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Perceptions of educational slides : implications for multicultural and development education Yas, Arlene Marion 1986

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PERCEPTIONS  OF EDUCATIONAL  MULTICULTURAL  SLIDES: IMPLICATIONS  AND DEVELOPMENT  EDUCATION  by ARLENE MARION Y A S  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE  OF  M A S T E R OF ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y We  accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  O F BRITISH  25 September  COLUMBIA  1986  © Arlene Marion Yas, 1986  OF  FOR  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in partial  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d  f u l f i l m e n t of the  degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that  the Library  shall  it  freely  and study.  I  available  f o r reference  agree that permission for  f o r extensive copying o f t h i s  o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  understood that financial  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  gain  shall  of this  thesis  Department o f  t^zjuj^-aW? v\ctI 9&ycr-Uolo^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  ^5  l^/Sfc  It is thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Date  further  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  department for  make  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT The problem investigated was the analysis of connotative meaning of educational materials. Slides of Third World plantation workers were rated semantic  on two  differential forms by a group of Scottish teacher trainees.  generated  from  development  general  education  qualitative  literature,  guidelines  were  found  tested for their  experimental materials in a pilot study. The persons labelled with different  descriptive terms -  in  15-scale  The  scales,  multicultural  relevance  to the  and  specific  depicted in the slides were  loaded and neutral. Each subject  was  exposed to one type of label.  The  results  demonstrated  that  perceived to be presented mostly negative  ratings,  the  in an the  persons  depicted  equal manner.  image of the  tea  in  the  slides  Although both  persons  were  received  picker was generally rated  positively than that of the plantation worker. The overall photographs  not  more  were also  responded to differentially. The picker slide received more positive responses than did the worker slide.  The  adjective  scales  were  grouped  treatment and interaction effects. some  of the  ratings.  In  the  together  Treatment  case  of the  into  clusters  and  analysed  labels significantly affected plantation  worker,  the  at  for least  loaded label  guided the viewers to more positive perceptions, at least on certain scale clusters. The discovery that more intense judgements  were less affected by label treatment  indicated that viewers' responses were influenced by their own personal  attitudes  towards the individual depicted as well as by the manner in which the individual was  presented.  The  relationship  between  ii  person  perception  and  slide evaluation  was not found to be statistically significant.  More  indepth  from  the  teacher  research  attitudes  trainees  is  required  revealed  actually use  in the  to  determine  present  these  slides  type in  the  the  actual  of study.  behaviour resulting Would  teachers  or  classroom environment? And  would they refer to the individuals depicted in the derogatory fashion implied by some of the judgements expressed? And finally, what effects would such negative teacher attitudes have on their pupils?  iii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF T A B L E S  vi  LIST O F FIGURES  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  I. I N T R O D U C T I O N A . Background B. Purpose of the study C. Definition of Terms  1 1 5 7  II. L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W A . Bias and visual literacy B. The measurement of meaning 1. Qualitative Measures 2. Quantitative Measures 3. The semantic differential as a measuring instrument a. Content b. Amount of material c. Scale divisions d. The form of the test e. Administration f. Scoring procedure g. Analysis h. Stability i. Utility III. M E T H O D O L O G Y A . Measuring instrument 1. The semantic differential technique 2. Relationship to the study 3. Construction of the semantic differential tests a. Concepts b. Scales c. Form of the test d. Validity and reliability B. Population and sampling techniques 1. Population 2. Sample C. Design of the experiment 1. Overall design 2. Design variables a. Independent variables b. Dependent variables D . Procedures 1. Data collection iv  10 10 12 13 14 16 16 18 18 19 20 21 21 22 22 25 25 25 26 27 27 28 30 31 32 32 33 34 34 36 36 36 37 37  2. Scoring procedures  38  IV. R E S U L T S A . Data analysis B. Findings  39 39 40  V. DISCUSSION A . Summary B. Conclusions C. Limitations of the study D. Implications and recommendations  60 60 62 65 68  BIBLIOGRAPHY  73  APPENDIX A  78  APPENDIX B  86  APPENDIX C  90  APPENDIX D  93  APPENDIX E  96  APPENDIX F  98  v  LIST Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  OF  TABLES  Adjective pairs: person presentation Adjective pairs: slide evaluation Person presentation clusters Slide evaluation clusters Cluster scores: person presentation Cluster scores: slide evaluation A N O V for repeated measures: person presentation A N O V for repeated measures: slide evaluation  vi  28 29 45 46 47 48 49 50  LIST Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  OF  FIGURES  Schematic representation of experimental design Semantic profile of mean responses to persons depicted in slides Semantic profile of mean responses to slides Person effect Cluster effect: person presentation Person by treatment interaction Person by cluster interaction Slide effect Cluster Effect: slide evaluation  vii  35 42 43 52 53 54 55 57 58  LIST OF T A B L E S Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Adjective pairs: person presentation Adjective pairs: slide evaluation Person presentation clusters Slide evaluation clusters Cluster scores: person presentation Cluster scores: slide evaluation A N O V for repeated measures: person presentation A N O V for repeated measures: slide evaluation  vi  28 29 45 46 47 48 49 50  LIST O F F I G U R E S Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Schematic representation of experimental design Semantic profile of mean responses to persons depicted in slides Semantic profile of mean responses to slides Person effect Cluster effect: person presentation Person by treatment interaction Person by cluster interaction Slide effect Cluster Effect: slide evaluation  vii  35 42 43 52 53 54 55 57 58  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many  people have  the members  contributed to the  final  success  of this study. Foremost  of my thesis committee, Dr. Vincent D'Oyley,  Dr. Lome  are  Koroluk,  and Dr. Robert Conry, to whom I would like to express my gratitude for their most invaluable assistance those  people at  and continuing interest. I would also like to thank all  Moray House College of Education who helped me out when I  was in Edinburgh -  Livingston for his advice, the students for their participation  in  and  the  experiment,  Mike  Quickfall  for  the  loan  of  the  micro-computer  equipment. Finally, I would like Malcolm and my parents to know how much I appreciated  their  constant  support  and encouragement  of my studies.  viii  throughout  the  long  years  I. I N T R O D U C T I O N  A.  BACKGROUND  The current emphasis  on multicultural and development education has  to the production of a diversity of visual resource curricular  activities  community  which  (McClean,  reflect,  and  prepare  materials  students  given rise  designed to  to  support  live  in,  a  global  1985). Quite often, however, these materials  are  developed  on a purely intuitive basis. If they are to be effective, their production and use must be based both on educational needs and on the information emerging from current  research,  especially that in the  technology. Careful further  the  meaning,  preparation  understanding  the  message  of  sent,  field  of communications  and  and  analysis of visual messages are  the  relationships  and  the  actual  existing  meaning  between  received  educational required to  the  by  a  intended particular  audience (Fleming & Levie, 1978; Kemp, 1980; Sikora, 1981; Thompson, 1969).  In  1979,  guidelines primary  the  recommending  and  incorporating  more  Committee the  on  emphasis  school: "stability and change",  difference",  provide  Scottish  "interdependence".  these  scope  for  traditional  concepts  Environmental of four  an  Committee overall  concepts  stressed  curricular  multicultural and  development  disciplines,  as  such  issued to  "cause and consequence",  The  into  key  Studies  the  as  covered  "similarity importance  approach  education  mathematics,  be  curricular  which  well  geography,  as and  in and of  would for  the  biology.  Concepts could be introduced within the constructs  of a "general topic", that is,  one  subject  which  involves elements  of  more  than  1  one  and  which  serves  to  INTRODUCTION / 2 advance the pupil's knowledge and skills in several fields (Her Majesty's Inspector of  Schools,  1984).  In  developing  or  two  of  which  arise  on  encapsulate  the general principles inherent  objectives  concepts  project  concentrate  identification  one  a  brings  direction  and  "Environmental  studies  approach"  and  type,  the  naturally  class  should  and  which  from,  in, the topic under consideration. The  of these key concepts will help the and  this  coherence  teacher set to  the  specific educational learning  "multicultural and  experience.  development  education"  are defined below.  With these factors in mind, a multi-media instructional package was developed in 1985 by this author  as a vehicle for multicultural and development education in  the  primary  Lothian  undertaken teachers  Region  schools. In  preparation,  a  needs  assessment  was  involving an advisor for the regional school system and several head and  class  teachers  considerations emerged from awareness  of  human  from  various  Edinburgh  schools.  Two  major  these discussions: a desire for pupils to develop an  interrelations  on  a  global  scale,  and  the  necessity  of  providing for direct, hands-on experiences.  The centre  Royal  Botanic Gardens,  of interest  in the  Edinburgh was  Lothian  area  identified  capable  as  the  most  of integrating these  accessible apparently  divergent concerns. Spending time inside the plant houses located at the would enable school children to physically experience the habitats sub-tropical regions of the  world,  reside  this  in these  areas.  In  of tropical and  thus bringing them closer to the  manner,  concepts  such  as  Gardens  people who  "interdependence",  as  existing between peoples of different countries, ethnic groups, and religions, could  INTRODUCTION / 3 be  introduced  tropical and  and  elaborated  within  an  sub-tropical planthouses may  obvious, tangible be  context.  Inside  the  found numerous foreign economic  plants (eg., banana, rice, coffee, citrus) well known to most Scottish children. The individual plants could be used as familiar focal points from which would spring different projects leading  to an  understanding of the  less familiar. Follow-up  classroom projects using plant specimens, artifacts and visual materials could then be used to explore the lives of these people and  to promote an understanding of  the direct and indirect interrelationships existing between Britain and many Third World countries. These projects would also provide such concepts as  "similarity and  Britain with life on past  colonisations  lifestyles)  and  an opportunity  difference" (eg., comparing life on  tropical plantations), "cause and  to  present day  "stabilits'  and  to delve into  migration change"  consequence" (eg., relating  patterns, (eg.,  farms in  or  analysing  relating climate conflicts  to  between  environmental changes and quality of life).  The  Botanic Gardens instructional package consists of visual materials, background  information, and project suggestions for use before, during, and after the visit. It was  designed as a resource base which teachers and pupils can supplement and  enrich with topics reflecting their own current issues. Included  personal  needs and  in the package are slides and  interests along with  posters depicting tropical  and sub-tropical plantations and the people responsible for the production of many of the necessities and depend. The  luxuries of life upon which Western people have come to  slides were  selected  from  the  Botanic  Gardens  general  slide  collection, while the posters were from commercial companies such as Rowntree and  Cadbury. Realistic visual materials were included because viewing denotative  INTRODUCTION / 4 images other  is the than  closest most  Scottish children will  their own. As well  as  depicting scenes inaccessible due  slides and posters can also be used attention specific  on details, materials  and  were  to revise chosen  come to experiencing lifestyles  as to arouse interest and  because  reinforce a),  new  they  to  distance,  in a topic, to focus  skills  and  highlight the  concepts.  close  The  connections  that exist between people living in Britain and in Third World countries, b), they can  be used to emphasize  the concept "interdependence"  as well as to illustrate  the other major concepts mentioned above, and c), they are representative educational  slides  currently  used  to  complement  multicultural and  of the  development  education projects in British primary schools.  Those  were  what  will  these visual aids actually communicate to their intended audiences? How will  the  images  of the  the  posters,  are accompanied by verbal descriptions. This led to another  labels  the  Third  selected  purposes (Barthes,  for  may  World  the  have  1977;  individuality -  criteria initially  people  persons  unpredicted  Hall,  used  1973).  in selecting the  be  perceived?  depicted.  A  connotative The  title  The  chosen  effects  emphasis  materials,  on  on  slides,  for a  but  as  well  issue — the  purely  denotative  particular  fragments  of  nationality, sex, religion -- can influence perceptions  as  a  audience person's  in a direction  dependent on the particular viewer's personal background and may thereby induce a  bias,  positive or  negative,  towards  the  individual  so  labelled. It  cannot  be  assumed that the meaning received will necessarily be equivalent to that intended (Baggaley & Duck, 1976).  In  a previous study (Yas, 1986), a semantic  differential technique  was used to  INTRODUCTION / 5 study  and  evaluate  the  study deals exclusively  posters  included  in  the  learning  with the slide content of the  package.  The  present  package.  B. PURPOSE OF T H E STUDY  The  needs assessment provided a framework  package  but  viewers  interacted  visual  could  literacy  not  predict  the  many  materials  included.  