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A survey of school psychology practice in British Columbia Merx, Tanya M. 2003

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A SURVEY OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY PRACTICE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  By  Tanya M. Merx B.A., The University of Victoria, 1998  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL AND COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY, AND SPECIAL EDUCATION  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  July 2003 © Tanya M. Merx, 2003  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Columbia,  I  agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his  and  scholarly  or  thesis  study.  for  her  I  further  purposes  financial  gain  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  requirements  be  It  is  not  that  the  permission  granted  allowed  permission.  Department  of  tZfhu\hn(.\\ *~  The University of B r i t f h ^ o l u m B f a Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6  (2/88)  Pi/ft)  g Q ^  ft)*,1It/)) n  Library  by  understood be  for  fy\]Mvq\l 1  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  Abstract  Major questions regarding the roles of school psychologists and delivery system reforms have appeared in the school psychology literature over the last of couple decades (Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Jackson, Balinky, & Lambert, 1993; Jerrell, 1984; Lacayo, Morris, & Sherwood, 1981; Reschly, 1988; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Roberts & Rust, 1994). Consequently, many U.S. national survey studies have been conducted (Anderson, Cancelli, & Kratochwill, 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Curtis, Chesno Grier, Walker Abshier, Sutton, & Hunley, 2002; Fischer, Jenkins, & Crumbley, 1986; Hutton & Dubes, 1992; Lacayo et al., 1981; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Smith, 1984; Smith, Clifford, Hesley, & Leifgren, 1992; Stinnett, Havey, & Oehler-Stinnett,1994). However, there is little current empirical research on the roles and functions of school psychologists in British Columbia. Research is needed to help assess the state of the art in this province and explain what psychologists are doing. The profession of school psychology is unregulated in B.C. and so it is possible that persons practicing in the schools have a variety of training and offer a variety of services. Further, there is much existing uncertainty regarding the future path of the profession (Benson, 2002). The purpose of this study is to explore the job roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in B.C. and to examine the impact of various personal, professional, and job-site characteristics and external influences on job roles and functions. Survey methodology (N=42) was used with five select follow-up interviews for a sample of school psychologists around the province. Results revealed that the majority of respondents held a masters degree in school or educational psychology. Although respondents allocated a majority of their professional time to the role of assessment, school psychologists occupied a broad number of roles and desired to increase their time allocated to the other roles of interventions, consultation, counseling, and research and  ii  evaluation. Further, job roles were impacted by the number of students and schools served by psychologists, and psychologists' supervisors' field of specialization.  iii  Table of Contents Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  List of Tables  vii  List of Appendices  viii  Acknowledgements  ix  CHAPTER I: Introduction Background Purpose of the Study Significance of the Study Definitions of Terminology: School Psychologist Job Roles and Functions Personal Characteristics and Professional Skills Job-site Characteristics External Influences Consultation Assessment Interventions Research and Program Evaluation  1 1 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9  Summary  10  CHAPTER II: Review of the Literature Historical Roots: Overview Hybrid Years Thoroughbred Years A Glimpse of the Profession in the Thoroughbred Years Contemporary School Psychology in the United States Models of Training: The Scientist-Practitioner Model The Professional Training Model The Pragmatic Training Model Content and Levels of Training: Master's Degree Specialist Degree Doctoral Degree School Psychology in Canada The Mutual Recognition Agreement The Profession of School Psychology in British Columbia The British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) A Glimpse of the profession in British Columbia Regulation and Practice in British Columbia iv  11 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 25 26 26 28 29  The College of Psychologists The Ministry of Education Representation of School Psychology in Professional Assn's The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) The American Psychological Association (APA) Development of Standards for Training and Practice The NASP Standards for Training and Practice The Influence of NASP and APA on Credentialing NASP Standards for the Provision of School Psychological Services Contemporary Service Delivery in the United States Critical Analysis of Survey Studies Personal Characteristics of Respondents Sample Selection Survey Response Rate Questioning of Role Functions Summary  30 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 38 40 41 45 45 46 47 48 48  CHAPTER UI: Methodology Purpose of the Study Research Question One Research Question Two (A) Research Question Two (B) Research Question Two (C) Sample and Procedures Participant Selection: SurveyPhase Participant Selection: Interview Phase Survey Development: Initial Development Phase Pilot Phase Interview Development: Interview Question Development Interview Pilot Data Collection: SurveyPhase Interview Phase Data Analysis: Survey Research Question One Research Question Two (A) Research Question Two (B) Research Question Two (C) Interview Summary  50 50 51 52 52 53 53 53 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 67  CHAPTER IV: Results Research Question One: Job Roles and Functions Job Satisfaction  68 68 68 73 v  Research Question Two (A): Professional Background Level and Type of Training Research Question Two (B): School District Setting Office Setting Number of Students and Schools Served Supervisors' Training Research Question Two (C): Professional Organization Membership External Determinants Job Stress Additional Interview Information: Noticeable Changes in the Field Description of a Typical Work Day Skills Learned on the Job Summary  75 75 76 77 77 77 77 79 82 82 82 84 85 85 86 87 88  CHAPTER V: Discussion Research Question One: Job Characteristics Job Satisfaction Research Question Two (A): Years of Experience and Teaching Background Field and Level of Graduate Training Research Question Two (B): Location of School District Location of Office Setting Psychologist to Student/School Ratio Supervisors' Level and Field of Training Research Question Two (C): Professional Membership Other External Determinants Limitations of the Study Directions for Future Research Implications for Practice Summary  89 89 89 90 90 90 92 92 92 93 93 94 95 95 95 97 98 99 100  References  101  Appendices  107  vi  List of Tables Table 1 Provincial/Territorial Licensing Requirements for Psychologists  24  Table 2 Survey Response Rates by Demographic Area  54  Table 3 Demographic Summary of Survey Respondents  57  Table 4 Mean Survey Respondent Professional Experiences  58  Table 5 Most Common Job Roles and Functions Reported by Survey Respondents  69  Table 6 Job Roles School Psychologists Wish to Increase  71  Table 7 Job Roles School Psychologists Wish to Decrease  72  Table 8 School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction  74  Table 9 Comparisons of Number of Students Served on Job Time Allocations  78  Table 10 Comparisons of Number of Schools Served on Job Time Allocations  79  Table 11 Comparisons of Supervisors' Field of Specialization on Job Time Allocations  80  Table 12 Job Site Characteristics  80  vii  List of Appendices Appendix A: A Survey of School Psychology Practice in B.C  108  Appendix B: Survey Cover Letter  114  Appendix C: Informed Consent Form  116  Appendix D: Survey Pilot Feedback Form  118  Appendix E:  Interview Guide  119  Appendix F:  E-mail Directors' Letter  120  viii  Acknowledgements Thank you to Dr. Laurie Ford for taking me on as herfirstCanadian Student at U.B.C. and seeing me through the thesis process. Thank you also to Dr. William McKee and Mr. Stan Auerbach for serving on my thesis committee and providing me with valuable feedback while writing this manuscript. I would also like to thank my colleague-friends from U.B.C. for their wisdom and encouragement and making my journey through graduate school very pleasant: Patricia Charlette, Daniel Morris, Carrie Strangway, Carmel Proctor, and Jason Clifford. I would also like to thank my parents and close friends for their consistent support and the great influence they hold in my life: Frank and Kathleen Merx, Christiane Low, Monica Hirayama, Sarah Carver and Kevin Yuen.  ix  CHAPTER ONE Introduction There is little empirical research which examines current school psychology service delivery in British Columbia. Survey research is needed to discover and assess the "state of the art" for school psychological practice as it exists in British Columbia. Practicing school psychologists occupy different roles and serve different functions for school districts (Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Lacayo, Morris & Sherwood, 1981). Further, much energy is spent by school psychologists in the field (and related professionals who work closely with school psychologists) in attempting to define school psychologists' job roles. The professional concern with identity may be due in part to "the multiplicity of role definers and the generalist nature of school psychological practice" (Benson & Hughes, 1985, p. 64). Fagan and Wise (2000) comment that "currently no two school psychologists spend their time in exactly the same way" (Fagan & Wise, 2000, p. 109). Major questions about current roles and advocacy of delivery system reforms have appeared in the school psychology literature over the past 10 years (Reschly, 1988). Therefore, Reschly and Wilson (1995) argue that periodic surveys of school psychologists are needed to assess the degree to which changes are occurring and whether the changes are in the predicted directions. The literature on school psychologist roles and functions reveals that job roles have changed through the decades, with early psychologists acting as sorters or "testers", with an expansion of the role to include interventions and consultation (Fagan & Wise, 2000). Background A number of surveys of school psychologists practicing in the United States indicate that many school psychologists devote a majority of their professional time to assessment activity (Anderson, Cancelli, & Kratochwill, 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Hutton & Dubes, 1994; Lacayo, Morris, & Sherwood, 1981; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Smith, 1  1984; Stinnett, Havey, & Oehler-Stinnett, 1994). The literature of the 1960s and 1970s was replete with opinions and surveys regarding the appropriate roles for school psychologists. The era was characterized by "a persistent dissatisfaction with the psychometric testing role (sorter) and the accompanying limited testing functions. Preference was given for interventions, especially counselling and consultation (repairer) roles, during an era of training program growth and curricular expansion" (Fagan & Wise, 2000, p. 108). Survey studies that asked practitioners to rate their current and preferred roles, revealed that most school psychologists reported they would like to decrease time spent in assessment and increase time spent in consultation activities (Reschly & Wilson, 1995). Although job roles may be influenced by recommendations put forth by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and other standards, the portrayal of these comprehensive roles and functions has not yet been achieved on a wide scale (Fagan & Wise, 2000) . Thus, the sorter and repairer roles have been dominant throughout the history of the profession, although school psychologists may fill other types of roles. Fagan and Wise (2000) note that particular roles and functions are influenced by personal characteristics and professional skills, job-site characteristics, and various external forces. Surveys reviewed for this study have examined these determinants of school psychologists' roles and functions. In Canada, regulation of the profession of school psychology occurs intra-provincially and so training and entry-level requirements vary from province to province. In British Columbia, the profession is currently unregulated (Benson, 2001; College of Psychologists, 2001) . Therefore, in British Columbia, persons practicing school psychology may have varying levels of training and even fields of specialization. Guidelines for practice and training as a school psychologist in British Columbia have been established by the British Columbia Ministry of Education and the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP). Persons practicing school psychology in British Columbia who meet certain criteria may become 2  members of B C A S P or the College of Psychologists. Persons practicing school psychology may also belong to the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. On a national and international level, the National Association of School Psychologists ( N A S P ) , the Canadian Association of School Psychologists ( C A S P ) , the Canadian Psychological Association ( C P A ) , the American Psychological Association ( A P A ) , and the International School Psychology Association all provide a set of Standards for Training and Practice and for the Provision of School Psychology Services. Purpose of the Study The primary purpose of this study was to better understand the job roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in the province of British Columbia. More specifically, the study sought to explore models of service delivery commonly used by school psychologists. The secondary purpose of this study was to examine how the variables of personal characteristics and professional skills, job-site characteristics, and external factors influenced the job roles and functions of practicing school psychologists. The information gathered i n this study helped to explain the current state of affairs of school psychological service delivery and provide the professional and non-professional communities with a description of what psychologists are doing. A s a result, this information may serve to validate school psychologists' current roles and help the profession to grow in a direction that w i l l best meet the needs of teachers, parents and referred children. Information gathered in this study is particularly relevant given that the profession of school psychology is in a time of transition and there is much uncertainty around school psychology regulation, training, and practice in British Columbia at the present time (British Columbia Association of School Psychologists, 2002). The profession is currently under review with the Ministry of Health and the College of Psychologists. There is a possibility that school psychology w i l l come under the regulation of the College of Psychologists in the near future.  Therefore, it is important to know the process and types of service delivery school psychologists were engaged in during a typical academic year, and how current job activities and roles are reflective of their graduate training. Further, the Ministry of Education has recently faced severe cutbacks, with resulting changes to the allocation of money for Special Education services in the province. Empirical research is needed to help clarify and define the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists. It is anticipated that this survey of school psychology practice in British Columbia will help clarify job roles and narrow the gap between research and practice. In this study, the following research questions were addressed: 1) What are the job characteristics (i.e., job roles, job functions, job satisfaction) of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? 2a) How do personal characteristics and professional skills influence the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? 2b) How do job-site characteristics influence the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? 2c) How do various external forces (Ministry of Education - government, professional organizations) impact the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? Significance of the Study The significance of the present study is twofold. First, it has the potential to increase appreciation and understanding of the variety of services currently provided by school psychologists in different school districts. This will enable practitioners and non-practitioners alike to come to a better understanding of the role and function of the school psychologist in British Columbia. Second, it may inform research and practice as it seeks to examine the congruence between university training programs and job roles. The resulting implications may 4  help trainers of school psychologists better prepare future practitioners to meet the needs of their employing school districts. The implications for practice are an increase in practitioners' own knowledge of the demographics, training, and influencing factors on job roles for their colleagues throughout the province. Definitions of Terminology School Psychologist School psychological services in British Columbia have been defined as "district-based, non-categorical educational and mental health services designed to support students, school personnel and parents in enhancing academic, adaptive and social skills for students (B.C. Ministry of Education, 2002). Psychologists serving the nations' schools constitute a major available resource to administrators and to school boards as they develop comprehensive plans to increase educational effectiveness and student achievement. In particular, school psychologists are committed to "promoting human welfare by the application of psychological knowledge to the enhancement of teaching and learning" (Jackson, Balinky, & Lambert, 1993, p. 1). School psychologists base their educational and psychological practices on sound theoretical and scientific foundations. Further, school psychologists' enhance the growth and the development of all learners from the preschool years through adulthood (Jackson et al., 1993). For the purpose of the present study a school psychologist is defined as any person practicing in the educational system who fulfills one or more of the above job roles or does the work of a school psychologist (regardless of official job titles or type of degree held). Job Roles and Functions School psychologists are trained to provide a variety of services within the school setting. For purposes of this study, assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling, research and evaluation are considered to be job roles. Job functions are considered to be how the person fills the role. For example, within the role of assessment, the selection and interpretation of tests 5  demonstrate the job function. Although many factors may influence job roles and functions (as mentioned in previous sections), there are commonalities of training and practice. The majority of psychologists perform a combination of roles and functions (B.C. Ministry of Education, 2002; Fagan & Wise, 2000; National Association of School Psychologists, 2002b). For this study, the categories of job roles and functions selected for examination were based on the model established by Reschly & Wilson (1995). Personal Characteristics and Professional Skills In this study, personal characteristics are defined as what the person brings to the job and include variables such as age, gender, and any other reasons which may have attracted persons practicing school psychology to the field (Fagan & Wise, 2000). Professional training skills for this study are defined as when training occurred, the theoretical orientation of the faculty with whom practitioners' studied (affecting type and quality of training), and experiences gained at training institutions attended (such as setting of the internship). Because the profession is currently unregulated in British Columbia, this study will also examine field of study and type of graduate degree obtained (as well as highest degree earned) in order to better understand how these aforementioned factors may impact job roles. Job-Site Characteristics As adapted from Fagan and Wise's (2000) framework of determinants of roles and functions of school psychologists, job-site characteristics have been selected for examination in this study. Job-site characteristics are defined as any job-site variables that are found by a school psychologist on the job. Job-site characteristics believed to influence a psychologist's professional practice may include job-site variables such as the number of pupils served, level of school (e.g., elementary, secondary), setting of school district (urban, suburban, rural), location of office (e.g., school or administration office), training of supervisor (school psychology  6  background or not). Further, expectations from supervisors or others, needs, and available resources may shape job roles. External Influences Lastly, for purposes of this study, certain external variables were selected for examination. External variables are defined as: "the legal and legislative changes, societal problems, research findings, and world events influencing school psychologists' professional roles and functions" (Fagan & Wise, 2000, p. 110). These include ethical and practice guidelines and regulations school psychologists in British Columbia operate under as set by BCASP and the Ministry of Education. However, there are other influential constituencies and persons in determining job roles and functions for school psychologists in different districts in the province (e.g. British Columbia Teachers Federation, College of Psychologists, and the National Association of School Psychologists). Consultation Consultation is defined as a "voluntary, non-supervisory relationship between professionals from differing fields designed to aid professional functioning" (Conoley & Conoley, 1992, p. 1). School psychologists are trained to consult with teachers, parents, students and community agencies regarding the nature of students' strengths and needs, their educational implications, and ways to enhance learning and interpersonal relations (B.C. Ministry of Education, 2002; Gutkin & Curtis, 1999). They may offer healthy and effective alternatives to teachers, parents, and administrators about problems in learning and behavior and aid others in the understanding of child development and how it affects learning and behavior. Research has demonstrated that over the last several decades, school-based consultation has emerged as one of the professional activities most preferred by school psychologists, often ranked by practitioners as the most desired role and viewed as a job function in which they would like to engage more often (Gutkin & Curtis, 1999). For the purposes of this study,  consultation is defined as the interpersonal communication between the school psychologist and parents and teachers (mainly to report and discuss assessment results). Assessment The primary purpose of a psychological assessment conducted by a school psychologist is to gather and integrate psychologically-related data for the purpose of making a psychological evaluation (Bardon & Bennett, 1974; Fagan & Wise, 2000). Depending upon the referral question, psychologists may evaluate academic skills, learning aptitudes, personality and emotional development, social skills, learning environments, school climate and eligibility for special education (National Association of School Psychologists, 2002b). Data may be collected with the use of tools such as tests, interviews, behavioural observation and case studies (Fagan & Wise, 2000). Psychoeducational assessments serve diagnostic and planning functions for students with special needs. Assessment information may be used for student planning and goal setting. The information may also be used to select teaching and behavioural strategies, and to design interventions (B.C. Ministry of Education, 2002). For the purposes of this study, assessment is defined as any individualized testing conducted by the school psychologist (including intelligence, achievement, behaviour, and social/emotional), interviews with parents and teachers, observations of the student, and report writing. Interventions School psychologists are prepared to intervene at the individual and system level, and develop, implement, and evaluate preventive programs (American Psychological Association, 2002). Practitioners are trained to work face-to-face with children and families. They help solve conflicts and problems in learning and adjustment, provide psychological counselling for children and families, social skills training, and behavior management strategies (National Association of School Psychologists, 2002b). Practitioners also offer crisis intervention services that support families and schools following natural disasters, violence, abuse, death, or student 8  suicide (American Psychological Association, 2002). Bardon and Bennett (1974) noted that the immediate goals of crisis intervention in the schools are to "provide the quickest possible relief, to ameliorate or to remove specific symptoms, and to permit the person to continue to function" (p. 105). In catering to individual pupils needs, the psychologist may also need to help the pupil deal with possible infractions of school rules, with the reactions of others towards the crisis behaviour, and with other reality-based considerations related to attending school (Bardon & Bennett, 1974). In the present study, intervention is defined as outreach activities performed by the school psychologist in areas of academic programming, behavioural management, counselling, social skills training, and pre-referral screening. Research and Program Evaluation School psychologists may serve in the capacity of a program developer, as they introduce new programs into schools and enhance their implementation (Conoley & Conoley, 1992). School psychologists may be responsible for developing programs on topics such as teaching and learning strategies, classroom management strategies, working with students with different needs (disabilities or unusual talents), substance abuse, and crisis management (National Association of School Psychologists, 2002). School psychologists may also evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, behavior management systems, and other services. They generate new knowledge about learning and behavior and may contribute to planning and evaluating school-wide reform and restructuring (National Association of School Psychologists, 2002b). In the present study, research and program evaluation is defined as conducting theoretical or applied research, direct program evaluation, supervision, and administrative responsibilities. The job roles of research and program evaluation were combined into one category as divisions of job roles based on the model established by Reschly and Wilson (1995).  