  difference  f o r each  A summary o f t h e a n a l y s i s  i n action  groups and t h e two Test  t h e Dilemma further  choice f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  than  Type  on  political  the  x Ethical  Alternate Attitude  a separate m u l t i v a r i a t e dilemma  type  f o r the  i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 12.  choice  x  analysis  university  150 T a b l e 12 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Summary o f D a t a  2 x 2  Multivariate Analysis  of Variance:  Defining  Multivariate Hotellinqs T"  Issues  Test  Univariate  Equiv F (df)  M o r a l Dev F £  Action F  £  ETH  .45  6.72(2,30)  .004  6.64  .015  5.89  .021  POL  .38  5.70(2,30)  .008  3.74  .062  6.92  .013  ETH x POL  .03  .45(2,30)  .642  .08  .781  .79  .380  2 x 2  Multivariate Analysis  of Variance:  Alternate  Multivariate Hotellings T*  Dilemmas  Test  Univariate  Equiv F (df)  £  M o r a l Dev F £  F  Action  £  ETH  .31  4.62(2,30)  .018  8.17  .008  .45  .508  POL  .10  1.52(2,30)  .235  2.90  . 100  .04  .844  .14  2.03(2,30)  .149  .77  .386  3.89  .058  ETH X  POL  Note:  ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e  A  comparison  variance the  the  results  f o r each dilemma t y p e  significance  attitude Issues  of  effect  Test.  found  Dilemmas  Test  that  attitude  effect for action  the  choice  The m u l t i v a r i a t e  the  multivariate  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  for either  for action  revealed  of  scores  analysis  neither choice  ethical  sample r e v e a l e d  attitude  i s limited  of variance  was  or  to the f o r the  the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e  scores  analysis  nor  statistically  of that  political Defining Alternate political  significant  151 for  the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the  m o r a l development v a r i a b l e a s s e s s e d by t h i s measure. Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e .  I t was  t y p e would i n t e r a c t w i t h e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and  action  choice  variables.  interaction effect 9.  There w i l l  The  hypothesized  f o r b o t h t h e m o r a l development ,  f o l l o w i n g hypothesis  f o r m o r a l development  level  and  and  higher  ethical  moral  than s u b j e c t s w i t h low hypothesis  10.  for  attitude  for  There  will  ethical  the  be  a  development  two  types  responsibility  on  the  social responsibility  dilemma  type  attitude social  compliance  with  by  of  scores  alternate  dilemmas  scores.  ethical  of  action  f o r the  two  dilemma type  variables Therefore,  a  in  attitude  a u t h o r i t y on  interaction  scores w i l l the  lack of  (moral  ethical  statistical  hypotheses  nine  and  and  choose more a c t i o n s i n Issues  Test  responsibility repeated  interaction  action  ten,  of  authority  w i t h a u t h o r i t y on t h e  significance  development l e v e l ,  relationship  with  Defining  of variance  attitude  the  o f dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s  s u b j e c t s w i t h low s o c i a l  by  in  compliance  types  responsibility  multivariate analysis  was  difference  fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance  dilemmas than The  significant  choices  with high  choose  there  the  for action choice i s :  subject's  the  the  have lower m o r a l development l e v e l on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t  dilemmas  effect  concerns  level.  dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h s o c i a l  The  dilemma  be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f moral  development  will  that  f o r the  choice)  relating  to  will  alternate  scores.  measures  effect  and  examining  revealed  that  set of  dependent  considered  together.  the  dilemma  type  by  152 ethical of  attitude  interaction  effect,  the a n a l y s i s f o r the u n i v e r s i t y Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l  dilemma  type  would  development and  Attitude.  interact  with  Predictions  political  attitude interaction effect  level  and  by  political  attitude  and  moral development l e v e l  made  for  h i g h e r m o r a l development  for the  moral dilemma  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f moral  attitude  level  that  the  for  the  two  types  scores w i l l  o f the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t  s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m The  results  f o r moral development i s :  dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h c o n s e r v a t i s m lower  the  were  The h y p o t h e s i s  There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e development  supported  sample.  action choice variables.  t y p e by p o l i t i c a l 11.  were not  on  the  alternate  of have  dilemmas  dilemmas  than  scores.  f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n s t h e dilemma t y p e by p o l i t i c a l  attitude  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t on a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e . 12.  There  will  be  a  significant  subjects'  choices  political  attitude  of  action  f o r t h e two  with  high  conservatism  ance  with  a u t h o r i t y on  fewer  actions  in  difference in  relationship  with  authority  choose more a c t i o n s i n  with  Issues  Test  and  a u t h o r i t y on  dilemmas than s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m  the  dilemma  indicated  that  there  dependent v a r i a b l e s together.  type was  (moral  Thus, hypotheses  by  no  political  statistical  will  the  choose  alternate  scores.  attitude  and  12,  interaction  significance  development l e v e l , 11  and  compli-  The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e p e a t e d measures .of T a b l e examining  of  t y p e s o f dilemmas, t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s  Defining  compliance  the  compliance  scores w i l l the  in  for  action choice)  concerning  the  the  11  effect set  of  considered  dilemma  type  by  153 political  attitude  university  sample.  interaction  Ethical Attitude. a t t i t u d e , main  In  effects  In ethical 1.  terms  of  the  to  moral  are  not  supported  interaction development  effects, and  Issues  Test,  the  social  moral  Test  f o r the  development  dilemmas  responsibility  hypothesis  action  choice  for  the  f o r moral development l e v e l i s :  lower  Issues  the  ethical  hypothesis  Subjects with high e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  Defining  for  f o r each dilemma t y p e .  Defining  attitude effect  significantly  The  the  addition  for  v a r i a b l e s were h y p o t h e s i z e d  effect,  than  level  scores w i l l  as  subjects  assessed  with  low  have  by  the  ethics  of  scores.  ethical  attitude  effect  for action  c h o i c e on  the  scores  will  D e f i n i n g Issues Test i s : 2.  Subjects choose  with  high  ethics  significantly  more  of  social  responsibility  a c t i o n s i n compliance  the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t dilemmas than social responsibility In  the  the  fact  Test  subjects with  a u t h o r i t y on low  ethics  t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e p e a t e d measures o f  ethical  attitude  t h a t both  action  choice  multivariate  the  revealed  that  attitude  effect  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o  effect  there  on  action  D e f i n i n g Issues  scores  analysis  of is  of  scores.  11, t h e l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l for  with  were  pooled  variance a  for  statistical  scores  Test  and  together each  can  be  found  attributed  to  t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas i n the  dilemma  f o r dilemma a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e s on  analysis.  t y p e -of  significance  T e s t , but not on the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t .  Table  the  for  the  Table  The 12  ethical  D e f i n i n g Issues  154 Inspection for  o f t h e mean moral  the university  social  sample  responsibility  development  revealed  scores  that  were lower  chose fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h ethics  of social  Consequently, ethical  responsibility  both  attitude  hypotheses on  the D e f i n i n g  alternate  dilemmas  sponsibility The  hypothesis  moral  than  ethics of level  Issues  moral  subjects  with  level  of  was made level.  scores w i l l  as a s s e s s e d  low e t h i c s  and  sample.  f o r m o r a l development responsibility  Test.  development  the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis  development  and  the e f f e c t  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  Subjects with high e t h i c s o f s o c i a l higher  Test  scores  s u b j e c t s w i t h low  f o r the D e f i n i n g  Issues  t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemma T e s t ,  significantly  high  development  a u t h o r i t y than  i n respect to the e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e e f f e c t 3.  with  and two, c o n c e r n i n g  a c t i o n c h o i c e v a r i a b l e s , are s u p p o r t e d For  subjects i n moral  scores  one  and a c t i o n c h o i c e  have  by t h e  of social re-  scores. f o r the  ethical  attitude  effect  f o r the  Alternate  Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e i s : 4.  Subjects choose the  with  high  significantly  alternate  responsibility The  sample  significance  responsibility  scores  than  subjects  with  will  a u t h o r i t y on  low e t h i c s  of  social  scores. analysis  (see Table  f o r the e t h i c a l  T e s t moral development the  of social  fewer a c t i o n s i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h  dilemmas  multivariate  university  ethics  score.  of variance  repeated  11) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e attitude effect This  was a  f o r the  statistical  f o r t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  significance  multivariate analysis of variance  measures  was a l s o c o n f i r m e d  f o r the Alternate  Dilemmas  by Test  155 (see T a b l e  12).  However, i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e mean s c o r e s  f o r the  nate Dilemmas T e s t D Index r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e was direction The  ethical  Test  moral  effect  of  development  ethical scores,  attitude that  Dilemmas  Test  than  subjects with  ( h y p o t h e s i s t h r e e ) , i s not s u p p o r t e d The d a t a a n a l y s i s significant  difference  also  attitude  not c o n f i r m e d  Alternate  i s , subjects  low e t h i c a l  with  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  attitude  high  effect  Therefore, hypothesis  f o r A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  scores  sample.  i n A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n  Political Attitude.  statistically s c o r e s f o r the  four, concerning the  Test  action  choice, i s  sample.  Political  attitude  effects  t h e m o r a l development and a c t i o n c h o i c e v a r i a b l e s For the D e f i n i n g Issues T e s t , the hypothesis  5.  the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s not a  two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e groups.  effect  for  a t t i t u d e s c o r e s would have h i g h e r moral development l e v e l on t h e  Alternate  ethical  not i n t h e  hypothesized. hypothesized  Dilemmas  Alter-  were p r e d i c t e d f o r  f o r each dilemma  f o r the p o l i t i c a l  type.  attitude  f o r m o r a l development i s :  Subjects lower  with  moral  conservatism  development  T e s t dilemmas The h y p o t h e s i s  high  than  level  as  scores  will  assessed  by  have  the D e f i n i n g  s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m  f o r the p o l i t i c a l  attitude  effect  significantly Issues  scores.  for action  choice f o r  the D e f i n i n g Issues Test i s : 6.  Subjects more  with  actions  T e s t dilemmas  high  conservatism  i n compliance with than  scores  will  a u t h o r i t y on  choose  significantly  the D e f i n i n g  s u b j e c t s w i t h low c o n s e r v a t i s m  scores.  Issues  156 The  results  measures  of Table  of  the  multivariate  analysis  dependent  variables  (D  Index  and  r a t i o s revealed  variables  are  that  neither  Compliance  attitude  with  differ-  Authority  Inspection  t h e m o r a l development  s i g n i f i c a n t , although  repeated  shows a s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the s e t  c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , F(2,30 )=4.36, ja<.022. F  variance  11 examining t h e e f f e c t o f p o l i t i c a l  ences on the s e t o f dependent v a r i a b l e s of  of  they  both  of the  Score)  univariate  nor a c t i o n  approach  choice  significance,  F(1,31)=3.95, £<.056 and F(1,31)=3.02, <.092. :  The  univariate  £  F  ratio  f o r the  m o r a l development v a r i a b l e was by  the  multivariate  separate  multivariate  revealed  that  Issues  Test  this or  analysis  of  analysis  of variance  Alternate  attitude  effect  on  the  found not t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  e f f e c t was  the  political  not  variance  repeated  measures.  f o r each dilemma  significant for either  Dilemmas  Test,  although  type  the  both  The also  Defining  approached  s i g n i f i c a n c e , F( 1,31 )=3.74, £<.09 and F(1,31)=2.90, £ < . 1 0 ,  respectively.  Thus,  the  hypothesis  Issues Test sity  five,  revealed  moral development s c o r e s ,  multivariate that  the  the A l t e r n a t e  action  scores  analysis  political  s c o r e s on the D e f i n i n g  the  effects, political  of  was  attitude  and  not supported  Dilemmas  f o r t h e two  accounting  variance  attitude  Issues Test, Test,  effect  univariate univariate  t y p e s o f dilemmas  variate analysis of variance main  political  Defining  f o r the  univer-  sample. The  not  concerning  f o r each  dilemma  type  i s s i g n i f i c a n t for action F( 1,31 )=6.92, p_<.013, b u t F(1,31)=.04, were p o o l e d  pC.844. i n the  The multi-  r e p e a t e d measure o f T a b l e 11 i n t e s t i n g t h e  f o r the  lack  of  statistical  a t t i t u d e e f f e c t for action choice i n t h i s  significance for analysis.  157 The that  mean a c t i o n c h o i c e  subjects  with  high  scores  conservatism  compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y than the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t . significant supported  university  scores  s u b j e c t s w i t h low  Subjects  with moral  dilemmas than Subjects fewer  the  high  actions  t o be  the  political  compliance  of  the  Therefore,  Test  Dilemmas T e s t  The 11  variables  six i s  moral  moral  F(2,30 )=40.53, p_<.001.  significantly the  alternate  sample  indicated  significant  action  choice  for  vari-  a t t i t u d e and  the  action choice v a r i a b l e s , f o r the u n i v e r s i t y of  variance  dilemma type  together,  sample. repeated  effect  F ( 2 , 30) = 19.62,  f o r a c t i o n c h o i c e was The  alternate  scores.  and  analysis  revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t considered  on  political  and  are:  the  statistically  development  political  significantly  choose  university  development  multivariate  by  authority  the  i s not  have  of  scores.  will  conservatism  However, o n l y the u n i v a r i a t e F r a t i o significant,  scores  for  effect  will  conservatism  e i g h t , are not c o n f i r m e d  Dilemma Type.  hypothesis  assessed  the h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n i n g  hypotheses seven and  dependent  analyses  as  with  attitude effect  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  measures o f T a b l e  low  conservatism  in  for  statistically  a c t i o n scores  scores  level  s u b j e c t s w i t h low  results  Alternate  conservatism  development  with  The  ables.  