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Conceptual tempo and auditory-visual temporal-spatial integration Rattan, Gurmal 1979

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CONCEPTUAL TEMPO AND AUDITORY-VISUAL TEMPORAL-SPATIAL INTEGRATION  by  GURMAL RATTAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF GRADUATE STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1979 ®  Gurmal Rattan, 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis in partial  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the  Library  I further for  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  agree that  freely  this  thesis for  It  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  B P 7 5-5 1 I E  Columbia  the requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that  not  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  i s understood  permission.  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  written  DE-6  of  available for  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  fulfilment  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  T h i s study e x p l o r e d v a r i a t i o n s of a u d i o - v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n to c o n c e p t u a l  tempo i n a sample of  grade f o u r c h i l d r e n . A l l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n n i n e combinations of v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n (AVI) T e s t . The  analysed  tempo dimension i s r e l a t e d  Of p a r t i c u l a r  interest  achievement may  audio-  t a s k s as w e l l as the Matching F a m i l i a r F i g u r e s  r e s u l t a n t data was  conceptual  93  to d i s c o v e r the extent  to which  the  to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p a t t e r n s .  i s the q u e s t i o n of whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g  be t r a c e d , i n p a r t , to d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n f o r m a t i o n  proces-  sing p r a c t i c e s . / A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d no the f o u r tempo groups ( r e f l e c t i v e s , and  i m p u l s i v e s ) on any  of the AVI  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  slow i n a c c u r a t e s , f a s t  t a s k s . A one way  a n a l y s i s , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e f l e c t i v e s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the r e a d i n g measure used  accurates,  ANOVA from a post-hoc impulsives  (Gates-MacGinitie)  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d between r e a d i n g and  differentiated and  that  e i g h t of the n i n e  AVI  tasks. This i n d i c a t e d that while a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between r e a d i n g and  (vocabulary and  t h a t r e f l e c t i v e s and  (p .<,. 01)  impulsives d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  on r e a d i n g , t h e r e was  Reasons and  comprehension) and AVI  tasks  (p<C..01),  significantly  no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on any  i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s are d i s c u s s e d .  Supervisor  of the AVI  tasks.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  I  P  INTRODUCTION Background  II  1 and R a t i o n a l e  1  The Problem  2  Research Q u e s t i o n  5  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  6  Reflection-Impulsivity  6  Development of the C o n s t r u c t  6  Reliability  10  Antecedents o f the R-I Dimension  13  C o r r e l a t e s o f R-I  16  R-I and I n t e l l i g e n c e  16  R-I and A n x i e t y  19  Summary  21  Crossmodal P r o c e s s i n g  24  A Definition  24  Developmental Trends of I n t e r s e n s o r y Auditory-Visual  Integration  I n t e g r a t i o n and Reading  Reliability  R-I and Crossmodal P r o c e s s i n g R-I and Reading R-I and A u d i t o r y - V i s u a l Summary  METHOD  25 25 28  A u d i t o r y - V i s u a l Temporal-Spatial  III  A  Integration  29 30 30  Integration  31 32  35  Subjects  35  Instruments  37  Materials  42  Procedure  43  G  E  iv PAGE  CHAPTER  IV  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  45  Results  45  P a r t One: Data A n a l y s i s and E v a l u a t i o n o f Hypothesis  45  P a r t Two: Post-hoc A n a l y s i s  49  Discussion  52  Summary and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Research  57  REFERENCES  6L.  APPENDICES  68  A  Sample item from MFFT  68  B  S c o r i n g sheet  70  C  D i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the MFFT  72  D  Matching t a s k s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n s f o r AVI t a s k s  74  E  S c o r i n g sheet  F  M u l t i p l e Regression  G  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f AVI t a s k s and Reading Measures  f o r MFFT  f o r AVI matching t a s k s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n s Analysis  ....  77  •  79 81  V  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE  1  PAGE  Descriptive Statistics  f o r the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  Performance Measures o f the Sample  2  Descriptive Statistics  38  f o r the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  Performance Measures f o r the Four Conceptual  Tempo  Groups  39  3  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Conceptual  4  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual Tempo on the Vocabulary  Tempo  48  Subtest o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading  Test  5  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual  50  Tempo on t h e  Comprehension Subtest o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t  6  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual  50  Tempo on  the Non-Verbal 1.0. Measure  7  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age  51  Tempo on 51  vi LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE  1  P  B i r c h and Belmont's A u d i t o r y - V i s u a l T e s t  Stimuli  A  G  27  E  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to thank a l l those who c o n t r i b u t e d to the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I wish to thank Kathy Lamont f o r h e r help i n data c o l l e c t i o n , Dwight H a r l e y Malcolm M a r s h a l l  f o r h i s help  i n data a n a l y s i s , and  f o r h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h i s study. I a l s o wish to  thank the D e l t a School  District  f o r p r o v i d i n g me w i t h a s u b j e c t  pool.  I wish to extend a s p e c i a l thanks to my committee members; Dr. Emily  Goetz f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e s i s m a t e r i a l  and Dr. Leroy T r a v i s f o r h i s e x c e l l e n t c r i t i q u e of t h i s t h e s i s and suggestions  f o r improvement.  L a s t l y , I wish t o thank my a d v i s e r , Dr. Derek McLauchlan. H i s e x p e r t i s e , p r o f e s s i o n a l guidance, and words o f encouragement an e a s i e r d e l i v e r y o f t h i s t h e s i s .  facilitated  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Background and  Rationale  In r e c e n t y e a r s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s have shown a remarkable upsurge of i n t e r e s t  i n human c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s .  these p r o c e s s e s  as the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ,  r e c o v e r i n g , and  u s i n g of sensory  volved  the s y n t h e s i s and  One  (1967) d e s c r i b e s  reduction, elaboration, storing,  i n p u t . In s h o r t , these p r o c e s s e s  use of such  group of r e s e a r c h e r s  Neisser  information.  l e d by Harvard p s y c h o l o g i s t Jerome Kagan  have been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the developmental a s p e c t s p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g of v i s u a l  S p e c i f i c a l l y , Kagan, Rosman, Day,  A l b e r t , and  Phillips  the term " c o g n i t i v e s t y l e " i n r e f e r r i n g to a s t a b l e and of p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  with  group of s u b j e c t s tend to be a n a l y t i c and  i e n t i n the p r o c e s s e s  a n a l y t i c person was  c o n s i s t e n t mode  the same v i s u a l deal with  of s y n t h e s i z i n g , s t o r i n g , and  s t y l e s dimension of a n a l y t i c / n o n - a n a l y t i c was to as c o n c e p t u a l  by a s y s t e m a t i c  reflectives.  on  information.  the c o g n i t i v e  a more fundamental dimension  differentiated  experimental  the s t i m u l u s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a s o l u t i o n h y p o t h e s i s  a l t e r n a t i v e s were s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  information  retreiving  tempo. Slower response times on  t a s k s were i n d i c a t i v e of s u b j e c t s who  the  b e l i e v e d to be more e f f i c -  L a t e r r e s e a r c h , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t u n d e r l y i n g  referred  information.  (1964) have used  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t s of a s t i m u l u s a r r a y . Others d e a l w i t h a more g l o b a l b a s i s . The  of  c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g . They have found t h a t  s u b j e c t s respond q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y when presented s t i m u l u s . One  in-  array  on a t a s k where  a v a i l a b l e . These s u b j e c t s were c a l l e d  2 Their  c o u n t e r p a r t s , the q u i c k responders, d i d not  d i f f e r e n t i a t e the  s t i m u l u s a r r a y when a l t e r n a t i v e s were p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,  and  they were c a l l e d i m p u l s i v e s . Thus the r u b r i c " r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y " was  used to d e f i n e  the above dimension.  S t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y have i n d i c a t e d i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n have problems i n r e a d i n g , math, scanning a t t e n t i o n a l f a c t o r s , and Kaufman, 1975;  other i n t e l l e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s  Readence, 1976)  (Butler,  1972;  Davey, 1971;  of g r a p h i c symbols ( K i l b u r g & S i e g e l ,  not  & Kilburg,  1973;  1973;  Goldent & S t e i n e r ,  1969;  of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i , and  i n t h e i r r e a d i n g problems ( B u t l e r ,  Kendall,  1974;  Kagan, 1965b; M a r g o l i s , 1976;  1976). Researchers i n v e s t i g a t i n g consideration  linked  to  decoding  Siegel,  deficits  (Bond, 1935;  in  Christine  &  i n their perceptual  these d e f i c i t s may  be  1972;  Hood &  Davey, 1971;  Readence, 1976;  im-  Shapiro,  the dimension of r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y , to d e l i n e a t i n g  the p e r c e p t u a l mechanisms  i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h i s study w i l l f o c u s on  v i s u a l temporal-spatial  1974;  Problem  plicated  of  ability  Wolfe, 1941).  Impulsive c h i l d r e n appear to have d e f i c i t s  have g i v e n l i t t l e  be  scanning and  impulsives' aural a b i l i t i e s ,  The  organization  reading  Hood & K e n d a l l ,  Nelson, 1969;  r e a d i n g have a l s o been l i n k e d to t h i s m o d a l i t y 1964;  Hallahan &  Siegelman, 1969). A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h e r s have  t h o r o u g h l y examined the  Christine,  (Epstein,  have noted a d e f i n i t e impairment. T h i s may  the v i s u a l m o d a l i t y , r e s u l t i n g from i n e f f i c i e n t  Keiasic  ability,  Messer, 1976). Researchers i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  of i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n  that  the  auditory-  i n t e g r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s of i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n  since  3 these processes  appear to be r e l a t e d to the p r o c e s s  of reading.  S k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r adequate performance on a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l  temporal-  spatial  (AVI) t a s k s a r e thought t o resemble those r e q u i r e d i n r e a d i n g  (Beery,  1967; M a r s h a l l ,  Sterritt,  1979; Muehl & Kremenak, 1966; Rudnick, M a r t i n &  1972; S t e r r i t t , M a r t i n & Rudnick, 1971). The a b i l i t y  to read  r e q u i r e s a number o f s u b s k i l l s . Among these a r e : l ) t h e a b i l i t y  to d i s -  c r i m i n a t e between d i f f e r e n t  sounds and 2)the a b i l i t y  between d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s o f the alphabet print The  that a r e organized  spatially i n  ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964; Muehl & Kremenak, 1966; Strang,  ability  to d i s c r i m i n a t e between d i f f e r e n t  modal i n t e g r a t i o n of a u r a l s t i m u l i , The  to d i s c r i m i n a t e  ability  1968).  sounds i n v o l v e s an i n t r a -  that i s , auditory to auditory  to d i s c r i m i n a t e between d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s ,  (A-A).  i n v o l v e s an i n t r a -  modal i n t e g r a t i o n of v i s u a l s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , v i s u a l - s p a t i a l to v i s u a l - s p a t i a l  (VS-VS); 3 ) p r i o r to r e a d i n g , a c h i l d must be a b l e t o  i d e n t i f y sounds made by d i f f e r e n t g r a p h i c Kremenak, 1966; Strang,  symbols  (letters)  1968). T h i s t a s k i s r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t e g r a t i o n o f a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l - s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , to v i s u a l - s p a t i a l  by an i n t e r m o d a l that i s , a u d i t o r y  (A-VS); 4 ) a d d i t i o n a l l y , the c h i l d must a l s o be a b l e  to i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t g r a p h i c T h i s can be r e p r e s e n t e d and  (Muehl &  symbols w i t h t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e  by an i n t e r m o d a l  i n t e g r a t i o n of v i s u a l - s p a t i a l  a u d i t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , v i s u a l - s p a t i a l to a u d i t o r y  5 ) s i n c e a temporal element i s i n v o l v e d f o r the v i s u a l m o d a l i t y to the s e q u e n t i a l process  sound(s).  (VS-A); ^ due  of reading along a l i n e of p r i n t , a v i s u a l -  1 M o d a l i t y i n t h i s t e x t r e f e r s to the sensory pathways (eg. eyes, e a r s , touch, e t c . ) through which e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i i s r e c e i v e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g .  4 temporal element i s necessary  (Rudnick et a l . , 1972;  1971). T h i s task can be r e p r e s e n t e d  by an i n t r a m o d a l  S t e r r i t t et a l . , i n t e g r a t i o n of a  v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l component, t h a t i s , v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l to v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l (VT-VT); 6 ) s i n c e a v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l component i s i n v o l v e d f o r the  visual  r e c o g n i t i o n of g r a p h i c symbols w h i l e moving along a l i n e of p r i n t , intermodal  i n t e g r a t i o n task i s necessary.  by a v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l and v i s u a l - s p a t i a l temporal to v i s u a l - s p a t i a l  T h i s t a s k can be  an  represented  information, that i s , v i s u a l -  (VT-VS); 7 ) c o n v e r s e l y , v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n of  g r a p h i c symbols w h i l e moving along a l i n e of p r i n t can be r e p r e s e n t e d visual-spatial reads,  to v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l  (VS-VT) task; 8)when a c h i l d  actually  the a u d i t o r y p a t t e r n s i n speech which a r e t e m p o r a l l y o r d e r e d , must  be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h s p a t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d v i s u a l p a t t e r n s i n p r i n t 1967;  by  Muehl & Kremenak, 1966;  Rudnick et a l . , 1972;  1971). T h i s t a s k can be r e p r e s e n t e d auditory-temporal  by an i n t e r m o d a l  (Beery,  S t e r r i t t et a l . , i n t e g r a t i o n of  and v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , a u d i t o r y -  temporal to v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l  (AT-VT); and  which are s p a t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d must be  9)the v i s u a l p a t t e r n s i n p r i n t  i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the a u d i t o r y p a t -  t e r n s of speech which are t e m p o r a l l y ordered when r e a d i n g . T h i s t a s k be r e p r e s e n t e d  by an i n t e r m o d a l  auditory-temporal temporal  i n t e g r a t i o n of v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l  and  i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s , v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l to a u d i t o r y -  (VT-AT). These n i n e t a s k s then (A-A,  VT-VS, VS-VT, AT-VT, VT-AT) are regarded  mechanisms of r e f l e c t i v e and f e r e n c e s e x i s t which may  VS-VS, A-VS,  VS-A,  VT-VT,  as b e i n g p a r a l l e l to the  p r o c e s s . These tasks are used i n t h i s study  formance.  