stresses  the  impact  the  was  socioethnographic the  individual  whether  that  the  interpretations  experiment  meanings  with  pictures they accompany (Snider, of  for the  of  designed term  would  depicted  or not the  to  in  would  Current  created  educational  research  in  one  investigate guide  whether  viewers  an educational  Considering  towards  slide  than  loaded label would colour the  a  of  the  1960). Words can direct the reader towards image.  effects  when  the  visual  connotative  be  educational  on  the  of  contents of the  words  these  label  factors,  loaded  more  biased  would  a  an  with  a  perceptions  of  neutral  assessments given  label, to the  and slide  itself.  An  analytic  some  of  messages  instrument,  the  criteria  that  they  such as required  and  This would help educators and  use  general  0  by  of  educators receive  differential  technique,  to  the  this  and may  assess  from  make informed decisions  and students'  purpose  semantic  pupils  of instructional materials,  raise teachers'  The  their  the  these in the  may furnish  overt  and  educational  materials.  development,  provide specific  covert  selection,  tools with which to  awareness of their own personal biases.  study  is  to  measure  the  perceptions  that  teacher  INTRODUCTION / 6 trainees  have of visual educational material commonly used in multicultural and  development education projects, and to study some of the factors influencing these perceptions.  The 1.  specific objectives are: to  use  the  semantic  intensity of teacher  differential  trainees'  technique  to  reactions towards  quantify  the  direction  slides depicting Third  and  World  plantation workers, 2.  to test the hypothesis that loaded labels will affect connotative responses  to  the labelled individuals depicted in a photographic slide and to the slide as a whole, and 3.  to study the  relationship between  the  perceptions  teacher  trainees  have of  the individual depicted and the assessments given to the slide as a whole.  On a purely experimental basis, teacher population because presented.  From  teacher's  attitudes  trainees were selected as an  they have the required familiarity a  more  profound,  towards  people  educational from  with the type of materials  perspective,  different  appropriate  ethnic,  however, racial,  or  a  single  religious  backgrounds can have a strong influence on the entire classroom environment. It is therefore only but  essential that teachers be able to critically examine and assess not  visual materials  for biases  and stereotyping  their own personal viewpoints as well  (Pratt,  1972; Saunders,  (Boudreau, 1981; Overing,  1982)  1977). In  order to ensure that future teachers attain these goals, the teaching college must provide relevant instruction. The present teacher  training  programmes  by  type of study may contribute to these  revealing  educational  needs  and  suggesting  INTRODUCTION / 7 curricular  strategies  whereby  trainees  would  acquire  or  improve  on  the  skills  necessary for effective multicultural and development education.  C. DEFINITION OF TERMS  Development  education,  as a part of the primary school curriculum in Britain,  is an attempt to help children understand of their issues  own roles as closely  interdependence countries  can  global citizens. Development education must  related  to  between  the  be  international issues and become  children's  (Costa  industrialized countries  emphasized  fluctuations of familiar  lives  through  the  study  products, such as sugar  Rica). and  of  For  the  aware  be linked to example,  the  so-called developing  world  economics  and  and cocoa, on the world  the  market  (Clark, 1979).  Development  education  development.  It  development  is  issues  in  the  Western  basically a -  and  question  World  is  of content  of methodology -  essentially ~  education  about  providing information on  creating a school atmosphere  that  promotes an open-minded stance towards the problems of the contemporary world. In contrast to this curricular strategy, development education in the Third World is  education for development.  situations,  but  are  also  Students  trained  in  are the  not only made knowledge  and  cognizant of existing techniques  required  to  effectively change and improve these situations (Olivera, 1977).  Environmental  studies  is  a  multidisciplinary  approach  to  education  in  which  INTRODUCTION / 8 learning springs from the concrete experience of a local environment, or centre of interest,  and proceeds to the understanding of other, unfamiliar environments. A n  important aspect is to make the link between first-hand observation and vicarious experience  apparent to the  child. Relevant skills,  such as  and recording, and concepts, such as interdependence, are point  developed from  the  ( H M Inspector  project of  activities which  Schools,  1984;  observing,  measuring,  and cause and  evolve naturally  Regional  consequence,  from  Consultative  the  focal  Committee  on  Primary Education, 1977).  Multicultural curriculum children  education  is  improvement  and  to  live  in  religions, languages, encouraged and  to  whether  their  own,  methods  a  subject  enrichment.  multicultural  or  distinct  The  society  main  topic, but  goal  comprised  is of  to  a  matter of  help  different  prepare lifestyles,  and values. Through individual and class projects, pupils are  to develop a  understand  incorporate  a  not  knowledge and  the  various  positive awareness of different  aspects  or  that  of  from  a  variety  and  others.  effects  The  of  educative  of cultures.  cultures  prejudice  and  racism,  processes  used  should  Multicultural  education  can  be  most easily implemented through an environmental studies programme where topic approaches  (i.e., multidisciplinary experiences  embracing many subjects,  skills and  concepts) readily permit the introduction of multicultural material into all aspects of the curriculum (McClean, 1984).  In Scotland most children grow up in a fairly homogeneous  society. Multicultural  education  descriptive  focussing  is  therefore  mainly on  generalfy  information  treated about  a  in  an  indirect,  multicultural world  (Ashrif,  manner, 1984)  In  INTRODUCTION / 9 Canada, on the other hand, a multicultural curriculum is based on the reality of teaching and learning within an immediate multicultural environment (Shapson & D'Oyley, 1984).  II.  A. BIAS A N D V I S U A L  Stereotyping reflected  and  in the  on Interracial that  media.  order  them  the  common  beliefs, to  behaviour  media, the  both  effect  viewpoints  are the  society,  expressed  1977).  shaped, mass  wide variety  1976). Many educators believe it is important any material objectionable  our  of negative  provide students with a different  in  1980; Hornburger,  and  the  to counteract  problems  and illustrations of educational  Children,  exposure  educators must with  are  Books for  their In  bias  values,  REVIEW  LITERACY  verbal content  children's  through  LITERATURE  and  materials It  to  is a  media,  often  (Council  acknowledged  certain and  extent,  educational  or misleading information, of materials  and  explore  (Saunders,  1982;  Zimet,  therein  that school resources  on racist, ethnic, or religious grounds.  this kind of action to be censorship  are  and feel that negative  not contain  Others  consider  elements should be  pointed out and discussed with students so as to increase their awareness of the different  forms  that prejudice,  Hashmi, 1981; Hornburger,  One  of the  classroom  most  situation  conviction educational  has  led  system  aspects  is whether response.  only partially literate to  verbal or pictorial, may  the  of the viewer  presence  reacts  in an  (Barty &  of visual images  with critical  Current educational thought  if functioning on a programmed the  take  1977).  important  with a programmed  whether  introduction attempt to  of help  10  visual  in  understanding  the or  holds that a person is  level (Sikora, 1981). This  literacy  teachers and  curriculums students  into  the  interpret  and  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 11 evaluate visual messages (Dake, 1982; Heinich, Molenda, & Russell, 1982). Visual media are rarely without verbal accompaniment, however. Therefore, the effect of the  verbal  considered  language (Snider,  on  the  content  conveyed  1960). Emerging from  the  by  the  picture  must  interaction between  the  also  be  individual  reader and the concrete, physical aspects of the visual are a variety of possible connotative responses. guiding (Barthes,  the  reader  Titles and captions can narrow this range of meaning by towards  certain  meanings  closing off  potential  others  1977).  Snider (1960) described several studies labelling  and  effects.  For  example, with  it the  where experimental results  was  found  that  subjects  characteristics  compatible  label applied to  a  visual  only attending  to that one characteristic, and that subjects  have  tend  to  design,  revealed look  for  sometimes  perceive most readilj'  that which they can name most easily. Apparently, labels make the features of the  objective world  stand  out more  and influence perception in the  direction of  the words.  Barthes (1977) used the term "anchorage" as captions for photographs.  to describe the function of words used  Words help anchor, or "fix" the possible choices of  signifiers in such a way as to direct and limit responses to the visual signified. At  the  first  order,  image and the  or  denotative  level,  of meaning,  the  function  of both  the  words is that of objective denomination -- the picture denotes or  presents a particular image  while the  words  help  locate  the  photograph  within  the viewer's experience of the world. In identifying the denoted object, words act as  "realism operators"  for the  image by  specifying the  actual bit of the  real  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 12 world  to  which  it refers,  thereby  increasing its  believability.  A t this  level of  meaning, words are static and only significant in connection with their photograph (Snider, 1960).  At  the  have  second order  connotative  meanings  dynamic  manner.  feelings,  and  personal  message  parts.  of meaning, both the  The  attitudes that  The connotations  range of meaning than  (Barthes,  image and the  1977)  and  relate  verbal-visual complex meets of  the  receiver's  culture  accompanying words  to  with  one  the  system  of values,  of the  individual picture-word  the  sum  associated  with  the  image provide a  denotative  a  1979)  than  signifiers. Therefore,  and  in  (Fiske,  is greater  the  another  creates  a  potentially greater  if an author  has  a  particular message to convey, words can be used to direct our reading by telling us how the image should be read and often why a photograph was taken. That is,  the  words  can  be  used  to  purposefully  direct  us  towards  a  "preferred  reading" of the image by guiding us towards one meaning while closing off other meanings always  (Barthes,  1977;  Hall,  1973; Snider,  intended, however. It often  1960).  This  phenomenon  is  not  occurs inadvertently or unconsciously on  the  author's part (Baggaley & Duck, 1976).  B. T H E M E A S U R E M E N T OF M E A N I N G  Multicultural  and  approaches  to  qualitative  and  applied  the  development analysis  quantitative  education  of racial  and  measurement  conjointly in certain studies,  literatures  but  ethnic  bias  techniques. are  focusses  on  two  in educational  These  methods  major  materials: have  most commonly found as  been  separate  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 13 procedures (Pratt,  1972; Saunders,  1982).  1. Qualitative Measures  In  an attempt to ensure that any storybook involving Third World people,  recognizes honesty,  their the  experiences,  and  second,  treats  art"  material  been  racist,  non-racist,  developed,  inappropriateness 1982); group  experiences  or  anti-racist?"  With  "Look  including  in the  carefully  depicted?"  such  descriptions at  (World  criteria  of the  illustrations: do  Council  that  such as,  to the  "Is  analysis of  sets of checklists and guidelines as:  life  "Look  for  inaccuracies  styles of minorities"  they  of Churches,  respect  with  suggested  should be examined qualitatively using categories  racial stereotyping in children's books, numerous have  these  Council on Interracial Books for Children (1980) has  "words and the  group  first,  correctly  1978);  (Saunders,  represent  and  "Beware  and  the  ethnic  of material  which is out of date" (Clark, 1979).  Given sufficient time and effort, these kinds of guidelines can succeed in making educators  aware  of general  racial  and  ethnic  biases,  and  insights into a specific problem. Most often, however, the too  vague  and  time-consuming  for  a  busy  teacher  to  may  generate  criteria are put  into  these  therefore  analyses  difficult  qualitative  methods  (Saunders,  1982).  to  are  undertaken  discuss, may  miss  the  summarize, important  results and  are  highly  compare.  themes  relevant  effectively  practice. And  despite the large degree of agreement on the criteria that have been when  deep  assembled,  subjective  The  use  to  other  of  and purely  situations  LITERATURE The  results  of  analyses  must  be  cumulative  and  R E V I E W / 14  amenable  to  quantitative  analysis so that both the texts, and the methods used for their analyses can be properly evaluated. Qualitative techniques alone cannot provide educators with systematic  procedures  required  instructional materials (Pratt,  to  assist  them  1972; Saunders,  in  studying  and  the  evaluating  1982).  2. Quantitative Measures  Empirical  processes  comparisons research  allow  through  for  simple  the  categorization  numerical  is carried out with respect  and  1982; Pratt,  designed (the  to  1972; Saunders,  produce  an  concrete meaning)  identified,  and  then  statistical  procedures.  Units  account  relevant  selected  of the to  a  attribute  enough  message  statistical analysis (Fiske, but  the  emerging  occurring  can  remove  denotative  communication system. or any other  a  direct  Quantitative  particular  units can be television roles, words in a text, of  for  1982). Content analysis, for example,  of messages. in the  and  inherent in purely qualitative approaches  objective, measurable  counted  data  to explicit rules and therefore  much of the subjectivity and randomness (Fiske,  of  frequently  for  was  content  study  are  The chosen  readily identifiable the  application  of  1982). Content analysis focuses on denotative meaning,  patterns  often  reveal  connotative  values  and  attitudes  (the  implied meaning). For example, the results of numerous television studies reported by  Fiske  (1982)  over-represented. connotes United  demonstrated This  led  to  a high value in the States.  