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Effects of verbal learning adjuncts on E.E.G. relative power and tympanic temperature as related to recall… Carsley, Norman 1984

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EFFECTS OF VERBAL LEARNING ADJUNCTS ON E.E.G. RELATIVE POWER AND TYMPANIC TEMPERATURE AS RELATED TO RECALL AND COMPREHENSION OF PROSE  NORMAN CARSLEY B.A. Honors University of Winnipeg, 1973 M.A. University of Victoria, 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Department of Educational Psychology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1984 )Norman Carsley, 1984  DE-6  In  presenting this  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  Columbia, available  I  agree that  for reference  the  University  the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make  and s t u d y .  I  that permission for extensive  copying of  understood that financial  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  this  thesis  It  is thesis  g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  (.3/81)  further  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  the  Columbia  Brain  and  Learning  ii A  study  imposed) and  was  during  conducted  leatniiig  comprehension Sixty  groups  adapted  Psychology  material,  group  given for  some the  irrelevant same  (imposed  (induced  imagery).  the  tympanic  differences observed. the  raised.  on  and  recaVl  concerning pictures  possible  for  two  the  no  of  means  research  that the  to  self  occupy  them  waves  and  phase.  created  Recall  the  assessing  pictures right  possibilities  trend  possible  assist  cerebral is  was  indicator,  performance  may  of  hemispheric  thermal imagery  a  with  Analysis  directional of  shows  commensurate  of  by  imagery  spectrum  imagery.  induced of  was  performance  indication  forms  self  group  Brain  power  a  mental  generate  control  recall  induced  and  of  to  from  taken.  the  although  was  various  hemisphere  the  textual  selected  learning  of  E.E.G.  the  genetics)  the  reliability  engagement  from  groups.  for  shows  various  psychopathology  The  on  the  conclusion  related  text  cerebral  conditions  by  future  not  three  pictures,  subsequently  the  right  the  of  during  of  divided  instructions  other  not  responses  and  a  but  thermal  of  up  facilitation  but  general  of  and  studying  disorders.  were  the  the  The  Discussion  (induced  into  depicting  monitored  pictures  forms  Before  given  the  scores  of  on  (from  Analysis  learning  learning  was  imagery)  Questions  ameliorate  were  between  various  imagery  processes  chapter  paste  mental  as  show  engagement with  the  test  pictures  learning  of  randomly  textbooks  duration  results  a  material  temperatures  The  given  group  about  comprehension  likely  was  second  imagery  tympanic and  The  role  were  textbooks.  Psychology  disorders. created  subjects  an  Introductory  Introductory  the  performance.  given  one  examine  J a r a j.n k e u t i s p h e r i o  on  undergraduate  and  Abstract  to  given.  to were  verbal  hemisphere.  iii TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  Acknowledgement  .  1  Abstract Chapter  2 I.  Analysis  of  Research  Problems  and  Hypotheses  Introduction  3  Psychological Induced  Representation  Processes  Imagery  7  Pictures  and Diagram  Illustration  Measures  of  Performance  Other Brain  Learning  Neurophysiological Cerebral  Correlates  Electroencephalograph^  Brain  Blood  Learning  19  Specialization  Circulation  22  Responses  28  and Thermodetection  36 42  Hypothesis  45  Experimental  Expectations  46  Methodology  Subjects  and Design Imagery  Pictorial Control  14  Temperatures  Central  I I .  .  19  Brain  Tympanic  of  Function  Hemispheric  Induced  .  16  Brain  Chapter  9  Related Variables  General  The  7  47  Instruction  48  Diagrams  49  Group  Criterion  Tests  49 Materials  of  Recall  & Comprehension  Apparatus E.E.G.,  . . .  50 50  Signal  Recorder  Analyzer,  and  Instrumentation  F.M. 50  iv  Thermodetector  51  Filtering Units and Others  51  Computers  52  Software  52  Experiment Room  52  Procedure  52  Post Experimental Debriefing  54  Methods of Observations and Measurements  54  E.E.G. Artifact Rejection  54  E.E.G. Data Signal Processing  60  Digital Filtering and Average Power Computation . . . .  65  Calibration . . . . . . . .  65  The Meaning of Average E.E.G. Power Changes and Tympanic Temperature Changes  70  Chapter III. Results  75  Neurophysiological Measures  77  Verbal Recall and Comprehension Test Scores  .  79  Relationship Between Two Neurophysiological and Two Verbal Performance Measures Chapter IV.  80  Discussion and Conclusion  Neurophysiological Measures E.E.G. Indicators of Brain Hemisphere Activity  ....  83  Thermal Indicators of Brain Hemisphere Activity . . . .  87  Neurophysiological Variables Combined  88  Verbal Performance Measures Recall  .  89  Comprehension  91  Verbal Learning Test Score Variables Combined  92  Correlations of Verbal Response Variables with the Neurophysiological Responses Conclusions  Contribution of th'is study  94 102 1 0  5  References  106  Figures  122  Tables  125  Appendix A - Materials Used i n the Study Student Objectives  129  Irrelevant Material  130  Induced Imagery .  134  Imposed Imagery  138  Textual Material  139  R e c a l l Test  152  Comprehension Test  -153  I  Brain  and  Learning  •fl  ACKNOWIZLXSFlffiNTS  I  would  support also  and  thank  Nelson,  the  Dr.  M.  units Dr. for  employed  and  Kraintz  received  Anthony  who h e l p e d  me  in  equipment  would  Leubner,  various  a l l  Stephen  phases Dr.  and  Michael  Dr. and  like David in  in  Health I  to  thank  Holmes the  I  and  Sciences,  completion  Dr.  I  Gordon  for  their  grateful  Engineering,  and  for  to  the  Bob  to  Fleet  Steele  in  Perry,  this Chris  numerous  other  of  project.  this  to  cooperation  participated  Dr. the  the  electrophysiological  Electrical  who  Lee,  am v e r y  of  for  research.  Beddoes  am " g r a t e f u l  students  Foster  this  Seong-Soo  availability  from  of  comments.  facilities  Arts.  stages  Dr.  committee,  the  the  advisor  during  undergraduate I  Sheffield,  of  Graphic  the  my  suggestions  use  for  Finally,  my  arranging  from  from  of  Kraintz  helpful for  equipment  study.  Leon  thank  received  members  Beddoes  Leon  to  guidance  encouragement, Dr.  like  persons  Leaves 1 and 2 omitted i n page numbering  Brain  and  Learning  3  Effects  of  Verbal  Learning  and 'lympanic  Adjuncts  Temperature  as  and Comprehension  Chapter  I.  Analysis  of  Research  on E.E.G. Related of  Relative  to  Power  Recall  Prose  Problems  and  Hypotheses  Introduction The brain  elicited purported of  to  verbal  by to  concern  which  induce  underlying  was and  verbal  of  in  complementarity learns to  best  invoke  Mykel  if  of  the  1979;  in  both  brain  given  This  being of  Caterino,  the  material).  other  effect  practical  cognitive  processes  of  theoretical  brain is  cerebral  one(s)  significance  -  processes. theory  of  presented hemispheres Keasy  generative  enhancement  functions  Tomlinson-  the  on  has  thus  (interhemispheric  1979;  most  The  are  project  1980)  learned  which  be  to  neurophysiological  the  can  as.  correspond(s)  and  (1977,  the  enhancers  responses  produces  dynamics  mechanisms  learning  material  of  concerns  presentations  adjunct  the  functioning)  activity  & Daves,  learning.  Wittrock's  verbal  are  project  purported  these  this/these  underlying  of  of  this  using  whether  type  study  to  to  learnability  learning  According processing  the  in  (adjuncts  whether  the  elucidation  and  which  superior  significance  responses  adjuncts  influence  responses  investigated  learning  such  brain  the  problem  neurophysiological  adjuncts  issue  general  and  optimally in  s u c h a way  and as  (Bogeii,  1977;  & Kelly,  1979;  Brain  and  Learning  4  Baird,  1979).  material  invokes  hemisphere learning order  to  to  any  material  Wittrock  psychological learning  of  of  recall of  imagery  Bower,  Clark,  1969,  etc.).  This  represented system  activated  by  activation recently  into of  For  "dual &  systems  (interhemispheric)  a  the  riqht  argue  that  dual  In  concomitant  subject  matter  representation  acquisition  to  by  coding  processes  verbal  separate  fact  be  of and  ( C f .  cognitive  information  verbal and  superior  Delin,  information  systems. system  versa Paivio  include  The is  Paivio,  information  recall.  to  Bugelski,  to  vice  the 1980)  1975;  verbal  According  some  in  (1977,  imagery  the  with  involved  Kintseh, and  while  that  theory  to  Paivio's  1970;  stimuli. the  compatible  hypothesis"  pictures  e l i c i t s  . his  instance,  that  in  is  assumed  Winzenz,  suggests  activated  elaborated  Although  a  nonverbal  both  this  of  the  hemisphere.  hemisphere  enhancement  processes  processed  refers  left  verbal  comprehension.  linguistic  interconnectedness transformed  the  Lesgold, theory  researchers  presentation  facilitates  reading  necessarily  the  right  that  materials.  and is  the  by  not  Other  states  and  proposes  but  primarily  pictorial  representational  1974;  imagery  engages  interhemispheric  verbal  learning  degree.  further  learned  superior idea  or  that  activity  additionally,  being  The  are  hemisphere  simultaneous,  material  theory  suggests  significant  engage  required.  elicits  left  verbal  holistic, is  Wittrock  can and  (1975)  be the has  neurological  considerations.  much  of  Paivio's  work  dealt  with  word  pairs  and  Brain and Learning 5 pictures  there  i s considerable  suggestion  that  this  enhancement i n  performance via dual coding may also apply to the learning of textual material (Kintsch, 1975; Buzan, & Dixon, 1974; Lorayne & Lucas, 1974). Paivio  (1980)  suggests  that  mental  images  serve  as visual  aids  representing knowledge in memory and cites experimental evidence that these images can be used as learning and memory enhancers in numerous tasks  and thus  be  used  as an  informational  base  for cognitive  operations as aids to new learning (Denburg, 1977). Some  researchers  have  shown  that  pictures  and  other  illustrations may have helpful effects oh' memory (Kosslyn, Holyoak, & Huffman, 1976; Nelson & McEvoy, 1979; Weaver & Stanny, 1978; Paivio, 1978; that  Srivastava, 1978, etc.) and there have been various suggestions pictures  can operate  studied verbal material.  as advance organizers  to summarize the  Other studies have not shown such positive  findings perhaps due to the nature of the pictures used as adjuncts. The extent to which they capture comprehensively the f u l l complexity of information  provided  in the textual  material,  variations  in their  salience, etc, has not been shown. Buzan  (1976,  1980)  provides  evidence  that  diagrammatic  illustrations (patterned notes) sometimes in conjunction with pictures, can be very helpful i n improving recall and comprehension of textual material.  He proposes that such devices enable the learner to use both  sides of his brain (Buzan, 1974, p.4) and has even developed programs to teach individuals to create their own picture-diagrams to represent various bodies of knowledge.  Brain and Learning 6 Wittrcck (1967, 1974,  1975); Wittrock, Marks & Doctorow (1975)  and Wittrcck and Lumsdaine (1977) do not exclusively specify that the coding necessarily be p i c t o r i a l to activate the right hemisphere, but that other forms of h o l i s t i c encoding could also accomplish  this,  adjuncts  taxonomic  such  as  induced  imagery,  advance  organizer  and  and  organization provide vehicles to the integration of information. Hence, there might be encodings imagery  a possibility  could  be  or  such h o l i s t i c  activated via such  instructions (induced  imagery)  that  taxonomic  imagery),  organization.  verbal  (right hemisphere)  learning adjuncts  picture diagrams, Related  variables  1960,  1962,  1977)  or  adjunct  questions  (Rothkopf, 1970)  (imposed from  educational psychology literature such as advance organizers  as  the  (Ausubel,  might also  accomplish this. This is especially plausible in light of the fact that induced  imagery,  picture  diagrams  and  taxonomic  organization have  frequently been reported in the research literature as enhancers for verbal  learning,  learning  specifies  comprehension. findings  and  that these  Wittrock's methods  as  (1978)  theory  enhancers  of  of  generative recall  and  In pilot studies I have replicated some of the above  (i.e. see Carsley, 1981,  1982  for the enhancing effects of  imagery and taxonomic organization cn learning). But there remains the question as to whether this enhancement occurs by virtue of invoking the right brain hemisphere as would be suggested by Wittrock, or by some other means. According to Ornstein (1973) there may be a number of kinds of stimulation that could invoke the right brain hemisphere during verbal  Brain  and  Learning  7  learning  although  manner.  Ornstein  hemispheric the  each also  activity  material  method  being  could  provides  so  empirical  dependent studied  do  upon  (e.g.  the  in  a  evidence nature  discrete  slightly showing  of  vs.  the  different  differential'  presentation  continuous  of  or  verbal  vs  investigate  which,  of  pictorial). The some  of  the  techniques and  objective most  induce(s)  this  study  commonly  maximize  whether  of  such  such  engaging  recall  thus  considered  enhancing  superior  was  of  in  the  the  whole  technique(s)  and  to  literature,  brain  (both  correspond  comprehension  of  enhancing hemispheres)  to  the  that  verbal  which material  learned. Psychological  Representation  Induced imagery in  the  imagery.  seems  to  mind's  depicting  the  deal  eye,  with  of  1974).  There  is,  whether  adult  students  such  "imagery  as  1973)  suggest  adolescence. middle (by that  interactions  giving  what  is  benefit  subject  may  between  words  between  subjects  not  word  &  from and  task  not  1973)  learned in  likely  a  &  mid indicate  able  to  remembered.  Rohwer  occur  to  such  to  and  to  Devine-Hawkins,  create  concerning  a  strategy  Rohwer  that  mediate  be  child  images  childhood  to  referents  visualize,  active  as  data  a  induced  mnemonic  such  during  be  to  literature  given  researchers  some  visual  and  (Levin  the  being  changes  on  instructions  Carter,  controversy  learning  probably  literature  being  instructions",  a  of  (Montague  however,  Given  elaboration) would  body  developmental  childhood  it  The  vivid  content  Processes  the  (1968, and late  associations (1973)  picture story.  claims  memorable In  other  Brain  and  Learning  8  words fact  this that  individual he  explicitly  profit  instructed  maintains does  may  that  develop  the during  (Rohwer  &  elaborate  may  be  needed  such do  as  something  1967,  groups  faster  and  experiment,  order  so. effect  of  comprising  did  the  narrative  the  at  ability  not  be  to  least  only  improve  with  telling  &  errors  an  students  who  with  have  in  them  into  helped  students  average did  not  fourth  and  of  to  In  fifth the  of  learn  the  times  as  graders  particular  of  order.  vivid  the  lists (1974)  pictorial many  instructions  number  words  with  used  of  researchers  lists story  Wood,  effects  Bugelski's  who  Bull  1970;  These  people  receive  with the  a  three  and  1970;  beneficial  learn  recall.  varies  generated  to  together  college  Jablonski,  elaboration.  students  to  & Winzenz,  significant  pictorial  recalled  narrative  only  elaboration)  instructions or  may  when (1973)  higher  that  the  to  Rohwer  among  subjects  (Bower  Mueller  items  prompts  seems  (pictorial  adolescents  researchers  reported  working  indeed hand,  least  would  despite  do.  use  instance,  (1973),  the  is  fewer  technique  as  Levin  method  that  adolescent  1969;  the  and  suggesting  instructions  college  linking  for  elaboration in  of  make  for  elaborate  other  at  thus  demonstrate  instructed  This  years,  Hence,  other  to  the  exactly  1971),  Delin,  adolescents  imagery.  On  do  already  by  1974)  by  so. to  the  they  instructing  (serially)  elaboration  prompts.  1973;  Bugelski,  such  necessary  since  which  spontaneously  do  Levin,  reported  Wittrock,  to  not  adolescent  minimal  instructions  Data &  not  from  tendency  subjects  be  would  words to  found  do the  sentences  Brain and Learning 9 Lorayne and Lucas (1974) describe a method of applying to enhance learning and forming,  in  the  recall  mind's  eye,  of prose material. vivid  personally  representative of the content of what one or ideas are pictorally  represented  It consists of  memorable  i s reading.  by concrete  imagery  pictures  Abstract words  images that can  stand  for them and the series of personal images should be made as vivid and interactive  as possible.  Since  Kintsch  (1975) has  shown that  the  learning dynamics for prose are essentially the same as for word l i s t s , this technique was was  expected to improve recall of prose material.  also expected to improve comprehension (Levin, 1972,  1973).  It The  learning of prose material such as that in an Introductory Psychology text would thus be  expected to be amenable to enhancement via these  kinds of adjuncts (induced imagery). Pictures presentation  and  to  diagram  illustrations.  These  learner  of  pictorial  the  concomitant  combined p i c t o r i a l , diagrammatic and is  ample  evidence  demonstrating  refer  to  stimuli  synthetic verbal stimuli.  the  beneficial  the  effects  or  There  of  such  p i c t o r i a l presentations as adjuncts to learning textual material (Levin & Lesgold, 1978).  Some findings, however, have not always demonstrated  such positive effects.  Some reported that self generated imagery  surpass picture presentation adjunct,  and  reading  task.  that,  (imposed  in some cases,  This may  imagery) as a  verbal  pictures might distract  may  learning from  the  well be tempered, however, by the fact that,  generally, recall of pictures has been found to surpass recall of words at a l l age levels (Parker, 1981;  Rohwer, 1973;  Peloquin, 1979).  Brain and Learning 10 It  was  found  by  incorporating a pictorial  Chmielewska  (1975)  that  mode were most effective,  lecture  plans  even more than  questions or other statements in increasing the "scope, durability and conciseness" of content understanding and recall by students. Stone and Glock (1981) studied the effect of illustrations as adjuncts to text on procedural  information in 90 university  undergraduates  and reported  positive findings and suggested that certain types of information are more effectively presented i n combination with pictorial illustrations (Schallert, 1980). a  Others, however, such as Duchastel (1980) reported  lack of enhancement of retention of verbal material presented in  conjunction with illustrations,  and suggest  that refinements  to the  theory need be specified. However, an important issue they seem to have ovelooked i s the nature of the illustrations and the extent and manner in which they //  capture the content of the verbal material.  Using 12 and 13 year olds,  Haring  f a c i l i t a t i o n of immediate  and  (1978), however, obtained p i c t o r i a l  delayed recall  undergraduates,  with story-like  Stopher  and Kirsner  verbal material and, also using (1981) suggested  that  depending  upon whether unique or shared concept combinations are involved, the study of pictorial  items positively influenced retention of sentences  with which they shared a concept. (1976,  1980) suggested  presentation  before  a  that  The work and teachings of Buzan  combined  "to be  significantly enhance comprehension  diagrammatic  learned" body and r e c a l l .  of  and  pictorial  information can  In The Human Brain,  Wittrock, Beatty, Bogen, Gazzaniga, Jerison, Krashen, Nebes & Teler,  Brain and Learning 11 (1977), described  similar  methods of p i c t o r i a l  representation  which  (1981) proposed  that  purport to enhance learning and memory. In a review methods combining  of the literature,  pictures  Levin  with key words are the "up and coming"  mnemonic of the 80's for improving learning and memory. He refered to their  "proven effectiveness",  differences", thinking". using  and  "versatility",  "potential  to  "adaptability to student  foster  creativity  and  logical  Levin (1973) found positive outcomes of p i c t o r i a l mnemonics  children.  pictures.  Others  too have  obtained  similar  results  using  Purkel and Bornstein (1980) found that pictures (or imagery)  enhanced recall of sentences in children.  Rusted and Coltheart (1979)  investigated the effects of pictures on memory of new words and prose passages i n 9 to 12 year olds, good and poor readers. the  pictures  signficantly  improved  interaction with reading a b i l i t y .  recall  They found that  and that  there  was no  The pictures, however, were found to  have no effect on recognition or pronunciation. Also using children Murphy and Wood (1981) found that p i c t o r i a l information significantly improved supplied  task  performance.  pictures helped  Bender and Levin year old children.  Borys  recall  (1978)  of prose  found  that  experimenter  in retarded adolescents.  (1978) obtained similar results with retarded 10-16 Using undergraduates, Snodgrass asnd Asiaghi (1977)  found that learning with pictures could help concept comprehension in a recognition evidence  test.  Dragone,  of hypermnesia  attempts) when word l i s t s  Brown,  (increment  Krane  and Krane  in recall  over  (1980)  multiple  were presented with pictures.  found recall  Similarly,  Brain and Learning 12 Parker  (1981) found beneficial effects of  "recency items". associate  pictures  but  Pictures have been found to also f a c i l i t a t e  learning  in  children  and  adolescents  especially  pictures were such as to elaborate the pairs of stimuli. have argued that pictures may who  have not  mostly  paired if  the  Some c r i t i c s  have only marginal effects, and  others  obtained positive outcomes, argue that pictures do  help and in some cases can distract (e.g. Samuels, 1977; Willows, and Thomas, 1979). various  for  not 1978;  However, i t seems that the pictures used in these  studies may  not be  equivalent  or even comparable insofar as  their nature and the effects they can be expected to produce. There have been many studies comparing the effects of pictures (imposed  imagery)  to  those  of  subject  generated  imagery) and the findings have been contradictory. lack of agreement about how  imagery  (induced  There seems to be  these effects change with age and about the  different focus of the studies.  For example some studies present the  picture as targets of study and use words as labels, others focus on the verbal  learning and  use  the picture as adjuncts.  So, different  outcomes might be attributable to the nature of the task required how  i t relates  integration of  to  the  adjunct  findings obtained  or  learning  enhancer provided.  in the research,  and An  however, seems to  suggest that pictures are generally better remembered than words over a l l ages. Concerning better  than  synthesis  the  induced  of the  controversy self  research  about  generated  whether  imagery  imposed  in verbal  reveals complex interactions.  imagery is learning, In  a  general,  Brain and Learning 13 self generated  (induced)  imagery  may  be  more advantageous.  Various  authors have explained this as being due to the more personal nature of self  generated  imagery  producing better  and  the  associative  attendant  links.  greater  likelihood  Others have found only  of  slight  overall differences or none (Purkel, & Bornstein, 1980) between these two  forms of  imagery  (Snodgrass  & Asiaghi,  superiority of a l l forms of imagery codes. to  be  1977)  and  ascribe  the  to superior sensory and meaning  It would, however, seem that the nature of the verbal material learned might also be  overlooked.  an  important  determining  factor often  If one were concerned with developmental differences the  age variable might also interact in a complex way.  Since hemispheric  specialization has  until  been shown not  to be complete  (Tomlinson - Keasey, Kelly, & Burton, 1976) wide individual lateralization surprising  that  differences  as  and there may  inconsistent  be  the nature of and  for various tasks (Turner & Miller,  changes in response There  insofar  adolescence  1975)  fairly  order of i t is not  findings were found concerning the age  to pictures and  induced self generated  imagery.  i s , however, agreement that lateralization i s complete  individuals by adolescence (Wittrcck, 1980;  in most  Springer & Deutsch, 1981).  Hence work carried out to study these problems with adults might yield more stable findings due  to considerable and differing  developmental  variability. In  using presented  pictorial  stimuli  textual material, the nature of these stimuli  to  enhance the verbal  is thus an  important,  perhaps c r i t i c a l , consideration in determining whether the stimuli can  Brain and Learning 14 have the desired enhancing effect.  If the pictorial stimuli provide  sufficient conceptual details to capture the equivalent to the text and induce further elaboration of this material, i t seems likely that they might have an enhancing effect on comprehension and memory.  Not any  kind of picture, however, can be expected to have an impact on the learner, and the kinds of pictures used need to be tailored to the subject matter. 1976)  Picture-diagram stimuli which allow rehearsal  and provide additional  facilitation  and content  (Irvin,  clarification  (Levin, et a l , 1977), perhaps by making an elaboration of the material, would be expected to enhance learning perhaps by activating significant areas from both brain hemispheres (Tomlinson - Keasy, Kelly & Burton 1979). Measures experiments that conditions,  of  learning  endeavor  to test  or strategies,  upon  concern  themselves  examine  the effects of various  others consider and  with  performance.  others comprehension.  1  work  and other  the effects of various verbal  different  thematic recall,  Mayer s  learning  measures  learning  performance  often  of performance.  Some  manipulations upon verbatim memory, others consider  reading  improvement  Sets of conditions which maximize a given  measure of verbal performance may not necessarily be the same ones that would  maximize  another  aspect  of performance.  In other  words,  depending upon desired outcomes specific learning conditions may e l i c i t different  results.  Yet, Kintsch  (1975) maintains that  there  i s "a  striking continuity between memory for word l i s t s and memory for text" (p. 169). He further suggests that the parallels between l i s t learning  Brain and Learning 15 and the results of research with texts may be indicators of a "common process" and that the study of textual material can be built upon the solid  base  of  facts  and  the  relatively  advanced  theoretical  understanding which exists in l i s t learning research.  