can  to compare the  reading  perceptual  i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n to d i s c o v e r whether  help e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r reading  difper-  5 Research  The  present  Question  study w i l l attempt to e x p l o r e the extent  and n a t u r e o f  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dimension o f r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y and r e a d i n g achievement, u s i n g the c r i t e r i a measures o f a u d i t o r y , temporal, assessed 2  ing)  and s p a t i a l sensory by i n t r a m o d a l  visual,  i n t e g r a t i o n . Sensory i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l be  and crossmodal matching a b i l i t y  (modality match-  v  v i s - a - v i s the m o d a l i t i e s o f v i s i o n and a u d i t i o n . I t w i l l i n v e s t -  i g a t e one b a s i c i s s u e as reviewed i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e : 1) What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y and m o d a l i t y matching? On which ( i f any) t a s k s (eg. auditory-visual,  t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l or a combination  t h e r e o f ) do i m p u l s i v e their reflective  c h i l d r e n perform more p o o r l y  than  counterparts?  2 M o d a l i t y matching i n v o l v e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s t i m u l u s o r standard p a t t e r n i n one m o d a l i t y , f o l l o w e d by a comparison p a t t e r n i n another m o d a l i t y . The s u b j e c t i s r e q u i r e d t o judge the e q u i v a l e n c e o r match of t h e two p a t t e r n s . Intramodal r e f e r s to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the standard and the comparison p a t t e r n s i n the same m o d a l i t y ; intermodal r e f e r s to the p r e s e n t a t i o n i n two d i f f e r e n t m o d a l i t i e s .  6  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  Reflection-Impulsivity Development of the Kagan, Moss, and  Sigel  Construct  (1963) p r o v i d e d one  to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e c o n c e p t u a l  of the e a r l i e r  s t y l e s . They began by a d m i n i s t e r i n g  to 71 a d u l t s between the ages of 20-29 at the F e l s Research Each s u b j e c t was  o r i e n t a t i o n s and  items. T h e i r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d two  three b a s i c conceptual  s i s t e d of 1 ) e g o - c e n t r i c and  s t y l e s . The  2)stimulus centered,  3 ) i n f e r e n t i a l - c a t e g o r i c a l . E g o - e c n t r i c was i n g where  together  basic  o r i e n t a t i o n s con-  and  c l a s s e s were comprised o f : l ) a n a l y t i c - d e s c r i p t i v e ,  tests  Institute.  asked to s e l e c t a group of f i g u r e s t h a t went  from a s e l e c t i o n of 32  attempts  the  conceptual  2)relational,  and  d e f i n e d as a method of group-  an i n d i v i d u a l uses h i s p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n s or h i s p e r s o n a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a b a s i s f o r o r g a n i z i n g the s t i m u l i w h i l e o b s e r v i n g s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s . Examples of e g o - c e n t r i c responses are t y p i f i e d statements l i k e : "people me;  I l i k e ; people who  s c a r e me;  people who  and people wearing the same type of c l o t h e s I am wearing".  stimulus centered according  i n d i v i d u a l , on the o t h e r hand, d i d not  to p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s , but  a  by  like The  categorize  i n s t e a d , based h i s d e c i s i o n upon  a s p e c t s of the e x t e r n a l environment. Examples of h i s responses a r e : "men,  s o l d i e r s , a c t i v e c h i l d r e n , happy people,and women w i t h s k i r t s The  first  of the t h r e e c o n c e p t u a l  on".  c a t e g o r i e s i s the. a n a l y t i c - :  d e s c r i p t i v e c a t e g o r y . T h i s response s t y l e i s based upon the  relative  s i m i l a r i t y of the elements w i t h i n a s t i m u l u s complex. That i s , the s u b j e c t l o o k s a t the s t i m u l u s i n order to a s c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h one  or  more of the o t h e r s i n order to d i f f e r e n t i a t e of  c l a s s e s of s t i m u l i .  Examples  t h i s a r e : "people h o l d i n g something; people w i t h t h e i r l e f t arm up;  people w i t h no shoes on; and people h o l d i n g weapons". The  inferential-categorical  which i s drawn from t r e a t i n g  concepts a r e based  upon an i n f e r e n c e  the s t i m u l i o r a group. I t must be noted  that each s t i m u l u s i n a group i s t r e a t e d as an i n d i v i d u a l  i n s t a n c e of a  c o n c e p t u a l mode. Examples o f t h i s a r e : "people who h e l p o t h e r s ; p r o f e s s i o n a l men; poor people;  soldiers,  and m e d i c a l  people".  The r e l a t i o n a l group c a t e g o r i z e s the s t i m u l u s a c c o r d i n g t o the functional  relationship  t h a t e x i s t between or among the s t i m u l i .  case, no s t i m u l u s i s an independent  i n s t a n c e of the concept,  In t h i s  s i n c e each  s t i m u l u s i s dependent upon the o t h e r s f o r membership. Examples t h a t i l l u s t r a t e such a concept  a r e : "murder scenes  - he shot t h i s man; s u b j e c t '  f a m i l y ; a m a r r i e d couple; people a r g u i n g w i t h each o t h e r ; stages i n the l i f e of a person; and mother c u t t i n g 1963,  cake f o r the c h i l d " (Kagan e t a l . ,  pp.76-77).  From t h e above, Kagan and h i s a s s o c i a t e s s y n t h e s i z e d two b a s i c r e s ponse s t y l e s , The a n a l y t i c  the a n a l y t i c  and the n o n - a n a l y t i c o r r e l a t i o n a l  group were a c t i v e l y  group.  i n v o l v e d i n the c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s of  the s t i m u l u s . The sub-elements o f a s t i m u l u s were a n a l y s e d and r e l a t e d to the sub-elements of the other s t i m u l i . F o r example, i n a concept, of  "people  descriptive  w i t h shoes on", the c r u c i a l s t i m u l u s i s the presence  shoes w h i l e the remaining a s p e c t s of the s t i m u l i a r e d i s r e g a r d e d .  The a n a l y t i c  i d e n t i f i e d the r e l e v a n t s t i m u l u s , w h i l e f o r the r e l a t i o n a l  group, each element r e t a i n e d i t s i d e n t i t y and was c l a s s i f i e d as a whole. Here, u s i n g the i d e n t i c a l s t i m u l u s , the r e l a t i o n a l responders answer, "a f a m i l y " .  would  8 Based upon a number of s t u d i e s , Kagan and h i s c o l l e a g u e s concluded t h a t "... r e f l e c t i o n over a l t e r n a t i v e - s o l u t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s and v i s u a l a n a l y s i s a r e fundamental c o g n i t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e both a n a l y t i c concepts on the Conceptual  S t y l e s T e s t and p e r c e p t u a l r e c o g n i t -  i o n e r r o r s on Design R e c a l l T e s t and Matching  F a m i l i a r F i g u r e s " (p.37).  I t appears  f o r an a n a l y t i c  then t h a t one n e c e s s a r y antecedent  i s a tendency  to d e l a y h i s response.  I n c r e a s e d response  a n a l y s i s o f the s t i m u l u s a r r a y suggest type of problem. Continued to the dimension  time and s y s t e m a t i c  one mode of responding  of r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y .  to measure the v a r i a t i o n s i n response Familiar Figures Test Test  rise  S u b j e c t s d e s c r i b e d as r e -  e l i m i n a t e i n c o r r e c t answers. The most r e l i a b l e instrument  Delayed R e c a l l Designs  to t h i s  r e s e a r c h i n t o tempo v a r i a b l e s has g i v e n  f l e c t i v e tend to ponder the a l t e r n a t i v e s b e f o r e responding  the Matching  response  i n o r d e r to constructed  s t y l e s or c o n c e p t u a l tempo i s  (MFFT) which i s an e x t e n s i o n of the  (Kagan, e t a l . , 1963) w i t h the memory com-  ponent e l i m i n a t e d . In t h i s t a s k (MFFT), the s u b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p i c t u r e of a f a m i l i a r o b j e c t (eg. t r e e , c a t , d o l l ) and s i x a l t e r n a t i v e s of t h i s object  w i t h o n l y one b e i n g i d e n t i c a l to the s t a n d a r d  (see Appendix A ) .  The s u b j e c t i s i n s t r u c t e d to s e l e c t the c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e . S c o r i n g i s based upon the t o t a l number of e r r o r s and the mean response the f i r s t  l a t e n c y to  s e l e c t i o n . A maximum of s i x e r r o r s i s p e r m i t t e d b e f o r e the  s u b j e c t i s shown the c o r r e c t Of a l l the measures used (1965) found  response. to assess r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y , Kagan  t h a t the MFFT p r o v i d e d the h i g h e s t degree of response  un-  c e r t a i n t y , and when t h i s measure was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a variables,  i t was found  to y i e l d  the h i g h e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s  (Lee, Kagan &  9 Robson, 1963). There are  three  his associates, and  forms of the MFFT o r i g i n a l l y developed by Kagan  these a r e : Form F - which was  the f i r s t  to be  and  developed  i s the most w i d e l y used; Form S - which i s used p r i m a r i l y f o r p o s t -  t e s t purposes; Form K - t h i s i s the young c h i l d r e n ' s v e r s i o n . Form F S both have 12 t e s t items and has  12 items, but  s i x v a r i a n t s f o r each item, w h i l e Form K  o n l y f o u r v a r i a n t s . An  a l s o been c o n s t r u c t e d .  The  and  a d u l t v e r s i o n of the MFFT  o n l y d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and  v e r s i o n i s i n the number of v a r i a n t s . The  adults' version  has  the c h i l d ' s contains  e i g h t v a r i a n t s as opposed to s i x . On  the b a s i s of e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Kagan and  his  colleagues  attempted to d i s c e r n whether a n a l y t i c response s t y l e s were across Test  a s e r i e s of o t h e r t a s k s . C o r r e l a t i o n s between the Conceptual  (Kagan et a l . , 1963)  a c o r r e l a t i o n of across  .39  (p  and 10),  ambiguous i n k b l o t s and  observations i t was  prevalent  an  ink b l o t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n task  generality  p i c t u r e s . In examining the  detailed  noted t h a t b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s  of the c h i l d . The impulsively  non-analytic  aggressive,  revealed  s u g g e s t i n g some degree of  made of c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r i n the F e l s n u r s e r y  school,  were p a r a l l e l to the c o n c e p t u a l s t y l e  c h i l d r e n were observed to be  less l i k e l y  Styles  "...  more  to withdraw from a group i n o r d e r  to work on a task,  and  more h y p e r k i n e t i c  et a l . , 1963). The  a n a l y t i c c h i l d r e n , on  than a n a l y t i c c h i l d r e n , " (Kagan the other hand, had  opposing  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They were observed to have a r e f l e c t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n , a tendency to d i f f e r e n t i a t e e x p e r i e n c e s , and destracting  s t i m u l i . I t was  to  resist  a l s o observed t h a t the average response time  on the Conceptual S t y l e T e s t was responders (5.4  the a b i l i t y  s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer  seconds) than the n o n - a n a l y t i c  f o r the a n a l y t i c  group (4.0  seconds).  In sum,  Kagan's e a r l y work on c o n c e p t u a l  s t y l e paved the way  Matching F a m i l i a r F i g u r e s T e s t , an instrument the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of c o n c e p t u a l  f o r the  t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y used f o r  tempo.  Reliability Due  to the l a c k of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the MFFT, a g r e a t d e a l of  c o n f u s i o n has different may  a r i s e n i n r e g a r d to the v a l i d i t y  experimenters.  be another  I t appears t h a t one  experimenter's  impulsives  In the l a s t few y e a r s , the psychometric the s u b j e c t of c o n t r o v e r s y Block & Harrington, It  i s not unusual,  1974;  The a one  (Egeland  however, f o r r e l a t i v e l y new  and v a l i d i t y  test-retest  reflectives  & Weinberg, 1976).  Block,  instruments  to r e c e i v e such  Without such m i c r o - a n a l y s i s ,  of such instruments  been  H a l l & R u s s e l l , 1974).  would be  the  unclear.  assessment done by Kagan i n 1964  study which y i e l d e d a c o e f f i c i e n t of  l a t e n c y measures. S t u d i e s done by other experimenters for  by  c r e d i b i l i t y of the M F F T has  C a i r n s & Cammock, 1978;  initial reliability  year  experimenter's  ( A u l t , M i t c h e l l & Hartmann, 1976;  p a i n s t a k i n g c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n checks. reliability  of r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  involved .65 f o r  using a  e r r o r s c o r e s , over p e r i o d s r a n g i n g from t h r e e weeks to two  h a l f y e a r s , y i e l d e d c o e f f i c i e n t s which ranged between .23 and  test-retest and  one-  .43  ( A u l t et a l . , 1976). I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y measures t h a t were s y n t h e s i z e d by  ( A u l t , McKinney, Messer, Rupert, and  o t h e r experimenters) A u l t et a l .  (1976), show a range of c o e f f i c i e n t f o r e r r o r s c o r e s from .32 w i t h an average c o e f f i c i e n t of  .52.  R e s u l t s from these  to  .60,  s t u d i e s , but more  specifically  from those done by Kagan (Kagan e t a l . , 1963;  1965b, 1966;  Kagan & Kogan, 1970), i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g :  Kagan, 1965a,  11 (a) When i n v e s t i g a t i n g a group of 5-11 year o l d s , a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n response l a t e n c y with  occurs  i n c r e a s i n g age. The a s s o c i a t e d n e g a t i v e  cor-  r e l a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t between l a t e n c y and e r r o r s c o r e s range from -.40 t o -.65 (p<^_.01).  (b) I n examining c r o s s - t a s k performances among measures of c o n c e p t u a l  tempo, g e n e r a l i t y was q u i t e h i g h .  Error  c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .33 t o .52 and l a t e n c y r e l a t i o n s ranged from .48 to .82. S i n c e these  cor-  inter-  c o r r e l a t i o n s were r e l a t i v e l y modest, Kagan (1965b) a s s e r t s t h a t the MFFT p r o v i d e s  the g r e a t e s t  utility  s i n c e , " t h e MFFT has the g r e a t e s t response u n c e r t a i n t y and  y i e l d s the h i g h e s t  c o r r e l a t i o n s with  c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s " (p.  external  617).  (c) T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the MFFT y i e l d s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and c o n s i s t e n t assessment o f the r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y dimension. Yando (1968), i n his  r e l i a b i l i t y assessment, had h i s second grade  s u b j e c t s perform t h e t e s t on a weekly b a s i s over a t e n week p e r i o d . I n i t i a l l y , and  Yando  presented  a  standard  two v a r i a n t s t o each c h i l d and then added one  v a r i a n t each week u n t i l a t o t a l of twelve was reached. The mean c o r r e l a t i o n was .70 f o r response time and e r r o r s on the MFFT. T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  those o f  Kagan, Pearson, and Welch (1966a), who o b t a i n e d  similar  12 results  (r=.70) f o r t e s t - r e t e s t a f t e r a ten-week  I n t e r v a l on a l t e r n a t e forms of the MFFT. However, Messer  (1968) found t h a t a f t e r a two and o n e - h a l f  year i n t e r v a l , MFFT was  only  the r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the  .31. T h i s suggests t h a t the s t a b i l i t y  of the MFFT i s c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced over l o n g  time  intervals.  I t seems c l e a r then, t h a t the tendency to respond e i t h e r q u i c k l y or s l o w l y on a match-to-sample may  t a s k i n v o l v i n g a h i g h degree of u n c e r t a i n t y ,  be g e n e r a l i z e d a c r o s s t a s k s and i t appears to be s t a b l e over time. I t s h o u l d be emphasized  r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y was ified  here t h a t Kagan's i n i t i a l  c o n c e p t i o n of  based upon response speed, but was  l a t e r mod-  to i n c l u d e response a c c u r a c y . The change r e s u l t e d from two  small  but anomalous groups t h a t were e i t h e r f a s t and a c c u r a t e or slow and i n a c c u r a t e . The f i r s t  group, those who  had a r e l a t i v e l y f a s t response time  w i t h few e r r o r s , were c o n s i d e r e d to be the b r i g h t c h i l d r e n . The group, t h a t i s , those who committed  had r e l a t i v e l y slow response times and  l a r g e numbers of e r r o r s were c o n s i d e r e d to be g r e a t l y  by t a s k a n x i e t y  latter who affected  ( r a t h e r than b e i n g d u l l ) .  