that the  young,  proposition  white, that  the  middle-class frequency  males of  social value system, at least in Britain  were  portrayal and  the  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 15 Evaluation  coefficient  developed in order Saunders,  analysis  is  to measure  another  form  of  racial or ethnic  content  analysis  bias in textbooks  and  (Pratt,  was 1972;  1982). The "favourability" or "unfavourability" of evaluative terms  are  calculated, and texts are then examined for the frequency of use of these terms. Scores descriptive of the degree of bias are assigned to the texts on the basis of these frequencies.  History and social studies textbooks have been the main focus  of content analysis. Although these areas may be of extreme (1981) contends  that illustrations make a more immediate and lasting impact on  young children than do content selections and language  A for  importance, Bourke  more direct route  usage.  to the analysis of the connotative meaning, which provides  both visual and verbal material, is via the use of semantic differential tests.  This technique  was developed in the late  1950's  (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum,  1965) as a systematic attempt to measure meaning quantitatively. A n individual's feelings, attitudes, "Italian", ratings  or  and emotions held towards a verbal concept, such as  "doctor", or towards  along  "weak/strong".  a  series  Each  of  individual  some  kind of visual  bipolar-adjectival scale  is  made  scales up  of  image such a  are  as, number  "mother",  expressed  as  "good/bad",  or  of  gradations  between an adjective and its opposite. Subjects are asked to consider the stimulus in terms of the adjective pairs on the form and to check a point on each scale to indicate the  direction and intensity of their judgements.  The closer the  mark  is placed to one of the polar terms, the more applicable the subject considers the particular term to the stimulus. The mid-point is a neutral point, to be marked if the  subject  feels undecided or neutral towards  the  concept with respect  to a  specific scale, or feels that either of the polar terms could be equally applied to  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 16 the concept. A numerical value is assigned to each response so that the can or  results  be compared statistically across different concepts or across different audience treatment  variables.  The  responses  of  an  individual  or  of a  group  to  a  concept can be represented diagrammatically on a semantic graph, or "profile", of the ratings given on the set of scales provided (Baggaley & Duck, 1976; Osgood et al., 1965; Warr & Knapper, 1968).  3. The semantic differential as a measuring instrument  a.  Content  The  semantic  differential technique  is easily adapted  to the  requirements  of a  specific study. The concepts and scales chosen depend only on the  purposes of  the  are  particular research  from, As  problem, and  as  alternate  verbal responses  elicited  not emitted by the subjects, encoding fluency as a variable is eliminated.  long as  the  level of the  terms  used  respondants,  for  the  a semantic  scales  are  appropriate  differential can be  to the volcabulary  administered across  a  wide range of subjects (Osgood et al., 1965).  i) Concept selection A stimulus to which a subject is asked to respond on bipolar adjective scales is referred  to  as  a  "concept".  specific subject matter  The  nature  of the  research  problem defines  the  and form (for example, pictorial, or verbal format) of the  concepts chosen for rating. The only criteria given are that the relevant concepts of and  a given  area  that the  should be sampled in order  to get a representative selection,  concepts selected should be familiar  to the  subjects  as unfamiliar  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 17 concepts may produce misleading neutral responses (Osgood et al., 1965).  ii) Scale selection The  sample  of descriptive  meaningful judgements  polar  terms  should  can vary with respect  be  to the  enough to be efficient in practice. Osgood et al. as a source of descriptive terms. In other free  associations  Baggaley  and  of  Duck  subjects (1976)  observing generated  representative  of the  ways  chosen concepts, yet small  (1965) used Roget's  "Thesaurus"  studies, scales were derived from the  the  materials  adjective  values  presented. by  For  example,  showing the  stimulus  materials, two versions of a video tape, to a pilot sample of viewers who were requested  to  ensuing  discuss  discussion  their  was  subjective  recorded  reponses  and  to  analysed  the to  presented  locate  the  materials. most  The  commonly  occurring adjectives. These formed the basis of the value scales used in the  final  analysis of the video tapes. In a study outlined by Lundeen (1969), scales were derived from descriptive material in planning and design literature.  The pairing of a particular scale with "item".  Each  Irrelevant  subject's  concept-scale  judgment  of  pairing  should  a particular concept is described as  an  item be  provides  avoided  as  one it  bit  one  of information.  tends  to  produce  a  neutral response, thereby reducing the amount of information gained with a given number  of items  (Osgood  et  al.,  1965).  In  some  studies,  however,  irrelevant  scales were deliberately included to help mask the true purpose of the test and to  show  whether  the  experimental  variables  would  indiscriminantly or more specifically (Baggaley & Duck, 1976).  affect  assessments  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 18 6. Amount  The  of  amount  material  of material presented,  that  is, the number  of items  (number of  concepts times number of scales) used in the differential, can be adjusted limitations  of the particular study,  such  as the amount  of time  that  to the can be  demanded of the subjects. The slowest college student can make judgments at the rate of at least 10 items per minute. Most subjects can do about 20 items per minute once they get going. This means that even in a short period of time a large amount of information can be collected per unit time per subject (Osgood et al., 1965; Warr & Knapper, 1968).  c. Scale  The  divisions  scale inserted between  semantic degree.  differential Subjects  as  each pair of terms increases  a  measuring  can indicate  instrument  the intensity  as  by well  the sensitivity of the  adding as  the  dimension of  the direction of each  judgment (Osgood et al., 1965).  Over  a large number  that  the  differential  use  of  tests.  of experiments  seven  scale  A l l seven  and subjects,  alternatives  alternatives  was  were  Osgood et al. (1965) found most  used  suitable  with  frequencies. Fewer divisions appeared  to irritate respondents,  experiments  an  using  nine  alternatives  unsatisfactory  for  semantic  approximately  equal  and in a series of  distribution of responses  resulted (Osgood et al., 1965). The successful use of nine alternatives has been cited in the study of person perceptions (Warr & Knapper, 1968), however, the seven-point  scale  system  has been  most  commonly used  in research  involving  visual stimuli (Baggaley, 1980; Baggaley & Duck, 1976; Farish, 1982; Leimkuhler  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 19 & Ziegler, 1978).  Apart from mentioning that the not  used  Duck,  to  1976;  describe  the  Leimkuhler  Knapper,  1968).  response,  for  When  example,  middle alternative  positions on the &  Ziegler,  "extremely"  scales  1978;  explicit verbal for  is neutral, (Baggaley,  Osgood  labels  were  position  et  are  1980; Baggaley &  al.,  1965;  attached  " 1 " or  verbal labels  "7",  Warr  and  to  each  possible  or  "slightly" for  position "3" or "5", it was discovered that subjects made more extreme responses thus giving a poor distribution of responses.  d. The A  form  semantic  scales (Osgood  listed et  differentiated,  of the test differential down al.,  a  test is typically made page; in this  1965).  At  the  top  up  of a  way, judgements of  the  list,  the  set  are  of bipolar elicited in  stimulus  adjective succession  concept  to  be  or described, may be identified verbally (Osgood et al., 1965), and  the scale positions may be labelled numerically (Baggaley & Duck, 1976; Farish, 1982).  In order to prevent the formation of position preference, terms of an  adjective  pair are  scales. That is, either extreme  usually randomly may express  the  (Baggaley & Duck, 1976; Osgood et al., 1965).  the positive and negative  assigned  to either  positive or negative  side of the of a  scale  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 20 e.  Administration  The  preparation of a semantic differential test is a rapid and uncomplicated task.  Identical easy  lists of scales  to  duplicate.  As  are  used  only  for  one  related  sheet  standardized sheets are used with the  of  concepts, paper  thus  is  making the  necessary  various concept names  per  forms concept,  added to the  top  as desired.  Little  time is required for instructions, practice, and the  test itself. The rapid  rate of response makes it an attractive instrument for both the subject and  the  administrator,  the  though  some  measures  thus  that the  speed at which  differential stability  obtained have  responses. coefficients  instructed  suspicions about  to respond  the  Warr from  voiced.  reliability  and  However, it has  subject works does not affect &  Knapper  two  rapidly,  group had been requested  been  the  groups giving  (1968) were  their  described  compared.  first  validity  been  of  demonstrated  the stability of the a  where  the  group  had  been  impressions, whereas  the  other  to work slowly and carefully  One  study  through the scales. The  results showed no significant differences between the responses of the two groups, though the responses of the first group were somewhat more stable.  Semantic differential forms can be administered to many subjects different control  times  under  the  same  experimental conditions as  copies of the form.  conditions. It all subjects  at once or  at  is a relatively simple matter  to  within  a  treatment  get  identical  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 21 f. Scoring  The  procedure  raw  data  obtained  with  the  semantic  differential  is  a  collection  of  checkmarks made against bipolar scales commonly made up of seven divisions. A number can be attached to each of the positions on these scales, either initially, on  the  form  administered. position  itself A  at  the  top  of  the  reader's  score  on  an  checked. If the  scales  have  list  item been  of is  scales, the  digit  alternated  or  after  the  test  corresponding to  in polarity  direction,  is the the  scores must be adjusted before any statistical analysis can be performed on the final  data  (Baggaley & Duck,  1976; Osgood  et  al., 1965; Warr  & Knapper,  1968).  g.  Analysis  Responses given on the semantic differential The  data  is then  amenable  to  forms are easy to score and code.  statistical analysis such as  t tests  and factor  analysis or other cluster analyses. Individual or group results can be represented visually on semantic profiles. This type of rapid visual reference may prove very useful for practical, educational purposes.  The  means  of arriving  at  the  results,  from  the  collection  of check-marks on  scales, are completely objective and the operations of measurement explicit  so  that  they  can  be  replicated.  Two  investigators  can be made  given  the  same  collection of check-marks and following the same rules will end up with the same analysis of the concepts. The semantic differential idiosyncracies of the experimenter.  procedures thus eliminate the  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 22 h.  Stability  The  semantic differential technique is known for its reliabilit}' (Baggaley & Duck,  1976;  Osgood et al., 1965). Its effectiveness does not appear to be influenced by  external factors  such as  subject  fatigue  within  a single application. In addition,  high test-re test reliability coefficiants demonstrate that subjects respond consistently in successive applications of a specific semantic differential instrument.  The  question of semantic differential validity, on the other hand, is not quite so  starightforward of meaning the  (Emmert & Brooks,  1970). A s an absolute or complete measure  value of this technique  must be examined closely. A l l possible  attitudes towards a stimulus concept cannot be accounted for within the confines of one set of adjectival scales. The scale procedure can only be considered valid as  an  index of selected  internal states of the  population tested,  and only for  those scales deemed relevant to the concepts judged.  i.  Utility  Finally, the the et  semantic differential technique has  proven to be highly effective in  analysis of both verbal and visual concepts. In numerous al., 1965)  and  person  perception  studies  (Warr  linguistic (Osgood  & Knapper,  1968), verbal  concepts have been used to investigate dimensions of perception and the  factors  influencing these dimensions.  More recently, semantic differential studies have been undertaken in an increasing number of different fields to analyse connotative responses to visual stimuli. In a series  of television  studies,  (Baggaley, 1980; Baggaley & Duck,  1976)  semantic  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 23 differentials  were  used  to  investigate  the  effect  variables. For example, a television  news  addressing  compared  profile.  the  In  attitudes  another  on  the  the  media  front  mean  experimental rapid  directly  as  study,  a  presenter to  semantic  changing  was  rated  when  shown  differential  was  simple  visual  differently when in  three-quarter  used  to  record  towards police viewed in the original, uncaptioned photograph and as it  appeared studies,  camera  of  ratings  context.  visual  page  of  daily  given  Semantic  examination  a  of  on  newspaper  certain  ratings  1982).  were  modified  scales  profiles created the  (Farish,  from  given  the  data  under  the  In by  the  for  the  allowed  different  these  treatment  conditions.  A  poster  depicting Third  World  plantation workers was  assessed  using several  semantic differential tests. This method of indepth analysis changed certain initial perceptions of the poster  and increased the  subjects'  abilities to discuss bias in  similar materials (Yas, 1986). During a pretest, group discussion on posters used in  multicultural  anah/ses  and  education reached  opinions that  were  no  voiced  the  subjects,  specific about  teacher  trainers,  conclusions  the  poster  about  analysed  conditions were neutral or even positive. These numerous  and  obviously  negative  ratings  the  on  same the  semantic subjects  comments  and  about  and  materials  in  al.  (1965)  them  often  general.  described found  This how  it  poster  appears  to  individuals  difficult  to  be  asked  tested a  common  encode  in  their  The  few  experimental  gave  this  poster  differential  scales  contributed  about  numerous  visual educational  phenomenon.  