Thus, Kintsch's  (1974) theory  i s said  of episodic memory for l i s t  extendable to text memory. and  storage operations  material  learning  to be  Kintsch (1975) assumes that the "encoding  i n memory are basically the same whether the  to be learned  consists of word l i s t s  or prose paragraphs"  (Kintsch 1975, p. 269). With word l i s t s , Kintsch asserts, processing is necessarily restricted to lower levels of analysis. semantic processing  i s possible only  comprehension on the other syntactic  and semantic  representation  arises.  hand,  levels, Kintsch's  in a very  involves and a  Syntactic and  limited way.  Text  complex processes at the  need  for multiple  (1974) broad theory brings  memory together  specific submodels and a wide variety of empirical results by means of a  few key concepts  and processing  assumptions.  His theory  seems  logical and may have overemphasized the similarity between word l i s t s and prose, and does not specify the degree of divergence of word l i s t s from various kinds of prose ( i . e . story vs. technical prose, etc.). Since,  assuming  Kintsch's  (1977) theory  to be tenable, the  presentation of material by way of definitions has approximately equal effect  upon  comprehension  comprehension and recall variables to study.  and memory seem like  (Anderson  & Kulhavy,  the most educationally  1972), relevant  Comprehension and recall would, however, not be  orthogonal. If the theory that superior students already use organizing  Brain and Learning 16 and mediating strategies is tenable as well as Ausubel and Fizgerald's (1962), one already  would expect that those who  (on  the  basis  of  the  do not use these strategies above  rationale  with  low  grade-point-average) would be maximally helped by instructions to do so. A  test of  the  effectiveness  of  induced  imagery and  picture  diagrams for the learning of material already reasonably organized such as a chapter on "Psychopathology" from a f i r s t year college Psychology text was expected to shed light on the processes (Pirozzoio & Wittrock, 1981)  involved as well as provide  some clarification concerning  when  each of these techniques might most beneficially be used in teaching. Other related variables Although there taking,  are other  structural and/or process variables,  such as  note  taxonomic  organization,  symbolic  cues around words, questions  and  advance  other  organization,  mathemagenics which  have been proposed as enhancers of learning, only fragmented knowledge about their  function exists.  possible increase interesting.  The  suggestion  that these might invoke  in involvement of the right cerebral hemisphere i s  Taxonomic organization of textual material is analogous  to l i s t blocking in the learning of word l i s t s . arranged organizational summary of the material. (1975) and  Ornstein  organization provided  and  Wittrock  and Carter  positive effects of  a proper hierarchy  with organization  according theory  providing  (1970) reported  It is a hierarchially  is used.  in a number of other  taxonomic  Material can  ways, for  be  instance,  to Ausubel (1960, 1977), an early proponent of assimilation developer of the  concept  "advance organizer",  an advance  Brain and Learning 17 organizer consists of an adjunct presented before the learned material which  links  the  new  material  to  known  knowledge.  researchers such as Wittrcck (1980) have also concluded  Many  other  that advance  organizers may improve comprehension of prose passages. Richards  (1959) used  specialized  symbols  placed  around  text  words to cue analytic behaviors during reading and reported positive effects.  Smith and Kulhary  (1974) examined the influence of adjunct  rules and objectives upon recall without consistent findings.  Whereas  Rothkopf  use  (1972)  reports  increases  in performance  objectives, others have failed to find such effect.  by  the  of  Adjunct rules are  also ambiguous with respect to whether they enhance learning or not. Rothkopf  (1970) describes  influences the nature of the  any  activity  that  learning process a  determines  "mathemagenic".  and He  also (1966, 1969) provides evidence that questions, before or after a prose  text  may  predictably  influence direct  which was also supported by Frase (1968). adjuncts  shape  inspection  behaviors  and  indirect  retention  The suggestion is that such during  however, can be provided in various ways.  reading.  Questions,  For instance, they can be  asked during instruction about every important point students should master or they can be more general.  They can be spaced in different  ways (e.g. after a passage, before a passage,  interspersed between  paragraphs)  are  but  generally,  information, the better.  the  closer  they  that post  the  target  Response modes (i.e. mulitple choice vs short  answer items) also e l i c i t different outcomes. seems to be  to  generations  reinforce  The most accepted theory learning  responses  by  Brain  and  Learning  18  invoking  appropriate  consistent are  with  reported  whereas  post  related  to  reading  objectives  to  Although  the  type" type  negligible  effect  of  (1980),  it  to  point.  Donald  been  given  this  Questions and and  upon  may  associative remembering  implications  for  research,  from  counteracts potent  Wittrock's did  not  pictorial  be and  without  far,  these  learning  emerging  clear  specific  used  of  behaviors  Pre-questions  verbation  conceptual  that  were  questions  recall  learning  reported  given  insufficient  motivational. consequences about  empirical  and  (Wittrock so  inspection  questions.  general  materials  knowledge  instruction  instruction  of  of  as  They of  the  the  to  suggestion  attention  may  also  questioning  may  may  have  questions  have  have  arousal  for  learning  have  important  education.  conceptualizations, of  the  more  influence  seems  and  Findings  theory  the  outcomes  in  way  learning. of  thus  the  retention  facilitate  "transfer  in  implicit  influence  questions  a  skills  theory theory  in  explicit without p.  adjuncts of  1)  educational  deficiencies  by  and  these  only.  other but  studies  without  responsibility contribution  seem  to  focusing  relating  their brain  possible focused  The the  much  about of  the  present  study  reportedly  most  effect  to  Wittrock's  engagement.  Although  enhancers on  developing  knowledge  characterize  upon  thoughtful  for  to  psychology.  interhemispheric  suggests  investigate diagrams  1967,  research  imagery  the  present  instructions  study and  Brain and Learning 19 Brain Neurophysiological Correlates of Learning Many  involved  studies on neurophysiological correlates of learning have  examining  training.  patterns  Some have  of  involved  electrical  brain  activity  electroencephalographs  during  (e.g. Barratt,  1956), some brain blood flow (e.g. Franzen & Ingvar, 1975), and others brain blood temperatures (Minard & Coponan, 1963) which are a reflection of blood flow and metabolic activity.  The present study is primarily  concerned with neurophysiological correlates of learning only in terms of  electroencephalographic  brain.  responses  and  temperature  change  in  the  Therefore, reported studies involving these and related aspects  of the brain activity only are examined in the following sections. General cerebral function. divided  into  execution.  two  The  concerned with  sections: parietal,  one  The Cerebral Cortex can broadly be for  occipital  reception  and  reception, perception  and  and  temporal  the  lobes  interpretation  other seem  for  mainly  whereas  the  frontal lobes generally seem concerned with execution or action. The  post central gyrus in the parietal  lobe and  i t s adjacent-  areas of the superior and inferior parietal lobules are responsible for the  reception  respectively. (temporal gyri  of  somatosensory  data  and  its  interpretation,  Heschl's transverse gyri in the superior temporal gyrus  lobe) and the adjacent planum temporale and middle temporal  seem  responsible  respectively.  for  auditory  reception  and  interpretation  In the lips of the calcarine sulcus and adjacent regions  of the occipital lobe l i e visual reception and i t s interpretive areas, respectively.  These visual interpreting areas also have a region that  Brain  and  Learning  20  governs, such  as  via  corticotectal  tracking  convergence  an  reflex  large  region  lobes  (around  the  and  sometimes  referred  here. and  data  middle  from other  inferior  conjugate  motor  gaze  abducens  longitudinal from and  the  occipital  superior, frontal  gyrus  and  and  gyri  may  be  nuclei. and  parietal  areas  temporal  lobule  because  data  codes  that  and  these  codes  and areas  abstract  seems are  and The  interpretive  in  nerve,  the  level  to  occur  removed  readily  from  interact  the  involved  regions seem  motor  in  frontal with  gyri  higher  with  the  via  voluntary  the  superior  (prefrontal level  Oculomotor  with  anterior  specific  respectively.  behavior.  nucleus  more  superior,  controls  coordinated  nucleus, The  the  sequences, gyrus  parabducens  areas.  of  involved  reading  are  pretectal  inferior  here  frontal  nuclei  association and  1 about  important  by  seem  movements,  accomodation  occipital  modality  (premotor)  middle  fasciculus  lobe  eye  ocular  abstract  adjacent  higher  nerve  middle pole  Figure  cranial  optic  are  carried  Insert  posterior  and  and  associative  impressions  the  inferior  sensory  be  in  parietal,  gyri)  of  role  nuclei  and  general  frontal  action  the  a  conjugate  modalities.  and  in  gyrus  to  sensory  precentral  region  as  seems  the  the  temporal  to  The  voluntary  and  angular  play  Wesphal  of  synthesis  data  transcend  with  A  and  Here,  Edinger  inferior  involuntary  Some  confluence  posterior  interaction  object.  via  of  fibers,  medial  information colliculus  regions cortex)  execution  of  the  to  the  such  as  Brain and Learning 21 planning,  foresight and judgement.  implicates  the prefrontal  lobes  A recent  study by Bogen (1983)  particularly  the right  one in  creativity, and the study by Milner (1983) implicates them i n delayed free r e c a l l .  P.E.T. scan findings by Ingvar  (1976) suggest  that the  prefrontal lobes may be involved in many activities, perhaps involved in response to the limbic system. In the opercular and triangular regions of the inferior frontal gyrus in the l e f t hemisphere lies Broca's area, an important center i n expressive language production.  Covering the left hemisphere auditory  association areas of the planum temporale and extending,  according to  some authors, to the angular gyrus, lies Wernicke's area. is  essential  joining  these  for language  comprehension.  This region  The arcuate  two language zones also plays  fasciculus  an essential  role in  language related a c t i v i t i e s . .//  Homologous sites of the right cerebral hemisphere function in a way generally similar to those on the l e f t and govern functions of the opposite  side  of the body.  Some  systems,  though,  have bilateral  innervation and uncrossed systems function ipsilaterally. right  hemisphere corresponding  however, seem to possess processing  information  to the language areas  specialized  of the l e f t ,  functions and their  may be different.  hemisphere appear to play a role  Areas of the  Such areas  manner of  of the right  in visuospatial and configurational  functions as well as in music appreciation.  Spatial orientation, color  and form perception may be organized in the areas of the right cortex corresponding  to Wernicke's and Broca's areas  in the l e f t .  Such an  Brain and  Learning  22 area has been discovered  in the superior and inferior parietal lobules  and right cortical regions of the superior and middle temporal gyri and the planum temporale are also involved with music. Of  interest in the  interpretive (areas  areas  involved  of  the  present  study, however, are  angular  gyrus,  inferior  the  general  parietal  lobule  in abstractive association sometimes referred to as  "ideational language areas", "general interpretive areas", or sometimes considered of  the  part of Wernicke's area) and posterior and inferior regions  temporal  lobes  which are  claimed  to be  involved  in memory  (Milner, 1983). Brain hemispheric specialization. Al though each hemisphere has the  potential  for  many  functions  and  both  sides  of  the  brain  participate in most activities (theory of mass action), in the normal person the two hemispheres tend to specialize. The  l e f t hemisphere is  predominantly involved with analytic logical thinking as in verbal and mathematical  functions.  linear.  processes  It  thought and  Its  mode of  information  linear time.  operation  appears  sequentially so,  Sequence, order,  primarily  implies  language and  logical  mathematics,  seem to be primarily l e f t hemisphere a c t i v i t i e s . The right hemisphere seems specialized for h o l i s t i c functions. function  Its language a b i l i t i e s in  spatial  comprehending pictures. diffusely than the  left,  tasks,  appear  imagery,  It is believed and  limited, but  i t seems to  facial  recognition  and  to process  information  more  its responsibilities  ready integration of many inputs at once.  (synchronic)  seem to demand a  The right hemisphere is thus  Brain and Learning 23 more h o l i s t i c  and  simultaneous in i t s mode of operation  (Ornstein,  1972). Neurological  evidence on the main functions of the two cerebral  hemispheres comes mainly from people whose brains have been damaged by accident or illness, or surgery had been performed on them.  The work  of Penfield (1951, 1952, 1975) and Penfield and Roberts (1959) on brain stimulation has that  subjects  related  also been very enlightening.  Overall  findings show  with lesions to the right hemisphere display  to imagery,  spatial comprehension  deficits  and manipulation although  their language function usually remains intact, whereas patients with lesions  to  the  impairments  left  (various  hemisphere  forms  of  display  linguistically  aphasias) or  related  computational deficits,  although their spatial or pictorial a b i l i t i e s tend to remain intact. Milner, Branch, and Rasmussen, (1964) have studied the specific disorders resulting from such brain lesions. to  the right hemisphere  spatial  mazes, produce  severely  impair  They found that lesions  performance  spatial agnosia and  facial  in visual  and  agnosia, whereas  lesions in contralateral homologous zones of the same extent produce no deficits for these tasks. "neglect" various  Volpe-, Ledoux and Gazzaniga (1979) found the  syndrome in many patients with right hemisphere damage and degrees  of homonymous hemianopsia  depending  on  the caudal  extent of the damage. Milner, et a l . (1964) also found that lesions in specific disorders.  areas  of  the  left  hemisphere  produce  specific  language  Lesions (Milner, 1954, 1970) in the anterior left temporal  lobe produce  verbal  memory deficits;  lesions  in the posterior  left  Brain and Learning 24 temporal  lobe  produce  speech  impairment;  damage  to  the arcuate  fasciculus produces conduction aphasia (lack of access to content of language); normal  damage to Broca's area produces  speech  grammatical  (expressive  structure  to utter  aphasia) though the semantic content and  may  produces an inability  an i n a b i l i t y  be  normal;  damage  to Wernicke's  area  to understand both spoken or written language  (receptive aphasia) (Geschwind,  1970);  damage to the fibers  which  connect the occipital cortex to the l e f t hemisphere results i n alexia without necessarily agraphia (Geschwind, 1965) but a motor alexia can "5.  be produced by lesions in Broca's area. Split brain studies (Sperry, 1966, 1974; Bogen, & Vogel, 1962; Gazzaniga & Sperry, 1967) collectively substantiate the findings from studies of brain lesions concerning the functional purpose of various regions  of  the human  brain.  Subtle  tests  of  commissurotomized  individuals have supported the findings concerning specialization of each hemisphere. related  functions  comprehending  The l e f t  hemisphere  (speaking,  language,  etc.),  is specialized  writing, whereas  specialized for spatially or h o l i s t i c a l l y ,  reading, the  right  for language hearing  and  hemisphere  is  (gestalt) related functions  (form and shape recognition and comprehension,  imagery and pictorial  representation, figures etc.). Such tests have shown that, whereas the left  hemisphere operates largely  hemisphere  operates predominantly  integrates diverse inputs quickly.  in a sequential manner, the right in a  simultaneous manner  - it  Careful tests of these s p l i t brain  patients also demonstrate the effects of isolation of the capabilities  Brain  and  Learning  25  inherent tasks  in  each  sensorily  Spatial could  or  not  sent  understanding  and  has  these  reach  parts  of  the  the  ability  to  read  the  right  the  left  in  the  right  cortex  to  Visual  messages  the  right  left to  the  concerning and  Rasmussen  temporarily not  were  It  primary (1960)  anesthetized.  if  be  the  related  carried  left  accounts and  out.  hemisphere  has  areas the  also  been  global  Wada  also  test  studies  of  of  language  parts using  in normal  if  see  in to  partial  loss  of  that  vision  (splenium)  from  the  of  right  are  the  visual  processed).  visual  cortex  area  in  widespread  in the  damage  aphasia. support in  the  right  adult  such  the  left  functions the  to  lost  damage  functions  that,  suddenly  Wernicke's  can produce  in  some  remaining  found  gyrus  revealed  part  to  in  lesions  ability  some  that  angular  it  functions  conveyed  demonstrated loss  the  the  following  messages  by  fact  information  who  the  reading  the  patient  posterior  (where  be  with  for  conveys  not  corresponding Other  the  of  dyslexia a  to  sensory  means  examination  localization  anesthetized,  happen  not  to  that  by  along  received  could  involving  the  and  hemisphere  which  area  cites  normally  neighboring  Studies  could  attention  requires  Geschwind  (which  which  called  Postmorten  hemisphere.  and  has  of  field),  hemisphere  brain  these  field.  left  linguistically  directed  varieties  (alexia),  visual  calossum  sensorily  Wernecki' s  brain.  cortex  corpus  hemisphere  language  interesting  visual  right  instance,  out.  written  cortex  visual  For  (1970, 1979)  of  found  the  tasks  carried  Geschwind  visual  to  pictorial  be  the  hemisphere.  findings  h u m a n . - Wada hemisphere  result.  is  This  does  hemisphere  are  subjects  have  shown  Brain  and  Learning  26  that and  when  language  reaction  When  the  left  (1971) the  times  spatial  hemisphere  tasks are  tasks  accuracy (McKeever,  in  a  reaction  time  perception  obviously  they  to  physically directed  be  the  to  hemisphere  right  (Ee)  (Cohen these  Tenhouten  & Marsh,  (right)  hemisphere  information  to  capabilities  and  stimuli Eye  on  (1951)  to  may from the  musical  because  the  verbal  verbal tasks  right  and  known  the  to  Kimura  subjects  found Depth and  standards,  discovered  that  which  are  visual  stimuli  are  these  subjects  are  shape to  but the  (Kimura,  the  same  left  1966)  specialization  have  found  with  tend  be  the  brain  have  (Bogen,  also  Dezure,  1969).  interfere  patients  one,  directed  letters  directed  hemispheric  Zangwill  to  studies  right  integration  been  contrast,  are  movement  Bakan,  also  different  accuracy  perception.  overlap,  if  In  , of  and  brain  this  (EE)  when  normal  complex  "same"  to  Durnford  depth  has  signal  letters  the  1972;  seems  split that  if  and  lobe  that  conclude  to  It  similar  two  findings  Humphrey  etc.  with  in  shading,  hemisphere.  1973).  supported  noted  quicker  detect  semantically  parietal  perspective  than  fairly  size,  the  better addition,  superior  to  person)  experiment  requires  (pictorially) to  quicker  be  position,  disparity,  tend  to  hemisphere,  normal  are In  left  directed  the  1970).  controlled  the  when  and  & Huling  to  than (in  hemisphere  retinal  better directed  right  of  directed  are  carefully  comprehension  are  to of  and  damage  dreaming. report the  thus  an  Also absence  to  the  Bogen of  of  the  no  of  dream  localized  access In in  addition, the  right  right (1977)  dreams  isolation  hemisphere. seem  that  and  pictorial picture drawing hemisphere  Brain and Learning 27 (Nebes, 1977). this  and  The  further  findings of Murray & Carsley suggest  that  the  totality  of  (1979) substantiate interpersonal  and  environmental experiences created by the more successful music teachers is such as to invoke this right (minor) hemisphere of the brain.  The  findings of a l l these studies are not to say that the l e f t hemisphere has no spatial a b i l i t y at a l l and the right no language at a l l (Zaidel, 1973).  It has been found that they possess a l i t t l e of each but that  those respective functions (Milner, 1971) reside predominantly in their specialized hemisphere. The  localization of functions in the brain appear analogous to  overlapping contours of a geographical map or different intensities of waves originating from different focal points. of the brain or a essential language borders  given  for a given functions,  region of  function e.g.  the  one  of  the hemispheres may  be  Broca's or Wernicke's area for  somatosensory  strip  of the calcarine fissure for vision.  progressive overlap  Some functional parts  for  sensation  or  the  But there seems to be  in function between zones in areas  such as  the  prefrontal lobes, the middle and inferior temporal gyri and especially in areas of the angular gyrus and areas,  inferior parietal lobule.  information appears processed  in codes that are not  In those modality  specific but seem to incorporate the elements of the main modalities of vision, auditory and The  two  semiindependent  somesthesis.  hemispheric information  functions processing  function but with different specialties.  thus units The  seem with  to  exist  some overlap  educator  as of  Jerome Bruner  Brain and Learning 28 (1962) has made many references observations  to this  and rinding i n educational  concerning  learning through experiencing  the  nay be more receptive  brain  knowledge obtained  fact  (derived  settings).  His admonitions  and discovery  to comprehending  from h i s  suggests that  and remembering  in ways that provide a more p i c t o r i a l appreciation  than merely reading about i t . Upon  considering  these  findings  Bogen  (1977)  suggests  that  instructional materials ought to stimulate not only the analytic and sequential  functions  (Mondani, 1977) of the l e f t hemisphere but also  the imaginal and h o l i s t i c functions of the right, i n view of the fact that i t i s in the latter that creativity resides (Gowan, 1979). (1983) has found creativity.  the 'right hemisphere plays  I t i s believed  that  an important  Bogen  role i n  the use and development of both  hemispheres is essential to complete mental functioning and that almost any  idea  can be learned  more thoroughly  i f methods involving both  hemispheres are used (Milner, 1983; Bogen, 1983).  Judging by the brain  functioning of so-called gifted or creative geniusses of our time, would  seem  that  these  admonitions  may be correct.  it  For instance,  Einstein reported using imagery for his greatest discoveries, Darwin's theory of evolution and Mendelleiv's discovery of the atomic chart were said to have been arrived at visually and Kekule reportedly discovered the Benzene ring in dream imagery. Brain  electroencephalography  (E.E.G.).  E.E.G.  studies  of  learning have examined changes in patterns of E.E.G. activity produced during  learning.  E.E.G.  waves  are summations  of excitatory and  Brain and Learning 29 inhibitory  synaptic  potentials of  neurons.  The  E.E.G.  represents  oscillations in voltage potentials generated by c e l l neurons within the range of  a  recording  electrode  (Cotman  &  McGaugh,  1980).  Evoked  electroencephalographic potentials are E.E.G. waves time locked (i.e. recorded in conjunction with the presentation of) to specific stimuli. The question asked in such a study of E.E.G. correlates of learning i s whether there are changes in the E.E.G. patterns that are associated specifically with the specific learning process.  (i.e. evoked in the  presence of learning stimuli and learned responses) In  the  1950's many studies  investigated E.E.G. activity  in  animals during learning and reliable outcomes were found in a variety of  species.  (John,  1967,  Other findings in a series of studies involving humans 1972)  indicate that  learning produces highly  specific  changes in the wave shapes of evoked potentials recorded from several cortical behavior found  brain  regions.  Wave  consistently occurred  shapes  appropriate  the  learned  in the later learning t r a i l s .  It was  that responses could be predicted by  to  the shape of the evoked  potential elicited by the specific stimuli, which would not be elicited by other different stimuli that did not yield the responses.  On  the  basis of such findings, John (1972) suggests that information about an experience and  is represented by coherent activity in assemblies  that "the information is read out when the appropriate  activates the representation system in such a way of  a common mode of activity  experience" (John, 1972).  like  of cells stimulus  as to cause release  that stored during the learning  Brain and Learning 30 A variety of other neurophysiological changes in brain response were found to occur during learning.  For instance, during conditioning  studies a large number of brain areas were found f i r i n g patterns (Thompson, 1976; Case  studies  and  to show increased  Berger, Alger, & Thompson,  conditioning experiments  involving  1976).  humans  have  indicated activity in the hippocampus directly related to the learning process whether i t be classical conditioning, operant learning, or long term memory formation for verbal material. New techniques have been developed which can trace neural events which occur during different kinds of thinking (Geschwind, 1972) even though the person may not be performing any overt behavior.  Associated  with higher processes are changes in the cortex which can be examined by a variety of means such as E.E.G., brain blood flow, and In  temperature,  (most recent) perhaps P.E.T. (positron emission tomography) scans. higher  level  processing  of  information,  the  association  areas  (silent cortex) of the brain (which make up about three-fourths of the human cortex) are the ones mainly involved (Thatcher, 1977).  They have  been shown to subserve higher processes  such as knowing, thinking,  understanding  and  the  functions  of  these  processes  comes  remembering.  from  Much of  association the  areas  combined  information about  for various  results  of  types  learning  the  of higher and  lesion  studies in higher mammals (such as the monkey), electrophysiological record studies of humans, and studies of brain damaged humans. E.E.G. studies of  various  forms of  learning  in humans have  revealed patterns of brain response . in the association cortex of the  Brain and Learning 31 frontal, temporal and parietal lobes as well as the hippocampus (John, 1972).  