These two groups c r e a t e d a t e c h n i c a l problem s i n c e i t was  no l o n g e r  t r u e t h a t a c o n s i s t e n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between response l a t e n c y and e r r o r s , where f a s t responders made more e r r o r s and responders made was  slow  fewer e r r o r s . To a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem, a s c o r i n g  system  d e v i s e d which used speed and a c c u r a c y s c o r e s . The i m p u l s i v e s then,  were those who  s c o r e d below the median on response l a t e n c y and above the  median on e r r o r s c o r e s . The r e f l e c t i v e s on the o t h e r hand, were those  who  scored above the median on response l a t e n c y and below the median on error scores. Block, B l o c k and H a r r i n g t o n (1974) i n response to the d u a l c r i t e r i o n method of s c o r i n g note t h a t w h i l e response time i s the t r u e measure of the  R-I dimension and may  be r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , a c c u r a c y s c o r e s are some-  what l e s s r e l i a b l e and may  r e f l e c t a host of u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s , eg.  low  i n t e l l i g e n c e , a n x i e t y , m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t a s k , poor v i s i o n , e t c . . T h i s may  i n t r o d u c e sources o f v a r i a n c e i n s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n  different  and more p o w e r f u l than what i s measured by response time. In a d d i t i o n , i t would be d i f f i c u l t  to a s c e r t a i n the extent to which  differences  between r e f l e c t i v e s and i m p u l s i v e s are a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e i r i n e i t h e r response time or a c c u r a c y . S i n c e a c c u r a c y may a different  differences  be t a p p i n g i n t o  s e t of v a r i a b l e s , the double median s p l i t may  not be  justified.  Antecedents of the R-I  Dimension  A number of e x p l a n a t i o n s have been forwarded to account f o r the f a c t t h a t some c h i l d r e n are slower and more a c c u r a t e than o t h e r s i n the p e r formance One  of match-to-sample  tasks.  e x p l a n a t i o n makes r e f e r e n c e to a p o s s i b l e antecedent  condition  u n d e r l y i n g the R-I dimension. I t suggests t h a t c h i l d r e n i n problems o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s respond w i t h a n x i e t y to a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n a l (Kagan & Kogan, 1970). C h i l d r e n h a v i n g minimal a n x i e t y i n such might be expected to adopt a t a s k s t r a t e g y which was nor i m p u l s i v e . R e f l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s may  neither  cues  situations  reflective  equate competence w i t h a c c u r a c y ,  and thus they perform s l o w l y . Impulsives on the o t h e r hand, view competence i n terms of q u i c k n e s s , thus  g i v i n g r i s e to t h e i r f a s t performance. •  In s i t u a t i o n s , and  impulsive  then, where a n x i e t y over competence i s aroused, s u b j e c t s would be expected to respond i n a  f a s h i o n . S t u d i e s by Ward (1968) and obtained  o n l y p a r t i a l evidence  i n support  In both s t u d i e s , feedback r e g a r d i n g Both  R e a l i and H a l l  s t u d i e s noted t h a t i m p u l s i v e  reflective  characteristic  (1970), however,  of the f o r e g o i n g  hypothesis.  the q u a l i t y of performance was s u b j e c t s d i d not  increase  given.  their  speed of responses when g i v e n f a i l u r e feedback. However, r e f l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s d i d i n c r e a s e t h e i r response l a t e n c y i n response to f a i l u r e  feed-  back. A more p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g a g a i n i m p l i c a t e s a n x i e t y . Kagan and  the R-I  dimension  Kogan (1970) have suggested t h a t  t h e r e e x i s t s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a n x i e t y over e r r o r and  reflect-  ivity.  reflect  his  In t h i s view, the performance of the i m p u l s i v e c h i l d would  l a c k of concern over making The  above h y p o t h e s i s  w i t h v i s u a l scanning observation  has  mistakes.  found support  i n the l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g  s t r a t e g i e s . A t t e n t i o n a l f a c t o r s of eye  s t r a t e g i e s was  first  scanning  i n v e s t i g a t e d by Kagan (1965b). H i s  i n i t i a l attempt to d e l i n e a t e d i f f e r e n c e s among r e f l e c t i v e s and led  him  head movements of h i s s u b j e c t s as a gross measure of  movement i n order  to d e f i n e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r a t e g y . A  .91 between the number of head-eye f i x a t i o n s and  time was  obtained.  eye  correlation  the mean response  Siegelmen (1969) and Drake (1970) both attempted a  micro a n a l y s i s of the s t r a t e g y used by f o c u s i n g on frequency, and  impulsives,  i n t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the eye movements of h i s s u b j e c t s . Kagan  measured the  of  and  t a r g e t of o b s e r v a t i o n .  duration,  Siegelman (1969) used a m e c h a n i c a l v e r s i o n  of the MFFT w h i l e Drake (1970) employed a Mackworth's eye-marker camera  15  to r e c o r d eye f i x a t i o n s . Both"authors noted t h a t i m p u l s i v e s i g n o r e d and o n e - h a l f times as many a l t e r n a t i v e s of the MFFT than do  two  reflectives.  The i m p u l s i v e s devoted p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more time to l o o k i n g a t the a l t e r n a t i v e observed most and t h e i r f i n a l s e l e c t i o n . They a l s o spent a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of time on one a l t e r n a t i v e and s e l e c t e d  that  a l t e r n a t i v e without c o n s i d e r i n g any of the o t h e r s . The r e f l e c t i v e s on the o t h e r hand, used a s t r a t e g y of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a l l the a l t e r n a t i v e s component p a r t s and comparing appropriate alternative. of g l o b a l comparisons  into  them to the standard i n o r d e r to s e l e c t  the  In c o n s t r a s t , the i m p u l s i v e s employed a s t r a t e g y  between the a l t e r n a t i v e and the s t a n d a r d .  In view of t h i s , one might  s p e c u l a t e t h a t the r i s k i e r  s t r a t e g y of the  i m p u l s i v e s u b j e c t s i s based upon an u n d e r l y i n g l a c k of concern over p o s s i b l e e r r r o r s . R e f l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s on the o t h e r hand, use a more c a u t i o u s s t r a t e g y and  take l o n g e r , thereby a v o i d i n g e r r o r s .  Research on scanning s t r a t e g i e s has a l s o p r o v i d e d methods of improving the i m p u l s i v e ' s performance.  The attempts  to modify  the i m p u l s i v e ' s  response s t y l e t y p i c a l l y have the s u b j e c t : (a) d e l a y response  time,  (b) i m i t a t e r e f l e c t i v e models, or (c) develop e f f i c i e n t  s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s and  scanning  techniques. S t u d i e s which have employed the f i r s t method ( B r i g g s & Weinberg, 1973;  Kagan, Pearson & Welch, 1966)  as those employing (Debus, 1970;  the l a t t e r two.  Denny, 1 9 7 2 ) ,  have not met In employing  w i t h as much success the second method  the s u b j e c t s showed a decrease i n e r r o r s ,  but not response time. A study by Meichenbaum and Goodman  (1971),  however, employed m o d e l l i n g  along w i t h s e l f - v e r b a l i z a t i o n  training  3  techniques  and found  t h a t t h e i r s u b j e c t s showed a decrease  i n errors  and an i n c r e a s e i n response l a t e n c y . S t u d i e s employing the t h i r d method (McLauchlan, 1976; S i e g e l , Parsons, readily  1972) noted  1973; Z e l i n k e r , J e f f r e y , A u l t &  t h a t the t a s k performance o f i m p u l s i v e  subjects  improved.  In view of t h i s , one might i n f e r t h a t p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s can account f o r the poorer formance o f i m p u l s i v e s u b j e c t s . In t h i s r e g a r d , to  per-  i t would be o f i n t e r e s t  i n v e s t i g a t e s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s o f p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n such o t h e r  m o d a l i t i e s as a u d i t i o n .  C o r r e l a t e s of R e f l e c t i o n - I m p u l s i v i t y Thus f a r , the d i s c u s s i o n has c o n s i d e r e d a n x i e t y as a p o s s i b l e antecedent  o f the R-I dimension. I t has a l s o p r o v i d e d grounds t o show  t h a t the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of R-I has a c e r t a i n degree of convergent r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , noted and  although  d i s p u t i n g t h i s . The next  the n a t u r e  d i f f e r e n t i a l f i n d i n g s have been  s e c t i o n f u r t h e r e x p l o r e s the c o n s t r u c t  of the R-I dimension to o t h e r a s p e c t s of human performance.  R e f l e c t i o n - I m p u l s i v i t y and I n t e l l i g e n c e The  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e MFFT i s a measure o f i n t e l l i g e n c e has been  3 S e l f - v e r b a l i z a t i o n i s a c o g n i t i v e t r a i n i n g technique used t o improve t a s k performance. The procedure i s as f o l l o w s : f i r s t , the experimenter (model) performs a t a s k t a l k i n g aloud w h i l e t h e s u b j e c t observes; then the s u b j e c t performs the same t a s k w h i l e the experimenter i n s t r u c t s aloud; then the s u b j e c t performs the same t a s k w h i l e i n s t r u c t i n g h i m s e l f a l o u d , then w h i s p e r i n g to h i m s e l f , and f i n a l l y , doing the t a s k c o v e r t l y .  17 d i s c u s s e d by Block, B l o c k and H a r r i n g t o n M i s c h e l ' s p o s i t i o n may conceptual determinant  be summed up  (1974) and M i s c h e l  i n t h i s way:  tempo i n v o l v e s r e a c t i o n time,  and  (1959) suggest  ( M i s c h e l , 1969,  t h a t any new  instrument  c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y be subjugated a n a l y s i s to d i s p e l any  the extent  one would have to be  p.1013). Campbell and  t h a t i s d e v i s e d and  to convergent and  a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t may  alert  Fiske  purports  discriminant v a l i d i t y  be lodged  a g a i n s t i t . In a  study by H a l l and R u s s e l l (1974), the above s u g g e s t i o n was  employed i n  a m u l t i t r a i t - m u l t i m e t h o d a n a l y s i s of the MFFT. In t h i s study ments were used, these were: the MFFT and  that  f a s t r e a c t i o n time i s a  of g e n e r a l i z e d performance I.Q.,  to t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s "  "To  (1969).  four  the Word R e c o g n i t i o n  instru-  Test  (WRT); which were used to e s t a b l i s h convergent v a l i d i t y as a measure of conceptual and  tempo. The  Raven's Coloured  the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary  discriminant v a l i d i t y c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y was  I.Q.  tests  assessed and  WRT  by u s i n g t h r e e c r i t e r i a .  These were:  l a t e n c y s c o r e s f o r the f o u r t e s t s .  conceptual  dis-  The  convergent v a l i d i t y on a l l  tempo group  (MFFT and  WRT)  convergent v a l i d i t y on the l a t e n c y measure. The MFFT and  only maintained  correct  (PPVT) were used to e s t a b l i s h  (RCPM and PPVT) both a c h i e v e d  t h r e e c r i t e r i o n measures. The only achieved  Test  (RCPM)  ( i e . to measure i n t e l l i g n e c e ) . Convergent and  e r r o r s , c o r r e c t responses, two  Progressive Matrices  d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y a g a i n s t the PPVT on e r r o r and  scores.  The h i g h l a t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a l l of the above  instruments  ranged from .4 to .6 and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one M o l l i c and Messer suggesting  another.  (1978) e x p l a i n e d t h i s h i g h l a t e n c y c o r r e l a t i o n s by  the i n f l u e n c e of a s i g n i f i c a n t age  effect  (o^=4.61, p < . 0 5 ) .  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r younger c h i l d r e n than  o l d e r ones. M o l l i c k and Messer to which  (1978) d i d not s p e c i f y the exact ages  the above f i n d i n g s were a p p l i c a b l e , a l t h o u g h the 23 s t u d i e s  reviewed by Messer  (1976) showed a median MFFT response time-I.Q.  cor-  r e l a t i o n of .165. D i f f e r e n t i a l f i n d i n g s , however, have a l s o been noted. Eska and B l a c k (1971) and Lewis, Rausch, Godlberg, and Dodd (1968) f o r example, both o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t response time-I.Q. c o r r e l a t i o n s of .45. S i m i l a r l y , n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s a v e r a g i n g i n the mid .40's have a l s o been a t t a i n e d between MFFT e r r o r s and I.Q. When a comparison was made between 100 r e f l e c t i v e and i m p u l s i v e s u b j e c t s on the WISC-R, Brannigan and Ash (1977) noted t h a t performed  reflectives  s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r . The r e f l e c t i v e s d i m o n s t r a t e d s u p e r i o r i t y  on the f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s : I n f o r m a t i o n , Comprehension, D i g i t P i c t u r e Completion, P i c t u r e Arrangements, Assembly,  B l o c k Design, and O b j e c t  w h i l e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were noted on the S i m i l a r i t y ,  V o c a b u l a r y , and Coding In  Span,  subtests.  a d d i t i o n , Plomin and Buss (1973) suggest t h a t the  experimental  d e s i g n be g i v e n c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , s i n c e t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t o r d e r effect of  i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e MFFT and I.Q. T h e i r study c o n s i s t e d  s p l i t t i n g 52 second g r a d e r s i n t o two groups, the f i r s t f o l l o w e d by the WISC, and the second group  group  receiving  the  MFFT f i r s t ,  the  r e v e r s e o r d e r . They noted a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the response  time f o r t h e MFFT. The s u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g the MFFT f i r s t , impulsively  receiving  answered more  than those who took the MFFT as t h e i r second treatment. T h i s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the WISC caused s u b j e c t s t o respond more r e f l e c t i v e l y , and the  a u t h o r s suggest t h a t the MFFT t h e r e f o r e be a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t .  a l s o noted t h a t f o r the group r e c e i v i n g the WISC f i r s t ,  They  t h e r e was a v e r y  low and i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between WISC V e r b a l , Performance, and  19 F u l l S c a l e I.Q. s c o r e s . T h i s , however, was not t r u e o f the group forming the MFFT  per-  first.  R e f l e c t i o n - I m p u l s i v i t y and A n x i e t y The  l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s area i s both scanty  Confusion  and i n c o n s i s t e n t .  has r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e s i g n and  instrumentation  used, such as d i f f e r e n c e s i n age o f s u b j e c t s , i n t e l l e c t i v e a n x i e t y o f t a s k s , order  ability,  of p r e s e n t a t i o n and the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f  reflection-impulsivity. Kagan's i n i t i a l  explanation  o f the i m p u l s i v e ' s  i s based upon h i s a v o i d a n c e - o f - a n x i e t y the i m p l u s i v e  hypothesis  r a p i d response  style  (Kagan, 1963). Here,  i s seen as responding q u i c k l y i n ; o r d e r to a v o i d .expected  f a i l u r e . Kagan (1966) l a t e r a s s e r t e d  t h a t when f a i l u r e and a n x i e t y a r e  both i n c l u d e d i n a performance t a s k ,  i t w i l l l e a d 'to more r e f l e c t i v e  responding by the i m p u l s i v e  c h i l d . T h i s l a t e r a s s e r t i o n was p a r t i a l l y  confirmed by Messer (1970), R e a l i and H a l l  (1970), Ward (1968), and  Weiner and Adams (1974). They noted t h a t when s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d on e r r o r s , both r e f l e c t i v e s and i m p u l s i v e s  increased  their  feedback  response  l a t e n c i e s on MFFT items and on an anagram t e s t . Messer (1970) and Weiner et  a l . (1974) noted t h a t i m p u l s i v e s  errors, following failure,  had the g r e a t e r  :;decline on MFFT  than d i d r e f l e c t i v e s . Ward (1968) a l s o noted  t h a t on a r e t e s t o f the MFFT, a f t e r a f a i l u r e experience, accurate  the f a s t / i n -  group had a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n e r r o r s when compared to  the s l o w / a c c u r a t e group. Ward's (1968) f a s t / i n a c c u r a t e s , however, had s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r response times than the f a s t / a c c u r a t e s and slow/ accurates.  T h i s appears to be a d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f N u e s s l e ' s  f i n d i n g s . N u e s s l e noted w h i l e  studying  the f o c u s i n g b e h a v i o r  (1972)  of r e f l e c t i v e s ,  t h a t l o n g e r l a t e n c i e s were a s s o c i a t e d s o l v i n g . From  w i t h more e f f e c t i v e problem  t h i s , Ward (1968) suggests t h a t  were more s e n s i t i v e to e v a l u a t i o n  the  fast/inaccurates  cues to a c h i e v e a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease  i n e r r o r s than were the f a s t or s l o w / a c c u r a t e s . On  the bases of h i s f i n d -  i n g s , Ward r e j e c t s Kagan's (1963) a v o i d a n c e - o f - a n x i e t y h y p o t h e s i s . A study by R e a l i and  H a l l (1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d  when feedback on performance was  given.  