found  scores  in  sample.  subjects with  dilemmas than  that  high  actions  conservatism  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t hypotheses f o r the  higher  8.  fewer  for the D e f i n i n g Issues Test, consequently  a t t i t u d e i n r e l a t i o n t o m o r a l development and 7.  subjects indicate  chose  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  The  f o r the  for the p_<.001.  statistically  a c t i o n c h o i c e mean  scores  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t than on t h e  are  Defining  158 Issues but  Test.  This  result  i t i s discussed Summary.  variance  For  significant interaction  Dilemma  p r e d i c t e d i n the  f o r the  x  that  Ethical  there  Attitude  was x  x Political  statistically type  of  significant.  dilemma  main e f f e c t s cant  f o r the  were  revealed  f o r the  that  (p_<.508).  The  Test  found  to  be  f o r each  for  the  Alternate  s c o r e s on t h e D e f i n i n g  higher  s c o r e s than  not  for  subjects  with  f o r s u b j e c t s w i t h low  Further,  Issues  subjects  high ethics  with  high  chose s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c t i o n s i n c o m p l i a n c e Test  than  subjects with  low  with  conservat-  (p_<.013).  In r e l a t i o n variance  t o moral development s c o r e s , t h e  repeated  measures  statistical  significance  development  variable  dilemma  (p_< .006).  type  revealed  for  Test  development  moral  with  both  high  for  the  for ethical  significant  Subjects  (p_<.021) but  scores.  the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  each  were not  a t t i t u d e and  significantly  a u t h o r i t y on  for  Ethical  effects  action choice  scores  of  A t t i t u d e , and  signifi-  responsibility  scores  Dilemma  a c t i o n c h o i c e v a r i a b l e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y Issues  ethical  conservatism  ism  However, t h e  attitude  statistically  social  Attitude  M u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of variance  e t h i c s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  statistically  political  Defining  Dilemmas T e s t Test  Attitude interaction  a  Political  action choice v a r i a b l e .  Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e , Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l Attitude  hypotheses,  sample, t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f  indicated  Type  initial  chapter.  university  measures  effect  not  i n the next the  repeated  was  the  scores  e t h i c s of  sample  indicated the  a  moral  multivariate a n a l y s i s - o f variance  that  the  Issues  (p_<.015  social  university  a t t i t u d e d i f f e r e n c e s on  The  Defining  multivariate analysis  ethical Test and  and  attitude effect Alternate  p_<.008,  responsibility  was  Dilemmas  respectively).  scores  were found  to  159 have  lower  social  moral  development  responsibility  ethical  scores.  a t t i t u d e groups  ment s c o r e was  not  university  than  subjects  However, t h e  f o r the  with  low  ethics  d i f f e r e n c e between  the  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t moral  i n the d i r e c t i o n  M u l t i p l e Regression Stepwise  level  of two  develop-  hypothesized.  Analyses  multiple  regression  analyses  were  sample w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e the  performed  for  action choice  the  score  of  e i t h e r the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t o r the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t .  type It  The  best  was  hypothesized  was  p r e d i c t o r of to be  also hypothesized  Alternate  Dilemmas T e s t  action  the  r e s p e c t i v e dilemma type  that ethical D  cance t o t h e r e g r e s s i o n  the  Index  choice  attitude,  score,  sex  scores  v a r i a b l e and Index),  from t h e  D e f i n i n g Issues  attitude,  ethical  attitude,  c h o i c e would be A  Issues  the u n i v e r s i t y  Index  score.  attitude, add  the  signifi-  sex  and  age  Compliance  Test  as t h e  with  dependent  (Defining Issues Test development  D  level  as independent v a r i a b l e s , p r o c e d u r e was  conducted  much o f the v a r i a n c e o f t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t a c t i o n accounted f o r by t h e independent v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d .  summary o f  Defining  would  dilemma  the  moral  a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g a stepwise a s c e r t a i n how  age  Using  s c o r e s from moral development l e v e l  ( A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t D I n d e x ) ,  to  D  each  equation.  derived  political  for  political  and  D e f i n i n g Issues Test A c t i o n Choice. Authority  scores  the  Test  stepwise  multiple regression  action choice  sample i s p r e s e n t e d  score  as  i n Table  the 13.  analysis using  the  dependent v a r i a b l e f o r  160 Table  13  Summary o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y Sample R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s : D e f i n i n g Issues Test A c t i o n Choice Score  Variables in  Equation  Variable Entered Beta  R  1. CS  Note:  .542  V a r i a b l e s Not  ^  .294  DD SEA CS AD  = = = =  * ** ***  £<.05 p<.01 £<.001  The  df  1,33  F  The  hypotheses  were  Variables  DD  .083  .086  SEA  .128  .137  AD  .097  .096  -.238  SEX  -.027  -.031  -.136  AGE  .077  .091  Partial  made  about  the  -. 199 .343*  . 129  prediction  with a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n choice  following variables w i l l  i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or  c a n t l y p r e d i c t D e f i n i n g Issues Test a c t i o n choice Test  attitude,  Simple r  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t D Index Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s Conservatism Scale A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t D Index  following  Issues  i n Equation  Beta In  13.77***  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t compliance 13a.  as Dependent V a r i a b l e  moral  development  level,  ethical  of  the  score:  jointly signifiscores:  Defining  attitude./ p o l i t i c a l  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t m o r a l development l e v e l ,  sex  and  age. 13b.  The  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t moral development l e v e l w i l l account f o r a  significantly  greater proportion of the variance of Defining  Issues  161 Test  action  choice  scores  ethical  attitude,  political  tude,  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t moral development l e v e l ,  When  a l l the  equation  on  the  variables  basis  of  measure,  accounting  f o r 29% o f the t o t a l  contribute  political  were  their  dependent  to  than  political  significantly  Using  strength  variance.  the Compliance  enter  of  No  entered.  sex o r age.  the  regression  relationship  with  the equation  other  to the regression  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t A c t i o n  to  a t t i t u d e entered  a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e was  13b were not s u p p o r t e d  allowed  equation  Therefore,  ethical  attitude,  Index),  sex  and  age  as  a n a l y s i s using a stepwise of  the  variance  of  the  the  13a and  sample.  Choice  with  Authority  scores  derived  from  development independent  level  (Defining  variables,  a  attitude,  Issues  multiple  the  from m o r a l  ( A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t D I n d e x ) , p o l i t i c a l moral  found  after  hypotheses  the first  v a r i a b l e was  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e and s c o r e s development l e v e l  atti-  Test  D  regression  p r o c e d u r e was conducted t o a s c e r t a i n how much Alternate  Dilemmas  Test  Action  Choice  was  Dilemmas  Test  a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d . The  hypotheses  f o r the p r e d i c t i o n o f the A l t e r n a t e  compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n c h o i c e a r e : 14a.  The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s w i l l cantly  predict Alternate  individually  Dilemmas  Test  and/or action  jointly  signifi-  chcrice  scores:  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t moral development l e v e l , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s , political sex  a t t i t u d e s , D e f i n i n g Issues  and age.  T e s t m o r a l development  level,  162 14b.  The  Alternate  Dilemmas  Test  moral  development  for  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the v a r i a n c e o f A l t e r n a t e  Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e s than  level  will  ethical attitude,  a t t i t u d e , D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t moral development l e v e l , None o f t h e v a r i a b l e s was of  the  variance  hypotheses  of  14a  the  and  found  were  political  sex  or  t o account f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  14b  account  also  not  Action  Choice  supported  for  amount  scores. the  age.  Thus  university  sample. Summary. scores  The  f o r the  best p r e d i c t o r of D e f i n i n g Issues  high  school  sample was  Test  action choice  2 Index, R =.16,  the D  and  for  the  2 university  sample, p o l i t i c a l  attitude,; R  =.29.  Summary  In  phase  two,  separately  to  hypothesis  test  the with  high  high  the  results  of  f o r both  subjects  social  with was  low  ethics of  subjects  the  hypothesis  social  low  p o r t i n g hypothesis  high  one  ethics two.  social  school  A  summary  was  the  were  social  the  the With  Subjects have  D e f i n i n g Issues  Test  chose  supported  found  scores.  This  sample. subjects  significantly  Defining  responsibility  Another h y p o t h e s i s  of  to  responsibility  scores  analyzed  13.  supported.  scores on  i n Table  subjects, university  a u t h o r i t y on of  were  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  responsibility with  data  study.  responsibility  a l s o supported  i n compliance with  of  university  samples i s p r e s e n t e d  ethics of  However, u n l i k e the  actions  only  and  lower m o r a l development l e v e l  same h y p o t h e s i s  high  school  hypotheses  sample,  ethics  significantly than  test  school  high  the  Issues  scores, f o r the  with more  Test  than  thus,  sup-  university  163 Table  13  Summary o f R e s u l t s and U n i v e r s i t y  of Hypothesis T e s t i n g f o r High School  Samples  High School  Hypothesis  University  Ethical Attitude Effect 1. 2. 3. 4.  DIT DIT ADT ADT  -  Political 5. 6. 7. 8.  DIT DIT ADT ADT  D Index Action Choice D Index Action Choice  s ns ns ns  s s ns ns  ns ns ns ns  ns s ns ns  Attitude Effect -  D Index Action Choice D Index Action Choice  Dilemma Type x E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e E f f e c t 9. 10.  DIT & ADT DIT & ADT  - D Index - A c t i o n Choice  Dilemma Type x P o l i t i c a l 11. 12.  DIT & ADT DIT & ADT  13a. 13b. 14a. 14b.  Note:  ns ns  Attitude Effect  - D Index - Action Choice  Prediction of Action  ns ns  ns ns  ns ns  ns s ns ns  ns ns ns ns  Choice  DIT - A l l DIT - DIT D Index ADT - A l l ADT - ADT D Index  s ns  = Significant = Not s i g n i f i c a n t  DIT ADT  = D e f i n i n g Issues Test = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  164 sample was  hypothesis  significantly Issues  Test  unpredicted on  the  action  six.  Subjects with high conservatism  more a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h dilemmas  finding  Alternate choice  than was  that  Dilemmas scores  subjects  low  conservatism  university, subjects'  Test  on  with  a u t h o r i t y on  were  the  the  chose  Defining  scores.  action choice  significantly  Defining  scores  Issues  higher Test,  An  scores  than  their  univariate  F(1,31 )=40.53, £ < . 0 0 1 . The  multiple  indicated of  the  that the  Defining  regression  analysis  D e f i n i n g Issues  Issues  Test  action  Test  for D  choice  the  high  Index was scores,  school  sample  the best p r e d i c t o r 2 R -.16.  The 2  predictor  for the u n i v e r s i t y  sample was  political  attitude, R  =.29.  best  165  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY OF  The  purpose o f t h e  variation scores. the  RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND  in  dilemma  study  was  content  CONCLUSIONS  to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of  on  moral  development  In a d d i t i o n , the e f f e c t o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n  relationship  development, and  among  ethical  attitude,  a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e s was  and  specified  action  choice  i n dilemma c o n t e n t  political  attitude,  on  moral  examined.  Summary o f R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  The testing  study of the  questions ment  content,  and  The the  and  attitude,  and  (b)  phase one  Issues  by t h e  Test  researcher;  the  of the  i n v o l v e d the study  on  interaction  political  (a) m o r a l effect  a t t i t u d e on  were (Rest, and  different employed 1979b);  the  age  moral  two  Alternate  Survey o f E t h i c a l  1970).  In a d d i t i o n , t h e P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c C o n s e r v a t i s m  1950),  and  the  of  I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale  the  developdilemma  development develop-  groups r e s p e c t i v e l y .  i n phase the  pilot  addressed  (c) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral  a c t i o n c h o i c e i n two  f o l l o w i n g measures  Defining  designed  choice,  a c t i o n c h o i c e , and  ment l e v e l  phases:  t h e e f f e c t o f dilemma c o n t e n t  action  ethical  and  two  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas; phase two  concerning  level  level  consisted of  of  the  Dilemmas  study: Test  A t t i t u d e s (Hogan, Scale  (Blake,  (Levinson,  Johnston,  &  166 Elkins,  1981)  Conservatism  were  employed  with  the  high  school  sample,  and  S c a l e ( W i l s o n & P a t t e r s o n , 1970) w i t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y  the  sample  i n phase two o f the s t u d y . The s u b j e c t s who high phase  school  student  two,  complete  participated  i n phase one o f t h e study i n c l u d e d 47  volunteers  enrolled  data  available  were  volunteers  enrolled  i n Grade  11 Law  volunteers  enrolled  i n Education  i n Grade from  classes,  courses  11  68  Law  In  school  student  and 35 u n i v e r s i t y  student  a t The  high  classes.  University  of  British  Columbia. Results  are  summarized  f o r moral  development  level  and  action  choice.  M o r a l Development - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e In al's  the present  ethical  moral  attitude  development  multivariate indicated of  study, would  interact  scores.  w i t h dilemma  However,  counter  attitude  no  significant  to  difference  and m o r a l development  that the  content  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e p e a t e d measures  t h a t t h e r e was  ethical  i t has been h y p o t h e s i z e d  scores  individu-  to influence  expectations, f o r t h e two i n the  the  samples  relationship  (D Index)  f o r t h e two  Gutkin  Suis,  t y p e s o f dilemmas. Previous had  indicated  research that  (Nardi & Tsujimoto,  higher  scores  (Hogan,  1970) were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Test.  Nardi  responsibility Test  Stage  conscience  4 was  and  Tsujimoto  was  significantly  score,  r=.46,  significantly  on  the  1979;  Survey o f  &  Ethical  Attitudes  lower s c o r e s on the D e f i n i n g  (1979)  found  that  correlated  jo<.001,  with  whereas,  correlated  with  the  the  ethics  the  Issues  of  social  Defining  Issues  ethics  Stage 5A,  1979)  of  personal  r=-.23,  p_<.01,  167 and S t a g e 5B, £ = - . 3 2 , £ < . 0 0 1 .  