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The northern Saskatchewan norms project : obtaining Northern Lights School Division norms on group tests.. 1984

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THE NORTHERN SASKATCHEWAN NORMS PROJECT: OBTAINING NORTHERN LIGHTS SCHOOL DIVISION NORMS ON GROUP TESTS OF SCHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT AND ABILITY by RAYMOND FRANK TOMUSIAK B.Sc, University Of Alberta, 1972 B.Ed, University Of Saskatchewan, 1978 •A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of Educational Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 © Raymond Frank Tomusiak, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publi c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of _frbc.c AT/OVA L 7?yc4-4i-o6Y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date rtfptiL JO. /c?c54 DE-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t The purpose of the p re sen t study was to deve lop r e g i o n a l norms on t e s t s of s c h o l a s t i c achievement and a b i l i t y . The t e s t s c o n s i d e r e d f o r norming were the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Tes t s - Canadian E d i t i o n , the Canadian Te s t s of Bas i c S k i l l s Mathematics or Mathematics Computat ion s u b t e s t s , and the O t i s Lennon School A b i l i t y T e s t . The reg i on of i n t e r e s t was that under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n (NLSD) in no r the rn Saskatchewan. The r a t i o n a l e for o b t a i n i n g r e g i o n a l norms was based on the premise that the NLSD p o p u l a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a t y p i c a l of the n a t i o n a l s choo l p o p u l a t i o n w i th re spec t to s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t i n g academic per formance. Reg iona l norms accompanying n a t i o n a l norms would enhance the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e s t s cores f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by p r o v i d i n g another important p e r s p e c t i v e by which to examine the s c o r e s . Fur thermore , the dua l norming of achievement and a b i l i t y t e s t s would p r o v i d e f o r u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n of NLSD s tudents as the normat ive data would be b u i l t upon e q u i v a l e n t s c a l e s of measurement. The t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to 70 to 92 pe rcen t of s tudents in four grades and four age l e v e l s w i t h i n the Nor thern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n . The grades a s ses sed were t h r e e , f i v e , seven, and n i n e ; age l e v e l s a s ses sed were 9 year s 0 months to 9 year s 5 months, 11 yea r s 0 months to 11 year s 5 months, 14 years 0 months to 14 year s 5 months, and 16 year s 0 months to 16 years 5 months. The assessment p e r i o d o c c u r r e d in the f a l l of 1982. S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s comparing the means of the NLSD groups to means or medians of the n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n samples r e v e a l e d the NLSD groups s co red s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the n a t i o n a l samples in a l l c a s e s . Futhermore, examinat ion of the NLSD t e s t s core d i s t r i b u t i o n s at p o i n t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the n a t i o n a l 1.0th, 20th , 50th, and 80th p e r c e n t i l e s exposed l a r ge d i f f e r e n c e s between the NLSD and n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s . R e s u l t s of item a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d the t e s t s to be good d i s c r i m i n a t o r y and r e l i a b l e measures of NLSD student per formance. Based on item a n a l y s i s , the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of t e s t items were regarded as hav ing f a i r to very good v a l u e s of d i f f i c u l t y and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F i n a l l y , c o r r e l a t i o n a l ana l y se s showed s t rong r e l a t i o n s h i p s between achievement s cores and a b i l i t y s cores w i t h i n a l l g roups . As a r e s u l t of the p reced ing f i n d i n g s , r e g i o n a l norm t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each t e s t fo r seven of the e i g h t groups. These c o n s i s t e d of p e r c e n t i l e ranks , s t a n i n e s , and T - s c o r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i th raw s c o r e s . Tab le s of d e r i v e d s co re s were not e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the 16 year o l d group as the sample number was c o n s i d e r e d too low fo r u s e f u l p e r c e n t i l e i n f o r m a t i o n . Research S u p e r v i s o r y Dr. W.T. Rogers i v Tab le of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tab le s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i Chapter I: INTRODUCTION 1 Va lue of L o c a l Versus N a t i o n a l Norms 3 I ssues I n v o l v i n g the Development and Use of Norms 5 Number of Subject 5 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s 6 Re levancy 7 Region and P o p u l a t i o n of I n t e r e s t in the Present Study . . 8 The Problem 10 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 13 Chapter I I: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14 Two Canadian Reg iona l Norming S tud ie s 14 Saskatchewan Norming Study 14 Norming of I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . 15 T e c h n i c a l Data of the Tes t s Used in T h i s Study 16 G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Te s t s - Canadian E d i t i o n . . . . 17 Canadian Te s t s of Bas ic S k i l l s 18 O t i s - Lennon Schoo l A b i l i t y Tes t 19 Chapter I I I : METHODOLOGY 22 Sub jec t s . . 22 Te s t s 24 T e s t i n g P r e p a r a t i o n s and I n s t r u c t i o n s 30 Tes t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 31 Data P r e p a r a t i o n and P r o c e s s i n g 32 Data A n a l y s i s 33 Comparison of the Reg iona l Tes t R e s u l t s With The R e s u l t s from the N a t i o n a l S t a n d a r i z a t i o n s 33 Item C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the S e l e c t e d Tes t s 35 I n t e r - t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n s 36 P r e p a r a t i o n of Reg iona l Norms 37 Chapter IV: RESULTS 39 Rate of Response 39 Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of The Obta ined Samples 41 Grade R e s u l t s 41 Item A n a l y s i s 41 I n t e r - t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n s 48 Comparison of Reg iona l Tes t R e s u l t s To N a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n In fo rmat ion 50 P e r c e n t i l e Rank Comparisons 50 1 . Reading 50 2. Mathematics 53 3. Schoo l A b i l i t y 54 S t a t i s t i c a l Comparisons On Measures of C e n t r a l Tendency and V a r i a b i l i t y 54 Age R e s u l t s 58 V Chapter V: SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION 59 Summary 59 Limitations of the Study 63 A p p l i c a b i l i t y of NLSD Norms 64 1 . NLSD Representativeness 64 2. NLSD Population S t a b i l i t y 65 A v a i l a b i l i t y of National Raw Score Data 66 Non-Normality of Test Score Distributions 68 Test Bias 69 Directions for Future Research 71 REFERENCE NOTES 7 4 REFERENCES 7 5 APPENDIX A: Test Administrators' Inservice 78 APPENDIX B: Tables of NLSD Norms on Achievement and A b i l i t y Tests 107 APPENDIX C: Investigation of the Reading and Mathematics Achievement of Student Absentees 158 APPENDIX D: NLSD Test Result Information by Age 170 v i L i s t of Tab le s 1. L e v e l s and Forms of the Achievement and S c h o l a s t i c A b i l i t y T e s t s Admin i s t e red to Students in the Four Grade and Four Age Groups in the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n 27 2. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Number of S tudents Assessed by Grade and Age in the Northern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n A c c o r d i n g to Gender, A f f i l i a t i o n , and School S i z e 40 3. Summary Item S t a t i s t i c s of Achievement and S c h o l a s t i c A b i l i t y T e s t s Admin i s t e red to S tudents in Four Grade Groups in the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n 42 4. Tes t Items wi th Item D i f f i c u l t y L e v e l s Below the Chance L e v e l or Item D i s c r i m i n a t i o n I nd i ce s Below .20 on Te s t s of Achievement and S c h o l a s t i c A b i l i t y Admin i s t e red to Four Grade Groups in the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n " 45 5. Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Among Te s t s Admin i s - t e r e d to S tudents in the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v - i s i o n W i th i n Four Grade Groups 49 6. Percentage of S tudents by Grade in the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n S c o r i n g at or Below S e l e c t e d P e r c e n t i l e Ranks from the N a t i o n a l Norm Tab le s on the A d m i n i s t e r e d T e s t s 51 7. R e s u l t s of the One Sample t - T e s t s , Kolmorgorov-Smirnov One Sample T e s t s , and the x 2 T e s t s fo r Students As ses sed by Grade in the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n 55 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. L o c a t i o n of Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n Schoo l s in the P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan 9 2. W i t h i n - L e v e l and P e r t i n e n t O u t - o f - L e v e l Uses of Test L e v e l s Used in T h i s Study 29 Acknowledgement The author wishes to express h i s indebtedness to the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n , the Saskatchewan School T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Saskatchewan Teachers F e d e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r support in fund ing t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . An e x p r e s s i o n of g r a t i t u d e i s made to my re sea r ch s u p e r v i s o r , Dr . Todd Rogers, f o r h i s unending suppor t , and h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e in g u i d i n g t h i s s tudy. I a l s o wish to thank committee members, Dr. Don A l l i s o n and Dr. Bryan C l a r k e , f o r t h e i r support and v a l u a b l e a d v i c e . S p e c i a l thanks i s a l s o due to Dr. Roy T r a v i s f o r h i s generous a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e e a r l y in the s tudy . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s in order to the many teacher s who v o l u n t e e r e d t h e i r t ime to serve as t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . And to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , s choo l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c l a s s room t e a c h e r s , and c o n s u l t a n t s , r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n and support i s made e x p l i c i t . I am a l s o extremely g r a t e f u l fo r the e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by S h e i l a F l o r y in data p r o c e s s i n g ; by I rene Roy, Trudy Duncan and Karen Dvorak as c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n t s ; and by Re id Spencer , f o r h i s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e in p r e p a r i n g t h i s manuscr ipt to i t s f i n a l form. F i n a l l y , a s i n c e r e thank you i s due to the many f r i e n d s and acqua in tances who o f f e r e d t h e i r encouragement and h e l p in t h i s p r o j e c t in one way or ano ther . 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION For many y e a r s , s choo l age c h i l d r e n in v a r i o u s reg ions of Canada have been compared to r e f e r e n c e groups on s t a n d a r d i z e d no rm- re fe renced t e s t s . These r e f e r e n c e groups, sometimes r e f e r r e d to as s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n groups or normat ive samples, have been pu rpo r ted to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s , as w e l l as sma l l e r r e g i o n a l , l o c a l or s p e c i a l group p o p u l a t i o n s . But, on many of the t e s t s used in Canada, the r e f e r e n c e groups have been f o r e i g n ( qu i t e o f t e n Amer i can ) . The types of r e f e r e n c e groups used in i n d i v i d u a l and group compar isons can have a d i r e c t bea r ing on the power of t e s t score i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and the va lue of consequent e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s (Angof f , 1971; S t an ley & Hopkins , 1972; S a l v i a & Y s s e l d y k e , 1981). The view h e l d in the p resent study i s tha t a v a i l a b l e norms are of l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s f o r the p o p u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t , namely s tudents in the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n , Saskatchewan, Canada. If i t was found that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n scored d i f f e r e n t l y than that of the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n groups on which n a t i o n a l norms were c o n s t r u c t e d , then a prima f a c i e case would e x i s t f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l o c a l norms. Use of these norms would g r e a t l y enhance the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of these s t u d e n t s ' t e s t s c o r e s on t e s t s of achievement and a b i l i t y . 2 Normative i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n p r o v i d e d in norm t a b l e s where i t s va lue l i e s in g i v i n g i n t e r p r e t i v e meaning to raw t e s t s c o r e s . Raw sco res are t rans formed to normat ive s c a l e s such as p e r c e n t i l e ranks , s tandard s c o r e s , and age or grade e q u i v a l e n t s based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of raw s co re s in the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. Norms shou ld not be confused w i th s tandards or goa l s of per formance; r a t h e r they are d e s c r i p t i o n s of t y p i c a l performance of a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n group r e p r e s e n t i n g a de s i gna ted p o p u l a t i o n to which an i n d i v i d u a l or group score can be compared (Hopkins & S t a n l e y , 1981). C e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n s , n a t i o n a l or o t h e r w i s e , have been a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d on some s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s through c a r e f u l l y des i gned s t a t i s t i c a l sampl ing t e c h n i q u e s . S i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n s have not been so w e l l r ep re sen ted on other t e s t s , even though these t e s t s may be wel l -known and f r e q u e n t l y used (see S a l v i a & Ys se ldyke (1981) f o r rev iews of the Wide Range Achievement T e s t , the S los son I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t , and the D u r r e l l A n a l y s i s of Reading D i f f i c u l t y ) . In these c a s e s , the norming samples used have been inadequate wi th r e spec t to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p o p u l a t i o n s they are p u r p o r t e d to r e p r e s e n t , or the p o p u l a t i o n s themselves have remained ambiguous and u n d e f i n e d . Under these c o n d i t i o n s mean ing fu l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l and group t e s t s co re s can on ly be made wi th c a u t i o n at b e s t ; at worst , they may be g r o s s l y i n a c c u r a t e . Fur thermore , even i f the norm group i s t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of some c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p o p u l a t i o n , compar isons wi th c e r t a i n groups of i n d i v i d u a l s may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e or l a c k i n g in r e l e v a n c y fo r 3 the p a r t i c u l a r k inds of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d . Examples of t h i s may occur in comparing a Canadian s t u d e n t ' s t e s t scores on the o r i g i n a l Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabu la ry Tes t to i t s norming sample of 4000 c h i d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s in N a s h v i l l e , Tennesee in 1958; or to the norming sample on the Raven ' s Standard P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s which c o n s i s t e d of a l l the c h i l d r e n l i v i n g in C o l c h e s t e r , Eng land, in 1943 and whose surnames began with the l e t t e r s A or B (Holmes, 1981). Va lue of L o c a l Versus N a t i o n a l Norms R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l norms are o f t e n u s e f u l in a broad p e r s p e c t i v e . For example, n a t i o n a l l y normed t e s t s of achievement and a b i l i t y p r o v i d e one important frame or r e f e r e n c e to be used to a s ses s the academic or i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l of a s tudent w i th re spec t to h i s n a t i o n a l p e e r s . T h i s may l e a d to p r e d i c t i o n s of where the c h i l d i s heading a c a d e m i c a l l y , e s p e c i a l l y when in c o m p e t i t i o n w i th o ther c h i l d r e n on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r the same academic goa l s or rewards. However, as s t a t e d by Angoff (1971), n a t i o n a l norms are o f t e n too genera l f o r s p e c i f i c a c t i o n . Fur thermore , " t o the extent tha t e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s vary throughout the c o u n t r y , the problem remains that no s i n g l e set of n a t i o n a l norms would be e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e and a p p l i c a b l e in a p a r t i c u l a r community" (Angof f , 1971, p. 538). 4 The va lue of l o c a l norms has been expres sed e lsewhere (S tan ley & Hopk ins , 1972; American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1974; M a c G i n i t i e , 1980; O t i s & Lennon, 1979b; S a l v i a & Y s se l dyke , 1981). On the one hand they may be of p a r t i c u l a r va lue to a s choo l d i v i s i o n when c u r r e n t d e c i s i o n s are necessary on such mat ter s as s tudent programming and p lacement . In these cases the s t u d e n t ' s t e s t s cores are compared to those of h i s own group. Angoff (1971) s t a t e d that these norms have the advantage of be ing based on homogeneous groups of i n d i v i d u a l s who have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tha t are f a m i l i a r and mean ing fu l to the u s e r . L o c a l norms are p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i f a l o c a l group i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e . These d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups show up in the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the t e s t scores as s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n s in c e n t r a l tendency or v a r i a b i l i t y . The d i f f e r e n c e s are produced by an a t y p i c a l p r o p o r t i o n of c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in the l o c a l group which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t the t e s t s c o r e s . O t i s and Lennon (1979b) a s s e r t e d tha t l o c a l norms are e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e f o r a t y p i c a l groups because they ensure that l o c a l c u r r i c u l a r emphasis and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l o c a l s tudent p o p u l a t i o n r e c e i v e proper c o n s i d e r a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y , the va lue of l o c a l norms l i e s in improv ing the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e s t s co re s f o r d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l or l o c a l s e t t i n g . 5 Issues I n v o l v i n g the Development and Use of Norms S a l v i a and Ysseldyke (1981) r a i s e d three important i s s u e s concerning norms which r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to the r a t i o n a l e behind the purpose f o r t h i s study and the methods used to implement i t . These are the number of s u b j e c t s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , and r e l e v a n c y . Number of Sub j e c t s In any norming study, the number of s u b j e c t s used in each d i s t i n c t norming group, be i t by grade or age, has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the degree of confidence h e l d in the r e s u l t a n t t e s t norms. G h i s e l l i (1964) has s t a t e d that i n order to maintain norm s t a b i l i t y the norming group must not be too s m a l l ; otherwise marked sampling f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the norms c o u l d occur. T h i s problem i s of p a r t i c u l a r concern when c o n s t r u c t i n g norms f o r a l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . Some po p u l a t i o n s are of such a small s i z e that an inadequate number of s u b j e c t s i s a v a i l a b l e to c o n s t r u c t t a b l e s of norms f o r use across time. Previous years' norms may be i n a c c u r a t e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n subsequent years due to the i n s t a b i l i t y c r e a t e d by the small s i z e of the norm sample. S a l v i a and Ysseldyke (1981) drew a t t e n t i o n to another matter of consequence r e s u l t i n g from norm group s i z e . In order to reduce i n t e r p o l a t i o n s and e x t r a p o l a t i o n s i n norm t a b l e s , a s u f f i c i e n t number of s u b j e c t s i s r e q u i r e d . Small normative samples may c r e a t e l a r g e gaps in the norm t a b l e s as many t e s t score values may not be observed and t h e r e f o r e have no a c t u a l 6 c o r r e s p o n d i n g t rans fo rmed s c o r e , o ther than through i n t e r p o l a t i o n or e x t r a p o l a t i o n . S a l v i a and Ys se ldyke s t a t e d that a minimum of 100 s u b j e c t s i s necessary in each norming group. They e x p l a i n e d that t h i s i s the minimum number in which a f u l l range of p e r c e n t i l e s can be computed and s tandard scores computed between ± 2 . 3 s tandard d e v i a t i o n s of the mean without e x t r a p o l a t i o n in a norma l l y d i s t r i b u t e d set of s c o r e s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s If a p o p u l a t i o n group i s complex, such as a n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n , then s t r a t i f y i n g the p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to key demographic v a r i a b l e s to o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample i s o f t e n n e c c e s a r y . If members from each s t r a t a are to be p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d , and norms w i th a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s of p r e c i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d , then a l a r ge number of s u b j e c t s i s r e q u i r e d in each s t r a t i f i c a t i o n c e l l . However, Hopkins and S t an ley (1981) have a s s e r t e d that the the s i z e of the norming group i s much l e s s c r i t i c a l then the degree to which i t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a r e l e v a n t p o p u l a t i o n . Scores compared to a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group can be i n t e r p r e t e d wi th g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e then scores compared to a l a r g e sample of u n c e r t a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s wi th i t s a s s o c i a t e d undetermined amount of e r r o r due to sampl ing b i a s . The b a s i c concern here i s whether or not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the norm sample which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t t e s t s co re s are p resent in the same p r o p o r t i o n as the p o p u l a t i o n i t i s pu rpo r ted to r e p r e s e n t . In a l a r g e heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n , such as at 7 the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , the p o p u l a t i o n i s s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to demographic v a r i a b l e s b e l i e v e d most i n f l u e n t i a l . T r a d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s used to s t r a t i f y these l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e geographic r e g i o n , e t h n i c i t y , u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , s o c i o - economic s t a t u s , s i z e of s choo l or s choo l system, and gender. These demographic v a r i a b l e s p robab ly form a complex i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d network wi th o ther p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t e s of s choo l success such as e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s , m o t i v a t i o n and a t t i t u d e towards s choo l l e a r n i n g , f i r s t language competence, p r e - s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s , and s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l w e l l - be ing of the s tuden t . Relevancy The i s sue of r e l evancy as i t concerns the use of norms u l t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e s the purpose fo r which the t e s t s are to be used. Assuming norms have been d e r i v e d fo r t e s t s which possess adequate psychometr i c q u a l i t i e s of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , the norms s t i l l may not p r o v i d e f o r u s e f u l or mean ing fu l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s even though these norms are s t a b l e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i s t r ue when the comparat ive group f a i l s to p r o v i d e a p e r s p e c t i v e on i n d i v i d u a l or group performance which i s deemed necessary i n o rder to make c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s , such as those conce rn ing programming and p lacement. Norm re levancy i s o f t e n d i s c u s s e d in a con tex t of comparing two types of norming groups, such as n a t i o n a l ve r sus l o c a l norms. Thus both types of norm groups can be r e l e v a n t to a p a r t i c u l a r group, each adding a d i f f e r e n t d imens ion to the 8 p i c t u r e . As Angoff (1971) s t a t e d , " the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a s i n g l e norm t a b l e tends to obscure the f a c t that a p e r c e n t i l e rank i s not unique but r e p r e s e n t s on ly one of many p o s s i b l e e v a l u a t i o n s of a t e s t s c o r e " (p. 536). Perhaps one r e l e v a n t f e a t u r e of l o c a l norms i s that toge ther with n a t i o n a l norms, they can lead to more comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n s by s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l , thereby l e a d i n g to d e c i s i o n s more l i k e l y to produce s u c c e s s f u l outcomes. Region and P o p u l a t i o n of I n t e r e s t in the Present Study The s e t t i n g f o r t h i s study was the no r thern par t of Saskatchewan, s p e c i f i c a l l y the Nor thern A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i s t r i c t of the p r o v i n c e . T h i s r e g i on c o n s i s t s of over 100,000 square m i l e s of v a s t , s p a r s e l y i n h a b i t e d t r a c t s of f o r e s t and l a k e s . Communities tend to be r e l a t i v e l y sma l l and f a r a p a r t , rang ing in s i z e from l e s s than 100 to approx imate ly 3,000 r e s i d e n t s . Many communit ies are i s o l a t e d to the extent that they are a c c e s s i b l e on ly by a i r or w inter road . The g reat m a j o r i t y of no r thern r e s i d e n t s are of Na t i ve a n c e s t r y . Employment i s ma in ly in min ing and f o r e s t r y and in the government and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s . T r a d i t i o n a l occupa t i on s such as t r a p p i n g and commercia l f i s h i n g occupy a smal l percentage of the t o t a l l abour f o r c e . P r e s e n t l y , the unemployment ra te among no r the rn r e s i d e n t s i s approx imate l y 40 percent (Note 1). C l o se to 70 percent of the t o t a l no r thern Saskatchewan s choo l p o p u l a t i o n a t t e n d p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s , wh i le the remain ing 30 percent a t t e n d f e d e r a l l y funded s c h o o l s . Of p a r t i c u l a r 9 • N.L.S.D. Schools All Weather Roads y Winter Roads '• Major S. Sask. Centres F i g u r e 1. L o c a t i o n of Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n s choo l s in the p r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan. 1 0 i n t e r e s t to t h i s study are s tudent s w i t h i n the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n who account fo r about 80 percent of a l l s tudents a t t e n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l s choo l s in the Nor thern A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D i s t r i c t and n e a r l y 60 percent of the enti -re nor thern Saskatchewan s choo l p o p u l a t i o n (see F i g u r e 1). P r e s e n t l y there are 30 s choo l s w i t h i n the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n . Schoo l enro l lment range from approx imate l y 10 to 600 s tuden t s . Grade ranges vary from k i n d e r g a r t e n o n l y , to k i n d e r g a r t e n to grade 12 i n c l u s i v e . Approx imate ly 90 percent of the almost 4500 s tudent s w i t h i n the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n are N a t i v e , wi th the l a r g e m a j o r i t y de s i gna ted as Non-S ta tus or Met i s a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e . The Problem A major problem which has c o n f r o n t e d assessment per sonne l such as e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s in the Northern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n i s c e n t e r e d upon the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of nor thern s t u d e n t s ' t e s t scores on n a t i o n a l l y and/or p r o v i n c i a l l y normed, s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s of achievement and a b i l i t y . The a v a i l a b l e norms f a i l to g i ve a complete p i c t u r e of the d i r e c t i o n to be taken f o r a c c u r a t e and r e a l i s t i c programming and placement of s tudent s w i t h i n the reg i on or s choo l d i v i s i o n . T h i s i s the case when one r e a l i z e s that u s ing a v a i l a b l e norms, nor thern c h i l d r e n ' s t e s t s cores a re compared to s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n or norm groups which rep re sen t the n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , but which f a i l to adequate ly rep re sen t the p o p u l a t i o n to which these c h i l d r e n be long and in which e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s rega rd ing 11 programming and placement are made. Thus, the problem addres sed in t h i s p resent study was to examine the performance of Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n s tudents w i th the performance of the n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n samples. It was hypo the s i zed that d i f f e r e n c e s in t e s t s co re s o b t a i n e d from s t a n d a r d i z e d achievement and s choo l a b i l i t y t e s t s e x i s t between the Nor thern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n s tudent p o p u l a t i o n and the n a t i o n a l s choo l p o p u l a t i o n . If the hypo thes i s s t a t e d above was c o n f i r m e d , the i n t e n t of the study was then to be d i r e c t e d towards the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e g i o n a l norms. Reg iona l norms accompanied wi th n a t i o n a l norms would a i d g r e a t l y in the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e s t s cores and a s s i s t in d e c i s i o n s r ega rd ing f u r t h e r d i a g n o s i s , p lacement, and programming w i t h i n the NLSD. The a c q u i s i t i o n of r e g i o n a l norms would h e l p serve the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c purposes : 1) Reg i ona l norms would p r o v i d e f o r compar isons of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group, tha t i s , w i th s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s and background. T h i s has i m p l i c a t i o n s wi th re spec t to how a c h i l d i s d e v e l o p i n g in terms of o ther c h i l d r e n from a s i m i l a r s e t t i n g . 