Other  involved  more recent approaches  in higher processes  (Lehmann & Callaway,  use  to the study of brain  averaged  1978), Fourrier  states  evoked E.E.G. potentials  transforms of E.E.G. responses  (Yeudall, 1977, Flor^lenry, Yeudall, Koles & Howarth, 1979), spectral intensities  (Walter,  1968),  cross  correlation  functions (Brazier  &  Casby, 1952), average alpha and whole band integrated power (Galin & Ornstein, 1972), frequency coherence  functions (Davis & Wada, 1974),  and average frequency (Giannitrapani, 1969). Averaged  evoked  potentials  can  be  obtained  records of a subject engaged in verbal learning.  from  the E.E.G.  Small changes which  seem to be time dependent upon the stimulus material clearly emerge and seem to occur distinctively with each type of stimulus.  Studies such  as these appear to have quite clearly shown, that the shapes of the averaged  evoked potentials depend partly upon the characteristics of  the modality of the presented  physical  meaning of that stimulus to the  stimulus and  individual.  also  upon the  According to Thatcher  (1979) the averaged evoked potential can supply the neurophysiological correlates of higher different brain.  learning  because  kinds of higher processes  the  shape  is different when  are going on  in the subject's  This approach has been used to study the process of attention  (Hillyard, Hinkey, Schwent & Picton, 1973), behavioral set and decision making  (Begleiter,  Porjesz, Yerre & Kissin,  1973),  localization  of  memories (Bartlett, John, Shimokoski, & Kleinman, 1973) and hemispheric  Brain and Learning 32 lateralization 1970;  in various  language  and  pictorial  functions  (Pedio,  Thatcher, 1977; Ornstein, 1978). Thatcher  (1977) has  used  the  average evoked potentials with  humans in a number of studies of higher processes.  In one  study, he  presented subjects with a series of stimuli, some of which were simple random pictorial dot displays which yielded  the  same amount of  displays (experimentals). they would  see  (controls) and others which were words  and  retinal  stimulation  as  The subjects did not know how  could  not  predict  the  data  many displays  when words would  be  shown.  Subsequent words were presented which were either synonym, antonym or neutral  with  reference  presentations, both  to  the  E.E.G. recordings  hemispheres  were  first from  obtained.  one. several  Because  During  a l l of  cortical  the  learning  these  locations of  a  cn  word  releases a unique pattern of neuron firings compared to that of the random  dot  display,  the  evoked  potentials  to  the  words  significantly different from those to the random dot displays.  were Words  carry meanings and associations which the random dot displays are not l i k e l y to carry (Brown & Wallace, 1980). evoked potentials  to  the  first  It was  also found that the  word were smaller  and  less  widely  distributed across the brain than those to the second and subsequent words.  Thatcher (1977) explained this by arguing that higher processes  going on during presentation more involved.  of the second and  subsequent words are  The reason is that it' would be not only necessary to  extract the meaning, but also for the subjects to compare them to the memory of the f i r s t word to determine whether they are synomym, antonym  Brain and Learning 33 or  neutral  (Brown & Wallace, 1980).  The evoked potentials from the  left hemisphere and from the right hemisphere were different for the words compared to the dot displays.  During the f i r s t word a difference  emerged with the left hemisphere shewing the larger evoked potential amplitude.  The evoked potentials for the second and subsequent words  showed even larger l e f t hemispheric specific E.E.G. components to  those for the  first  the left  word,  thus clarifying  hemisphere  needed  and  compared  confirming  in processing  the  engagement  of  linguistic  materials.  Cerebral hemispheric differences in evoked potentials as a  function of verbal vs. pictorial stimuli have also been discovered by Buchsbaum & Fedio (1969) and Buchsbaum & Fedio (1970). Even more light has been shed on the lateralization of functions during  different  brain  processes by  other  researchers.  Galin  and  Ornstein (1972) and Ehrlichman & Wiener (1980) for instance, found that i f the E.E.G. is recorded from both hemispheres during the performance of  verbal  or  spatial  information  "brain-wave" patterns result.  processing  tasks,  different  During verbal tasks the integrated whole  band E.E.G. power in the left hemisphere was less than in the right. During spatial tasks i t was less in the right than in the l e f t . frequency analysis Doyle, Ornstein and Galin  Using  (1974) found that in a  verbal task alpha rhythm in the right hemisphere was greater than in the  l e f t , the left showing more beta rhythm (Galin. Ornstein, Kocel &  Merrin, 1970).  In a spatial task alpha rhythms in the left hemisphere  came out greater than in the right, the right now shewing more beta rhythm.  Doyle, Ornstein and Galin  interpret  the appearance of the  Brain and Learning 34 greater  amounts of  processing  in  the  alpha  rhythm as  brain  area  interference between the two  a  "turning o f f " of  involved.  "As  if  to  information reduce  the  modes of operation of i t s two cerebral  hemispheres the brain tends to turn off i t s unused side" (Ornstein, 1972)  in a given situation calling for activity in a given side.  In  most ordinary activities of daily l i f e , according to Galin and Ornstein (1972), we alternate between these two modes selecting the appropriate one.  Also, they believe that the two  each other  without  readily  modes of operation complement  substituting for one  another.  Everyday  examples of this complementary function would be in simple acts such as describing a spiral staircase.  For  instance most people would begin  using words and soon begin to gesture in the a i r (Ornstein, 1972). within most persons the two modalities appear to exist as  two  semi independent  information processing  So,  simultaneously  units with  different  specialities. There  is  also  some  evidence  physiological organization may O'Connor & Ongley, 1977).  be different  evidence  sensory  thresholds  for discrete formal  underlying logic and  the  modes  of  in each hemisphere (Shaw,  and  in 124 object  war  information  veterans  for motor  discrimination.  suggested that the left hemisphere may  specialized  that  Semmes, Porter, and Randolph, (1974) tested  the effects of various brain injuries reactions,  suggesting  Their  be more anatomically  processing  that the right hemisphere may  such as that  be more diffusely  organized as would be advantageous for orientation in space or other  Brain and Learning 35 simultaneous (synchronous) processing of many inputs  (as in p i c t o r i a l  processing). Also (1971),  using  Slater,  manifestations left  E.E.G.  analysis,  (1960)  and  Morgan,  Wood  (1971)  have  and McDonald, found  various  of greater amounts of E.E.G. electrical activity i n the  hemisphere  during  verbal  tasks  and relatively  hemisphere activity during spatial tasks. and  McDonald  Ornstein,  greater  right  According to Ornstein (1972)  Johnstone, Herron and Swencionis,  habitually prefer one mode over the other.  (1980) some persons  He alludes to the fact that  our culture, with i t s emphasis on training the left hemisphere (e.g. the strong emphasis on reading, writing and arithmetic in our schools and  the great  unwittingly  emphasis  limiting  sufficient schooling  on serial  the brain  logic  capacity  in our society)  may be  of people by not providing  in the use of the right hemisphere.  Kirsner &  Brown (1981) have investigated interesting laterality relationships to memory of learned materials. To higher This  infer  processes reveals  the regions the cross  the phase  of the brain which partake correlation function  and amplitude  i s often  similarities  activity emanating from various E.E.G. electrodes.  in various analyzed.  in electrical  Workers in the area  have suggested that coherence function analysis may be superior to the cross correlation for determining the functional organization of brain states applied  (coupling this  processing  between  coherence  the parts).'  analysis  Davis  to study  and Wada  brain  simple verbal vs. spatial stimuli.  states  (1974) have involved in  Their findings emerged  Brain  and  Learning  36  consistent  with  active  verbal  in  others.  The  left  tasks  but  the  hemisphere right  one  was was  found more  relatively  active  in  more  spatial  tasks. Brain  Blood Circulation The  major  blood  middle  of  the  the  posterior  the  more  The Broca's  middle  sylvian  middle,  frontal  lobes.  project  motor,  somatosensory,  visual  associative  branches aspects surfaces posterior  supply of  each  because cerebral  (posteriorly) calcarine  they  of  sulcus  with  single  Minor  the  emerge  provided  a  Willis.  lateral  but  brain, are  The  zones  of  from  the  by  3  basilar  communicating anterior  and  supply  the  carotids)  onto  the  supply  out  The  the  the  brain  while  basilar)  areas  supply  superiorly  and  their  occipital coverage  and  over  from  occipital  and  of  part  on  the  project  inferior  of  and  and  the  medial  lateral  medial  regions portions  the their  brain  laterally.  supply  the  premotor,  arteries  primarily the  emerge  lobes)  bit  gyri,  branches  prefrontal,  cerebral  branches  lobes,  they  auditory  a  central  parietal,  (frontal  supply  post  primarily, by  after  lateral  anterior  also  and  frontal,  associative,  overlap  some  (pre  supplied  fanning  anterior  arteries the  the  etc.)  general  cortex  of from  (which  of  they  areas.  the  and  arteries  Hence  and  arteries.  circle  is  zones.  area,  cerebral  cortex  arteries  emerge  arteries  surfaces  and  carotid  the  (which  posterior  fissure  temporal  form  Wernicke's  cerebral  vertebral  arteries  lateral  and  human  internal  to  cerebral  medial  Thermodetection the  the  these  cerebral  of  two  from  join  majority  the  the  formed  arteries  of  supply  arteries,  artery  and  The  aspects of of  the the  Brain  and  Learning  37  temporal  lobes.  They  wrap  b r a ^ i i sorfsos.  The  encompassing  farthest  "watershed the  the  area"  anterior  constitutes arteries supply  there  give  side  due  and  sinus,  drainage cisterns end  the  the  the  resistance. resistance the  vessels  capillaries,  other brain  Blood to  blood that they  each  of  and  these  sagittal transverse  it  a l l  also  or  equality  into  the the  arteries  of  and  cerebral  pressure  on  artery.  return inferior sinuses  blood  various  to  sagittal and  cerebrospinal  internal  the  anomalies,  two  communicating  sigmoid  toward  themselves  the  sinus,  the  Here  other  arteries  as  cut  cortex.  among  receive  from  drains  the fluid  subarachnoid jugular  veins  cava.  organs  and  is  function  a  tissues  vessel  radius  flow.  . Since  seem  of  microvilli  vena  have  anterior  these  the  between the  to  cerebral  occlusions  flow,  the  straight,  arachnoid  superior  of  of  lateral surfaces  reach  posterior  blood  superior  Some  brain  of  of  to  the  sinus,  the  /As w i t h through  as  Galen.  via  in  radius  arteries  zone  the  referred  anastomose  unilateral  onto  cortical  points  the  which  direction  small  such  of  in  the  iataral  supply  sharing  corresponding  cavernous vein  much  to  the  of  project  cerebral  and  arteries  instances  very  sinuses  great  end  in  not  middle  arterial  Except  Veins  to  off  also  c n ' the  arteries  farthest  and  distribution  the  structures.  is  dural  where  deeper  hemispheres each  region  cerebral the  around  the to  throughout  of  cardiac  constitutes the  smallest  constitute  the  body,  output  the  arterioles radius  the  main and  before major  blood  and  flow  vascular  determinant  of  metarterioles  are  blood  the  site  enters of  cerebral  Brain  and  Learning  38  vascular  resistance.  are  under  the  in  their  walls  Mechanisms  This  most  precise  and  of  for  body  and are  the  blood  also  of  blood blood  influential  in  flow  by  control  of  cerebral  the  in  metarterioles. are  circulation  muscle  the  Venous  with  tissues  radii  smooth  thus  interaction  their  the  distribution.  volume,  demand  since  sphincters  cardiovascular  cerebral  status  important control  precapillary  (constriction/distention), fluid,  particularly  physiological  the  responsible  determinants  is  and but  main return  cerebrospinal organs  in  of  the  a  secondary  the  metabolic  way. When demands  for  amounts of  parts  of  of  oxygen,  blood through  metabolic  activity  constant  and  the  particular blood  in  these  local  variations  the  areas  brain  tissues. the  to  the  &  number  brain  of  ATP the  related  Hence,  local  intensity  of  1959, thus  Schwartz,  used,  directly  e l i c i t  (Lassen,  the  (Ingvar  activity  molecules  involved  molecules is  their  other  leading  oxygen  in  and  between  tissues  is  ions,  potassium a  in  increase  1978).  Flow  changes  with  1974).  Because  molecules  to  the  flow  in  blood  cell  of  regenerated  functional  changes nerve  increased  activity of  in  oxygenated  flow  metabolism  reflect  (Ingvar  &  1956).  There hydrogen  the  tissues  of  brain  Soderberg,  to  relation  number  brain  glucose  flow  blood  the  the  ions,  evidence  other  themselves  (in  substances  sodium  pharmacological  that  ions  agent,  biological  substances and  electrolytes  and  magnesium  lactic  acid,  tissues  such  ADP  ions  as such  as  adenosine and  ATP),  well  carbon as as  dioxide,  calcium  ions,  adenosine  phosphate histamine,  as  compounds kinins,  Brain  and  Learning  39 prostaglandins,  norepinephrine,  vasopressin  nay  and  distribution  hence,  seems  to  other  influences  the  be  a l l  some  cerebral  from  diencephalon, monitoring with  the  (e.g.  the  metabolic  maintain  fibers  of  the  this.  locus  cholinergic  effective  nerves  of  other  radius  addition  control  and  control  as  there  well  as  distensibility  of  the  cerebral  relative  the  nerves the  and  appear  innervated  control  to  heart,  heart  from  output  the  of  the as  a  accordance is  precapillary  Reflex the  in  the  of  functions  state  Cardiac  under  substance  cortex  steady  moment.  latter  center,  activating  metarteriolar  to  that  to  of  that  However,  the  low  norepinephrine. cerebral  in  pial  fibers.  fibers  vessels.  because  of  a  The  trunk  vasodilator  intracerebral  control  and  coeruleus.  suggests  vasoconstrictive  receptors  In  raaius  thereby sphincter  by  vasomotor  these  functions  arterioles dorsal  and  motor  veins nucleus  nerve.  Research  weak  upon  reticular  pons  maintain  sympathetic  vagus  and  demands  parasympathetic the  and  and  arteriolar  circulation.  cardiovasomotor  arteriolar,  to  of  determining  autonomic  hypothalamus,  to  radius  and  cerebral  temperature)  midbrain  with  in  angiotensin  vessels.  system  coordinated  involves  of  medullary  influence  influence  neurogenic  blood  The  exert  epinephrine,  There  may  are,  innervate overall,  An  such  important is  hypertension,  that  have  however, the  responsiveness  circulation  arterial  vessels  some more  larger  neurogenic of  the  perhaps  to  adrenergic pial  and  control  seems  alpha-adrenergic  characteristic adrenergic  sympathetic  of  neurogenic  nerves  are  more  limit  capillary  Brain  and  Learning  40  intravascular  pressure  and  prevent  disruption  of  the  blood  brain  barrier* In blood the  addition,  pressure  sensors.  conditions  initiated the  to  carotid  are  body  seems  signal  to to  be  a  ion.  bicarbonate  vasopressin  in  histamine  Calcium  ions ions  which  or  hypoxia  been  have  (Kontos,  excitability effect. resistance they  do  cerebral  conduits  not  shown  appear  to  cerebral  for  collection  to  have  vencconstriction  and  may o c c u r  (from  be  tends  may  have  a  generally  return  under  adrenal  can  produce such  of  valves some  blood some  as  whereas  as  at  local  the  weak  in  pial  neuronal hyperemic  function  conditions.  ischemia  least  increase  to  and  adenosine  activity,  to  on  the  potassium  such  dilation  region.  vasodilatative.  sodium,  metabolic  as  concentration  hormones  to  are  induce  dioxide  vasoconstriction  strong  significant  such  the  ion  Metabolites  veins  for  and  carbon  and  while  alkalosis  to  epinephrine  appear  hypercapnia  the  of  hydrogen  although  induce  state  mechanisms  blood  epinephrine  brain  as  condition  of  produce  function  Chemoreceptors  Autocoids  with  and  hypoxic  on  sinus  appropriate  action  and  also  Moreover,  arterial  Although  direct  dependent  increase  the  quantities  vasodilatation.  1981).  and  or  vasoconstriction  produce  hydrogen, ion  from  prostaglandins  produce  carotid  condition.  vessels.  and  the  hypothalamus  vasoconstrictive  or  vessels  muscle  angiotensin  kinins,  magnesium  balanced  additional  some  and  the  Norepinephrine  usually  vasodilation  to  pronounced  and  as  any hypercapnic  bring  smooth  are  the  such  deviations  relayed  cerebrovascular  medulla)  Any  reinstate  vasodilatation There  baroreceptors  as  low  heart  -and  sympathetic  Brain  and  Learning  41  The  brain  chemically  regulated  supply  a  flow.  Ingvar  areas to  tight  by  the  (1976)  more  presently  volume  function mechanisms  (Ingvar  Sokoloff that in  the  metabolic  changes  rate  changes  (e.g.  -  increases  local  various  occuring  as  listening,  speech and hand  brain.  stimulation For  increases forms  of  alter  instance; in  blood  stimulation  blood  were  the  being most  view  of  cortical  mental  volume activity  volume  the  due  occurs most  important  the  as  blood  blood  relationship  the  have  study  to via  likely cerebral  of  directed  demonstrated  regions  specific general  of  the  cerebral regulatory  McGeer  changes  (in  relate  of  and to  animals)  brain  activities  activity  levels).  flow  changes  along the  with  organism  McGeer  human  (1980)  behaviors  movements.  Skinhoj  various  volume  in  blood  the  small  arousal  like  of  (1973)  during  how  forms  of  very  and  This  and  specific  complex  metabolically  Luria  summarized  Ingvar  more  compounds  point  of  well  uninterruptive  metabolism  increases  cerebral  Thus  for  as  1975).  have  Lassen,  in  in  within  local  between  1977).  be  different  necessity  activation  engaging  the  neurogenically  eliciting  adenosine  and  patterns  diffused  activity  from  be  the  demonstrated  & Lassen,  (1976)  consistent  more  .to  to  prevail  considered.  regulation  appears  of  (Sokoloff,  metabolites,  candidates  seems  to  Also,  widespread  metabolism  vasodilator  seems  motor  areas.  thus  because  has  or  activated  increased  but  coupling  sensory  produced  blood  circulation  (1978)  blood forms  through found  have  volume of  to  different  linguistic  Broca's to  demonstrated  produce  or  that  regions  stimulation  Wernicke's increases  various  in  can  areas; flew  of  the  cause other through  Brain and Learning 42 the known primary regions for each function (e.g. - visual, auditory, tactile, motor etc.)  Stimuli evoking more complex cognitive responses  or evoking memory were found to e l i c i t  increases of flow through  the  association areas in the parietal and frontal lobes. Analyses of brain activation during normal reading was involve  several  cortical  regions  in  specific  patterns  found to  (Risberg  Ingvar, 1973) with more activity recorded in the left hemisphere.  & Not  only do increases in blood volume to specific regions occur but Risberg and  Ingvar  (1973) found  that routines such  as recall  and  reasoning  cause, in addition to localized changes, a significant overall increase of  cerebral blood  flow  of  sometimes more than  10%.  This  general  increase appears to be d i s t i n c t l y "related to the subject's effort in performing the task" (Risberg & Ingvar, 1973). (1969) and  Basar  (1980) have  found  a  Others such as Ectors  striking  "parallism" between  cerebral circulation and EES rhythms. Comparatively, because  high  i t s metabolic  cognitive  activity  levels  rates  (since  of  are  the  blood  very  blood  flow  high, flow  through  the brain  particularly  through  the  during  brain  is  proportioned according to the metabolic needs). Tympanic Temperature Change Changes in blood volume to certain brain regions have been shown to produce temperature changes (Serota & Gerard, 1938) energy release of active nerve associated  with  such  activity.  related to the  cells and  to the vasomotor  When  zones  certain  of  responses the  brain  increase their activity, local vasodilation seems to occur, as in the  Brain and Learning 43 carotid siQOCi  sinus reflex iiiis  ciSiiiauid.  (Mikhailov,  n«Ci-<3Sis«Ci  helps cool these zones.  to allow  for the  vcluias of blood to incre active  increased -jjjL*€Sas  also  The results of studies by Hayward and Baker  (1969) and Serota and Gerard temperature of blood  1962),  (1938) show slight net reductions in the  in vessels and  surrounding  the relatively more active brain regions.  tissues which supply  Using the method of tympanic  membrane temperature monitoring of Dickey, Ahlgren and Stephen (1970), Meiners and Dabbs (1977) have demonstrated that tympanic temperature is a  measure of  tympanic  core  temperature.  temperature have been  hemispheric  increases  found to be greater  in blood in the l e f t  Also, found  unilateral to  volume.  be  decreases  associated  Temperature  in ear  with  brain  decreases were  ear during verbal tasks and  in the  right ear during spatial tasks. They conclude that tympanic temperature provides . a functioning  simple  indirect  in a variety of  indicator  tasks and  can be  relate tasks to relative brain hemispheric data  showing that a thermistor  of  relative used  hemispheric  in studies that  activity. They also provide  worn as an  earplug  in the  auditory  meatus not necessarily in contact with the tympanic membrane can detect these temperature indices of hemispheric activation. The overall review of the literature had led to the expectation that the left brain cerebral hemisphere is primarily active during the "learning of written verbal material, and that methods which incorporate pictorial representations would most likely e l i c i t changes in relative activity in the right and l e f t brain hemispheres. evidence  show the right hemisphere to be  Also, the weight of  responsible for processing  Brain  and  Learning  44  form  visualization,  methods using  which  help  pictorial  relative  e l i c i t  regions  to  enhance  changes symbolic  The  left  the  is  a  the  enhancers  s t i l l and  can be  predominantly  be  certain  primarily  but  on  brought  verbatim pictures. of  recall,  as  Pictorial  organizational  as  discussed  imagery  enhanced  suggests  retention several  dimensions  of  operation  may  be  different;  mainly  as  to  methods  knowledge  semantically  what  they  such  as  necessarily  other or  hand the  structures  without  that  example  by  organization  comprehension  be  for  etc.  compared diagrams, frameworks  to  induced  may  induce providing  other  much  due  with  to  of  vivid  some  may  well  be  enhance gains  in the  knowledge  to  gains  in  enhancement  involving their  methods  emphasizing  observable  techniques  however, along  linking  and  Finally,  may  appreciable  strategies  discriminative  It  imagery  inducing  symbolic  necessarily  associative.  accomplish.  ways  concomitant  activity,  imposed  more  ways  On  cognitive  invoking  of  albeit  different  comprehension. of  would  and  may b e  in may  number  content  There  brain  imagery  greater  their  simply  They  in  without the  a  not  changes  about  others  pictorial  in  The  but  hemispheres.  objectives,  induced  hypothesis  brain  by  material,  concomitant  symbolic.  right  questions,  specific  recall  of  some  since  than  orientations.  verbal  activity  hemispheres  levels  spatial  learned  of  comprehension  underlying  may  levels  the  general  pictorial  existent  right  in  literature  comprehension  that  and  in  relative  So,  may b e  e l i c i t  organization,  earlier.  because  may  recall  in  this.  representation,  both  organizational  and  the  changes  of  pictures  organizing  activity  further  shapes,  imagery  simultaneous  descriptive  in or use  images  Brain  and  Learning  45  representing  them)  the  and  perhaps  material.  extent  verbal  material  to  be  studied,  sihancsamant in retention (ever  respectable to  the  these  also  This  a  significant  study  was  expectations,  at  showing  from  well  produce  cositroi group xiot  enhancement  aimed  derived  a  may  in  exposed  comprehension  whether  or  research  findings,  shows  apparent  a  to  of  what  are  borne  out. The  central  hypothesis.  The of  the  with  analysis  findings  the  studies  study to  diagrams detected  of  the  brain  brain  to  verbal  functions. concerning  concerning  no  learning  brain  electrophysiology,  in  determine  centers  in  learning the  with there  induced  imagery  is  concomitants flow  correlation  those  Clearly,  blood  during  issue  present  study  experiment  to  imposed  by  corresponding to  and  left  is  proposed or  verbal  induced higher  the  imagery level  hemispheric  ( c f .  the  concerned a  need  and of  learning  and  for  pictorial as  temperature  This  The  learners' learning  Buzan's)  process  is  the  central  by  tend  to  general  the  remain research of  proficiency  would  hemispheric  which  engaging  hypothesis  performance  because  learning,  "methods  which  adjuncts  right  activities  generative  learning  tasks.  of  of  hemisphere",  addressed.  that  theory  not  enhance  nondominant  dormant  the  his  whether  relatively  relative  on  findings  (1977)  generative  present  findings  1973).  suggested  more  research  findings  Wittrock  induce  available  the  the  by  (Paivio,  from  relate  to  of  be  brain  right  the owing  accompanied activities  hemisphere  is  Brain  and  Learning  46  purported  to  In greater  play  order right  in  we n e e d  Any some  to  set  in  addition  if  in  the  activity  to  the  methods  thus  of  the  recall  on  be  the  pictorial  engage those  relatively  which  and  e l i c i t  comprehension,  capable  the  comprehension  in  to  recall  will  concerned  functions  that  of  experimentally.  question  and  findings  cognitive  by  collected  psychological  processing  correspond  measured  define  the  methods  as  data  terms  to  concomitant  determine  role  learning  of  interesting  adjuncts  increasing  hemisphere  improvements obviously  an  brain  efficiency  of  with  of of  learning the  addressing learning  materials  localizations  (particularly  in of  hemispheric  lateralization). Experimental Based expected  the  superior  and  analysis  of  instruction  previous  and  comprehension,  that  and  comprehension  as  condition,  and  finally  the  relative  would right  be  that  accompanied  hemisphere  studies,  pictorial  recall  instruction  concomitant  earlier  imagery  recall  instruction imagery  on  that  facilitate e l i c i t  expectations.  