G u t k i n and S u i s  results  f o r three  samples,  finding  between  t h e Survey  of Ethical  These Index.  For  and Stage  4,  similar  correlations  (r=.351,  £<.01,  negative correlations  (r=-.275, p_<.05, £ = - . 2 3 4 , £ < . 0 5 , and  Both o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s .  findings  were  In a d d i t i o n ,  Appendices  positive  and s i g n i f i c a n t  between t h e Survey and t h e P Index, £ = - . 2 6 5 , p_<.05).  significant  Attitudes  £ = . 2 6 3 , p_<.05, and £ = . 3 9 3 , £< .01)  (1979) r e p o r t e d  B and C)  the u n i v e r s i t y  supported  stage scores  i n the present  using  the D  and t h e P Index were c a l c u l a t e d ( s e e  i n o r d e r t o make  sample,  study  comparisons  with  other  studies.  t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s was found t o  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Stage 2, r(1,33)=.61, and S t a g e 4, £(1,33)=.43, £ < . 0 1 , and s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y  £<.001  correlated  w i t h Stage 5A, £( 1,33 )=-.37, £<.05;  Stage 5B, £(1,33)=-.42, £ < . 0 5 ;  Stage  6, £ ( 1,33 )=-.34, £ < . 0 5 ;  Index,  Thus,  the  conclusion  associated Test the  that  the e t h i c s  w i t h Stage  and the e t h i c s P Index  and t h e P  r ( 1,33 )=-.55, £ < . 0 0 1 .  of social  2 and Stage  of personal  responsibility  tends  t o be  4 s t a t e m e n t s on t h e D e f i n i n g  Issues  conscience with  Stages  5A, 5B, 6, and  ( t h e sum o f S t a g e 5A, 5B, and 6 s c o r e s ) i s s u p p o r t e d .  The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and s c o r e s on t h e D e f i n i n g direction, 5A,  Issues Test  but s i g n i f i c a n t  £ ( 1,66 )=-.27,  possible  reason  correlations subjects  f o r the high  when  i s that  school subjects.  £<.05;  only and  there  was  sample were i n t h e same  f o r Stage 4, £(1,66)=.29, the P  f o r t h e lower compared  school  to less  Index,  statistical the  Stage  £( 1,66 )=-.27, , £ < . 0 5 . significance  correlations  variance  £<.05;  f o r the  i n the stage  A  f o r these university  scores  o f high  The h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o have h i g h e r Stage 3  168 and  4  sity  scores  and  lower  S t a g e 5A,  5B,  s u b j e c t s (see Appendices B and When  the  direction  of  dilemma the  content  relationship  scores.  Inspection of  with high e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e ment  level  attitude  the  r a t h e r than  Issues  data  revealed  that,  significantly Test  ethics of personal  opposed by  such  legal  than  welfare  conflict  that  the  on  the  develop-  fact,  subjects  lower m o r a l  develop-  with  low  ethical  conscience).  individual  from t h e dilemmas i n  rights  or e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y .  with  that  scores  in  those  T e s t , t h e dilemmas were assumed t o r e f l e c t  social  univer-  a s s o c i a t e d with higher moral  s c o r e s had  Test  thought  higher  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were w r i t t e n t o d i f f e r  Defining  Issues  i t was  change, w i t h  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  scores ( i . e . ,  The the  on  changed,  would  the  Index s c o r e s than  C).  was  Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s b e i n g ment  6 and P  individual  rights  an  were  supported  In t h e D e f i n i n g  individual  opposed  by  rights-  legal  or  established authority. Ethical  attitude,  as  o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by  A t t i t u d e s , appears t o r e p r e s e n t a p r e f e r e n c e advocated  compliance  advocating  compliance  The  relationship  Issues  Test  was  of  moral als'  to  noncompliance  being the  scored  Survey  assumed t o be  h i g h e t h i c s of s o c i a l referred  or  the  legal  ethics  the  t h a t promote s o c i a l  or  of  Ethical  statements  authority, with of  social  that items  responsibility.  A t t i t u d e s and  scores  system  Survey  for either  with  Ethical  based on  responsibility  existing  d e c i s i o n s or  of  as  the  the  Defining  preference of subjects  with  f o r dilemma statements  that  conventions  welfare  concerns  as  the  over  basis  of  individu-  rights. In  higher  Rest's  measure,  principles  are  the  preference  for  statements  that  appeal, t o  s c o r e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g h i g h e r , p r i n c i p l e d  stages.  169 The  following  Defining  statements  are  among t h o s e  f o r the  Heinz  i n the  Issue T e s t ( R e s t , 1979b):  Whether a community's laws are g o i n g t o be u p h e l d  (Stage 4 ) .  Whether t h e law i n t h i s case i s g e t t i n g i n the way b a s i c c l a i m o f any member o f s o c i e t y (Stage 5A). Whether s t e a l i n g i n such a case w i l l b r i n g good f o r the whole s o c i e t y o r not (Stage 5A) The  dilemma  s u b j e c t i s asked  to rate  and  rank  these  o f t h e most  about more (p. 2 ) .  statements  total  according to  how  i m p o r t a n t t h e y are i n making a d e c i s i o n i n the dilemma. By  changing  protected subjects that  by  the  authority,  would  than compliance  tend  of  to  with  Conversely,  stage  it  with high e t h i c a l  they  ethics  dilemmas  in a was  established  individuals'  hypothesized  attitude  prefer  thought  personal conscience on  that  that  the  the  authority  statements  that  refer  that (low  ethical  D e f i n i n g Issues was  on  the  case, these  side  attitude  to  issues  Test of  would  scores) change  individual  statements  t h a t imply i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g l e g a l o r s o c i a l of  decisions  be  that  inadequate  a  statistical  in  real  s u b j e c t s would then  significance  interaction  discerning  dilemmas c o n t e n t f o r moral The Defining in  the  and  other  found  tend  for  the  exists  but  the  relationship  an  for higher i f legal  rights  in  or the  t o choose more  compliance. a Dilemma  Type  E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e i n t e r a c t i o n can be i n t e r p r e t e d i n a number o f ways. may  of  the p r e f e r e n c e o f s u b j e c t s w i t h  In t h i s  lack  were  s c o r e s would be more ambiguous  dilemmas.  The  rights  authority.  i t was  statements  way  x It  alternate  dilemmas  were  ethical  attitude  and  of  development s c o r e s .  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were w r i t t e n t o p a r a l l e l t h e dilemmas i n t h e Issues T e s t . D e f i n i n g Issues  The  stage  Test  with  statements  used  o n l y minor  were s i m i l a r  changes made t o  to  those  f i t the  170 dilemma.  An assumption  t y p e s o f dilemmas. statements  was t h a t  While Rest  t h e same i s s u e s  (1979a) c l a i m s  f o r each dilemma on e x t e n s i v e  same p r o c e d u r e was n o t used  are relevant  t o have based  interviewing  f o r the a l t e r n a t e  revealed  thus  obscuring  i f a  any  real  dilemmas.  d i f f e r e n t , more  differences  independently  that  t h e use o f  of subjects,  Issues  Test  have  been  might  derived  this  The a l t e r n a t e  dilemmas may have been a l i g n e d t o o c l o s e l y w i t h t h e D e f i n i n g dilemmas,  f o r both  set of  dilemma  statements was used. Another p o s s i b i l i t y as  posing  questions  i s that  subjects  an i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s - s o c i a l that  t h e y may  have  d i d not p e r c e i v e  welfare  considered  personal law  attitude, conceptualized  intuitive  and t r a d i t i o n  broad  a  notion  characterization  characterization orientation  may  of a  ignore  toward moral  relative  to  study.  person's  conflict  ethical  orientation.  differences  ethical tion  i n an  i n d i f f e r e n t contexts P e r s o n s may d i f f e r  content,  but  not  a  f a c t t h a t moral development s c o r e s  Such  a  individual's  or differences in their  i n terms  a t t i t u d e as measured by t h e i n s t r u m e n t used i n t h i s The  been  o r toward a r e l i a n c e on e x i s t i n g  important  moral  have  f o r making moral d e c i s i o n s , may be t o o  between p e r s o n s i n t h e same c o n t e x t . judgments  important  as e i t h e r an o r i e n t a t i o n toward  of morality  as t h e c r i t e r i a  The  i n t h e dilemmas may  i r r e l e v a n t to the issues r a i s e d i n the present Ethical  conflict.  t h e dilemmas  of  moral  ethical  study.  o f i n d i v i d u a l s who d i f f e r i n  o r i e n t a t i o n d i d not change as a r e s u l t o f t h e s p e c i f i e d v a r i a -  i n dilemma c o n t e n t d i r e c t s a t t e n t i o n t o another i s s u e , t h a t i s , t h e  basis scores  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p on t h e D e f i n i n g  of  ethical  Issues Test.  o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s and t h e D e f i n i n g  attitude  t o moral  To t h e e x t e n t Issues Test  development  t h a t b o t h t h e Survey  seek t o measure a "law  171 and  order"  judgment  orientation,  dimension  dimension.  While  more  just  than  this  but  both  a  Rest  this,  relationship  may  conventionalism  versus  (1979a) and Hogan  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  In  this  study,  an  of  attempt  development s c o r e s n o t o n l y t o s p e c i f i c ethical no  attitude  statistically  i n interaction significant  with  a consequence o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . to  moral  nonconventionalism  t h e two  measures  may  be  aspect.  was  made  to relate  content, but also t o a  specific  differences  not a  (1970) p u r p o r t t o measure  dependent on t h e degree t h a t both measure t h i s Summary.  represent  content.  f o r such  moral  person's  The f i n d i n g o f  an i n t e r a c t i o n may be  However, e t h i c a l  attitude  was  found  be r e l a t e d t o moral development s c o r e s .  M o r a l Development - P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e The  results  measures d i f f e r e d  of  the m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis  of  f o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y  F o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l sample, b o t h t h e p o l i t i c a l and  interaction  One d i f f i c u l t y internal  effect  were  i n making  found  any i n f e r e n c e s from  used  Economic  Conservatism  Levinson,  were v e r y  low.  While  i n the high  Patterson,  school  1970) was  i s that the of  used  political  o f the P o l i t i c o -  S c a l e has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r o t h e r  difficulty  groups ( s e e  i n c l u d e d i n t h e meas.ure may n o t sample.  w i t h t h e measures o f p o l i t i c a l  sample,  effect  significant.  finding  o f t h e measures  have had r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  used  a t t i t u d e main  the r e l i a b i l i t y  1950), some o f t h e statements  Because o f t h i s  this  repeated  samples.  t o be n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  consistencies r e l i a b i l i t i e s  attitude  variance  the Conservatism  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  Scale  sample.  attitude (Wilson  The  S  internal  172 c o n s i s t e n c i e s r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s measure w i t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y  sample was  .82. Based on d a t a from t h e u n i v e r s i t y of  v a r i a n c e r e p e a t e d measures  effect  for political together,  for  development  moral  indicated a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  attitude  considered  when  F(2,30)=4.36, was  not  t h e two p<.02,  political  studies  attitude  ( E m l e r , Renwick,  have  Coder, Masanz, & Anderson, tically  significant  and Order T e s t  reported  and D e f i n i n g  & Malone,  1983; Fincham  samples  significant  main  variables  were  but the u n i v a r i a t e significant  significant  Issues  1974).  analysis  F  ratio  although i t  p<.06.  Test  correlations  moral  & Barling,  between  development  between  scores  1979; R e s t , Cooper,  Rest e t a l . (1974) r e p o r t e d  negative correlations  f o r three  dependent  statistically  approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , F(2,30)=3.95, Previous  sample, t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e  t h e P Index  which ranged i n e d u c a t i o n a l  statis-  and a Law level  from  n i n t h grade t o graduate s c h o o l , r(191)=-.60, r(49)=-.48, and r(83)=-.46. He  also  reported  correlation negative as  a lower, but s t a t i s t i c a l l y  f o r a sample  correlations  of ninth  indicate  a s s e s s e d by t h e P Index  Fincham  and  Patterson's  Barling (1970)  grade  that  significant  students,  r=-.23,  negative  D<.05.  t h e h i g h e r m o r a l development  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low law and o r d e r  (1979)  also  Conservatism  found Scale  the P to  be  Index  and  negatively  The level  scores.  Wilson  and  correlated,  r(54)=-.22, p<.05. Using et  t h e New L e f t  a l . (1983)  the well  Traditional  reported  Scale  statistically  & Friedman, -1976), Emler  significant  correlations  M o r a l i s m s u b s c a l e and Stage 4 s c o r e s ,  as t h e P Index, r=-.49,  was a l s o  (Gold, C h r i s t i e ,  _p_<.001.  found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  The New  Left  between  r=.60, jp_<.001, as  Philosophy  subscale  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Stage 4  173 scores,  r=-.52,  moralism Left  £<.001  relates  Philosophy  of  the  be  associated  The  to  disenchantment  with  high  found  and  the  university  the  sity  found  Issues  i s , the  to  Test  £<.001;  with  £<.001.  view o f  current  Traditional  s o c i e t y and  society.  The  scores  and  the  P  New  direction  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Stage 4 scores  D  i n the p r e s e n t  Index  scores  Index  tend with  to low  be  sample  support  stage  Stage  5B,  4  both  previous  S c a l e and  scores  and  P  previous  significantly  Stage  of  study the  between t h e Defining  Conservat-  Issues  Test,  the A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t , r(33)=-.52, £ < . 0 0 1 ,  subjects also r e p l i c a t e  was  r=.39,  s t a t u s quo  conservatism  between t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m  ment, t h a t  Index,  scores.  r(33)=-.53, £<.001, and the  P  to a conservative,  c o r r e l a t i o n s found  Scale  for  the  c o r r e l a t i o n s supports  conservatism  ism  and  score,  other  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  i n d i c e s o f moral  Index (see T a b l e findings.  positively  r(33)=.57,  r(33)=-.39,  findings.  The  and  Stage  the  P  of  univer-  Conservatism  c o r r e l a t e d with  £<.001;  £<.05;  C-2)  develop-  the  5A,  Index,  Scale  Defining  r(33)=-.60, r(33)=-.64,  £<.001. However, t h e r e were no between t h e ment  political  i n d i c e s f o r the  statistically  a t t t i t u d e measures  and  high  (see  school  sample  The  Individualism/Collectivism Scale  and  the P o l i t i c o - E c o n o m i c  as  measures  of  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s found  political  of the moral  Table  4  (Blake,  Johnston  Scale  (Levinson,  Conservatism attitude  any  for  the  high  and  Table  B-2).  Elkins,  1981)  1950.) were  used  sample.  Item  &  school  develop-  a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e measures r e v e a l e d low  internal  ities  I n d i v i d u a l i s m / C o l l e c t i v i s m Scale  and  f o r both  .32  f o r the  measures,  .34  f o r the  Politico-Economic  Conservatism  consistencies r e l i a b i l -  Scale.  With t h e  use  of  measures  with  low  r e l a t i o n s that There ity  of  quate  two  measures,  senting  test  in  the  high  toward  If  subjects  been  stages,  found  attitude  to  be  1973;  g e n e r a l , the  related  Fontana  explain developed  to et  be  related  al.  on  to  scores  & Noel,  (1968)  reported  preconventional  and  on  Interview  subjects  using at  a  each  v a r i o u s measures  Candee, 1976;  1973;  repre-  in  their  Sullivan  that  a  of  S. Q u a r t e r ,  1972).  & In  the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Stage s c o r e s and S t a g e 5  i n t e r v i e w measure have  higher  proportion  levels  r e v i s e d s c o r i n g system, sat  political  F i s h k i n , Keniston  a l s o been  of  participated  found  i n , Stage  a 3,  Haan  at  'in t h e  the Free  level.  greater 10%;  found  1968).  subjects  subjects at the conventional  stage  also  scores.  postconventional  higher  consistent  items  In a r e a n a l y s i s o f the Haan e t a l . (1968) d a t a , K o h l b e r g (1984),  test  measure, have  a c t i v i s m (Haan, Smith & B l o c k ,  Speech Movement S i t - i n than  the  endorse items i n a manner  s t u d i e s support  Kohlberg's  to p o l i t i c a l  a  and  of low  subjects, varying  and  by K o h l b e r g ' s  low c o n s e r v a t i s m  scores  inade-  b e i n g measured.  f i n d i n g s of these  and 6 s c o r e s w i t h  the  randomly endorse the  reliabil-  characteristics  4 s c o r e s t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h c o n s e r v a t i s m  Stage  lawful  to current s i t u a t i o n ,  not  interpret  ( e . g . , A l k e r & Poppen, 1973;  Mackinnoh,  obscure  f o r the poor  also  may  Further,  i s s u e s , may  assessed  may have  i s s u e s , they  not r e l a t e d t o t h e dimension Moral  may  number o f i t e m s ,  certain  sample  positions.  o f the  insufficient  However,  school  certain  different  as,  r e l e v a n c e o f items  items.  scores.  understanding  such  of c o n t e n t ,  of  reliability position  error  exist.  sampling  subjects  measurement  are a number o f p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s  the  ambiguity  reliability,  and  Candee  proportion  Stage  3/4,  of  31%;  175 S t a g e 4, thought  44%;  Stage 4/5,  i t was  right  73%.  to  They  sit-in,  also  a  greater  s t a g e o f moral r e a s o n i n g d i d so, Stage 3, 63%;  and S t a g e 4/5, The  Free  proportion  23%;  Speech Movement d e m o n s t r a t i o n opposed  measures  of  moral  content.  The may  t h a t among s u b j e c t s at  Stage 3/4,  each  54%;  by  the  university  development  and  represented  an  be  related  1977;  Scale  administration.  political  As  activism  civil  such,  share  political  represent  conventionalism-nonconventionalism  dimension  a  (1970) Survey political  (Adorno,  .45,  of E t h i c a l attitude  1975).  correlated  JD<.01,  measures  and  Frenkel-Brunswik  tendencies  A t t i t u d e s has  also  (Hogan,  dimension.  been  1970;  and  .35,  p<.01,  & Levinson,  conservatism.  with  1950),  a  the  &  i n d i c a t e t h a t h i g h Survey  low t o moderate s c o r e s f o r the  w i t h v e r y low  (1975) of  also  reported  between t h e  Survey  attitude:  l i b e r a l ism-conservatism,  results  Ethical  r=.59, p<.001;  and  responsibility)  are  sentence  associated  g r e a t e r sentence  significant  A t t i t u d e and  i n d i c a t e t h a t the h i g h e t h i c a l  i d e o l o g y and  Zea,  California of  F  anti-  (1970) p o i n t e d  s c o r e s are low  Survey  low,  associscores  s c o r e s on t h e F S c a l e .  Snodgrass  ideology,  F S c a l e and  to  forms o f the  measure  However, Hogan  found  Lorr  Hogan (1970) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e two  thus, the c o r r e l a t i o n s  ated with  the  similar  out t h a t the mean s c o r e on t h e C a l i f o r n i a F S c a l e f o r the group was and  4,  found between m o r a l development and  to  democratic  Stage  relationship  Snodgrass,  Survey  higher  act of  r a t h e r than a c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g - p r i n c i p l e d r e a s o n i n g Hogan's  who  75%.  disobedience  activism  found  with  positive  correlations  t h r e e measures o f  r = . 55,  p_<.001;  severity,  law  political and  order  r=.33, p<.001.  These  a t t i t u d e scores ( e t h i c s of conservatism,  severity for criminals.  a  law  and  social order  176 In  the  relation  present  study,  found  between  was  Conservatism  Scale  supports  the  social  responsibility  scores  and  statistically  the  f o r the  results  the  a  Survey  university  of  Ethical  sample,  conclusions of previous tends  ethics  of  to  be  significant  Attitudes  r(33)=.44,  with  conscience  with  cor-  and  p_<.01.  s t u d i e s t h a t the  associated  personal  positive  the This  ethics of  high  conservatism  low  conservatism  scores. Ethical found  to  political  a t t i t u d e s c o r e s on the Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s were not  be  statistically  significantly  a t t i t u d e measures used f o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l  explanation  for  reliability  the  lack  of  o f the p o l i t i c a l  statistical  political of  study.  a d d i t i o n , the  Dilemmas  sample.  significance  Test  the  particular  may  not  on  the  A possible  is  the  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f dilemma  a t t i t u d e f o r the moral development v a r i a b l e may  consequence in  scores  poor  a t t i t u d e measures u s e d .  F a i l u r e to f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t and  c o r r e l a t e d with  political  specific  have  a t t i t u d e measures  dilemmas  addressed  included  issues  on  in  a l s o be  used  the  which  content  in  a  the  Alternate  liberal  and  conservatives strongly d i f f e r . Summary. measures  The  indicated that  dilemma c o n t e n t either Scale Issues the  high was  multivariate  and  school  found  Test  and  to  there  political  was  analysis no  univeristy  be  significantly  moral  samples.  presented.  with  repeated  interaction development  However,  c o r r e l a t e d with  t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t .  f i n d i n g s were  variance  significant  a t t i t u d e on  or  of  the both  effect scores  of for  Conservatism the  Defining  Possible explanations  for  177 Action Choice - E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e Divergent different  samples.  indicated related nate  f i n d i n g s were o b t a i n e d  that  attitude  to the Defining  However, variance Type  Multivariate analysis of variance  ethical  Dilemmas  from t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s  Test  Issues  action  was  Test  scores  sample,  scores  f o r high  Further  analysis  difference  x Political  revealed  i n action  that  choice  a t t i t u d e s on t h e D e f i n i n g  there  scores  Attitude was  a  or the A l t e r -  school  subjects.  analysis of  significant  Dilemma  interaction  statistically  f o r subjects  Issues Test  statistically  the multivariate  r e p e a t e d measures i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  x Ethical Attitude  r e p e a t e d measures  significantly  action choice  choice  f o r the u n i v e r s i t y  not  o f t h e two  effect.  significant  with d i f f e r e n t e t h i c a l  b u t n o t on t h e A l t e r n a t e  Dilemmas  Test • It which  was h y p o t h e s i z e d  low e t h i c s o f s o c i a l  c o n s c i e n c e ) would  authority;  rights to  with  personal  with  a r e s u p p o r t e d by l e g a l  be  expected  with authority dilemmas with  low e t h i c s  expectation; and  t o choose  these  of  action  social  dilemmas, i n  or established  dilemmas,  authority,  (i.e.,  fewer a c t i o n s  with  ethics  that  i n which  authority.  i n d i v i d u a l s would  on t h e D e f i n i n g  The mean  Test  comply  individual  o r e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y , t h e y would  i n compliance  that  scores  test.  tend  Issues  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y scores  but i n t h e A l t e r n a t e  choose more a c t i o n s  would  i n the Defining  i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s a r e opposed by l e g a l  subjects of  that  have  Issues Test  choice  scores  lower  case, i t  compliance  than on t h e A l t e r n a t e  for university  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were  M=1.44, SD=1.41 f o r t h e D e f i n i n g  In t h a t  consistent  Issues Test  M=3.12, SD=1.41 f o r t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  tend  action  subjects  with  action choice.  this choice  178 The bility  hypothesis  would  Defining confirmed. ally  that  choose  Issues  subjects with  more  Test  The h i g h  actions  than social  significantly differ  SD=.89  on  high  ethics of social  i n compliance  the Alternate  responsibility  with  a u t h o r i t y on t h e  Dilemmas  Test  s u b j e c t s d i d not s t a t i s t i c -  choice  score  SD=.76 f o r t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t a c t i o n c h o i c e  score.  social  Issues  implication of this  responsibility  authority  more  scores  often  responsibility  scores  Test  i s that  t o choose  subjects  f o r dilemmas  dilemmas where i n d i v i d u a l  action  finding  tend  than  opposed by a u t h o r i t y ( i . e . ,  no  was n o t  i n a c t i o n c h o i c e f o r t h e two dilemmas; M=2.32,  f o r the Defining  One  responsi-  who  and M=3.37,  individuals  with  high  a c t i o n s i n compliance  with  have  i n which  low e t h i c s individual  social  rights  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t dilemmas).  rights  of  are  However, i n  a r e n o t opposed by a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e i s  d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c h o i c e o f a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h  authority for  t h e two e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s . However, analysis tended  interpretation  i s complicated  t o choose  more  o f the r e s u l t s  by a number actions  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas and thus  of the university  of factors.  i n compliance  with  f o r the A l t e r n a t e  Test.  T h i s c o u l d be a consequence o f t h e s p e c i f i c  Alternate  Dilemmas  Dilemmas  Test.  Test  There  than  may  subjects  authority  t h e r e was l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y  scores  the  University  for  the  i n action choice  f o r the D e f i n i n g  be more  data  Issues  dilemmas i n c l u d e d i n consensus  about t h e  a c t i o n c h o i c e s i n t h e a l t e r n a t e dilemmas because o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o t h e r than  the a u t h o r i t y issue r a i s e d Another p o s s i b i l i t y  may be p e r c e i v e d  in this  study.  i s t h a t t h e source  by t h e s u b j e c t as o t h e r  o f a u t h o r i t y i n t h e dilemma  than  t h a t used  t h e compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y a c t i o n s c o r e i n t h e p r e s e n t  f o r determining study.  179 Finally, criticism  action choice,  concerning  as a measure o f c o m p l i a n c e ,  reliability.  Where v a r i a n c e  i s foreshortened, the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f obtaining a high r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t consistency or s t a b i l i t y ) relationships  that  would  c h o i c e s were  presented.  The  school  high  different Test,  i s limited. be p r e s e n t  subjects'  f o r t h e two e t h i c a l  M=2.50,  SD=1.20  Measurement i fa full  action  low  choices  social  (either  e r r o r may  were  social  responsibility  responsibility difference  group  on t h e D e f i n i n g  responsibility  group.  between  Further, there  the action choice  This, i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h showed  T e s t , _M=2.33,  and M=2.50,  statistically  SD=1.23  a t t i t u d e groups on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  Test  (personal  f o r the high  social  significant  on t h e two dilemma  action choice  Issues  SD=1.03 f o r t h e low  was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y scores  action  responsibility  the f i n d i n g s o f the u n i v e r s i t y  significant  attenuate  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  c o n s i e n c e ) group; and M=2.76, SD=1.13 f o r t h e h i g h s o c i a l group; o r on t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  internal  range o f dilemma  a t t i t u d e groups  f o r the  i s subject t o  types.  subjects  who  differences for ethical  and between t h e two dilemma  types. The Defining M=2.43, mean  high  school  Issues  Test  subjects'  mean a c t i o n  and A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas  SD=1.14, r e s p e c t i v e l y , f a l l  score  choice  on t h e A l t e r n a t e  Test,  between  Dilemmas  Test,  scores  on b o t h t h e  M=2.65, SD=1.16 and  the u n i v e r s i t y M=1.91,  subjects'  SD=1.22 and mean  s c o r e on t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t , M=3.26, SD=1.09. The  d i f f e r e n c e between  terms o f a c t i o n choice groups One  differ  scores  on a number  possibility  the high  school  is difficult  o f dimensions  i s that high  school  and u n i v e r s i t y  t o e x p l a i n because  not considered  subjects  sample i n  are less  t h e two  i n this  study.  committed  t o any  180 one  position  when making a c t i o n c h o i c e s .  Further  b e f o r e any c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h i s Summary. ethical  While  Dilemma  e f f e c t was found  significantly Issues Test ethical  Type  x  Ethical  a t t i t u d e scores  than  Several  - P o l i t i c a l Attitude  The  found  relationship differed  effects  However,  significant  found  interaction  conservatism  scores  samples.  Dilemma  M=1.29, SD=1. 16, than there  subjects with  scores.  choices  Type  was  Subjects  conscience)  differ  chose  i n action  high  choice  a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n c h o i c e  There  x  were  no  statistically  o f the high  Ethical  found  for ethical  school  Attitude  x  attitude,  university t o choose  data.  Political  f o r the university  ( l i b e r a l i s m ) were found  fewer a c t i o n s i n compliance w i t h  action  interaction  presented.  i n the a n a l y s i s  effect  to the results  Further,  sample, a  reservations concerning the  between p o l i t i c a l  f o r t h e two  significant  low  Political  of personal  d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  A c t i o n Choice  Similar  school  between  on t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t , b u t s u b j e c t s w i t h  f o r t h e two dilemma t y p e s .  Attitude  x  found  fewer a c t i o n s i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a u t h o r i t y on t h e D e f i n i n g  a t t i t u d e scores  a  was  f o r the high  Attitude  (ethics  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s were  scores  finding.  relationship  scores  i s required  f o r u n i v e r s i t y subjects action choice scores.  low e t h i c a l  scores  significant  a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n c h o i c e  significant  with  no  research  sample.  subjects  significantly  a u t h o r i t y on t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  on t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t ;  was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  h i g h and low c o n s e r v a t i s m  significant scores  but. n o t f o r t h e A l t e r n a t e  Test,  M=3.-18, SD= 1.19.  d i f f e r e n c e between  f o r D e f i n i n g Issues  Dilemmas  with  Test  action  Test  choice  181 The for of  same i s s u e s r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g  the  ethical  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e are  also relevant here.  t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemma T e s t dilemmas and  criticism  on  the  grounds o f both  The  action choices  reliability  and  results adequacy  i s subject  validity.  to  Additional f  questions lack  of  can  be  raised  significance  s c h o o l sample may  about t h e measures o f  of  the  political  political  attitude.  