directly what  spontaneously  materials.  subjects  posttest discussion, the the  vague  again under  provided later. During the suggestions  were  something meanings.  Osgood  et  meant  to  But  when  L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W / 24 semantic  differentials  were  provided, these  individuals were  able  to  express  a  large number of judgements.  Semantic differential scales used in a medical study demonstrated labels  significantly  slides  (Leimkuhler  experiment  where  accompanying  affected &  the  perceptions  Zeigler,  the  1978).  captions  photograph  on  selected  certain  of  unfamiliar  Osgood  et  altered  semantic  individuals viewed in  al. the  scales.  that diagnostic  (1965)  described  judgments For  about  example,  the  an the word  "Reunion" when included in the caption loaded meaning towards the positive end of  the  "happy/sad"  scale, while  "Parting" loaded meaning towards  the  negative  end of this scale. The effect of the caption generalized to the other scales within the same dimension so that judgments were modified overall.  Oppenheim (1970) described a general technique useful for the elicitation of the stereotypic effects of labels. Subjects are shown a series of photographs and  asked  scales)  dealing  photographs (such  to  as  complete with  a  set  personal  of rating  scales  characteristics.  (such At  a  as  semantic  later  date,  of faces  differential the  same  are shown to the same subjects but this time with a label attached the  name  of  an  ethnic  group),  and  are  photographs in order to disguise the experimental materials.  mixed  in  with  other  III. METHODOLOGY  A. MEASURING INSTRUMENT  1. The semantic differential technique  The measuring instrument chosen for this study is a procedure commonly used to measure  connotative  technique  responses  provides a  to  people  or  relatively simple yet  objects.  The  semantic  effective procedure  differential  for the  rating of  stimulus materials: the values or judgements to be investigated are identified and expressed recorded  as  polar terms  on each  on gradated  of these  scales;  scales; the reactions to the stimulus are  and  the  results  are  collected and  analysed  statistically (Fiske, 1982; Osgood et al., 1965 Warr and Knapper, 1968).  The  technique  requirements different index  of  is  highly  and  of a particular study. It has  easify  adapted  been used in the  to  meaning.  The for  gradated the  adjective  measurement  The rating forms themselves  are  scales  increase  of degree  as  the  specific  analysis of many  kinds of materials, both verbal and pictorial, to provide a  sensitivity by allowing response.  generalisable  well  the as  quantitative instrument's direction of  easy to administer and take only a  few minutes for subjects to complete. The analysis of raw data is uncomplicated and the methods of arriving at the final results are objective.  25  METHODOLOGY / 26 2. Relationship  to the study  Stereotypes often reflect an attitude, whether favorable or unfavorable. Therefore, with respect to the problem of obtaining and studying stereotypes, almost any technique of attitude measurement can be usefully employed (Oppenheim, 1970). The  review of the literature indicates that the semantic differential  approach  could be used in combining qualitative criteria developed from multicultural and development education research with the objectivity of semantic differential scales to produce a direct method for eliciting and evaluating reactions to instructional materials.  In  the present  study  a  semantic  differential  instrument was designed to  quantitatively measure teacher trainees' perceptions of selected visual instructional materials and some of the factors contributing to and affecting these perceptions.  The specific function of the instrument is: 1.  to measure the directionality and intensity of responses to educational slides depicting Third World plantation workers,  2.  to test the hypotheses that treatment labels will affect the responses to i), the persons depicted in the slides, and ii), each slide as a whole, and  3.  to measure the correlations between (i) and (ii) above.  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 27  3. Construction of the semantic differential tests  a.  Concepts  Two F)  colour slides of plantation were  above  workers in Third  World countries  chosen from a slide set included in the  (Yas, 1985). These  highly representative  materials  of the  were  (see Appendix  instructional package  specifically selected  described  for analysis  kind of slides circulated in Scottish primary  being schools  for use in multicultural and development education projects. The subject matter of this  type  of  experimental  slide  can  therefore  population,  that  safely is,  Environmental Studies  courses.  One  Nigerian man  slide depicted  a  be  assumed  to  be  familiar  the in  Scottish  teacher  trainees  enrolled  harvesting  bananas,  the  slide  other  Lankan woman harvesting tea. Each of these slides was used as the  with respect to the manner  a  Sri  source of  two visual concepts. The first concept to be rated for each slide was the depicted in the photograph  to  person  in which she or he was  presented. The second concept was the slide as a whole. The persons depicted in the  stimulus  commonly  found  development  Two  slides  dummy  were  in  each  labelled  commercial  in  slide/booklet  a  manner sets  similar  used  in  to  the  labelling  multicultural  and  education.  slides  of  plantation  embedding material. These materials  workers  were  helped mask  included the  by preventing an obvious, direct comparison between  in  the  actual purpose  capacity  of  of the test  the two experimental slides.  The responses to the embedding slides were not analysed.  METHODOLOGY  / 28  b. Scales  In  a pilot stud} , the adjective 7  terms to be used  for this  study  were derived  from multicultural and development education literature on the analysis of racist, ethnic,  and sexist  bias  in educational  materials  (see Tables  1 and 2). [See  Appendix A for pilot study details.]  Table 1 Adjective  Pairs:  Person  Presentation  Positive term  Negative term  superior independent individualistic* active* powerful advanced knowledgeable expert dominant skilful free strong* responsible contented* successful  inferior dependent stereotypic* passive* powerless primitive ignorant inexpert subordinate unskilled subjugated weak* irresponsible discontented* unsuccessful  *Embedding scales  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 29  Table 2 Adjective  Pairs:  Slide  Evaluation  P o s i t i v e term  Negative term  accurate appropriate non-stereotyping progressive attractive interesting non-racist useful unoffensive active* up-to-date normal good strong* non-sexist  inaccurate inappropriate stereotyping traditional unattractive uninteresting racist useless offensive passive* out-of-date unusual bad weak* sexist  *Embedding s c a l e s  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 30 The of  final semantic differential subtests were developed on the basis of the results the  pilot  study.  [See  Appendix  A for  details.] The number  of scales  was  reduced to remove unreliable adjective terms and to increase the statistical power. The  relevant  "person  presentation"  scales  and  the  relevant  "slide evaluation"  scales were embedded in scales not directly relevant to the study, again, in order help mask the actual purpose of the experiment.  c. Form  The  of  the  test  results  of  the  15-item  semantic  minimize  the  time  pilot  study  differential required  indicated  form for  in  the  that  the  subjects  approximately final  one  experiment,  could  minute.  two  complete In  standard  order  a to  forms, or  subtests, were developed, each consisting of a set of 15 bipolar adjective  scales  listed down the page. One subtest contained scales measuring person presentation, the  other  subtest  assessed  attitudes  towards  the  photograph  as  a  whole. [See  Appendix B for final semantic differential forms.]  The  adjective scales were divided into seven alternatives with which to rate the  stimulus  concepts.  A t the  top  of the  adjective  list,  the  scale  positions  were  numbered from " 1 " to "7", from left to right.  The  positive and  negative  poles  of different  adjective  pairs  were  assigned  at  random to the value of " 1 " or "7" so that the subjects would not be influenced by  a standard  order  when rating the  concepts. General stimulus concept labels  were listed at the top of the person perception forms.  METHODOLOGY d. Validity  The  and  content  / 31  reliability  universe  sampled  was  multicultural  and  development  education  literature on racist, ethnic, and sexist bias in educational material. The literature pertained  mainly  reference  to the  verbal  content  of school books  to their illustrations. It was assumed,  descriptive  terms  which  could  be  with  only  secondary  however, that the authors used  considered  relevant  to  multicultural and  development education materials in general. Representative adjectives were derived from  relevant literature  Edinburgh  found in the libraries of Moray College of Education in  and Woodlands Teacher  Centre in Glasgow. A list was made  adjective terms describing both desirable and undesirable attributes which people are represented "person presentation" such  as  those  "assertion  in educational materials.  found  analysis",  in  "Words  and from  and Faces"  general  of the way in  The terms used  scales in Table 1 were derived mainly from (1983)  up of  for the  adjective lists  and in Pratt's  checklists and guidelines  (1972)  obtained  from  Clark (1979), Hicks (1980), Klein (1980), Saunders (1982), and the World Council of Churches (1978).  The  adjectives used in the development of the "slide evaluation" scales in Table  2 were selected from  guidelines containing such suggestions  as: "Assess whether  the book is factually accurate",  "Do not pass over or ignore a racist concept or  cliche",  realistic?"  "Are the  "Beware  of material  up-to-date  as  inappropriateness method  illustrations which  possible" in the  of sampling  presents  (Clark,  was to  generate  Council  stereotypes",  1979);  descriptions"  (World  and  (Saunders, a  pool  of Churches,  "Information  "Look 1982).  for  should  be  inaccuracies  The purpose  of adjectives  1978);  which  of would  as and this be  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 32 representative of the terms used to detect and evaluate the presence of bias in educational material.  A Hoyt analysis of variance (Nelson, 1974) established the degree of reliability of the  semantic  differential instrument  developed for  the  present  method of gauging internal consistency estimated the extent item represented  both  subtests  (r = 0.78  the slide evaluation subtest) are  indicative of  acceptable study.  for  a  for  This  to which each test  what the test as a whole measured (i.e., connotative  to the visual concepts presented). for  experiment.  responses  The results revealed high reliability coefficients  the  person  presentation  subtest,  and r = 0.77 for  and for the total test (r = 0.75). Coefficients of 1.00  perfectly  reliable  test.  A  tests designed to assess group  The item analysis was  performed  after  coefficient averages the  as  of  0.7  or  is the  more  case  removal of the  is  in this  scales  not  considered stable or relevant to the study. [See Appendix C for details.]  B. POPULATION AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES  1. Population  The  target  population was  Environmental  first-year  teacher  trainees  Studies course. Most of these teacher  in Scotland enrolled in an trainees  are  white, middle  class, British, educated in Britain, and between the ages of 19 and 25.  These  teacher  education  is  trainees often  were  approached  chosen  for  through  this  study  because,  Environmental  Studies  as  multicultural  courses,  these  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 33 students can be assumed in  the  study,  to be familiar with the type of visual stimuli presented  and because of their obvious future position of responsibility in the  primary school  system.  2. Sample  The  study  sample  consisted  Education in Edinburgh. in of  of  teacher  trainees  Bachelor  of  Moray  House  College  of  Twenty-six class members volunteered to remain in class  order to take part in the experiment. a  from  Education  These  degree  and  students were in their first year  were  Environmental Studies course. They were white,  all  enrolled  middle class,  in  the  same  British, educated in  Britain, and in their early to middle 20's.  This group of teacher trainees course more  work heavily aware  of  courses  education.  Otherwise,  above and  with  emphasized  stereotyping  Education  respect  was  specifically  multicultural education.  than  other  students  because of their teacher's they to  are  chosen for the study because their  highly  nationality,  first  year  strong concentration  representative  age,  in  They may  of  the  be  somewhat  Environmental on multicultural  population  described  cultural background, socioeconomic  group,  education. As the subjects were fairly homogeneous in these respects it could  be assumed  that individual differences  would not mask a valid treatment  effect.  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 34 C. D E S I G N  OF T H E E X P E R I M E N T  1. O v e r a l l design  The visual stimuli, four colour slides depicting plantation workers (two test slides, and two embedding  slides), were  presented to a group  of teacher trainees who  were asked to record their reactions to the individuals depicted and to each slide as a whole on the semantic differential forms provided.  A  posttest-only  control-group  design is appropriate effect  on the  was  used  for the  experiment.  This type of  when there is a possibility that a pretest would have  experimental  treatment application were experimental  scores  design.  repeated,  The  design  treatment determined  using an  (Borg & Gall,  The effects  statistically by comparing the  analysis of variance  or within  1983).  subjects  factor  of  an the  control and  test for a repeated measures  was  the  stimulus  slide viewed.  The between subjects, or grouping factor was label treatment.  The subjects were randomly assigned subject was measured of  the  to the treatment and control groups. Each  at all levels of the within subjects factor and at one level  grouping factor.  That  is, all subjects  viewed all of the  visual stimuli,  whereas only half, the experimental group, were exposed to the loaded label for each slide. The responses of all subjects were recorded immediately.  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 35  Slide 1 Group  n  1 Loaded label  1 2 3  Plantation Worker  Slide 2 Dummy Slide  Tea Picker  Dummy Slide  *  *  *  *  13 2 Neutral label  14 15 16  26  Figure 1. Schematic representation of experimental design: between subjects (label type) and within subjects (slides) factors. (The same design was used for the person presentation and slide evaluation subtests. *Data not to be analysed.)  