activity.  to  enhanced  the  be will  diagrams  pictorial by  can  diagrams  pictorial compared  it  will imagery  diagrams  and  levels  of  Brain  and  Learning  47  Subjects  and  The the  methodology  literature.  an  to  verbal  different, "dosages"  may of  comparable conditions inherent  longer  be  variable  be  argued  also  not  content  parallel each  difficult  on  thus  distorted  in  for  content.  the  literature  Psychology  by  in  So,  the  order  be  were  adjuncts. to  render  to  methods  thus  these  the  Even  vast  if  body  qualitative  of  employed  be  content such  an  would  no  research  nature  quantitatively remained  not  experimental  that  parallelism)  commonly  different  manipulations  the  them  sacrificing are  the  with  qualitatively  and  ensure same.  Their  render  study  group  the  possible  comparable  they  providing  to  pictures  studied.  in  of  with  subjects  while  to  be  of  conditions, terms  an  representative  experimental material  necessary  adjunct  present  the  as  subjects  images  to the  imagery  availability  experimental  In  perhaps  uses  linked  throughout  induced  imaginal  verbal  these  intimately  experimental  It  equivalent  or  uses  vivid  the  that  attempts  ways  research.  of  these  the  (while  of  is  validated  providing  each  task  generali zable  study  the  learned.  would  form  existent  adjuncts  be to  it  already be  being  experimentally.  in  enormously  providing  representative  could  this  generally  interactive  material  pictures It  Methodology  concentually  by  form  independent  actual  in  literature  variable  instructions  as  utilized  practice The  independent  the  II.  Design  research  of  Chapter  would  equivalent  consistent  with  and  used  these  in  Educational  Brain and Learning 48 Sixty  right-handed subjects  volunteers of low GPA use  these  randomly  drawn  from  a  pool  of  (to reduce the likelihood tnat they habitually  elaborative and  techniques, Rohwer, the  University  1973)  of  from  British  a  Vancouver  community  college  Columbia  obtained.  Right handers were chosen to ensure most probable l e f t brain  hemisphere dominance (normal lateralization of function).  were  If a subject  reported writing and doing most daily tasks with the right hand the subject was deemed to be right handed and inferred to most l i k e l y be l e f t brain hemisphere dominant. chosen  to overcome  Low GPA subjects (less than 3.5) were  the phenomenon Rohwer  (1973) observed.  others had found that high a b i l i t y subjects  He  and  ( i . e . subjects who have  demonstrated high grade point average) would elaborate using imagery or other organizing profit  from  strategies  experimenter  spontaneously and did not induced  imagery  substantially  (instructions)  or other  mnemonic aids (since they were already performing near their maximum). The sixty subjects thus selected were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions,  20 subjects  induced imagery instruction,  each.  The  three  included  (b) pictorial diagrams, and  (a)  (c) control  conditions. Induced imagery instruction.  Based on the method of Lorayne &  Lucas (1974) and Rohwer (1968, 1973), instructions to create mentally vivid These  images  concerning the material  instructions  replicated  the  to be usual  learned  were composed.  instructions,  for  this  manipulation, used in the literature but included some words from the text to be read in order that i t be, to some degree, "equivalent" to  Brain and Learning 49 the  other  conditions  'material.  The  information.  which  by  their  instructions were  concentrated  These instructions f i l l e d  were assembled  as  a poster.  nature,  (See  necessitated mainly  four 8 1/2"  Appendix A  on  such  "how  to"  x 11" pages and  for the actual text  material in this adjunct) Pictorial Diagrams. Levin  & Lesgold  Based on an adaptation of the methods of  (1978); Buzan  (1976, 1980)  and  Vernon  (1980),  the  intrinsic logic of the material and using pictures commonly presented in  popular  diagram"  textbooks  on  the  illustration  of  the  constructed. poster.  topic of to  be  This picture-diagram was  Psychopathology,  learned  textual  a  "picture  material  was  composed to create a 17" x 22"  (See Appendix A for a print of the poster used)  Control  Group.  A  poster  17"  x  22"  containing  irrelevant  material of an instructional nature (from Genetics) was constructed so each condition is equivalent.  (See Appendix A for the actual text  material used). *To enhance the salience and importance of these posters, before their exposure,  each  subject  read  some student  objectives pertaining  to  knowledge and comprehension (Bloom, Englehart, Furst, H i l l & Krathwohl, 1956) based on the ideas behind Bloom's taxonomy. Based  on  the  main  concepts  in  a  typical  chapter  on  "Psychopathology" from a typical "Introductory Psychology" textbook, a chapter was  created in such a manner as to cover adequate balance  give appropriate  weighting  to  each of  the  mental disorders.  constituted the text material the subjects were required to leam.  and This  Brain  and  Learning  50 Criterion  Test  The freely It  recall  (Wood,  thus  task  measured Bloom's  Taxonomy  Introductory (Hoyt's these  of  by  of  the  used  Variance)  A Grass  Instrument  electroencepholograph polygraph  (E.  bilaterally. P„,  3  T.,  4  &  M.  Four P„  4  in  Co.  standard  referenced Figure  2  E.E.G. to  system.  (See  for  Universal  Waveform A n a l y z e r "  Insert  C  (only  with  a used  from  electrode (Analogic  Figure  items  by  teachers  were  item  100  which  monitor  were  used  Corporation)  of for  coefficients  to  use  A was  of  tests.  F.M.  were  used)  "Model  Six"  the  at  E.E.G.  sites  International  locations)  in  questions  previous  4 of  here  which  instrumentation  the  2 about  The  These  Physiograph  electrodes  z  test.  defined  in  and  the  as  valid  0.88  studied. After  r e l i a b i l i t y  to  analyzer  were  text  from  recall  questions  achievement  8 channel  Co.)  have  text.  (1981).  calculated  conjunction  Instrument  the  judged  f r o m 0.73  signal  the  choice  consistency  ranged  they  to  comprehension  in  as  were  subjects  in  multiple  consensually  Electroencephalograph, recorder.  the  & Hastings  Internal  Reliabilities  information  15  Madaus  the  disorders  concepts  regularly  of  asking  given  of  items,  Comprehension  mental  of  were  of  Psychology.  Analysis  the  recall  Bloom,  and  items.  of  consisted  pool  isubject  consisted  subjects  test  a  and  many  understanding  from  this  as  Recall  verbatim  the  comprehension  of  test  1971)  measured  recall  chosen  Materials  "Data used  T^, 10-20  6000 to  -  check  Brain  and  Learning  51  the  ongoing  power  reception  as  4-channel  Hewlett  record  the  spectrum  noise  E.E.G.  free  and  Packard during  Temperature  sensors  to  thermal  transducers,  each  constructed the  felt  conduction  attached  of  heat  "Dual  Analog  filtering  "Gralab  signals.  the  to  help  to  of  Units"  subjects.  an  used  as  was  3960  used  to  Two  one  in  Specifically  much  through  thermistor set,  responses. as  49TA  temperature  earphone  prevent,  Two  Model  tympanic  canal  3 about  to  Co.  bilaterally.  transducers  used  as  possible,  ambient  air.  here  Krohn-Hite  provide  for  Model  Co first  order  3342R Nyquist  signals.  were  subjects and that Model  remote  to  others.  Timers")  Archer  signal  A Model  Recorder  Instrument  these  Figure  were  correct  possible.  Tape  auditory  used  timers  time  provide  responses  darkroom  movements An  and  E.E.G.  large  track  excessive  used  the  Universal  chamber, keep  Filter  of  Two  units  were  from the  Insert  Filtering  as  Springs  detect  were  away  free  ensure  periods.  units  to  to  paddings  the  Yellow  thermal  used  to  Instrumentation  Two  the  were  FM  time  artifact  monitoring  monitor  ear,  as  real  each of  Thermodetector. Digital  in  pace  (Dimco used.  One,  themselves  events.  A  could 43-221A  Gray  chin  Co.,  in  and  disrupt  the  Transistorized  communication  between  the  one  rest  the  Model  165  shielded for  was  the used  &  isolated  operator to  171  to  prevent  electrophysiological Intercom operator  System and  each  was of  ^  Brain and Learning 52 Computers. Fortran  A PDP-11/23 MINC DECLAB computer with the RSX-11  Enhancement  Package  laboratory modules were used  and A/D, D/A, Digital-In  and Clock  to carry out the E.E.G. analysis.  A  dedicated hard disk i n addition to the "Systems" disk were used for data  storage  Packard  and processing  manipulations.  A Model  7220C  Hewlett  plotter was used to display graphs of raw E.E.G. data, Fast  Fourier Transform Magnitudes and Power Spectra.  The remaining analyses  were carried out using the main U.B.C. computing center (Amdahl XXY). Software.  Five computer programs were created in Fortran-77 to  carry out the E.E.G. analyses. Digital  sampling  intervals. record.  Program "ADTEST" carried out Analog to  at the desired frequency  and for the desired time  Program "READREC" was used to write the values sampled in a  Program  "DISPLAY" which graphs  the raw data,  the Fourier  Coefficients or Power Coefficients was used as ongoing check and to obtain  figures.  simultaneous  Program  "DMUX" demultiplexed  the signals  channels of data were processed at once.  calculated the Fast Fourier Transform  when 4  Program "POWER"  and the power spectrum and took  average powers for designated numbers of records. Experiment laboratory-designed  Room.  An electrically  isolation  chamber  shielded and  soundproofed  (Electrical Engineering, McLeod  Building, room 257) was used to ensure proper attention to stimuli and eliminate incidence of electrical noise and other artifacts from the neurophysiological measures. Procedure Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions  Brain and Learning 53 by  drawing  presented  their  number  from  a  table  of  themselves for the experiment.  disclaimer  and  sequence.  He/She had  appropriately  was  given  general  the  attached  and  from the  positions  numbers  as  they  Each subject f i r s t signed the  information  electrodes  (at  random  practice  on  the  electroencephalograph  T_,  P.,  T.  J  J  4  and  P.  and  4  C z  based on the international 10 - 20 System) and the ear probes placed in position.  Electrode impedance was measured less than 5000 ohms at each  electrode location.  Since reading  constitutes a low artifact E.E.G.  task (Ornstein et a l . , 1979) a verbal learning paradigm was used. subject was  then given  five minutes to study the student  Each  objectives  during which time I calibrated the settings with an input signal of 10 Hz  at 50  V,  verified proper operation  stabilization of temperature. appropriate  to his/her  of the systems, and  ensured  The poster presenting the adjunct format  condition  was  presented  by  instructing the  subject, over the intercom, to remove the cover and thereby expose the paste  up  in  front  of  him/her  and  set  the  timer  to  5  minutes.  (Pre-training on these movements had been given during the provision of general information cn the sequence). minutes to study the  Adjunct material in front of him/her.  five minute period was timer  over, each subject was  for 15 minutes and  Throughout  this  neurophysiological  Each subject was thus given five  whole  When this  instructed to set  the  studied the text material during this time. period  responses  were  (of  20  minutes)  monitored.  The  each  subject's  4-channel  E.E.G.  signals were recorded on the FM recorder and a permanent record of them kept while  the temperature samples were written down every minute as  Brain and Learning 54 per Meiners & Dabbs (1977).  After this 15 minute interval I signalled,  on the intercom, that this was the end of the study period.  I entered  the chamber, turned over the adjunct poster and took the text material. I set the timer so each subject was thus given 10 minutes to do the paper and pencil recall task and the comprehension test. minute  period was over  I entered  When this 10  the chamber and took  signalling that this was the end of their time.  the tests  I then scored their  recall and comprehension tests to provide feedback and I explained the study to them. Post Experimental Debriefing I whether  asked they  the subjects i f they had any questions or comments, had  electrophysiological  experienced unit  during  any the  discomfort procedure  or  wearing due  the  to the  arrangement of things or whether they had f e l t the room comfortable for temperature, ventilation, etc. or i f they had any other complaints.  I  did a manipulation check to ensure that the subjects i n each condition were influenced i n the manner needed for the experiment and encouraged comments, criticisms and questions during every part of this debriefing period. Methods of Observations and Measurements E.E.G. artifact rejection.  The raw data were examined using the  program DISPLAY to determine obvious artifacts, signal loss or blatant extraneous electrical noise.  These were edited out of the analysis by  manual procedures such as recommended (1975).  (or used) by Gevins and Yeager  More subtle sources of noise and artifacts were f a i r l y  well  B r a i n and L e a r n i n g 55  controlled  for by  artifacts eye  and  pulses  artifacts  EMG  and  sweating  subject  around  and  cross  resistance  artifacts,  talk  stray  summarized  external  faults,  which  from  EMG  l i m b s and rise  or  to  sources  and  skin  amplifier  polarization  of  artifacts  potentials  E.E.G.  the  of  external  faults,  or  of  well  as  can  be  electrical  interference  subject  faults,  as  artifacts  artifacts.  t o machine  electrode  artifacts,  sources i•i  of  the  movement  varying  electromagnetic  group  on  contraction or d i l a t i o n  of  with  object  as  respiration  various  due  or  such  activity  electricity  channels,  sources  give  another  radiation  showed no  behaviors.  behavioral  muscle  as  in  Radio  and  of  frequency  power s u r g e s , polarization  from  switch  effects,  faults.  a l p h a band  various  such  cardiac  static  A c c o r d i n g t o a s t u d y by Chen, D r a n g s h o l t , the  facial  by  movement  E.E.G.  interaction  interference  amplifier  and c o n t a c t  in  constitute  interference,  and  E.E.G.  subject  other  Electrostatic  sources  themselves  eye  contamination,  Other  arising  interference.  of  o f head o r  changes. as  blinks,  capacitance,  capillaries  conductivity  eye  between and  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h tremor skin  GSR  him/her,  artifacts,  scalp  (BOG),  main s o u r c e s o f E.E.G.  include e x t r a c e r e b r a l sources  (contamination  potentials),  electrodes  noise  The  from o t h e r muscle p o t e n t i a l s o f t h e body neck and head,  EKG  or  f i l t e r i n g processes.  extraneous  movement  artificats,  the  movements  predominantly  i n the  The  significant alpha  since low  band  these  frequency  Dworkin & C l a r k  artifactual is  not  artifact delta  band  change affected  i n power  with  by  explicit  are  centered  the h i g h  frequency  effects and  (1983)  Brain and Learning 56 30-50 Hz band.  Since the analog low pass Nyquist f i l t e r s had a cut o f f  at 25 Hz and the d i g i t a l f i l t e r s had high pass and low pass cut offs at 8 Hz and 14 Hz, these artifacts would be expected to have been excluded prior  to the analyses.  O'Donnell,  Berkhout  & TAdey (1974) observed  l i t t l e i f any EMG i n f i l t r a t i o n of the E.E.G. signals below 14 Hz except when the E.E.G. electrode was very close to a contracting muscle. /According to Gevins, Yeager,  Zeitlin,  Ancoli  &  Dedon  there could be high frequency artifacts associated with EMG  (1977) of over  34-44 Hz and low frequency Electro-Oculo-Gram (EOG) artifacts (Girton & Kamiya,  1973)  both  processing system.  which  would  have  also  been  rejected  by  the  Movement artifacts would also have been minimized  by the requirement that the subjects use the chin rest and that the task did not require laughing  are said  any  significant  to e l i c i t  motor responses.  increments  Smiling  and  in power artifacts whereas  moving the eyes or squinting tends toward power reduction artifacts but the  nature  responses.  of  the material  Chen  et  was  a l . (1983)  not also  such  that  reported  would  elicit  that  major  these muscle  artifacts f a l l in the high frequency range and that the alpha band (the one analyzed in this study) is least affected by movement of frontalis, masseter or biceps muscles.  Frontalis activity i s reported to affect  power in the delta and theta bands only (O'Donnell et a l . , 1974). et  a l . (1983)  also  reported  that,  in  their  studies  of  Chen E.E.G.  artifacts, no laterality differences were observed, however, variations were often movements.  apparent  between different  subjects performing the same  Brain  and  Learning  57  "EMG  infiltration  is  absent  contracted  for  long  muscles  are  1974).  However,  there  can  be  frequency the  massive  to  a  movement  the  produces  an  potential  eye  interference  with  the  increasing studies  sites  near  whole  distance  recording  (1973)  from  for  of cn  be  attached  the  Eye more  are  at  the  technique  movement frontal  any  entire of  evidence  requires  action  positive  same  time  potentials  significantly have  in  of  integrated artifacts  changes  studies  eye  with are  a  &  potentials,  a  by  however  artifact.  vertical and eye  and  Vertex  placements.  with  (Hillyard  Gerton  vertical  with  negative  movement  affected  in  transmitted  problem  subtracting  that  potential  attenuated a  eye  respect  contingent  artifact. for  the  with  as  changing  show  electrode  of  are  presented  slowly  which  movement  and  a l . ,  the  corneo-retinal  differentially  which  the  correlation  very  segments  line  E.E.G.  this  These  are  et  observation  reveal  being  These  cross  when  contracts  over  Close  to  particularly  eye  the  recorder.  pronounced  an  eye.  these  exclude  cornea  become  in  placements  devised  electrodes  E.E.G.  to  components  have  artifacts BOG  Since  electrode  horizontal  and  due  E.E.G.  but  E.E.G.  1970).  Various  head  even  electrode  power  not  Hz  power.  are  eye.  the  Galambos,  is  the  the  measurements  method  the  14  (O'Donnell  an  1977).  did  movement  from  variation  simple  (the  time"  spectral  spectral (EGG)  below  under  & Segall,  in  dipole  of  in  analyses  potentials  With  at  throughout  increase  electric  retina).  increase  the  E.E.G.  directly  Wright  during  the  periods  muscle  massive  general  variable  a  (Johnson,  spectrum  Eye as  sudden  range  power  such  when  in  or  Kamiya movement  horizontal to  Mastoid  much Temporal  more and  Brain  and  Learning  58  parietal  placements  are  said  artifacts  {Cooper,  Ornstein  in  present  study  this  activation are  usually  lightly In  of  the  instances,  admonitions  examinations power  spectra  E.E.G.  spectrum  above,  there  positions.  is  subjects, wires  general  leads  artifacts  area  ventilated  anywhere of  the  enough.  on  the  They  electricity  on  a l l  touching  special  ear  lobe  or  EKG  board  contact  by  at  that  the the  experienced  subject parts  grounding  sweating  high nor  or  around  of  the  shielded  electrode  to  was  lack  ground  each  the  and  GSR  of  contact  Debriefing  of  to  cool  ambient  Possible  eliminated going  the  by  remained  levels  room  was  experimentation  temperature  discomfort.  of  stated  above  position.  enough  and  electrode  Sweating  the  him/her  visual  subject  and  room  study  as  given  the  electrode  return.  FFT's  but,  having by  jaw  contamination  the  for  except  the  suspended  with  windows  to  contamination  controlled the  These  present  of  the  amplifiers.  experience the  pulse  using  with  addition,  detect  the  opening  not  to  problem  no  the In  to  confirmed  to  and  of  as  his/her  tend  contraction  electrode  electrodes  by  temperature  objects  it  were  had  of  relax  displays  1980)  such  muscles).  not  subjects.  muscle  possible the  stage  graphical  & Meache,  lack  to  subject  subjects  of  the  facial  for  having  potential well  out  up  these  associated  to  do  by  placements  (jaw  subject  eliminated  setting to  muscles  the  once  conveyed  a  the  masseter  and the  cranio  from  or  instructing  by  by  short  going  artifacts  Shapiro  Control  accomplished  evoke  carried  (Levy,  influenced  sometimes  during  were  too  Temporal  rest  were  be  I960).  by  chin  not  & Shaw,  temporalis  eliminated  onto  four  such  the  to  by  ground  subject.  static having and  a  Since  Brain and Learning 59 subject movements were minimal and there were no moving objects within the experimentation  chamber, these sources of artitacts  should nave  been at a minimum. Possible cross talk between channels was eradicated 0  by having each of the leads physically very separate from the others and the use of shielded coaxial cable leads (with the shielded portion connected to i t s own separate ground).  This procedure also eliminated  possible  Possible artifacts  varying  stray  capacitance  effects.  electrode resistance were controlled  caused  by  for by ensuring proper  electrode impedance (less than 5,000 ohms) prior to the experimental tests and by test runs on various subjects to ensure constant contact pressure by  the  electrode band.  The  system  was  closely  monitored  throughout to ensure that no radical changes might have occurred due to electrode polarization.  Possible respiration artifacts were eliminated  by the very direct routing of wires from the scalp electrode positions to the electrode boards and thence to the amplifiers. been encouraged  Each subject had  to relax during the electrode attachment phase and  since as mentioned before, the area was relatively cool, responses are not likely to have been drastic enought to induce radical departures of the E.E.G.'s.  Alteration of possible external sources of electrical  interference was  accomplished  a l l arranged as designed.  by ensuring that the shielded room was  60 Hz interference from mains a.c. lines was  rejected by the extensive shielding of a l l cables and by the low pass f i l t e r i n g at 25 Hz and at 14 Kz by respectively. fields,  the analog and  Possible interference from  radio frequency  sources,  digital  filters  motor generators, magnetic  microphonics,  switches,  telephones,  Brain and Learning 60 radio  and other  possibility  machines  were  thus  controlled  for. Also, the  of radiation from noisy tubes or batteries was carefully  monitored and excluded by the extensive grounding. E.E.G. digitizing. Recorder  data  signal  The E.E.G.  processing.  data  collected  (a) Analog  f i l t e r i n g and  on the FM  Instrumentation  were fed into f i r s t order Nyquist low pass analog  filters.  The low pass cut offs were set at 25Hz to ensure a comfortable margin for  anti-aliasing.  For the 20 minutes of data for each subject the  four channels of E.E.G. were thus lew pass filtered at 25 Hz with the Krohn-Hite  3342 analog f i l t e r s and then digitized at 64 Hz using the  DECLAB MNCAD module and the program ADTEST. 307000 data points per subject.  This thereby constituted  These filtered signals were thus fed  to the Analog to Digital converter which, in conjunction with the Clock module and the program ADTEST sampled the one second signals sweeps at 64Hz. This epoch provides for multiples of 1Hz of the digitized data. (b) Demultiplexing:  One channel  at a time,  these data were  demultiplexed using "DEMUX" to create four f i l e s each 300 data records long. (c)  Windows:  The  fourier  transform  and  algorithms essentially compute the frequency spectrum  power  spectrum  from the input  block of samples (epoch) taken by quantization. The fourier transform and power spectrum assume that this epoch is i n f i n i t e l y repeated. measuring  a continuous  signal  like  When  the E.E.G. the epoch does not  usually contain a number of cycles consistent with the input E.E.G. wave since, depending on where the sampling process happens to "catch"  Brain  and  Learning  61  the  wave,  i.e.  it  wnen  the  transform of  a  and  the  domain becomes  power  gets  a  in  of be  only  at  If would  leakage  is  basis  set"  (Harr i s , E.E.G.  happen  but  likely.  that  a  with  the  set"  "windowed the  thus  sampled  finite  not  leak  of  one.  periodic) out  of  one  into  the  in  the  "leakage  smearing  of  energy  of  basis  project  w i l l  will  are  possible  exhibit  and (or  smoothly  extension  of  onto  non-zero  1978)  contributions  is  fourier  continuum  data  periodic  spectrum  spectrum  (Harris,  spectral  time  is  called  the  caught  (theoretical)  power  form  basis  the  sequence The  the  in  The  energy  frequencies  for  thus  so  in  basis  responsible  boundaries  the  not  entire  epoch  the  (E.E.G.  and  "From  other  that  infinite  phenomenon  coincide  on  1978).  This  tourier  computed  one  record  components  the  phenomena  of  the  transform  domain.  epoch,  domain.  point  results  a l l  such  spectrum.  the  it  which  the are  entire  continuous."  the  the  sharp  time  frequency  get  (Harris,  the  is  because  vector;  on  the  in  fourier  those  basis  end  approximate  resolution  discontinuities  zero  the  frequency  projections  the  to  thus  frequency  period"  throughout of  is  of  in  thus  since  missing  periodic  domain"  single  the  next  made  not  of  the  over  "The the  line  frequencies  (sampling  out  lines  through  algorithms  spread  spread  frequency  periodic  periodic)  is  resolution  not  not  must  wave  other  waveform  representations  is  beginning  the  is  spectrum  distorted.  transform If  power  wave  are  different  waveform  distorted  along  the  produces  "the  leakage)  brought  the  data  to is  1978). wave  were  given Also,  periodic  the if  within  irregularity it  were  of  possible  the the to  epoch  sampled  E.E.G. obtain  wave an  this this  infinite  Brain  and  Learning  62  time  record  duration on  the  from  severe  provides  of  and  time  record  ends  and  most  is  the For  squared  infinite  is  end  might  error  the  of  window  since fine  such  as  data  window, cut  serve  off  best It  it  choice reduces  (Harris, in  the  in  is  thus  the  to  in  which  the  epoch  ignore  the  windowing,  the  is  window  of  zero  at  provides of  transient  time  record  weights  it  Windowing  of  weighting  case  forcing since  may  the vast  the  ends  1978).  the  which  edges  So,  of  which  discontinuities)  spectrum  function  Correct  leakage  1978).  the  epoch.  the  sense.  at  the  by  sharp  be  finite  continuous  occur.  (Harris,  to  the  the to  middle  rectangular gives  likely  problem  seems  to  power  through  a l l  (due  a  considerations  since  epoch,  and  leakage  use  the  transform  middle.  gets  in  is  this  interacting But,  signals,  problem  the  and  "Processing  the  a l l input  provides closest  least one  equally  the to  waves  time zero error  can  one and  record at  the  in  the  for  the  window  but  get  extent.  The this  to  fourier on  occur.  1978).  periodic  small  applications  to  and  the  the  center  and  beginning  mask  this  The  uniformly  means  of  in  some  uniformly.  not  multiplied  of  want  is  not  interesting  (Harris,  solution  the  large  also  representation  concentrate  improvement  might  the  causes  ends  whereas  to  a partial  window  imposes  E.E.G.  enough  Since  would  analysis"  the  distortion  a  this  observation harmonic  input be  (epoch)  mean  not  square  the  error  criterion  may b e of  least  interest  with in  a  rectangular  application  like  E.E.G.  Brain  and  Learning  63  spectral  analysis.  waveform  by  windowed  a  of  with  window  gradual  respect  to  of  can  with  end  up  (ripples  on  increased  be  up  and  a  at  the  be  the  get  time  the  domain,  powei  the  E.E.G.  spectrum  of  the  the  the  E.E.G.,  and  a  of  of  this  main  output  of  this.  (Harris,  main  One  than can  window  per  unit  center  on  many  instance,  or  one  started  also, a  a  necessary  impart  one  equivalent  with  the  is  For  resolution  The  at  however  1978).  lobe).  lobe.  top  a  measuring  function  "Windows  bandwidth  original  the  off  with  For  window  rounded  trade  doing  invisible  windows. a  more  A  broader  than  other  the  processor"  broader  of  ends  of  frequency  using  as  aspects  side  of  desirable.  spectrum  with  of  seen  such  harmonic  width  power  be  certain  a  with  with  such  decreased  noise  a or  bandwidth  bandwidth)  needs  to  considered. There  output the  is  is  the  sum  of  scalloping highest  window  besides  to  of the  of of  and these  data to  rectagular  processing the the  worst  lobe  function the  the  product  loss,  side  reference  also  squared  disadvantages  a  off  each  end  can  might  attributes  (noise  in  components  signals  r o l l  record  window,  window  spectral  noise-like  the  multiply,  function.  rectangular  more  we  suitable  Certain  white  So  proportion window  case side  lobe  apply  the to  window  of  can  In  loss, off.  have  to  be  one's  given  data.  used  of  the  the  taken  depending  there  into  account  when  kinds on  and is  correlation,  advantages  analysis Many  power  noise  addition  overlap  All  of  be  Incoherent  variance  fall  purpose the  gain.  function.  processing  parameters and  coherent  of  one's  and in  selecting windows purpose.  Brain  and  Learning  64  /Among  these  vrindows,  the  Parzen) Tukey  are  the  Hamming  window,  window,  (Abel,  the  the  Dolph-Chebychev Point  window,  window,  the  Riemann  window, window,  window,  Kaiser  the  the  the  the  the  Blacknan  Bohman w i n d o w ,  Poisson)  and Four  triangular  window,  Riesz  Parzen  Hanning-Poisson  Gaussan  (Cosine  the  Jackson,  window  (Bochner.  window,  and  family)  window,  (Wererstrass)  Barcilon-Tewes  Bessel  Hamming  the  the  Cauchy  window,  the  the  Kaiser  Bessel  window.  a. The at  the  ends  seems  but  in  and  representation  of  by  discontinuities above.  The  gain, case  the  best  scalloping processing  smooth  the  Four  improved  It  to  seems  accuracy  possess  the  frequency  (which  a  the  Kaiser  due  (see  to  leakage  Bessel Figure  compromise loss, loss,  the  in  Figure  of  best and  compromise so  factor  frequency  Bessel  gives  of  domain in  terms  the  best  interest  in  the  preprocessed  by  to  domain  superior  to  zero window  frequency  window  prevent as  the  discussed  the  Cosine  or  it  4 about  equivalent side  and  point  appears  ordinates  Kaiser  were  the  4) b e c a u s e  with  signals  four  window  highest etc.  is  digitized Bessel  curve Point  characteristics  Insert  offers  as  a  negative  Kaiser  Hamming windows  such  is  giving  study). Using "POWER"  multiplying  window  window  resolution.  positive  present,  Bessel a  optimum  frequency of  Kaiser  lobe,  Considering  its  here  noise side  bandwidth, lobe  properties,  fall it  coherent  off, was  worst felt  to  Brain and Learning 65 be  the best  compromise of positive features  for a window.  After  windowing the data was Fourier transformed using a 64 point FFT. Digital f i l t e r i n g and average power computation.  Subsequent to  d i g i t a l f i l t e r i n g , second by second power spectra were obtained for the Alpha band (8 to 14 Hz) and averaged for each second.  Second by second  power spectra were then averaged over 2 minutes 40 seconds and eight of these  were collected and averaged over the whole 20 minutes. (See  Figure 5 for sketch of signal processing system)  Insert Figure 5 about here (7_£  Calibration,  (a) Computer software  scaling;  Power values were  calibrated by the computer routines to convert to a representation of the  voltages  at the input  digitized quantization values computer  worked  with.  to the A/D converter (scaling  Values  rather  than the  due to the A/D process) the  of the order  of V^/Hz were  thus  returned by the program POWER. (b) Applied  external calibration  (for the system):  To these  values produced by the program POWER the various system gains had to be 2 applied to arrive at a correct y> v /Hz  value  input at the E.E.G. electrodes). The overall  (which represents the system block  diagram  starting with the E.E.G. signal at the electrode cap and leading to the PDP-11 is shown in Figure 6. Insert Figure 6 about here Ap^^o  (2 7  Brain and Learning 66 The value of the overall averaged power presented by the program POWER took into account the quantization scaling but not the gains of the amplifier  tape recorder and analog  filters.  To obtain the true  power (representation at the E.E.G. electrodes) the values returned by the program POWER were divided  by the gains G^ through  G^.  Thus  the true value of power i s given by:  2 True Power (^ v /Hz) = Computer Calculated Power (3) G  l 2 3 4 G  G  G  To process the data from a subject, each 75 4K buffers of 4 channel data collected using ADTEST needed 20 minutes per channel of data or 1200 total raw data records. of  data per channel  To demultiplex these 20 minutes  (1200 raw data records) required 5 minutes per  channel and to average the powers using POWER and windowing the data required 5 minutes per channel.  The total time involved in calculating  the average power for the 4 channels minutes.  Examining  displays  for each subject was plus 65  and plots  required  additional  time.  Hemispheric averages were computed by taking the mean for the two left hemisphere electrodes. relative  electrodes  and the mean  These were used  right  hemispheric  as dependent variables  average  Morgan (1974) and Doyle et a l . , and  for the two right  power  ratios  hemisphere  along with the  as per Steadman &  (1974) and Matousek & Petersen (1973)  the log power ratios as per Ornstein et a l . (1979) and Gasser,  Bacher and Mocks (1982).  Brain and Learning 67 Most  experts  suggest  transforming  before performing s t a t i s t i c a l analyses.  the absolute  power  values  According to ornstein, et a l .  (1979) s t a t i s t i c a l analyses ought to be computed cn natural logarithmic transforms of hemispheric  ratio because ratios have been found to not  meet assumptions required of the analysis of variance. Ehrlichman  & Wiener  symmetrical  (1979) this  is accomplished  According to  to make the ratios  about unity and to reduce the impact  of extreme scores.  According to Cooper Osselton & Shaw (1980) and Matousek and Petersen (1973) the analysis of variance needs to be carried out on square root transformed Matthis,  E.E.G. power values  Scheffner  &  as well as the log power  Benninger  (1981)  examined  ratios.  the mathematical  properties of E.E.G. spectral parameters and maintain  that  relative  power parameters are robust, numerically stable etc...but do not meet the theoretical models for s t a t i s t i c a l however  have  parameters  studied  various  tests.  transformations  for skewness, kurtosis and Wilk's  Gasser of W.  et a l . (1982)  E.E.G.  spectral  and conclude  relative power i s not too distorted only in the Delta band.  that  They do,  however, recommend using the square root and natural log transformation of  absolute power.  distribution because  thus  their  Statistical  techniques  cannot be used  empirical  which rely on the normal  i f absolute power values are used  distribution  does  not follow  the normal  distribution in samples of healthy individuals (Gasser et a l . , 1982). These deviations ' are  ostensibly quite  substantial,  from asymmetry and long t a i l s in the empirical distribution.  resulting They may  arise from different sources such as being inherent in the scale used,  Brain and Learning 68 intrinsic  in the  heterogeneity recording  biological  (such  techniques,  as or  systems  generating  the  pathology  in  unrecognized  the parameters  themselves  E.E.G.,  sample  some subjects), (Gasser  et a l . ,  1982). Since the ratio of right hemisphere power to l e f t hemisphere power has been shown to give a value concordant  with l e f t hemisphere  activity to right hemisphere activity and that in the present study, right hemisphere activity was of main interest  I used the inverse of  this  to  ratio.  concordant  The with  hemisphere.  ratio  can  activity  thus  be  taken  proportional  to  represent  the  a  relative  value right  In right handed people the Right to Left ratio of alpha  power is typically higher during tasks predicted to primarily engage the left  hemisphere  (verbal tasks) and  the Left  to  Right ratio of  alpha power is typically higher during tasks predicted to primarily engage  the  right  hemisphere  ( i . e . spatial  tasks)(Ornstein et a l . ,  1979).  Left hemisphere power is thus divided by right hemisphere power  to compute a ratio of relative right hemisphere activation. of  alpha power measure is said  to be  E.E.G. alpha  power; computing  ratios  analogous  normalizing  index  to  the  This ratio  somewhat more stable than is  (Ornstein, et  within  subjects  al.,  and  raw 1979)  reflects  relative hemispheric engagement concisely. There is thus a disagreement in the literature about the method in which E.E.G. average power data ought to be analyzed.  Some have  done inferential tests on raw E.E.G. power averages but according to many authors,  including Ornstein et a l , (1979), analysis of variance  B r a i n and L e a r n i n g 69 c a r r i e d out on raw E.E.G. power may be erroneous because of the data i'iot.  So,  the  iieieting it  i s recommended,  statistical  the  disfci'iDutior* requirements as per to  obtain  the  aLove arguments.  assumptions  of  inferential  tests that an analysis of variance be c a r r i e d out on the  root power and  the natural  ratios.  In  accordance  analysis  of  E.E.G.  with  was  this,  carried  transforms of the r a t i o s . of the e f f e c t s .  logarithmic  transform of  in  out  the  present  using  the  the hemispheric study,  natural  the  main  logarithmic  These showed to be more conservative t e s t s  A p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of P < .05 was chosen as c r i t e r i o n  f o r r e j e c t i n g the n u l l hypotheses f o r a l l the planned comparisons. The two orthogonal planned comparisons were chosen "a p r i o r i " the  basis  of  the  specific  hypotheses  of  the  study.  The  on  main  consideration, i n t h i s study was experimental i n nature and the l o g i c , relevance  and  specific /  procedures  were  groups  chosen  as  well  as  the  methods  and  '  predicated  on  carrying  out  the  specific  contrasts  chosen.  The planned comparisons were conducted instead of the omnibus  F test.  Considering the seriousness of Type II e r r o r s -  of  potentially  important  effects  either  because  they  (overlooking  are  small  or  because of attentuation by experimental error) and that the r e p l i c a t i o n process  ought  independent  to  provide  demonstrations  protection themselves  from reduce  Type  I  chances  errors of  (since  spurious  or  inaccurate findings), i n the present study I adopted a .05 alpha l e v e l for  the  two  orthogonal  planned  comparisons.  The  two  post, .hoc  comparisons were c a r r i e d out using an adjustment to the alpha l e v e l as per  the Dunnett  procedure when the comparisons  are referenced  to a  Brain  and  Learning  70  control (no  group.  effects  this  is  the  The  within  activation natural  the by  cellular  of  or  negative  i n i t i a l  positivity  Gaches,  1974).  at  the  area  can  This  of  recording  sensory  evoked  potentials  longer  lasting,  potentials. These  potentials  mixed  with  averaging part have  of  difference  are  process  due  to  to  be  be to  random more  diffusion  The  large  activities  seems  E.E.G.  a  wave  often  neurons.  origin. the  but  them.  the  arise  the  synaptic  cortex  mask  of  &  power of  post  of  The  positivity,  cortical  regions  at  followed  (Dondey  later  of  on  wave  average  positive  by are  positivity.  inhibitory  depend  pathways  reference  a  has  evoked  positive  enhanced  which  it  simultaneous  constituents  by  their  and  potentials  attenuation  from to  be  later  in  which  activities  away  to  has  inhibition  less  appear  sensory  by  thermal  cells  evoke  i n i t i a l  by  and  be  remote  supplemented  affect  or  a  result  caused  Electrical diffuse  to  several  to  difference)  to  the  E.E.G.  followed  due  a  clear  appear  can  first  respect  be  claimed  activity.  reported  can  to  afferent at  electrode.  to  allows  The  into  quite  E.E.G.  pyramidal  of  be  make  changes  scalp  stimuli  undoubtedly  may  seem  spontaneous  this  been  which  These  The  which  split  would  the  surfaces.  can  be  power  contributing  with  These  would  seem  done.  from  sensory  cortex  is  levels  that  E.E.G.  itself.  potential  wave.  it  stimulation  a  the  way  elements  a r t i f i c i a l  of  marginality  recorded  cortical  of  probability  average  visual  large  composed  of  cortex  that  surface a  of  the  obtained  whichever  potentials  found  usually  range  meaning  principal  been  the  a problem  The  produced  the  with  not  changes.  Since  are The  spontaneous  in The  the  cortex  potential  intracortical  Brain and Learning 71 generators. somatotopic  Cellular  columns  pattern.  at  the  cortical  surface  follow  a  This leads to physiologically homogeneous zones  being represented by  groups of neighboring  and  synergistic  columns.  The g l i a l covering constitutes a supplementary route for diffusion of currents and moderates or attenuates their  intensities.  the E.E.G. is normally less than the 1 0 0 V 1974). of  This i s why  range (Dondey & Caches,  Between the cortex and the E.E.G. electrodes there i s a series  electrically  currents.  inactive media which interfere with the passage of  These are the cerebrospinal fluid, the meninges, the skull  and the scalp; the cerebrospinal fluid, and meninges providing the most interference. Within the 8 to 14 Hz range there have been established certain varieties of waves reliably related to activities as in reading (Kappa) and  to problem  solving  cognitive function  (K  - complex), possible  Lambda waves, Mu rhythm (7 to 11 Hz), other periodic activity up to 20 Hz, and various other undefined wave patterns associated with certain activities and conditions.  The average alpha power spectrum is taken  cn a l l these waves within the alpha frequency band and i s a reflection of the degree of synergistic activity along a l l these dimensions of brain activity. Given that the E.E.G. is derived from neural electrical activity in the brain in an hitherto misunderstood  way,  some speculations can be  asserted with regards  to the possible meaning of the average power  spectrum of the E.E.G.  Given the E.E.G. as a time series, the average  power spectrum can  thought  be  of as a s t a t i s t i c a l  estimate  of the  B r a i n and Learning 72  electrical of  a  i n t e n s i t y o r energy  given  Ei.E.G.  electrode.  d o m a i n t h e A/D c o n v e r s i o n per  unit  fourier one  time  (in  frequency  are  is  study,  these  64  the  E.E.G.  one each  equivalent  into  for to  alcng  samples  64 d a t a p o i n t s  transformed  domain,  transform  From  samples p o i n t s  this  transform,  second  coming o f f from t h e c o r t e x  the  waveform  this  per  sine  by  time  at a  rate  the  fast  In  cosine  the  point  the  o f time o f  coefficients  and t h e  multiplying  in  intervals  fourier  the  waveform  second).  sampled a t  64  at  in  the  terms.  cosine  This  and  sine  frequencies. Since phases,  yield each  cosine the  frequency  the  more  frequencies  2/D  frequency  true  the  sine  which  small from  of  (one  sum  tells  waves t h a t ,  such  more  of  a  of  the  of  freedom  and  then  several and  thus  In  expected  about to  be  et a l . , 1980).  can thus sine  and  one averages  spectrum.  (Cooper,  sine  averaging  be  data  frequency  points  of  power can  the E.E.G. number  Thus  random  time  in  from  data  degrees  spectrum  as  each  group.  the estimated  power  estimates  of the estimates,  subsets  each  have  The o r i g i n a l u n i t  (D=df) o f e a c h e s t i m a t e  and a m p l i t u d e s .  waveform  coefficients  spectral  freedom  considerably  accuracy  the  by  fourier  the accuracy  spectrum  complex waveform  represented  of  several  provides  V A  of  power  cases  between  the  To improve  bins  the  o f power  two degrees  spectrum  considerably of  t h e number  with  power  data  s p e c t r u m i s more u s e f u l .  half  terms).  averages  2/3  random  t h e power  points space  for  be  waves  shown of  to  be  differing  The f o u r i e r method p r o v i d e s a t r a n s f o r m o f the  relative  when a d d e d  strengths  together,  will  of give  the  different  the o r i g i n a l  Brain and Learning 73 time domain waveform. ioUiisc  ffiBCfiod  is  This waveform is assumed to be periodic. iiks  QiUiS  iuulLj.plying  LTi<=  The  frequency coaiponeiits by Liie  various cosine and sine harmonics and average the values obtained for each.  This process determines which of the harmonics are present since  when sine waves are multiplied the mean cross product their  frequencies are the  same and  zero when their  is finite when frequencies  are  different (Cooper, et a l . , 1980). In fourier analysis the complex waveform is thus separated into harmonically related components the fundamental having a period equal to the epoch length.  For instance, a sample of 1 second of E.E.G. can  be represented by a fundamental waveform of 1 Hz and harmonics of 2, 3, 4 etc. Hz. sum  One can thus represent a component at each frequency as the  of sine and  cosine components of the particular  frequency.  The  power spectrum combines the sine and cosine components while giving up the information about phase (Cooper, et a l . , 1980).  The average power  spectrum i s , however, not a unique description of the waveform since the same spectrum can result from quite different waveforms.  Also, the  average power spectrum is a manifestation of not only amplitude but also duration of certain frequencies within the band pass.  It thus  gives the relative intensities of sine waves that would reconstitute the  signal.  representation occurring  at  Thus of the  the the  average extent  particular  of  alpha  power  synchronous  E.E.G.  electrode.  spectrum  gives  electrical This  may  a  activity be  a  manifestation of correlated activity between groups of neural ensembles indicating synchronic thinking.  Holistic cognitive processing may  be  Brain  and  Learning  74  the  mechanism  synergistic The relative  cell  underlying activity  meaning  unilateral  baseline  levels  of  this may b e  thermal  decreases  during  relatively  increased  unilateral  hemispheric  in  E.E.G.  flow  manifestation  since  involved. changes: ear  cognitive  blood  spectral  to  utilization.  based  canal tasks  that  on  previous  temperature can  side  be of  the  from  expected brain  findings  the  i n i t i a l  to  reflect  hence  greater  Brain and Learning 75 Chapter III.  Results  I n i t i a l l y , the data collection of the present experiment yielded a set of 8 measurements for each subject, defined as follows: (1)  Two  second by second integrated alpha spectral powers from the  left  and right brain hemispheres  as per Doyle, et a l . ,  (1974)  and Furst, Gardner and Kamiya (1974) averaged over 2 minutes 40 seconds and then over the 20 minute period.  The histogram of  the treatment means of the powers are shown in Figure 3. (2)  /An E.E.G. index of relative right hemispheric activity as per Doyle et a l . ,  (1974).  (ratio)  The natural logarithmic transform  of this ratio was also analyzed as per Ornstein, et a l . , 1979). (3)  Two thermal response indices (maximum decrease temperature) from the  left  (1977).  and  right  tympanum areas as per Meiners  and Dabbs  The histogram of the treatment means of the thermal  indices are also shown in Figure 7.  Insert Figure 7 about here  J^0dj&A2uf (4)  A temperature  index of relative right hemispheric activity  per Doyle et a l . ,  as  (1974).  (5)  Recall score.  (6)  Comprehension score. Bickel and Doksum (1981), as well as Carroll and Ruppert (1981),  report  that  one  can  choose  a  good  transformation of  E.E.G. power  Brain and Learning 76 spectral data but this i s d i f f i c u l t or impossible to reliably do from the data.  For power spectrum  analysis, Matousek and Petersen (1973)  and others have been using the E.E.G. square root power transformation instead of absolute power.  According to Gasser  et a l . (1982) this  transformation i s superior to the absolute power values and to other root transformations.  For the present purpose,it was decided to use  two neurophysiological measures, E.E.G. power ratio and thermal ratio,  and two verbal  scores.  It was found  response  measures,  recall  that the experimental  linked to the procedure.  index  and comprehension  conditions were indeed  The outcome of the manipulation check showed  that each condition had been influenced as required. The control group reported having read the irrelevant material and having experienced no help toward the learning.  The induced  created their own se^f generated  imagery group reported having  imagery.  The picture group reported  having examined the poster and having been helped by i t . In  order  to test  the predictions derived  from  the central  general hypothesis i t was necessary to make two orthogonal contrasts. The f i r s t contrast (hereinafter referred to as the "Effect of Learning Adjuncts") was to compare the linear combination of mean vectors for Imagery Instruction vector  and Pictorial  of the control  condition.  Diagrams conditions with the mean The second  contrast  (hereinafter  referred to as "Imagery vs. Picture Effect") was to compare the mean vector of the Induced Imagery condition with that of the P i c t o r i a l Diagram condition.  The means and mean squared  power ratios and tympanic temperature  errors of the E.E.G.  ratio index are reported along  Brain and Learning 77 with those o f verbal r e c a l l and comprehension scores i n Table 1.  Insert Table 1 about here  Jjp^-_L2-_i Presented a l s o i n Table 1 are natural logarithms o f the r e l a t i v e r i g h t hemisphere a c t i v i t y E.E.G. r a t i o indices and t h e i r mean squared e r r o r s . The  means  f o r the E.E.G. average  d i f f e r e n c e due to p i c t u r e s .  power  generally  indicate  a  The means o f the E.E.G. power r a t i o s (also  of the E.E.G. power log r a t i o s ) indicate a d i f f e r e n c e due t o p i c t u r e s and  a  possible  condition. left  slight  difference  The means o f decreases  hemispheres  conditions  means f o r the temperature  than  conditions. better  recall  Instruction  f o r the r i g h t and  r i g h t hemisphere  decreases  condition.  The  indices o f r i g h t hemisphere a c t i v i t y reveal a  the e f f e c t of pictures recall  Imagery  f o r the control  p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e due to p i c t u r e s .  superior  the  i n temperature  indicate s l i g h t l y greater  for the experimental  that  for  An examination o f the means shows  (imposed  and comprehension  than  The Imagery Instruction and comprehension  imagery) seems to have  induced  the e f f e c t of the two other  seems to have e l i c i t e d  than  the control  slightly  condition  but not  always s i g n i f i c a n t l y so.  Neurophysiological A  Measures - E.E.G. Power Ratio and Thermal Index Ratio"  multivariate  neurophysiological  analysis  variables  as  was  carried  dependent  temporal order o f t h e i r occurrence.  out  variables  taking  the  i n the  two  logical  The planned orthogonal comparisons  Brain  and  Learning  78  for  this  analysis  the  Imagery  vs.  experimental Imagery  consisted Picture  Picture  picture  diagram  carried  out.  in  effect  results  of  the  joint  variance  .1182.  learning was  Neither  statistically For the  of  Step  of  the  the  6.073,  two  forms  physiological of  response  variable  contrast,  E.E.G.  .0042.  of  analyses  the  the  condition.  are  shown  with  were  in  two The  instruction  variances  and  also  Table  2.  here  overall  values  multivariate F  (2,56)  associated  down  accounts  step  down  compared  separately ratio  with of  be  F  =  with  =  a  for  analysis  2.219,  £ <  this  tested  contrast  effect  for  9.903,  (1,57),  picture  p<  the  analysis  shows  that  the  E.E.G.  .0027).  was  It the  response  The  thermal  portion  Another  imagery  condition. diagram  between  upon  £<.1569). and  F  effect  nonsignificant  diagram  control  by  significant,  difference  the  variance  marginally  picture  the the  reliable  accounted  2.059  the  a  down  =  Diagram  statistically  shows  (1,57)  for F  was  step  can  Picture  adjuncts  The  effect  vs.  This  learning  step  test  power  F  analysis  variables.  (E.E.G.  conditions  < of  this  multivariate  down  imagery  significant,  Instruction  variance £  variable  this  step  Imagery  =  most  the  effect  contrasted  control  analyses  effect  statistically  the  2 about  adjunct  effect  with  statistical  adjunct  the  joint  down  Table  learning  significant.  multivariate  (2,56)  the  not  The  contrasted  Insert  For  joint  combination  condition.  The  the  effect.  conditions  vs.  of  post  of hoc  instruction showed  that  only  one  Brain and Learning 79 distinctively  different  12.356, £ < . 0 0 0 9 .  from two  other  treatment  means,  F(l,57)  =  This set of findings in conjunction with the neural  impact on the l e f t hemispheric activities as shown in Figure 3 suggests that  pictures are  superior  to  Imagery  Instruction to  eliciting  a  neurophysiological response. Verbal Recall and Comprehension Test Scores The overall multivariate analysis of variance for the combined recall and comprehension scores was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. approximation,  F value  Roy's criterion and associated probability are given in  Table 3.  