attitude variable for  be a f u n c t i o n o f t h e poor r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e  The  the  high  political  a t t i t u d e measure. Summary. variable  A  was  similar  found  for  pattern the  of  results  political  In  terms  of  action choice analyses  high 16% but  of  the  none  variance the  of  high  using  sample t h a t  of  proportion  terms  of  of  school  the  samples.  moral  development  (D  Index)  and  university  stepwise  procedure,  samples. indicated  the  accounted  for  Test  D  the  Defining  Test  action choice  of  considered the  accounted  for  Dilemma  Test  Alternate  data  for  D e f i n i n g Issues Issues  Index  and  Multiple  the  variables  variance  of  Choice  relationship  f o r the  analyses,  school  university  in  attitude  (Compliance w i t h A u t h o r i t y S c o r e ) , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e  varied  regression  the  ethical  attitude variable  a c t i o n c h o i c e s c o r e s f o r both h i g h s c h o o l and  M o r a l Development - A c t i o n  f o r the  a  scores,  significant  action  choice  accounted  for a  scores. For  the  university  sample, t h e  only v a r i a b l e that  significant  amount o f t h e v a r i a n c e was  ed  of  f o r 29%  scores.  the  variance  of  the  political  Defining  a t t i t u d e which  Issues  Test  action  accountchoice  182 Other  studies  have r e p o r t e d  (Cooper,  1972; M a r t i n ,  a significant  relationship  Shafto,  & Van D e i n s e ,  between moral  1977)  development and  dilemma a c t i o n c h o i c e : Cooper  (1972)  determined  science d o c t o r a l students Defining  Issues  Test  that  mpral  report  dilemmas:  f o r t h e Escaped  that  i s , they  equal  opportunity  printing  f o r t h e Newspaper dilemma.  liberal"  pattern score, ranging score  hiring  was  opposing  liberal"  action  by Cooper  represent  alignment  dilemma.  Martin  with  significantly  against high  were  The present  compliance study  represent university compliance  tarian-liberal  the  dilemma,  f o r Doctor and n o t s t o p  "humanitarian-  t h a t t h e "humani-  considered  defined  correlated  as  by M a r t i n  .34  that  "humanitarian-  e t a l . (1977) t o  the exception  o f t h e Webster  i n f i v e dilemmas  (Webster i s  to a l i g n with e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y (p_<.05) than  The sample  used  authority action choice  i s based with  on a  dilemma  actions  law o r a person  boss,  and  a u t h o r i t y would  mean  scale.  for  d i d those  included  who went  junior  high,  students.  administrator, with  t o those  Stage 4 scores  with  compliance  He found  significantly  authority, with  established authority.  s c h o o l and c o l l e g e  a  i n the  s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y s u b j e c t s .  e t a l . (1977) found  higher  euthanasia  Cooper d e v e l o p e d  from 0 t o 6.  the e x c e p t i o n ) , s u b j e c t s who d e c i d e d had  steal  f o r t h e Webster dilemma  decisions  (1972)  advocated  dilemma,  statistically  w i t h t h e P Index f o r 160 h i g h The  political  f o r t h e Student Take-over  Prisoner  dilemma,  tarian-liberal"  and  tended t o make t h e same a c t i o n c h o i c e s  Heinz and t h e Drug dilemma, t a k e o v e r not  philosophy  score  which  employed  are considered  i n authority,  principal. a low s c o r e  i n the  A  high  that i s , score f o r  on Cooper's  F o r example, t h e d e c i s i o n t o s t e a l  to  humani-  i n t h e Heinz  183 and  the  Drug dilemma would be  but  scored In  Scores  scored  zero  f o r compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y  1 f o r the h u m a n i t a r i a n - l i b e r a l p a t t e r n .  the  present  and  P  study,  Index.  the  D  However,  Index was  these  used  scores  r a t h e r than  were  the  Stage  c a l c u l a t e d to  allow  comparison w i t h o t h e r  s t u d i e s (see Appendices B and C ) .  developed  later  was  1979a).  The  and  D  not  Index,  as  generally an  used  overall  until  measure  thus  taken  to  be  more  inclusive  and  a  more  after  of  i n c o r p o r a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n Stage Scores  The  moral  and  D Index 1977  was  (Rest,  development,  the P Index and  valid  measure  of  is  moral  development.  tion  For  the  university  was  found  action choice 5A,  5B  and  P  significantly r(33)=.67, £<.001,  subjects  between t h e D scores. Index  Index  and  university  the  of  compliance  sample may  and  Stage  4  choice  and  Stage  5A  results  be  the  for  no  Cooper  with  and  the  C-2),  thus  Test  Issues  Stage 4,  were Test  statistically action  £<.01;  supporting  Stage  the  scores,  r(33)=-.53, findings  of  (1972). significant authority  and  the  statements  i n the  correla-  compliance with a u t h o r i t y  r(33)=-.50,  a r e s u l t o f the  5B  significant  subjects  Defining  £<.01;  Table  statements  i s combined  occurred  and  university  statistically  choice  information  of  r(33)=.44,  M a r t i n e t a l . (1977) and lack  Index s c o r e s  c o r r e l a t e d with  r e s p e c t i v e l y (see  The  study,  However, t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s scores  p<.001;  in this  D  Index.  correlation  action choice  scores  positive correlation negative being  correlation  obscured  However, t h e  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  v a r i a b l e s , e t h i c a l a t t t u d e and p o l i t i c a l  between  stage  when  the  for  D the  of action of the  action stage  same p a t t e r n scores  and  of  other  a t t i t u d e , but t h e P Index and  D  184 Index  f o r each  sample  reflected  t h e same r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o r these  vari-  ables . The h i g h the  school  relationship  choice  was  Issues stage  found  scores.  Index  sample  between  For high  action  moral  difference  development  related Index  subjects,  score,  indices  the Defining  correlated  sample i n and  action  Issues  with  the  Test  D  Defining  r(66)=.40, p_<.001, b u t n o t w i t h t h e  i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o r the high  school  of  action  choice  and u n i v e r s i t y  score  was  18.00  (SD=5.98) f o r t h e h i g h  development Attitude SD=4.39  level.  scores  On  were  f o r the high  sample. n o t be  sample,  the other  indicating hand,  n o t as d i s p a r a t e school  sample  school  f o r t h e two  The same may be t r u e o f p o l i t i c a l compared  because  different  i n moral  of  samples,  and M=16.91, SD=5.11  be  and 28.80  spread  Survey  may  and  The mean D  sample  a wide  t h e mean  scores  samples  t o the l e v e l o f moral development o f t h e two g r o u p s .  (SD=8.80) f o r t h e u n i v e r s i t y  can  development  significantly  choice  from t h e u n i v e r s i t y  s c o r e s o r P Index. The  sity  moral  school  statistically  Test  also d i f f e r e d  Ethical M-17.04,  f o r the u n i v e r -  a t t i t u d e , b u t t h e means  measures  of p o l i t i c a l  attitude  were used f o r the two samples. Summary. development  The r e s u l t s  and a c t i o n c h o i c e  moral development Issues  D  level  used.  scores  v a r i e d depending on t h e index o f  For the high  school  sample, t h e D e f i n i n g  T e s t D Index was found t o account f o r 16% o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e  Defining the  o f the a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f moral  Issues  Index  Defining  Test  was  Issues  action choice  found  Test  t o be  action  Index were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  scores.  For the u n i v e r s i t y  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  scores,  however  c o r r e l a t e d with  c o r r e l a t e d with  t h e Stage 4  these  sample,  scores  action scores.  the  and P  None o f .  185 the of may  v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d , accounted t h e A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas be n e c e s s a r y  Test  to a d e q u a t e l y  for a significant  action choice  amount o f v a r i a n c e  scores.  Further  research  e x p l a i n these i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s .  Conclusions  The  effect  of  specified  variation  i n dilemma  content  development, a c t i o n c h o i c e , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e t h i c a l political  a t t i t u d e to these  v a r i a b l e s , as w e l l  on  moral  a t t i t u d e and  as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  moral development and a c t i o n c h o i c e , has been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s  of  study  and t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn: 1.  The  subjects'  overall  measured  between  moral  the Defining  development Issues  Test  level  does  dilemmas  not  and t h e  vary alter-  n a t i v e dilemmas as s c o r e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l means. 2.  The  f i n d i n g s concerning  s u b j e c t s ' choices o f a c t i o n s i n compliance  with  a u t h o r i t y f o r the two  tent  f o r the high  a.  For  the  subjects and b.  dilemma  school  sample,  d i d not d i f f e r  the  university  the  action  choice  f o r the D e f i n i n g Issues  with  sample,  authority  the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t  level  consis-  scores  Test  of  dilemmas  the a l t e r n a t e dilemmas.  For  The  are not e n t i r e l y  s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y samples.  high  compliance  3.  types  relationship as  Subjects  assessed with  low  between by  subjects  more  actions  f o r t h e a l t e r n a t e dilemmas  in  than f o r  dilemmas.  ethical  attitude  the D e f i n i n g  ethics of  chose  social  Issues  and  m o r a l development  Test  i s substantiated.  responsibility  scores  have  a  186 higher  moral  social  responsibility  The  development  level  than  subjects  the  relationship  m o r a l development l e v e l d i d not d i f f e r and  content,  subjects  have h i g h e r of s o c i a l The  low  action choice  ethical  both  social  than  attitude  types  of  Test  dilemma  responsibility  subjects with  and  high  scores ethics  scores. the  are  relationship not  of  consistent  ethical  f o r the  attitude  high  and  school  and  samples.  For the h i g h s c h o o l sample, e t h i c a l  For  of  For  e t h i c s of  moral development l e v e l  c h o i c e i s not b.  with  responsibility  university  e t h i c s of  for the D e f i n i n g Issues  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas.  findings regarding  dilemma  a.  the  high  scores.  f i n d i n g s concerning  dilemmas  with  the  a t t i t u d e and  dilemma a c t i o n  related.  university  sample, e t h i c a l  attitude i s related  choice o f a c t i o n s i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y f o r the Issues  Test  dilemmas.  responsibility  scores  authority  f o r the  with  ethics  low  subjects'  Subjects chose  Defining of  with  more  Issues  social  compliance  with  high  actions Test  in  scores  of  than  scores. for  the  Defining social  compliance  dilemmas  responsibility authority  ethics  to  with  subjects However,  the  alternate  dilemmas were not r e l a t e d t o e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s c o r e s . Political assessed  a t t i t u d e i s not by  the  Defining  related Issues  to  moral  Test  D  development  Index  or  the  level  as  Alternate  Dilemmas T e s t D Index. The  findings regarding  action choice d i f f e r  the  relationship  f o r the h i g h  of  political  s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y  attitude samples.  and  187 a.  There  i s no  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l  c h o i c e f o r the h i g h s c h o o l b.  For  the  university  a t t i t u d e and  scores.  Subjects  action Test  in  compliance  dilemmas  and The  i s no  high  For  a  relationship  Issues  Test  conservatism  authority with  for  between  attitude,  and  the h i g h  type,  ethical  more  Defining  Issues scores.  political  attitude  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas.  i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t o f t h e dilemma  political  school  choice  chose  conservatism  compliance w i t h a u t h o r i t y s c o r e s on t h e the  between  action  scores the  low  relationship  a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s are  f o r the h i g h s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y a.  is  Defining  subjects  f i n d i n g s concerning  ethical  there  with  than  However, t h e r e  the  with  action  sample.  sample,  political  a t t i t u d e and  different  samples.  sample, t h e r e  a t t i t u d e and  type,  i s no  political  interaction  a t t i t u d e on  of  dilemma  action  choice  ethics of  social  scores. b.  For  the  university  responsibility authority Dilemmas  scores  Test,  but  two  scores  authority  the  Test,  not d i f f e r  but  fewer  subjects did  not  with  chose  Defining  fewer Issues  subjects with  i n a c t i o n choice scores  Test  samples.  i n compliance  than  high in  their  actions Test high  f o r the  ethics of  Further, in  than  and  with  Alternate social  action  subjects  on  the  re-  choice  with  compliance  conservatism  f o r t h e two  a s s o c i a t i o n o f moral development l e v e l  f o r t h e two  low  actions  differ  dilemma t y p e s .  conservatism on  chose  D e f i n i n g Issues  scores  f o r the  Dilemmas  The  scores  f o r the  sponsibility  sample, s u b j e c t s w i t h  low with  Alternate scores  dilemma  did  types.  action choice v a r i e d  188 a.  For t h e h i g h assessed  school  sample, h i g h e r  by t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  m o r a l development  T e s t D Index  level  i s related  as  t o the  c h o i c e o f a c t i o n s i n compliance with a u t h o r i t y f o r the D e f i n i n g Issues  Test  related is, b.  dilemmas.  the  Defining of  dilemma  Issues  for best  in  that  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas. related  and type  P  Index  Test  are n o t  o f dilemma,  that  o r a l t e r n a t e dilemmas.  sample, m o r a l development l e v e l  actions  type,  score  for either  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t dilemmas  choice  The  Stage 4  to the a c t i o n choice  For t h e u n i v e r s i t y by  The  D  Index  compliance  i s , Defining  i s not  with  as  related  authority  Issues  assessed  Test  for  to  the  either  dilemmas  and  However, t h e S t a g e 4 s c o r e and P Index a r e  t o the c h o i c e  of actions  the D e f i n i n g Issues Test  i n compliance with  authority  dilemmas.  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e f o r action choice  differs  f o r the  two  samples. a.  F o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l sample, t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t D Index i s a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r o f the D e f i n i n g Issues  Test compliance with  authority  political  scores  than  ethical  attitude,  attitude,  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t D Index, sex or age. b.  For  the  university  sample,  political  attitude  is  a  better  p r e d i c t o r of the D e f i n i n g Issues Test compliance with a u t h o r i t y s c o r e than  the D Index o f the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t o r A l t e r n a t e  Dilemmas T e s t , e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e ,  sex o r age.  189 L i m i t a t i o n s of the  The  generalizability  of  the  results  Study  of  this  study  are  subject to  l i m i t a t i o n s o f s a m p l i n g , measurement, and methodology.  Sample The  h i g h s c h o o l sample  the f o l l o w i n g a.  i n the  study  can  be  d e s c r i b e d i n terms  of  characteristics:  Enrolled school  i n a Grade 11 Law  class  i n a suburban  British  Columbia  district.  b.  