9  Summary This chapter provided a brief overview of the history of professional roles and functions of school psychologists, situated in a discussion of the various influencing factors of personal and professional characteristics, job-site characteristics and professional organizational and societal determinants. The necessity of the study is backed by a lack of empirical research on service delivery in British Columbia. There is a pressing need to gather data in order to clarify and better understand the roles and functions of school psychologists in British Columbia. This study comes at a time of uncertainty regarding the regulation and future direction of the profession. In the next chapter, a review of the literature w i l l provide a context for understanding the history and current development of the profession of school psychology in British Columbia.  10  CHAPTER TWO Review of the Literature The purpose of the literature review is to provide a foundation and appreciation for the purpose of study. In the following chapter, it is hoped that a picture will emerge regarding various issues that are important to any profession's development. The chapter begins with issues surrounding early professional development, levels and models of training, and licensure and regulation (including regulatory bodies). To better assist the reader in understanding types of service delivery provided by school psychologists, a glimpse of the profession is provided as it was and exists today in the United States, and Canada, specifically British Columbia. Major national survey results from both countries are highlighted, especially with regards to type/level of training, demographics, and job roles. Finally, selected features from previous survey studies are examined as these decisions made by the researchers had a great impact on the success of the survey study. These features were taken into consideration when planning the design of this study. Historical Roots Overview School psychology initially developed in the United States. Considered to be the father of school psychology and its earliest practitioner, Lightner Witmer founded the first psychological clinic (for the direct assessment of academic problems) in 1896 at the University of Pennsylvania (Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000). Others soon followed Witmer's lead and established clinics in Chicago, Detroit and other cities. Psychologists were later employed by school districts and began to travel to schools in order to provide services to students. (Carey & Wilson, 1995; Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000). School psychology emerged from the disciplines of education and psychology, with ties to special education, educational psychology, counseling, and clinical psychology (Brown, 1990; Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000). Its 11  professional struggles for autonomy, role definition, credential recognition, and other areas have also been closely tied to developments in these fields. The period of historical development can be divided into the hybrid years (1890-1969) and the thoroughbred years (1970-present) (Fagan, 1999; Fagan and Wise, 2000). Hybrid Years The origins of school psychological services emerged during an era of social reform in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (the period known as the hybrid years). For most of the period between 1890-1930, there were no state or national standards for training or practice and no state associations of school psychologists (Fagan, 1999). Further, there was only one training program in school psychology before 1950, at New York University (established in 1929), although there were known sequences of training at other institutions (Fagan, 1999). Therefore, practice preceded formal training by about three decades as training practices emerged from needs and from on-the-job practices (Fagan, 1999). During the hybrid years, the profession of school psychology consisted of a mix of practitioners certified in various fields (i.e. teacher education, guidance and counseling) mobilized around the dominant role of psychoeducational assessment for special class placement (Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000). The reform movement of compulsory schooling and compulsory attendance laws (between 1870 and 1930) changed public education dramatically (Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Phillips, 1990). Subsequently, there was a great increase in the diversity of student needs (in the form of learning and behavior problems) and school psychologists were employed to help educators "sort" children reliably into segregated educational settings so that the system could function better for the masses of "average" children. (Fagan & Wise, 2000).  12  Thoroughbred Years The thoroughbred years differed from the hybrid years with growth in the number of training programs, practitioners, state and national associations, and the expansion of literature and regulations to stabilize and create the professional entity of school psychology (Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000). It has been stated that school psychology had moved from adolescence into early adulthood as the profession became responsible and accountable for training, standards, practice and ethics (Batsche, Knoff, & Peterson, 1989). According to Fagan (1999), the content of school psychologist preparation during this era consisted of three basic elements. First, the content of training included educational preparation, psychological preparation, and field experiences (similar to contemporary requirements). Second, training evolved to the master's and doctoral levels. Third, training took place in the instructional classroom context, with on and off-campus supervised field placements. Further, the trends and accomplishments of the postwar period led to the establishment of an identity for school psychologists. The thoroughbred years also saw an increase in special education services, which closely corresponded with the growth in school psychology (Fagan, 1989; Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000). In contrast to the hybrid years in which services were focused mostly on assessment, through the thoroughbred years services became more specialized, opening new possibilities and opportunities for role expansion into areas of prevention, consultation, and accountability (research and evaluation) in addition to necessary assessment and therapeutic functions (Fagan, 1999; Fagan & Wise, 2000). Furthermore, the thoroughbred years saw the advancement of psychological practitioners from external service providers to boards of education to employees of boards of education. Licensure in school psychology developed slowly during this era and growth was limited due to the strong influence of other disciplines at the doctoral level (such as psychiatry, clinical 13  psychology and medicine) where persons were permitted to practice in the private sector (Batsche et al., 1989). The lack of a requirement for a doctoral degree as the entry level in school psychology was a limiting factor in the growth in licensure in school psychology. School psychology has always struggled to survive and prosper, being regulated by both the disciplines of education and psychology (Brown, 1990). A Glimpse of the profession in the Thoroughbred Years Lacayo, Morris and Sherwood (1981) examined the daily activities of school psychologists through a national survey of school psychology practitioners randomly sampled from the NASP membership list. With an overall response rate of 45% (N = 335), individuals holding masters degrees represented 75% of the sample. School psychologists were asked to record their activities on a specific school day. Results revealed that most psychologists' time was spent in assessment, with 40% of work time spent in actual administration of tests, followed by reviewing referrals and writing case reports, while 25% of time was allocated to consultation with teachers, parents, and school staff. Anderson, Cancelli and Kratochwill (1984) also investigated the assessment views and practices of 158 school psychologists practicing in schools in the United States. Results of their investigation indicated that 44% of the respondents reported spending between 41 and 80% of their professional time engaged in assessment, while 73% of respondents reported spending 20% or less of their time in research activities. The respondents reported doing slightly more consultation than therapy and counseling. Similarly in their national survey of 165 NASP members in practice, Benson and Hughes (1985) used the School Psychologist Questionnaire to examine four areas of concern: environmental and personal identifying factors, current job functions, perceptions of the process of role definition, and employment intentions. Results of the survey again showed that most professional time was devoted to assessment (48%), followed by consultation (20%), 14  counselling (9%), system change agent (3%), research/evaluation (2%), administration and supervision (9%), and other (5%). The results of Benson and Hughes' survey revealed that school psychologists played a significant part in defining their role, while environmental factors studied had little relationship to the role defined. Demographics from Benson and Hughes (1985) survey revealed that 81% of respondents were at the masters level, the mean number years of experience was 7.56, and 59% reported there were 0-5 school psychologists in their system with a mean ratio of school psychologists to students at 1:2542. Further, 21% of respondents were employed in a rural setting, 18% in a small town, 33% in a suburban, and 27% in an urban setting. Major sources of influence on job roles were delineated as defined by administrators, state consultants and school psychologists. Lastly, 35% of the sample intended to leave the profession, while 65% intended to stay in the profession (Benson & Hughes, 1985). Smith (1984) reported similar results with a national sample in which respondents reportedly spent 54% of their time on assessment activities, 23% of their time on intervention activities (including counselling with students, parents and teachers), and 19% of their time on consultation activities. In a follow-up of Smith's (1984) study, Smith, Clifford, Hesley, and Leifgren (1992) in their sample of 217 practitioners found that the actual time spent on assessment activities (53%) was greater than the desired time spent on assessment activities (38%). They also found that the actual time spent on intervention activities (22%) was lower than desired time spent (31%) on intervention activities. Contemporary School Psychology in the United States As is evident from the preceding discussions, the historical roots of school psychology originated in the United States. The current status of training in school psychology is substantially different from that of earlier times, as there are more training programs and accreditation bodies. As of 1992-1993 there were between 208 and 215 institutions that offered 15  masters, specialist, and doctoral degree programs in school psychology (Carey & Wilson, 1995; Reschly, 1995; Smith & Fagan, 1995). School psychology programs in the United States are guided by the national-level standards of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP), as well as by state-level requirements of boards of education and/or boards of examiners in psychology (Fagan, 1999). Programs that are not in compliance with the APA or NASP standards usually offer less didactic training and fewer field experiences (Fagan, 1999). While APA will accredit Canadian school psychology programs, the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) has no official division for school psychology and NASP does not accredit programs in Canada. There currently are an estimated 25,000 school psychologists in the United States, 21,000 of whom are members of the National Association of School Psychologists (including trainers and students) (American Psychological Association, 2002). Practicing school psychologists are typically licensed or certified by their respective state departments of education or another agency. About 75% of school psychologists in the United States are nondoctoral persons and most hold the title school psychologist (American Psychological Association, 2002). Models of Training During the hybrid and thoroughbred years of school psychology development, the application of models of training as we recognize them today were nonexistent. However, as acceptance of applied psychology increased, there was an observed decrease in classical and philosophical aspects of graduate work and an increase in psychological and applied psychology courses (Fagan, 1999). Three broad training models are commonly used in various forms for the training and preparation of school psychologists: the Scientist-Practitioner, Professional, and Pragmatic models (Brown, 1990; Carey & Wilson, 1995; Fagan & Wise, 2000).  16  The Scientist-Practitioner Training Model The scientist-practitioner model is most comprehensive as it places an emphasis on both psychology's research and practice orientations so that trainees are prepared to conduct and understand research, as well as practice effectively with clients (Carey & Wilson, 1995; Fagan & Wise, 2000). APA and NASP training standards emphasize the scientist-practitioner model in which equal emphasis is placed on the scientist and practitioner ends of the continuum. The scientist side emphasizes training in statistics, research design and experience, theses and dissertations and prepares students for conducting school psychology research. The practitioner side emphasizes training in assessment, intervention, professional development issues, ethics, supervised practica, and other field experiences (Brown, 1990; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Pryzwansky, 1999). Bardon and Bennett (1974) noted that the scientist- practitioner model has come to be known as the "Boulder Model" or typical model for any practitioner specialty (resulting from the Boulder training conference in 1949). As such, the scientist-practitioner is a scientist in the sense that he/she should be a competent researcher and contributor of new knowledge as well as a careful evaluator of previous knowledge; a practitioner in that he/she exercises his/her profession (Bardon & Bennett, 1974). The Professional Training Model A professionally oriented model of training was first advocated at the Vail conference (Korman, 1974), emphasizing applied course work and culminating in the award of the doctor of psychology degree (Psy.D.) (Pryzwansky, 1999). Therefore, the professional model places more of an emphasis on applied course work and preparation for practice than core theoretical courses in psychology (Brown, 1990; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Pryzwansky, 1999). The professional model places emphasis in training on the direct delivery of professional services, and evaluation of those services. In this context, the Psy.D. (or Ed.D. as an alternative) degree most specifically meets these needs (Pryzwansky, 1999). The professional model has been 17  employed in a number of recently developed doctoral programs as well as most masters and specialist training programs (Fagan & Wise, 2000). Although the professional training model encompasses the scientist-practitioner model of training, the applied course work tends to be idiosyncratic to the individual doctoral training program and may include any number or combination of courses such as: intelligence assessment, learning and social problems assessment, consultation, general and special education, neuropsychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, behavioural intervention, personality theory and the history and systems of psychology (Brown, 1990). Typically, this training model is found among programs housed in professional schools of psychology and tends to have a clinical psychology specialty orientation (Pryzwansky, 1999). Furthermore, new doctoral programs based on the Psy.D. (Doctor of Psychology) model of training often contain more applied course work than the typical Ph.D. program. (Brown, 1990). The professional model has also been affiliated with non-university affiliated schools of professional psychology granting the doctoral degree for preparing graduates in clinical psychology (Fagan & Wise, 2000). Brown (1990) noted that the trend in school psychology has tended away from the scientist-practitioner model toward the applied professional psychologist model, especially in specialist level programs which include additional training beyond the masters level. The Pragmatic Training Model Some non-doctoral degree programs adhere to the pragmatic model in which the preparation of school psychologists is directed toward the credentialing requirements of the state in which the program is located (Fagan & Wise, 2000). The pragmatic model may be highly prescriptive with courses required in direct correspondence to the courses and competencies specified in state education agency regulations. Due to credentialing requirements of psychologists at all levels of preparation, every program has some prescriptiveness. The 18  pragmatic model overlaps both the scientist-practitioner and professional models and suggests that all professional preparation programs are subjected to some external control (Fagan & Wise, 2000). Content and Levels of Training One issue in the history of school psychology that has caused great debate is that surrounding entry level. "Entry level" refers to the minimum amount of training necessary to enter the profession of school psychology (Carey & Wilson, 1995). This debate has several dimensions considering that school psychology grew from the disciplines of education and psychology and so early training models were significantly different (Carey & Wilson, 1995; Fagan, 1999). School psychology programs that grew from departments of special education, educational psychology, or counselor education had more content related to education than did programs which grew from departments of psychology. Therefore, as Bardon and Bennett (1974) noted, differences in emphasis in school psychology programs are often reflective of and contingent upon the point of view adopted by the department of psychology or education that houses the program. The variation in training programs in school psychology can also be attributed to the perceived differences between the accreditation standards of APA and NASP (Carey & Wilson, 1995). The various state certification standards for school psychologists also influence training programs very directly - a psychologist may not be employable if his/her training does not include specific state certification requires (Bardon & Bennett, 1974). Training standards developed by professional organizations such as the APA and NASP, and licensing laws of various states and/or provinces define what basic training will include. Bardon and Bennett (1974) noted that although predetermined standards may ensure minimum competency, they may also inhibit innovation in training. 19  School psychology training programs are offered at three basic degree levels which are the masters degree, the educational specialist or sixth-year degree, and the doctoral degree (Ph.D., Psy.D., Ed.D.) (Brown 1990; Carey & Wilson, 1995; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Pryzwansky, 1999). Survey data reveal that most school psychologists hold non-doctoral degrees (Carey & Wilson, 1995; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Pryzwansky, 1999; Reschly & Wilson, 1995). Furthermore, approximately two-thirds of school psychologists hold the specialist degree or at least a twoyear master's degree level of training, and one-fifth to one-fourth hold the doctoral degree in school psychology (Fagan & Wise, 2000; Reschly & Wilson, 1995). Most states and/or provinces require some form of field experience (practicum and/or internship). The nature of these requirements varies depending upon the province or state. Master's Degree The majority of master's (graduate) degrees awarded in School Psychology consist of the Master of Science, Master of Arts, and Master of Education degrees and range from 30 to 59 semester credit hours. Most programs require a supervised internship which typically range from 400 to 700 clock hours of experience (Carey & Wilson, 1995). Division 16 of the APA suggests a minimum of two years of university training plus a year of supervised experience, whereas NASP recommends training programs meet certification standards established by state/provincial departments of education as well as a year of full-time, supervised experience (American Psychological Association, 2002; Bardon & Bennett, 1974). Currently in British Columbia, in order to practice as a psychologist recognized by the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP), one can practice in the school setting with a master's degree in school psychology or a closely related field such as counselling (with specific criteria required for training in Level C test administration, psychometrics, and intervention techniques or hold current certification by the National School Psychology Certification Board with the National Association of School Psychologists) (BCASP, 2002). In 20  terms of work experience at the master's level, BCASP requires at least 400 hours of supervised school psychology practicum or evidence of 2 years of successful supervised experience as a school psychologist or certification with the National Association of School Psychologists (BCASP, 2002). Specialist Degree The sixth-year, specialist degree is offered in a variety of forms including the Educational Specialist, Specialist of Arts, and Advanced Graduate Specialist. Programs offering this degree require from 60 to 80 graduate semester hours of course work, and from 200 to 600 hours of practicum experience in the form of an internship (Carey & Wilson, 1995). It is worth noting here that the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) believes that the training of school psychologists may occur at two levels of graduate education: the specialist level (60 graduate semester hour minimum, with at least a 1200 clock-hour internship) and doctoral level (90 graduate semester hour minimum, with at least a 1500 clock-hour internship) (Harrison, 2002). Therefore, NASP established the professional entry level for school psychologists in the United States at the specialist level, or 60 graduate semester hours with an internship. Doctoral Degree The Ph.D. is the most common degree awarded at the doctoral level, followed by the Ed.D. and the Psy.D. Doctoral preparation requires one to two years of additional academic coursework beyond the masters program (80-100 graduate semester hours), plus a dissertation or major project, and typcially written and oral exams, and a 1000 to 1600 hour internship. Brown and Minke (1986) concluded that specialist and doctoral programs are comparable in much of the core course work recommended by NASP and APA. Doctoral programs typically contain much more comprehensive course work in research methods, biological bases of behaviour, and professional issues (Carey & Wilson, 1995). At the doctoral level, Division 16 of 21  the APA suggests a four-year program (recognizing different models of training). However, emphasis is on a curriculum that provides for basic knowledge in psychology, an organized sequence of courses and experiences, and a program in line with the scientist-practitioner model (APA, 2002). In British Columbia, the College of Psychologists requires the doctorate degree for full membership and restricts non-doctoral psychologists to associate membership (College of Psychologists, 2001). The opportunity to develop a specialization and to have more diverse employment options available is frequently a motivation for pursuing doctoral studies (Carey & Wilson, 1995). Examples of some specializations may be pediatrics, neuropsychology, counselling, consultation, and program evaluation. Students may choose to pursue doctoral studies for reasons congruent with career goals, especially if they would like to work in private practice or teach at the college/university level (Carey & Wilson, 1995). School Psychology in Canada Currently in Canada, the provincial, territorial/licensing requirements vary across the provinces (see Table 1 for complete information). Therefore, the regulation of psychology typically occurs through provincial statutes related to the licensing and certification for the practice of psychology (College of Psychologists, 2002). As evident in Table 1, academic entry requirements (masters or doctoral level degrees), length of supervised experience, mandatory exams and exemptions vary across the provinces. In the Canadian provinces, there is more variability in professional title, depending upon provincial requirements and level of training. Consequently, the title of a school psychology practitioner may vary and a school psychologist be referred to as: psychometrist, educational evaluator, psychological evaluator, psychological technician, educational diagnostician, associate psychologist, and school psychologist (Fagan & Wise, 2000).  22  Currently, the provinces of British Columbia and Manitoba have specific exemptions from the registration requirement for individuals employed as psychologists in schools. Typically when the profession of school psychology is mentioned in provincial legislation, these references are primarily in educational acts or as exempted professionals in psychologists' acts (McKee, 1996). Although some provinces require a doctoral degree for registration (i.e. British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Island) with the College of Psychologists, most provinces allow entry-level registration at the masters level (allowing for independent practice of psychology at the master's level). Excluding Quebec and the Northwest Territories, all registration bodies require masters and doctoral-level candidates to complete the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology (EPPP) and pass an oral and/or written examination set by the registering body as a condition of registration (McKee, 1996). The provinces of Quebec, the Northwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick all allow entry for practice at the masters level. The province of Quebec does not require any post-degree supervised experience (similar to Saskatchewan, Yukon and North West Territories, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick) or a written exam, but requires knowledge of the French language and an ethics course. The Northwest Territories requires a one-year internship and an exam.  23  Table 1 Provincial/Territorial Licensing Requirements for Psychologists in Canada Province  Title  Academic Entry Requirements  Experience: Post Degree  Experience: Supervised  British Columbia  Psychologist  *Doctoral (Indep.) •Masters (P. Assoc. Indep.)  1 year  *Doc. (1 year *EPPP 70% pre-doc.) *Oral •Masters (1 yr. Post-masters internship & 3 yrs. supervised practice)  Alberta  Psychologist  Masters (Indep.)  1 year  1 year (1600 hrs.) postmasters  *EPPP 70% *Oral  University  Saskatchewan  Psychologist  Masters (Indep.)  none  1 year (1600 hrs.) postMasters  *EPPP 70% *Oral  None with respect to counseling & clinical psychology or psychological assessment  Manitoba  Psychologist  •Doctoral (Indep.) •Masters (P. Assoc Supervised)  2 years  *Doc. (1 pre & 1 post-year) •Masters (2 yrs. post)  •EPPP D o c : 70% Masters: 65% •Oral (both)  University, Government, Schools, Hospitals  Ontario  Psychologist  •Doctoral (Indep.) •Masters (P. Assoc Indep.)  2 years doctoral 5 years masters  •Doc. (1 pre& 1 postyear)*Masters (4 yrs. post & 1 yr. on supervision register).  •EPPP 70% •Oral jurisprudence  University  Quebec  Psychologist  Masters (Indep.)  