Insert Table 3 about here  The These  joint effect was  significant, F (2,56) = 7.997, £ <.. .0009.  findings corroborate  the hypothesis  of p i c t o r i a l  superiority.  This means that the two forms of learning adjuncts combined influenced learning as  reflected on  step down F was 15.813, p< score  was  effect 1.0,  p<  can  statistically  .0002. not  statistically  The  fact  significant  for r e c a l l .  F  significant  indicates that  The  (1,57) =  the  for pretty much of comprehension effect,  For the not  and comprehension test scores.  that the step down F for comprehension  statistically  account  .552.  recall  Imagery vs. Picture effect  significant,  F  recall F(l,57)  the F ratio  (2,56) = 2.9549, £ <  .0603.  was This-  means that there is no overwhelmingly reliable s t a t i s t i c a l difference between the two forms of learning adjuncts for their influence upon the  Brain and Learning 80  combined  recall  and comprehension  test  scores.  The  step  however, was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r r e c a l l , F(l,57) .037  = 4,551, £<  f o r r e c a l l score, but the step down F f o r comprehension was not  significant,  F(l,57)  = 1.332, £ < .253.  This means that the e f f e c t of  t h i s contrast can be accounted for by r e c a l l , o r v i c e versa univariate test  down F,  analyses  compared  were s i g n i f i c a n t .  Another  post  since the  hoc multivariate  the p i c t u r e diagram with the c o n t r o l .  I t showed  that  both verbal r e c a l l and comprehension scores o f the p i c t u r e diagram were significantly  greater  than the control conditions,  while  the imagery  i n s t r u c t i o n condition e f f e c t f e l l between two extremes, as can be seen i n Table 1. Relationship  Between Two Neurophysiological  and Two Verbal  Learning  Measures A multivariate analysis o f variance  was a l s o c a r r i e d out taking  the four measures i n the l o g i c a l temporal order o f t h e i r occurrence, i n order  to determine the c o r r e l a t i o n a l structure o f two sets o f response  domains, results  neurophysiological f o r the r e l a t i v e  relative  right  and verbal right  hemisphere  responses.  hemisphere  temperature  The  E.E.G.  index,  multivariate  log ratio, the  the  recall  and  analysis  also  comprehension variables are presented i n Table 4. The consisted vs.  planned  orthogonal  comparisons  of the learning adjunct  Picture  Diagram  effect.  for this  e f f e c t and the Imagery I n s t r u c t i o n  Step  down  analyses  of variance  c a r r i e d out, the r e s u l t s o f which are shown i n Table 4.  were  Brain and Learning 81  Insert Table 4 about here  For analysis  the learning of  multivariate .together  adjunct  variance F  analysis  effect was  the overall statistically  (4,54) = 5.066, £ < .0012.  the effect  of both  multivariate  This  forms of learning  significant,  shows  that  adjuncts  influence reliably the set of four response variables.  taken  seems to  The step down  analysis shows that there i s the only one significant effect recall in terms of F(4,54) = 14.515, £ < .0004. only  variable  variables  affected  by this  This means that recall i s the  influence.  did not show s t a t i s t i c a l l y  The  neurophysiological  significant effects as before.  When recall score was l e t to account for the effect, the comprehension variable had very l i t t l e  to account for.  This means that  little  relationship between the neurophysiological  verbal  response  variables  variables  as far as the effects of both  there i s and the learning  adjuncts are concerned. The  Imagery Instruction vs. Pictorial Diagram contrast shows a  reliable difference between the two forms of learning their  effect  on the set of four  F(4,54) = 4.346, £ < .0041.  response  variables,  adjuncts for multivariate  When the step down analysis was performed  on the four response variables as shown in Table 4, the effect of the picture diagram vs. imagery instruction turned out to be significant first  in terms of the E.E.G. power ratio, and then a l l other three  variables did not show up any significance.  Brain and Learning 82 It  should  be  noteworthy here  that  the earlier  tests, particularly that of the learning adjuncts,  multivariate  and univariate F  tests of the imagery instruction vs. picture effect were significant in terms of the verbal measures, as shown in Table 3. E.E.G.  power  ratio  to  account  significant variance analyses  for  the  effect,  When we let the the  previously  for the verbal response variables are no  longer shown to be significant, step down Fs (1,57) = 2.48 and 2.13, ps < .12 and .15, recall and comprehension, respectively. shows  a  measures,  relationship between particularly  concomitant  to learning  the  recall  E.E.G.  measure.  for recall  may  measure  and  This finding the  verbal  That is to say, the E.E.G. well be a precursor  to the  subjects' a b i l i t i e s to perform well on a recall task. The processing  picture  diagrams  facilitated  via the intermediary  more  of  left  of the right hemisphere.  hemisphere Synchronous  neural activity in the right hemisphere seems to have possibly induced synchronous neural activity in the left hemisphere which gave rise to superior verbal performance.  These  findings corroborate  the central  hypothesis of relative hemispheric u t i l i z a t i o n during learning with the pictorial diagram adjunct.  Brain  and  Learning  83  Chapter  The  findings  Wittrock's  theory  procedure had  means  been  via  imagery  of that  the  to.  instructions processes  Hence,  the  is  educational the  two  and  for  not  only  use  in  brain  the  internal  Neurophysiological  Although  because  involving  activity  associated  relative  hemispheric  results  Doyle and  et  of  Galin  Doyce,  et  the  (1974), a l .  Yihgling,  potential" attributable  of  the  to  have  but  Paivio's  from  debriefing  performed  activity  unclear.  some  link. but  light  The  also  on  the  as  they  enchanced  the  effect  theory  research  and  findings  external  a  learning  with  the  E.E.G. in  obtained  the  tasks  general  Ornstein  et  The  that related  in  component,  activity  Schapper,  task  indicators  findings  (1978).  literature to  of  seems  electrophysiology  this  validity  reported  a l .  pictures  predictions  of  of dual  the  need  issue  in  link  between  be  examined  to  validity.  Measures  activity.  the  Outcomes  manipulations  state  shed  Electroencephalographic  of  the  corroborated.  brain  meaning  of  somewhat  findings  psychology,  Conclusions  learning.  The  remains  and  corroborate  experimental  also  present  generally  generative  alteration  coding  Discussions  obtained  designed  learning  IV.  the  show appear  (1979),  suggestion  Callway  and  E.E.G.  alpha  differences  brain  this  study  analyses  that  the  offered  Yealer  and by  in  efferent  for  unique  the  E.E.G. showing  keeping  other  and  the  findings activity,  with  tasks  Ornstein Gevins,  (1979)  asymmetry  stand  in  involving Galin  hemisphere  ratios  generally  literature  a l .  of  by  (1972)  Zeitlin, "evoked could  be  stimulus  Brain and Learning 84 characteristics and performance rather than cognition ought, however, to be re-examined. There  was  a  general  overall  increase  hemispheres with pictorial cognitive tasks. the expectations  in power  This  in both  is consistent with  from theoretical knowledge of the relationship between  E.E.G. and neural  activity  and the empirical  Paivio and Rogers (1967), Short  (1953), Short  findings of Simpson, and Walter (1954) and  Slatter (1960) and with the reports of some c r i t i c s of Galin's (1974) and Galin, Johnstone, and Herron (1978) and Doyle's (1974) studies. Doyle's studies did not involve learning processes but compared writing  letters  processes.  to block  designs  or  other  perceptual  or motor  Differential physical activity may be a factor that could  have produced some hemispheric alpha blocking since an individual can be expected to exert efferent motor activity in writing with the right hand but would be expected to not necessarily use the preferred hand in doing a block design.  In the present study, however, physical activity  was constant  for a l l conditions so the differences observed are purely  attributable  to cognitive processing  differences.  Also  some of the  literature suggests unilateral changes in the alpha power spectrum with hemispheric utilization without jumping into the beta range.  This i s  what was observed i n this study. According  to Simpson,  et a l . ,  (1967),  who  investigated the  relation between E.E.G. activity and imagery, significant results were obtained well  that contradicted those reported i n previous investigations as  as some findings  reported  primarily  from  the Langley  Porter  Brain and Learning 85 Neuropsychiatric Institute. al.  Whereas Dcyle et a l . (1974) and Galin et  (1978) as well as others had  found decreases in right  hemispheric  alpha with p i c t o r i a l processing, Simpson, et a l . , (1967) found higher alpha amplitude during visual tasks and lower alpha amplitudes during verbal tasks. /Alpha amplitude is a component of average alpha power. Barratt (1956) had also found that suppression of alpha rhythm was not reliably  associated  with  imagery.  It  seems,  according  to  Paivio  (1973), as i f the data could also be interpreted in terms of "general activation  or  arousal"  related to  task  difficulty.  Visual  tasks,  including the kind of visually assisted learning as carried out in the present tasks.  study,  may  be  less  difficult  than  analogous purely  verbal  Lesser alpha attenuation while working on a visual as compared  to a verbal task could be due to the greater cognitive arousal needed to learn by  the less f a c i l i t a t i v e , s t r i c t l y verbal approach.  Kamiya  (1969) also reported that alpha amplitude was suppressed during mental effort, and Paivio (1973) reports that this alpha suppression may  be  related to s t r i c t l y verbal processes. The  literature  on  proactive  and  retroactive inhibition  f a c i l i t a t i o n could serve as an explanation. of d i f f i c u l t y , may  and  Interpreting i t in terms  something bordering on a form of proactive inhibition  have been at  work  for the  control group.  After  reading  the  irrelevant, perhaps, in the overall sense, confusing with respect to the "learning task, information on "Genetics" the control subjects  may  have had a jumble of quite similar but incoherent facts in their mind. This may have interfered with their capability to recall and comprehend  Brain  and  Learning  86  the  text  hand,  on  mental  would  create  have  images  picture  disorders.  had  were  group  no  (Imposed  materials  of  eventual  recall  the  pre  studied  material  The imagery the  of  fact  condition  left  and  processing,  non  visual text  could  form.  group)  had  nature,  referred  picture  produced  significant  induced  suggests changes  other  to  "proactive  E.E.G.  power  to the  in  the  assisted  recall  via  facilitation". as  the  outcomes  induced for  pictorial  neural  other  hand,  have of  well  that  in  the  instructions  enhancement  as  on  presented,  seemed  manipulation  hemispheres  general,  been  This as  the  On t h e  which  to  group,  since  complex  material.  be  the  right  in  in  Imagery  inhibition  Imagery  a  that  Induced  proactive  couched  adjunct,  The  both  cognitive  acitivity  in  both  correlated  with  hemispheres. Changes alterations  in  materials  Grabrow,  Tulving's  supported. Aronson, that  (verbal  spatial).  to be point  vs.  or  less  very of  is  the  similar view  considerable  of  most  same to  of  needs  Of ford, affected  to  1979) by  with  differential  brain  integrating  the vs.  the  that  is  it  activity  cognitive  present it  into  learning obtained  semantic other  ( c f .  of  presently  consider  E.E.G.  finding  activation  coding  differential  hemisphere  present  in  seem Dual  episodic  Right  the  knowledge  suggested  also  &  activity  performance.  notions  One  Green  neural  score  strongly  activation  more  test  thus  data.  also  hemispheric  verbal  is  empirical seem  in  study  findings  left  seems  to  which  3).  So,  brings  cognitive  (of  hemisphere  processing  tasks  Figure  memories  tasks remain appears  from  the  together processing  Brain and Learning 87 theories  which  taken  together  corroborate  Wittrock's  generative  learning theory. The pictorial diagrams as learning adjuncts appear, however, to have induced differences in the E.E.G. power ratios in the direction predicted from previous results.  The treatment effect of the pictorial  diagram was manifested only in terms of the E.E.G. power ratio. analysis  of  the  E.E.G.  log  power  ratios  the  In the  picture effect  was  s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant compared to the imagery instruction condition effect, which in turn was not significantly different from the control condition. /Another possible interpretation of the observed differences in average E.E.G. alpha power might be that the pictorial diagram as a subjectively  experimental  stimulus  may  have continued  to exert i t s  effect during the text learning phase as i t did during the i n i t i a l 5 minutes.  This possible differentiation  in E.E.G. average alpha power  outcome had been anticipated so power spectrum data -for the f i r s t minutes were by  computer compared to that for the last  Since no differences were observed  5  15 minutes.  for these time segments in each of  the conditions they were combined and the analysis was carried out on the whole 20 minutes. -Thermal indicator of brain hemispheric  activity.  The analyses  of the temperature indicator showed that task related increases in left brain hemisphere activity , were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y comparisons involved.  significant  for a l l  In this study, the subjects started off reading  text materials, i.e., the objectives and  instructions, and  continued  Brain and Learning 88 all no  the way  through i n a l l conditions. Except f o r small f l u c t u a t i o n s ,  statistically  significant  changes  in this  variable  due  to  mental  a c t i v i t y are not b i g surprises i n view of spurious random f l u c t u a t i o n s , due  to  minute  temperature.  changes  These  in  environmental  temperature  and  fluctuations were anticipated and accounted  focusing mainly on task dependent  body f o r by  departures from baseline rather than  absolute amounts. The related  analyses  of  the  temperature  indicator  increases i n the r i g h t b r a i n hemisphere  statistically significance  significant. the  minute  If  such  change  effect  that  task  a c t i v i t y were also not  had  i n temperature  showed  attained difference  statistical would  have  been consistent with the r e s u l t s of Meiners and Dabbs (1977) but much less  powerful  than  reported by  these  authors.  Little  temperature  v a r i a t i o n s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the experimental treatments are most due the  to the capricious character of difficulty  accuracy. temperature  A  in  measuring  future  such  temperature  temperature  at  research suggestion would  hemisphericity  • variable  with  likely  measurements  such  fine  perhaps  levels  and of  focus cn  this  levels  of  greater  environmental, instrumentation and subject c o n t r o l . Neurophysiological Variables Combined The  E.E.G.  neurophysiological  more relevant than the tympanic  measures  emerged  as  distinctly  thermal measure i n t h i s study.  A high  d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y was observed for t h i s E.E.G. r a t i o i n a l l the e f f e c t s tested.  Brain and  Learning  89 Verbal Performance Measures Recall. difference  The  between  analyses imagery  of  recall  scores  instruction vs.  reveals  pictorial  a  reliable  diagram.  The  pictures produced a dramatic enhancement of memory for the  material  studied whereas the Imagery Instruction did not. This is at  variance  with the literature (e.g. Willows, 1978)  which, despite some findings  consistent with this, generally reports either no difference between pictorial  and  imagery  instruction  instruction  over  pictorial  explanation  generally offered  or  diagram, (e.g.  a  superiority  given  prose  Samuels, 1977)  of  imagery  materials.  ("focal attention  hypothesis") states that self generated images are more appropriate more personally  relevant  pictures.  is not  opposite  This was  found.  than  externally  supported  in  the  imposed  fixed,  present  study  A major issue earlier raised from my  the literature pertains to the general  The  and  designated since  the  reviews of  lack of studies addressing  the  point of different varieties of pictures and their effects as well as the point of different varieties of induced imagery and their potential effects and comparisons to the varieties of pictures. The general s t a t i s t i c a l significance of the joint effect of both types  of  learning  adjuncts  can  be  accounted  for primarily by  the  powerful effect manifested, in this study, by the pictures. Perhaps the substantial amount of information  intrinsic to the pictures which was  not provided by the instructions to create self generated images, have contributed significantly to the difference. manifested in the  may  This effect was also  imagery instruction vs. pictorial diagram contrast.  Brain and  Learning  90 Debriefing  of  the  debriefing  i t was  subjects  also  confirmed  confirmed  that  the  this  control,  surmise.  induced  In  the  imagery  and  p i c t u r e conditions had  triggered the desired state i n the subjects,  as  p r e v i o u s l y described.  The  in  the manner designed. tended  to  say  mnemonics and  that a  adjuncts  Those who the  were being  had been exposed to the imposed imagery  pictures  structure  were  for t h e i r  whereas, despite having constructed  The  of  imagery i s thus not  imposed  among  outcomes  the  to  the  of  since the former had  adjunct. have  be  the  a  issue  which  differential the  out  the  in  mental  providing disorders,  mental images, t h i s  was  induced imagery  the  Differential  could  be  performance  pictorial  Imagery  case,  the  raised and  diagram  Instruction  more from that of  the  time on as  a  possible  neurophysiological and  the  other  two  d i f f e r e n c e s between  group  would  have  c o n t r o l group than  task had  provided  at  been  i t did  the beginning of  been of s u b s t a n t i a l relevance  would  between  these  A future research suggestion  would  significant  not observed.  their  one  difference  r e l a t i v e dynamics of d i f f e r e n t kinds  of  and d i f f e r e n t kinds of induced imagery f o r learning of various subjects with images.  task  more time cn task by v i r t u e of the organizational  statistically  But t h i s was  to tease  the  those i n the  supported.  mental disorders  I f time on  expected  groups.  an  between  to diverge  statement of  of  t h e i r own  However, i f t h i s were the  performance  expected  is  observed  conditions.  helpful  hypothesis that induced imagery would equal the e f f e c t  conditions  contributor  very  recall  l a r g e l y absent or only vaguely stated by condition.  used by the subjects  pictures content  Brain  and  Learning  91  Comprehension. that  both  forms  difference  between  comprehension not.  This  (e.g.  Bobrow  study  which  had  been  only  be  of  used.  the  personal  in  this  direction,  give  mind  latter  use  A  study,  images.  This  to  as would  of  is  up  "how"  Another  kind  applicable differ  to  the from  to  kind  of  to  specific the  which  appear  to  thereby  seem  organize  the  of  lack  of  imagery  pictures  can  personal or  which  images  can  to  up h i s  own  indeed  induced  induced on  imagery  the  explore  specific materials imagery  the  imagery  in  would  as  creation  imagery  imposed  make  would  of  what  with  self-gene rated  induced on  taken  distinctive  which  directions of  this  self-created  this  kinds  instructions  a  that  of  of  used,  and  did  literature  textbooks,  be  about  study  different  namely  only  desired  disposition  One  materials  which  to  creation  follow  imagery.  by  the  literature  concerned  some  enhanced  hypothesis  self-generation  instructions  or  the  ideas  The  the  the  pictorial  seems  indeed  in  with  of  with  instruction  with  psychology  the  there  imagery  variance  structure  freedom  specific  The  effect.  two  imposed  generated  the  hand,  Excessive  between to  here.  introductory  it  subject's  differences  in  if  at  suggest  significantly  the  consistent  additional  other  images.  comparison  used  instruction  pictures,  restrict  used  the  while  scores  comprehension  diagram  examination  description  encouraged be  but  from  from  contributed  imagery  pictorial  somewhat  1969),  comprehension  enhanced  studied  also  materials  On  The  emerged  conceptual  have  images type  & Bower,  of  adjuncts  material is  extracted  meanings. the  them.  the  had  specific  to  of  analyses  learning  finding  the  provide  of  The  of  would, images being  be  self  through to  create learned.  condition  in  as  Brain and Learning 92 much as words i n textual format  would be used  pictures  mental p i c t u r e s recommended, however,  would  to be  themselves  pictures. study  The  correspond  to  These comparisons  would  carry  understanding and  visualized.  imposed  the  to be  condition provided explored  considerable  to describe the mental  i n a subsequent  theoretical  This problem  as  applied  actual separate  significance  of the e f f e c t s of the various kinds of imagery.  with  in  induced  an  imagery  to comprehension  also  seems inadequately treated i n the l i t e r a t u r e to date. The adjuncts  general s t a t i s t i c a l taken  jointly  can  s i g n i f i c a n c e of both  be  attributed  primarily  This was  confirmed  e f f e c t of the provided p i c t u r e s . post-experimental  questioning.  In  types of learning to  the  powerful  a l s o i n informal  post-experimental  debriefing  of  subjects, t h i s e f f e c t was however, not g e n e r a l l y reported to have been felt  as  strongly  Nevertheless, show that  their  they  subjectively, performance  comprehended  as on  the  the  more of  the  case  for  comprehension  recall test  scores.  seemed  textual materials than  to  they  might have r e a l i z e d (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977). Verbal Learning Test Score V a r i a b l e s Combined The  post  statistically  hoc  tests  significant  show  that  upon both  recall  the e f f e c t of imagery i n s t r u c t i o n i s not. this  effect  is localized  comprehension v a r i a b l e . as  well  as  a  mnemonic  the  more upon the  effect and  The  of  pictures  comprehension whereas  step down F's  recall  is  show that  v a r i a b l e than  on  the  The p i c t u r e s seem to have provided a framework to  reconjure  during  recall.  The  conceptual  Brain and Learning 93 meanings also conveyed  i n the p i c t u r e s  assisted  i n the  comprehension  tests. Imagery  instruction  does  not  seem  to  provide  the  conceptual  structure needed f o r comprehension nor apparently the mnemonics needed for r e c a l l .  There i s the a d d i t i o n a l problem that despite the elaborate  v e r i f i c a t i o n c a r r i e d out to ensure i s no way  that the manipulations  to be a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n ,  images,  purposes  intended.  Post generally  that  these  experimental  yielded  the  would be  questioning  reply  there  i n t h i s type of manipulation, that  the subjects d i d indeed use s e l f generated generate  took,  images nor that i f they d i d  adequate  of  of having  or  subjects  tried  effective  in  this  to v i s u a l i z e  for  the  condition images  the  best they could and the general f e e l i n g that t h i s technique was of h e l p in learning the material.  T h e i r performance, however, d i d not confirm  the l a t t e r . The m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of the verbal learning t e s t decomposed over  into planned  control  shows  a  contrasts for a confirmation  of  general the  experimental  powerful  pictures thus confirming the previous a s s e r t i o n s .  variables  The  effect  effect due  to  verbal learning  t e s t s multivariate planned contrast between the two experimental groups i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Hence, we can conclude that there i s  l i k e l y some d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental groups compared to each other  with  respect  variables together.  to  their  effects  upon  the  verbal learning  tests  Brain and Learning 94  Correlations  o f Verbal  Response Variables  with  the  Neurophysiological  Responses The  multivariate  conjunction  analysis  with  of variance  the  response variables i n  with the E.E.G. power and temperature  the p i c t u r e e f f e c t contrast analysis  o f the verbal  recall  index v a r i a b l e s f o r  i s an important one to note. The step down  showed the E.E.G. power  variable.  These  ratio  findings  being  associated  incorporate  into  supplement well the e x i s t i n g nomological network o f information  and  in this  area.  The c l e a r a s s o c i a t i o n between the verbal performance measure o f  recall  and the E.E.G. neurophysiological  activity  was  established.  The  indication of brain  interaction  hemispheres during cognitive processing  between  the  neural brain  for learning was demonstrated.  For the j o i n t e f f e c t o f the experimental groups the multivariate analysis o f the verbal  learning  test  variables  with  the temperature  hemisphere i n d i c a t o r was s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t . For the verbal learning  tests taken with  temperature r e l a t i v e r i g h t hemisphere  index  indicator, however, the multivariate t e s t o f the p i c t u r e e f f e c t and o f the general  learning adjuncts used by experimental groups j o i n t l y are  statistically  significant.  phase of p i c t u r i n g . combined  with  With  the text  The pictures reading processing  text  could  help  only  during the  t h i s e f f e c t may have become  mode  hence  r e l a t i v e l y dominant l e f t hemisphere processing  a  return  back  to  may have occurred but i n  a d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e mode and b r a i n s t a t e . The in  multivariate analysis of the verbal  conjunction  with  the E.E.G. power  learning  indicators  test v a r i a b l e s  of l e f t  and r i g h t  Brain and Learning 95  hemisphere a c t i v i t y significant.  f o r the p i c t u r e  This  i s somewhat  indicators o f hemispheric temperature  effect  at  activity.  