2) Reg iona l norms would be used fo r s c r e e n i n g p o t e n t i a l s p e c i a l needs s t u d e n t s . These s tudent s are i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r extreme p e r c e n t i l e rank s co re s in the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n , or by s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s d e t e c t e d in t h e i r achievement s co re s 1 2 compared to t h e i r h i gher a b i l i t y scores normed on the same sample from the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s procedure of dua l norming achievement and a b i l i t y t e s t s i s e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e as i t ensures that d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the two types of t e s t s are based on comparable s c a l e s r e s u l t i n g from a common sample. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l l e a d to d e c i s i o n s r ega rd ing f u r t h e r d i a g n o s i s and s p e c i a l programming. 3) A long w i th o ther important sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , r e g i o n a l norms would be used to h e l p determine the a p p r o p r i a t e group or c l a s s room environment in which the s tudent would work f o r maximum e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t . Whether or not a homogeneous or heterogeneous g roup ing scheme i s d e s i r e d , the r e g i o n a l norms shou ld a i d in d e c i d i n g upon genera l placement arrangements . Used in c o n j u n c t i o n with n a t i o n a l norm f i g u r e s , these norms shou ld g i ve an i n d i c a t i o n of the l e v e l s the s tudent s are a t , and thus a l l ow fo r r e a l e x p e c t a t i o n s d e s p i t e grade p lacement . 4) Reg iona l norms c o u l d be used to a s ses s t rends or changes in groups of s tudent s on achievement and a b i l i t y t e s t s over months and year s in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r own i n c r e a s e d s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , and r e l a t i v e to the 1982 r e g i o n a l norming group. 13 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study T h i s study was l i m i t e d to s choo l age c h i l d r e n in four grade and age groups a t t e n d i n g s choo l s opera ted by the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n . Consequent l y , the r e g i o n a l norms p r o v i d e d in t h i s study on ly app ly to s tudent s i n these age and grade l e v e l s a t t e n d i n g s choo l s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Nor thern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n . 1 4 Chapter II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed in t h i s chapter i s o r gan i zed i n t o two s e c t i o n s . In the f i r s t , two recent Canadian norming s t u d i e s which gave major impetus fo r the p resent study are examined. In both s t u d i e s the case f o r r e l e v a n t r e g i o n a l ( p r o v i n c i a l ) norms was made which subsequent ly l e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l norm t a b l e s . The second s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s reviews of th ree t e s t s c o n s i d e r e d in the p resent s tudy . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis i s p l a c e d on d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n samples and the psychometr i c p r o p e r t i e s of these t e s t s . Two Canadian Reg iona l Norming S t u d i e s Saskatchewan Norming Study Randhawa (1979a) conducted the 1978 P r o v i n c i a l T e s t i n g Program which l e d to the p r o d u c t i o n of Saskatchewan p r o v i n c i a l norms that " s h o u l d p r o v i d e a mean ing fu l and r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e when a score of a p u p i l or an average of a s choo l i s compared wi th the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Saskatchewan group of p u p i l s or schools " (Randhawa, 1979b, p. 2 ) . A ten percent random sample of c la s s rooms by s choo l j u r i s d i c t i o n in Saskatchewan in each of grades f o u r , seven, and ten was s e l e c t e d fo r t e s t i n g on achievement and a b i l i t y t e s t s . The t e s t s chosen f o r grades four and seven s tudent s were a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of the V o c a b u l a r y , 1 5 Read ing , Language, and Mathematics Subtes t s on the Canadian T e s t s of Bas i c S k i l l s (CTBS), Form 4M; and the O t i s - Lennon Menta l A b i l i t y T e s t , Form J . Grade ten s tudents were a d m i n i s t e r e d Reading, Mechanics of W r i t i n g , E n g l i s h E x p r e s s i o n , Mathematics Computat ion, and Mathematics Bas i c Concepts on the S e q u e n t i a l Te s t s of E d u c a t i o n a l Progress (STEP), S e r i e s II, Form 2A; and the O t i s - Lennon Menta l A b i l i t y T e s t , Form J , Advanced L e v e l . R e s u l t s of s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons between the performance of the Saskatchewan sample and the Canadian or American s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n samples i n d i c a t e d that on almost a l l t e s t s , means or v a r i a n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The Saskatchewan sample showed h i gher mean scores on the achievement and a b i l i t y t e s t s and, g e n e r a l l y , sma l l e r v a r i a n c e . In p r o v i d i n g the r a t i o n a l e f o r the use of Saskatchewan norms, Randhawa (1979b) s t a t e d that t e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o u l d then be based in terms of Saskatchewan's own unique s i t u a t i o n . Norming of I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s in B r i t i s h Columbia Holmes (1981) a s se s sed a l a r g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 1 B r i t i s h Columbia sample on f i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . As p a r t of an equat ing s tudy , Holmes a l s o wished to determine the r e l e v a n c y of e x i s t i n g norms on these t e s t s fo r use 1 Holmes d e l i m i t e d her study to exc lude Na t i ve I nd i an s , c h i l d r e n not f l u e n t in E n g l i s h , the p h y s i c a l l y hand icapped, e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d , and t r a i n a b l e menta l l y hand icapped. 1 6 in B r i t i s h Co lumbia . The t e s t s Holmes a d m i n i s t e r e d and a n a l y z e d were the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Sca le for C h i l d r e n - Rev i sed (WISC-R), the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabu la ry Tes t (PPVT), the S los son I n t e l l i g e n c e Test (S IT ) , the Standard P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s (SPM), and the M i l l House Vocabu la ry S ca l e (MHVS). She compared the B.C. sample, c o n s i s t i n g of c h i l d r e n aged seven and a h a l f , n ine and a h a l f , and e leven and a h a l f , to the p u b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n samples from each of the f i v e t e s t s . In most cases s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i gher t e s t score means and lower v a r i a n c e s fo r the B.C. sample were found on s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s of c e n t r a l tendency and v a r i a b i l i t y . Based on her f i n d i n g s , Holmes c o n s t r u c t e d c u r r e n t and r e l e v a n t B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l norms f o r use in that p r o v i n c e . T e c h n i c a l Data of the T e s t s Used in t h i s Study Two t e s t s of academic achievement and one s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y t e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d in t h i s s tudy. Both achievement t e s t s , the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Tes t s - Canadian E d i t i o n ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1979) and the Mathematics or Mathematics Computat ion sub te s t s of the Canadian Te s t s of Bas i c S k i l l s (K ing , 1981) were normed on a Canadian n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . The O t i s - L e n n o n Schoo l A b i l i t y Tes t (O t i s & Lennon, 1979a) was normed on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e American p o p u l a t i o n . 17 G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s - Canadian E d i t i o n The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Te s t s - Canadian E d i t i o n are based on the American e d i t i o n of the t e s t p u b l i s h e d in 1978. The Canadian e d i t i o n was e m p i r i c a l l y normed on a n a t i o n a l sample of 46,000 s tudents in the f a l l of 1978 on Form 1 of Bas i c R (Readiness) and L e v e l s B through F. L e v e l A, Form 2 was normed in the winter of 1979. Between 3000 and 4500 s tudent s at each l e v e l from k i nde r ga r ten to grade twelve were t e s t e d . The norming group i n c l u d e d on ly s tudent s a t t e n d i n g s choo l s in which most of the i n s t r u c t i o n was g i ven in E n g l i s h . The p r o v i n c e s and t e r r i t o r i e s were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r ep re sen ted on the b a s i s of t h e i r t o t a l s choo l e n r o l l m e n t . In g e n e r a l , each of the above reg ions was s t r a t i f i e d by s i z e of p o p u l a t i o n in urban - . r u r a l a reas and by the type of s choo l board ( p u b l i c or s e p a r a t e ) . S tudents were t e s t e d from schoo l boards which had been randomly s e l e c t e d from the d e f i n e d s t r a t a . Comparisons of the Canadian score d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i th grade e q u i v a l e n t U n i t e d S ta te s score d i s t r i b u t i o n s from the 1977-78 US s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , and the r e s u l t s of equat ing s t u d i e s conducted in c o n j u n c t i o n wi th norming the t e s t s in the U n i t e d S t a te s were used to complete Canadian F a l l , M idyear , and Sp r ing norms on a l l l e v e l s and forms of the t e s t s ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1980). M a c G i n i t i e (1980) r e p o r t e d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s (K-R 20) f o r the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Te s t s to range from .85 to .94. I n d i c a t i o n s were g iven that the t e s t s are power t e s t s ; thus the t e s t s shou ld 18 not demonstrate i n f l a t e d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s due to v a r y i n g response r a t e s of s t u d e n t s . Ev idence f o r t e s t v a l i d i t y i n c l u d e d c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of items based on s p e c i a l s t u d i e s of words found in commonly used read ing s e r i e s and l i s t s of words f r e q u e n t l y used in s choo l r ead ing m a t e r i a l ; the i n c l u s i o n of items to s u i t the knowledge and wide range of i n t e r e s t s in v a r i o u s s u b j e c t matter of c h i l d r e n ; and the use of items of a p p r o p r i a t e d i f f i c u l t y and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The i n i t i a l i tem poo l was examined by a group of Canadian educa to r s fo r item s u i t a b i l i t y , and s e v e r a l i tems f o r the f i n a l t e s t forms were m o d i f i e d or r e j e c t e d based on t h e i r recommendations. Fur thermore , items were sc reened by m i n o r i t y c o n s u l t a n t s fo r o f f e n s i v e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l . A major c o n s i d e r a t i o n in the s e l e c t i o n of t e s t items was that the content shou ld be w i t h i n the exper i ence of most s tudent s of d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l background, r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g s , and d i f f e r e n t sex ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1980). Canadian T e s t s of Bas i c S k i l l s The Canadian Te s t s of Ba s i c S k i l l s (CTBS) a re adapted from the 1978 e d i t i o n of the Iowa Tes t of Ba s i c S k i l l s . A n a t i o n a l sample of approx imate ly 3000 s tudents per grade (K to 12) was used to e m p i r i c a l l y norm Form 5 of the Canadian T e s t s of Bas ic S k i l l s in the f a l l of 1980. Only s tudents a t t e n d i n g schoo l s where E n g l i s h was the major language of i n s t r u c t i o n were i n c l u d e d in the norming sample. G e n e r a l l y , s choo l s were s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to p r o v i n c e and s i z e of s choo l and then 19 randomly sampled and weighted to o b t a i n a f i n a l weighted sample. Raw score e q u i v a l e n c e of Forms 5 and 6 were made in a separa te s tudy, and d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and forms of the t e s t were t i e d together through grade e q u i v a l e n t s or expanded s tandard scores (Note 2) . Based on the 1980 F a l l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , K-R 20 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s fo r the Math Computat ion subtes t ranged from .83 to .88 (Note 2 ) . However, no i n d i c a t i o n was g i ven whether or not speededness may have been a f a c t o r on t h i s s u b t e s t . The case f o r content v a l i d i t y was p re sen ted through mention that the t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d to r e f l e c t c u r r e n t l y a ccep ted c u r r i c u l u m p r a c t i c e s in Canada. The items were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y rev iewed by Canadian educator s and c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s , and the placement and content of the t e s t items r e f l e c t the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by these c o n s u l t a n t s . A l l i tems were a l s o e v a l u a t e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l groups (K ing , 1982). O t i s - Lennon School A b i l i t y Test The O t i s - Lennon School A b i l i t y Tes t was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 130,000 s tudents w i t h i n 70 American s choo l systems in the f a l l , 1977. Schoo l systems were s t r a t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to geographic r e g i o n , p u b l i c s choo l system s i z e , and soc io -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The soc io -economic index was formed from a composi te of median f am i l y income and the percentage of a d u l t s in the f a m i l y w i th h igh s choo l g r a d u a t i o n . The sample was a l s o shown to co r re spond p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to the U n i t e d S t a te s 20 p o p u l a t i o n broken down i n t o four e t h n i c groups. Na t i ve groups were i n c l u d e d in the two percent of the group de s i gna ted ' O t h e r ' (O t i s & Lennon, 1979b). The authors of the O t i s - Lennon Schoo l A b i l i t y Test r e p o r t e d both i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a . A l l K-R 20 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were above .90, wh i le t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y e s t imate s ranged from .84 to .92. T h i s t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d to y i e l d a power measure of s choo l a b i l i t y , m i n i m a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by speed of work (O t i s & Lennon, 1979b). Both p r e d i c t i v e and concur ren t v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s were r e p o r t e d by the au thor s of the O t i s - Lennon Schoo l A b i l i t y T e s t . C o r r e l a t i o n s w i th F a l l t e s t s co re s and e n d - o f - y e a r teacher a s s i gned grades , as w e l l as c o r r e l a t i o n s of t h i s t e s t w i th a measure of achievement r e v e a l e d that the t e s t was measuring behav io r s fo r which i t was de s i gned . Items were examined to meet r i g o r o u s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s wi th re spec t to c o n t e n t , d i f f i c u l t y , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Dur ing t e s t development, the items were s e p a r a t e l y ana l yzed f o r e t h n i c b i a s u s ing a m o d i f i e d c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e ; items showing a low p r o b a b i l i t y of be ing unb iased were e l i m i n a t e d ( B u r r i l l & W i l son , 1980). As w e l l , i tems were rev iewed by an a d v i s o r y pane l of m i n o r i t y educator s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and p o s s i b l e e t h n i c b i a s . A l l items were a l s o rev iewed fo r sex b i a s , and ba lanced sex r e f e r e n c e s were used in the t e s t . Acco rd ing to the a u t h o r s , "Regard le s s of p r i o r exposure and of v a r i a t i o n s in m o t i v a t i o n , O t i s - Lennon scores fo r examinees at any g iven time r e f l e c t the examinees ' s t a t u s wi th 21 re spec t to those a b i l i t i e s tha t make fo r s choo l l e a r n i n g s u c c e s s . It i s a v i r t u e of the O t i s - Lennon t e s t s tha t they c a p t u r e the consequences of env i ronmenta l l i m i t a t i o n s tha t a f f e c t s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y to master schoolwork at the time of t e s t i n g " (Ot i s & Lennon, 1979b, p. 4 ) . The need and va lue of r e g i o n a l norms on s c h o l a s t i c t e s t s expressed in the above two s t u d i e s and e l sewhere l e d to the development and implementat ion of the present norming s tudy . The th ree t e s t s s e l e c t e d met a c c e p t a b l e s tandards of t e s t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , r e l i a b i l i t y , and content v a l i d i t y . 22 Chapter III METHODOLOGY The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study was to c o n s t r u c t r e g i o n a l grade and age norms based on s t a t i s t i c a l and psychometr ic a n a l y s i s of t e s t data c o l l e c t e d from a no r thern Saskatchewan s choo l p o p u l a t i o n . B r i e f l y , t e s t s of achievement and s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y were a d m i n i s t e r e d to four grade and four age groups throughout s choo l s in the Nor thern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n . Completed t e s t data were r e t u r n e d from each schoo l to be checked, coded, scored and a n a l y z e d . F o l l o w i n g data a n a l y s i s , t a b l e s of norms were produced to f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e s t s c o r e s . S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the methods u t i l i z e d in t h i s study i s g i ven under separa te headings below. Sub jec t s The s u b j e c t s were compr i sed of s tudents from nor thern Saskatchewan e n r o l l e d in the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n . Four grades and four age groups were c o n s i d e r e d . The grade l e v e l s were t h r e e , f i v e , seven, and n i n e ; the age groups were 9 year s 0 months to 9 years 5 months, 11 year s 0 months to 11 year s 5 months, 14 year s 0 months to 14 years 5 months, and 16 years 0 months to 16 years 5 months. I n i t i a l l y a p l an was c o n c e i v e d to a d m i n i s t e r t e s t s to a l l s tudents e n r o l l e d in Year 1 in each of D i v i s i o n s I, I I, I I I , and 23 IV. 2 However due to the l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y of the t e s t s , and the l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language or r e q u i r i n g an e x t r a year of academic r e a d i n e s s , grade th ree was conc luded to be a b e t t e r t ime at which to begin norm- r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g . S i m i l a r l y , upon c o n s u l t a t i o n wi th t eache r s and c o n s u l t a n t s in the Schoo l D i v i s i o n rega rd ing the D i v i s i o n II t e s t s , i t was g e n e r a l l y agreed tha t the l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y of the t e s t s was more s u i t e d to grade f i v e s tudents in the D i v i s i o n . Grade n i n e , the l a s t year of D i v i s i o n I I I , was chosen because of the few numbers of s tudents e n r o l l e d in f i r s t year D i v i s i o n IV programs. The four age groups were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of the l i k e l y t y p i c a l age of c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g each of the above s e l e c t e d grades in the Schoo l D i v i s i o n . The va lue of o b t a i n i n g age norms was thought to be important in p r o v i d i n g yet another channe l f o r comparat ive assessment of s tudents in the Schoo l D i v i s i o n . Rather than t e s t i n g a sample s e l e c t e d from the p o p u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t , i t was d e c i d e d that a l l s u b j e c t s in the e i gh t r e s p e c t i v e grade and age groups would be a s se s sed . U t i l i z i n g a random sampl ing techn ique to o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample s u i t a b l e f o r norming from a p o p u l a t i o n which i t s e l f i s sma l l and s c a t t e r e d a c r o s s a l a r ge area would save l i t t l e in terms of cos t and t ime , and would c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems in 2 In Saskatchewan, D i v i s i o n I r e f e r s to grades one, two and t h r e e ; D i v i s i o n II - grades f o u r , f i v e , and s i x ; D i v i s i o n III - grades seven, e i g h t and n i n e ; and D i v i s i o n IV - grades t e n , e leven and twe lve . Year 1 r e f e r s to grades one, f o u r , seven, and ten in each r e s p e c t i v e D i v i s i o n . 24 t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A l s o , t e s t i n g the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n b e n e f i t s the Schoo l D i v i s i o n by p r o v i d i n g i n d i v i d u a l and schoo l performance i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l of i t s s tudents in the de s i gna ted t e s t groups. The September C l a s s L i s t of E n r o l l e d Students sent to the D i v i s i o n c e n t r a l o f f i c e by each s choo l a d m i n i s t r a t o r e a r l y in the s choo l year was used to deve lop the l i s t s of s tudent s to be a s ses sed in the e i gh t grade and age c a t e g o r i e s . In the few i n s t a n c e s where the schoo l en ro l lment l i s t s were de layed in be ing sent to the c e n t r a l o f f i c e , p r o v i s i o n s were made to enable s choo l s t a f f to determine the proper s tudents to a s s e s s . Student names were l a t e r v e r i f i e d by the author once the enro l lment forms were r e c e i v e d from these s c h o o l s . T e s t s A search was made f o r s u i t a b l e survey t e s t s which would a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the p re sen t s t a t u s in schoo l achievement and a b i l i t y of s tudent s a t t e n d i n g s choo l s operated by the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were used to i d e n t i f y and subsequent ly s e l e c t the t e s t s : A. Bas i c C r i t e r i a : 1) The t e s t s must be f r e q u e n t l y used or w e l l known by t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or s choo l s t a f f in Saskatchewan. 2) The t e s t s must be p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound, tha t i s , possess adequate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e l i a b l i t y and 25 v a l i d i t y , and e x h i b i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t i o n a l norms. 3) The t e s t s must c o n t a i n content l a r g e l y a p p r o p r i a t e or r e l e v a n t to the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n . 4) The t e s t s must be s u i t a b l e fo r group a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 5) The t o t a l t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time shou ld not exceed 200 minutes - a maximum of one f u l l d a y ' s t e s t i n g wi th adequate b reaks . 