none  none  •No EPPP/No Oral •ethics course •French language  none  24  Mandatory Exams  Exemptions  University, Government, Schools  Table 1 (Continued). Province  Title  Academic Entry Requirements  Experience: Post Degree  Experience: Supervised  Mandatory Exams  Exemptions  Yukon  **No legislation governing practice of psychology  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  n/a  North West Territories  Psychologist  Masters degree in Psych. From a Canadian University  none  1 year (1600 hrs.) while on an Intern's registery. Previous supervised exp. from another jurisdiction may be considered.  • A n exam "may" be required  None  Nova Scotia  Psychologist  •Masters (Indep.)  1 year doctoral, 6 years masters  •Doc. (1 pre& 1 post- year) •Masters (6 years post).  •EPPP 70% •Oral  none  Prince Edward Island  Psychologist  •Doctoral (Indep.) •Masters (indep. In inst/agency only)  none  •Doc. (1 pre & 1 post year)*Masters (2 years post).  •No EPPP •Oral  University  New Brunswick  Psychologist  •Masters (Indep.)  none  *Doc.(l pre & 1 post year) •Masters (4 years post)  •EPPP 65% •Oral  University  Note. No Canadian jurisdiction has adopted a specialty certificate or license Source: http://www.cpa.ca/licensing.html  The Mutual Recognition Agreement Due to the variation in training and requirements by province for practice, as of June 2001, a new Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) was established as an understanding by all the provinces (including British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Northwest 25  Territories) in compliance with provincial obligations under the Agreement on Internal Trade. The Mutual Recognition Agreement was established so that a psychologist who is licensed/registered to practice without supervision in one Canadian jurisdiction will have his/her qualifications recognized in another jurisdiction that is party to this agreement (Mutual Recognition Agreement, 2001). The MRA agreement outlines very specific terms and conditions to be followed by the member provinces, one of which is the recognition that "there are different paths to achieve the threshold competence levels for the practice of psychology and the undersigned take the responsibility of setting standards responsibly and in good faith to ensure the protection of the general public" (Mutual Recognition Agreement, 2001). Furthermore, the parties identified and agreed upon the following core competencies: Interpersonal Relationships, Assessment and Evaluation, Intervention and Consultation, Research, Ethics and Standards, Supervision and Administration (Mutual Recognition Agreement, 2001). Party applicants to the MRA agreement must undergo careful scrutiny on or before July 1, 2003 to join the agreement. As of June, 2001 the province of British Columbia was signatory to the MRA agreement. The Profession of School Psychology in British Columbia The British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) Many school psychologists in British Columbia have undertaken voluntary membership in the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP), a professional association formed in 1984 by a small group of Victoria based psychologists that operates under the Society Act (Sweet, 1990). It has been stated that the history of organized school psychology in British Columbia is the history of the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (Sweet, 1990). The mission of BCASP is "to represent and advance the profession of school psychologists in British Columbia in the context of enhancing childrens' and adults' learning through basing with government and other professional/advocacy 26  organizations, being responsive to educators' needs, and providing opportunities for continuing professional development" (British Columbia Association of School Psychologists, 2002). The British Columbia Association of School Psychologists has approximately 160 members out of an estimated 220 individuals practicing school psychology in the province (Benson, 2001). BCASP has specific criteria required for membership. In addition to the criteria mentioned earlier, BCASP also requires a passing score adopted by the National Association of School Psychologists on the National School Psychology Exam (ETS exam), Canadian citizenship, a criminal record check, professional references, and current employment (a certified school psychologist works for a school board constituted under the School Act, or by a government agency and/or a university) (British Columbia Association of School Psychologists, 2002). Because BCASP is the only provincially recognized organization for school psychologists in British Columbia (other than the College of Psychologists), it holds an influential role in establishing qualifications for the certification of school psychologists and promoting standards of professional ethics and conduct. BCASP does not have a legislative mandate to authorize or regulate the practice of school psychology, but publishes guidelines for what it terms "certification" by the association (McKee, 1996). Most members of BCASP are regulated as teachers by the British Columbia College of Teachers and are subject to that code of ethics. However, some are registered psychologists, and therefore regulated as members of the College of Psychologists (McKee, 1996). It is through these affiliations that school psychologists are able to maintain their responsibility for relevant standards and codes of ethics. However, a major concern still facing school psychologists in British Columbia at the moment is the uncertainty regarding future regulation of the discipline (Benson, 2001).  27  A Glimpse of the Profession in British Columbia School Psychology in British Columbia has gone through a number of distinct phases. Prior to the passing of the Psychologists Act in 1977, the profession was unregulated and there was no protection for use of the title "psychologist". Anyone could practice psychology in any setting and had the right to title irrespective of qualifications or affiliation (Sweet, 1990). Sweet (1990) reported that there was little data available on school psychologists' roles. Of those polled in 1990, 95% or more reported routine work in the areas of assessment, special education placement, and the provision of consultative support to students and staff - "what other services are provided and how these are organized remains somewhat conjectural at this point" (Sweet, 1990, p. 6). Currently, practice and qualifications vary significantly from school district to school district with some individuals only concerned with assessment and others involving themselves in behavioral work, counseling, or a combination of these services (Benson, 2001). Further, some school districts require that psychologists hold a teaching qualification, while some do not. There is currently one training program in the province, offered by the Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education at the University of British Columbia. This program, which began in the early 1960's, offers both masters and doctoral level training in school psychology. A review of Canadian psychological literature does not reveal any comprehensive description of a status or role for the school psychologist in Canada. However, a glimpse of the profession as it was in the early 1960's was provided in a survey (conducted by Professor Harry Stein, then the Director of Graduate Studies, in the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia) entitled "The Status and Role of School Psychologists in Canada". This unpublished report was based on the results of a survey of school psychologists across Canada and it produced results, which were quite consistent from province to province (Stein, 1964). 28  Many of the concerns resulting from Stein's survey such as: minimum qualifications required for certification by government agencies or professional associations, closest affiliation with either education or psychology or both, and ethics are similar today. He found that in Canada, school psychological services followed the pattern of public school education; that is local school boards exercised complete control over the kind and extent of the services provided (Stein, 1964). Further, among the returns received from those who identified themselves as school psychologists, 16 different titles were reported. Stein (1964) also discovered that most practitioners held a masters degree and almost all had teaching experience. Another interesting conclusion drawn was that the testing emphasis, combined with little time for follow up, had caused considerable discontent among personnel (Stein, 1964). Many of these same issues continue to challenge the profession today. Regulation and Practice in British Columbia Because the profession of school psychology has been claimed as a speciality in the psychology profession as well as a separate profession with roots primarily in psychology and education, these divergent frameworks have resulted in a complex quilt of regulation (Pryzwansky, 1999). The end result of these two positions yields training and credentialing guidelines that are somewhat different along many dimensions (Pryzwansky, 1999). However, there seems to be a lot of overlap in the various regulatory systems as outlined in the American Psychological Association (APA) and the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP) policies. The psychology boards currently require the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP) and usually one year of postdoctoral supervision (Pryzwansky, 1999) for practice as a registered psychologist. In British Columbia, one must possess a doctoral degree to be recognized as an independent psychologist (refer to Table 1). Independent psychological practice in British Columbia requires licensure as a psychologist from the College of 29  Psychologists. To be a registered psychologist at the doctoral level in British Columbia, one must pass the EPPP exam with at least 70%, complete an oral exam, and a one year postdoctoral internship. Upon completion of these requirements a psychologist with a doctoral degree can work independently in private practice. Those psychologists with a master's degree are recognized by the College of Psychologists under the title of Psychological Associates. Psychological Associates must also complete a one year post-masters supervised internship, and have three additional years of supervised practice (College of Psychologists, 2001). In British Columbia, most school psychologists employed by school boards are registered members of the College of Teachers, hold appropriate teaching certificates, and are regulated by the Teaching Profession Act (McKee, 1996). Although the College of Teachers takes responsibility for governing the practice of the teaching profession and protects public interest, it does not define school psychology or provide specific authority or regulation for the practice of school psychology by its members (McKee, 1996). The College of Psychologists The College of Psychologists is the regulatory body for the profession of psychology in British Columbia. Regulatory mechanisms provide accountability for a profession, so that both training programs and individual professionals are affected (Pryzwansky, 1999). The College of Psychologists assumes a duty to serve and protect the public and has the responsibility for governing and superintending the practice of psychology by persons who are not registered psychologists (College of Psychologists, 2001). Practicing psychologists in British Columbia are now under review by the Health Professions Act. An emphasis of this review was to look at how the safety of the public was ensured and the argument was made that the clients of school psychologists (practicing at the master's level) were not effectively protected. Unfortunately,  30  this is creating a level of anxiety about the future of school psychology in British Columbia (Benson, 2002). Therefore, the majority of school psychologists practicing in British Columbia with a master's degree are not recognized by the College of Psychologists. Recently, The College of Psychologists has been undergoing significant changes and reorganization to bring itself into line with the Federal Agreement on Internal Trade (Benson, 2002). As a result, a two-tiered registration system has been drafted by the college. The basic break down allows for fully registered psychologists (Ph.D. and present members) and masters level members classified as Psychological Associates (College of Psychologists, 2001). This classification is open to all residents of British Columbia as well as those from across Canada and the world who meet these qualifications (Benson, 2002). It is questionable at this point whether school psychology practitioners in British Columbia will attempt to join the College of Psychologists. Benson (2002) states that despite the advantages to being registered with the College of Psychologists, there are disadvantages such as fees and title (possible change to Psychological Associate). School psychologists may have to pay a membership fee of $1500 and may have to upgrade course skills/training and write an exam to be a full member. The main advantage is proper certification with the College of Psychologists, and therefore official recognition as a distinct profession in psychology. The profession of school psychology in British Columbia is largely fragmented and lacks an identity in that the body of school psychology does not belong to the College of Psychologists, nor is it fully recognized by the College of Teachers. Further, there is no legislation in British Columbia that provides for the certification of school psychologists (aside from criteria set by BCASP). Therefore, school psychologists' job roles are often dictated by criteria set by BCASP and the B.C. Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education is responsible for regulating the allocation of money for special services within schools in the 31  province. It is thought that specific job roles may reflect a combination of these various external influences, depending upon which association psychologists are most closely affiliated with. The Ministry of Education The Ministry provides funding for the identification, assessment, and planning for students, thereby enabling school districts to employ school psychologists. However, with recent changes in the allocation of money to special services (Spring, 2002), the funding is no longer specific, but a lump sum is allocated for school psychology services. The British Columbia Ministry of Education's Special Education Services: Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines (2002) describes the role and function of school psychologists and provides guidance for school districts regarding appropriate training and qualifications for school psychology personnel. The manual states that a school psychologist should hold a professional teaching certificate and a master's degree in school/educational psychology or a related field (Ministry of Education, 2002). Currently, psychologists employed by a school board are exempted from the requirements for membership in the College of Psychologists. Only when the services of a psychologist are contracted do school districts need to ensure that the psychologist meets the requirements of the Psychologist's Act, for registration by the College of Psychologists (Ministry of Education, 2002). The Ministry of Education supports principles set in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests and Ethical Standards for Psychologists, published by the American Psychological Association and adopted by the Canadian Psychological Association. Since educational and psychological tests are generally categorized according to levels of training required of test administrators, school districts are responsible for ensuring that personnel administering tests have appropriate levels of training or are supervised by school psychologists with appropriate levels of training (Ministry of Education, 2002). The Ministry of Education has recently changed its allocation of funding for school 32  psychological services in June, 2002 so that changes may be seen in school psychologists' roles in the near future, with less of an emphasis on testing and diagnosis for making placement decisions for the learning disabled population and more focus on interventions and consultative services (S. Auerbach, personal communication, July 10, 2002). Further, there have been many reductions in school psychology positions due to cuts required from the government budget. It is predicted that there will be more reductions and subsequent job loss over the next couple of years (Benson, 2002). Therefore, given the recent Ministry changes, and recent activity with The College of Psychologists, the profession of school psychology in British Columbia is facing a future of uncertainty. Representation of School Psychology in Professional Accrediting Associations The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) was established in 1939 to ensure psychology's contribution to the war effort. The CPA is a voluntary organization which represents the interests of all aspects of psychology in Canada and promotes unity, coherence, and a sense of identity across diverse scientific and professional interests (CPA, 2001). CPA has been active in promoting high standards in science, education and practice. CPA has also provided leadership in the development of national standards and ethical principles. The CPA maintains strong liaisons with many North American and international psychology organizations in order to share information on professional scientific and professional issues and often to work for common standards (CPA, 2001). The Canadian Psychological Association accredits doctoral programs in Clinical Psychology, Clinical Neuropsychology, and Counselling Psychology (CPA, 2002). Therefore, currently the School Psychology program is not eligible for membership in the organization. However, CPA's standards for master's training programs in applied psychology encourages 33  terminal master's programs in applied psychology to adopt a training model and a set of standards (such as The National Association of School Psychologists) and to become a member of such an organization. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) The National Association of School Psychologists was officially formed in 1969. With the formation of NASP, practitioners nationwide in the United States came together with a more stable and strengthened identity. With over 21,000 members, The National Association of School Psychologists is the largest association of school psychologists in the world (NASP, 2002a). Further, NASP represents more masters, specialist and doctoral level school psychologists than any other professional organization (NASP, 2002a). NASP membership is open to school psychology practitioners, students, educators and others. Given the influence of the organization, NASP's standards and guidelines for the training and credentialing of school psychologists are recognized by almost every US State as the standard by which they certify school psychologists. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) accredits graduate programs through the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) in school psychology that meet its standards. NASP also offers the Nationally Certified School Psychologist NASP credential, which is accepted in many states and is accepted by BCASP (CPA, 2002). The National School Psychology Certification System (NSPCS) serves to credential school psychologists who meet a nationally recognized standard (NASP, 2002a). Therefore, this standard can be used as a measure of professionalism by interested agencies, groups and individuals (NASP, 2002a). In Canada (British Columbia), the equivalent of such a nationwide professional organization for Canadian school psychologists is the Canadian Association for School Psychologists (CASP), based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. However, CASP offers no form of credential. 34  The American Psychological Association (APA) The American Psychological Association, based in Washington D . C , is a scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. The APA is concerned with the occupation of psychology (all subspecialties), with a common commitment by those engaged in it to define, protect, and enhance the occupation (Bardon & Bennett, 1974). The APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide (APA, 2002). Division 16 of APA represents the area of school psychology. Currently, APA only accredits doctoral programs and full members of APA must have a doctoral degree in psychology or a relatedfieldfrom a regionally accredited institution. Masters level practitioners can apply to be an associate of the organization (APA, 2002; Bardon & Bennett, 1974). Development of Standards for Training and Practice Because state departments of education in the United States require that school psychologists must be certified to practice in the public schools, The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and the American Psychological Association (APA) responded to this need and have been involved with setting standards for accreditation, credentialing and practice (Batsche, Knoff & Petersen, 1989). Practice guidelines may contribute toward legislative and regulatory requirement for the practice of psychology and assist in providing greater legislative uniformity across Canada with regard to standards of training qualifications and competence. Practice guidelines may also give specific content and structure to the profession's principles of ethical practice (CPA, 2001). Standards for training and practice were established to ensure that psychologists were providing an appropriate and effective array of services to their clients and meeting client's needs. Service provider standards have developed as a response to practice demands (Batsche, Knoff, & Petersen, 1989). Secondly, school administrators and board members can be made aware of school psychologists' training and competencies and therefore obtain the greatest 35  return on their investment in school psychological services. Lastly, standards for training serve to guide the design of school psychology graduate education, as a basis for program evaluation, and as the foundation for the recognition of strong programs through the program approval process (NASP, 2000). The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Standards for Training and Practice The school psychology profession in Canada follows similar, but distinct practice standards set by NASP, and APA. The NASP training standards were written to guide school psychology training, to serve as a basis for program evaluation, and to be used in the program approval process (i.e., NCATE accreditation) (Harrison, 2002; Pryzwansky, 1999). The 2000 editions of the NASP standards for training and practice represent the latest versions which were first developed in the 1970's. The standards describe the training, experiences and professional competencies that must be demonstrated to provide high quality school psychological services (Harrison, 2002). The following basic principles outlined below have been paraphrased from Harrisons'(2002) Executive Summary of the NASP Standards and Guidelines for the Training and Credentialing of School Psychologists. Training Standards I.  Harrison states that NASP believes the training of school psychologists may occur at two  levels of graduate education. The specialist level (requiring 60 graduate semester hours and a 1200 hour internship), and the doctoral level (requiring 90 graduate semester hours and a 1500 hour internship). n.  Further, she summarizes that training should include (a) a comprehensive, integrated  program of study delivered by qualified faculty, (b) a foundation in the knowledge bases for both psychology and education, (c) substantial supervised field experiences, (d) systematic, valid evaluations of candidates, coursework, practica, internship, faculty, supervisors, resources. 36  DX  School Psychology is a definable specialty within psychology that requires unique  graduate preparation and professional skills. Harrison summarizes the performance-based domains of School Psychology Training and Practice: - Data-based decision-making and accountability - Consultation and Collaboration - Effective Instruction and Development of Cognitive/Academic Skills - Socialization and Development of Life Skills - Student Diversity in Development and Learning - School and Systems Organization, policy development, and climate - Prevention, Crisis Intervention, and Mental Health - Home/School/Community Collaboration - Research and Program Evaluation - School Psychology Practice and Development - Information Technology IV.  Harrison reports that NASP's training standards are approved by the National Council  for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). School Psychology programs in NCATE institutions are required to submit documentation of adherence to NASP's training standards in order to receive "NASP Approval" from the NASP Program Approval Board. Credentialing Standards I.  With respect to Credentialing, Harrison reports NASP believes that the specialist level is  the qualified level for entry into practice with a 1200 hour internship that includes a minimum of 600 school-based hours. D.  Harrison further states that NASP recognizes that there are several avenues for school  psychology training that can lead to the credentialing of school psychologists. Specifically, grads from the following programs meet requirements for credentialing: (a) NASP-approved programs, (b) Programs consistent with NASP training standards, (c) School psychology programs accredited by an agency approved by the US Dept. of Education (e.g., APA) and that meet NASP's internship standards.  37  HI.  Harrison reports that NASP'S credentialing standards are also used by the National  School Psychology Certification Board (NSPCB) to evaluate the applications of individuals who wish to become Nationally Certified School Psychologists (NCSP). IV.  Harrison further asserts that upon initial granting of the state credential, the school  psychologist should arrange supervision and mentoring to assure entry-level qualifications are translated into ongoing competency in the provision of school psychological services. V.  NASP supports the independent practice of school psychologists beginning at the  specialist level (qualified for independent practice in all settings); Harrison reports that this position is one of the reasons NASP was founded, and the position continues to be reflected in the Association's standards and guidelines. VI.  NASP standards explicitly require school psychologists to follow state credentialing  standards for the practice of school psychology. A state's credentialing authority is found in its statutory laws, and school psychologists must hold a valid credential for the setting in which they practice. VII.  