the  e f f e c t s of  anxiety  Their r e s u l t s indicated  the  following: (a) the performance of r e f l e c t i v e and was  not  d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by  s u c c e s s f u l performance. T h i s h e l d response time and (b) the and  impulsive subjects  expectancy of  studies  feedback about t r u e f o r both  the  differentiate reflective  i n e i t h e r response or  in  failure;  (c) t h e r e appeared to be no  The  subjects  error variables;  e f f e c t s of f a i l u r e d i d not  time and  impulsive  expectancy of  of Ward (1968) and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between d e c i s i o n success.  R e a l i and  H a l l (1970) seem to  cast  doubt upon Kagan's a v o i d a n c e - o f - a n x i e t y h y p o t h e s i s . However, f l a w s i n Ward's r e s e a r c h  d e s i g n l e a v e some open q u e s t i o n s ; the  subjects  example, were 87 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . Kagan (1966) has the use  of s u b j e c t s  appears to be no age  below the age  for  cautioned  of f i v e or s i x y e a r s o l d , s i n c e  c o r r e l a t i o n between response time and  against there  errors for this  group. Kagan f u r t h e r suggests t h a t a long response time f o r these  subjects  does not  These s u b j e c t s  i n d i c a t e r e f l e c t i v e n e s s over the  a l s o appear to become d i s t r a c t e d by  task, the  but  idleness.  experimenter  h i s i n s t r u m e n t s , thereby f u r t h e r confounding the r e s u l t s .  and  21 Another a r e a t h a t has been o v e r l o o k e d is  i n most of the s t u d i e s ,  the e f f e c t o f a n x i e t y on I.Q. Research has i n d i c a t e d t h a t when c o n s i d -  e r i n g the e f f e c t s o f a n x i e t y on t a s k performance both t h e I.Q. of the s u b j e c t s and t h e nature  o f the t a s k must be c o n s i d e r e d . F o r example:  (a) h i g h a n x i e t y f a c i l i t a t e s I.Q.  the performance o f h i g h  s u b j e c t s on t a s k s r a n g i n g i n d i f f i c u l t y  simple  from  to moderate;  (b) on v e r y d i f f i c u l t  t a s k s , low a n x i e t y s u b j e c t s a r e  s u p e r i o r i n performance t o h i g h a n x i e t y s u b j e c t s when they a r e of comparable a b i l i t y  (Gaudry & S p i e l b e r g ,  1971). It  seems e v i d e n t then,  t h a t I.Q. can be c o n s i d e r e d a major v a r i a b l e  i n a n x i e t y r e s e a r c h and thus cannot be i g n o r e d when c o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i o n o f a n x i e t y t o the R-I dimension.  Summary From the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed thus f a r , we have noted  differential  f i n d i n g s when the v a r i a b l e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , a n x i e t y , and scanning were c o n s i d e r e d . D i f f e r e n t i a l f i n d i n g s f o r the i n t e l l i g e n c e v a r i a b l e may be due, i n p a r t , t o the o r d e r i n which t a s k s a r e p r e s e n t e d  to s u b j e c t s . Plomin  and Buss (1973) have demonstrated t h a t s u b j e c t s responded more r e f l e c t i v e l y when the I.Q. measure was a d i m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t administered istered f i r s t  second. I t i s suggested  than when i t was  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the MFFT be admin-  i n o r d e r t o a v o i d erroneous c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s  into  r e f l e c t i v e s or i m p u l s i v e s . Order e f f e c t s then, need to be c o n s i d e r e d i n f u t u r e R-I/I.Q. r e s e a r c h .  Measurements of the  e f f e c t s of a n x i e t y  shown t h a t both r e f l e c t i v e s and l a t e n c y when they r e c e i v e d Hall, who  1970;  had  Ward, 1968;  the g r e a t e r  impulsives increase  feedback on e r r o r s  H a l l (1970) and  of t h e i r tempo, s i n c e the  i t was  impulsives  Weiner &  (1968) contend, however,  necessarily  i m p u l s i v e s had  Reali &  the  (Messer, 1970;  Ward  t h a t a decrease i n MFFT e r r o r s does not  t h e i r response  (Messer, 1970;  Weiner & Adams, 1974), but  d e c l i n e on MFFT e r r o r s  Adams, 1974). R e a l i and  on performance t a s k s have  imply a  modification  a f a s t e r response time than  the r e f l e c t i v e s . However, a c l o s e r examination of t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n , shows an and  an  inappropriate  inappropriate  s e l e c t i o n of subjects(Ward, 1968),  instrument to a s s e s s r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y  ( R e a l i & H a l l , 1970). The  inconsistent  f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s ' v a r i a b l e i n anxiety Research on  research  scanning has  f a c t o r s of eye movement and  findings  neglecting  to c o n s i d e r  (Gaudry & S p i e l b e r g e r ,  observation  between head-eye f i x a t i o n s and  i n a c o r r e l a t i o n of  relevant rather The  since  .91  the mean response time. Drake (1970) and  one-half  scanning  a l s o noted t h a t i m p u l s i v e s perform at par w i t h t h e i r  r e f l e c t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s when a s e a r c h s t r a t e g y 1973;  .  s t r a t e g i e s . Kagan's (1965b)  times as many a l t e r n a t i v e s than r e f l e c t i v e s . Research on  Siegel,  I.Q.  1971).  Siegelman (1969) noted t h a t i m p u l s i v e s i g n o r e d two  s t r a t e g i e s has  the  p r i m a r i l y been concerned w i t h a t t e n t i o n a l  investigation into attentional factors resulted  and  i n t h i s area have been  Seigel, Keiasic & Kilburg,  has  been taught  1973). T h i s  i t suggest d i f f i c i e n c i e s i n p e r c e p t u a l  than c o g n i t i v e inconsistent  (Kilburg  is particularly organization  processing. findings discussed  i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review  be a t t r i b u t e d to a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s . Perhaps the most important  can factor  &  i s the q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y of the R-I  construct, while l e s s e r f a c t o r s  i n c l u d e s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s , instruments, and a n a l y s i s . In sum,  r e s u l t s from the R-I  experimental  design,  r e s e a r c h need to be  inter-  preted c a u t i o u s l y . The  R-I  l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the r e -  search q u e s t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1) the l i t e r a t u r e on scanning  s t r a t e g i e s has  formed the b a s i s of  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . S i n c e i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n were i n e f f i c i e n t n i n g and decoding 1969;  of g r a p h i c symbols ( K i l b u r g & S i e g e l ,  S i e g e l et a l . , 1973;  i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n scanning  Sigelman, 1969), i t was  i n scan-  1973;  Nelson,  hypothesized  of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i may  our  that  be a f a c t o r  c o n t r i b u t i n g to r e a d i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s i n i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n ( B u t l e r , Davey, 1972;  Hood & K e n d a l l , 1974;  Readence, 1976;  Shapiro,  1972;  1976).  2) the l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e l l i g e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e f l e c t i v e s  perform  s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than i m p u l s i v e s on an i n t e l l i g e n c e measure (eg. WISC-R) (Brannigan  & Ash,  1977). T h i s suggest  t h a t we need to c o n t r o l  f o r the e f f e c t s t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e might have on AVI By c o n t r o l l i n g f o r the i n t e l l i g e n c e v a r i a b l e , we may  t a s k performance. be expected  to get  a l e s s b i a s e d assessment of the p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n mechanisms of impulsive  children.  3) the l i t e r a t u r e on a n x i e t y i n d i c a t e s thatone  antecedent  condition  u n d e r l y i n g the i m p u l s i v e s ' response s t y l e i s the f a c t o r of a n x i e t y (Kagan, 1963). A l t h o u g h t i n t h i s study  mension.  considered  ( i n a s s e s s i n g the p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n mechanisms of  impulsive c h i l d r e n ) , a broader  the f a c t o r of a n x i e t y w i l l not be  i t i s presented  p e r s p e c t i v e of the p r o b a b l e  i n t h i s s e c t i o n to g i v e the c o n s t i t u e n t s of the R-I d i -  reader  Crossmodal P r o c e s s i n g  A Definition  Crossmodal p r o c e s s i n g r e f e r s to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y to a s s i m i l a t e , i n t e g r a t e , and  o r g a n i z e multimodal i n f o r m a t i o n as r e -  l a t e d to academic performance (Derevensky, 1977).  Topics that are  u s u a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d under the r u b r i c of crossmodal p r o c e s s i n g i n t e r s e n s o r y i n t e g r a t i o n , i n t e r s e n s o r y t r a n s f e r , and  are:  modality  matching^. The  two  b a s i c models which have been proposed f o r e x p l o r i n g  crossmodal p r o c e s s i n g are modal s p e c i f i c and nonmodal (Jones C o n n o l l y , 1970; modality  P i c k , 1970).  &  The modal s p e c i f i c model views each  as an independent e n t i t y , w i t h i t s d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s of  t r a n s d u c t i o n and processing.  i t s specific  s i t e s of n e u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n  V i s i o n i s a good example of t h i s , although  o f t e n been t r e a t e d as comprising the nonmodal model, each m o d a l i t y becomes pooled  and  i t has  the e n t i r e p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d . loses i t s s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s  i n t o a s i n g l e p e r c e p t u a l m o d a l i t y , which now  In and  a c t s as  I n t e r s e n s o r y i n t e g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s the a s s i m i l a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of multimodal i n f o r m a t i o n . The method used to a s s e s s i n t e r s e n s o r y i n t e g r a t i o n i s m o d a l i t y matching (see f o o t n o t e 2 ) . I n t e r s e n s o r y t r a n s f e r as d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from i n t e r s e n s o r y i n t e g r a t i o n , i n v o l v e s the t r a n s l a t i o n of a l e a r n e d p r i n c i p l e from one m o d a l i t y to another m o d a l i t y on c o n c u r r e n t or subsequent tasks. A d d i t i o n a l l y , intersensory t r a n s f e r (unlike intersensory i n t e g r a t i o n ) does not assume t h a t the t r a n s l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n to the o t h e r m o d a l i t y i s e q u i v a l e n t .  the  instrument of p e r c e p t u a l  processing.  Both the modal s p e c i f i c and  nonmodal models have not  received  much support from the l i t e r a t u r e which d e a l s w i t h crossmodal processing  (see F r i e d e s ,  1974),  An a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s to the modal s p e c i f i c and models i s the  intersensory  Here, i n f o r m a t i o n  received  i n t e g r a t i o n hypothesis i n one  t r a n s l a t i o n to another m o d a l i t y .  nonmodal  ( F r i e d e s , 1974).  sense m o d a l i t y i s a v a i l a b l e v i a Reading, f o r example, i s a  r e q u i r i n g t r a n s l a t i o n from a v i s u a l to an a u d i t o r y code and versa.  Reading impairment was  v i s u a l and  aural stimuli.  viewed as a f a i l u r e to  T h i s n o t i o n has  l i t e r a t u r e dealing with intersensory ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964, Sterritt  1965;  & Rudnick, 1966).  Since  v i s u a l stimuli, intersensory  integrate  reading  Kahn & B i r c h ,  the r e s e a r c h  t h i s t h e s i s deals only with intersensory  vice  found support i n the  i n t e g r a t i o n and  Beery, 1967;  task  question  1967; posed i n  i n t e g r a t i o n of a u r a l  i n t e g r a t i o n of t a c t i l e , h a p t i c or  sense m o d a l i t i e s a l o n g w i t h i n t e r s e n s o r y  t r a n s f e r w i l l not  be  d e a l t w i t h here.  Developmental Trends of I n t e r s e n s o r y  Auditory-Visual B i r c h and  I n t e g r a t i o n and  cess.  The  Reading  Belmont (1964) were the f i r s t  a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n was  to propose t h a t  e s s e n t i a l to the r e a d i n g  procedure used by B i r c h and  i n t e g r a t i v e a b i l i t y was  Integration  Belmont  (1964) to  a match-to-sample method.  Here,  prostudy the  and other  experimenter s t r u c k  a s e r i e s of taps w i t h a p e n c i l or pen a c c o r d i n g  to a planned sequence, such as; ..,  .,  •  The c h i l d ' s t a s k  was t o l i s t e n t o the taps and then p i c k the a p p r o p r i a t e  sequence  from a s e r i e s o f t h r e e t h a t were presented v i s u a l l y (see F i g u r e 1 ) . The  r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s  integration  t h a t have i n v e s t i g a t e d  audio-visual  (AVI) and r e a d i n g can be summarized as f o l l o w s : (1)  Better  r e a d e r s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r  than poorer r e a d e r s on the AVI t a s k ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964, 1965; Beery, 1967; Kahn & B i r c h , 1967;  Sterritt  ship e x i s t e d (2)  & Rudnick, 1966).  This r e l a t i o n -  from K t o grade 6.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between AVI and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s ambiguous.  B i r c h and Belmont  (1964) noted  t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h a low AVI s c o r e a l s o had lower mean I.Q., r e g a r d l e s s ability.  of t h e i r reading  S t e r r i t t and Rudnick (1966) o b t a i n e d  a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n of .53 f o r AVI and I.Q.;  Rae (1977) noted a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between AVI w i t h n o n v e r b a l I.Q. and r e a d i n g achievement of .68 and .56 r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, s t u d i e s by Ford  (1967), Jorgensen and  Hyde (1974), and Kahn and B i r c h  (1967) found no  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between AVI a b i l i t y and I.Q.  I t must be noted, however, t h a t  the same  I.Q.  measure was not used f o r the above  This  could  explain differences  studies.  i n findings.  27  AUDITORY TAP PATTERNS  VISUAL  STIMULI  EXAMPLES A  . .  B  t  C  .  •• t  • • •  •  •  •• •  •  a  •  •  ••  •• •  a  a  •  •  ••  •• •  •  a a  •  • • •  TEST ITEMS 1  ..  2  •  ..  •  • • •  3 *"* • • • k  .  3  • • •  a  •  •  «  •  a  t  • • .  .  •  •  6  t  •  •  •  •  •  • ••  •• •  •  a  a  •  •  a  a  7 3  •  • • •  t  F i g u r e 1.  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  a a  •  •  •  a a  •  •  •  • • •  •  •  •  a  a  •  •  •  a  •  a a a  •  •  t  mm  •  • • •  •  a t *  • • •  a a a  a a a  •••••  A u d i t o r y and v i s u a l t e s t s t i m u l i .  a  a a  •  •  •  •  a  •  9  10  • a  •  .  • •  a  a t  i  a  • • • • • •  Large and s m a l l  spaces r e p r e s e n t approximate time i n t e r v a l s o f 1 s e c . and 0.5 s e c , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Correct  were n o t u n d e r l i n e d on t h e t e s t f o r m s .  choices  28 Reliability  Kahn and B i r c h B i r c h and Belmont  (1967), u s i n g a m o d i f i e d e x t e n s i o n of the  (1964) procedure, when 20 items were employed  as opposed to the o r i g i n a l 10, o b t a i n e d a t e s t - r e t e s t a f t e r 10 days of .76 and respectively. reliability 8.  Rae  and  f o r t h i r d and  Sabatino  (1971) o b t a i n e d  c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g from  formula 20,  Although psychometric  .34  f o r ages 9 and  t o .92  test-retest  f o r ages 5  through  the r e l i a b i l i t y acceptability  10.  c o e f f i c i e n t s of .8 or above meet  (Magnusson, 1967), the i n c o n s i s t e n c y  the f i n d i n g s g i v e cause f o r concern.  findings  f i f t h grade boys  (1977) o b t a i n e d a c o e f f i c i e n t of .82, u s i n g the Kuder-  Richardson  of  Becker  .90  reliability  (e.g. between AVI  experimental designs.  and r e a d i n g ) , one must examine the  weaknesses t h a t have been noted i n  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e s i g n and (a)  As w i t h o t h e r d i s c r e p a n t  i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n are as f o l l o w s :  d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of the B i r c h and t e s t have been used,  some a d m i n i s t e r e d  a l l y , o t h e r s i n groups (Rae, Rudnick, S t e r r i t t (b)  Belmont  1977;  individ-  Reilly,  & F l a x , 1967);  low c e i l i n g e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g from too few and  too easy items  1971;  (Birch  & Belmont, 1965;  and Klapper  & B i r c h , 1971); (c)  low r e l i a b i l i t y used 1965;  w i t h the s m a l l number of  (6 to 10 items)  (Beery, 1967;  Rudnick et a l . , 1964;  items  B i r c h & Belmont,  S t e r r i t t & Rudnick, 1967).  I t can be seen, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s l a c k of r i g o r o u s e m p i r i c i s m i s p a r t i a l l y due t o n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and haphazard m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e s .  Future r e s e a r c h e r s need  to i s o l a t e the v a r i a b l e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e i r methods of examination.  