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 36 2. D e s i g n variables  a. Independent  variables  i) Stimulus materials Each of the two slides was used as the source of two visual stimuli or concepts. The  first  depicted  concept judged for each slide was the manner was presented  in the photograph.  The second  in which the individual concept  rated  was the  photograph as a whole. ii) Treatment The  control group was exposed to the "neutral" labels -- "Plantation Worker" and  "Tea  Picker" - listed at the top of the respective person presentation forms. The  treatment group was exposed to the "loaded" labels ~ "Native Plantation Worker" and  "Woman  Tea Picker"  -  also  listed  at  the top of the relevant  person  presentation forms.  b. Dependent  variables  i) Person presentation Fifteen  adjective  pairs  scale-responses made  up the  final  person  presentation  form  measure the reactions to the way in which each individual was presented  used  to  in the  different slides (see Table 1). ii) Slide evaluation scale-responses Fifteen  adjective  pairs  made  each photograph (see Table 2).  up the form  used  for recording the responses to  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 37 D.  PROCEDURES  1. D a t a collection  Each subject received a booklet in which to rate the four slides and the depicted therein. Two forms of the booklet had been prepared.  persons  One half of the  booklets contained treatment, or loaded labels for slides one and three, while the other was  half contained the control, or neutral labels for these slides. The not  informed  about  these  differences,  nor  were  they  informed  audience that  the  second and fourth slides were dummy slides. Directions for rating the slides were typed on the booklet covers and were reviewed orally using a sample  slide (see  Appendix B).  The slides were projected onto a screen at the front of the classroom, with the students seated as they would normally be for a regular class lecture. Each slide was  presented  for  two  minutes.  The  minute, on the person presentation evaluation  scales.  The  subjects  students  rated  each  scales then, for another were  asked  to  assess  one,  first,  for  one  minute, on the slide the  material  as  if  concepts  to  be  previewing it before possible use in a classroom situation.  As  the  group  was  guided  through  the  sequence  of  stimulus  studied and rated, the subjects were requested to indicate their judgements of: a) the manner in which specific individuals were portrayed, and b) each slide as a whole.  M E T H O D O L O G Y / 38 The  complete  80-item  test  (two  15-item  forms  per  test  slide)  required  four  minutes to complete. Including four minutes to rate the embedding slides, and ten minutes  for distributing and explaining the  material, the  entire  experiment  took  approximately 20 minutes.  2.  Scoring procedures  Each  person  adjective  depicted  scales.  representing  the  and each  Subjects  slide were  rated  the  adjective  " 1 " to  terms  stimulus  by all subjects concepts  direction and intensity of their reactions  provided. The resulting raw data, ranging from  rated  would  "7", had be  consisting of marks  to be  consistent.  transformed Therefore,  a  by  on  seven-point  checking  a  point  on each of the  scales  corresponding to  so that value  the  numbers  polarity of  of. " 1 " was  the  assigned  uniformly to the extreme positive position, and a value "7" was assigned to the extreme item  negative  was,  the  position. After more  transformation,  positively the  associated scale, and vice versa.  subject  felt  the lower the towards  the  final score on an concept  along  the  IV. RESULTS  A. DATA ANALYSIS  The embedding scales were eliminated from any  analyses  took  "active/passive", presentation  place.  These  "strong/weak",  subtest,  and  and  the  scales  semantic were  differential test before  "individualistic/stereotypic",  "contented/discontented"  "strong/weak",  and  from  "active/passive"  the  from  person  the  slide  evaluation subtest.  The  directionality and  slides were measured from rated.  the  two  label  Semantic  intensity on the  of the  overall  relevant semantic  conditions were  profiles of the  responses  were  the  two  stimulus  differential scales. Group means  pooled together  results  to  for  created  by  each  of the  connecting the  concepts points  representing the mean scale ratings for each concept.  Separate analyses  for the  person presentation  and the  slide evaluation subtests  were performed using the programme U B C - C G R O U P (Lai, 1982). This hierarchical grouping analysis determines the extent to which natural clusters, that is, groups made  up  involved.  scales having similar Scales are  score profiles,  exist among the  progressively associated into groups  so as  series of scales to minimize  variation within the groups. Each resulting cluster, therefore, can be regarded representing  a  unique  attribute  of  the  concepts  rated.  The  reduction  of  the as the  number of variables in this manner increases the statistical power of the design and may indicate the presence of meaningful dimensions of attitude.  39  The scores  R E S U L T S / 40 from  both  experimental  conditions were  pooled together for each  subtest  before  each cluster analysis.  The experimental design was extended by including cluster score as an additional within  subjects  factor.  First, the  scores  of  scales  making  BMDP  (Dixon,  1983),  an  the  cluster  scores  each  cluster.  up  analysis  of variance  the cluster scores for any interaction effects the  specific  subtests.  concept  Differences  rated. in  Again,  response  a  Then, for  calculated from the  the  statistical  repeated  measures,  mean  procedure analyzed  occurring between the treatment and  separate as  were  analyses  consequence  were of  run  label  on  the  two  treatment,  slide  viewed, and adjective cluster were examined for both subtests.  The statistical package of the  test as  LERTAP  (Nelson, 1974), used  to establish the  reliability  discussed in the Methodology section above, provided information  on the intercorrelations occurring between the subtests and the entire test. These correlations were derived from the Pearson product-moment cluster analyses,  coefficient. As in the  scores from both label conditions were pooled together for each  subtest.  B. FINDINGS  The first objective of this study was to use the semantic differential technique in order to quantify the direction and intensity of teacher trainees' reactions slides depicting Third World plantation workers.  towards  R E S U L T S / 41 The  following codes represent  the intensity of the mean responses recorded on a  seven-point scale:  Quite: less than or equal to equal to 5 and less than 6. Slightly: less than than 5.  3 and greater  3.5 and greater  than  than  2; more  3; more than  than  or  4.5 and less  Neutral: greater than or equal to 3.5 and less than or equal to 4.5.  The  subjects  perceived  subordinate, "Picker"  expert,  was  and  slightly  expert, skilful,  and  normal; and  appropriate,  quite  slightly  being  and  slightly  quite  inferior  powerless, backward, and  a whole was appropriate,  attractive,  interesting,  (see Figure 3).  responsible;  as  powerless, and  ignorant,  backward.  subordinate;  and  The quite  and responsible (see Figure 2).  "Worker" slide as  was  "Worker"  inferior,  The  slide  the  useful,  rated  slightly  stereotyping,  unoffensive, up-to-date,  and  accurate,  and  interesting, useful,  traditional. The  good;  and  quite  normal, traditional, and  "Picker" accurate,  stereotyping  RESULTS / 42  1  2  3  5  4  6  7  superior 1/ independent  inferior .  .  .  ./ .  .  .  dependent  .  .  powerless  n  powerful  .  .  .  . h .  advanced  jV.  knowledgeable  .  .  expert  .  .  dominant  .  .  skilful  .  .  .  /  .  .  .  .  / .  ignorant inexpert  . -\.  .  .  subordinate  .  .  .  unskilled  .  .  .  subjugated  -  •  •  •  irresoonsible  X  .  .  .  unsuccessful  / \  free  J .  primitive  \  . /  responsible  .  .  <f /  successful  .  .  .\  \  /  \  Figure 2. Semantic profile of mean responses to persons depicted in photographs. (Solid line represents responses to "Worker", broken line represents responses to "Picker". The data were transformed so that the left-hand column contains only positive terms, and the right-hand column contains only negative terms.)  R E S U L T S / 43  accurate  inaccurate  appropriate  inappropriate  non-stereotyping  stereotyping  progressive  traditional  attractive  unattractive  interesting  uninteresting  non-racist  racist  useful  useless  •unoffensive  offensive  up-to-date  out-of-date  noraal  unusual  good  bad  non-sexist  sexist  Figure 3. Semantic profile of mean responses to slides. (Solid line represents responses to slide 1, broken line represents response to slide 2. The data were transformed so that the left-hand column contains only positive terms, and the right-hand column contains only negative terms.)  R E S U L T S / 44 The  results  According groups  of  to  was  the  the  cluster  analysis  substantial  reduced from  can  be  error jumps  four  to  three  seen  which  in  Tables  occurred  for the  and  3  when  the  below.  4  number of  person presentation  items,  and  from  five to four for the slide evaluation items,  it may be concluded that three  and  four  person  "natural"  evaluation items,  groups  respectively.  exist  among  the  [See  Appendix  D  for tree  presentation  and  slide  graphs of the grouping  procedures.]  The  scales forming the person presentation clusters appear to be associated  with  one  another  have  therefore  in  been  a  coherent,  designated  connotatively by  labels  natural  summarizing  characteristics indicated by the scales involved (see regarded  as  manner. the  These  personal  clusters  attributes  or  Table 3). Each cluster can be  representing a different dimension of the  subjects'  attitudes  towards  certain aspects of individuals viewed.  Clusters 3 and 4 generated from the slide evaluation analysis could be considered natural composed the  scale  groupings.  of scales closely  results  of  the  slide  However,  neither  related on a evaluation  semantic  subtest,  mainly from a statistical point of view.  cluster  the  1  basis.  nor  2  are  Therefore,  clusters  are  consistently in discussing  deemed  natural  RESULTS /  Table 3 Person  Presentation  Cluster (C)  Clusters  Adjective  Pairs  1 1 1 1 1  super i o r / i n f er i o r advanced/backward power f u 1 / p o w e r l e s s dominant/subordinat e independent/dependent  2 2 2  knowledgeable/ignorant successful/unsuccessful free/subjugated  3 3 3  expert/inexpert responsible/irresponsible skilful/unskilled  Note. Values represent order of formation of clusters. C l = social status dimension, C2 = personal status, C3 = professional status.  RESULTS /  Table 4 Slide  Evaluation Clusters  Cluster (C)  Adjective  Pairs  1 1 1 1 1  accurate/inaccurate appropriate/inappropriate interesting/uninteresting useful/useless normal/unusual  2 2 2 2  attractive/unattractive unoffensive/offensive up-to-date/out-of-date good/bad  3 3  non-s t er eotyping/s t e r e o t y p i n g progressive/traditional  4 4  non-racist/racist non-sexist/sexist  Note. Values represent, order of formation of clusters.  R E S U L T S / 47 Cluster  scores,  calculated by averaging the mean  scores  of the of the scales  associated with each cluster, are shown in Tables 5 and 6 below.  Table 5 Cluster  Scores: Person  Presentation  LABEL PERSON  CLUSTER  NEUTRAL(N)  1 1 1  1 2 3  4.82 4.75 4.05  2 2 2  1 2 3  4 . as 3.87 2.52  Note. Values represent cluster.  mean  score  •f LOADED(L)  AVERAGE (N+L)  3.00  4.77 4.43 3.53  4. S3 3.84 2.64  4.75 3.85 2.57  4.72 4 . 12  of scales  making up each  RESULTS / 48  Table 6 Cluster  Scores: Slide  Evaluation LABEL  SLIDE  CLUSTER  1  1  1 1 1  2 3 4  2 2 2 2  1 2 3 4  Note. Values cluster.  represent  NEUTRAL(N)  LOADED(L)  AVERAGE (N+L)  3.06  3.12  5.58 4.54  3 . SO 5 . 12 4 .08  3.72 5 . 35 4.31  2.58 3.2S 5 .46 4.00  2.63 3 . 17 5.12 3.88  2.S1 3.22 5.29 3 .94  3 . 18 3.84  mean  score  of scales  making  up each  R E S U L T S / 49 The  second  trainees'  objective  reactions  photographs  was to determine  to images  of Third  the effect World  of loaded labels  plantation  workers  depicting them. The analyses of variance for repeated  on teacher and to the  measures was  based on the three and four levels of the within subjects factor specified by the cluster  analyses  for person  presentation  and slide evaluation,  respectively. The  results of the analyses of variance are summarized in Tables 7 and 8 below.  Table 7 Analysis  of Variance  SOURCE MEAN TREATMENT ERROR  for Repeated  Measures:  DEGREES OF FREEDOM  MEAN SQUARE  SUM OF SQUARES  Person  Presentation  F  2 TAIL PROB. 0 oooo 0 1309  2476 83652 3 94257 38 68718  1 1 24  2476 83652 3 94257 1 61 197  1536 53 2 45  PERSON P X T ERROR  10 46256 2 88103 15 04974  1 1 24  10 46256 2 88103 0 62707  16 68 4 59  0 0O04 ** 0 0424 *  CLUSTER C X T ERROR  77 63807 0 60167 30 08360  2 2 48  38 8 1903 0 30083 0 62674  61 94 0 48  0 OOOO** 0 6217  P X C P XCX T ERROR  5 66167 2 82321 19 35179  2 2 48  2 83083 1 41 160 0 40316  7 02 3 50  0 0021 ** 0 0381 *  iVore. T=label treatment, P=person depicted, C = adjective cluster. *p<.05. **p<.01.  RESULTS /  Table 8 Analysis  of Variance  for Repeated  Measures:  DEGREES OF FREEDOM  MEAN SQUARE  3235 05777 2 S1005 61 97307  1 1 24  3235 05777 2 61005 2 58221  1252 82 1 01  SLIDE S X T ERROR  6 7S082 0 49043 19 770O0  1 1 24  6 7G082 0 49043 0 82375  8 21 0 60  CLUSTER C X T ERROR  172 08790 0 96668 97 08923  3 3 72  57 36263 0 32223 1 34846  42 54 0 24  0 OOOO 0 3689  1 77130 0 10476 25 76769  3 3 72  0 59043 0 03492 0 35788  1 65 0 10  0 1855 0 961 1  SOURCE MEAN TREATMENT ERROR  S X C S XCX T ERROR  SUM OF SQUARES  Slide  Evaluation  F  Note. T = label treatment, S = slide viewed, C = adjective cluster. *p<.05. **p<.Ol.  2 TAIL PROB. 0 0000 0 3247 0 0085 ** 0 4479  R E S U L T S / 51 The statistical analyses revealed significant differences ascribed to differences in some of the independent of  the  person  perception  overall significant effect, the  slides presented.  effects  (see  responses rated  Figures  on  more  responses,  the  that is, the  all three  and  5).  clusters  labels  labels did not affect  Both were  positively overall than  variables involved. In the case  treatment  However, there were 4  in responses which can be  received  averaged  had  no  responses to both of  highly significant person  persons  the  themselves  neutral  together, but  and  cluster  ratings  the  when  "Picker" was  "Worker", F(l,24)= 16.68, p = .0004;  and  the persons, in general, depicted in the slides, were rated negatively on cluster 1 (the  social  dimension),  status and  dimension),  positively  on  neutrally cluster  on 3  cluster  (the  2  (the  professional  personal status  status  dimension),  F(2,48) = 61.94, p = .0000.  