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Establishment of a revised word recognition accuracy and oral comprehension criteria for the instructional.. 1973

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c \ THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A REVISED WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY AND ORAL COMPREHENSION CRITERIA FOR THE INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL OF THE INFORMAL READING INVENTORY by DAVID CARSWELL McKINLAY . B.A., University of British Columbia, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1973 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educational Psychology The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August, 1973 i ABSTRACT The main purpose of t h i s study was to e m p i r i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l of an Informal Reading Inventory using o r a l sight reading. A secondary purpose was to investigate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r a l word recognition, o r a l reading comprehension and s i l e n t read- ing comprehension on an I.R.I. One hundred and twenty c h i l d r e n were administered an Informal Reading Inventory i n grades one through s i x . Twenty chi l d r e n i n each of the s i x grades were randomly selected i n a school that can be described as being populated by middle class c h i l d r e n . A 60 percent minimum was chosen i n t h i s thesis for o r a l reading com- prehension. Each p u p i l ' s inventory was examined and the graded o r a l read- ing passage that had the greatest number of word recognition errors within t h i s 60 percent minimum was the one used for future computations. In the primary grades 60 percent comprehension was associated with 89 percent word recognition accuracy; and i n the intermediate grades 60 percent comprehension was associated with 97 percent word recognition acc- uracy. A d d i t i o n a l l y , an unexpected fi n d i n g was that the average s i l e n t reading comprehension percentage at a l l grades was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c - andtly lower than the average o r a l comprehension percent. A multiple regression analysis conducted between word recognition accuracy, o r a l reading comprehension and s i l e n t reading comprehension and 2 s i l e n t reading comprehension i n d i c a t e d that the R of .049 was not s i g n i f - i c a n t when a l l grades one through s i x were combined. The f i r s t conclusion was that with the exception of Word Recognition Accuracy for the intermediate grades the t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a presented by Betts and K i l l g a l l o n and many subsequent inv e s t i g a t o r s underestimated a pupi l ' s reading a b i l i t y . Second, i t was hypothesized by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r that perhaps there might be an overemphasis on o r a l reading as the p u p i l progresses i n t o the intermediate grades which may i n f a c t be i n t e r f e r i n g with h i s s i l e n t reading. Such an hypothesis of course could only be v a l i d - ated through further research. T h i r d , that by knowing word recognition accuracy and o r a l comprehension, one could not accurately p r e d i c t s i l e n t reading performance. I t was therefore concluded that s i l e n t reading should be included as a necessary component of the I.R.I, f o r grades one through s i x . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction 1 The Purpose of the Study 3 Operational D e f i n i t i o n s 3 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study 8 The Hypotheses 9 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction 10 The Need f o r an I.R.I 10 The D e f i n i t i o n of the I.R.I 10 Development of the I.R.i 12 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of the I.R.I 19 Oral and S i l e n t Reading on the I.R.I 21 I.R.I, and Reading Rate 22 Al t e r n a t i v e s to the I.R.I 22 III METHOD Select i o n of Subjects 27 Materials 27 Testing Procedures 35 IV STATISTICAL PROCEDURES AND RESULTS Determination of Word Recognition Accuracy (W.R.A.) and Oral Comprehension (O.C.) for the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Level . . 38 Relationship Between W.R.A. , O.C, and S i l e n t Comprehension (S.C.) 47 Correlations and Mu l t i p l e Regression Analysis Between W.R.A. , O.C. , and S.C 48 V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 55 Implications For Further Research 58 REFERENCES 60 APPENDIX 64 i v LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Co r r e l a t i o n Between the Mid-Points of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Range of the Standard Reading Inventory and the Botel Reading Inventory f o r 140 Children i n Grades One Through Six 21 2 Composition of Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension by Type and Grade 30 3 Summary Table of Composition of Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension Questions by Type and Grade 31 4 Analysis of Responses of Pupils i n Grades One Through Six to Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension Questions 32 5 R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Graded Book Levels Two to Seven 34 6 Word Recognition Accuracy Scores Above and Below 60 Per- cent Comprehension C r i t e r i a f o r Grades One Through Six . . . 39 7 Lowest Word Recognition Accuracy Percentage Means and Variances f or Each Grade One Through Six 40 8 Lowest Word Recognition Accuracy Percentage Means and Variances f or Primary, Intermediate and Combined Grades . . 44 9 Word Recognition Accuracy Percentage Means f o r Reading Materials Grades One Through Seven 46 10 Linear and Quadratic Relationship Between Word Recognition Accuracy and Grade Level 47 11 Mean Percentages f o r A l l Word Recognition, Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension Scores for Grades One Through Six . . . 48 12 Results of t Tests Between Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension f o r Grades One Through Six 50 13 C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix Between Word Recognition Accuracy, Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension for Grades One Through Six . . 52 14 Multiple Regression Analysis Between Word Recognition Accuracy (X^), Oral Comprehension (X2) and S i l e n t Comprehension (Y) f o r Grades One Through Six 53 15 Co r r e l a t i o n Matrix Between Word Recognition Accuracy, Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension f o r Primary and Intermediate and Combined Grades 53 16 M u l t i p l e Regression Analysis Between Word Recognition Accuracy (X^), Oral Comprehension (X 2) and S i l e n t Comprehension (Y) for Primary and Intermediate Grades and Combined Grades One Through Six 54 V LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Word Recognition Accuracy Above and Below 60 Percent Comprehension C r i t e r i o n f o r Grades One to Three 41 2 Word Recognition Accuracy Above and Below 60 Percent Comprehension C r i t e r i o n f o r Grades Four to Six 42 3 Lowest Word Recognition Accuracy Score Means f o r Grades One Through Six 43 4 Lowest Word Recognition Accuracy Score Means f o r Primary, Intermediate, and A l l Grades Combined 45 5 Mean Percentages f o r A l l Word Recognition Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension Scores for Grades One Through Six 51 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank the members of my committee for t h e i r assistance given i n the completion of t h i s study: Dr. 0. A. Oldridge (Chairman), Dr. J . L. Conry, Dr. K. Slade, Dr. R. Conry. 1 CHAPTER 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM One of the c r i t i c a l issues facing reading teachers and others con- cerned with the diagnosis of reading d i f f i c u l t i e s , i s what percentage of word recognition errors can a p u p i l make and s t i l l p r o f i t maximally from i n s t r u c t i o n at any given grade l e v e l . P. A. K i l l g a l l o n (1942) recognized that an Informal Reading Inventory (I.R.I.) would be a useful guide for determining what l e v e l to begin i n s t r u c t i o n , and he was probably the f i r s t author to apply a performance c r i t e r i a to determine reading achievement. William S. Gray (1920) had made comments previous to K i l l g a l l o n on the use- fulness of I.R.I.'s but d i d not advance a performance c r i t e r i o n . Instead of a performance c r i t e r i o n , reading achievement was based s o l e l y on the examiner's subjective judgment. The I.R.I, can be best described as an i n d i v i d u a l structured reading interview i n which a p u p i l reads both o r a l l y and s i l e n t l y , s e l e c t i o n s of increasing d i f f i c u l t y taken from classroom reading te x t s . As the p u p i l reads, the teacher notes word attack s k i l l s , comprehension errors based on teacher devised questions, and other behaviours r e l a t e d to reading. A f t e r the p u p i l i s f i n i s h e d reading the teacher i s able to compare the p u p i l ' s performances with a set of c r i t e r i a which enables her to i d e n t i f y the p u p i l ' s functional reading l e v e l s : independent, i n s t r u c t i o n a l and f r u s - t r a t i o n a l . K i l l g a l l o n q u a l i f i e d the use of the I.R.I, by suggesting that i n d i v - i d u a l differences i n a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , and capacity, as w e l l as d i f f - erences i n reading programs, i n s t r u c t i o n a l m aterial, and standards of achievement, make i t unnecessary to develop a c r i t e r i o n which would be u n i v e r s a l l y applicable. But a norm, inte r p r e t e d and applied with the above 2 l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind would have p r a c t i c a l value. (P.A. K i l l g a l l o n , 1942). How then could a normative l e v e l be accurately determined that would be most appropriate for beginning i n s t r u c t i o n a l reading? Many a u t h o r i t i e s have presented percentages f o r the lower l i m i t s of needed accuracy i n word recognition and i n o r a l reading comprehension. William R. Powell (1968) has provided the following c i t a t i o n s where word recognition i s f i r s t and o r a l reading comprehension second: E.A. Betts and P.A. K i l l g a l l o n (1942), 95% and 75%; A.J. Harris (1947), 95% and 75%; M. Botel (1961), 95% and 75%; R.A. Kress and M.S. Johnson (1965) , 95% and 75%; M.C. Austin and M.H. Hueb- ner (1961), 95% and 75%; L.R. Wheeler and E.H. Smith (1957), 95% and 70%; L. Cooper (1952), 98% and 70% (Primary), and 96% and 60% (Intermediate; and W.R. Powell (1968), 85% and 70% (Primary), and 91% to 94% and 70% (Intermediate). A d d i t i o n a l researchers such as J.L. Williams (1963) , CM. Davis (1964) , S.R. Brown (1963), D.L. Patty (1965), P. Obrien (1970), and M. B o t e l (1968) generally concluded that an informal reading inventory more e f f e c t i v e l y placed a p u p i l at h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l than the standardized reading t e s t s . However, there were varying opinions as to what the c r i t e r i o n should be. To a large extent i t appeared evident that the authors had chosen t h e i r c r i t e r i o n on the basis of i n t u i t i o n , opinion, or from the o r i g i n a l B e t t 1 s - K i l l g a l l o n c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i a controversy was further compounded by the f a c t that some proponents (Cooper, 1952, and K i l l g a l l o n , 1942) used s i l e n t reading along with o r a l sight reading i n determining the functional reading l e v e l s , while some (Powell, 1968) d i d not. From the f i r s t c r i t e r i o n advanced by K i l l - g a l l o n (1942) i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , h i s cautionary note-that the c r i t e r i o n for the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l would not be u n i v e r s a l l y adaptable has gone la r g e l y unheeded. With the exception of the Cooper and Powell studies there 3 has been no p r o v i s i o n for a d i f f e r e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n to be applied to primary and intermediate grades. W.R. Powell (1968) presents the notion that a l l the c r i t e r i a to date have been based on the intermediate grades and have been generalized to include the lower grades. THE PURPOSE The purpose of t h i s study was twofold: 1. To e m p i r i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h a d i f f e r e n t i a l c r i t e r i a i n the primary and intermediate grades, for word recognition and o r a l reading comprehension at the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . 2. To investigate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r a l word recognition, o r a l reading comprehension, s i l e n t reading comprehension. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS While the terms employed assumed conventional usage i t seemed us e f u l to provide operational d e f i n i t i o n s for the three f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s of an I.R.I. - Independent, I n s t r u c t i o n a l , F r u s t r a t i o n , as w e l l as to define Word Recognition E r r o r and Oral and S i l e n t reading Comprehension because there was a subtle variance among authors as to meaning and a p p l i c a t i o n . I t was previously mentioned that d i f f e r e n t authors presented considerable v a r i a - tions i n t h e i r word recognition accuracy, and o r a l reading comprehension c r i t e r i o n ; however op e r a t i o n a l l y the following three functional l e v e l s advanced by Beldin, Utsey and Wallen (1965) w i l l be used i n t h i s t h e s i s . 1. Independent Reading Level. This i s the l e v e l where the p u p i l has mastered such s k i l l s as word attack, language structure, vocabulary and comprehension to the point that he can read without assistance. I t i s at t h i s l e v e l that the p u p i l reads for recreation, pursuing information and for the f u l f i l l m e n t of h i s personal i n t e r e s t s (Beldin, Utsey and Wallen, 1965). 2. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Reading Level. This i s the l e v e l at which i n s t r u c t i o n 4 should be i n i t i a t e d or, "that l e v e l of reading at which a c h i l d i s able, with the a i d of systematic i n s t r u c t i o n to make successful progress i n learning to read." (Beldin et a l , 1965). 3. F r u s t r a t i o n Reading Level. I t i s at t h i s l e v e l that the p u p i l dem- onstrates an i n a b i l i t y to read by blocking on words. His vocabulary, word attack s k i l l s and comprehension are inadequate for dealing with the reading m a t e r i a l . (Beldin et a l , 1965). 4. Word Recognition E r r o r . Lyman Hunt (1969) f e l t there was an inher- ent danger i n focusing on word recognition e r r o r s . He suggested that a teacher could e a s i l y become preoccupied with counting errors which tend to i n t e r f e r e with meaningful reading. His observation, accentuating the pos- i t i v e and eliminating the negative has v a l i d i t y when one considers the o v e r a l l reading process along with the ultimate goal of reading to get ideas from p r i n t . Even though focusing on word recognition errors may i n t e r f e r e to some extent with the reading process, one i s faced with few a l t e r n a t i v e s when attempting to assess a p u p i l ' s reading d i f f i c u l t i e s . To properly place a p u p i l at h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l one must be concerned with e r r o r s . With t h i s i n mind the following word recognition errors were applied as K i l l - g a l l o n (1942) and Spache (1964) defined them: Words aided. When a p u p i l blocks on a word and the examiner has to help him because he cannot or w i l l not pronounce the word. Omissions. Example: "The black dog ran a f t e r the cat" i s read "The dog ran a f t e r the cat." Su b s t i t u t i o n . Example: "The puppy ran," i s read "The dog ran." S u b s t i t u t i o n Subcategories. I n i t i a l consonant e r r o r . This i s used i n the sense of over depend- ence upon i n i t i a l consonants as a means of word recognition. The p u p i l 5 reads some f o r song; red f o r r i n g . L e t t e r r e v e r s a l s. Example: p_ut f o r but. P a r t i a l r e v e r s a l s . Example: cat for act. Contextual t r a n s p o s i t i o n . Example: "The cat caught a r a t " i s read, "The r a t caught a cat." Complete r e v e r s a l s . Example: saw f o r was. Insert i o n . Example: "He jumped the d i t c h , " i s read, "He jumped over the d i t c h . " Repetition. Repetitions of two or more words only are counted. As Spache (1964) stated: We do not believe that the o v e r a l l estimate of the c h i l d ' s reading should be unduly penalized by counting every si n g l e r e p e t i t i o n he makes. A f t e r a l l , the habit of analyzing new, hard words while reading i s a very desirable one. Therefore we count r e p e t i t i o n s only when two words or more are involved, to reduce the a r t i f i c i a l frequency of t h i s e r r o r . (Spache, 1964) . Comprehension. Comprehension was defined as Ba r r e t t o u t l i n e d i n h i s Taxonomy of the Cognitive and A f f e c t i v e Dimensions of Reading Comprehension ( c i t e d i n Clymer, 1968). Barrett's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between l i t e r a l and i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension. L i t e r a l comprehension "focuses on ideas and information which are e x p l i c i t l y stated i n the s e l - e c t i o n . " Whereas, i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension " i s demonstrated by the student when he uses the ideas and information e x p l i c i t l y stated i n the s e l e c t i o n , h i s i n t u i t i o n , and h i s personal experience as a basis f o r conjectures and hypotheses." Reading comprehension was determined by presenting to the p u p i l questions that have been developed on the basis of the above two def- i n i t i o n s . L i t e r a l comprehension, i n part, required the p u p i l to r e c a l l the following: D e t a i l s . The p u p i l was asked to produce from memory f a c t u a l informa- t i o n such as the names of characters, the time or place of the story. 