Auditory-Visual Temporal-Spatial Integration The o r i g i n a l B i r c h and Belmont  (1964) procedure has come under  a g r e a t d e a l of s c r u t i n y and has been c h a l l e n g e d on the grounds no c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  g i v e n to the s u b j e c t ' s i n t r a m o d a l a b i l i t y .  example, i s poor performance  in  to d i s c r i m i n a t e the r e l e v a n t  s t i m u l u s i n e i t h e r of the m o d a l i t i e s concerned?  Sterritt  and  (1966) f i r s t made t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n and a l s o commented t h a t the be n o t h i n g more than a t e s t of t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l  Thus, i t may  For  on an AVI t a s k due to an impairment  i n t e g r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s or t o an i n a b i l i t y  t a s k may  that  Rudnick AVI  integration.  have no r e l e v a n c e to the m o d a l i t i e s of a u d i t i o n or v i s i o n .  In u s i n g these n i n e combinations, Rudnick et a l . (1972) and Sterritt  et a l . (1971) noted the v i s u a l s p a t i a l matching  to be the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t , matchings  (VS-A, A-VS,  (VS-VS)  the combined v i s u a l s p a t i a l and  VS-VT, VT-VS) to be moderately  difficult,  and the p u r e l y temporal matchings (AT-VT, VT-AT,VT-VT, A-A) the most d i f f i c u l t .  These  temporal  t o be  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e the c o n t e n t i o n of the  above authors t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s on the AVI were due to the t e m p o r a l s p a t i a l dimension r a t h e r than to the m o d a l i t i e s of v i s i o n audition.  F u r t h e r support of the above was  Jarman (1977b), K l a p p e r and B i r c h  and  noted by Goodnow (1971),  (1971), and Muehl and Kremenak (1966).  R-I  And  Crossmodal  R-I I t has by  and  Processing  Reading  been suggested t h a t i m p u l s i v e  c h i l d r e n as  the MFFT have d e f i c i t s i n r e a d i n g when compared to t h e i r  counterparts  ( B u t l e r , 1972;  1965b; M a r g o l i s , 1972).  1976;  read  Davey, 1971;  Readence, 1977;  Hood & K e n d a l l , Shapiro,  1976;  out by  h i s task was  the examiner.  to p o i n t  recognition errors.  to the one  Shapiro  c h i l d r e n " had  (1976) a d m i n i s t e r e d  s u b j e c t s , and  noted t h a t w i t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  held constant,  Kagan,  more  held  shown was constant,  reading  Gates-MacGinitie first  grade  and i n t e l l i g e n c e  the r e f l e c t i v e s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r  s i x of the e i g h t s u b t e s t s .  on  Davey (1971) used 38 f o u r t h grade boys  d i v i d e d them i n t o an a n a l y t i c and  non-analytic  which Kagan et a l . (1964) found to be dimension.  word t h a t  the  Readiness S k i l l s Test along w i t h the MFFT to h i s 67  response s t y l e  c l o s e l y associated with  the  Davey's r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the n o n - a n a l y t i c  a c h i e v e r s were more u n s u c c e s s f u l and  1974;  Stennet & Smythe,  Even when v e r b a l a b i l i t y was  r e s u l t s c l e a r l y showed t h a t i m p l u s i v e  R-I  reflective  In Kagan's (1965b) study, a c a r d w i t h f i v e words was  to the c h i l d , and  and  operationalized  and  hypothesis t e s t i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  30 second grade boys.  inefficient Butler's  i n t h e i r cue  (1972) study  under-  selection  involved  T h e i r r e s u l t s were r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r , w i t h  the r e f l e c t i v e s c o r r e c t i n g a g r e a t e r number of t h e i r miscues than the i m p u l s i v e s .  Hood and  Kendall  r e s u l t s s i m i l a r to the above.  (1974) and  Readence (1977) noted  Readence's m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r the two  response s t y l e s were due  to  31 t h e i r use The  of g r a p h i c and  sound  cues.  above f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of  performance i n r e a d i n g by the i m p u l s i v e responders.  poorer  As  suggested  e a r l i e r , a p o s s i b l e avenue f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be  to  examine i m p u l s i v e s ' p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s .  R-I And  Auditory-Visual Integration  S t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dimension of r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y and AVI was  by M a r g o l i s  between AVI,  (1976).  are very sparse.  He attempted to a s c e r t a i n the  r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s , and  conceptual  of 82 m i d d l e c l a s s k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . v e r s i o n of the B i r c h and T o t a l Readiness, (WPPSI), and  One  Belmont  study  relationship  tempo, u s i n g a sample  By employing a m o d i f i e d  (1964) procedure,  the M e t r o p . o l i t i a n  the Weschler P r e s c h o o l and Primary  the MFFT, he noted  such  S c a l e of I n t e l l i g e n c e  the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s :  (a)  no  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t ;  (b)  i m p u l s i v e s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o o r l y on the AVI  (c)  (p<_.01) and  readiness  (p  05);  the i m p u l s i v e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r i n response time than the r e f l e c t i v e s on the MFFT and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r i n response time than the r e f l e c t i v e s on AVI  (d)  no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  groups and WPPSI v e r b a l I.Q.  Although  the M a r g o l i s  (p^.01);  (1976) study was  one  found or sex  and  between tempo (p<L.05).  of the f i r s t ' to i n c o r p o r a t e  the v a r i a b l e of r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y i n a s s e s s i n g AVI r e s u l t s were confounded because the sample used was  ability,  the  inappropriate.  Kagan et a l . (1964) has c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t the use o f s u b j e c t s below the age of f i v e  or s i x y e a r s o l d , s i n c e t h e r e appears to be no  between response time and e r r o r s f o r t h i s age group. f u r t h e r confounded et  a l . , 1972;  correlation  The r e s u l t s were  by u s i n g the B i r c h and Belmont procedure  Sterritt  (Rudnick  et a l . , 1971).  Summary S t u d i e s t h a t have employed the B i r c h and Belmont  (1964) procedure  as a means of i n v e s t i g a t i n g AVI a b i l i t i e s , have noted t h a t  deficiencies  i n i n t e g r a t i v e a b i l i t y have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poor r e a d i n g ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964,  1965;  Beery, 1967;  Rudnick, 1966).  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between AVI and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s  ambiguous, p o s s i b l y because all  the s t u d i e s .  and S t e r r i t t  Kahn & B i r c h , 1967;  the same I.Q. measure was  However, B i r c h and Belmont  and Rudnick  &  not used i n  (1964), Rae  (1966) noted a s i g n i f i c a n t  Sterritt  (1977),  relationship  between these two v a r i a b l e s , w h i l e Ford (1967), Jorgensen and Hyde (1974), and Kahn and B i r c h The B i r c h and Belmont c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds impairment. not  Sterritt  (1968) d i d n o t . (1964) p r o c e d u r e , however, has been of i t s i n a b i l i t y  and Rudnick  to assess intramodal  (1966) argued t h a t the c h i l d  be d e f i c i e n t i n h i s a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e s t i m u l i , but may  unable to d i s c e r n the r e l e v a n t s t i m u l u s i n a performance to a d e f i c i e n t m o d a l i t y .  of t h i s ,  be  t a s k due  They f u r t h e r suggest t h a t an AVI  task  be n o t h i n g more than a t e s t of t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . light  may  may  In  t a s k s i n v o l v i n g n i n e combinations of a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l  and t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l were employed.  By employing  these combinations,  it  c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d whether d e f i c i e n c i e s i n r e a d i n g  were due t o an i n t r a or i n t e r m o d a l  impairment  i n t e g r a t i o n of auditory-temporal,  v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l or v i s u a l - s p a t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  S t u d i e s by Rudnick  et a l . (1972) and S t e r r i t t  t h a t the v i s u a l  e t a l . (1971), noted  s p a t i a l matching was the e a s i e s t , the combined v i s u a l and temporal matchings t o be of moderate d i f f i c u l t y , and the p u r e l y matchings t o be the most  difficult.  By n o t i n g the d i f f i c u l t y the types of s k i l l s  temporal  l e v e l s of the 9 AVI t a s k s , one may i n f e r  ( i . e . auditory-temporal,  visual-temporal or  v i s u a l - s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n t a s k s ) which c o n t r i b u t e t o r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r impulsive children. matching t a s k s  (AT-VT, VT-AT, VT-VT, A-A) were noted  highest d i f f i c u l t y be the source  S i n c e the p u r e l y  temporal  t o have the  l e v e l , one may s p e c u l a t e t h a t such t a s k s may  of r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s  f o r impulsive  children.  Some s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dimension of R-I and r e a d i n g , noted were d e f i c i e n t counterparts  that impulsive c h i l d r e n  i n r e a d i n g performance when compared t o t h e i r  reflective  ( B u t l e r , 1972; Davey, 1971; Hood & K e n d a l l , 1974; Kagan,  1965b; M a r g o l i s , 1976; Readence, 1976; S h a p i r o , 1976).  When the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dimension of R-I and AVI was a s s e s s e d , Margolis poorer  (1976) noted  t h a t i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n performed  i n i n t e g r a t i n g a u r a l and v i s u a l s t i m u l i .  significantly  I t should be noted,  however, t h a t M a r g o l i s ' s r e s u l t s may have been confounded by the sample group and the AVI instrument al.,  used  (see Kagan e t a l . , 1964; Rudnick e t  1972; S t e r r i t t e t a l . , 1971). The  l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r s e n s o r y i n t e g r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t poor  performance on AVI t a s k s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  reading  impairment 1967;  ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964,  Sterritt  (see pp.  3-4  & Rudnick, 1966).  1965;  Beery, 1967;  A t a s k a n a l y s i s on the 9 AVI  tasks  i n t e x t ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t adequate performances on a u d i t o r y -  v i s u a l t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l t a s k s appear to resemble those i n reading  Kahn & B i r c h ,  ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964;  Beery, 1967;  Rudnick et a l . , 1972;  Sterritt  et a l . , 1971;  employing these 9 AVI  t a s k s then, we may  s k i l l s required  Muehl & Kremenak,  S t r a n g , 1968).  1966;  By  be a b l e to d i l e n a t e the  p e r c e p t u a l mechanisms of i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r to account f o r t h e i r reading  deficiencies.  35 CHAPTER I I I  METHOD Subj e c t s The  s u b j e c t s were 100 boys and g i r l s  (males=51, females=49) i n grade  4 from the D e l t a s c h o o l system. They ranged i n age years (144  to  10.9  (X=9.414, SD=.514). These s u b j e c t s were taken from a l a r g e r group s u b j e c t s ) t h a t comprised  These 100 The  from 8.6  the sample f o r the M a r s h a l l  s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r  (1979) study.^  availability.  s u b j e c t s from the M a r s h a l l group -were s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n of  approximately  550.  Students  a u d i t o r y d e f i c i t s were not The  having emotional considered.  f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of 144  on t h e i r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . The Canadian Lorg-Thorndike i n s t r u m e n t s . One  s u b j e c t s from the M a r s h a l l group was G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t and  I n t e l l i g e n c e Test  group of 72 boys and  to r e p r e s e n t a b l e and  or u n c o r r e c t e d v i s u a l or  one  (CLT) were used as  based  the  selection  group of 72 g i r l s were s e l e c t e d  d i s a b l e d r e a d e r s . Able r e a d e r s were c o n s i d e r e d to be  r e a d i n g a t grade l e v e l or one year above a c c o r d i n g to the s c o r e s on  the  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . D i s a b l e d r e a d e r s were c o n s i d e r e d to be those who  were r e a d i n g one year or more below grade l e v e l  according  to s c o r e s on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . Of the 72 boys, 36 were c l a s s i f i e d as abe  r e a d e r s and  36 as d i s a b l e d r e a d e r s . The  72 g i r l s were  "5" The 100 s u b j e c t s used i n t h i s study were a subset of a l a r g e r group (144) used i n the M a r s h a l l (1979) study. M a r s h a l l c o l l e c t e d data on these s u b j e c t s from the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s : G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t ( l e v e l C, form 2), Canadian Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t (nonverbal b a t t e r y ) , and the 9 AVI t a s k s . S i n c e the e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n of t h i s study n e c e s s i t a t e s a measure of r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e i n a d d i t i o n to the MFFT and AVI t a s k s , i t was d e c i d e d to use the data made a v a i l a b l e by M a r s h a l l . For a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of s u b j e c t s e l e c t i o n , instrument admini s t r a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the AVI t a s k s , the reader i s r e f e r r e d to the M a r s h a l l study. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n , however, w i l l be g i v e n here.  separated l i k e w i s e .  Scores from the CLT  were used to match s t u d e n t s  on  intelligence. The  r a t i o n a l e f o r using  i s to c o n t r o l f o r the have on  AVI  measure ( i n t h i s  study),  intelligence  t a s k performance. The  l i t e r a t u r e suggests  r e a d e r s perform s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r  than poorer r e a d e r s  t a s k s ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964,  Sterritt  I.Q.  e f f e c t s t h a t r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and  i n t e g r a t i o n of AVI  that better  a r e a d i n g and  1965;  Beery, 1967;  may  on  Kahn & B i r c h ,  & Rudnick, 1966). While the r e l a t i o n s h i p between AVI  1967;  and  intel-  l i g e n c e i s ambiguous, some r e s e a r c h e r s have noted t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h AVI  s c o r e s a l s o had  Sterritt  lower mean I.Q.  & Rudnick, 1966)  Jorgensen & Hyde, 1979; i t would be v a r i a b l e has age  w h i l e o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s d i d not Kahn & B i r c h ,  1967). From the  expedient to c o n t r o l f o r the p o s s i b l e on AVI  (1971,1972) and  Jorgensen and  formed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r Abravanel  (1968) and  increases  with  e f f e c t i n g AVI  Belmont  1977;  (Ford,  1967;  e f f e c t s that  on  performance. S t u d i e s  tasks,  and  studies  (1965) noted t h a t AVI  the above v a r i a b l e s )  e f f e c t s that reading a b i l i t y ,  age  might have on AVI  can be made of AVI  or to  by  performance  performance. In t h i s way,  93  and  impulsive  subjects  but  chronological  a l e s s biased  performance of r e f l e c t i v e and  48 were boys. Seven s u b j e c t s  (by match-  statistically partial  i n t e l l i g e n c e , sex,  f i n a l sample i n t h i s study i n c l u d e d  were g i r l s and  per-  age.  the  The  I.Q.  chronological  From the d i s c u s s i o n above, i t seems n e c e s s a r y to c o n t r o l ing subjects  the  Hyde (1974) noted t h a t g i r l s  than boys on AVI  B i r c h and  Rae,  conflicting results  performance. A d d i t i o n a l l y , gender and  a l s o appear to be v a r i a b l e s  by R e i l l y  ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1965;  low  assessment  children.  of whom 45  whose s c o r e s p l a c e d  them at  the median of the double median s p l i t ,  were d i s c a r d e d .  Of the  93  s u b j e c t s i n t h i s sample, 41 were c l a s s i f i e d as d i s a b l e d r e a d e r s and  20 g i r l s ) and  d e s c r i p t i v e and Tables  1 and  52 as a b l e d r e a d e r s  (27 boys and  25 g i r l s ) .  (21 boys  Further  performance s t a t i s t i c s of the sample a r e p r e s e n t e d  in  2.  Instruments  Gates-MacGinitie  Reading T e s t - L e v e l C, Form 2  T h i s instrument  measures r e a d i n g achievement. The  i n t o t h r e e s u b t e s t : A)Speed and Accuracy, hension.  The  Speed and Accuracy  relative difficulty. statement and  test  B)Vocabulary,  i s divided  and  C)Compre-  s u b t e s t c o n t a i n s 36 s h o r t paragraphs of  Each paragraph ends i n a q u e s t i o n or  i s f o l l o w e d by f o u r words,of which one  incomplete  i s to be s e l e c t e d .  