Lastly, Harrison purports that all qualified personnel, including but not limited to school  psychologists, should be included in the provision of services to children in school settings. However, the designated state school psychology credential should be reserved for individuals who have been trained as school psychologists. The Influence of NASP and APA on Credentialing The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) has worked to influence the credentialing process to attain uniformity of standards across states. The American Psychological Association (APA) has also accredited many doctoral programs in school psychology between 1972 and 1998. Division 16 of the American Psychological Association set minimal standards for school psychology certification and developed a document containing basic guidelines for certification and training (APA, 2002). The APA and NASP currently 38  provide their own separate standards for training. Although the two organizations hold similar conceptions offieldbased practice and the interaction between practicing school psychologists and the organizational environments in which they must function, there are some differences between them. Specifically, the APA and NASP have articulate differences over policies on the appropriate entry-level and title for school psychologists and this debate continues today. (Brown 1990; Fagan & Wise, 2000). The American Psychological Association (APA) suggests a two-tired system in which the professional school psychologist possesses a doctoral degree from an APA approved program and the specialist in school psychology in which 2 years of training with an additional 1000 hours of experience supervised by a professional school psychologist (Batsche, Knoff, & Petersen,1989). In other words, APA continues to promote a doctoral entry level into the profession, and purports for regulatory protection of the "psychologist" title as one that is sanctioned at only the doctoral level. Furthermore, APA standards are generic in nature (to the generalfieldof psychology), applied equally to various specialties of psychology including: school, clinical, and counseling. Lastly, The American Psychological Association (APA) Division 16 corresponds with state licensing boards for independent practice as a psychologist. In contrast, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) corresponds with most state departments of education requirements for certification. The NASP standards incorporate both generic or core areas and areas of specialization deemed necessary for school psychology practice. NASP specifies two credentialing levels which are the entry level and independent practice level, both at the 60 hour training level. The NASP standards recognize the specialist degree (60 hour masters level) as the entry level standard to be a "qualified school psychologist" (NASP, 2000)  39  NASP Standards for the Provision of School Psychological Services Standards for service provision provide guidelines for which the practice and delivery of school psychological services can be viewed at the federal, state, and local levels of practice and provide the practitioner with specific guidance in regard to every day practice (Batsche, Knoff, & Petersen, 1989; Brown 1990; CPA, 2002). The Standards for the Provision of School Psychological Services (2000) represent the position of the National Association of School Psychologists regarding the delivery of appropriate and comprehensive school psychological services. A few of the guidelines for practice and organization of service delivery will be discussed here, particularly emphasizing types of roles and functions (within the roles), professional climate, and supervision requirements. Practice Guideline 1 states that school psychologists use a decision-making process in collaboration with other team members to identify academic and behavior problems, collect and analyze the information to understand the problem, and make decisions about and evaluate the outcomes of service delivery. According to Practice Guideline 7, school psychologists must utilize appropriate prevention, health promotion, and crisis intervention methods based on training in specific areas. Lastly, Practice Guideline 2 states that school psychologists should have the ability to listen well and work with others at the individual, group and systems level. With regards to guidelines for the organization of service delivery, Unit Guideline 1 states that school psychological services are provided in a "coordinated, organized fashion and are delivered in a manner that ensures the provision of a comprehensive and seamless continuum of services. Services are delivered following the completion of a strategic planning process based on the needs of consumers and an empirically supported program evaluation model" (National Association of School Psychologists, 2000, p. 51). Regarding the climate for practice (Unit Guideline 2), a climate should be created in which there is mutual respect for all professional parties. Employees are to be free from any 40  administrative or political constraints that might hinder the provision of appropriate services. Lastly Unit Guideline 5, concerning supervision, states that the supervisor of school psychological services either holds or meets criteria for the Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) credential, or has a minimum 3 years of practice as a school psychologist. Contemporary School Psychology Service Delivery in the United States Because there is a richer base of literature in the area of school psychology training and service delivery in the United States, and little empirical research on job roles and functions in Canada (particularly in British Columbia), survey studies based in the United States were selected for discussion here. It has been noted that practitioners typically serve various roles and functions within school districts. School psychologists may engage in any one or a number of areas of service delivery including: (but not limited to) assessment, consultation, interventions, counselling, research, evaluation, and preventative programming (Bardon & Bennett, 1974; B.C. Ministry of Education, 2002; Conoley & Conoley, 1992; Jackson et al., 1993; NASP, 2002b). Typical job roles consist of varying degrees of practice from these various areas of service delivery. Major national surveys of school psychology practitioners have appeared frequently in the school psychology literature over the last 20 years (e.g. Anderson et al., 1984; Hutton & Dubes, 1994; Lacayo et. al, 1981; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Smith, 1984; Smith, Clifford, Hesley, & Leifgren, 1992; Stinnet et al., 1994). Reschly and Wilson (1995) conducted surveys with school psychology practitioners in 1986, and 1991-92. The 1991-92 survey contained the same items as the 1986 survey as well as additional content in several areas. Highlights of their findings (pertaining to practitioner degree status, principal work setting, ratio of students to psychologists, current and preferred roles, and system reform attitudes) are reported here. Reschly and Wilson (1995) received an 80% return rate from a survey sample of 1,600 NASP members (N= 1,089). They found that practitioner degree status changed during the 41  intervening five years (between the 1986 and 1991-92 surveys) with a greater proportion of specialist level (51-56%) and fewer masters' level practitioners. There was no change in the proportion of practitioners with doctoral degrees (reported as 21% in 1986 and 1991-92). The principal work setting also showed no change between the two surveys with 86% of respondents working in school settings. However, respondents' reports of their community setting shifted slightly over the five-year period toward more in urban (22-28%), fewer in suburban (37-33%) and rural settings (24-21%), and the same proportion indicating some combination of settings (17%). The actual ratio of students to psychologists did not change, with the median in 1986 and 1991-1992 of 1,750:1. Reschly and Wilson (1995) found that over one-half of practitioner time was devoted to psychoeducational assessment, 20% was devoted to direct interventions, 16% to problem solving consultation, and 5% or less to systems-organizational consultation and research-evaluation. There was a significant difference between practitioner's current and preferred roles, with practitioners reporting they would like to reduce time devoted to psychoeducational assessment (32%), and increase time devoted to direct interventions (28%), problem-solving consultation (23%), systems-organizational consultation (10%) and researchevaluation (7%) (Reschly & Wilson, 1995). The researchers further found that system reform beliefs among practitioners was quite neutral. The strongest agreement with system reform themes occurred with items regarding school psychologists' involvement with interventions before eligibility determination, redirection of personnel and resources from eligibility determination to interventions, and the usefulness of direct measures in monitoring progress. Conversely, the strongest disagreements with system reform themes were those regarding the similarity of educational needs of students with LD (learning disabilities) and ED (emotional disturbance), and with LD and mild MR (mild retardation) (Reschly & Wilson, 1995). 42  Stinnett, Havey, and Oehler-Stinnett (1994) conducted a national survey which examined the assessment activity of practicing school psychologists. Estimates of time involved in various service delivery activities also were obtained in a random sample from the National Association of School Psychologists membership list. Demographic results indicated that 45% of the sample had their masters' degree, 33% of the sample had their specialist degree, and roughly 20% had obtained doctorate level of training. Further, 74% of respondents were Nationally Certified School Psychologists and 67.5% indicated that they had practiced seven or more years. Most of the respondents (69%) indicated that their psychologist-to-student ratio was 1:2,000 or lower. The average number of initial and re-evaluations and the total number of evaluations completed during the 1991-1992 school year were reported to be 51.94, 35.72, and 88 respectively. Consistent with previous research (Smith, 1984; Smith et al.,1992), Stinnett et al. (1994) found that most practice hours were devoted to assessment-related activities (51%), followed by consultation (20%), treatment (19%), administrative duties (6%), continuing education (3%), and research (1%). Further, school psychologists reported frequent use of intellectual, behaviour-social-emotional, achievement, and perceptual assessment methods, but were less likely to be involved in vocational or preschool assessment (Stinnett et al., 1994). Results of survey studies over the years (Anderson et al., 1984; Hutton & Dubes, 1994; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Smith, 1984; Smith, Clifford, et al. 1992; Stinnet et al., 1994) consistently revealed that over 50% of school psychologists' time is spent in assessment. Further, some results of these survey studies revealed that most school psychologists would like to reduce time spent in assessment and increase time spent in intervention and consultation activities. Most recently, a national study was conducted by the National Association of School Psychologists on the demographic characteristics, employment conditions and professional 43  practices of school psychologists. NASP conducts studies of this nature every 5 years in order to update its national database and provide valuable information for use in informing legislators, policymakers etc.. as well as for informing the actions and policies of the association (Curtis, Chesno-Grier, Walker-Abshier, Sutton, & Hunley, 2002). In this study, surveys were mailed to 3, 022 school psychologists identified as regular members within the NASP membership database. Seventy two percent of the practitioners in the NASP survey were female, 31.2% were 40 years of age or younger, and 32.8% were 50 years of age or older (Curtis et al., 2002). Further, 60.6% of those surveyed had 15 years of professional experience as a school psychologist or less, while 20.7% had 20 years of experience or more (Curtis et al., 2002). In sum, data for age and experience demonstrate that there is a disproportionate number of school psychologists approaching retirement, who are not being replaced by comparable numbers of school psychologists entering the field. This suggests an increasing shortage of school psychologists in the field. With regard to highest degree earned, 41% of the respondents held a master's degree, 28.2% held a specialist degree, and 30.3% held a doctoral degree. Within the domain of service delivery, almost four-fifths of school psychologist's time was invested in special education activities, with 41% of their special education time invested in assessment activities, 26% in report writing, 25% in meetings and 8% in "other" related activities (Curtis et al., 2002). In the area of supervision, 47.2% of respondents reported receiving no professional supervision, and of those that were supervised, only 46.5% reported that their supervisors held a degree in school psychology (Curtis et al., 2002). School psychologists with more training reported providing more counselling, in-service training, and consultative services (including intervention and prevention services), while those with less training reported more time spent completing initial evaluations and more total time in special education activities (Curtis et al., 2002). When considering type of school setting (e.g. 44  urban, suburban, rural) as it impacts job roles, school psychologists in suburban settings completed fewer special education re-evaluations than did school psychologists in urban or rural settings. This may be due to the fact that suburban schools had a lower student to school psychologist ratio compared to urban or rural school systems. The lower the ratio, the greater the investment of the school psychologist in activities such as more direct intervention services to students (Curtis et al., 2002). Critical Analysis of Survey Studies Surveys conducted for examination of the role and function of school psychologists (reviewed for this study), typically serve multiple purposes. All previous studies included sections for demographics, job roles and time allocations, and job-site characteristics. There are some problems inherent in using any type of survey methodology that could directly impact the results obtained and perhaps lead to invalid conclusions in some cases. Readers of survey research should be cognizant that the varying personal characteristics of respondents, sample selection techniques, researcher's wording of questions, and survey return rate all have a dramatic impact on survey results and interpretations. Personal Characteristics of Respondents Most surveys included an initial section for respondents to fill in regarding identifying personal characteristics and demographic variables (such as background, gender, level of degree, organizational affiliation, and area of practice - rural versus urban). As an example, when looking at the impact of experience on role, it may be true that more experienced practitioners engage in quite different roles due to more years of practice, and/or have more directly related previous experience in teaching which would affect the variety of roles held as a school psychology practitioner. Although some researchers reported that over 60% of their survey sample was practicing with a master's degree (Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fischer, Jenkins & Crumbley, 1986; Hutton & 45  Dubes, 1992). Reschly and Wilson (1995) and Anderson et al. (1984) reported that most practitioners sampled in their survey were practicing at the specialist or doctoral level. Therefore, scope of practice and job roles may differ depending upon whether the survey sample possesses masters or doctoral degrees. This would have implications when interpreting and generalizing results on any level (e.g. local, national). Further, four of the surveys revealed an average age of the survey sample of 40 or above (Anderson et al., 1984; Fisher et al., 1986; Hutton & Dubes, 1992; Reschly & Wilson, 1995), and four of the surveys revealed that practitioners had seven or more years of experience (Anderson et al., 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fisher et al., 1986; Reschly & Wilson, 1995). These are all important factors to consider as they directly impact job roles. Sample Selection Variables selected for inclusion or exclusion (such as membership in the National Association of School Psychologists) will affect the generalizability of the findings. Many researchers drew a random sample from the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) membership register (Anderson et al., 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fisher et al., 1986; Hutton & Dubes, 1994; Lacayo et al., 1981; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Stinnet et al., 1994). Therefore, because the sample was selected only from NASP members, results may only be validly generalized to this group. NASP members may differ somehow from the unselected population and so their job roles may differ from other practicing school psychologists. For example, NASP members may have better access (than non-NASP members) to professional development materials such as journals and newsletters from which they receive current training. Thus, NASP members may not necessarily be representative of all school psychologists.  46  The demographic representativeness of the selected sample is important as school psychologists' roles and functions may differ depending upon whether they practice in urban or more rural areas. For example, when examining role function of school psychologists in the province of British Columbia, it is important to ensure that the sample is representative of the different regions of B.C. Scope of practice may differ for school psychologists in an urban or suburban part of the city as compared to school psychologists practicing in more remote areas on Vancouver Island, such as Port Alberni. Therefore a critical reader of survey studies must be cognizant of whether the researchers drew a random sample of all school psychologists regardless of area of practice, or used a more stratified approach (including a smaller sample of school psychologists from each geographic area). Most researchers reported the percentage of respondents in their survey samples who were from rural and urban areas (Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fischer et al., 1981; Jerrel, 1984; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Stinnet et al., 1994). In a national survey, Anderson et al. (1984) represented thirty-three states and the district of Columbia in their survey and reported the regions of the country and percentage of respondents from those regions. Similarly, in another national survey, Lacayo et al. (1981) randomly selected respondents from each state by proportional population according to U.S. census data. Lastly, Hutton and Dubes (1994) reported on the proportion of school psychologist respondents, in terms of percentages, from the various regions of the country. Survey Response Rate Across a number of studies, based on conclusions from a number of authors, the issue of survey response and/or return rate is raised as a common critical feature. Many of these authors obtained below a 40% response rate and a provision is raised in these studies that results should be interpreted with caution (Anderson et al., 1984; Fischer et al., 1986; Hutton & Dubes, 1992; Roberts & Rust, 1994; Stinnet et al., 1994). On the other hand, Reschly and Wilson (1995) 47  obtained a response rate between 76-83%, as did Jerrel (1984), with a 75% response rate. In summary, one must be mindful of varying personal characteristics of respondents, sample selection, and survey response rate when interpreting survey results. Questioning of Role Functions Another critical feature common across a number of survey studies was the authors' choice of words pertaining to individual survey questions. These authors noted the importance of the wording of questions, so as to obtain as accurate responses as possible from respondents (Anderson et al., 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fisher et al., 1986; Hutton & Dubes, 1994; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Roberts & Rust, 1994; Stinnet et al., 1994). Although many of the authors chose to use the words approximate percentages of time devoted to various job functions such as assessment, consultation, interventions, counseling, system change agent, research and program evaluation, administration/supervision (Anderson et al., 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fisher et al., 1986; Hutton & Dubes, 1994; Roberts & Rust, 1994), other authors asked practitioners to specify the number of hours per week that they were engaged in different service delivery activities (Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Stinnet et al., 1994). Summary In this chapter, an overview of the historical development of the school psychology profession was provided. Models of training, as well as content and levels of training were discussed in relation to what it means to be a school psychologist in Canada and British Columbia. Particular attention was given to the regulation and practice of school psychology in British Columbia. Specifically, the practice of the profession was discussed as it is impacted by the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP), the College of Psychologists, and the Ministry of Education. The ambiguity surrounding job roles/functions and current lack of regulation of school psychology in British Columbia suggests that there is great diversity in professional demographics and job roles. Further, there is much existing 48  uncertainty regarding the future path of the profession. The lack of empirical research in this area supports the need for this study in exploring what the profession currently looks like. The representation of school psychology in the professional accrediting associations was discussed, with a focus on the NASP Standards for Training and Practice and the Provision of School Psychological Services. NASP has been and continues to be an influential association in setting regulatory guidelines for the profession. Contemporary school psychology service delivery in the United States was outlined, with highlights from U.S. national survey studies reported. Some critical features of these studies were also discussed.  49  CHAPTER 3 Methodology In order to better understand the current state of affairs in school psychology service delivery in British Columbia, this study used survey methodology with follow-up e-mail and telephone interviews. The survey of school psychology practice was distributed to school psychologists throughout the province of British Columbia. The purpose of using survey methodology was to produce statistics or numerical descriptions of some aspects of the population of interest (Fowler & Floyd, 1993). The purpose of the telephone follow-up interviews was to help contextualize and better understand information obtained in the survey. By using a semi-structured interview format with open-ended questions, much richer information was gathered from participants, beyond their individual responses to the survey. Purpose of the Study The primary purpose of this study was to better understand the job roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in the province of British Columbia. More specifically, this study explored models of service delivery commonly used by school psychologists in the province. The secondary purpose of this study was to examine how the variables of personal characteristics and professional skills, job-site characteristics, and external factors influenced the job roles and functions of practicing school psychologists. The information gathered in this study helps to explain the current state of affairs of school psychological service delivery and provides the professional and non-professional communities with a description of what psychologists are doing (Lacayo et al., 1981). As a result, this information serves to validate school psychologists' current roles and help the profession to grow in a direction that will best meet the needs of teachers, parents and referred children. Information gathered in this study is particularly relevant given that the profession of school psychology is in a time of transition and there is much existing uncertainty around school 50  psychology regulation, training, and practice in British Columbia (Benson, 2001; British Columbia Association of School Psychologists, 2002). The practice of school psychology at the master's level is currently under review by the College of Psychologists of British Columbia. A possible join with the College of Psychologists would mean many changes for the profession. Many practicing psychologists would have to meet certain requirements such as more course work, passing the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology (EPPP) Doctoral level exam and paying membership fees to the College. Therefore, it is important at this time to know the process and types of service delivery school psychologists are engaged in during a typical academic year, and how current job activities and roles are reflected by their graduate training. Further, as mentioned previously, the Ministry of Education has recently faced severe cutbacks, with resulting changes to the allocation of money for Special Education services in the province thus affecting the level and types of services school psychologists could provide for students. It was anticipated that an analysis of survey results would provide a view of what the profession looked like just after these changes occurred. Empirical research is needed to help clarify and define the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists. It was hoped that this survey of school psychology training and practice in British Columbia would help to clarify job roles and narrow the gap between research and practice. In this study, the following research questions were addressed: Research Question One What are the job characteristics (i.e. job roles, job functions, job satisfaction) of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? It was hypothesized that the majority of practitioner time was spent conducting standardized norm-referenced assessments, specifically in the area of testing/diagnosis for placement decisions. Further, it was hypothesized that practitioners desired to broaden their 51  roles so that more time could be spent in the other job roles of interventions and consultation. Research Question Two (A) How do personal characteristics and professional skills influence the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? It was hypothesized that school psychologists with more years of experience occupied broader roles within the system (Curtis et al., 2002) and that professional background impacted job roles/functions (e.g. persons with years of experience as a teacher may serve a different role from persons with no teaching experience). It was also hypothesized that there would be variation in the type and level of training held by practitioners filling the role of school psychologist. Because a minimum of a master's degree is required to be a member of BCASP, it was hypothesized that the majority of practitioners were practicing with a master's degree (M.A. or M.Ed.) in school psychology (or a related discipline such as counselling, teaching, and/or special education). Further, it was hypothesized that patterns would emerge between level(s) and type(s) of training and particular job roles. Research Question Two (B) How do job-site characteristics influence the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? It was hypothesized that participants would be characterized by various job-site characteristics and that patterns would emerge between location of school district (e.g. rural versus urban), location of primary office setting, and job roles. For example, Curtis et al. (2002) discovered that school psychologists in suburban school district settings completed fewer special education re-evaluations than did school psychologists in urban or rural settings. It was further hypothesized that school psychologists serving more students and schools will be engaged in more assessment activity for placement decisions. Lastly, it was hypothesized that 52  level and type of training held by the school psychologists' immediate supervisor (if applicable), would impact roles and functions of school psychologists. Research Question Two (C) How do various external forces (such as the Ministry of Education, and local professional organizations such as BCASP and the BCTF) impact the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia? As mentioned previously, this survey came at a time when changes were occurring in the job roles of school psychologists, as handed down from the Ministry of Education (time allocations to various services were in the midst of changing). It was hypothesized that the greatest source of stress in jobs will result from all the recent cutbacks and layoffs in the province and uncertainty of the future path of the profession. With respect to membership or involvement in professional organizations, it was hypothesized that school psychologists' job *  roles may be impacted by professional organization membership and/or affiliation with BCASP or the BCTF. Sample and Procedures Participant Selection: Survey Phase The sample for the survey consisted of practicing school psychologists from four regions of the province whose supervisors were contacted and agreed to distribute survey packets. Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select and contact the direct supervisors of school psychologists (from four regions of the province) in order to receive their permission to approve and distribute the survey to school psychologists under their supervision. The sample for this study was obtained from four demographic areas of the province including Vancouver Mainland and outlying districts, Vancouver Island, Northern British Columbia, and the interior of British Columbia. Respondents to the survey were from urban, suburban, and rural areas of the province.  53  A random sample of five Directors of Instruction from each of the four demographic areas of the province were sent an email explaining the study and requesting their permission to distribute individual survey packets to their psychologists, upon receiving the package in the mail. An e-mail follow up reminder was sent one week later to remind those directors who had not responded to the initial request. If there was no further response a week after the reminder email was sent, then those directors were considered non-respondents, and additional boards were randomly selected to satisfy the desired sample size from each strata. This process was repeated as necessary until eventually all the directors from all four demographic areas of the province were contacted. In the Mainland Vancouver area, seven Directors of Instruction were approached and agreed to distribute the survey. Although initially only five boards were going to be selected per demographic area, an adjustment had to be made to this procedure in order to accommodate those Directors who were slower in responding (and therefore in the meantime, other boards were selected from the same region and had agreed). Thus, the extra responses were not refused given the relatively small sample size of the study. Table 2 Survey Response Rates By Demographic Area Area of Province  Number Number Total Participants Total Survey Total % by of Directors of Directors who Sampled Respondents Demographic Approached Distributed Survey , Area N =16 26 .67%  N=5 31 .25%  N = 20 100%  N=8 40.0%  19.05%  Mainland Vancouver N =16 26 67%  N=7 43.75%  N = 42 100%  N = 20 47.62%  47.62%  N =14 23 33%  N=5 35.71%  N= 10 100%  N=7 70.0%  16.67%  Vancouver Island  Interior of B.C.  54  Table 2 (Continued). Area of Province Number Number Total Participants Total Survey Total % by of Directors of Directors who Sampled Respondents Demographic Approached Distributed Survey Area Northern B.C.  N=14 23.33%  N=4 28.57%  N =9 100%  N =6 66.67%  14.29%  TOTAL  N=60 100%  N = 21 35%  N = 81 100%  *N = 42 52%  97.63%  Note. Although 42 surveys were returned, 1 was not identifiable by region When selecting this sampling method, it was considered what part of the population was excluded (practicing school psychologists whose supervisors were not contacted or whose supervisors would not agree to distribute the survey). Unfortunately, no reliable estimate of the number of school psychologists practicing in British Columbia was available through published documents or Ministry of Education documents. However, the current president of the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists estimates that there are anywhere from 220-240 psychologists currently practicing in the schools (B. Benson, personal communication, October 2002). The sampling method of contacting the Directors of Instruction from four demographic areas of the province was selected since the population of interest for this study was school psychologists employed by district school boards. When selecting this sample of potential survey respondents, it was assumed that respondents were currently employed by school districts and were familiar with the current situation in British Columbia. Further, it is believed that the sample would be quite representative of school psychologists in British Columbia, given that respondents were selected from four demographic areas of the province. The demographic characteristics for the sample are reported in Tables 3 and 4. It is important to understand the individual or defining characteristics of the survey sample, given that the results of this study represent a select population of practicing school  55  psychologists in British Columbia (those that responded to the survey). A look at the demographics of the study reveals that most survey respondents were from the Mainland of Vancouver (forty-eight percent of the respondents), followed by Vancouver Island (nineteen percent of the respondents), the Interior of British Columbia (seventeen percent of the respondents), and Northern British Columbia (fourteen percent of the respondents). The majority of survey respondents were in the age range of 46-55 years (forty-eight percent of the respondents), followed by twenty-four percent of respondents in the age range of 36-45 years, and ten percent of respondents in the age range of 26-35 years. Further, the majority of respondents were female (fifty-seven percent of the total respondents), and forty-three percent of the total respondents were male. The majority of survey respondents in this study held a masters degree (eighty-one percent of the total respondents). Only fourteen percent of the respondents held a doctoral degree. A review of the previous survey literature also revealed that the majority of survey respondents were masters level practitioners (Benson & Hughes, 1985; Carey & Wilson, 1995; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Lacayo, Morris, & Sherwood, 1981; Pryzwansky, 1999; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Stinnett, Havey, and Oehler-Stinnett, 1994). Further, most practitioners' field of study was either School or Educational Psychology. Lastly, the average number of years of practice as a school psychologist for this sample was eleven. Thus, a summary of the demographic information indicates that the typical survey respondent was a female, between the ages of 46 and 55 years, practicing as a school psychologist (with roughly eleven years of experience) from the Mainland of British Columbia. Detailed descriptive information for survey respondents is provided in Table 3.  56  Table 3 Demographic Summary of Survey Respondents (N=42) Variable  n  %  Gender Male Female  18 24  42.9 57.1  4 10 20 8  9.5 23.8 47.6 19.0  Region Vancouver Island Mainland Vancouver Interior of British Columbia Northern British Columbia  8 20 7 6  9.5 48.8 17.1 14.6  FTE Equivalent 1.0 (Full-Time) 0.8 0.7 Other  34 2 2 4  81.0 4.8 4.8 9.6  Professional College Affiliation College of Teachers College of Psychologists  28 8  75.7 21.6  Professional Identity Psychologist Teacher  30 8  78.9 21.1  Classroom Experience Yes No  34 6  85.0 15.0  Highest Degree Completed M.A. M.Ed Ph.D. Other  17 14 6 5  40.5 33.3 14.3 11.9  Age 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65  years years years years  57  Table 3 (Continued).  Variable  Degree Granting Institution University of B.C. University of Victoria University of Alberta University of Calgary University of Regina Other  19 8 3 2 2 8  45.2 19.0 7.1 4.8 4.8 19.2  Field of Study Educational Psychology School Psychology Counselling Psychology Special Education Other  14 13 5 4 6  33.3 31.0 11.9 9.5 14.4  Training Reflection of Services Provided Yes No  30 11  73.2 26.8  Note. All percentages do not add up to 100% because of missing variables Table 4 Mean Survey Respondent Professional Experiences (N = 42) Variable  Mean  SD  Range (Min./Max.)  Years of Practice  42  11.14  7.85  1-26  Years of Practice in Current Position  42  8.31  7.05  1-25  Years of Teaching Exp.  32  8.38  6.59  1-27  Note. All percentages do not add up to 100% because of missing variables Participant Selection: Interview Phase Participants for the interview phase of the study were selected from among the 21 respondents who indicated on their survey that they were willing to participate in a follow-up 58  interview. Participants who agreed to be interviewed were asked to fax or mail in their completed interview consent form. Five interview respondents (twelve percent of the total respondents) were selected from those who faxed in their completed interview consent form. It is believed that the interview data collected provided more, richer sources of information (beyond survey responses). In order to target diversity in responses, two interviewee participants were selected from the lower mainland (given that the majority of respondents were from this region), and one interview respondent was selected from each of the other three demographic areas (i.e. Vancouver Island, The Interior of British Columbia, and Northern British Columbia). Survey Development Initial development phase In designing the survey, several survey method books were consulted (Dillman, 1978; Dillman, 2000; Fowler & Floyd, 1993; 1995). The content of the survey was based on a review of the literature of similar national surveys (Anderson et. al, 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Curtis et. al, 2002; Lacayo et. al, 1981; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Stein, 1964; Stinnett, Havey, & Oehler-Stinnett, 1994). Upon close examination of these previous surveys, questions were selected and edited to meet the needs of this survey design. For the content of the survey dealing with job roles and functions, much information on comprehensive service delivery was taken from the National Association of School Psychologists Blueprint For Training and Practice II (1997). Further, Fagan and Wise's (2000) discussion on the roles and functions of school psychologists provided the organizing framework for this study. See Appendix A for the survey used in the present study. Survey questions were grouped together for similarity into sections. Each survey section was ordered strategically with the most sensitive information of personal demographics at the end of the survey (Dillman, 1978). Much thought and consideration was taken into the 59  wording of questions, using simple words that were not too vague. Survey respondents were asked to indicate approximate percentages of time devoted to various service delivery activities. This manner of questioning was selected as it was thought that answers would not fluctuate as much depending upon whether the responding school psychologist worked part-time or fulltime. Secondly, asking for hours per week was believed to be too exacting and time-consuming for many respondents filling out the survey. Lastly, bias and objectionable questions were avoided by not including questions that would insinuate bias or be seen as objectionable by respondents (Dillman, 1978; Fowler & Floyd, 1995). Pilot phase The purpose of the pilot phase was to test the readability and practicality of the survey (and so providing additional content validation) with a group of people similar to the respondents who completed the survey. Those people selected for the survey pilot phase had either similar training or work experience as the respondents. The pilot phase was carried out with three select groups of participants. The first group consisted of four UBC masters students who had completed a minimum of one year of school psychology graduate training. The second group consisted of four practicing school psychologists. The third group consisted of three university faculty members. Pilot respondents were asked to complete the survey and answer a list of questions regarding the readability and content of the survey (see Appendix D for Pilot Survey questions). Based upon the feedback from the pilot phase, the survey was revised. Interview Development Interview question development An initial framework was developed based upon the general research questions of the study, specifically with regards to the training and practice of school psychology. Questions were strategically selected to help with the interpretation of survey results. Although much content for the interviews was based upon an elaboration of the original survey responses, there 60  were some additional questions in the interview phase related to respondents' perceptions of external determinants of job roles (with regards to the Ministry of Education and any other influential persons or organizations). A semi-structured interview style was selected to allow for spontaneous questioning based upon respondents' initial answers (Dillman,1978; Merriam, 1998; Yin, 1994). Further, interview questions were open-ended, allowing for elaboration of some of the issues addressed in the survey. See Appendix E for the interview questions. Interview pilot The purpose of the pilot phase was to familiarize the interviewer with the interview process, and to ensure the appropriateness of the questions. Practice interviews were necessary to ensure the interviewer was comfortable with the telephone interview process, and that the techniques of active listening and spontaneous questioning were employed. A pilot interview phase was conducted with two interviewees. A list of interview questions was sent to each interviewee via electronic mail. Following completion of the on-line questionnaire, responses were emailed back to the researcher, who then examined the responses and contacted the interviewees for further clarification and elaboration (if necessary) of their responses. Following the interview, each interviewee was asked to comment on critical features of the interview such as the interviewer's choice of words, content of the questions, timing, and pacing. Data Collection Survey phase Survey packets were distributed to practicing school psychologists (whose supervisors were contacted and agreed to distribute survey packets) from four demographic areas of British Columbia identified in this study. Psychologists' supervisors who agreed to distribute the survey were mailed one package, which contained enough survey packets for each psychologist in their district. The names of the psychologists were not placed on the survey packets to ensure 61  that the researcher did not know who would receive the packets. Each survey packet consisted of the survey, a cover letter outlining the purpose of the study and rights of participants, an interview consent form, and a pre-paid self-addressed envelope to return the survey (see Appendices A,B,C for survey packet contents). Participants were asked at the end of the survey to indicate their willingness to participate in a brief follow-up interview. Participants who agreed to the interview signed the informed consent form in the survey packet, and faxed in the completed form to the attention of the researcher. Participants were asked to respond to the survey within two weeks. Interview phase Twelve percent of the total survey respondents were selected for follow-up interviews upon survey return and analysis. Based on the final sample size of forty-two respondents (for a fifty-two percent survey return rate), five interview participants were selected. A stratified random sample of participants who self-identified a willingness to participate in the follow-up interview were contacted. Participants were first contacted by e-mail (for the first interview phase), and then by telephone (for the second interview phase). To ensure anonymity, once the interviews were completed, pseudonyms were assigned and real names and identifying information were destroyed. In preparation for the interviews, the researcher was cognizant of and adopted the skills required for conducting successful interviews. First, the researcher focused on asking good questions (and interpreting answers), and skillful use of probes (e.g. "Is there anything else?") (Dillman, 1978; Yin, 1994). A list of questions was prepared for each interviewee for the second interview phase, based upon their original replies (from the first interview phase). The interviewer also worked on the phrasing of questions. Wording on the phone was particularly important given that non-verbal feedback could not be given (often essential to effective communication), and this factor increases the risk for misunderstandings and/or interference 62  s  from the phone line (Dillman, 1978). The interviewer focused on being a good listener, remained flexible and adaptive (so that newly encountered situations could be seen as opportunities), had a firm grasp of the issues studied, and remained unbiased by any preconceived notions as much as possible (being sensitive and responsive to contradictory evidence) (Yin, 1994). Once selected, participants received an email letter containing a list of open-ended questions. They were asked to respond to the questions electronically and send their response to the researcher's email address as soon as possible. Once the researcher had reviewed the responses, a 10-15 minute follow up telephone interview was scheduled. The total time required for the two components of the follow-up interview was no longer than half an hour. Data Analysis Survey Data was entered as surveys were returned. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS software package version 10.0. A template was set up consisting of variable names and brief descriptive information that helped code the data. Descriptive Frequency counts were run for all survey questions with categorical data and values for the N (response rate for individual items) and percentages were reported in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Summary and descriptive statistics were run for all items with numeric responses. Values for the N (response rate for the items), mean, SD and range values were reported in Table 3. Further, group comparisons were run (i.e. ANOVA), examining the group differences between certain demographic, professional, and jobsite variables on each of the five main job roles (i.e. assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling, research and evaluation). For those variables that were found significant with the ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey's tests of significance were run in order to examine where the specific differences were between variables. For all open-ended survey questions, the thematic analysis procedure was used (the constant comparative method is discussed below in the interview 63  analysis section), for which responses were organized by themes, recorded, and reported. Finally, questions were generated (and further refined), based upon an analysis of survey responses, to be used in the interview phase. Data Analysis for Research Question One Descriptive, Frequency count statistics were run for all variables related to job satisfaction (Survey Section B), and job roles/functions (Survey Section C). Upon examination of the descriptive statistics, relevant results were reported in tables and are detailed in Chapter 4. Values were reported for the most common sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, most common job roles, and the desired job roles respondents' reported they would like to spend more and less time in. Data Analysis for Research Question Two (A) Based on the results from the survey, the following variables were selected for examination: years of experience, professional background (in particular whether respondents held a teaching certificate), field of study for highest degree and level of degree. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run for each of these variables, in order to examine specific group differences between each variable and the five main job roles of assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling, and research and evaluation. An Analysis of Variance is an inferential test focused on the comparison of group means, and the "F" statistic represents the calculated value of this test (Huck & Cormier, 1996). In order to guard against Type I error rate, the Bonferroni technique was used, resulting in an adjustment to the alpha values (to a comparison alpha level of .01). The Bonferroni technique was used so as to avoid the problem of inflated error rate due to the multiple comparisons made with the five main job roles (Huck & Cormier, 1996).  64  Data Analysis for Research Question Two (B) Based on the survey results, the following variables were selected for examination in the ANOVA tests run (as they impacted time allocated to the five main job roles mentioned above): location of school district, location of primary office setting, number of students served, number of schools served, and level and type of training held by the respondents' supervisor. Further data analysis was run with use of Tukey's post-hoc significance test for those variables that were found to be significant with the ANOVA. Post-hocs were run for the variables of: the number of students served in the district, the number of schools served in the district, and the supervisors' field of specialization. Data Analysis for Research Question Two (C) Based upon the survey results, the variables of organization membership in the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) and the British Columbia Teachers Federation (BCTF) were selected for examination with ANOVA's (as they impacted time allocated to the five main job roles). Interview data was analyzed and reported to provide supplemental information on how various external variables impacted job roles/functions. In particular, recent changes as handed down from the Ministry of Education and the uncertainty regarding the possible join with the College of Psychologists were discussed. Interview For the interview component, the thematic analysis procedure was conducted using the constant comparative method (Merriam, 1998) to identify themes, segmenting open-ended responses into unique phrases. These phrases were then organized into themes, which were subsequently recorded and reported. The constant comparative method allowed for units of data (or bits of information) to be sorted into groupings having something in common. The names of categories selected were reflective of the research purpose (Merriam, 1998). Realizing that data collection and analysis is a simultaneous activity in qualitative research (Merriam, 1998; Yin, 65  1994), the analysis really began with the first interview in which emerging insights and tentative hypotheses directed the next phase of data collection, which in turn led to a refinement of the questions (Merriam, 1998). In using this procedure, the researcher made written notes and created clear records of each interview (including written responses from phase one and verbal responses from phase two). Next, all of the text was divided into meaningful segments or categories (color coded according to the emerging themes). Meaningful phrases and statements (fromboth the written and verbal interview responses) were then recorded on individual sheets of paper, with each theme as the heading on each sheet of paper. Each sheet of paper representing a theme was assigned a particular color. Further, as data were collected, they were sorted into distinct categories (representing different themes). Eventually, almost all data were properly categorized under the nine themes of: Integration with Other Professionals, Skills Learned on the Job, Typical Work Day, Changes in the Field, Predictions for the future of the Profession, Perceptions on Teacher Training, The Main Role of the Psychologist, The College of Psychologists, and External Influences on Job Roles (in particular the Ministry of Education). Any existing biases held by the researcher were clarified by conscious attempt at the outset of the study, so that these biases would not interfere with decisions made using the constant comparative process. Examples of biases held by the researcher were any pre-existing hypotheses regarding types of influences on job roles, and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with job roles and functions. At the end of this process, the researcher gathered the individual sheets of paper (for each theme) and reviewed the color codes assigned to each interview response (from the original documents) as a final check that each coded statement was representative of the theme assigned to it. In order to ensure adequate internal validity (question of how research findings match reality), the technique of peer examination was used by which another researcher was asked to comment on whether he/she agreed with the decisions made by 66  the researcher (and that the recorded responses were representative of particular themes). Themes selected by the researcher were viewed by the second rater in order to determine the appropriateness of selected themes. Summary This chapter provided the initial survey research questions, as well as the follow-up survey questions. The methodology of this study was provided. In particular, mail survey methodology and follow-up interview techniques were discussed and a description of the survey sample was provided. The quantitative and qualitative statistical analyses conducted on each research question were also provided. Chapter Four provides the results of the study.  67  CHAPTER 4 Results Consistent with the Methodology described in Chapter 3, results of survey and interview analysis are reported in this section. For purposes of this report, relevant quotes from the interviews were included in this section to complement questionnaire data. Further, for purposes of analysis, "non-responses" are considered valid data for open-ended questions requiring a written response. However, when there is no response for any other type of question, this is considered missing data. Results of this survey study are representative of a random sample of school psychologists around the province of British Columbia. Therefore, results are to be interpreted cautiously, taking into consideration the particular demographics of the respondents to the study. Further, it is not known what particular school districts respondents are representative of, as returned surveys were only identifiable by demographic region. It is believed that results of this study are valid given that it is not the statistic that validates results, but how one may choose to interpret the statistics. Research Question One Job roles and functions In response to Research Question one regarding the job characteristics (i.e. job roles, job functions, job satisfaction) of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia, the most common job roles and functions are listed in Table 5 below. Survey respondents indicated that the most common job roles and functions occupied were: standardized assessment, interviews with parents and teachers, preparation of written reports, teacher consultation, reporting and discussing assessment results, attending workshops and in-service training, meeting with resource teachers and observation.  