6 Main Ideas. The p u p i l was required to state a main idea of a paragraph or a larger portion of the s e l e c t i o n from memory when the main idea i s ex- p l i c i t l y stated i n the s e l e c t i o n . Sequence. The p u p i l was asked to provide from memory the order of i n - cidents or actions e x p l i c i t l y stated i n the s e l e c t i o n . Comparisons. The p u p i l was required to r e c a l l from memory the l i k e - nesses and differences i n characters, times, and places that were e x p l i c i t l y stated i n the s e l e c t i o n . Cause and E f f e c t Relationships. The p u p i l was requested to produce from memory e x p l i c i t l y stated reasons f o r c e r t a i n happenings or actions i n the s e l e c t i o n . Character T r a i t s . The p u p i l was asked to r e c a l l from memory e x p l i c i t statements about characters which i l l u s t r a t e the type of persons they are. I n f e r e n t i a l questions on the other hand required the p u p i l to i n f e r the following from the presented m a t e r i a l : Main Ideas. The p u p i l was required to provide the main idea, general s i g n i f i c a n c e , theme, or moral which was not e x p l i c i t l y stated i n the sel e c - t i o n . Comparisons. The p u p i l was required to i n f e r likeness and differences i n characters, times, or places. Such i n f e r e n t i a l comparisons revolve around ideas such as "here and there," "then and now," "he and she," "he and he," and "she and she." Character T r a i t s . In t h i s case the p u p i l was asked to hypothesize about the nature of characters on the basis of e x p l i c i t clues presented i n the s e l e c t i o n . LIMITATIONS There were several l i m i t a t i o n s to t h i s study. The f i r s t was that only one of the three f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s of the I.R.I, were dealt with, namely 7 the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . Since the major concern of the teacher i s to s e l - ect reading materials with which she may i n i t i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n , i t was f e l t that a p r i o r i t y should be given to an empirical i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s l e v e l . I t i s not to be assumed however that one should accept the independent and f r u s t r a t i o n l e v e l standards as suggested by K i l l g a l l o n (1942), nor does i t ne c e s s a r i l y mean that one should i n t e r p o l a t e a standard f o r these l e v e l s from the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l data assessed i n t h i s research. C e r t a i n l y separate studies are required before any v a l i d inference can be made. Informal Reading Inventories can be administered at two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s for two d i f f e r e n t purposes. The classroom teacher can administer the t e s t f or grouping the children f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes. Such a pro- cedure requires the teacher to observe and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y record the word recognition errors and comprehension r e s u l t s . However, the reading c l i n - i c i a n needs considerably more information beyond what i s simply provided by the c r i t e r i a . Powell (1971) f e l t that the r e a l value of the I.R.I, i s at t h i s l e v e l since i t provides the examiner with the opportunity to gather information on reading behaviours i n depth. As Beldin (1969) pointed out, "Gathering t h i s information accurately requires d e t a i l e d knowledge of the reading process, knowledge of c h i l d behaviour and considerable experience i n t e s t administration." Every teacher cannot be expected to be a Psycho- metrist or Reading S p e c i a l i s t t h i s obviates the necessity f o r him to be so p h i s t i c a t e d i n the s k i l l s required to analyse reading behaviour i n depth. Nevertheless, the teacher s t i l l has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l e c t i n g material that w i l l be within the p u p i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l range. Therefore t h i s res- earch remained within the l i m i t s of the f i r s t purpose of the I.R.I, and that was to observe and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y record the word recognition errors and comprehension r e s u l t s . 8 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY The underlying motivation f o r t h i s study r e s u l t e d from the f a c t that while a considerable amount of material has been written about the I.R.I, there i s confusion about the construction and scoring. For example, some informal t e s t s use a se r i e s of graded passages, o r a l and s i l e n t ; others use o r a l only; s t i l l others are composed of graded word l i s t s f o r place- ment i n the o r a l passages and some are constructed from sentence samples. The confusion i s j u s t as prevalent when one compares the c r i t e r i a f o r scoring the I.R.I. Some inves t i g a t o r s include errors such as r e p e t i t i o n s when c a l c u l a t i n g word recognition accuracy and others do not. Some inves- t i g a t o r s include a l l o r a l errors while some include only those errors that s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the meaning of a sentence. In attempting to evaluate comprehension, Render suggests that some authors f e e l that 90 percent understanding i s required f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l ; others f e e l 75 per- cent i s adequate and others maintain that only 60 percent i s s u f f i c i e n t . (Render, 1968). Much of the confusion stems from research that has been conducted which has revealed some rather apparent weaknesses. These weaknesses w i l l be discussed i n chapter two. The r e s u l t a n t confusion regarding I.R.I, usage presented j u s t i f i c a t i o n for conducting a study that hopefully w i l l lessen some of the many disagree- ments that have occurred heretofore. Such a study assumes some s i g n i f i c a n c e p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t addresses i t s e l f to the contentious issues i n v o l v i n g the varying c r i t e r i a used f o r determining the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l and whether the c r i t e r i o n applied to the primary grades should be d i f f e r e n t from that of the intermediate grades. With the exception of studies by Cooper (1952) and Powell (1968) and McCracken (1963) most authors have not extended t h e i r res- earch to include grade one p u p i l s . This lack of attention to the primary 9 grades provided an a d d i t i o n a l incentive to conduct a study that would not exclude them. THE HYPOTHESES The hypotheses were as follows: 1. That a pup i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l f o r primary and intermediate would d i f f e r and that a l l grades combined produce a standard lower than the t r a - d i t i o n a l 95% and 75% c r i t e r i o n . 2. That there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between word recogni- t i o n accuracy, o r a l reading comprehension and s i l e n t reading comprehension for a l l grades combined. 3. That there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between o r a l reading comprehension and s i l e n t reading comprehension at a l l grade l e v e l s . Presumably i f one i s not able to p r e d i c t s i l e n t reading comprehension knowing o r a l word recognition and/or o r a l reading comprehension then one could assume that s i l e n t reading comprehension should be administered along with o r a l reading i n order to determine a pup i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . 10 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE INTRODUCTION The Need f o r an I.R.I. Betts (1954) emphasized that i f a teacher i s to t r u l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e her i n s t r u c t i o n so that she does not f i n d h e r s e l f teaching the same thing to the bottom of the class as to the top, she w i l l have to acquire tech- niques that adequately assess the p u p i l s ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . I t i s f e l t that the Informal Reading Inventory i s a technique that provides the teach- erwith a basis f or planning e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n . The intent of t h i s chapter then i s to express the merits and l i m i t a t i o n s as well as to present a complete des c r i p t i o n of the instrument. The D e f i n i t i o n of the I.R.I. K i l l g a l l o n (1942) describes the I.R.I. — ...as a t e s t of reading performance i n which the subject i s required to read, s i l e n t l y and o r a l l y f o r d e f i n i t e l y set-up purposes, selected passages from a graded s e r i e s of readers. Inadequacies are noted on a rather d e t a i l e d c h e c k - l i s t dur- ing the performance and comprehension i s checked afterward. The t e s t enables an experienced examiner not only to diag- nose reading d i f f i c u l t i e s but to determine the achievement l e v e l of the elementary p u p i l very accurately within l i m i t s of a sing l e grade or reader l e v e l . ( K i l l g a l l o n , 1942). The d e f i n i t i o n of the I.R.I, becomes somewhat more complete when K i l l - gallon's d e f i n i t i o n i s supplemented by William S. Gray's (1920) statement: Informal t e s t s , as the term i s used i n t h i s discussion, r e - la t e to tes t s which are organized by the classroom teacher or supervisor f o r the purpose of securing accurate records concerning the accomplishments of p u p i l s . They d i f f e r from standardized t e s t s i n that they are not so c a r e f u l l y organ- ized, they have not been given to a large number of pu p i l s under s i m i l a r conditions and there are no standards which can be used as a basis f o r comparison. (Gray, 1920). 11 When one peruses such definitions i t becomes clear there are certain defic- iencies in the I.R.I.'s when compared with the more sophisticated standard- ized tests, but there are definite advantages to the I.R.I, as well. Killgallon (1942) perhaps overstated his case when he submitted that the I.R.I, constituted the best single index to reading a b i l i t y at the elementary school level. Donald D. Durrell (1940) in a more plausible way stated the advantages of informal inventories. Informal tests based upon the reading materials used in the classroom and charts of faulty habits and d i f f i c u l t i e s observed when the child i s reading provide the best basis for planning instruction. They indicate whether or not the assignments are suited to the child's reading maturity and whether instruc- tion i s being provided to overcome the specific confusions and faulty habits that arise in the child's daily reading...the proper use of the informal tests, supplemented by observation, w i l l yield for the resourceful teacher information of a diag- nostic character that is of practical usefulness in teaching to meet individual needs. (Durrell, 1940). E.A. Betts has also presented cogent arguments for the usefulness of I.R.I.'s. For example, he has stated: Probably one of the most direct and effective means of ap- praising reading levels and needs is the informal inventory. By using a graded series of reading material in a given area, the teacher or clinician may observe responses in a more nearly normal type of reading situation. In a well motiva- ted situation, i t i s possible to estimate the independent and the instructional reading levels. In addition, specific needs may be evaluated in terms of related needs and back- ground skills....An informal inventory has several merits. F i r s t , the teacher is given direct evidence on achievement and needs in terms of available instructional material. Second, the teacher i s provided with a technique for detec- ting every-day needs in the classroom. Third, the child i s 'sold' on his needs and how to improve his status. The pro- cedure is sound, understandable and practical. (E.A. Betts, 1947, cited in Cooper, 1952). The I.R.I, provides the teacher with an opportunity to gain diagnostic insights, from a simple indication of level to a more complex in depth diagnosis of reading behaviours. The latter in depth diagnosis provides very definite limitations. Render (1968) feels that: Anyone who i s expected to administer an informal reading test must be thoroughly knowledgeable about the reading 12 process and thoroughly s k i l l e d i n administering the i n s t r u - ment. The examiner must make h i s own judgments about what constitutes a sound reading performance on the part of any p u p i l . He must make decisions about a pupi l ' s word analysis s k i l l s , h i s o r a l reading, h i s s i l e n t reading, h i s comprehen- sion, and many other factors involved i n the reading process. The usefulness, then, of an informal reading t e s t i s i n d i r - ect proportion to the knowledge of the examiner who uses i t ; therefore, i t i s u n l i k e l y that j u s t any classroom teacher can e a s i l y administer an informal reading t e s t and j u d i c i o u s - l y i n t e r p r e t i t s r e s u l t s as i s sometimes claimed. (Render, 1968). The teacher can s t i l l v a l i d l y assess the pu p i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l for the purpose of s e l e c t i n g s u i t a b l e materials and grouping without pos- sessing the pr e r e q u i s i t e s preferred by Render (see page 14). This i s not meant to imply that teachers should not be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n in - s e r v i c e programs directed at improving t h e i r diagnostic s k i l l s through the use of I. R. 1. 1 s . Indeed such programs a s s i s t the teacher i n becoming more aware of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l reading l e v e l s . I t has been found that: Teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a simulation type i n - s e r v i c e program, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more aware of the i n s t r u c - t i o n a l reading l e v e l s of pupils i n classrooms than those teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the simulation-type i n - s e r v i c e experience l a t e r i n the school year a f t e r they had assigned p u p i l s ' basal readers. The study further found that teach- ers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a simulation-type i n - s e r v i c e pro- gram ea r l y i n the school year before they had assigned p u p i l s ' basal readers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more aware of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l reading l e v e l s of the pupils i n the classroom than those teachers who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a simulation- type i n - s e r v i c e experience. (Millsap, 1962). S i m i l a r l y , Ladd (1961) found that teachers given a t h i r t y hour t r a i n - ing course on I.R.I.'s improved t h e i r a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y o r a l reading e r r o r s , but s t i l l missed t h i r t y - t h r e e to thirty-seven percent of the er r o r s . DEVELOPMENT OF THE I.R.I. People such as W.S. Gray, (1920), E.A. Betts, (1936), and Arthur Gates, (1936) have pursued the techniques and p o t e n t i a l values of the I.R.I. How- ever, none e x p l i c i t l y mentioned the word recognition and comprehension c r i t e r i o n required f o r the three f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s . I t was not u n t i l 1942 13 that a student of Betts, P.A. K i l l g a l l o n , f i r s t researched the c r i t e r i a for i d e n t i f y i n g a pupi l ' s functional l e v e l . Since that time key studies by Cooper, (1952), McCracken, (1963), and Powell, (1968) have attempted to em p i r i c a l l y investigate the c r i t e r i a . K i l l g a l l o n ' s doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , A Study of Relationships Among Certain P u p i l Adjustments i n Language Situations (1942) , as mentioned e a r l - i e r , was the f i r s t study to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . The main purpose of the study was "to study c e r t a i n aspects of the general problem of i n d i v i d u a l differences i n reading i n connection with the reading a b i l i t y with pupils at the fourth grade l e v e l . " K i l l g a l l o n (1942). The c r i t e r i a f o r determining the fun c t i o n a l reading l e v e l s seemed to emerge as a by-product of the study. He had a sample of 211 fourth grade c h i l d r e n of three c e n t r a l Pennsyl- vania communities. The communities were small i n d u s t r i a l r u r a l populations. A l l the chi l d r e n included i n the study were native born and according to reports by the pupils t h e i r parents were also native born. The subjects came mainly from average middle class homes. Pr o f e s s i o n a l , c u l t u r a l and economically deprived or favoured groups were not sampled d i s - proportionately . In order to c o l l e c t data f o r computing reading ages and reading grades f o r a l l the fourth grade ch i l d r e n used i n h i s study, he administered the Gates Reading Survey, Grades III to X. He checked the v a l i d i t y of the Gates data by administering an informal reading inventory to every f i f t h p u p i l (forty-one i n t o t a l ) on the ranked d i s t r i b u t i o n of Gates Survey reading ages. As another s i d e l i g h t of h i s study the v a l i d i t y check revealed that the Informal Inventory placed c h i l d r e n an average 1.06 grades lower than the standardized t e s t . He also found that the standardized t e s t d i d not discriminate well among the lower extremes of the d i s t r i b u t i o n . One c h i l d , 14 for example, scored 2.8 on the standardized test but was incapable of read- ing a pre-primer on the informal reading inventory. Perhaps the most curious anomaly of the study involved the establish- ment of c r i t e r i a for the functional reading levels. He determined prior to the testing os his subjects what the c r i t e r i a would be. The c r i t e r