contrast was  variance Given  with  statistically  the  temperature  the tenuous nature  o f the  measure and the d i f f e r e n t processes probed by i t , however,  one cannot place excessive r e l i a n c e on i t i n such a comparison. there  nay be some processes  regulation processes  i n connection  underlying  with b r a i n  the dynamics o f  blood  One would a l s o expect  temperature  flow that may d i f f e r  underlying E.E.G. manifestations of e l e c t r i c a l  the b r a i n .  Also,  a l a g i n temperature  from  a c t i v i t y of manifestation  which would not be expected to occur f o r the E.E.G. because  temperature  conduction takes longer than e l e c t r i c a l conduction. For power  the verbal  ratio  multivariate significant.  indicator post  learning of  hoc t e s t  test  relative  variables right  taken  with E.E.G. l o g  hemisphere  of the p i c t u r e  effect  activity  was  the  statistically  The step down analysis of variance gives an i n d i c a t i o n  that the variance o f t h i s contrast i s mainly located i n the r a t i o index itself. verbal  P i c t u r e s thus performance.  influenced r e l a t i v e  For the induced  hemispheric  imagery e f f e c t  activity  the m u l t i v a r i a t e  test taking the power r a t i o indicator was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y but  recall  This negates (1977).  seems  emphasized  i n the step down analysis  significant  of variance.  the premises o f the f o c a l attention hypothesis of Samuels  Pictures d i d not d i s t r a c t  helped s u b s t a n t i a l l y . learning  and  from  learning but quite conversely  The m u l t i v a r i a t e general experimental e f f e c t o f  adjuncts, however, was s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  the achievement tests with the E.E.G. power r a t i o .  when taking  A high contribution  Brain and Learning 96  for  recall  and a  high  contribution  f o r the r a t i o  indicator  were  demonstrated a l s o i n the multivariate t e s t f o r the contrast o f imagery i n s t r u c t i o n s vs. p i c t u r e s . relative  For the verbal learning test v a r i a b l e s the  r i g h t hemisphere a c t i v i t y  E.E.G. l o g r a t i o  thus seem to have had a profound influence. variance  a l s o , shows the greater  f o r the p i c t u r e s  The step down analysis o f  emphasis o f r e c a l l over comprehension  going along with the l o g r a t i o s .  These c o l l e c t i v e l y  substantiate the  i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f the findings i n t h i s study. This  can be interepreted  to mean that  picture  e f f e c t being  associated  with  recall  whereas  the imagery  i n s t r u c t i o n having  a  i t may be due to the  and the l o g power spurious  association  ratio with  comprehension and the log power r a t i o . The imposed  observation  to  significant adjuncts  the  that the multivariate comparison contrasting the  induced  indicates  i s dependable  forms  that with  brain hemisphere a c t i v a t i o n . that  the pictures  of  imagery  the difference regard  came  cut  between  to the e f f e c t  statistically  these  forms o f  on r e l a t i v e r i g h t  One can estimate from the other analyses  may have had the bulk  of the e f f e c t and one can  estimate from the step down analyses o f the two p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures that the r e l a t i v e E.E.G. was the most s e n s i t i v e i n accounting f o r t h i s discrimination. taking  not only  learning with  Upon examination of the same m u l t i v a r i a t e measures but also  test measures we f i n d a confirmation  respect  relative  the neurophysiological  right  to  the neurophysiological  hemisphere  E.E.G.  o f the above  measures  provides  the  namely only  comparisons the verbal assertions that  the  statistically  Brain and Learning 97 significant  step  instructions  down F  effect.  value  The  f o r the p i c t u r e  fact  that  diagram  the r e l a t i v e  vs. imagery  right  thermal response v a r i a b l e i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t down analysis could  be due to the considerable  hemisphere i n the step  random e r r o r p o s s i b l y  associated  with t h i s  measure.  The i n t e r e s t i n g part o f the step down  analysis,  however,  concerns  the  statistically  experimental e f f e c t o f learning adjuncts Induced  imageries  together) upon  dependent  measures  variance  analyses  for  the  contrast  combination analysis.  neurophysiological  s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t (though marginally values  reveal  enhancement these  step  the strong  of r e c a l l . down  effect  analyses,  may  be  o f the four  The step  measures  are  down here  so) but the step down F  of adjuncts  So, enhancement  joint  ( i . e . e f f e c t o f Imposed and  the l i n e a r  i n the planned  significant  i n general,  in recall, associated  f o r the  on the basis o f with  concomitant  generalized s h i f t s i n r e l a t i v e b r a i n hemispheric a c t i v i t y . When ineffectual  looking  at both  forms of adjuncts  e f f e c t o f the imagery  together  instructions  may  be  the r e l a t i v e masking the  e f f e c t o f the pictures as i t comes out i n the pure comparison.  What we  find,  may  reflect  the p i c t o r i a l diagrams  elicited  essentially,  intensity  i s that  since  average  or energy of b r a i n a c t i v i t y  alpha  power  enhanced amounts of t h i s energy i n the r i g h t b r a i n hemisphere which, i n turn, evoked enhanced a c t i v i t y brain hemisphere. enhanced  right  improvement  (hence c o g n i t i v e processing)  i n the l e f t  This enhancement o f l e f t b r a i n hemisphere energy v i a brain  in recall  hemisphere observed  by  energy those  can  explain  the d r a s t i c  i n the p i c t o r i a l  diagram  Brain and  Learning  98 condition over those in the control condition.  Thus, neural  activity  in the brain (left hemispheric via the right hemispheric) can be taken as  the  concomitant to efficient  efficient  recall  (picture-diagram)  and  learning and  performance.  facilitated more of  thus the precursor  The  imposed  to  imagery  l e f t hemisphere processing  via  the intermediary of the right hemisphere. A general mnemonic strategy such as induced imagery as applied in this study does not seem superior to presented pictures in e l i c i t i n g superior  recall  or  comprehension.  Given  that  subjects  with  stated  G.P.A. of less than 3.5 were used in this study plus the observation by Rohwer (1973) that there may  be  individual differences in the use of  strategies depending upon academic a b i l i t y i t is possible that, with the kind of imagery instruction provided, the subjects could not use i t or did not know how to use i t . Since the general nomological network of the literature reports a change in the ratio of right to l e f t hemisphere average power with pictorial cognitive processing the results herein obtained with bimodal theory.  The  absolute  f i t in well  amounts of average power are  not  specified as especially relevant but the relative right to left power is  what  is considered  following  as  asymmetries stimulus  the  criteria in  the  properties,  differences tasks,  important. for  E.E.G.: no  Gevins et a l , (1979) specify the  studies  examining  Minimal  differences  task  differences  between  in efferent activities,  in performance related factors, behavioral E.E.G.  patterns  from  related  the  left  and  brain  tasks  in  minimal  validation of  right  hemispheres  Brain and Learning 99 presented separately and extracerebral artifacts rejected.  The present  study rigorously adhered to these c r i t e r i a . Crowell,  (1975) cited in Swartz and Shaw (1975) found  increases  in power spectral density energy of the E.E.G. in the right hemisphere of children with the presentation revealed  of flashes of  light patterns.  increases in the region of 3 Hz to 14 Hz.  the brain may  It  "The right side of  dominate in adult visual acuity because i t develops that  capability before the l e f t side does" Moreover, Galin & E l l i s  (Swartz & Shaw, 1975).  (1975) and others have frequently stated  that their findings show a hemispheric enhancement of evoked potentials with lateralized cognitive processing the  results of  general  enhanced over the spatially  intricate  "Effect of  activity.  "The  right posterior stimulus"  imageability  on  which is somewhat at odds with visual  evoked  temporal cortex  (Vella, Butler  recall  response is  when evoked by  & Glass,  1972  is related to the  more  p.  a  "When a  is task relevant, the evoked potential amplitude increases  function  1975).  125).  extensive  bilateral processing of such words" (Rugg & Venables, 1980). stimulus  of  increasing  attention  or  involvement"  a  (Galin &  as  Ellis,  "It is unclear whether the E.E.G. patterns found to distinguish  complex behaviors are related to the cognitive components of the tasks or to the sensory - motor and performance - related factors" (Gevins et a l , 1979). In  the  present  study,  the  neurophysiology is thus established. seem that the recall variable has  tie between  verbal  learning  and  Judging from the results i t would this profound association with the  Brain  and  Learning  100  E.E.G.  measure  clearly  of  demonstrates  relative  brain  patterns  of  are  and  neural  of  First,  that  there  acitivity  in  occurs  including  that  the  right  semantic  may  well  processing.  Concerning  task  and  1979).  not  just  "Large  cognitive analysis  processing  bilateral  higher  Heinemann  two &  a  hemispheres  potential  with 1972). is  relative  the  hemisphere  for  of  function  perceptual  al,  Thatcher  larger  may b e  over  the  whole  different It  is  when  suggested parallel  neural  activity  ratios of  network'  it the  cortex  has  right  been  task  'are  between  et  al,  involved  in  correlation alpha  leading"  1979)  found  processing  (Willis  "Cross  other  (1977, the  increasing  simultaneous,  1979).  the  generative  throughout  relationship or  hemispheric  an  requirements"  cerebral et  play  in  processing  in  learning.  a  one  may  areas,  power  phase  that  activation  alpha  of  a  Third,  mode  (Gevins,  constant  Creutzfeldt,  evoked  to  areas  functions"  indicates  the  related  that  a  learning  demonstrated  Second,  of  is  thus  be  activity,  of  cognitive  (syncratic,  related  is  well likely  brain  between  strategy  be  is  components  theory  association  activity  may  link  brain  pattern  synchronous etc.)  a  observation  E.E.G.  hence  cognitive  an  recall  the  E.E.G.,  learning.  processing  "hemispheric  average  the  is  brain.  generative  demands  from  that  the  because  to  Such  efficient  Wittrock's  generative  processing, during  the  of  The  related  during  processing  brain,  that  activity.  essence  Fourth,  a  this  activation.  source  activity  The  role.  using  the  clearly  utilization cognitive  that  thus  performance. ways.  hemipheric  hemispheric  manifestation  four  relative  waves  (Hoovey,  finds  that  the  hemisphere  than  the  Brain and  Learning  101 left  in a  often left  v i s u o s p a t i a l task  results side.  i n enhanced  No  but  the  average  c l e a r explanations  presentation  of  human  research has  &  with  quantitative but  memory  been associated  Smallbone,  conjunction  term  1974).  this  changes  in  stimuli on  the  have been offered for these average "With respect  and  with low  Taken show  task  related  the  that  the  one  efficient  activation above  can  (Gale,  findings  expect  not  r e l a t i v e hemispheric  a l s o concomitant q u a l i t a t i v e changes i n the  E.E.G. state,"  r e s u l t s as  states of  together,  study  to  neurophysiological  produced what seem to be paradoxical  performance has Jones  short  verbal  evoked p o t e n t i a l amplitude  evoked p o t e n t i a l amplitude asymmetries. studies  of  in only  processing  waveform that may  be  s p e c i f i c to the c o g n i t i v e task performed and to the performance demands in  the  study.  processes  Interest  associated  in this  study  with pictures  o v e r a l l learning  instructional found.  perception.  This  So  rather can  the  verbal  imagery but  i t was  learning  not  simply  e s s e n t i a l to look  at  than segments of p i c t o r i a l  or  explain  the  patterns  of  outcomes  Moreover, o v e r a l l external v a l i d i t y i s hereby confirmed. The  verbal  experience  with  or aroused  the e f f e c t of examination of p i c t u r e s . the  was  general  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  learning and  imagery.  I t may  l e f t hemisphere. predominance of  use  of  pictures  during  concomitant hemispheric b r a i n processes appears to  be that the r i g h t hemisphere may pictures which may  the  not  play a c r u c i a l r o l e when learning with  n e c e s s a r i l y occur i f learning by  enable e f f i c i e n t processing  using  induced  of verbal material by  the  A s h i f t i n the r a t i o from predominance of the l e f t to the  r i g h t i s observed  which  suggests o v e r a l l  general  Brain  and  Learning  102  qualitative  changes  in  pictures.  A  of  lack  functioning,  however,  given  frequency  power  spectrum,  expected.  involved  research  on  is  associated  cognitive  processing  in  study  to  Mayes  nature  and  task &  of  task to  tease  pictorial  examining  Beaumont,^  the  types  efferent learning  Rugg,  1978)  intrinsic  of  to  the  of  E.E.G.  could  be  material,  E.E.G.  duration  be  or  shifts tasks  stimulus in  details  and  studies.  of  the  involved  learning.  learning  and  hemispheric A  controlled  changes  various  More  E.E.G.  with  coherence  whether  characteristics  future  textual  during  and  brain  to  processes  dependent  by  and  of  is  finer  versus  nature  with  interpretation  dissected the  the  learning  in  demands  be  out  the  during  amplitude  manifested  various  remains  needed  both  that  indeterminancy  activity,  s t i l l  occurring  concerning  Given  are  whether  efferent  theory  remains.  certain  depending  associated are  a  functioning  clear  components  Also,  possible  brain  (as  per  materials  by  / means  of  future  various  project  to  forms  of  attempt  pictorial to  sort  processing  out  these  would  be  additional  excellent  as  a  points.  Conclusions The adjunct,  present  study  facilitate  differential  effect  of  found  that  recall  even  time  task  on  pictorial with  diagrams  removal  (similarity  of  between  as  learning  any the  possible  control  and  t induced  imagery  conditions  neurophysiological  precludes  precursor  synchronous  activation  synchronous  activity  of in  the the  to  this  right left.  any  such  facilitation  hemisphere The  difference).  locus  may  which of  the  The  well  might  be  induce  experimental  Brain and Learning 103 effect, in particular the p i c t o r i a l diagrams, was observed to be in the l e f t hemisphere in terms of the E.E.G. perhaps through the intermediary of the right hemipshere.  The effect of learning adjuncts localized in  the l e f t hemisphere seems due to f a c i l i t a t i v e effects of the nature of right hemisphere activity. of  efficient  verbal  hypothesized similar  that  recall  imagery  concomitant brain  present study.  A clear brain neurophysiological was  established.  instructions mechanism  Although i t had  would  this  correlate  was  enhance not  A clear link of these conclusions  recall  observed  been by  a  in the  to the procedures  employed was shown to be manifested. When college passage  on  textbooks  students (of g.p.a. of less than 3.5)  mental  disorders  the use of  imposed  taken imagery  from  (pictures)  learning so i t e l i c i t s better performance. recall  and  comprehension.  introductory  Instructions  psychology  appears to assist  It was  of how  learn a  found to enhance  to visualize in the  mind's eye, without defining which actual images to conjure up does not appear to augment recall irrelevant material. cognitive  nor comprehension over the presentation  It appears, however,  processing  as  inferred  relative superiority of pictorial can  be traced  from  of  to induce minute changes in the concomitant E.E.G.  The  diagrams over imagery instructions  to concomitant activity  in the brain.  The  pictorial  diagrams appear to produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y observable relative engagement of  the right and  induced  in  hemisphere.  the  left left  brain hemispheres. hemisphere  may  be  The synchronous produced  via  Qualitative changes in cognitive processing  activity  the  right  are suggested  Brain and Learning 104  during learning. changes  The  in relative  imagery i n s t r u c t i o n hemispheric  brain  may  also  activity.  induce The  concomitant  nature  of,  content information i n t r i n s i c to the p i c t u r e s , various kinds of imagery, and v a r i e t i e s of t e s t s were suggested e f f e c t on the performances concerned. imposed also  imagery and  of  detail  utmost  induced  importance  provided and  induced  as having a determining  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the kinds o f  imagery to the material to be particularly  the concepts  and  i n regard  thereby conveyed.  to  learned i s  the  amount  of  Also, findings of  the e f f e c t s of imposed and induced imagery i n adults may  vary from that  discovered with c h i l d r e n and adolescents i n the l i t e r a t u r e . This study d i d not examine the f u l l v a r i e t y . o f adjuncts used i n educational  settings nor d i d i t examine the f u l l  complex of adjuncts  proposed by Wittrock's theory of generative learning. Because t h i s  was  an investigation into the e f f e c t s of these adjuncts on b r a i n correlates of  learning i t d i d not examine the i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s of  of  these  study  adjuncts  also  physiological verbal  did  jointly  not  examine  responses  learning  but  or  with the  that occur  i t focused  effects full  of  other  variables.  configurations of  during various kinds  on  combinations  hemispheric  brain  brain  of  The and  efficient  responses  only.  Future studies of exact zones of the b r a i n involved i n various ways of c o g i t a t i n g about verbal material (which would further enlarge the scope of  such  understanding)  tomograph) - now  might  use  the  being i n s t a l l e d at U.B.C.  P.E.T.  (position  This equipment can d i s p l a y  a three dimensional view of the b r a i n depicting the r e l a t i v e of  specific  zones i n the b r a i n  emission  activity  during various kinds of higher  level  Brain and Learning 105 information processing (Sargent, 1980). Contribution major  adjuncts  pictorial recall  and  techniques authors study  of  used  this to  and  which  one(s)  best  improving  contribute  This  to  study  learning  determined  frequently used  as methods of may  improve  diagrams)  are  study.  which  improve and  (imagery one(s)  might  best  the and  enhance  Since  recommended by  teaching of  educators'  some of  instructions  comprehension.  have been  the  compared  these various  subject matter,  understanding  of  this  pedagogical  b e n e f i t s of a l t e r n a t e i n s t r u c t i o n techniques and t h e i r combinations. thus  provided  information of p r a c t i c a l  above techniques So  one  might  are most l i k e l y say,  t h e o r e t i c a l value why  i t had  value. I t showed which of  to be h e l p f u l  pragmatic  for s p e c i f i c  value.  But  it  the  purposes.  is  i n increasing our depth of understanding.  It  also  of  I t showed  some adjuncts such as the use of p i c t u r e s work b e t t e r (for c e r t a i n  purposes) than techniques provides  others.  So  f a r , exact  explanations  as  to why  these  work have been lacking or at best h y p o t h e t i c a l . This psycho-neurophysiological  explanations  operation of these enhancing  strategies.  of  explanations have  empirical v a l i d i t y ,  such  for  the  study  dynamics  of  In a d d i t i o n to having a sort the  being grounded i n the hard sciences (Neurology,  added advantage  Medicine,  of  Engineering,  Physiology, Biology, Physics and Chemistry) from which information can be drawn to complement and c l a r i f y the findings. opportunity  for some rapproachment  and  consensual  I t a l s o provides the validation  educational science and technology and the b a s i c sciences.  between  Brain and Learning 106 References Anderson, R.C. & Kulhavy, R.W. (1972) Learning concepts from definitions. 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FR.GYRUS  OCCIPITAL  ANT.HOR.4 A N T _ A S C E N D . R A M I OF LAT. FISSURE  v  l NF.TEMPORAL  MID.TEMPORAL  LAT.FISSURE  SUP.TEMPORAL  LOBULE  INTERPARIETAL SULCUS  PART  POST.RAMUS  SULCUS  ' / SUPRAMARG I NAL ' •' GYRUS ANGULAR GYRUS  SUP.FRONT.SULCUS  INF.  GYRUS  POSTCENTRAL  SUP.FRONT.GYRUS  LOWER  Areas  SUP.TEMP GYKUS  MID.TEMPORAL  GYRUS SULCUS  GYRUS  SULCUS^  Language Execution (Broca's Area)  POLE  Language R e c e p t i v e and General A s s o c i a t i v e Areas (Wernicke's Area)  B r a i n and L e a r n i n g 123  B r a i n and l e a r n i n g  124  Figure Caption  F i g u r e 3.  Tympanic Temperature S e n s i n g J f o n i t o r U n i t  Brain and Learning  125  Figure Caption F i g u r e 4 . Four p o i n t K a i s e r - B e s s e l window compared t o Hamming window Hamming: Wj (n)= .54 - . 46cos (2Pi (n) ) N c  4 Point Kaiser Bessel: W (n)= .40243 -.49804cos(2Pi(n)) N k  0  amminq  40.00  80.00  IFoToO  ifeo.00  < n < N-l  window  200.00  N  < n < N-l  «• .09831cos(4Pi(n)) N  -.00122cos(6Pi(n)) N  1.00  0  240\o0  2&0.00  Brain and Learning 126 Figure Caption Figure 5. Signal Processing System Sequence  ( •»• A/P  «  A.M\?ACTS oft. A&e>Je.  &6LOW Trtis  X #  •  C0A>v6feStO»*  AT  l * BIT* CHO^W kftveic)  l " *  LPkiT  «*tH S « C  rWHA FiL-TtA, 8 T » \¥- H » . 6 A N O  • e  r ^  / of  8 i» I T H I .  PUfc  VALU£$  W » P4A  *fec.  (••••)  3  A*lt«.A«« op ( i t c Pu>A- VAU/ts  • • •• A>»t6.A<< €»  •  •  •  »  )  ,  tfHiju'c  A»£AAfreS  Figure Figure 6 . Block  diagram of System  PRE  AMP  Caption  G  EEG t o  PDP-11  Gains  POWER AMP  G2  — v -  G  F.M.  3  —>-  RECORDER  E.E.G,  L.P.  G  4  MNCAD  FILTER  Gi  Pre  Amp G a i n  G2  Power Amp G a i n  G3  G a i n due t o  F.M.  Recorder  G,  G4  Filter  Gq  Quantization  PDP-11 H'  Gain  3  Gain  fO  3 5  Brain and Learning .128 Figure 7 Figure  C a p t i o n : BAR  GRAPHS  ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH: VOLTAGE EQUIVALENTS MICROVOLTS  +rsD  C3 " HCy  AVERAGE MAXIMUM THERMAL DECREASES  Brain and Learning 129  1  Table  Means and Means S q u a r e d E r r o r s o f E.E.G. Power R a t i o , Log E.E.G. Power R a t i o , T h e r m a l Index R a t i o , R e c a l l and Comprehension  S c o r e s by T h r e e E x p e r i m e n t a l  Conditions  (N=60)  vMeasure Verbal  E.E.G.  Ratio Exp. Cond.  \  \  (Log  Imagery Instr.  Picture Diagram  MS  (-0.0172)  Recall  1.0430  6.7000  5.7 500  '1.1450  8.6500  6.4500  1.3765  10.4000  7.9000  0.4650  6.7292  S.4128  a  0.9545 (-0.0579)  1.5300 (+0.5652)  0.0460 e  (0.3920)  a  Compreh.  Ratio  Ratio)  0.9409  Control  Scores  Thermal  Power  Learning  The f i g u r e s i n t h e p a r e n t h e s e s a r e t h e n a t u r a l  logarithms  Brain and Learning 130  Table 2  /  Results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance on Relative Log Power Ratios of E.E.G. and Thermal Indices Source Effect of Learning Adjuncts Univariate Log (E.E.G. Power Ratio Thermal Index Ratio  Source Picture vs Imagery Instruction Univariate Log (E.E.G. Power Ratio) Thermal Index Ratio  SCP's  6.437  Roy's Largest Root  .0734 M.S.  SCP's  6.556  Approx. F  2.219  df  p  df  p  0.979  2.496  1,57  .1197  0.632  1.360  1,57  .1782 M.S.  Approx. F  6.073  p  2.496  .1197  1.903  .1733  2,56 .1182  F  Roy's Largest Root  Step Down F  df  .2484  p  Step Down F  p  2,56 .0042  F  df  p  3.883  9.903  1,57  .0027  9.903  0.536  1.153  1,57  .2875  2.059 .1569  .0027  Brain and Learning 131  Table 3 Planned Contrasts:  Multivariate Analysis of Variance Table for Two Verbal  Learning Tests Source Effect of Learning Adjuncts  SCP's  11.700  Univariate Verbal Recall Comprehension  Source Picture vs Imagery Instruction  Univariate Verbal Recall Comprehension  Roy's Largest Root  .2222  M.S. 106.408 27.075  SCP's  11.600  Roy's Largest Root  .0955  M.S. 30.625 21.025  Approx. F  7.997  F 15.814 5.003  Approx. F  df  p  Step Down F  p  2,56 .0009  df T75l 1,57  p .0002 .0293  df  p  2.9549  2,56 .0603  F 4.551 3.885  df p 1*757 .0373 1,57 .0536  15.813 .359  Step Down F  4.551 1.332  .0002 .5516  p  .037 .253  Brain and Learning 132  Table 4 Planned Contrasts:  Multivariate Analysis of Variance Two Physiological and  Two Verbal Learning Dependent Variables Source Effect of Learning Adjuncts  SCP's  18.068  Univariate Log (E.E.G. Power Ratio Thermal Index Ratio Verbal Recall Cbmprehens ion  Source Picture vs. Imagery Instruction Univariate Log (E.E.G. Power Ratio Thermal Index Ratio Verbal Recall Comprehens ion  SCP's  18.028  Roy's Largest Root  df  P  5.066  4,54  .0012  M.S.  F  df  P  0.979  2.496  1,57  .1197  2.496  .1197  0.632 106.408 27.075  1.360 15.814 5.003  1,57 1,57 1,57  .2484 .0002 .0293  1.903 14.515 .442  .1733 .0004 .5090  df  P  Step Down F  4.346  4,54  .0041  F  df  P  3.883  9.903  1,57  .0027  9.902  .0027  0.536 30.625 21.025  1.153 4.551 3.885  1,57 1,57 1,57  .2875 .0373 .0536  2.059 2.478 2.133  .1569 .1212 .1500  .2729  Roy's Largest Root  .2435 M.S.  Approx. F  Approx. F  Step Down F  P  P  Brain  and  Learning  133  APPENDIX Materials  Used  STUDENT  The  A  in  the  Study  OBJECTIVES  student: Knows  specific  facts.  1.  Identifies  names  2.  Defines  3.  Lists  mental  4.  Lists  characteristics  the  Comprehends.  of  concepts.  concepts. disorders. of  mental  disorders.  x  1.  Recognizes  instances  2.  Provides  3.  Distinguishes  4.  Translates  5.  Explains  6.  Relates  examples the  of  of the  mental  concepts.  concepts  various  an a b s t r a c t  abnormal  the  mental  definition  behavior  disorders  to  in  in his  words.  disorders. into  terms  each  own  of  other.  a  specific  mental  example.  disorders.  Brain and Learning 134  IRRELEVANT MATERIAL (Control Group Condition)  Darwin named the agent by which s e l e c t i o n operates " s u r v i v a l o f the  fittest,"  r e f e r r i n g by the phrase  individuals within  include  a species.  the s e l e c t i v e  mortality  operates  therefore  determines  potentially  generation  this  It  produce  generation  on  performance.  of d i f f e r e n t i a l f e r t i l i t y .  that  group  the  offspring  prior  to  reproductive  of i n d i v i d u a l s  who  will  Differential  Differential  who  age, and  survive  constitute  fertility  and may  the  operates  next  within  group o f individuals who have reached reproductive age.  to the differences  by  of  His concept has since been broadened to  individuals  of a population.  surviving  refers  agent  to the d i f f e r e n t i a l mortality  individuals  Although  i n the contribution  due to t h e i r  differential  made  inequalities  mortality  to the next  i n reproductive  and  differential  Brain and Learning  135  f e r t i l i t y operate  through separate  means and on d i f f e r e n t  age groups,  t h e i r ultimate genetic consequences for a population are much the same.  