68  There was a consensus among interview respondents that a heavy caseload for assessment was a large component of the job. Respondents indicated that because of the long waitlists, there is much pressure to assess students and often not enough time for some of the other job activities. One interview respondent commented that: "the workload in assessment alone is staggering, yet it is only one component of a very demanding (yet fulfilling) job." Another respondent commented that "the role as a school psychologist has varied a bit each year with the core components of testing, identifying and classifying kids as a consistent aspect." Another respondent commented that a frustration with the job was that "more time was spent putting fires out instead of taking the matches away." All interview respondents felt that psychologists had much more to offer schools other than conducting psychoeducational assessments. One interview respondent reported that she offers in-service workshops on a regular basis to each of her nine schools in areas such as: learning disabilities, neurological findings, adapting and modifying classrooms, anxiety, and how to read and interpret psychoeducational reports. Other respondents reported that school psychologists bring a wealth of experience and knowledge to teachers in areas of: intelligence testing, learning theory, neuropsychology, and child development. Table 5 Most Common Job Roles and Functions Reported By Survey Respondents (N = 42) Variables  n  %  Standardized Assessment of Cognitive Abilities  42  100  Teacher Consultation  42  100  Report/Discuss Assessment Results  42  100  Attend Workshops/Inservice Training  41  100  69  Table 5 (Continued).  n  %  Attend School-Based Team Meetings  42  95.2  Standardized Assessment of Achievement  42  90.5  Develop Academic Goals for students  41  90.2  Behavioral Assessment  42  88.3  Develop Behavior/Affective goals for Students  39  84.6  Informal Assessment  37  81.1  Social/Emotional Assessment  41  80.5  Deliver In-Service Workshops  41  80.5  Recorrimend/Implement Alternate Instructional approaches to teachers  40  75.0  Attend Staff Meetings  40  75.0  Variables  Note. N is not the same for all demographic information due to some respondents not answering all items. Participants were also asked to indicate if they would like to do more, less or the same amount of each role. The most frequent results are reported in the Table 6 below. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated that they would like to design more preventative programs (for academic, personal, and behavioral difficulties), and sixty-five percent of respondents indicated that they would like to attend more workshops or in-service training.  70  Table 6 Job Roles School Psychologists Wish to Increase Variable  n  %  Design Preventative Programs (for academic, personal, behavioral difficulties).  37  67.6  Attend Workshops or In-service Training  37  64.9  Conduct Research  34  55.9  Assess Treatment Integrity for behavioral, affective, & adaptive Interventions  31  54.8  Deliver In-Service Workshops  38  52.6  Assist Educators with their development of Research Ideas on Instruction  31  51.6  Social/Emotional/Personality Assessment  37  51.4  School-Wide Group Consultation  34  50.0  Recommend & Implement Alternative Instruction to teachers  37  48.6  Assessment of the Instructional Environment  33  45.5  Program Evaluation  31  45.2  Note. N is not the same for all demographic information due to some respondents not answering all items. When asked what they would like to do less of, approximately fifty-one percent of respondents reported they would like to do less report writing, thirty-eight percent of respondents indicated they would like to do less standardized assessment of achievement, and  71  thirty-five percent of respondents indicated that they would like to do less standardized assessment of intelligence or cognitive abilities. See Table 7 for more complete results. Table 7 Job Roles School Psychologists Wish to Decrease Role  n  %  Report Writing  37  51.4  Standardized Assessment of Achievement  37  37.8  Standardized Assessment of Intelligence  40  35.0  Attend Staff Meetings  34  29.4  Attend School-Based Team Meetings  38  18.4  Note. N is not the same for all demographic information due to some respondents not answering all items. Survey respondents were also asked to indicate the actual and desired percentages of time allocated to the job roles of assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling, research and evaluation. The results revealed that most practitioner time (average of 57.44 %) was spent conducting standardized, norm-referenced assessments of cognitive abilities. Because multiple statistical tests were run on the same data set (to check for significance on the paired actual/desired comparisons), a Bonfferoni correction was done to the significance level such that a difference was considered significant if it fell below a .01 p value level. Most respondents reported they would like to decrease time spent in assessment: from 57.44 % actual to 44.53% desired, [T (31) = 6.25, p < .001], and increase time spent in the other roles of interventions: from 15.11 % actual to 21.00 % desired, [T (31) = -1.91, p = .066], consultation: from 20.85 % actual to 23.88% desired, [T (32) = -2.71, p = .011], counseling: from 7.31% actual to 12.13% 72  desired [T (23) = -2.70, p = .013], and evaluation: from 1.23% actual to 4.86% desired [T (28) = -3.51, p = .002]. In sum, there was a significant difference between the actual and desired amount of professional time devoted to the roles of assessment and evaluation (with respondents wishing to decrease time spent in assessment and increase time spent in evaluation). Job satisfaction When asked about job satisfaction (Section B of the Survey), ninety-five percent of the total respondents reported to be either very satisfied or satisfied with their jobs overall. Only five percent of the total respondents indicated they were very dissatisfied with their jobs overall. Most respondents reported being very satisfied with autonomy (eighty-one percent of total respondents), colleague relationships (sixty percent of total respondents), role definition (fortyone percent of total respondents), and school district support (thirty-eight percent of total respondents). See Table 8 for more complete information. In addition, there was consensus among all of the interview respondents that colleague relationships (at the office as well as various personnel in the schools), were an integral and important part of the job. Most interview respondents also indicated this to be a very satisfying and fulfilling component of the job also. Survey respondents were also asked to list many aspects of the job that they found to be the most satisfying. The most satisfying aspects (listed in order) were: autonomy, professional relationships, interaction with colleagues, seeing positive results after working with the students, the high learning curve of the job, and involvement in various district projects. The most dissatisfying aspects of the job as rated by respondents were: professional cultural climate (twenty-nine percent of total respondents), opportunities for professional growth and salary (both rated as dissatisfying by twenty-six percent of total respondents), and community support (rated as dissatisfying by twenty-two percent of total respondents). The most dissatisfying aspects of the job listed in order by respondents were: implications from budget cuts (decreasing support and resources), long waitlists, too much demand in terms of a 73  heavy caseload, not enough time, and low salary. Lastly, although most respondents found some aspects of the job to be dissatisfying, only twenty-one percent of participants reported that they intended to leave their employment within the next three years (sixty-seven percent intended to stay). Further, most of those intending to leave were planning to retire. Table 8 School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction Variable  n  %  Overall Job Satisfaction Very Satisfied Satisfied Very Dissatisfied  10 10 1  47.6 47.6 4.8  Autonomy Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied  34 7 1  81.0 16.7 2.4  Community Support Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied  5 26 9 1  12.2 63.4 22.0 2.4  Role Definition Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied  17 21 4  40.5 50.0 9.5  Colleague Relationships Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied  25 14 3  59.5 33.3 7.1  3 26 11 2  7.1 61.9 26.2 4.8  Salary Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied  '  74  Table 8 (Continued).  Variable  n  Professional Cultural Climate Very Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied  6 22 12 1  14.6 53.7 29.3 2.4  Note. N is not the same for all demographic information due to some respondents not answering all items. Research Question Two A Research question Two A of this study asked how personal characteristics and professional skills influenced the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia. To address this question, a series of ANOVAS were run, in order to examine group differences between each of the variables selected for study and the five main job roles of assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling and research and evaluation (actual time spent in each role). Professional background Results revealed that years of practice as a school psychologist had no significant impact on actual job roles. Another variable selected for study was professional background, particularly as related to whether respondents held a teaching certificate and/or had taught in a classroom. It was found that having a teaching certificate or teaching experience in a classroom did not significantly account for job role time allocations. It is interesting to note however, that the majority of respondents held a teaching certificate (seventy-six percent of respondents) and had taught in a classroom (eighty-five percent of respondents). Further, sixty-eight percent of respondents had taught at the elementary level, seventy-five percent of respondents had taught  75  at the middle school level, and fifty-three percent of respondents had taught at the secondary level. It appears that this particular sample is quite biased (skewed) on the teaching variable. Therefore, results should be interpreted with caution and are not entirely meaningful, given that the sample was not evenly dispersed on the teaching/non-teaching variable. It is also interesting to note that although most respondents reported to be most closely affiliated with the College of Teachers (seventy-six percent of respondents), the majority of respondents (seventy-nine percent) described their professional identity as a psychologist. There were varied perceptions among interview respondents as to whether they felt having teacher training and/or experience was valuable to the role of a school psychologist. A few interview respondents stated that this experience is critical, in so far as it establishes a sense of competency with teachers, gives psychologists a context to better understand the assessment and knowledge of how kids learn, knowledge of the curriculum at each grade level, and the necessary course background in teaching reading and writing (especially when diagnosing learning disabilities in these areas). However, another respondent commented that this credential was important, but not critical. This respondent commented: "those who have the potential to make the very best School Psychologists are those who have had direct classroom experience as special education or resource room teachers for a couple of years or more. They have the hands-on direct knowledge of the students and published program materials." Lastly, another respondent without teacher training commented that "ignorance is bliss!", although also commented that having extensive classroom experience was helpful. Level and type of training In examining the professional variables of level and type of training of the survey respondents, it was found that the majority of respondents held either a Master of Arts degree (forty-one percent), or Master of Education degree (thirty-three percent) in either School or 76  Educational Psychology. Only fourteen percent of the sample held a doctoral degree, and two percent held a bachelors degree. Results of the analyses revealed that level of degree (i.e. masters or doctoral levels) had no significant impact on actual job roles. Further, type of degree (or particular field of study) also had no significant impact on actual job roles. Research Question Two B Research Question Two B of the study (of how various job-site characteristics influenced job roles) was explored in further detail. Respondents' answers to survey questions regarding their job setting and characteristics are displayed in Table 12. School district setting When examining the relation between school district setting (i.e. rural, suburban, urban) and job roles with the A N O V A , no significant differences between groups was found (than would occur beyond random chance). Therefore, results revealed that respondents from rural, suburban, and urban district settings allocated their time relatively equal to the roles of assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling, and research/evaluation. The majority of survey respondents worked in an Urban district setting (forty-eight percent of total respondents), followed by Rural and Suburban settings (both twenty-six percent of total survey respondents). Office setting When examining the impact of office setting at the primary place of work on job roles, results of data analysis revealed no significance (beyond what would occur by random chance). As is evident in Table 12, most respondents work from an administration building communal office or a school building shared office. Number of students and schools served When examining the impact of the number of students served on job roles, it was found that school psychologists serving unequal numbers of students (either a greater or lesser number of students) allocated an unequal amount of time to the roles of assessment and counseling. 77  Further analysis of the differences in groups (using Tukey's post-hoc test) revealed that the actual percentage of time allocated to assessment when serving 1,000-3,000 students was significantly higher than the actual time allocated to assessment when more students were served F (3,35) = 6.000, p = .002. With regards to time allocated to counseling, it was found that psychologists serving 3,000-5,000 students allocated significantly more time to the role of counseling than psychologists serving either fewer or more students F (3,30) = 9.321, p = .000. Comparisons of number of students served by psychologists on Job Time Allocations is provided in Table 9. Table 9 Comparisons of Number of Students Served by Psychologists on Job Time Allocations 1,000-3,000 Variable  n  Assessment Interventions Consultation Counselling Research/ Evaluation  2 2 2 2  M  SD  3,000-5,000 n  M  SD  5,000-10,000 n  M  SD  75.0 7.1 5 28.0 24.9 10 54.0 20.8 47.5 60.1 5 17.0 6.7 10 13.4 13.6 15.0 7.1 5 23.0 8.4 10 26.8 12.9 .00 .00 5 32.0 30.3 9 4.6 5.2  2-2.5  a  b  a  ab  b  3.5  2 .00  a  .00  10  .70  1.6  10,000 or more n  M  SD  22 64.8 19 12.4 22 17.8 18 1.8 a  a  19  1.6  16.5 8.6 8.9 2.9  df  3,35 3,32 3,35 3,30  F  6.0* 3.6 2.2 9.3*  3.7 3,29 .405  Note. Means with different subscripts ( , b, at>) differ from one another at p < .01. a  *p<.01. Lastly, a significant difference was detected between groups with regards to time allocated to the role of counseling: F (3, 32) = 7.417, p = .001 as a function of the number of schools served by survey respondents. Although a difference between groups was detected for this variable, Tukey's post-hoc tests could not be performed for the actual time allocated to counseling because at least one group had fewer than two cases.  78  Table 10 Comparisons of Number of Schools Served by Psychologists on Job Time Allocations Two schools Variable  n  M  Assessment 1 50.0 Interventions 1 25.0 Consultation 1 25.0 Counselling 1 .00 Research/ Evaluation 0 -  SD  Five Schools n  -  7 6 7 7  -  5  M  Six Schools  Seven or more  SD  n  M  SD  n  42.1 31.6 26.7 31.4 19.3 8.4 27.1 27.5  2 2 2 2  65.0 7.1 10.0 .00 20.0 .00 5.0 7.1  28 19 31 26  .00  .00  2  .00  .00  28  M  SD  60.7 18.6 12.6 10.6 21.1 11.2 2.4 3.8 1.5  3.3  df  F  3,37 3,33 3,37 3,32  1.601 1.548 .112 7.4*  3,31  .476  Supervisors' training When examining the impact of the level of training (i.e. masters or doctoral) held by respondents' supervisors on psychologists' subsequent job roles and functions, no significant differences were detected between groups. Lastly, in examining the impact of supervisor's field of specialization on survey respondents job roles and functions, a significant difference was found between supervisor's field of specialization and respondent's time allocated to the roles of assessment: F (5,34) = 7.055, p = .000 and counseling: F (5,29) = 32.894, p = .000 Tukey's post-hoc tests revealed that respondents' whose supervisors were trained as Speech Pathologists' allocated a significantly less amount of time to the role of assessment than respondents' whose supervisors were trained as Counsellors, School Psychologists, teachers and administrators. Post-hoc tests were not performed for the actual percent of time allocated to counseling because at least one group had fewer than two cases. Most respondents reported their supervisor to be trained as an administrator (forty-two percent), followed by a school psychologist (twenty percent) or teacher (twenty percent). Comparisons of Supervisors' Field of Specialization on Psychologists' Job Time Allocations is provided in Table 11.  79  Table 11 Comparisons of Supervisors' Field of Specialization on Psychologists' Job Time Allocations Teacher Variable Assessment Interventions Consultation Counselling Research/ Evaluation  School Psychologist  SD n M 8 69.4 13.5 8 10.0 6.0 8 17.9 8.3 8 .25 .71  n 8 5 8 7  SD M 53.1 12.8 12.0 7.6 21.3 9.5 7.1 11.13  8  6  2.5  .63  1.8  6.12  Administrator n 16 15 16 14  M SD 64.7 20.3 17.6 23.5 21.2 11.8 2.5 4.3  df 5,34 5,30 5,34 5,29  F 7.055* .397 .165 32.89*  15  .80  5,28  .472  Table 12 Job Site Characteristics Variable  n  %  School District Setting Rural Suburban Urban  11 11 20  26.2 26.2 47.6  Number of Schools Served Two Five Six Seven or More  1 7 2 32  2.4 16.7 4.8 76.2  Number of Full-Time Psychologists Employed One Two Three Four Five More than Five  7 6 5 3 7 13  17.1 14.6 12.2 7.3 17.1 31.7  Approximate Number of Students Enrolled in District 1,000-3,000 3,000-5,000 5,000 - 10,000 10,000 or more  2 5 10 23  5.0 12.5 25.0 57.5  80  1.7  Table 12 (Continued).  Variable  n  %  Person Who Writes Job Description Myself and Colleagues Supervisor District Superintendent Myself Don't Know Other  10 8 4 2 2 3  34.5 27.6 13.8 6.9 6.9 10.2  Supervisor Worked as a School Psychologist Yes No I don't know Do not have a Supervisor  14 25 2 1  33.3 59.5 4.8 2.4  Supervisor's Field of Specialization Administrator School Psychologist Teacher Counsellor Speech Pathologist  17 8 8 3 3  41.5 19.5 19.5 7.3 7.3  Level of Graduate Training Obtained by Supervisor Masters Doctoral Don't Know  22 6 12  55.0 15.0 30.0  Most Influential Person In Determining Job Roles Immediate Supervisor School Psychologist School Principal Other  27 3 3 9  64.3 7.1 7.1 21.6  Note. N is not the same for all demographic information due to some respondents not answering all items  81  Research Question Two (C) The last research question of how the various external forces (such as the Ministry of Education, B . C . Association of School Psychologists, and the B . C . Teachers Federation) impact the roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia was analyzed and answered by careful examination of both survey and interview data. Professional organization membership W i t h regards to professional organization membership or affiliation, results of survey data analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in time allocations to roles and functions as a result of membership in either the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists ( B C A S P ) or the British Columbia Teachers Federation ( B C T F ) . However, almost all survey respondents were members of either the B C T F (eighty-three percent) or B C A S P (sixty-one percent). When asked who the most influential person was in determining job roles, sixty-four percent of respondents replied that their immediate supervisor was most influential, followed by the school psychologist (seven percent), and the school principal (seven percent). However, one school psychologist commented that she greatly determined her own job roles: "If there is a spot where I can be helpful, I try to fill the role. I really don't answer to anyone - the flexibility is nice." External determinants Most all interview respondents agreed that government funding formulas, as handed down through the Ministry of Education had great external influence in terms of "really driving the system" on school psychologists' job roles. One respondent commented that the money and resources as handed down from the government drive the school. In turn, the resource team at the school is handed the money and then they are looking for someone to tell them what to do in terms of classifying kids. This interview respondent further commented that school psychologists take a lot of direction from Learning Assistant Teachers and that school 82  psychologists are often called on to do something because no one else knows what to do and an outside professional is needed to support their decisions. This is where school psychologists' role of "gate-keepers" comes i n , as they decide which students require the extra support and funding. Another external influence that was a core concern of all interview respondents was the possibility of joining the College of Psychologists of British Columbia, and the uncertainty with regards to whether or not joining the college w i l l be necessary in order to stay in the jobs they are in. There were varied perceptions and responses on this issue from all interview respondents. The majority of respondents reported that there would be very few benefits in joining the College of Psychologists, in light of all the costs associated with substantial membership fees, more extensive course work (in some cases), and preparation for the E P P P doctoral level exam as well as oral exams. A few respondents indicated that they were in the process of applying, but with great reservations. They reported that they applied by necessity, even though they might not necessarily meet all of the College's criteria for application. One of the criteria is a five-year membership in the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists ( B C A S P ) , which a few respondents were not members of. One practitioner was concerned that even though a number of psychologists were applying, she felt very few would get through the registration process. Another practitioner commented that this movement has caused her to take a step back and evaluate her long-term career goals. She w i l l not apply to the College for it is a lot of money and extra steps that is not worth it to her right now. She would also not consider undergoing more training in order to do the same job. However, a couple of respondents noted the benefits of a join with the College, one of which would create the potential to be seen on an equal playing field with other psychologists and perhaps would give school psychologists the added benefit of use of the title "psychologist". Another interview respondent reported that registration with the College of  83  Psychologists was a good direction for the profession as "more careful review of course requirements and supervised experience for practice is something the College can offer to the profession of School Psychology." She indicated that all professions should be regulated as it promotes competence and prevents misconduct. Lastly, she also reported that the profession is becoming more clinical in terms of diagnosing disorders and disabilities and that school psychologists should have more knowledge of ethics and test construction. Job stress A major stress of the job is the lack of government funding, which all respondents reported would enable them to do their job better. First of all, it was reported that there are fewer psychologists working full-time, covering the same territories. Secondly, it was reported that what psychologists have to work with in terms of psychometric instruments and resource materials is diminishing, as are the spaces available for students with high needs in special education categories. One interview respondent commented that upcoming changes in the profession largely depend upon the government and whether or not more cuts are made to school psychologist positions in her district. Yet another interview respondent commented that: "The British Columbia Teachers Federation, the College of Psychologists and the Ministry of Education are all out for claming territory, it is these territoriality issues that school psychologists can really get caught in the middle of - the politics of it all." Lastly, in response to the research question of stress caused by the uncertain future of the profession, some interview respondents forecasted predictions on where they felt the profession was going. One interview respondent commented that: "the scope of practice is about to change dramatically, a large part due to the necessary affiliation with The College of Psychologists, the change in funding formulas through the Ministry of Education, and the fewer available School Psychologists." The basis for this belief was the backroom politics of affiliation, exclusive use of the term "psychologist" and the control of the use of level C tests. The respondent further felt 84  that by necessity, new practitioners will need a doctoral degree to practice in the field and that there will be a move towards contract services for school districts. Another interview respondent commented that "if the government changes the requirements for how learning disabled kids are identified, we may be phased out." The basis for this belief came from watching what the college is presently doing about masters level school psychologists, and how resource teachers want to give cognitive measures of the Woodcock Johnson - III so that they can get a quick IQ measure. Additional Interview Information Additional information as related to the training and practice of school psychology in British Columbia was provided in the interview phase of the study. Although this information is not directly related to the research questions of the study, it is considered valuable data and will be reported here. Noticeable changes in the field Interview respondents were asked to comment on some of the most recent and noticeable changes in the field. One interview respondent commented that: "a noticeable change has been the gradual increase in the student population both in frequency and severity of learning problems, behavioral issues, and particularly Fetal Alcohol Syndrome." Similarly, another respondent commented that the job has become far more complex and challenging in terms of the type and severity of issues for the children referred. The respondent reported that the role of the school psychologist had become far more clinical in terms of the role of diagnosis using the DSM-IV. Another respondent replied that the job has become challenging due to the diminishing resources the system faces every year, the lessened quality of services in the system and community and the lessened amount of services available. Lastly, another interview respondent commented that a greater emphasis has been placed on record keeping and the micro management of student data systems. 