i a that he arbitrarily established for the lower limits at the instructional level were 50 percent for comprehension or better and a word recognition error of one error in every fourteen running words, (92.86 percent). Even though he defined the lower limits of word recognition as being 93 percent and compre- hension as 50 percent he switched to a 95 and 75 percent criterion respec- tively in his conclusions. The reason he switched from one criterion to the other i s not clear. On page nine of his dissertation he stated: Criteria for defining the probable instruction level, the probable frustration level, and the probable reading cap- acity level were arbitrarily established by the investi- gator in connection with the Informal Reading Inventory (Killgallon, 1942). However, later in the study on page 102 Killgallon states: The subjectivity of the examiner's ratings, however, must be recognized as a major limitation in the use of the inventory. The extent of this limitation i s reduced and the r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument is increased in direct proportion to the degree to which results are interpreted according to valid and objective c r i t e r i a . With this in mind, the c r i t e r i a outlined below were established after preliminary t r i a l of the Informal Reading Inventory and were observed in making the ratings in the present study (Killgallon, 1942). Beldin (1969) f e l t there may have been some justification for K i l l - gallon's original "arbitrarily established" c r i t e r i a . He f e l t that K i l l - gallon might have based the 50 percent comprehension from the comments of Bolenious (1919) who published a book called, Teacher's Manual of Silent i and Oral Reading wherein he suggested that a child should grasp 50 percent of the ideas in a 400-word passage. However there seems to be no plausible 15 basis f o r h i s e s t a b l i s h i n g a 92.86 percent word recognition e r r o r . Beldin suggests, which seems equally untenable that the word recognition c r i t e r i a i may have emanated from D. D u r r e l l ' s (1940) book, Improvement of Basic Read- ing A b i l i t i e s when he stated: "In the usual classroom p r a c t i c e i t appears that c h i l d r e n f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n mastering material containing more than one d i f f i c u l t word i n twenty running words." I f K i l l g a l l o n had used D u r r e l l as a frame of reference, he should have used a word recognition c r i t e r i o n of 95 percent, but he d i d n o t — h e i n i t i a l l y used 92.86 percent. On page 162 of K i l l g a l l o n ' s study he j u s t i f i e d h i s a l t e r e d c r i t e r i o n for comprehension when he asserted: "The mean comprehension score at the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l was 71 percent." On page 165 he concluded that: "The mean percent of e r r o r was 5.1; the l i m i t s of the range, 1.2 and 6.6. In corresponding terms, pupil s made approximately f i v e word-perception errors i n every hundred running words, or one i n every twenty, on the average." By rounding o f f the above two figures he f i n a l l y a r r i v e d at a word recog- n i t i o n e r r o r score of 95 percent and a comprehension of 75 percent. In s p i t e of the unorthodox manner i n which t h i s study was conducted, the r e s u l t s have been widely c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e by Burrows (1954), Bo- t e l (1969), Austin and Huebner (1962) and McCracken (1964). K i l l g a l l o n was aware that h i s study had shortcomings, unfortunately many of h i s follow- ers were not, which has l e d to the perpetuation of spurious c r i t e r i a f o r over t h i r t y years. Cooper (1952) conducted a study on I.R.I, i n which he had three objec- t i v e s : 1. To determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r a t i o of word perception errors and gains i n reading. 2. To investigate the p o s s i b i l i t y of using abnormal reading symptoms to determine what materials would be suitable for a p u p i l . 16 3. To determine a s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i o n f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . Cooper administered I.R.I.'s to approximately 1000 pupil s i n the Boston area i n grades one to s i x . He c l a s s i f i e d them into f i v e groups ranging from those who made the most word perception e r r o r s , to those who made the l e a s t . He then administered two standardized reading t e s t s at the beginning and at the end of the year. He compared these r e s u l t s with the I.R.I.'s for each group and found that at the primary l e v e l the group making the greatest amount of progress i n reading achievement was characterized by 0 - 1.99 word per- ception errors per 100 running words supported by a 70 percent comprehension score. At the intermediate l e v e l the 0 - 1.99 and 2 - 3.99 groups made the greatest gains supported by a 60 percent comprehension score. He then l a b e l l e d these groups i n the primary and intermediate grades as being placed i n " s u i t a b l e " i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. He concluded from the above data that the c r i t e r i a f o r pl a c i n g a p u p i l i n " s u i t a b l e " i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials at the primary l e v e l should be 98 percent for word recognition accuracy and 70 percent for comprehension. At the intermediate l e v e l the c r i t e r i a should be 96 percent for word recognition accuracy and 60 percent for comprehension. I t should be recognized that Cooper (1952), Spache (1964) and Dunkeld (1970) suggested that 60 percent i s the minimum c r i t e r i o n for the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . However, Betts (1936), Beldin et. a l . (1965), Johnson and Kress (1965), suggested the 60 percent o r a l reading comprehension approaches the f r u s t r a - t i o n a l l e v e l . While Cooper's study was one of the f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of i t s kind, there were c e r t a i n procedural weaknesses such as l i m i t e d range of materials i n some of the grades. For example on page 230 of h i s study he stated: "In some cases, only one book w i l l be used i n a room; i n others sev- e r a l may be used. In any case, each c h i l d w i l l be expected to read only from the immediate book that i s being used f o r reading i n s t r u c t i o n . " Since more 17 than one examiner administered the I.R.I.'s there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of var- iance i n the r e s u l t s as in t e r p r e t e d by the d i f f e r e n t administrators. Also because of the geographic and socio-economic l i m i t a t i o n s the r e s u l t s of the study should be interpreted cautiously. In spite of the procedural d i f f i c - u l t i e s displayed by Cooper's study i t represented a u s e f u l piece of research i n attempting to determine " s u i t a b l e " i n s t r u c t i o n a l reading material. Another i n t e r e s t i n g I.R.I, study was conducted by R.A. McCracken (1963). The purpose of t h i s study was "...to develop a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l reading t e s t f o r measuring the reading achievement of elementary school c h i l - dren." McCracken's "Standard Reading Inventory" purports to measure a p u p i l ' s independent, i n s t r u c t i o n a l and f r u s t r a t i o n a l reading l e v e l s . He based h i s v a l i d i t y on the vocabulary of three basal readers and tested the v a l i d i t y of h i s passages by using the Spache Readability Formula f o r the primary grades and the Dale-Chall formula f o r the intermediate grades. He further suppor- ted h i s r e s u l t s by administering h i s t e s t to 664 p u p i l s i n grades one through s i x and by using the subjective ratings of twenty-five n a t i o n a l l y known reading a u t h o r i t i e s . R e l i a b i l i t y was demonstrated by having two other exam- iners administer alternate forms of the Standard Reading Inventory to 60 c h i l d - ren, 30 boys and 30 g i r l s . The data from t h i s t e s t i n g was used to compute twelve Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n s ; these c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from 0.99 to 0.68 with a median of 0.91. The main shortcoming of McCracken's inventory i s that the standards used i n h i s t e s t were based on K i l l g a l l o n ' s c r i t e r i a . In view of the comments made e a r l i e r on the de r i v a t i o n of the K i l l g a l l o n c r i t e r i a , findings of the McCracken study should be regarded as somewhat tenuous. A unique approach i n attempting to e s t a b l i s h an i n s t r u c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a was presented i n a study by William Powell (1968). He hypothesized that a p u p i l should be able to make more than 5 percent er r o r i n word recognition 18 and s t i l l be reading at h i s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l and therefore the 95 per- cent word recognition standard should be lowered. In order to t e s t h i s hypothesis he examined the I.R.I, p r o f i l e s of 178 protocols selected from average a b i l i t y , average achieving middle class c h i l d r e n i n grades one through s i x . He had three examiners c o l l e c t i n g the data which l i k e Coop- er's study would involve examiner variance. The method he used f o r examining each of the protocols was to hold com- prehension constant at 70 percent or higher. The 70 percent or higher c r i - t e r i o n was the lowest acceptable score for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n at the i n s t r u c t - i o n a l l e v e l . Each protocol was f i r s t examined to determine the highest grade l e v e l basal reader which the p u p i l could read with comprehension c l o s - est to the 70 percent c r i t e r i a , but s t i l l higher than t h i s a r b i t r a r i l y det- ermined c u t - o f f . I t i s t h i s l e v e l that determined the entry i n t o the word recognition column. The word recognition scores were perused up to and at that l e v e l to determine the lowest percentage of word recognition accuracy. This lowest percentage figure i s the number that was used for computing the meand for a l l grade l e v e l s . Powell j u s t i f i e d h i s procedure by s t a t i n g : " I f the youngsters' comprehension percent remained continuously at an accept- able l e v e l , then the f l u c t u a t i o n i n word pronunciation was t o l e r a b l e to the reader." The c r i t i c a l issue i n h i s statement i s what does he mean by t o l e r - ate: Powell d i d not e x p l i c i t l y define the word. However, one can presume that he meant that as long as a c h i l d can maintain acceptable comprehension (70 percent), any v a r i a t i o n i n word recognition e r r o r would not be f r u s t r a - t i n g to him by displaying undue reading d i f f i c u l t i e s or tnesions. Such f r u s - t r a t i o n would be apparent as K i l l g a l l o n suggested, by the presence of two or more signs of d i f f i c u l t y — e x c e s s i v e l a t e r a l head movement, finger pointing, various forms of a t y p i c a l v o c a l i z a t i o n . Powell concluded that the 95 percent model presented by K i l l g a l l o n and 19 Betts i s too high. Powell explained that the reason he used the 70 percent comprehension level rather than the 75 percent "was to mitigate the effects of the comprehension score which could have been influenced by the number of questions asked of the subject. Observation revealed that this precaution was not truly necessary, as only a very small number of the cases would have been so affected." The perplexing thing about his comprehension c r i t e r i a i s why he would have considered a 75 percent criterion in the f i r s t place. There is no clear explanation for the choice but one suspects i t might have been based on the spurious Killgallon c r i t e r i a . This latter point represents a substantial weakness of an otherwise noteworthy research study. Reliability and Validity of the I.R.I. Those who are aware of the construction of I.R.I.'s may find the terms r e l i a b i l i t y and validity unfamiliar concepts and perhaps unnecessary. In using these instruments there is generally l i t t l e attempt to adhere to r i g - orous administrative procedure. McGinnis (1970) feels that the way a child reacts and what he has to say about his performance are more important issues than testing procedures. McGinnis' statement has merit with respect to informal assessment as such, but i t seems clear that i f one adopts such an attitude one must also be prepared to accept results that are substanti- al l y less than valid or reliable. Such an attitude further supports the notion that I.R.I.'s should not be used independently, but should be complem- ented with standardized testing. On the other hand, Botel (1969) assures that the I.R.I, has high r e l i a b i l i t y by the fact that the teacher can provide many on-the-spot appraisals. He suggested that the instrument can have a high face validity in that i t i s based directly upon materials the pupil i s using in the classroom. Roger Farr (1969) concurred with Botel when he maintained that the r e l i a b i l i t y of the I.R.I, w i l l be high because the reader's performance is assessed over a number of different occasions. One 20 should bear i n mind with reference to Botel and Farr's comments on r e l i a - b i l i t y that while the I.R.I, has the p o t e n t i a l f o r assessing r e l i a b i l i t y one should not conclude that i t n e c e s s a r i l y w i l l be high simply beacuse the opportunity e x i s t s f o r measuring i t . A major l i m i t a t i o n of the I.R.I, i s that often the r e s u l t s of an I.R.I, are contingent upon teacher b i a s . Many teachers evaluate a protocol on the basis of a predetermined bias as to what they consider the reading process to be (Emans, 1965, c i t e d i n Powell 1969). To reduce the e f f e c t s of predet- ermined biases and to increase r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , McGinnes (1970) stated that the examiner should: "Adhere to the facts and should r e s t r i c t h i s inferences to the simplest i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " McCracken and Mullen (1969) conducted a v a l i d i t y study to determine i f the data from two informal reading inventories as well as one standardized reading achievement t e s t would be v a l i d i n d i c a t o r s of the independent, i n s - t r u c t i o n a l , and f r u s t r a t i o n a l l e v e l s of reading. The tests were administered to 147 boys and g i r l s i n grades one through s i x at the Western Washington State Campus School and a combined second and t h i r d grade class c o n s i s t i n g of 24 children from an off-campus p u b l i c school. The tes t s used i n the study were the Standard Reading Inventory Form A, the Stanford Achievement Tests, the C a l i f o r n i a Tests of Mental Maturity and the Botel Reading Inventory. The r e s u l t s i n part suggested that the Bote l Inventory and the Standard Read- ing Inventory both o f f e r evidence of v a l i d i t y which i s reported i n t h e i r manuals. A l a t e r study by Botel, Bradley and Kashuba (1970) substantiated t h i s claim wherein concurrent v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Standard Reading Inventory ranged from .80 to .88. Since both purported to measure the basal book l e v e l s at which a c h i l d should be in s t r u c t e d , they should y i e l d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they use the same standards f o r determining i n s t r u c - t i o n a l l e v e l . A c o r r e l a t i o n was determined between the midpoints of the 21 i n s t r u c t i o n a l range of the S.R.I, and the Botel Inventory. The co r r e l a t i o n s are presented i n Table 1 and are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f - icance. TABLE 1 CORRELATION BETWEEN THE MID-POINTS OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL RANGE OF THE STANDARD READING INVENTORY AND THE BOTEL READING INVENTORY FOR 140 CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX Grade N r S i g n i f i c a n c e of Co r r e l a t i o n 1 23 .79 0.01 2 23 .88 0.01 3 22 .85 0.01 4 25 .95 0.01 5 23 .90 0.01 6 24 .95 0.01 To t a l 140 .95 0.01 Oral and S i l e n t Reading The l i t e r a t u r e does not present a u n i f i e d approach on the method of presentation of o r a l and s i l e n t reading passages i n I.R.I.'s. Some exam- iners base t h e i r t e s t r e s u l t s on o r a l sight reading alone; others administer both o r a l and s i l e n t . For example, Spache (1952) used o r a l reading f o r det- ermining the independent l e v e l and s i l e n t reading for the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . Cooper (1952) used s i l e n t reading a f t e r o r a l reading. K i l l g a l l o n (1942) administered s i l e n t reading p r i o r to reading the same material o r a l l y . Powell (1968) d i d not use s i l e n t reading at a l l . Whether Powell's procedure 22 i s tenable i s one of the major concerns of t h i s t hesis and w i l l be d i s - cussed i n Chapter V. Reading Rate Cooper (1952) examined both s i l e n t and o r a l reading rates i n h i s d i s s e r - t a t i o n on I.R.I.'s. He found that as material increased i n d i f f i c u l t y the rate of o r a l and s i l e n t reading decreased. He also observed that rate of s i l e n t reading was greater than o r a l reading. McCracken (1963) noted that some chi l d r e n can meet the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l c r i t e r i a f o r word recognition and comprehension but at a reduced read- ing rate. To o f f s e t t h i s he added a time c r i t e r i o n to h i s inventory. Beldin (1969) mentioned that experienced teachers and examiners know that some child r e n , r e a l i z i n g the evaluation time i s r e l a t i v e l y short, w i l l not show some of the symptoms of tension during t e s t i n g that they w i l l ex- h i b i t over a longer term. The a n t i t h e s i s to Beldin's unusual statement i s a case presented by Preston (1954) which one could argue would probably be more t y p i c a l : Another case comes to mind of a junior high school boy, who, on the basis of a diagnostic examination was judged to be a word-attack case. Yet during the i n s t r u c t i o n i n the C l i n i c i t was discovered he r e a l l y had no word-attack d i f f i c u l t y at a l l when allowed s u f f i c i e n t time and when free of tension (Preston, 1954) . To impose time l i m i t s on informal reading passages i s to ignore one of the major assets of the informal inventory and that i s i t provides the oppor- t u n i t y to observe the c h i l d i n a non-threatening atmosphere which i s free from tension-producing time r e s t r i c t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e s to the Informal Inventory The I.R.I, has many advantages over other diagnostic instruments. For example, i t can be constructed from materials i n a p a r t i c u l a r subject matter f i e l d and can y i e l d immediate p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r the teacher. Further, 23 the main purpose of the I.R.I, i s not to i d e n t i f y i n a comparative way the poor readers but rather to i d e n t i f y the l e v e l and type of material that the p u p i l can manage with adequate understanding. One should not conclude that the I.R.I, i s a complete inventory for determining reading l e v e l s . On the contrary, other a l t e r n a t i v e s such as standardized reading t e s t s are required. However, standardized t e s t s tend to y i e l d higher scores than I.R.I.'s by as much as three grades. E.A. Sipay (1964) administered three standardized achievement t e s t s and I.R.I.'s to 202 subjects from eight fourth grade classes. The r e s u l t s are as follows: 1. When Cooper's c r i t e r i a of 60 percent comprehension and 96 percent word recognition accuracy were used to e s t i - mate the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l , a l l three standardized t e s t s tended to overestimate the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l by approxim- a t e l y one or more grade l e v e l s . 