6) The t e s t s shou ld not be o v e r l y complex wi th regards to format and s t y l e ( i . e . long and f i g u r a t i v e read ing passages ; math s k i l l s r e l y i n g l a r g e l y on read ing comprehension or E n g l i s h language s k i l l s ; a b i l i t y t e s t i n g in which the s tudent i s dependent main ly upon be ing ab le to read the d i r e c t i o n s ) . B. Secondary C r i t e r i o n : 1) The t e s t s meeting the ba s i c c r i t e r i a shou ld a l r e a d y possess Canadian norms. The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Te s t s - Canadian E d i t i o n ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1979) matched a l l the c r i t e r i a and was chosen to measure achievement in read ing in a l l grades and at a l l age l e v e l s . The Mathematics Computat ion subtes t of the Canadian Te s t s of Bas i c S k i l l s (CTBS) (K ing , 1981) a l s o met a l l the c r i t e r i a , and was chosen as an a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i c a t o r of mathematics performance f o r grades t h r e e , f i v e , seven, and the 26 th ree younger age groups . The Mathematics subtes t of the CTBS chosen f o r the grade n ines and 16 year o l d s extended the math s k i l l s to i n c l u d e math concept s and problem s o l v i n g as w e l l as computa t ion . The O t i s - Lennon Schoo l A b i l i t y Tes t (OLSAT) (O t i s & Lennon, 1979a), was s e l e c t e d as the measure of s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y or r e a d i n e s s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of academic work. Whi le not conforming to the secondary c r i t e r i o n , none the le s s the OLSAT was chosen as no o ther comparable Canadian normed t e s t of s choo l l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y o f f e r e d the same shor tened time frame r e q u i r e d f o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Upon s e l e c t i o n of these t e s t s , the content of each was c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d f u r t h e r by a s e l e c t e d group of t eacher s and c o n s u l t a n t s w i th p r e v i o u s working exper i ence w i t h i n the Schoo l D i v i s i o n . G e n e r a l l y the t e s t s were w e l l r e c e i v e d by the seven r e v i e w e r s . I t was a r e s u l t of the e v a l u a t o r s ' comments p e r t a i n i n g to the degree of d i f f i c u l t y of some t e s t l e v e l s and t h e i r concerns about the comp lex i t y of vocabu l a ry in some l e v e l s that D i v i s i o n I and II t e s t s , i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d fo r grades two and four s t u d e n t s , were a d m i n i s t e r e d to grade th ree and grade f i v e s tudent s i n s t e a d . The f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of l e v e l s and forms of the achievement t e s t s and the a b i l i t y t e s t i s shown in Tab le 1. A p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l and form of each t e s t was matched wi th the a p p r o p r i a t e grade as w e l l as an age l e v e l b e l i e v e d to be f a i r l y t y p i c a l f o r that grade in the Schoo l D i v i s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , c h i l d r e n in grade th ree and c h i l d r e n aged from 9 year s 0 months to 9 year s 5 27 Table 1 Levels and Forms of the Achievement and Scholastic A b i l i t y Tests Administered to Students in the Four Grade and Four Age Groups in the Northern Lights School Division Grade 3 Grade 5 Grade 7 Grade 9 and and and and TESTS 9 yr Omo 11yr Omo 14yr Omo 16yr Omo to to to to 9 yr 5mo 11yr 5mo 14yr 5mo 16yr 5mo Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Can- Level B Level D Level D Level E adian Edition (1979) Form 1 Form 1 Form 2 Form 2 a. Vocabulary b. Comprehension Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s (1981) a. Math. Computation Level 7 Level 10 Level 13 (levels 7,10,13) Form 5 Form 6 Form 6 b. Mathematics Level 15 (level 15 only) Form 5 Otis-Lennon School P r i . II Elemen. Intermed Advanced A b i l i t y Test (1979) Form R Form R Form R Form R 28 months were a d m i n i s t e r e d the same l e v e l s and forms of each r e s p e c t i v e t e s t . Grade f i v e c h i l d r e n were g iven the same t e s t l e v e l s and forms as c h i l d e n aged 11 year s 0 months to 11 years 5 months; s i m i l a r l y , grade seven s tudent s and s tudent s aged 14 years 0 months to 14 years 5 months were g iven the same t e s t s , as were grade n ine s tudents and s tudent s aged 16 year s 0 months to 16 year s 5 months. T h i s c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n in which some s tudents were schedu led to be t e s t e d twice on d i f f e r e n t t e s t l e v e l s . For example, some c h i l d r e n aged between 9 year s 0 months and 9 year s 5 months were in grade f i v e , thus they were a d m i n i s t e r e d the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t , L e v e l B, du r i n g one t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , and the the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , L e v e l D Form 1, d u r i n g another t e s t i n g s e s s i o n . Of the t e s t l e v e l s chosen to a s ses s s tudent s in the s e l e c t e d grade and age c a t e g o r i e s , four were a d m i n i s t e r e d o u t - o f - l e v e l w i th re spec t to the u sua l or in tended a d m i n i s t r a t i o n range. However, wherever t h i s o c c u r r e d , t e s t l e v e l s d i d c o n t a i n the a p p r o p r i a t e o u t - o f - l e v e l n a t i o n a l norms. F i g u r e 2 shows the commonly in tended ranges and the p e r t i n e n t o u t - o f - l e v e l uses of the t e s t l e v e l s used in t h i s s tudy . It can be seen that the grade th ree s tudents were a d m i n i s t e r e d o u t - o f - l e v e l read ing and math t e s t s . Grade f i v e s tudents were a d m i n i s t e r e d an o u t - o f - l e v e l math t e s t , wh i le grade seven s tudent s were a d m i n i s t e r e d an o u t - o f - l e v e l read ing t e s t . It was expected that s tudent s would have somewhat l e s s d i f f i c u l t y w i th these o u t - o f - l e v e l t e s t s . On the o therhand , more d i f f i c u l t y c o u l d be expected f o r s tudents t ak i ng w i t h i n - l e v e l t e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y those where the s t u d e n t ' s 29 I. Ga te s -MacG in t i e Reading Te s t s - Canadian E d i t i o n Grade: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — I — f - H — I L e v e l B O X O L e v e l D 0 X X X 0 L e v e l E 0 X X X 0 (no n a t i o n a l age norms) II Canadian Tes t of Ba s i c S k i l l s Grade: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L e v e l 7 X 0 L e v e l 10 X 0 L e v e l 13 X L e v e l 15 X (no n a t i o n a l age norms) III O t i s - Lennon School A b i l i t y Tes t Grade: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 Pr imary II X X E lementary X X In termed ia te X X X Advanced X X X X ( n a t i o n a l age norms are a l l w i t h i n - l e v e l w i th re spec t to t e s t l e v e l s used to a s ses s age groups in t h i s s tudy) KEYS: X - i n tended or u sua l assessment range 0 - o u t - o f - l e v e l use F i g u r e 2. W i t h i n - l e v e l and p e r t i n e n t o u t - o f - l e v e l uses of t e s t l e v e l s used in t h i s s tudy . 30 grade occu r red at the beg inn ing of the in tended grade range ( f o r example, grade n ine s tudents t a k i n g the Advanced l e v e l of the OLSAT) . T e s t i n g P r e p a r a t i o n s and I n s t r u c t i o n s Once s tudent l i s t s fo r each s choo l were completed, t e s t book le t s and answer sheets were counted and packaged f o r each schoo l based on the number of s tudent s in each l i s t . Where c l a s s enro l lment l i s t s were de layed in be ing sent out from c e r t a i n s c h o o l s , an e s t imate of the number of s tudents to be a s ses sed in each ca tegory was made based on the p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s e n r o l l m e n t . The co r re spond ing number of t e s t s was then packaged and p repared fo r d e l i v e r y . A l l t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o n s i s t i n g of t eache r s from D i v i s i o n s c h o o l s , a t tended a h a l f day i n s e r v i c e on October 14, 1983. The purpose of t h i s i n s e r v i c e was to h e l p f a m i l i a r i z e the t e s t e r s wi th the t e s t s , the t e s t i n g s chedu le , and the t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . The t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s p r o v i d e d to the t e s t e r s and the answer sheets to be used by the s tudent s were c a r e f u l l y rev iewed. Tes t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were a l s o p r o v i d e d wi th the student l i s t s ( i f a v a i l a b l e ) f o r t h e i r s c h o o l s , the t e s t b o o k l e t s , and the answer shee t s . In the few cases where student l i s t s were not a v a i l a b l e due to c l a s s enro l lment l i s t s not be ing r e c e i v e d p r i o r to the i n s e r v i c e , the t e s t e r s were p r o v i d e d wi th i n fo rmat i on to determine which s tudent s to t e s t . P a r t i c u l a r s conce rn ing the Tes t A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' I n s e r v i c e are a v a i l a b l e in 31 Appendix A. Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n With two e x c e p t i o n s , t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was conducted by s choo l s t a f f between the t h i r d week of October and the end of November, 1983. In order fo r the author to a cqua in t h imse l f d i r e c t l y wi th any c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d in the t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r the purpose of p r e s e n t a t i o n at the i n s e r v i c e , he a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s to s tudent s e n r o l l e d in one of the D i v i s i o n ' s sma l l s choo l s in mid-September, and l a t e r that month, to s tudent s in a l a r g e r s c h o o l . O r i g i n a l l y i t was hoped that t e s t i n g c o u l d be completed in a two week p e r i o d in Oc tober ; however t h i s proved d i f f i c u l t c o n s i d e r i n g each t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s own unique t e a c h i n g schedu le and each s c h o o l ' s p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n . For s i m i l a r reasons , combinat ions and v a r i a t i o n s of the two d a i l y t e s t s chedu les p re sen ted at the I n s e r v i c e (see Appendix A) were accomodated to meet i n d i v i d u a l s choo l needs. The p re sen ted t e s t s chedu les c a l l e d fo r a p a r t i c u l a r order and time of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e i t h e r to be completed in one day, or over a four day p e r i o d . In some cases d i f f e r e n t t imes of the day than those s p e c i f i e d were used; in o ther c a s e s , a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n g in t e s t p r e s e n t a t i o n was u t i l i z e d . Dur ing the f a l l t e s t i n g p e r i o d , the author f r e q u e n t l y cor responded wi th t e s t pe r sonne l from the s choo l s to determine how the t e s t i n g was p r o c e e d i n g , to answer c o n c e r n s , and to 32 attempt to so l ve any problems which a r o s e . The f a l l t e s t i n g a l l owed the s tudents at l e a s t t h ree weeks time to s e t t l e i n t o t h e i r new y e a r ' s work. F a l l assessment had the advantage of making i t p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e s tudent norms e a r l y in the schoo l year fo r a f o rmat i ve e v a l u a t i o n of the s tudents p r o g r e s s . A l l s tudent s except those in grade three and those s tudents aged 9 year s 0 months to 9 year s 5 months t a k i n g D i v i s i o n I t e s t s l e v e l s coded t h e i r t e s t answers on NCS F4521 Answer Sheet s . Grade three s tudents and the 9 year o l d s reco rded t h e i r answers d i r e c t l y in the t e s t b o o k l e t s . Completed t e s t data were re tu rned to the c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t o f f i c e from each s choo l as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r the comp le t i on of t e s t i n g . As the m a t e r i a l s were r e c e i v e d from the s c h o o l s , a l e t t e r of acknowledgement was forwarded back to the s choo l s i n d i c a t i n g that the m a t e r i a l s had been r e c e i v e d . Data P r e p a r a t i o n and P r o c e s s i n g C l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n t s coded the grade three and n ine year o l d answers from the re tu rned t e s t b o o k l e t s onto answer s h e e t s . As w e l l , each answer sheet coded by the o l d e r s tudent s was c a r e f u l l y checked to make sure answer spaces were p r o p e r l y f i l l e d i n , p e n c i l marks were rea sonab ly dark , and s t r a y p e n c i l marks removed. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g name, age, g rade, and t e s t code number was checked f o r a ccu racy w i th the p repared s tudent l i s t s . The remain ing va lue s a s s o c i a t e d w i th the d e s c r i p t i v e v a r i a b l e s of group, s tudent and s choo l 33 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , s i z e of s c h o o l , and a f f i l i a t i o n were then coded on the answer sheets in f i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r machine s c o r i n g . The raw data on the answer sheets were scored and proces sed u s i n g the NCS Scanner and computer f a c i l i t i e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan. E i gh t d i f f e r e n t data se t s co r re spond ing to each grade and age were c r e a t e d and s t o r e d on magnetic tape in e i gh t s e q u e n t i a l f i l e s . Data A n a l y s i s Comparison of the Reg iona l Test R e s u l t s w i th the R e s u l t s from the N a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s The raw t e s t score means f o r each group were compared to the data s u p p l i e d by the t e s t p u b l i s h e r s and authors of the n a t i o n a l norming s t u d i e s . The one sample t - t e s t was used to t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e g i o n a l sample means and the mean or median va lue s of the n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s . The formula that was f o l l o w e d i s g i ven as t = X . - a (G lass & S t a n l e y , 1970, p.293) s / / n where X . i s the r e g i o n a l sample mean found in t h i s s tudy, a i s a v a l ue d e s i g n a t i n g the n a t i o n a l mean or median, s i s the s tandard d e v i a t i o n of the r e g i o n a l sample, and n i s the r e g i o n a l sample s i z e . The one sample t - t e s t a l l ows f o r a p r o b a b a l i s t i c statement r ega rd ing the degree of c o n f i d e n c e which can be made about the e q u a l i t y of a r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n mean (es t imated by X.) compared to a v a l ue (a) d e p i c t i n g a n a t i o n a l mean or median. 34 Only those group t e s t r e s u l t s which d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from n a t i o n a l s tandards were c o n s i d e r e d in the c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e g i o n a l norms. S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was set at the .05 l e v e l fo r a l l compar i sons . Reported n a t i o n a l mean va lue s were used whenever p o s s i b l e f o r comparat ive purposes . However, as n a t i o n a l norms fo r the groups of i n t e r e s t were not e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d f o r s e v e r a l of the t e s t forms or l e v e l s used in t h i s s tudy, n a t i o n a l raw score mean va l ue s were not always a v a i l a b l e . For these t e s t s , the median va lue s ob ta i ned from the p u b l i s h e d norm t a b l e s were s u b s t i t u t e d fo r the u n a v a i l a b l e means. The median was deemed a s u i t a b l e and c l o s e approx imat ion to the mean as i t was assumed that the n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s tended towards n o r m a l i t y . The x 2 s t a t i s t i c was used to compare the e q u a l i t y of the r e g i o n a l sample v a r i a n c e s wi th the c o r r e s p o n d i n g n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e s , whenever the l a t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . The formula used was X 2 = ( n - 1 ) s 2 (G lass & S t an ley ,1970 , p.301) b where s 2 i s the r e g i o n a l sample v a r i a n c e , b i s the n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e , and n i s the r e g i o n a l sample s i z e . As the c o n d i t i o n of n o r m a l i t y i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n be fo re making t h i s comparat ive t e s t , the Kolmorgorov-Smirnov One Sample Tes t was used to determine whether or not the r e g i o n a l t e s t da ta c o u l d reasonab ly have come from a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n (G lass & S t a n l e y , 1970; H u l l & N i e , 1981). The .20 l e v e l of 35 s i g n i f i c a n c e was used in t h i s case to p r o t e c t a ga in s t committ ing a type II e r r o r . The type II e r r o r , f a i l u r e to r e j e c t the h y p o t h e s i s of no rma l i t y when i t i s f a l s e in a c t u a l i t y , was deemed the more s e r i o u s e r r o r in t h i s c a s e . The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e set fo r the x 2 s t a t i s t i c was .05. In a d d i t i o n to making s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons on measures of c e n t r a l tendency and v a r i a b i l i t y , the NLSD t e s t data were compared to the n a t i o n a l t e s t data at s e l e c t e d p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s . The p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s chosen rep re sen ted the n a t i o n a l 10th, 20th, 50th, and 80th p e r c e n t i l e s . Reg iona l p e r c e n t i l e ranks co r re spond ing to the s e l e c t e d n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s were recorded and compared. Per fo rming t h i s k ind of comparison p e r m i t t e d an assessment of the degree of d i f f e r e n c e between NLSD and n a t i o n a l r e s u l t s at d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s a long the t e s t d i s t r ibut i o n s . Item C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the S e l e c t e d Te s t s Item a n a l y s i s p rocedures were used to h e l p determine the u s e f u l n e s s or s u i t a b i l i t y of each t e s t f o r assessment purposes in the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n . The average item d i f f i c u l t y (p) and average i tem d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (D) ( p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n ) of each t e s t were computed, and i n d i v i d u a l t e s t items were i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r low i n d i c e s of i tem d i f f i c u l t y and item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Items wi th i n d i c e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n below .20 were r e c o r d e d ; E b e l (Hopkins & S t a n l e y , 1981) c o n s i d e r e d items with i n d i c e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n below .10 as 36 being poor and s u b j e c t to r e j e c t i o n or r e v i s i o n , wh i le items w i th d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s between .10 and .19 were c o n s i d e r e d m a r g i n a l , u s u a l l y r e q u i r i n g some improvement. Items showing d i f f i c u l t y va lue s at or below the chance v a l u e s , assuming a l l op t i on s are e q u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , were a l s o r e c o r d e d . The chance va lue f o r each t e s t and t h e r e f o r e each item was d e r i v e d by c = 1/A where A i s the number of op t i on s o f f e r e d f o r each t e s t item (Hopkins & S t a n l e y , 1981). C l o s e l y t i e d in w i th each t e s t ' s i tem d i f f i c u l t y and i tem d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s i s i t s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . Because of the p o t e n t i a l va lue these t e s t s ho ld f o r s c r e e n i n g purposes , a K-R 20 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .80 was regarded as minimum be fo re p r e p a r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l norm t a b l e s would be c o n s i d e r e d (Nunna l l y , 1970; S a l v i a & Y s se l dyke , 1981). I n t e r - t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n s Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between p a i r s of a l l p o s s i b l e t e s t combinat ions w i t h i n each group. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p shown between the achievement t e s t s r e s u l t s and the s choo l a b i l i t y t e s t r e s u l t s . 37 P r e p a r a t i o n of Reg iona l Norms Reg i ona l norm t a b l e s were prepared fo r seven of the e i g h t grade and age groups on a l l t e s t s , as the s t a t i s t i c a l and p sychomet r i c c o n d i t i o n s mentioned in the p r e v i o u s sub sec t i on s were met. Norm t a b l e s were not e s t a b l i s h e d fo r the 16 year o l d group as the number of cases t ak i ng each t e s t was too low - below a predetermined c u t - o f f set at 100 s tudent s ( S a l v i a & Y s s e l d y k e , 1981). Separate norm t a b l e s are p r o v i d e d in Appendix B f o r the Vocabu la ry Sub te s t ; Comprehension Sub te s t , and the t o t a l t e s t of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s . A l s o in Appendix B are the r e g i o n a l norm t a b l e s f o r the Mathematics Computat ion Subtes t (Mathematics Subtest f o r grade n ine s tudent s ) of the Canadian Te s t s of Bas ic S k i l l s , and norm t a b l e s f o r the O t i s - Lennon School A b i 1 i t y • T e s t . P e r c e n t i l e ranks , s t a n i n e s and T - s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d by computer to co r re spond wi th the raw scores in the t a b l e s . The midpo int p e r c e n t i l e ranks were c a l c u l a t e d us ing the f o l l o w i n g formula adapted from Ferguson (1976): PR = CP + .5P, where CP i s the cumu la t i ve percentage of cases o c c u r r i n g below the raw score in q u e s t i o n and P i s the percentage of cases o c c u r r i n g at the raw score in q u e s t i o n . Va lues were rounded o f f to the neares t whole number. S t an ines fo r p e r c e n t i l e rank va lues were o b t a i n e d from Ferguson (1976) and a p p l i e d in a scend ing 38 o r d e r , thus g i v i n g the bottom four percent of cases a s t an ine of one. T - s c o r e s rounded to the neares t whole number were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each raw score to t r an s fo rm the t e s t mean to 50 and i t s s tandard d e v i a t i o n to 10. A l l computat ions were completed u t i l i z i n g the computer f a c i l i t i e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan. S e v e r a l SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l S c i ences (Nie et a l l , 1975; H u l l & N i e , 1981)) programs, i n c l u d i n g f r e q u e n c i e s , c r o s s t a b s , breakdown, c o n d e s c r i p t i v e , Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s , and non- paramet r i c t e s t s were used. As w e l l , programs deve loped at the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, such as the i tem a n a l y s i s program were used. Some programs were deve loped e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s s tudy, i n c l u d i n g programs to o b t a i n the norms t a b l e s and the s tudents r e p o r t s . 39 Chapter IV RESULTS T h i s chapter beg ins wi th the p r e s e n t a t i o n of summary i n f o r m a t i o n on the r a t e of response and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each of the groups t e s t e d in t h i s s tudy . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t e s t r e s u l t s by grade. In t h i s s e c t i o n r e s u l t s of item a n a l y s i s and t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s w i t h i n each of the four NLSD grade groups are examined, f o l l o w e d by r e s u l t s of the compar isons between the NLSD and n a t i o n a l grade groups . F i n a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n i s p re sen ted on the t e s t r e s u l t s of the four age groups . . Rate of Response As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned in Chapter I I I, the d e c i s i o n was made to t e s t a l l s u b j e c t s in the Nor thern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n who belonged to the e i g h t s e l e c t e d grade and age groups. However to the extent tha t s tudent absentee i sm and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems in t e s t i n g some s tudents w i t h i n a few s choo l s a r o s e , a c e r t a i n percentage of s tudents from each group c o u l d not be a s s e s s e d . Tab le 2 shows the a c t u a l number and percentage of s tudent s t e s t e d in each grade and age c a t e g o r y . G rea te r d i f f i c u l t y in a s s e s s i n g o l d e r s tudents by age i s i n d i c a t e d by the lower t o t a l percentages of s tudents a s ses sed in the th ree o l d e r age g roups . T a b l e 2 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Number of Students Assessed by Grade and Age i n the No r t h e r n L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n A c c o r d i n g to Gender., A f f i l i a t i o n , and School S i z e Percentage t e s t e d out of t o t a l poss i b1e Gender A f f i 1 i at i on Schoo1 S i ze Group Number Te s t e d Ma 1 es Femal es. Nat i ve: Non-Treaty Nat i ve: T r e a t y Non- Nat i ve Large: > 150 Students Smal1: < 1 10 Students Grade 3 366 (84.9%) 186 180 252 67 47 309 57 Grade 5 324 (92.6%) 17 1 153 220 55 49 276 48 Grade 7 219 (84.6%) 1 13 106 156 30 33 198 21 Grade 9 165 (88.2%) 75 90 101 35 29 146 19 9-0 to 9-5 years of age 158 (87.8%) 73 85 1 15 27 16 138 20 11-0 to 11-5 ye a r s of age 131 (72.8%) 59 72 96 17 18 108 23 14-0 to 14-5 years of age 115 (73.7%) 69 46 81 22 12 96 19 16-0 to 16-5 years of age 57 (69.5%) 32 25 4 1 10 6 52 5 41 Achievement i n f o rma t i on was l a t e r gathered on the absent s tudent s and examined in r e l a t i o n to the r e s u l t s of the t e s t e d s tudent s to a s c e r t a i n the impact of t h i s form of nonresponse. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p re sen ted in Appendix C. As d i s c u s s e d t h e r e , had the absent s tudents been i n v o l v e d in the t e s t i n g , a s l i g h t l ower ing of t e s t means p robab ly would have o c c u r r e d in most groups. Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Obta ined Samples Tab le 2 g i ve s a f u r t h e r breakdown of the number of s tudents t e s t e d in each of the e i g h t grade and age c a t e g o r i e s by gender, a f f i l i a t i o n and schoo l s i z e . As shown in t h i s t a b l e , more males than females were a s ses sed in f i v e of the e i gh t c a t e g o r i e s , and s l i g h t l y more males were a s ses sed o v e r a l l . Most of the s tudents t e s t e d were N a t i v e ; of t he se , the l a r g e m a j o r i t y were Non-Treaty or M e t i s . From 82 to 91 percent of a l l s tudents a s se s sed in each group were r e g i s t e r e d in s choo l s exceed ing 150 e n r o l l e d p u p i l s . GRADE RESULTS Item A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s of item a n a l y s i s showed the l a r ge m a j o r i t y of items on a l l t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d to the s tudents in the four grade groups to be s a t i s f a c t o r y both w i th re spec t to i tem d i f f i c u l t y and item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Tab le 3 p r o v i d e s a summary of the item c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d at the four grade 42 Table 3 Summary Item S t a t i s t i c s of Achievement and Scholastic A b i l i t y Tests Administered to Students in Four Grade Groups in the Northern Lights School Division Test Number of Test I tems Ave. I tern Dif f . Average I tern Discrim. R e l i a b i l i t y Coef f ic ient (K-R 20) Standard Error of Meas. Grade Three (n=361,361,359,351,347) 1 Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, B1 45 .549 .583 .928 2.72 Gates-MacGini t ie Comprehension, Bl 40 . 565 .560 .913 2.55 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, Bl 85 . 558 .552 .957 3.75 CTBS Mathematics Computation, 7-5 26 .850 .349 .844 1 .60 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Pri.II-R 75 .569 .445 .919 3.72 Grade Five (n = 321,316,316 , 316 , 317) 1 Gates-MacGinit ie Vocabulary, D1 45 .369 .451 .891 2.69 Gates-MacGin i t ie Comprehension, D1 43 .383 .416 .845 2.86 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, D1 88 .377 .396 .923 3.97 CTBS Mathematics, 10-6 42 .571 .539 .919 2.48 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Ele-R 70 .468 .447 .918 3.57 43 Table 3 (cont'd) Test Number of Test I tems Ave . I tern Dif f . Average I tern Di scr im. R e l i a b i l i t y Coef f ic ient (K-R 20) Standard Error of Meas. Grade Seven (n=2l6, 215,215,216,206) 1 Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, D2 45 .579 .526 .914 2.69 Gates-MacGinit ie Comprehension, D2 43 . 587 .500 .887 2.81 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, D2 88 .584 .481 .943 3.90 CTBS Mathematics Computation, 13-6 45 .378 .454 .897 2.58 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Int-R 80 .443 .419 .922 3.75 Grade Nine (n=157, 57,155,159,152) 1 Gates-MacGinit ie Vocabulary, E2 45 .487 .520 .904 2.86 Gates-MacGini t ie Comprehension, E2 43 .613 .445 .867 2.71 Gates-MacGinit ie Reading Total, E2 88 .548 .448 .935 3.78 CTBS Mathematics, 15-5 48 .406 .446 .874 3.01 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Adv-R 80 .358 .327 .885 3.78 1 n's are reported for each test in the same order as the tests are presented within each group. 44 l e v e l s . As shown, a l l but one of the t e s t s possess d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s rang ing w i t h i n ±.15 of .50, the l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y which ho lds the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r maximal ly d i s c r i m i n a t i n g respondent s . G rea te r d i f f i c u l t y was shown by grade f i v e s tudents on the read ing t e s t s , and by grade seven and n ine s tudent s on the mathematics and a b i l i t y t e s t s . More d i f f i c u l t y was expected on these t e s t s f o r s tudents from the above grades as the content of the t e s t s was des i gned to be more d i f f i c u l t f o r these s tudents r e l a t i v e .to the content of the t e s t s used to a s ses s o ther s u b j e c t areas or s tudents from other grades ( t h i s i s e x p l a i n e d in Chapter I I I ) . The CTBS Mathematics Computat ion s u b t e s t , l e v e l seven, form f i v e , proved to be an easy t e s t fo r NLSD grade th ree s tudents who scored an average of 85 percent c o r r e c t re sponses . T h i s t e s t was e s s e n t i a l l y des i gned as a grade two t e s t , but which a l s o possessed o u t - o f - l e v e l n a t i o n a l grade three norms. I nd i ce s of item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e f o r a l l t e s t s . As shown in Tab le 3, the average item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s ( p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s ) fo r a l l but th ree t e s t s were above .40. For the remain ing th ree t e s t s , the c o r r e s p o n d i n g va lues were above .34. Tab le 4 c o n t a i n s a l i s t of the few items from each t e s t which r e v e a l e d e i t h e r i tem d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s below the chance l e v e l f o r each t e s t (.25 f o r f o u r - c h o i c e i tem t e s t s ; .20 f o r f i v e - c h o i c e item t e s t s ) or item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s below .20. Of the items l i s t e d , s e v e r a l were easy items with a s s o c i a t e d low i n d i c e s of i tem d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( f o r example, almost a l l items on the grade seven read ing t e s t ) . T a b l e 4 Te s t Items with Item D i f f i c u l t y L e v e l s Below the Chance L e v e l 1 or Item D i s c r i m i n a t i o n I n d i c e s 2 Below .20 on T e s t s of Achievement and S c h o l a s t i c A b i l i t y A d m i n i s t e r e d to Four Grade Groups i n the N o r t h e r n L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n Grade 3 Grade 5 Grade 7 Grade 9 Gates-Mac Reading T o t a l , B1 Gates-Mac Reading T o t a l , D1 Gates-Mac Reading T o t a l , D2 Gates-Mac Reading T o t a l , E2 I tern Number I tern Di f f . I tern D i s c r i m . I tern Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem Di f f . I tem D i s c r i m. 1V. 14C . 39C . 40V. . 955 . 293 . 164 . 203 . 133 . 178 . 278 . 378 25C. 30C . 42V. 13C . 33C . 40C. 30V. 44V. 39V. 37V. 3 1C . 35C. 41V. 29C. 26C. 27C . 1V. 6C . . 161 . 304 .051 . 478 . 136 . 193 . 228 .095 . 142 . 149 .171 . 209 .117 . 165 . 279 . 402 .902 . 247 .051 .063 .089 .089 . 101 . 101 .114 . 127 . 165 . 165 . 152 . 152 . 177 . 177 . 190 . 190 . 190 . 430 1V . 2V . 21C . 44V . 7C . .949 . 954 .651 . 209 .902 .000 . 130 . 130 . 185 . 185 15C. . 748 7C . . 955 19C . . 890 33C . . 303 31C. .923 3V. .897 3C. . 542 9C. . 877 1 3V . . 703 36V. . 181 43V . . 181 • . 154 .07 7 . 077 . 128 . 154 . 154 . 154 . 180 . 180 . 230 . 