85  Description of a typical work day School psychologists were also asked in their written interview responses to describe a typical work day. Although days were quite variable, most respondents indicated that a day typically starts at 8 a.m. and ends at 4:30 p.m. The types of activities varied, depending upon whether it was an office or field day, and as one respondent noted: "each day has its own unique features so a typical day is simply a varied, multifaceted set of activities." In the office, much of a day was spent preparing reports, in preparing/organizing for the next day, following up on cases and other correspondence, fielding numerous phone calls, file reviews, searching the internet for information about a drug, therapy, or condition. One interview respondent indicated that: "while in the office I am a traffic controller collecting information and then disseminating it to the right address, school, parent or counselor." Another respondent commented that on top of an already busy day, sometimes school psychologists must also must make time to "accommodate an emergency request from the director." A day at the schools may include from one to three different schools in a day. Much time is spent in consultation with teachers and administrators, training teachers or delivering inservices on administering achievement tests and/or helping teachers interpret reports received on a child from another agency. Much time is also spent assessing students (which includes reading the file, finding the student, observing the student, finding a testing room and setting up), conducting follow-up conferences with parents and school-based teams, and attending screening meetings for special programs. Further, almost all interview respondents commented that they tried to make themselves available for consultation to various teachers during the breaks of recess and lunch. Lastly, all interview respondents commented that they felt the pressure to assess as many students as possible, given the demand for assessments in each of their schools and long waitlists.  86  Skills learned on the job The interview respondents were also asked to describe the skills that had to be learned on the job that were not covered in their graduate school training. Although most respondents agreed that their training was quite relevant to the job, most reported that they could have received more training in some areas. The most crucial area was in communication skills and how to communicate not only assessment results, but also how to implement programs and gear communication for the different audiences of parents and school-based teams. Further, interpersonal communication skills to lead a conference, to handle a difficult parent, teacher, or child and to be able to interact in a collaborative work environment were all deemed as important. A few respondents reported they had to learn the politics of a school system and how the system functioned, especially as related to the hierarchy of communication. Almost all respondents indicated that working in a collegial manner as a team member was important. Other aspects of the job that had to be learned were: how the referral system was handled in the district, case and file management (especially how to juggle and prioritize cases), and how the ministry guidelines pertained to classifying students. Some respondents commented that further course work in the following areas would have been helpful: counseling, family therapy, interviewing techniques, evaluation of adaptive functioning, designing and implementing behavior programs and administrative skills (for prioritizing assessments, and preparing budgets and proposals for funding). One respondent commented that "not enough time was spent in the field to work in the real world", while another commented that he had to accumulate "the wealth of knowledge that only experience brings." Lastly, another interview respondent commented that: "the various roles of counselor, liason, mediator, tester, bearer of bad news and gate keeper are all aspects of the school psychologist position that must be learned on the job."  87  Summary Chapter 4 integrated all of the respondents' survey and interview responses to answer the research questions of the study. All of the descriptive information from the survey responses were reported in tables for easy viewing. Further, significant results of data analysis, in the form of an ANOVA and Tukey's follow-up post-hoc test of significance were reported in text. Lastly, additional information taken from the interview phase of the study as related to the practice and training of school psychology was provided. The interview data provided much richer information, beyond the responses given by survey respondents (which merely answered the research questions of the study).  88  CHAPTER 5 Discussion This last chapter of the thesis is designed to discuss the implications of the data collected from both the survey and interview components of the study. Some hypotheses (or predictions) were made at the beginning of the study regarding particular questions as related to the practice of school psychology in British Columbia. The answers to these questions will be discussed in this section, as well as limitations of the present study, future research directions, and implications for practice. Research Question One Job characteristics With regards to the job characteristics of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia, the data supported the hypothesis, and a finding from previous surveys of school psychologists practicing in the United States, that school psychologists devote a majority of their professional time to assessment activity (Anderson, Cancelli, & Kratochwill, 1984; Benson & Hughes, 1985; Fagan & Wise, 2000; Hutton & Dubes, 1994; Lacayo, Morris, & Sherwood, 1981; Reschly & Wilson, 1995; Smith, 1984; Stinnett, Havey, & Oehler-Stinnett, 1994). Further, an analysis of results of the survey on ratings of actual and desired percent of time spent in the main job roles confirmed the findings of Reschly and Wilson (1995) and Fagan and Wise (2000), that psychologists desired to spend less time in the role of assessment and more time in the other job roles of interventions, consultation, counseling, and research and evaluation. In particular, most practitioners who responded to this survey study desired to spend more time in interventions and counseling. However, as mentioned at the beginning of the study, it has become quite evident that the majority of school psychologists perform a combination of roles and functions (Bardon & Bennett, 1974; B.C. Ministry of Education, 2000; Conoley & Conoley, 1992; Fagan & Wise, 89  2000; Jackson et al., 1993; National Association of School Psychologists, July, 2002). The most common roles and functions reported for this sample were: standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, interviews with parents and teachers, preparing reports, teacher consultation, reporting and discussing assessment results, attending workshops and in-service training, meeting with resource teachers and classroom observation. Job satisfaction With regards to job satisfaction, results of survey analysis revealed that the majority of respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs overall (see Table 8). Therefore it is evident that despite some of the common aspects of job dissatisfaction, most practitioners desired to stay in their jobs (unless they were planning to retire). It will be interesting to see what happens if and when there are upcoming changes in the regulation of the profession (as related to the possibility of joining the College of Psychologists). Based upon the interview respondents' perceptions of joining the college, it seems that these practitioners are not keen on satisfying all of the criteria in order to be eligible for registration with the college. Although a few were applying by necessity, only one of the interview respondents fully met all of the colleges' criteria. Benson (2002) further commented that the repeal of the current exemption clause (under which school psychologists are now able to practice psychology in the school setting) is creating a level of anxiety about the future of school psychology in British Columbia. Research Question Two (A) Years of experience and teaching background With regards to the influence of personal characteristics and professional skills on the job roles of school psychologists, the data did not support the hypothesis that school psychologists with more years of experience occupied broader roles within the system - even though there was support for this finding in previous literature (Curtis et al., 2002). The data 90  also did not support the hypothesis that professional background as a teacher would impact job roles and functions. Although having a teaching certificate or experience teaching in a classroom had no significant impact on time allocations to job roles, it is interesting to note that thirty-one out of forty-one total respondents (75.6 %) held a teaching certificate and thirty-four out of forty respondents (85.0 %) had teaching experience in a classroom. Therefore, it is evident the sample is quite skewed on the teaching variable, and results should best be interpreted with caution. More specifically, the sample is insufficient on the non-teaching category meaning that those without a teaching certificate or teaching experience are not properly represented in this study. Therefore, it has become apparent that comparison between having a teaching certificate and not is not meaningful because the vast majority of the sample had a teaching certificate and classroom experience. It is worth noting that the trend in the last ten years (in the profession of school psychology in British Columbia) has often required upcoming personnel to have a teaching certificate. As reported earlier in this document, in B.C., most all school psychologists employed by school boards are registered members of the College of Teachers, hold appropriate teaching certificates, and are regulated by the Teaching Profession Act (McKee, 1996). Further, the British Columbia Ministry of Education's Special Education Services Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines (2002) states explicitly that a school psychologist should hold a professional teaching certificate and a master's degree in school/educational psychology or a related field (Ministry of Education, 2002). Further, approximately eighty-three percent of survey respondents in this study were members of the British Columbia Teachers Federation. Therefore, there is a possibility that the skewness of the teaching variable with this sample could be representative of the entire population of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia. 91  Field and level of graduate training In examining the impact of type and level of degree on actual job roles, no significant findings were reported in the results section. However, there was support for the hypothesis that there would be some variation in the type and level of degree held among the sample. Further, the hypothesis was confirmed that the majority of practitioners held a masters degree in school psychology or a related discipline. However, it is worthy of consideration that these variables for the current sample were very skewed. Therefore, it was felt that no meaningful comparisons could be made to test this hypothesis since most respondents' field of study was either Educational or School Psychology. School and Educational Psychology together accounted for twenty-seven of the forty-two responses, and no other category for field of study had more than five respondents. Research Question Two (B) As adapted from Fagan and Wise's (2000) framework of determinants of job roles and functions of school psychologists, certain job-site characteristics were believed to influence a psychologist's professional practice. Therefore, the selected variables for examination in Research Question Two B of this study were: location of school district (rural, urban or suburban), location of primary office setting, psychologist by district size ratio, psychologist to school ratio, and psychologists supervisor's field and level of training. Location of school district In examining the impact of school district location on job roles, results of data analysis did not support the hypothesis that school district setting had an impact on specific job roles. Therefore, psychologists in rural, urban, and suburban districts allocated their professional time in a roughly equal way to the roles of assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling, and research/evaluation. This finding is rather surprising given that one may expect roles to differ in different settings. For example, Curtis et al. (2002) found that suburban schools had a lower 92  student to school psychologist ratio compared to urban or rural school systems. Curtis et al. also (2002)  reported that the lower the ratio, the greater the investment of the school psychologist in  activities such as more direct intervention services to students. Location of office setting It was also hypothesized that office setting would have an impact on job roles. For example, office setting could directly impact the hierarchy of communication or affect the different possible lines of communications at work, depending upon whether the school psychologist primarily works from an administration building individual office, an administration building communal office, a school building shared office or a school building individual office. However, the data did not support the hypothesis that office setting impacted job roles. The data set for this sample did not reveal any significant findings from what would occur just by random chance. Psychologist to student/school ratio It was also hypothesized that school psychologists serving more students and schools would be engaged in more assessment activity for placement decisions. Results of the ANOVA for this study revealed that psychologists' serving unequal numbers of students spent an unequal amount of time in the roles of assessment and counseling. However, the reverse of the original hypothesis was found to be true in the case of assessment (and also counseling), whereby psychologists serving fewer students allocated more time to the roles of assessment and counselling. Perhaps psychologists serving fewer students are better able to meet the learning needs of the majority of their students, whereas when they are serving more students, there are longer waitlists and therefore less time is available to provide the necessary assessment and counseling services.  93  With regards to the number of schools served (and subsequent time allocated to the five main job roles), results of the ANOVA did not support the hypothesis that psychologists serving more schools spent more time in the role of assessment. It was presumed that psychologists serving fewer schools would have more time to devote to other job roles, whereas those serving more schools would have less time for the other roles (and therefore more time for the essential role of assessment). However, results revealed a significant difference between the number of schools served and time spent in the job role of counseling. Although the data did not reveal whether more time was spent in counseling as a result of more or fewer schools served, it is known that seventy-six percent of survey respondents served seven or more schools. Supervisors' level and field of training In examining the impact of school psychologists' supervisors level of training on psychologists' job roles (i.e. masters or doctoral level), there was insufficient evidence to support the hypothesis that the level of training held by school psychologists' immediate supervisors impacted psychologists' job roles and functions. It is also worth noting that while fifty-five percent of psychologists' supervisors held a masters degree and fifteen percent held a doctoral degree, thirty percent of all survey respondents reported that they did not know the level of training obtained by their supervisor. Therefore, there is a chance that had a greater number of survey respondents known the level of training obtained by their supervisor (and reported this), a significant relation may have been found. In examining the impact of school psychologists' supervisors area of training (field of specialization) on psychologists' job roles, the data supports the hypothesis that supervisors' field of specialization makes a difference on the particular job roles and functions held by school psychologists. In particular, school psychologists' supervisors field of specialization made a difference for the delivery of assessment and counseling services. This finding flows logically, given that psychologists' immediate supervisors are seen as having some influence on 94  psychologists' job roles. Approximately sixty-four percent of the survey sample indicated that their immediate supervisors were seen as most influential in determining school psychologists' job roles and functions. Further, it is assumed that most supervisors of psychologists have either worked as a teacher themselves and/or have received some training in the area of Special Education or Counseling (if not directly in School Psychology). Research Question Two (C) This research question was set up to examine the impact of various external forces (such as the Ministry of Education, and professional organizations such as the British Columbia Teachers Federation and the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists) on the job roles and functions of practicing school psychologists in British Columbia. Professional membership In examining the impact of professional organization membership on job roles, the data refuted the hypothesis that school psychologists' job roles were impacted by professional organization membership and/or affiliation with the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) or the British Columbia Teachers Federation (BCTF). Therefore, professional involvement in one of these associations does not make a difference in type of services provided by school psychologists on the job. Other external determinants In examining the impact of other external forces on job roles, further analysis of survey and interview data support the hypothesis that the greatest source of stress in jobs has resulted mostly from the uncertainty of the future path of the profession as a result of all the recent government funding cutbacks and layoffs (as handed down from the Ministry of Education). It is evident that the government funding formulas directly impact the day-to-day activities of school psychologists. This is especially true in terms of diminishing resources for program  95  materials and psychometric instruments, students growing needs and limited placement options, and heavy caseloads. There were also some more current and pressing substantial concerns, which were categorized into the main theme of the looming possibility of a join with the College of Psychologists. As reported in the results section of the thesis, most all psychologists are presently plagued by the uncertainty of whether or not it will be necessary for them to be registered with the College of Psychologists. There are some real concerns (as reported by the interview respondents), that very few people will actually succeed with the registration process, as some of the colleges' specific criteria are not met by many school psychologists. Further, no one is certain at the moment when this legislation will come down. Although school psychologists are currently exempt from the Psychologists Act (allowing psychologists to practice in the school setting), the exemption clause is still under review by the Health Professions Council. Therefore it appears unlikely that anything will happen in the very near future, although no one can be certain. Further, no one can be certain just how the possible imposition by the College of Psychologists will affect the status quo of school psychology service delivery in the schools. Individual school boards and schools have been raising a collective voice as they are concerned with who will be able to do the work of a school psychologist at a time in province of British Columbia when the services are really needed. As one interview respondent commented: "the needs of the student population seems to be increasing, the demands from parents, teachers and the students themselves for some answers and solutions to the myriad of presenting problems is high and growing." Groups of psychologists (as well as individuals), have also been raising a collective voice in the province of British Columbia, informing the policy and decision makers involved of the dramatic implications that could result and of the severe loss of jobs this could create for them.  96  Limitations of the Study This study was not done with the support of the provincial association. Subsequently, the distribution list was not available and the Association's name could not be used to encourage greater participation in the study. It is believed that had this distribution list been obtained, the response rate would have been higher as a larger sample would have been targeted. Another possible limitation was the sampling technique used in this study to distribute surveys. It is thought that having the surveys distributed through respondents' supervisors may have biased responses in an unknown manner. This would depend upon the nature of the relationship between respondents and their supervisors as well as how the supervisors presented the survey, and whether or not respondents were encouraged to participate. A third limitation of the study was that some survey questions were redundant. The survey could have been more streamlined and efficient. Had this been the case, response rate may have increased. A number of survey respondents left items blank, and they may have felt that the same information was reported elsewhere on the survey. As an example, survey respondents were asked both questions of whether they held a teaching certificate and whether they had taught in a classroom. As another example, survey respondents were asked to describe their personal professional identity (i.e. teacher or psychologist), and then in another question to indicate which college they were most closely affiliated with (i.e. The College of Teachers or The College of Psychologists). A fourth limitation of the present study was that this research was conducted by the only institution that trains and graduates school psychologists in the province of British Columbia. As such, many of the practitioners who have graduated from U.B.C. and now practice in the province will have a strong emotional tie with the University, which may have biased the responses in an unknown manner. Nineteen of forty-two survey respondents had indicated that they graduated from U.B.C, which was higher than any other institution. Had this research  97  been performed by an institution that didn't train the respondents, it is believed that biased responses would be less likely as there would not be emotional involvement. Directions for Future Research A good direction for future research is to make this study a larger scale, national study across Canada. This would facilitate comparisons across provinces and educational jurisdictions and provide a detailed picture of region specific issues and national concerns. By obtaining more data and comparing the roles/functions and outcomes in the provinces, one would be able to determine which system works best and make recommendations accordingly for the weaker areas. An example of an issue of potential national concern may be the impacts of cutbacks by the Ministry of Education in a number of provinces and a lack of role definition. Another national issue may be how job roles differ for school psychologists practicing in a native educational system as opposed to the rest of the public educational system. Native schooling could be looked at as a sub-study across Canada. It is known that native students tend to have a much higher drop-out rate than non-native students, a higher illiteracy rate, and a poor relationship with the educational system resulting from historical damage stemming from the residential school system. An example of a regional issue of concern may be the impact of bilingual education on the job roles and functions of school psychologists. Particularly in the eastern provinces, French may be a first or second language for some people. Another regional issue for study is to compare the roles of school psychologists serving different school boards within the same region. This would provide useful and interesting data given that the researcher would be dealing with the same base population. For example, in the province of Ontario, both Catholic and Public School Boards utilize school psychologists.  98  Implications for Practice An analysis of survey results revealed a divergence between respondents actual and desired amount of time allocated to the roles of assessment, interventions, consultation, counseling, research and evaluation. In particular, the majority of respondents were in favor of reducing the amount of time devoted to the role of assessment, and increasing the amount of time devoted to the other roles. Some respondents also indicated that they would have liked to have had more training in other areas such as: counseling, neuropsychology, interventions, and ethics. Therefore, one implication for practice should be to offer professional development workshops in these areas. Further, in looking at how school psychologists' time is actually spent (the majority in assessment), in terms of training the courses taken in graduate school are indeed reflective of the actual time allocations to the various job roles. Almost all respondents indicated that assessment was covered well in their graduate training (even those whose training was not in school psychology specifically). However, at the same time, because there is a noticeable discrepancy between actual and desired roles, it may be advantageous to offer more training in the desired areas. Thirdly, given the high level of dissatisfaction respondents reported with heavy caseloads and long waitlists, a process evaluation may be beneficial to ensure that the school psychologists are performing their jobs in the most efficient way possible. For example, someone may investigate to what extent the assessment instruments utilized effectively address the reason for referral. Someone may also wish to investigate time organization. Given the multiple roles school psychologists have in their job, it would be helpful to know if their time is managed in the most efficient manner and if transition time is kept to a minimum.  