Significant interaction effects person  was  also emerged. The interaction between treatment and  significant, F(l,24) = 4.59, p = .0424  (see  Figure  6): the  loaded label  had no effect on responses to the "Picker", yet affected ratings of the "Worker" in  a  positive direction. The interaction between  significant, "Picker"  F(2,24) = 7.02,  was  rated  p = .0021,  more  (see  positively than  Figure the  status dimension, responses to both persons the  interaction  F(2,24) = 3.5,  between  p = .0381,  person,  that  is,  cluster, different  person 7):  on  and  cluster  clusters  "Worker", whereas  2  was highly and  3  on the  the  social  were similarly negative. And finally, and patterns  treatment of  response  was  significant,  were  revealed  depending on the combination of person depicted, treatment applied, and  adjective  scales used for rating the presentation of the individual viewed.  RESULTS / 52  i.2  to  a 4.0  t-t -p cd  u  CD  o  3.  CD  cd CD  >  3.6  Worker Person Figure 4. Person averaged together p = .0004.)  effect. across  Picker depicted  (Ratings on clusters both label conditions.  1, 2, and 3 F(l.24)= 16.68,  R E S U L T S / 53  i.5  4.0  3.5  3.0  0  C  Social Personal Professional Adjective c l u s t e r - status  Figure 5. Cluster effect: person presentation. (Ratings across both, label conditions. F(2,48) = 61.94, p = .0000.)  averaged  R E S U L T S / 54  Loaded label  4.4  A  Neutral label  4.2 bo c 1-1 -p <d fn  CD rH  4.0  cd o  01 CD  3.8  CD >  3.6  Worker Person  Picker depicted  Figure 6. Person by treatment interaction. (Responses across all 3 clusters. F(l,24) = 4.59, p = .0424.)  averaged  RESULTS / 55  Social Adjective  Personal cluster -  Figure 7. Person by cluster interaction. label conditions. F(2,24) = 7.02, p = .0021.)  (Ratings  Professional status averaged  over both  R E S U L T S / 56 In  a  separate  clusters [See  2  t test  analysis  3 for  slide  and  Appendix E  favourable  for  for  independent  1 appeared  details.]  The  pairs  to be  individual  (Lai, 1984),  affected  by  viewed was  the  responses  on  label treatment.  perceived  in a  more  light on these clusters when labelled "Native Plantation Worker", than  when labelled simply "Plantation Worker". The mean scores for C2 were 4.12 for the  treatment,  neutralised  and  the  test results  negative  4.05,  for  the  control condition. Apparently the  bias on C2 and  induced a positive bias  indicated a significant positive treatment effect,  For C 3 , the mean and  4.75  loaded  label  on C3. The t  <(24) = 2.53, p = .019.  scores for the treatment and the control conditions were  respectively.  The  t  test  results,  once  again,  revealed  a  3.00  significant  positive treatment effect, £(24) = 2.49, JP>=.019.  In  the  case  of  significant effect significant  effects:  the  slide  evaluation  responses,  (see Table 5). However, the slide 2 was rated  the  slides and the  more positively than  p = .0085 (see Figure 8); and both slides were rated 2, negatively on cluster (see Figure 9).  treatment  3, and neutrally on cluster  labels  clusters  had  no  had highly  slide 1, F(l,24) = 6.76,  positively on clusters  1 and  4, F(3,72) = 57.36, p = .0000  RESULTS / 57  3.8  3.6  Slide Figure 8. Slide effect. (Cluster ratings averaged together across both label conditions. F(l,24) = 6.76, p = .0085.)  RESULTS / 58  5.0  10 c  •H  -P a3  ?H  4..0  (!)  -P  ca 3  3.0  2  3  Cluster Figure 9. Cluster effect: slide evaluation. label conditions. F(3,72) = 57.36, p = .0000.)  (Ratings  pooled across both  R E S U L T S / 59 The  third  and  final  objective  of  the  study  was  to  analyse  the  relationship  between the person presentation ratings and the slide evaluations. The results of the Hoyt's estimate of reliability indicated that the correlation (r = 0.024) between the  subtests was  the  subjects'  not significant [See Appendix  perceptions  of the  individuals  their assessments of the slides viewed.  C for details.] That is, overall,  depicted did not  significantly  affect  V.  A.  DISCUSSION  SUMMARY  The problem under investigation was the analysis of the connotative meaning of educational  slides  portraying Third  World  plantation  workers. Teacher  trainees'  reactions to the stimulus materials were recorded on semantic differential scales in order to determine quantitatively the effect of different labels on perceptions of the  persons  using  depicted. Two  bipolar adjective  guidelines  found  in  15-item semantic  scales.  These  multicultural  and  scales  differential forms had  been  development  were  constructed  derived from  qualitative  education  literature  on  the  analysis of bias in educational materials and had been tested in a pilot study. Subjects first rated the manner in which the person was presented and then the slide itself by making judgements against the relevant series of descriptive scales. A posttest-only control group design was used to measure the effect of the labels on  the  booklet  subjects'  responses  to  -  containing  the  containing  half the  control,  or  the  visual  stimuli.  treatment,  neutral,  labels  or  Two forms  loaded,  — were  labels,  distributed  of the the  response  other  randomly  to  half the  subjects.  Viewers judged both persons depicted in the slides to be presented in an inferior, backward,  powerless,  and  subordinate  yet  expert  and  responsible  light.  The  "Picker" was rated skilful as well, and more positively overall, however, than the "Worker".  Both  slides appeared  accurate,  interesting, useful, normal, appropriate  and, at the same time, stereotyping and traditional. The "Picker" slide was also  60  D I S C U S S I O N / 61 rated  attractive,  unoffensive,  good, and  up-to-date.  This slide generally received  higher ratings than the "Worker" slide.  Overall, both individuals depicted were  rated  negatively on cluster  status dimension (inferior, backward, powerless, on  cluster  2,  the  successful/unsuccessful, professional  personal  status  free/subjugated),  status dimension (expert,  subordinate,  dimension  and  1, the  dependent),  social  neutrally  (knowledgeable/ignorant,  positively  responsible, skilful).  on  cluster  3,  Both slides were  the rated  positively on cluster 1 (accurate, appropriate, interesting, useful, normal), neutrally on  cluster  good/bad),  4  (attractive/unattractive,  and  negatively  (non-racist/racist,  on  cluster  non-sexist/sexist),  unoffensive/offensive, 3  (stereotyping,  however,  the  up-to-date/out-of-date,  traditional).  "Worker"  slide  On cluster was  2  rated  neutrally while the "Picker" slide was rated positively.  The statistical analysis of the  test scores  overall  that the  effect,  yet  it appeared  indicated that  the  treatment did affect  treatment had the  no  perceptions of  the individual depicted in slide 1. The loaded label, "Native Plantation Worker", directed the  subjects  towards  a more positive reading on the  professional status  dimension and a more neutral reading on the personal status dimension.  The relationship between person presentation  rating and slide evaluations was not  found to be significant. Overall, the perceptions of the individual depicted did not affect the assessments of the slide itself.  D I S C U S S I O N / 62 B. CONCLUSIONS  In  this study, the  effective  semantic differential test developed provided an efficient and  technique  for  eliciting  connotative  responses  to  presented  stimuli.  The  scores were easily manipulated and interpreted: indications about where biases lay were  obtained directly from  semantic  profiles  evaluated  from  only measured has  created  group  from  means  these  and  from  a visual  ratings;  and  statistical  inspection of the differences  simple analysis of variance procedures. The adjective direction of response,  but intensity as  pointed out, to be able to measure  the  degree  well.  were  scales  As Saunders  not  (1982)  of bias is important since  almost all of the prevailing educational materials are biased to some extent. Once the  intensity of an  compared  on the  assessment has  basis of which  been calculated, different materials can be  components  lend  themselves  more  to  negative  depicted,  whether  interpretations.  The  results" of  this  experiment  indicated  that  the  persons  labelled or not, were seen in a negative or neutral manner. The slides presented few main  positive images. Different patterns of response clusters  subjects  rated  of  the  the  positively on the  person  labourers  presentation negatively  on  scales the  were revealed by the which social  sorted status  professional status dimension. Neutral responses  three  together.  The  dimension,  yet  were recorded  on the personal status dimension. The picture of the labourers then becomes one of people accredited with a socially inferior status who are nevertheless proficient at their work. The teacher trainees rating the material may actually partake of the  end products of this labour (eg., in the  form  of imported tea  or  bananas)  D I S C U S S I O N / 63 and  therefore  may  However, the  same  people about the  and  have  developed positive views of the  subjects  would  could  hardly  therefore  their level of inferiority,  people  are  at  have  develop  of the  well  backwardness,  work but do not  objective judgements  had little  way  people as "providers".  direct experience substantiated  with  personal  these notions  and so on. The slides show that  "show" their social status. The supposedly  the  people  are  depicted  in  the  slides  most  probably reflect the general social attitudes of the subjects' background. Note that the  subjects  presented, have  had  not  been  asked  how they  responded  more  to  rate  how  personally felt about  positively overall  in an  they  thought  the  those  persons.  The subjects  effort  Even so, the results may indicate that the subjects analyse the presentation affected  by the  personal  status  scales to the importance  to  to  appear  were may  prejudiced.  were not able, after  all, to  of the plantation workers objectively, and were actually  labels in a programmed manner. dimension may  concept or to the the  not  persons  subjects  demonstrate  a  The neutral  low degree  responses  on the  of relevance  of  the  viewers. That is, it may not be of immediate  how  satisfactory  or  unsatisfactory  the  workers'  The slide evaluation scales sorted out into four clusters. The responses  on these  personal lives are.  clusters were mainly positive or neutral. It appears somewhat contradictory that the slides could be rated stereotyping and traditional and yet, at the same time, accurate  and appropriate for both slides, and up-to-date  slide. The slides were also rated depicted  were judged  subordinate  manner.  to be This  "Picker"  neutrally on the racism scale while the people  presented effect  as well for the  could  in an be  inferior, backward, powerless,  related  to  the  relevance  that  and the  D I S C U S S I O N / 64 different have  scale terms held for the viewers. The terms "racist" and "sexist" may  few  connotations  for  this  group,  and  therefore  reactions. Or it may be that the teacher trainees concept  of racism and  Moray  House  preferred  College did  not to respond  acknowledge  that  elicited  more  neutral  were not comfortable with  the  to it. The teacher trainees  at  the  emphasis  was  on  descriptive  multiculturalism in class discussions rather than, for example, on antiracism.  The  patterns  of  response  to  the  interactions of label with person cluster. The treatment affected the  two  under  slide  the  two  also affected which  evaluations  However, the  and slide presented  the  were  disclosed  significant  and of label with  "Picker" person  conditions. The  differentially by the  ratings  presented  adjective  responses to the image of the "Worker", whereas  and  experimental  concepts  negative  remained  "Worker" clusters  constant  themselves  were  label treatment. The social status cluster, on  and  of  the  highest  profession cluster, which received the  control conditions, was affected  ratings  intensity,  was  most neutral  not  affected.  ratings  in the  the most strongly, and in a positive direction. It  may be that the ratings on the social status dimension reflect strong views held by the  subjects  little effect. influence.  a  respondent  through  therefore  Where the Apparently,  produced  would  and  have  meaning  slight changes  subjects  felt neutral  the  negotiation  that  in  the  in the the  between  first  case  title would  treatment could exert the  message  was  determined  and in the second more by the components been  interesting  discussion or further  "Native" had a positive effect  to  follow  testing,  up in an  the  have relatively  results  and  of the with  a visible  the  more  viewer by  the  message itself. It the  sample  attempt to discover why the  on some of their views. Perhaps  the term  group, label struck  D I S C U S S I O N / 65 a  chord  of  guilt  or  a  feeling  of  sympathy  towards  the  worker.  The  term  "Native" may also have a sound of authority associated with it in respect to the actual plantation work performed.  The relationship between  the  subjects'  perceptions of the  manner  in which  the  plantation labourers were depicted and the ratings given to the slides themselves was not found to be statistically significant. However, the slides did receive more positive  ratings  responses African  overall  had been  than  did the  individuals  depicted. A similar  revealed in a previous study  "Orange Growing" poster  (Yas, 1986) where  was initially rated  in a negative light.  from  assessments  studies  suggest  that  the  overall  a South  positively even though  workers depicted were judged to be presented these  pattern of  given  to  the  The results the  visual  materials at hand cannot necessarily be used to predict the absence or presence of negative images of the people portrayed. When concerned with such issues as bias  and  stereotyping,  it  would  appear  more  relevant  to  concentrate  on  the  persons depicted than to rate the visual as a whole.  C. LIMITATIONS OF T H E STUDY  On the clusters used to measure the perceptions of the simulus materials, few of the  assessments  were  seen  to  be  significantly  treatment. This could be a true measure  affected  by  the  loaded  label  of the treatment effect or could have  resulted at least in part from methodological problems. For instance, the semantic differential  technique is known for its stability when used with  sample and therefore  any differences  a  homogeneous  in ratings can be assumed to be due to  D I S C U S S I O N / 66 the  treatment effect.  From  a statistical point of view, however,  it would  have  been desirable to have had a larger sample. Originally there were to have been 40  subjects,  20 per  treatment.  With  a  larger  sample,  a more  traditional, and  statistically more powerful factor anatysis could have been used.  