C r i t e r i o n i s based upon number attempted minus number c o r r e c t . The Vocabulary  s u b t e s t c o n t a i n s 50 items. A s t i m u l u s word i s p r e -  sented a l o n g w i t h f i v e a l t e r n a t e s . The i s s i m i l a r i n meaning to the  s u b j e c t i s to s e l e c t the word t h a t  stimulus.  The Comprehension s u b t e s t c o n t a i n s 21 passages w i t h 52 Each q u e s t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d  i n a modified  c l o z e technique,  questions. with  five  a l t e r n a t e s to chose from. For a review  of the psychometric  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the reader i s  r e f e r r e d to Buros (1972, pp.1080-1083).  6 In performing a double median s p l i t , median s c o r e s form MFFT response e r r o r and response l a t e n c y a r e used as the p o i n t of o r i g i n from which a h o r i z o n t a l and a v e r t i c a l a x i s are c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s l e a d s to the formati o n of f o u r quadrants. Students whose s c o r e f a l l s on the v e r t i c a l or h o r i z o n t a l a x i s a r e d i s c a r d e d s i n c e they cannot be c a t e g o r i z e d as: f a s t / a c c u r a t e s , i m p u l s i v e s , s l o w / i n a c c u r a t e s or r e f l e c t i v e s .  Table 1 Descriptive Statistics  f o r the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Performance  Measures  of the Sample  Boys X  Girls  a  b  SD  Range  X  SD  Range  104.34  4.05  26.3  104.06  3.70  13.10  93.40  10.03  46.0  94.51  8.17  36.0  Vocabulary  40.13  7.17  24.0  37.71  9.76  32.0  Comprehension  34.85  10.20  36.0  34.36  9.48  37.0  T o t a l Reading  74.98  16.53  57.0  72.04  18.72  67.0  Age (nos) Non-Verbal I.Q. Reading  a  n=48 n=45  (raw s c o r e s )  Table_ 2 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Performance Measures  f o r the Four Conceptual Tempo Groups  Impulsives  X  SD  Range  103.96  4.80  26.3  93.85  9.57  Vocabulary  a  Fast A c c u r a t e s  Slow I n a c c u r a t e s  SD  Range  105.27  2.75  9.14  46.0  93.29  6.77  21.0  92.69 9.81  34.64 10.13  32.0  40.36  7.12  21.0  Comprehension  28.97 10.88  37.0  36.64  8.01  T o t a l Reading  63.61 19.87  69.0  77.0  14.46  Age (mos) Non-Verbal I.Q. Reading  a  n=33  b  i / n=14  C  n=13  d  n=33  X  b  X  SD  c  d  X  SD  Range  104.31  3.36  13.10  37.0  94.79  9.61  40.0  41.62 6.33  23.0  41.63  6.49  25.0  27.0  37.15 6.95  19.0  38.39  7.88  32.0  44.0  78.77 12.96 40.0  80.0  13.62  52.0  103.42 3.52  Range  Reflectives  10.80  (raw s c o r e s )  40 Canadian Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t The  CLT a r e a s e r i e s o f t e s t s designed  (CLT) - Nonverbal B a t t e r y to a s s e s s  i n t e l l i g e n c e , and  ^ ^ c o m p r i s e d o f a V e r b a l and Nonverbal B a t t e r y . Only the Nonverbal t e r y was a d m i n i s t e r e d  i n t h i s study.  Bat-  I t i s comprised of t h r e e s u b t e s t s :  A ) p i c t o r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , B ) p i c t o r i a l analogy,  and C ) n u m e r i c a l  rel-  a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s b a t t e r y y i e l d s an e s t i m a t e of s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e . For a review o f i t ' s psychometric  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r e f e r to Buros  (1972, p.637). A u d i t o r y - V i s u a l I n t e g r a t i o n Test T h i s t a s k i n v o l v e s 9 combinations o f a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l and  temporal-  s p a t i a l patterns: VS-VS  VT-VT  A-A  VS-VT  VT-VS  A-VS  VS-A  VT-AT  AT-VT  T h i s t e s t was c o n s t r u c t e d by M a r s h a l l  (1979) a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c a t -  i o n s s e t out by Jarman (1977a). The t e s t c o n t a i n s 30 t e s t items p r a c t i c e items  f o r each task  and 5  (see Appendix D).  Each o f the 30 t e s t items f o r every one o f the 9 tasks was s c o r e d for  c o r r e c t c h o i c e s , w i t h no c o r r e c t i o n f o r g u e s s i n g . During  practice t r i a l s , their  reliability  o f the 9 AVI t a s k s u s i n g i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was  ( M a r s h a l l , Note 1 ) . When each t a s k was taken s e p a r a t e l y , the  reliability .68.  about the c o r r e c t n e s s of  choice.  The .875  the s u b j e c t s were informed  the 5  ranged from .56 t o .82, w i t h mean r e l i a b i l i t y  These r e l i a b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t of  data were d e r i v e d from a sample o f 144 grade 3  children. The AVI t a s k s have t h r e e b a s i c components: v i s u a l s p a t i a l (VS), a u d i t o r y temporal  (AT), and v i s u a l temporal (VT) elements. Each component  was  presented  and  one  i n two  p a t t e r n s , one  i n the i n i t i a l or standard  position  i n the f i n a l or comparison p o s i t i o n . Each component was  presented  t h r e e times as the standard  and  t h r e e times as the  then  comparison.  The v i s u a l s p a t i a l s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of ranging  i n number from t h r e e to seven. They were arranged  s i z e d groups w i t h s h o r t and standard  and  but v a r i e d o n l y i n arrangement  was  f o r the VS  a 2 second gap  and one  f o r the VS  on two  The  to the standard  stimulus  c a r o u s e l p r o j e c t o r . The  stimulus  and  by  subject's>task  was  the same or  (see Appendix E ) .  a u d i t o r y temporal s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of  beeps t h a t were r e c o r d e d  on c a s s e t t e tapes. They were s i m i l a r i n  ment to the dot p a t t e r n s w i t h r e g a r d to standard The  s e r i e s of  s l i d e s were p r o j e c t e d on a s c r e e n  to s t a t e whether the comparison s t i m u l u s i n the p a i r was different  dots  comparison. There  between the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the standard  Kodak 76 OH  The  (see Appendix D).  standard  the comparison s t i m u l u s . The an auto-focus  ).  the same number of  These v i s u a l - s p a t i a l dot p a t t e r n s were prepared s l i d e s , one  i n varying  l o n g gaps between them (eg  comparison p a i r s of s t i m u l i had  dots  tapes  but m o d i f i e d  and  arrange-  comparison c o n d i t i o n s .  ( a u d i t o r y temporal) were o r i g n a l l y made by Jarman (1977) f o r the M a r s h a l l  (1979) study. The  c a s s e t t e tapes and p l a y e d on a Wollensak 3M  tape  beeps were r e c o r d e d  on  recorder.  The v i s u a l temporal s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n s c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of f l a s h e s of l i g h t . They were s i m i l a r i n p a t t e r n i n g to the v i s u a l s t i m u l u s i n both  standard  and  comparison c o n d i t i o n s . The  spatial  beeps from  the  the a u d i t o r y temporal p a t t e r n s were used as the t r i g g e r i n g mechanism to produce the v i s u a l temporal p a t t e r n s of f l a s h e s of l i g h t . The l i g h t were produced from a s m a l l incandescent i n a l l 9 t a s k s was  lamp. The  f l a s h e s of  subject's  to s t a t e whether the comparison s t i m u l u s was  task  the same  or d i f f e r e n t  i n p a t t e r n i n g to the  standard.  Matching F a m i l i a r F i g u r e s Test - Form F The MFFT i s a n o n s t a n d a r i z e d by Kagan and and  match-to-sample task. I t was  h i s a s s o c i a t e s (Kagan et a l . , 1964)  i m p u l s i v e responding  constructed  to d i s c e r n r e f l e c t i v e  s t y l e s based upon t a s k s i n v o l v i n g a h i g h degree  of response u n c e r t a i n t y . I t i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by response time to the s e l e c t i o n on each s t i m u l u s c a r d and T h i s instrument  the number of e r r o r s .  i s comprised of 12 items (10 t e s t items and  p r a c t i c e i t e m s ) . The  2  items a r e l i n e drawings of f a m i l i a r f i g u r e s (see  Appendix A ) . Each item c o n t a i n s one  standard  and  s i x v a r i a n t s . The  i s asked to s e l e c t by p o i n t i n g to the one v a r i a n t t h a t i s the  first  child  . i d e n t i c a l to  standard.  Materials The m a t e r i a l s f o r the AVI  tasks  are:  (a) a Wollensak 3M (b) a Kodak 76 OH (c) s c o r i n g sheets  tape r e c o r d e r , model 2520 carousel s l i d e projector (see Appendix  E)  (d) syn-cued p r o j e c t o r and manual s w i t c h i n g system used d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l phase of each matching s e s s i o n , (these were c o n s t r u c t e d at the U.B.C. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Media  Centre).  The m a t e r i a l s f o r the MFFT a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e : (a) stopwatch (Heurer trackmaster,  model 8042) or  similar in calibration (b) s c o r i n g sheets  (see Appendix B).  one  Procedure (1979)  Marshall  met  w i t h the t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n h i s study. He  them g u i d e l i n e s a l o n g w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n manual f o r the  Gates-  M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . The  this  and  s c o r i n g was  classroom  144  s u b j e c t s i n the M a r s h a l l study were s e p a r a t e d  s c o r e s ) and  d i d not d i f f e r Each c h i l d  significantly  (based  36  on  CLT  Ex post f a c t o a n a l y s i s showed t h a t groups  in 1.0.  that p a r t i c i p a t e d  a number from one  and  s u b j e c t s , 3 6 g i r l s and  s u b j e c t s were then matched on i n t e l l i g e n c e  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  ( a c c o r d i n g to  r e a d i n g groups, a b l e  d i s a b l e d r e a d e r s . Each group c o n s i s t e d of 72 144  and  Intelligence Test.  s c o r e s on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e ) , i n t o two  boys. The  test  double checked by M a r s h a l l . M a r s h a l l both a d m i n i s t e r e d  s c o r e d the Canadian Lorge-Thorndike The  teachers administered  gave  and  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  i n the study was  to n i n e . That number determined  then randomly  assigned  the o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t -  i o n they would p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c c o r d i n g to the t a b l e s of complete s e t s of o r t h o g o n a l L a t i n Squares (see F i s h e r & Y a t e s , t a b l e s gave an approximated c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d Each matching t a s k a d m i n i s t e r e d T e s t i n g was  c a r r i e d out  giving  a prepared  script  i n February Marshall  and  finally,  pp.135-136).  Reading T e s t , CLT,  and  items  T e s t i n g was  students, using  started  1978.  the data c o l l e c t e d on the  the 9 AVI  the  testing  t a s k s to the p a r t i c i p a t i n g  completed i n e a r l y June o f forwarded  to s i x  matching t a s k s . The  a d i m i n i s t e r i n g the t e s t  (see M a r s h a l l , 1 9 7 9 ,  (1979)  o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  s e s s i o n s w i t h each s e s s i o n (except  i n v o l v e d i n t r o d u c i n g the AVI  them examples, and  These  by M a r s h a l l took about 2 0 minutes.  i n v o l v i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of two  procedure  p.72).  i n i s o l a t e d rooms w i t h groups of one  s t u d e n t s . There were f i v e t e s t i n g fifth)  1973,  Gates-MacGinitie  t a s k s to t h i s w r i t e r i n October,  1978.  Schools p a r i c i p a t i n g i n the M a r s h a l l study were c o n t a c t e d f o r p e r m i s s i o n to do a c o n t i n u a t i o n study. Seven s c h o o l s responded s c h o o l s , 100  f a v o u r a b l y . From thes  c h i l d r e n were made a v a i l a b l e .  The MFFT was  a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h i s w r i t e r and one U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia student. The  student was  thoroughly t r a i n e d i n t e s t  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by t h i s examiner b e f o r e t e s t i n g of the a c t u a l s u b j e c t s began. The MFFT i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t r e q u i r i n g T e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  i n accordance  minutes  w i t h those s e t out by Kagan (see  Appendix C ) . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e t t i n g r e q u i r e d two table  10-20  c h a i r s and a s m a l l  (4' X 6')set i n an i s o l a t e d a r e a . T e s t i n g began i n e a r l y November  and was  completed  by l a t e November of  1978.  CHAPTER IV  - -RESULTS AND The  concluding  chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major p a r t s :  r e s u l t s , 2) d i s c u s s i o n , and research. the  The  DISCUSSION  3)  summary and  implications  r e s u l t s section i s f u r t h e r subdivided  f i r s t presenting  a multiple regression  ability, on  i n t o two  The  and  chronological  task performance ( i . e . , 9 AVI  tasks).  age  may  T h i s was  assessment of AVI  t a s k performance f o r r e f l e c t i v e and  The  m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the one  way  findings.  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  Reading Test  and  The  reading  done by  t h e i r e f f e c t s i n order to get a l e s s  children.  regression  have  " p a r t i a l l i n g out"  exerted statistically  biased impulsive  performed to a s s e s s  second a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d  (ANOVA) on the  unitsby  multiple  performed t o c o n t r o l f o r the e f f e c t s t h a t  i n t e l l i g e n c e , sex,  future  analysis followed  a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of c o n c e p t u a l tempo. a n a l y s i s was  for  (1)  the of a  Gates-MacGinitie  a Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n between  dependent measures and  the v o c a b u l a r y and  of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t .  comprehension  Part  two  was  the  subtests  a post-hoc  analysis. Results P a r t One: The  Data A n a l y s i s  and  Evaluation  focus of the p r e s e n t study was  relationship  ( i f any)  an attempt to d i s c e r n what  e x i s t e d between the dimension of  i m p u l s i v i t y and m o d a l i t y matching. perform more p o o r l y  of H y p o t h e s i s .  On which t a s k ( s )  did  than t h e i r r e f l e c t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s ?  measures used were comprised of the  reflection-  f o l l o w i n g i n t r a and  impulsives The  dependent  intermodal  matching t a s k s :  1) a u d i t o r y - a u d i t o r y  (A-VS), 3) v i s u a l - s p a t i a l a u d i t o r y temporal  (A-A),  2) a u d i t o r y v i s u a l - s p a t i a l  (VS-A), 4) v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l  (VT-VT), 5) v i s u a l - s p a t i a l v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l  visual-temporal v i s u a l - s p a t i a l visual-temporal  (VT-VS), 7)  (VS-VT),  to p a r a l l e l the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s 1966;  Rudnick et a l . , 1972;  types  of t a s k s  auditory-temporal  (VS-VS).  These t a s k s were  ( M a r s h a l l , 1979;  Sterritt  et a l . , 1971).  the  or a u d i t o r y - t e m p o r a  more p o o r l y than r e f l e c t i v e s , one might  get  difficulties  children.  The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s (see Appendix F) was u s i n g the 9 AVI  t a s k s as dependent measures.  v a r i a n c e which was  c o n t r i b u t e d by  The  computed  percentage of  the s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s was  c u l a t e d f o r each dependent measure.  I t was  cal-  found t h a t the  so c o n t r i b u t e d by a l l s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s to 9 AVI  total tasks  was  R e s u l t s from the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s seemed to i n d i c a t e  t h a t AVI  t a s k performance was  reading a b i l i t y ,  intelligence,  not  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s are not  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by  sex or c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study.  The  too s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e M a r s h a l l  (1979)  these  That i s , t h e r e were an equal number of s u b j e c t s  were above and  the  s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s on  t a s k performance by matching h i s s u b j e c t s on each of  variable.  of  the  f i n d i n g s noted from the m u l t i p l e  c o n t r o l l e d f o r the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of these AVI  considered  By n o t i n g  an i n d i c a t i o n of the types of t a s k s t h a t l e a d t o r e a d i n g  13%.  (VT-AT),  Muehl & Kremenak,  (eg. v i s u a l - s p a t i a l , v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l  t h a t impulsivesperformed  variance  6)  (AT-VT), 8) v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l a u d i t o r y - t e m p o r a l  9) v i s u a l - s p a t i a l v i s u a l - s p a t i a l  for impulsive  visual-  below the mean on r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ,  who  intelligence,  47 and  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  who  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n Marshall's  a n a l y s i s was subjects' had  (1979) study.  