330 cn CTBS Math Computation, 7-5 CTBS Math Computation, 10-6 CTBS Math Computation, 13-6 CTBS Mathematics, 15-5 1 1 . 13 . 17 . .932 .940 . 946 125 182 182 14 . 13 . 18 . .848 .914 .918 139 177 190 74 . 87 . 89 . 90. 91 . 92 . 93 . 94 . 95 . 96 . 97 . 98 . 99. . 125 . 102 . 102 .093 . 189 . 199 .088 .062 .074 .051 .056 .032 .051 . 204 .315 . 204 .074 .315 . 389 . 148 . 333 .093 .093 . 204 .074 .093 16 . 41 . 15 . 29 . 9 . 1 . 27 . . 239 . 277 . 164 . 170 . 384 . 774 . 151 - .025 . 125 . 175 . 175 . 175 . 150 . 250 T a b l e 4 (cont'd) Grade 3 Grade 5 Grade 7 Grade 9 0-L School A b i l i t y , P r i l l - R 0-L School A b i l i t y , Ele-R 0-L School A b i l i t y , Int-R 0-L School A b i l i t y , Adv-R I tern Number 3 I tem Di f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. 27c . 32c . 1a. 2a . 5a . .141 .219 .931 .948 .870 .115 .218 .092 .092 . 184 G9 . 58 . 68 . 50. G3 . 62. 70. . 170 . 208 . 243 . 170 . 174 . 104 . 148 . 076 . 139 . 152 . 177 . 177 . 24 1 . 268 50. 78 . 80. 1 . 9 . 73 . 76 . 71 . 6 . 72 . . 228 .151 .068 .898 . 733 .063 . 223 .15 1 .913 . 136 .015 .114 .115 .119 . 142 . 173 . 189 . 191 . 197 . 365 42 . 37 . 57 . 61 . 63 . 67 . 70. 7 1 . 72 . 73 . 74 . 75 . 76 . 77 . 78 . 79 . 80. . 286 . 270 .086 . 125 .118 .086 .118 .112 . 105 .065 . 204 .072 . 132 .079 .099 .066 .086 .026 . 132 . 239 .316 . 237 . 237 . 158 .079 .026 . 026 . 105 .080 - .015 .000 - .026 .079 . 105 Note: C d e s i g n a t e s an item from the Comprehension t e s t ; V d e s i g n a t e s an item from the V o c a b u l a r y t e s t . 1 Based on 1/A, where A i s the number of c h o i c e s f o r an item, and assuming a l l c h o i c e s a r e e q u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e . * The p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of the examinees' s c o r e s on an item with the t h e i r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . 3 An item w i t h s u b s c r i p t 'a' has come from Part I of t h i s t e s t ; an item w i t h s u b s c r i p t 'c' has come from P a r t I I I . 47 Only four items a f f e c t e d the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t e s t s a d v e r s e l y through s l i g h t l y nega t i ve va lue s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . These i tems, a l l o c c u r r i n g in t e s t s at the grade n ine l e v e l , were number 15 of the Comprehension t e s t , number 16 of the Mathematics t e s t , and numbers 76 and 78 of the A b i l i t y t e s t . Items 76 and 78 belong to a c l u s t e r of 11 i tems appear ing at the end of the t e s t which showed l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t e s t ' s o v e r a l l u s e f u l n e s s towards d i s c r i m i n a t i n g h i gh from low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s . Subsequent a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d that approx imate l y 50 percent of both l o w - s c o r i n g and h i g h - s c o r i n g s tudent s f a i l e d to respond to these i tems, sugges t ing a speed f a c t o r confound ing the b a s i c power element of t h i s t e s t . A c l u s t e r of 11 items forming the l a s t pa r t of the Mathematics Computat ion t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d to grade seven s tudent s a l s o r e v e a l e d e i t h e r low l e v e l s of i tem d i f f i c u l t y or i tem d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The no response r a te fo r these items ranged from 50 to 75 p e r c e n t . I n d i c a t i o n s are that speed of response may have c o n t r i b u t e d to the t e s t s co re s to some degree a long w i th the a b i l i t y of s tudent s to s o l v e v a r y i n g and i n c r e a s i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t a r i t h m e t i c o p e r a t i o n s . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y K-R 20 r e l i a b i l i t y e s t ima te s fo r the t e s t s ranged from .84 (CTBS Math Computation - grade 3) to .96 (G-Mac Rd. T o t a l - grade 3 ) , as i n d i c a t e d in Tab le 3. The speed f a c t o r noted above not w i t h s t a n d i n g , the r e l i a b i l i t y va lue s are comparable to those r e p o r t e d by e i t h e r the t e s t authors or p u b l i s h e r s . 48 Inter-test Correlations Correlation matrices for test pairs within each grade group are presented in Table 5. High correlations were found between the two reading subtests. As the Vocabulary subtest at the grade three l e v e l is actually a decoding test, t h i s may account for i t s higher correlation with the Comprehension subtest compared to the c o e f f i c i e n t s for other grades. The computation tests showed a f a i r degree of c o r r e l a t i o n with the reading tests inspite of being v i r t u a l l y nonverbal. However, the Mathematics test at the grade nine l e v e l , comprising of math concepts, verbal math problems, and computational problems showed a considerably higher c o r r e l a t i o n with the reading tests. The a b i l i t y tests revealed strong correlations with a l l achievement tests, although lower correlations with reading at the grade three l e v e l and math computation at grades three, f i v e , and seven were noted. The A b i l i t y test at the grade three l e v e l i s completely free from student reading involvement which may have accounted for i t s lower c o r r e l a t i o n with reading. A b i l i t y tests at other grade levels have a large verbal component including a reading element; this may account for the higher c o r r e l a t i o n with the reading tests and the Mathematics test at the grade nine l e v e l . 49 Table 5 Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Among Tests Administered to Students i n the Northern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n Within Four Grade Groups Test Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 a. (10.15) ( 8.65) (18.08) ( 4.05) (13. 07) b. ( 8.15) ( 7.27) (14.29) ( 8.74) (12. 45) c. ( 9.17) ( 8.35) (16.35) ( 8.05) (13. 44) d. ( 9.04) ( 7.51 ) (15.44) ( 8. 36) (10. 75) 1 . G -Mac Vocabulary a. Grade 3 (x=24.70) b. Grade 5 (x=16.62) c. Grade 7 (x=26.06) d. Grade 9 (X=21.90) 2 . G -Mac Comprehension a. Grade 3 (x=22.60) • 8495 b. Grade 5 (x=16.49) • 7177 c. Grade 7 (x=25.25) • 7549 d. Grade 9 (x=26.36) • 7415 3 . G -Mac Reading T o t a l a. Grade 3 (x = 47.41 ) .9676 .9551 b. Grade 5 (x=33.17) . 9352 .9178 c. Grade 7 (x=51.39) .9423 .9310 d. Grade 9 (x=48.23) .9457 .9193 4 . CTBS Mathematics a. Grade 3 (x = 22.11) . 371 9 .3810 .3865 b. Grade v5 (x=23.97) .3247 .3762 .3749 c. Grade 7 (x=17.02) .3942 .3947 .41 46 d. Grade 9 (x=19.47) .6819 .6528 .7177 5 . 0 -L School A b i l i t y a. Grade 3 (x=42.67) .4979 .5966 .5638 .4784 b. Grade 5 (x=32.73) .7113 .6389 .7307 . 4943 c. Grade 7 (x=35.46) .6822 .7380 .7579 .5384 d. Grade 9 (x=28.63) .7283 .6702 .7448 .7825 Note: Means are repo r t e d i n parentheses in rows, standard d e v i a t i o n s are r e p o r t e d i n parentheses i n columns. 50 Comparison of Reg iona l Test R e s u l t s to N a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n In format ion Comparisons of the NLSD t e s t r e s u l t s to n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n were made in two ba s i c ways. F i r s t l y , NLSD t e s t data were compared to n a t i o n a l t e s t data at s e l e c t e d p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s . Second ly , t e s t means and v a r i a n c e s from the NLSD samples were s t a t i s t i c a l l y compared to co r re spond ing measures from the n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s where p o s s i b l e . The r e s u l t s of these comparisons are d i s c u s s e d below. P e r c e n t i l e Rank Comparisons S e l e c t e d p e r c e n t i l e ranks from n a t i o n a l norms were compared to co r re spond ing Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n p e r c e n t i l e ranks r e p r e s e n t i n g the same t e s t s c o r e . T h i s i n f o rma t i on fo r each t e s t at each of the four grade l e v e l s i s p re sen ted in Tab le 6. I t can be seen that g e n e r a l l y a much l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of NLSD s tudents compared to the n a t i o n a l samples scored at or below t e s t s cores r ep re sen ted by the n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e ranks . 1. Read ing. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Tab le 6, approx imate ly 40 percent of NLSD s tudents in grades seven and nine corresponded to a n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e rank of ten on the read ing t e s t s . Th i s percentage i n c r e a s e s by about ten percent f o r grade f i v e s tudents and decreases by about ten percent f o r grade three s t u d e n t s . T h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s tha t approx imate ly 30 to 50 percent of NLSD s tudents s cored at or below a t e s t score in read ing which on ly ten percent of the n a t i o n a l sample scored at 51 Table 6 Percentage 1 of Students by Grade in the Northern Lights School Div i s i o n Scoring at or Below Selected Percentile Ranks from the National Norm Tables on the Administered Tests Selected Percentile Ranks from the National Norm Tables Test 10 20 50 80 Grade Three Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, B1 31 48 74 92 Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, B1 29 45 81 93 Gates-MacGinite Reading Total, B1 32 50 80 93 CTBS Mathematics Computation, 7-5 36 45 71 93 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Pri.II-R 21 36 75 94 Grade Five Gates-MacGinit ie Vocabulary, D1 48 66 86 95 Gates-MacGi ni t ie Comprehension, D1 43 65 87 95 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, DI 48 69 87 96 CTBS Mathematics, 10-6 25 39 71 92 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Ele-R 23 42 81 96 52 Table 6 (cont'd) Selected Percentile Ranks from the National Norm Tables Test 1 0 20 50 80 Grade Seven Gates-MacGini t ie Vocabulary, D2 42 56 82 93 Gates-MacGin i t i e Comprehension, D2 36 60 80 92 Gates-MacGinite Reading Total, D2 40 62 82 92 CTBS Mathematics Computation, 13-6 33 43 72 90 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Int-R 1 3 28 75 91 Grade Nine Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, E2 42 61 80 93 Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, E2 36 58 80 93 Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, E2 44 64 81 92 CTBS Mathematics, 15-5 38 54 84 93 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Adv-R 9 25 69 94 1 The percentages given are equivalent to the NLSD midpoint percentile ranks. 53 or below. As the n a t i o n a l t en th p e r c e n t i l e i s i n d i c a t i v e of very low read ing achievement f o r these g rades , a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of NLSD s tudents showed very low read ing per formance. At the n a t i o n a l 20th p e r c e n t i l e , NLSD percentages of s tudent s i n c r e a s e d to n e a r l y 60 percent fo r grades seven and n i n e . Again grade f i v e percentages are h i g h e r , wh i le grade three percentages are lower than grade seven and n ine v a l u e s . Approx imate ly 50 to 70 percent of NLSD s tudents showed low read ing s cores i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r cor respondence with the n a t i o n a l 20th p e r c e n t i l e . R e s u l t s from Tab le 6 f u r t h e r r e v e a l that on ly between 13 and 26 percent of NLSD s tudents scored above the n a t i o n a l 50th p e r c e n t i l e or median (approx imat ing the n a t i o n a l average) in r e a d i n g . And a g a i n , on ly f i v e to e i g h t percent of the NLSD s tudent s t e s t e d scored above the n a t i o n a l 80th p e r c e n t i l e , i n d i c a t i v e of h i gh ach ievement . Taken t o g e t h e r , these r e s u l t s show c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the NLSD groups and the n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s , wi th the NLSD r e s u l t s d i s p l a c e d towards lower achievement in r e a d i n g . 2. Mathemat ics . The r e s u l t s of the mathematics t e s t s at the grade n ine l e v e l , and to a l e s s e r extent at the grade three l e v e l , r e v e a l e d percentages s i m i l a r to those found f o r read ing at the s e l e c t e d n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e s . The mathematics computat ion t e s t s at the grade f i v e and seven l e v e l s however, showed sma l l e r p r o p o r t i o n s of NLSD s tudents s c o r i n g at or below the s e l e c t e d n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e s compared to the percentages 54 i n d i c a t e d on the read ing t e s t s . Nonethe le s s , compared to the n a t i o n a l v a l u e s , the NLSD r e s u l t s f o r these two grade l e v e l s c o n t i n u e d to r e v e a l c o n s i s t e n t l y h i gher p r o p o r t i o n s of s tudent s at the s e l e c t e d n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e s , i n d i c a t i n g lower performance in mathemat ics . 3. Schoo l A b i l i t y . On the a b i l i t y t e s t s , the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n s tudents t e s t e d g e n e r a l l y showed l e s s of a d i s c r e p a n c y w i th t h e i r n a t i o n a l (American) c o u n t e r p a r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y at the grade seven and n ine l e v e l s , than was the case fo r the achievement measures. Approx imate ly the same p r o p o r t i o n of s tudents in the grade seven and n ine NLSD groups and n a t i o n a l groups showed very low schoo l a b i l i t y s cores at or below the n a t i o n a l t en th p e r c e n t i l e . A l a r g e r percentage of NLSD s tudents at the grade three and f i v e l e v e l s was i n d i c a t e d at the t en th p e r c e n t i l e . Somewhat l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s of NLSD s tudents than n a t i o n a l s tudents were i n d i c a t e d at the n a t i o n a l 20th p e r c e n t i l e ; wh i le approx imate l y 70 to 80 pe rcen t of NLSD s tudent s s cored below the n a t i o n a l median. Only four to n ine percent of NLSD s tudents i n d i c a t e d h i gh schoo l a b i l i t y s c o r e s , over the n a t i o n a l 80th p e r c e n t i l e . S t a t i s t i c a l Comparisons on Measures of C e n t r a l Tendency and V a r i a b i l i t y NLSD and n a t i o n a l t e s t means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s , degrees of freedom, and va lue s f o r t , Kolmorgorov-Smirnov Z, and c h i - s q u a r e are r e p o r t e d in Tab le 7. Reg iona l means were compared to n a t i o n a l means whenever p o s s i b l e . N a t i o n a l median scores were 55 Table 7 Results of the One Sample t-Tests, Kolmorgorov-Smirnov One Sample Tests, and the x 2 Tests for Students Assessed by Grade in the Northern Lights School D i v i s i o n Means Stan. Dev. Test NLSD Nat. 1 NLSD Nat. 2 df KSz 3 X2 Grade Three Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, B1 24.70 (33) 10.15 - 360 15.5 1 .34* - Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, B1 22.60 (31 ) 8.65 - 360 18.5 1.13* - Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, B1 47.41 (64.5) 18.08 - 358 17.9 1.12* - CTBS Mathematics Computation, 7-5 22.11 (24.7) 4.05 - 350 12.0 3.52* - Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Pri.II-R 42.67 50.68 1 3.07 13.57 346 11.4 .99 32 1.0 Grade Five Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, D1 16. 62 26.41" 8. 1 5 8.38" 320 21 .5 2 .22* - Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, D1 16. 49 25.11" 7. 27 8.08" 315 21 . 1 2 .05* - Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, D1 33. 1 7 51.56" 14. 29 15.6" 315 22 .9 2 .40* - CTBS Mathematics Computation, 10-6 23. 97 (30) 8. 74 - 315 1 2 .3 1 . 18* - Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Ele-R 32. 73 43. 16 12. 45 14.67 316 1 4 .9 1 .03 227** 56 Table 7 (cont'd) Means . Stan. Dev. Test NLSD Nat. 1 NLSD Nat. 2 df t * * KSz 3 X 2 Grade Seven Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, D2 26. 06 (35) 9. 17 215 14. 3 .76 - Gates-MacGin i t i e Comprehension, D2 25. 25 (33) 8. 35 214 13. 6 .70 - Gates-MacGin i t ie Reading Total, D2 51 . 39 (68.5) 16. 35 - 214 15. 3 .68 - CTBS Mathematics Computation, 13-6 17. 02 22.685 8. 05 8. 30 5 215 10. 3 1 .01 202.2 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Int-R 35. 46 42.77 13. 44 15 .94 205 7. 8 1 . 1 5* - Grade Nine Gates-MacGin i t i e Vocabulary, E2 21 . 90 (31 ) 9. 04 - 1 56 12. 6 1 . 27* - Gates-MacGin i t ie Comprehension, E2 26. 36 (33) 7. 51 - 1 56 1 1 . 1 1 .02 - Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, E2 48. 23 (63.5) 15. 44 - 1 54 12. 3 1 .08* - CTBS Mathematics, 15-5 19. 47 26.346 8. 36 8. 1 1 6 1 58 10. 4 .98 1 68.0 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Adv-R 28 . 63 34.26 10. 75 1 4 .00 151 6. 5 1 . 18* - 1 Median values are given in parentheses where means were unavailable. Median scores were obtained from norm tables in the test manuals, and from out-of-level norm tables for the G-Mac B1 and D2 supplied by Cameron (Note 3). 2 Standard deviations from the national standardizations are given where av a i l a b l e . 3 Kolmorgorov-Smirnov Z (Hull & Nie, 1981)). 4 Values supplied by MacGinitie (Note 4). 5 Values were supplied by Hieronymus (Note 2) based on national equating studies. 6 Values supplied by Hieronymus (Note 5). * p<.20 ** p<.00l 57 used fo r comparison wherever n a t i o n a l raw score means were u n a v a i l a b l e . R e s u l t s of one sample t - t e s t s r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the NLSD t e s t means and co r re spond ing n a t i o n a l mean or median va lue s on a l l t e s t s at a l l grade l e v e l s . In a l l i n s t a n c e s , NLSD means were lower than comparat ive n a t i o n a l v a l u e s . Reg iona l v a r i a n c e s were compared to n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e s where the l a t t e r were a v a i l a b l e ; no s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons of v a r i a n c e were made in the remain ing i n s t a n c e s . N a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e s f o r the read ing t e s t s at the grade f i v e l e v e l , the mathematics t e s t s at the grade seven and n ine l e v e l s , and a b i l i t y t e s t s at a l l grade l e v e l s were a v a i l a b l e fo r compar i son. P r i o r to de te rm in ing whether or not the observed v a r i a n c e s were comparable to the co r re spond ing v a l u e s , t e s t s f o r n o r m a l i t y were performed on a l l t e s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s . As shown in Tab le 7, the observed d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the grade f i v e read ing t e s t s and the a b i l i t y t e s t s at the grade seven and n ine l e v e l s f e l l below the .20 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l (based on the Kolomorgorov-Smirnov Z) set as the c r i t i c a l va lue fo r making necessary assumptions of n o r m a l i t y (see Chapter I I I ) . Consequent l y , on ly the v a r i a n c e s of the mathematics t e s t s at grades seven and n ine and the a b i l i t y t e s t at grades th ree and f i v e were compared to n a t i o n a l v a l u e s . The r e s u l t s of the x 2 t e s t s r e v e a l e d on ly one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e s . For the a b i l i t y t e s t a t the grade f i v e l e v e l , the NLSD v a r i a n c e was 58 lower than the n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e . Based on the above f i n d i n g s and r e s u l t s from p r e v i o u s s u b s e c t i o n s , r e g i o n a l norm t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r a l l four grades on a l l t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d . These t a b l e s are s u p p l i e d in Appendix B. AGE RESULTS Tabu la r i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the t e s t r e s u l t s of the four age groups can be found in Appendix D. It shou ld be noted that n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n by age was a v a i l a b l e on ly fo r the O t i s - Lennon Schoo l A b i l i t y T e s t . S i nce raw score means and s tandard d e v i a t i o n s were not s u p p l i e d f o r the s p e c i f i c age ranges t e s t e d , NLSD means were compared to the median va lue s fo r these age groups found in the norm t a b l e s . Comparisons of v a r i a n c e s were not conduc ted . R e s u l t s of one sample t - t e s t s (see Appendix D) show the NLSD means to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than va lue s co r re spond ing to n a t i o n a l medians. G iven the o v e r l a p between grade and age samples, i t i s not unexpected that the r e s u l t s of i tem a n a l y s i s and of the r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l compar isons were comparable. Norm t a b l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r three of the four age groups on achievement and a b i l i t y t e s t s . T a b l e s were not c o n s t r u c t e d fo r the 16 year o l d age group as the number of s tudents in that group was c o n s i d e r e d too sma l l to p r o v i d e u s e f u l p e r c e n t i l e i n f o r m a t i o n . Norm t a b l e s by age have been p l a c e d together wi th the norm t a b l e s by grade i n Appendix B. 59 Chapter V SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION T h i s f i n a l chapter beg ins w i th a summary of the purpose, p rocedure s , and r e s u l t s of the s tudy . T o p i c s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t and concern are d i s c u s s e d , and f i n a l l y , a view towards f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s g i v e n . Summary T h i s study was i n t roduced w i th a b r i e f account of the fundamental importance of r e f e r e n c e groups a s s o c i a t e d wi th norm- r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s . The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l norms were examined, and th ree i s sue s conce rn ing norms were addre s sed : s i z e of sample, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s , and r e l e v a n c y . Of p a r t i c u l a r concern was that e x i s t i n g n a t i o n a l norms on t e s t s of achievement and s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y by themselves o f t e n l a cked the necessary i n t e r p r e t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d to make e f f e c t i v e programming d e c i s i o n s f o r s tudents e n r o l l e d in the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d that because NLSD s tudent s are a t y p i c a l w i th re spec t to n a t i o n a l norming groups on e s s e n t i a l s choo l s u c c e s s - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , these d i f f e r e n c e s would become apparent on measures of c e n t r a l tendency and v a r i a b i l i t y of s tudent t e s t score d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The purpose of the present s tudy, then , was to c o n s t r u c t r e g i o n a l norms on s u i t a b l e t e s t s of achievement and s choo l a b i l i t y wherever s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the n a t i o n a l norms and NLSD group t e s t s c o r e s , thus g r e a t l y 60 f a c i l i t a t i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s tudent t e s t s c o r e s . The s u b j e c t s were s tudent s e n r o l l e d in the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n in grades t h r e e , f i v e , seven, and n i n e ; and s tudent s aged 9 year s 0 months to 9 years 5 months, 11 year s 0 months to 11 year s 5 months, 14 years 0 months to 14 year s 5 months, and 16 years 0 months to 16 years 5 months. E f f o r t s were made to a s ses s a l l s tudent s in each of the e i g h t r e s p e c t i v e grade and age groups . In a c t u a l i t y , from 69.5 percen t of the 16 year o l d s to 92.5 percent of grade f i v e s were t e s t e d . Among the c r i t e r i a used to i d e n t i f y and s e l e c t s u i t a b l e t e s t s were that the t e s t s possess adequate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , and e x h i b i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t i o n a l norms. The t e s t s f i n a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r the study were a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s and forms of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Te s t s Canadian E d i t i o n , the Mathematics or Mathematics Computation subtes t of the Canadian Te s t s of Bas i c S k i l l s , and the O t i s - Lennon Schoo l A b i l i t y T e s t . The t e s t i n g p e r i o d o c c u r r e d in the f a l l of 1982. The raw t e s t score means fo r each group in t h i s study were compared to the data s u p p l i e d by the t e s t p u b l i s h e r s and au thor s of the n a t i o n a l norming s t u d i e s . The one sample t - t e s t was used to t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e g i o n a l sample means in t h i s s tudy and the mean or median va lues of the n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s . The median va l ue s from the n a t i o n a l norm t a b l e s were used f o r comparat ive purposes whenever n a t i o n a l means were u n a v a i l a b l e . S i m i l a r l y , the c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c was 61 used to compare the e q u a l i t y of the r e g i o n a l sample v a r i a n c e s wi th the co r re spond ing n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e s whenever the l a t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n was r e p o r t e d . As the c o n d i t i o n of n o r m a l i t y i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n when making t h i s comparat ive t e s t , the Kolmorgorov-Smirnov One Sample Test was used to determine whether or not the r e g i o n a l t e s t data c o u l d reasonab ly have come from a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The r e g i o n a l data were ana l yzed f u r t h e r by de te rm in ing the percentage of s tudents in each group s c o r i n g at or below s e l e c t e d n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e ranks on each t e s t . T h i s k ind of a n a l y s i s a l l owed fo r more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n as to the ex tent of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l groups. Fur thermore , item a n a l y s i s p rocedures were used to h e l p determine the u s e f u l n e s s or s u i t a b i l i t y of each t e s t fo r f u t u r e assessment purposes in the Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n , and thus the va lue of c o n s t r u c t i n g r e g i o n a l norms on these t e s t s . F i n a l l y , Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s between p a i r s of a l l p o s s i b l e t e s t combinat ions w i t h i n each group were c a l c u l a t e d . R e s u l t s of the one sample t - t e s t r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the NLSD t e s t means and co r re spond ing n a t i o n a l mean or median va lue s at a l l grade l e v e l s . A l s o , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on the O t i s - L e n n o n School A b i l i t y Tes t at a l l age l e v e l s (no n a t i o n a l t e s t data were s u p p l i e d by age f o r the two achievement t e s t s ) . In a l l i n s t a n c e s , NLSD means were lower than the comparat ive n a t i o n a l 62 v a l u e s . Only the v a r i a n c e s of the mathematics t e s t s at the grade seven and n ine l e v e l s and the a b i l i t y t e s t s at the grade th ree and f i v e l e v e l s were compared. The r e s u l t s of the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s showed on ly one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between NLSD and n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e s . T h i s o c c u r r e d on the a b i l i t y t e s t at the grade f i v e l e v e l , where the NLSD v a r i a n c e was s m a l l e r . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g : 1) Only from 13 percent (Reading Comprehension and Reading T o t a l - grade f i v e ) to 26 percent (Reading Vocabu la ry - grade th ree ) of the NLSD s tudents scored above the n a t i o n a l median on the read ing t e s t s . 2) G e n e r a l l y , the NLSD s tudent s performed b e t t e r on the mathematics computat ion t e s t s compared to r e a d i n g ; however, on ly 28 to 29 percen t of the NLSD s tudents scored above the n a t i o n a l median in grades t h r e e , f i v e , and seven. 3) On the grade n ine mathematics t e s t i n v o l v i n g math problem s o l v i n g , math c o n c e p t s , and computa t ion , on ly 16 percen t of NLSD s tudent s s cored above the n a t i o n a l median; t h i s r e s u l t i s ve ry s i m i l a r to how the grade n ines performed on the read ing t e s t s . 4) NLSD s choo l a b i l i t y l e v e l s , wh i le lower than the n a t i o n a l (American) s t anda rd s , were g e n e r a l l y h i gher than expected when r e l a t e d to the s t u d e n t s ' r ead ing s co re s (compared to Canadian norms). 5) Nea r l y o n e - t h i r d or g r e a t e r of NLSD s tudent s scored at or below the n a t i o n a l t e n t h p e r c e n t i l e on achievement 63 scores, while approximately one-half or greater scored at or below the national 20th p e r c e n t i l e . 6) From four percent (Reading Total - grade five) to ten percent (Math Computation - grade seven) of NLSD students scored in the top 20 percent nationally. 7) With respect to the test results of the four age groups, s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores on the school a b i l i t y tests . by a l l four groups compared to national (American) norms indicate that achievement scores for these groups are also much below what would be expected nationally for these age groups. Based on the above findings and on an analysis of the psychometric properties of the tests with the NLSD groups, regional norm tables were constructed for seven of the eight grade and age groups on the achievement and a b i l i t y t e s t s . Tables with derived scores were not constructed for the 16 year old age group as the number of students in that group was considered too small to provide useful percentile information. Limitations of the Study This study was influenced by several l i m i t i n g factors which affected both the methodology and the results to some degree. These factors included student absenteeism, small group sizes, absence of desired national data, and test score d i s t r i b u t i o n s which deviated from the normal. Issues pertaining to these l i m i t i n g factors are discussed below. 