99  Summary In this chapter, the research findings were discussed in greater detail. The present study was set up to assess the state of the art of school psychology training and practice in British Columbia. The data supported the following study hypotheses (or predictions made at the outset of the study): most practitioner time was spent in the role of assessment, practitioners desired to broaden their roles to areas outside of assessment, the majority of respondents held a masters degree in school or educational psychology, and job roles were all impacted by the number of students and schools served, and supervisors' field of training. The data refuted the hypotheses that the following variables would impact the job roles of school psychologists: years of practice as a school psychologist, having a teaching certificate or classroom experience, level and type of training held by respondents, primary office setting, school district setting, supervisors' level of graduate training, and membership in the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists or the British Columbia Teachers Federation. Lastly, limitations of the present study were discussed, as were directions for future research and implications for practice. As discussed, the profession of school psychology is in a time of massive flux, and until things stabilize there is no way of measuring the impact of any recommendation that may be implemented based upon the findings of the study.  100  References American Psychological Association. (2002). OncoLink: Archival description of school psycholo.gy Retrieved July 8, 2002, from http://apa.org/crsppp/school.html Anderson, T.K., Cancelli, A.A., & Kratochwill, T.R. (1984). Self-reported assessment practices of school psychologists: Implications for training and practice. Journal of School Psychology, 22, 17-29. Bardon, J.L, & Bennett, V.C. (1974). School psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. Batsche, G.M., Knoff, H.M., & Peterson, D.W. (1989). Trends in credentialing and practice standards. School Psychology Review, 18, 193-202. Benson, A.J., & Hughes, J. (1985). Perceptions of role definition processes in school psychology: A national survey. School Psychology Review, 14, 64-74. Benson, W. (2001). School psychology in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 16, 85-86. British Columbia Association of School Psychologists. (2002). In Psyghts. British Columbia Association of School Psychologists, 13, 1-20. British Columbia Association of School Psychologists. (2002). InPsyghts. British Columbia Association of School Psychologists, 13, 1-16. British Columbia Ministry of Education: Special Education Manual (2002). Oncolink: Special education services: A manual of policies, procedures and guidelines services. Retrieved July 6, 2002 from www.bced.gov.bc.ca Brown, D.T. (1990). Professional regulation and training in school psychology. In T. Gutkin & C. Reynolds (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology: 2 ed. (pp. 991 -1009). nd  New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.  101  Canadian Psychological Association (2001). Oncolink: President's message. Retrieved July 7, 2002 from http://cpa.ca/welc.html Canadian Psychological Association (2002). Oncolink: CPA accredited programs. Retrieved July 7, 2002 from http://cpa.ca/accredlist.htm Carey, K.T. & Wilson, M.S. (1995). Best practices in training school psychologists. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology-Ill (pp.171-178). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists. College of Psychologists of British Columbia (2001). Oncolink: Requirements for registration as a psychologist or psychological associate, sections I-V. Retrieved July 9, 2002 from http://www.collegeofpsychologists.bc.ca/whoweare.cfm Conoley, J.C. & Conoley, C.W. (1992). School consultation: Practice and training (2 ed). nd  Needham Heights: Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon. Curtis, M.J., Chesno-Grier, J.E., Walker-Abshier, D., Sutton, N.T., & Hunley, S. (2002) School psychology: Turning the corner into the twenty-first century. NASP Communique, 30, 1-  6. Dillman, D.A. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys. Pullman, WA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dillman, D.A. (2000J. Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method. New York, NY: John Wiley. Fagan, T K. (1989). School psychology: Where next? Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 5, 1-7. Fagan, T. K. (1999). Training school psychologists before there were school psychologist training programs: A history, 1890-1930. In CR. Reynolds & T.B. Gutkin (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology: 3 ed. (pp. 2-33). New York, NY: John Wiley & rd  Sons, Inc.  102  Fagan, T.K., & Wise, P.S. (2000). School psychology: Past, present, and future (2 ed.), na  Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Fischer, G.L., Jenkins, S.J., & Crumbley, J.D. (1986). A replication of a survey of school psychologists: Congruence between training, practice, preferred role, and competence. Psychology in the Schools, 23, 271-279. Fowler, J. & Floyd, J. ,(1993). Survey research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Fowler, J. & Floyd, J. (1995). Improving survey questions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Gutkin, T.B. & Curtis, M.J. (1999). School-based consultation theory and practice: The art & science of indirect service delivery. In CR. Reynolds & T.B. Gutkin (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology: 3 ed. (pp. 598-637). New York, NY: John Wiley & rd  Sons, Inc. Harrison, P. (2002). Oncolink: NASP standards and guidelines for the training and credentialing of school psychologists. Retrieved July 7, 2002, from http://www. nasponline.org/publications/cq307training.html Huck, S.W., & Cormier, W.H. (1996). Reading statistics and research: 2 ed. New York, NY: nd  Harper Collins College Publishers. Hutton, J.B., & Dubes, R. (1994). Assessment practices of school psychologists: Ten years later. School Psychology Review, 21, 271-285. Jackson, J.H., Balinky, J.L., & Lambert, N.M. (1993). Delivery of comprehensive school psychological services: An educator's guide. Washington, DC: Task Force on Psychology in the Schools, Psychology in the Schools Program, Board of Professional Affairs American Psychological Association (APA).  103  Jerrell, J.M. (1984). Boundary-spanning functions served by rural school psychologists. Journal of School Psychology, 22, 259-271. Lacayo, N., Morris, J. & Sherwood, G. (1981). Daily activities of school psychologists: A national survey. Psychology in the Schools, 18, 184-190. McKee, W.T. (1996). Legislation, certification, and licensing of school psychologists. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 12, 103-114. Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc. Meyers, J. & Nastasi, B. (1999). Primary prevention in school settings. In CR. Reynolds & T.B. Gutkin (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology: 3 ed. (pp. 79rd  94). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mutual Recognition Agreement of the Regulatory Bodies for Professional Psychologists in Canada (2001). Retrieved July 19, 2002 from http://www.cpa.ca/MRA.pdf National Association of School Psychologists (1997). Oncolink: School psychology: A blueprint for training and practice II. Retrieved October, 2000 from http://www.uncg.edu/~ericcas2/nasp National Association of School Psychologists (2000). Oncolink: NASP standards and guidelines for the training and credentialing of school psychologists. Retrieved September 12, 2002 from http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq307training.html National Association of School Psychologists (2002a). Oncolink: National school psychology certification system. Retrieved July 7, 2002, from http://nasponline.org/certification/ncsp_system.html National Association of School Psychologists (2002b). Oncolink: What is a school psychologist? Retrieved July 7, 2002 from http://www.nasponline.org/about nasp/whatisa.html  Phillips, B.N. (1990). School psychology at a turning point: Ensuring a bright future for the profession: San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Pryzwansky, W.B. (1999). Accreditation and credentialing systems in school psychology. In CR. Reynolds & T.B. Gutkin (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology: 3 ed. (pp. rd  1145-1158). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reschly, D.J. (1988). Special education reform: School psychology revolution. School Psychology Review, 17, 459-475. Reschly, D.J., & Wilson, M.S. (1995). School psychology practitioners and faculty: 1986 to 1991-92 trends in demographics, roles, satisfaction, and system reform. School Psychology Review, 24, 62-80. Roberts, A.H., & Rust, J.O. (1994). Role and function of school psychologists, 1992-93: A comparative study. Psychology in the Schools, 31, 113-119. Roberts, R.D. (1970). Perceptions of actual and desired role functions of school psychologists by psychologists and teachers. Psychology in the Schools, 7, 175-178. Smith, D.K. (1984). Practicing school psychologists: Their characteristics, activities, and populations served. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 15, 798-810. Smith, D.K., Clifford, E.S., Hesley, J., & Leifgren, M. (1992). The school psychologist of 1991: A survey of practitioners. Paper presented at the annual Meeting of National Association of School Psychologists, Nashville, TN. Stein, H L . (1964). Status and role of school psychologists in Canada. Toronto, ON: Research and Information Division, Canadian Educational Association. Stinnett, T.A., Havey, J.M., & Oehler-Stinnett, J. (1994). Current test usage by practicing school psychologists: A national survey. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 12, 331-350.  Sweet, T. (1990). School psychology in British Columbia: The state of the heart. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 6, 1-7. Yin, R.K. (1994). Case study research design and methods (2 ed). Thousand Oaks, nd  CA: Sage Publications, Inc.  106  Appendices  107  Appendix A Survey Distributed to School Psychologists  A Survey  of School  Psychology  Training  and Practice  in British  Columbia  We are conducting a survey of practicing school psychologists of British Columbia in order to gain a better understanding of job roles and functions and hope that you will be willing to help us by taking about 20 minutes to complete the survey. By completing and returning the survey, it will be assumed that you are giving consent to participate in the project. When the survey is completed, please return it in the enclosed self-addressed stamped envelope (to Tanya Merx,ECPS Dept., University of British Columbia,2125 Main Mall, Vancouver,BC, V6T1Z4). Any questions regarding the survey may be directed to: tmmerx(g),interchange.ubc.ca or laurie.ford@ubc.ca Your response and prompt reply are greatly appreciated. We thank you for your time. * N o t e : I f you w o r k in more t h a n one setting c u r r e n t l y o r d i d at a n y t i m e d u r i n g 1997-2002 (e.g. private practice), please respond to this survey as it applies(d) to y o u r j o b in the school setting.  Section A : Professional  Background  1. a.) Please indicate the type of the highest degree you have completed (check one): B.A. M.Ed Ed.D. B.Ed EDS Psy.D MA. Ph.D. Other (please specify) b. ) What year was your highest degree conferred? c. ) What was the name of the degree granting institution? (optional) d. ) What was the field of study for your highest degree? (please check one) School Psychology Psychometrics Counselling Psychology Clinical Psychology Educational Psychology . Other (please specify) Special Education e. ) Did you complete a supervised masters, specialist or doctoral internship in school psychology? Yes No f. ) If you answered yes to the above question, please indicate the type of setting for the internship (check one): Public School Mental Health Facility Private School Other (please specify) Hospital g. ) How closely did your school psychology training reflect the types of psychological services provided currently on the job? (check only one) Not closely related Somewhat related Closely related h. ) Which area (s) of service delivery (from the list below) would you have liked to receive further training in for preparation of your current job? (please check) Assessment Research Other (please indicate) Interventions Evaluation Consultation I would not have liked further training  108  2. Please indicate whether or not you received any graduate course work training in the following areas (by using a" " for yes)  V  Training  Training  Training  Other Skills/Training  Assessment  Interventions  Cognitive assessment Achievement assessment Adaptive behavior assessment Social/emotional/personality Ncui op->ychologu-al Curriculum-based measurement Vocational Dynarruc Interviewing (parents/teachers.) Observation Report Writing • <•; Other (please specify)  Academic Group Counseling Individual Counseling Social Skills training Sen-Sal Rmotional Behavioral Other (please specify)  Conducttncr Research  Supervision Administram e responsibilities _ Consultation (parents/teachers)_ Program Evaluation  Ethics Other  Section B: J o b Characteristics 3 Please rate your overall level of job satisfaction, //; the school setting, using the following scale: 1 2 3 4 Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Satisfied Very Satisfied 4. Please circle your level of job satisfaction, in the school setting, as related to each of the following (usina the scale above) 2 1 3 a) Autonomy j-> 1 2 4 b) Community support 3 4 c) Role definition 1 2 3 4 1 d) Colleague relationships 3 1 e) Salary 1 2 3 4 0 Opportunities for professional growth 1 g) Professional cultural climate .2 3 4 1 h) School District Support are the top three greatest sources of satisfaction in your current job? (please list)  1111  iillllli 1111111• f i l l H i  !•)_ 2- ). 3- ). 6. What are the top three greatest sources of dissatisfaction in your current job? (please list)  U 2 . ) _ 3-)_  109  7. a.) Do you have intentions to leave your employment in the school setting within the next three years? (check one) Yes No I don't know b.) If yes, what are your employment plans (if known)  8. Is the school district in which you work predominantly: Rural? Suburban? Urban? (check only one) 9. a.) How many schools do you serve in the district in which you work? (check one) One Four Seven or more Two Five Three Six b.) Please indicate the approximate percentage of time spent in elementary, middle and secondary settings (e.g. 0%,10%, 35%, 90%) Elementary (grades 1-6) Middle (grades 7-9) Secondary (grades 10-12) _ _ _ 10. What are the number of full-time school psychologists employed by your school district? (please check one): 1 4 2 5 3 More than 5 (specify the number) 11. Approximate number of students enrolled in your school district? (please check one): Less than 1,000 5,000- 10,000 1,000-3,000 10,000 or more 3,000 - 5, 000 12. Describe your current office setting at your primary place of work (please check one): Administration building individual office Administration building communal office School building shared office School building individual office Other (Please Specify) 13 a.) Do you have a written job description Yes No b. ) If yes, does it reflect what you actually do? Yes No c. ) If yes, who decides upon and writes this job description? (please check one) Myself Supervisor Principal District superintendent Other (please specify) 14. a.) Has your supervisor worked as a school psychologist? (please check one) Yes No I don't know I do not have a supervisor b. ) What is your supervisor's field of specialization? (either previous to this job or concurrently) Teacher Counselor School Psychologist Administrator I don't know Other (please specify) c. ) Please check the level of graduate training obtained by your supervisor: Masters Specialist Doctoral I don't know 15. To which administrative unit is psychological services directly accountable in your setting? (e.g. regular education, special education). 9  110  16. Who do you see as most influential in determining job roles/functions for school psychologists in your district? (please check one) District superintendent Immediate supervisors School principals Teachers Other (please specify) 17. What is your current job title? (please check) School Psychologist Psychometrician Educational Consultant Psychological Associate Educational Diagnostician Certified School Psychologist Educational Psychologist Registered Psychologist  Special Educator Teacher Other (please specify)  Section C: J o b Roles and Functions (Part 1) In thefirstcolumn below on the list of possible job roles and functions, please indicate (with " V " for yes and " X " for no) those roles that you serve in your current job in the school setting. In the second column below, indicate if you would like to do more, less or the same amount of each role (indicate more with "+", less with "-" & same with " = ") in your job in the school setting. Role  ASSESSMENT  Standardized assessment of intelligence/cognitive abilities Standardized assessment of achievement Behavioral assessment Social/emotional/personality assessment Cumculum-hascd assessment Assessment of the instructional environment Informal Assessment Interviews with parents/teachers Observation (school and/or home) IN I E R \ E M IONS Develop cognitive/academic goals for studcnt(s) Develop behavioral, affective, and adaptive behavior goals for student(s). Design programs for the intervention of academic, behavioral and personal difficulties Use alternative ways to monitor/assess individual student progress toward goal Assest treatment integrity for behavioral, affective and adaptive interventions Recommend and implement alternative instructional methodologies to teachers (e.g. classroom peer tutoring/ cooperative learning). Oiler teadiers/parems alternative approaches to student discipline Design programs for school personnel, students, and the community in the aftermath of crises (e.g. suicide, natural disasters). PREVENTION Design programs for the prevention of academic, behavioral and personal difficulties.  Ill  Part of current job role: ves (V) or no (X)  More (+), less (-) or same (=Vof current role  Allures-*iss'uesofwellness promotion (e.g substanceabuseand stress management) , I N T E R P E R S O N A L C O M M l NIC V 1 ION WD CONST 1.1 V 1 ION Piepasc written reports based upon individual evaluation Is) Teacher Consultation School-wide group consultation Report and discuss assessment results Attend stall'meetings Attend school-based team meetings Meet with lcamin« assistance ot resource teachers Give in-service workshops Attend workshops or in-service training Administrative duties Super. Kion of stall" Supervision of student interns Couns-ehnii  FA M 1 VI ION AM) KFSEARC1I Piomam l:\aluation Conduct research (theoretical or applied) Assist edui-ators with then development of research ideas on instruction  Section C'.Task Time Allocations (Part 2) For each area of practice below, please indicate the approximate actual and then desired percentage of time allocated to the designated roles in the school setting, (e.g. 0%, 10%, 35%, 90%) \ c t u a l % o f time allocated  Role  Desired % o f time allocated  Assessment Interventions Consultation Counseling Research and Evaluation  Section 1): Demographics 18 What is your present age? (please check one response) Under 25 46-55 years 26-35 years 56-65 years 36-45 years Over 65 years 19. What is your gender Male Female 20. Please indicate what your last assignment was as FTE as a school psychologist (either currently or for the 2001-2002 school year) on a scale from 0.1- 1.0 21. How many years have you practiced (full-time or part-time) as a school psychologist? 22. How many years have you been employed in your current position as a school psychologist? 9  112  23. Please indicate your membership in the following professional organizations (check all that apply): British Columbia Teachers Federation  , British Columbia Association of School Psychologists British Columbia Psychological Association  National Association of School Psychologists _____ Canadian Association of School Psychologists  Canadian Psychological Association American Psychological Association  ~  Other (PLEASE SPECIFY)  ' '  24. Which professional college are you most closely affiliated with in your job in the school setting? College of Psychologists College of Teachers 25. How would you personally describe your primary professional identity? (not how you are classified by your employer) Teacher Psychologist 26. a.) Do you hold a teaching certificate? (please check): Yes No b.) Have you taught in a classroom? Yes No c. ) If yes, number of years? d. ) If yes, check all the levels at which you have taught: Elementary (gr. 1-6) Middle (gr.7-9) Secondary (gr. 10-12) 27. Please list any jobs you have held that influenced your decision to become a school psychologist:  28. a.) Would you be willing to participate in a follow-up interview? (please see the enclosed letter for more information) Yes _ _ _ No b.) If yes, please FAX the enclosed consent form, with your signature, to (604) 822-3302 indicating your agreement to participate. Be sure also to date the letter and provide your most recent e-mail and phone contact information.  Thank you for your participation in this study. Please return the completed survey in the enclosed self-addressed stamped envelope. By returning this survey you have made a contribution to the field o f school psychology and enhanced the research in the area of school psychology training and practice in British Columbia. If you have any comments or questions, please attach them to the survey.  113  The University of British Columbia Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology and Special Education  Appendix B Cover Letter Included with Survey Packet A Survey of School Psychology Practice in British Columbia Dear School Psychologist, The future path of the School Psychology profession is uncertain. In order to clarify and better define our roles as practitioners, it is necessary to compile current data on types of services we provide as School Psychologists in British Columbia. More specifically, the enclosed survey is intended to gain a better understanding of the process and types of service delivery school psychologists are engaged in during a typical academic year. The survey will also investigate how well graduate training reflects current job activities and roles. This research will create a database in which to define our profession and will also satisfy the requirement of a Master's thesis in School Psychology. As a practicing school psychologist in British Columbia, please consider completing the enclosed survey. The survey will take about 20 minutes to complete. Participation in this study is completely voluntary and you may withdraw from the study at any time without any consequences to your professional status and/or employment standing. By completing and returning the survey your consent is given to use your responses. All responses will be kept confidential. Your participation in this study is completely anonymous as the researcher does not have access to psychogists names or contact information (but only the supervisor of psychologists). As such, please do not include your name on the questionnaire. If you have any questions of your rights or treatment as participants, please contact the Research Subject Information Line in the UBC Office of Research Services at (604) 822-8598. At the end of the survey, participants will be asked of their willingness to participate in a follow up interview. Those respondents who express an interest will fax or mail in their completed informed consent form separately (from their completed, returned survey), and will later be contacted by the co-researcher. Once the interview is completed, pseudonyms will be assigned and real names and identifying information will be destroyed. All collected data (from both the survey and interview records) will be retained in a secure location for 5 years (the faculty lab of Dr. Ford). No identifying data will be available to any outside persons/agencies. Only the researcher and co-researcher at U.B.C. will have access to the data and only group results will be reported for presentation and publication. Benefits to you include an opportunity for professional self reflection as well as a greater understanding and appreciation for the process and types of service delivery currently provided by school psychologists. The manusript write up of the study results will contribute to the advancement of knowledge regarding school psychology training and practice in the province of British Columbia. Participants wanting a summary of study results are advised to send an email to the 114  Appendix D Reviewer Form (for Survey) Dear Reviewer, Thank you for your agreement to participate in the pre-testing of this survey instrument. Enclosed you willfindthe cover letter, informed consent form, and survey on: 'School Psychology Practice in British Columbia'. Please read each carefully. Please answer each question below and provide comments where you feel appropriate. Also feel free to write suggestions or corrections on any of the forms. 1. Does the cover letter provide enough information so that the respondent understands what the study is about?  2. Is the informed consent form written in a clear, concise manner?  3. Are the instructions for completing the survey clearly written?  4. Are the survey questions easy to understand?  5. Is it clear on the survey form how to indicate responses? (e.g. check marks, + and - signs)  6. Do the respondents understand when to return the completed survey?  7. Do the respondents understand what to do with the completed survey?  8. Is the survey "user friendly" or create an overall positive impression so that people would want to answer?  9. Does any aspect of the survey suggest a bias on part of the researcher?  10. How long did the survey take to complete, including reading the cover letter and instructions?  11. Please make any suggestions regarding the content of the survey (e.g. addition or deletion of questions).  118  Appendix E INTERVIEW GUIDE Follow-up Interview Questions 1) a. How relevant was your training to the day to day activities as a school psychologist? b. In what way has having or not having teacher training benefited or impeded your professional interactions? 2 ) What skills did you need to learn on the job that were not covered in your training? 3) How has your role as a school psychologist changed over your career? 4) a. What changes do you anticipate in your role as a school psychologist in the upcoming years (short/mid/long term)? b. What is the basis of this belief? 5) a. How integrated are you with other educational professionals and administrators in your day to day activities? b. What impact do these relations have on your job role? 6) Describe your typical work day.  119  Appendix F E-mail letter sent to Directors' of Instruction Dear [Name] Director of Instruction, School District [# of District]: I have developed a Survey of School Psychology Practice in British Columbia. Please reply by e-mail (to tmmerx@interchange.ubc.ca) indicating whether you are willing to distribute this survey to practicing School Psychologists under your supervision and also the number of School Psychologists presently employed by your School District. The survey will require approximately 20 minutes for the School Psychologists to complete. To maintain anonymity, a package containing surveys for each Psychologist will be sent to you and each Psychologist will be provided with a pre-addressed stamped envelope to return the completed survey. Each survey will be accompanied by an informational cover letter. This survey study is being used to fulfill the degree requirements for a Master of Arts in School Psychology at the University of British Columbia and has acquired ethical approval from the U.B.C. Research Ethics Board. Thank you for your time and consideration. If you have further questions, please do not hesitate to ask. I look forward to your reply.  Sincerely,  Tanya Merx M.A. Candidate School Psychology University of British Columbia  120  

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