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Development of the British Columbia quick individual educational test Wormeli, Charles T. 1984

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6 DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRITISH COLOMBIA QUICK INDIVIDUAL EDUCATIONAL TEST by CHARLES T. WORMELI, Jr. B.A., University of Denver, 1968 M.A., University of British Columbia, 1971 M.A., University of British Columbia, 1976 M.A., Simon Fraser University, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION Department of Educational Psychology/Special Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1984 ©Charles T. Wormeli, Jr., 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the required f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representative. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: April, 1984. ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to develop an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c r e e n i n g achievement t e s t to assess academic achievement among B r i t i s h Columbia elementary p u p i l s . In B r i t i s h Columbia there was no i n d i v i d u a l i z e d test standardized f o r use with B r i t i s h Columbia pupils and which was s p e c i f i c a l l y referenced to B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l a and materials. Examiners who administered i n d i v i d u a l i z e d standardized tests had to r e l y s o l e l y on instruments developed i n other c o u n t r i e s and normed on samples drawn from the populations of these countries. Recent research has indicated that such t e s t s are not v a l i d f o r use i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Holmes ( 1 9 8 1 ) found that the predicted means and variances of f i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , s t a n d a r d i z e d i n other countries, d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those of B. C. pu p i l s . Because of the high c o r r e l a t i o n between achievement and s c o r e s on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t achievement t e s t s developed f o r pupils i n other c o u n t r i e s are a l s o not v a l i d f o r use with B. C. p u p i l s . Furthermore, the content of these tests i s not well r e l a t e d to what i s taught i n B. C. schools; scores on these te s t s do not r e f l e c t , as c l o s e l y as they might, p u p i l s ' achievement i n r e l a t i o n to B. C. school c u r r i c u l a and materials. To remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n , an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d screening achievement tes t , the B. C. QUIET, was developed and validated i n the present i i study. Four subtests were proposed: writing dictated words, solving written arithmetic problems, reading isolated words aloud and supplying orally the answers to CLOZE-type reading comprehension items. Items were specifically referenced to B. C. curricula and materials prescribed or authorized by the provincial Ministry of Education for use with elementary pupils. Test development included two tryouts, each designed to examine the clarity of instructions and the efficacy of individual items. The test was normed on approximately 150 pupils at each of grades 1-7. The means were generally linear from grade level to grade level for each subtest; standard deviations were similar from grade level to grade level. All but four of the 26 subtest x grade level combinations showed internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s of .80 or above. A' validation study was performed at grades three and six to determine the abi l i t y of the test to discriminate remedial from non-remedial pupils. At grade three the scores of 91 pupils receiving instruction in reading, spelling and/or arithmetic were compared with the scores of 43 pupils in the norming sample who were not receiving remedial instruction. At grade six 61 remedial pupils were compared with non-remedial pupils. By using subtest scores singly and in combination 79% to 100? of the pupils were correctly classified into the appropriate groups. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page Abstract i i List of Tables v i i List of Figures x Acknowledgements x i I. Introduction 1 The Problem 6 Purpose of the Study 9 Delimitation of the Study 11 Organization of the Thesis 11 II. Review of Literature 13 Assessment 13 Problems i n Screening 18 Screening i n British Columbia 22 Individualized Achievement Batteries Employed i n B.C. 21 ' WRAT 28 PIAT 30 III. Development of the B.C. QUIET 35 Rationale 35 Test Organization and Item Format 38 Item Construction 40 Spelling 41 Arithmetic 42 Word Identification 43 Passage Comprehension 45 Try outs 50 Tryout 1 51 Tryout 2 59 Third Version 62 IV. Methodology 64 Norming Sample Construction 64 iv TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Page Stage I - Schools 65 Stage II - Subjects 72 Test Administrators 74 Test Materials 74 Test Administration 75 Coding 75 Data Analysis 76 Empirical Validation Phase 78 Sample 79 Test Administrators 80 Test Administration 80 Test Materials 80 Coding • 80 Data Analysis 81 V. Results '. 82 Norming 82 Rate of Response 82 Obtained Sample Representativeness 84 Psychometric Properties 84 Preparation of Norms 96 Validation 96 Response Rate 97 Grade 3 Validation 100 Grade 6 Validation 114 Post Hoc Analysis 119 VI. Summary and Conclusions 124 Summary 124 Norming 126 Empirical Validation 127 Limitations of the Study 128 Implications for Practice 131 Directions for Further Research 134 REFERENCES 136 Appendices A. BITCH 100 Items 141 v TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter Page B. First Tryout Item Pool Spelling H3 Arithmetic 147 Word Identification 157 Passage Comprehension 161 C. Correspondence for the Tryouts, the Norming, and the Validation Phases 171 D. Materials Used in the Norming/Validation Phases. . . 213 E. Percentiles Ranks 268 F. Percentages Obtained for the Total Sample Allocation 277 G. Grade 6 Validation Results 281 vi LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Peabody Individual Achievement Test: Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t i e s and Standard Errors of Measurement 32 Table 2. Newland's Assumptions Met by the WRAT and PIAT i n B. C 33 Table 3. Percentages of Minutes/Week Suggested for Instruction i n School Subjects 37 Table 4. Arithmetic Items 44 Table 5. Prescribed and Authorized Materials Used in the Reading Subtests for the Indicated Nominal Grade Levels 46 Table 6. Ginn 720 Words 47 Table 7. Ginn 720 Syllables 47 Table 8. Ginn 720 Polysyllabic Word Ratios 48 Table 9. Ginn 720 Illustration Ratios 48 Table 10. Second Tryout Means, Standard Deviations and Internal Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s by Grade . . . . 61 Table 11. Provincial Enrollment as a Percentage by Grade. . . 69 Table 12. Percent of Regional Enrollment by School and Community Size 70 Table 13. Sample Allocation Within Regions 71 Table 14. Performance Classification 77 Table 15. Rates of Response for Each Grade 83 Table 16. Percentages for Provincial Population Enrollment Obtained Samples by Community Size 85 Table 17. Population and Sample Percentages by Region . . . . 6v i i LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Page Table 18. Sample Percentages by Gender and Grade 86 Table 19. Means, Standard Deviations, Internal Consistency Re l i a b i l i t i e s and Standard Errors of Measurement for Grades 1 - 7 87 Table 20. ANOVA for Subtest for a l l Grades 92 Table 21. Correlations Among Subtests for Grades 1 - 7. • • . 95 Table 22. Numbers and Percentages of the Desired and Obtained Remedial Samples 98 Table 23. Percentages of the Remedial Sample Receiving Instruction in Two or More S k i l l Areas 99 Table 24. Spelling: Grade 3 - Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations for Internal-Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups 102 Table 25. Discriminant Summary - Grade 3 Spelling 103 Table 26. Classification Summary - Grade 3 Spelling 105 Table 27. Reading: Grade 3 - Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations and Internal Consistence R e l i a b i l i t i e s for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups 107 Table 28. Discriminant Summary - Grade 3 Reading 108 Table 29. Classification Summary - Grade 3 Reading 109 Table 30. Arithmetic: Grade 3 - Means, Standard Deviations, and Correlations for Internal Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups. 111 Table 31. Discriminant Summary - Grade 3 Arithmetic 112 Table 32. Classification Summary - Grade 3 Arithmetic . . . . 113 Table 33. Classification•Summary - Grade 6 Spelling 116 v i i i LIST OF TABLES (Continued) Page Table 34. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary - Grade 6 Reading 118 Table 35. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary - Grade 6 Arithmetic . . . . 120 Table 36. Raw Score Cut-Offs Used i n the V a l i d a t i o n Analyses. 122 i x LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. Confirmatory Testing Model 16 Figure 2. Regions of British Columbia 67 Figure 3. Spelling Raw Score Means 88 Figure 4. Arithmetic Raw Score Means 89 Figure 5. Word Identification Raw Score Means 90 Figure 6. Passage Comprehension Raw Score Means 91 Figure 7. The Place of the B. C. QUIET i n Assessment 132 x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thousands of individuals — parents, children, s t a f f of public and private schools, school d i s t r i c t personnel, graduate students and U.B. C. faculty — participated i n the tryouts, validation and norming of the B r i t i s h Columbia QUick Individual Educational Test. Without their goodwill and cooperation, the development of th i s test would have remained merely an idea. I wish to thank Dr. W. T. Rogers who served not only as the chairperson of my committee but also as the methodologist. His guidance and support were decisive i n the d i f f i c u l t moments when the success of this project was held i n abeyance. I acknowledge an equal debt to Dr. "B u f f " Oldridge who contributed not only his time as a member of my committee but also resources of the Education Clinic i n the Faculty of Education. I wish as well to thank Dr. B. Clarke who served as a member of my committee, Dr. J. Conry and Dr. B. Conry, who cri t i q u e d my i n i t i a l items and format, Dr. J. Sherril, who also advised me on items and Dr. E. Goetz who helped with proofreading and test administration. I extend a specia l note of a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. B. Holmes. Without the incentive provided by her dissertation, I would probably not have begun this project. I wish to thank her as well for time spent on test administration. Finally, I wish to thank my fellow graduate students who worked xi many hours without pay as examiners. Their assistance was crucial — especially to the norming phase. x i i -1-CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. A "gas head" i s a person who has a - (a) fast-moving car (b) s t a b l e of " l a c e " (c) " p r o c e s s " (d) h a b i t o f s t e a l i n g ears (e) long j a i l record f o r arson. 2. I f you throw the dice and a 7 i s showing on the top, what i s f a c i n g down? (a) s e v e n (b) snake eyes (c) boxcars (d) l i t t l e joes (e) eleven 3. A h a n d k e r c h i e f head i s - (a) a cool cat (b) a porter (c) an Uncle Tom (d) a hoddi (e) a preacher 4. J a z z p i a n i s t Ahmed Jamal took an A r a b i c name a f t e r becoming r e a l l y famous. P r e v i o u s l y he had some fame w i t h what he c a l l e d h i s " s l a v e name." What was h i s p r e v i o u s name? (a) W i l l i e Lee J a c k s o n (b) Le R o i Jones (c) Wilbur McDougal (d) F r i t z Jones (e) Andy Johnson I t i s l i k e l y t h a t most r e a d e r s would have d i f f i c u l t y answering any of the above items c o r r e c t l y unless they are p a r t of the unique s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n f o r which these items were designed.1 While the test, the Black I n t e l l i g e n c e Test o f C u l t u r a l Homogeneity or BITCH - 100 (Williams, 1972) from which these items were taken was created more to i l l u s t r a t e the presence of c u l t u r a l b i a s e s i n f o r m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s than to p r o v i d e normative measurement, i t occupies what may be regarded as an extreme p o s i t i o n i n t e s t d e s i g n . The BITCH - 100 i s s u i t a b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to i n n e r - c i t y B lack youths, a very s p e c i f i c g r o u p o f p e o p l e . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a s a m p l e o f s i x t e e n - y e a r o l d White youths from West Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia 1 For those readers who must know the correct answers, Appendix A should be consulted. - 2 -would achieve a mean score on the BITCH - 1 0 0 s i m i l a r to the mean score of a sample of sixteen-year old Black youths from St. Louis. The reasons f o r the expected diff e r e n c e are several and r e l a t e both to test content and to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p o p u l a t i o n s of i n t e r e s t . The test items were designed to sample the experiences of a sub c u l t u r e o f North America which has developed i t s own d i a l e c t , vocabulary, apperceptions of the world and hierarchy of s o c i a l values. These subcultural a t t r i b u t e s may be expected to d i f f e r not o n l y from those which are l i k e l y to p r e v a i l i n West Vancouver but from those of most other s o c i a l environments on th i s continent. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d , f o r example, t h a t Black E n g l i s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Black English of disadvantaged c h i l d r e n , has evolved a c o n s i s t e n t m o r p h o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c and p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e unique to s p e c i f i c communities (Sabers & Evard, 1 9 7 9 ) . I f i t were p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n a sample o f Black youths i n St. L o u i s who spoke Standard E n g l i s h and who were o r i e n t e d toward mainstream North American society, i t i s l i k e l y that t h e i r mean score on the BITCH - 100 would s t i l l d i f f e r from the mean score of the West V a n c o u v e r sample because of b i a s o r i g i n a t i n g i n other v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to t h e i r environment, such as socio-economic status, number of s i b l i n g s i n the f a m i l y , f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e l i g i o n (Boocock, 1 9 7 2 ) . Many, i f not most achievement te s t s published i n North America are constructed so that t h e i r c ontent r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l a t t r i b u t e - 3 -( e . g. , r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n ) which i s not g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , demographically or i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c . P u b l i s h e r s develop national norms f o r these tests which further promote independence from the conditions of a l o c a l school system. For example, the Woodcock  Reading Mastery T e s t s was designed to be independent of any s p e c i f i c reading program so that i t could be used i n a v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s (Woodcock, 1 9 7 3 ) - There are economic advantages to t h i s approach as w e l l : ( 1 ) test publishers are able to s e l l t h e i r t e s t s to more j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; and (2) most school systems do not have adequate resources to develop t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l i z e d achievement measures or even to develop l o c a l norms for a published t e s t . Nevertheless, i t i s possible that the independence of t e s t s such as the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests and the Wide Range Achievement  Test (Jastak & Jastak, 1 9 7 8 ) may compromise t h e i r u t i l i t y i n measuring the a c h i e v e m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s i n a s p e c i f i c community. Examiners and teachers are frequently more interes t e d i n understanding a c h i l d ' s academic performance i n r e l a t i o n to his/her own peers than to a remote n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . L o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s are a l l o c a t e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s a c c o r d i n g to l o c a l p r i o r i t i e s and not according to national p r i o r i t i e s . At the very l e a s t l o c a l norms f o r an independent t e s t are important for i t s proper use (APA Standards, 1 9 7 4 ) . W i t h o u t s u c h l o c a l norms and without t e s t content which i s relevant to what i s taught i n l o c a l s c h o o l s , s c r e e n i n g achievement -4-t e s t s may i n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y p u p i l s who r e q u i r e further s p e c i a l educational services (more sophisticated assessment and r e m e d i a t i o n ) . L o c a l e d u c a t i o n a l d o l l a r s may be m i s a l l o c a t e d , to the detriment of i n d i v i d u a l pupils and the educational system, i f academic dev i a n c y i s d e t e r m i n e d by i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t s which are based on national or f o r e i g n educational c u r r i c u l a and normative populations. There i s l i t t l e evidence i n the l i t e r a t u r e that l o c a l norms are obtained f o r more than a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the number of p u b l i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t s used every day i n a l l the j u r i s d i c t i o n s on t h i s continent. Even i f l o c a l norming of an independent t e s t i s c a r r i e d out, such a test i s not designed to measure s p e c i f i c programs applied i n s p e c i f i c j u r i s d i c t i o n s . To the p r o v e r b i a l q u e s t i o n asked of the examiner by the classroom t e a c h e r : "Does t h i s t e s t measure what I teach or what i s taught i n our d i s t r i c t ? " the examiner, even when provid e d with l o c a l norms, can only reply with the hope that the test items sample l o c a l programs with s u f f i c i e n t adequacy to ensure t h a t pupils are not being measured ta n g e n t i a l l y . These issues and problems assume great importance when addressing the q u e s t i o n of t e s t v a l i d i t y . V a l i d i t y has been described as "the most e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of any assessment i n s t r u m e n t " (Brown, 1980, p. 3 ) . Yet i t cannot be determined i n i s o l a t i o n . The statement "X i s a v a l i d t e s t " i s i n i t s e l f meaningless; rather, i t i s necessary to determine i f a test i s v a l i d f o r i t s use. I t i s u n l i k e l y that the BITCH - 100 would be a v a l i d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t f o r the upper middle -5-c l a s s , white community of Oak Bay on Vancouver Island. I t was neither designed f o r nor standardized on that community. To use i t i n Oak Bay (or almost any community outside of St. Louis) would be inappropriate because the i n f e r e n c e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s drawn from the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by c h i l d r e n i n Oak Bay would not be v a l i d . I t i s thus the soundness or truth of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e r i v e d from t e s t s c o r e s which determines the v a l i d i t y of a test (Cronbach, 1971). To use the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests to measure the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f r e c e n t immigrants f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a second language would be c l e a r l y an i n v a l i d use of that t e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the s c o r e s were to be used to determine e l i g i b i l i t y f o r a remedial reading c l a s s . V a l i d i t y i s s i m i l a r to r e l i a b i l i t y i n that i t i s a g e n e r i c term. I t i n c l u d e s t h r e e major t y p e s : content v a l i d i t y , empirical v a l i d i t y and construct v a l i d i t y . The f i r s t r e f e r s to the degree to which a t e s t r e p r e s e n t s the domain or universe of items that i t purports to represent. I t can be determined by expert judgement and/or evidence of l o g i c a l sampling from the defined universe of items. The second r e f e r s to the degree to which a t e s t c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a c r i t e r i o n c o n s i d e r e d to r e p r e s e n t a more d i r e c t or established measure of the behaviour which i s being t e s t e d . I t can be obtained by comparing s c o r e s on both measures and c a l c u l a t i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Construct v a l i d i t y r e f e r s to the degree to which a t e s t r e f l e c t s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e . The determination of t h i s type requires the i n t e g r a t i o n of many studies which may be c o r r e l a t i o n a l , e x p e r i m e n t a l - 6 -or logical (Cronbach, 1971). If validity i s the sine qua non of a test (Cronbach, 1970) and i f a test i s not valid for the purpose for which i t i s employed ( i . e. , i f i t does not possess acceptable levels of validity for the situation i n which i t i s being used), then i t i s at least inappropriate, i f not ir r e s p o n s i b l e , for an examiner to use i t as though i t were valid for that purpose. This caveat illuminates the central issue addressed i n this study: the v a l i d i t y of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d screening achievement tests used i n British Columbia (B. C ) . Neither the content of the screening achievement tests currently in use in this province nor the characteristics of the pupil population i n B. C. schools have been s u f f i c i e n t l y investigated to provide reasonable information on the v a l i d i t y of these tests. While i t would be imprudent to advise a g a i n s t t e s t i n g because of the u n c e r t a i n t y surrounding the appropriateness of these tests for B. C. pupils, i t i s suggested that the r e s u l t s obtained from the use of these tests be interpreted with caution. The Problem The problem addressed i n this study concerned the development of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d screening achievement test suitable for use with elementary pupils i n the province of British Columbia. In the eighth edition of the Mental Measurements Yearbook, 0. K. Buros advised that when groups are to be compared with regard to a -7-variable i t i s inappropriate to use a nationally standardized group test, and that when individuals' performances are to be compared i t is desirable to use an instrument which has been locally standardized (Buros, 1978). If an educator wishes to measure a single pupil's academic achievement, particularly with regard to the procurement of remedial services, i t would be b e t t e r to compare the p u p i l ' s performance to that of other l o c a l pupils than to that of pupils across the country. As i n d i c a t e d above, i t may be d i f f i c u l t to perform t h i s comparison with confidence i n B r i t i s h Columbia because there i s no i n d i v i d u a l i z e d instrument normed on the B. C. pupil population which would permit quick and valid assessment of a child's academic s k i l l s i n r e l a t i o n to what i s taught i n the schools of the province and i n relation to the progress of his/her own peers. Provincial school psychologists and teacher-examiners are in the invidious position of having to use instruments, imported from the United States or from England, whose validity and r e l i a b i l i t y for B. C. pupils are unknown. Supervisors of the Canadian version of the Loree-Thorndike  Intelligence Tests noted that results of the Canadian standardization differed significantly from results obtained during the standardiza-tion of the U. S version (which differs from the Canadian by virtue of one item). Canadian means were higher, and variances were smaller (Wright & Harris, 1972). It i s not unreasonable to expect that there may be differences between the B. C. pupil population and the U. S. - 8 -p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n was confirmed recently i n a study by Holmes (1981) whose r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between U. S. norms and B. C. norms at ages 7.5, 9.5 and 11.5 on several i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Because i n t e l l i g e n c e test scores tend to be p o s i t i v e l y correlated with achievement test scores ( A n a s t a s i , 1976), i t i s reasonable to expect t h a t achievement norms w i l l a l s o d i f f e r between U. S. and Canadian or B. C. pu p i l populations. Beyond t h i s , t h e r e i s a l s o the problem of item content; i f an American achievement test were simply renormed i n our province, the question c i t e d above ("Does t h i s t e s t measure what i s taught i n our system?") would remain unanswered. Currently, when a B. C. examiner i s presented with a c h i l d who i s not doing w e l l i n s c h o o l , t h a t examiner i s l i k e l y to administer an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d screening t e s t s t a n d a r d i z e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s to measure the c h i l d ' s achievement (Education C l i n i c , U. B. C., 1980) because there are no indigenous a l t e r n a t i v e s . The next step i n the assessment may be an i n f o r m a l and lengthy evaluation of the c h i l d ' s performance i n various school subjects, and t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n may i n t u r n be f o l l o w e d by reference to d i s t r i c t or p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a to determine the c h i l d ' s s k i l l l e v e l i n terms of c u r r i c u l a r l e v e l s . At the end o f t h i s o f t e n time-consuming procedure, the examiner s t i l l cannot e a s i l y compare the c h i l d ' s performance to that of other p u p i l s at the same grade l e v e l i n B. C. or the c h i l d ' s school d i s t r i c t . The dec i s i o n to remediate i s l i k e l y to be based on the examiner's opinions -9-and the opinions of other members of an assessment team. Major sources of e r r o r i n t h i s procedure a r e : (1) the use o f t e s t s whose v a l i d i t y i s unknown when applied to B. C. pupils and (2) the examiner's e s t i m a t i o n of the achievement of the c h i l d ' s grade l e v e l peers. The content v a l i d i t y of the American t e s t s i s dubious (most obviously f o r a r i t h m e t i c measures); d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a b l e s such as the e t h n i c compositions of the U. S. and B. C. populations, lengths of school year and c u r r i c u l a are l i k e l y to a f f e c t item content and norms and, t h e r e f o r e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n decisions. The examiner's e s t i m a t i o n of comparative performance depends h e a v i l y on h i s / h e r t r a i n i n g and experience with the l o c a l school population. Purpose of the Study I t i s s u g g e s t e d above t h a t a s o l u t i o n t o the problem of assessing, comparing and c l a s s i f y i n g the academic s k i l l s of i n d i v i d u a l B. C. p u p i l s i s t o d e v e l o p a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d screening instrument based on p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s and s t a n d a r d i z e d on B. C. p u p i l s . I t was to t h i s purpose that t h i s study was d i r e c t e d : the d e v e l o p m e n t , v a l i d a t i o n and norming o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c r e e n i n g t e s t based on c u r r i c u l a and materials i n general use i n the province and normed on p u p i l s i n B. C. elementary s c h o o l s (grades 1 - 7 ) . Investigating the v a l i d i t y of t h i s test and e s t a b l i s h i n g normative s t a t i s t i c s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l assessment and evaluation and research were the primary objectives of the study. -10-I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t f o r the proposed t e s t to be of greatest u t i l i t y i n screening pupils i n elementary schools, Language A r t s and M a t h e m a t i c s s h o u l d be t e s t e d . To t h i s end f o u r s u b t e s t s were suggested: S p e l l i n g , Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Passage Comprehension and A r i t h m e t i c . The t e s t would be normed on B. C. elementary pupils so that the performance of i n d i v i d u a l subjects could be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to grade l e v e l peers who are part of the same geographic, s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l m i l i e u as the s u b j e c t . I t was proposed to e v a l u a t e the power of the test to d i f f e r e n t i a t e low achieving p u p i l s from average or high a c h i e v i n g p u p i l s by comparing t e s t s c o r e s o f remedial and non-remedial pu p i l s . I t was i n t e n d e d t h a t the t e s t would allow the examiner to (1) compare a pupil's performance to that of other B. C. pupils i n the same grade placement; (2) decide i f a p u p i l ' s performance deviates s u f f i c i e n t l y from the average of h i s / h e r peers to be regarded as a b n o r m a l ; a n d (3) e x p l o r e t h e p u p i l ' s p e r f o r m a n c e by t e s t i n g - t h e - l i m i t s of the responses made by the p u p i l . I t was further intended that the test would function p r i m a r i l y as an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c r e e n i n g instrument and, to some degree, as an Informal diagnostic t o o l . I f a c h i l d were to be referred by a teacher f o r poor c l a s s r o o m p e r f o r m a n c e , the p r o p o s e d t e s t c o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o v e r i f y the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s ; s i m i l a r l y , i f a c h i l d obtained a low score on one or more subscales of a classroom-administered group te s t such as the Canadian Test of Basic -11-Sk i l l s (King & Hieronymous, 1975), i t would be desirable to administer the proposed test to confirm the group t e s t r e s u l t s . Beyond c l a s s i f y i n g a pupil's performance r e l a t i v e to the performance of a normative group, the examiner would be encouraged to explore the ch i l d ' s performance through a te s t i n g - t h e - l i m i t s procedure or to consider more sophisticated assessments which are beyond the scope of the proposed test (e. g. , assessment of intelligence or perceptual functioning). Delimitations of the Study The test, as developed, was not designed for use with pupils who had been f o r m a l l y diagnosed as mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or who had a physical handicap which would make i t d i f f i c u l t for them to respond to the test as administered. As well, the test was not designed for use with pupils who had not mastered English s u f f i c i e n t l y well to cope with regular class instruction at their grade placement and/or understand the instructions for a group t e s t such as the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s or the Stanford Achievement Test. Pupils with these l i m i t a t i o n s were excluded from the study. O r g a n i s a t i o n of the Theses In Chapter II a review of literature i s presented with emphasis on screening and assessing academic deviancy. The development of the -12-proposed i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c r e e n i n g achievement test i s described i n Chapter I I I . The methodology f o r the v a l i d a t i o n and normative studies i s described i n Chapter IV. In Chapter V the r e s u l t s of these studies are shown, w h i l e i n Chapter VI these r e s u l t s are summarized, and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r pr a c t i c e , conclusions and recommendations for future research are i n d i c a t e d . - 1 3 -CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter begins with a d e s c r i p t i o n of the process of assessment of individual students, with particular attention given to the screening component of this process. Three issues are considered: the adequacy of test content and standardization, the judgements of examiners and the b a s i c i s s u e of what deviancy i s . Screening procedures i n British Columbia are then considered, followed by an evaluation of two screening tests used in British Columbia. Assessment Included among the important purposes of assessment, as i t relates to testing, are the provision of information to be used for guiding individual pupils (Tyler, 1972) and developing recommendations leading to decisions such as those involved i n placement (Lutey & Copeland, 1982). Knowledge of pupils* academic strengths and weaknesses i s important with regard to planning their educational programs. While there are dangers inherent i n testing (Ebel, 1972; Ysseldyke & Mirkin, 1982), careful and responsible assessment can help to insure that i n d i v i d u a l pupils " w i l l not be lost i n the shuffle" (Dyer, 1961) and that educational opportunities w i l l be extended more on the basis of aptitude than on ancestry or influence. Testing can provide more objective information on which to base c u r r i c u l a r and -14-teaching decisions (Gronlund, 1965; Ebel, 1972). Within educational settings, assessment procedures i n c l u d e screening, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n or placement, program planning, program evaluation and assessment of individual progress (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1981). The f i r s t of these, screening, was the focus of the present study. Screening decisions, according to Salvia and Ysseldyke (1981), involve determination of whether or not a pupil d i f f e r s s u f f i c i e n t l y from his/her peers as to require special attention. Screening tests may be administered by a teacher to a group of pupils or they may be administered individually. "Just as vision and hearing tests are routinely given to i d e n t i f y pupils with v i s u a l or auditory acuity problems.... Achievement tests ... are routinely administered to identify pupils experiencing academic d i f f i c u l t y for whom further diagnostic assessment may be appropriate" (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1981, p. 15). Children i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d during the screening phase of a comprehensive assessment program receive some further service. In the instance of a c h i l d i d e n t i f i e d i n the classroom as having a v i s u a l problem, the immediate further service might consist of referral to the school nurse for confirmation. If a d e f i c i t i s confirmed, a referral to an ophthalmologist may follow for diagnosis and possibly a p r e s c r i p t i o n for an additional "remedial" service, such as the provision of a corrective lens. This three-phase procedure for v i s u a l assessment i s s i m i l a r to -15-that found i n educational settings. First , pupils are screened i n the classroom by the regular teacher with regard to academic s k i l l s ; second, those pupils i d e n t i f i e d by screening as being sufficiently d eviant as to r e q u i r e f u r t h e r assessment are r e f e r r e d f o r individualized testing for confirmation of deviancy and third, pupils with confirmed d e f i c i t s are referred for diagnostic/prescriptive s e r v i c e s . This procedure i s schematically represented by the Confirmatory Testing Model shown in Figure 1. Use of the confirmatory model encourages the efficient allocation of educational resources by h e l p i n g to reduce the number of non-deviant pupils who are referred for diagnostic/prescriptive services. Rather than a l l pupils suspected of deviancy being referred by the classroom teacher d i r e c t l y to sophisticated (and expensive) diagnostic/prescriptive services, those pupils who are not t r u l y deviant are li k e l y to be screened out in stage two. Stage two, while i t involves individualized assessment, i s r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive i f appropriate tes t s are used and i f examiners are adequately trained. Implicit i n this caveat are the use of tests vali d for screening the given population and examiners who are able to interpret the results correctly. Two tests which might be used i n stage two and the a b i l i t y of examiners to identify deviancy are discussed below. Other assessment procedures which employ screening stages have been developed to meet the needs of l o c a l school systems and the children enrolled i n them (Wormeli, 1979). Hammill and Wiederholt -16-Figure 1 - Confirmatory Testing Model [1] i n i t i a l screening identification REGULAR CLASSROOM j -I I I I [2 ] confirmation| of I. deviancy V DEVIANCY IDENTIFIED I ' DEVIANCY ! NOT IDENTIFIED [3] diagnosis/ | prescription! DEFICITS DETERMINED DEFICITS NOT DETERMINED \ I APPROPRIATE | REMEDIATION PROVIDED ' APPROPRIATE I REMEDIATION ! UNAVAILABLE ( 1972) suggested a model In which the regular classroom teacher acts as the primary screening agent because of his/her unique opportunity to observe a child i n a variety of a c t i v i t i e s . The classroom teacher may refer a child to an outside agency (such as a physician) or to a n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l resource-room teacher who acts as a secondary screening agent and deliverer of remedial services. Confirmation of deviancy i s not an e x p l i c i t step i n this procedure except to the extent that the secondary screening agent may wish to include i t . Polley and Ogden (1972) o f f e r a slightly more complex model in which the regular classroom teacher may refer a pupil to an assessment team which immediately evaluates the p u p i l ' s a b i l i t i e s with sophisticated testing and advises on placement. This model requires that the regular class teacher be very skilled at identifying deviant children, lest the time of the assessment team be wasted. Because no confirmatory stage i s involved and because the regular classroom teacher may not have the expertise to screen pupils properly, i t i s plausible that some deviant pupils may not be referred. A l e g a l description of assessment now e x i s t s i n the United States. The federal government i n P. L. 94-142 (U. S. Government, 1975) specifies that m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y evaluation teams are to be involved i n the confirmation of deviancy and that placement decisions are to be made by s p e c i f i e d groups of p r o f e s s i o n a l s . S p e c i f i c comprehensive, unbiased assessment procedures and tests are required by t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . This formalization and l e g a l i z a t i o n of the -18-a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s and the concomitant f u n d i n g t i e s o f s p e c i a l education services to f e d e r a l sources makes c o n f i r m a t i o n of d e v i a n c y a l l the more important i f the best d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds i s to be attained. States and/or d i s t r i c t s which d e l i v e r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s to pupils who do not require them are wasting educational d o l l a r s . Problems i n Screening The s c r e e n i n g instruments employed i n the models described above should i d e n t i f y some normal c h i l d r e n as d e v i a n t ( f a l s e p o s i t i v e s ) r a t h e r than not i d e n t i f y some t r u l y d e v i a n t p u p i l s . I n d i v i d u a l diagnosis must succeed screening i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o n f i r m a t i o n , and v a l i d r e m e d i a l procedures must be a p p l i e d to d e f i c i t s d e f i n e d by diagnostic t e s t i n g ( S a l v i a & Ysseldyke, 1981). Inadequate procedures or measures employed at any one of these phases may destroy the value of the e n t i r e assessment program. T r u l y d e v i a n t c h i l d r e n may be missed by the s c r e e n i n g procedure and w i l l not benefit from whatever remediation i s a v a i l a b l e . Shepherd ( 1983) i n a r e c e n t address to the NCME convention i n Montreal delineated three c e n t r a l i s s u e s with r e g a r d to assessment: (1) the t e c h n i c a l adequacy of t e s t s ; (2) the adequacy of i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of t e s t r e s u l t s and (3) the question of what deviancy i s . Most t e s t s , she noted, do not meet minimum standards set by the American Psychological Association f o r v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , but, worse, "many c l i n i c i a n s a r e unaware of the d i f f e r e n c e between -19-t e c h n i c a l l y adequate and inadequate t e s t s " and "often select technically inadequate measures even when more v a l i d instruments are available" (Shepherd, 1983, p. 4). The use of technically inadequate measures might be defended on the basis that there are so few technic a l l y adequate t e s t s that examiners must use some inadequate tests to objectively investigate certain learning processes, such as auditory perception. But the use of such measures i s compounded by what Shepherd described as "inaccurate conventional wisdom" applied to the interpretation of test results. In this regard Ysseldyke and Pianta (1983) report that given profiles of scores on psychometric measures, a group of psychologists and special education teachers d i f f e r e n t i a t e d low-achievers from "learning disabled" pupils with 50% accuracy while naive judges obtained a 75% hit rate. One explanation for inaccurate diagnosis was advanced by Shepherd (1983). She suggested that examiners who evaluate only referred children are l i k e l y to be unable to appreciate the wide variation in the a b i l i t i e s of normal children. This leads to the thi r d issue discussed by Shepherd: the definition of deviancy. Special education services are provided for children who deviate s u f f i c i e n t l y from some peer group (appropriate for the ab i l i t y or characteristic being measured and appropriate for the children being evaluated) as to require educational treatment beyond the capacity of the regular classroom. How deviant must a chi l d ' s a b i l i t i e s be to -20-require special education treatment? One grade level equivalent below the child's grade placement? One standard deviation? Two standard deviations? Any percentile below the 50th? The dangers inherent in the use of grade level equivalents are well known (Angoff, 1971). but Shepherd (1983) reported that many clinicians s t i l l use such scores. The AAMD definition of mental retardation uses two standard deviations below the mean for an individual's normative peer group as a cut-off point between normal and retarded individuals. P. L. 94-142 employs terms such as " s i g n i f i c a n t l y subaverage", "severe discrepancy" or "cannot be accommodated (in a regular classroom)" but does not define these. Manuals of cer t a i n tests imply that placement of a child's score below the fourth stanine i s cause for concern (for some of these tests the three lowest stanines are coloured with an ominous shade of dark grey or brown). Beyond these caveats l i e the potential hazards of violating the five assumptions underlying psychoeducational assessment as described by Newland (1971). The f i r s t of these involves the assumption that the t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s adequately t r a i n e d f o r the l e v e l of sophistication of testing s/he performs in relation to administration, scoring and interpretation of tests. The second assumes that error w i l l be present but that i t w i l l be relatively small; that i s , i t i s assumed that the test being used i s reliable. The third assumes that the background characteristics of the pupil being tested are similar to those on whom the test was standardized. The fourth assumes that -21-the test adequately samples the behaviours which are being measured. The f i f t h assumes that while present behaviour may be observed, future behaviour i s i n f e r r e d , and t h i s i n f e r e n c e depends heavily on satisfying the previous assumptions. Two of these assumptions are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to the question regarding which screening instruments are appropriate for use i n B r i t i s h Columbia and other l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The th i r d assumption requires that the exp e r i e n t i a l background of the pupil being tested be simi l a r to that of the normative group. The fourth assumption requires that test items be related adequately to what a test purports to measure. In the United States research has indicated that several tests may provide faulty information in specific j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Norms f o r the System of Multi-cultural Pluralistic Assessment (Mercer & Lewis, 1978) have been shown to be inaccurate for samples of pupils outside of C a l i f o r n i a (Reschly, 1982). Norms for the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised are, f o r Mexican-American pupils, 2/3 of a standard deviation below the publisher's norms (Kamphaus and Lozano, 1982). It would, of course, be extremely expensive and l o g i s t i c a l l y complex for publishers of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d tests to obtain normative data for each state or province i n North America or for regions within s t a t e s or provinces. This economic "Gordian knot" prevents the publisher of any individualized test from ever t r u l y s a t i s f y i n g the third psychoeducational assumption. -22-Screenina i n B r i t i s h Columbia In B r i t i s h Columbia i t a p p e a r s u n l i k e l y t h a t the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , who has l e s s formal e d u c a t i o n than L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Teachers (Schwartz, 1979), would be able to i d e n t i f y d e v i a n t p u p i l s (as i n P o l l e y and Ogden's model) as well as Learning Assistance Teachers. Referral of pupils i n B r i t i s h Columbia resembles the model of Hammill and Wiederholt and frequently occurs by means of an i n f o r m a l r e q u e s t made by the r e g u l a r classroom teacher to the L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e Teacher (or " n o n - c a t e g o r i c a l resource-room teacher") (Schwartz, 1979). This informal procedure may be performed without f i r m c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of deviant pupils and thus requires the Learning A s s i s t a n c e Teacher to e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r f u r t h e r a s s e s s m e n t and e l i g i b i l i t y f o r r e m e d i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Unfortunately, while Learning Assistance Teachers may be more t r a i n e d i n assessment than r e g u l a r classroom t e a c h e r s , most b e l i e v e that assessment i s an area i n which they need more t r a i n i n g . As a group, L e a r n i n g Assistance Teachers reported they were not f a m i l i a r with 25% i f a l i s t of widely-used d i a g n o s t i c and achievement i n s t r u m e n t s (Schwartz, 1979). D e f i c i t s i n assessment s k i l l s on the part of those who perform the bulk of educational assessment i n B r i t i s h Columbia present two dangers: "one i s that students w i l l be misdiagnosed and inappropriate programs designed for them i n consequence. The other danger i s t h a t s t u d e n t s who do not require remedial programs w i l l be placed i n them, -23-with harmful consequences" (Schwartz, 1979, p. 8). In their role as screening agents, Learning Assistance Teachers employ sundry assessment procedures, including reports from the regular classroom teacher, classroom observation, and formal and informal tests, to confirm the deviancy of a referred pupil. The use of tests may appear to provide a means of a v o i d i n g the dangers described above by Schwartz ( 1979); however, the uncritical use of cer t a i n tests may pose a greater danger i n that (1) inadequate procedures and measures may misidentify children and (2) assumptions underlying psychoeducational assessment may be unknowingly violated. The issue of cut-off points (addressed above, pp. 19-20) has a unique manifestation i n British Columbia. As i n the United States a cut-off point may be circumstantially defined by the varying a b i l i t y and willingness of regular classroom teachers to deal with needs of his/her pupils. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the AAMD d e f i n i t i o n may be employed for placing retarded pupils i n special programs, while somewhat more lenient d e f i n i t i o n s of deviancy may be employed as cut-off points for placing Learning Disabled pupils i n Learning Assistance Centers or similar remedial reading/arithmetic programs (Wormeli, 1979). It i s possible that i n British Columbia pupils may receive some form of remedial instruction i f their achievement scores are one standard deviation from the mean or l e s s . This i s not to suggest that a cut-off score i s the ultimate criterion for assigning a pupil to remedial instruction, but i t does indicate that enrollment in -24-a remedial program i s l i k e l y to be influenced not only by the technical characteristics of tests and the i n t e r p r e t i v e s k i l l s of examiners, but also by such factors as the classroom teacher's a b i l i t y to deal with children's learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , pressures from parents and administrators to label children, and space available in a given remedial setting. In regard to violation of psychoeducational assumptions, there i s evidence that children i n British Columbia differ from the children on whom most of the tests currently i n use i n B r i t i s h Columbia were normed. Administration of f i v e commonly used American and B r i t i s h intelligence tests to a sample of British Columbia pupils at ages 7-5, 9.5 and 11.5 produced means and variances for British Columbia pupils which differed significantly from those of the foreign populations on which these tests were standardized (Holmes, 1981). The means were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher, and the variances were significantly lower. Across Canada, Canadian standardization of the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test yielded significantly higher means and significantly lower variances than those obtained from American norming samples (Technical Supplement, 1972). These findings suggest that the British Columbia pupil population d i f f e r s from the populations used i n standardizing these tests and indicate that the uncritical use of foreign tests with B r i t i s h Columbia pupils may v i o l a t e the th i r d assumption. Possible v i o l a t i o n of the fourth assumption i s suggested by the -25-item content of foreign screening tests used with British Columbia pupils. Arithmetic subtests i n these tests contain items which require knowledge of the English system of measurement (such as pounds and yards) and may not deal with the metric measurement system taught in British Columbia. Other items in the arithmetic section of foreign tests may represent some of the learning outcomes of the B r i t i s h Columbia provincial Mathematics curriculum but present them in unequal proportions and out of sequence. In the f i r s t row of written problems i n the Arithmetic subtest of l e v e l I of the Wide Range Achievement Test (Jastak, 1978) which i s used with pupils up to age 12, there are nine items, of which four may be considered as representing one of the 24 learning outcomes at grade one in the provincial curriculum, four as representing three of 29 outcomes at the grade two level and one as representing an outcome at the grade four l e v e l . Of the 43 written items i n t h i s l e v e l of the WRAT, the largest proportion (20?) represents the grade six l e v e l i n the pr o v i n c i a l curriculum. In contrast the grade three level i s represented by 4? of the items which relate to only one of the 26 grade three l e a r n i n g outcomes. Generally, few of the learning outcomes in the provincial Mathematics Guide are represented by the items i n the WRAT l e v e l I Arithmetic subtest. Foreign S p e l l i n g subtests contain items which are derived from American or B r i t i s h research and experience and which may d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from customary Canadian s p e l l i n g practice. "Sch" may be -26-pronounced i n certain words as one sound in Canada, as opposed to two in the United States, for example, as i n "schedule" or "school". Foreign Reading Subtests contain items which are selected or derived from a potpourri of texts which differ i n content and degree of heterogeneity from the materials prescribed and authorized by the British Columbia Ministry of Education for use i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools. American elementary school texts emphasize the United States historical experience and leaders such as Abraham Lincoln and George Washington. The basal readers used i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools respond to the Canadian h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l environment. Even though most of the vocabulary may be similar to that found i n American texts, i t i s set i n a somewhat different context. While i t may be argued that i t i s better to use foreign tests than no tests at a l l to provide at least some orderly, objective evidence of deviancy or non-deviancy, i t i s i n the appearance of objectivity that a more subtle danger may be found. Numbers, once recorded, may "take on a l i f e of their own" and, though based on what may be f a u l t y or i n v a l i d premises, may be accepted as paramount indicators of deviancy or non-deviancy. For example, a raw score of 85 for an 11.5 year old child on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test p l a c e s him/her at the 56th p e r c e n t i l e of the United States standardization group. This i s the ninth percentile of h i s / h e r B r i t i s h Columbia age peers, or one standard deviation below the B. C. mean, according to the data compiled by Holmes (1981). An examiner -27-who administers the PPVT to an 11.5 year old B. C. child and obtains a raw score of 85 may consider the child as functioning within average l i m i t s f o r h i s / h e r age i f the U. S. norms supplied by the test publisher are used. If other scores obtained by this child on foreign tests during assessment are s i m i l a r l y d i s t o r t e d , the child may be denied the special educational services which would be appropriate for him/her. Individualized Achievement Batteries Employed in B. C. The individualized screening achievement battery most commonly used i n B r i t i s h Columbia by psychologists and educators to determine deviancy i s the Wide Range Achievement Test (Provincial Test Survey, 1980, Schwartz, 1979). Another individualized battery which i s used in Learning Assistance Centers i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s the Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement Test.1 Because of th e i r importance to assessment i n B r i t i s h Columbia these t e s t s are examined f i r s t separately and then together with regard to their general u t i l i t y and to the assumptions discussed above. Wide Ranee Achievement Test (WRAT) The WRAT contains three subtests: Spelling (pupils copy marks i Data on the use of the Peabody Individual Achievement Test in B. C. are not available. It i s , however, very widely used i n the United States (Goh, Teslow & Fuller, 1981), has been seen by the writer in several B. C. schools and i s sold i n Canada through Psycan, a Canadian a f f i l i a t e of American Guidance Service. -28-r e s e m b l i n g l e t t e r s , w r i t e t h e i r names and w r i t e s i n g l e words from d i c t a t i o n ) , A r i t h m e t i c ( p u p i l s c o u n t , r e a d numbers, s o l v e o r a l p r o b l e m s and p e r f o r m w r i t t e n c o m p u t a t i o n s ) and Reading ( p u p i l s recognize and name l e t t e r s and pronounce i s o l a t e d words). The WRAT p o s s e s s e s c e r t a i n advantages which may e x p l a i n i t s preeminent p o s i t i o n i n a s s e s s m e n t . I t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o u s e ; a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may be performed by anyone who can read and f o l l o w i t s w r i t t e n d i r e c t i o n s . Previous teaching experience and t r a i n i n g may be an a s s e t , b u t a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time r e q u i r e d i s minimal, and the t a s k s r e q u i r e d a r e l i k e l y t o be f a m i l i a r to a p u p i l . Scoring i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d f o r the S p e l l i n g and A r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t s . P u p i l s provide open-ended w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s f o r these s u b t e s t s and open-ended o r a l responses f o r the Reading subtest. These response modes are s i m i l a r t o t a s k s p u p i l s m i g h t e n c o u n t e r i n a c l a s s r o o m . I t i s a v e r y wide r a n g i n g t e s t ; achievement from kindergarten to adulthood i s measured. I t s purchase p r i c e i s very low r e l a t i v e to other educational t e s t s . In the Seventh Mental Measurement Yearbook M e r v i n (1972) noted t h a t no attempt was made to o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e (U. S.) n a t i o n a l sample f o r the norms, that sample s i z e s d i f f e r from one age s c o r e t o a n o t h e r , t h a t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are questionably high and that v a l i d i t y i n f o r m a t i o n i s s u s p e c t . I n the same M e n t a l Measurements  Yearbook f Thorndike (1972), while acknowledging that the t e s t may have some u t i l i t y i n a c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n when an examiner has no knowledge - 2 9 -of the a b i l i t i e s of a subject, expressed reservations concerning the v a l i d i t y of the WRAT: " i n the domain of v a l i d i t y ... the authors appear to have some b i z a r r e c o n c e p t i o n s , and to engage i n somewhat exotic procedures" (Thorndike, 1 9 7 2 , p. 3 7 ) . Thorndike ( 1 9 7 2 ) noted that the authors of the WRAT assert at one point that v a l i d i t y can only be determined by comparing one test score w i t h t e s t s c o r e s measuring w h o l l y d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s and l a t e r asserted that c r i t e r i a of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y are more v a l i d than e x t e r n a l comparisons. F u r t h e r , he writes that the authors report a " c l i n i c a l f actor a nalysis of the WRAT together with the WISC and the WAIS but pro v i d e such l i t t l e (and confusing) information about the analysis that the ... exact nature of the procedure i s a p p a r e n t l y known only to the authors and God and He may have some uncertainty" (p. 3 7 ) . Thorndike suggested that there are few uses f o r which the test i s j u s t i f i e d . The f a c t that there i s doubt about the representativeness of even i t s U. S. norms s e r v e s m e r e l y t o a m p l i f y c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y of these norms to B r i t i s h Columbia pupils i n regard to Newland's t h i r d assumption. As w e l l , use of the WRAT i n B r i t i s h Columbia with elementary p u p i l s r a i s e s s e r i o u s concerns wi t h r e g a r d to the ass u m p t i o n o f content v a l i d i t y (Newland's fou r t h assumption). The content of the WRAT Arithmetic subtest, as noted (p. 2 5 ) , does not represent what i s taught i n B. C. sc h o o l s . Items i n the S p e l l i n g and Reading subtests -30-also do not reflect what i s taught i n B. C. schools. In the Spelling subtest there are k5 words. Of the f i r s t 20 words, nine are from the grade two level in the prescribed B. C. Spelling text; two are at the grade six level and one i s at the grade seven level. The majority of the words in the subtest may be considered as grade seven or above. A similar pattern may be found i n the Reading subtest: most items are not found i n texts used i n B. C. elementary schools; of those words which may be found in B. C. elementary texts, the representation by grade level i s unbalanced. Peabodv Individual Achievement Test f PIAT) The PIAT i s an individualized screening achievement test designed to assess s k i l l s from pre-school to high s c h o o l . While i t s standardization i s superior to that of the WRAT, and i t s content i s more comprehensive, i t suffers many of the same l i m i t a t i o n s : items are based on U. S. i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials and only U. S. norms are supplied . In addition, the pupil response mode i s entirely oral and predominantly multiple-choice. This may be an asset in dealing with some handicapped children but i t limits the range of performance which may be observed by the examiner. The authors of the PIAT r e j e c t e d the use of s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y techniques because they would l i k e l y produce "spuriously-high" estimates of r e l i a b i l i t y (Dunn and Markwardt, 1970). Instead they retested samples of 50-75 pupils with a one-month - 3 1 -interval between test administrations (Table 1). While the test-retest procedure results i n r e l i a b i l i t y estimates which i n c l u d e s t a b i l i t y over time, i t may i n f a c t produce systematically high estimates because of the involvement of memory and the use of items which depend on s p e c i f i c b i t s of information or s k i l l s . These specifics may become part of the true score rather than error variance and result in an overestimate of r e l i a b i l i t y (Stanley, 1971; Thorndike, 1982). As well, a screening test i s designed to be administered on one occasion to provide information for educational decisions. A r e l i a b i l i t y estimate should describe the accuracy of one test administration with regard to the population which the test s t a t i s t i c s purport to represent. The technical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s presented i n the PIAT Manual are not based on the norming group and do not provide examiners with data to estimate the r e l i a b i l i t y of the test i n regard to what i s surely i t s most frequent use: a single administration to provide information for decision-making. The WRAT and the PIAT in B.C. The norms published with the PIAT are not representative of the B. C. pupil population; their use violates Newland's third assumption, as does the use of the WRAT norms (Table 2). The item content of the PIAT does not represent British Columbia curricula and materials. Its use i n B. C. violates Newland's fourth assumption, as does use of the WRAT. As indicated in Table 2 the r e l i a b i l i t y of either battery has -32-Table 1 Peabody Individual Achievement Test: Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t i e s and Standard Errors of Measurement3 Subtest r XX S.E.M. 1 3 5 8 1 3 5 8 Mathematics .83 .68 .73 .76 2.63 5.14 4.63 5.38 Reading Recognition .89 .94 .89 .87 1.74 2.21 3-90 4.54 Passage Comprehension .78 • 73 .64 .61 2.48 4.90 6.51 7.39 Spelling .55 .78 .53 .75 3.16 4.16 6.38 5.51 General Information • 7cf .77 .88 .83 3.51 5.71 4.21 4.69 a Dunn, L. and Markwardt, F. PIAT Manual, Circle Drive, Minnesota: American Guidance Service,Inc.,1970, pp.44-5. -33-Table 2 Newland's Assumptions Met by the WRAT and PIAT i n B. C. Assumption WRAT PIAT 1) examiner i s adequately trained dk a dk 2) test i s r e l i a b l e i n B. C. dk dk 3) B. C. pupil being tested i s no no si m i l a r to normative group 4) t e s t samples adequately behaviours being measured no no ( i . e . , B.C. materials and/or c u r r i c u l a ) 5) future behaviour can be dk dk in f e r r e d f o r B. C. pupils adk = Don't know -34-not been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r B. C. pupils, and future behaviour of B. C. pupils cannot be i n f e r r e d from th e i r scores on the WRAT or PIAT. N e i t h e r t e s t b a t t e r y c o n t a i n s s o l e l y Canadian items, or items s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to B. C. c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s . They are not normed anywhere i n B r i t i s h Columbia or elsewhere i n Canada, and t h e i r technical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are suspect even when used with p o p u l a t i o n s on which they were s t a n d a r d i z e d . When using them, B. C. examiners must pretend t h a t the American norms are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n B r i t i s h Columbia and th a t the content of these t e s t s adequately samples what i s taught to B. C. pupi l s . Examiners who use these t e s t s to c o n f i r m deviancy i n regard to placement are v i o l a t i n g at lea s t two of the fundamental assumptions underlying psychoeducational assessment and, i n s o f a r as s c o r e s on these t e s t s i n f l u e n c e decisions, may be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the m i s a l l o c a t i o n of educational resources. Use of the PIAT or WRAT i n stage two of the Confirmation Model ( s e e F i g u r e 1) i s l i k e l y t o nega t e t h e r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of examiners at stages two and three by providing them with untrustworthy data. The consequences may i n c l u d e i n a c c u r a t e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f d e v i a n t from non-deviant p u p i l s , reduction i n the c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the d i a g n o s t i c / p r e s c r i p t i v e s e r v i c e s i n stage three and l o w e r i n g of the c r e d i b i l i t y of s p e c i a l educational s e r v i c e s . -35-CHAPTER I I I DEVELOPMENT OF THE B. C. QUIET I n C h a p t e r I t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was p r e s e n t e d : the development, v a l i d a t i o n and norming o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s c r e e n i n g achievement t e s t s u i t a b l e f o r use with elementary p u p i l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In Chapter I I the shortcomings of two t e s t s c u r r e n t l y used were d e s c r i b e d , as w e l l as more general d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the v a l i d i t y o f t e s t s , t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and t h e i r p l a c e i n assessment. The need f o r an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d screening achievement t e s t r e l a t e d by content to what i s taught i n B. C. s c h o o l s and normed on B. C. p u p i l s was underlined. The d e v e l o p m e n t of such a t e s t i s d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e s e n t chapter. An e x p l a n a t i o n of the subj e c t areas to be measured and the fo r m a t o f the t e s t i s succeeded by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the i t e m p o o l . The c h a p t e r i s c o n c l u d e d by a h i s t o r y o f t h e t r y o u t s conducted to examine the nature of the items and i n s t r u c t i o n s and the r e v i s i o n s made as a r e s u l t of these t r y o u t s . Rationale The B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n e x e r t s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e e d u c a t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y p u p i l s t h r o u g h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s and the s e l e c t i o n o f -36-p r e s c r i b e d and a u t h o r i z e d m a t e r i a l s . I n d i v i d u a l school s t a f f s and t e a c h e r s may vary the emphasis p l a c e d on v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l a and the materials used ( e s p e c i a l l y for remedial programs), but generally, e f f o r t s have been made to provide a considerable degree o f u n i f o r m i t y i n the e d u c a t i o n of p u p i l s i n grades 1 - 7 . T h i s suggested t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e to c o n s t r u c t a t e s t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s c h o o l s i f i t were to use p r o v i n c i a l curriculum guides and prescribed or a u t h o r i z e d m a t e r i a l s as sources f o r items. Such a t e s t could be u t i l i z e d by examiners throughout the province. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y was the g e n e s i s of the B. C. QUick Individual Education Test (the B. C. QUIET): to d e v i s e an instrument which was not so c u l t u r a l l y bound as the BITCH 100 and not so independent from l o c a l c u r r i c u l a as most U. S. achievement t e s t s . Tests c u r r e n t l y employed i n B r i t i s h Columbia, such as those reviewed i n Chapter I I , either contain content which d i v e r g e s from m a t e r i a l s and c u r r i c u l a used i n the p r o v i n c e or have a format which does not l e n d i t s e l f e a s i l y to i n d i v i d u a l i z e d assessment. The t e s t was designed to measure achievement i n three general areas t y p i c a l l y associated with i n s t r u c t i o n i n the elementary s c h o o l : r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g and arithmetic. Reading and arithmetic r e f l e c t the two most important s k i l l development areas i n the academic s k i l l s c u r r i c u l a . As shown i n Table 3 over h a l f of each s c h o o l day i s al l o c a t e d to Language Arts and Mathematics f o r grades 1-4, w h i l e i n -37-Table 3 Percentages of Minutes/Week Suggested for Instruction i n School Subjects 3 Grade Subjects 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Language Arts'5 47.7 47.7 45.0 41.0 35.0 32.7 28 .0 Mathematics 11.3 11.3 13.0 14.0 14.0 16.3 16 .3 Social Studies 8.0 8.0 9.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 11 • 3 Science 6.0 8.0 8.0 11 .3 Fine Arts 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12 .0 Physical Education 9.3 9.3 9.3 9-3 9.3 9.3 9 .3 Locally Determined Instruction & Opening Exercises 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6 .7 Recess 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5 .0 Administrative Handbook,. Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, 1981. Unfortunately, a breakdown of Language Arts into activities such as reading and spelling i s not available. -38-grades 5-7 these occupy t o g e t h e r the l a r g e s t single portion of the school day. S p e l l i n g was chosen because i t i s taught formally i n most Language Arts programs and allows an inspection of l e t t e r formation. T e 9 t O r g a n i s a t i o n , a,n<3 item Format S p e l l i n g was s e l e c t e d as the i n i t i a l s u b t e s t . Although each subtest of the B. C. QUIET may be administered i n d e p e n d e n t l y , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the S p e l l i n g subtest would be the most innocuous task w i t h which to begin t e s t i n g . Three p o s s i b l e i t e m f o r m a t s were c o n s i d e r e d f o r the S p e l l i n g S u b t e s t : o r a l multiple choice, written multiple choice and d i c t a t i o n . The l a s t was s e l e c t e d because (1) i t i s most s i m i l a r t o c l a s s r o o m s p e l l i n g t e s t s ; (2) i t a l l o w s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h a n d w r i t i n g ; (3) i t a l l o w s more l a t i t u d e i n the e x p r e s s i o n o f e r r o r s and t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n ; and (4) i t reduces guessing. The protocol i s placed before the p u p i l who i s i n s t r u c t e d to write dictated words. A r i t h m e t i c was s e l e c t e d as the next subtest because the subject already has the protocol before him/her f o r the S p e l l i n g s u b t e s t ; i t was, t h e r e f o r e , convenient to l e a v e the protocol with the pupil to continue the written portion of the B. C. QUIET without i n t e r r u p t i o n . For most A r i t h m e t i c items, a written response mode was selected over a l t e r n a t i v e response modes to more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l events i n the regular classroom, to reduce guessing, and to provide greater l a t i t u d e i n responses. -39-The Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Subtest (reading s i n g l e words o r a l l y ) was included because i t permits a quick i n d i c a t i o n of a s u b j e c t ' s s i g h t v o c a b u l a r y and decoding s k i l l s . The open-ended o r a l response was selected f o r reasons s i m i l a r to those expressed above f o r the S p e l l i n g and A r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t s : i t p a r a l l e l s events i n the classroom more c l o s e l y than other response modes, allows a greater v a r i a t i o n i n the expression of errors and reduces guessing. Because i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y "mechanical" task (at l e a s t , f o r older pupils) and l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demanding t h a n e i t h e r the A r i t h m e t i c or Passage Comprehension subtests, i t was judged to be a su i t a b l e "break" between these l a t t e r subtests. Furthermore, the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Subtest can be used as a screening task f o r the next subtest to the extent that the examiner i s a d v i s e d not to a d m i n i s t e r the Passage Comprehension Subtest i f a subject performs poorly on the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Subtest. The Passage Comprehension Subtest, the fourth and l a s t subtest, was i n c l u d e d to pr o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of a s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y t o understand the meaning(s) of words grouped i n phrases, sentences and paragraphs. A m o d i f i e d CLOZE item format was chosen to r e f l e c t a s u b j e c t ' s a b i l i t y to comprehend c o n t e x t u a l cues e s s e n t i a l to the meaning(s) of a passage. Omitted words were selected on the b a s i s of whether or not t h e i r replacement would show that a subject understood the events or meanings of a passage. For example, c o n s i d e r the sentence: " B i l l rode his b i c y c l e to the barber shop. When he started to go home, he found th a t the had a f l a t t i r e . " The - 4 0 -provision of a correct response, l i k e " b i c y c l e , " "bike" or "front", i s b e l i e v e d to i n d i c a t e t h a t a s u b j e c t probably understands what a b i c y c l e i s and what B i l l was doing with i t . An i n c o r r e c t response, such as " t i r e " or "be", may not by i t s e l f r e v e a l the r e a s o n f o r f a i l i n g the item. Explanations f o r such responses include inadequate v o c a b u l a r y or i n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s y n t a c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the words of the item, and underlying these explanations may be fa c t o r s i n v o l v i n g a subject's l i n g u i s t i c or s o c i a l background or i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . Whatever the cause, f a i l i n g t h i s item and a sequence of s i m i l a r items suggests t h a t m a t e r i a l of t h i s complexity i s l i k e l y to be unsuitable for independent reading by the subject. An open-ended o r a l response mode was also selected f o r t h i s s u b t e s t f o r reasons c i t e d above for the other subtests. An o r a l mode possesses the a d d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s of being q u i c k e r than a w r i t t e n response and of being l e s s i n h i b i t i n g ( i n the instance of a subject who may not know how to write or s p e l l a p a r t i c u l a r answer). Item Construction The content of the B. C. QUIET i s based on p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a guides and m a t e r i a l s p r e s c r i b e d or a u t h o r i z e d by the M i n i s t r y of Education. The construction of each subtest i s described below. For each s u b t e s t the number of items i n i t i a l l y included was greater than the number i n the f i n a l form of the t e s t . Five stages of development were used: (1) i n i t i a l construction; (2) a f i r s t tryout; (3) r e v i s i o n -41-of items and in s t r u c t i o n s ; (4) a second tryout and (5) a second revision before norming was undertaken. The range of nominal item d i f f i c u l t y extended from kindergarten or grade 1 to approximately grade 12 to provide a sufficient range to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r t i f i c i a l l y high basals and a r t i f i c i a l l y low ceilings. Altogether 400 items appeared i n the f i r s t tryout conducted i n March, 1982: 105 i n S pelling, 86 i n Arithmetic, 139 in Word Identification and 70 in Passage Comprehension (Appendix B). Spelling Ten items at each of grades two to seven were randomly selected from Teaching S p e l l i n g , the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t . Items were not developed or selected for grade one because spelling i s not formally taught at that level. The number of items i n the f i r s t tryout pool for each of grades 2-7 allowed for the deletion of up to five items at each grade level while s t i l l providing a reasonable representation at each of these grades in the fi n a l form of the test. Twenty-five items representing grade levels eight through ten were randomly selected from authorized Canadian s p e l l e r s used at the secondary level (see Appendix B). Five letter sound identification items randomly selected from the alphabet were added to the beginning of the test to aid i n the establishment of basals. Fifteen d i f f i c u l t items were added to the end from words i n the Corrective Spelling program which were reported to be d i f f i c u l t for college students to s p e l l (Engleman, -42-1975). These items were added to avoid a r t i f i c i a l l y low c e i l i n g effects. A f u l l description of these items i s found in Appendix B. Arithmetic Items for this subtest were constructed to represent the "core curriculum" learning outcomes for grades one through eleven described i n the B. C. Mathematics Curriculum Guide. The f i r s t tryout pool represented many of the "core" outcomes at each grade level; outcomes which were excluded (such as those which require graphing or drawing) were d i f f i c u l t to present within the format of a paper and pencil test limited by space and time. In the f i r s t tryout pool six oral and 80 written items representing kindergarten to grade 11 were included. Four of the oral items represented three grade one learning outcomes; two represented outcomes which may be taught in kindergarten (counting from one to ten and t e l l i n g which i s more: 9 or 8). Of the written items there were nine at grade 1, representing six outcomes, nine at grade 2 representing eight outcomes, eight at grade 3 representing eight outcomes, 13 at grade 4 representing 13 outcomes, and 18 items at grade 5 representing 18 outcomes. The number of items and outcomes at succeeding grade l e v e l s was sharply diminished, r e f l e c t i n g the growing proportion of outcomes which i s maintained in the curriculum as opposed to the proportion which i s introduced. There were six items at grade 6, six at grade 7, two at grade 8, three at grade 9, four at grade 10 and two at grade 11. -43-The item pool which appeared i n the f i r s t t r y o u t i s shown i n Appendix B. In Table 4 are shown items from Appendix B. The column t o t h e l e f t shows t h e g r a d e l e v e l s a t w h i c h the l e a r n i n g outcomes, s t a t e d i n the c e n t e r column, are to be taught. In the column to the r i g h t are d i s p l a y e d items which were constructed to represent the learning outcomes stated i n the center column. Numbers i n parentheses i n the center column r e f e r to the numbering of outcomes i n the p r o v i n c i a l Mathematics Guide. For example, the t h i r t e e n t h l e a r n i n g outcome f o r g r a d e one i n the Guide i s s o l v i n g simple problems i n v o l v i n g adding or subtracting. One of the items which were constructed to represent that outcome i s 3+2 = . S u f f i c i e n t time was a l l o t t e d d u r i n g the f i r s t t r y o u t f o r p u p i l s to complete the subtest so f a r as they were able. Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n For nominal grade l e v e l d i f f i c u l t i e s of one to seven, items were randomly selected from l e v e l s two to fourteen of the p r e s c r i b e d Ginn 720 s e r i e s f o r grades 1-7- F i f t e e n items were s e l e c t e d from each nominal grade l e v e l . The Ginn 720 s e r i e s was chosen as the source of i t e m s because of the two b a s a l r e a d i n g s e r i e s p r e s c r i b e d by the Ministry of Education i t was r e p o r t e d to be the more popular t e x t ; almost a l l elementary s c h o o l s have ordered i t , as opposed to the -44-Table 4 Arithmetic Items Grade Learning Outcome Item (13) solve simple problem involving addition and subtraction 3 + 2 (6) solve multiplication equations with products to 20 (2) write numerals to 9999 (22a) multiply with a two-figure multiplier 4 x 3 Write four thousand three hundred and twenty nine in numerals: 34 x 78 5 (19b)ii) add common unlike fractions 2. + 1 = 3 6 -45-al t e r n a t i v e Holt, Rinehart series. 1 Thus, items drawn from the Ginn series were believed to be more appropriate for evaluating the oral reading a b i l i t y / s i g h t vocabulary of British Columbia pupils. Items for nominally higher grade l e v e l s were randomly s e l e c t e d from authorized or prescribed l i t e r a t u r e texts used i n the secondary schools (six items for each of grades 8-12) and from the World Book Encyclopedia for items above grade twelve (see Table 5). Passage Comprehension These items were constructed from words used i n the Ginn 720 series and from authorized or prescribed texts used i n grades eight through twelve. Item sentences were designed with a modified cloze technique to assess pupils* understanding of what they were reading and were intended to represent the d i f f i c u l t y levels of the texts. From sample pages randomly drawn from each text the mean numbers of words (Table 6) and s y l l a b l e s (Tables 7 and 8) per sentence were calculated, along with the corresponding standard deviations. The number of i l l u s t r a t i o n s per sentence was also calculated (Table 9). Item sentences were then c o n s t r u c t e d which r e f l e c t e d t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , along with the vocabulary and concepts used i n the texts. For example, item sentences designed to represent l e v e l f i v e i n the Ginn series were written with vocabulary from that text and so 1 Phone conversation with Mr. J. Southwell, Allocation Clerk in the Publications Branch, Ministry of Education, Victoria, B. C., 10 January 1982. -46-Table 5 Prescribed and Authorized Materials Used i n the Reading Subtests for the Indicated Nominal Grade Levels Grade Text 1 A Pocketful of Sunshine. Ginn level 2 1 A Duck i s a Duck. Ginn level 3 1 Helicopters and Gingerbread. Ginn level 4 1- 2 May I Come In? Ginn level 5 One to Grow On. Ginn level 6 2- 3 The Dog Next Door. Ginn level 7 2- 3 How i t i s Nowadays. Ginn level 8 3- 4 Inside Out. Ginn level 9 A Lizard to Start With. Ginn level 10 4- 5 Tell Me How the Sun Rose. Ginn level 11 5- 6 Measure Me Sky. Ginn level 12 6- 7 Mountains Are For Climbing. Ginn level 13 7 To Make a Difference. Ginn level 14 8 The Magnificant Myths of Man 9 Man i n the Expository Mode-2 10 Man i n the Expository Mode-3 11-12 Adventures in English Literature 12 + World Book Encyclopedia a Source: Catalogue of Learning Resources, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Education. a Not prescribed or authorized -47-Table 6 Ginn 720 Words Range of Mean # of S.D. of Ginn Level Word/Sent. Word/Sent. Word/Sent.a 2 1 - 9 4.2 1.5 3 1 - 8 4.9 1.3 4 1 - 15 5.7 3.0 5 1 - 18 6.5 2.7 6 2 - 2 0 7.9 3-7 7 2 - 2 2 9.0 5.2 8 2 - 2 7 10.3 4.8 9 1 - 48 12.3 8.8 10° 11.4 5.9 11b 11.3 6.0 12b 12.3 7.8 13d 13.2 8.2 a Rounded to the nearest tenth. b These texts were considered too complex to obtain reliable ranges. Table 7 Ginn 720 Syllables Range of # of Mean # of Syllables S.D. of Syllables Ginn Level Syllables/Sent. /Sent, i n Sample /Sent, i n Sample 2 1 - 9 4.2 1.5 3 1 - 8 4.9 1.3 4 1 - 19 6.4 3.8 5 2 - 2 3 7.8 3.3 6 2 - 2 7 9.9 4.6 7 2 - 2 7 10.6 5.9 8 4-31 12.8 6.4 9 a 15.3 11.4 10 a 15.3 8.6 11 a 15.3 8.3 12 a 16.3 10.4 13 a 20.8 13-8 These texts were considered too complex to obtain reliable ranges. -48-Table 8 Ginn 720 Polysyllabic Word Ratios Ginn Level Mean # of Polysyllabic Words/Sent. 2 0 3 .1 4 • 7 5 1.6 6 1.8 7 1.7 8 2.3 9 3.1 10 2.6 11 3.0 12 3.2 13 3.4 Table 9 Ginn 720 Illustration Ratios Ginn Level Mean # of Illustrations/Sent. 2 1.3 3 .1 4 .2 5 .2 6 .2 7 .1 8 .1 9 .2 10 .1 11 0 12 0 -49-t h a t the number of words i n a sentence did not exceed one standard deviation from the mean number of words/sentence f o r that l e v e l . Item sentences were a l s o written so that the number of syllables/sentence did not exceed one standard d e v i a t i o n from the mean. As shown i n Tables 7 and 8 the structure of one l e v e l of the Ginn s e r i e s does not necessarily d i f f e r g r e atly from that of an adjacent l e v e l . Vocabulary does, however, d i f f e r , and items were arranged to represent vocabulary l e v e l s i n ascending order. Within nominal grade l e v e l s 1-7, and the parameters l i s t e d above, three item types were constructed: t r a n s p o s i t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and supply. T r a n s p o s i t i o n items c o n t a i n exact answers i n the stimulus ma t e r i a l : the answer i s moved or transposed to the blank space: "Ducks do not r e a d books. Boys and g i r l s read . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n items a l s o c o n t a i n answers i n the stimulus material, but the answer must be changed before i t i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the blank space: The elephant i s hungry. He wants to . Supply items do not contain answers i n the stimulus material; subjects must d e v i s e responses to match the contextual cues contained i n the -50-item: A h e l i c o p t e r goes f a s t . I t w i l l a man to the a i r p o r t . As t h e s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y o f the items i n c r e a s e d , the s e l e c t i o n of item type at each grade l e v e l changed from predominantly t r a n s p o s i t i o n items to predominantly supply items. At nominal grade one only one supply item was i n c l u d e d . By the nominal grade seven l e v e l and beyond, a l l items were designed as supply-type. Seven items were designed f o r each of grades one to seven. For material for grades 8-12, the procedure was changed somewhat. Secondary texts were c o n s i d e r e d too complex to a s s e s s i n the same manner as elementary t e x t s . I s o l a t e d s e c t i o n s were chosen from secondary texts, and item sentences were designed to resemble these. One p r e s c r i b e d grade e i g h t t e x t , one prescribed grade nine text and one a u t h o r i z e d grade ten t e x t were used to b u i l d 15 items, and a f u r t h e r s i x items were b u i l t from the prescribed text used f or grades 11-12, Adventures i n English L i t e r a t u r e . Trvouts The development of the B. C. QUIET i n c l u d e d two fo r m a l t r y o u t s conducted i n f i v e lower mainland d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. -51-Trvout 1 Purpose. The purposes of the f i r s t tryout were to assess the psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the items described above and to evaluate the c l a r i t y , u t i l i t y and convenience of test administration procedures. Sample. The planned sample for the f i r s t tryout was set at 175 with 25 pupils randomly selected from the t o t a l number of pupils enrolled i n the participating schools at each of grades 1-7. This was believed to be the maximum number of pupils which could be tested with the assistance of school staff and graduate students and faculty from the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education. P u p i l s who had been f o r m a l l y assessed as mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or physically handicapped so that they could not respond to the test were excluded from selection. Pupils with poor understanding of English were also excluded. Letters were sent to the parents of pupils randomly selected by the researcher (and not disqualified by t h e i r school p r i n c i p a l s ) requesting their c h i l d ' s participation in the tryout (Appendix C). Eleven schools i n a large lower mainland d i s t r i c t volunteered to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f i r s t tryout. One, according to d i s t r i c t staff, represented a low SES area. To insure a representative sample of a l l SES l e v e l s an additional school, representing a high SES area, was asked to participate and agreed to do so. The remaining 10 schools were l o c a t e d i n SES areas that f e l l i n between these extremes, -52-according to d i s t r i c t s t a f f . The 12 schools enrolled approximately 600 pupils at each grade l e v e l which represents 2555 of the t o t a l d i s t r i c t enrollment. The school d i s t r i c t contained an ethnically diverse population; approximately half was of B r i t i s h o r i g i n ; three percent of French o r i g i n ; 33% were of "other" o r i g i n and 14$ of multiple origins (Statistics Canada, 1981). Test administration. Test administration was performed by school staff, graduate student volunteers, a faculty member of the University of British Columbia and the principal investigator during March, 1982. Test materials. The materials used by examiners i n the f i r s t tryout included a manual of instructions, reading stimulus material, protocols, and a cardboard s t r i p approximately 3" x 8". Examiners were asked to supply pencils, scratch paper, rulers, clipboards and watches. For this tryout the manual of in s t r u c t i o n s was a stapled sheaf of 8 1/2" x 11" paper which was to be fastened to a clipboard held by the examiner. Pupils responded in writing i n the protocol for the S p e l l i n g and A r i t h m e t i c subtests, while the examiner read instructions or dictated items from the manual. When the reading subtests were administered, the protocol was removed from the subject and fastened to the examiner's clipboard. Items for the reading subtests were contained i n another stapled sheaf of 8 1/2" x 11" paper which was placed before the pupil during administration of these subtests. The cardboard s t r i p was placed beneath the starting item for the pupil on the Passage Comprehension subtest and was used to -53-pace the pupil through the subtest (approximately 42 seconds was allowed for each item on the Passage Comprehension subtest). Item c r i t e r i a . The goals for item analysis were to reduce the length of each subtest by deleting unsatisfactory items and to order the items within each subtest from easy to d i f f i c u l t while retaining as far as possible the nominal grade l e v e l order of d i f f i c u l t y . To achieve t h i s the tryout data were analyzed and items were deleted, reordered or rewritten using the following c r i t e r i a : 1. Item d i f f i c u l t y . At each grade level the proportion of pupils passing each item (p) was determined. A range of .2 < p < .8 was established to guide item deletion. Nominal grade l e v e l items were i n i t i a l l y analyzed employing the corresponding grade level of pupils (for example, nominal grade four items were analyzed using grade four pupils). If two or more items had similar p values, then the p values for adjacent grade l e v e l s were included in establishing the psychometric quality of items. 2. Item discrimination. For each item p o i n t - b i s e r i a l correlations of correct responses with subtest scores at each grade level were computed. Items which had low (<.2) or negative correlations with subtest scores were considered for culling. As i n (1) above, nominal grade -54-l e v e l items were analyzed by using the corresponding grade l e v e l of p u p i l s , unless there were t i e s . In t h i s l a t t e r c a s e t h e a d j a c e n t g r a d e l e v e l p o i n t b i s e r i a l s were used. 3. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of retained items. In ad d i t i o n to the psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t e m s , t h e i r c o ntribution to the content v a l i d i t y of each subtest at each grade l e v e l was considered. 4. B a s a l s and c e i l i n g s . Beyond the three c r i t e r i a stated above a f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n was used i n making the d e c i s i o n to r e t a i n , d e l e t e or reorder items. I t was d e s i r e d t h a t the b e g i n n i n g o f each s u b t e s t would c o n t a i n i t e m s o f s u f f i c i e n t ease to a l l o w the establishment of basals, while the end of each subtest, would c o n t a i n items s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f i c u l t to aid i n the establishment of c e i l i n g s . The above c r i t e r i a were applied i n the following manner at each grade l e v e l . F i r s t , psychometric i n d i c e s — p values and p o i n t - b i s e r i a l s — were i n s p e c t e d , and items were placed i n one of two c a t e g o r i e s : ( 1 ) retained and (2) deleted. The retained items were examined to determine whether they adequately represented the content associated w i t h t h a t grade l e v e l . I f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was j u d g e d t o be i n a d e q u a t e , d e l e t e d items were reexamined to determine i f t h e i r -55-i n c l u s i o n would lead to a more representative set of items. Finally, the subtest as a whole, consisting of the seven grade l e v e l sets of items, was examined to determine i f at the grade one level the items were sufficiently easy so as to provide an adequate basal. For subsequent grades, basals were provided by items of the immediately preceding grade. In an analogous fashion, the subtest as a whole was examined to determine i f items after the grade seven level were of sufficient d i f f i c u l t y as to provide an adequate c e i l i n g . For grades 1 - 6, items of succeeding grade levels provided ceilings for each grade. For example, grade five items were intended to provide a c e i l i n g for grade four items. To a s s i s t i n the establishment of basals and c e i l i n g s , items at the beginning of each subtest were allowed to exceed p values of .8, and, at the end of each subtest, items with p values of less than .2 were used. To i l l u s t r a t e the procedures employed the following examples are provided: The f i r s t item shown in Table 4: 3 ±2. had a p value which exceeded .8 at every grade level and also had a negative p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n at every grade l e v e l . Had psychometric c r i t e r i a alone been applied, the item would have been culled. It was retained for three reasons: (1) i t was believed that the f i r s t few items should be easy to i n s p i r e confidence i n the subject; (2) i t represented the addition part of the learning outcome (1-13) s t a t e d i n Table 4, which would not have otherwise been represented; and (3) i t s retention would help i n establishing a basal for some children. At the same time, good psychometric characteristics would not automatically r e s u l t i n the retention of an item. In the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest no. 124, "barometer", a post-grade seven item had p values and point-biserial values within the acceptable ranges. These p values were considered too high for this end of the subtest. To aid i n the establishment of a c e i l i n g , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r item was deleted. For some items the psychometric c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were not straightforward. Item 33 i n the Passage Comprehension subtest (a nominal grade 5 item): Cave people once painted pictures on the walls of the caves i n which they l i v e d . These a r t i s t s drew prehistoric . had an acceptable p value and point biserial coefficient for grade 5 pupils but had low p values for both adjacent grade l e v e l s and a negative p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o e f f i c i e n t at grades six and seven. Furthermore, reconsideration of the item suggested that there was a broader possible range of responses than for many other items. The combination of ambivalent psychometric data and the r e l a t i v e l y broad -57-range of possible responses caused the item to be culled. In summary, the items r e j e c t e d f o r t h e i r p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had to be those which were not important to the content v a l i d i t y of the test or the establishment of basals and c e i l i n g s or the representation of a grade level of instruction or the c u l t i v a t i o n i n a sub j e c t of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a l i t y such as confidence. Culled items were those which could be considered i n some way as redundant. Retained items were those which were considered essential to the above concepts and, where possible, had psychometric characteristics which f e l l within acceptable limits. Scoring and data preparation. Items were i n i t i a l l y scored by the Examiners to assess the effectiveness of instructions and the ease of administration. A l l item responses were rescored by the principal investigator. Errors were found and corrected on less than one percent of responses. Item responses were then coded and entered on computor f i l e s with 100? verification by the Data Entry D i v i s i o n of the Department of Computer Sciences at U. B. C. One-half of the pupil records was checked against the original protocols. No errors were found. Data analysis. Results of the tryout were analyzed with the LERTAP (Nelson,. 1974) software program at the Education Research S e r v i c e Centre of the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia. The proportion of pupils passing each item and p o i n t - b i s e r i a l correlations of each item with the subtest score were -58-computed as described above. Sample p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In the f i r s t t r y o u t 173 p u p i l s participated. Because 16 pupils i n i t i a l l y chosen did not participate, 16 alternate pupils were randomly selected from the total population of the 12 participating schools; but two of these pupils also did not participate. The f i n a l sample contained 25 pupils at each grade level except four and six which contained 24 pupils. Test i n s t r u c t i o n s . A l l i n s t r u c t i o n s were included i n an introduction to the four subtests. Feedback from examiners indicated that this was inconvenient, because i t was necessary to frequently refer back to the beginning of the "manual" for s p e c i f i c subtest instructions. This interrupted test administration. Item results. The above procedures led to the deletion of 138 i t e m s : 45 s p e l l i n g i t e m s , 21 A r i t h m e t i c i t e m s , 49 Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n items and 23 Passage Comprehension items. In the majority of instances, items were deleted because of p values and/or point-biserial values outside the acceptable ranges. The retained items were deemed to be representative of the content to be tested at the seven grade levels. Many of the remaining items were reordered: eight S p e l l i n g items, five Arithmetic items, thirteen Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n items and eighteen Passage Comprehension items. -59-Tryout 2 Purpose. The goals of this tryout were to obtain feedback on the revised test instructions, to check the item c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e t a i n e d items, and to obtain preliminary information on group performances. Sample. Ninety pupils i n four lower mainland dis t r i c t s were to be randomly selected (n = 30 pupils at each grade level: 2, 4, 6), i n 21 randomly selected schools, which agreed to participate. As in the f i r s t tryout principals of participating schools were asked to exclude mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, physically handicapped or English Language handicapped pupils. One upper SES d i s t r i c t was asked to participate and agreed to do so. It was included to examine whether or not the test had sufficient range at the upper end. The three other di s t r i c t s contained a more mixed population. Dis t r i c t s t a f f were consulted to obtain as much range as possible in SES. Pupils were evenly divided by gender. Test administration. Administration was performed by s t a f f of p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools and the principal investigator during May and June, 1982. Test materials. Materials used i n the second tryout were the same form as i n the f i r s t tryout. There were alterations i n content. The revised test for the second tryout contained 267 items: 60 in Spe l l i n g , 65 i n Arithmetic, 90 i n Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and 47 i n Passage Comprehension. -60-Item c r i t e r i a . Item c r i t e r i a remained as in the f i r s t tryout except that the f i r s t two item crtierias were modified to the extent that the p values and p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were considered simultaneously across the three grade l e v e l s assessed i n the second tryout. The other c r i t e r i a remained unchanged. Scoring and data preparation. These procedures were performed as in the f i r s t tryout. Data analysis. Items were analyzed as in the f i r s t tryout. Following the item analysis, group stati s t i c s were calculated for each subtest at each grade l e v e l : means, standard deviations, standard errors of measurement and r e l i a b i l i t i e s . The LERTAP program was used for the f i r s t three s t a t i s t i c s . Reliability was calculated by comparing odd-even scores with the Pearson Correlation subprogram of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Nie, et a l . , 1975) at ERSC and i n f l a t i n g these correlations with the Spearman-Brown formula. Only items administered were used i n calculation of the scores. Sample p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In the second t r y o u t , 82 p u p i l s participated (one school did not complete the testing). The number at each grade i s shown in Table 10. Item r e s u l t s . Unlike the f i r s t tryout where many items were deleted, the emphasis i n the second tryout was i n ensuring that the items were placed i n order of increasing d i f f i c u l t y , p-values were similar to those obtained i n the f i r s t tryout at the three grade -61-Table 10 Second Tryout Means, Standard Deviations and Internal Consistency Rel i a b i l i t i e s by Grade Grade 2 n = 28 4 n = 28 | 6 n = 26 Subtest X S.D. Pxx mm X S.D. r j X S.D. r XX Spelling 20.0 6.8 .90 30.5 5.4 .83 41.1 6.7 .88 Arithmetic 22.7 4.6 .80 36.4 4.2 .57 47.1 5.7 .89 Word Ident 24.4 10.0 .95 58.3 8.1 .90 67-2 10.4 .95 Pass. Comp 13-7 4.5 .82 21.6 4.4 .62 28.2 6.9 .86 -62-l e v e l s . The p o i n t - b i s e r i a l s were e s p e c i a l l y improved ( g i v e n the del e t i o n of poor items). Examination of the p-values at the three grade l e v e l s r e s u l t e d i n the r e o r d e r i n g of 62 S p e l l i n g items, s i x A r i t h m e t i c items, 15 Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n items and nine Passage Comprehension items (one item of the l a s t subtest was also modified). If the p values at two of the three grade l e v e l s were appropriate, the item was not reordered. For the second tryout, test s t a t i s t i c s were s a t i s f a c t o r y . Means increased systematically across grade l e v e l s (Table 10). A l l but two of 12 i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s were at or above .80 for each subtest at each grade l e v e l . T e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s . E x a m i n e r s commented t h a t some of the i n s t r u c t i o n s had been placed before each s u b t e s t were redundant. A dichotomy was e s t a b l i s h e d between general and s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s , and the former were moved back i n t o an introduction to the te s t . Third Version The r e s u l t s of the second tryout were used to further r e v i s e the i t e m p o o l and examiner i n s t r u c t i o n s and procedures. These were incorporated i n t o a new manual of i n s t r u c t i o n , a new s e t of r e a d i n g s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s , and a new protocol to be employed i n the norming and v a l i d a t i o n phases of the B. C. QUIET development. Covers were pr o v i d e d f o r the manual, c o l o u r e d i n k was used rather than heavier black p r i n t to denote the examiner's o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the subject. -63-Examiner i n s t r u c t i o n s were further improved by inc l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the test and by a better balance of examiner i n f o r m a t i o n between the introduction and the s p e c i f i c subtests. The new protocol provided f o r more information on the cover and took on more of the appearance of what would ultimately be i t s published form. I t was believed that these changes would not only improve the convenience of the t e s t but would a l s o d u r i n g the norming and v a l i d a t i o n phases i n c r e a s e i t s acceptance by examiners who would have no contact w i t h the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r other than by l e t t e r . The norming and v a l i d a t i o n phases are described i n chapter IV. -6H-CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY In Chapter I I I the development of the B. C. QUIET was described from i n i t i a l item construction through the t h i r d v e r s i o n . A s p e c i a l v a l i d a t i o n / n o r m i n g manual was printed (Appendix D) incorporating the r e s u l t s of the two t r y o u t s . The v a l i d a t i o n and norming phases of B. C. QUIET development are d e s c r i b e d i n the present chapter. The norming phase i s described f i r s t because i t was completed p r i o r to the v a l i d a t i o n phase. The norming phase was executed before the v a l i d a t i o n phase for two reasons: f i r s t , f a l l norms were c o n s i d e r e d more d e s i r a b l e than norms o b t a i n e d at another time of year because f a l l i s when most placements are made f o r s p e c i a l educational s e r v i c e s and, t h e r e f o r e , the time when the B. C. QUIET would be most used. Second, due to f i n a n c i a l exigencies, the norming sample was intended to p r o v i d e a subsample of non-remedial pupils which could be used i n the v a l i d a t i o n phase. Norming Sample Construction The population f o r the norming phase of t h i s study c o n s i s t e d o f a l l c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n public and private B r i t i s h Columbia schools i n grades one to seven. Th i s p o p u l a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d to exclude c h i l d r e n who were formally diagnosed as mentally retarded, emotionally -65-disturbed, or who had a physical handicap that would have made i t d i f f i c u l t for them to take a paper and pencil t e s t , or who had not mastered English s u f f i c i e n t l y well to understand test directions. A random sample of 1750 children, divided equally by grade and gender, was s e l e c t e d from t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s a l l o w e d f o r a non-participation rate of 20 percent, yielding desired sample sizes of 200 at each grade l e v e l . Participating schools were asked to allow one child/grade to be tested. It was believed, on the b a s i s of tryouts one and two, that this was the maximum number for a request that could be dealt with summarily by school administrators and would not excessively tax the time of a Learning Assistance Teacher acting as an examiner. A two-stage, deeply s t r a t i f i e d design was employed. At the f i r s t stage s c h o o l s , s t r a t i f i e d by geographic r e g i o n , r u r a l - u r b a n d i s t r i b u t i o n , and s i z e , were selected. At the second stage pupils, strati f i e d by grade and gender, were chosen. Proportional sampling was used at Stage I; simple random sampling was used at Stage II. This two stage sampling procedure i s simpler and more economical to execute than attempting to sample individuals directly without a loss in precision (Angoff, 1971). Stage I - Schools The f i r s t stage r e q u i r e d the independent s e l e c t i o n of a stratifi e d probability sample of schools e n r o l l i n g pupils i n any of -66-grades one to seven. Schools were categorized by geographic region, community s i z e and t o t a l school enrollment i n grades one to seven.^ I t was assumed t h a t seven pupils per school (one p u p i l / grade) would be selected at Stage I I . Thus, the number of schools selected was set at 250. When l e s s than seven grades were enrolled i n a selected school,2 one or more ad d i t i o n a l schools were selected to recover the grades not i n c l u d e d i n the o r i g i n a l s c h o o l to i n s u r e 250 pupils at each grade l e v e l . G e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n . As r e p o r t e d i n Holmes (1981), the s i x geographic areas used by the B. C. Research I n s t i t u t e and shown i n Figure 2 were used i n the present study. These regions are: 1. South Centre 2. Greater Vancouver 3. South Mainland k. Vancouver Island and South Coast 5. Southeast 6. North Rural-urban l o c a t i o n . Three l e v e l s of community s i z e defined i n terms of t o t a l population were used: 1 Enrollment information was obtained from B. C. Independent  Schools 1Q81-82 and the annual Report on Education 1Q80-81 from the Minist r y of Education. o A number of schools were included which enrolled primary grades only or intermediate grades i n conjunction with secondary grades. #1 South Centre #2 Greater Vancouver #3 South Mainland #4 Van. Is. & S. Coast #5 Southeast #6 North Figure 2. School Regions of British Columbia -68-A. under 1 000 B. 1 000 to 50 000 C. over 50 000. Most of the schools enrolling elementary pupils were assigned to one of these categories by t h e i r address and i n f o r m a t i o n from S t a t i s t i c s Canada and the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Ministry of the Environment i n Victoria. In those instances in which addresses were not available, d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s were contacted for the necessary information. Size of school. School size was determined by total enrollment. Three categories of school size were established: I. under 176 II. 176 - 350 III. over 350 Al l o c a t i o n of school sample. Within each region the number of individuals in the sample was based on the number of pupils i n each stratum. Table 11 indicates the proportion of enrollment by grade for each region. While enrollments by grade l e v e l were not i d e n t i c a l , they were s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r to allow one number (the mean of the grade levels) to be used for calculating the proportion of the t o t a l sample to be allocated to each region. Table 12 indicates the proportion of total regional enrollments by community s i z e and school s i z e . Table 13 i n d i c a t e s the -69-Table 11 Provincial Enrollment as a Percentage by Grade 3 Grade Region 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean 1 14.8 15.1 15.2 15.4 15.0 15.5 15.4 15.2 2 35.2 36.0 36.5 35.9 36.8 37.7 37.3 36.5 3 12.5 12.1 11.6 11.6 11.8 11.3 11.5 11.9 4 17.3 16.9 17.2 17.5 17.5 17.0 17.4 17.2 5 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9 6.0 6 13.9 14.0 13.2 13.5 12.8 12.5 12.5 13-2 Percentages were derived from enrollment f i g u r e s i n Report on  Education 1Q80-81 (Ministry of Education, 1982). -70-Table 12 Percent of Regional Enrollment by School and Community Size Community School Size size 1 Region I 8.9 - 5.8 5.7 16.6 9.1 II 5.2 - 7.0 3.5 3.1 4.6 III 3-7 6.4 I 7-3 1.0 15.3 8.6 17.1 7.1 II 20.9 4.1 36.8 25.7 39.0 29.8 III 18.4 5.8 29.8 20.1 24.3 18.0 I II III 2.9 11.8 20.8 8.0 33.9 47.3 3.4 15.2 17.7 2.6 14.8 14.0 Table 13 Sample Allocation Within Regions 3 Region Community School Size size 1 2 3 4 5 6 I 4 - 2 2 3 3 A II 2 - 2 2 - 2 III 1 - 2 - - -I 3 2 4 4 3 2 B II 8 4 12 12 6 10 III 7 6 8 8 4 6 I 1 6 — 2 - 1 C II 4 30 - 6 - 5 III 8 42 - 8 - 5 aSample a l l o c a t i o n s are based on percentages of regional enrollments in each stratum but are adjusted to whole numbers and to even whole numbers where these would not distort the allocation beyond reasonable limits. The f i n a l sample selected i s slightly larger than indicated because of the requirement to test one pupil/grade level/school and the fact that some schools did not enroll seven grades. -72-corresponding a l l o c a t i o n of the sample. Enrollment figures were adjusted to the nearest whole even numbers where possible for each r e g i o n to f a c i l i t a t e sample a d m i n i s t r a t i o n with regard to stratification by gender. Table 13 assumes that each school e n r o l l s seven grades; because not a l l schools selected included that range, one or more additional schools were selected from the same substratum to compensate f o r the d e f i c i t . The f i n a l sample contained 274 schools: 255 public and 19 independent schools. Selection of schools. Based on the procedure carried out by Holmes (1981), each school i n a region was assigned to a stratum i n the sample frame according to i t s enrollment and the size of the community i n which i t was located. Pupil enrollments i n each stratum were summed and the pr o b a b i l i t y of each school being selected was calculated i n relation to the number of schools to be chosen from each stratum. A table of random numbers was then consulted to select, without replacement, the schools to appear i n the sample. Stage II The second stage required the selection of individuals from the schools selected i n Stage I. P a r t i c i p a t i n g schools were asked to select the "nth" boy or g i r l (assigned by the researcher) at each grade level within the school within the range of grade one to seven. The school p r i n c i p a l was asked to indicate i f the pupil was enrolled -73-i n r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s v a r i a b l e was used to i d e n t i f y n o n - r e m e d i a l p u p i l s f o r use i n the v a l i d a t i o n p h a s e . The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s at t h i s stage were grade placement and gender. Grade. The sample was designed to include equal numbers at each grade l e v e l , one to seven. Gender. The sample was designed to include equal numbers of boys and g i r l s at each grade l e v e l . The procedure c a r r i e d out by Holmes (1981) was used. The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s which had schools that appeared i n the sample were contacted to obtain permission to c o n t a c t the s c h o o l s ( A p p e n d i x C ) . Independent s c h o o l s which were not r e s p o n s i b l e to a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t were c o n t a c t e d d i r e c t l y . The cooperation of the P r i n c i p a l s and Learning Assistance Teachers at each school was sought. Those schools which agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e (with or w i t h o u t the a s s i s t a n c e of school-based examiners) were asked to provide enrollment information (see Appendix C). Using the enrollment f i g u r e s p r o v i d e d , the p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r then selected from a table of random numbers a number w i t h i n the range of e n r o l l m e n t by grade and gender f o r each school. Because there was an odd number of p u p i l s s e l e c t e d a t each s c h o o l , the gender o f the f i r s t p e r s o n s e l e c t e d i n e a c h r e g i o n was randomly chosen and was t h e r e a f t e r -74-a l t e r n a t e d u n t i l a l l c h o i c e s i n each r e g i o n were made. The "nth" number selected by the r e s e a r c h e r was the number of the p u p i l ( i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r ) of the p u p i l s e l e c t e d to be tested. Alternate "nth" p u p i l s were also randomly s e l e c t e d from the same s c h o o l . The s e l e c t i o n s were r e t u r n e d to each p a r t i c i p a t i n g school, along with consent forms which were to be d i s t r i b u t e d to the par e n t s o f the selected c h i l d r e n (Appendix C). Test Administrators L e a r n i n g Assistance Teachers i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g schools were asked to a d m i n i s t e r the t e s t . Where t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , D i s t r i c t P s y c h o l o g i s t s were asked to perform the t e s t i n g . Where t h i s was not possible, graduate student volunteers and f a c u l t y from the Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y / S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n a s s i s t e d . In two i n s t a n c e s , s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s were h i r e d as Examiners f o r l o c a l schools (one i n the I n t e r i o r ; one on the northern coast). Test Materials. The f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s were sent to p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s : norming manual, r e a d i n g s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l , p r o t o c o l s and a r u l e r . Examiners were asked to supply p e n c i l s , scratch paper, clipboards and watches. At t h i s stage i n the development o f the B. C. QUIET, i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a l l f o u r s u b t e s t s were contained i n a l o o s e l y bound 8 1/2" x 11" b o o k l e t which was to be -75-fastened to a clipboard held by the Examiner. Pupils made written responses i n a protocol for the Spelli n g and Arithmetic subtests, while the Examiner read i n s t r u c t i o n s or dictated items from the norming manual. When the reading subtests were administered, the protocol was removed from the subject and fastened to the Examiner's clipboard. Items for the reading subtests were contained i n a stapled booklet which was placed before the pupil during administration of these subtests. These materials are contained i n Appendix D. Test Administration School s t a f f s were asked to d i s t r i b u t e consent forms to the parents or guardians of the selected pupils. Only those pupils for whom p a r e n t a l consent was obtained were tested. P a r t i c i p a t i n g examiners administered the test at their discretion between 25 October 1 982 and 15 December 1982. Examiners were asked to return a l l materials when their testing was completed. A l l testing was performed in school during regular school hours. Coding Item l e v e l data were entered directly from the protocols by the Data Entry D i v i s i o n of the U. B. C. Computing Centre with 100? v e r i f i c a t i o n . A 10? random sample was then v e r i f i e d against the corresponding student protocols. The error rate was .0003 percent which was well within the tolerance level of one percent. -76-Pata A n a l y s i s For each subtest, an item analysis was completed using the LERTAP (Nelson, 1974) software program maintained by ERSC at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre. The p r o p o r t i o n of p u p i l s passing each item and p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s with subtest s c o r e s were examined. Means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , standard e r r o r s of measurement and i n t e r n a l consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s were calculated f o r each su b t e s t by grade l e v e l . For r e l i a b i l i t i e s odd-even c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r each p u p i l and i n f l a t e d by the Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a . To a v o i d s p u r i o u s l y high r e s u l t s , o nly items a c t u a l l y administered were used i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n . Standard e r r o r s of measurement were calculated f o r each subtest at each grade l e v e l , using the conventional formula: S.E.M. = S.D . V l-r x x where S.D. = standard deviation and rxx = r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . A one-way ANOVA f o r s u b t e s t means a t each g r a d e l e v e l was c a l c u l a t e d , u s i n g the subprogram ONEWAY i n the SPSS manual (Nie, 1975). The mean of each subtest at each grade l e v e l was compared with the means of t h a t s u b t e s t at adjacent grade l e v e l s to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the diff e r e n c e between the means f o r each s u b t e s t by -77-grade level. Raw scores on the B. C. QUIET were transformed into percentiles (Angoff, 1971). A procedure was e s t a b l i s h e d to convert these p e r c e n t i l e s i n t o Normal Curve E q u i v a l e n t s (NCEs). These are normalized standard scores constructed with a mean of 50 to match the 50th percentile of a distribution and a standard deviation of 21.06 to match the f i r s t and 9 9 t h p e r c e n t i l e s (NCEs of 1 and 9 9 match percentiles of 1 and 99). The advantage of NCEs over percentiles i s that they form an equal i n t e r v a l s c a l e : they can be added and subtracted and averaged so that an improvement from the f i f t h to the 10th NCE represents the same amount of change as an improvement from the 45th to the 50th NCE (Tallmadge, 1976). The NCEs were then translated into a Performance C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Table 14) to a s s i s t i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a pupil's l e v e l of functioning. Table 14 Performance Classification S.D. Percentile NCE Classification 2 + 98-99 92.4-99.0 Significantly Above Average 1 to 2 85-97 71.0-92.0 Above Average ± 1 16-84 29.0-71.0 Average -1 to -2 3-15 8.0-28.9 Below Average -2 + 1-2 1.0- 7 .9 Significantly Below Average -78-These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s correspond, respectively, to two or more standard deviations above the mean of a normal curve, one to two standard deviations above the mean, within one standard deviation of the mean, one to two standard deviations below the mean and two or more standard deviations below the mean. These categories correspond to traditional d i v i s i o n s i n the normal curve which may be used to c l a s s i f y performance on tests such as the Wechsler scales (Wechsler, 1975). Empirical Validation Phase The empirical validation, as stated above, was carried out after the B. C. QUIET was normed. It should be noted, however, that norms were not calculated until the validation phase was completed and the results evaluated. The p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of the B. C. QUIET i s that of an individualized screening test to be used to indicate the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t i e s of elementary pupils i n reading, spelling and arithmetic. Pupils who require remedial assistance i n any of these areas should score lower than pupils who do not require such assistance. Children who have been assigned to remedial i n s t r u c t i o n should, as a group, score lower than those who are not considered eligible for referral to remedial programs. To test t h i s hypothesis, the B. C. QUIET was administered to a sample of children receiving remedial instruction and a sample not receiving remedial i n s t r u c t i o n to determine the -79-a b i l i t y of the test to discriminate between these two groups of children. Children at two grade levels — 3 and 6 — participated i n the validation phase. Sample As i n d i c a t e d above (page 62), non-remedial pupils i n the validation phase were obtained from the norming study conducted i n the f a l l of 1982. It was intended that there would be 30 non-remedial pupils at each of grades three and six to compare with 30 remedial pupils i n each of three areas of remedial i n s t r u c t i o n (spelling, arithmetic and reading) at each grade level. Thus, the total planned "remedial" sample was 90 at each grade level. The remedial subjects were selected from pupils enrolled i n Learning Assistance or other remedial programs i n the same schools which participated i n the norming phase i n region 2. A l l remedial grade three and six pupils i n these schools were asked to participate. A number of schools i n region two which participated i n the norming phase did not take part i n the validation phase. One d i s t r i c t refused to allow schools to be contacted a second time, and several i n d i v i d u a l schools i n other d i s t r i c t s refused to participate again. Ultimately, 30 of the 45 schools i n region 2 that appeared i n the norming sample agreed to part i c i p a t e i n the validation phase. The remedial sample came from the 30 schools, while the non-remedial sample came from the 45 schools which participated i n the norming. -80-Consent forms were sent to each p a r t i c i p a t i n g school and distributed by the school to the parents of a l l pupils enrolled i n grade three or six who were receiving remedial instruction i n reading, spelling or arithmetic. Test Administrators T e s t i n g was performed by school-based personnel, graduate students and faculty from the Department of Educational Psychology/ Special Education, and the principal investigator. Test Administration Administration of the B. C. QUIET to remedial pupils followed the same procedures used i n the norming phase. Examiners administered the test during the period of February 1, 1983 to February 28, 1983. Test Materials Test materials were identical to those used i n the norming phase. Codihg Items were coded, entered on tape with 100? verification, and a 100$ verification was performed with the original protocols. Errors were found on five protocols; these errors were corrected. Data Analysis The purpose of the v a l i d a t i o n study was to examine the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of the t e s t . Means and standard deviations were computed f o r each group, remedial and non remedial, at each grade l e v e l . Pooled r e l i a b i l i t i e s and c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each combined remedial and non-remedial group. The r e m e d i a l and non-remedial groups were compared f o r reading, s p e l l i n g and arithmetic at each grade l e v e l i n two a n a l y s e s . In the f i r s t , the a b i l i t y of each nominally relevant subtest to d i f f e r e n t i a t e a remedial group from the non-remedial group at each grade l e v e l was a s s e s s e d ; t h a t i s , at each grade l e v e l the a b i l i t y of the S p e l l i n g subtest to d i f f e r e n t i a t e remedial s p e l l e r s from the non-remedial group was a s s e s s e d ; the a b i l i t y of the Arithmetic subtest to discriminate p u p i l s r e c e i v i n g r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n A r i t h m e t i c f r o m the n o n - r e m e d i a l group was a s s e s s e d , and the a b i l i t y of the r e a d i n g subtests to d i f f e r e n t i a t e remedial readers from the non-remedial group was a s s e s s e d . In the second analysis the best l i n e a r combination of subtests which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the v a r i o u s r e m e d i a l groups from the non-remedial group was determined. The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was set a t .05 f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r e n t r y and d e l e t i o n . B o t h s e t s o f a n a l y s e s were completed u s i n g the discriminant function analysis i n the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the S o c i a l Sciences (Nie, 1975) at ERSC i n The Oniversity of B r i t i s h Columbia. -82-CHAPTER V RESULTS In Chapter IV, the methodology for the validation and norming phases of the development of the B. C. QUIET was described. The methodology for the norming phase was described f i r s t because i t was performed prior to the v a l i d a t i o n phase. In keeping with the organization of Chapter IV, the r e s u l t s of the norming phase are reported f i r s t i n Chapter V. Norming Rate of Response The desired sample size for the f a l l norming was 200 pupils at each of the seven grade l e v e l s . For several reasons, i n c l u d i n g refusal of d i s t r i c t s and schools to cooperate (due in the main part to the unstable budgetary situation i n British Columbia during 1982) and parental unwillingness within cooperating d i s t r i c t s and schools, the number of returned protocols did not equal that size at any grade l e v e l . Table 15 shows the cooperation rate for each grade. The overall cooperation rate for a l l grades was 8'\.k%. The proportion of usable protocols was somewhat lower; the difference between the cooperation rate and the percent of usable protocols r e f l e c t s the failure of examiners to obtain sufficiently large basals and ceilings, especially at the intermediate grade levels. Table 15 Rates of Response for Each Grade Desired Protocols Returned Useable Protocols Sample Grade S i z e Number % Number 1 200 162 81.0 161 99.4 2 200 161 80.5 155 96.3 3 200 168 84.0 153 91.1 4 200 168 84.0 151 90.9 5 200 168 84.0 147 87.5 6 200 162 81.0 143 88.3 7 200 153 76.5 135 88.2 Total 1400 1140 81.4 1043 91.7 a0btained Sample -84-Obtained Sample Reoesentativeness In Tables 16 and 17 overall enrolment and sample sizes by region are described. The distribution of the obtained sample by region i s g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r to that of the population. In Appendix F the obtained percentages of the desired sample are shown. The r e l a t i v e l y n l i g h t w r e s p o n s e f o r r e g i o n two i s due to the s u b s t a n t i a l non-participation rate by schools i n two of the lower mainland d i s t r i c t s . In Table 18 the obtained sample percentages by grade and gender are shown. Personal data, such as SES, ethnic o r i g i n and educational attainment of parents, were not collected during either the norming or v a l i d a t i o n phases. It was believed that the collection of such data would reduce parental cooperation which was crucial to the success of the project. Psychometric Properties The means and standard deviations for each subtest at each grade level are reported i n Table 19. As shown, means increased from one grade to the next for each subtest (Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6). A one way analysis of variance (SPSS, 1975) for each subtest for a l l grade levels was performed. The F values are significant, as shown in Table 20, and indicate that there are s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the means. Scheffe tests were performed as part of the SPSS subprogram -85-Table 16 Percentages for Provincial Population Enrollment and Obtained Samples by Community Size 3 Comm- Region unity School •— Size Size 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1.4(1.3) -(-) 0.7(0.0) 1.0(0.0) 1.0(0.8) 1.2(0.8) A 2 0.8(1.3) -(-) 0.8(0.0) 0.6(0.7) 0.2(0.0) 0.6(0.7) 3 0.6(0.0) -(-) 0.8(0.0) -(-) -(-) -(-) 1 1.1(1.1) 0.4(0.0) 1.8(2.1) 1.5(2.9) 1.0(2.5) 0.9(0.7) B 2 3.2(6.1) 1.5(1.0) 4.3(4.9) 4.4(8.6) 2.3(3-0) 3.9(5.9) 3 2.8(1.2) 2.1(1.2) 3.5(3.3) 3-5(4.3) 1.5(1.2) 2.4(1.1) 1 0.4(1.3) 2.9(3-1) -(-) 0.6(0.0) -(-) 0.3(0.4) C 2 1.8(0.6) 12.4(12.1) -(-) 2.6(1.3) -(-) 2.0(2.1) 3 3.2(3-0) 17.3(12.6) -(-) 3.1(3-7) -(-) 1.8(1.8) aNumbers enclosed in ( ) show obtained sample percentages in each strata. Numbers outside ( ) show the proportion of pupil enrollment in each strata. -86-Table 17 Population and Sample Percentages by Region Region Regional Enrolment Sample 1. Okanagan 15.2 16.0 2. Lower Mainland 36.5 30.1 3. Fraser Valley 11.9 11.0 4. Vancouver Island 17.2 21.5 5. Kootenay 6.0 8.1 6. Northern 13-2 13.4 Table 18 Sample Percentages by Gender and Grade Gender G r a d e n Female Male 1 161 50.3 49-7 2 155 52.9 47.1 3 153 47.7 52.3 4 151 49.7 50.3 5 147 50.3 49.7 6 143 53.8 46.2 7 135 48.9 51.1 -87-Table 19 Means, Standard Deviations, Internal Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s 3 and Standard Errors of Measurement for Grades 1 - 7 Standard Grade Subtest Means Deviation x x S.E.M. 1 Arithmetic 8.2 3-0 .68 1.7 Word Identification 9.5 8.9 .97 1.5 Spelling 13.1 6.7 • 91 2.0 2 Arithmetic 15.2 4.6 .87 1.6 Word Identification 34.1 11.7 • 95 2.6 Passage Comprehension 10.8 5.5 .84 2.2 Spelling 21.2 6.9 .84 2.8 3 Arithmetic 22.5 4.8 .82 2.0 Word Identification 44.6 10.5 • 93 2.8 Passage Comprehension 15.4 5.9 .85 2.3 Spelling 26.5 6.9 .87 2.5 4 Arithmetic 30.0 5.6 .83 2.3 Word Identification 52.3 9.9 .94 2.4 Passage Comprehension 18.8 5.9 .84 2.3 Spelling 30.9 7.3 .86 2.7 5 Arithmetic 36.5 5.0 • 78 2.4 Word Identification 57.8 9.8 • 92 2.8 Passage Comprehension 22.0 6.8 .76 3-3 Spelling 35.3 6.6 .87 2.4 6 Arithmetic 42.5 4.9 .80 2.2 Word Identification 63-8 8.2 .85 3.8 Passage Comprehension 25.6 6.4 .78 3.0 Spelling 39.8 7.1 .88 2.5 7 Arithmetic 46.0 5.4 .88 1.9 Word Identification 69-3 9.4 .92 2.7 Passage Comprehension 28.4 6.9 .83 2.8 ^Split-half correlations, inflated by the Spearman-Brown formula. Spelling subtest was not administered to grade one pupils (p.42), while the Passage Comprehension subtest was found to be too d i f f i c u l t for grade one pupils (p. 94). -88-70 I-60 -50 -40 -£ 30 LJ 20 10 0 1 2 3 . 