64 A p p l i c a b i l i t y of NLSD Norms T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s two l i m i t a t i o n s of the study which r e s u l t e d in some concern rega rd ing the i n t e r p r e t i v e use or a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the ob ta i ned Nor thern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n norms. These l i m i t a t i o n s , m i s s i n g cases and sma l l group p o p u l a t i o n s i z e s , are d i s c u s s e d below in terms of t h e i r a f f e c t on the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and s t a b i l i t y of the newly c o n s t r u c t e d norms. 1 . NLSD R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s . I t was p lanned that a l l NLSD s tudents from each of the e i g h t grade and age groups would be a s se s sed . However, main ly due to s tudent absentee i sm, not every student was a s se s sed . S tudents u n a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g in each of the groups ranged from approx imate l y ten pe rcen t for the grade f i v e , seven, and the n ine year o l d s groups to approx imate ly 30 percent f o r the th ree o l d e r age groups . Whether or not t h i s r e s u l t e d in s y s temat i c b i a s in the group norms ( for example, by r a i s i n g the o b t a i n e d NLSD norms due to a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of low a c h i e v e r s be ing absent from t e s t i n g ) was i n v e s t i g a t e d in a nonresponse b i a s study p re sen ted in Appendix C. It was conc luded from the substudy that i t was p o s s i b l e some degree of nonresponse b i a s may have o c c u r r e d in some of the groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the grade t h r e e and seven groups, and the three younger age groups. Had absent s tudents from these groups been a s s e s s e d , p robab ly some l ower ing of the ob ta ined norms would have r e s u l t e d . Because the ev idence i n d i c a t e d tha t the downward swing in the p re sen t norms c o u l d be 65 expected to be s l i g h t , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i s c o n f i d e n t that the e x i s t i n g norms, b a r r i n g minor sampl ing e r r o r , are fo r a l l i n t e n t s and purposes r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the NLSD p o p u l a t i o n s s t u d i e d . Nonethe le s s , i t must be c au t i oned that the norms deve loped in the p resent study are l i m i t e d to NLSD s tudents in the de s i gna ted grade and age groups, and prudence i s adv i sed when a s s e s s i n g s tudents of very l i m i t e d a t tendance w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n . 2. NLSD P o p u l a t i o n S t a b i l i t y . Of concern here i s how a p p l i c a b l e the 1982 NLSD norms c o n s t r u c t e d in t h i s study w i l l be fo r use in subsequent y e a r s . As the p o p u l a t i o n of s tudents in each group was a r e l a t i v e l y sma l l number fo r norming, rang ing from 82 (16 year o l d s ) to 431 (grade t h r e e s ) , the matter of norm s t a b i l i t y takes on s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Every y e a r , the number and types of s tudent s e n t e r i n g each grade or age ca tegory in the NLSD can be expected to vary somewhat. P a r t i c u l a r l y as i n n o v a t i o n s occur in Schoo l D i v i s i o n p o l i c i e s , c u r r i c u l a , and i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and t e c h n i q u e s , as w e l l as changes in the a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s of t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , s t uden t s , and community members, s tudent p rog res s can be expected to s h i f t . Where s i z e of p o p u l a t i o n i s sma l l to begin w i t h , any s l i g h t change in p o p u l a t i o n compos i t i on i s more l i k e l y to have an a f f e c t on the e x i s t i n g norms. As the Northern L i g h t s Schoo l D i v i s i o n and the communit ies i t se rves are perhaps more i n v o l v e d in a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n or f l u x compared to most a reas of the c o u n t r y , change in academic s t a t u s might t h e r e f o r e be more l i k e l y to o c c u r . In l i g h t of t h i s , s tudent p rog re s s in the 66 D i v i s i o n shou ld be moni tored and e v a l u a t e d on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s f o r any p o s s i b l e changes in the e x i s t i n g norms. I t i s recommended that the 1982 norms be f r e q u e n t l y e v a l u a t e d , and i f n e c e s s a r y , the t e s t s renormed w i t h i n a f i v e year p e r i o d . A v a i l a b i l i t y of N a t i o n a l Raw Score Data An i n t e n t i o n of the p resent study was to t r e a t e m p i r i c a l data by comparing raw score means and v a r i a n c e s of the NLSD and n a t i o n a l samples. However, i t was subsequent ly d i s c o v e r e d that much of the data produced f o r the n a t i o n a l groups were t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e r i v e d through equa t ing s t u d i e s and f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e d i r e c t compar isons of raw score means and v a r i a n c e s were not always p o s s i b l e . In such c a s e s , the one sample t - t e s t was used to compare the NLSD group mean to a va lue r e p r e s e n t i n g the median of the co r re spond ing n a t i o n a l group. The assumption was made that the n a t i o n a l sample d i s t r i b u t i o n s were approx imate ly normal , t h e r e f o r e t h e i r mean and median va lues c o u l d be expected to be very s i m i l a r . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i ven to u s ing an e s t imate of the s tandard e r r o r of the median fo r each group t e s t and c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s around these v a l u e s , thus d i r e c t l y comparing the NLSD medians to the n a t i o n a l medians. But as n o r m a l i t y of the parent p o p u l a t i o n f o r each NLSD group i s an important assumption when us ing t h i s s t a t i s t i c (Ferguson, 1976), t h i s approach was not t r i e d . On the o therhand, f i n d i n g e s t ima te s of the s t andard e r r o r s of the mean and u t i l i z i n g a one sample t - 67 t e s t r e q u i r e s no such assumption of n o r m a l i t y . Acco rd ing to the c e n t r a l l i m i t theorum, " the sampl ing d i s t r i b u t i o n of means gets c l o s e r and c l o s e r to the normal form as sample s i z e i n c r e a s e s d e s p i t e depar tu re s from n o r m a l i t y in the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n s . . . e x c e p t perhaps in the case of g ros s depa r tu re s in the p o p u l a t i o n from n o r m a l i t y " (Ferguson, 1976, p .141) . In the case of comparing v a r i a n c e s , n a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e data in raw score form were a v a i l a b l e fo r on ly n ine out of a t o t a l of 20 t e s t s used to a s ses s s tudent s in the v a r i o u s groups. Fur thermore , c h i - s q u a r e ana l y se s were performed on on ly four of the n ine t e s t s , as the important assumption of no rma l i t y was v i o l a t e d on the remain ing f i v e t e s t s based on a c o n s e r v a t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . With the p r e v a l e n t use of t h e o r e t i c a l methods used to norm t e s t s in n a t i o n a l t e s t i n g programs, the r e s e a r c h e r would be wise to c o n s i d e r t r an s f o rm ing h i s expe r imen ta l raw score data to the s tandard s co re s used in the l a r g e n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . . T h i s would a l l ow fo r d i r e c t comparisons of such parameters as means and v a r i a n c e s u s i ng more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s such as the two sample t - t e s t fo r means and the F - t e s t fo r v a r i a n c e s ( K i r k , 1968; .Glass & S t a n l e y , 1970). In cases where w i t h i n - g r o u p c e l l data a re complete in comparing two p o p u l a t i o n s on m u l t i p l e t e s t s c o r e s , the two-sample m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c u t i l i z i n g H o t e l l i n g ' s T 2 would be most a p p r o p r i a t e (Tatsuoka, 1971). 68 Non-Normal i ty of Test Score D i s t r i b u t i o n s Approx imate ly o n e - h a l f of the t e s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s in t h i s study showed marked d e v i a t i o n s from n o r m a l i t y (see Tab le 7, Chapter IV f o r the t e s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s which d e v i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from no rma l i t y in each of the grade g roups ) . Most of these non-normal t e s t score d i s t r i b u t i o n s were e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y skewed or p l a t y k u r t i c . The p o s i t i v e skewness was no doubt an a r t i f a c t of the f a i r l y h i gh degree of d i f f i c u l t y posed by the t e s t s f o r the p o p u l a t i o n be ing measured, r a the r than an i n d i c a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t r a i t i t s e l f . Where p o s i t i v e skewness was pronounced, f u t u r e norming of somewhat e a s i e r t e s t s shou ld reduce skewness, as w e l l as r a i s e the t e s t d i f f i c u l t y index and the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t in the t e s t s by a l l o w i n g f o r more s u c c e s s f u l outcomes. The p l a t y k u r t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n s of some of the t e s t s cores were p o s s i b l y produced by t e s t items g e n e r a l l y be ing of moderate d i f f i c u l t y . Whi le non- normal , t h i s k ind of d i s t r i b u t i o n can i n d i c a t e t e s t s of good d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power ( A l l e n & Yen, 1979). Two t e s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s of some concern were those of the grade th ree and n ine year o l d s on the CTBS Math Computat ion, L e v e l 7, Form 5. In both c a s e s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n s were g r e a t l y n e g a t i v e l y skewed and h i g h l y l e p t o k u r t i c . The gross depar tu re from n o r m a l i t y p l a c e d some q u e s t i o n on the va lue of the t - t e s t s t a t i s t i c , used to compare the NLSD mean to the n a t i o n a l median at the grade t h r e e l e v e l . However, wh i le the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t may be in q u e s t i o n , Tab le 6 in Chapter IV r e v e a l e d how d i f f e r e n t 69 the NLSD and n a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s were w i th re spec t to four major co r re spond ing p e r c e n t i l e v a l u e s ; thus the need f o r r e g i o n a l norm t a b l e s becomes apparent . A l though t h i s t e s t produced a c e i l i n g e f f e c t wi th the two groups i t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o , i t does o f f e r good d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the low- a c h i e v e r s in each group. In order to spread the t e s t s core d i s t r i b u t i o n s of these groups to a form approx imat ing the normal , the CTBS Math Computat ion, L e v e l 8, shou ld be c o n s i d e r e d fo r norming at a f u t u r e d a t e . Tes t B ia s An i s sue which commonly a r i s e s when t e s t s are a d m i n i s t e r e d to a p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g main ly of members from a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e i s that the t e s t s may demonstrate b i a s a ga in s t the m i n o r i t y group. Arguments are made that the content of the t e s t items i s l a r g e l y o u t s i d e the range of the examinees e x p e r i e n c e s , the vocabu la ry of the t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s i s too d i f f i c u l t , or the examinees have not had an equa l o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n the a p p r o p r i a t e sub jec t mat te r . T h i s p l a c e s these s tudents at a d i sadvantage with re spec t to how w e l l they w i l l per form on c e r t a i n t e s t s . T h e r e f o r e measures such as those of achievement and a b i l i t y are l i k e l y to be underes t imated . Hopkins and S tan ley (1981) have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s i s sue and s t r e s s content v a l i d i t y or content r e l e v a n c e as the c r i t i c a l element in de te rm in ing the f a i r n e s s of achievement t e s t s . " I d e a l l y , the items on an achievement t e s t shou ld be a 70 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the content and proces s o b j e c t i v e s of the c u r r i c u l u m " (Hopkins & S t a n l e y , 1981, p. 387). Fur thermore , they have a s s e r t e d that "an achievement t e s t i s b i a s e d i f a g i ven c u l t u r a l or s o c i a l group would be expected to per form d i f f e r e n t l y on t h i s set of items than on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e set of i tems " (Hopkins & S t a n l e y , 1981, p. 414). Chapter II rev iewed the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s taken by the t e s t d e v e l o p e r s of the t e s t s used in the present study to a s sure that t e s t content was r e l e v a n t and a p p r o p r i a t e to both schoo l c u r r i c u l u m s and to m i n o r i t y groups . In every case content v a l i d a t i o n was conc luded to be f a v o u r a b l e . Fur thermore, q u a l i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from w i t h i n the Northern L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n were a c q u i r e d to review the t e s t s ' content f o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l . These rev iews proved to be g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e , and as a r e s u l t the t e s t s were used in the s tudy . When c o n s i d e r i n g s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e t e s t s , Hopkins and S t an ley (1981) have emphasized c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y as be ing of most impor tance. "In c o n s t r u c t v a l i d a t i o n . . . m a n y c r i t e r i a are r e q u i r e d to c o n f i r m what the t e s t does and does not measure" (Hopkins & S t a n l e y , 1981, p. 105). The deve l ope r s of the O t i s - Lennon School A b i l i t y Tes t (OLSAT) p re sen ted p r e d i c t i v e , c o n c u r r e n t , and content v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s to p r o v i d e c o n v i n c i n g ev idence that the t e s t i s a v a l i d measure of s choo l a b i l i t y (see Chapter I I ) . F u r t h e r ev idence of concu r ren t v a l i d i t y f o r the OLSAT was p r o v i d e d in the p resent study through an a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s co re s on t h i s a b i l i t y t e s t to scores on 71 each of the achievement measures. Moderate ly h i gh to h i gh c o r r e l a t i o n s were observed between a l l OLSAT and achievement p a i r i n g s (see Tab le 5 of Chapter IV and Appendix D) . As the major purpose of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the OLSAT i s to a s s i s t in i d e n t i f y i n g s tudent s who e x h i b i t a s c h o l a s t i c p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceed ing t h e i r c u r r e n t achievement l e v e l s in the Schoo l D i v i s i o n , t h i s t e s t appears to ho ld some m e r i t . D i r e c t i o n s f o r Fu tu re Research An obv ious f o l l o w - u p to t h i s study would be the norming of the p re sen ted t e s t s fo r a l l grade and age groups in the Schoo l D i v i s i o n . P rocedures c o u l d be used to t i e t e s t s toge ther in each separa te domain by extended s c a l e s c o r e s . Midyear and e n d - o f - year norms c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d through techn iques i n v o l v i n g i n t e r p o l a t i o n and e x t r a p o l a t i o n . A s y s temat i c study of t h i s na ture would p r o v i d e the School D i v i s i o n wi th a comprehensive set of norms to monitor and e v a l u a t e i t s e n t i r e s tudent body. In Saskatchewan, p r e f e r e n t i a l h i g h - c o s t fund ing i s p r o v i d e d f o r s tudent s who meet c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d f o r at l e a s t one of e i g h t s e v e r e l y handicapped d e s i g n a t i o n s (Saskatchewan E d u c a t i o n , 1982). One of these d e s i g n a t i o n s , the l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d c a t e g o r y , r e q u i r e s that s tudent s show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r measured I.Q. and t h e i r academic achievement as determined by i n d i v i d u a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d government approved t e s t s . As i t can be q u i t e time consuming f o r a u t h o r i z e d pe r sonne l to a s se s s l a r g e numbers of s tudent s in t h i s manner, i t 72 i s impera t i ve that adequate s c r e e n i n g occur so tha t the most l i k e l y l e a r n i n g - d i s a b l e d s tudents can be i d e n t i f i e d . The group t e s t s used in the study o f f e r p o t e n t i a l in t h i s r e g a r d . There i s a need fo r c o r r e l a t i o n a l and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s to s u b s t a n t i a t e the va lue of us ing these group t e s t s to a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t and i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s tudent s d e f i n e d by the i n d i v i d u a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s . In -depth s t u d i e s of the t e s t items and the NLSD p o p u l a t i o n would p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n as to why many of the t e s t score d i s t r i b u t i o n s took on non-normal shapes. I n d i c a t i o n s were that many of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s e x h i b i t e d b imodal or mul t imoda l appearances . E x p l o r i n g t h i s avenue c o u l d g i ve more meaning to the t e s t score f i n d i n g s . F u r t h e r , s t u d i e s examining the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the v a r i a n c e s of the NLSD and n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s in the domains of r e a d i n g , mathemat ics , and s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y would be of some v a l u e . The t o p i c of t e s t b i a s o f t e n tends to be a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i f not a s t r o n g l y emot iona l s u b j e c t . C e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l and psychometr i c approaches a p p l i e d to t e s t data f u r t h e r c o l l e c t e d on NLSD s tudents and other groups would he lp p r o v i d e ev idence f o r or a ga in s t the presence of b i a s in t e s t s and p r o v i d e f u r t h e r a s surances in content v a l i d a t i o n . U t i l i z a t i o n of such techn iques as A n g o f f ' s d e l t a p l o t p rocedure s , i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s fo r d i f f e r e n t groups, m o d i f i e d c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s , and methods based on l a t e n t t r a i t theory a re some approaches that c o u l d be t r i e d (see B u r r i l l & W i l s on , 1980). The va lue of removing as 73 much u n c e r t a i n t y as p o s s i b l e in t h i s s e n s i t i v e area has s c i e n t i f i c as w e l l as pragmat ic a p p e a l . 74 REFERENCE NOTES 1) Department of Northern Saskatchewan, Extension Services Branch, Unpublished Report, 1981. 2) Heironymus, A.N. Personal Communication, March 22, 1 983. 3) Cameron, P.D. (for Nelson Canada) Personal Communication, March 22, 1983. 4) MacGinitie, W.H. Personal Communication, March 28, 1983. 5) Hieronymus, A.N. Personal Communication, March 29, 1983. 75 REFERENCES Allen, M.J. & Yen, W.M. Introduction to measurement theory. Monterey, Ca.: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co., 1979. American Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association, & National Council for Measurement in Education. Standards for educational and psychological tests. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association, 1974. Angoff, W.H. Scales, norms, and equivalent scores. In R.L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational measurement (2nd E d i t i o n ) . Washington, D.C: American Council on Education, 1971. B u r r i l l , L.E. & Wilson, R. Test servie notebook 36: Fairness and the matter of bias. New York, N.Y: The Psychological Corporation, 1980. Ferguson, G.A. S t a t i s t i c a l analysis in psychology and education (4th E d i t i o n ) . Toronto, Ont.: McGraw-Hill, 1976. Glass, G.V & Stanley, J.C. S t a t i s t i c a l methods in education and psychology. Toronto, Ont.: Prentice H a l l , Inc. 1970. G h i s e l l i , E . Theory of psychological measurement. Toronto, Ont.: McGraw-Hill, 1964. Holmes, B.J. Individually-administered i n t e l l i g e n c e tests: an application of Anchor test norming and equating procedures in B r i t i s h Columbia. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1981. Hopkins, K.D. & Stanley, J . C Educational and psychological measurement and evaluation (6th E d i t i o n ) . Toronto, Ont.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981. Hu l l , C.H. & Nie, N.H. SPSS Update 7-9: New procedures and f a c i l i t i e s for releases 7-9. Toronto, Ont.: McGraw-Hill, 1981. King, E.M. (Ed.) Canadian tests of basic s k i l l s . Toronto, Ont.: Nelson Canada Ltd., 1981. 76 King, E.M (Ed.) Canadian tests of basic s k i l l s ; teacher's guide. Toronto, Ont.: Nelson Canada Ltd., 1982. Kirk, R.E. Experimental design: procedures for the behavioral sciences. Belmont, Ca.: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co., 1968. MacGinitie, W.H. Gates-MacGinitie reading t e s t s - Canadian edi t i o n . Toronto, Ont.: Nelson Canada Ltd., 1979. MacGinitie, W.H. Gates-MacGinitie reading t e s t s - Canadian edi t i o n : teacher's manual. Toronto, Ont.: Nelson Canada Ltd., 1 980. Nie, N.H., H u l l , C.H., Jenkins, J.G., Steinbrenner, K. & Bent, D.H. S t a t i s t i c a l package for the s o c i a l sciences. (2nd E d i t i o n ) . New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1975. Nunnally, ( J r . ) , J.C. Introduction to psychological measurement. Toronto, Ont.: McGraw-Hill, 1970. Otis, A.S. & Lennon, R.T. Otis-Lennon school a b i l i t y test. New York, N.Y.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1979a. Otis, A.S. & Lennon, R.T. Otis-Lennon school a b i l i t y test: manual for administering and interpreting. New York, N.Y.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc, 1979b. Randhawa, B.S. Achievement and a b i l i t y status of grades four, seven and ten pupils in Saskatchewan. Department of Education, Regina, Sask., 1979a. Randhawa, B.S. Norms booklet: 1978 p r o v i n c i a l testing program. Department of Education, Regina, Sask., 1979b. Salvia, J. & Ysseldyke, J.E. Assessment in special and remedial educat ion (2nd E d i t i o n ) . Boston, Mass.: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1981 . Saskatchewan Education. Special Education: A manual of l e g i s - l a t i o n , regulations, p o l i c i e s and guidelines - revised. Regina, Sask.: Department of Education, 1982. 77 Stanley, J.C. & Hopkins, K.D. Educational and psychological measurement and evaluation. Toronto, Ont.: Prentice-Hall of Canada Ltd., 1972. Tatsuoka, M.M. Multivariate analysis: techniques for psycho- l o g i c a l and educational research. Toronto, Ont.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1971. 78 APPENDIX A TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 79 A G E N D A TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM THURSDAY, OCTOBER 14, 9:30 A.M. ROOM E (SASKATOON ROOM), HOLIDAY INN 9:30 A.M. Welcome to test Administrators. Pass out test.packages. 9:35 A.M. Purpose of the 1982 School Testing Program. 10:00 A.M. Familiarization with the tests used in the Testing Program: Nature of tests 10:15 A.M. - 11:45 A.M. Standardization of test Administration procedures: Instructions for administering the tests used in the 1982 School Testing Program. 11:45 A.M. Discussion * * * * * * * * * 80 Below i s the l i s t o f t e s t s used i n the 1982 S c h o o l T e s t i n g Program. LIST A. Grade 3, and ages 9 y e a r s 0 months t o 9 years 5 months. i ) G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , L e v e l B, Form 1 (1979) i i ) Mathematics Computation s u b t e s t o f CTBS, L e v e l 7 Form 5 (1981) i i i ) O t i s - L e n n o n S c h o o l A b i l i t y T e s t , P r i m a r y I I , Form R (1979) A c t u a l Test Time Vocab. 20 Min. Comp. 35 Min. P a r t I P a r t I I P a r t I I I -22 Min. 15 Min. 12 Min. -20 Min. LIST B. Grade 5 and ages 11 y e a r s 0 months to- 11 years 5 months. i ) G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , L e v e l D, Vocab. 20 Min. Form 1 (1979) Comp. 35 Min. i i ) Mathematics Computation s u b t e s t o f CTBS, L e v e l 10, Form 6 (1981) ' 20 Min. i i i ) O t i s - L e n n o n S c h o o l A b i l i t y T e s t , Elementary, Form R (1979) V> Min. LIST C. Grade 7 and ages 14 y e a r s 0 months t o 14 years 5 months. i ) G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , L e v e l D, Vocab. 20 Min. Form 2 (1979) Comp. 35 Min. i i ) Mathematics Computation s u b t e s t o f CTBS, L e v e l 13, Form 6 (1981) 20 Min. i i i ) O t i s - L e n n o n S c h o o l A b i l i t y T e s t , I n t e r m e d i a t e , Form R (1979) 45 Min. LIST D. Grade 9 and ages 16 years 0 months t o l6 y e a r s 5 months. i ) G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s , L e v e l E, Form 2 (1979) i i ) Mathematics s u b t e s t o f the CTBS, L e v e l 15, Form 5 (1981) i i i ) O t is-Lennon S c h o o l A b i l i t y T e s t , Advanced, Form R (1981) Vocab. 20 Min. Comp. _35 Min. hO Min. 40 Min. ANSWER SHEET CODTMC J = l G-Mac V o c a b u l a r y J=2 G-Mac Comprehension J=3 CTBS Math J=4 Otis-Lennon S c h o o l A b i l i t y 81 TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM POINTS TO NOTE: 1. Make sure that there will be no disturbances in the testing room during the time of testing. 2. Use HB pencils when the answer sheets are used. The marks should be dark and neat. 3. If any students arrive after the comnencement of instructions, they should not be included in that test session. 4. The inaximum number of students tested at one sitting should not exceed 20. If there are more than 12 students being tested at a sitting, a monitor should be used to help the test administrator. If by chance the number at a sitting exceeds 24, two monitors should be used. 5. Make a systematic check of the students during the testing session. Make sure students have started with the correct item and are marking their answers in the appropriate place on the answer sheet. Check to see i f the answer sheets are being marked dark and neatly. Help students i f they don't quite understand what they're supposed to do, but don't give away the answers. ; 2 83 TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM TESTING DATES: The tests should be administered to the selected students between October 18th and October 29th, 1982. Please try as much as possible to conform with these dates. TEST ADMINISTRATION TIME: Total time to administer tests to a group of selected students is approximately 31 hours. EXAMPLES OF DAILY TEST SCHEDULES MODEL 1 Grade 5, 7, or 9: Grade 3: Day 1: 9:15 A.M. - 10:00 A.M. : Vocabulary 9:15 A.M. - 10:10 A.M! : Vocabulary (Step 1-3) (5 minute break) (1 hour break) 10:15 A.M. - 11:05 A.M.: Comprehension (Step 4) 11:00 A.M. (15 minute break) 11:40 A.M. - 12:00 NOON: Math (Step 5) * Make sure grade 9's are ready to start absolutely no later than this time. 1:15 P.M. - 2:15 P.M. Ability 1:10 P.M. 12:00 NOON: Ccnprehen- sion 1:35 P.M.: Math 1:40P.M. - 2:30P.M.: Ability (Parts I & II) Day 2: 9:15A.M. - 9:45A.M.: Ability (Parts III) MODEL 2 Grade 5, 7, or 9: Day 1: 9:15 A.M. Day 2: 9:15 A.M. Day 3: 9:15 A.M. Day 4: 9:15 A.M. Grade 3: 10:10 A.M.: Vocabulary (Step 1-3) Day 1: 9:15 A.M. - 10:00 A.M. Vocabulary Day 2: 9:15 A.M. - 10:15 A.M. 10:05 A.M.: Math Corrprehension Day 3: 9:15 A.M. - 9:40 A.M. Math 10:05 A.M.: Comprehension - 10:15 A.M.: Ability Grade 3: •4: 9:15 A.M. - 10:05 A.M.: Ability (Parts I & II) 11:00 A.M. - 11:30 A.M.: Ability (Parts III) 85 TEST ADMINISTRATOR'S COMMENT TEST Comment i f any problems occurred during testing. 86 TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM STEP 1: Presented to - Students of a l l grade and age groups being tested. Mention that they have been selected to take part in the N.L.S.D. Testing Program. Students in a l l other N.L.S.D. schools of the same grade or age as themselves will also be tested. These tests have nothing to do with whether or not they pass or f a i l the year, but will provide the N.L.S.D. with some valuable information of its students. Mention to the students not to worry, but to try to do the best they can by answering as many questions as they can. Mention that these tests are also used with older students and students in higher grades, therefore they are not expected to answer a l l of the questions or even most of the questions. Some students may even find a l l of the questions difficult. Say, "Remember, just try your best and not to worry, i f you're not sure of an answer, its o.k. to make a guess at the best answer after you've thought about i t . " 87 TEST ADMINISTRATORS1 INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM STEP 2: Using computer scored answer sheets - Presented to Grade 5 (and 11 year olds), Grade 7 (and 14 year olds), and Grade 9 (and 16 year olds). Pass out an answer sheet to each student. While passing out the answer sheets, mention to the students not to mark the answer sheet in any way until told to do so. Mention that these are special answer sheets which are going to be computer scored, therefore i t is important not to fold, bend, tear or improperly mark the answer sheets. With an HB pencil, t e l l the students to write their name (last name fir s t , then f i r s t name) in the blocks at the top of the page, one letter per block. Demonstrate on board: give example H A N s E N J 0 E 1 © © © O © Have monitors check to see that this is being done correctly. When this seems to be in order, show students how to f i l l in the circles below the block letters. Note that the letters in the circles are in Alphabetical order. Demonstrate on board: IMPORTANT: MENTION TO THE STUDENTS TO FILL IN THE WHOLE CIRCLE, NOT MDRE OR LESS. THE CIRCLES MUST BE FILLED IN DARK ENOUGH THAT THE LETTERS INSIDE ARE HARDLY VISIBLE. IF A MISTAKE IS MADE, ERASE THE ERROR AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE, THEN FILL IN THE CORRECT CIRCLE. Tell the students to be as neat as possible. 