background was  reading  y i e l d e d two  not  multiple  subject  measure used i n t h i s study  sub-measures of r e a d i n g  a f f e c t e d AVI  subject  found t h a t the v o c a b u l a r y v a r i a b l e ( 5 % ) , so i t was  or sex v a r i a b l e was  The  x 4 (conceptual  v o c a b u l a r y used as a  used as  research  2x4 and  Results  h y p o t h e s i s then, was and  not  c o n c e p t u a l tempo were no s i g n i f i c a n t  f a s t accurates,  organization  and  of the 9 AVI  supported by  r e f l e c t i v e s d i d not  i n t h e i r perceptual  analysis.  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f o u r  d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any  impulsives  a  multivariate  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was  groups ( r e f l e c t i v e s , slow i n a c c u r a t e s , d i d not  possible  covariate.  (p>.05).  interaction effect.  The  tempo) m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , w i t h  i n d i c a t e d , the main e f f e c t s f o r sex  insignificant  a  used as a f a c t o r i n a  m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s then, was  T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the As  the  comprehension.  i n a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of c o n c e p t u a l tempo.  interaction effects. (sex)  about  (Gates-MacGinitie)  m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of c o n c e p t u a l tempo to check f o r  2  regression  variables.  - v o c a b u l a r y and  task performance the most  gender of the  girls  a v a i l a b l e to determine whether they  a l l s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s , i t was  covariate  The  performed i n t h i s study because i n f o r m a t i o n  been c o m p l e t e l y matched on a l l the The  Of  as w e l l as an e q u a l number of boys and  tempo impulsives)  tasks.  The  t h i s f i n d i n g , that i s ,  appear to have any  differences  of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i .  48  Table 3 Multivariate Source  A n a l y s i s o f C o n c e p t u a l Tempo F  df  Probability  Sex  1.158  1,84  .334  C o n c e p t u a l Tempo  1.146  3,84  .290  SXCT  1.359  3,84  .119  MS w i t h i n A d j u s t e d f o r C o v a r i a t e Variable^  Variance  Standard D e v i a t i o n  1.  A-A  14.693  3.833  2.  A-VT  19.455  4.411  3.  A-VS  17.717  4.210  4.  VT-A  16.284  4.035  5.  VT-VT  14.338  3-787  6.  VT-VS  15.528  3.941  7.  VS-A  14.876  3.857  8.  VS-VT  11.134  3.337  9.  VS-VS  5.025  2.242  a  10  1  d f = 84  A-A A-VT A-VS VT-A VT-VT VT-VS VS-A VS-VT VS-VS  auditory-auditory a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l temporal auditory-visual spatial v i s u a l temporal-auditory v i s u a l temporal-visual temporal visual temporal-visual s p a t i a l visual spatial-auditory v i s u a l s p a t i a l - v i s u a l temporal visual spatial-visual spatial  49 P a r t Two:  Post-hoc A n a l y s i s  In o r d e r to v e r i f y the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a n a l y s i s , a one way Test.  Results  ANOVA was  (Tables 4 and  from the m u l t i v a r i a t e  performed on the Gates-MacGinite 5) i n d i c a t e t h a t of the f o u r tempo  groups, the r e f l e c t i v e s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than impulsives  (p<;.01) on both measures of the  ( v o c a b u l a r y and  comprehension).  f a s t a c c u r a t e s and  The  two  other tempo groups, the significantly  i n r e a d i n g performance from the r e f l e c t i v e s or i m p u l s i v e s .  non-verbal  I.Q.  and  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  what r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between AVI  (p<^. 01)  (see T a b l e s 6 and  e x i s t e d between the two ( v o c a b u l a r y and  were  and  reading.  Results  sub-measures of the  comprehension) and  T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t r e a d i n g and AVI something s i m i l a r , p o s s i b l y r e a d i n g a b i l i t y .  7).  then computed to determine  i n Appendix G) i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t  Reading Test  Nor  between the f o u r tempo groups on  A Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n was  (presented  the  Gates-MacGinitie  slow i n a c c u r a t e s d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s noted  Reading  relationship Gates-MacGinitie  8 of the 9 AVI  tasks.  t a s k s are measuring The  visual-spatial  visual-spatial  (VS-VS) t a s k d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the v o c a b u l a r y  and  comprehension s u b t e s t s of the  Reading T e s t .  The  VS-VS i s an i n t r a m o d a l i n t e g r a t i o n t a s k r e q u i r i n g  Gates-MacGinitie  a s u b j e c t to d i s c r i m i n a t e between d i f f e r e n t g r a p h i c symbols. from the s u b j e c t s ' raw  s c o r e s , which i n d i c a t e d v e r y few  the VS-VS t a s k , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g g r a p h i c symbols d i d not difficult  t a s k f o r these  subjects.  with  That i s , these  Judging  e r r o r s on seem to be  s u b j e c t s seemed  to have a l r e a d y mastered the s k i l l of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between  50  •Table 4 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual Tempo on the V o c a b u l a r y Subtest of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t  Source Conceptual  df  SS  MS  F  P  Tempo  between within total  3 89 92  972.226 5771.477 6743.742  324.079 64.849  4.998  0.003  Table 5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual Tempo on the Comprehension Subtest o f the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t  Source Conceptual Tempo between within total  df  3 89 92  SS  1664.313 7185.652 8849.965  MS  544.770 80.738  F  P  6.871  0.000  Note. S c h e f f e ' s t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d o n l y between r e f l e c t i v e s and i m p u l s i v e s and not f o r the o t h e r two groups ( f a s t a c c u r a t e s and slow i n a c c u r a t e s ) on the V o c a b u l a r y and Comprehension s u b t e s t s of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t .  Table 6 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual Tempo on the Non-Verbal I.Q. Measure  Source Conceptual Tempo between within total  df  3 89 92  SS  50.230 7635.293 7685.523  MS  F  P  16.743 85.790  0.195  0.899  Table 7 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary f o r Conceptual Tempo on C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age  Source Conceptual Tempo between within total  df  3 89 92  SS  26.473 1345.097 1371.570  MS  8.824 15.113  F  0.584  P  0.627  g r a p h i c symbols  (as based upon low e r r o r s c o r e s on VS-VS t a s k ) .  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of g r a p h i c symbols necessary  only f o r beginning reading  & Kremenak, 1966;  S t r a n g , 1968).  p l a y e d an important The  (VS-VS) i s a b a s i c  (1979),  skill  ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964;  I t seemed t h i s s k i l l no  Rudnick et a l . (1972), and  Sterritt  performance on any was  process.  a l s o noted by M a r s h a l l  e t a l . (1971).  A summary of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g : v a r i a b l e s of sex and  Muehl  longer  r o l e f o r these s u b j e c t s i n the r e a d i n g  r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of the VS-VS t a s k was  The  1)  the  c o n c e p t u a l tempo d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  affect  of the 9 a u d i o - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n t a s k s .  Nor  t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n among these v a r i a b l e s ; 2)  s u b j e c t s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than i m p u l s i v e s o n  the  reflective  vocabulary  and comprehension s u b t e s t s of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t ; 3) s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found and  to e x i s t between v o c a b u l a r y  comprehension on 8 of the 9 a u d i o - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n t a s k s .  Discussion Research f i n d i n g s have i m p l i c a t e d the dimension i m p u l s i v i t y i n a v a r i e t y of " l e a r n i n g problems". been noted  of  reflection-  Impulsives  to perform more p o o r l y than r e f l e c t i v e s i n r e a d i n g  ( B u t l e r , 1972;  Davey, 1971;  Hood & K e n d a l l , 1974;  Readence,  S h a p i r o , 1976), i n math ( C a t h c a r t & L i e d t h k e , 1969), and and decoding  of g r a p h i c symbols  S i e g e l e t a l . , 1973; to  have  Siegelman, 1969).  manifest behaviours  attentional deficits,  ( K i l b u r g e t a l . , 1973;  1976;  i n scanning  Nelson,  1969;  Impulsives were a l s o noted  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h y p e r a c t i v i t y , have emotional problems and an assortment  of other  problems t h a t h i n d e r l e a r n i n g (see E p s t e i n et a l . , 1975). When scanning  s t r a t e g i e s were a n a l y s e d ,  i m p u l s i v e s i g n o r e d two  and  the MFFT than r e f l e c t i v e s  one-half  times  (Drake, 1970;  i t was  noted  that  as many a l t e r n a t i v e s on  Siegelman, 1969).  They a l s o  devoted p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more time l o o k i n g at a l t e r n a t i v e s observed most and  their final  (McLauchlan, 1976;  selection.  When scanning  S i e g e l et a l . , 1973;  along with modelling  and  & Goodman, 1971), i t was  s t r a t e g i e s were  Z e l n i k e r et a l . , 1972)  s e l f - v e r b a l i z a t i o n techniques noted  taught  (Meichanbaum  t h a t task performance improved  rapidly.  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s (eg. p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n x i e t y , a t t e n t i o n , scanning  s t r a t e g i e s , e t c . ) may  have been f a c t o r s  c o n t r i b u t i n g to r e a d i n g impairment, t h i s study o n l y focused  on  the  f a c t o r of p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h then, began w i t h the p r o p o s a l t h a t  i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y of i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n might be t r a c e d to p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i .  deficits inadequate  To t e s t t h i s , n i n e  combinations of a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l sensory i n t e g r a t i o n t a s k s were used, s i n c e they were c o n s i d e r e d process  ( M a r s h a l l , 1979;  S t e r r i t t e t a l . , 1971).  Meuhl & Kremenak, 1966;  1979;  tasks  Sterritt  & Rudnick, 1966).  temporal matchings (VS-A, A-VS,  difficult.  The v i s u a l s p a t i a l and  1965;  Beery, 1967;  They noted  matchings to be the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t ; and  have noted  s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than poorer  ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964,  reading  Rudnick e t a l . , 1972;  Research on r e a d i n g and AVI  t h a t b e t t e r r e a d e r s perform on AVI  to p a r a l l e l the  readers  Marshall,  t h a t the v i s u a l  spatial  the combined v i s u a l s p a t i a l  and  VS-VT, VT-VS) to be moderately temporal matchings are  tasks  r e q u i r i n g the c h i l d to i d e n t i f y sounds made by d i f f e r e n t symbols (A-VS) and  i t s converse  procedure  (VS-A).  graphic  Additionally,  temporal matching t a s k s r e q u i r e the v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n of symbols w h i l e moving along a l i n e of p r i n t procedure (VT-VS).  (VS-VT) and  difficult.  (1979),  S t e r r i t t et a l . (1971) noted  tempral matchings (AT-VT, VT-AT, VT-VT, A-A)  graphic  i t s converse  S t u d i e s by Byrden (1972), M a r s h a l l  Rudnick e t a l . (1972) and  the  that  the  seem to be the most  These l a t t e r t a s k s r e q u i r e a s s o c i a t i n g the a u d i t o r y  p a t t e r n s i n speech to the a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c symbols i n p r i n t (which are s p a t i a l l y organized)  as one  print  procedure  is  (AT-VT), and  i t s converse  i s moving along a l i n e of (VT-AT).  The  simply a t a s k which r e q u i r e s moving along a l i n e of From the above d i s c u s s i o n , one  visual  s p a t i a l and  (except  the  would be the  good and poor r e a d e r s , w h i l e the  temporal matchings (VS-A, A-VS,  would be t a s k s which p r o b a b l y the l e a s t  print.  could speculate that  temporal matchings (AT-VT, VT-AT, VT-VT, A-A) which b e s t d i f f e r e n t i a t e  VT-VT  tasks combined  VS-VT, VT-VT)  d i f f e r e n t i a t e good and poor  readers  f o r the VS-VS t a s k ) .  R e s u l t s from the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the tempo groups d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e AVI  on any  of the 9 AVI  t a s k s are supposed to d i f f e r e n t i a t e good and poor  ( M a r s h a l l , 1979,  tasks.  Rudnick e t a l . , S t e r r i t t et a l . , 1971)  i n reading a b i l i t y .  results not  A post-hoc a n a l y s i s , however,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e f l e c t i v e s performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i m p u l s i v e s on the v o c a b u l a r y  and  Since  readers  from the above a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s the 4 tempo groups Hid differentiate  four  comprehension s u b t e s t s of  than the  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t . d i s c r e p a n t f i n d i n g s noted  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r  above i s t h a t the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and  the AVI t a s k s may be measuring d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s .  A Pearson  product-  moment c o r r e l a t i o n , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension s u b t e s t s of the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e and 8 of the 9 AVI t a s k s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  related.  R e s u l t s from the above a n a l y s e s then, seem t o i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g : 1)  G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t and AVI t a s k s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and  2)  r e f l e c t i v e and i m p u l s i v e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  but n o t on the AVI t a s k s .  As noted  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d good and poor r e a d e r s  related  on the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  e a r l i e r , AVI t a s k performance ( B i r c h & Belmont, 1964, 1965;  Beery, 1967; Kahn & B i r c h , 1967; M a r s h a l l , 1979; S t e r r i t t & Rudnick, 1966). S i m i l a r l y , the R-I dimension  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d good and poor  readers  ( B u t l e r , 1972; Davey, 1971; Hood & K e n d a l l , 1974; Kagan, 1965b; Readence, 1976; S h a p i r o ,  1976).  S i n c e these r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t AVI t a s k s and the R-I dimension can both d i f f e r e n t i a t e good and poor r e a d e r s but do not seem t o be r e l a t e d t o one another,  ( i . e . t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of  r e f l e c t i v e s or i m p u l s i v e s on any AVI t a s k s ) , the f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s can be put f o r t h : dimension  1) AVI t a s k s a r e r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g , 2) the R-I  i s r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g , b u t , 3) t h e r e appears t o be no  r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance on AVI t a s k s and performance on the MFFT. The R-I dimension  and the AVI t a s k s both possess  skills  that  are s i m i l a r t o those;'.required i n r e a d i n g , but they do seem t o possess skills  common w i t h each o t h e r .  I f the AVI t a s k s a r e a s s e s s i n g the  56 p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n mechanisms t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s of r e a d i n g , then t h e r e s u l t s from t h i s study  i n d i c a t e that reading  d e f i c i e n c i e s i n i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n a r e not based i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i .  perceptual  I f the AVI t a s k s a r e n o t  a s s e s s i n g p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n mechanisms i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s of r e a d i n g , d e f i c i e n c i e s i n i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n may be due t o t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l The  stimuli.  l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems p o s s i b l e based on the assumption  t h a t even though AVI t a s k s d i f f e r e n t i a t e good and poor  readers,  these t a s k s may do so on f a c t o r s other than p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I f the b a s i s of the above i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t , then i t i s difficult  t o s p e c u l a t e what the n a t u r e  of the AVI t a s k s a r e , t h a t  i s , what they a r e a c t u a l l y a s s e s s i n g . I f AVI t a s k s a r e a s s e s s i n g p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , then  reading  d e f i c i e n c i e s i n i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n may be due t o f a c t o r s o t h e r p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i .  than  While t h e r e may  be many such f a c t o r s (eg. m o t i v a t i o n , memory, a n x i e t y , e t c . ) , one f a c t o r worth i n v e s t i g a t i n g i s a t t e n t i o n . s t r a t e g i e s has noted  The l i t e r a t u r e on scanning  t h a t i m p u l s i v e s i g n o r e d two and one-half  as many a l t e r n a t e s on the MFFT than r e f l e c t i v e s Sigelman, 1969).  