2. When a les s stringent c r i t e r i a of 60 percent com- prehension and 90 percent word recognition accuracy were used, the mean score on the Metropolitan t e s t was 0.11 grade l e v e l s higher while the Gates Survey overestimated the more l i b e r a l c r i t e r i a i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l by 0.29 of a grade l e v e l and the mean of the C a l i f o r n i a t e s t was 1.02 higher than that of the lowered c r i t e r i a l e v e l (Sipay, (1964). I t appears that the higher scores on the standardized t e s t s i m p l i c i t l y suggest that i f a c h i l d was i n s t r u c t e d i n materials as i n d i c a t e d by the > standardized t e s t s he would be reading materials at a f r u s t r a t i o n a l l e v e l . Such an assumption i s purely speculation. While Sipay's study suggests standardized t e s t s do y i e l d higher scores than the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l i n d i c - ated by the I.R.I., i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y v a l i d a t e the I.R.I. McCracken (1962) however, i n a comparison of the I.R.I, with standard- i z e d t e s t scores d i d v a l i d a t e the assumption that using standardized t e s t scores would overestimate the p u p i l s ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . This study was conducted only on the Iowa Every-Pupil Tests of Basic S k i l l s and the r e s u l t s c e r t a i n l y cannot be generalized to a l l standardized t e s t s . Nevertheless, 24 McCracken's study compared the performance of 56 sixth-grade p u p i l s on the Iowa Tests of Basic S k i l l s , Test A: S i l e n t Reading Comprehension to the reading comprehension and vocabulary scores on an informal reading inventory which included both o r a l and s i l e n t reading. The three l e v e l s of perform- ance on the informal reading inventory were the immediate i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v - e l , the maximum i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l , and the word recognition l e v e l . In h i s study he concluded that: ...the use of standardized t e s t scores to determine l e v e l of i n s t r u c t i o n would place 63 percent of the students at a f r u s t r a t i o n reading l e v e l and suggested that the stand- ardized t e s t scores be lowered by two grades. He urged that t h i s score be used to determine i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . (McCracken, c i t e d i n Farr, 1969). Roger Farr stated: I f McCracken's recommendations were followed through with the students i n h i s study, only four percent would have been reading books which would be too d i f f i c u l t and seven percent would have been reading books which would be too easy (Farr, 1969). The I.R.I, too, has i t s c r i t i c s . Della-Piana, Jensen, and Murdock (1970) advocated that the I.R.I, i s too time consuming f o r the average c l a s s - room teacher and that the inventory w i l l be dropped i n favour of more r e l e - vant a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to improving p u p i l reading. In s p i t e of the weaknesses of standardized t e s t s and I.R.I.'s, one should not discount t h e i r value, but rather consider the notion that the purposes f o r which they were both designed d i f f e r . Standardized t e s t s are e s s e n t i a l l y normatively designed to compare pupils to each other i n terms of t h e i r reading s k i l l s , whereas I.R.I.'s tend to be more concerned with estab- l i s h i n g a f u n c t i o n a l reading l e v e l on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Perhaps the l e a s t desirable a l t e r n a t i v e to the I.R.I, comes from teacher estimates. A study conducted by L i t t r e l l (1968) cor r e l a t e d scores on the Diagnostic Reading Survey and teacher's estimates of p u p i l reading a b i l i t y based on subjective judgment. He found that eleventh grade pup i l ' s English, 25 Science and S o c i a l Studies vocabulary ratings c o r r e l a t e d moderately with the pupil' s measured a b i l i t i e s . On the basis of subjective observation the teachers were not able to accurately judge the vocabulary l e v e l s of t h e i r p u p i l s . He concluded that one should determine whether a teacher's evalua- t i o n of a pupil ' s reading a b i l i t y was based on e i t h e r measured, objective data or whether i t was su b j e c t i v e l y derived, since the l a t t e r does not cor- r e l a t e w e l l with measured reading a b i l i t i e s . Wanderlich and Bradtmeuller (1971) conducted a study to determine wheth- er a teacher's estimate of a pupil ' s reading a b i l i t y would be more accurate than an informal inventory which the authors developed and named the Indiv- i d u a l Reading Placement Inventory (I.R.P.I.). A concurrent v a l i d i t y study was made comparing the I.R.P.I, scores with the Rasnof-Neff, Stanford Read- ing Achievement Test, and the C a l i f o r n i a Reading Achievement Test. This produced c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of .89, .78, and .87 re s p e c t i v e l y . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the two forms of the I.R.P.I, was established by administering Forms A and B to 410 students divided i n t o seven groups. The groups, i n c l u d - ing junior high and senior high school students and adults, were administered at d i f f e r e n t times and i n d i f f e r e n t places by d i f f e r e n t administrators. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the two forms for the seven groups ranged from .91 to .98'. Although the authors f e e l t h e i r sample of teachers (30) was too small to make any firm conclusions, they d i d suggest that middle grade school teachers could not accurately make subjective judgments about the reading l e v e l s of t h e i r classes. The teachers tended to overrate the poor readers and underrate the better ones. I t has not been the in t e n t i o n of t h i s section to ex t o l the v i r t u e s of the I.R.I, and give token gesture to the a l t e r n a t i v e s : Quite the contrary, i t would be a naive procedure that would employ any one instrument or tech- nique i n favour of another. A f u l l diagnostic program that provides an ongoing assessment must surely include the I.R.I, along with standardized testing as well as the alternatives outlined, at least until some more valid, all-encompassing instrument i s designed. 27 CHAPTER III METHOD SELECTION OF SUBJECTS In the present study 120 ch i l d r e n were selected from grades one through s i x (20 from each grade). The elementary school i s located i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y composed of p u p i l s from middle class socio-economic background. Unlike Powell (1968) who selected only average achieving students, t h i s study was more i n accord with Botel et a l . (1970) who randomly sampled to insure average, below and above average readers would be represented. Randomness was assured by assigning each p u p i l i n each cl a s s a number, the c h i l d r e n were then selected on the basis of t h e i r assigned number being generated from a table of random numbers. MATERIALS McCracken (1966) i n developing h i s Standard Reading Inventory constructed h i s own passages f o r presentation to the p u p i l s . Such a procedure ignores the biggest contribution the I.R.I, has to make and that i s by using classroom materials as they have considerably more face v a l i d i t y than published invent- o r i e s . With t h i s i n mind the reading material was taken from readers that were used as supplementary readers f o r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . Some advocates of the I.R.I, l i k e Betts (1954) suggested that a f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y invent- ory can be developed from material which the c h i l d has already been exposed to. He j u s t i f i e d t h i s by arguing that: "Since comprehension i s c a r e f u l l y checked by both f a c t u a l and i n f e r e n t i a l questions i n both a s i l e n t and an o r a l reading s i t u a t i o n , memorization i s quickly detected and t h i s reading 'crutch' i s removed." He conceded however that a student who has had a f a i l - ing experience with a p a r t i c u l a r text may be unduly a f f e c t e d i f the same mat- e r i a l i s presented for assessment. Botel et a l . (1970) on the other hand 28 eliminated exercises from their study i f they f e l t the pupil's performance indicated that he had previous knowledge of story content. In order to red- uce the possibility of getting spurious results from the pupils having already been exposed to the materials, this present study selected the passages from supplementary classroom texts. To insure proper stratification of selections, each intermediate text was divided into four equal sections. Selections were not chosen from the f i r s t part of the books since the f i r s t several selections in any basal reader are not generally representative of that reader level but instead serve as a review of the previous level. Two selections were made from each of the remaining three sections—one for oral sight reading and one for silent reading. Each selection taken from the reader contains approximately 100 words, although there are more for the intermediate grades and somewhat less for the primary grades. For grade one there were three texts (pre-primer, primer, level one). One passage for oral and one for silent reading were se l - ected from the middle of the text. In grades two and three there were two levels of texts provided for each grade. Because of the repetitive nature of the materials only one passage for oral and one passage for silent were s e l - ected midway through each text. While this procedure gave an adequate graded sampling for grades two and three, i t also produced only 10 questions for each of grades two and three rather than 15 for each of the intermediate grades. The texts were compared against two reading formulae to insure that the selections represented reading levels that the publishers purported them to represent. The Spache Readability Formula (1953) was used to estimate the material below the fourth reading level and the Dale-Chall formula (1948) was used to estimate material including and above the fourth reader level. Res- earch (Botel et a l . 1970) has indicated that these formulas give f a i r l y acc- urate indications of levels of reading d i f f i c u l t y . The number of questions f i n a l l y selected for each passage were five for 29 both primary and intermediate grades. This number was used namely for si m p l i c - i t y of computation. Also i t was d i f f i c u l t to generate more than f i v e questions from the short passages selected, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the primary grades. As mentioned e a r l i e r the questions were composed of i n f e r e n t i a l and l i t - e r a l comprehension questions. The l i t e r a l comprehension questions required the p u p i l to r e c a l l from the s e l e c t i o n , d e t a i l s , main ideas, sequences, com- parisons, cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and character t r a i t s . The i n f e r e n t i a l questions required the p u p i l to i n f e r main ideas, comparisons, and character t r a i t s . Table 2 o u t l i n e s the number of each type of question included. Table 3 summarizes these findings. Upon examination of Table 3, i t can be seen that i n the primary grades there were almost as many l i t e r a l comprehension questions i n the o r a l comprehension items as i n the s i l e n t comprehension items. Also, i n the primary grades there were almost as many i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension questions i n the o r a l comprehension items as i n the s i l e n t comprehension items. A sim i - l a r pattern emerged from the intermediate grades wherein there were almost as many l i t e r a l comprehension questions i n the o r a l comprehension items as i n the s i l e n t comprehension items. S i m i l a r l y , there were almost as many i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension questions i n the o r a l comprehension items as i n the s i l e n t com- prehension items. One w i l l note the l a r g e r number of questions for the i n t e r - mediate grades than f o r the p r i m a r y — t h i s discrepancy was explained on page 28. Table 4 represents an item analysis f or a l l the comprehension questions. Por c l a r i f i c a t i o n i t should be mentioned that i n Table 2 there were no i n f e r - e n t i a l items f o r the grade 3 book l e v e l ; however, i n Table 4 i t can be seen that there were seven responses to i n f e r e n t i a l items by pupils i n grade three. This apparent anomaly i s due to the f a c t that pup i l s i n grade three answered i n f e r e n t i a l items that were e i t h e r above or below the grade three placement i n which there were i n f e r e n t i a l questions. TABLE 2 COMPOSITION OF ORAL AND SILENT COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS BY TYPE AND GRADE Type of Question Oral Comprehension Grade of Question S i l e n t Comprehension Grade of Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 L i t e r a l Comprehension D e t a i l 9 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 6 5 9 13 7 9 Main Ideas 2 6 6 6 6 4 1 2 4 4 3 1 6 2 Sequence 2 Comparisons 1 • 1 Cause s E f f e c t 1 1 1 2 Character T r a i t s 1 1 1 2 1 TOTAL 13 9 10 14 13 15 13 13 10 10 14 14 15 13 I n f e r e n t i a l Comprehension Main Ideas 1 1 2 1 2 2 Comparisons 1 Character T r a i t s 1 1 1 1 TOTAL 2 1 0 1 2 0 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 2 31 TABLE 3 SUMMARY TABLE OF COMPOSITION OF ORAL AND SILENT COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS BY TYPE AND GRADE Type of Question Oral Comprehension Grade S i l e n t Comprehension Crade L i t e r a l Primary Intermediate Primary Intermediate Comprehension 32 55 33 56 I n f e r e n t i a l Comprehension 3 5 2 4 TABLE 4 ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES* OF PUPILS IN GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX TO ORAL AND SILENT COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS Type Oral Comprehension S i l e n t Comprehension of Grade of Pup i l Grade of Pupil Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 L i t e r a l Comprehension D e t a i l s 60/15 38/9 66/16 58/12 90/24 58/23 63/32 44/33 72/40 55/26 77/38 38/37 Main Ideas 65/15 62/22 58/20 35/13 29/3 8/2 34/30 30/29 24/20 11/9 26/10 11/17 Sequence 1/1 Comparisons 1/0 I/O 8/1 I/O 1/1 7/4 Cause & E f f e c t 1/0 1/0 4/0 8/2 2/0 4/3 11/12 7/18 0/2 Character T r a i t s 1/0 1/0 9/0 1/1 4/2 16/2 1/2 8/2 7/3 TOTAL 135/34 103/31 141/37 96/26 127/29 90/32 99/62 78/65 107/72 74/54 112/53 63/61 I n f e r e n t i a l Comprehens ion Main Ideas 6/2 9/1 o/i 5/1 13/0 13/0 1/3 2/0 9/7 Comparisons o/i 1/1 Character T r a i t s 0/1 2/4 8/4 1/0 4/1 1/1 1/5 2/9 I/O TOTAL 6/2 9/2 2/5 13/5 14/0 17/1 1/3 1/1 1/5 2/10 4/1 9/7 Upper fig u r e = number of correct responses Lower fig u r e - number of incor r e c t responses 33 An examination of Table 4 revealed that generally the i n f e r e n t i a l compre- hension questions were observationally no more d i f f i c u l t than the l i t e r a l com- prehension questions. The exception to t h i s observation was with i n f e r e n t i a l comprehension questions presented i n s i l e n t comprehension for grades one through four where i t appeared they may be more d i f f i c u l t than the l i t e r a l comprehension items. However, one w i l l note that the t o t a l number of items i n t h i s category was only three out of a t o t a l of ninety-two and represented only twenty-four responses out of a t o t a l of nine hundred and f o r t y - f i v e . This small represen- t a t i o n of items would not lead one to suspect that the s i x t y percent compre- hension c r i t e r i a i s spuriously low due to more d i f f i c u l t i n f e r e n t i a l items. The questions were c a r e f u l l y constructed as Austin and Huebner (1962) suggested, so that exact wording of the material would not be necessary. Un- aided r e c a l l type questions were used, based upon reading material rather than experiences the c h i l d may have had. Following Bett's (1954) recommendation the questions avoided catch questions, and the combined use of i n t e r r o g a t i v e or im- perative type questions. A d d i t i o n a l l y , questions that could be answered yes or no were avoided. The scoring of the correctness of response d i d occasion- a l l y require a c e r t a i n amount of subjectiveness on the part of the examiner; however, no part c r e d i t was given. The response was scored e i t h e r r i g h t or wrong. A l l the questions were administered o r a l l y immediately a f t e r the p u p i l read the s e l e c t i o n . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the comprehension questions on each of the graded book l e v e l s i s o u t l i n e d i n Table V. Where there were less than ten pupils responding to any one book l e v e l the r e l i a b i l i t y was not computed which accounts for no r e l i a b i l i t y reported i n the grade one book l e v e l s . A two way analysis of variance was conducted post facto on the comprehension items by the U.B.C. 360 computer program BMD:08V. From t h i s analysis Kerlinger's (1964) formula was applied to compute the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .958 to .998. TABLE 5 RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR GRADED BOOK LEVELS GRADES 2 - 7 Grade Level of Book Within Grade Oral Comprehension R e l i a b i l i t y S i l e n t Comprehension R e l i a b i l i t y 2 1 .998 .997 2 2 .985 .975 3 1 .973 .989 3 2 .961 .994 4 1 .993 .986 4 2 .976 .981 4 3 .998 .958 5 3 .991 .988 6 1 .995 .992 7 1 .998 .985 35 TESTING PROCEDURES Since the pupils were unfamiliar with the examiner, he took as much time as was necessary to establish effective rapport. The administration of the inventory i t s e l f deviated somewhat from standardized testing procedures in that the length of time a pupil took to complete a reading passage was not uniform. After the pupil had completed reading the selection either orally or silently, the selection was taken from him and he was not allowed to look at i t again. The selection that each child read was mimeographed and the questions were written below. The child read from the textbook while the examiner made the necessary recordings on the mimeographed sheet. Each mimeographed sheet had a space for the pupil's name and grade, word recognition errors and com- prehension scores. In addition the following information was on the test sheet: (1) Name of.Book, grade l e v e l — a s calculated by the examiner, (2) whether the selection was for oral or silent reading and the page number on which the selection may be found, and (3) the number of words in the selection. One w i l l note that this format for the reading selections was a modific- ation of the one used by Cooper in his dissertation. The oral reading selection was presented to the pupil f i r s t . In regular classroom routine the practice of preceding silent reading with oral i s per- haps not too prudent; however, for the purpose of this study i t was necessary to f i r s t establish a valid instructional level which could not have been done i f silent reading had been presented f i r s t . Before testing began a few preliminary remarks were made. The examiner indicated to the pupil the selection to be read and whether he should read the selection orally or silently. He was also advised that while he was not 36 being timed, he should read the s e l e c t i o n as quickly and accurately as he could. He was also i n s t r u c t e d that he would be asked questions about what he had read when he was f i n i s h e d . The p u p i l s were given a passage that was equal i n d i f f i c u l t y to t h e i r present grade placement. For example, pupils i n grade one were given a s e l - ection from the l a s t section of book one. A f t e r the s e l e c t i o n was read, questions were asked. I f the p u p i l ' s comprehension was at l e a s t 60 percent, then a more d i f f i c u l t s e l e c t i o n was given. A c e i l i n g was reached once the p u p i l dropped below 60 percent comprehension. At t h i s point reading was stopped. The t r a d i t i o n a l K i l l g a l l o n 75 percent comprehension was not used f o r previously stated reasons. Spache's (1963) 60 percent c r i t e r i o n which evolv- ed from hi s Diagnostic Reading Scales was used because h i s norms for o r a l reading errors were developed and standardized separately f o r each reading s e l - ection by widespread p u p i l testing.and comparison with other i n d i v i d u a l and group reading t e s t s . A comprehension norm of 60 percent represents the actual minimum comprehension found i n t h i s standardization. The v a l i d i t y of the Diagnostic Reading Scales was established through c a r e f u l t e s t construction and numerous studies conducted during eight years of development and research. Studies by Cooper (1952), and Dunkeld (1970) also established o r a l reading comprehension at 60 percent. Since these notable studies were based on empiri- c a l evidence rather than conjecture, the 60 percent c r i t e r i o n was f i n a l l y s e l - ected f o r t h i s study as w e l l . While the c h i l d was reading o r a l l y from the text, the examiner recorded the word recognition errors on the mimeographed sheet. To enhance the accuracy of recording a notation system was adopted as suggested by Spache (1964). A f t e r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l was determined through o r a l sight reading, the p u p i l was asked to read a s e l e c t i o n s i l e n t l y . The s i l e n t reading passage i s equal i n reading d i f f i c u l t y to the o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l which i s the highest grade l e v e l at which he could understand at l e a s t 60 percent of the m a t e r i a l . A f t e r he had f i n i s h e d reading s i l e n t l y he was asked questions and h i s comprehension was recorded. Proper nouns i n c o r r e c t l y pronounced were not recorded as e r r o r s . Also i f a p u p i l corrected himself on any type of e r r o r i t was not recorded unless a r e p e t i t i o n was involved. For the example the p u p i l may read "a big black dog" f o r "a black dog". I f he v o c a l i z e d an error and repeated i t c o r r e c t l y , an i n s e r t i o n error was not counted, but a r e p e t i t i o n e r r o r was. In recording errors no attempt was made to record h e s i t a t i o n s , phrasing, word s t r e s s , or punctuation errors because a study by Ladd, (1963) c i t e d i n . Spache, (1964) suggested that the above-mentioned errors could not be accur- ately recorded by teachers even a f t e r t h i r t y hours of t r a i n i n g . A f t e r the p u p i l had f i n i s h e d both the o r a l and s i l e n t reading and had l e f t the room, the number of word recognition errors were calcu l a t e d . The recognition errors were divided by the t o t a l number of words i n the s e l e c t i o n and m u l t i p l i e d by 100 to a r r i v e at a percentage of word recognition e r r o r s . This percentage was subtracted from 100 to get a percentage i n terms of word recognition accuracy. 38 CHAPTER IV RESULTS DETERMINATION OF WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY (W.R.A.) AND ORAL COMPREHENSION (O.C.) FOR THE INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL For Each Grade (1 - 6 ) When a c e i l i n g of s i x t y percent f o r comprehension was reached and the p u p i l had l e f t the examination room, each protocol was scored for word recog- n i t i o n e r r o r s . The errors recorded were: Words aided, Omissions, Substitu- tions , Insertions, Repetitions, I n i t i a l Consonant E r r o r s , L e t t e r r e v e r s a l s , P a r t i a l r e v e r s a l s , and Complete re v e r s a l s . The percent of errors for the e n t i r e passage were recorded; however, one should note that i t was the per- cent of word recognition accuracy that was used f o r further computations. Word recognition accuracy and o r a l reading comprehension and s i l e n t compre- hension w i l l be ref e r r e d to as W.R.A., O.C., and S.C. r e s p e c t i v e l y . In e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r W.R.A. and O.C, each of the twenty protoc- o l s for the s i x grades was examined ( N - 120) to determine the highest grade l e v e l which indi c a t e d a comprehension score of at l e a s t s i x t y percent. The word recognition scores up to and including that point were perused and the reading s e l e c t i o n that had the lowest percent of word recognition accuracy was recorded f o r each p u p i l so long as i t was within the l i m i t s of the compre- hension score. The lowest word recognition score for each of the twenty p u p i l s was averaged which y i e l d e d the minimum l i m i t s of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l f or each grade. This procedure was the same one that Powell (1968) adopted i n h i s study. Scores beyond the c e i l i n g of s i x t y percent were not considered f o r further computation. However, the scores beyond the 60 percent c e i l i n g were considered, as summarized i n Table VI and i l l u s t r a t e d by the p l o t s i n Figures 1 and 2, to determine whether they gradually increase or decrease on e i t h e r 39 side of 60 percent. The data indicate that there was no change of direction on either side of the criterion of 60 percent. TABLE 6 PERCENT OF WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY SCORES ABOVE AND BELOW 60 PERCENT COMPREHENSION FOR GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX Comprehension Percentage Grade Percentages 1 ) 5 4 c 6 20 73 78 91 70 92 70 96 .10 • 95 80 95 .90 40 84 25 93 80 95 30 94 .81 97 40 95 .60 60 83 71 91 70 92 60 95 .92 96 50 97 .60 80 89. 97 95 64 96 27 97 .88 98 10 98 .80 100 89. 40 94 95 95 00 94 .83 97 36 97 .90 The word recognition scores within the constant 60 percent oral compre- hension c r i t e r i a are summarized in Table 7 and plotted in Figure 3. 40 TABLE 7 LOWEST WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY PERCENTAGE MEANS AND VARIANCES FOR EACH GRADE ONE THROUGH SIX Grade Percent of Word Recognition Accuracy Standard Deviation Oral Comprehension Percentage 1 84.65 8.50 60 2 92.85 5.64 60 3 92.29 6.52 60 4 95.86 5.18 60 5 97.62 1.63 60 6 97.60 2.52 60 The above data i s g r a p h i c a l l y presented i n Figure 3 wherein the upward trend of the older p u p i l s committing fewer word recognition errors i s s i m i - l a r to Powell's (1968) study. PERCENT O F W O R D R E C O G N I T I O N A C C U R A C Y O m O o 5 JO O c 0) O O JO m ° I o z fl? z -< I o * H O m H m O Z o > z o a m r o t o •o m TO o Z 7> m P o z o z > o c 5 O o •o ;o m % m z <j» a z 42 o I I J I I L_ ax> HO &o %o 16 o C O M P R E H E N S I O N F I G U R E 2 W O R D R E C O G N I T I O N A C C U R A C Y A B O V E A N D 6 E L 0 > N b O P E R C E N T C O M P R E H E N S I O N C R I T E R I O N P O R G R A O E S F O U R T O PERCEMT O F W O R D R E C O G N I T I O N A C C U R A C Y m O a z 0 s r> o •o m •x. m 5 m o m Z H O *> r o c 30 m Of n o c m » w» tP > - » O o z m o o m -n O O £ o o m ? Z z •— #n ^ O z 7i y a m 44 Table 8 presents the data i n grade groupings of Primary (1-3), Intermed- i a t e (4-6) and a combined (1-6) grouping. Here, grades one, two and three were averaged; four, f i v e and s i x were averaged; and a l l grades were averaged so that a d i f f e r e n t i a l c r i t e r i a f o r primary and intermediate grades could be established. The data i n Table 8 supports the f i r s t hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s , that a p u p i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l for primary and intermediate grades w i l l d i f f e r and that a l l grades combined w i l l produce a standard lower than the t r a d i t i o n a l 95% and 75% c r i t e r i o n . TABLE 8 LOWEST WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY PERCENTAGE MEANS AND VARIANCES FOR PRIMARY, INTERMEDIATE, AND COMBINED GRADES Grades Percent of Word Recognition Accuracy Standard Deviation Oral Comprehension Percentage Primary (1 - 3) 89.93 6.89 60 Intermediate (4 - 6) 97.03 3.11 60 Combined (1 - 6) 93.48 4.99 60 Again, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 4, the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the grade groupings support Powell's (1968) data. The one exception i s that the i n t e r - mediate grouping produced an average higher by 2.03 percent than the o r i g i n a l K i l l g a l l o n (1942) standard of 95 percent. The findings of t h i s present study are more consistent with Cooper's (1952) study where he determined the i n t e r - mediate word recognition average to be 96 percent. 45 FIGURE H LOWEST WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY SCORE. MEANS FOR PRIMARY, INTERMEDIATE, AND ALL GRAOES COMfcVNEO FOR 60 PERCENT ORAL READING COMPREHENSION 46 One of the hypotheses of t h i s thesis i s that a d i f f e r e n t i a l Word Recog- n i t i o n Accuracy c r i t e r i a should be applied to primary and intermediate grades. To determine s t a t i s t i c a l l y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the upward trend of Word Recog- n i t i o n Accuracy as a function of grade, a l i n e a r and quadratic trend analysis was computed by means of the U.B.C. *TRIP program using INMSDC and STREG sub- routines . The input data f o r t h i s program was cal c u l a t e d recording the number of pupils that responded to each graded book l e v e l s e l e c t i o n s . The associated Word Recognition Accuracy Scores f o r each of these p u p i l s was calc u l a t e d and averaged f o r each grade l e v e l . The W.R.A. percentage means f o r a l l reading selections represented by reading materials, grades one through seven, are presented i n Table 9. TABLE 9 WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY PERCENTAGE MEANS FOR READING MATERIALS GRADED ONE THROUGH SEVEN Item Grade Level of Reading Selection 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean Percentages 85.30 89.43 93.41 95.46 92.31 98.10 98.30 1 The t o t a l Word Recognition Accuracy mean for the grades one through seven o u t l i n e d i n Table 9 i s 93.19 with a standard deviation of 4.70. The c o r r e l a t i o n between grade and word recognition accuracy was found to be .91. This c o r r e l a t i o n y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p at the .02 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e and a quadratic r e l a t i o n s h i p at the .02 l e v e l 47 of s i g n i f i c a n c e which can be seen i n Table 10. These r e s u l t s suggest that an increase i n word recognition accuracy i s a function of grade l e v e l . TABLE 10 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY AND GRADE LEVEL Item Linear ; . Quadratic RSQ 0.82220 0.8616 F. P r o b a b i l i t y 0.0055 0.0211 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY, ORAL COMPREHENSION AND SILENT COMPREHENSION \ The i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l c r i t e r i a established i n t h i s thesis have been based on the lowest percentage figure of word recognition accuracy f o r each p u p i l within the s i x t y percent l i m i t s set for o r a l comprehension. I t was t h i s lowest percentage figure that was used f o r computing the means f o r a l l grades. While there was j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s procedure i n developing the c r i t e r i a (see page 48); to use the lowest percentage figure f o r comparing the r e l a t i o n - ship between Word Recognition Accuracy, Oral and S i l e n t Comprehension would have been misleading. Therefore, a l l W.R.A. and O.C. percentages up to the 60 percent o r a l comprehension l i m i t were considered and an average was cal c u l a t e d f o r each p u p i l and subsequently f o r each grade. The corresponding s i l e n t com- prehension percentages were ca l c u l a t e d i n the same way. This measure of cen- t r a l tendency w i l l present a sounder s t a t i s t i c a l basis for determining r e l a t i o n - ships between W.R.A., O.C. and S.C. and for comparisons across grades. The mean percentages f o r a l l the W.R.A., O.C. and S.C. scores for each of grades one through s i x are l i s t e d i n Table 11 and presented g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figure 5. 48 TABLE 11 MEAN PERCENTAGES FOR ALL WORD RECOGNITION ORAL AND SILENT COMPREHENSION SCORES FOR GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX Percent of Standard O.C. Standard S.C. Standard Grade W.R.A. Deviation Percentage Deviation Percentage Deviation 1 85.03 8.37 77.95 14.53 46.53 23.72 2 93.35 5.65 77.41 16.23 50.73 28.77 3 93.21 6.66 74.07 13.49 61.58 20.38 4 95.97 5.25 76.79 15.36 43.05 26.49 5 97.89 1.61 81.92 8.36 62.17 28.52 6 97.68 2.29 76.0 17.22 49.0 29.68 CORRELATIONS AND MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS (R ) BETWEEN W.R.A., O.C., AND S.C. The mean percentages f o r W.R.A., O.C. and S.C., summarized i n Table 11, were the input data used to compute c o r r e l a t i o n s and multiple regressions. The r e s u l t s of t h i s data l e d to acceptance of the second hypothesis and that i s that there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between word recognition accuracy, o r a l reading and s i l e n t reading when a l l grades were combined. W.R.A. and O.C. were designated as the two pre d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s X^ and %2i s i l e n t comprehension was designated as the predicted v a r i a b l e Y. The basic data i n Tables 13 through to 16 was generated by the U.B.C. 360 computer program *TRIP employing INMSDC and STREG sub-routines. The f i r s t observation came from Table 13 where one can notice the r e l a t i v e l y l a rger negative c o r r e l - ation between W.R.A. and O.C. f o r grade four. This c o r r e l a t i o n can be seen to approach zero when combined with a l l grades which i s presented i n Table 15. 49 To determine whether W.R.A. ( X.