88 - 2 - Have monitors check and help students out. Don't go on until students have this done correctly. Now ask the students to look at the place on the answer sheet marked SEX (point). Tell them to f i l l in the appropriate circle; M for male or boy, F for female or g i r l . Monitors check. Next, ask them to find the section on their answer sheet where they see the letters A B C D ... etc. above the blocks (point). Tell them to find the block below the letter J and write the number 1 inside the block. Demonstrate on board: Then, ask them to f i l l in the circle with the number 1 inside i t neat and dark. Mention this means that this answer sheet will be used to record their answers to the first test. © © © ® Monitors check. Proceed to test 1. 89 TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM STEP 3: Test 1: Instructions for administering the Gates-MacGinitie VO^ULARY subtest. IMPORTANT: DOUBLE CHECK TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE THE CORRECT TEST LEVEL AND FORM FOR THE GROUP YOU ARE TESTING. A. ActaLnistering test 1 to Grade 3's and 9 year olds: Test time: 20 mins. Follow the instructions given on the yellow copies taken from the manual. Please read the test instructions over carefully before administering the test. B. Administering test 1 to Grade 5 and 11 year olds, OR Grade 7 and 14 year olds, OR Grade 9 and 16 year olds: Test time: 20 mins. Write the following examples on the board exactly as given below: V-l REPAIR V-2 WEAK i(A) replace > © heavy >.© cut in two I(G) skinny j© fix J(H) crying ••(g) pull out <(l) gone J(E) l i f t not strong 101. Q © © © ( D 102. @ (2) © 0 © Before passing out the test booklets, ask students to turn to SIDE 2 of their answer sheets (it is marked on the sheet). 90 - 2 - Ask the students to point to ROW 101. Mention that this is where they will mark their answer to the firs t example when its time to begin. Pass out the test booklets. Mention to the students not to open their test booklets. When everyone has a copy, ask them to turn over their booklets to the back cover. Mention that this is the sample page. Say, "The test which you are going to do is a Vocabulary test which measures your knowledge of words - your vocabulary.11 Ask them to look at Row V-l, the fi r s t example, and the dark word beside i t . Say, "This word is repair. There are 5 words or phrases below this word. They are A - replace, B - cut in two, C - fix, D - pull out, and E - l i f t . One of these choices means the same or nearly the same as repair. Raise your hand i f you know the answer." (Ask someone) "Yes the answer is C - fix (point to the answer on the board). Fix means the same as repair. Now look. Fix is one-two-three (point while counting) . . . . three choices down, therefore you should f i l l the circle with the 3 inside i t in Row 101." (Do this on the board) Ask everyone to f i l l in circle 3 in Row 101 of answer sheet. Answer any questions. Monitors check. When everything is in order say, "o.k., let's do example V-2 using Row 102 of our answer sheet. The dark word is weak (point). The 5 choices are F - heavy, G - skinny, H - crying, I - gone, and J - not strong. Which choice means the sane or nearly the same as weak? 91 - 3 - Raise your hand i l you know." (Ask someone) "Yes, the answer is J - not strong (point). Not strong is one-two- three-four-five (point while counting) . . . . five choices down, therefore you should f i l l in the circle with the number 5 inside i t in Row 102." (Demonstrate on board) Check to see that this is done correctly by a l l students. Now t e l l the students to turn their answer sheets over to SIDE 1 and f l i p their test booklets over to the front cover. Mention to them that the work they are to do in the test booklet is just like the two examples they have completed. Mention that they start at Row 1 on their answer sheet and work down and across to Row number 45,(point). (Open Administrator's test booklet). Point to item number 1, indicate that they are to start here and mark their answer on Row 1, and do a l l the others the same way. Then turn page and indicate where they are to go and where to stop. Tell them not to write in the test booklets. Tell students they have 20 minutes to work on this. Stress that they work carefully, yet not spend too much time on any one question. Remind them to try their best. Tell them that i f they have any questions about what they are supposed to do to raise their hand, and they will be assisted. If they are finished early, they should check over their work and wait quietly for the others to finish. Tell them to open their booklets and start. TIME STARTED: (Record) 4 92 - 4 - Test AcJiunistrators and monitors should walk through test area making sure students understand what they are to do. After 10 minutes write time remaining on the board. After exactly 20 minutes collect answer sheets. Tell students to close test booklets. 93 TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM STEP 4: Test 2: Instructions for Administering the Gates-MacGinitie COMPREHENSION subtest. IMPORTANT: DOUBLE CHECK TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE THE CORRECT TEST LEVEL AND FORM FOR THE GROUP YOU ARE TESTING. A. Acirninistering test 2 to Grade 3's and 9 year olds: Test time: 35 minutes. Follow the instructions given on the yellow copies taken from the manual. Please read the test instructions over carefully before administering the test. B. Administering test 2 to Grade 5's and 11 year olds, OR Grade 7's and 14 year olds, OR Grade 9 and 16 year olds: Test time: 35 minutes. Write the following on the board exactly as given below before proceeding to the examples: C-l C-2 .© *© © ( D 101. ® © (3) © © 2 94 - 2 - Pass out an answer sheet to each student. Tell students to write their name in the blocks at the top of the sheet as done previously (they need not f i l l in the circles below). Then, in the block below the letter J, write in 2, finally f i l l i n g in the circle with the number 2 inside i t below this block. (Demonstrate on board). Monitors check. Ask students to turn to SIDE 2 of their answer sheets. Ask students to find ROW 101. This is where they will answer the firs t example. Now pass out test booklets ( i f they were collected previously) and ask students to turn them over to the sample page on the back cover. Say, "This test measures how well you understand what you read - your reading comprehension." (Hold up your copy of the test booklet, point to the comprehension sample and say) "Read the sample story to yourself as I read i t aloud." (Read passage) Then read question C-l and each of the 4 choices. Say, "Raise your hand i f you know the answer." (Ask someone). "Yes, the answer is D - the baby bird breaks open the shell. This choice is one-two-three-four (point on the board while counting) .... four choices down, therefore you should f i l l the circle with the 4 inside i t in ROW 101." (Do this on the board). Monitors check. 3 95 - 3 - When everything is in order say, "o.k., let's do example C-2 (point to i t in test booklet). (Read i t and the 4 chorees). "Raise your hand i f you know the answer." (Ask someone). "Yes, the answer is F-tooth. This choice is one-two (point on the board while counting) ... two choices along, so f i l l in the circle with the 2 inside i t in ROW 102." (Demonstrate). Monitors check. "Now let's pretend that the answer was H-pip. This is one-two-three-four (point on the board while counting) ... the fourth choice, therefore you would f i l l in the circle with the 4 inside i t . (Demonstrate on ROW 102 on board). Watch again how I count. (Count again). You must always count this way too when doing your work here. Does everyone understand?" Now t e l l the students to turn their answer sheets over to SIDE 1 and f l i p their test booklets over to the front cover. Mention to them that the work they are to do in the test booklet is just like the two examples they have completed. Mention that they start at Row 1 on their answer sheet and work down and across to Row number 43 (point). (Open Administrator's test booklet). Point to item number 1, indicate that they are to start here and mark their answer on Row 1, and do a l l the others the same way. Then turn page and indicate where they are to go and where to stop. Tell them not to write in the test booklets. Tell students they have 35 minutes to work on this. Stress that they work carefully, yet not spend too much time on any one question. Remind them to try their best. Tell them that i f they have any questions about what they are supposed to do to raise their hand, and they will be assisted. If they are finished early, they should check over their work and wait quietly for the others to finish 4 96 - 4 - Tel l them to open their booklets and start. TIME STARTED: (Record) Test Administrators and monitors should walk through test area making sure students understand what they are to do, and are marking their answers in dark and neatly. After 15 minutes write time remaining on the board. After exactly 35 minutes collect answer sheets. Te l l students to close test booklets. 97 TEST ADMINISTRATORS' INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM STEP 5: Test 3: Instructions for Administering the CTBS Mathematics subtest. (Make sure students have scratch paper) IMPORTANT: DOUBLE CHECK TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE THE CORRECT TEST LEVEL AND FORM FOR THE GROUP YOU ARE TESTING. A. Administering test 3 to Grade 3's and 9 years olds: Test time: approx. 22 minutes. Follow the instructions given on the yellow copy taken from the manual. Please read the test instructions over carefully before administering the test. B. Administering test 3 to Grade 9's and 16 year olds: Test time: 40 minutes. Follow the instructions given on the pink copy taken from the manual. Please read over the test instructions carefully before administering the test. C. Administering test 3 to Grade 5's and 11 year olds, OR Grade 7's and 14 year olds: Test time: 20 minutes Write the following examples on the board: Ex. 1 2 + 3 = 1) 8 2) 1 3) 5 4) N 101. ® (2) © 0 © 2 98 - 2 • - Ex. 2 4 - 1 = 1) 6 2) 2 3) 0 4) N 102. Q (2) (3) Q CD Pass out an answer sheet to each student. Tell students to write their name in the blocks at the top of the sheet as done previously. Then, in the block below the letter J, write in 3, finally f i l l i n g in the circle with the number 3 inside i t below this block. (Demonstrate on board). Monitors check. Ask students to turn to SIDE 2 of their answer sheets. Ask students to find ROW 101. This is where they will answer the firs t example. Now pass out the math test booklets (face down). Say, "We are going to work on our third test - the math test." Point to the fi r s t example on the board. Say, "Look at this example. Two plus three equals .... (point to answers) ... eight, ... one, ... five, ... none of the above choices. Raise your hand i f you know the answer." (Ask someone). "Yes, the answer is five ... which is the third choice (point to numerical choice marker), therefore you should f i l l in the third circle in Row 101, the circle with the 3 inside i t . Monitors check. 3 99 - 3 - "Let's do the second example, answer. Four minus one equals .... zero, ... none of the above choices (Ask someone). Use ROW 102 of your answer sheet for your (point to answers) .... six, ... two, ... Raise your hand i f you know the answer." "Yes, the answer is N, none of the above choices. Four minus one equals three, and three is not given - i t is not shown. Look, N is the fourth choice (point to numerical choice marker), therefore you should f i l l in the fourth circle in row 102, the circle with the 4 inside i t . " Monitors check. Grade 5 or 11 years olds "Now turn your answer sheet to SIDE 1. Point to Row 13. (Monitors check). This is where you are going to start, because you are starting with number 13 in your test booklet." (Show the students where"no. 13 is in the test booklet by holding up your booklet and pointing). Say, "You see, no. 13 is right below where i t says, Level 10 start here." Now ask students to open their test booklets and find no. 54. Say, "Right here where i t says level 10 stop here." Grade 7 or 14 years olds "Now turn your answer sheet to SIDE 1. Point to Row 55. (Monitors check). This is where you are going to start, because you are starting with number 55 in your test booklet." (Show the students where no. 55 is in the test booklet by holding up your booklet and pointing). Say, "You see, no. 55 is right below where is says, Level 13 begin here." Now ask students to open their test booklets and find no. 99. Say, "Right here where i t says level 13 stop here." 4 100 - 4 Tel l them that this is the last problem they wi l l solve i f they have time. Monitors check. Now ask them to turn to no. 13 in their test booklet. Te l l them when i t is time to begin, to work carefully, yet quickly, not spending too much time on any one problem. If they have any questions about what they are to do, to raise their hand. Remind them to begin at no. 13 of their answer sheet. Write 20 minutes on the board and t e l l t e l l them to begin: Time started: (Record) Monitors check. Write time left after 10 minutes. STOP exactly after 20 minutes. Te l l them that this is the last problem they wi l l solve i f they have time. Monitors check. Now ask them to turn to no. 55 in their test booklet. Te l l them when i t is time to begin, to work carefully, yet quickly, not spending too much time on any one problem. If they have any questions about what they are to do, to raise their hand. Remind them to begin at no. 55 of their answer sheet. Write 20 minutes on the board and t e l l them to begin: Time started: (Record) Monitors check. Write time left after 10 minutes. STOP exactly after 20 minutes. 101 Circulate among the students to make certain that they have started with the correct item and are marking their answers in the approptiate'place orVthe answer sheet. If any students finish extremely early, check to be certain, that they have worked to the end of their test. YCKJ should make a systematic check of the students' work during the testing period. / / / / After students have worked exactly 40,min, say: Slop/Close your-test booklet and ti/rn your answer smear over, yfe w)fl take a r̂ st o^__Z_ minutes Before /starting Ahe new tes/ PINK / U M (/>• taste Mow lo find wtw your hr»l It to B E G I N a n d S T O P o n thl* tmt. You will l u v a 40 rrtin-u t m l o r t h i s tot. Mathemat ics LEVEL BEGIN With STOP Atief Page 22, Item 1 Item 48, Page 27~) 1 6 Page 23, Item 17 Item 64, Page 29 1 7 Page 25, Item 33 Item 80, Page 31 1 8 Page 27, Item 49 Item 96. Page 32 DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING M a t h e m a t i c s When the students have returned to their assigned places, distribute two sheets of scratch paper to each student. Say: Now you are going to take a mathematics test. First, find your place on the answer sheet for Test 2: Mathematics. Pause. Now turn to page 21 in your test booklet. Read the directions silently while I read them aloud. & MATHEMATICS Direct ions: The purpose of this test Is to find out how well you are developing your knowledge, un- derstanding, and skills in the area of mathematics. In many of tho items, you will need to do some computations. Use the scratch paper which you have been given for your computations; do not make any marks in the test booklet. Read the item and do any necessary computations. Then select the answer which is correct or clearly better than the others and mark your choice on your answer sheet. Always be sure to mark your answer sheet on the numbered space corresponding to the item you are working on. K you da not understand an Item, omit it and go on to those which you do know. You may return to omitted Items if time permits. Now study the Sample Item on this page. It is an example of the Items In this test. Pause. S I . SAMPU ITEM What is 75<7c of $12.00? SAMPLE ANSWER SHEET * VUVon bo«.ro A. B. C. •. E. S3.00 S4.00 S8.0U sy.ou None of the above K B C 0 fc <D ®(3)® ® 9). a ui m UJ / If you finish early, you may check your answers. Then dose the test booklet, turn your answer sheet over, and sit quietly until the end of the test is announced. You may not look at any other test. Now look at the table at the end of the directions. Find where your level is to begin, [if all students in the room are in the same level, say: Turn to page _AA and begin with item number, i (See table.)] Pause. Remember tf you do any figuring, do it qn scratch paper and not in the booklet. When everyone is ready to start, say: Turn to the correct page for your level. Ready, you may begin. Start your stopwatch, or set your wristwatch on an even hour. Also note the time on the wall clock, and jot it down. Start Ttana Stop T i m * . Circulate among the students to make certain that they have started with the correct item and are marking their answers in the appropriate place on the answer sheet. If any students finish extremely early, check lo be certain that they have worked to the end of their test. You should make a systematic check of the students' work during the testing period. Administration After students have worked exactly 40 min, say: Stop. Close your test booklet and turn your answer sheet over. This completes the first session. Sit quietly while the test booklets and answer sheets are collected. Collect the booklets and answer sheets according to the procedure you developed as part of your advance preparations. DIRECTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING W r i t t e n E x p r e s s i o n , / If you are following the- recommended schedule, Jest 3 begins the ,seconc)-testing schedule. Whervthe /students have relumed to their assigned places/pass / ouj/the te^bocWets.^swer^heets^, anc^ratph paper. 13 102 TEST ADMINISTRATORS1 INSERVICE 1982 N.L.S.D. SCHOOL TESTING PROGRAM STEP 6: Test 4: Instructions for Administering the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test. IMPORTANT: DOUBLE CHECK TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE THE CORRECT TEST LEVEL AND FORM FOR THE GROUP YOU ARE TESTING. A. Administering test 4 to Grade 3's and 9 year olds: Test time: Part I - 15 minutes; Part 1 1 - 1 2 minutes; Part III - approximately 20 minutes. Follow the instructions given on the yellow copies taken from the manual. Please read the test instructions over carefully before administering the test. B . Administering test 4 to Grade 5's and 11 year olds, OR Grade 7's and 14 year olds: Test time: 45 minutes. OR grade 9's and 16 year olds: Test time: 40 minutes. Write the following on the board exactly as given before proceeding to the examples: a b c d e 1 2 3 4 5 f g h j k v i o i . Q (D © CD © W 102.@ © CD © X 103 0 © 0 Q © 2 103 - 2 - Y 104. Q (2) © (4) © Z 105.0 <D (3) @ © Pass out an answer sheet to each student. Tell students to write their name in the blocks at the top of the sheet as done previously. Then in the block below the letter J, write in 4, finally f i l l i n g in the circle with the number 4 inside i t below this block. (Demonstrate on board) Monitors check. Ask students to turn to SIDE 2 of their answer sheets. Ask student to find ROW 101. This is where they will answer the fir s t example. Now pass out the test booklets and ask students to turn over to the practice page on the back cover. Mention that this is a test in which the students are asked to solve different kinds of problems. Proceed to the instructions on the pink copies. IMPORTANT: THESE EXAMPLES AND THE EXPLANATIONS GIVEN FOR THE ANSWERS AND HOW TO MARK THE ANSWER SHEET ARE VERY IMPORTANT. PROCEED SLOWLY. NOTE: Example V is different for the grade 5's and 11 year olds compared to example V for the grade 7's (and 14 year olds) and the grade 9's (and 16 year olds). All other examples are common to these 3 groups. 104 Manual for Administering and Interpreting us. : P I N K O-LSA T Elementary Practice Problems: Directions Common to All Answer Documents Conlinue by S A Y I N G : Find the place on the back cover of your booklet where it says "Practice Problems." Look at the first practice problem, the one with the letter V in front Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. Do not call out the answer. "The opposite of big is— a good b large c little d soft e light" In this problem, we are looking for a word that means the opposite of "big." Opposites are words like old and new, up and down, beginning and end, open and close. Now think about which one of the five words in Problem V is the opposite of big. (Pause.) The correct word is "little," which is choice c. " f l o w t »S +Wt one . . . +wo ••• •VV»r«c ( pi<rt •Yo "t̂ >< board wWi\< caunf. r . ^ . . . + V,t -vVird tow ^ o » l J {'.II Rovo to I 1 « r \ *t,c t . ^ U tWlCt , ttitrt4-ort . +Vt ^V.r«J cUo'.te i<% .1.4*. «V. IO««~»I*T«+O ft. 1 V- In a series, the letters, numbers, or drawings go to- gether by following a rule. In this series, every third letter of the alphabet has been skipped. Notice how the series starts with AB, skips C, continues with DE, skips F, continues with GH, skips 1, and continues with JK. If this series were continued beyond K. the L would be skipped, and the next letter would be M, which is choice b. Does anyone have a question? " V i e w c K o ' . t t t i ' s V W c » < \ e . . . + w o V W c s e c ° « J e V . . i c « , V - v t " X - - . l t iV,<.cV. (. &t.*-~"*\\-rJr<l \ M J « V » r \ 1 Answer students' questions. If students seem to have dif- ficulty understanding what opposites are, you may give the following examples: north and south, fat and skinny, happy and sad. come and go. pretty and ugly. Then SAY: Now look at Problem W. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. Do not call out the answer. "The numbers in the box go together in a certain way. Find the number that goes where you see the question mark (?) in the box." Pause while students try to figure out the answer. Then SAY: To find out what number is missing in the box, you must discover how the numbers go together. You can do this by looking either across or down the box. If you look across the box, you will notice that each number is 1 more than the one before it, so the missing number is 6. Eachnumber going down the box is 1 less than the number above it, so again the answer is 6. - N o w c A . - . c j + C.»'*l+ ^ t o t r . . - 4 \+ i l o " * • •• ' J . • • • V*.'tt-• (p.-.«+ V. *t.< Woo./-4 v V l t c -i->- K - N 1 • • +*»«• V*- t V i i c t , +> iu i to r i l » . ' . « I J w Now look at Problem Y. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. "Hat is to head as shoe is to—f sock g toe h buckle i leg k foot" ~RoAie ^ o w v>»-r,J ;{ >̂ o>» k " o »-< t * M o-nwlr- (^^w l^t««tl MO -mt c » | u ( r is +oo-T , cWo'.c* Vs •* . - - - since a shoe is worn on the foot just as a hat is worn on the head. l U . ^ l i ctV-tlc 5 i « fiOvO lo^. •Co-*' Answer students' questions. Then go on to Problem X. S A Y I N G : Now look at Problem X. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. Try to figure out the problem, but do not mark or call out the answer. "What letter comes next in this series? A B D E G H J K ? " Pause while students look over the problem. Then SAY: 14 Answer students' questions: Then go on to Problem Z. SAYING: Now look at Problem Z. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. "The drawings in the first part of the row go together to form a series. In the next part of the row, find the drawing that goes where you see the question mark (?) in the series." "Mark your answer in row IOS C»US«) You should have filled in t i « t \ t I . In each box of the series, there are three triangles. In the first box, the first triangle is black; in the second box, the middle triangle is black; in the third box, the last triangle is black; and in the fourth box, the series starts to repeat itself. If this series were continued, the first triangle in the fifth box would be white, the middle triangle would be black, and the last triangle would be white, so drawing a is correct. S U . j J V i A * « - ^.-.\\LJ.V» C i > l l « - I flo<-> I O S . i t - y o u H « ' W « J t - K * o « * » - > ^ c i r c l e : o r r V < w r o - ^ r o u , ( r« i e i j o u / " " ' " f f: il • - -M. c*rf*c4- 105 Manual for Administering and Interpreting PINK Practice Problems: Directions Common to AU Answer Documents Continue by SAYING: Find the place on the back cover or your booklet marked "Directions." Read the directions silently as I read them aloud. "This is a test to see how well you can do different kinds of problems. "First, do the practice problems below, choosing the best answer from among the five choices. The answers to the first two problems have already been marked." Now read the first practice problem, the one with the letter V in front, and decide on an answer. Pause. Then SAY: The large white triangle is to the small black triangle as the large white square is to the small black square, so choice c is correct. U T E U *r\ O T l $ - T G f t K O f c -7 . . . j H . , r . . U , In a series, the letters, numbers, or drawings go to- gether by following a rule. In this series, every third letter of the alphabet has been skipped. Notice how the series starts with AB. skips C, continues with DE, skips F, continues with GH, skips I, and continues with JK. If this series were continued beyond K, the L would be skipped, and the next letter would be M, which is choice b. Does anyone have a question? •• Wow «V»o*<ct t I'S VWe o n t — +w o sV.*cA. (. O c ~\X-rJc<L \ w.ue , v*»e.»i n J -v-V.«. \»o*i-4 w W . \ « C O « « V I M J . „ there any questions? Answer students' questions, explaining further if nec- essary. Then SAY: Now look at Problem W. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. Do not call out the answer. "The numbers in the box go together in a certain way. Find the number that goes where you see the question mark (?) in the box." Pause while students try to figure out the answer. Then SAY: To find out what number is missing in the box, you must discover how the numbers go together. You can do this by looking either across or down the box. If you look across the box, you will notice that each number is 1 more than the one before it, so the missing number is 6. Each number going down the box is 1 less than the number above it, so again the answer is 6. -Mow c V . - . c ^ -,.«J -'•+v> -*•>*» c.••«•«.+ (po. V- »w< w»«-<-4 v^-t«- Co-»->*->-i^ . • • ^o««V»- t > « l t >'~ ftO^-» l o i . •' fOt»*A>V»KJ Now look at Problem Y. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. "Hat is to head as shoe is to —f sock g toe h buckle j_ leg k foot" Ro.»i« ^ o n r U « - o J «|o>* k"«<-> V ^ c \ \ <-oo+. crto*-<* K - * • • • • since a shoe is worn on the foot just as a hat is worn on the head. ^ <̂  ... i— n ^ • ^ Answer students' questions. Then go on to Problem Z. S A Y I N G : >oUi><\ \ Rovo >o1. to- Answer students' questions. Then go on to Problem X, S A Y I N G : Now look at Problem X. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. Try to figure out the problem, but do not mark or call out the answer. "What letter comes next in this series? A B D E G H J K ? " Pause while students look over the problem. Then SAY: Now look at Problem Z. Read it to yourself as I read it aloud. "The drawings in the first part of the row go together to form a series. In the next part of the row, find the drawing that goes where you see the question mark (?) in the series." 'Mark your answer in row IOS (P«"<v0 You should have filled in c i« . \c •>•• * . In each box of the series, there are three triangles. In the first box, the first triangle is black; in the second box, the middle triangle is black; in the third box, the last triangle is black; and in the fourth box, the series starts to repeat itself. If this series were continued, the first triangle in the fifth box would be white, the middle triangle would be black, and the last triangle would be white, so drawing a is correct. \ Dr«.w'.«\* o, ,"j H i «.k..ce +Wr«!