Ranged i n age  from 16 t o 20 w i t h a median age o f 17.07.  c.  V o l u n t a r i l y completed  The  university  a.  Enrolled  i n educational courses  Columbia  d u r i n g the summer.  sample  a l l measures.  i n the  s t u d y has  the  following  The  University  characteris-  tics:  b.  Ranged i n age  c.  Ranged  in  graduate d.  These  students  and,  educational  to ion  British  level  from  first  year  university  to  l e v e l w i t h a median y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n o f 16.33.  are not  a l l measures.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  therefore, generalization  l i m i t e d t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s who A further  of  from 20 t o 50 w i t h a median age o f 31.25.  V o l u n t a r i l y completed  samples  at  limitation  a l l high  s c h o o l and  of the r e s u l t s  university  of the study  are  f i t w i t h i n t h e above sample d e s c r i p t i o n s .  of the  t h e l o s s o f s u b j e c t s because  study  i s a possible  sampling  o f m i s s i n g d a t a o r t h e improper  o f the measurement i n s t r u m e n t s  used.  bias  due  complet-  190 Measurement Measurement  instruments  used  i n any  study  present  their  own  L i m i t a t i o n s on t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . The D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t i s a "paper alternative of  the  t o Kohlberg's  s i x dilemmas  i n the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s  statements  preference  f o r v a r i o u s s t a g e statements  t h e measure.  dilemmas various  which s u b j e c t s r a t e  The  alternate  i n the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s stage  statements  Consequently,  subjects  were are  T e s t t o stage statements  in  t h e measure  result,  may  i s f o l l o w e d by  stage  and rank.  As such, s u b j e c t s '  were  and  to those i n c l u d e d  designed  the number  to p a r a l l e l  and  order  the  o f the  t h e same as i n t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t .  also  restricted  i n the  Alternate  Dilemmas  development and dilemma  to recognize the l i m i t a t i o n s  imposed  by  this  The type o f dilemmas and stage statements i n c l u d e d restrict  the responses  t h e s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s on  ization.  However,  s t u d y was  t o explore the e f f e c t  moral  Each  i n c l u d e d i n t h e measure.  i t i s important  type o f measurement.  development.  i s restricted  dilemmas Test  Test  In c o n s i d e r i n g the r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g moral content,  o b j e c t i v e l y scored  i n t e r v i e w measure o f moral  prototypic  in  and p e n c i l "  made by t h e s u b j e c t .  the measure  i t s h o u l d be noted  that  may  have  an i m p o r t a n t  As  a  limited  general-  reason  for this  o f v a r y i n g dilemma c o n t e n t on s u b j e c t s '  development s c o r e s . Another  complexity  limitation  o f t h e response  r a t e t h e statements t h e dilemma, dilemma.  of  rank  (1979b)  show i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  task  Defining  Issues  f o r t h e measure.  i n terms o f t h e i r  and t h e n  Rest  the  importance  t h e f o u r most  recommended  i n the r a t i n g  format  i s the  S u b j e c t s must  first  i n making a d e c i s i o n i n  important  excluding  Test  statements  f o r each  subjects' protocols that  and r a n k i n g o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s .  Rest  191 (1979b)  indicated  usually  i n the  subjects of  the  as  that  the  range o f  a  2%  r e s u l t of  study.  inconsistencies  On  the  are  not  lost to  the  data  15%.  due  hand,  excluded  the  Sampling  consistency  other  to  consistency  bias,  due  check, may  if  protocols  study, the  is  loss  of  the  a f f e c t the  subjects'  from a  to  check  findings that  f i n d i n g s may  have  also  be  biased. The  Survey  measures,  the  of  Ethical  and  objectively  measures.  various  subjects In Economic  scored  involve  the  statements  considered  in  and  the  Individualism/Collectivism  Conservatism Scale,  measures  Attitudes  the  indication  or  general, of  to  the  type  of  the  Conservatism  responses  or  involved  political  scores  consistencies  reliabilities  and  a t t e n u a t e any  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t may  reflected  this  means  in  these with  therefore, in  be  classifying  attitude. Scale  and  relatively  that  pencil  disagreement  should,  Individualism/Collectivism Scale  Politico-Economic  item  task  attitude  a l s o paper and  Results  i n terms o f e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e and addition,  are  agreement  "catch-phrases."  relation  Scale,  Conservatism Scale In  political  Politico-  low  measurement  internal error  may  c o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses i n t h i s study a f f o r d l i m i t a t i o n s of  the  exist.  Methodology The  r e s u l t s to the The  description of strengths of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  results  considered  with  of  median  terms of  multivariate  caution  continuous v a r i a b l e s , The  the  s c o r e was  because  that the  ethical attitude  of  analysis the  artificial  i s , ethical attitude  s p e c i f i e d point or  political  of  and  variance dichotomy political  used t o d i v i d e attitude.  y •  A  the  must  be  of  two  attitude.  subjects  l i m i t a t i o n of  in  this  192 approach t o grouping and  slightly  below t h e median  groups a l t h o u g h tion  to this  variable mean  s u b j e c t s i s t h a t s u b j e c t s who s c o r e d s l i g h t l y will  t h e y may have s i m i l a r approach  t h a t can take  lowered  score  i s that  be c l a s s i f i e d  characteristics.  considerable  on a range o f v a l u e s  correlations  with  variance  into  different  Another  limita-  i s lost  when  i s dichotomized.  for this  analyses noted  reported  above  compared  to  may  o t h e r v a r i a b l e s and even n o n s i g n i f i c a n t  involves  the  herein.  However,  well  have  the p o s s i b l e  a  T h i s may  r e s u l t s when i n f a c t t h e t e s t e d r e l a t i o n s may be s i g n i f i c a n t . remedy  above  use  of  correlational  the nature  and  regression  o f the instruments  truncated  t h e range o f s c o r e s  range  scores  of  A partial  i f more  obtained  highly  as as  reliable  measures o f t h e c o n s t r u c t s i n q u e s t i o n were o b t a i n a b l e . Limitations  o f the study  have  been  presented  and have  been  con-  s i d e r e d when s t a t i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations o f t h e s t u d y .  I m p l i c a t i o n s and Recommendations  o f t h e Study  T h i s study r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f t h e e f f e c t o f dilemma c o n t e n t on t h e assessment  o f moral development.  i n dilemma c o n t e n t  Relevant  t o the p a r t i c u l a r  s t u d i e d was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e t h i c a l  variation  a t t i t u d e and  political  a t t i t u d e t o moral development and dilemma a c t i o n c h o i c e s u s i n g  different  dilemma t y p e s  the t h e o r y and p o t e n t i a l  will  be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n  educational uses.  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o r e s e a r c h  to the testing of  Recommendations -of t h e study design.  193 Implications T e s t i n g o f the t h e o r y . development ethical  and  action  attitude  implications judgment.  r e s u l t s of  choice,  and  and  political  for Rest's Ethical  The  the  attitude  was  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  i n t e r a c t i o n of  attitude  (1979a) and  the  with  dilemma  these  assessed  by  Rest's  the D e f i n i n g With  This  found  Issues Test  the  discriminate  Survey  tradition.  On are  punishment  and  order,  to  and  the  of  to  be  importance o f  basis  the  related  to  part  e x i s t i n g laws and  and  Index  Alternate  moral  that  is  judgment,  (1970)  intuitive  Issues Test  D Index,  a continuum  from  maintaining  the  an  t o an  to for and  subject's  orientation of  family  both perspectives  tradition  criteria  e x i s t i n g laws  t o moral p r i n c i p l e s .  of  sought  and  social  The  critical  i s the  relative  individual in resolving  conflict. Previous  1976)  studies  indicated  that  (e.g.,  "law  and  conservatism  order" as  Haan,  Kohlberg's  a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l of  of  o f making a p p e a l s be  personal,  Defining  one  Hogan  p r e f e r to r e l y on  i n terms o f  appears t o  D  a common a s p e c t  measures o f  Attitudes,  t h o s e who  to  the  Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s .  prefer  o f the  obedience, one  respective  Ethical  and  evaluated  dimension that  moral  and  between t h o s e who  making m o r a l d e c i s i o n s  responses  Hogan's  has  Hogan's (1970) c o n c e p t i o n s o f m o r a l  f i n d i n g draws a t t e n t i o n t o and  content,  variables,  (moral development l e v e l ) o f b o t h t h e D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t Dilemmas T e s t .  moral  i s a l s o an  defined  by  &  moral  stages  a t t i t u d e and  Block,  1968, and  activism.  Woll  &  Hogan's The  Cozby, ethical  same c r i t e r i a  aspect  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s l i b e r a l i s m from  these  researchers.  activism  i s generally  with  e x i s t i n g establishment.  the  defined  Smith  by  civil  Further,  disobedience or  Thus, the  political  dissatisfaction  r e l a t i o n s h i p found  between  194 the p o l i t i c a l be  a  a t t i t u d e measures and  f u n c t i o n of t h e  laws and  tradition  However,  seem  measure  be  more  the  legal  i n the  nonconformance.  or  The  social  evidence  t h a t the  Defining  Issues  preference  for  norms;  be  model  based  Survey  rather  Test the  existing  of  Ethical  of  on  moral  moral  judgment  different  criteria  levels  the  ethics  that  reasoning.  One  of  f o r peer p r e s s u r e  and  a l s o does not appear t o warrant  the  of  social  responsibility  i s less  "morally  vary  may  b a s i s of  their  reasoning to j u s t i f y they  may  justify  nonconformity,  their  their  or  acknowledges  J u s t as i n d i v i d u a l s  the  of  t o measure  mature" than the e t h i c s o f p e r s o n a l c o n s c i e n c e . on  to  treatment.  the o t h e r hand, t h e e v i d e n c e that  i s purported  i t i s assumed  not conform on t h e b a s i s o f c o n c e r n  to p r o t e s t unjust  conclusion  for  s t r u c t u r e s o f r e a s o n i n g t h a t u n d e r l i e conformance  may  i n d i v i d u a l may  On  the  relative  Rest's  nonconformance  another  preference  may  f o r making d e c i s i o n s .  from  warranted.  than  to  differences  judgment measures  the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t are measuring the same t h i n g does  to  conformity  moral  t h a t each a s s e s s e s  as c r i t e r i a  concluding  A t t i t u d e s and not  extent  the two  they  also  c o n f o r m i t y t o e s t a b l i s h norms.  a c t i o n s on  use For  may  different example,  t h e b a s i s o f punishment o r on  prin-  c i p l e s of social contract. Neither  the  tudes  directly  focus  on  D e f i n i n g Issues  assesses  preference  Compliance  with  choice  actions  of  the  Authority action the  w i t h t h e law o r person  was  to  be  related  to  the  action  score  was  Issues  In  the  calculated Test  in authority.  ethical  Survey  of  Ethical  Atti-  i n a dilemma; .but i n s t e a d  statements.  Defining  compliance found  nor  choice of  for various  in  Test  attitude,  present on  dilemmas The  study,  the  basis  of  that  were  in  action choice  political  a  attitude  score and  195 dilemma c o n t e n t  f o r the  university  sample, but  not  f o r the  high  school  sample. One  i m p l i c a t i o n of  the  divergent  university  sample i s t h a t t h e  may  on  depend  certain  interesting  characteristics  Issues  Test  school  sample, but  choice  scores  jects'  Stage 4  This  has  finding  action choice not  were  scores  and  i n the  f o r the to  and  implications  of  the  related  sample.  positively  the  use  of  was  to the D  to  the  i n the p r e s e n t  study.  in  the  construing  have r e l e v a n c e a r e not  the  person's  T h i s v a r i a b l e may Other  subject  cognitive  reasons  considered  P  Index  sub-  scores.  indices  behavior  high  action  university  different  of  and  the  f o r the  indices.  not be  content  i n making  important  to t h e  similarities,  responses  subject  however,  may  t o t h e dilemmas,  but  moral.  or  developmental  motives  However,  must from  be  perspective examined  of  be  Hogan's p e r s p e c t i v e , m o r a l i t y  may  be  the  the  and in  Kohlberg's  of  moral  development  compliance stages  ethical  with  of reasoning  attitude,  political  v a r i a b l e s with authority and  a  may  the  is  content  implication of  attitude,  regard that  An  an  (1979a), act  r e f e r e n c e to the p e r s o n ' s t h o u g h t .  interplay  Rest  before  determined w i t h o u t  actions  Index f o r t h e  considered.  From  content  Defining  the o n l y dilemma c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e c o n s i d e r e d  dilemma.  to t h e  t h a t the  their  r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t m o r a l development a t t i t u d e was  study  example,  to  D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t i n s t u d i e s o f moral c h o i c e and  Political  and  for  Further, the  related  negatively related  for  school  level.  study  university  be  sample used,  educational present  s c o r e was  found  high  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a r i a b l e s under  l e v e l o f m o r a l development, age, An  f i n d i n g s f o r the  to  the  dilemma  choice  attention  o f r e a s o n i n g may  to  of  both  provide  196 the  basis  for  a  better  understanding  of  the  moral  decision-making  process. Education. value  K o h l b e r g ' s moral r e a s o n i n g approach i s one o f t h e major  e d u c a t i o n programs  in  the  1978).  M o r a l e d u c a t i o n programs  involve  classroom discussions  induce  the  individual  conflicts.  By  thinking, moral  the  seeing  evaluate  moral  Lawrence,  Issues  in a  think  1980;  Lockwood, typically  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g format d e s i g n e d t o  about  the  i s encouraged  Test  r e a s o n i n g used and  to  (Rest,  e d u c a t i o n programs 1980).  in  resolving  i n a d e q u a c i e s i n a way  find  new  ways  of  of  resolving  In  and  assessing  1974,  1979b)  intervention the  has  been  studies  effectiveness  used  to  (see review  of  educational  the p r o p e r t i e s o f the D e f i n i n g Issues Test d e f i n e the kinds o f  evidence that w i l l examination  of  development  important and  (Gow,  based on K o h l b e r g ' s approach  the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  individual  Defining  programs,  tive  today  conflicts. The  by  to  schools  be used t o i n d i c a t e  various  assumptions  approach  and  the D e f i n i n g  the meaning  i n moral development.  underlying  f o r judging the a d v i s a b i l i t y  for interpreting  growth  of  Kohlberg's/Rest's cogni-  Issues Test  o f such moral  an  An  individual's  by  educators i s  education moral  programs  development  score. Hogan (1970) had c h a l l e n g e d K o h l b e r g ' s assumption t h a t m o r a l s t a g e s represent stuctures  progressively of  reasoning.  more Hogan  advanced  and  qualitatively  (1970) p r o p o s e d  that  Kohlberg's higher  moral s t a g e s a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o e t h i c a l a t t i t u d e s r e p r e s e n t i n g ly  liberal  or  conservative  positions.  