̂  ) and O.C. ( X^ ) were significant pre- dictors of silent comprehension, ( Y ) , a multiple regression analysis was computed. The results of this analysis are summarized in Tables 14 and 15. It can be seen that when grade level was included in one equation with W.R.A. and O.C., that grade four X^ and X 2 are significant predictors of Y. In Table 15, x̂  and X^ are significant predictors for Y in the intermediate grades. However, when one considers combined grades (1 - 6), the variables X^, X 2 and Y are not significantly related in a linear way (Glass and Stanley, 1970). Since in combined grades one through six word recognition accuracy and oral comprehension are not significant predictors of silent comprehension, one could generally conclude that silent reading i s an independent function. If the non significant relationship demonstrated above does not allow one to predict silent reading comprehension knowing word recognition and oral compre- hension then one can assume that silent reading comprehension should be ad- ministered along with oral reading in order to determine a pupil's instruc- tional level by means of an informal reading inventory. ORAL READING COMPREHENSION AND SILENT READING COMPREHENSION From the results in Table 12 one can reject the third hypothesis of this thesis that there w i l l be no significant difference between oral reading com- prehension and silent reading comprehension at a l l grade levels. The results of the differences between the means for oral reading com- prehension and silent reading comprehension were subjected to a ' t' test an- alysis to determine their s t a t i s t i c a l significance. Since absolute magnitude of the differences was considered a two tailed test revealed a significant difference between oral and silent comprehension for each grade. The results of this analysis are indicated in Table 12. 50 TABLE 12 RESULTS OF t TESTS BETWEEN ORAL AND SILENT COMPREHENSION FOR GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX Test Grades 1 2 3 4 5 6 t **5.05 **3.63 *2.29 **4.93 **2.97 **3.52 .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e 1-00. . o o VP W O R D R E C O G N I T I O N 85. O <P 75. o z < no O 65 O 35, Uu o Z Ul O 50. ORA-L C O N V P Renews IOM SI CENT COIWlPltCMEMStOK 3 GRADE F IGURE 5 (WEAK P E R C E N T A G E S FOR ALL WORD RECOGNIT ION, O R A L AND SILENT C O M P R E H E N S I O N SCORES FOR G R A D E S ONE THROUGH S\X 52 TABLE 13 CORRELATION MATRIX BETWEEN WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY, ORAL AND SILENT COMPREHENSION FOR GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX Grade Variable W.R.A. O.C. S.C. 1 W.R.A. O.C. S.C. 1.0000 0.1025 0.2229 1.0000 0.2190 1.0000 2 W.R.A. O.C. S.C. 1.0000 0.3062 -0.0493 1.0000 0.1863 1.0000 3 W.R.A. O.C. S.C. 1.0000 0.3170 -0.4954 1.0000 -0.1130 1.0000 4 W.R.A. O.C. S.C. 1.0000 .-0.2405 -0.5497 1.0000 0.2907 1.0000 5 W.R.A. O.C. S.C. 1.0000 -0.0659 0.0402 1.0000 0.2725 1.0000 6 W.R.A. O.C. S.C. 1.0000 -0.0758 0.1357 1.0000 0.3669 1.0000 TABLE 14 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS BETWEEN WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY ( X1 ) ORAL COMPREHENSION ( X 2 ) AND SILENT COMPREHENSION ( Y ) FOR GRADES ONE THROUGH SIX Grade RSQ F. P r o b a b i l i t y S.E.(Y) 1 .0885 .4798 24.0183 2 .0472 .6677 29.6865 3 .2475 .0878 18.6920 4 .3288 .0405 23.0152 5 .0776 .5071 28.9672 6 .1615 .2227 28.7320 TABLE 15 CORRELATION MATRIX BETWEEN WORD RECOGNITION ACCURACY, ORAL AND SILENT COMPREHENSION FOR PRIMARY AND INTERMEDIATE AND COMBINED GRADES Grade Variable W.R.A. O.C. S.C. Primary (1 - 3) W.R.A. O.C. 1.00 .16 1.00 S.C. .03 .08 1.00 Intermediate (4 - 6) W.R.A. O.C. 1.00 - .13 1.00 S.C. - .15 .34 1.00 Combined (1 - 6) W.R.A. O.C. 1.00 .09 1.00 S.C. - .04 .22 1.00 T A B L E 1 6 M U L T I P L E R E G R E S S I O N A N A L Y S I S B E T W E E N WORD R E C O G N I T I O N A C C U R A C Y ( X-L ) O R A L C O M P R E H E N S I O N ( X 2 ) A N D S I L E N T C O M P R E H E N S I O N ( Y ) F O R P R I M A R Y A N D I N T E R M E D I A T E A N D C O M B I N E D G R A D E S ( 1 - 6 ) Grade R S Q F Probability S . E . ( Y ) Primary ( 1 - 3 ) . 0 0 7 5 . 8 1 0 5 2 5 . 9 9 1 Intermediate ( 4 - 6 ) . 1 2 5 8 . 0 2 2 8 2 7 . 5 4 0 5 Combined ( 1 - 6 ) . 0 4 9 6 . 0 5 2 4 2 6 . 4 6 8 0 55 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The findings of t h i s study ind i c a t e that a p u p i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l f or primary and intermediate grades w i l l d i f f e r (89% word recognition accur- acy and 60% o r a l reading comprehension f o r the primary grades; 97% word rec- ognition accuracy and 60% o r a l reading comprehension for the intermediate grades). The o v e r a l l c r i t e r i o n of 93% for word recognition for combined grades one through s i x found i n t h i s t h e s i s i s less than most authors have presented. One, however, should be doubly cautious i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the 60% o r a l reading comprehension used i n t h i s t h e s i s since only a few authors would agree to i t s v a l i d i t y . The c r i t e r i a advanced by B e t t s - K i l l g a l l o n (1942) and Johnson Kress, (1965) of 95% word recognition accuracy and 75% o r a l reading comprehension seems to be representative of most authors. The general trend of word recognition accuracy being higher f o r intermediate grades than for primary grades supported Powell's study. In Powell's research (1968) he found that the primary pupil s experienced more word recognition errors than the intermediate pupil s while maintaining acceptable comprehension. Cooper's study (1952) showed an opposite trend to t h i s t h e s i s . He found 98% word rec- ognition accuracy and 70% o r a l reading comprehension for primary and 96% word recognition accuracy and 60% o r a l reading comprehension f o r intermediate. The new c r i t e r i o n (see Table 8) developed i n t h i s t h e s i s would provide a d d i t i o n a l evidence for Dunkeld's (1970) c r i t i c i s m of the t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r - i on. In h i s study he stated: Furthermore, the findings of t h i s study suggest that the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l c r i t e r i a most widely encountered i n p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , when applied to children's o r a l reading at s i g h t , underestimate children's a b i l i t i e s , and f a i l to recognise the stages of development. (Dunkeld, 1970). Generally one could conclude that i n assessing a p u p i l ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l i n the primary grades, the p u p i l w i l l experience more word recognition 56 error than t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a would allow and not experience s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s of comprehension. As he matures he may i n f a c t make fewer e r r o r s , but one should not nec e s s a r i l y expect an increase i n comprehension. The second hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s stated that there would be no s i g - n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between word recognition accuracy, o r a l reading compre- hension and s i l e n t reading comprehension for a l l grades combined. Figure 5 shows the gradual upward trend of word recognition accuracy. An i n t e r e s t i n g observation here i s that the o r a l reading comprehension associated with the word recognition accuracy d i d not show a corresponding upward trend, but rather stayed e s s e n t i a l l y the same across a l l grades. In f a c t , o r a l compre- hension took a corresponding drop i n grades 4, 5, and 6 which r e s u l t e d i n a negative c o r r e l a t i o n f o r these grades. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to explain why there i s such a large negative c o r r e l a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the grade four l e v e l . The reading passage selected f o r t h i s grade l e v e l was graded f o r l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y and was within the grade four l e v e l . In addition, the r e l i a b i l i t y f o r o r a l comprehension f o r t h i s grade was .985. One can only conjecture that by the time a p u p i l has reached grade four he has developed good word recog- n i t i o n s k i l l s and has become soph i s t i c a t e d at word c a l l i n g . The word c a l l i n g , however, may i n t e r f e r e with the flow of ideas contained i n the reading s e l e c - t i o n thereby a f f e c t i n g comprehension. A recent study by Becker ( c i t e d i n Pennock, 1973) with fourth grade p u p i l s tends to support the above speculative statement. Becker found that those students with the lowest comprehension scores made the fewest o r a l reading e r r o r s , while the best comprehenders made the most errors i n word c a l l i n g . The fi n d i n g of a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at a l l grade l e v e l s between o r a l reading comprehension and s i l e n t reading comprehension l e d to a r e j e c t i o n of the t h i r d hypothesis. While such a finding i s not i n agreement with Betts' (1942) c r i t e r i o n , i t does conform to Cooper's (1952) data. Like Cooper, one 57 could argue that t h i s f i n d i n g does not n e c e s s a r i l y refute Betts' data but rather could be a r e f l e c t i o n of the over emphasis placed on o r a l reading i n t h i s school. Just as s i g n i f i c a n t i s the notion that as a p u p i l progres- ses through the primary grades to the intermediate grades one would expect a decreasing emphasis on o r a l reading comprehension with a subsequent gradual increase i n s i l e n t comprehension. This was not found (see Figure 5). The f i r s t three grades assume the expected i n c l i n a t i o n , thereafter the data r e - f l e c t s the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n s u f f i c i e n t concentration on s i l e n t reading. This p o s s i b i l i t y becomes more p l a u s i b l e i n view of Spache's statement: None of the aims of o r a l reading function i n s i l e n t reading. In f a c t , i f we t r y to have some of them tr a n s f e r , such as the need for c a r e f u l reading of each word, we would block s i l e n t reading develop- ment.... Perhaps each type of t r a i n i n g has i t s place i n the t o t a l reading program, but i t i s obvious that o r a l reading, i f j u s t i f i e d i n the e a r l y stages, must be g r e a t l y de-emphasized at l a t e r l e v e l s i f eventual development of s i l e n t a b i l i t i e s i s to be promoted. (Spache, 1969) . The data provided i n t h i s study as well as Spache's argument provides a reasonable basis for introducing such a program as U.S.S.R. (Uninterrupted Sustained, S i l e n t Reading) in t o the elementary reading program as o u t l i n e d by Hunt (1969). Since the variance of the l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y of the comprehension ques- tions was tested and the r e l i a b i l i t i e s found to be high the o v e r a l l low com- prehension i n c l i n e s one to accept the idea that there probably i s a lack of emphasis on s i l e n t reading. A study by Gilmore, ( c i t e d by Spache, 1954) found that c o r r e l a t i o n s be- tween o r a l reading errors and s i l e n t reading comprehension drops from (0.918) i n the second grade to only moderate l e v e l s (0.631 to 0.693) i n the t h i r d to s i x t h grades and s t i l l lower l e v e l s (0.572 and 0.561) i n the seventh and eighth grades. F i e l d s , ( c i t e d i n Spache, 1954) found a high negative r e l a t i o n - ship between o r a l and s i l e n t comprehension. Reference to page 52 w i l l show 58 that neither of these findings were substantiated and that i n f a c t the cor- r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e that o r a l and s i l e n t reading for both primary and i n t e r - mediate grades are independent processes. From t h i s data one could maintain a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n as Spache when he asserted: . . . i n t h e i r attempts to judge probable s i l e n t reading a b i l i t y from o r a l informal or formal t e s t s , teachers and even some reading c l i n i c i a n s demonstrate t h e i r confusion over the two processes. When o r a l reading i s accompanied by many errors or weak comprehension, i t i s assumed that the s i l e n t reading of the p u p i l i s s i m i l a r l y poor. I t s many reading c l i n i c personnel can t e s t i f y , a large number of pu p i l s are re f e r r e d to reading centers because of t h i s assumption of p a r a l - l e l i s m between the two reading behaviours. However, as we have t r i e d to point out, o r a l and s i l e n t read- ing are not very s i m i l a r performances i n rate, com- prehension, use of word attack or word recognition techniques, or thinking processes. (Spache, 1969). I t i s evident then that s i l e n t reading comprehension should be measured i n an informal reading inventory assessment. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH I t was not the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of t h i s study to focus on s i l e n t reading, but since i t was concluded that i t should be included i n the assessment of a p u p i l ' s probable i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l , i t would seem most worthwhile for further research to consider developing c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s process. A d d i t i o n - a l l y , future studies might i n i t i a t e research that would include the revised i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l c r i t e r i a f o r o r a l word recognition and comprehension i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program and evaluate the achievement made by these p u p i l s against the gains made by pupils i n s t r u c t e d i n e i t h e r e a s i e r or harder materi- a l s . Such studies might provide some a d d i t i o n a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n as to whether the 60% o r a l reading comprehension i s a f r u s t r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a as suggested by Betts (1936) or an i n s t r u c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a suggested by Cooper (1952) , Spache (1963), and Dunkeld (1970) and used i n the present study. 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A Comparison of Standardized Reading Test Scores and Informal Reading Inventory Scores. (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Southern I l l i n o i s University) Ann Arbor, Mich.: U n i v e r s i t y Microfilms, 1963. No. 64-4485. WUNDERLICK, E., BRADMUELLER, M. Teacher Estimates of Reading Levels Compared with I.R.P.I. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Level Scores. Journal of Reading. 1971, 303 - 308. APPENDIX A Informal Reading Inventory Graded Passages One through Six. The mimeographed reading selections included in this appendix were for the use of the examiner. The subjects read the passages from the textbook while the examiner recorded word recognition errors on the protocols. In addition, they were used for asking the subjects oral and silent comprehension questions and recording their responses. Name Grade Name of book "Here and Near" Grade Level Pre Primer; *(1, Oral Reading: "Daddy i s Here" pages 31 - 34 Number of Words i n s e l e c t i o n - 52 Daddy i s Here Linda! Ricky! Look mother, look. Come f a s t . See the boat for Linda. Daddy i s here. See the boat for B i l l . Daddy i s here with something. Look at the boat for me. Come and see. Here i s something for you Linda. Here i s something f o r you B i l l . Ricky, here i s something for you. Questions: 1. Who brought home the presents? 2. How many ch i l d r e n were there i n the story? 3. What were the childrens' names? 4. What kind of presents d i d each c h i l d receive? 5. Who showed h i s present to mother? S i l e n t Reading: "My Boat" pages 3 5 - 3 8 Number of Words i n s e l e c t i o n - 50 My Boat Look at Midnight. Look at my red boat. Help Midnight. Help my red boat! Look at my yellow boat See the yellow boat go. The yellow boat can go f a s t . Look at my blue boat. See my blue boat go. Go, blue boat, go. My blue boat can go f a s t . Questions: 1. How many boats were i n the story? 2. What colours are the boats? 3. What speed d i d the boats go? 4. Who needed help? 5. What needed help? Name Grade Name of Book "Our school" Grade level: Primer: *(1.5) Oral Reading: "Mr. Big" pages 50 - 52 Number of Words in selection - 104 Mr. Big "This i s Mr. Big," Said Mr. L i t t l e . "He i s my pet. He wants to be in the pet show." "Mr. Big! said the children. "This i s funny! Mr. Big and Mr. L i t t l e ! " "Big! L i t t l e ! Big! L i t t l e ! " Here I am! Here I am!" Said Mr. Big. "Where i s the show? Where is the show? Where i s the show?" Who was Mr. Litt l e ? Who was Mr. Big? What did the children think of Mr. Big? What did Mr. Big want to do? What did Mr. Big want to know? Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Silent Reading: "The Box Train" pages 63 - 64 Number of Words in selection - 71 The Box Train Will said, "Look there, B i l l . Do you see what I see?" "Yes I do!" said B i l l . "I see a l i t t l e box. I see a big box. I see a big, big box, too. Now we can make something!" "What can we make?" said Will. "A train!" said B i l l . "We can make a box train And a l l the children can ride in i t . " Who were the boys in this story? What did the boys see? What did the boys make? Which boy wanted to make the train? Why did they want to make the train? Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 67 Name Grade Name of book "Our Town" Grade Level: One *(1.9) Oral Reading: "Mr. D o l i t t l e ' s Bees" pages 88 - 89 Number of Words i n s e l e c t i o n - 85 Mr. D o l i t t l e ' s Bees "Hello, Mr. D o l i t t l e , " s a i d B i l l and W i l l . They saw bees and flowers "What a funny hat you have on!" everywhere they looked. "This i s my bee hat," Soon they saw a big white box Said Mr. D o l i t t l e . Bees were going i n and out "Come i n t o the yard, boys. of the white box. I w i l l show you my bees "The white box i s a bee house, and t e l l you about them." s a i d Mr. D o l i t t l e . The boys went in t o the yard. "That i s where my bees l i v e , " Questions: 1. What kind of a hat d i d Mr. D o l i t t l e have on? 2. What d i d W i l l and B i l l think about the hat? 3. Where d i d Mr. D o l i t t l e take the boys? 4. What d i d the boys f i r s t see i n the yard? 5. Why d i d Mr. D o l i t t l e take the boys in t o the yard? S i l e n t Reading: "A Day at Home" pages 94 - 95 Number of Words i n s e l e c t i o n - 82 A Day at Home One day W i l l could not go to school He had a cold. So he had to stay at home i n the t r a i l e r "I know what I w i l l do to-day," he s a i d . "I w i l l make up a story to read to my friends at school." Then W i l l began to think. He thought and he thought. But he could not think of a story. "Look out of the window," sai d h i s mother. "Maybe you w i l l see something to t e l l about i n a story." Questions: 1. Why d i d W i l l stay home from school? 2. What kind of house d i d W i l l l i v e in? 3. What d i d W i l l do when he was at home? 4. Why d i d he want to make up a story? 5. Do you think the story was easy f o r W i l l to make up? 68 Name Grade Name of Book "Fi e l d s and Fences" Oral Reading: "More Winter Fun" Number of Words i n Selec t i o n No. 1 Grade Level: page 122 - 67 Two *(2.2) Book 1 More Winter Fun B i l l and Jack were going down the big s l i d e on t h e i r sleds. B i l l stopped h i s s l e d so f a s t he f e l l o f f . He heard the clang, clang, clang of the f i r e truck. "Look Jack! There must be a f i r e , " B i l l c a l l e d . "There goes the f i r e truck up the s t r e e t , " s a i d Jack. The b i g red truck went up the st r e e t . "Clang} Clang! Clang! "Let's go see the f i r e , " s a i d B i l l . Questions: 1. Who were the boys i n the story? 2. What were the boys doing? 3. What d i d B i l l do when he s l i d down the h i l l ? 4. What d i d B i l l see? 5. What d i d B i l l want to do a f t e r he saw the f i r e truck? S i l e n t Reading: "The Blue D o l l and the Toy So l d i e r " page 161 Number of Words i n the s e l e c t i o n - 72 A blue d o l l sat i n one corner of an o l d toy store window. In another corner was a toy s o l d i e r covered with spider webs. The paint was coming o f f h i s coat and his hat was broken. No one ever wanted to buy the d o l l with the blue dress. Who would think of buying a s o l d i e r with a broken hat! So the d o l l and the s o l d i e r stayed i n the window day a f t e r day. Questions: 1. Who was t h i s story about? 2. Where were the d o l l s ? 3. What colour was the d o l l ' s dress? 4. Why wouldn't someone want to buy the toy so l d i e r ? 5. What d i d the s o l d i e r and the d o l l do day a f t e r day? 69 Name Grade Name of Book "Town and Country" Grade Level: Two *(2.5) Book 2 Oral Reading: "Going Places" page 128 Number of words in selection No. 2 - 68 Going Places On Saturday Jack went over on his to take care of the farm." skates to see Bob and B i l l . "How long w i l l you be gone?" "I came to say good-by, he said. B i l l asked. "Nancy and I are going alone to our "We'11 be gone three weeks," uncle's ranch today. said Jack. "We'll get back Mother and Father w i l l stay at home here just in time for school." Questions: 1. Who did Jack v i s i t on his skates? 2. Why did he go to v i s i t his friends? 3. Where did Jack say he and Nancy were going? 4. How long w i l l Nancy and Jack be away? 5. Where do Nancy and Jack live? Silent Reading: "Ranch Life" page 160 Number of words in selection - 97 Ranch Life Jack and Nancy were up early for their birthday the next morning. They ate breakfast with Uncle Jim and Aunt Sue. Then they were ready for their f i r s t day on the ranch. Uncle Jim took them out to the corral. Jack and Nancy sat on the fence and watched the cowboys catch their horses. Uncle Jim caught a black horse for Jack. "Here i s your cowpony, Jack," he said. "His name is Blackie." Uncle Jim caught a gray horse for Nancy. He brought the gray horse around the corral to her. Questions: 1. Why did Jack and Nancy get up early in the morning? 2. What were the names of their Aunt and Uncle? 3. Where did Jack and Nancy's uncle take them? 4. What colour horse did Uncle Jim bring for Jack? 5. What colour horse did Uncle Jim bring for Nancy? 70 Name Grade Name of Book "Magic Windows" Grade Level Three (3.1) Book 1 Oral Reading: "The Strongest Indian Brave" pages 157 - 158 Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n No. 1 - 100 The Kicking Game Brown Bear l i k e d to play with the s t i c k past the oak tree f i r s t won other Indian boys. Sometimes the the game. boys went swimming or f i s h i n g togeth- L i t t l e Deer also l i k e d t h i s game er. Sometimes they ran races or because he could kick w e l l . He played games. t r i e d hard to help his team win. The game Brown Bear l i k e d best was Brown Bear could not kick w e l l , but a kicking game. The game was played he had fun t r y i n g to kick the s t i c k by two teams which took turns k i c k i n g past the oak t r e e , a s t i c k . The team which kicked the Questions: 1. What kind of games did the Indian boys l i k e to play? _2. What game d i d Brown Bear l i k e to play best? 3. How could a team win the game? 4. Why d i d L i t t l e Deer l i k e the game? 5. Why did Brown Bear l i k e the game? S i l e n t Reading: " L i t t l e Crow" page 167 Number of words i n the s e l e c t i o n - 100 The Noisy L i t t l e Indian Boy L i t t l e Crow was an Indian boy who l i v e d long, long ago. He l i v e d i n a tepee near a great f o r e s t . He was c a l l e d L i t t l e Crow because he was always so noisy. Some people thought he should have been named Big Flock of Crows because he sounded j u s t l i k e a large flock of noisy crows. L i t t l e Crow was always running and shouting. He was always jumping and hopping too. He l i k e d to run a f t e r the big boys who were learning to use t h e i r bows and arrows. He l i k e d to shout to the hunters who were going out to f i n d food, too. Questions: 1. What was the name of the l i t t l e boy i n t h i s story? 2. Where d i d the l i t t l e Indian boy l i v e ? 3. Why d i d people c a l l him L i t t l e Crow? 4. Why d i d some people think he should have been named Big Flock of Crows? 5. What were the b i g boys i n the story learning to do? 71 Name Grade Name of Book "Story Window" Grade Level: Three *(3.5) Book 2 Oral Reading: "Miss Crumpet's Great Day" pages 124 - 125 Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n No. 2 - 114 Miss Crumpet Meets a Stranger The people of London were getting ready to crown t h e i r new King. Prep- arations f o r the great day had gone on f o r several weeks. Streets were g a i l y decorated with coloured stream- ers. And i n the middle of the prepar- ations stood the t i n y candy shop of Miss Crumpet. Miss Crumpet was a l i v e l y l i t t l e lady, plump, quite short, and always f r i e n d l y and cheer f u l . As the Great Day came nearer, Miss Crumpet seemed to lose some of her usual cheerfulness. At f i r s t she had watched the preparations i n the c i t y square with happiness. As the days passed, she noticed that London grew more and more crowded. She suddenly r e a l i z e d that she would not be very happy among the large crowds. Questions: 1. What were the people of London getting ready for? 2. What were the streets decorated with? 3. What was the lady's name i n the story? 4. What kind of a store did she own? 5. Why was Miss Crumpet not very happy i n t h i s story? S i l e n t Reading: "Eddie and Gardenia" pages 192 - 193 Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n - 116 Gardenia Trouble Eddie Wilson had a pet goat named Gardenia. Gardenia was only happy when she was eating something or had climbed up on top of something. The happier Gardenia was, the unhappier Eddie's father and mother were. One Monday afternoon Gardenia got out of her fenced yard climbed on top of Mr. Wilson's new car. This would not have been so bad, but Gardenia began to eat the c l o t h top of the car. When Mr. Wilson came home from h i s o f f i c e , there was Gardenia chewing a mouthful of car. Her face was turned up to the sky, and her eyes were closed i n enjoyment. At her feet there was a big hole i n the canvas top. Questions: 1. What kind of pet d i d Eddie own? 2. What was the pet's name? 3. What was Eddie's pet eating? 4. Whose car was Eddie's pet chewing? 5. Why do you think Gardenia was happy i n t h i s story? 72 Name Grade Name of Book "Believe and Make Believe" Grade Level Four *(4.9) Oral Reading: "Horace, the Happy Ghost" page 75 Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n - 142 Selection No. 1 Horace, the Happy Ghost Horace was a happy ghost. He l i v e d with h i s father and mother i n a b i g o l d house with l o t s of creaking s t a i r s and windows. I t was ju s t r i g h t f o r ghosts. Of course, people l i v e d there t o o — a whole family of people—but the ghosts and people got along very well together. The ghosts didn't mind the noise the people made during the day, and the people didn't mind the noise the ghosts made at night. There was only one trouble. Horace! Horace was a well-behaved l i t t l e ghost i n some ways. He had c a r e f u l l y learned h i s vanishing lessons. One moment he was there and the next—he wasn't. Sometimes he vanished for h i s family's v i s i t o r s at after-midnight tea. They a l l s a i d they had never seen f i n e r vanishing. Besides, he could creak doors and shake windows as a big ghost. Questions: 1. Do you think Horace l i k e d being a ghost? 2. T e l l me what Horace's house was l i k e . 3. Who else l i v e d i n the house besides ghosts? 4. How d i d the people and the ghosts f e e l about each other? 5. What things could Horace do that were as good as b i g ghosts? S i l e n t Reading: "Daniel Boone Leads the Way" page 129 Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n - 130 Co l l e c t i n g the Sa l t A dozen men walked quickly along a fo r e s t t r a i l . They were bound for the s a l t springs near the mountains. Each man led a pack horse. These men were a l l hunters and woodsmen, but they had never been i n t h i s country before. They didn't l i k e to go there now, but they had to have s a l t . Their farm a n i - mals were s u f f e r i n g from the lack of i t . New s e t t l e r s had been bringing s a l t , but that was about gone now. At the head of the long l i n e walked one of the best guides i n Pennsylvania— young Daniel Boone. He was t a l l and slender f o r h i s f i f t e e n years. But he was strong and he could stand hardships as well as these older men. He was used to hardships. He had hunted alone for two years. Questions: 1. Where were the men i n the story going? 2. Why were they going for s a l t ? 3. What was the name of the guide i n the story? 4. How o l d was Daniel Boone? 5. How long had Daniel Boone been hunting? 73 Name Grade Name of Book "Believe and Make Believe" Grade Level Four *(4.9) Oral Reading: "The Story of the F i r s t Bow and Arrow" page 180 Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n No. 2 - 111 Chicka's Invention The spear shot into the a i r . Chicka l e t out a y e l l . " I t works! I t works!" Chicka, the cave boy, had made the f i r s t bow and arrow. The f i r s t thing he wanted to do was t e l l everyone about i t . But he remem- bered that someone had c a l l e d him, A - boy - who - t a l k s - l i k e - a - man. They would laugh at him. He thought for a moment. There was always h i s grand- father. What would 01 say? He set the bow and arrow down i n some bushes and raced back to the cave. Teesa and Mea were there. "Where i s 01?" Chicka panted. Teesa looked wonderingly at her grandson. "He i s on guard near the ladder." Questions: 1. What was the name of the boy i n t h i s story? 2. What di d he make? 3. Why didn't he t e l l everyone about h i s invention? 4. Who d i d he decide to show i t to? 5. Where was Chicka's grandfather? S i l e n t Reading: "Riding the Pony Express" page 189 Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n - 142 S a l l y ' s Discovery S a l l y Mason was baking cookies. Her brother, Randy, would l i k e something warm and good when he rode i n l a t e i n the afternoon to change horses. I t would be h i s l a s t lap before he turned the mail over to the next Pony Express r i d e r at P l a c e r v i l l e . Randy would stop only long enough to put the saddle and i t s heavy bags of mail on a fresh horse. Then he would be o f f again. Mrs. Mason always had a cup of hot coffee and cake or cookies to take along. But S a l l y ' s mother was away with a si c k neighbor, and S a l l y was t r y i n g to take her place. S a l l y p u l l e d the pan of cookies out of the oven j u s t as a shadow appeared i n the doorway. I t was the Indian woman, Old Suzy, who was as wide as she was high. She was carrying a basket. Questions: 1. What was S a l l y baking? 2. Who was she baking for? 3. Why was S a l l y baking the cookies instead of her mother? 4. What kind of work d i d S a l l y ' s brother do? 5. Who came to the door to see S a l l y ? 74 Name Grade Name of Book "Believe and Make Believe" Grade Level Four *(4.9) Oral Reading: "The Story of William T e l l " page 255 Number of words in selection No. 3 - 147 The Story of William T e l l Many years ago, Switzerland was ruled by a cruel man named Gessler. His wickedness and pride made him hated and feared throughout the land. One day, Gessler had his hat placed on top of a pole. He gave orders that everyone who passed the pole should bow down. The people were afraid of Gessler, so most of them obeyed. But there was one man, a brave and good man named William T e l l , who would not obey the wicked Gessler. He walked past Gessler's hat and laughed when Gessler's soldiers ordered him to bow down. When Gessler heard what William T e l l had done, he was very angry. He ordered his soldiers to bring T e l l before him. Questions: 1. In what country did this story take place? 2. Who was this country ruled by? 3. What did Gessler order everyone in his country to do? 4. Why was Gessler angry at William Tell? 5. What kind of a man do you think William T e l l was? Silent Reading: "Quiet Boy" page 260 Number of words in selection - 157 The Fight Quiet Boy leaned against the sunny side of the Navajo Trading Post in northwestern New Mexico. The November wind roughened his straight black hair and reached through his blue shirt. Once more he searched the long f l a t road for his father's green covered wagon. Already i t had been a half-hour since the bus from the boarding school had l e f t him. But waiting for his family on Friday afternoons was not new to Quiet Boy, and he was not impatient. He knew there was much work to be done on a farm when sheep were many and winter was near. Sometimes he asked i f he, as the oldest son, should not stay at home; i f i t should not be one of his younger sisters who should go to school. But always Rapid Runner and Happy Weaver, his parents, said that he, as the oldest, should learn the white ways well and quickly; so he might teach them a l l . Questions: 1. Where did this story take place? 2. What time of year was i t in the story? 3. Why did Quiet Boy think i t should be one of his younger sisters who should go to school? 4. What kind of boy do you think Quiet Boy was? 5. Why did Quiet Boy's parents decide he was the one who should go to school? 75 Name Grade Name of Book "Finding the Way" Grade Level Five, *(5.4) Oral Reading: John Henry and His Hammer" page 98 Number of words in selection No. 1 - 137 Men Wanted Men wanted! Men wanted for work on the railroad tunnel! Men wanted for work on the Big Bend Tunnel! The Big Bend Tunnel! The Big Bend Tunnel! The words flashed through the camp, and John Henry heard the words. Twice the pay! Ten times the work! A thousand times the danger! Ten thousand men heard the words, and they came from a l l parts of the country—all parts of the world. Ten thousand men pushed through the dark and sunless forest where few men had been before, through swamps where dangers were many, across roaring mount- ain streams. Up rough, high c l i f f s ; around giant boulders and over mountains— they climbed where strong men could pass and mules could follow, but where trains could not go until the w i l l and the strength of men had made the road bed smooth. Questions: 1. Why were men wanted for work? 2. How many men came to work on the Big Bend Tunnel? 3. Who do you think this story i s about? 4. What was i t like when the men were working? 5. When w i l l the trains be able to go through the country? Silent Reading: "Wild Honey" page 161 Number of words in selection - 119 Wild Honey Dan Morgan and his l i t t l e Indian friend, Ramapo, had tracked a brown bear deep into the forest. Both the boys and the bear were hunting for wild honey. Suddenly, the boys came upon the bear who had just found the bee tree. The big bear was standing on i t s hind legs and clutching the tree. It stretched i t s head up and sniffed. Slowly and sil e n t l y , Ramapo moved back toward a clump of bushes. Slowly and sile n t l y , Dan followed—though his knees were shaky. The big brown bear moved around the tree. Buzz, buzz! Grrr! The bear snapped at the bees flying around i t s head. Grrr! It dropped i t s big forepaws to the ground and circled around the tree again. Questions: 1. What was the name of Dan Morgan's Indian friend? 2. What were both the boys and the bear looking for? 3. What was the big bear doing when the boys came upon him? 4. How did the boys feel when they saw the bear? 5. Where did the boys hide? 76 Name Grade Name of Book "Finding the Way" Grade Level Five *(5.4) Oral Reading: Buffalo Stampede - page 189 Number of words in Selection No. 2 - 142 Buffalo Stampede As the wagon train followed the rough, dry t r a i l across the prairies the travelers saw large areas of dry earth with bare spots of salt. Short, dry grass grew in small clumps around dry creek beds. The men called these spots in the wasteland, buffalo l i c k s . Trader Jim explained that great herds of buffaloes came to these water holes, for here they could find the salt and the water which they needed. The travelers welcomed the sight of the plentiful supply of buffalo chips that were scattered about the holes. Keeping the campfires going had be- come a big problem, as trees for fuel were becoming scarcer and scarcer. Stories of buffalo hunts and buffalo stampedes were told around the campfires at night. Dan and other young boys kept their r i f l e s ready, each hoping to be the f i r s t to k i l l a buffalo. Questions: 1. What kind of land was the wagon travelling across? 