4 5 GRADE LEVELS F i g u r e 3 . S p e l l i n g Raw S c o r e Means -89--90--91-70 I-60 -50 -4 0 -0 ! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 GRADE LEVELS F i g u r e 6. P a s s a g e C o m p r e h e n s i o n Raw S c o r e Means -92-Table 20 ANOVA for Subtests for a l l Grades Source df ms F P A. Spelling Grade 5 13914.9 290.8 .00 Within 878 47.8 Total 883 B. Arithmetic Grade 6 29723-6 1302.0 .00 Within 1038 22.8 Total 1044 C. Word Identification Grade 6 63431-7 646.1 .00 Within 1038 98.2 Total 1044 D. Passage Comprehension Grade 5 6260.9 162.0 .00 Within 878 38.7 Total 883 Note: Differences in df are due to grade one pupils not being included i n the analysis for Spelling and Passage Comprehension. -93-ONEWAY (Nie, 1975) to compare the means of each subtest at adjacent grade levels. A l l subtest means were found to differ significantly at the .05 l e v e l from the means of the same subtests at adjacent grade levels. 1 Difference i n degrees of freedom are due to grade one pupils not being included in the analysis for Spelling and Passage Comprehension. The r e s u l t s obtained by administering the Passage Comprehension subtest to grade one pupils were not s a t i s f a c t o r y . Few grade one pupils were able to answer any Passage Comprehension items; many, according to examiners, seemed confused by the task. P i l o t testing had taken place during the late winter and l a t e spring; grade one pupils seemed to perform satisfactorily on Comprehension items during that period. It was concluded that grade one pupils either did not have experience with Comprehension-type items by November (and thus were confused by the format) or had not acquired sufficient reading s k i l l s to respond to the items. Internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s are reported i n Table 19 together with the corresponding standard errors of measurement. R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were calculated by the split-half procedure and i n f l a t e d by the Spearman-Brown formula. Only items a c t u a l l y 1 Although means and standard deviations were also calculated for each region, community size, school size and gender, the ns for each category were too small to consider using any of these as normative groups (Thorndike, 1982). Further, for the variable with the largest, most equal divisions — gender — one way analyses of variance showed only one difference significant at the .05 level across a l l combinations of subtests and grades. This i s no more than what might be expected by choice at the .05 level of significance. - c o -administered were used i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of the c o e f f i c i e n t s . The lowest r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e (.68) i s f o r the A r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t a t g r a d e one. The n e x t l o w e s t (.76) i s f o r Passage Comprehension at grade f i v e . The only o t h e r r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s below .80 i n v o l v e these subtests: Arithmetic at grade f i v e (.78) and Passage Comprehension at grade s i x (.78). Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a i n t a i n s the h i g h e s t r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s at every grade l e v e l , followed by s p e l l i n g at every grade l e v e l but grade t h r e e . D e s p i t e v a r i a t i o n s i n r e l i a b i l i t y the standard e r r o r s of measurement are c o n s i s t e n t f o r each s u b t e s t , r e g a r d l e s s o f g r a d e l e v e l . The r e l a t i v e l y low r e l i a b i l i t y f o r Arithmetic at grade one l i k e l y r e f l e c t s that the p u p i l s responded to fewer items than d i d p u p i l s at other grade l e v e l s . The B. C. QUIET r e l i a b i l i t i e s compare favourably with those of other s c r e e n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s much as the PIAT o r P a r t I I o f t h e Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery. Subtest r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the PIAT range from .42 to .94; of the r e l i a b i l i t i e s p u b l i s h e d i n the PIAT Manual f o r grades K-8, two-thirds are l e s s than .80 (Dunn & Markewardt, 1970). Published subtest r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r Part I I on the Woodcock-Johnson t e s t range from .73 to .97 f o r s i m i l a r subtests. Most of these r e l i a b i l i t i e s are between .80 and .90 (Woodcock & Johnson, 1977). Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) for the B. C. QUIET as shown i n Table 19 have raw score unit values between two and three. These are comparable to the SEMs of t e s t s such as the PIAT. -95-I n t e r - s u b t e s t correlations are reported i n Table 21. Most decline from the end of the primary through the intermediate grades. This may indicate increasing differentiation of cognitive s k i l l s or a change i n the nature of the subtest task demands, or both. The highest c o r r e l a t i o n at each grade level i s between Spelling and Word Identification; the next highest at most grade l e v e l s i s between the reading subtests. Preparation of Norms The goal of the norming phase was to produce conversion tables relating raw scores for each subtest to percentiles, normal curve equivalents and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index. Both the a n a l y t i c a l and graphical procedures were i n i t i a l l y c o nsidered, but only the analytical procedure (Angoff, 1971) was used. The graphical procedure i s relatively tedious and time-consuming and d i f f i c u l t to use i n the extrapolation of extreme scores (Holmes, 1981). Raw scores were converted to percentiles (Angoff, 1971) for each subtest at each grade l e v e l (Tables E1 to E7, Appendix E). These percentiles were then transformed to NCEs (Table E-8, Appendix E). Validation The empirical v a l i d a t i o n of the B. C. QUIET was designed to assess the a b i l i t y of the test to discriminate pupils requiring further assessment from those who do not. As described in Chapter IV, -96-Table 21 Correlations Among Subtests for Grades 1 - 7 Subtest Word Grade Spelling Arithmetic identification 1 Word Identification .46 2 Arithmetic .49 Word Identification .85 .53 Passage Comprehension .57 .40 .52 3 Arithmetic .53 Word Identification .84 .50 • Passage Comprehension .72 .54 .73 4 Arithmetic .56 Word Identification .79 .51 Passage Comprehension .57 .48 .72 5 Arithmetic .55 Word Identification .76 .50 Passage Comprehension .57 .40 .67 6 Arithmetic .39 Word Identification • 72 • 39 Passage Comprehension • 35 .54 .51 7 Arithmetic .44 Word Identification .76 .42 Passage Comprehension .47 .46 .61 -97-30 pupils i n each of three remedial groups (reading, spelling and arithmetic) at each of grades three and six were to be compared to a group of 30 non-remedial pupils at each grade level. Remedial pupils were obtained from 30 of the 45 schools i n region 2 in which pupils in the norming phase were enrolled. They were receiving remedial instruction i n reading, spelling and/ or arithmetic. No attempt was made to authenticate the reason for their placement i n remedial programs. Sociometric data were not s o l i c i t e d from parents of participating pupils. It was believed that such a request would lower the participation rate. Response Rate It was not possible to compose the discrete remedial groups that had been envisioned;1 nor was i t possible to obtain the desired sample sizes . Table 22 compares numbers and percentages of the desired and obtained remedial samples. A l l but ten pupils who were receiving remedial i n s t r u c t i o n i n the schools that participated in the study took part i n the testing. While the total n obtained for grade three was 91 and the total n obtained for grade s i x was 61, most remedial pupils at each grade level were receiving remedial instruction in at least two of the three s k i l l areas as shown i n Table 23. It i s evident from Tables 22 and 23 ^ This i s not surprising given the substantial inter-subtest correlations, especially at grade three, which are reported i n Table 20 . -98-Table 22 Numbers and Percentages of the Desired and Obtained Remedial Samples Desired Sample Size Obtained Sample Size Grade Reading S p e l l i n g Arithmetic Reading S p e l l i n g Arithmetic 3 30(33.3) 30(33-3) 30(33.3) 86(94.5) 47(51.6) 13(14.3) 6 30(33-3) 30(33-3) 30(33-3) 44(72.1) 25(41.0) 19(31-1) Note. Numbers i n ( ) indi c a t e the percent of the t o t a l sample. Numbers outside ( ) in d i c a t e sample s i z e . -99-Table 23 Percentages of the Remedial Sample Receiving Instruction i n Two or More S k i l l Areas Grade Reading & Spelling Reading & Arithmetic Arithmetic & Spelling Reading & Arithmetic & Spelling 3 6 50.5 37.7 11.0 16.4 7.7 13.1 6.6 13.1 -100-th a t i n the schools surveyed pupils were very l i k e l y to receive remedial i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading i f they were receiving remedial i n s t r u c t i o n i n spelling. At grade three 51.6$ of the remedial sample was receiving remedial instruction in spelling and almost a l l of these pupils, 97.9$, were receiving remedial instruction in Reading as well. Similarly, at grade six 41.0$ of the remedial sample was receiving remedial i n s t r u c t i o n i n Spelling while most of these pupils (92.0$) were also receiving remedial instruction in Reading. Pupils were less l i k e l y to be receiving remedial instruction i n arithmetic, especially grade six pupils, yet a substantial proportion of grade six pupils was r e c e i v i n g remedial i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading. In the proportions presented i n Tables 22 and 23 the ubiquitous importance of reading i s emphasized, p a r t i c u l a r l y for grade three pupils, and to a lesser extent for grade six pupils. For the non-remedial groups, scores from the norming phase of B. C. QUIET development of pupils i n region 2 who were not receiving remedial instruction were used. These non-remedial pupils were drawn from a l l the schools i n region two. At grade three, 43 non-remedial pupils were i d e n t i f i e d ; at grade six 37 non-remedial pupils were identified. Grade 3 Validation Two analyses were performed for each remedial classification. In the f i r s t , only the nominally relevant subtest scores of pupils i n a -101-g i v e n r emedial group were used to determine how w e l l each subtest d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the remedial group from the non-remedial group. In the s e c o n d a n a l y s i s , a l l s u b t e s t s were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e v a l u a t e d to determine t h e i r a b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the groups; e.g. i n the a n a l y s i s of poor s p e l l e r s , i t was asked what l i n e a r combination of subtests, rather than s p e l l i n g scores alone, would best d i s c r i m i n a t e the remedial s p e l l i n g group from the non-remedial group. S p e l l i n g . Means, standard deviations, c o r r e l a t i o n s and i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s are reported i n Table 24 for the remedial s p e l l i n g group and the non-remedial group. The r e s u l t s of the F - t e s t c o n d u c t e d as p a r t of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s f o r each s u b t e s t analysis showed that the differences between p a i r s of s u b t e s t means were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . I t was concluded that the remedial group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y below the n o n - r e m e d i a l g r o u p on a l l subtests. The a b i l i t y of the s p e l l i n g subtest to discriminate between the groups as w e l l as the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u b t e s t s p r o d u c i n g a superior r e s u l t , are shown i n Tables 25 and 26. In Table 25 S p e l l i n g alone i s shown to be an e f f e c t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t o r between groups (simple s o l u t i o n ) . In the stepwise s o l u t i o n the best l i n e a r combination which emerged was Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and S p e l l i n g . W i l k s ' Lambda was not r e d u c e d a f t e r S p e l l i n g was e n t e r e d , and Arithmetic and Passage Comprehension remain out of the s o l u t i o n . As -102-Table 24 Spelling: Grade 3 Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations and Internal-Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s 3 for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups Spelling Arithmetic Word Identification Passage Comprehension T Remedial Non-Remedial 12.3 25.3 20.2 25.2 28.6 51.0 8.4 16.9 S.D. Remedial Non-Remedial 4.4 5.2 4.7 3.9 7.1 7.7 2.7 5.0 . C o Spelling .93 r r Arithmetic • 32 .74 e 1 a Word Identification .67 .23 .97 t i o Passage Comprehension .59 .25 .57 .87 n R e l i a b i l i t i e s estimates (computed by s p l i t halves, i n f l a t e d by the Spearman-Brown formula) are l i s t e d diagonally from the upper l e f t to the lower r i g h t i n bold-face p r i n t . -103-Table 25 Discriminant Summary Grade 3 Spelling 1) Spelling Subtest 2) Best Linear Combination Step Subtest Wilks' Lambda F Significance (a) Variable Entered 1 Spelling .35 162.24 .01 (b) Variable Entered 1 Word Identification .30 2 Spelling .28 111.06 .01 (b) Variable Remaining After Last Step Arithmetic Passage Comprehension .52 .60 -104-shown i n Table 26, use of the S p e l l i n g subtest alone resulted i n 44 of the 47 p u p i l s i n the r e m e d i a l s p e l l i n g g r o u p b e i n g c o r r e c t l y -i d e n t i f i e d ; 38 o f t h e 43 n o n - r e m e d i a l p u p i l s were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d . O v e r a l l , the c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a t e was 91.1 p e r c e n t . In the second a n a l y s i s , the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest emerged with the S p e l l i n g s u b t e s t as s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the groups. Using both subtests 46 of the 47 r e m e d i a l p u p i l s were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d ; the p r o p o r t i o n o f non-remedial p u p i l s c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d remained the same. The o v e r a l l correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n rate was 93.3 percent. Comparison of the two analyses suggests that the combination of the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and S p e l l i n g s u b t e s t s w i l l modestly improve i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p u p i l s who may benefit from remedial se r v i c e s . In both instances the d i r e c t i o n of e r r o r i s , f o r the most p a r t , toward the m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of non-remedial pu p i l s . As indicated i n chapter I I , the purpose of the B. C. QUIET i s to serve as a c o n f i r m a t o r y s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e . P u p i l s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r s c o r e s on the B. C. QUIET as needing s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s are r e f e r r e d on to f u r t h e r assessment and e v a l u a t i o n p r i o r to placement i n remedial s i t u a t i o n s . The e r r o r shown i n Table 26 i s , thus, d e s i r a b l e w i t h r e g a r d to i d e n t i f y i n g more f a l s e p o s i t i v e s than f a l s e negatives. I t i s suggested that using the S p e l l i n g subtest alone or a combination of the S p e l l i n g and Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s u b t e s t s w i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y discriminate remedial from non-remedial pu p i l s . I t i s re a s o n a b l e to -105-Table 26 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary Grade 3 S p e l l i n g a) S p e l l i n g Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Predicted Membership Actual Group Remedial Non-remedial n a) S p e l l i n g Remedial 44(93-6$) 3(6.4$) 47 Non-remedial 5(11-6$) 38(88.4$) 43 b) Best Linear Combination (Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Spelling) Remedial 46(97-9$) 1(2.1$) 47 Non-remedial 5(11.6$) 38(88.4$) 43 Percent of cases c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d : a) 91.1$ b) 93-3$ -106-suppose, however, that administration of both subtests may provide the examiner with a d d i t i o n a l information to use i n doubtful cases. ' Read i n g . Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the re m e d i a l r e a d i n g group and the g r o u p not re c e i v i n g remediation are presented i n Table 27- As for s p e l l i n g , the r e s u l t s of F-tests showed that the remedial group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y below the non-remedial group on a l l subtests. The a b i l i t y of the reading subtests to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the groups i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , as i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that another combination may produce a superior r e s u l t . As shown i n Table 28, both r e a d i n g s u b t e s t s were entered i n t o the f i r s t a n a l y s i s , but only the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest emerged at the .05 l e v e l . By u s i n g o n l y the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s u b t e s t , 84 of the 86 remedial pupils were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d , along w i t h 37 of the 43 non-remedial p u p i l s . The o v e r a l l c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n rate was 93.8 percent (see Table 29). In the second a n a l y s i s , the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and S p e l l i n g s u b t e s t s e m e r g e d as t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o dis c r i m i n a t i n g the groups. In the second a n a l y s i s 85 o f 86 r e m e d i a l p u p i l s and 38 of 43 non-remedial p u p i l s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . The o v e r a l l correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n rate was 95.4 percent. As i n t h e s p e l l i n g a n a l y s e s , e r r o r i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l i e s p r i m a r i l y with non-remedial p u p i l s . I f e r r o r must be p r e s e n t , t h i s type of e r r o r i s more d e s i r a b l e f o r the purpose f or which the B. C. -107-Table 27 Reading: Grade 3 Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations and Internal Consistence R e l i a b i l i t i e s 3 for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups Word Passage Spelling Arithmetic identification Comprehension Remedial 13.1 20.2 28.9 8.1 Non-Remedial 25.3 25.2 51.0 16.9 S.D. Remedial 4.1 4.5 6.4 2.9 Non-Remedial 5.2 3.9 7-7 5.0 C o r r e 1 a t i Passage 0 Comprehension .54 . 2 3 .57 .88 Spelling .91 Arithmetic .31 .72 Word Identification .67 .28 .97 R e l i a b i l i t y estimates (computed by split-halves, inflated by the Spearman-Brown formula) are li s t e d diagonally from the upper l e f t to the lower right i n bold-face print -108-Table 28 Discriminant Summary Grade 3 Reading a) Word Identification and Passage Comprehension Tests b) Best Linear Combination of Subtests Step Subtest Wilks' Lambda F Significance (a) Variable Entered 1 Word Identification .30 301.17 .01 (a) Variable Remaining After Last Step 1 Passage Comprehension .06 (b) Variable Entered 1 Word Identification .30 2 Spelling .29 156.7 .01 (b) Variable Remaining After Last Step Arithmetic Passage Comprehension .66 .17 -109-Table 29 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary Grade 3 Reading a) Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Predicted Membership Actual Group Remedial Non-remedial n a) Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Remedial 84(97.7$) Non-remedial 6(14.0$) b) Best Linear Combination (Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Spelling) Remedial 85(98.8$) 1(1.2$) 86 Non-remedial 5(11.6$) 38(88.4$) 43 2(2.3$) 37(86.0$) 86 43 Percent of cases c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d : a) b) 93.8$ 95.4$ -110-QUIET i s designed. I t i s suggested that the administration of these two subtests w i l l p r o v i d e the examiner wi t h a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e measure to i d e n t i f y those pupils who should proceed to the next step i n the Confirmation of Deviancy model described i n Chapter I I . A r i t h m e t i c . The means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the remedial and non-remedial arithmetic groups are presented i n Table 30. Again, r e s u l t s of F-tests showed differences i n means s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l f o r each s u b t e s t ; the re m e d i a l g r o u p s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y below the non-remedial group on a l l subtests. The r e s u l t s o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p a i r of discriminant analyses are r e p o r t e d i n Tables 31 and 32. By u s i n g o n l y the A r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t 12 of 13 remedial pupils were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d ; 34 of 43 non-remedial pupil s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . Overall the proportion o f c a s e s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d was 82.1 p e r c e n t . In the second a n a l y s i s t h e Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s u b t e s t emerged a g a i n as a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r ( w i t h the A r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t ) : a l l 13 remedial pupil s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d and 37 of the 43 r e m e d i a l p u p i l s were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . The o v e r a l l correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n rate was 89-3 percent. Two c a v e a t s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n re g a r d to these r e s u l t s . F i r s t , the r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the subtests are lower here than i n the other a n a l y s e s . Second, the n f o r the remedial arithmetic group i s -111-Table 30 Arithmetic: Grade 3 Means, Standard Deviations and Correlations and Internal Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s 3 for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups Subtest Stat- Word Passage i s t i c G r o u P Spelling Arithmetic identification Comprehension _ Remedial 13.9 16.4 30.6 8.2 x Non-Remedial 25.3 25.2 51.0 16.9 S.D. Remedial 4.7 4.4 7.5 2.3 Non-Remedial 5.2 3-9 7-7 5.0 C o r r e 1 a t i Passage 0 Comprehension .61 .37 .56 .79 n Spelling .16 Arithmetic .42 .55 Word Identification .72 .30 .79 R e l i a b i l i t y estimates (computed by split-halves, inflated by the Spearman-Brown formula) are list e d diagonally from the upper l e f t to the lower right in bold-face print. -112-Table 31 Discriminant Summary Grade 3 Arithmetic a) Arithmetic Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Step Subtest Wilks' Lambda F Significance (a) Variable Entered _1 Arithmetic 47.5 .01 (b) Variable Entered 1 Word Identification .43 2 Arithmetic .37 45.3 .01 (b) Variable Remaining After Last Step Spelling Passage Comprehension .99 .82 -113-Table 32 Classification Summary-Grade 3 Arithmetic a) Arithmetic Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Predicted Membership Actual Group Remedial Non-remedial n a) Arithmetic Remedial 12(92.3$) 1(7.7$) 13 Non-remedial 9(20.9$) 34(79.1$) 43 b) Best Linear Combination (Word Identification, Arithmetic) Remedial 13(100.0$) 0(0.0$) 13 Non-remedial 6(14.0$) 37(86.0$) 43 Percent of cases correctly c l a s s i f i e d : a) 82.1$ b) 89.3$ -114-smaller than for the other groups. Thus, in the f i r s t analysis 12 of 13 remedial pupils or 92.3 percent are correctly classified, while i n the second analysis the addition of one correctly classified pupil improves that proportion to 100 percent. Although combining the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest with the Arithmetic subtest appears to offer improvement in d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g remedial from non-remedial pupils, these r e s u l t s should be treated with rather more caution (because of the small sample size) than should those for the spelling and reading analyses. While error may be reduced by using both subtests, the effectiveness of this pair i n identifying pupils who require further special educational services appears to be less than the effectiveness of the reading subtests and Spelling/Word Identification combination in correctly classifying poor readers and poor spellers. Grade Six Validation The scores of the 61 remedial pupils i n the grade six sample appeared in as many discriminant function analyses as the number of remedial categories i n which they were entered. As i n the grade three analysis, i f a pupil was receiving remedial instruction i n s p e l l i n g , as w e l l as i n reading, his/her scores were used i n discriminant function analyses for both. A l l remedial scores i n each analysis were compared with the scores of 37 non-remedial grade six pupils from region 2 i n the norming phase of B. C. QUIET development. Because the analysis procedures for grade six were identical to -115-those presented i n grade three, only the classification results are described i n the text. Other tables, similar to those displayed above f o r grade three (Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations and R e l i a b i l i t i e s and the Discriminant Summaries) are contained i n Appendix G. S p e l l i n g . On the basis of F-tests i t was concluded that the remedial group scored significantly lower than the non-remedial group on a l l s u b t e s t s . Use of only the S p e l l i n g subtest c o r r e c t l y classified 24 of 25 remedial pupils and 31 of 37 non-remedial pupils (Table 33). The overall correct classification rate was 88.7 percent. In the second analysis, a l l pupils i n both groups were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d by a combination of subtests: Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension. While comparison Of the r e s u l t s of the two analyses appears to favour the combination of Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension as a better discriminator than the Spelling subtest, using the combination would not provide c l i n i c a l information, such as l e t t e r formation or e r r o r patterns, which may be of use i n an individualized assessment. It i s not suggested, therefore, that the combination be administered in place of the Spelling subtest; rather the examiner i s encouraged to administer the combination with the Spelling subtest. -116-Table 33 Classification Summary Grade 6 Spelling a) Spelling Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Predicted Membership Actual Group Remedial Non-remedial n a) Spelling Remedial 24(96.0$) 1(4.0$) 25 Non-remedial 6(16.2$) 31(83.8$) 37 b) Best Linear Combination (Word Identification, Passage Comprehension) Remedial 25(100.0$) 0(0.0$) 25 Non-remedial 0(0.0$) 37(100.0$) 37 Percent of cases correctly classified: a) 88.7$ b) 100.0$ - 1 1 7 -Heading. As i n the previous analyses, the remedial group scored significantly lower on a l l subtests than did the non-remedial group. In the f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s the a b i l i t y of the Word Identification and Passage Comprehension subtests to d i f f e r e n t i a t e remedial readers from the non-remedial group was examined. Both subtests emerged in the f i r s t analysis as discriminators (as opposed to the grade three reading results when only the f i r s t emerged). The correlation between them i s much lower for the grade s i x groups than for the grade three groups. The results of the f i r s t analysis showed that 41 of 44 remedial pupils and a l l 3 7 non-remedial pupils were correctly classified. The overall rate of correctly classified pupils was 9 6 . 3 percent (Table 3 4 ) . The results of the second analysis were identical to those of the f i r s t . The error i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n occurs i n the remedial category. However, the proportion of remedial pupils c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d i s high ( 9 3 . 2 percent). It i s suggested that the combination of these reading subtests w i l l provide the examiner with a reasonably accurate measure f o r i d e n t i f y i n g p u p i l s i n need of additional sp e c i a l educational services. Arithmetic. The remedial arithmetic group scored significantly lower than the non-remedial group on a l l subtests. The Arithmetic subtest alone correct classified 18 of the 19 remedial pupils and 25 of 3 7 non-remedial pupils. The overall rate of correct classification -118-Table 34 Classification Summary Grade 6 Reading a) Word Identification and Passage Comprehension b) Best Linear Combination Predicted Membership Actual Group Remedial Non-remedial n a) Word Identification, Passage Comprehension Remedial 41(93-2$) 3(6.8$) 44 Non-remedial 0(0.0$) 37(100.0$) 37 b) Best Linear Combination (Word Identification, Passage Comprehension) Remedial 41(93.2$) 3(6.8$) 44 Non-remedial 0(0.0$) 37(100.0$) 37 Percent of cases correctly c l a s s i f i e d : a) 96.3$ b) 96.3$ -119-was 76.8 percent (Table 3 5 ) . In the second analysis, Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Arithmetic emerged as the most s i g n i f i c a n t contributors: 16 of 19 remedial pupils and 34 of 37 non-remedial pupils were correctly classified. The o v e r a l l proportion of pupils c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d was 8 9 . 3 percent. This result i s not unexpected, given that a large number of students enrolled for the remedial arithmetic group were also part of the remedial reading group (see Table 2 3 ) . Comparison of the r e s u l t s of the two discriminant analyses indicates that the combination of Word Identification and Arithmetic differentiates remedial from non-remedial pupils better than does the Arithmetic subtest alone. However, the Arithmetic subtest correctly classifies more of the remedial pupils than does the combination of Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Arithmetic. Use of the Arithmetic subtest directs error toward the classification of non-remedial pupils, while use of the combination allocates more error toward the classification of remedial pupils. Because a screening test should i d e n t i f y more f a l s e p o s i t i v e s than f a l s e negatives, i t i s suggested that the Arithmetic subtest be administered in preference to the combination of Word Identification and Arithmetic. Post Hoc Analysis It i s a natural extension of the validation phase to establish cut-off points which can be employed to screen pupils who should -120-Table 35 Classification Summary Grade 6 Arithmetic a) Arithmetic Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Predicted Membership Actual Group Remedial Non-remedial n a) Arithmetic Remedial 18(94.7$) Non-remedial 12(32.4$) b) Best Linear Combination (Word Identification, Arithmetic) Remedial 16(84.2$) 3(15.8$) 19 Non-remedial 3(8.1$) 34(91.9$) 37 1(5.3$) 25(67.6$) 19 37 Percent of cases correctly classified: a) 76.8$ b) 89.3$ -121-proceed to the next step i n the Confirmation of Deviancy model which was presented i n C h a p t e r I I . To t h i s end, h i s t o g r a m s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of p u p i l s f o r each simple discriminant a n a l y s i s were inspected to determine the c u t - o f f p o i n t s which separated r e m e d i a l from non-remedial p u p i l s . These values are reported i n Table 36. The raw score values represent the h i g h e s t s c o r e s at which p u p i l s were c l a s s i f i e d as "remedial". Because of the s m a l l ns, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r Arithmetic, the mixed composition of the sample, the v a r i a b i l i t y of the two grade l e v e l samples and the geographic l o c a t i o n of the samples, the standard deviation values i n Table 36 are not recommended f o r use by examiners. Rather, i t i s recommended that the pooled variances of these values be used. The mean of the corresponding variances, when converted back to a standard d e v i a t i o n to r e t u r n to the metric of the test produces a valu e of -1.06 or approximately one standard d e v i a t i o n from the interpolated p r o v i n c i a l means.3 3 Because the v a l i d a t i o n phase was completed during February, while the norms were gathered i n November, mean subtest scores were interpolated f o r the post-hoc a n a l y s i s . The school year was a r b i t r a r i l y divided i n t o three units of time ( f a l l , winter and spring), and constants were calculated and added to the f a l l means to approximate "winter" means f o r the v a l i d a t i o n phase. These are: Interpolated Subtest Means Word Passage Grade 1 S p e l l i n g Arithmetic I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Comprehension 3 23.9 26.3 48.5 16.6 6 37.8 44.3 66.0 27.0 -122-Table 36 Raw Score Cut-Offs Used i n the Validation Analyses Subtest Grade Analysis Spelling Arithmetic Reading 6 1 S:18(-.9 S.D.) A:21(-1.1 S.D.) WI:41(-.7 S.D.) 2 S:15(-1 .3 S.D.) A:20(-1.3 S.D.) WI:43(-.5 S.D.) WT:43(- .5 S.D.) WI:43(-.5 S.D.) S:15(- .5 S.D.) 1 S:29(-1 .3 S.D.) A:37(-1.5 S.D.) WI:55(-1 • 3 S.D.) PC:17(- .6 S.D.) 2 WT:55(-1 .3 S.D.) A:34(-2.1 S.D.) WI:55(-1 .3 S.D.) PS:17(-.6 S.D.) WI:66(0.0 S.D.) PC:17(-.6 S.D.) S = Spelling subtest A = Arithmetic subtest WI = Word Identification subtest PC = Passage Comprehension subtest a Standard deviations are shown i n ( ) . -123-Consequently, i t i s suggested that when a pupil's subtest score differs by more than one standard deviation from the mean, this should be considered as "below average" (Table 14) and the pupil should be referred to step 3 of the Confirmatory Testing Model (Figure 1). -124-CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In t h i s f i n a l chapter the purpose, procedure and results of the study are summarized; conclusions are presented; implications for practice are discussed, and recommendations are suggested for future research. Summary The present study addressed the need for more valid standardized tests to use in screening British Columbia pupils i n need of remedial services and offered one response to that need i n the form of a newly developed individualized screening achievement test. Newland (1971) advanced five assumptions that underly psychoeducational assessment and which are necessary for testing to be considered valid. Two of these assumptions were of pa r t i c u l a r concern: the requirement that the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pupil for whom the test was intended be s i m i l a r to those of the p u p i l s i n c l u d e d i n the standardization sample for the test and that the test validly sample the behaviours being measured. In B r i t i s h Columbia there was no individualized test which was s p e c i f i c a l l y standardized for use with B r i t i s h Columbia p u p i l s (P r o v i n c i a l Test Survey, 1980) and which was specifically referenced to B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s . Examiners who -125-administered individualized standardized tests had to rely solely on instruments developed i n other countries and normed on samples drawn from the populations of these countries. Holmes (1981) found that the norms provided with f i v e commonly used American and B r i t i s h i n t e l l i g e n c e tests are not appropriate for B. C. pupils. Because performance on achievement tests i s highly correlated with performance on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ( A n a s t a s i , 1976), i t i s l i k e l y that the published norms of American and B r i t i s h achievement t e s t s are similarly inappropriate for assessing the a b i l i t i e s of B. C. pupils. The validity of item content of foreign tests i s unsatisfactory. A r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t s of American tests contain items r e f l e c t i n g learning outcomes which are no longer contained i n the B. C. p r o v i n c i a l Mathematics Guide and which do not not deal with some learning outcomes of the B. C. curriculum to the extent that would be desired. Reading items may use a similar vocabulary but be set in a context unique to American history. S p e l l i n g items may d i f f e r not only i n s p e l l i n g but i n pronunciation. B. C. examiners who use American achievement tests must do so i n the knowledge that the content of such tests diverges from what i s taught in B. C. schools. To remedy this situation, an individualized screening achievement test , the B. C. QUIET, was developed and validated in the present study. The test consists of four s u b t e s t s t y p i c a l l y found i n screening b a t t e r i e s : Spelling, Arithmetic, Word Identification and Passage Comprehension. Items were s p e c i f i c a l l y referenced to B. C. -126-c u r r i c u l a and materials prescribed or authorized by the provincial M i n i s t r y of Education f o r use with elementary p u p i l s . Test development included two tryouts, each designed to examine the clarity of instructions and the efficacy of individual items and a p r o v i n c i a l norming which was conducted in the f a l l of 1982. The norming version was empirically validated i n the spring of 1983 with 91 grade three pupils and 61 grade six pupils who were receiving remedial instruction in spelling, reading, and/or arithmetic. Their scores on the B. C. QUIET were compared with the scores of 43 grade three and 37 grade six non-remedial pupils i n the norming sample drawn from schools i n the same region. Most of the schools i n the norming sample of region 2 participated i n the validation study. Provincial norms were prepared i n the summer of 1983; 1140 pupils and 171 examiners in 59 public school d i s t r i c t s and several private schools were involved. The number of usable protocols for each grade level in the norming i s : Grade Number of Usable Protocols 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 161 155 153 151 147 143 135 Norming Means, standard deviations and s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s were calculated for each subtest at each grade level. Means systematically -127-increased by grade f or each subtest f o r grades one to seven. Standard d e v i a t i o n s were s i m i l a r a c r o s s grades and r e l i a b i l i t y equaled or exceeded .80 for a l l but four of the 26 subtest x grade combinations. The lowest r e l i a b i l i t y was .68 f o r A r i t h m e t i c a t grade one, which l i k e l y r e f l e c t e d the reduced number of items attempted at t h i s grade. Standard errors of measurement were s i m i l a r a c r o s s grades f o r each s u b t e s t . These r e s u l t s were judged to be adequate f or the purpose of the t e s t as shown i n Figure 1 (Chapter I I ) . Empirical V a l i d a t i o n At b o t h g r a d e l e v e l s , the n o m i n a l l y r e l e v a n t s u b t e s t s s u c c e s s f u l l y discriminated remedial from non-remedial p u p i l s ; that i s , the S p e l l i n g s u b t e s t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r e medial from non-remedial s p e l l e r s ; t h e r e a d i n g s u b t e s t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d r e m e d i a l from non-remedial readers, and the Arithmetic subtest d i f f e r e n t i a t e d pupils r e c e i v i n g remedial i n s t r u c t i o n i n arithmetic from those who were not. Simultaneous c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l f o u r s u b t e s t s revealed that f o r every comparison, the use of the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest improved the o v e r a l l percentage of cases c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y for arithmetic groups. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n e r r o r , when present, involved a higher proportion of non-remedial than remedial pupils f o r a l l the analyses except grade s i x arithmetic. This type of error i s preferable because non-remedial pupils f a l s e l y i d e n t i f i e d as deviant i n stage two of the Confirmatory -128-T e s t i n g model (see Chapter I I ) w i l l l i k e l y be discovered at stage three. Remedial p u p i l s , f a l s e l y i d e n t i f i e d as non-deviant w i l l be r e t u r n e d to the r e g u l a r classroom where, without s p e c i a l educational s e r v i c e s , they may waste t h e i r own time and the e f f o r t s of t h e i r t e a c h e r s who w i l l t r e a t them as non-deviant. Or perhaps they may be r e f e r r e d f o r counselling — an inappropriate and wasteful r e f e r r a l f o r a c h i l d whose d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the classroom stem more from learning than from s o c i a l adjustment. The emergence o f the r e a d i n g s u b t e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , as the most s i g n i f i c a n t contributor(s) i n the stepwise a n a l y s e s may a t t e s t to the ubiquitous importance of reading s k i l l s to other school subjects or to the sample composition which was h e a v i l y w e i g h t e d t o w a r d s r e m e d i a l r e a d e r s . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h Passage Comprehension at the grade s i x l e v e l i n d i c a t e s the lower c o r r e l a t i o n of these two subtests at that grade l e v e l and the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r share of v a r i a n c e between groups accounted f o r by Passage Comprehension at the grade s i x l e v e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n s of the two reading t e s t s were considerably higher at the grade three l e v e l , and the d i f f e r e n c e s between groups were somewhat l e s s f o r the Passage Comprehension subtest at that grade l e v e l . L imitations of the Study L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y representativeness f o r both empirical r e l a t e t o s a m p l e s i z e and v a l i d a t i o n and norming. These -129-are discussed separately f o r each phase. Va l i d a t i o n . The s i z e of the sample used f o r empirical v a l i d a t i o n p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t y . While the grade three sample achieved desired s i z e , only 61 grade s i x p u p i l s were found f o r the re m e d i a l groups; t h i s i s 67-7 p e r c e n t of the desired t o t a l grade s i x sample. The c o m p o s i t i o n of the sample, however, p o s e s a more s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t y . Almost a l l grade three remedial pupils were enrolled i n remedial reading i n s t r u c t i o n . While t h i s provided a s a t i s f a c t o r y s i z e f o r the d i s c r i m i n a n t function analysis of reading, i t meant that the analyses f o r s p e l l i n g and a r i t h m e t i c c o n t a i n e d p u p i l s who were a l s o low f u n c t i o n i n g i n r e a d i n g : 97-8 percent of remedial s p e l l e r s and 76.9 percent of pupils i n remedial arithmetic were i n the remedial r e a d i n g group. The grade s i x remedial sample was more d i s t i n c t than the grade three sample, but considerable overlap was a l s o p r e s e n t : 92 p e r c e n t of remedial s p e l l e r s and 52.7 percent of pupils described as poor i n arithmetic were i n the remedial reading group. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s u b t e s t emerged as a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r to d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between r e m e d i a l and non-remedial groups at both grade l e v e l s . Does the sample composition suggest t h a t p u p i l s who were low f u n c t i o n i n g i n s p e l l i n g or a r i t h m e t i c a l s o had to be assessed by s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l as low f u n c t i o n i n g i n r e a d i n g before t h e y were -130 -considered e l i g i b l e f o r remedial services? Are pupils low i n s p e l l i n g and/or arithmetic s k i l l s not i d e n t i f i e d by teachers as e a s i l y as poor r e a d e r s ? Do t e a c h e r s not f e e l as comfortable about r e f e r r i n g pupils who are low functioning i n S p e l l i n g or A r i t h m e t i c as they do about r e f e r r i n g more t r a d i t i o n a l l y "reading delayed" or " d y s l e x i c " pupils? To what extent does p r o f i c i e n c y i n reading determine success i n other s c h o o l s u b j e c t s s u c h as s p e l l i n g and a r i t h m e t i c ? W h i l e the discriminant a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s are encouraging, they should be regarded as exploratory and not necessarily as d e f i n i t i v e . Norming. With regard to norming the i s s u e of sample s i z e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the sample as these r e l a t e to response rate emerges as p o t e n t i a l l y troublesome. Two d i s t r i c t s i n the sample and h a l f of the p r i v a t e s c h o o l s r e f u s e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . S i x t y - f i v e schools i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i s t r i c t s did not j o i n the project. A number of parents i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s r e f u s e d p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be t e s t e d . 1 Improper a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e i n v a l i d a t i o n of 97 protocols. Six examiners f a i l e d to administer the tes t . Canada Post did not d e l i v e r or d e l i v e r e d too l a t e some m a i l c o n t a i n i n g t e s t m a t e r i a l s or l e t t e r s r e q u e s t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s the o v e r a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the sample d i d not d e v i a t e g r e a t l y from population i n d i c e s of regional 1 The exact number of parents who refused permission f o r t h e i r c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i s unknown. Most schools did not return t h i s information. -131-enrollment, grade, school s i z e , community siz e and gender. One other facet of design i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I t was not possible to a d m i n i s t e r the test again i n the spring. Thus, norms f o r the r e s t of the school year must be interpolated, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made from the interpolated norms should be viewed with caution. Implications f o r Practice I n C h a p t e r I I a model was o f f e r e d w h i c h d e s c r i b e d the confirmation of deviancy with regard to academic achievement. T h i s confirmation occurred i n step 2 of the model, and i t s success depended i n p a r t on the use of a t e s t v a l i d f o r t h a t purpose. Before the development of the B. C. QUIET, there was no test for B. C. elementary pupils f o r which v a l i d i t y f o r that purpose had been demonstrated. The B. C. QUIET, referenced to what i s taught i n B. C. schools, normed and e m p i r i c a l l y validated on B. C. p u p i l s , p r o v i d e s examiners with the f i r s t test which can be v a l i d l y used i n step 2 of the model. A second model, which i s an e l a b o r a t i o n of the C o n f i r m a t o r y T e s t i n g model presented i n Chapter I I i s shown i n Figure 7. In t h i s model, pupils are i n i t i a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r classroom teacher or by a group test as deviant (step 1), and are referred f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d screening. I t i s at t h i s stage (step 2) that the B. C. QUIET i s used to determine whether or not the pupils' academic s k i l l s d eviate s u f f i c i e n t l y from those of t h e i r grade l e v e l peers as to r e q u i r e f u r t h e r s p e c i a l educational services. I f t h e i r scores on the -132-Figure 7 The Place of the B. C. QUIET i n Assessment Regular Class Teacher Referral t 2* Administration B. C. Quiet of« Score Deviancy > Not Confirmed Score Deviancy Confirmed i |3«Vision, Audition, Somato - Sensory Screening i A No | Assessed Problems i No ! Assessed Problems Deficit A No Deficit 4*Intelligence Test, Perceptual - Motor, Diagnostic Academic Tests Problem Identified B. C. QUIET, 1983, p. 114 -133-B. C. QUIET are not d e v i a n t from those of t h e i r grade l e v e l peers, they may be r e f e r r e d f o r a p e r s o n a l i t y assessment. I f t h e i r s c o r e s are d e v i a n t then they are r e f e r r e d f o r further l e a r n i n g assessment: sensory and somato-sensory s c r e e n i n g at s t e p 3 and p o s s i b l y t o s o p h i s t i c a t e d d i a g n o s t i c / p r e s c r i p t i v e t e s t i n g at step 4. The l a s t step may include administration of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s , perceptual-motor te s t s and various diagnostic t e s t s to d e t e r m i n e s p e c i f i c s k i l l d e f i c i t s and t o s u p p l y s p e c i f i c recommendations for remedial programming. The r e s u l t s of the empirical v a l i d a t i o n suggest t h a t the B. C. QUIET e f f e c t i v e l y d i s c r i m i n a t e s pupils who require remedial services from those who do not. However, the v a l i d a t i o n involved a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of p u p i l s at only two grade l e v e l s i n one region of the province. The cut o f f points determined on the post hoc a n a l y s i s of p u p i l s i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n phase were approximately one standard deviation below the p r o v i n c i a l mean. Despite the l i m i t e d nature of the v a l i d a t i o n study and i t s attendant d i f f i c u l t i e s , i t i s recommended that examiners use one standard d e v i a t i o n below the p r o v i n c i a l mean f o r each grade l e v e l as a c u t - o f f score to e s t a b l i s h deviancy. This appears to be the most r e a s o n a b l e p r o c e d u r e t o u s e , g i v e n the information a v a i l a b l e at t h i s time. Because the c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of pupils may be improved by s p e c i f i c subtest combinations which may not i n c l u d e the n o m i n a l l y r e l e v a n t s u b t e s t (as i n the instance of grade s i x pupils e n r o l l e d i n -134-remedial s p e l l i n g programs), i t i s suggested that the entire battery be administered to each referred pupil. This procedure w i l l insure not only the best classification of pupils but also the collection of c l i n i c a l l y relevant data. As well, i t w i l l encourage a more complete screening which would be important i n the case of a pupil who i s referred for a specific d i f f i c u l t y with arithmetic but who may also have d i f f i c u l t y with spelling or reading. Beyond establishing deviancy, the B. C. QUIET, because i t i s referenced to what i s taught i n B. C. schools and because i t allows the examiner to observe how a pupil responds to the various items, may be used to provide informal information to the examiner through a testing-the-limits procedure. This involves observation of pupil performance, such as l e t t e r formation, strategies used to solve arithmetic items, and pattern of errors on saying words aloud. This informally obtained information may be used to guide further assessment in step 4 of the model shown in Figure 7. Directions for Further Research Some immediate avenues for research are indicated by questions raised above, particularly with regard to validation: a correlational study with a group test such as the Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s and a correlational study with an individualized intelligence test such as the WISC-R with Holmes' (1981) norms. These, as well Discriminant Analyses of remedial and non-remedial pupils at other grade levels, -135-would further explore the dis c r i m i n a t i n g power of the B. C. QUIET. The u t i l i t y o f the t e s t f o r program e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d be investigated by l o n g i t u d i n a l studies. The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the B. C. QUIET to other r e g i o n s o f Canada should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Norming the B. C. QUIET i n other provinces a f t e r examination of i t s content v a l i d i t y i n r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s would allow comparisons to national s t a t i s t i c s and i n d i c a t e whether or not separate norms s h o u l d be provided f o r d i f f e r e n t provinces or regions i n Canada. -136-REFERENCES American Psychological Association. Standards for Educational and  Psychological Tests. Washington, D. C., 1974. Anastasi, A. Psychological Testing. 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Measurement and evaluation In teaching. New York: MacMillan Co., 1965. Hammill, D., & Wiederholt, J. The resource room: Rationale and  implementation. Philadelphia: Buttonwood Farms, 1972. Holmes, B. Individually-administered intelligence tests: An application, of order test norming and equating procedures j,n British Columbia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1981. Inglis, R. B., Stouffer, D., & Larsen, C. Adventures i n English  Literature. Toronto: Gage, 1982. Jastak, J., & Jastak, S. Wide Range Achievement Test. Wilmington, Delaware: Justak Associates, 1978. Kamphaus, R., & Lozano, R. Performance of a group of Mexican-American children on the PPVT-R. Proceedings of the National Association Of School Psychologists. Toronto, 1982. King, E., & Hieronymous, A. Canadian Test of Basic S k i l l s . Toronto: Thomas & Nelson, 1975. Kioka, A., & Curtis-Hane, D. Spelling in Language Arts. Toronto: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1965. Lutey, C., & Copeland, E. Cognitive assessments of the school-age child. In C. Reynolds & T. Gutbein (Eds.), The handbook of  school psychology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982. Mercer, J., & Lewis, J. System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1978. Mervin, J. Wide Range Achievement Test. In 0. Buros (Ed.), Seventh  mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, New Jersey: Gryphon Press, 1972. Nelson, L. Guide to LERTAP use and interpretation. Dunedin, New Zealand: Dept. of Education, University of Otago, 1974. Newland, T. Psychological assessment of exceptional children and youth. In W. Cruickshank (Ed.), Psychology of exceptional children. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Nie, N., et a l . St a t i s t i c a l package for the social sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. -139-Polley, D., & J . Ogden. Model resource center f o r c h i l d r e n with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . Unpublished paper. 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Learning assistance i n B r i t i s h Columbia: I t s focus, i t s functions. Vancouver, B.C.: ERIBC, 1981. Shepherd, L. The r o l e of measurement i n educational p o l i c y : Lessons from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of learning d i s a b i l i t i e s . P r e s i d e n t i a l Address at the National Council on Measurement i n Education. Montreal, Quebec, 1983. S o l o t a r o f f , S. (Ed.) Man i n the expository mode - 2. Agincourt: Book Society of Canada, 1974 (a). Sol o t a r o f f , S. (Ed.) Man i n the expository mode - 3. Agincourt: Book Society of Canada, 1974 (b). Stanley, J. R e l i a b i l i t y . In R. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational measurement. Washington, D.C: American Council on Measurement, 1971. Thomas, V. Teaching s p e l l i n g . Toronto: Gage, 1974. Thorndike, R. Applied psvchometries. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1982. -140-Thorndike, R. Wide Range Achievement Test. In 0. Buros (Ed.), Seventh mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, New Jersey: Gryphon Press, 1972. Tyler, R. W. General statement on evaluation. In W. J. Beausoy (Ed.), Educational t e s t s and measurements. New York: MSS Information Corporation, 1972. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Education of Handicapped Children. 1975. Wechsler, D. Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children - Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1974. Williams, R. Black I n t e l l i g e n c e Test of C u l t u r a l Homogeneity. St. Louis, Washington Un i v e r s i t y , 1972. Woodcock, R. Woodcock reading mastery t e s t s . C i r c l e Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service, 1973. Woodcock, R., & Johnson, S. Woodcock-Johnson Psych,peducati.pn,al Battery. C i r c l e Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service, 1977. Wormeli, C. T. Special services i n School D i s t r i c t #37. Unpublished master's t h e s i s . Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., 1979. Wright, M. A., & H a r r i s , M. W. Canadian Lorge Thorndike i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Technical supplement. Toronto: Thomas Nelson, 1972. Ysseldyke, J . , & Mirkin, P. The use of assessment information to plan i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n t erventions: A review of the research. In Outlines and readings. 1982. Ysseldyke, J., & Planta, B. Psychoeducational decisionmaking: Generalizations and implications f o r t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e . Proceedings. D e t r o i t : National Association of School Psychologists, 1983. -141-APPENDIX A Answers to BITCH-100 Items 1. c 2. a 3. c 4. d -142-APPENDIX B F i r s t Tryout Item Pool -143 -Appendix B Spelling Source Item Alphabet * 1. * 2. * 3. * 4. « 5. Teaching 6. SDelline • 7. Grade 2 8. 9. 10. * 11. * 12. 13. » 14. * 15. T e a c h i n g 16. Spelling 17. Grade 3 18. 19. 20. 21. • 22. s 23. « 24. 25. T e a c h i n g 26. SDelline *» 27. Grade 4 * 28. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound m-m-m in man. M-m-m. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound f in f i s h . F. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound a-a-a i n and. A-a-a Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound w in went. W. Write the sound that makes the sound h i n hat. H. you. I want you to help. with. I ate my peas with honey. time. It's time to go. put. Put the book on the shelf. bed. At night we go to bed. never. It's better late than never. long. The stick was too long. caught. She caught the butterfly. take. You should take a pencil to school. other. He read the other book. trees. The trees were covered with snow. likes. Marie likes to do arithmetic. farms. There are many farms along the F r a s e r River. lights. Lights i n the B.C. Hydro building help to heat i t . yes. He answered, "Yes" to the question, fairy. The teacher read a fairy tale aloud, b e t t e r . I t ' s u s u a l l y b e t t e r to f o l l o w instructions. too. She drove the car too fast, window. The baseball went through the window, try. If I don't do right the f i r s t time, I like to try again. lived. The Haida Indians lived in longhouses. himself. The trapper cut himself accidentally, family. Tom's family lived in an apartment. * Items which appeared in the norming/validation version. ** Items which appeared in the norming/validation with modification. -144-Appendix B (Continued) S p e l l i n g Source Item 29. f i n a l l y . The c o n s t r u c t i o n crew f i n a l l y f i n i s h e d the road. * 30. Monday. Monday i s named a f t e r the moon. 31. t i n y . The needle made a ti n y puncture. * 3 2 . potato. The potato I ate came from Prince Edward Island. 33. doing. His s i s t e r i s doing w e l l . * 34. hard. A diamond i s very hard. 35. m i c e . Mice l i k e t o e a t the g r a i n s t o r e d i n Burrard I n l e t . Teaching 36. eyes. His eyes are l i g h t blue. S p e l l i n g 37. looks. The boy l o o k s at the c l o c k each morning Grade 5 when he wakes. * 3 8 . mountains. B r i t i s h Columbia has many mountains. 39- t e l l . She learned how to t e l l time. » 40. wait. We had to wait for the t r a i n . * * 41. kept. The Government kept i t s majority. 42. t o n i g h t . T o n i g h t I w i l l watch my f a v o u r i t e t e l e v i s i o n program. * * 43. mining. Mining i s an important industry i n B.C. mining. 44. kids. The mother goat has two kids. * * 45. downstairs. In new houses the downstairs area i s often unfinished. Teaching 46. j u s t . The court's d e c i s i o n was regarded as j u s t . S p e l l i n g 47. egg. The Egg Marketing Board established a new Grade 6 p r i c e . 48. between. Much of Vancouver l i e s between the two arms of the Fraser River. * * 49. B r i t i s h . A n o t h e r name f o r t h e C a n a d i a n Constitution i s the B r i t i s h North America Act. * * 50. noises. Sometimes old houses make strange noises. 51. corner. One cor n e r of the b r e a k f a s t t a b l e was scratched. * * 52. h o s p i t a l . I hope you n e v e r have to go to a h o s p i t a l . * * 53. i s l a n d s . There are many i s l a n d s o f f the B.C. coast. 54. than. Prince George i s la r g e r than Prince Rupert. -145-Appendix B (Continued) S p e l l i n g Source Item * * 55. v i l l a g e . Over a century ago, Vancouver was only a v i l l a g e . I Can 56. domestic. The farmer had many domestic animals. S p e l l 57. proper. Her dress was proper f o r the party. Grade 7 58. c o l l e c t i o n . His stamp c o l l e c t i o n was quite large. 59. considering. The judge was considering the case. 60. i n d i c a t e . Arrows on the map i n d i c a t e a i r f i e l d s . 61. public. The public address system didn't work. * 62." t e m p o r a r y . The r e p a i r s t o t h e r o o f were temporary. * 63« r e g i o n . The e a s t e r n r e g i o n of Canada i s f a i r l y f l a t . * 64. ought. I ought to do my homework. 65. ancient. The pyramids of Egypt are ancient. S p e l l i n g 66. i n a c t i v e . The naval o f f i c e r was put on i n a c t i v e i n Language duty. Arts * 67« surprise. The party was a surprise. Grade 8, 9 * 68. evidence. The witness gave evidence i n court. 69. r e g r e t t e d . The premier r e g r e t t e d h i s choice of work. 70. trophy. The soccer team won the c i t y trophy. * 71. m a g n i f i c e n t . The R.C.M.P. M u s i c a l R i d e was magnificent. 72. i n f e c t i o n . The swimmer had an ear i n f e c t i o n . 73- worship. Many Canadians worship each week. * 74. t r a n s m i t t e r . The t e l e v i s i o n transmitter worked we l l . * * 75. t e r m i n a l . The Vancouver bus t e r m i n a l runs 24 hrs/day. 76. p a s s e r s - b y . The s h o p l i f t e r was caught by two passers-by. 77. d i f f i c u l t i e s . The p a t h was s u r r o u n d e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s . * 78. recommend. The w a i t e r s a i d t h a t he would recommend the roast duck. * * 79. character. The unknown actor was selected to play the main character. 80. i n t e n s i f y . The b a t t l e began to i n t e n s i f y . * * 81. s c i s s o r s . He needed a sharp s c i s s o r s . -146-Appendix B (Continued) Spelling Source Item « 82. 83. • 84. 85. • 86. « 87. • 88. »« 89. • 90. Corrective 91. Spelling « 9 2 . • 93. • 94. « 95. 96. • 97. *• 98. 99. •100. •101. •102. •103. •104. 105. advertisement. The Petrocan advertisement was brief. u n c o n s c i o u s . P s y c h o l o g i s t s may study the unconscious mind. guarantee. The video disc player had a two-year guarantee. legitimate. The prime minister f e l t there was a legitimate need for martial law. barrister. The barrister fought for his client. heir. The Prince of Wales i s heir to the throne. analyse. Detectives analyse a crime. upholsterer. The upholsterer charged a high price for refurbishing the chair. athlete. The athlete trained daily. professor. A professor has been a good student. transferred. The soldier was transferred to a new base. inexpensive. The lunch was inexpensive, business. The restaurant o f f e r e d a business lunch. disease. The disease was widespread, preferred. She preferred a black car. physical. She excelled i n physical activities, s u b s t a n t i a l . The i n t e r e s t on the loan was substantial. separate. Some B r i t i s h Columbians wanted to separate from Canada. exhilarated. He was exhilarated by success, burlesque. The play was a burlesque of the original drama. hallucinogen. The chemical was a hallucinogen, posthumously. The honor was awarded posthumously, superfluous. The gold watch was superfluous, ambrosian. The wine was ambrosian. -147-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome Kg count orally to ten • 1. Count from one to ten. Begin with one. 1 (1) relate number symbol to real objects « 2. Show me seven fingers. Kg indicate the relative value of numerals to 10 * 3. Which i s more, 9 or 8? 1 (16) count by over to 99 4. Count from one to twenty. Begin with by one. 1 (13) solve simple * problems involving addition and subtraction 5. Peter had two crayons. His teacher gave him two more. How many crayons did he have altogether? 1 (13) above • 6. Mary had six pennies. She lost two of them. How many did she have le f t ? 1 (2) determine i f the number of one set i s equal or not equal to the number of another set « 1. Circle the groups that are the same in number. X X X X X v X X X x x x X X 1 (13) (above) 2. 1 + 2 = 1 (13) (above) » 3. 2 + 3. 1 (13) (above) « 4. 8 - 2 = -148-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 1 (13) (above) * 5. 5 -3. 1 (15) write numerals to 99 «* 6. Write sixty-one with numerals: 1 (17) recognize and use =, <, >, = to 99 « 7. C i r c l e the one that i s true: 5 = 4 8 > 9 9 < 10 1 1 (18) r e c a l l m u l t i p l i c a t i o n f a c t s to 10 (23) t e l l time to the hour » * 8. 9. 2 x 3 = r° I* \ The time i s : I 9 * 3| 2 (6) solve multi-p l i c a t i o n equations with products to 20 » 10. 4 x 3 = 2 (7) solve m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n equations i n c l u d i n g i d e n t i t y * 11. 7 x 1 = 2 (10) write numerals to 999 *« 12. Write seven hundred t h i r t y - s i x i n numerals: 2 (15) r e c a l l addition f a c t s to 18 * 13- 8 + 1 -149-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 2 (16) r e c a l l d i v i s i o n f a c t s to 20 14. 15 i 3 = 2 (17) solve problems in v o l v i n g pennies, n i c k e l s , dimes « 15. one dime = pennies 2 (20) solve addition and subtraction pro-blems of 2 or 3 d i g i t numerals without regrouping * 16. 23 - 1 1 2 (26) measure length i n a r b i t r a r y units (centimetres) (20) above * 17. Measure the l i n e below to the nearest centimetre: 2 * 18. 234 + 3£5_ 3 (5) solve subtraction examples to 4 d i g i t s with regrouping c 19. 410 - 159 3 (2) write numerals to 9999 »« 20. Write four thousand three hundred twenty-nine i n numerals. 3 (8) r e c a l l m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n f a c t s to 50 * 21. 7 x 7 = 3 (6a) solve m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n examples with n 0 n p r i n c i p l e * 22. Q x 0 = -1 50-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 3 (7, 8) use and * 23- 4) 24 solve division examples with and without and remainders to 50 3 3 (8) above 24. x 8 = 32 (22) read clock and * 25. record i n conventional way The time i s : 3 (26) read thermometer * 26. in celsius 4 (21) indicate • 27. moderate-basic facts to 81 4 (2) indicate place * 28. value to 100,000 4 (12) recognize * 29-products as answers multiplication 4 (16a) recognize and 30. use the term "numerator" The temperature i s : 8 x 9 = In the numeral 35 426 the four i s i n the place. The product of 6 and 9 is . The numerator of J_ is 4 -151-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 4 (15) use concepts of a fractional number as part of a group * 31. •1 of this group i s how many? « 4 (25a) use subtraction algorithm when regroup ing whole numbers * 32. * • 4002 - 3456 4 (19b)i) add common like fractions • * 33. 8 8 4 (22a) multiply with a 2-figure multiplier • 34. 34 X 7_8_ 4 (25b) subtract common like fractions * 35. 1 . 1 -5 5 " 4 (26) write quotients -basic facts to 81 * 36. 56 -f 8 = 4 (37b) l i s t properties of a rectangle * 37. A rectangle has how many sides? 4 (44a) measure length in mm * 38. Measure the line below to the nearest millimetre. 4 (46a) use appropriate unit to measure time * 39. one year = months 5 (16) identify whole numbers 40. Circle the whole numerals. -7, 5, 3j. 12 5 (17) write decimal numerals 41. Write 8 l as a fraction: 2 -152-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 5 (19b)ii) add common * unlike fractions 42. 2- + l = 3 6 5 (19c) add mixed * numerals 43. 73. + o l = 4 7 5 (19d) add decimal • fractions to 1000ths 44. 78.03 + 19,612 5 (22b) multiply common * fractions 45. 1 x 1 = 4 5 5 (15b)ii) subtract com- * mon unlike fractions 46. 2. 3 . 1 6_ 5 (25c) subtract mixed numerals with regrouping 47. 241 - 125-8 5 (28b) traditional * division with remainder as fractions 48. 35) 107 5 (33a) express data i n a ratio 49. The ratio of 25 5 short pencils long pencils to i s written as: 5 (41c) use vocabulary: perpendicular lines 50. A c 1 D B Line AB i s to line CD -153-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 5 (40b) use vocabulary: ** 51. E F parallel lines G H Line EF i s to line GH 5 (44b) calculate sur- * 52. The area of this figure i s cnr face to cnr 5 (7d) identify prime numbers 53- Circle the prime numerals 5, 8, 1.2, 10, 37 5 (10) identify prime factors of a numeral 54. The prime factors of 12 are: 6 (22c) multiply mixed numerals 55. 6 (28b) divide whole numerals • 56. 5 (25c) subtract mixed numerals 57. 12^ . - Hi = 3 2 6 (30) divide 58. decimal fractions 42.7) 621.7974 6 (37g) identify pentagon 59. The polygon below i s called a -154-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 6 (38, 44a) identify radius and measure * 60. The radius to the nearest cm i s : 6 (47) use unit appropriate for grade, estimate & measure mass 61. One unit of measure used to measure mass i s a 5 (2) indicate place value to millions * 62. In the numeral 328 042, the place value of eight i s 5 (22a) multiply whole numbers * 63- 348 X 963 7 (II.C.2) round a decimal numeral or a fraction numeral 64. Write 32.073 rounded to the nearest tenth: 7 (II.C.10) write a decimal number as a fraction numeral * 65. Write 0.125 as a common fraction: 7 (II.C.11) write a percent numeral for a fraction numeral or decimal numeral * 66. 1- * 7 (II.C.11) above « 67. 0.03 = i -155-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 7 (VII.3.b) calcu-late area of a 68. The area of i s the figure below triangle 3 cm 4 cm 7 (II.B.3) l i s t the factors of a « 69. List a l l the factors of 64: number (III.3.d,e,f,g) identify acute, vertical, obtuse, right (VII.3.C) Calculate area of a circle 70. 71 Angle ABC i s (circle one): acute A \ obtuse vertical right C The area of this circle i s : 3^ 10 (1.A.2) evaluate an algebraic expression (1.B.11) square a binomial 72. If x = 3, 3x + 12 * 73. Expand: (a + b ) 2 (1.B.2) 74. If a / o, 4ab 4 b -156-Appendix B (Continued) Arithmetic Source Item Grade Learning Outcome 9 (1.F.1) find the square root of perfect squares by factoring • 75. 10 (3.A.1) use con-cept of simple interest in calculation * 76. At an annual rate of 12$, what i s the interest for one month on $5200 11 factor a poly-nomial 77. The factors of 6a 2 + 9ab + 3b 2 are: 11 find a cube root 78. 3 *125 10 (1.B.3) multiply polynomials 79. ?aUc + 5d) = 10 (1.B.1) add exponents 80. a 2 x a^ = a number i n ( ) indicates learning outcomes at the indicated grade i n The Mathematics Curriculum Guide Years One to Twelve. 1978. -157-Appendix B (Continued) Word Identification Source Item Ginn 720 Book 2 Ginn 720 Book 3 Ginn 720 Book 4 Ginn 720 Book 5 Ginn 720 Book 6 Ginn 720 Book 7 Ginn 720 Book 8 6. is 7. and « 8. run » 9. help 10. walk 11. i t 12. don't ft 13. we'll * 14. mother * 15. here's • 16. let * 17. airport « 18. who * 19. from * 20. say 21. i f 22. hat • 23. jet * 24. slow » 25. city 26. so ft 27. talks ft 28. never 29- morning ft 30. dreams ft 31. lumberman ft 32. please ft 33. doctor ft 34. anyone ft 35. even ft 36. bush ft 37. brake ft 38. pronghorn ft 39. frighten 40. daddy ft 41. multiplied 42. need 43. those ft 44. didn't -158-Appendix B (Continued) Word Identification Source Item 45. pocket * 46. breathe * 47. donkey » 48. special Ginn 720 Book 9 49. sheen 50. tennis * 51. plastic * 52. bounds * 53. heaves * 54. thimble * 55. dinosaurs Ginn 720 Book 10 56. treacle * 57. urged * 58. intestine 59- advertised * 60. grocery * 61. fastened * 62. b r i l l i a n t Ginn 720 Book 11 * 63- grind 64. leader 65. thrashes * 66. character * 67. confidence * 68. jaguar * 69. accusation Ginn 720 Book 12 » 70. distrust 71. emotion * 72. abated 73- culture « 74. primitive 75. confidential * 76. vanquished Ginn 720 Book 13 8 77- stealth * 78. chafed * 79. interpreter 80. navigator * 81. wreath * 82. immortality * 83. geological -159-Appendix B (Continued) Word Identification Source Item Ginn 720 Book 14 84. blustered * 85. anxiously 86. nutritional 87. slough 88. pavilion 89. hover 90. hideous * 91• pathogene 92. fabulous * 93. invertebrate 94. formidable 95. awe 96. thrice * 97. retrospective The Magnificent Myths 98. t r o l l of Man 99. zenith 100. slithered 101. sculpture 102. chameleon * 103- peculiar 104. violence 105. llama * 106. admiration * 107 sardonically Man in the Expository * 108. ewe Mode 2 » 109. disunity 110. excrement * 111. colonnaded * 112. limousine * 113. sagacity » 114. laboriously 115. disquisition * 116. spermaceti Man in the Expository * 117. desultory Mode 3 118. hayrick 119. robust 120. humiliations * 121. psychology * 122. incongruity -160-Appendix B (Continued) Word Identification Source Item * 123. facade 124. barometer * 125. cumulative * 126. bourgeosie Adventures in 127. cornice English Literature » 128. ascetic * 129. mien 130. - chivalry * 131. tumultuous * 132. embryonic * 133. facetious * 134. picturesque * 135. paroxysm * 136. poignant World Book 137. igneous Encyclopedia • 1 3 8 . mesencephalon * 139. phthalocyanine -161-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item Ginn Level 2 Ginn Level 3 Ginn Level 4 Ginn Level 5 Ginn Level 6 Qinh Level 7 Ginn Level 8 * * « c 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13-14. 15. J i l l rides a Ted runs to the park. Ted likes the like to hop. Ducks do not read books. Boys and g i r l s read Turtles can swim. Turtles swim in the . The elephant i s hungry. He wants to . A helicopter goes fast. It w i l l a man to the airport. The rabbit saw a hungry fox. The ran away fast. The grasshopper called to the ant. But the went away. The man runs a big machine. He building a new home. Children go to school on most weekdays. They do not go to on weekends. How do you talk to a computer? You with a typewriter keyboard. In Burrard Inlet there was a big storm with wind and rain. The wind blew the door . B i l l rode his bicycle to the barber shop. When he started to go home, he found that the had a fl a t t i r e . Scientists look at pictures of the moon and the stars. Looking at the and the stars helps them understand the earth. -162-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item Ginn Level 9 Ginn Level 10 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21 22. 23. 24. When water i s frozen, i t turns into ice. When water we can pour i t into a glass and drink i t . A sea animal that has eight long arms i s called an octopus. The arms of the are covered with suckers. The dpg carried a newspaper to i t s master inside the house. The master the dog a pat and fed i t . Tyrannosaurus was one of the most terrible dinosaurs that ever lived. All the other feared him, except on that had 3 horns. Your skeleton i s a group of that f i t together and hold up your body. Your skeleton helps you to reach and move. Many famous cooks never t e l l what is in their best recipes. These cooks resent a change their recipes. The coast Indians carved poles that told about creatures that took care of a family or tribe. These crea-tures were called . The engineer on a train blows a diesel horn to warn that a train is coming. He the horn just before a crossing. Inuit keep their feet warm with 3 layers of . First, they put animal skin leggings on their feet, then bird slippers and fi n a l l y seal skin boots. -163-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item ** 25. The Hindus invented the number sign for zero. Zero i s the sign that means no object or thing - nothing. * 26. Composers communicate feelings through their music. Authors communicate feelings through their , while painters show their ideas through their paintings. 27. Indians who came long ago to the coast of British Columbia had plenty of food from the sea. Their favorite was the salmon. * 28. The f i r s t arithmetic machine was called an abacus. Today, high-speed help us to solve hard problems. Ginn Level 11 29. David carried the football down the sidelines to the goal. Just as crossed the goal line, he was tackled from behind. * 30. The ugly duckling had been pecked at by ducks and chickens. He went to the swans, expecting to be k i l l e d , but found that he was also 31. A condor i s a large bird found i n parts of North and South America. It may a wingspan of up to six meters. 32. According to Ojibwa legend, the Oriole was once a plain, gray bird. Every day he sang a beautiful song the sun. The sun was so pleased that he gave the oriole lovely feathers. -164-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item 33. Cave people once painted pictures on the walls of the caves i n which they l i v e d . These a r t i s t s drew p r e h i s t o r i c . * 34. " S p i r i t s " once were important i n explaining nature. To the Eskimos, the Northern Lights were made by playing games. * 35. A shaman was an important member of an Indian t r i b e . practiced medicine by means of magical s p e l l s and chants. Ginn Level 12 36. Because the door was locked, the boy climbed up to the transom. He pushed i t and looked down to see who was i n the room * 37- A legend, such as the one about St. George who slew a v i c i o u s dragon, can change. In Walt Disney's f i l m "The Reluctant Dragon", the dragon i s quite nice. Rather than f i g h t St. George, the dragon wishes to t e l l a sonnet. * 38. The ancient Greeks believed that Apollo drove the sun-chariot each day. His gold chariot was drawn through the sky four winged horses. * 39. I f man were to colonize the moon, he would have to l e a r n to adapt. Most importantly, he would have to to manage an ecology. 40. Music students may have a r e c i t a l each week or month. They may play only for t h e i r classmates, but they must practice to do . -165-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source • 41. • 42. Ginn Level 13 43. • 44. « 45. 46. • 47. • 48. Item A bathysphere i s a watertight sphere, large enough for two or three men. It i s lowered cable to explore the sea bottom. A Dutch g i r l hid some clock figurines from German troops during World War II. Although frightened, she did not allow the soldiers to the figurines. The ancient Egyptians used hiero-glyphics to write words. Our modern alphabet from the Phoenicians, through Greece and Rome. Surveyors mark the route by which a new highway w i l l reach i t s destina-tion. After the route has been , construction crews w i l l use machines to build the new road. The Sasquatch has become a curiosity in recent years. Searches have been conducted this creature i n B.C. Bi l l y walked nonchalantly through the doorway to his room. Whistling through his teeth, he dropped his armload of books on the instructor's . The f i r s t woman doctor in Canada received her license i n 1880. She received after a bitter fight with the medical profession. The f i r s t person to swim Lake Ontario was a Canadian schoolgirl. In 1954, M. Bell a total of 64 Km. i n 21 hours to gain that distinction. -166-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item * 49. The Magnificent Mvths of Man 50. * 51 52. 53. Man in the Expository  Mode - 2 54. 55. Odysseus told the cyclops, Polyphemus, that his name was "Noman". Odysseus and his men blinded him, the cyclops sought help, shouting "Noman has blinded me." Beowulf and his Geat warriors travelled to Denmark to save that land from Grendel. Beowulf fought Grendel and the monster's mother and destroyed them i n a terrible Mining i s an important industry in British Columbia. It i s as import-ant to the as forestry and tourism. A Trojan priest warned his people against Greeks bearing g i f t s . The people of did not believe him and hauled the great wooden horse into their city. T i l l Eulenspiegal i s one of History's most famous comic characters. Although stories about him were printed over four hundred years ago, they are s t i l l today. Pretending to be a bear, the boy capered around on a l l fours, growling and snapping. As he an imaginary herring, a giggle burst forth from an observer. The clash between Black and White societies creates many victims. While many of these are Blacks compelled to liv e i n Black ghettos, some Whites voluntarily create their own ghettos and isolate them--167-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item selves contact with other • 56, 57. * 58. 59. Man i n the Expository Mode - 3 60, 61, » 62. ethnic experiences. During the Depression, a large part of the population began to d r i f t . Boom towns went bust. Workers, i f they had money or the prospect of a , moved on. Others moved ju s t to escape t h e i r poverty. The prisoner ascended the gallows, accompanied by several guards. After l i s t e n i n g to the prisoner's shrieks, the warden gave the , and the prisoner disappeared from s i g h t . In French Guiana the government of France maintained a very repressive penal i n s t a l l a t i o n designed to crush the s p i r i t s of the confined there. Sperm whales have very poor v i s i o n . Above water, they are myopic and astigmatic. In water t h e i r v i s i o n merely as supplement to a complicated hearing and phonation system. The obedient family dog became re f r a c t o r y and would obey his master. Dedication, s t r i v i n g , endurance are a t t r i b u t e s of serious athletes and are regarded as desirable q u a l i t i e s i n every person. To a.sport photo-grapher, t r y i n g to capture these a t t r i b u t e s on f i l m , i t may seem that sport i s a microcosm of Convulsed with fear and range, the b u l l snorted and charged the mata-dor, but instead of f l e s h , h i s -168-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item Adventures xn English Literature horns tore only the empty a i r . Sides heaving, blood t r i c k l i n g down from his wounds, the b u l l turned and steadied himself f o r the next charge. Snorting, he flung himself at the red cape; as he rushed h e l p l e s s l y past, the matador d e f t l y s l i d the r e d - h i l t e d i n t o the b u l l ' s neck j u s t behind the horns. * 63. Appropriate student r o l e behaviour i s f o r success i n school. Unfortunately, to some pupils t h i s behaviour symbolizes submissiveness or obsequience, and they are unable to learn i t . 