Unlike  Darwin,  we  now  know, that  i n any population  there are  genotypes that d i f f e r from one another and that the d i f f e r e n c e s are due  to mutation.  evolution  Briefly  stated,  mutation  i n the form o f a l l e l e s ,  provides  the raw material of  and s e l e c t i o n then determines the  fate of these a l l e l e s i n a gene pool.  Over time an advantageous mutation may eventually e i t h e r displace  the  former  allele(s)  allele(s)  through  or achieve  a  state  the a c t i o n of opposing,  of equilibrium  balanced  with i t s  selective  forces  acting on the locus i n question.  Selection may therefore operate as both a s t a b i l i z i n g and a dynamic  force i n a population.  In e i t h e r r o l e i t exerts systematic pressure cn  the  the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of genetic changes  gene pool  so that  Brain and Learning 136  are  determinate  eliminates  principle.  deleterious  selection)  through  in  and  time  selection).  mutations  maintains  in  As  a  gene  equilibrium  Simultaneously,  a  stabilizing  each  pool's  with  selection  agent  generation  existing  the  an  both  (normalizing  allele  environment  i s also  in  frequencies  (stabilizing  important  dynamic  agent of evolution, changing a population's genetic composition as the  environment  may  changes ( d i r e c t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n ) .  A disadvantageous  allele  be maintained at a very low frequency i n a gene pool (generally 1  percent or less) by the balanced opposing forces of normalizing natural  s e l e c t i o n and recurrent mutation.  An advantageous  a l l e l e may  increase  in a gene pool and a t t a i n a frequency greater than that which can  be  maintained by recurrent mutation alone.  Genetic polymorphism  transient  polymorphism  may be transient or balanced.  natural  selection  In the case of  i s operating as  a  dynamic  Brain and  Learning  137  agent  of  displaces  evolutionary  the  change.  normal a l l e l e ( s )  reduced to a low  An  advantageous  i n the  gene pool  mutant  until  the  gradually  latter is  frequency maintained by recurrent mutation alone.  At  t h i s point, of course, by d e f i n i t i o n a polymorphism no longer e x i s t s at  that p a r t i c u l a r  this  point  locus, and  selection  i s of a normalizing  type.  i s reached, however, a polymorphism does e x i s t .  polymorphism,  on  the  other  hand,  operating as a s t a b i l i z i n g agent.  i s the  result  of  natural  Until  Balanced  selection  Brain and Learning 138  INDUCED IMAGERY (Imagery I n s t r u c t i o n Condition)  Personality disorders are the addictions, the sexual perversions,  the  sociopathies and psychopathies.  obsessive-compulsions,  Neuroses  are the phobias,  the h y s t e r i a s and the hypochondrias.  the  Psychoses  are the manias, the melancholias, the schizophrenias and the paranoias.  Learn  the next  presented  passage  much  as you normally  would.  However, while you are reading i t , p i c t u r e i n your mind's eye v i v i d and  dynamic  images  of  the  ideas  presented.  Imagine  a  story  continuity, as a s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s l i k e a movie as you read  with  through  the material i n terms of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the figures described and  concrete p i c t u r e s of them  together.  learning.  Lucid  images  i n action.  are very  Link  useful  the scenes  to help  your  you v i s u a l i z e  mind  during  Brain and Learning  139  I f b i z a r r e , obscene or grotesque  come  to  mind  foolish, etc.  kept  as  You  you  read,  to help you remember.  and  hold  not  w i l l not be asked  p r i v a t e , to y o u r s e l f .  fancy  do  your  Use  images that r e l a t e to the material  hold  back  or  worry  to d i s c l o s e these.  these more b i z a r r e and  about  being  They w i l l  be  v i v i d pictures  These b i z a r r e types of mental images s t r i k e your  a t t e n t i o n . You  will  find  them easy  to remember  ij afterwards. • The more of an  impression the mental image you  on your mind, the easier you w i l l  have studied afterwards.  use makes  f i n d i t to remember the material you  Outlandish images can a l s o be very useful i n  making c l e a r and memorable the memory traces of what you-read.  If  you  come across unfamiliar or  more abstract words, substitute  for them with concrete things you know about.  ideas v i v i d l y while at the  substituted  for.  Apply  same time bearing  this  method  to  P i c t u r e these  i n mind the  names,  words,  concrete  term  facts  i t is  and  Brain and Learning 140  concepts.  Look f o r key words as you read and b u i l d your mental p i c t u r e  around them. Remember the mental disorders, what they a r e and what they  mean t h i s way.  unique  T r y to understand them by presenting to yourself these  s e l f generated  imagery  i n your  images.  In depicting t h e i r conceptual basis by  mind's eye you w i l l  find  that  understanding  them i s  easy.  Apply t h i s method even i f i t seems to slow down your reading rate.  You w i l l not have to go over the material again.  system,  your p r o f i c i e n c y w i l l  remember something  back  the images  from  increase because  i n your  mind  Remember to keep making a continuous p i c t o r i a l  sentence.  this  when i t comes time to  t h i s reading, a l l you w i l l  you created  As you apply  need do i s bring  and you w i l l  know  it.  story as you read every  Brain and Learning 141  For  e.g.  for  pyromania,  you  might  imagine  a  person,  carbon  character or someone you know being compelled to sneak into a house at  night and set f i r e without anybody's knowledge.  Then t h i s person would  watch the f i r e with f a s c i n a t i o n and revel with excitement at the panic,  commotion and sight of f i r e  trucks coming and people being awed and  shocked by the flames and smoke.  This i n d i v i d u a l would be pleased with  himself and t i c k l e d f o r having created t h i s shock e f f e c t .  Have  created  the  feeling  i n your mind's  that  you  can  keep  eye to yourself  re-conjured at w i l l whenever needed.  these  forever  private  and that  pictures  you  they can be  Remember that you should not only  know the material you read, but a l s o comprehend what i t means.  Brain and Learning 142  BTOSED IMAGERY ( P i c t o r i a l Diagram Condition)  Personality  Disorders »iV<.K>»»THT  IT |." iL ;  1  W  a*  Neuroses  •  Psychoses  Brain and Learning 143 TEXTUAL MATERIAL MENTAL DISORDERS  Three bread categories o f mental disorders each have four sub-types. The  categories  are p e r s o n a l i t y  Personality disorders sociopathies,  and  disorders,  are the addictions,  psychopathies.  neuroses  the sexual  Neuroses  are  and  psychoses.  perversions, the  the  phobias,  obsessive-compulsions, the h y s t e r i a s , and the hypochondrias. are the manias, the melancholias,  the schizophrenias  the  Psychoses  and the paranoias.  Personality disorders are ingrained habitual patterns  o f character  that l i m i t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s functioning i n a responsible way.  Addictions  involve dependencies upon the ingestion of p a r t i c u l a r substances. Sexual perversions the  are abnormal patterns of sexual desire which c o n f l i c t  practices  of society.  Sociopathies  are disorders  with  i n which the  person entertains a code of e t h i c s which i s d i f f e r e n t from that of the dominant  social  or legal  structure.  Psychopathies  which the i n d i v i d u a l has no moral values, and does not l e a r n from experience. individual  i s unable  to cope  e x h i b i t s abnormal symptoms.  with  acts  are disorders i n  on momentary  impulses  Neuroses are disorders i n which an anxieties  and  conflicts,  hence,  Phobias are p e r s i s t e n t i r r a t i o n a l fears of  objects, places, or s i t u a t i o n s . Obsessive compulsions involve  recurrent  thoughts of a d i s t u r b i n g nature accompanied by i r r e s i s t i b l e  urges to  repeat  stereotyped  or r i t u a l i s t i c a c t s .  Hysterias  involve two or more  p e r s o n a l i t i e s being entertained by an i n d i v i d u a l or b o d i l y symptoms due to  some psychic  conflict.  Hypochondrias  involve  morbid  concern over  Brain and Learning 144  one's h e a l t h and exaggerations of b o d i l y symptoms. Psychoses are mental diseases involving serious d i s r u p t i o n of c o g n i t i v e and processes  along  with  loss  characterized by excitement and  of  by  Schizophrenias  exigencies of r e a l i t y  with  and e l a t i o n .  despondency accompanied  hopelessness.  contact  along  gloomy  Melancholias thoughts  involve a s p l i t with  reality.  withdrawal  of  severe  emotional  Manias  are  involve sadness  worthlessness  and  between expressions from  reality.  and  Paranoias  involve b i z a r r e delusions of persecution, grandeur or reference. Personality maladaptive history.  usually  patterns  The  treatment  disorders  is  characterized  of behavior  which  by  deeply  frequently show a  patient i s g e n e r a l l y unconcerned  with  usually  The  expressed  disturbances,  are  obtained  in  overt  emotional  themselves  involve  some form  of  diverse  causes  social may  behavior  disturbances,  disorders manifest  and  involuntarily.  or  rather  the  ingrained life-  problem  occur  in  persons  and  maladjustment than  anxiety.  in  The  personality usually  These behaviors may with  is  thought  i n a wide v a r i e t y of ways, and maladjustment.  long  different  have  kinds  of  p e r s o n a l i t i e s . ' These patterns frequently show a l i f e - l o n g h i s t o r y .  In  most cases these persons are unconcerned with t h e i r problems. obtain treatment,  I f they  i t i s due to the insistence of t h e i r families or as a  r e s u l t of clashes with society or law. Addiction alcohol,  i s seen  cigarettes,  i n psychological and/or physical drugs,  or  gambling.  Such  a  dependence  state  can  on  have  disastrous consequences p h y s i c a l l y , psychologically, and s o c i a l l y . I t i s apparently learned and maintained  because of short-term  reinforcement.  Brain and Learning 145 Compulsive  gambling  Addictions  imply  addict  i s learned  illegal  a criminal.  and maintained  activities  and these  similar  activities  manner. make the  of s e l f  regulating c a p a c i t i e s can a l s o  have disastrous p h y s i c a l consequences  on the h e a l t h o f the addicted  person.  This  substance  The loss  in a  stems  and the i n d i r e c t  disease conditions. control  directly  from  the excessive  e f f e c t s of inadequate  amount diet  of foreign  and contagious  At the psychological l e v e l there i s a loss of s e l f  accompanying  lowered  self-esteem  with  a loss  of interest i n  usual l i f e a c t i v i t i e s and goals. The  dominant moral code o f s o c i e t y defines a wide range o f sexual  perversions, (pedophilia), and  such  as the expression  and obtaining sexual  o f sexual  enjoyment  desire  for children  from observing  sex acts  objects (voyeurism) and from the d i s p l a y of parts of the body i n  public  (exhibitionism).  Homosexuality  i s a l s o c l a s s i c a l l y defined as i  deviant; the s t a t i s t i c a l question by  surveys of Kinsey  the o v e r s i m p l i f i e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  pointing to the extensiveness  deviations  from  i n d i r e c t l y have c a l l e d  of homosexuals as deviants  of homosexuality  the norm are c l e a r l y  into  considered  among males.  Some  i n need of control;  other types of deviant sexual behavior create l e g a l or s o c i a l problems only i n c e r t a i n instances. The differs  sociopath from  deviates  because  the one endorsed  deviant behavior  because  standards  which d i f f e r  sociopath  has personal  o f a moral  by general 4  code  society.  he holds  which  I t results i n  the i n d i v i d u a l has a strong a l l e g i a n c e with  from moral  those  of the general  feelings,  social  group.  The  but does h i s d y s s o c i a l acts  Brain and  Learning  146  because he or  f e e l s they are r i g h t .  gangster nay  be  very  loyal  For to  instance,  their  own  the young gang member  kinds but  have no  guilt  about t h e i r violence toward society. The psychopath represents behaviors laws.  The  absence  psychopathic  of  impuslive  p e r s o n a l i t y v i o l a t e s these codes because of  i n t e r n a l i z e d moral  and  that v i o l a t e society's norms or  frequently  values.  turns  This  to crime.  He  individual i s  is  selfish,  guilt. which  i r r e s p o n s i b l e and  This  disorder  social  unable to l e a m  stems  standards  from  have  In  general,  the  person's c o n f l i c t s  various are  not  been  introjected.  neuroses  core of the  has  d i s t o r t e d the  essential  or  to  symptoms may  adjustment  are  neurosis  lies  assumed  take  feel  development The  in  impulsive  to a r i s e when the  various  at the point  learning process  cannot  or  type.  adequately handled by  mechanisms; the blocked  from experience  psychosocial  t h i e f or murderer would be examples of t h i s  of  This i n d i v i d u a l  faulty  never  typically  i s l a r g e l y incapable  l o y a l t y to other i n d i v i d u a l s , groups or s o c i a l values.  an  place.  so The  that  where  the  defense anxiety  new  learning  neurotic  person's  s h i f t from time to time, but among h i s s h i f t i n g symptoms a  dominant  pattern  can  probably  tells  something about the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l and  us  usually  be  detected.  This  dominant  pattern of  h i s problems, just as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c pattern of defense mechanisms in the  the  individual t e l l s  generally  following.  recognized  us  something about h i s p e r s o n a l i t y .  forms  of  psychoneurotic  reactions  Some of are  the  Brain and Learning 147  Phobias present  are intense fears  no  real  danger.  of objects or s i t u a t i o n s We  are  a l l familiar  that  with  i n fact  the  term  "claustrophobia" and know that t h i s term i s applied to an intense fear of closed p l a c e s . as pathophobia hematophobia  There are many other types o f phobias, however, such  (fear of disease),  (fear  o f blood).  nyctophobia  (fear  of darkness) and  Many well-adjusted people have strong  fears that we would not c a l l phobias.  The fear o f mice by some people,  fear o f water by many people, and fear o f high places, f o r example, are not  generally phobic  i n nature.  Most of these  through unfortunate childhood experiences.  fears  are developed  Patients s u f f e r i n g phobias,  however, are not aware of the b a s i s o f t h e i r fears, react v i o l e n t l y to the  feared  fears. but  object,  and are often  greatly  inconvenienced  In many cases, the i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i z e s h i s fear  i s helpless  to do anything about  by  their  i s irrational  i t . A l l phobias  have  certain  features i n common. Obsessive-compulsions  are  characterized  by  obsessive  and  unavoidable thoughts, o f t e n unpleasant and unwelcome to the person(s), and  by  urges.  compulsive  irrational  acts,  which  The person's obsessive thoughts  follow  from  irresistible  may have to do with fear that  he i s "losing h i s mind," that h i s c h i l d i s "going to have an accident," that he i s "going  to s t r i k e  someone," or they  i n s i s t e n t thoughts o f an e r o t i c nature. take  the form  routinized  of r e p e t i t i v e  ways of moving,  may have  to do with  The compulsive acts frequently  ritualistic  behavior,  dressing, or eating.  such  as  highly  The compulsive act  often appears to be "magic way" of warding o f f the unpleasant obsessive  Brain and Learning 348 thought.  An  adolescent  boy,  f o r example,  was  characterized  by  a  neurotic compulsion to wash himself repeatedly during the day, spending a  great  deal  cleanliness.  of h i s time  in a  series  of  acts  relating  to body  Investigation indicated that he suffered obsessive  guilt  feelings from acts o f masturbation, which he regarded as "unclean." The  h y s t e r i a s may manifest themselves as a conversion  disorder i n which the anxiety with no underlying typically  occur  situations,  purely psychological  hysterical  stress  of  develops  symptom.  also  damage.  stress  and  an organic  In other  i s converted  reaction may  sphere only,  or organic  situations  the p a t i e n t  psychological  i s converted i n t o a p h y s i c a l  physical  in  reaction, a  into  involve  malfunction,  Conversion  hysterias  conflict.  symptom,  In  rather  such  than  a  words, we might say that the a  bodily  a problem  disturbance.  The  i n the psychological  as i n the d i s s o c i a t i v e reaction, i n which the i n d i v i d u a l  attempts to c o n t r o l anxiety by removing from consciousness those parts of the p e r s o n a l i t y which are producing i t . are  amnesia,  personality,  fugue  reaction,  the person  arid  multiple  manifests  Examples of t h i s personality.  two or more  In  completely  reaction multiple different  systems of personality, changing from one to the other f o r periods of a few are  minutes or' even several years. quite  fun-loving  different while  from  the other  one  Usually the p e r s o n a l i t i e s involved  another.  i s quiet  One  may  and serious.  be  carefree  Often,  and  while one  personality i s dominant, the person cannot remember the other or how he behaved when the other was dominant.  Brain and Learning 149  The hypochondriac bodily  processes.  hypochondrias  evidences a morbid  Commonly found  occur  more often  u s u a l l y have many p h y s i c a l  i n individuals  i n women than  complaints, and  with h e a l t h keeps them cn the a l e r t illnesses. topics,  Often they are avid  and  frequently,  detailed  evacuation. treatment  i n l a t e middle  i n men.  their  These  age,  people  general overconcern  for signs of new  and  different  readers of popular writings of h e a l t h  Some patients keep charts of bowel movements  information Typically,  for t h e i r  and  there i s an excessive concern with excretory  and d i g e s t i v e functions. and  concern over h i s h e a l t h  on  they  diet, are  imaginary  constipation,  always  illnesses,  looking and  and  trends  f o r new  they  in  methods of  provide  a  large  market f o r every new patent medicine. Psychoses are forms of mental disabling refer term  than  neuroses.  to such disorders, usually  used  to  The  i l l n e s s that are much more severe and  term  "insanity"  was  although today insanity  refer  to  those  formerly used  i s primarily a  individuals  who  are  legal  unable  manage t h e i r a f f a i r s properly because of a severe mental disorder. psychotic  individual's  incapable of  functioning  must be h o s p i t a l i z e d . a  continuity  psychoneuroses  personality  from  socially  i s generally i n a normal  and  to The  disorganized, he  way,  to  frequently  is he  Some experts i n t h i s area b e l i e v e that there i s the  normal,  and psychoses.  or  well-  adjusted,  through  The differences are regarded as  largely  a matter of s e v e r i t y of symptoms, rather than differences i n kind. a l l psychologists and p s y c h i a t r i s t s , however, hold t h i s p o s i t i o n . f e e l that psychoses are fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from neuroses.  the  Not Some  Brain and Learning 150  The  so-called  excitement,  "manic",  elation  back and forth,  or  excitable,  o f mood or euphoria,  involves  overactivity  singing, and so on, and a " f l i g h t  a  generalized  such  as pacing  of ideas," during  which the patient's conversation jumps from one topic to another l i t t l e apparent and,  i f he  connection.  goes  with  With excessive e l a t i o n , he becomes manic,  too f a r , explodes  into  violent  and unrestrained  behavior, sometimes dangerous to others or to himself (thus the common term  "manias"). The  reacts  disorder, known to problems  feelings  and  as melancholia, conflicts  of hopelessness,  with  occurs or  when  the i n d i v i d u a l  spontaneously  dejection, and depression.  acquires  The depression  often but not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t s from some s p e c i f i c event, such as the death o f a loved one, but i t continues f o r an excessively long period of time.  There i s good prognosis that the patient w i l l recover but the  most serious danger reaction  i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u i c i d e .  the p a t i e n t  appears  sad, discouraged,  In the depressive  and  inactive.  The  h a l l u c i n a t i o n s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y those of self-degradation. Schizophrenias are characterized by a wide v a r i e t y of symptoms, not all  found  i n any one person.  In general,  there  appears  p e c u l i a r d i s t o r t i o n o f the emotions and f e e l i n g s ; the person completely  insensitive  to things  evoke emotional response, the  family.  social  may  may seem  that would normally be expected to  f o r example, news o f the death of a member of  His standards  relations  to be a  show  o f conduct, severe  dress, personal hygiene, and  deterioration.  He  may  become  excessively withdrawn, out o f a l l touch with the external world,  even  Brain and Learning  151 to the point at which he may s i t completely immobile f o r hours,  during  which time the limbs can be moved about by someone e l s e and w i l l remain i n the p o s i t i o n s i n which they are placed. halluciantions  He may often be subject t o  i n which he "hears voices" or "sees v i s i o n s . "  He may  exhibit b i z a r r e behavior, confused thought processes o r chaotic speech. The  patient  may  also  experience  auditory  hallucinations  -  hearing  voices t a l k i n g t o him from some unknown source. "Paranoia" and/or  i s a condition characterized by delusions o f persecution  grandeur.  tightly knit. disorganized, schizophrenia. typically  These  delusions  are usually  well  systematized  and  The p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h i s type o f patient i s not severely and thus  the condition  The paranoid  involves  i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from  state, second of the paranoid  t r a n s i t o r y or temporary  l o g i c and systematization o f paranoia.  delusions  Delusions  that  paranoid  disorders, lack the  and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s o f  a r e l i g i o u s nature, among other symptoms, are often found i n both types of paranoid  disorders.  Brain and Learning  152 RECALL TEST  List  as many o f the mental disorders you have just learned as you can  remember.  Brain and Learning  153  COMPREHENSION TEST A major consequence of most addictions i s the: a. b. c. d. e.  a c c e l e r a t i o n o f self-confidence f e e l i n g s to u n r e a l i s t i c heights unreasonably high sense o f s e l f control loss o f i n t e r e s t i n usual l i f e a c t i v i t i e s heightened o r i e n t a t i o n to many s o c i a l r e i n f o r c e r s heightened c r e a t i v i t y  Sexual perversion a. b. c. d. e.  i s to h y s t e r i a as:  p a r a l y s i s i s to o v e r a c t i v i t y crutch i s to fantasy s i m i l e i s to metaphor doing i s to f o r g e t t i n g f e e l i n g i s to apathy  Which of the following i s an example o f Sociopathy? a. b. c. d. e.  m i l i t a n t behavior on the part o f i n d i v i d u a l s belonging to organized crime chronic anxiety about exposure to other people u n r e a l i s t i c fear of appearing f o o l i s h i n p u b l i c hearing voices having a b i z a r r e behavioral pattern i n one's r e p e r t o i r e  Psychopathy i s to obsessive compulsion as: a. b. c. d. e.  impulse i s to mortality frozen i s to molten reading i s to speaking youth i s to o l d age random i s to r e p e t i t i v e  Individuals with p e r s o n a l i t y disorders: a. b. c. d. e.  e x h i b i t problems s i m i l a r to psychosis suffer much anxiety because they f e e l responsible f o r the troubles they cause t y p i c a l l y perceive t h e i r problems as being r e l a t e d to luck or to the f a u l t s o f others generally do quite well i n l i f e have the most severe kind of mental disorders  Brain and Learning 154  6.  Neurotic disorders have been said to involve: a. b. c. d. e.  7.  Psychosis i s to Schizophrenia as: a. b. c. d. e.  8.  metaphor i s to s i m i l e comfort i s to discomfort sex i s to motive plant i s to flowers blaming i s to curing  Phobia i s t o Paranoia as: a. b. c. d. e.  emotion i s to beast laughter i s to seriousness appropriateness i s to uniqueness fear i s to b e l i e f thought i s to a c t i o n .  i  /  h a l l u c i n a t i o n s and delusions f e e l i n g s of anxiety and inadequacy unusual sexual preferences an a n t i s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y f i x a t i o n upon a c e r t a i n substance  9.  .  .  /Addiction i s to Mania as: a. b. c. d. e.  symptom i s to cause need i s to energy l i o n i s to beaver ego i s to mother moon i s to earth  10. A person who wants to b e l i e v e he/she i l l n e s s i s present i s a: a. b. c. d. e.  malingerer compulsive p a t i e n t n a r c i s s i s t i c person substance abuser hypochondriac  i s i l l when  no physical  Brain and Learning  155  11. Last night your roommate went out at midnight and h i t the neighbor's sheep. He t o l d the p o l i c e that the sheep appeared i n the t o i l e t bowl and said he was Satan i n sheep's c l o t h i n g . H i s symptoms r e f l e c t a case o f : a. b. c. d. e.  mania melancholia schizophrenia hysteria obsessive compulsion  12. A w r i t e r working a t home changes h i s clothes a t l e a s t f i v e times a day. Each time he changes clothes he experiences a reduction i n anxiety. He would prObably be diagnosed a s : a. b. c. d. e.  phobic hysterical paranoid perverted compulsive  13. A woman who i s orderly, consistent and l o g i c a l i n most s i t u a t i o n s a l s o believes that she i s Joan of Arc and i n danger of being k i l l e d . This woman i s d i s p l a y i n g symptoms o f : a. b. c. d. e.  a h y s t e r i c a l nature an a d d i c t i v e nature a phobic nature a paranoid nature an obsessive compulsive nature  /  14. Intense f e e l i n g s o f anxiety that become displaced to objects o r s i t u a t i o n s that the i n d i v i d u a l believes are responsible f o r h i s anxiety or fear are r e f e r r e d t o a s : a. b. c. d. e.  phobias chronic a n x i e t i e s acute a n x i e t i e s obsessions delusions  Brain and Learning  156 Which of the following c h a r a c t e r i z e s melancholia: a. b. c. d. e.  deep sorrow following the loss of a loved spouse f e e l i n g s of depersonalization a f t e r viewing an accident a strong sense of profound despondency that a r i s e s for no apparent reason the recurrence of unwanted thoughts which cannot be banished frcm consciousness separate i d e n t i t i e s invading the p e r s o n a l i t y at d i f f e r e n t times.  


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