•••* <jow 14 f.H - •c i t ( G O T O ?KG£ \ V * 106 Manual for Administering and Interpreting PINK O-LSA T Elementary Answer students' questions. Then SAY: You are to do all the problems in this booklet the same way as you did the practice problems. Read each prob- lem carefully and choose the one answer that you think is best. Then find the row that has the same number as the problem you are working on, and fill in the c o f c x c\«-c\C rat tmi * > M ' i M i t i i M i ' wi i l i r n i < i i ) w Answer students' questions. If students are using a separate answer sheet, remind them that they are to mark all their answers on the answer sheet and that they are not to mark on their booklets. Then SAY: Now open your booklet to page 2 and begin working. "Enter the starting and ending times in the box below. Use a pencil to mark all your answers. Make your mark heavy and dark and completely fill the answer space. You may mark an answer even if you are not absolutely sure it is correct, but do not guess , . blindly. To change an answer, you must erase your^o**^ mark completely and then fill in the space for thejQ? answer you think is right You will have(4£ minutes to work on this test. You are not expected to be able to do all the problems, but try to get as many problems right as you can. If you get stuck on a problem, skip it and go on to the next one. When you come to the end of a page, go on to the next page and continue working until you come to the end of the test Raise your hand if you need another pencil, and I will give you one. If you finish before I say "Stop," you may go back to work on any problem you skipped, or you may go over the ones you have done. Are there any questions? Hour Starting Time Time Limit Ending Time Minutes 45 During the test, move quietly about the room to make sure that, students are marking their answers correctly. Also make sure that students are continuing with the test after they come to the end of a page. At the end of 45 minutes. SAY: Stop work now. Put your pencil down. Close your book- let and leave it on your desk with the front cover up. Collect the test booklets and answer sheets, if used. This concludes the testing session. AFTER TESTING ~— See the After Testing section in the "General Di- rections for Administering" for the type of answer document being used. 15 1 07 APPENDIX B TABLES OF NLSD NORMS ON ACHIEVEMENT AND ABILITY TESTS 108 Grade 3 TABLE 1 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 3 Students tested in the Fall on the Vocabulary Subtest of the Gates-MacGin itie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level B, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 27 26 56 5 51 2 1 1 28 27 58 5 52 3 1 1 29 28 61 6 53 4 1 1 30 29 65 6 54 5 2 1 31 30 68 6 55 6 2 1 32 31 70 6 56 7 4 1 33 32 71 6 57 8 5 2 34 33 74 6 58 9 -6 2 35 34 76 6 59 10 7 2 36 35 80 7 60 11 8 2 37 36 84 7 61 12 11 2 37 37 87 7 62 13 14 3 38 38 89 7 63 14 16 3 39 39 91 8 64 15 19 3 40 40 93 8 65 16 23 3 41 41 95 8 66 17 26 4 42 42 97 9 67 18 29 4 43 43 98 9 68 . 19 31 . 4 44 44 99 9 ' '69 20 35 4 45 45 99 9 70 21 38 4 46 22 43 5 47 23 46 5 48 24 49 5 49 25 53 5 50 Raw Score: Mean 24.70 S.D. 10.15 Nunber of Students - 361 (84% of entire NSLD grade 3 population) 109 Grade 3 TABLE 2 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 3 Students tested in the Fall on the Comprehension Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level B,.Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw '• Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 25 26 64 6 54 2 1 1 26 27 67 6 55 3 1 1 27 28 71 6 56 4 1 1 29 29 75 6 57 5 1 1 30 30 78 7 59 6 1 1 31 31 81 7 60 7 2 1 32 32 84 7 61 8 3 1 33 33 87 7 62 9 5 2 34 34 90 8 63 10 8 2 35 35 92 8 64 11 10 2 37 36 94 8 65 12 13 3 38 37 95 8 67 13 16 3 39 38 97 9 68 14 20 3 40 39 98 9 69 15 23 3 41 40 99 9 70 16 26 4 42 17 29 4 44 18 32 4 45 19 35 . 4 46 20 38 4 47 21 42. 5 48 22 46 5 49 23 50 ' 5 50 24 54 5 52 25 60 5 53 Raw Score: l\fean 22.60 S.D. 8.65 Number of Students - 361 (84% of entire NLSD grade 3 population) 110 Grade 3 TABLE 3 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 3 Students tested in the F a l l on the Reading Total of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level B, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T" Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 14 3 38 2 27 16 3 39 3 28 17 3 39* 4 29 19 3 40 5 1 1 27 30 21 3 40 6 1 1 27 31 23 3 41 7 .1 1 28 32 25 4 41 8 1 1 28 33 26 4 42 9 1 1 29 34 26 4 43 10 1 1 29 35 27 4 43 11 1 1 30 36 28 4 44 12 2 1 30 37 30 4 44 13 2 1 31 38 32 4 45 14 2 •1 ' 32 39 34 4 45 15 3 1 32 40 35 4 46 16 3 1 33 41 36 4 46 17 4 1' 33 42 38 4 • 47 18 5 2 34 43 40 4 48 19 5 •2 34 44 42 5 • 48 20 6 2 35 45 45 5 49 21 7 2 35 46 47 5 49 22 8 2 36 47 49 5 50 23 9 2 36 48 51 5 50 24 . 11 2 37 49 55 5 51 25 13 3 38 50 57 5 51 Grade 3 111 TABLE 3 (cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw '• Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 51 58 5 52 76 94 8 66 52 59 5 53 77 96 8 66 53 61 6 53 78 97 9 67 54 62 6 54 79 98 9 67 55 63 6 54 80 99 9 68 56 64 6 ' 55 81 99 9 69 57 66 6 55 82 99 9 69 58 69 6 56 83 99 9 70 59 71 6 56 84 99 9 70 60 73 6 57 85 99 9 71 61 75 6 58 62 77 6 58 63 79 7 59 64 80 7 59 65 81 7 60 66 81 7 60 67 83 7 61 68 84 7 61 69 86 . 7 62 70 87 7 63 71 88. 7 63 72 89 . 7 64 73 90 8 64 74 92 8 65 75 93 8 65 Raw Score: Mean 47.41 S.D. 18.08 Number of Students - 359 ( 83% of entire NLSD grade 3 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 112 Grade 3 TABUS 4 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 3 Students tested in the Fall on the Mathematics Computation Subtest of the Canadian Tests' of Basic Skills, Level 7, Form 5. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 4 1 1 5 5 . 1 1 8 6 i ' 1 10 7 l 1 13 8 l 1 15 9 2 1 18 10 2 1 20 11 3 1 23 12 3 1 25 13 3 1 27 14 4 1 30 15 6 2 32 16 9 2 35 17 12 3 37 18 14 . 3 40 19 17 3 42 20 21 3 45 21 28. 4 47 22 36 4 50 23 45 5 52 24 59 5 55 25 77 6 57 26 93 60 Raw Score: Mean 22.11 S.D. 4.04 Number of Students - 351 (81% of entire NLSD grade 3 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in.the standard- ization. 113 Grade 3 TABLE 5 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 3 Students tested in the F a l l on the Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y Test, Primary I I , Form R. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw • Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 26 12 3 37 2 1 1 27 13 3 38 3 1 1 28 15 3 39 4 1 1 29 17 3 40 5 1 1 30 19 3 40 6 1 1 31 21 3 41 7 1. 1 32 23 3 42 8 1 1 33 26 4 43 9 1 1 34 28 4 43 10 1 1 35 30 4 44 11 1 1 36 32 4 45 12 1 1 37 34 4 46 13 1 1 38 37 4 46 14 1 1 39 40 4 47 15 1 1 <30 40 43 5 48 16 1 1 30 41 45 5 49 17 1 1 30 42 47 5 49 18 2 1 31 43 50 5 50 19 3 1 32 44 52 5 • 51 20 4 1 33 45 55 5 52 21 4 1 33 46 58 5 53 22 5 2 34 47 60 5 53 23 6 2 35 48 63 6 54 24 8 2 36 49 66 6 55 25 9 2 36 50 68 6 56 Grade 3 114 TABLE 5 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta 51 71 6 56 52 . 75 6 57 53 78 7 58 54 81 7 59 55 83 7 59 56 85 n 60 57 86 7 61 58 87 • 7 62 59 88 7 62 60 89 7 63 61 90 8 64 62 92 8 65 63 94 8 66 64 95 8 66 65 96 8 67 66 96 8 68 67 98 9 69 68 98 9 69 69 99 9 70 70 99 9 71 71 99. 9 72 72 73 74 75 Raw Score: IVfean 42.67 S.D. 13.07 Number of Students - 347 (81% of entire NLSD grade 3 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization . 115 GRADE 5 TABLE 6 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 5 Students tested in the Fall on the Vocabulary Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level D, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 31 26 86 7 62 2 1 1 32 27 88 7 63 3 1 1 33 28 90 8 64 4 2 1 35 29 91 8' 65 . 5 3 1 36 30 92 8 66 •6 .4 1 37. 31 93 8 68 7 7 2 38 32 94 8 69 8 10 2 39 33 95 8 70 9 16 3 41 34 96 8 71 10 ' 23 3 42 35 97 9 73 11 28 4 43 36 98 9 74 12 33 4 44 37 98 9 75 13 39 4 46 38 99 9 76 14 45 5 47 39 99 • 9 77 15 51 5 48 40 99 9 79 16 56 5 49 41 99 9 80 17 60 5 50 42 99 9 81 18 64 6 52 43 99 • 9 82 19 67 6 53 44 99 9 • 84 20 70 .6 54 45 21 73 6 55 22 76 6 57 23 79 7 58 • 24 82 7 59 25 85 ' 7 60 Raw Score: Mean 16.62 S.D. 8.15 Number of Students - 321 (92% of entire NLSD grade 5 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 116 GRADE 5 TABLE 7 Northern Lights School D i v i s i o n Norms for Grade 5 Students tested i n the F a l l on the Comprehension Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Editi o n , Level D, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 89 7 63 2 1 1 30 27 90 8 64 3 1 1 31 28 92 8 66 4 1 1 33 29 93 8 67 5 2 1 34 30 94 8 69 6 • .3 1 36 31 94 8 70 7 4 1 37 32 95 8 71 8 ' 7 2 38 33 96 8 73 9 12 3 40 34 97 9 74 10 17 3 41 35 97 9 75 11 23 3 42 36 98 9 77 12 29 4 44 37 99 9 78 13 36 4 45 38 99 9 80 14 43 5 47 39 99 • 9 81 15 49 5 48 40 99 9 82 16 55 5 49 41 99 9 84 17 62 6 51 42 99 9 85 18 67 6 52 43 19 71 6 53 20 75 6 55 21 78 7 56 22 80 7 58 23 83 7 59 24 86 7 60 25 87 7 62 Raw Score: Blanks for derived scores at the 16 49 extreme ranges opf the scale indicate e a n * that the corresponding raw scores S.D. 7.27 ' were not obtained i n the standard- Number of Students - 316 (90% of i z a t i o n . entire NLSD grade 5 population) 117 GRADE 5 TABLE 8 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 5 Students tested in the Fall on the Reading Total of the Gates-MacGintie Reading Tests - Canadian - Edition, Level D, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 36 4 45 2 27 40 4 46 3 28 44 5 46 • ' 4 29 48 5 47 . 5 1 1 30 30 52 5 48 6 1 1 31 31 • 55 5 48 7 • 1 . 1 32 32 57 5 49 8 1 1 32 33 . 60 5 50 9 1 1 33 34 64 6 51 10 1 1 34 35 66 6 51 11 2 1 34 36 . 67 6 52 12 2 1 35 37 70 6 53 13 2 1 36 38 72 6 53 14 3 . 1 37 39 73 6 ' 54 15 4 1 37 40 75 6 55 - 16 5 2 38 41 76 6 55 • 17 6 2- 39 42 77 6 56 18 9 2 39 43 79 7 57 19 11 2 40 44 81 7 - 58 20 . 14 3 41 45 83 7 58 21 . 17 3 41 46 84 7 59 22 20 3 42 47 85 7 60 23 24 4 43 48 86 7 60 24 . 28 4 44 49 86 7 61 25 31 4 44 50 87 7 62 118 TABLE 8 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores' Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T ' Raw Score PR Sta T 51 87 7 62 76 99 9 80 52 87 7 63 77 99 9 81 53 88 7 64 78 99 9 81 54 90 8 65 79 99 9 • 82 55 90 8 65 80 99 9 83 56 91 8 66 81 99 9 83 57 91 8 67 82 99 9 84 58 92 8 67 83 99 . 9 85 ' 59 93 8 68 84 99 9 86 60 .94- 8 . 69 85 99 9 86 61 94 8 69 86 99 9 87 62 95 8 70 87 63- 95 8 71 88 64 96 8 72 65 96 8 72 66 96 8 73 67 96 8 74 68 97 9 74 69 97 9 75 70 98 9 76 71 98 9 76 72 98 9 77 .73 98 9 78 74 98 9 79 75 99 9 79 Raw Score: Mean S.D. 33.17 14.29 Number of Students - 316 (90% of entire NLSD grade 5 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not obtained in the' standard- ization . 119 GRADE 5 TABLE 9 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 5 Students tested in the Fall on the Mathematics Computation Subtest of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, Level 10, Form 6. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 , 57 5 52 2 27 61 6 53 3 1 1 26 28 65 6 55 4 1 1 27 29 68 6 56 5 1 1 28 30 71 6 57 6 1 1 29 •• 31 75 6 58 7 2 . 1 31 32 79 7 59 8 '3 1 32 33 82 7 60 9 4 1 33 34 86 7 61 10 6 2 34 35 89 7 63 11 8 2 35 36 92 8 64 12 10 2 36 37 94 8 65 13 13 3 37 38 95 8 66 14 17 . 3 • 39 39 97 9 67 15 19 3 40 40 99 9 68 16 22 3 41 41 99 9 69 17 25 4 42 42 18 28 4 43 19 32 4 44 20 . 34 4 45 21 37 • 4 47 22 40 4 48 23 43 5 49 24 46 5 50 25 • 52 5 51 Raw Score: Mean 23.97 S.D. 8.74 Number of Students - 316 (90% of entire NLSD grade 5 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 120 GRADE 5 TABLE 10 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 5 Students tested in the Fall on the Otis Lennon School Ability Test, Elementary, Form R. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 33 4 45 2 27 36 4 45 3 1 1 26 28 39 4 46 4 1 1 27 29 42 5 • 47 5 1 1 28 30 44 5 48 6 1 1 . 29 .. 31 48 5 49 7 1 1 29 32 50 5 49 8 1 1 30 33 53 5 50 9 1 1 31 34 56 5 51 10 2 1 . 32 35 59 5 52 11 2 1 33 36 62 6 53 12 2 1 33 37 65 6 53 13 3 1 34 38 68 6 54 14 4 1 • 35 39 69 6 55 15 5 2 36 40 72 6 56 16 -7 2 37 41 75 6 57 17 8 2- 37 42 77 6 57 18 11 2 38 43 78 7 58 19 15 3 39 44 80 7 . 59 20 18 3 40 45 82 7 60 21 20 3 41 46 84 7 61 22 •23 3 41 47 86 7 61 23 26 4 42 48 88 7 62 24 ' 28 4 43 49 • 89 7 63 25' • 30 4 44 50 90 S 64 121 TABLE 10 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta 51 92 8 65 52 93 8 65 53 93 8 66 54 94 8 67 55 95 8 68 56 96 8 69 57 96 8 69 58 97 9 70 59 97 9 71 60 98 9 72 61 99 9 73 62 99 9 74 63 99 9 74 64 99 9 75 65 99 9 76 66 99 9 77 67 68 69 70 Raw Score: Mean 32.73 S.D. 12.45 Number of Students - 317 (9U of entire NLSD grade 5 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not obtained in the standard- ization . 122 Grade 7 TABLE 11 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 7 Students tested in the Fall on the Vocabulary Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level D, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. ' Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 51 5 50 2 1 1 24 27 53 5 51 3 1 1 25 28 56 5 . 52 4 1 1 26 29 60 5 53 5 1 1 27 30 65 6 54 6 1 ' 1 28 31 69 6 55 7 1 1 29 32 73 6 56 8 2 1 30 33 76 6 58 9 4. 1 31 34 79 7 59 10 6' 2 32 35 82 7 60 11 6 2 34 36 84 7 61 12 7 2 35 37 85 7 62 13 9 2 : 36 38 87 7 63 14 11 2 37 39 91 ' 8 64 15 13 3 38 40 93 8 65 16 14 3 39 41 96 8 66 17 17 3 40 42 98 9 ' 67 18 20 3 41 43 99 9 68 19 23 3 42 44 99 9 • 70 20 26 4 43 45 99 9 • 71 21 28 4 44 22 32 4 46 23 36 4 47 24 42 5 48 25 48 5 49 Raw Score: Mean 26.06 S.D. 9.17 Number of Students - 216 (83% of entire NLSD grade 7 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 123 Grade 7 TABLE 12 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 7 Students tested in the Fall on the Comprehension Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level D, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 55 5 51 2 27 60 5 52 3 28 62 • 6 53 4 29 66 6 54 . 5 30 70 6 56 6 31 73 6 57 7 1 1 28 32 76 6 58 8 2 1 29 33 80 7 59 9 3 1 31 34 82 7 60 10 4 1 32 35 85 7 62 11 5 2 33 36 87 7 63 12 6 2 34 37 90 8 64 13 7 2 35 38 92 8 65 14 9 2 37 39 95 8 66 15 11 2 38 40 98 9 68 16 - 14 3 39 41 99 9 69 17 17 3 40 42 99 9 . 70 18 20 3 41 43 19 25 4 43 20 29 . 4 44 - 21 32 4 45 22 36 4 46 23 41 5 47 24 46 5 49 25 50 5 50 Raw Score: Mean 25.25 S.D. 8.35 Number of Students - 215 (83% of entire NLSD grade 7 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization . 124 Grade 7 TABLE 13 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 7 Students tested in the Fall on the Reading Total of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level D, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. ' Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 7 2 34 2 27 7 2 35 3 28 8 2 . 36 4 29 10 2 36 5 30 10 2 37 6 31 10 2 38 7 32 12 3 38 8 33 14 3 39 9 s 34 16 3 39 10 35 17 3 40 11 36 18 3 41 12 37 20 3 41 13 1 1 27 38 21 3 42 14 1 1 27 39 22 ' 3 42 15 1 1 28 40 23 3 43 16 1 1 28 41 25 • 4 44 17 1 1 29 42 29 4 44 18 1 1 30 43 31 4 45 19 1 1 30 44 33 4 45 20 2 1 31 45 35 4 ' 46 21 2 1 31 46 38 4 47 . 22 4 1 32 47 40 4 47 23 5 2 33 48 43 5 48 24 6 2 33 49 47 5 49 25 7 2 34 50 50 5 49 125 TABLE 13 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T ' Raw Score PR Sta T 51 52 5 50 76 91 8 65 52 54 5' 50 77 92 8 66 53 56 5 51 78 94 8 66 54 59 5 52 79 96 8 67 55 60 5 52 80 97 9 67 56 62 6 53 81 98 9 68 57 65 6 53 82 98 9 69 58 67 6 54 83 99 9 69 59 68 6 55 84 99 9 70 60 70 6 55 85 99 9 71 61 73 6 56 86 99 9 71 62 75 6 56 87 99 9 72 63 76 6 57 88 64 77 6 5.8 65 77 6 58 66 79 7 59 67. 80 7 60 68 82 7 60 .69 82 7 . 61 70 83 7 61 .. 71 85 7 62 72 86 7 63 73 87 7 63 74 88 7 64 75 89 7 64 Raw Score:. Mean 51.39 S.D. 16.35 Number of Students - 215 (83% of entire NLSD grade 7 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were- not obtained in the standard- ization. 126 Grade 7 TABLE 14 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 7 Students tested in the Fall on the Mathematics Computation Subtest of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, Level 13, Form 6. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. ' Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 30 26 86 7 61 2 1 1 31 27 88 7 62 3 3 1 33 28 90 8 64 4 4 1 34 29 92 8 • 65 5 6 2 35 30 94 8 66 6 8 . 2 36 31 95 8 67 7 10 2 38 32 96 8 ' 69 8 12 3 39 33 97 9 70 9 16 3 40 34 98 9 71 10 •20' 3 41 . 35 98 9 72 11 23 3 43 36 98 9 74 12 28 4 44 37 98 9 75 13 33 4 45 38 99 9 76 14 38 4 46 39 99 . 9 77 15 43 5 47 40 99 9 79 16 49 5 49 41 99 9 80 17 54 5 50 42 99 9 81 18 58 5 51 43 99 9 82 19 62 6 52 44 20 67 6 54 45 21 72 6 55 i 22 75 6 56 23 78 7 57 24 • 81 7 59 25 83 7 60 Raw Score: Mean 17.02 S.D. 8.05 Number of Students - 216 (83% of • entire NLSD grade 7 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 127 Grade 7 TABLE 15 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 7 Students tested in the Fall on the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, Intermediate, Form R Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 25 4 43 2 27 28 4 44 3 28 31 4 44. 4 1 1 27 29 33 4 45 5 1 1 27 30 36 4 46 6 1 1 28 31 38 4 47 7 1 1 29 32 41 5 47 8 1 1 30 33 44 5 48 9 1 1 30 34 48 5 49 10 1 1 31 35 52 5 50 11 1 1 32 36 55 5 50 12 1 1 33 37 58 5 51 13 1 1 33 38 61 6 52 14 2 1 34 39 66 6 53 15 3 1 35 40 69 6 53 16 4 1 36 41 72 6 54 17' 6 2 36 42 75 6 55 18 8 2 37 43 77 6 56 19 9 2 38 44 79 7 ' 56 20 10 2 38 45 80 7 57 " 21 13 3 39 46 82 7 58 22 17 3 40 47 84 7 59 23 20 3 41 48 86 7 59 24 22 3 41 49 87 7 60 25 23 3 42 50 87 7 61 128 TABLE 15 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta 51 88 7 62 76 99 9 80 52 89 7 62 77 99 9 81 53 90 8 63 78 99 9 82 54 90 8 64 79 99 9 82 55 90 8 65 80 99 9 83 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63- 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 90 91 92 93 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 98 99 99 99 99 99 99 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 65 66 67 68 68 69 70 70 71 72 73 73 74 75 76 76 77 78 79 79 Raw Score: Mean 35.46 S.D. 13.44 Number of Students - 206 (80% of entire NLSD grade 7 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not obtained in the' standard- ization . 129 Grade 9 TABLE 16 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 9 Students tested in the Fall on the Vocabulary Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level E, Form 2 Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 73 6 55 2 27 74 6 56 3 28 76 6 57 4 1 1 30 29 78 7 58 5 1 1 31 30 79 7 59 6 1 1 32 31 80 7 60 7 1 1 34 32 82 7 61 8 1 1 35 33 83 7 62 9 2 1 36 34 86 7 63 10 4 1 37 35 89 7 64 11 8 2 38 36 91 8 66 12 13 3 39 37 92 8 67 13 18 3 40 38 94 8 68 14 23 3 41 39 95 •8 69 15 27 4 42 40 96 8 70 16 30 4 43 41 97 9 71 17 33 4 45 42 98 9 72 18 37 4 46 43 98 9 73 19 42 5 47 44 99 9 74 20 49 5 48 45 21 53 5 49 22 57 5 50 23 62 6 51 24 67 6 52 25 70 6 53 Raw Score: Mean 21.90 S.D. 9.04 Number of Students - 157 (84% of entire NLSD grade 9 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 130 Grade 9 TABLE 17 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 9 Students tested in the Fall on the Comprehension Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level E, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. ' Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 53 5 50 2 27 56 5 51 3 28 59 5 52 4 29 62 6 ' 54 5 30 64 6 55 6 31 68 6 56 7 32 74 6 58 8 33 80 • 7 59 9 34 83 7 60 10 1 1 28 35 85 7 62 11 • 1 . 1 30 36 87 7 63 12 2 1 31 37 90 8 64 13 3 1 32 38 93 8 66 14 4 1 34 39 95 • 8 67 15 6 2 35 40 97 9 68 16 9 2 36 41 99 9 69 17 11 2 38 42 99 9 71 18 13 3 39 43 99 9 72 19 17 3 40 20 21 3 42 21 27 4 43 22 32 4 44 23 36 4 46 24 41 5 47 25 47 5 48 Raw Score: Mean 26.36 S.D. 7.51 Number of Students - 157 (84% of . entire NLSD grade 9 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 131 Grade 9 TABLE 18 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 9 Students tested in the Fall on the Reading Total of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level E, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw- Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 5 2 36 2 27 5 2 36 3 28 7 2 37 4 29 10 2 38 5 30 12 3 38 6 31 13 3 39 7 32 14 3 39 8 33 15 3 40 9 34 17 3 41 10 35 18 3 41 11 36 21 3 42 12 37 26 4 43 13 38 29 4 43 14 39 32 4 44 15 40 36 4 45 16 41 39 4 45 17 42 42 5 46 18 43 44 5 ' 47 . 19 44 46 5 47 20 45 47 5 ' 48 21 46 49 5 49 22 1 1 33 47 51 5 49 23 2 1 34 48 53 5 50 24 3 1 34 49 56 5 50 25 . 4 1 35 50 60 5 51 132 Grade 9 TABLE 18 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T ' Raw Score PR Sta T 51 63 6 52 76 93 8 68 52 65 6 52 77 94 8 69 53 67 6 53 78 94 8 69 54 70 6 54 79 95 8 70 55 72 6 54 80 96 8 71 56 73 6 •55 81 97 9 71 57 74 ' 6 56 82 98 9 72 58 75 6 56 83 99 9 73 . 59 76 6 57 84 99 9 73 60 76 m 6 58 85 61 77 •6 58 86 62 78 7 59 87 63 81 7 60 88 64 83 7 60 65 84 7 61 66 84 7 62 67 85 7 62 68 85 7 63 69 87 7 63 70 88 7 64 71 90 8 65 72 91 8 65 73 91 8 66 74 92 8 67 75 93 8 67 Raw Score: Mean 48.23 S.D. 15.46 Number of Students - 155 (83% of entire NLSD grade 9 population) Blanks f o r derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-hot obtained i n the' standard- i z a t i o n . 133 Grade 9 TABLE 19 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 9 Students tested in the Fall on the Mathematics Subtest of the Canadian Testsof Basic Skills, Level 15, Form 5. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta . T 1 26 81 7 58 2 27 85 7 59 3 28 87 7 60 4 29 89 7 61 5 1 1 33 30 91 8 63 6 3 1 34 31 91 8 64 7 5 2 35 32 92 8 65 8 8 2 36 33 92 8 66 9 10 2 37 34 93 8 67 10 13 3 39 35 94 8 69 11 16 3 40 36 95 8 70 12 19 3 41 37 97 9 71 13 24 4 42 38 97 9 72 14 28 4 43 39 97 9 73 15 33 4 45 40 98 9 75 16 38 4 46 41 98 9 76 17. 42 5 47 42 98 9 77 18 46 5 48 43 99 9 ' 78 . 19 50 5 49 44 20 55 5 51 45 . 21 58 5 52 46 22 62 6 53 47 23 68 6 54 48 24 73 6 55 25 . 77 6 57 Raw Score: Mean 19.47 S.D. 8.36 Number of Students - 159 (85% of entire NLSD grade 9 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 134 Grade 9 TABLE 20 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Grade 9 Students tested in the Fall on the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, Advanced, Form R. Precentile Ranks', Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding-to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 44 5 48 2 27 49 5 48 3 28 54 5 -49 4 29 59 5 50 5 30 62 6 51 6 31 64 6 52 7 1 1 30 32 67 6 53 8 1 1 31 33 70 6 54 9 1 1 32 34 72 6 55 10 1 ' 1 33 35 75 6 56 11 2 1 34 36 80 7 57 12 2 1 35 37 84 7 58 13 3 1 35 38 86 7 59 14 4 1 36 39 87 . 7 60 15 5 2 37 40 88 7 61 16 9 2 38 41 88 7 62 17 12 3 39 42 89 7 62 18 14 3 40 43 89 7 63 19 17 3 41 44 90 8 64 20 22 3 42 45 90 8 65 21 27 4 43 46 92 8 66 22 31 4 44 47 94 8 67 23 34 4 45 48 • 95 8 68 24 36 4 46 49 95 8 69 25 39 4 47 50 95 8 70 135 TABLE 20 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Raw Score PR Sta T ' Score PR Sta T 51 96 8 71 76 52 96 8 72 77 53 96 8 73 78 54 97 9 74 79 55 98 9 75 80 56 98 9 75 57 98 9 76 58 98 9 77 • 59 98 9 78 60 99 9 79 61 99 9 80 62 99 9 81 63 99 9 82 64 99 9 83 65 99 9 84 66 99 9 85 67 68 69 70 71 - • 72 73 74 75 Raw Score: Mean 28.63 S.D. 10.75 Number of Students - 152 (81% of entire NLSD grade 9 population) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not obtained in the standard- ization . 136 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years 5 Months TABLE 21 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years 5 Months tested in the Fa l l on the Vocabulary Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level B, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw • Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 32 26 57 5 53 2 2 1 33 27 59 5 54 3 4 1 34 28 62 6 55 4 5 2 35 29 64 6 56 5 7 2 36 30 67 6 56 6 9 2 37 31 70 6 57 7 11 . 2 37 32 73 6 58 8 12 3 38 33 77 6 59 9 13 3 39 34 80 7 60 10 17 3 40 35 82 7 60 11 22 3 41 36 84 7 61 12 25 4 42 37 87 7 62 13 28 4 42 38 88 7 63 14 32 4 43 39 89 7 64 15 35 4 44 40 90 8 65 16 39 4 45 41 92 8 65 17 42 5 46 42 94 8 66 18 44 5 46 43 97 9 67 IS 46 5 47 44 99 9 • 68 20 48 5 48 45 99 9 69 21 50 . 5 49 22 52 5 50 23 53 • 5 51 24 54 5 51 25 56 5 52 Raw Score: Mean 22.32 S.D. 12.14 Number of Students - 150 (83% of entire NLSD population aged 9 years 0 months to 9 years 5 months.) 9 Years 0 Months 137 _ to ~ ' 9 Years 5 Months TABLE 22 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years 5 Months tested in the Pall on the Comprehension Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition Level B, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 30 26 67 6 55 2 1 1 31 27 71 6 56 3 1 1 32 28 74 6 57 4 1 1 33 29 79 7 58 5 2 1 34 30 83 7 59 6 3 1 35 31 83 7 60 7 8 2 36 32 84 7 61 8 11 2 37 33 85 7 62 9 14 3 38 34 87 7 63 10 20 3 39 35 90 8 64 11 24 4 40 36 92 8 65 12 27 4 41 37 94 8 66 13 31 4 42 38 96 8 67 14 32 4 43 39 98 9 68 15 35 4 44 40 99 9 69 16 38 4 45 17 ' 41 5 46 18 , 44 5 47 19 45 5 48 20 47 5 49 21 49 5 50 22 53 5 51 23 56 5 52 24 59 5 53 25 63 6 54 • • Raw Score: Mean 20.63 S.D. 10.01 Number of Students - 149 (83% of entire NLSD population aged 9 years 0 months to 9 years 5 months.) 138 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years 5 Months TABLE 23 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Reading Total of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests - Canadian Edition, Level B, Form 1. - Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 30 4 42 2 1 1 31 27 31 4 43 3 1 1 31 28 33 4 43 4 1 . 1 32 29 34 4 43 5 1 1 32 30 36 4 44 6 i 1 33 31 39 4 44 7 i 1 33 32 40 4 45 8 2 1 34 33 41 5 45 9 .3 1 34 34 42 5 46 10 4 1 35 35 43 5 46. 11 4 1 35 36 44 5 47 12 4 1 36 37 45 5 47 13 5 2 36 38 46 5 48 14 7 2 37 39 46 5 48 15 9 2 37 40 47 5 49 16 9 2 37 41 47 5 49 17 • 10 2 38 42 49 5 50 18 12 3 38 43 50 5 50 . 19 14 . 3 39 44 51 5 ' 50 20 17 3 39 45 52 5 51 21 20 3 40 46 53 5 51 22 22 3 40 47 55 5 52 23 25 4 41 48 57 5 52 24 27 4 41 49 59 5 53 25 28 4 42 50 59 5 53 139 TABLE 23 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw '• Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 51 60 5 54 76 92 8 65 52 61 6 54 77 94 8 66 53 62 6 55 78 95 8 66 54 62 6 55 79 96 8 67 55 63 6 56 80 96 8 67 56 64 6. 56 • 81 97 9 68 57 66 . 6 56 82 98 9 68 58 68 6 57 83 99 9 69 59 72 6 57 84 60 75 6 58 85 61 78 7- 58 62 81 7 59 63 82 7 59 64 82 7 60 65 82 7 60 66 82 7 61 67 83 7 61 68 83 7 62 69 84 7 62 70 87 7 62 71 88 7 63 72 89 7 63 73 90 8 64 74 91 8 64 75 91 8 65 Raw Score: Blanks for derived scores at the Mean S.D. 43.05 21.57 Number of Students - 147 (82% of entire NLSD population aged 9 years 0 months to 9 years 5 months.) extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 140 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years' 5 Months TABLE 24 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years 5 Months tested i n the F a l l on the Mathematics Computation Subtest of the Canadian Testsof Basic S k i l l s , Level 7, Form 5. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta 1 2 3 4 1 1 15 5 1 1 17 6 1 1 19 7 1 1 21 8 2 1 23 9 3 1 25 10 4 1 27 11 6 2 29 12 8 2 31 13 10 2 33 14 11 2 35 15 12 3 37 16 14 3 40 17 17 3 42 18 20 3 44 19 26 . 4 46 20 32 4 48 21 39 4 50 22 47 5 52 23 55 ' 5 54 24 65 6 56 25 80 7 58 26 94 60 Raw Score: Mean 21.03 S.D. 4.82 Number of Students - 145 entire NLSD population aged 9 years 0 months to 9 years 5 months.) % of Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained i n the standard- ization. 141 9 Years 0 Months to * 9 Years 5 Months TABLE 25 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 9 Years 0 Months to 9 Years 5 Months tested in the F a l l on the Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y Test, Primary I I , Form R. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 15 3 40 2 27 17 3 40 3 28 19 3 41 4 29 21 3 42 5. 30 25 4 43 6 i • 1 26 31 28 4 43 7 1 1 27 32 29 4 44 8 1 1 28 33 33 4 45 9 • 1 1 28 34 36 4 45 10 1 1 29 35 37 4 46 11 1 1 30 36 39 4 47 12 1 1 30 37 43 5 47 13 2 1 31 38 47 5 48 14 2 1 32 39 50 5 49 15 3 1 32 40 53 5 49 16 3 1 33 41 55 5 50 17 4 1 34 42 57 5 51 18 5 2 34 43 58 5 51 . 19 8 . 2 35 44 59 5 ' 52 20 8 2 36 45 62 6 53 21 8 2 36 46 64 6 53 22 9 2 37 47 65 6 54 23 10 2 38 48 66 6 55 24 12 3 38 49 69 6 55 25 14 3 39 50 70 6 56 142 TABLE 25 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta T 51 72 6 57 52 74 6 57 53 77 6 58 54 78 7 59 55 80 7 60 56 81 7- 60 57 83 7 61 58 85 7 62 59 88 7.. 62 60 90 8 63 61 90 8 64 62 91 8 64 63 92 8 . 65 64 93 8 66 65 94 8 66 66 95 8 67 67 95 8 68 68 95 8 68 69 96 8 69 70 98 9 70 71 99 9 70 72 99 9 71 73 99 9 72 74 99 9 72 75 Raw Score: Mean 41.0 S.D. 14.71 Number of Students - 140 (78% of entire NLSD population aged 9 years 0 months to 9 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were•not obtained in the standard- ization. 143 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5" Months TABLE 26 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Vocabulary Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level D, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 33 26 79 7 58 2 3 1 34 27 82 7 59 3 5 2 35 28 83 7 60 4 6 2 36 29 84 7 61 5 8 2 37 30 86 7 62 6 12 3 38 31 88 7 63 7 15 3 39 32 89 7 64 8 17 3 40 33 92 8 65 9 20 3 41 34 93 8 66 10 25 4 42 35 93 8 67 11 28 4 43 36 95 8 68 12 32 4 44 37 97 9 69 13 36 4 45 38 98 9 70 14 40 4 . 46 39 99 9 71 15 45 5 47 40 99 9 72 16 50 5 48 41 99 9 73 . 17 52 5. 49 42 99 9 74 18 57 5 50 43 99 9 75 19 61 6 51 44 99 9 76 20 64 6 52 45 21 66 6 53 22 68 6 54 23 69 6 55 24 72 6 56 25 76 6 57 Raw Score: Mean 17.70 S.D. 9.94 Number of Students - 130 (72% of entire NLSD population aged 11 years 0 months to 11 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization. 144 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5 Months TABLE 27 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Comprehension Subtest of the Gates-lfecGinitie Reading Tests, Level D, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 2 1 32 26 85 7 62 2 3 1 33 27 86 7 63 3 5 2 34 28 87 7 64 4 6 2 35 29 88 7 65 5 7 2 37 30 90 8 66 6 8 2 38 31 92 8 68 7 10 2 39 32 93 8 69 8 12 3 40 33 95 8 70 9 17 3 41 34 97 9 71 10 23 3 43 35 98 9 72 11 27 4 44 36 99 9 73 12 31 4 45 37 99 9 75 13 35 4 46 38 99 9 76 14 41 5 ' 47 39 99 9 77 15 48 5 48 40 99 9 78 16 55 5 50 41 99 9 79 17 61 6 51 42 18 67 6 52 43 19 71 6 53 20 • 75 6 54 21 78 7 56 22 81 7 57 23 84 7 58 24. 85 7 59 25 85 7 60 0 Raw Score: Mean 16.28 S.D. 8.41 Number of Students - 130 (72% of entire NLSD population aged 11 years 0 months to 11 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization . 145 11 Years 0 Months to " 11 Years 5 Months TABLE 28 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5 Months tested in the Eall on the Reading Total of the Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level D, Form 1. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 34 4 45 2 1 1 32 27 36 4 46 3 1 1 32 28 39 4 . 47 4 2 1 • 33 29 43 5 47 5 3 1 33 30 46 5 48 6 3 1 34 31 50 5 48 7 3 1 34 32 52 5 49 8 3 1 35 33 55 5 49 9 . 