64. Our savory breakfast was i n t e r -rupted when the syncopated of the l a t e s t rock h i t blared through the loudspeakers i n our eldest son's room. * 65. Despite the renown of Shakespeare's works, h i s l i f e i s a mystery. Some h i s t o r i a n s have even asserted that the man himself never a c t u a l l y l i v e d . There i s , however, a record of him being born i n Str a t f o r d on Avon. A house, which i s to be h i s home, yet stands and has been converted i n t o a museum. * 66. As painting and l i t e r a t u r e i n eighteenth century England began to display the l i f e of ordinary people, rather than that of a r i s t o c r a t s , warm emotion replaced wit. The age of c l a s s i c i s m began to be replaced by the age of -169-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item 67. There are at l e a s t three components i n the process of reading. The f i r s t i s decoding or i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of words; the second i s under-standing the meanings of words and the meaning(s) of words together; the t h i r d i s passing on these words; that i s , we evalu-ate the r e l a t i v e worth of what we have read. 68. I t i s i r o n i c that so many of the technological achievements to which we are accustomed f o r our material welfare have been spawned by the pressures of m i l i t a r y research and production. Can our society, which i s so l a r g e l y based on war, achieve the goal of which a l l men say i s t h e i r dream? And i f that dream were to be attained, would technological progress continue? 69- Descriptions of the dog's p e r t i n -a c i t y i n attacking the t h i e f punctuated discussions at the club. For a while a l l the conversations i n the room were monopolized by eulogies of the dog's steadfast -170-Appendix B (Continued) Passage Comprehension Source Item 70. He accomplished the distance from the carriage, through the door to the chimney hearth - where a cauldron of stew was b o i l i n g - i n such an exemplary as to induce amazement i n his colleagues who were l e f t ensconsed i n the seat of t h e i r four-wheeled appurtenance with nary a closed mouth among them. * appeared i n the norming/validation version ** appeared i n the norming/validation version with modification -171-APPENDIX C Correspondence f o r the Tryouts, the Norming, and the V a l i d a t i o n Phases Tryout 1 172 Tryout 2 183 Norming 191 Validation 206 Wormeli 172 Proposal for Pilot Testing for B.C. QUick Individual Educational Test Background of the Problem 0. K. Buros in the eighth edition of the MMY stated that when groups are to be compared with regard to a variable i t i s appropriate to use a nationally standardized group test but that when individuals' performances are to be compared i t i s desirable to use an individualized instrument which has been locally standardized. If an.educator wishes to measure a pupil's academic achievement, particularly with regard to the procurement of remedial services, i t would be better to compare the pupil's achievement to that of other local pupils rather than to that of pupils across the country. For a B.C. pupil i t i s d i f f i c u l t to perform even the latter comparison because there is l i t t l e national normative data on the academic performances of Canadian students. To perform the former comparison in B.C. i s virtually impossible because, with the exception of a recent study by Barbara Holmes, there is no individualized instrument normed on the B.C. population which would permit quick and easy assessment of a child's progress in relation to what is taught in the schools of the province and in relation to the progress of his peers. Currently, when an educator i s presented with a child who is not doing well in class in B.C., that educator is lik e l y to use a test standardized in the United States to measure the child's achievement. This may be followed by informal and lengthy assessment of the child's performance in specific school texts and may in turn be followed consultation with d i s t r i c t or provincial curricula to determine the child's academic s k i l l level in B.C. education. At the conclusion of this often time-consuming procedure, the 173 examiner cannot e a s i l y compare t h e c h i l d ' s achievement w i t h t h a t of h i s / h e r grade p e e r s i n B.C. The d e c i s i o n t o r e m e d i a t e i s l i k e l y t o be b a s e d on a c o m b i n a t i o n of the e x a m i n e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e and o p i n i o n s and t h e o p i n i o n s of any o t h e r members of an assessment team. The m a j o r s o u r c e s o f e r r o r i n t h i s p r o c e d u r e a r e (1) t h e use of t e s t s s t a n d a r d i z e d on a f o r e i g n p o p u l a t i o n and (2) t h e e x a m i n e r ' s e s t i m a t i o n of t h e achievement of t h e c h i l d ' s p e e r s . The A m e r i c a n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n may d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e B.C. s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n r e s p e c t t o i t s e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n and i n r e s p e c t t o achievement b a s e d on d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a and l e n g t h of s c h o o l y e a r and e x p e c t a t i o n s ; t h e e x a m i n e r ' s e s t i m a t i o n depends h e a v i l y on h i s / h e r t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e l o c a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . The P r o b l e m S u p e r v i s o r s o f t h e C a n adian v e r s i o n of t h e L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s n o t e d t h a t r e s u l t s o f t h e C a n a d i a n s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i -c a n t l y from t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the U.S. v e r s i o n . Canadian means were h i g h e r and v a r i a n c e s were s m a l l e r (Tech. Supp. 1972). I t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s b e t -ween the B.C. p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e U.S. p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n , as w e l l . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n was c o n f i r m e d r e c e n t l y i n a s t u d y by Dr. B. Holmes whose r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between U.S. norms and B.C. norms a t t h e ages o f 8, 10 and 12 on s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Because i n t e l l i g e n c e , as measured on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , t e n d s t o be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t a c hievement norms w i l l a l s o d i f f e r between U.S. and C a n a d i a n o r B.C. p u p i l p o p u l a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , because i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o compare an i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l w i t h h i s / h e r p e e r s ( B u r o s , 1978), i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s o l u t i o n t o the p r o b l e m of a s s e s s i n g and comparing t h e academic s k i l l s o f B.C. p u p i l s 174' ' i s to develop an e v a l u a t i o n instrument. A s o l u t i o n to the problem of assessing the academic s k i l l s of i n d i v i d u a l B.C. p u p i l s i s t o develop an e v a l u a t i o n instrument based on B.C. p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a and m a t e r i a l s and standardized on B.C. p u p i l s . Such an instrument i t the proposed B.C. QUIET. I t w i l l be drawn from the m a t e r i a l s and c u r r i c u l a i n general use i n B.C. and w i l l be normed on B.C. p u p i l s i n elementary schools (grades 1-7). Purposes,, The B.C.. QUIET w i l l contain four subtests and w i l l r e q u i r e 45-65 minutes to administer i n the instance of an o l d e r or h i g h - a c h i e v i n g p u p i l and 20-30 minutes i n the instance of a younger or low-achieving p u p i l . I t w i l l be s u i t a b l e f o r use by LATs, counselors, d i s t r i c t p s y c h o l o g i s t s - anyone who has experience w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i z e d assessment and access to an area or f a c i l i t y s u i t a b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t s . Because i t w i l l be s i m i l a r to other i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t s , i t w i l l be easy f o r exam-i n e r s to l e a r n . I t w i l l not, however, be s u i t a b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a classroom or other group s i t u a t i o n or by personnel who do not have t r a i n i n g or experience i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t s . The t e s t w i l l a l low the examiner to (1) compare a p u p i l ' s performance to that of other B.C. p u p i l s i n grade 1-7, (2) decide i f a p u p i l ' s p e r f o r -mance deviates s u f f i c i e n t l y from the average of h i s / h e r grade l e v e l peers to be regarded as abnormal, (3) explore the c h i l d ' s performance by t e s t i n g the l i m i t s and (4) consider more s o p h i s t i c a t e d assessment, i f appropriate. The B.C. QUIET w i l l be a q u i c k e r , more accurate instrument than others a v a i l a b l e and w i l l f r e e the examiner to spend more time on d i a g n o s t i c pro-cedures and program planning. In a d d i t i o n , the B.C. QUIET w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y 175 inexpensive and w i l l be arranged in a convenient, easy-to-use format. The purposes of the preliminary pilot are: 1. to assess the administration procedure of the test 2. to assess the item pools 3. to assess the abi l i t y of the test to screen low-achieving pupils Feedback from potential test users is v i t a l to the creation of the test. They w i l l be asked to comment on the ease of administration, layout of test items, appropriateness of test items and general u t i l i t y of the test. Item pools w i l l be assessed by correlating pupil's item scores with total scores through a point b i s e r i a l correlation coefficient. Items which do not contribute to test variance w i l l be deleted or changed. Items may be added to increase r e l i a b i l i t y . Regular class teachers w i l l be asked to rank selected pupils on a three-point scale for reading, spelling and arithmetic; this w i l l be correlated with pupils' total subtest scores. Subtest Description The B.C. QUIET k i t - w i l l contain a manual arid"one protocol. "The manual w i l l include administration procedures, normative data, interpretive aid, answers and a description of the standardization, as well as information on validity and r e l i a b i l i t y . The protocol w i l l include (1) an identification section, (2) a spelling subtest (3) an arithmetic subtest, (4) an oral read-ing or word-identification subtest and (5) a reading comprehension subtest. The spelling subtest section of the protocol w i l l consist of numbered blanks on which the student w i l l write words that are dictated to him/her. The examiner w i l l say a word, say i t again in a sentence and repeat i t once more. There w i l l be an extra space in which the pupil may write his name for partial credit i f the i n i t i a l five words are mispelled. A basal of five correct responses and a ceiling of five incorrect responses is proposed. 176 The subtest,-' w i l l be untimed, although the examiner w i l l proceed as quickly as possible. The arithmetic subtest section w i l l be composed of written problems based on the B.C. provincial core math goals at each grade level. An oral section w i l l be available for pupils who do not complete the f i r s t three problems correctly. The examiner w i l l be allowed to give some help during testing and w i l l be free to terminate testing as soon as i t is apparent that the pupil cannot do any other problems. The test w i l l be timed; a maximum of fifteen minutes w i l l be allowed. The oral reading subtest section of the protocol w i l l be made up of words drawn from authorized B.C. reading texts. The pupil w i l l be given five seconds to say each word; testing w i l l terminate after five consecutive errors. Those pupils who are unable to read the i n i t i a l five words correctly w i l l be given a letter identification task. The reading comprehension subtest section w i l l use a modified CLOZE format for the items which w i l l be adapted from material in authorized B.C. reading texts. Pupils who do not achieve a sufficiently high score on the oral reading subtest w i l l not be given the comprehension subtest. The sentences w i l l be presented individually (more d i f f i c u l t items i n a para-.-graph form); a s t i f f card w i l l cover subsequent items. Each item w i l l be timed (approximately SO seconds for a prompt, allowing ten more seconds for a response, then proceeding to the next item). Pupils w i l l respond orally. A ceiling of five consecutive errors is proposed, along with a basal of five correct responses. 177- . Delimitation of the Study  Handicapped Children with severe emotional problems or with p h y s i c a l handicaps which would preclude optimal test functioning w i l l be excluded from the f i r s t p i l o t sample. Judgements of the a b i l i t i e s of each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be made by the examiners. Children i n Special Learning Assistance programs w i l l also be excluded. English as Second Language Pupils who are not considered fluent i n the production and comprehen-sion of o r a l English w i l l be excluded from the study. Judgement of this w i l l be l e f t to the examiner i n each i n d i v i d u a l case. METHODOLOGY The B.C. QUIET w i l l consist of 4 subtests which w i l l be administered i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n small groups by L.A.T.s or graduate students i n education. The procedures w i l l be described i n the p i l o t t e s t manual. Examiners w i l l be trained i n the administration of the test. Sample A sample of 175 childr e n , randomly selected from p a r t i c i p a t i n g elementary schools -.. w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. Twenty-five ch i l d r e n w i l l be tested at each grade l e v e l (1-7). E f f o r t s w i l l be made to include as broad a range of a b i l i t y as possible (not including mentally, p h y s i c a l l y , emotionally or language handicapped p u p i l s ) . Sut\0o(% w i l l be selected to represent the range of achievement on D i s t r i c t group t e s t s . Those schools which agree to p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l be asked to supply class l i s t s from 178 which the project coordinator w i l l randomly s e l e c t 175 pu p i l s . Names of pupils selected w i l l be checked with schools to determine t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y (absence of handicap). In e arly February, l e t t e r s of permission w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d to the selected c h i l d r e n to take home to t h e i r parents. A d d i t i o n a l c h i l d r e n w i l l be selected i n the event that some parents or children w i l l not wish to p a r t i c i p a t e . P a r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l d r e n w i l l return the l e t t e r s of permission to the school, which w i l l v e r i f y the l e t t e r s of permission. Regular class teachers w i l l be asked to rate subjects''achievement i n s p e l l i n g , arithmetic and reading on a three point scale. Administration of the B.C. QUIET w i l l be performed during February 22-26, with any cleanup t e s t i n g to be performed during the following week. Twenty-f i v e to s i x t y - f i v e minutes of each pupils time w i l l be required. P a r t i c i p a t i n g schools w i l l be asked to supply a room i n which t e s t i n g can be conducted. I f the room i s s u - f i c i e n t l y large, the arithmetic and s p e l l i n g subtests w i l l be administered simultaneously to small groups of 4-5 pu p i l s , shortening t o t a l t e s t i n g time at the school and reducing disrup-tions. Otherwise, a l l t e s t i n g w i l l be performed i n d i v i d u a l l y . The B.C. QUIET w i l l be administered by L.A.T.s and graduate students i n education from U.B.C. L.A.T.s w i l l be asked to-donate one hour of t h e i r own time to attend a t r a i n i n g session f o r test administration. They w i l l subsequently^ • at t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n during February 22-26; test some of the selected p u p i l s . Graduate students from U.B.C. w i l l perform the balance of test administration. They w i l l be trained at U.B.C. p r i o r to February 22. 179 Data C o l l e c t i o n T e s t p r o t o c o l s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d by grade l e v e l , age, s e x , and l e v e l o f a chievement ( L , M, H) of s u b j e c t . L i s t s o f s u b j e c t names i n each s c h o o l w i l l be d e s t r o y e d when a l l p u p i l s have been t e s t e d . No at t e m p t w i l l be made t o i d e n t i f y p r o t o c o l s by t h e s u b j e c t ' s name. I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p i l o t i n g an i n s t r u m e n t s u c h as t h e B.C. QUIET w i l l i n v o l v e some a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e n o r m a l o p e r a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s , b u t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s w h i c h w i l l a c c r u e f r o m the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t a r e w e l l w o r t h t h e temporary a l t e r a t i o n s . The p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r w i l l do h i s b e s t t o m i n i m i z e t h e i n t r u s i o n o f t h e p i l o t i n g p r o c e d u r e i n each p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l and t o c o o p e r a t e f u l l y w i t h w h a t e v e r s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e advanced by s t a f f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the s c h o o l s . P a r t i c i p a t i n g L.A.T.s w i l l be a s k e d t o f i l l o u t a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i t t o t h e p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r . The p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r w i l l p i c k up d a t a f r o m each s c h o o l a t t h e end o f t h e t e s t i n g p e r i o d . D a t a A n a l y s i s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s from L.A.T.s w i l l be a s s e s s e d . P u p i l ' s p r o t o c o l s w i l l be ch e c k e d and raw s c o r e s t o t a l e d and c o r e l a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s . An i t e m a n a l y s i s w i l l be c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h i t e m / t o t a l - t e s t - s c o r e p o i n t -b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . These a n a l y s e s w i l l f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r r e v i s i o n o f the B.C. QUIET. 181 Dear Parent, I am a doctoral student i n the Department of Educational Psychology/Special Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I am developing an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d achievment test f o r B. C. elementary school childr e n in the areas of reading, s p e l l i n g and arithmetic. I am requesting your permission to administer a preliminary form of t h i s t e s t to your c h i l d during the l a s t week of February or the f i r s t week of March. This t e s t i s being developed because of concern over the use of American t e s t s in B. C. and the danger that these t e s t s are inappropriate- because the American students (who are used to e s t a b l i s h averages) d i f f e r from B. C. students. Test users i n B. C. may make erroneous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e s u l t s obtained from the use of these t e s t s . This concern has been v e r i f i e d by a recent p r o v i n c i a l study which showed that B. C, pupils performed d i f f e r e n t l y on t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Attached i s a form requesting your permission f o r your c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the development of the B. C. Quick Individual Educational Test. Your c h i l d ' s name was randomly selected fnom l i s t s of pupils attending several elementary schools. If you decide to approve your c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s/he w i l l be i n d i v i d u a l l y tested at school by a Remedial Reading Teacher or a graduate student from U. E. C. Your c h i l d w i l l miss approximately 30 - 45 minutes of regular c l a s s time (depending on his/her age) at the convenience of the regular class teacher. The t e s t involves reading words aloud, reading sentences s i l e n t l y , w r i t i n g answers to arithmetic problems and w r i t i n g s p e l l i n g words. I f at any time your c h i l d f e e l s uncomfortable or wishes to terminate t e s t i n g , s/he w i l l be returned to the regular classroom. Your c h i l d ' s name w i l l not be recorded on the te s t form. A l l data c o l l e c t e d w i l l be anonymous. The development of the t e s t i s intended to provide a more v a l i d means to educators and psychologists f o r making decisions about the educational needs of s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n . Your c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i -pation i n t h i s project i s important. It i s hoped that you w i l l respond p o s i t i v e l y by checking "yes" and signing the attached form and asking your c h i l d to return i t to the p r i n c i p a l of your school as soon as possible. Thank/you f o r your consideration. C. T. Vormeli I give permission f o r fo r the B. C. Quick Indivi d u a l Educational Test Signature of parent/guardian PROPOSAL: SECOND TRYOUT FOR THE B. C. QUIET 183 The B. C. QUick I n d i v i d u a l E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d f o r a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n i n t b e Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y / S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s i n t e n d -ed t o be an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d achievment t e s t , s u i t a b l e f o r use by L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r s o r S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g i s t s , w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e a q u i c k , more a c c u r a t e and m e a n i n g f u l assessment o f a p u p i l ' s a b i l i t i e s t h a n do A m e r i c a n t e s t s now b e i n g used. I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t may r e p l a c e t e s t s such as t h e WRAT and. PIAT. I t c o n t a i n s f o u r s ub-t e s t s w h i ch w i l l be s t a n d a r d i z e d a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l : S p e l l i n g , A r i t h m e t i c C a l c u l a t i o n , Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension. P U R P O S E o T h i s p r o p o s a l i s f o r t h e c o n d u c t i n g of a second t r y o u t o f th e i t e m s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e B. C. QUIET. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s d e s i r e d ( 1 ) t o o b t a i n p u p i l r e s p o n s e d a t a on t h e r e v i s e d i t e m p o o l s f o r each s u b t e s t ( 2 ) t o o b t a i n examiner feedback w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f o r m a t of t h e t e s t ( 3 ) t o e v a l u a t e r e d u c e d b a s a l aarldl c e i l i n g c r i t e r i a (4) t o o b t a i n p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a on r e l i a b i l i t y SHORT-TERM BENEFITS t o t h e d i s t r i c t . ( 1 ) T e a c h e r s w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d t o a t e s t w h i c h may become a u s e f u l p a r t o f t h e i r assessment procedure,, They w i l l be t r a i n e d t o use i t , i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g . ( 2 ) T e a c h e r s w i l l become more f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f t e s t development and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a good t e s t . They w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e t o judge t h e u t i l i t y of t e s t s ; t h i s s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n t e s t procurement and assessment. LONG-TERM BENEFITS t o t h e d i s t r i c t . ( 1 ) T e a c h e r s , as p o t e n t i a l u s e r s , w i l l have d i r e c t i n p u t i n t o d e -velopment o f t h e B. C. QUIET ( t h e t e s t w i l l be r e v i s e d a g a i n a f t e r t h e second t r y o u t ) and w i l l h e l p t o make t h e t e s t more r e l e v a n t t o t h e assessment needs of B.„ C. p u p i l s . ( 2 ) The d i s t r i c t w i l l b e n e f i t by c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e development of a t e s t w h i c h may r e p l a c e A m erican t e s t s used i n i n d i v i d u a l -i z e d assessment: t h e B. C. QUIET w i l l be cheaper and more v a l i d f o r use w i t h B. C. p u p i l s , w i t h r e g a r d t o placement and p r o g r e s s assessment. As w e l l , i t w i l l a l l o w g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o t h e assessment demands o f t h e government, p u b l i c and e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n , COST t o t h e d i s t r i c t . The d i s t r i c t i s asked t o c o n t r i b u t e t e a c h e r t i m e f o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s w i l l a v erage a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y m i n u t e s ( f r o m 1 5 m i n u t e s f a r a grade one p u p i l t o f i f t y o r f i f t y -f i v e m i n u t e s f o r a grade seven p u p i l ) p e r c h i l d . The random s e l e c t i o n procedure: w i l l r e s u l t i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y one c h i l d p e r s c h o o l b e i n g t e s t e d ; i n some s c h o o l s t h e r e may be no p u p i l s t e s t e d ; i n some s c h o o l s t h e r e may be two p u p i l s t e s t e d . T o t a l h o u r s o f t e a c h e r t i m e may be e s t i m a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e number of c h i l d r e n r e q u e s t e d by 2 / 3 . A l l m a t e r i a l s , e x c e p t watches and c l i p b o a r d s , w i l l be s u p p l i e d by m y s e l f . P a r t i c i p a t i n g t e a c h e r s w i l l be asked t o a t t e n d a t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n b e f o r e a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e t e s t . The d i s t r i c t c o u l d , e n c o u r a g e 185 : Dear Parent, I am a d o c t o r a l student i n the Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y / S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I am d e v e l o p i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d achievment t e s t f o r B. C. elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h e areas of r e a d i n g , s p e l l i n g and a r i t h m e t i c . I am r e q u e s t i n g your p e r m i s s i o n t o a d m i n i s t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y form of t h i s t e s t t o your c h i l d d u r i n g t h e l a s t week of ' May or the f i r s t week of June . T h i s t e s t i s b e i n g developed because of concern over the use of American t e s t s i n B. C. and the danger t h a t t h e s e t e s t s are i n a p p r o p r i a t e because the American s t u d e n t s (who are used t o e s t a b l i s h averages) d i f f e r from B. C. s t u d e n t s . T e s t u s e r s i n B. C. may make erroneous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the use of t h e s e t e s t s . T h i s concern has been v e r i f i e d by a r e c e n t p r o v i n c i a l study which showed t h a t B. C, p u p i l s performed d i f f e r e n t l y on t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e . A t t a c h e d i s a form r e q u e s t i n g your p e r m i s s i o n f o r your c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e development of t h e B. C. Quick I n d i v i d u a l E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t . Your c h i l d ' s name was randomly s e l e c t e d frcomif l i s t s of p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g s e v e r a l elementary s c h o o l s . I f you d e c i d e t o approve your c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s/he w i l l be i n d i v i d u a l l y t e s t e d at s c h o o l by a Remedial Reading Teacher or a graduate student from U. B. C. Your c h i l d w i l l miss a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 - 4 5 minutes of r e g u l a r c l a s s time (depending on h i s / h e r age) at the convenience of t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s t e a c h e r . The t e s t i n v o l v e s r e a d i n g words a l o u d , r e a d i n g sentences s i l e n t l y , w r i t i n g answers t o a r i t h m e t i c problems and w r i t i n g s p e l l i n g words. I f a t any time your c h i l d f e e i s uncomfortable or wishes t o t e r m i n a t e t e s t i n g , s/he w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o the r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . Your c h i l d ' s name w i l l not be r e c o r d e d on the t e s t form. A l l d a t a c o l l e c t e d i w i l l be anonymous. The development of t h e t e s t i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a more v a l i d means to educators and p s y c h o l o g i s t s f o r making d e c i s i o n s about the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n . Your c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t i s i m p o r t a n t . I t i s hopedi t h a t you w i l l respond p o s i t i v e l y by c h e c k i n g "yes" and s i g n i n g t h e a t t a c h e d form and a s k i n g your c h i l d t o r e t u r n i t t o t h e p r i n c i p a l of your s c h o o l as soon as p o s s i b l e . Thank you f o r your c o n s i d e r a t i o n . C. T, Wormeli I g i v e p e r m i s s i o n f o r t o be t e s t e d f o r the B, C. Quick I n d i v i d u a l E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t yes no S i g n a t u r e of p a r e n t / g u a r d i a n EXAMINER RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE 2nd TRYOUT Teachers w i l l be asked to t e s t one-two p u p i l s each at p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s . The B. C. QUIET i s i n d i v i d u a l l y a dministered and w i l l take approximately 40 minutes (+ or - 15, depending on the age of the c h i l d and h i s / her a b i l i t y ) . T e s t i n g w i l l be performed d u r i n g school hours d u r i n g the l a s t week i n May or the f i r s t week i n June, at the convenience of the examiner and the r e g u l a r classroom teacher. Examiner-teachers w i l l be asked to s e l e c t the f i f t h c h i l d i n a randomly chosen c l a s s assigned by myself, send home a parent p e r m i s s i o n form and t e s t the c h i l d a f t e r the form has been r e t u r n e d , i n d i c a t i n g assent. I f assent i s r e f u s e d , the next c h i l d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order i n the same c l a s s w i l l be asked to take home a consent form. Examiner-teachers w i l l be asked to attend a t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n i n a d i s t r i c t s c h o o l , a f t e r school hours. T h i s workshop w i l l f a m i l i a r i z e examiners with the t e s t and with t e s t con-s t r u c t i o n procedures. I t w i l l be approximately \\ hours i n l e n g t h . A f t e r t e s t i n g , examiners w i l l be asked to comment on the t e s t by w r i t i n g d i r e c t l y on the t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s . One purpose of the second t r y o u t i s to o b t a i n as much feedback from examiners as p o s s i b l e d u r i n g t e s t development because i t i s school personnel who w i l l be the primary users of the B. C. QUIET a f t e r i t i s standardized and normed. Examiners are asked to w r i t e as much or as l i t t l e as they wish. Every suggestion and c r i t i c i s m w i l l be c onsidered. By the end of the f i r s t week i n June, examiners are asked to r e t u r n a l l t e s t m a t e r i a l s to the Board o f f i c e where the examiner w i l l p i c k them up. Summary of time r e q u i r e d : T r a i n i n g : 1.5 hrs ( a f t e r school) T e s t i n g : 40 minutes (during school) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n : 15 (?) minutes I t i s hoped that teachers w i l l respond f a v o u r a b l y to t h i s r e -quest. I t i s b e l i e v e d that the B. C. QUick I n d i v i d u a l E d u c a t i o n a l Test w i l l r e p l a c e t e s t s such as the W3AT and PIAT with more ac-curate and meaningful assessment i n f o r m a t i o n . C. T. Wormeli THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 9 1 2 1 2 5 M A I N M A L L VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 Education C l i n i c . . n o 16 August 82 F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N Dear (Superintendent) This is a request for your endorsement of a province-wide research project involving the norming of an individually administered achievement test (the B. C. QUick Individual Educational Test) on elementary pupils in B r i t i s h Columbia-This project is being undertaken as a doctoral dissertation in the Department of Educational Psychology/Special Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and has received the approval of the Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee for Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects at the University. The Learning Assessment Branch of the Ministry of Education approves of this norming project and anticipates including the B. C. QUIET in i t s catalogue of testing materi als. The following is a brief abstract describing the development of the B. C. QUIET and the purposes of and procedures to be employed in the norming study. HISTORY. During the last twelve months over four hundred items were developed for four subtests of the B. C. QUIET: Spelling, Arithmetic, Word Identification and Passage Comprehension. These items are related to the curricula and prescribed or authorized materials used in B r i t i s h Columbia. Two tryouts were conducted in. severali lower mainland d i s t r i c t s . A brief description of the test is attached. PURPOSE of the norming study. Currently, B. C. educators and psychologists are l i k e l y to use foreign tests when conducting a formal individualized assessment of a child's a b i l i t i e s . However, a recent study by Dr. B. Holmes suggests that there are differences between norms for the B. C. pupil population and the foreign populations on • : r;:which these foreign tests were normed. She found significant differences at ages eight, ten and twelve on several intelligence tests. Because intelligence, as measured on intelligence tests, i s positively cor-r e l a t e d with achievement, i t is reasonable to expect that achievement norms of B. C. pupils may also d i f f e r from the achievement norms of foreign pop-illations. And because i t is desirable to compare a pupil with his/her peers, ; i t i s suggested that a solution to the problem of assessing and comparing the academic s k i l l s of B. C. pupils is to develop an evaluation instrument related to ouc provincial curricula and materials and standardized on B. C. pupils. This i s the intent of the B. C. QUIET; i t is based on the prescribed or authorized materials and curricula used in our province and wil l be normed on B. C. pupils in elementary grades (1-7). While the construction of the test allows i t to be used as an informal c r i -terion-referenced measure of academic achievement, i t is essential that pro-vincial norms be obtained so that examiners (Learning Assistance Teachers and D i s t r i c t Psychologists) can compare a child's performance with that of his/her peers on measuresof reading, spelling and arithmetic. The results of the norming study will provide provincial and regional means, standard deviations, standard errors of measurement and internal consistency r e l i a -b i l i t i e s , as well as va l id i ty evaluation. 192 BENEFITS to the d i s t r i c t . The d i s t r i c t wi l l benefit by contributing to the development of a test which can be employed in place of some foreign tests now used in ind i -vidualized assessment. The B. C. QUIET wi l l be a more val id instrument for use in Br i t i sh Columbia and will diminish the reliance of examiners on tests whose technical characteristics are suspect when applied to B. C. pupils. Examiners who participate in the B. C. QUIET norming wi l l have an oppor-tunity to become famil iar with the test. Participating d i s t r ic t s wi l l receive a complete technical report on the norming project. PROCEDURE. Two hundred f i f ty-one public schools in sixty d i s t r i c t s and nineteen independent •school have been randomly selected to participate in the norming project. One pupil per grade per school wi l l be randomly se-lected from participating schools to undergo testing. The maximum number of pupils to be tested in each school wi l l be seven. The total sample of 1750 pupils has been s t ra t i f ied on the following variables: geographic region, rural-urban location, size of school, grade and sex. Parents of children selected wi l l be contacted by let ter and requested to give written permission for their chi ldren's part ic ipation. Learn-ing Assistance Teachers or School Psychologists wi l l be requested to administer the test with the assistance of the researcher where neces-sary. Administration time wi l l average .forty minutes per chi ld. Al l materials wi l l be sent d irect ly to each participating school. Testing is scheduled for the last two weeks in October or the f i r s t week in November, at the discretion of the school. Enclosed is a l i s t of the schools from your d i s t r i c t which appear in our sample. We ask your permission to contact these schools and have enclosed for your information copies of the letters which we wi l l send to the school Principals, as well as the parent consent form. We emphasize the va l id i ty of this test development. The development of norms for the B. C. QUIET depends heavily on the support and help of many people. Please do not hesitate to contact one of us with any questions you may have. We would welcome the opportunity to discuss this project with you. We apologize for the short notice given to you; funding was recently obtained. We ask you to please complete the consent form and return i t to us in « 194 The f o l l o w i n g s c h o o l s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. I c o n s e n t t o t h e above s c h o o l s b e i n g c o n t a c t e d t o r e q u e s t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . In so d o i n g , I g i v e my s u p p o r t t o t h e s t u d y w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t e a c h s c h o o l i s s u b s e q u e n t l y f r e e t o make i t s own d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t s h a l l n e v e r t h e l e s s r e c e i v e a copy' o f t h e t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t . S i g n a t u r e o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t On b e h a l f o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. , I d e c l i n e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . S i g n a t u r e o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A 2 1 2 5 M A I N M A L L VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA r , . . r . . . V6T 1Z5 Education C l i n i c F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N Dear P r i n c i p a l , Your Superintendent has given us permission to contact you to request your support and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a research project involving the norming of an i n d i v i d u a l l y administered achievement t e s t (the B. C. QUick Individual Educational Test) on elementary school pupils in B r i t i s h Columbia. This project i s being under-taken as a doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n in the Department of Educational Psychology/ Special Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and has received the ap-proval of the Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee f o r Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects at the University. The Learning Assessment Branch of the Ministry of Education approves of t h i s norming project and anticipates i n -cluding the B. C' QUIET in i t s catalogue of t e s t i n g materials. The following i s a b r i e f abstract describing the development of the B. C. QUIET and the purposes of and procedures to be employed in the norming project. HISTORY. During the l a s t twelve months over four hundred items were developed f o r the four subtests of the B. C. QUIET: S p e l l i n g , Arithmetic, Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension. These items are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the c u r r i c u l a and prescribed or authorized materials used in B r i t i s h Columbia. Two tryouts were conducted in several lower mainland d i s t r i c t s . Test i n s t r u c t i o n s and item pools were revised. A b r i e f description of the t e s t i s attached. PURPOSE. Currently, B. C. educators and psychologists are l i k e l y to use foreign t e s t s when conducting a formal, i n d i v i d u a l i z e d assessment of a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t i e s . . However, a recent study by Dr. B. Holmes suggests that there are differences between the norms f o r the B. C. pupil population and the foreign populations on which these t e s t s were normed. She found s i g n i f i c a n t differences at ages 8, 10 and 12 on several i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Because i n t e l l i g e n c e , as measured on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , i s p o s i t i v e l y cor-related with achievement, i t i s reasonable to expect that achievement norms of B. C. pupils may also d i f f e r from the achievement norms of foreign popu-l a t i o n s . And because i t i s desirable to compare a pupil with his/her peers, i t i s suggested that a solution to the problem of assessing and comparing the academic s k i l l s of B. C. pupils i s to develop an evaluation instrument related to B. C. c u r r i c u l a and materials and standardized on B. C. p u p i l s . This i s the intent of the B. C. QUIET; i t i s based on p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a and mater-i a l s and w i l l be normed on B. C. pupils in grades .one to seven. While construction of the t e s t allows i t to be used as an informal c r i t e r i o n -referenced measure of academic achievement, i t i s essential that provincial norms be obtained so that examiners (Learning Assistance Teachers and/or D i s t r i c t Psychologists) can compare a c h i l d ' s performance with that of h i s / her peers on measures of reading, s p e l l i n g and arithmetic. The r e s u l t s 196 of the norming project wil l provide means, standard deviations, standard errors of measurement and internal consistency r e l i a b i l i t i e s for the pro-vince and the regions, as well as val id ity evaluation. BENEFITS to the d i s t r i c t . The d i s t r i c t wil l benefit by contributing to the development of a test which can be employed in place of some of the foreign tests now used in individualized assessment. The B. C. QUIET wil l be a more valid instru-ment for use in Brit ish Columbia and wil l diminish the reliance of examiners on tests whose technical characteristics are suspect when ap-1ied to B. C. pupiIs. Examiners who participate in the B. C. QUIET norming wi l l have an oppor-tunity to become familiar with the test. Participating d i s t r ic t s wil l receive a complete technical report on the norming project. PROCEDURE. Two hundred f i fty-one public schools and nineteen independent schools have been randomly selected to participate in the norming project. One pupil per grade per school (maximum: seven children per school) wil l be randomly selected to undergo testing. The total sample of 1750 pupils has been s trat i f ied on the following variables: geographic region, rural-urban location, size of school, grade and sex. Parents of children selected wil l be contacted by letter and asked to give written permission for their children's participation. Learning Assist-ance Teachers or School Psychologists wil l be asked to administer the test with the assistance of the researcher where necessary. Administration time wil l average forty minutes per chi ld. Al l materials wil l be sent directly to each participating school. Test-ing is scheduled for the last two weeks in October or the f i r s t week in November, at the discretion of the school. Your school is one of the 270 schools which has been randomly selected to participate in this project. If you agree to participate, please: 1. discuss this proposal with the Learning Assistance Teacher or other person in the school able to perform testing (e. g., the Remedial Reading Teacher or School Psychologist assigned to your school). In this regard note that administration of the B. C. QUIET is similar to administration of tests such as the WRAT, PIAT or Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests; 2. indicate on the enclosed form i f that person wil l participate as an examiner; 3. provide the enrollment information on the attached form. We emphasize the val idity of this test development. The development of norms for the B. C. QUIET depends heavily on the support and help of the staff of each school. Please do not hesitate to contact one of us with any questions you may have. We would welcome the opportunity to discuss this project with you. 199 PART ONE - INTRODUCTION D e s c r i p t i o n o f Tests The B. C. Quick I n d i v i d u a l E d u c a t i o n a l Test c o n s i s t s o f f o u r s u b t e s t s which may be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g e t h e r or s e p a r a t e l y . A l l s u b t e s t s are i n t e n d -ed f o r use at the elementary l e v e l (grades one t o seven), except f o r the S p e l l i n g s u b t e s t which i s not intended t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o grade one p u p i l s . Each s u b t e s t i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d below. S p e l l i n g . The S p e l l i n g s u b t e s t c o n t a i n s 60 items t o measure a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o s p e l l d i c t a t e d words s e l e c t e d from t e x t s p r e s c r i b e d or a u t h o r i z e d by the B. C. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Test items begin w i t h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l e t -t e r s i n s h o r t words and end w i t h words s e l e c t e d from grade twelve l e v e l mater-i a l . T h is ensures t h a t l o w - a c h i e v i n g p u p i l s are l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e c r e d i t , w h i l e h i g h - a c h i e v i n g p u p i l s can achieve scores which r e f l e c t t h e i r a b i l i t y . P u p i l s w i l l begin the s u b t e s t at d i f f e r e n t items, depending on t h e i r grade l e v e l placement. A r i t h m e t i c . The A r i t h m e t i c s u b t e s t c o n s i s t s of f i v e o r a l and 60 w r i t t e n items, rang-i n g i n d i f f i c u l t y from items r e p r e s e n t i n g s k i l l s taught i n k i n d e r g a r t e n t o s k i l l s taught i n grade t e n . Items i n v o l v e understanding, as w e l l as c a l -c u l a t i o n , and are designed t o r e p r e s e n t many of the l e a r n i n g outcomes of the B. C. "core" Mathematics C u r r i c u l u m Guide f o r grades one t o seven. A l l p u p i l s begin the s u b t e s t at item s i x (the f i r s t w r i t t e n item) and do as many items as they are a b l e d u r i n g the time a l l o t t e d . Items one t o f i v e are o r a l problems t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d o n l y t o those p u p i l s who do not achieve f i v e c o r r e c t responses on the w r i t t e n items. Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s u b t e s t c o n t a i n s 90 items which range i n d i f -f i c u l t y from l e t t e r r e c o g n i t i o n t o words s e l e c t e d from grade twelve and c o l -lege l e v e l m a t e r i a l . For grades one t o seven, items were s e l e c t e d from the p r e s c r i b e d Ginn 720 s e r i e s and from a u t h o r i z e d t e x t s f o r grades e i g h t t o t w e l v e . The p u p i l i s r e q u i r e d t o read the items aloud from the Reading Stimulus M a t e r i a l . Passage Comprehension. The Passage Comprehension su b t e s t c o n t a i n s 47 items which range i n d i f -f i c u l t y from g r a d e one t o t w e l v e . For grades one t o seven, items were con-s t r u c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t l e v e l s one t o f o u r t e e n of the p r e s c r i b e d Ginn 720 s e r i e s ; more d i f f i c u l t items were designed t o r e p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l s a u t h o r i z e d f o r grades e i g h t t o t w e l v e . Items are presented i n a m o d i f i e d c l o z e f o r -mat which a l l o w s the examiner t o g i v e c r e d i t f o r responses which are appro-p r i a t e w i t h i n the context of the item. The p u p i l ' s task i s t o read each item s i l e n t l y and t e l l the examiner one word t h a t w i l l " f i t " i n the blank space i n the i t e m . Three types of items are i n c l u d e d : (1) t r a n s p o s i t i o n (the answer i s c o n t a i n e d i n the s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l and must be moved or transposed t o the blank space); (2) t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (the answer i s c o n t a i n e d i n the s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l but must be changed before i t i s i n s e r t e d i n t o the blank space); 200 (3) supply (the p u p i l must d e v i s e a response t o match the c o n t e x t u a l cues given by the i t e m ) . As the items become more d i f f i c u l t i n terms of s t r u c -t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y , the s e l e c t i o n o f item type at each grade l e v e l changes from predominantly t r a n s p o s i t i o n items t o predominantly supply items. M a t e r i a l s M a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d i n c l u d e : (1) a Manual (2) Reading Stimulus M a t e r i a l f o r sub-t e s t s t h r e e and f o u r (3) a m e t r i c r u l e r (4) a cardboard masque The examiner must supply: (1) a stopwatch or w r i s t w a t c h w i t h a second hand (2) a c l i p b o a r d (3) two p e n c i l s w i t h e r a s e r s (4) two sheets of u n l i n e d s c r a t c h paper, 8 i X 11 P r o t o c o l s c o n s i s t of (1) an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n page; (2) S p e l l i n g and A r i t h m e t i c s e c t i o n s t o be used by the p u p i l ; (3) Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension s e c t i o n s t o be used by the examiner. The p r o t o c o l s are designed t o be placed onto a c l i p b o a r d w i t h the s c o r i n g key f o r the Passage Comprehension su b t e s t so t h a t the examiner may r e c o r d responses and mark an item c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t as i t i s answered. The manual c o n t a i n s a general d e s c r i p t i o n o f the B. C. QUIET and pro-cedures common t o a l l f o u r s u b t e s t s , as w e l l as s p e c i f i c s u b t e s t i n s t r u c -t i o n s . The Reading Stimulus M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n s a l l the items presented t o each p u p i l f o r the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension s u b t e s t s . School Code No. I consent to participate in the project described above concerning the norming of the B. C. QUIET. The name and position of the person who wi l l administer the B. C. QUIET in this school is : . name position Enrollment Information by Sex Total Number _ Number of Grade Sex , of Pupils Ineligible Pupils* M 1 F zzzz zzzzzz 2 M = -F 3 M  F M F 5 M F 6 M F 7 M F *Please subtract the number of inel ig ib le pupils (male/female) from the total enrollment at each grade level to arrive at the number of pupils e l ig ib le for testing. Ineligible pupils include: (a) those formally diagnosed as mentally retarded; (b) those formally diagnosed as emotionally disturbed; (c) those who are physically handicapped to the extent that they cannot take a paper and pencil test; or (d) those whose command of English is insuff icient to cope with the regular classroom and understand the directions given for a group test such as the Canadian Test of Basic Ski l l s or Stanford Tests. Number of E l ig ib le P u p i l s Signature of Principal I do not consent to participation in this research. Signature of Principal PARENT CONSENT FORM 203 I g i v e p e r m i s s i o n f o r my s o n / d a u g h t e r t o be t e s t e d f o r t h e B. C . Q U i c k I n d i v i d u a l E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t . S i g n a t u r e o f p a r e n t / g u a r d i a n I am u n w i l l i n g t o have my s o n / d a u g h t e r i n v o l v e d i n t h e t e s t i n g . S i g n a t u r e o f p a r e n t / g u a r d i a n 205 PROCEDURE FOR SELECTING PUPILS TO BE TESTED FOR THE NORMING PROJECT 1. Number pupils from one at each grade level f o r the gender indicated below. Pupils do not have to be in alphabetical order. If there i s more than one class per grade l e v e l , begin numbering with the highest d i v i s i o n . DO NOT INCLUDE PUPILS FORMALLY ASSESSED AS MENTALLY RETARDED, EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED OR PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY ARE UNABLE TO TAKE A PAPER AND PENCIL TEST. DO NOT INCLUDE PUPILS WHOSE COMMAND OF ENGLISH IS INSUFFICIENT TO COPE WITH THE REGULAR CLASSROOM AND UNDERSTAND THE DIRECTIONS GIVEN FOR A GROUP TEST SUCH AS THE CANADIAN TEST OF BASIC SKILLS. 2. Select from the table below the nth pupil of the indicated gender. These are randomly selected numbers. It i s important that the choice be a r b i t r a r y rather than p r e f e r e n t i a l . Do not a l t e r the position of a pupil a f t e r s/he has been numbered. 3. Write the c h i l d ' s name on the parent consent form. 4. Send home the consent form to the parents of that p u p i l . Three extra forms are provided f o r alternates. If you need more, we ask you to copy one and use i t or contact us for additional forms. 5. If the pupil i s unable to p a r t i c i p a t e in tes t i n g (e. g., the parents refuse permission or the c h i l d i s i l l during the month of November), select the nth pupil of the same gender from the alternate column. 6. Repeat t h i s procedure at each grade level enrolled in your school (1-7). Example: Assume the table below for your school i s completed as shown: Grade 1st Choice Alternate Gender 1 28 33 F The twenty-eighth g i r l in grade one should be given a parent consent form to take home. If permission i s not given, the 33rd g i r l in grade one should be given a parent consent form to take home. If permission i s refused f or that pupil as well, no further attempt should be made to test any c h i l d enrolled in grade one. Grade 1st Choice Alternate Gender 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 EDUCATION CLINIC T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A 206 FACULTY OF EDUCATION . 2125 MAIN MALL £ U ' UNIVERSITY CAMPUS VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 We would l i k e to express our appreciation to your d i s t r i c t f o r i t s support and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the norming of the B. C. QUick Individual Educational Test on elementary pupils in B r i t i s h Columbia. We are request-ing your p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a v a l i d a t i o n study f o r the B. C. QUIET. This project i s sponsored by the Education C l i n i c within the Faculty of Educa-tio n at U. B. C , and i t has received the approval of the Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee f o r Research and Other Studies Involving Human Subjects at the University. Following i s a b r i e f description of the development of the B. C. QUIET and the purpose of and procedures to be employed in the v a l i d a t i o n project. HISTORY. During the l a s t eighteen months over 400 items were developed for the four subtests of the B. C. QUIET: S p e l l i n g , Arithmetic, Word Identi-f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension. These items are related to the c u r r i c u l a and prescribed or authorized materials used in B r i t i s h Columbia schools. Two tryouts were conducted in several lower main-land d i s t r i c t s . Test in s t r u c t i o n s and item pools were revised. A norming study was then conducted throughout the province during the f a l l of 1982. Data from the norming study are now being analyzed. PURPOSE OF THE VALIDATION PHASE. Data gathering f o r the B. C. QUIET is designed to occur in two phases -both of which are necessary for the completion of the t e s t . Phase I, which involved gathering data for p r o v i n c i a l norms and for norms for each region within the province, has been su c c e s s f u l l y completed. Phase II i s scheduled to begin shortly and involves a v a l i d a t i o n of the B. C. QUIET at two grade l e v e l s . The v a l i d a t i o n project w i l l determine the a b i l i t y of the te s t to d i s -criminate between pupils who are e l i g i b l e f o r remedial i n s t r u c t i o n in reading, s p e l l i n g or arithmetic and pupils who do not require such s p e c i a l educational services. Without such evidence the v a l i d i t y of the B. C. QUIET for use as a screening achievement te s t with pupils enrolled in B r i t i s h Columbia schools cannot be demonstrated. BENEFITS TO THE DISTRICT. The d i s t r i c t w i l l benefit d i r e c t l y by ensuring the development of a test which can replace some of the foreign tests now used in i n d i v i d u a l i z e d assessment. D i s t r i c t personnel w i l l have access to a v a l i d screening achievement t e s t , s p e c i a l l y developed f o r elementary school pupils in B r i t i s h Columbia, by the f a l l of 1983. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l ensure the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the B. C. QUIET. 207 '2Q5* PROCEDURE. Thir t y public and independent schools in the lower mainland have been selected to p a r t i c i p a t e in the v a l i d a t i o n phase. At each of these schools, a l l pupils enrolled in grades three and s i x who are receiving remedial i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be asked to undergo t e s t i n g . The t o t a l sample w i l l contain approximately 120 pupils at each grade l e v e l : 30 w i l l be pupils who pa r t i c i p a t e d in the norming study and who are not e l i g i b l e for remedial i n s t r u c t i o n . Their scores (which have already been ob-tained in phase I) w i l l be compared with the scores of pupils who are e l i g i b l e f o r or are receiving remedial i n s t r u c t i o n in reading, s p e l l i n g and/or arithmetic. The same procedure which was suc c e s s f u l l y used in the norming phase w i l l be employed in the v a l i d a t i o n phase. Parents of children selected w i l l be contacted by l e t t e r and asked to give written permission f o r t h e i r children's p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Testing w i l l be performed at each c h i l d ' s school by U. B. C. examiners (unless school personnel request to p a r t i -c i p a t e ) . Administration time w i l l average 30 - 40 minutes per c h i l d . A l l materials, including parent consent forms, w i l l be supplied by the Education C l i n i c . Testing w i l l be performed during January and February. P a r t i c i p a t i n g schools w i l l be asked to i d e n t i f y e l i g i b l e p u p i l s , d i s -t r i b u t e consent forms, n o t i f y the C l i n i c when a l l consent forms have been returned and a l l o c a t e space f o r t e s t i n g . We have enclosed a copy of the parent consent form and a l i s t of the schools we would l i k e to contact. If i t i s agreeable to your d i s t r i c t , we would l i k e to contact each school by telephone or in person to request par-t i c i p a t i o n in the v a l i d a t i o n project. We would appreciate hearing from you as quickly as possible. Please feel free to c a l l any of the persons l i s t e d below i f you have any questions or need additional information. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, W. R. Rogers, Ph. D Chairman, Di s s e r t a t i o n Committee 228-4985 or 228-5351 0. A. Oldridge, Ed. D. Supervisor, Education C l i n i c 228-5384 Ted Wormeli Doctoral Candidate 228-4517 PARENT CONSENT FORM 209 I g i v e permission f o r my son/daughter t o be t e s t e d f o r the B. C. QUick I n d i v i d u a l E d u c a t i o n a l Test. Signature of parent/guardian I am u n w i l l i n g t o have my son/daughter i n v o l v e d i n the t e s t i n g . Signature of parent/guardian THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N 2 1 2 5 M A I N M A L L U N I V E R S I T Y C A M P U S VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Z5 210 4. 5. INSTRUCTIONS TO VALIDATION EXAMINERS Insure that the front of each protocol i s f i l l e d out, e s p e c i a l l y the remedial program questions. Note that sometimes a "remedial reading." placement includes s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Corrections/changes to Manual: a. p. 8; For primary pu p i l s : "Stop when a c h i l d has answered 2 consecutive rows i n c o r r e c t l y . " b. c. d. p. 9: Answer Key: item 8 " 36 p.15: Answer Key: item23 Suggested Starting Points: Spel1ing A r i t h . W. Id. P. C. grade 3 item 1 6 6 1 1st and 3rd 11 to 19 Correct: skins, s k i n , c l o t h i n g , leathers, leather, warmth grade 6 item 6 6 16 6 BE SURE TO OBTAIN BASALS ( i f p o s s i b l e ) , OR GO BACK TO ITEM 1. Thank the p r i n c i p a l and the secretary f o r t h e i r assistance and cooperation. - 2 1 3 -APPENDIX D M a t e r i a l s Used i n t h e N o r m i n g / V a l i d a t i o n Phases Manual R e a d i n g S t i m u l u s P r o t o c o l 214 231 253 PART ONE - INTRODUCTION 214 Description of Tests The B. C. QUick Individual Educational Test consists of four subtests which may be administered together or separately. A l l subtests are intend-ed for use at the elementary level (grades one to seven), except for the Sp e l l i n g subtest which i s not intended to be administered to grade one pu p i l s . Each subtest i s b r i e f l y described below. Spel1ing. The Spelling subtest contains 60 items to measure a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to s p e l l dictated words selected from texts prescribed or authorized by the B. C. Ministry of Education. Test items begin with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l e t -t ers in short words and end with words selected from grade twelve level mater-i a l . This ensures that low-achieving pupils are l i k e l y to receive c r e d i t , while high-achieving pupils can achieve scores which r e f l e c t t h e i r a b i l i t y . Pupils w i l l begin the subtest at d i f f e r e n t items, depending on t h e i r grade level placement. Arithmetic. The Arithmetic subtest consists of f i v e oral and 60 written items, rang-ing in d i f f i c u l t y from items representing s k i l l s taught in kindergarten to s k i l l s taught in grade ten. Items involve understanding, as well as c a l -c u l a t i o n and are designed to represent many of the learning outcomes of the B. C. "core" Mathematics Curriculum Guide for grades one to seven. A l l pupils begin the subtest at item six (the f i r s t written item) and do as many items as they are able during the time allotted. Items one to f i v e are oral problems to be administered only to those pupils who do not achieve f i v e correct responses on the written items. Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest contains 90 items which range in d i f -f i c u l t y from l e t t e r recognition to words selected from grade twelve and c o l -lege level material. For grades one to seven, items were selected from the prescribed Ginn 720 series and from authorized texts for grades eight to twelve. The pupil i s required to read the items aloud from the Reading Stimulus Material. Passage Comprehension. The Passage Comprehension subtest contains 47 items which range in d i f -f i c u l t y from grade one to twelve. For grades one to seven, items were con-structed to represent levels two to fourteen of the prescribed Ginn 720 s e r i e s ; more d i f f i c u l t items were^ designed to represent materials authorized f o r grades eight to,twelve. Items are presented in a modified cloze f o r -mat which allows the examiner to give c r e d i t f o r responses which are appro-priate within the context of the item. The pupil's task i s to read each item s i l e n t l y and t e l l the examiner one word that w i l l " f i t " in the blank space in the item. Three types of items are included: (1) transposition (the answer i s contained in the stimulus material and must be moved or transposed to the blank space); (2) transformation (the answer i s contained in the stimulus material but must be changed before i t i s inserted into the blank space); and 215 (3) supply (the pupil must devise a response to match the contextual cues contained in the item). As the structural complexity of the items i n -creases, the s e l e c t i o n of item type at each grade level changes from pre-dominantly transposition items to predominantly supply items. Materials Materials supplied in the Examiner's k i t include: (1) a Manual (2) Reading Stimulus Material f o r subtests three and four (3) a Protocol (4) a metric r u l e r f o r the Arithmetic subtest (5) a cardboard masque for the Passage Comprehension subtest The Examiner must supply: (1) a stopwatch or wristwatch with a second hand (2) a clipboard (3) two pencils with erasers (4) two sheets of unlined scratch paper, 21.6 X 27.9 cm. (8J"X 11") . The manual contains a general description of the B. C. QUIET and pro-cedures common to a l l four subtests, as well as s p e c i f i c subtest i n s t r u c -t i o n s . The Reading Stimulus Material contains a l l the items presented to each pupil f or the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension sub-t e s t s . Protocols consist of (1) an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n page; (2) S p e l l i n g and Arithmetic sections to be used BY THE PUPIL; (3) Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension sections to be used BY THE EXAMINER. The protocols are designed to be placed onto a clipboard with the scoring key f o r the Passage Comprehension subtest so that the Examiner may record responses and score items as they are answered. Physical Setting Testing should be conducted in a room or area that can be closed o f f from distractions. If necessary, a "Do Not Disturb" sign should be placed on the door or wall. The temperature should be comfortable; f u r n i t u r e should be suitable f or the age of the c h i l d . The goal i s to maximize pupil performance by reducing or eliminating environmental influences which would depress achievement. The Examiner may s i t opposite the c h i l d across a narrow table or diagonally across the corner of a table. In e i t h e r s i t u a t i o n , i t i s im-portant that the Examiner use a clipboard to prevent the c h i l d from ac-c i d e n t a l l y observing items or scoring which s/he should not see. General Procedures Because the B. C. QUIET i s a standardized t e s t , i t i s essential for the Examiner to follow t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s c l o s e l y . Instructions to pupils (in blue) should be read just as they are written. The Examiner should not t e l l a c h i l d the correct answer to any item (except to the Passage Comprehension Examples on p. 11 of the Reading Stimulus Materials) or indicate in any way whether or not a response i s correct. If a c h i l d asks i f an answer i s correct, the Examiner should say that s/he i s not allowed to t e l l . Test items and responses are to be treated as c o n f i d e n t i a l , professional information which i s not to be shared with pupils or parents or others who do not have a professional need to know exact test contents. 216 It i s best to use a stopwatch for a l l tests to increase accuracy. However, when .using i t for the S p e l l i n g and Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n sub-t e s t s , i t should be turned on at the beginning and o f f at the end. It i s believed that turning i t on and o f f for each item on these subtests would be d i s t r a c t i n g f o r the p u p i l . DO NOT TELL the c h i l d how much time i s a l l o t t e d f o r each item or subtest. If the c h i l d asks, the Examiner may reply that there i s enough time to do a good job. The Examiner may repeat items on the Spelling subtest, i f the c h i l d requests, may read any or a l l words on the Arithmetic subtest (not numbers or symbols) and may help the c h i l d with the examples on the Passage Comprehension subtest but MAY NOT OTHERWISE GIVE ANY ASSISTANCE TO THE SUBJECT. Although a pupil should not be hurried through the t e s t , i t i s de-s i r a b l e to encourage him/her to proceed as quickly as possible to avoid boredom and fatigue. Twenty to s i x t y minutes should be set aside for administration of a l l four subtests; i f the t e s t i n g session i s to be segmented, the break should occur between, rather than within, subtests. Basal and Cei1ing Because the B. C. QUIET i s a wide-range t e s t , many of the items are not suitable f or administration to a l l pupils. To avoid adminis-tering items unnecessarily and to reduce t e s t i n g time, two strategies are employed. F i r s t , Starting Points are suggested for each grade level on the s p e l l i n g and reading subtests. These allow subjects to begin with items which are l i k e l y to be suitable for his/her a b i l i t y . If the Examiner believes that the c h i l d i s functioning s i g n i f i c a n t l y above or below his/her grade placement, the s t a r t i n g point may be ad-justed Second, basal and c e i l i n g c r i t e r i a are used to l i m i t the range of items to which each c h i l d responds. A basal i s defined as a sequence of consecutive c o r r e c t l y answered items below which i t i s l i k e l y that a l l items w i l l be answered c o r r e c t l y ; hence because items are presented in order from easy to d i f f i c u l t , items below the basal do not need to be administered; i t i s assumed that they are correct. A c e i l i n g i s defined as a sequence of consecutive i n c o r r e c t l y answered items above which i t i s l i k e l y that a l l items w i l l be answered i n c o r r e c t l y ; hence these items do not have to be administered. FOR THE SPELLING, WORD IDENTIFICATION AND PASSAGE COMPREHENSION SUBTESTS THE BASAL CRITERION IS EIGHT (8) CONSECUTIVE CORRECT RESPONSES AND THE CEILING CRITERION IS SIX (6) CONSECUTIVE INCORRECT RESPONSES. The Examiner should begin each subtest at the desired s t a r t i n g point. If the pupil responds c o r r e c t l y to the i n i t i a l item presented, the Examiner should proceed to the next item forward; for example, i f the i n i t i a l item presented to a subject i s item 11, and the c h i l d re-sponds c o r r e c t l y , item 12 should be presented next and so on u n t i l the c h i l d responds i n c o r r e c t l y to six consecutive items (reaches a c e i l i n g ) . If a c h i l d responds i n c o r r e c t l y to the i n i t i a l item OR to any of the f i r s t eight items presented, the Examiner i s to stop testing forward present instead the item immediately previous to the i n i t i a l item ad-ministered; the Examiner should continue t e s t i n g backward, item by item, u n t i l a-basal i s established OR UNTIL ITEM ONE IN THE SUBTEST IS REACHED. Testing forward may then resume and continue u n t i l a c e i l -ing i s established OR THE LAST ITEM IN THE SUBTEST IS REACHED. 217 If the Examiner i s uncertain as to the scoring of an item which i s part of a basal or c e i l i n g sequence, testing should continue forward or backward u n t i l a basal and c e i l i n g have been established with c e r t a i n t y . The basal and c e i l i n g c r i t e r i a DO NOT APPLY TO THE ARITHMETIC SUBTEST. A l l subjects begin t h i s subtest with item six and do as many problems as possible during the time a l l o t t e d . The exceptions are those pupils who do not achieve f i v e correct responses on items 6 to 65; these subjects receive the oral part of the subtest. Recording Responses To the l e f t of each item number in the Protocol, there i s a small blank. In these spaces the Examiner i s to place a "1" for each correct response or a "0" f o r each incorrect response. Correct responses are defined i n the S p e c i f i c Subtest Instructions. Incorrect responses should be recorded verbatim on the Protocol f o r both reading subtests; t h i s w i l l a s s i s t i n assessment of er r o r s . Correct responses should also be recorded verbatim f o r the Passage Comprehension subtest so that scoring may be checked. "DK" or "NR" may be entered when the pupil indicates that s/he doesn't know the answer or when no response i s made. Scoring The raw score f o r each subtest should be calculated before admin-i s t e r i n g the next subtest to a p u p i l . This w i l l allow the Examiner to correct errors i n esta b l i s h i n g basals or c e i l i n g s while the subject is present. The raw scores for the Sp e l l i n g , Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Passage Comprehension subtests are obtained by: (1) counting as correct a l l items below the basal sequence; (2) counting the number of correct responses from the basal to the c e i l i n g ; (3) adding these two qu a n t i t i e s ; (4) writing t h i s sum in the box labeled "RAW SCORE" at the end of each subtest in the Protocol. For the Arithmetic subtest the raw score i s obtained by: (1) counting the number of correct responses to items one to f i v e (If these items are not administered, they are assumed to be c o r r e c t . ) ; (2) counting the number of correct responses f o r items 6 to 65; (3) adding these two quantities; (4) writing the sum in the box lab e l l e d "RAW SCORE" at the end of the Arithmetic subtest in the Protocol. 218 PART TWO - SPECIFIC SUBTEST INSTRUCTIONS SPELLING Administration The Protocol i s placed before the subject and opened to p.T, SPELLING SUBTEST. Two pencils are placed beside the Protocol for the p u p i l . The Manual i s fastened to the clipboard and held by the Examiner. Starting Point. The following table should be used as a guide for beginning the t e s t . CAUTION: t h i s subtest i s not designed to be administered to grade one pupils. grade placement item no. 2 6 3 11 4 16 5 21 6 26 7 31 Procedure. Say, • (see Starting Point). Read the appro-priate item in the Manual, taking care not to allow the pupil to see the key. The pupil should not write u n t i l the sentence i s read. Allow ten seconds for the pupil to begin writing after you have said the item. If the pupil has not f i n i s h e d a response by the end of ten seconds, wait u n t i l you are certain that s/he has completed the re-sponse. If a subject wishes to rewrite an item previously adminis-tered, reread i t , i f requested, and mark the f i n a l response. Recording responses. No items are to be marked while the subject i s tak-ing the subtest. To prevent testing outside the basal and c e i l i n g , i t i s usually possible for the Examiner to inspect responses from across the table, as they are written. If t h i s i s not possible, the Protocol may be removed from the pupil a f t e r every 10 or 15 items, a mental note made of the number of consecutive correct and incorrect responses and the Protocol returned. With either procedure, i t i s important to not increase the c h i l d ' s anxiety. /• After a c e i l i n g has been established, inspect the responses to de-termine i f they are l e g i b l e . If a response i s i l l e g i b l e , ask the c h i l d to sp e l l the word o r a l l y . An item i s marked as correct i f i t exactly matches the key in the Manual. Undotted i ' s and uncrossed t's may be accepted i f that i s c l e a r l y what they are. Items and Key For items 1 - 5 the Examiner says the SOUND of the l e t t e r s . 1. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound m-m-m i n man. m-m—m. 2. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound f i n f i s h . f. 3. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound a-a-a i n and. a-a-a. 4. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound w i n want. w. 5. Write the l e t t e r that makes the sound h i n hat. h. 6. 7. 8 9 10, 11. 12. 13. l i g h t s 14, 15, 16, 17. 18. '19, 20, 21, 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27, 28. 29. 1'30. 31. 32. 33. long. The s t i c k was too,long. long, with. I ate. my peas with honey. with, never. I t ' s b e t t e r to be l a t e than never, never, take. You should take a p e n c i l to s c h o o l , take. other. He read the other book. other, hard. A diarr.ond i s very hard. hard, window. The b a s e b a l l went through the window, window. L i g h t s i n the B.C. Hydro b u i l d i n g help to heat i t , . l i g h t s , b e t t e r . I t ' s u s u a l l y b e t t e r to f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s , b e t t e r . t r y . She wants to t r y again. t r y . too. She drove the car too f a s t . too. h i m s e l f . The trapper cut h i m s e l f . h i m s e l f , f a m i l y . Tom's fa m i l y l i v e d i n an apartment. family, Monday. Monday i s named a f t e r the moon. Monday, downstairs. The cat ran downstairs. downstairs, wait. We had to wait f o r the t r a i n . wait, kept. I kept my cookie. kept. mining. Mining i s an important i n d u s t r y . mining, i s l a n d s . There are many i s l a n d s o f f the B. C. coast, i s l a n d s . n o i s e s . Sometimes o l d houses make strange n o i s e s , n o i s e s . h o s p i t a l . Sometimes people have to go to a h o s p i t a l , hospi t a l . potato. The potato I ate came from P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . potato, mountains. B r i t i s h Columbia has many mountains, mountains. v i l l a g e . Long ago, Vancouver was only a v i l l a g e , v i l l a g e . B r i t i s h . A B r i t i s h seaman s a i l e d up the B. C. coast. B r i t i s h . s u r p r i s e . The party was a s u r p r i s e . s u r p r i s e , ought. I ought to do my homework. ought, c o n s i d e r i n g . The judge was c o n s i d e r i n g the case, c o n s i d e r i n g . -The f i r s t l e t t e r must be upper c a s e . 220 34. r e g i o n . The e a s t e r n r e g i o n of Canada i s f a i r l y f l a t . r e g i o n . 35. t r a n s m i t t e r . The t e l e v i s i o n t r a n s m i t t e r worked w e l l . t r a n s m i t t e r . 36. inexpensive. The lunch was inexpensive. inexpen-s i v e . 37. c h a r a c t e r . An unknown a c t o r was s e l e c t e d to play the main c h a r a c t e r . c h a r a c t e r . 38. evidence. The witness gave evidence i n court. evidence. 39. d i s e a s e . The disease was widespread, d i s e a s e . 40. a t h l e t e . The a t h l e t e t r a i n e d d a i l y . a t h l e t e . 41. m a g n i f i c e n t . The R. C. M. P. Musical Ride was m a g n i f i c e n t , m a g n i f i c e n t . 42. t e r m i n a l . The Vancouver bus t e r m i n a l operates 24 hours a day. t e r m i n a l . 43. p h y s i c a l . She e x c e l l e d i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . p h y s i c a l . 44. s c i s s o r s . He needed a sharp p a i r of s c i s s o r s . s c i s s o r s . 45. advertisement. The Petrocan advertisement was b r i e f . advertisement'. 46. temporary. The r e p a i r s to the roof were temporary. temporary. 47. h e i r . The Prince of Wales i s h e i r to the throne. h e i r . 48. s u b s t a n t i a l . The runner made a s u b s t a n t i a l improve-ment i n h i s speed. s u b s t a n t i a l . 49. t r a n s f e r r e d . The s o l d i e r was t r a n s f e r r e d to a new base. t r a n s f e r r e d . 50. guarantee. The video d i s c p l a y e r had a two-year guarantee. guarantee. 51. recommend. The w a i t e r s a i d that he would recommend the r o a s t duck, .recommmend. 52. b a r r i s t e r . The b a r r i s t e r fought f o r h i s c l i e n t . b a r r i s t e r . 53. u p h o l s t e r e r . The u p h o l s t e r e r r e f u r b i s h e d the c h a i r . u p h o l s t e r e r . 54. p r e f e r r e d . She p r e f e r r e d the dark d r e s s . p r e f e r r e d . 55. e x h i l a r a t e d . He was e x h i l a r a t e d by success. e x h i l a r -ated . 56. analyse. D e t e c t i v e s analyse a c r i m e ^ analyse. (also spelled: analyze) (an'e l i z ) 57. burlesque. The play was a burlesque of the o r i g i n a l drama. burlesque, ( b e r ' l e s k ) 58. posthumously. The honor was aw_arded posthumously. posthumously, (pos'choo mus l e ) 59. h a l l u c i n o g e n . The chemical was an .hallucinogen. h a l l u c i n o g e n , (he loo' s i n o jen) 60. s u p e r f l u o u s . The ^o_ld watch_was su p e r f l u o u s . super-f l u o u s . (soo p e r ' f l o o es) 221 ARITHMETIC Administration The Arithmetic subtest i s composed of two parts: oral and written. The oral part i s to be administered ONLY i f the subject does not answer f i v e written problems c o r r e c t l y . The Protocol, two sheets of scratch paper, the r u l e r and two pen-c i l s with erasers are placed before the subject. Starting Point. A l l pupils begin the subtest with item s i x . Time l i m i t s . Written problems: 15 minutes. Oral problems: 30 seconds f o r each oral problem. Procedure. Directions d i f f e r for Primary and Intermediate pupils. WrTtten Part: PRIMARY qrades-M - 3). Say, "Now you a r e g o i n g t o do some a r i t h m e t i c . Look a t t h e s e (point to p. 3 in the Protocol) and t h e s e (point to pp. 4 - 8 in the Protocol) . I want t o see how many o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s you c a n do. Look a t e a c h one c a r e f u l l y t o see what you a r e t o do: p l u s (point to item 6) , minus (point to item 7) o r t i m e s (point to item 13) . " I f you need more space t o f i g u r e o ut y o u r a n s w e r s , you ca n use t h i s p a p e r (point to the scratch paper) . You w i l l s t a r t h e r e (point to item 6) and do as many p r o b l e m s as you c a n i n t h i s row and t h e n t h e n e x t row and so on. I w i l l r e a d a l l t h e words t o you. B e g i n (start timing) ." Read words aloud as the c h i l d comes to them. Stop when the c h i l d has NOT answered TWO consecutive ROWS c o r r e c t l y or when i t becomes obvious that the c h i l d cannot do any more problems. Written Part: INTERMEDIATE grades ( 4 - 7 ) . Say, "Now you a r e g o i n g t o do some a r i t h m e t i c . Look a t th e p r o b l e m s on t h e s e p a g e s ( p o i n t to pp. 3 - 8) . I want t o see how many o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s you c a n f i g u r e o u t . Look a t e a c h p r o b l e m t o see what y o u a r e t o do: add (point to item 6) , s u b t r a c t (point to item 7) , m u l t i p l y (point to item 13) o r d i v i d e (point to item 26) . " I f y o u need more space t o f i g u r e o u t y o u r a n s w e r s , you c a n u s e t h i s p a p e r (point to the scratch paper) . You w i l l s t a r t h e r e ( p o i n t to item 6) and do as many p r o b l e m s as you c a n i n t h i s row. Then you w i l l do as many as you c a n i n th e n e x t row and so on. When y o u f i n i s h t h e f i r s t page, go on t o t h e n e x t p a g e s . I d o n ' t e x p e c t y ou t o do a l l t h e p r o b l e m s on t h e s e p a g e s , b u t I want you t o do as many as you c a n . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? B e g i n ( s t a r t timing) ." 222 During timing observe the subject. If s/he seems confused, prompt by pointing to an item and asking him/her to t r y that one. If necessary, point to each problem on the f i r s t page to keep the pupil on task. Turn the page, i f necessary. If you believe the c h i l d w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y reading, or i f the c h i l d requests, you may read any words aloud. If a c h i l d stops working for as long as half a minute, say, "Can y o u do some m o r e ? " If the c h i l d responds negatively, say, "You s t i l l h a ve some t i m e l e f t . I f y o u a r e s u r e t h a t y o u c a n -n o t do any more, c h e c k t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t y o u have done t o be s u r e t h a t t h e y a r e c o r r e c t . " Testing may be terminated when the c h i l d has performed t h i s . IF S/HE DOES NOT HAVE AT LEAST FIVE CORRECT ANSWERS, ADMINISTER THE ORAL ITEMS. Oral Part. Remove the Protocol from the pupil and place i t on the clipboard before yourself. Say, "Now I am g o i n g t o a s k y o u t o do some p r o b l e m s a l o u d . 1. C ount a l o u d f r o m one t o t e n w i t h o u t u s i n g y o u r f i n -g e r s . B e g i n w i t h one. 2. Show me s e v e n f i n g e r s . 3. W h i c h i s more, 9 o r 8? 4. P e t e r had two c r a y o n s . H i s t e a c h e r gave hi m two more. How many c r a y o n s d i d he have a l t o g e t h e r ? 5. Mary had s i x p e n n i e s . She l o s t two o f them. How many d i d she have l e f t ? The Examiner may repeat items but not explain them. The 30 second time l i m i t i s not extended for a r e p e t i t i o n . 19. 7 20. 12 21. 736 22. 0 24. 49 25. 4 26. 5 23. 4 329, 4329, 4,329 11. 2 12. c 13. 6 14. 17 15. 4 16. 12 17. 10 18. 599 8. 1st and 3thd 9. 61 10. 1:00, 1, one, 1300, 0100 6. 5 7. 6 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. Key 3:20, 1520, 0320 12 251 6 hundred's, 100 72 4, four 7 546 12 - 18 2652, 2 652, 2,652 97.642 3/5 thousand's, 1000 5/8 54 2 9/20 3.06, 3 r2, 3 2/35 1/2, 3/6 16 6/7 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 48. 49. 50. 51. 55. 56. 57. 52. 53. 54. 