The  relationship  (1970) and R e s t ' s (1979a) measures o f m o r a l judgment  different  was  politicalof  Hogan's  investigated in  197 the  present  study.  The  comparison  of  the  p o i n t s u n d e r l y i n g the D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t six  stage  Survey  of  scheme, Ethical  and  Hogan's  Attitudes,  and weaknesses o f each An  implication  (1970)  was  different (1979b),  measure  undertaken  of  theoretical  based moral  al  and  o f the  present  study  f o r educators  liberalism.  Further,  c o n v e n t i o n s , and each  approach  by t h e t h e o r y .  Issues  Test  (Rest,  with  justice  and  the Survey  1979a)  is  concerned  but  also  for  c o g n i t i v e developmental  only  to  politic-  i s limited  The D e f i n i n g  reasoning  about  f o r important  increasing  the  nonconformance.  r e s e a r c h has  significance  program " a p p l i c a t i o n s "  understanding  of  D e f i n i n g Issues  logical  Test  considerations.  students'  i s subject to various conceptual In t h e  present  study,  the  for  or e v a l u a t i o n , development.  However, t h e meaning o f a s t u d e n t ' s m o r a l development s c o r e d e r i v e d the  to  o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n toward laws  and t r a d i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o conformance and  not  moral  two  Both approaches  of m o r a l i t y t h a t i s addressed  educators,  strengths  i s t h a t the  t h e dimension  Findings of  the  the  approach.  a p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n t o law and  conservatism  Kohlberg's  judgment,  to h i g h l i g h t  d i f f e r e n t approaches t o m o r a l i t y are not v a l u e - n e u t r a l . reflect  on  view-  and  from  methodo-  q u e s t i o n was  raised  about whether o r not dilemma c o n t e n t a f f e c t s moral development s c o r e s on the  Defining  influence possible scores.  Issues  moral  Test.  development  situation  and/or  Although scores test  dilemma  i n the  effects  content  present  are  was  study,  important  not  found  to  awareness  of  i n .interpreting  198 Recommendations f o r R e s e a r c h The  exploratory  definitive  Alternate  Test.  scores  artifact  the  Lack  derived  o f such  raised.  Issues  alternate  Test  dilemmas.  t h e assessment  presented  i n an i n t e r v i e w  of  a  significant  as t h e p a r t i c u l a r  permit  areas o f  t h e dilemmas i n t h e  difference  i n moral  or the s p e c i f i c This  law-authority  possibility  o f moral  could  development  format w i t h  dilemmas  used  i n the  statements s i m i l a r t o those i n  be  with  issue  r a i s e d by  investigated  Kohlberg's  by  dilemmas  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas p r e s e n t e d  r e s u l t s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p o l i t i c a l  m o r a l development and dilemma a c t i o n c h o i c e s u n i v e r s i t y samples.  The d i f f e r e n c e  may be a consequence o f u s i n g A recommendation of p o l i t i c a l  for further  in a  In  addition  high  school  and m o r a l  research  alternate  among  v a r i e d with the high  i n r e s u l t s f o r t h e two  dilemmas.  school samples  attitude.  would be t o use t h e same measure  dilemma  i n findings  for political  attitude,  samples d i f f e r e d i n terms o f t h e r e l a action  development.  choices,  dilemma  The i n c o n s i s t e n c y  type,  i n findings  i s needed t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f h i g h  subjects  with  samples.  and u n i v e r s i t y  attitude  university  research  to the v a r i a t i o n  found  attitude  d i f f e r e n t measures o f p o l i t i c a l  a t t i t u d e f o r both  tionship  that  not  format.  The  the  does  However, s e v e r a l  to p a r a l l e l  t h e use o f i s s u e  comparing  and  study  from t h e two d i f f e r e n t dilemma t y p e s may be  factors  Dilemma T e s t ,  Defining  similar  present  a r e s u g g e s t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y .  Issues  development  the  the  a l t e r n a t e dilemmas were w r i t t e n  Defining  an  of  answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s  further research The  nature  in political  attitude  and  ethical suggest  s c h o o l and  i n responses  to the  199 Conclusions  c o n c e r n i n g m o r a l judgment have been based p r i m a r i l y  research  involving  research  i s needed t o  using  nonstudent  tions.  Of  police  and  age of  samples  explore  the  as  samples r e p r e s e n t i n g  criminals'  the  the  present  attitudes  i n the  a wider range o f be  toward  a  study.  study o f  compliance  Further  present  ages and  study  occupa-  the  differences  of  with  authority  and  issues.  present  were not  in  questions raised  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t would  political-social In  students  on  study, v a r i a b l e s  explored.  such v a r i a b l e s  on  Further moral  such  research  as  socio-economic  status  i s needed t o a s s e s s the  development, p o l i t i c a l  attitude  and  and  effect ethical  attitude. The  effects  conservatism  and  In  i s another  action  addition,  choices  subjects  noncompliance  raise with  the  with these d e c i s i o n s .  political  for research  further on  when law,  by  the  as  well  moral  present  in p o l i t i c a l  attitude  subjects'  compliance with  authori-  the  findings of  t h i s study.  be p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n t h e , k i n d s o f making  or  explored.  suggested by  i t may  liberalism  p o l i c y having  suggested  cross-cultural differences  i s also  subjects,  toward  particular social  need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  interviewing that  shifts  subject  s o c i a l p o l i c i e s need to be The  ty  historical  i n N o r t h America on  repercussions study.  of  decisions as  the  regarding  association  issues  compliance of  other .  By  or  values  200  BIBLIOGRAPHY Abramowitz, S . I . , & N a s s i , A . J . (1981). 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S t r u c t u r e , c o n t e n t , and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f development i n K o h l b e r g ' s t h e o r y . In H. W e i n r e i c h Haste and D. Locke ( E d s . ) , M o r a l i t y i n t h e making, (pp. 73-85). New York: John W i l e y & Sons, L t d . Tomkins, S. (1963). L e f t and r i g h t : A b a s i c d i m e n s i o n o f i d e o l o g y and personality. In R. White ( E d . ) , The s t u d y o f l i v e s , ( p p . 388-411). New York: Atherton Press. Tomkins, S. (1964).  Polarity scale.  New  York:  Springer.  T s u j i m o t o , R.N. & N a r d i , P.M. (1978). A comparison o f K o h l b e r g ' s and Hogan's t h e o r i e s o f moral development. S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 41, 235-245. W e i n r e i c h - H a s t e , H. (1983). S o c i a l and moral c o g n i t i o n . In H. W e i n r e i c h - H a s t e and D. Locke ( E d s . ) , M o r a l i t y i n t h e making (pp. 87-108). New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons, L t d . Weissberg, R. (1976). C o n s e n s u a l a t t i t u d e s and a t t i t u d e P u b l i c O p i n i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 40, 349-359.  structure.  W i l s o n , G.D. (1970). Is t h e r e a g e n e r a l f a c t o r i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s ? E v i d e n c e from a f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m S c a l e . British J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 9, 101-107. W i l s o n , G.D. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Development and e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e C - S c a l e . In G.D. W i l s o n ( E d . ) , The p s y c h o l o g y o f c o n s e r v a t i s m (pp. .49-70). York: Academic P r e s s . W i l s o n , G.D., & P a t t e r s o n , J.R. Scale. Windsor, England:  (1970). Manual f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i s m N.F.E.R.  W i l s o n , R.W. & Schochet, G.J. ( E d s . ) . (1980). politics. New York: Praeger.  M o r a l development  and  New  210 Woll,  S.B., & Cozby, P.C. (1976). C a t e g o r y o f m o r a l judgment and a t t i t u d e s towards amnesty and the N i x o n pardon. P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , 2, 183-186.  Z i e g l e r , M., & A t k i n s o n , T.H. (1973). I n f o r m a t i o n l e v e l and d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of liberalism-conservatism. Multivariate Behavioral R e s e a r c h , 8, 195-212.  211  APPENDIX A ALTERNATE DILEMMAS TESTS  HENRY AND THE DRUG  In  Europe  a s c i e n t i s t d i s c o v e r e d a drug t h a t  t o o k i t f e e l v e r y good. have  a different  effect  However, t h e s c i e n t i s t knew t h a t t h e drug on a few p e o p l e .  t h e y would become v e r y v i o l e n t . t h e r e was no law a g a i n s t who bought towards would  the drug.  h i s wife  selling i t . taking  t h e drug, Henry became v e r y  and n e a r l y  killed  her.  He t o l d  money into  from  said,  it."  the s c i e n t i s t ' s  the s c i e n t i s t  about  the e f f e c t  and I'm  and t h o u g h t  a l l o f t h e drug  (Check  that the  going about  But  t o make breaking  and t h e f o r m u l a t o  protect other people. S h o u l d Henry s t e a l  violent  t h e drug t o anyone e l s e .  became d e s p e r a t e  lab to steal  people  He knew t h e many o t h e r p e o p l e  "No, I d i s c o v e r e d t h e drug  So Henry  better,  Henry was one o f t h e f i r s t  After  buy t h e d r u g .  scientist  Instead o f f e e l i n g  could  S i n c e i t was a newly d i s c o v e r e d drug,  drug had on him and asked him n o t t o s e l l the  c o u l d make anyone who  t h e drug?  one).  Should s t e a l i t Can't d e c i d e Should not s t e a l i t  213 HENRY STORY  I/  On the l e f t hand s i d e o f the page check one o f the spaces by each q u e s t i o n t o i n d i c a t e i t s importance.  W  #/  ty ty £7 3«7ty as/  * v/  =9  v 1.  Whether upheld.  a  community's  laws  are  going  to  be  2.  I s n ' t i t o n l y n a t u r a l f o r a l o v i n g husband t o c a r e so much f o r h i s w i f e and p e o p l e l i k e her t h a t he'd s t e a l ?  3.  I s Henry w i l l i n g t o r i s k g e t t i n g shot as a b u r g l a r or g o i n g t o j a i l f o r the chance t h a t s t e a l i n g the drug might p r o t e c t o t h e r p e o p l e ?  4.  Whether Henry i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l has c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e w i t h wrestlers.  5.  Whether Henry i s s t e a l i n g f o r h i m s e l f or t h i s s o l e l y to p r o t e c t other people.  6.  Whether the s c i e n t i s t ' s r i g h t s t o h i s d i s c o v e r y have t o be r e s p e c t e d .  7.  Whether the essence of living encompassing than the t e r m i n a t i o n s o c i a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y .  8.  What v a l u e s a r e g o i n g t o be the b a s i s f o r g o v e r n i n g how p e o p l e a c t towards each o t h e r .  9.  Whether the s c i e n t i s t i s g o i n g t o be a l l o w e d t o h i d e behind a w o r t h l e s s law which o n l y p r o t e c t s those who harm o t h e r p e o p l e anyhow.  w r e s t l e r , or professional  doing  is more of dying,  10. Whether the law i n t h i s case i s g e t t i n g i n the way o f the most b a s i c c l a i m s o f members o f society. 11. Whether the s c i e n t i s t d e s e r v e s t o be robbed being so greedy and c r u e l . 12. Would s t e a l i n g i n such a case b r i n g about t o t a l good f o r the whole s o c i e t y or n o t . From the l i s t  o f q u e s t i o n s above, s e l e c t  the f o u r most  important:  Most i m p o r t a n t  T h i r d most important  Second most  F o u r t h most  important  important  for  more  214 STUDENT REVOLT  At t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A.D., a group o f s t u d e n t s c a l l e d Revolution  (SFR) b e l i e v e  government  i f i t s policies  regularly trained sity  didn't  agree  that  any means were  not  should  acceptable  i n methods o f w a r f a r e . with  t h e SFR.  The  be used to  t o overthrow them.  Many s t u d e n t s students  SFR that  agreement w i t h t h e s e  from  the u n i v e r s i t y .  he wanted  The  thought  that  SFR  t h e SFR  1  students, the p r o f e s s o r s voted  t o ban t h e  But t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y  t o continue  a  a t the univer-  s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o h o l d m e e t i n g s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y . In  Students f o r  stated  t o a l l o w t h e SFR t o have t h e i r m e e t i n g s on  campus. So,  one  University's They  said  Students  day  last  April,  hundreds  Administration building  they  were  doing  this  and t o l d  to force  f o r R e v o l u t i o n (SFR) from meeting  Should  the students  have  of  taken  over  students everyone  walked  the  else to get out.  the U n i v e r s i t y on t h e u n i v e r s i t y  t o stop the campus.  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g ?  (Check one)  Yes, t h e y s h o u l d take i t over Can't  into  decide  No, t h e y s h o u l d n o t take i t over  .  215 STUDENT REVOLT  1.  Are the s t u d e n t s d o i n g t h i s t o r e a l l y help o t h e r p e o p l e or are t h e y d o i n g i t j u s t f o r kicks?  2.  Do the s t u d e n t s have any r i g h t t o take p r o p e r t y t h a t doesn't belong t o them.  3.  Do the s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e arrested and f i n e d , and school?  4.  Would t a k i n g over the b u i l d i n g i n the l o n g b e n e f i t more p e o p l e t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t ?  5.  Whether the p r e s i d e n t s t a y e d w i t h i n the o f h i s a u t h o r i t y i n i g n o r i n g the f a c u l t y  6.  W i l l the t a k e - o v e r anger a l l s t u d e n t s a bad name.  7.  Is t a k i n g over a b u i l d i n g p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e ?  8.  Would a l l o w i n g one s t u d e n t t a k e - o v e r many o t h e r s t u d e n t t a k e - o v e r s .  9.  D i d the p r e s i d e n t b r i n g t h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g on h i m s e l f by being so unreasonable and uncooperative.  that even  the  over  t h e y might be e x p e l l e d from  public  run  limits vote.  and  give  consistent  with  encourage  10. Whether r u n n i n g the u n i v e r s i t y ought t o be i n t h e hands o f a few a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or i n the hands o f a l l the p e o p l e . 11. Are the s t u d e n t s f o l l o w i n g principles they b e l i e v e are above the law.  which  12. Whether or not u n i v e r s i t y d e c i s i o n s ought t o be r e s p e c t e d by From the l i s t  students.  o f q u e s t i o n s above, s e l e c t  the f o u r most  important:  Most important  T h i r d most important  Second most  F o u r t h most  important  important  BULLY  A man had been committing never one  enough e v i d e n c e  to convict  He l i v e d  time,  unemployed.  he had been  other people.  men  reason. from  about  He b u l l i e d  f o r 10 y e a r s .  him.  a r e a , he moved on t o another  name o f R o b e r t s .  no  crimes  in this  area  He l i v e d  others, l i e d ,  Mr. R o b e r t s '  beat  f o r 8 years  many c r i m e s i n and took on t h e and d u r i n g  this  o f f what he c o u l d s t e a l  from  cheated  and s t a r t e d  an o l d n e i g h b o u r  up and k i l l  activities.  committing  area o f the country  Then one day, Mrs. Smith,  t h e community  After  However, t h e r e was  Mr. R o b e r t s .  fights for  saw a group o f She had heard  She r e c o g n i z e d t h e men who were i n t h e  group t h a t k i l l e d him. S h o u l d Mrs. Smith r e p o r t t h e men t o the p o l i c e ?  (Check one)  S h o u l d r e p o r t t h e men Can't  decide  S h o u l d n o t r e p o r t t h e men.  217 BULLY  •  1.  