4 1 36 34 57 5 50 10 5 2 36 35 58 5 51 11 5 2 37 36 61 6 51 12 6 2 37 37 63 6 52 13 7 2 38 38 65 6 52 14 10 2 38 39 68 ' 6 53 15 14 3 39 40 71 6 53 16 16 3 40 41 73 6 54 17- 17 3 40 42 74 6 55 18 20 3 41 43 74 6 55 19 22 3 41 44 75 6 ' 56 20 22 3 42 45 77 6 56 21 24 4 43 46 78 7 57 22 27 4 43 47 80 7 58 23 28 4 44 48 81 7 58 24 30 4 44 49 82 7 59 25 33 4 45 50 82 7 59 146 TABLE 28 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T ' Raw Score PR Sta T 51 82 7 • 60 76 98 9 74 52 83 7 60 77 99 9 74 53 85 7 61 78 99 9 75 54 86 7 62 79 99 9 75 55 86 7 62 80 99 9 76 56 86 7 63 81 99 9 77 57 86 7 63 82 99 9 77 58 86 7 64 83 99 9 78 ' 59 87 7 64 84 99 9 78 60 89 7 65 85 99 9 79 61 90 8 66 86 62 91 8 66 87 63 92 8 67 88 64 92 8 67 65 94 8 68 66 95 8 68 67 95 8 69 68 96 8 70 69 97 9 70 70 97 9 71 .71 98 9 71 72 98 9 72 73 98 9 72 74 98 9 73 75 98 9 73 Raw Score: Mean 33.98 S.D. 17.36 Number of Students - 130 (72% of entire NLSD population aged 11 years 0 months to 11 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were•not obtained in the standard- ization . 147 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5 Months TABLE 29 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5 Months tested in the Pall on the Mathematics Computation Subtest of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, Level 10, Form 6. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 30 26 52 5 52 2 2 1 31 27 57 5 53 . 3 3 1 32 28 61 6 54 4 6 2 33 29 63 6 55 5 7 2 33 30 65 6 55 6 8 2 34 31 ' 67 6 56 7 9 2 35 32 70 6 57 8 11 2 36 33 72 6 58 9 13 3 37 34 74 6 59 10 15 3 38 35 78 7 60 11 16 3 39 36 83 7 61 12 18 3 40 37 85 7 62 13 20 3 41 38 87 7 62 14 23 3 41 39 90 8 63 15 26 4 42 40 95 8 64 16 29 4 43 41 99 9 65 17 31 4 44 42 18 33 4 45 19 35 4 46 20 39 4 47 21 42 5 48 22 44 5 48 23 45 5 49 24- 46 5 50 25 49 5 51 Raw Score: . Mean 23.79 S.D. 11.39 Number of Students - 126 (70% of entire NLSD population aged 11 years 0 months to 11 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were not obtained in the standard- ization . 0 148 11 Years 0 Months to- l l Years 5 Months TABLE 30 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 11 Years 0 Months to 11 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, Elementary, Form R. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 37 4 45 2 1 1 30 27 40 4 46 3 2 1 31 28 41 5 . 46 4 2 1 32 29 43 5 47 . 5 3 1 32 30 46 5 48 6 ' 3 1 33 31 48 5 48 7 3 1 33 32 50 5 49 8 4 1 • 34 33 52 5 49 9 . 4 1 35 34 52 5 50 10 4 1 35 35 52 5 51 11 5 2 36 36 54 5 51 12 6 2 36 37 56 5 52 13 7 2 37 38 57 5 53 14 8 2 38 39 58 5 53 15 11 2 38 40 60 5 54 16 14 3 39 41 63 6 54 17' 17 3 40 42 64 6 55 18 19 3 40 43 65 6 56 19 24 4 41 44 67 6 ' 56 20 28 4 41 45 70 6 57 21 31 4 42 46 73 6 58 22 33 4 43 47 75 6 58 23 34 4' 43 48 76 6 59 24 35 4 44 49 77 6 59 25 35 4 45 50 79 7 60 149 TABLE 30 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta 51 81 7 ' 61 52 83 7 61 53 86 7 62 54 88 7 63 55 89 7 63 56 90 8 64 57 91 8 64 58 92 8 65 59 93 8 66 60 94 8 66 61 97 9 67 62 99 9 67 63 64 65 66 67. 68 69 70 Raw Score: Mean 33.82 S.D. 16.12 Number of Students - 127 (71% of entire NLSD population aged 11 years 0 months to 11 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not•obtained in the standard- ization . 14 Years 0 Months 150 ' to 14 Years 5 Months TABLE 31 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Vocabulary Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level D, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw •. Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 2 1 32 26 54 5 52 2 3 1 33 27 55 5 53 3 4 1- 34 28 57 5 54 4 4 1 34 29 61 6 55 5 5 2 35 30 64 6 56 6 6 2 36 31 68 6 ' 56 7 10 . 2 37 32 72 6 57 8 14 3 38 33 75 6 58 9 17 3 38 34 78 7 59 10 20 3 39 35 80 7 60 11 22 3 40 36 82 7 60 12 24 4 41 37 83 7 61 13 26 4 42 38 85 7 62 14 29 4 ' 43 39 87 7 63 15 32 4 43 40 90 8 64 16 34 4 44 41 93 8 64 17 38 4 45 42 95 8 65 18 40 4 46 43 97 9 66 19 42 5 47 44 98 9 ' 67 20 43 5 47 45 99 9 68 21 45 5 48 22 47 '. 5 49 23 48 • 5 50 24 50 5 51 25 53 5 51 Raw Score: Mean 23.18 S.D. 12.33 Number of Students - 112 (72% of entire NLSD population Aged 14 years 0 months to 14 years 5 months.) 151 14 Years 0 Months to - .14 Years 5 iMonths TABLE 32 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Comprehension Subtest of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level D, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 28 26 56 5 53 2 1 1 29 27 61 6 54 3 1 1 30 28 65 6 55 4 1 1 31 29 68 6 56 5 2 1 32 30 71 6 57 6 2 1 33 31 74 6 57 7 4 1 34 32 75 6 58 8 6 2 35 33 78 7 59 9 "9 2 36 34 82 7 60 10 11 2 37 35 86 7 61 11 12 3 38 36 88 7 62 12 13 3 39 37 90 8 63 13 16 3 40 38 92 8 64 14 19 3 41 39 94 8 65 15 23 3 42 40 96 8 66 16 . 27 4 43 41 99 9 67 17 32 4 44 42 99 9 68 18 36 4 45 43 19 39 4 46 20 41 ' 5 47 ' 21 43 5 48 22 45 5 49 23 46 5 50 24 47 5 51 25 51 5 52 Raw Score: Mean 23.49 S.D. 10.01 Number of Students - 112 (72% of entire NLSD population Aged 14 years 0 months to 14 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not obtained in the standard- ization. 152 14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 Months TABLE 33 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 Months tested in the Pall on the Reading Total of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Level D, Form 2. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw . Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 1 1 29 26 24 4 41 2 1 1 30 27 24 4 41 3 1 1 30 28 25 4 41 4 1 1 30 29 26 4 42 5 1 1 31 30 27 4 42 6 1 1 31 31 29 4 43 7 2 1 32 32 31 4 43 8 3 1 32 33 34 4 44 9 3 1 33 34 36 4 44 10 4 1 33 35 37 4 45 11 4 1 34 36 38 4 45 12 4 1 34 37 38 4 46 13 4 1 35 38 39 4 46 14 5 2 35 39 • 41 5 47 15 6 2 36 40 43 5 47 16 6 2 36 41 45 5 47 17 7 2 36 42 46 5 48 18 8 2 37 43 46 5 48 19- 10 2 37 44 46 5 ' 49 20 11 2 38 45 47 5 49 21 15 3 38 46 48 5 50 22 17 ' 3 39 47 49 5 50 23 19 ; 3 39 48 50 5 51 24 20 3 40 49 50 5 51 25 22 3 40 50 51 5 52 153 TABLE 33 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta • T 51 53 5 52 76 90 8 64 52 55 5 52 77 92 8 64 53 55 5 53 78 94 8 64 54 58 5 53 79 95 8 65 55 59 5 54 80 96 9 65 56 60 5 54 81 96 8 66 57 64 6 55 82 96 9 66 58 67 6 55 83 96 9 67 59 68 6 56 84 97 9 67 60 70 6 56 85 99 9 68 61 70 6 57 86 99 9 68 62 7.1 6 57 87 63 73 6 . 58 99 64 74 6 58 65 75 6 58 66 77 6 59 67 79 7 59 68 80 7 60 69 80 7 60 70 81 7 61 71 81 7 61 72 84 • 7 62 73 86 7 62 74 88 7 63 75 89 7 63 Raw Score: Mean 46.56 S.D. 21.8G Number of Students - Ho (71% of entire NLSD population Aged 14 years 0 months to 14 years 5 months.) Blanks f o r derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not•obtained i n the standard- i z a t i o n . 154 .14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 'Months TABLE 34 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Mathematics Computation Subtest of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, Level 13, Form 6. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 3 1 34 26 76 6 58 2 5 2 35 27 79 7 59 3 7 2 36 28 82 7 60 4 8 2 37 29 85 7 61 5 10 2 38 30 86 7 62 6 13 3 39 31 87 7 63 7 15 3 40 32 89 7 64 8 18 3 41 33 89 7 65 9 24 4,. 42 34 90 8 66 10 30 4 43 35 93 8 67 11 34 4 ' 44 36 94 8 68 12 37 4 45 37 96 8 69 13 40 4 . 46 38 97 9 70 14 43 5 47 39 98 9 71 15 46 5 48 40 98 9 72 .16 48 5 49 41 99 9 73 17 50 5 50 42 99 9 74 18 54 5 51 43 19 60 5 52 44 20 65 6 52 45 '21 68 6 53 22 70 6 54 23 72 6 55 24 73 6 56 25 75 6 57 Raw Score: Mean 17.41 S.D. 10.43 Number of Students - l l o (71% of entire NLSD population Aged 14 years 0 months to 14 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were-not•obtained in the standard- ization . 155 14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 Months TABLE 35 Northern Lights School Division Norms for Students Aged 14 Years 0 Months to 14 Years 5 Months tested in the Fall on the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test, Intermediate, Form R. Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw . Score PR Sta T Raw Score PR Sta T 1 26 33 4 45 2 27 35 4 45 3 1 1 31 28 36 4 46 4 1 1 31 29 38 4 46 5 1 1 32 30 . 40 4 47 6 2 1 33 31 42 5 48 7 2 1 33 32 45 5 48 8 2 1 34 33 48 5 49 9 3 1 34 34 50 5 49 10 3 1 35 35 52 5 50 11 4 1 36 36 55 5 50 12 5 2 36 37 57 5 51 13 7 2 37 38 59 5 52 14 10 2 37 39 60 5 52 15 12 3 38 40 62 6 53 16 14 3 39 41 65 6 53 17 16 3 39 42 67 6 54 18 19 3 40 43 68 6 55 19 22 3 40 44 68 6 ' 55 20 24 4 41 45 70 6 56 21 24 4 42 46 72 6 56 22 26 . 4 42 47 74 6 57 23 28 • 4 43 48 77 6 58 24 30 4 43 49 79 7 58 25 32 4 44 50 81 7 59 156 TABLE 35 (Cont'd) Percentile Ranks, Stanines, and T-Scores Corresponding to Raw Scores. Raw Score 'PR Sta Raw Score PR Sta 51 83 7 59 52 84 7 60 53 84 7 61 54 85 7 61 55 87 7 62 56 88 7 62 57 88 7 63 58 90 8 64 59 92 8 64 60 93 8 65 61 93 8 65 62 93 8 66 63 94 8 . 66 64 94 8 67 65 94 8 68 66 94 8 68 67 95 8 69 68 96 8 69 69 96 8 70 70. 96 8 71 71 97 • 9 71 72 98 9 72 73 98 9 72 74 99 9 73 75 99 9 74 76 77 78 79 80 99 74 Raw Score: Mean 35.21 S.D. 16.85 Number of Students - 109 (70% of entire NLSD population Aged 14 years 0 months to 14 years 5 months.) Blanks for derived scores at the extreme ranges of the scale indicate that the corresponding raw scores were•not obtained in the standard- ization . 157 TABLE 36 Means and Standard Deviations for Northern Lights School D i v i s i o n Students Aged l6 Years 0 Months t o l6 Years 5 Months on Achievement and School A b i l i t y Tests. TEST N MEAN S.D. Gat es-Mac G i n i t i e Reading Tests L e v e l E, Form 2 Vocabulary 55 18.86 10.29 Comprehension 52 2h.k0 10.03 Reading T o t a l 52 U2.98 19-̂ 5 Canadian Tests of Basic S k i l l s L e v e l 15, Form 5 Mathematics 5̂  16.56 10.1+5 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y Test Advanced, Form R 5̂  25.98 Ik.62 1 58 APPENDIX C INVESTIGATION OF THE READING AND MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENT ABSENTEES 1 59 A l though an e f f o r t was made to as sess a l l s tudents in de s i gna ted grade and age groups, nonresponse d i d e x i s t due to s tudent absentee i sm and some s choo l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . T h i s r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n , "were the ob ta i ned r e s u l t s f o r s tudent s t e s t e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d so that they were not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n ? " . In o rder to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n as to how the group norms in t h i s study might have d i f f e r e d from group norms had a l l the s tudent s in the e i g h t groups been a s se s sed , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made of the read ing and math achievement of the s tudent s absent d u r i n g the f a l l t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . To the extent d i f f e r e n c e s in academic s u c c e s s - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s e x i s t e d between absentees and t e s t e d s t u d e n t s , t h e o r e t i c a l group score d i s t r i b u t i o n s on the t e s t s of i n t e r e s t c o u l d be expected to d i f f e r from those a c t u a l l y o b t a i n e d . T h i s study was l i m i t e d to s tudent s who had been absent from the e n t i r e f a l l norrning s tudy . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s p revented an assessment of the achievement s t a t u s of the few s tudent s from each group who missed on ly a p o r t i o n of the b a t t e r y of t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g the f a l l . A f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e was dev i sed on which teacher s c o u l d a p p r a i s e the read ing and math achievement of the absent s tudents in r e l a t i o n to the t e s t e d s t u d e n t s . In each of the two achievement domains, an absent s tudent was r a t e d by h i s teacher as be ing e i t h e r (1) much worse, (2) worse, (3) about the same, (4) b e t t e r , or (5) much b e t t e r compared to a de s i gna ted t e s t e d s tuden t . The f o l l o w i n g s teps u t i l i z e d in t h i s a p p r a i s a l were as f o l l o w s : A. R e l a t i v e r a t i n g s : 1) A r e l a t i v e comparison was made between an absent student and a de s i gna ted t e s t e d s tudent who scored between the 30th and 70th p e r c e n t i l e ( p r e f e r a b l y at the 50th p e r c e n t i l e l e v e l ) on the r e g i o n a l norms. Used as a r e f e r e n c e pe r son , t h i s t e s t e d s tudent was g iven a r e l a t i v e va lue of " 3 " , and the absent s tudent was g iven a r e l a t i v e r a t i n g of from " 1 " to " 5 " depending upon the a p p r a i s a l of the t e a c h e r . 2) If no t e s t e d s tudent in the 30th to 70th p e r c e n t i l e range c o u l d be found f o r comparat ive purposes , the absent s tudent was compared to a t e s t e d student who scored in the 11th to 29th p e r c e n t i l e range on the r e g i o n a l norms. T h i s t e s t e d student was g i ven a r e l a t i v e va lue of " 2 " . The absent s tudent was then g iven a r a t i n g of " 2 " i f judged by the teacher to be at about the same l e v e l of ach ievement ; a r a t i n g of " 1 " i f worse or much worse than the achievement of the t e s t e d s tudent ; a r a t i n g of " 3 " i f b e t t e r ; and a r a t i n g of " 4 " i f much b e t t e r . The va lue of " 5 " was not u t i l i z e d on the s c a l e in t h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e . 3) S i m i l a r l y , i f no t e s t e d student c o u l d be used 1 60 c o m p a r a t i v e l y from the above range, a t e s t e d student from the 71st to 90th p e r c e n t i l e range was used. T h i s s tudent was g iven a r e l a t i v e va lue of " 4 " . An absent student was then e i t h e r g i ven a r a t i n g of " 4 " i f judged to be of about the same l e v e l , a " 5 " i f b e t t e r or much b e t t e r , a " 3 " i f worse, or a " 2 " i f much worse. The va lue of " 1 " was not u t i l i z e d in t h i s c a s e . 4) If no t e s t e d student c o u l d be found f o r comparat ive purposes in any of the above p e r c e n t i l e ranges, one was chosen who scored from the 1st to 10th p e r c e n t i l e on the r e g i o n a l norms. T h i s s tudent was g iven a r e l a t i v e v a l ue of " 1 " . An absent s tudent who was viewed by h i s t eacher to be at the same achievement l e v e l as the t e s t e d s tudent was a l s o g i ven a r a t i n g of " 1 " . A r a t i n g of " 1 " was a l s o g iven i f the student was judged to be worse or much worse in the achievement a r e a . A r a t i n g of " 2 " was g iven i f the s tudent was a p p r a i s e d as be ing b e t t e r , and a " 3 " i f much b e t t e r . Va lues of " 4 " and " 5 " were not u t i l i z e d . 5) Unable to f i n d a t e s t e d s tudent in the above p e r c e n t i l e range, a s tudent was sought who f e l l i n t o the 91st to 99th p e r c e n t i l e range. T h i s s tudent was g i ven a r a t i n g of " 5 " . The absent s tudent was a l s o g iven a r a t i n g of " 5 " i f r a t e d the same or b e t t e r in the achievement area as the t e s t e d s tuden t . A r a t i n g of " 4 " was g i ven i f worse, and a r a t i n g of " 3 " g i ven i f judged to be much worse. Va lues of " 1 " and " 2 " were not c o n s i d e r e d in t h i s c a s e . B. Genera l r a t i n g s : 6) F i n a l l y , where no t e s t e d s tudent s c o u l d be found to compare the absent s tudent t o , a gene ra l r a t i n g was made by h i s t e a c h e r . The teacher was asked to to judge the achievement of the absent s tudent a c c o r d i n g to the t e a c h e r ' s knowledge of the s tudent as a s choo l a c h i e v e r in r ead ing and math. In t h i s c a se , the f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e was c o l l a p s e d to a t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e . T h i s took the form of (3) average, (2) below average, and (4) above average . Whi le s teps two to s i x show i n c r e a s i n g u n d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r e x a c t i n g r e s u l t s , taken in t h e i r e n t i r e t y , i t was b e l i e v e d tha t these data p r o v i d e d a reasonab le gene ra l i n d i c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e s u l t s of the r e l a t i v e and g e n e r a l r a t i n g s were p l o t t e d f o r each group in each achievement a r e a , and a mean of the r e l a t i v e r a t i n g s and a mean combining both r e l a t i v e and gene ra l r a t i n g s were c a l c u l a t e d (see F i g u r e s 1-8). Drawn onto each p l o t was the shape of the d i s t r i b u t i o n based on the r e l a t i v e r a t i n g s . A l s o t r a n s c r i b e d was a h y p o t h e t i c a l expected d i s t r i b u t i o n based on the premise that of the s tudent s who were r e l a t i v e l y r a t e d , 40 percent ( i . e . between the 30th and 70th 161 p e r c e n t i l e s on r e g i o n a l norms) would r e c e i v e a r a t i n g of " 3 " , 20 percen t would r e c e i v e a r a t i n g of " 2 " and "4 " r e s p e c t i v e l y , and on ly 10 percent would each r e c e i v e a r a t i n g of " 1 " and " 5 " . C o n s i d e r i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p l o t s , the means of the d a t a , and the we ight ing of each absentee group ( that i s , the percentage of absentees to t h e i r t o t a l group p o p u l a t i o n ) , c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d . The r e s u l t s g i ve some i n d i c a t i o n that the grade f i v e and n i n e , and age s i x t e e n norms would not have been a f f e c t e d , or a f f e c t e d on ly m i n i m a l l y , had a l l the s tudents been t e s t e d . However, a l s o i n d i c a t e d was that a c e r t a i n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of s tudents not a s ses sed would have scored lower than the ob ta i ned r e g i o n a l means f o r the o ther groups. S p e c i f i c a l l y , grades t h r e e , seven, and the three younger age groups would probab ly have been a f f e c t e d by a downward swing in the norms. T h i s l ower ing of group norms would have produced even g rea te r d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l group means. As t h i s swing would p robab ly have been s l i g h t , the va lue of the ob ta ined norms shou ld be judged a c c o r d i n g l y . 162 FIGURE 1 Illustrations showing the teacher ratings of the grade three absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number of absentees 65 Number of absentees accounted for 61-59* Population size 3̂1 Percentage of absentees in pop. 15.1 Reading x relative ratings UO-38* general ratings 21 expected distribution actual, distribution (relative) Mathematics Rat ing x Mean 2.h (Relative) x- Mean 2.7 (Combined) x Mean 2.6 (Relative) x« Mean 2.8 (Combined) * Number accounted for in Reading, followed by Math. 163 FIGURE 2 Illustrations showing the teacher ratings of the grade five absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number of absentees 26 Number of absentees accounted for 16 Population size 350 Percentage of absentees in pop. T.1* x relative ratings io . general ratings 6 expected distribution actual distribution (relative) Reading Mathematics 5 - Rat ing x Mean 3.2 (Relative) x« Mean 3.1 (Combined) x Mean 3.0 (Relative) x« Mean 2.9 (Combined) 164 FIGURE 3 Illustrations showing the teacher ratings of the grade seven absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number of absentees 40 Number of absentees accounted for A l l Population size 259 Percentage of absentees in pop. 15. ^ x relative ratings 31 general ratings 9 expected distribution actual distribution ' (relative) Reading Mathematics 5 - Rating x Mean 2.3 ( R e l a t i v e ) x» Mean 2.4 (Combined) x Mean 2.3 ( R e l a t i v e ) x« Mean 2.4 (Combined) 165 FIGURE 1* Illustrations showing the teacher ratings of the grade nine absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number of absentees 22 Number of absentees accounted for A l l Population size 187 Percentage of absentees in pop. 11.8 x relative ratings 15 general ratings 7 expected distribution actual distribution (relative) Reading Mathematics Rating x Mean 3.0 (Relative) X' Mean 2.8 (Combined) x Mean 2.^ (Relative) x« Mean 2-7 (Combined) 166 FIGURE 5 Illustrations showing the teacher ratings of the age nine absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number ol absentees 22 Number of absentees accounted for 21 Population size !80 Percentage of absentees in pop. 12.2 x relative ratings 12 general ratings 9 expected distribution actual distribution (relative) Reading Mathematics 5 - Rating x Mean 2.2 (Relative) x» Mean 2.3 (Combined) x Mean 1.9 (Relative) x« Mean 2..1 (Combined) 167 FIGURE 6 Illustrations showing the teacher ratings of the age e l e v e n absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number of absentees <*9 Number of absentees accounted for 31 Population size 180 Percentage of absentees in pop. 27.2 x relative r a t i n g s 7 . general r a t i n g s . 2k expected distribution actual distribution (relative) Reading Mathematics Rating x Mean 2.3 ( R e l a t i v e ) x« Mean 2.9 (Combined) x Mean 2.1 ( R e l a t i v e ) x* Mean 2.6 (Combined) 168 FIGURE 7 Illustrations showing the teacher ratings oi the age fourteen absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number of absentees 1*1 Number of absentees accounted for 31* Population size 156 Percentage of absentees in pop. 26.3 x relative ratings 6 . general ratings 28 expected distribution actual distribution (relative) Reading Rating Mathematics x Mean 2.5 (Relative) x« Mean 2.5 (Combined) x Mean 2.5 (Relative) x» Mean 2.5 (Combined) 169 FIGURE 8 Illustrations showing the teacher ratings of the age sixteen absentees in Reading and Mathematics achievement. Total number of absentees 25 Number of absentees accounted for 17-19* Population size 82- Percentage of absentees in pop. 30.1 x relative ratings 8-10* general ratings 9 expected distribution actual distribution (relative) Reading Rat ing - Mathematics x Mean 2.8 (Relative) x» Mean 2.9 (Combined) x Mean 3.1 (Relative) x« Mean 3.0 (Combined) * Number accounted for in Reading, followed by Math. 1 70 APPENDIX D NLSD TEST RESULT INFORMATION BY AGE Table A Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s on T e s t s of Achievement and School A b i l i t y f o r Students i n Four Age Groups i n the Northern L i g t h s School D i v i s i o n TEST Mean S .D . TEST Mean S.D. 9-0 to 9-5 years of age 11-0.to 11-5 y e a r s of age Gates-MacGi ni t i e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e V o c a b u l a r y B1 150 22 32 12 14 Vo c a b u l a r y D1 130 17 70 9 94 Comprehension B1 149 20 63 12 14 Comprehension D1 130 16 28 8 4 1 Reading T o t a l B1 147 43 05 21 57 Reading T o t a l B2 130 33 98 17 36 CTBS Match Comp. CTBS Math Comp. Level 7, Form 5 145 21 03 4 82 Level 10, Form 6 126 23 79 1 1 39 Otis-Lennon School Otis-Lennon School A b i 1 i t y P r i II R 140 41 0 14 7 1 A b i 1 i t y Ele-R 127 33 82 16 12 14-0 to 14-5 years of age 16-0 to 16-5 y e a r s of age Gates-MacG i n i t i e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e V o c a b u l a r y D2 1 12 23 18 12 33 Vo c a b u l a r y E2 55 18 86 10 29 Comprehension D2 1 12 23 49 10 01 Comprehension E2 52 24 40 10 03 Reading T o t a l D2 1 10 4G 56 21 80 Reading T o t a l E2 52 42 98 19 45 CTBS Match Comp. CTBS Math Comp. Level 13,Form 6 1 10 17 4 1 10 43 Leve1 15,Form 5 54 16 56 10 45 Otis-Lennon School Otis-Lennon School Abi1 i t y Int-R 109 35 21 16 85 A b i 1 i ty Adv-R 54 25 98 14 62 h-1 172 Table B Summary Item S t a t i s t i c s of Achievement and Scholastic A b i l i t y Tests Administered to Students in Four Age Groups in the Northern Lights School Division Test Number of Test I tems Ave. I tem Dif f. Average I tem Discrim. R e l i a b i 1 i t y Coef f ic ient (K-R 20) Standard Error of Meas. 9-0 to 9-5 years Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, B1 45 .496 .683 .952 2.66 Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, B1 40 .516 .642 .937 • 2.51 Gates-MacGinite Reading Total, B1 85 .507 .638 .971 3.67 CTBS Mathematics Computation, 7-5 26 .809 .437 .869 1 .74 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , P r i l l - R 75 .547 .501 .938 3.66 11-0 to 11--5 years Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, D1 45 .393 .563 .929 2.65 Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, D1 43 .379 - - - Gates-MacGinitie Reading Total, D1 88 .386 .501 .950 3.72 CTBS Mathematics, 10-6 42 .567 .698 .954 2.44 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Ele-R 70 .483 .571 .954 3.46 1 73 Table B (cont'd) Test Number of Test I tems Ave. I tem Dif f. Average I tem Discrim. R e l i a b i l i t y Coef f ic ient (K-R 20) Standard Error of Meas. 14-0 to 14--5 years Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, D2 45 .515 .701 .956 2. 59 Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, D2 43 .546 .596 .925 2.74 Gates-MacGin ite Reading Total, D2 88 .529 .634 .970 3.78 CTBS Mathematics Computation, 13-6 45 .387 .590 .940 2.55 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Int-R 80 .440 .540 .953 3.65 16-0 to 16--5 years Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary, E2 45 .419 . 562 .931 2.70 Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension, E2 43 .568 .589 .929 2.67 Gates-MacGin i t ie Reading Total, E2 88 .488 .561 . 961 3.84 CTBS Mathematics, 15-5 48 .348 .542 .933 2.70 Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Adv-R 80 .325 .429 .943 3.49 T a b l e C T e s t Items with Item D i f f i c u l t y L e v e l s Below the Chance L e v e l 1 or Item D i s c r i m i n a t i o n I n d i c e s ' Below .20 on T e s t s of Achievement and S c h o l a s t i c A b i l i t y A d m i n i s t e r e d to Four Age Groups i n the N o r t h e r n L i g h t s School D i v i s i o n 9-0 t o 9-5 y e a r s of age 11-0 to 11-5 y e a r s of age 14-0 to 14-5 y e a r s of age 16-0 to 16-5 y e a r s of age Gates-M< ac Reading T o t a l , B1 Gates-f Hac Readin< 3 T o t a l , D1 Gates- i/lac Readin 3 T o t a l , D2 Gates -Mac Readi ng T o t a l , E2 I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. I tem Number I tem D i f f . I tem D i s c r i m. 45V . 39C . 37C . . 340 .095 . 177 . 162 . 189 . 270 37C . 45V. 44V . 10C . 40C . 42V . 25C . 29C . 31C . . 169 . 123 . 108 . 439 . 200 .115 . 146 . 146 . 162 .086 .090 . 120 .171 . 179 .211 .211 . 240 .331 22C . . 436 .021 38V . 36C . 13V . 45V . . 154 .115 . 346 . 135 .000 . 154 . 154 . 231 CTBS Ma :h Computa : i on, 7-5 CTBS Ma :h Computa t i o n , 10-6 CTBS Ma :h Computa :ion. 13-6 CTBS r Aathemati c 3. 15-5 1 1 . 16 . .890 .931 . 139 . 139 13 . .889 .131 93 . 98 . 89 . 74 . . 073 .073 . 109 . 173 . 106 .213 . 321 . 392 4 1 . 17 . 29 . 38 . 32 . 43 . 45 . 22 . 44 . . 241 . 685 . 148 .111 . 130 .093 . 093 . 130 . 130 .060 . 165 . 203 .214 . 280 . 357 . 357 . 429 . 500 0-L Schc sol Abi 1 i t\. /, P r i l l - R 0-L Scr io o l Ab i 1 i iy, Ele-R 0-L Sci lo o l A b i 1 i ty, Int-R 0-L Scl ioo 1 Ab i 1 i • :y, Adv-R 1a . 27c . 30c. . 900 . 193 . 243 .171 . 229 .600 50. 69 . . 252 . 173 .094 . 156 80. 39 . 73 . 64 . . 138 . 303 .092 . 165 . 185 . 185 '. 333 . 407 79 . 77 . 37 . 42 . 70. 80. 63 . 38 . 78 . 68 . 67 . 39 . 7 1 . 62 . 65 . 35 . 57 . .019 .111 .315 . 333 . 185 .111 . 148 .278 .093 .111 .074 . 185 . 093 . 130 . 130 . 185 . 130 - .077 .060 .12 1 . 126 . 132 . 137 . 137 . 189 . 209 . 209 .2 14 . 280 . 286 . 286 . 286 .423 . 500 Note: c d e s i g n a t e s an item from the Comprehension t e s t ; V d e s i g n a t e s an item from the V o c a b u l a r y t e s t . 1 Based on 1/A, where A i s the number of c h o i c e s f o r an item, and assuming a l l c h o i c e s a re e q u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e . 1 The p o i n t - b i s e r i a 1 c o r r e l a t i o n of the examinees' s c o r e s on an item with the t h e i r t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s . 1 An item with s u b s c r i p t 'a' has come from P a r t I of t h i s t e s t ; an item with s u b s c r i p t 'C has come from P a r t I I I . 1 75 Table D Pearson Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Among Tests Administered to Students in the Northern Lights School Division Within Four Age Groups Test Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 1. G-Mac Vocabulary 2. G-Mac Comprehension 9-0 to 9-5 years: 11-0 to 11-5 years: 14-0 to 14-5 years: 16-0 to 16-5 years: .9085 .7899 .8883 .8209 3. G-Mac Reading Total 9-0 to 9-5 years: 11-0 to 11-5 years: 14-0 to 14-5 years: 16-0 tO 16-5 years: .9812 .9549 .9773 .8941 .9721 .9364 .9654 .9532 4. CTBS Mathematics 9-0 to 9-5 years: 11-0 to 11-5 years: 14-0 to 14-5 years: 16-0 to 16-5 years: .6120 .7053 .6985 .7690 .6274 .6378 .7336 .7110 . 6335 .71 23 .7362 .7091 5. O-L School A b i l i t y 9-0 to 9-5 years: 11-0 to 11-5 years: 14-0 to 14-5 years: 16-0 to 16-5 years: .6501 .7854 .8322 .8091 .7066 .7360 .8688 .7633 .6899 .8079 .8787 .7349 .541 5 .7054 .8332 .8987 1 76 Table E Percentage 1 of Students by Age in the Northern Lights School Division Scoring at or Below Selected Percentile Ranks from the National Standardization of the Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y Test Selected Percentile Ranks from the National Standardization Test 10 20 50 80 9-0 t -o 9-5 3 'ears o: : age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Pri.II-R 39 58 83 95 11-0 to 11-5 years of age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Ele-R 37 52 77 94 14-0 to 14-5 years of age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Int-R 38 59 84 94 16-0 to 16-5 years of age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Adv-R 42 62 86 90 1 The percentages given are equivalent to the NLSD midpoint percentile ranks. 1 77 Table F Results of the One Sample t-Tests For Students Assessed by Age on the Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y Test in the Northern Lights School Division Test NI JSD Nat ional Mean Stan. Dev. Median 1 df t * * 9-0 to 9-5 years of age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Pri.II-R 41 .00 14.71 58 1 39 1 2.87 11-0 to 11-5 years of age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Ele-R 33.82 16.12 49 1 26 9.92 14-0 to 14-5 years of age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Int-R 35.21 1 6.85 53 1 08 1 0.40 16-0 to 16-5 years of age Otis-Lennon School A b i l i t y , Adv-R 25.98 14.62 40 53 7.05 1 The reported median values l i e between the median scores indicated for the X-0 to X-2 years of age and X-3 to X-5 years of age subgroups found under each age (X) in the national norm tables. ** p < .001

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