4a 25 S52 3, three 125/1000, 25/200, 5/40, 1/8 80 3 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 • b 28 21 c a2+ 2ab + b 2 5/6 32 - 36 335 124, 335,124 25.625, 25 5/8, 25 rl05 223 WORD IDENTIFICATION Admini strati on The pupil's Protocol is fastened to the Examiner's clipboard; the Reading Stimulus Material is placed before the pupil and opened to the appropriate page (see Starting Point). Starting Point. The following table should be used as a guide for determining a child's starting item. The starting item is the f i r s t word on each page. grade placement starting item page 1 6 1 2 16 2 3 26 3 4 36 4 5 46 5 6 54 6 7 62 7 Procedure. Point to the desired starting item and say, "You are going to say some words. Read t h i s aloud; when you have f i n -ished go to the next one and read i t aloud and so on. Say each word as w e l l as you can. Begin." Five seconds is allowed for each response. If the subject does not respond by the end of that time, point to the next item, forward or backward, depending on whether or not a basal has been establish-ed, and say, "Try t h i s one." If a subject returns spontaneously to an item already administered, record the second response for diagnostic purposes but do not con-sider i t as part of the raw score. Recording responses. An item is correct i f i t matches accepted usage; for the Examiner1s,convenience a key is provided in the Protocol for items 73 - 90. A correct answer must also be said reasonably quickly. If a child slowly sounds out an item, the Examiner should request the child to "say i t fast" and score the speeded response. A pupil should not be penalized for a speech defect or regional dif-ferences in accent. PASSAGE COMPREHENSION Admini strati on The Reading Stimulus Material is opened to Passage Comprehension Examples, p. 11 and placed before the pupil. The cardboard masque is placed horizontally just below the f i r s t item on the page. The pronunciation guide included in the Protocol was derived from The  Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and The Random House Dictionary of the English Language-! The Random House pronunciation system is used here. 224 Starting Point. The following table should be used as a guide for be-ginning the t e s t . CAUTION: i f a subject does not obtain a raw score of 10 or more on the Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n subtest, the Pas-sage Comprehension subtest should not be administered. grade placement s t a r t i n g item page 1 1 12 2 6 13 3 11 14 4 16 15 5 21 16 6 26 17 7 31 18 Procedure. The examples on p. 11 are not scored [Answers: 1. clock; 2. b a l l , window, e t c . ] . Point to item one and say, "On t h i s t e s t y o u a r e g o i n g t o r e a d some s e n t e n c e s t o y o u r s e l f and f i g u r e o u t t h e m i s s i n g w o r d . I want y o u t o r e a d t h i s s e n t e n c e s i l e n t l y and t e l l me ONE w o r d t h a t w i l l go i n t h e b l a n k and make s e n s e . " If the pupil does not answer within a few seconds, the Examiner should say the answer and read the sentence aloud with the an-swer. The same procedure should be followed for example two. These are the only items in the B. C. QUIET for which the Examiner may announce the correct answer. Open the Reading Stimulus Material to the appropriate page and place the cardboard masque just below the f i r s t item to be admin-i s t e r e d . Say, "Now do t h i s one. Read i t s i l e n t l y and t e l l me ONE word t h a t w i l l go i n t h e b l a n k and make s e n s e . " Thirty seconds i s allowed i n i t i a l l y f o r each item. If the subject does not respond within that time, prompt by saying, " G i v e i t a t r y " or s i m i l a r encouragement. If the pupil does not respond by the end of an additional 10 seconds, move the masque to the next item, forward or backward, depending on whether or not a basal has been established, and begin timing again. TOTAL TIME ALLOWED: 30 seconds + prompt + 10 seconds = approximately 42 seconds for each item. If a pupil answers with more than one word, the Examiner should remind him/her that only one word i s allowed and ask t h e p u p i l which word should be written as the answer. If a subject returns spontaneously to an item already administered, the new answer should be recorded for diagnostic use but should not be counted as part of the raw score. Recording responses. An item i s marked as correct i f i t : 1. matches the key (see pp. 13 - 17) OR 225 2. i s s i m i l a r to or makes as much sense within the context of the passage as the "key" answers. Note that p l u r a l i t y and or tense of a response must be appro-pr i a t e , as well as the part of speech. For example, "they" in place of "he" i s not acceptable; nor i s "had" in place of "have." For convenience the Key i s designed so that the Protocol can be positioned immediately above i t . So that the maximum number of items may be presented on each page of the Key (which reduces the number of times the Examiner must turn pages while administering the Passage Comprehension subtest), some items have been abbreviated. If there i s any doubt about the scoring of an abbreviated item, the Examiner i s urged to consult the Reading Stimulus Material f or the complete item. Key 226 (PLACE PROTOCOL HERE) l i k e t o h o p . C o r r e c t : r a b b i t s , b u n n i e s I n c o r r e c t : any o t h e r a n i m a l , I T u r t l e s c a n swim i n t h e . C o r r e c t : w a t e r , l a k e , p o n d I n c o r r e c t : t a n k , s i n k T e d r u n s t o t h e p a r k . T e d l i k e s t h e . C o r r e c t : p a r k , t r e e , s w i n g I n c o r r e c t : s k y , s u n , p l a y The e l e p h a n t i s h u n g r y . He w a n t s t o . C o r r e c t : e a t , f e e d I n c o r r e c t : r o a r , w a l k , t r u m p e t O u c k s do n o t r e a d b o o k s . B o y s a n d g i r l s r e a d . C o r r e c t : b o o k s I n c o r r e c t : d u c k s , m o v i e s 6. The r a b b i t saw a h u n g r y f o x . The r a n away f a s t . C o r r e c t : r a b b i t I n c o r r e c t : f o x 7. The g r a s s h o p p e r c a l l e d t o t h e a n t . B u t t h e went away. C o r r e c t : a n t I n c o r r e c t : g r a s s h o p p e r 8. B i l l r o d e h i s b i c y c l e t o t h e b a r b e r s h o p . When he s t a r t e d t o go home, he f o u n d t h a t t h e h a d a f l a t t i r e . C o r r e c t : b i c y c l e , f r o n t , b a c k I n c o r r e c t : i t , he 9. The man r u n s a b i g m a c h i n e . He b u i l d i n g a new home. C o r r e c t : i s , was I n c o r r e c t : w a n t s , r u n s 10. Y o u r s k e l e t o n i s a g r o u p o f t h a t f i t t o g e t h e r a n d h o l d up y o u r b o d y . Y o u r s k e l e t o n h e l p s y o u t o r e a c h a n d move. C o r r e c t : b o n e s I n c o r r e c t : s k e l e t o n s , t h i n g s 227 (PLACE PROTOCOL HERE) 11. T y r a n n o s a u r u s was one o f t h e m o st t e r r i b l e d i n o s a u r s t h a t e v e r l i v e d . A l l t h e o t h e r , e x c e p t one t h a t h a d 3 h o r n s , f e a r e d h i m . C o r r e c t : d i n o s a u r s I n c o r r e c t : T y r a n n o s a u r u s , a n i m a l s 12. S c i e n t i s t s l o o k a t p i c t u r e s o f t h e moon and t h e s t a r s . L o o k i n g a t t h e a n d t h e s t a r s h e l p s them u n d e r s t a n d t h e e a r t h . C o r r e c t : moon I n c o r r e c t : p i c t u r e s , i t 13. ' The d o g c a r r i e d a n e w s p a p e r t o i t s m a s t e r i n s i d e t h e h o u s e . The m a s t e r t h e d o g a p a t a n d f e d i t . C o r r e c t : g a v e , a w a r d e d I n c o r r e c t : p a t t e d , made 14. The e n g i n e e r on a t r a i n b l o w s a d i e s e l h o r n t o w a r n t h a t a t r a i n i s c o m i n g . He t h e h o r n j u s t b e f o r e a c r o s s i n g . C o r r e c t : b l o w s , h o n k s I n c o r r e c t : w h i s t l e s , b l e w , h o n k e d 15. The u g l y d u c k l i n g h a d b e e n p e c k e d a t by d u c k s a n d c h i c k e n s . He went t o t h e s w a n s , e x p e c t i n g t o be k i l l e d b u t f o u n d t h a t he was a l s o a . C o r r e c t : swan I n c o r r e c t : d u c k , b i r d 16. A Shaman i s an i m p o r t a n t member o f an I n d i a n t r i b e . p r a c t i c e s m e d i c i n e by means o f m a g i c a l s p e l l s a n d c h a n t s . C o r r e c t : He I n c o r r e c t : T h e y : O o c t o r 17. How do you t a l k t o a c o m p u t e r ? You w i t h a t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d . C o r r e c t : t a l k I n c o r r e c t : t y p e 18. C o m p o s e r s c o m m u n i c a t e f e e l i n g s t h r o u g h t h e i r m u s i c . A u t h o r s c o m m u n i c a t e f e e l -i n g s t h r o u g h t h e i r , w h i l e p a i n t e r s show t h e i r i d e a s t h r o u g h t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . C o r r e c t : b o o k s , w r i t i n g , s t o r i e s I n c o r r e c t : f e e l i n g s , w o r d s 19. T h e H i n d u s i n v e n t e d t h e number s i g n f o r z e r o . i s t h e number s i g n t h a t means no o b j e c t o r t h i n g - n o t h i n g . C o r r e c t : z e r o I n c o r r e c t : c i r c l e , n o t h i n g 20. Many f a m o u s c o o k s n e v e r t e l l w h at i s i n t h e i r b e s t r e c i p e s . T h e s e c o o k s r e -s e n t a c h a n g e t h e i r r e c i p e s . C o r r e c t : i n , t o I n c o r r e c t : f o r , o f , made 228 (PLACE PROTOCOL HERE) 2 1 . A c c o r d i n g t o O j i b w a l e g e n d , t h e O r i o l e was o n c e a p l a i n , g r a y b i r d . E v e r y day he s a n g a b e a u t i f u l s o n g t h e s u n . The s u n was so p l e a s e d t h a t he g a v e t h e O r i o l e l o v e l y f e a t h e r s . C o r r e c t : t o , f o r , a b o u t I n c o r r e c t : w i t h , a f t e r 22. The f i r s t a r i t h m e t i c m a c h i n e was c a l l e d an a b a c u s . T o d a y , h i g h - s p e e d h e l p us t o s o l v e h a r d p r o b l e m s . C o r r e c t : c o m p u t e r s , c a l c u l a t o r s I n c o r r e c t : a b a c u s e s , m a c h i n e s 2 3 . I n u i t k e e p t h e i r f e e t warm w i t h 3 l a y e r s o f . F i r s t , t h e y p u t a n i m a l s k i n l e g -g i n g s on t h e i r f e e t , t h e n b i r d s l i p p e r s a n d f i n a l l y s e a l s k i n b o o t s . C o r r e c t : s k i n s , c l o t h i n g , l e a t h e r s I n c o r r e c t : s o c k s , f u r , s k i n 24. A C o n d o r i s a l a r g e b i r d f o u n d i n p a r t s o f N o r t h a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a . I t may a w i n g s p a n o f up t o s i x m e t e r s . C o r r e c t : h a v e I n c o r r e c t : s p r e a d , g r ow, f l y 2 5 . The a n c i e n t G r e e k s be 1 i e v e d • t h a t A p o l l o d r o v e t h e s u n - c h a r i o t e a c h d a y . H i s g o l d c h a r i o t was dra w n t h r o u g h t h e s k y f o u r w i n g e d h o r s e s . C o r r e c t : by I n c o r r e c t : w i t h 26. A l e g e n d , s u c h a s t h e one a b o u t S t . G e o r g e who s l e w a v i c i o u s d r a g o n , c a n c h a n g e . In W a l t D i s n e y ' s f i l m , " T h e R e l u c t a n t D r a g o n , " t h e d r a g o n i s q u i t e n i c e . R a t h e r t h a n f i g h t S t . G e o r g e , t h e d r a g o n w i s h e s t o t e l l a s o n n e t . C o r r e c t : h i m , G e o r g e I n c o r r e c t : t hem, S t . G e o r g e 2 7 . I f man w e r e t o c o l o n i z e t h e moon, he w o u l d h a v e t o l e a r n t o a d a p t . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , he w o u l d h a v e t o t o manage an e c o l o g y . C o r r e c t : l e a r n I n c o r r e c t : a d a p t , u n d e r s t a n d 28. A b a t h y s p h e r e i s a w a t e r t i g h t s p h e r e , l a r g e e n o u g h f o r 2 o r 3 men. I t i s l o w e r e d c a b l e t o e x p l o r e t h e s e a b o t t o m . C o r r e c t : by I n c o r r e c t : w i t h , f r o m 2 9 . A D u t c h g i r l h i d some c l o c k f i g u r i n e s f r o m German t r o o p s d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . A l t h o u g h f r i g h t e n e d , s h e d i d n o t a l l o w t h e s o l d i e r s t o t h e f i g u r i n e s . C o r r e c t : f i n d , d i s c o v e r I n c o r r e c t : b r e a k , t a k e , g e t , s t e a l 3 0 . The f i r s t p e r s o n t o swim L a k e O n t a r i o was a C a n a d i a ^ s c h o o l g i r l . I n 1954, M. B e l l a t o t a l o f 64 km. i n 21 h o u r s t o g a i n t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n . C o r r e c t : swan, d i d I n c o r r e c t : f l o a t e d 229 (PLACE PROTOCOL HERE) 31. The f i r s t woman d o c t o r i n C a n a d a r e c e i v e d h e r l i c e n s e i n 188 0 . ,She r e c e i v e d a f t e r a b i t t e r f i g h t w i t h t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n . C o r r e c t : i t I n c o r r e c t : l i c e n s e 3 2 . " S p i r i t s " o n c e were i m p o r t a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g n a t u r e . To t h e o l d E s k i m o s , t h e N o r t h e r n L i g h t s w e r e made by p l a y i n g g ames. C o r r e c t : s p i r i t s , g h o s t s I n c o r r e c t : E s k i m o s 33 . S u r v e y o r s mark t h e r o u t e by w h i c h a new h i g h w a y w i l l r e a c h i t s d e s t i n a t i o n . A f t e r t h e r o u t e h a s b e e n , c o n s t r u c t i o n c r e w s w i l l u s e m a c h i n e s t o b u i l d t h e r o a d . C o r r e c t : m a r k e d , s u r v e y e d I n c o r r e c t : b u i l t , mapped 34. C o n v u l s e d w i t h f e a r a n d r a g e , t h e b u l l s n o r t -e d a n d c h a r g e d t h e m a t a d o r , b u t , i n s t e a d o f f l e s h , h i s h o r n s t o r e o n l y t h e e m p t y a i r . . . . . t h e m a t a d o r d e f t l y s l i d t h e r e d -h i l t e d i n t o t h e b u l l ' s n e c k , j u s t b e h i n d t h e h o r n s . C o r r e c t : s w o r d , k n i f e I n c o r r e c t : l a n c e , s p e a r 3 5 . The S a s q u a t c h h a s become a c u r i o s i t y i n r e -c e n t y e a r s . S e a r c h e s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d t h i s c r e a t u r e t h r o u g h o u t B. C. C o r r e c t : f o r I n c o r r e c t : by, a f t e r , a r o u n d 36. M i n i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y t o B. C. I t i s a s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e as f o r e s t r y . . C o r r e c t : e c o n o m y , p r o v i n c e I n c o r r e c t : i n d u s t r y , p e o p l e 3 7 . D e s p i t e t h e r e n o w n o f S h a k e s p e a r e ' s w o r k s , h i s l i f e i s a m y s t e r y . . . . A h o u s e , w h i c h i s t o be h i s home, y e t s t a n d s . . C o r r e c t : b e l i e v e d , s a i d , s u p p o s e d I n c o r r e c t : h o p e d 38. I t i s i r o n i c t h a t s o many o f t h e t e c h n o -l o g i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t s t o w h i c h we a r e a c -c u s t o m e d . . . h a v e b e e n s p a w n e d by m i l i -t a r y r e s e a r c h . . . . Can o u r s o c i e t y . . . a c h i e v e t h e g o a l o f w h i c h a l l men s a y i s t h e i r d r e a m ? And i f t h a t . . . C o r r e c t : p e a c e I n c o r r e c t : c o m f o r t , t e c h n o l o g y , l i b e r t y 3 9 . D u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n , a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n b e g a n t o d r i f t . . . . W o r k e r s , i f t h e y h a d money o r t h e p r o s p e c t o f a C o r r e c t : j o b I n c o r r e c t : w o r k , money 40 . A T r o j a n p r i e s t w a r n e d h i s p e o p l e a g a i n s t G r e e k s b e a r i n g g i f t s . The p e o p l e o f d i d n o t b e l i e v e h im a n d h a u l e d t h e . . . C o r r e c t : T r o y I n c o r r e c t : T r o j a n 230 (PLACE PROTOCOL HERE) A l . He a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c a r -i a g e , t h r o u g h t h e d o o r t o t h e c h i m n e y h e a r t h - w h e r e a c a u l d r o n o f s t e w was b o i l i n g -i n s u c h an e x e m p l a r y as t o i n d u c e a m a z e -ment i n h i s c o l l e a g u e s who were l e f t e n -1 s c o n c e d i n t h e s e a t o f t h e i r f o u r w h e e l e d a p p u r t e n a n c e w i t h n a r y a c l o s e d m o u t h among t h e m . C o r r e c t : f a s h i o n , way I n c o r r e c t : s p e e d , h u r r y A2. T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t 3 c o m p o n e n t s i n t h e p r o -c e s s o f r e a d i n g . The f i r s t i s d e c o d i n g o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f w o r d s ; t h e 2 n d i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h e m e a n i n g ( s ) o f w o r d s t o g e t h e r ; t h e 3 r d i s p a s s i n g on t h e s e w o r d s ; t h a t i s , we e v a l u a t e t h e r e l a t i v e w o r t h o f what we h a v e r e a d . C o r r e c t : j u d g e m e n t I n c o r r e c t : e v a l u a t i o n A3. The c l a s h b e t w e e n B l a c k a n d W h i t e s o c i e t i e s c r e a t e s many v i c t i m s . W h i l e many o f t h e s e a r e B l a c k s c o m p e l l e d t o l i v e i n B l a c k g h e t -t o s , some W h i t e s v o l u n t a r i l y c r e a t e t h e i r own g h e t t o s a n d i s o l a t e t h e m s e l v e s c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r e t h n i c e x p e r i e n c e s . C o r r e c t : f r o m I n c o r r e c t : w i t h , by AA. O d y s s e u s t o l d t h e c y c l o p s , P o l y p h e m u s , t h a t h i s name was "Noman." O d y s s e u s a n d h i s men h a d b l i n d e d h i m , t h e c y c l o p s s o u g h t h e l p , s h o u t i n g , "Noman h a s b l i n d e d me." C o r r e c t : when, a f t e r I n c o r r e c t : b e c a u s e , b e f o r e , l a t e r A5. I n F r e n c h G u i a n a t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f F r a n c e m a i n t a i n e d a v e r y r e p r e s s i v e p e n a l i n s t i -t u t i o n d e s i g n e d t o c r u s h t h e o f t h e c o n v i c t s c o n f i n e d t h e r e . C o r r e c t : s p i r i t s I n c o r r e c t : l i v e s , h a n d s A6. A p p r o p r i a t e s t u d e n t r o l e b e h a v i o u r i s f o r s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o some p u p i l s t h i s b e h a v i o u r s y m b o l i z e s s u b m i s s i v e n e s s o r o b s e q u i e n c e , and t h e y r e f u s e t o l e a r n i t . C o r r e c t : n e c e s s a r y , i m p o r t a n t , d e s i r a b l e I n c o r r e c t : s o m e t h i n g , u s e d A 7 . As p a i n t i n g a n d l i t e r a t u r e i n 1 8 t h c e n -t u r y E n g l a n d b e g a n t o d i s p l a y t h e l i f e o f o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f a r i s t o c r a t s , warm e m o t i o n r e p l a c e d w i t . The a g e o f c l a s s i c i s m b e g a n t o be r e -p l a c e d by t h e a g e o f C o r r e c t : r o m a n t i c i s m I n c o r r e c t : l i t e r a t u r e , e m o t i o n , n e o -c l a s s i c i s m READING STIMULUS MATERIAL 232 WORD IDENT I F I C A T I O N P G H D h e l p w e ' l l m o t h e r h e r e who f r o m s a y a i r p 233 n e v e r j e t s l o w c i t y p l e a s e d o c t o r t a l k s dreams lumberman anyone 234 b r a k e d i d n ' t d o n k e y d i n o s a u r s s p e c i p l a s t i c e v e n f r i g h t e n t h i m b l e b ound 2 3 5 i) m u l t i p l i e d fastened b r i l l i a n t breathe pronghorn heaves bush urged grocery i n t e s t i n e 236 g r i n d c h a r a c t e r emotion confidence jaguar d i s t r u s t p r i m i t i v e vanquished 237 w r e a t h a b a t e d « a n x i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e r l i m o u s i n e p e c u l i a r i n v e r t e b r a t e s t e a l t h 238 p a t h o g e n e c h a f e d a d m i r a t i o n a c c u s a t i o n i m m o r t a l i t y g e o l o g i c a l r e t r o s p e c t i v e d i s u n i t y 239 r d o n i c a l l y ewe d e s u l t o r y i n c o n g r u i t y c e t i c e m b r y o n i c c o l o n n a d e d p i c t u r e s q u e 240 l a b o r i o u s l y s a g a c i t y s p e r m a c e t t i p s y c h o l o g y m i e n t u m u l t u o u s f a c a d e c u m u l a t i v e 241 f a c e t i o u s p o i g n a n t b o u r g e o s i e m e s e n c e p h a l o n p h t h a l o c y n i n e PASSAGE COMPREHENSION EXAMPLES T i m h i t t h e 243 PASSAGE COMPREHENSION l i k e t o hop. T u r t l e s c a n swim. T u r t l e s swim i n t h e Ted r u n s t o t h e p a r k . T e d l i k e s t h e The e l e p h a n t i s h u n g r y . He w a n t s t o .Jt K D u c k s do n o t r e a d b o o k s . Boys a nd g i r l s r e a d 244 6. The r a b b i t saw a hungry fox. The ran away f a s t . 7. The grasshopper c a l l e d to the ant. But the went away. 8. B i l l rode h i s b i c y c l e to the barber shop When he s t a r t e d to go home, he found that the had a f l a t t i r e . 9 . The man runs a b i g machine. He b u i l d i n g a new home, 10. Your skeleton i s a group of together and hold up your body, helps you to reach and move. that f i t Your skeleton 245 1 1 . T y r a r m o s a u r u s was one o f t h e most t e r r i b l e d i n o s a u r s t h a t e v e r l i v e d . A l l t h e o t h e r j , e x c e p t one t h a t h a d t h r e e h o r n s , f e a r e d h i m . 12. S c i e n t i s t s l o o k a t p i c t u r e s o f t h e moon and t h e s t a r s L o o k i n g a t t h e and t h e s t a r s h e l p s them u n d e r s t a n d t h e e a r t h . 13. The dog c a r r i e d a n e w s p a p e r t o i t s m a s t e r i n s i d e t h e h o u s e . The m a s t e r t h e dog a p a t and f e d i t . 14. The e n g i n e e r on a t r a i n b l o w s a d i e s e l h o r n t o w a r n t h a t a t r a i n i s c o m i n g . He t h e h o r n j u s t b e f o r e a c r o s s i n g . 15. The u g l y d u c k l i n g had b e e n p e c k e d a t by d u c k s and c h i c k e n s . He went t o t h e swans, e x p e c t i n g t o be k i l l e d b u t f o u n d t h a t he was a l s o a 246 16. A shaman i s an important member of an Indian t r i b e . p r a c t i c e s medicine by means of magical s p e l l s and chants. 17. How do you t a l k to a computer? You with a t y p e w r i t e r keyboard. 18. Composers communicate f e e l i n g s through t h e i r music. Authors communicate f e e l i n g s through t h e i r , while p a i n t e r s show t h e i r ideas through t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . 19. The Hindus invented the number s i g n f o r zero. i s the number s i g n that means no o b j e c t or t h i n g -nothing. 2 0 . Many famous cooks never t e l l r e c i p e s . These cooks res e n t t h e i r r e c i p e s . what i s i n a change _ t h e i r best 247 21. According to Ojibwa legend, the O r i o l e was once a p l a i n , gray b i r d . Every day he sang a b e a u t i f u l song the sun. The sun was so pleased that he gave the O r i o l e l o v e l y f e a t h e r s . 22. The f i r s t a r i t h m e t i c machine was c a l l e d an abacus. Today, high-speed help us to s o l v e hard problems. 23. I n u i t keep t h e i r f e e t warm with three l a y e r s of F i r s t , they put animal s k i n l e g g i n g s on t h e i r f e e t , then b i r d s l i p p e r s and f i n a l l y s e a l s k i n boots. 24. A Condor i s a l a r g e b i r d found i n p a r t s of North and South America. I t may a wingspan of up to s i x meters. 25. The a n c i e n t Greeks b e l i e v e d that A p o l l o drove the s u n - c h a r i o t each day. His gold c h a r i o t was drawn through the sky four winged horses. 248 26. A legend, such as the one about St. George who slew a v i c i o u s dragon, can change. In Walt Disney's f i l m , "The Reluctant Dragon," the dragon i s q u i t e n i c e . Rather than f i g h t St. George, the dragon wishes to t e l l a. sonnet. 27. I f man were to c o l o n i z e the moon, he would have to l e a r n to adapt. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , he would have to to manage an ecology. 28. A bathysphere i s a w a t e r t i g h t sphere, l a r g e enough f o r two or three men. I t i s lowered cable to explore the sea bottom. 29. A Dutch g i r l h i d some c l o c k f i g u r i n e s from German troops d u r i n g World War I I . Although f r i g h t e n e d , she d i d not a l l o w the s o l d i e r s to the f i g u r i n e s . 30. The f i r s t person to swim Lake On t a r i o was a Canadian s c h o o l g i r l . In 1954, M. B e l l a t o t a l of 64 km. i n 21 hours to g a i n that d i s t i n c t i o n . 249 31. The f i r s t woman doctor i n Canada r e c e i v e d her l i c e n s e i n 1880. She r e c e i v e d a f t e r a b i t t e r f i g h t w i t h the medical p r o f e s s i o n . 32. " S p i r i t s " once were important i n e x p l a i n i n g nature. To the o l d Eskimos, the Northern L i g h t s were made by p l a y i n g games. 33. Surveyors mark the route by which a new highway w i l l reach i t s d e s t i n a t i o n . A f t e r the route has been . , c o n s t r u c t i o n crews w i l l use machines to b u i l d the new road. 34. Convulsed with f e a r and rage, the b u l l snorted and charged the matador, but, i n s t e a d of f l e s h , h i s horns tore only the empty a i r . Sides heaving, blood t r i c k l i n g down from h i s wounds, the b u l l turned and s t e a d i e d him-s e l f f o r the next charge. S n o r t i n g , he f l u n g h i m s e l f at the red cape; as he rushed h e l p l e s s l y past, the matador d e f t l y s l i d the r e d - h i l t e d i n t o the b u l l ' s neck, j u s t behind the horns. 35. The Sasquatch has become a c u r i o s i t y i n recent years. Searches have been conducted t h i s c r e a t u r e throughout B. C. 250 36. Mining i s an important i n d u s t r y to B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s as important to the as f o r e s t r y and tourism. 37. Despite the renown of Shakespeare's works, h i s l i f e i s a mystery. Some h i s t o r i a n s have even a s s e r t e d that the man h i m s e l f never a c t u a l l y l i v e d . There i s , however, a r e c o r d of him being born i n S t r a t f o r d on Avon. A house, which i s to be h i s home, yet stands and has been converted i n t o a museum. 38. I t i s i r o n i c t h a t so many of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l a c h i e v e -ments to which we are accustomed f o r our m a t e r i a l wel-f a r e have been spawned by the pressures of m i l i t a r y r e s e a r c h and pr o d u c t i o n . Can our s o c i e t y , which i s so l a r g e l y based on war, achieve the goal of which a l l men say i s t h e i r dream? And i f that dream were to be a t t a i n e d , would t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress -> continue? 39. During the Depression, a l a r g e part of the p o p u l a t i o n began to d r i f t . Boom towns went bust. Workers, i f they had money or the prospect of a , moved on. Others moved j u s t to escape t h e i r poverty. 40. A T r o j a n p r i e s t warned h i s people a g a i n s t Greeks bearing g i f t s . The people of d i d not b e l i e v e him and hauled the great wooden horse i n t o t h e i r c i t y . 251 ' 41. He accomplished the d i s t a n c e from the c a r r i a g e , through the door to the chimney hearth - where a ca u l d r o n of stew was b o i l i n g - i n such an exemplary as to induce amazement i n h i s c o l l e a g u e s who were l e f t ensconsed i n the seat of t h e i r four-wheeled appurten-ance with nary a c l o s e d mouth among them. 42. There are at l e a s t three components i n the process of read i n g . The f i r s t i s decoding or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of words; the second i s understanding the meanings df words and the meaning(s) of words together; the t h i r d i s p a s s i n g on these words; that i s we evaluate the r e l a t i v e worth of what we have read. 43. The c l a s h between Black and White s o c i e t i e s c r e a t e s many v i c t i m s . While many of these are Blacks compelled to l i v e i n Black ghettos, some Whites v o l u n t a r i l y c r e a t e t h e i r own ghettos and i s o l a t e themselves contact with other e t h n i c experiences. 44. Odysseus t o l d the c y c l o p s , Polyphemus, that h i s name was "Noman." Odysseus and h i s men had b l i n d e d him, the cy c l o p s sought h e l p , shouting, "Noman has b l i n d e d me." 45. In French Guiana the government of France maintained a very r e p r e s s i v e penal i n s t i t u t i o n designed to crush the of the c o n v i c t s c o n f i n e d t h e r e . 252 46. A p p r o p r i a t e student r o l e behaviour i s f o r success i n s c h o o l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , to some p u p i l s t h i s behaviour symbolizes submissiveness or obsequience, and they r e f u s e to l e a r n i t . 47. As p a i n t i n g and l i t e r a t u r e i n e i g h t e e n t h century England began to d i s p l a y the l i f e of o r d i n a r y people, r a t h e r than that of a r i s t o c r a t s , warm emotion r e p l a c e d w i t . The age of c l a s s i c i s m began to be r e p l a c e d by the age of . PROTOCOL for the B. C. QUIET District No. Date of test / / da. mo. yr. School: Grade: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Circle one) Sex: M F (Circle one) Is pupil using Ginn 720: yes no (Circle one) (Circle one) Is pupil enrolled in a remedial program for: a) arithmetic yes no b) reading yes no c) spelling yes no ro 255 o oo r f . cn o LO CM IX) LD LO LO LO LO LO LO CO LO LO o 3 ARITHMETIC SUBTEST O r a l P r o b l e m s : 1 2 3 4 5 __6. 2 + 3 7 8 - 2 = 8 Circle the groups that are the same in number * * . * * * * * * * * * * * 9 Write sixty-one with numbers: 10 The time i s : /irT>\ V« y _ l l . 5 -3 12 Circle the one that is true a . 5 - 4 b . 8 > 9 c . 9 < 10 _ 1 3 2x3 = ro cn cn 8 + 9 15 Measure the line below, to the nearest centimetre: _16 2 3 "11 _17 one dime = pennies _18 . 2 3 4 + 3 6 5 _19 7 x 1 = 20. 4 x 3 = 21. Write seven hundred th i r ty - s i x with numbers: 22 9 x 0 = 23 Write four thousand three hundred twenty nine with numbers: 24 7 x 7 = 25. x 8 = 3 2 ro ro ' 00 ro 7 348 x 963 54. Write 0.125 as a common fraction: 51. 168) 4 30 5 55. 52. Line EF i s to-l ine GH (c i rc le one) a. angular b. p e r p e n -: F dicular H c. para l le l d. equal 56. 0.03 53. To the nearest square centimetre, the area of this figure is cn? 57. L i s t a l l the factors of 64: 58. Angle ABC is (c ircle one): a. acute b. obtuse c. vertical d. right 59. The radius to the near est centimetre i s : o 60.Tltie area of this c i r c l e to the nearest square centimetre i s : 61. If x = 3, 3x + 12' = ro CTl 'O 8 _ 6 2 , Expand: ( a + b ) 2 = _63„ If a / 0 4ab T b = _64, 65. At an annual rate of 12%, what i s the i n t e r e s t f o r one •onth on $5200? RAW SCORE ro' 9 WORD IDENTIFICATION 1. s _ 1 9 . city 37. fastened _ 5 5 . abated 2. P _ 2 0 . please •_38. br i l l i an t 56. anxiously 3. g _ 2 1 . doctor _ 3 9 . breathe _ 5 7 . interpreter 4. h _ 2 2 . talks _ 4 0 . pronghorn _ 5 8 . limousine 5. d _ 2 3 . dreams _ 4 1 . heaves _ 5 9 . peculiar 6. run _ 2 4 . 1umberman _ 4 2 . bush _ 6 0 . invertebrate 7. help _ 2 5 . anyone _ 4 3 . urged _ 6 1 . stealth 8. we'll _ 2 6 . brake _ 4 4 . grocery _ 6 2 . pathogene 9. mother _ 2 7 . didn't _ 4 5 . intestine _ 6 3 . chafed 10. here's _ 2 8 . donkey __46. grind _ 6 4 . admiration 11. let _ 2 9 . dinosaurs _ 4 7 . character _ 6 5 . accusation 12. who _ 3 0 . special _ 4 8 . emotion _ 6 6 . immortality 13. from _ 3 1 . piastic __49. confidence _ 6 7 . geological 14. say _32 . even _ 5 0 . jaguar _ 6 8 . retrospective 15. airport _ 3 3 . frighten _ 5 1 . di strust _ 6 9 . di sunity 16. never _34 . thimble _ 5 2 . primitive _ 7 0 . sardonically 17. jet _ 3 5 . bounds _ 5 3 . vanquished _ 7 1 . ewe 18. slow _ 3 6 . multiplied __54. wreath _ 7 2 . desultory . r o ro 1 0 73. i n c o n g r u i t y ( i n kong g r o o ' i t e ) 74. a s c e t i c (a s e t ' i k ) 75. e m b r y o n i c (em b r e o n ' i k ) 76. c o l o n n a d e d ( k o l a n a d ' e d ) ^ W ^QQ^ 77. p i c t u r e s q u e ( p i k cjia r e s k ^ p i k t i u r e s k ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 78. l a b o r i o u s l y ( l a b o r ' e as l e , - b o r 1 ) 79. s a g a c i t y (sa g a s ' i t e ) — 80. s p e r m a c e t t i ( s p u r ma s e t ' e , - s e t e ) 81. p s y c h o l o g y (sT kol'a j e ) 82. mien (men) 83. t u m u l t u o u s ( t o o m u l ' c h o o a s , t y o o - ) 84. f a c a d e ( f a s a d ' , - s a d . . . 85. c u m u l a t i v e (kyoo 'mya l a t i v , - l a t i v ) 86. f a c e t i o u s ( f a s e ' s h a s ) 87. p o i g n a n t ( p o i n ' y a n t , p o i n ' a n t ) 88. b o u r g e o s i e (boor zhwa z e " ) 89. mesencephalon (mes en sef'a I o n , mez-) 90. p h t h a l o c y n i n e ( t h a i a s i'a n T n , f t h a l - , f t h a l ' o s i a n i n , t h a l ' o s T a nen) ro OJ 11 _ 1 _ _ 2. _ _.3. _ _ 4 _ 5. _ _ 6 _ 7. _ _ 8. _ _ 9 _ J O J l . : 12 _ J 3 . _ J 4 . _ 15. PASSAGE COMPREHENSION 16 17. 18 19. 20 21. 22 23 24 25. 26 . 27. 28 29. 30 31 32 33. 34. 35 36. 37. 38 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. ro 4^  265 _ O (_> co CO i — EXAMINER'S NOTES ro CTl INTERPRETATION 14 TEST RAW SCORE S p e l l i n g A r i t h m e t i c Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Passage Comprehens ion PERCENTILE NCE CLASSIFICATION -268-APPENDIX E Percentile Ranks -269-Appendix E Table E-1 Grade 1 Percentile Ranks & NCEs Raw Raw Score Percentile Percentile Score Percentile 1 1 34 97 2 2 35 97 3 4 1 36 97 4 6 5 37 97 5 12 22 38 97 6 22 40 39 97 7 34 54 40 97 8 50 66 41 98 9 66 75 42 98 10 78 80 43 98 11 86 84 44 98 12 89 87 45 98 13 92 88 46 98 14 95 88 47 98 15 97 89 48 98 16 98 89 49 98 17 99 90 50 99 18 90 51 19 90 52 20 90 53 21 91 54 22 91 55 23 92 56 24 93 57 25 94 58 26 95 59 27 95 60 28 96 61 29 96 62 30 96 63 31 96 64 32 96 65 33 96 A = Arithmetic, WI = Word Identification -270-Appendix E Table E-2 Grade 2 Percentile Ranks Raw Score S A WI PC Raw Score S A WI 3 1 1 36 55 4 3 3 37 58 5 5 8 38 62 6 14 1 17 39 64 7 23 1 24 40 65 8 30 1 37 41 68 9 37 3 45 42 71 10 43 7 51 43 75 11 45 15 1 56 44 79 12 49 26 1 62 45 84 13 53 37 2 70 46 84 14 58 48 2 78 47 85 15 63 55 4 84 48 88 16 68 64 7 87 49 90 17 73 67 7 90 50 93 18 77 76 9 91 51 94 19 81 80 12 95 52 95 20 84 84 13 97 53 95 21 86 89 14 98 54 96 22 88 93 15 98 55 96 23 89 95 17 99 56 97 24 93 98 21 57 98 25 94 99 25 58 98 26 95 28 59 98 27 97 31 60 98 28 98 35 61 98 29 98 39 62 99 30 99 41 63 31 44 64 32 45 65 33 46 66 34 49 67 35 53 68 PC S = Spelling, A = Arithmetic, WI = Word Identification, PC = Passage Comprehension -271-Appendix E Table E-3 Grade 3 Percentile Ranks Raw Score S A WI PC Raw Score S A WI 1 <> 1 41 30 2 1 42 34 3 1 43 37 4 2 44 42 5 1 1 3 45 47 6 2 1 4 46 52 7 4 1 7 47 57 8 5 1 11 48 61 9 6 1 16 49 65 10 8 1 22 50 68 11 11 2 26 51 70 12 14 2 29 52 75 13 16 3 35 53 80 14 18 5 42 54 85 15 20 7 1 49 55 88 16 21 9 1 55 56 89 17 24 11 1 62 57 91 18 27 15 1 68 58 93 19 33 21 1 74 59 95 20 38 26 2 78 60 97 21 47 32 3 83 61 98 22 56 43 2 86 62 98 23 61 53 4 88 63 98 24 67 60 4 90 64 99 25 71 70 5 93 65 26 75 79 5 96 66 27 78 85 6 97 67 28 82 89 7 99 68 29 87 93 8 69 30 90 95 10 31 93 97 11 32 96 98 12 33 98 99 14 34 98 15 35 99 17 36 21 37 23 38 25 39 26 40 28 PC -272-Appendix E Table E-4 Grade 4 Percentile Ranks Raw Score S A WI PC Raw Score S A WI 6 1 1 46 24 7 1 2 47 28 8 1 2 48 34 9 2 3 49 36 10 2 5 50 40 11 2 9 51 45 12 3 13 52 49 13 3 19 53 54 14 4 22 54 59 15 5 1 28 55 63 16 6 1 36 56 67 17 8 2 41 57 71 18 9 2 47 58 72 19 13 3 54 59 75 20 15 4 59 60 80 21 19 5 65 61 84 22 22 7 70 62 85 23 26 10 1 75 63 87 24 32 13 1 79 64 87 25 40 17 1 84 65 87 26 48 23 1 88 66 89 27 56 29 1 91 67 92 28 64 36 1 93 68 93 29 69 45 2 95 69 95 30 73 52 2 97 70 97 31 77 58 2 99 71 98 32 81 63 2 72 98 33 84 69 2 73 98 34 86 74 3 74 99 35 88 81 4 75 36 91 87 6 76 37 93 91 7 77 38 94 93 8 78 39 95 96 9 40 95 98 10 41 98 98 12 42 98 98 14 43 98 99 17 44 99 20 45 22 PC -273-Appendix E Table E-5 Grade 5 Percentile Ranks Raw Score S A WI PC Raw Score S A WI 8 1 48 99 15 9 2 49 16 10 3 50 18 11 6 51 20 12 1 8 52 24 13 1 9 53 28 14 2 13 54 33 15 2 18 55 38 16 3 21 56 43 17 4 25 57 48 18 5 29 58 54 19 5 33 59 58 20 6 39 60 62 21 8 44 61 65 22 11 1 50 62 69 23 14 1 56 63 72 24 15 1 61 64 75 25 18 3 66 65 77 26 22 3 72 66 79 27 28 4 77 67 80 28 34 5 80 68 83 29 39 6 84 69 86 30 46 9 86 70 88 31 52 12 1 89 71 90 32 57 18 1 93 72 92 33 62 25 1 96 73 93 34 68 32 2 97 74 95 35 72 38 2 97 75 96 36 78 45 2 98 76 98 37 82 52 3 99 77 98 38 85 62 3 78 99 39 88 71 5 79 40 89 76 5 80 41 90 81 6 81 42 93 84 6 43 95 89 6 44 96 95 7 45 97 97 7 46 . 98 98 10 47 98 99 12 PC -274-Appendix E Table E-6 Grade 6 Percentile Ranks Raw Score S A WI PC Raw Score S A WI 8 1 45 94 72 3 9 2 46 97 77 4 11 2 47 99 82 4 10 2 48 87 5 12 3 49 91 5 13 3 50 93 6 14 5 51 95 7 15 6 52 97 8 16 7 53 98 9 17 1 10 54 99 11 18 1 13 55 13 19 1 16 56 14 20 2 21 57 19 21 2 26 58 24 22 3 29 59 27 23 4 32 60 31 24 6 35 61 35 25 7 42 62 39 26 8 49 63 43 27 10 56 64 47 28 14 61 65 49 29 18 67 66 53 30 22 73 67 59 31 25 1 79 68 66 32 29 2 83 69 72 33 36 4 88 70 76 34 42 6 93 71 81 35 47 7 95 72 86 36 52 8 96 73 89 37 58 10 97 74 92 38 64 14 99 75 94 39 70 21 1 76 97 40 74 30 1 77 98 41 78 38 1 78 99 42 81 49 1 79 43 85 59 2 80 44 89 65 2 81 PC -275-Appendix E Table E-7 Grade 7 Percentile Ranks Raw Score S A WI PC Raw Score S A WI PC 7 1 47 87 56 1 8 1 48 90 66 2 9 1 49 92 73 3 10 1 50 94 79 3 11 2 51 96 84 4 12 2 52 97 87 6 13 3 53 99 90 6 14 3 54 92 7 15 3 55 94 8 16 4 56 96 8 17 4 57 97 8 18 1 7 58 98 10 19 1 9 59 99 11 20 1 12 60 13 21 2 15 61 17 22 2 17 62 20 23 2 20 63 22 24 3 24 64 23 25 5 27 65 26 26 5 31 66 28 27 6 36 67 30 28 6 43 68 33 29 7 53 69 36 30 8 61 70 42 31 9 66 71 47 32 11 1 70 72 51 33 16 1 74 73 57 34 19 2 79 74 62 35 22 3 83 75 67 36 27 4 87 76 72 37 33 6 90 77 74 38 37 7 93 78 78 39 42 9 95 79 82 40 48 13 96 80 85 41 53 18 97 81 89 42 58 23 1 98 82 92 43 65 27 1 99 83 96 44 71 34 1 84 97 45 75 41 1 85 99 46 82 46 1 86 -276-Appendix E Table E-8 Normal Curve Equivalents C o n v e r t i n g P e r c e n t i 1 e s t o N o r m a l C u r v e Equ i 1 a v e n t s % NCE % NCE % NCE % NCE % NCE : % NCE 1 1 0 18 3 0 7 35 4 1 9 52 5 1 1 6 9 6 0 4 86 72 . 8 2 6 7 19 31 5 36 4 2 5 5 3 5 1 6 7 0 6 1 0 8 7 7 3 . 7 3 10 4 2 0 32 3 37 4 3 0 54 52 1 7 1 6 1 7 8 8 74 . 7 4 13 . 1 2 1 3 3 0 38 4 3 6 55 52 6 72 62 3 8 9 7 5 . 8 5 15 . 4 22 3 3 7 39 4 4 1 56 53 2 73 62 9 9 0 77 . 0 6 17 . 3 2 3 34 4 4 0 4 4 7 57 5 3 7 74 6 3 5 9 1 78 . 2 7 18 . 9 24 35 1 41 45 2 58 54 2 75 6 4 2 9 2 7 9 . 6 8 2 0 4 25 35 8 4 2 4 5 8 59 54 8 76 64 9 9 3 8 1 . 1 9 2 1 8 26 36 5 4 3 4 6 3 6 0 55 3 77 65 6 9 4 8 2 . 7 10 23 0 27 37 1 4 4 4 6 8 6 1 55 9 78 6 6 3 9 5 8 4 . 6 1 1 24 2 28 37 7 45 4 7 4 6 2 5 6 4 79 67 0 9 6 , 8 6 . 9 12 25 3 2 9 .38 3 4 6 4 7 9 6 3 57 O 8 0 67 7 9 7 8 9 . 6 13 2 6 3 3 0 39 0 47 4 8 4 6 4 57 5 8 1 68 5 9 8 9 3 . 3 14 27 2 3 1 39 6 48 4 8 9 6 5 58 1 8 2 6 9 3 9 9 9 9 . 0 15 28 2 32 4 0 1 4 9 4 9 5 6 6 58 7 8 3 7 0 1 16 29 1 33 4 0 7 5 0 5 0 0 6 7 5 9 3 8 4 7 0 9 17 2 9 9 34 4 1 3 5 1 5 0 5 6 8 59 9 85' 7 1 8 -277-APPENDIX F Percentages Obtained f o r the Total Sample A l l o c a t i o n -278-Appendix F Table F-1 Rates of Response (Percentages) for the Total Sample Allocation Region Community School — G r a d e Size Size 1 1 50.0 - 50.0 0.0 33.3 66.7 A 2 100.0 - 0.0 50.0 - 50.0 3 0.0 - 0.0 - - -1 33.3 0.0 125.0 125.0 133.3 50.0 B 2 112.5 75.0 50.0 100.0 58.3 80.0 3 28.6 50.0 62.5 87.5 50.0 33.3 1 200.0 83-3 _ 0.0 _ 100.0 C 2 25.0 66.7 - 33.3 - 60.0 3 62.5 42.9 - 75.0 - 60.0 1 50.0 _ 50.0 0.0 33.3 33-3 A 2 100.0 - 0.0 50.0 - 50.0 3 0.0 - 0.0 - - -1 66.7 0.0 100.0 75.0 100.0 50.0 B 2 125.0 50.0 58.3 100.0 100.0 70.0 3 28.6 33-3 62.5 87.5 50.0 33.3 1 200.0 83.3 _ 0.0 _ 100.0 C 2 25.0 66.7 - 33.3 - 80.0 3 62.5 50.0 - 62.5 - 40.0 1 50.0 — 50.0 0.0 33.3 33.3 A 2 100.0 - 0.0 50.0 - 50.0 3 0.0 - 0.0 - - -1 66.7 0.0 100.0 125.0 133.0 50.0 B 2 112.5 25.0 58.3 116.7 66.7 80.0 3 28.6 33-3 62.5 87.5 50.0 33.3 1 200.0 83.3 _ 0.0 _ 100.0 C 2 25.0 56.7 - 33-3 - 60.0 3 62.5 47.6 - 62.5 - 60.0 -279-Table F-1 (Continued) Region Community School Grade Size Size 1 50.0 - 50.0 0.0 33.3 33.3 A 2 100.0 - 0.0 50.0 - 50.0 3 0.0 - 0.0 - - -1 66.7 0.0 75.0 125.0 133.3 50.0 B 2 112.5 25.0 58.3 116.7 83.3 90.0 3 28.6 33.3 62.5 87.5 50.0 33.3 1 200.0 66.7 0.0 _ 100.0 C 2 25.0 63-3 - 33.3 - 60.0 3 50.0 38.1 - 62.5 - 60.0 1 50.0 _. 50.0 0.0 33.3 33.3 A 2 100.0 - 0.0 50.0 - 50.0 3 0.0 - 0.0 - - 0.0 1 33.3 0.0 50.0 100.0 133-3 50.0 B 2 125.0 50.0 66.7 100.0 83-3 110.0 3 28.6 16.7 62.5 87.5 50.0 0.0 1 200.0 83-3 _ 0.0 _ 0.0 C 2 25.0 53-3 - 33.3 - 60.0 3 37.5 47.6 - 75.0 - 60.0 1 50.0 — 50.0 0.0 33.3 33.3 A 2 100.0 - 0.0 50.0 - 50.0 3 0.0 - 0.0 - - • -1 33.3 0.0 50.0 100.0 125.0 50.0 B 2 112.5 25.0 66.7 116.7 50.0 100.0 3 14.3 33.0 62.5 87.5 25.0 16.7 1 200.0 66.7 _ 0.0 — 0.0 C 2 0.0 53-3 - 33.3 - 60.0 3 62.5 42.9 - 75.0 - 60.0 -280-Table F-1 (Continued) Region Community School Grade S i z e S i z e 1 50.0 - 50.0 0.0 66.7 33-3 A 2 100.0 - 0.0 50.0 - 50.0 3 0.0 - 0.0 - - -1 66.7 0.0 50.0 100.0 100.0 50.0 B 2 87.5 50.0 66.7 91.7 33.3 80.0 3 28.6 16.7 50.0 37.5 50.0 33.3 1 200.0 66.7 _ 0.0 — 0.0 C * 2 25.0 60.0 - 33.3 - 60.0 3 50.0 45.2 - 75.0 - 40.0 -281-APPENDIX G Grade 6 V a l i d a t i o n R e sults -282-Appendix G Table G-1 Spelling: Grade 6 Raw Score Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations and Internal Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s 3 for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups Subtest Stat-i s t i c Group Spelling Arithmetic Word Identification Passage Comprehension X Remedial 22.7 36.8 42.8 14.8 Non-Remedial 36.9 44.2 66.8 27.1 S.D. Remedial Non-Remedial 5.9 5.3 6.8 4.5 7.0 5.9 5.1 5.7 .86 .20 .97 .27 .21 .92 C 0 Spelling .94 r r Arithmetic .27 e 1 Word a Identification .68 t i Passage o Comprehension .16 n R e l i a b i l i t y estimates (computed by split-halves, inflated by the Spearman-Brown formula) are list e d diagonally from the upper l e f t to the lower right in bold-face print. - 2 8 3 -Appendix G Table G -2 Discriminant Summary Grade 6 S p e l l i n g a) S p e l l i n g Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Step Subtest Wilks' Lambda F Significance (a) Variable Entered 1 S p e l l i n g 9 8 . 7 . 0 1 (b) Variable Entered 1 Word I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 2 2 2 Passage Comprehension . 1 9 1 2 2 . 3 . 0 1 (b) Variable Remaining After Last Step S p e l l i n g Arithmetic . 9 4 . 6 7 -284-Appendix G Table G-3 Reading: Grade 6 Raw Score Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlations and Internal Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s 3 for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups Subtest Stat-i s t i c Group Spelling Arithmetic Word Identification Passage Comprehension Remedial 23.4 36.9 44.7 16.1 X Non-Remedial 36.9 44.2 66.8 27.1 S.D. Remedial Non-Remedial 5.9 5.3 5.8 4 .5 9.0 5.9 5.2 5.7 .97 .31 .91 C o r r e 1 a t i Passage o Comprehension .24 .34 n Spelling .95 Arithmetic .31 .84 Word Identification .69 .29 R e l i a b i l i t y estimates (computed by split-halves, inflated by the Spearman-Brown formula) are list e d diagonally from the upper l e f t to the lower right in bold-face print. -285-Appendix G Table G-4 Discriminant Summary Grade 6 Reading a) Word Identification and Passage Comprehension b) Best Linear Combination Step Subtest Wilks 1 Lambda F Significance (a) Variable Entered 1 Word Identification 2 Passage Comprehension .32 .29 95.0 .01 (b) Variable Entered 1 Word Identification 2 Passage Comprehension .32 .29 95.0 .01 (b) Variable Remaining After Last Step Spelling Arithmetic .21 .49 -286-Appendix G Table G-5 Arithmetic: Grade 6 Raw Score Means, Standard Deviations, Correlations and Internal Consistency R e l i a b i l i t i e s 3 for Remedial and Non-Remedial Groups Subtest Stat-i s t i c Group Spelling Arithmetic Word Identification Passage Comprehension X Remedial 27.4 35.0 49.0 15.7 Non-Remedial 36.9 44.2 66.8 27.1 S.D. Remedial Non-Remedial 6.7 5.3 5.9 4.5 11.6 5.6 6.2 5.6 C o Spelling .92 r r Arithmetic • 33 .86 e 1 a Word Identification .82 • 32 .96 t i o Passage Comprehension .34 .40 .40 .90 n R e l i a b i l i t y estimates (computed by split-halves, inflated by the Spearman-Brown formula) are list e d diagonally from the upper l e f t to the lower right i n bold-face print. -287-Appendix G Table G-6 Discriminant Summary Grade 6 Arithmetic a) Arithmetic Subtest b) Best Linear Combination Step Subtest Wilks 1 Lambda F Significance (a) Variable Entered 1 Arithmetic 42.4 .01 (b) Variable Entered 1 Word Identification .48 2 Passage Comprehension .41 37-8 .01 (b) Variable Remaining Spelling Passage Comprehension .42 .07 

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