It  is  also  characteristics  important  to  note  and both  the  that  an  interaction  visual materials  presented  selected, is most likely in effect. The subjects representative  between  and  the  demographic  adjective  scales  involved in the studj' were highly  of the specific population sampled, however, the population itself is  strictly delineated  as  20's. The results  cannot be generalised outside of this group. According to Hall  (1973),  social  white, middle class British  forces  such  geographical region, and  as  class,  teacher trainees  education,  religion help determine  occupation, what  the  in their  political  early  affiliation,  reader brings to  the  negotiation with the text. A Sri Lankan teacher trainee, for example, or an all male audience, and  to the  Apart  groups.  the  value  characteristics,  eliminating  all possible  of the random initial  A pretest-posttest  differences sensitized  quite differently to the image of the  label "Woman" when  from  personal  may respond  (Borg & Gall, the  compared  information assignment differences  control-group  to the that  present experimental  would  be  gained  may  not  be  between  the  experimental  design  "Tea Picker"  would  have  totally  group.  by including successful and  accounted  in  control  for  these  1983). However, a pretest in this situation would have  experimental  subjects  to  the  presence  of the  treatment.  Another  way to control for this source of error would have been to administer a pretest several weeks in advance of the treatment and posttest.  D I S C U S S I O N / 67 The  results  of the  cluster  analysis are  also limited  to  the  specific population  sampled. Different adjective clusters would most likely have been formed if the materials British  had  been  subjects  isolation  by  any  group  other  than  the  white,  middle class  involved in this study. The meanings of words often evolve in  over  equivalent,  rated  time  or at  and  least  space  closely  (Fiske,  related,  1982).  Therefore,  terms  considered  to one cultural group or subgroup  may  well have divergent connotations to another. The clusters are mainly of value in simplifying  the  statistical analysis and  in making viewers more  aware  of the  coherence of their own prejudices.  A  major  problem concerning the  interpretation different terms  of  the  scale  semantic  position  "4".  differential scales Different  themselves  subjects  may  be  from  general  multicultural  and  development  education  the  assigning  meanings to this position. Unless it is automatically assumed  derived  is  that  the  guidelines  would be relevant for the analysis of bias in all forms of educational materials, "4" may represent the  scale terms  a "neutral" response or signify that the subjects did not find  applicable to the concept. The method that was used. for scale  construction could be considered somewhat artificial as the subjects did not supply their  own  material  terms.  may  Scales  have  been  subjects, and therefore were  the  actual  scales  generated more  from  specifically  a  group  discussion on  relevant  to  the  slides  the and  stimulus to  the  may have been affected differently by the treatment than used.  In  the  pilot  study  a  category  was  available to  indicate the irrelevance of a scale to the stimulus concept. However, the sample size may have been insufficient to get a true picture of the situation: only six respondants took part in that study.  D I S C U S S I O N / 68 Another problem noted with respect to the bipolar scales was that the observers were not necessarily in agreement adjective  terms.  From  the  with  regards  discussion which  to their  arose  after  interpretations  of the  the  became  tests,  it  obvious that some of the subjects had felt unsure, for example, about the context of the usefulness of the slides and therefore responded on the useful/useless scale with  a "4" rating. Responses may have also been affected  by a "halo" effect.  This occurs when observers rate a concept on scales in the same overall rating. Randomising the polarity of the positive and negative terms may not have totally eliminated the effects of this phenomenon.  Further research using the semantic differential technique in the analysis of bias in visual educational material should include larger subject samples, subjects different  backgrounds,  representative differential the  and  a  extensive  selection  of  visual  materials  of those used in multicultural and development education. Semantic  tests could be devised so as  population and concepts  stimulus  more  from  materials)  as  well  to include descriptive terms  sampled (eg., derived from as  terms  generated  specific to  open discussion on the  from  general,  yet  relevant  qualitative guidelines. The ensuing semantic differential forms should be reviewed and  discussed by a pilot sample large enough to ensure  that each scale has  a  clear meaning with respect to the stimulus concepts.  D. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  It is evident from the results of this experiment and others, that labels interact with  the  visual  elements  of a  message  to  create  a  meaning  which  may  be  D I S C U S S I O N / 69 unpredicated  in quality, direction, and intensity. A s visual  becoming a dominant must  now  powerful  be  visually  communicative  interaction  between  interpret, It  both  mode of communication in our and  forces  visual  evaluate,  it,  involved  that  and  information  verbal  literate People  society (Dake,  to  deal  must  information  be  be  able  to  1982), one  effectively  also  with  the  of  the  aware  to judiciously  share  "look" at  be  able  these  to  a visual  create  meanings  gives an immediate  text,  meaning  with  one  must  from  others.  the  The  be  educated  concrete  processing  assessments  apparent from  the  of  the  of  (Pratt,  emerging  1972;  required which focus the viewer's attention of semantic ensuring  differentials  that  the  ensuing results  may  fulfill  respondents'  visual  appraisal of reality (Sikora, 1980), which if too  meanings  literature  to  elements  rapid, may lead to programmed responses and stereotyping. In order to critical  fast  and create messages containing both forms of communications.  is, to  to  involved.  and  is insufficient to merely  "read"  verbally  communication is  from  Saunders,  visual 1982)  promote  messages,  that  it  guidelines  is are  on the relevant components. The use  these requirements  analytical processes  can be easily plotted on semantic  while at  are  uniform,  the  same time  and  that  profiles and analysed  the  visually  or statistically as desired.  It  may  be  easy  messages are  to  believe  purely denotative  outright the "natural" character such  as  those  photographs objective  analysed  in  that  the  facts.  connotative  values  exhibited  in  visual  A viewer would normally tend  to  accept  of communication via visual images (Fiske, 1982) this  study.  Thej'  are,  after  all,  made  up  of  taken of "real" people in "real" places, and supposedly labelled with  terms.  On  the  surface,  these  appear  to  be  purely  denotative  D I S C U S S I O N / 70 representations  of people  and  of their  lives in tropical countries.  reader does not instinctively consider the processess  The  average  that went into creating such  messages (Fiske, 1982). For example, who took or selected the photographs? Who decided on the labels? What kind of decisions went into their selection? Whether or  not  viewers  affected  by  composite  are  the  conscious  choices  verbal-pictorial  of these  implicated.  The  messages  particular  points  of view.  These  responses  within  certain  members  issues,  their  creators  intentionally  perspectives of  involved or  may  the  responses  message  connotations impossible  intended  to  be  purely  denotative  assembling  audience.  may  It  is  the  displayed  unpredicted,  educationally sound to label visual materials, but the author a  in  nevertheless  unintentionally  induce  intended  are  negative obviously  must recognize that  have  strong  emotional  to a viewer, connotations which can colour the entire message. and  undesirable  to  eliminate  the  connotative  effect  of  It is  images  and  words, but these effects can be taken into account by their authors and explored with the audience. A n author need not experimentally analyse all possible choices before  creating  substituted at  a message.  different  units  within  the  message may  be  mentally. Bearing in mind that the interpretation of a message varies  all levels of meaning  experience  Instead,  (Baggaley,  according to what  1980),  the  author  the  can  viewer brings  imagine  how  each  to  the  viewing  change  might  affect the overall meaning generated by the intended audience. From the readers' point  of  acceptance  view, of  semantic visual  differentials  materials  at  face  can  help  value  guard by  against  providing  a  the  framework  reading them, and by supplying verbal terms with which to discuss the aspects involved.  automatic for  different  D I S C U S S I O N / 71 The  results  technique  obtained  in  the  from  further  analysis  of  research  visual  bias  using  could  the  be  semantic  used  to  differential  produce  general  semantic differential forms for teacher training or even in-service purposes. Where desired,  participants  could  add  terms  specifically  relevant  to  the  particular  material studied. Semantic profiles of individual or group results would allow for rapid visual assessments of the results thus providing for an immediate, concrete basis  for  discussion as  well  as  for  feedback  on  the  viewer's  progress  aware reader and educator. If teachers continue to use stereotyped and  labels  through students,  a  in  the  classroom  uncritically,  lack of selectiveness remain  unaware  opinions are affected  of  and this  thej'  will  questioning. process.  If  maintain  Too often, trainees  an  visual images  the  status  quo  like  their  their  own  teachers,  realise  as  how  by their personal attitudes and by such external factors  labels, then they will come to understand  the possible effects  as  of these influences  in the classroom.  Semantic differentials could assist educators not  for  the  applications. primary  purpose  of censorship,  Classroom  school  awareness of the  but  analysis  of  learn  about  children different  facets  to  with  respect  guide  stereotyped their  to visual text selection,  them  towards  material  own  attitudes  more  creative  could  actually  help  and  increase  their  of racism. Note that although the  subjects  of  the present experiment considered the slides stereotyping, they still described them as being useful. Perhaps this was the context of the students could work with prepared promote  discussion about  people, such as  the  semantic  "usefulness".  For example,  differentials or create their own to  possible "reasons"  behind biased  representations  in advertising and political or economic propaganda.  of  Slides and  D I S C U S S I O N / 72 labels produced by the public relations be studied  along side those created  development provoked  education.  by  Imagine  contrasting  visual  on similar  the  themes by agencies  enlightening  materials  produced by the educational department materials  of commercial food companies could  office  comparisons  distributed  by  angles  manner.  At  prevalent  development  curricular  education  is one  strategy that  Cadbury's  most  in  argue that this approach is inadequate  A n unintended,  categorize with  the  uniform  objectivity  more  perhaps  of an ethnic  characteristics"  of photography,  representations a  members  yet  with  those  merely provides descriptive information  inevitable, outcome or cultural group  (Johnstone,  1981).  it is especially easy  and about  1984). Many  and can actually reinforce  stereotypes and prejudices held amongst school children (Ashrif, 1982).  be  multicultural  people from different countries and backgrounds (Aoki, 1978; Ashrif, educators  could  that  and ideas developed on ways  to present the same information in an unbiased  the  in  of an institution such as U N E S C O . The  could be examined from different  present,  engaged  1984; Buchignani,  is that as  a  Because  to accept  the  pupils learn  to  "monolithic entity of  the  apparent  without question  the  of persons depicted through this medium (Fiske, 1979). A s part of  functional  and  integrated  programme,  therefore,  a  vehicle  must  be  provided to help teachers and students critically analyse the pictorial and verbal components of visual messages. A n increased emphasis on visual literacy, using a format  such  as  the  semantic  differential  technique,  may  contribute  to an  open  environment where public and personal attitudes are critically evaluated, discussed, and, where necessary, challenged.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Aoki,  T.  (1978).  Curriculum  approaches  to  Canadian  ethnic  histories  in  the  context of citizenship education. The History and Social Science Teacher, 13, 95-99. Ashrif, S. (1984). The hidden curriculum in biology. In T. Corner & A . Johnson (Eds.), Issues in multicultural and antiracist education in Scotland. A report, (pp.7-11). Glasgow: National Association for Multicultural Education. Baggaley,  J.  (1980).  The  psychology  of  the  T V image.  Westmead,  England:  Gower. Baggaley,  J.,  & Duck,  S.  (1976).  Dynamics of television. Westmead, England:  Saxon House. Barthes, R. (1977). Image-music-text. New York: Hill & Wang. Barty, L . , & Hasmi, H . (1981). 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(1981). 8:2,  Bilingual and multicultural  education:  Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.  Visual literacy. International  Journal  of Instructional  Media,  143-152.  Snider, R.C. (1960). The selection and use of visual media. In J . Ball, & F . C .  / 77 Byrnes  (Eds.), Visual communication, (pp.  119-128). Washington, D . C : The  Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Snider,  J.G.,  &  Osgood,  C . E . (Eds.).  (1969).  Semantic  differential  technique.  Chicago: Aldine. SPSS Inc. (1983). S P S S X : User's guide. New York: McGraw-Hill. Strathclyde Regional Council. (1984). Multi-cultural education. Glasgow: Strathclyde Regional Council, Department of Education. Thompson,  J.J.  (1969).  Instructional  communication. New  York:  V a n Nostrand  Reinhald. Warr, P . B . , & Knapper, C. (1968). The perception of people and events. London: John Wiley. Williams,  C M . , & Debes, J . L . (Eds.). (1970). Proceedings of the  First National  Conference on Visual Literacy. Toronto: Pitman. Words and faces: Teachers guide. (1983). London: Acer Project. World  Council  of Churches.  (1978).  Racism  in children's  and  school  textbooks.  Geneva: Author. Yas, A . M . (in press). Foreign economic plants: A learning package for the Botanic  Gardens.  Edinburgh:  Lothian  Regional  Council,  Royal  Department  of  Education. Yas,  A . M . (1986).  The  meaning  of  visual  educational  materials.  Unpublished  manuscript. Zenger,  W.F., &  Zenger,  S.K. (1976).  Handbook  for  evaluating  textbooks. Belmont, C A : Fearon. Zimet, S.G. (1976) Print and prejudice. London: Hodder & Stoughton.  