Hasn't Mr. Roberts been bad enough for such a long time to prove he isn't a good person?  2.  Whether allowing the men to escape punishment for a crime would encourage more crime?  3.  Wouldn't we be better o f f without l e g a l r i g h t s for people l i k e Mr. Roberts and the oppression of our l e g a l system?  4.  Whether or not the law ought to be respected.  5.  Would society be f a i l i n g what Mr. the men should f a i r l y expect?  6.  What b e n e f i t s society?  7.  How could anyone be so c r u e l to k i l l a man?  8.  Would i t be f a i r to a l l the prisoners who to go to j a i l for t h e i r crimes i f these were not reported?  had men  9.  Was Mrs. Smith an enemy of these men thinking of other people?  she  would  Roberts  p r i s o n s be  and  apart  or  from  heartless  as  or was  10. Wouldn't i t be a c i t i z e n ' s duty to report crime, regardless of the circumstances?  a  11. How would the w i l l of the people and the p u b l i c best be served? 12. Would reporting these men society or protect anybody?  do  any  good  From the l i s t of questions above, select the four most important: Most important  Third most important  Second most important  Fourth most important  for  218 DOCTOR  A l a d y had been i n a bad c a r a c c i d e n t and needed to  live.  She  to  to sign  refused  contacted. the  i n order  She was i n t e r r i b l e p a i n , b u t t h e s u r g e r y c o u l d save h e r l i f e .  refused  also  surgery  t h e papers  to t e l l  anyone  t o allow h e r name  the surgery so t h a t  t o proceed.  her family  could  Without h e r p e r m i s s i o n , t h e d o c t o r c o u l d n o t l e g a l l y  surgery.  She s a i d  she c o u l d n ' t  stand the pain  She be  perform  and t h a t she wanted  d i e anyway. What s h o u l d t h e d o c t o r do?  Should Can't Should  (Check one)  go ahead w i t h t h e s u r g e r y and save h e r l i f e decide not perform  the surgery  219  ._,  1.  Whether the woman's family would be i n favor o f the surgery i f they knew about i t .  2.  Is the doctor obligated by the same laws as everybody else i f performing the surgery would be saving her l i f e ?  3.  Whether people would be much better o f f without society regimenting their l i v e s and even t h e i r deaths.  4.  Whether the doctor could make she had given permission.  5.  Does the d o c t o r have the r i g h t t o f o r c e continued existence on those who don't want t o live?  6.  What i s the value of death p r i o r perspective on personal value?  7.  Whether the doctor has sympathy for the woman's suffering or cares more about what s o c i e t y might think.  8.  Is a l l o w i n g another's l i f e t o end ever responsible act of cooperation?  9.  Whether only God should decide when a person's l i f e should end.  i t appear  like  to society's  a  10. What values the doctor has set for himself i n his own personal code of behavior? 11. Can society afford to l e t everybody end t h e i r l i v e s when they want to? 12. Can society allow s u i c i d e s or mercy k i l l i n g and s t i l l protect the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who want to l i v e ? From the l i s t of questions above, select the four most M o s t  important  Second most  important  important:  Third most important Fourth most  important  220 MR.  Mr. wanted  Winston  to  hire  accountants needed  around.  was  One  While from  and manager o f a b u s i n e s s company.  accountant  Many  job.  group.  accountant  t h e owner  another  f o r the  minority  was  WINSTON  of of  Mr.  a  and  the the  seemed  applicants applicants,  Winston  minority  there  he  the  Mr.  himself  group,  had  to  many  good  qualifications  Banner,  didn't was  be  He  care  was  from  whether  concerned  about  a  the his  customers. Many o f Mr. Winston's customers were p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t nationalities.  He  was  afraid  t h e y would  i f he d i d n ' t h i r e someone from a m i n o r i t y  take t h e i r  the  applicants  applicants  who  were white t h a t  a c c u s e d Mr.  he had been d i s c r i m i n a t e d  and  b u s i n e s s elsewhere  group.  Mr. Winston d e c i d e d t o h i r e Mr. Banner other  races  f o r t h e j o b and t o t e l l  t h e j o b had  been  filled.  Winston o f u n f a i r h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s .  the  One He  of felt  a g a i n s t because o f h i s r a c e .  What s h o u l d Mr. Winston have done?  (Check  one)  S h o u l d have h i r e d Mr.  Banner  Can!t d e c i d e S h o u l d not have h i r e d  him.  221 MR.  WINSTON  1.  Does the owner o f a b u s i n e s s have the r i g h t make h i s own b u s i n e s s d e c i s i o n s or not?  2.  Whether t h e r e discrimination of race.  3.  Whether Mr. Winston i s p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t whites h i m s e l f or whether he means n o t h i n g p e r s o n a l i n r e f u s i n g the j o b .  4.  Whether hiring a good a c c o u n t a n t or paying a t t e n t i o n t o h i s customers' wishes would be best f o r h i s business?  5.  What i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ought t o be r e l e v ant i n d e c i d i n g how s o c i e t y ' s r o l e s are f i l l e d ?  6.  Whether the greedy and c o m p e t i t i v e c a p i t a l i s t i c system ought t o be c o m p l e t e l y abandoned.  7.  Do a m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e i n Mr. Winston's s o c i e t y f e e l l i k e h i s customers or are a m a j o r i t y against reverse d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n hiring?  8.  Whether h i r i n g men l i k e Mr. Banner would use t a l e n t s and e v e n t u a l l y be good f o r s o c i e t y i n the l o n g r u n .  9.  Would r e f u s i n g the j o b t o a white a p p l i c a n t be consistent with Mr. Winston's own moral beliefs?  i s a law in hiring  to  that forbids reverse f o r j o b s on the b a s i s  10. C o u l d Mr. Winston be so h a r d - h e a r t e d as t o r e f u s e the j o b t o any o f the white a p p l i c a n t s knowing how much i t means t o them? k  __  11. Whether the C h r i s t i a n v a l u e t o be f e l l o w man a p p l i e s i n t h i s c a s e . 12. I f  someone's  competent,  shouldn't  kind to  he  r e g a r d l e s s o f what you g e t from the From tne l i s t  o f q u e s t i o n s above, s e l e c t  the f o u r most  T h i r d most important  Second most  F o u r t h most  hired  customers?  important:  Most important important  be  your  important  PAPER  Mike,  a  newspaper wanted  senior  f o r students  t o support  support  i n high  so t h a t  publication  could  rules,  like  to publish a  promote  mimeographed  school  of military  the rule  spirit.  spending  He  and t o  f o r b i d d i n g students  punk c l o t h e s .  When Mike permission.  he  t h e government's p o l i c i e s  some o f t h e s c h o o l ' s  from wearing  s c h o o l , wanted  was  starting  The p r i n c i p a l Mike  would  approval.  Mike agreed  principal  approved  h i s newspaper, said  turn  he asked  i t would be a l l r i g h t  in a l lhis articles  and Mike  i f before  f o r the  and t u r n e d i n s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s  a l l o f them  his principal for  published  every  principal's  f o r approval. two  issues  The  of the  paper i n t h e next two weeks. But receive  the p r i n c i p a l so much  had n o t e x p e c t e d  attention.  that  A few s t u d e n t s  Mike's  newspaper  were so u p s e t  would  by t h e p a p e r  t h a t t h e y began t o o r g a n i z e p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e .punk c l o t h e s r e g u l a t i o n and  other  Mike's  school  rules.  Angry  opinions.  They  phoned  newspaper was t o o p a t r i o t i c the  rising  excitement,  parents  the p r i n c i p a l  students  telling  and s h o u l d n o t be p u b l i s h e d .  the p r i n c i p a l  ordered  He gave as a r e a s o n t h a t Mike's a c t i v i t i e s al  o f these  Mike  him  the p r i n c i p a l  that  the  As a r e s u l t o f  t o stop p u b l i s h i n g .  i n t e r f e r e d with the i n d i v i d u -  r i g h t s o f some s t u d e n t s . Should  objected to  s t o p t h e newspaper?  (Check one) '  Should  stop i t  Can't decide Should  not s t o p i t .  223  1.  Is the p r i n c i p a l more responsible to or to parents?  students  2.  Did the newspaper or d i d he one issue  3.  Would the students continue to protest even i f the p r i n c i p a l stopped tne newspaper?  4.  When a right of an i n d i v i d u a l i n the school i s threatened, does the p r i n c i p a l have the r i g h t to give an order to students?  5.  Does tne p r i n c i p a l have the freedom of to say "no" in t h i s case?  6.  If the p r i n c i p a l stopped the newspaper would he be preventing f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of student views?  7.  Whether the p r i n c i p a l ' s order lose f a i t h in the p r i n c i p a l .  8.  Whether Mike was r e a l l y concerned about another s t u d e n t ' s o p i n i o n and supported individual rights.  9.  What e f f e c t would stopping the paper have on the students' education in c r i t i c a l thinking and judgment?  p r i n c i p a l g i v e h i s word t h a t the could be published for a long time, just promise to approve the newspaper at a time?  speech  would make Mike  10. Whether Mike was in any way v i o l a t i n g r i g h t s of o t h e r s in publishing his opinions.  the own  11. Whether the p r i n c i p a l should be influenced by some angry parents when i t i s the p r i n c i p a l that knows best what i s going on i n the school. 12. Whether Mike was using the newspaper to s t i r hatred and discontent. From the l i s t of questions above, select the four most important: Most important  Third most important  Second most important  Fourth most important  up  APPENDIX B  HIGH SCHOOL SAMPLE - STAGE SCORES AND P INDEX  225 T a b l e B-1  H i g h S c h o o l Sample T e s t S t a t i s t i c s f o r S t a g e S c o r e s and P Index (N=68)  Defining Issues Test M  SD  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t M  SD  Stage 2  5.74  3.70  3.96  3.17  Stage 3  12.44  5.62  11.78  5.17  Stage 4  18.93  6.56  20.59  6.77  Stage 5A  12.31  6.10  13.15  6.20  S t a g e 5B  2.60  2.31  2.49  2.37  Stage 6  2.28  2.17  2.49  2.36  P Index  17.19  7.58  18.12  7.80  226 T a b l e B-2 H i g h S c h o o l Sample C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t a g e S c o r e s and P Index (N = 68)  SEA  IC  PEC  D Index ADT DIT  Action ADT DIT  D e f i n i n g Issues Test Stage 2  .06  -.00  Stage 3  .10  .04  Stage 4  .29*  .06  . 10  Stage 5A  -.27*  -.15  .06  .58***  S t a g e 5B  -.15  .04  -.03  Stage 6  -.02  -.02  P Index  -.27*  Alternate  Dilemmas  ..36**  -.35**  •• 17  -.08  -.36**  -.18  -.13  -.14  -.21  -.27*  .00  .01  .50***  .11  .09  .42***  .40***  .06  . 15  .04  .28*  .19  .22  .15  -. 11  .05  .67***  .58***  .17  . 16  .00  •. 18  -.28*  .04  -.09  Test  Stage 2  .11  .11  -.01  -.22  -.24  Stage 3  -.06  -.06  .02  -.22  -.26*  .05  .06  -.30*  ..39***  .08  .01  .34**  .56***  .03  .01  .26*  .33**  .04  . 12  Stage 4  Note:  . 15  .27*  S t a g e 5A  -.23  .11  -.05  Stage 5B  .02  .01  .01  Stage 6  -.09  .27*  -.04  .40***  .45***  .33**  .19  P Index  -.20  .00  -.05  .47***  .69**  .13  . 10  SEA IC PEC DIT ADT * ** ***  = = = = =  Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s Individualism/Collectivism Scale Politico-Economic Conservatism D e f i n i n g Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t p_<.05 p<.01 2<.001  227 Table  B-3  H i g h S c h o o l Sample Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e P Index f o r Two Dilemma Types f o r t h e F o u r Groups  Social  P  E t h i c s of Responsibility  Ethics of Personal Conscience  Conservatism n = 21 M SD  Liberalism n = 17 M SD  DIT  17.48  6.77  13.29  5.64  19.33  9.25  19.07  7.77  ADT  16.43  7.33  15.18  7.06  20.07  8.04  21.87  7.67  Conservatism n = 15 M SD  Liberalism n = 15 M SD  Index  Action  Note:  DIT  2.76  1. 14  2.76  1.15  2.47  1.30  2.53  1.13  ADT  2.67  1.24  2.29  1.21  2.07  .88  2.60  1.12  DIT ADT  = D e f i n i n g Issues Test = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  228 Table  B-4  H i g h S c h o o l Sample Summary D a t a f o r P Index and A c t i o n C h o i c e  2 x 2 x 2  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Repeated Measures Multivariate  Hotellings T  Univariate P Index F p_  Equiv F (df)  A c t i o n Choice F 2  ETH  .15  4.69(2,63;)  .013  7.11  .010  .83  .364  POL  .01  .30(2,63)  .742  .52  .474  .02  .897  ETH x POL  .03  .88(2,63)  .419  1.14  .290  1.06  .308  DIL  .05  1.63(2,63)  1.36  .247  2.02  . 160  .89  .350  .10  .758  2.56  .115  .00  .996  .07  .788  1.81  .183  i .205 DIL x ETH  .02  .49(2,63) .615  DIL x POL  .04  1.26(2,63) .291  DIL x ETH x POL  .03  .92(2,630 .405  Note:  ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e DIL = Dilemma Type  APPENDIX C  UNIVERSITY SAMPLE - STAGE SCORES AND P INDEX  230 Table  C-1  U n i v e r s i t y Sample T e s t S t a t i s t i c s f o r S t a g e S c o r e s and P Index  (N=35)  D e f i n i n g Issues Test  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  M  SD  M  SD  Stage 2  2.06  2.03  2.09  1.67  Stage 3  6.83  5.27  7.97  4.56  Stage 4  17.31  8.01  15.77  7.69  S t a g e 5A  18.40  5.77  16.46  6.87  S t a g e 5B  5.71  3.24  5.23  2.49  Stage 6  5.63  3.62  7.26  4.04  P Index  29.74  8.61  28.94  9.19  I  231 Table  C-2  U n i v e r s i t y Sample C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t a g e S c o r e s and P Index (N = 35)  D Index  SEA  D e f i n i n g Issues  DIT  ADT  DIT  ADT  Test  Stage 2  .61***  .03  -.54*** -.54*** _ .  Stage 3  .07  .19  -.31  Stage 4  .43**  .57*** -.44**  -.19 -.48**  0 5  -.08  > 0  6  -.06  .67*** -.02  Stage 5A  -.37*  -.60***  .47**  .43**  -.44**  .17  S t a g e 5B  -.42*  -.39*  .48**  .44**  -.50**  -.30  Stage 6  -.34*  -.22  .66***  .40*  -.11  -.01  P Index  -.55*** -.64***  .78***  .62*** -.53*** -.01  A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas Stage 2  Test .47**  Stage 3  -.10  Stage 4  Note:  CS  Action  .67***  .15  -.47**  -.52**  .17  -.04  -.29  .57*** -.58*** -.63***  -.03  -.04  .03  .44**  -.10  .23  .54*** -.36*  -.03  S t a g e 5A  -.40*  S t a g e 5B  -.63*** -.42*  .42*  .51**  -.26  -.04  Stage 6  -.29  .67***  .57*** -.14  .06  P Index  -.60*** -.62***  .58***  .79*** -.40*  .04  SEA CS DIT ADT  = = = =  -.25  Survey o f E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e s Conservatism Scale D e f i n i n g Issues Test A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  * £ < . 05 ** £<.01  ***  -.52***  .12  £< . 001  232 T a b l e C-3 U n i v e r s i t y Sample Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P Index f o r Two Dilemma Types f o r t h e F o u r Groups  Ethics of Personal Conscience  Ethics of Social Responsibility Conservatism (n=13) M SD  P  Liberalism (n=6) M SD  Conservatism (n=5) M SD  Liberalism (n=11) M SD  Index DIT  24.00  6.82  30.67  6.56  27.20  5.63  37.18  7.37  ADT  24.31  8.99  24.83  7.55  27.40  5.13  37.36  5.82  DIT  2.54  .88  1.83  .75  2.40  1.34  1.00  1.26  ADT  3.62  .65  2.83  .75  2.60  1.52  3.36  1.36  Action  Note:  DIT = D e f i n i n g I s s u e s T e s t ADT = A l t e r n a t e Dilemmas T e s t  233 Table  C-4  U n i v e r s i t y Sample Summary D a t a f o r P Index and A c t i o n C h o i c e  2 x 2 x 2  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Repeated Measures Multivariate  Hoteljings T  Equiv F  (df)  Univariate  £  P Index F £  A c t i o n Choice F £  ETH  .67  9.98(2,30)  .000  18.56  .000  3.62  .066  POL  .34  5.17(2,30)  .012  8.67  .006  3.02  .092  .09  1.34(2,30)  .278  2.07  .160  .45  .508  ETH  X  POL  i  DIL  1.31  19.62(2,30)  .000  .40  .530  40.53  .000  DIL  X  ETH  .10  1.47(2,30)  .245  .52  .478  2.25  .144  DIL  X  POL  .17  2.58(2,30)  .092  1.52  .226  4.32  .046  DIL  X  ETH x POL  .26  3.88(2,30)  .032  1.26  .270  6.03  .020  Note:  ETH = E t h i c a l A t t i t u d e POL = P o l i t i c a l A t t i t u d e DIL = Dilemma Type  

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