2. What were the buffalo licks? 3. Why did the travelers use buffalo chips to keep their fires going? 4. What kind of stories were told around the campfire? Silent Reading: "Cattle Drive" page 195 Number of words in selection - 100 The Silent Plain Tom lay watching the stars in the blue sky. It had been a long hard day. This was his f i r s t day on the t r a i l with the other men. It was their job to drive the cattle north from Texas. Tom's big brother, Jess, thought he was too young to be a useful cowhand, but Tom would prove he could handle a man-sized job. He thought of his father who believed in him and wanted him to learn the cattle business. Now, excited but weary, Tom lay watching the Big Dipper in the night sky, and suddenly he was asleep. Questions: 1. Where were the men driving the cattle? 2. How many days had they been on the t r a i l ? 3. What was Tom's brother's name? 4. Was he older or younger than Tom? 5. What was Tom watching before he went to sleep? 77 Name Grade Name of Book "Finding the Way" Grade Level Five (5.4) Oral Reading: "How the Foxes Became Red" page 268 Number of words in Selection No. 3 - 166 How the Foxes Became Red In the olden days the foxes were a l l white. Their beautiful coats were just the colour of the snow in the wintertime, and they could s l i p about over the frozen country without any of the other animals being able to see them. Sometimes they would catch the big Arctic hares but they were especially fond of mice. Usually the l i t t l e mice lived beneath the snow and rarely came out into the winter cold. They ate the nice grass seeds and stayed safe and warm be- neath the cold, white snow, just as did the Eskimo boys and g i r l s in their igloos. But when the snow melted off and the summertime came, the l i t t l e mice did have to come out on top of the ground to gather more grass seeds and mouse food for their next winter's supply. It was then that they were afraid of the foxes, and usually they stayed close to their burrows so they could dive into them just the minute a fox appeared. Questions: 1. What colour were the foxes' coats in the olden days? 2. What did the foxes enjoy eating most of all? 3. Where did the mice live? 4. Do you think the mice were cold in the snow? 5. What were the mice afraid of when they came out in the summertime? Silent Reading: "The Salmon Run" page 274 Number of words in selection - 140 Salmon Sighted It was a drizzly gray spring day, and most of the Indian fishermen of the northern Pacific coast were staying at home in their villages. But two boys who wanted some fresh cod for dinner had paddled offshore in a canoe to fish. The waves tossed their small dugout about. It was too rough for fishing in the open bay; so the boys turned toward an inlet near the mouth of a mountain stream. Although i t was mid-morning, the towering tree-covered mountains along the shore made the inlet quite dark. The boys cast their bone fishhooks into the water, and, to their surprise and delight, one of them pulled in a fine salmon instead of a cod. The tide was low, and peering overboard, the young fisher- men discovered more silvery fish heading toward the mouth of the stream. Questions: 1. What kind of day was i t in the story? 2. What kind of fish did the boys start out to catch? 3. Where did the boys paddle their canoe to catch the fish? 4. What kind of fish were the silvery fish? 5. What kind of fishhook did the boys use? 78 Name Grade Name of Book "Arrivals and Departures" Grade Level Six (6.8) Oral Reading "The Green Hat" page 89 Number of words in Selection No. 1 - 173 The Green Hat A thin crust on the snow glistened in the sun. Len adjusted his sunglasses carefully to protect his eyes from the glare. He f e l t very sure he was going to win the Serpent Run race again this year. Of course, the other fellows were good skiers, but none could match him except perhaps Red Skinner, his best friend. And although Len f e l t Red would give him a good race, Len had no doubt that he could beat him. Each winter, as soon as there was enough snow for skiing, Mr. Harley took his boys out to the Serpent Run slope. The boy who won the race down the steep run received the Green Hat, "Robin Hood's hat," the symbol of the patrol. He would feel very proud of the honor of wearing the hat for a day, and of leading the patrol on i t s cross-country hike. He was the one who would read the signs in the snow—the rabbit tracks, the prints of a wild cat, the tracks of a frightened f i e l d mouse. Questions: 1. What was the name of the race Ken hoped he would win? 2. Who did Ken think could beat him? 3. What did the winner of the race receive? 4. What did the winner of the race get to do? 5. What was the duty of the patrol leader? Silent Reading: "The Treasure Map" page 95 Number of words in selection - 132 The Treasure Map The young Hendersons—Lester, Jodie, and E l l e n — s a t in a row on the warm grass and stared at the t a l l fence between them and their neighbors. It was a spite fence which had been put up many years ago to shut out Grand- father Henderson and his family, including these three young visitors from the North. Close to the fence was a small white house, bu i l t as a tool house. Grannie Henderson had presented i t to them to use as their special clubhouse during their stay at Riveredge Plantation. "I wish i t wasn't so near that mean old fence," Jodie said. "I think feuds with your neighbors are horrible! What was i t a l l about, anyhow?" Les grinned, "Grannie said i t had something to do with a boundary line. They haven't spoken for years." Questions:.1 1. What were the young children staring at? 2. Why was the fence built? 3. What time of year do you think i t was? 4. What did Granny Henderson give the children to play with? 5. What was the feud with the neighbours a l l about? 79 Name Grade- Name of Book "Arrivals and Departures" Grade Level Six *(6.8) Oral Reading: "When the Mississippi Was Wild" page 171 Number of words in Selection No. 2 - 146 When the Mississippi Was Wild The Mississippi was a wild river, once. And the wildest thing on the whole river was Old Al. Old Al was the chief alligator. He lived in the river, and he made storms by thrashing the water with his t a i l . When Old Al thrashed his t a i l , the waves splashed high, and the wind blew, and there were storms from the Gulf of Mexico clean up to Pig's Eye, Minnesota. The only man who wasn't afraid of Old Al's storms was Mike Fink. Mike Fink was a river man, and he lived on a raft. In those days a riverman had to fight wildcats, bears, and Indians. Mike Fink was the champion fighter of the whole Mississippi River. He lived on his raft right through the worst of Old Al's storms, although no one else could go out on the river when Old Al thrashed his t a i l around. Questions: 1. What kind of a river was the Mississippi? 2. What was the wildest thing on the whole river? 3. What would happen when Old Al thrashed his t a i l ? 4. Who was Mike Fink?' 5. Where did Mike Fink live? Silent Reading: "The Queen and The Pauper" page 187 Number of words in the selection - 119 The Queen and The Pauper When I was a boy in the Dutch village of Vaals, I knew a poor old man who had the queer name of Ikben Rex. The name didn't f i t him at a l l , because "ik ben" in Ditch means "I am," and "Rex" stands for "king." Ikben Rex didn't look at a l l like a king. He was short and very shy. He was bald, and had lost most of his teeth. His pale blue eyes were close to- gether and watery; his nose had a wart on i t , and his ears stuck out like small cups fastened to his head by their handles. His arms were too long and his legs were too short. He looked like a scarecrow in winter. Questions: 1. In what country did this story take place? 2. What was the name of the man in this story? 3. What did his name mean? 4. Was Ikben Rex rich like a king 5. What did he look like? 80 Name Grade Name of Book "Arrivals and Departures" Grade Level Six *(6.8) Oral Reading: "The Flight of Icarus" page 294 Number of words in Selection No. 3 - 139 The Flight of Icarus Once long ago in Greece there lived a famous craftsman named Daedalus. While Daedalus was vis i t i n g on the island of Crete, King Minos, the ruler of the island, became angry with him, and he ordered him shut up in a high tower that faced the lonely sea. In time, with'.the help of his young son, Icarus> Daedalus managed to escape from the tower, only to find himself a prisoner on the island. Several times he tried to hide on the vessels sailing from Crete, but King Minos kept s t r i c t watch over them and no ships were allowed to s a i l without being carefully searched. Daedalus was a clever man and was not discouraged by his failures. "Minos may control the land and sea," he said, "but he does not control the air. I w i l l try that way." Questions:.- 1. Where did this story take place? 2. What happened to Daedalus when he was vi s i t i n g Crete? 3. After Daedalus escaped from the tower why could he not leave the island? 4. What kind of man do you think King Minos was? 5. How did Daedalus decide to escape from the island? Silent Reading: "Jane and the Big House" page 301 Number of words in selection - 130 Jane Addams was born about a hundred years ago, in 1860, in a town near Chicago. While she was s t i l l a baby, her mother died, and she was brought up mainly by her father and her eldest sister, Mary. Jennie (as everybody caller her then) was rather sickly as a child, but she was determined as a l i t t l e person and never l e t her f r a i l t y spoil her fun. She joined her playmates in their favorite games—playing house in the huge empty bins of her father's flour m i l l , or pretending to be knights k i l l i n g dragons on the fields near town. Jennie liked playing by herself too—perhaps kicking a stone on her way to school, and keeping after i t wherever i t went. Also she liked reading books, especially her father's. Every time she finished one, he took her on his knee and they talked about the book. Questions: 1. How long ago was Jane Addams born? 2. Why was Jane brought up by her father and her sister? 3. What kind of g i r l was Jane when she was growing up? 4. What kind of games did she like to play? 5. When Jennie finished a book, what would her father do? 81 Name Grade Name of Book "High T r a i l s " Grade l e v e l Seven Oral Reading: "Free and Easy" - page 65 Number of words i n Selection No. 1 - 169 Free and Easy S t e l l a O'Dare was walking along the dunes toward the beach one spring morn- ing i n the year of 1707. She was barefoot, her shoes t i e d together and dang- l i n g over one shoulder. The sun g l i s t e n e d on her glossy black locks and began to add to the fr e c k l e s on her small, u p t i l t e d nose. S t e l l a , deep i n thought, stared down at her toes as they dug i n t o the sand. Just a short time ago her father had died leaving her with a debt of 30 pounds. Saddened though she was, S t e l l a had taken up her father's work almost immedi- atel y . She had learned enough from her father to run h i s looms. She knew she could earn a good l i v i n g , but i t seemed impossible that she could ever save enough money to repay t h e i r debt. Her father had been a master weaver, yet he had been unable to earn extra money. How could she, a fourteen year o l d g i r l , ever hope to do better? Questions: 1. Describe S t e l l a as she was walking down the beach. 2. What do you think S t e l l a was thinking about as she walked down the beach? 3. What sor t of work di d her father do? 4. What time of year d i d t h i s story take place? 5. What sort of work did S t e l l a take up a f t e r her father died? S i l e n t Reading: "Black as Night" Number of words i n s e l e c t i o n - 159 Black as Night By the time they f i n i s h e d breakfast the radio was r e c i t i n g the news. None of them l i s t e n e d as they c a r r i e d t h e i r dishes back to the g a l l e y , but when the announcer sai d , "And now we turn to the news of l o c a l i n t e r e s t . Runaway c h i l - dren seem to be heading the l i s t t h i s morning," Ben stopped i n mid-stride, then slowly put h i s plate down and went back into the cabin. Penny and Nick f o l l - owed him slowly, and a l l three of them stood motionless i n front of the radio's speaker. "Mr. Peter Lanford," the announcer went on, "has requested that a l l f i s h e r - men, yachtsmen, and people along the A t l a n t i c coast keep a lookout for a t h i r t y foot white sloop-rigged yacht named Hard A. Lee. The boat i s being p i l o t e d by Mr. Lanford's f i f t e e n year o l d nephew, Benjamin E. Sturges who Mr. Lanford reports, has apparently run away. With young Sturges are the boy's s i s t e r , Penny, and brother Nick, aged twelve and nine years. Questions: 1. Who were the three ch i l d r e n i n t h i s story? 2. Why do you think they were on the boat? 3. What was the name of the boat? 4. Who was i t that wanted to f i n d the three children? 5. Who was the oldest of the group? 82 Name Grade Name of Book "High Trails" Grade Level Seven Oral Reading: "Crooked Arm" page 178 Number of words in Selection No. 2 - 168 Crooked Arm When B i l l Wingate made his f i r s t appearance at Riverdale High School, he was sixteen years old and six feet three in his shoepacks. He came rattling down the mountain in an unbelievable ancient flivver, parked i t with i t s nose to a tree, and ambled up the steps. His great red wrists hung far out of his coat sleeves. His neatly patched trousers missed his ankles by inches, and he wore an odd-looking l i t t l e f e l t hat perched on his mop of sandy hair. But the most noticeable thing about him was his grin. It was so wide and friendly that even his grotesque length and outlandish costume were forgotten by the crowd-of students who stood staring as he approached. "Hi, folks," he nodded to them and went in . Ten minutes l a t e r i n the p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e , he r e g i s t e r e d as a sophomore. He had come to Riverdale High because, as he expressed i t , he had "got a l l the education they could give" i n the frame schoolhouse up on Hog Back. Questions: 1. T e l l me what B i l l VJingate looked l i k e . 2. What kind of a car d i d he drive? 3. Where was B i l l from? 4. Why d i d he decide to come to Riverdale High? 5. What kind of a person do you think he was? Silent Reading: "The Butcher" Number of words in selection - 122 The Butcher The story begins on J u l y 31st. At eight o'clock that morning Dave and Jim were s t i l l in bed at High Camp. They were not asleep, for sleep i s next to impossible at 21,000 feet where the air is very thin. The day was gray; the temperature was 10 degrees above zero. In their stupor there seemed l i t t l e reason to get out of the sleeping bags, the only warm spots in the whole camp. The rest of the party, a l l suffering with a virus-cold infection, were camped at Col Camp about three thousand feet below. It was ten o'clock in the morning before those in Col Camp, using their binoculars, spotted Dave and Jim as they l e f t their tent for the assault. Questions: 1. Who were the main people in this story? 2. When did the story take place? 3. Why were Dave"and Jim unable to sleep at night? 4. What was the name of their camp? 5. Why were Dave and Jim the only ones who went on the assault? 83 Name Grade Name of Book "High Tra i l s " Grade Level Seven Oral Reading: "Madame Curie Discovers Radium" page 326 Number of words in Selection No. 3 - 155 Madame Curie Discovers Radium Today radioactivity i s an everyday word. The harnessing of atomic power has forced i t upon everyone. In the 1890's, radioactivity, the ab i l i t y of certain substances to give off energy in the form of rays, was understood vaguely and only by scientists. It had been detected in uranium ores, but the cause of radioactivity was unknown. At the invitation of the French scientist Henri Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie set about to investigate uranium ores to see i f they could learn more about radioactivity. One ore, called pitchblende, was particularly inter- esting, for i t was four times as radioactive as the amount of uranium in i t indicated i t should be. The Curies concluded that there must be some strongly radioactive substance other than uranium in this unusual ore. The pair set to work and in 1898 announced the discovery of not one, but two new radioactive substances. They called these new metals polonium and radium. Questions: 1. In what substance had radioactivity originally been detected? 2. Describe what you think radioactivity i s . 3. What was the ore that had four times the amount of radio- activity that the uranium revealed i t should be? 4. Who discovered the new metals mentioned in this story? 5. What were these metals called? Silent Reading: "The She Wolf" page 315 Number of words in selection - 153 The She Wolf A dark spruce forest frowned on either side of the frozen waterway. The trees had been stripped by a recent wind of their white covering of frost, and they seemed to lean toward each other, black and ominous in the fading light. A vast silence reigned over the land. The stillness of the land was broken by a string of wolf-like dogs toi l i n g down the frozen waterway. Their b r i s t l y fur was covered with frost. Their breath froze in the air as i t l e f t their mouths. Behind them they dragged a stout sled made of birch bark. The sled was without runners and i t s front end turned up like a s c r o l l . On the sled, securely lashed, was a long, narrow, oblong box. There were other things on the sled—blankets, an axe, and a coffee pot and frying pan; but prominent, occupying most of the space, was the long and narrow oblong box. Questions: 1. What kind of land was described in the story? 2. What broke the quietness.? 3. Describe the dogs that were pulling the sled. 4. What was the most prominent thing on the sled? 5. What was the sled made of?

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