and  selecting  APPENDIX Pilot  study  78  / 79  PILOT STUDY - D E V E L O P M E N T OF DIAGNOSTIC  SCALES  The visual stimuli, four colour slides depicting plantation workers, were presented to a group of six teacher trainees enrolled at Moray House College of Education in Edinburgh. These students, their first year of a B E d degree, were registered in the same Environmental Studies course. They were white, middle class, British, educated in Britain, and in their early to middle 20's. The subjects recorded their reactions to the manner in which individuals were presented and to each slide as a whole on the semantic differential forms provided. The slides were labelled in two different ways, the general control, or "neutral" label and the treatment, or "loaded" label.  The semantic differential instrument applied in the pilot study provided an opportunity to obtain information on: a) the relevance of the adjective terms derived from multicultural and development education literature on the analysis of bias in educational materials to the selected concepts, and b) the experimental procedures, for example the amount of time required, and the clarity of the instructions given.  1. Construction of the Semantic Differential Tests  a) Concepts Four colour slides depicting plantation chosen for analysis from a slide set Edinburgh instructional package.  workers in Third World countries were included in the Royal Botanic Gardens,  The four slides depicted i), a Nigerian man harvesting bananas, ii), six Afgani Moslem men working in a rice paddy, iii), a Sri Lankan woman harvesting tea, and iv), two Brasilian agricultural inspectors.  Each slide was used as the source of two visual concepts. The first concept to be rated for each slide was the person(s) depicted in the photograph with respect to the manner in which they were presented. The second concept was the slide as a whole.  / 80 b) Scales The adjective terms to be investigated were derived from multicultural and development education literature on the analysis of racist and ethnic bias. A list was made up of adjectives descriptive of both desirable and undesirable attributes of educational materials. The literature pertained mainly to the verbal content of books, with secondary reference to their illustrations. Nothing was found directly referring to discrete visual materials such as photographs and slides. The terms selected, however, were assumed to be relevant in general to the analysis of stereotypic bias in educational materials.  The terms used for the "person presentation" scales (see Table A l ) were derived mainly from adjective lists such as those found in "Words and Faces" (1983) and in Pratt's (1972) "assertion analysis", and from general checklists and guidelines (Clark, 1979; Hicks, 1980; Klein, 1980; Saunders, 1982; World Council of Churches, 1978).  The adjectives used in the development of the "slide evaluation" scales (see Table A2) were selected from guidelines containing such suggestions as: "Assess whether the book is factually accurate", "Do not pass over or ignore a racist concept or cliche", "Are the illustrations realistic?" (World Council of Churches, 1978); "Beware of material which presents stereotypes", "Information should be as up-to-date as possible" (Clark, 1979); and "Look for inaccuracies and inappropriateness in the descriptions" (Saunders, 1982).  A large pool of terms was chosen from the most commonly occurring adjectives in order to disclose the terms specifically relevant to the experimental concepts. To produce the final bipolar terms seen in Tables A l and A 2 , adjectives were paired with their opposites. When not found in the literature, opposites were selected from Webster's "Thesaurus". Some of the scale terms, such as racist and sexist, were difficult to match with suitable antonyms. Therefore, in certain cases, adjective pairs were made up of terms not directly antithetical. The term nonracist, for example, implies the absence of racism rather than the opposite of racism.  Table  A l  Adjective  Pair's: Person  Presentation  P o s i t i v e term  Negative term  scientific friendly superior good hardworking independent individualistic successful honest intelligent active powerful expert assertive advanced kind dominant educated skilful contented  unscientific unfriendly inferior bad idle dependent stereotypic unsuccessful dishonest unintelligent passive powerless inexpert submissive backward cruel subordinate uneducated unskilled discontented  Table A2  Adjective  Pairs:  Slide  Evaluation  P o s i t i v e term  N e g a t i v e term  accurate attractive up-to-date appropriate realistic interesting non-racist useful imaginative normal non-sexist good reliable strong non-stereotyping unoffensive active progressive effective non-patronising  inaccurate unattractive out-of-date inappropriate idealised uninteresting racist useless unimaginative unusual sexist bad unreliable weak stereotyping offensive passive traditional ununeffective patronising  / 83 c) Form of the test Two standard semantic differential forms were devised for the pilot study: one made up of the person presentation scales, and consisting of 20 adjective pairs (see Table A l ) ; the other made up of the slide evaluation scales, also consisting of 20 adjective pairs (see Table A2).  Scale positions were numbered from " 1 " to "7", from left to right. The positive and negative poles of the different adjective pairs were assigned at random to the value of " 1 " or "7" so that the subjects would not be influenced by a standard order when rating the concepts. Verbal labels were not attached to the seven scale positions.  If the assumption is correct, that the authors used descriptive terms relevant to multicultural and development education materials in general, then the method described above should generate adjectives similar to those that would evolve out of a free discussion on the slide contents. In order to ascertain the relevance of the scales with respect to the specific population sampled, however, a category for rating scales not applicable (NA) to a presented concept was included to the right-hand side of each seven-point scale.  Captions describing the individuals depicted in the slides were printed at the top of the person perception forms. Underneath was the question, "How do you feel the individual(s) listed above is (are) presented in this slide?" The slide evaluation forms were not captioned and had the question "How do you feel about this slide as a whole?" printed above the set of scales.  d) Critical review Three lecturers at Moray House College of Education involved in multicultural and antiracist education reviewed the proposed list of adjective scales. They agreed that to the best of their knowledge the terms appeared to be relevant to the stimulus material and to the guidelines presented in the literature pertaining to this subject area. They were familiar with the slides selected for analysis and recommended their use as being highly representative of such materials.  2. Procedures  Each subject received a booklet in which to rate the four slides. Booklets were made up a cover page containing instructions, eight semantic differential forms, a  / 84  list of unsealed bipolar adjective pairs for discussion after the slide presentation. [See Appendix B for instructions and semantic differential forms.] Two forms of the booklet were prepared: one with the treatment labels "Native Plantation Worker", "Moslem Rice Planters", "Woman Tea Picker", and "Brasilian Agricultural Inspectors"; the other with the control lables "Plantation Worker", "Rice Planters", "Tea Picker", and "Agricultural Inspectors". Directions for rating the slides were given using a sample slide. The subjects were informed that the terms which could be considered positive were not necessarily in the same column and that each pair of adjectives was to be considered separately.  The slides were projected sequentially onto a screen at classroom, with the students seated as they would normallj' class lecture. The subjects were asked to assess the material before possible use in a classroom situation and to complete giving their first impressions. Each slide was projected until completed the relevant semantic differential forms.  the front of the be for a regular as if previewing it the forms quickly, all of the subjects  For each visual stimulus the subjects were requested to read the labels and questions at the top of the semantic differential forms and to indicate their judgements of: a) the manner in which the person(s). identified at the top of the first form were portrayed in the slide, and b) each slide as a whole.  A ten minute discussion followed on the relevance of the concepts and the scales selected, and the subjects marked the unsealed adjective pairs which they felt were relevant in general to the slides presented.  3 . Scoring procedures  Subjects rated the stimulus concepts by checking a point representing the direction and intensity of their reactions on each of the seven-step adjective scales provided.  / 85 4. Results  a) Amount of time required The subjects required approximate^' 1.5 minutes to complete each 20-scale form. Including the time for setting up and introducing the material, the experiment itself took about 25 minutes to administer.  b) Relevance of concepts and scales During the posttest discussion, the subjects agreeed that they would use such materials in the context of multicultural and development education and felt overall that the scales selected were relevant to the concepts presented. As twenty minutes had been set aside from the regular class time for the administration of the final semantic differential tests, both forms were reduced to 15 items each. Person presentation scales considered non-applicable by more than two subjects were eliminated. None of the slide evaluation scales had been rated N A . If a concept was rated neutrally along an adjective scale (mean rating greater than 3.5 and less than 4.5) then that scale was not considered specifically relevant to the presented stimulus and was also eliminated. Some adjective scales were added to the original selection and some were modified on the basis of the responses to the unsealed adjective pairs provided at the end of the booklet. Some irrelevant scales were retained as embedding scales.  APPENDIX B Semantic differential test  86  Front Cover - Instructions  Name: Age Sex: Course & year: You are selecting slides in preparation for a Primary 6/7 Environmental Studies project on foreign economic plants. Indicate your reactions to a) the way the individuals are presented in each slide, and b) each slide as a whole. ' 4 ' is neutral. The more you mark to the left of ' 4 ' , the more you agree with the value on the left; the more you mark to the right of ' 4 ' , the more you agree with the value on the right.  Example: a)  SLIDE to be shown OLIVE GROVE OWNER  How is the individual above presented in this slide? The individual appears... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 rich poor sad . . . . . . . happy b) How do you feel about this slide as a whole? The slide appears... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 correct •. incorrect stimulating boring  Semantic Differential for Person Presentation  NATIVE  Haw  i s the individual The  individual  PLANTATION  listed  WORKER  above presented  in this  slide?  appears.>.  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  s u p e r 1or  i nf e r i o r  dependent  independent  i nd i v i d u a l i s t i c  stereotypic  pass ive  act ive  power*u1  power 1 e s s  primitive  advanced  kriow 1 erjg>ab I e  i gnorant  expert  inexpert  subordi nate  domlnant  skilful  unski11ed  f r ee  sub j u g a t e d  weak  strong  i rrespons ib1e  r e s p a n s i b1e  con t e n t e d  d iscontented  successful  unsuccessful  / 39 Semantic  Differential  for  SLIDE  How  do  y o u -feel  The  slide  about  this  Slide  Evaluation  i  slide  as a  whole?  appears...  1  2  3  4  3  6  7  accurate  Inaccurate  i napproppi ate  appropriate  non-stereotyp ing  s t e r e o t y p i ng  trad it ional  progressive  attractive  u n a t t r a c t i ve  i n t e r e s t i ng  un  r ac i s t  non-racist  use-f u l  use 1 e s s  u n o H e n s i ve  of-fens i ve  pass ive  a c t i ve  aut-o+-date  up-to-date  norma 1  unusual  bad  good  strong  weak  sex i s t  non-sex i s t  interesting  APPENDIX  C  Reliability analysis  90  LERTAP  SUBTEST  NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS  1  PERSON  PERCEPTION  NUMBER OF  •  MEAN  HIGHEST  STANDARD D E V I A T I O N  LOWEST  SOURCE OF VARIANCE  ITEMS  SCORE  SCORE  O.F.  S.S.  INDIVIDUALS  25.00  101.59  M.S. 4.OS  ITEMS  10.00  207.19  20.72  RESIDUAL  250.00  219.18  0.88  TOTAL  285.00  527.9G  1.85  HOYT ESTIMATE OF  SUBTEST  NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS  •  26.00  MEAN  -  46.19  STANDARD D E V I A T I O N  -  7.73  SOURCE OF VARIANCE  RELIABILITY  2  SLIDE  EVALUATION  NUMBER OF  HIGHEST  ITEMS  SCORE  LOWEST SCORE  O.F.  S.S.  M.S.  INDIVIDUALS  25.00  114.77  4.59  ITEMS  12.00  325.35  27.11  RESIDUAL  300.00  311.42  1.04  TOTAL  337.00  751.54  2.23  HOYT ESTIMATE OF R E L I A B I L I T Y  -  0.77  / 92 LERTAP  TOTAL TEST STATISTICS  NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS  26.00  NUMBER OF ITEMS  MEAN  91 .50  HIGHEST SCORE  110.00  STANDARD DEVIATION  10. 34  LOWEST SCORE  75.00  SOURCE OF VARIANCE  D.F.  S.S.  M.S.  INDIVIDUALS  25.00  111.27  4 .45  ITEMS  23.00  582.10  25.31  RESIDUAL  575.00  635.69  1.11  TOTAL  623.00  1329.07  2. 13  HOYT ESTIMATE OF RELIABILITY  0.75  NO. SUBTESTS WITH NON-ZERO WT =  2.00  24.00  APPENDIX D Cluster analysis  93  Cluster Analysis - U B C CGP Person Presentation Scales  ITEMS GROUPED  STEP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  10  ERROR 5 9 10 13 14 16 19 25 35 134  1 1 * * * *  68874 31765 39997 97252 35541 91348 03747 71812 86001 73080  Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  * * * * * * * *  it  T  1  IT  Scale  Terms  super 1 o r / 1 n f e r i o r Independent/dependent powerful/power 1 ess advanced/backward know 1 e d g e a b l e / i g n o r a n t expert/inexpert dominant/subordinate skilful/unskilled free/subjugated responsible/Irresponsible successful/unsuccessful  Cluster Analysis - U B C CGP Slide Evaluation  Scales  ITEMS GROUPED 11 STEP 1 5 2 5 3 8 4 9 5 9 6 10 7 13 8 14 9 18 10 28 1 1 60 12 154  ERROR 27147 74529 0031 1 00782 29803 54034 62229 31672 99644 28752 58459 32278  Scale H 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  8 * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  12  13  10  LI  Scale Terms accurate/fnaccurate appropr1 ate/1nappropr1 ate non-stereotyping/stereotyp1ng progressive/traditional attractive/unattractive interesting/uninteresting non-racist/racist useful/useless unof f ensl ve/of f ensive up-to-date/out-of-date normal/unusual good/bad non-sex 1st/sex1st  APPENDIX E T test  96  T Test for Independent Pairs  Cluster  Treatment  Mean  1 1  Neutral Loaded  4.82 4.72  0.29  0.777  2 2  Neutral Loaded  4.75 4.12  2.53  0.019*  3 3  Neutral Loaded  4.05 3.00  2.52  0.019*  df=24  T-value  2-tall  Probability  APPENDIX F Experimental materials  98  


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