times  (Drake, 1970;  E p s t e i n et a l . (1975) a t t r i b u t e the i n e f f i c i e n t  scanning  s t r a t e g i e s of i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n noted  Sigelman  (1969) t o i m p u l s i v e s ' i n a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n a t t e n t i o n .  Z e l n i k e r e t a l . (1972) found  support  by Drake (1970) and  f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s by n o t h i n g  t h a t when i m p u l s i v e s were g i v e n l o n g e r time t o respond t o a t a s k , t h e i r performance decreased. measured v i s u a l scanning  Z e l n i k e r e t a l . (1972) i n a f u r t h e r study,  s t r a t e g i e s on the MFFT u s i n g a v i d e o - t a p e  recorder.  They noted  frequency  and  concluded  t h a t "...the  t h a t r e f l e c t i v e s had  d u r a t i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n .  number of b e h a v i o r s  inability  a significantly  higher  Z e l n i k e r et a l . (1972)  to s u s t a i n a t t e n t i o n i s one  t h a t would be a p p r o p r i a t e i n a  of a  denotative  d e f i n i t i o n of i m p u l s i v i t y " (p.335). I n v e s t i g a t i n g a t t e n t i o n a l d e f i c i t s i n i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n as source  of v a r i a t i o n e f f e c t i n g r e a d i n g performance may  one  be a p o s s i b l e  avenue of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n e x p l o r i n g r e a d i n g problems.  Summary and  Implications f o r Future  Research  T h i s study attempted to a s s e s s whether d e f i c i e n c i e s i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y of i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n might be t r a c e d to inadequate o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i . the l i t e r a t u r e on scanning c h i l d r e n were i n e f f i c i e n t ( K i l b u r g & S i e g e l , 1973; 1973;  Sigelman, 1969).  scanning  The  strategies. i n scanning  Nelson, I t was  1969;  r a t i o n a l e was  I t was and  perceptual  noted  decoding  d e r i v e d from  that  impulsive  of g r a p h i c  symbols  Siegel, Keiasic & Kilburg,  hypothesized  t h a t the  s t r a t e g i e s employed by i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n on  inefficient complex  v i s u a l s t i m u l i might b e . f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r  reading  deficiencies  1974;  ( B u t l e r , 1972;  Readence, 1976;  Shapiro,  Davey, 1972;  1976).  Hood & K e n d a l l ,  To t e s t t h i s , n i n e combinations of  a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n t a s k s were employed. These 9 t a s k s were d e v i s e d by Jarman (1977) and Marshall  (1979).  of r e a d i n g  (Beery,  The  9 AVI  1967;  Rudnick et a l . , 1972;  constructed  by  t a s k s were thought t o p a r a l l e l the  M a r s h a l l , 1979;  Sterritt  Muehl & Kremenak,  et a l . , 1971)  and  as such,  process  1966; they were  58 assumed to a s s e s s t h i s way,  we  the p e r c e p t u a l mechanisms e n t a i l e d i n r e a d i n g .  might be a b l e to t r a c e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g  of r e f l e c t i v e and perceptual  stimuli.  from the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of c o n c e p t u a l  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t .  slow a c c u r a t e s ,  by the 9 AVI  tasks.  d i d not  differentiate  That i s , d e f i c i e n c i e s i n  c h i l d r e n c o u l d not be  An  traced  s t i m u l i , then r e s e a r c h e r s may hypothesis  u s i n g other  perceptual  organization.  w i s h to pursue the p e r c e p t u a l  s e t s of t a s k s which p u r p o r t  to  t a s k s were a s s e s s i n g the p e r c e p t u a l  than p e r c e p t u a l  f a c t o r might be a t t e n t i o n a l d e f i c i t s . (eg. Drake, 1970;  which l e n d support c h i l d r e n may Further may  be The  be  organization  assess  organization  o r g a n i z a t i o n need to be c o n s i d e r e d  d e f i c i e n c i e s i n r e a d i n g performance of i m p u l s i v e  cites studies  AVI  o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l  complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i as r e l a t e d to the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s , other  to  a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t i f the 9  assessing perceptual  I f the 9 AVI  impulsives)  (reflectives,  o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l s t i m u l i as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d  tasks.  t a s k s were not  and  of the 9 AVI  r e a d i n g performance of i m p u l s i v e their perceptual  tempo i n d i c a t e d  That i s , the f o u r tempo groups  fast accurates,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any  performance  c h i l d r e n to t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n of complex v i s u a l  Results no  impulsive  In  of  then f a c t o r ( s ) i n explaining  children.  One  such  A r e v i e w by E p s t e i n e t a l . (1975)  Sigelman, 1969;  Z e l n i k e r et a l . ,  to the n o t i o n t h a t a t t e n t i o n a l d e f i c i t s i n  1972)  impulsive  sources of v a r i a t i o n e f f e c t i n g task performance.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n e x p l o r i n g the a t t e n t i o n a l d e f i c i t s  hypothesis  fruitful. r e s u l t s from the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of c o n c e p t u a l  tempo  seem s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the f a c t t h a t performance on the MFFT and  performance on the AVI  t a s k s can both d i f f e r e n t i a t e good and  r e a d e r s , but r e f l e c t i v e s and of  the 9 AVI  tasks.  i m p u l s i v e s d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e on  T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the AVI  the MFFT are both r e l a t e d to r e a d i n g i n some manner, but to for if  be no r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. r e s e a r c h e r s then,  to use  poor  I t would seem more  tasks  and  t h e r e seems expedient  the MFFT as opposed to the 9 AVI  they wished to d i f f e r e n t i a t e good and poor r e a d e r s .  any  tasks  This could  save them an i n v a l u a b l e amount of time s i n c e the MFFT takes  about  15 minutes to a d m i n i s t e r  AVI  tasks. of  i n comparison to 4 hours f o r the 9  However, i f d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n were r e q u i r e d about  reading d i f f i c u l t i e s  ( i . e . inadequate  i n t e g r a t i o n of a u d i t o r y -  temporal,  v i s u a l - t e m p o r a l or v i s u a l - s p a t i a l t a s k s ) , then the 9  t a s k s may  be more s u i t a b l e .  r e c e i v e d from AVI spurious  sources  AVI  I t i s assumed here t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n  t a s k performance i s i n f a c t d i a g n o s t i c and not  just  information.  F i n a l l y , r e s e a r c h e r s may the MFFT.  The  i n t h i s study,  wish to employ a more r e l i a b l e form of  low r e l i a b i l i t y of the MFFT, a l t h o u g h not i n v e s t i g a t e d i s of concern  to t h i s w r i t e r .  I t i s the o p i n i o n of  t h i s w r i t e r t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s c o n s i d e r employing a more r e l i a b l e form of the MFFT. test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y 1976).  The  of .52  c u r r e n t MFFT used ( A u l t et a l . , 1976;  More r e c e n t l y , C a i r n s and  a more r e l i a b l e form of the MFFT.  errors.  Egeland  Cammock (1978) have T h i s instrument  w i t h a two week s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y for  (form F) has  of .91  a  & Weinberg,  developed  c o n t a i n s 20  f o r l a t e n c y and  items, .89  A t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y over a f i v e week p e r i o d  y i e l d e d a c o e f f i c i e n t of .85 such an instrument r e f l e c t i v e s and  f o r l a t e n c y and  .77  for errors.  Using  would make the d i c o t o m i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n t o  i m p u l s i v e s more r e l i a b l e .  In summary, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the R-I dimension, and  AVI needs t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d  further.  By d i l e n a t i n g the above  r e l a t i o n s h i p we may be a b l e t o make some comment r e g a r d i n g v a l i d i t y of t h e p e r c e p t u a l  organization  hypothesis.  we w i l l be one step c l o s e r i n knowing the f a c t o r ( s ) or not c o n t r i b u t i n g  the  In t h i s way, contributing  to reading d e f i c i e n c i e s i n impulsive  children.  REFERENCE NOTE  1.)  M a r s h a l l , M.  P e r s o n a l communication, Oct. 5, 1978.  REFERENCES  Abravenel, E. The development of i n t e r s e n s o r y p a t t e r n i n g w i t h r e g a r d to s e l e c t e d s p a t i a l dimensions. Monographs o f the S o c i e t y f o r Research i n C h i l d Development, 1968, 33 (2, S e r i a l No. 118). A u l t , R., M i t c h e l l , C. & Hartmann, D. Some m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems i n r e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y research. C h i l d Development, 1976, 47, 227-231. Becker, J . & S a b a t i n e , D. 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Minneapolis: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , 1970. Plomin, R. & Buss, A. R e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 1973, _33, 726 Rae,  intelligence.  G. R e l a t i o n of a u d i t o r y v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n to r e a d i n g intelligence. J o u r n a l of G e n e t i c Psychology, 1977, 97_,  and 3-8.  Readence, J . C o g n i t i v e s t y l e and o r a l r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r of t h i r d grade c h i l d r e n . Reading Improvement, 1976, jil_, 175-181. R e a l i , N. & H a l l , V. E f f e c t s of success and f a i l u r e on the r e f l e c t i v e and i m p u l s i v e c h i l d . Developmental Psychology, 1970, 3_i 392-402. R e i l l y , D. A u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n , sex, and r e a d i n g achievement. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1971, 175-181.  81,  Rudnick, M. , S t e r r i t t , G. & F l a x , M. A u d i t o r y and v i s u a l rhythm p e r c e p t i o n and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . C h i l d Development, 1967, 38, 581-587. Rudnick, M. , M a r t i n , V. & S t e r r i t t , G. On the r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y of a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l , temporal and s p a t i a l , i n t e g r a t i v e and n o n - i n t e g r a t i v e s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n comparisons. Psychonomic S c i e n c e , 1972, 2_7, 207-210. S e i g e l , A. , K e i a s i c , K. & K i l b u r g , R. R e c o g n i t i o n memory i n r e f l e c t i v e and i m p u l s i v e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development, 1973, 44, 651-656. Seigelman, E. R e f l e c t i v e and i m p u l s i v e o b s e r v i n g b e h a v i o r . Development, 1969, 40, 1213-1222.  Child  S h a p i r o , J . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of c o n c e p t u a l tempo to r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t performance. J o u r n a l of Reading B e h a v i o r , 1976, 8 ( 1 ) , 83-87. S t e n n e t t , R. , Smithe, P. & Hardy, M. Language background, g u e s s i n g , mastery and type of e r r o r i n b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g . A l b e r t a J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n Research, 1972, 18(3), 180-189. S t e r r i t t , G., M a r t i n , V. & Rudnick, M. A u d i t o r y - v i s u a l and t e m p o r a l - s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n as determinants of t e s t d i f f i c u l t y . Psychonomic S c i e n c e , 1971, 23, 289-291.  S t e r r i t t , G. & Rudnick, M. A u d i t o r y and v i s u a l rhythm p e r c e p t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i n f o u r t h grade boys. P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s , 1966, 22, 859-864. S t r a n g , R. S k i l l f u l teaching: theory and p r a c t i c e . In: J. F i g u r e l ( E d . ) , F o r g i n g ahead i n r e a d i n g . Delaware: Intern a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968. Ward, W. R e f l e c t i o n - i m p u l s i v i t y i n kindergarten C h i l d Development, 1968, 39, 867-874.  children.  Weiner, A. & Adams, W. The e f f e c t of f a i l u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n on r e f l e c t i v e and i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of E x p e r i m e n t a l C h i l d Psychology, 1974, 17, 353-359.Wolfe, L. D i f f e r e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y . J o u r n a l of G e n e t i c Psychology, 1941, _58^ 57-62. Yando, R. & Kagan, J . The e f f e c t of t e a c h e r tempo on the C h i l d Development, 1968, 39, 27-34. Z e l n i k e r , T., J e f f r e y , W., m o d i f i c a t i o n of s e a r c h r e f l e c t i v e c h i l d r e n on Development. 1972, 43_,  child.  A u l t , R. & Parsons, J . A n a l y s i s and s t r a t e g i e s of i m p u l s i v e and the Matching F a m i l i a r T e s t . Child 321-335.  APPENDIX A Sample i t e m from MFFT  69 APPENDIX  A  APPENDIX B S c o r i n g sheet f o r MFFT  MATCHING FAMILIAR FIGURES TEST  Examiner:  Examinee:, School:  Sex: M  Year  Month  C h o i c e : IV  2)  Grade:  Day  Date of T e s t : Birthday: Age: Item: l)House  (1) Time:_  2)Scissor  (2) Time:  Choice:!) Choice:!)  3)Phone (3) Time: 4)Bear (4) Time:  3)  2) 2)  _4)  3) 3)  5)  4) 4)  6)_  5) 5)  6) 6).  C h o i c e : 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)  5) Tree  (2) Time:  _ C h o i c e : 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)  6) Leaf  (6) Time:  _ C h o i c e : 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)  C h o i c e : 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)  7) Cat  (3) Time:  8) Dress (5) Time:_ 9) G i r a f f e  (4) Time:  10) Lamp (5) Time: 11) Boat (2) Time:_ 12)Cowboy  (4) Time:  T o t a l Time:  C h o i c e : 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)  Choice: 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)_  C h o i c e : 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)_  _ Choice: 1)  2)  C h o i c e : 1)  Total  Correct:  2)  3)  4)  3)  4)  5) 5)  Total Error:  6)_ 6)  APPENDIX C Directions f o r administering the MFFT  73  APPENDIX C DIRECTIONS FOR  MATCHING FAMILIAR FIGURES  "I am g o i n g t o show you a p i c t u r e of something you know and  t h e n some p i c t u r e s t h a t l o o k l i k e i t .  You w i l l /have t o  p o i n t t o the p i c t u r e on t h i s bottom page ( p o i n t ) t h a t i s j u s t l i k e the one practice."  on t h i s top page ( p o i n t ) .  L e t ' s do some f o r  E shows p r a c t i c e items and h e l p s the c h i l d to  f i n d the c o r r e c t answer.  "Now  are a l i t t l e b i t h a r d e r .  You w i l l see a p i c t u r e on top  s i x p i c t u r e s on the bottom. the one  we  are g o i n g t o do some t h a t  F i n d the one  that i s j u s t l i k e  on top and p o i n t to i t . "  E w i l l r e c o r d l a t e n c y to f i r s t r e s p o n s e t o the  half-  second, t o t a l number of e r r o r s f o r each i t e m and the i n w h i c h the e r r o r s are made. I f wrong, E w i l l say, the one  and.  "No,  order  I f S i s correct, E w i l l praise.  t h a t i s not the r i g h t one.  t h a t i s j u s t l i k e t h i s one  (point)."  Find  C o n t i n u e to  code responses (not t i m e s ) u n t i l c h i l d makes a maximum of s i x e r r o r s or g e t s the i t e m c o r r e c t .  I f i n c o r r e c t , E w i l l show  the r i g h t answer. \  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a s t a n d t o p l a c e the t e s t bookl e t on so t h a t b o t h the s t i m u l u s and the a l t e r n a t i v e s are c l e a r l y v i s i b l e to the S a t the same t i m e . s h o u l d be p r a c t i c a l l y a t r i g h t a n g l e s to one Note:  I t i s d e s i r a b l e to e n c l o s e  i n o r d e r to keep the pages c l e a n .  The  two  pages  another.  each page i n c l e a r p l a s t i c  74  APPENDIX D Matching t a s k s t i m u l u s i n AVI  tasks  patterns  APPENDIX D  ITEM NUMBER  STIMULUS  COMPARISON  S A M E (S  DIFFERENT(D)  EXAMPLES 1 2 3 4 S  ••• ••• •• • • • • • • •  ••• • •• • •• • • • • ••  • •• • • •• • • •• • • •• • • • •• • •• • •• • • • • •• • ••• • • • •• •  • •• • • •• • •• •• • •• • • •• • • •• • •• • • • •• • • • ••• • • • •• •  S D D S 0  TEST ITEMS 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15  REST 16 17 18 19 20  • ••• • • •• • • • • •• • • • • •• • •• • •  S D D S D S S D S S  REST  • ••• • • ••• • • • •• • • • •• • • •• • •  )/  0 0 S 0 S  77  APPENDIX E S c o r i n g sheet  f o r AVI  task stimulus  matching  patterns  APPENDIX Name: ,  same  different  2  same  different  19  same  different  20  il  same  different  „ 5  same  g  same  different  same  different  same  different  21  same  different  different  22  same  different  same  different  23  same  different  y  same  different  24  same  different  g  same  different  25  same  different  ^  same  different  •^Q same  different  same  different  ^2 same  different  same  different  same  different  j  ^  ,same 15  different •  REST  ^  same  different  same  different  18  REST 26  35  same  different  same  different  APPENDIX F M u l t i p l e Regression Analysis  APPENDIX P The Amount o f V a r i a n c e Accounted f o r ^biy.sSna:k;j:ec&xV-SMacWles f o r each Dependent Measure NuSulsvfe^t V a r i a b l e s Dependent Measures 1.  A-A  2.  A-VT  3.  A-VS  4.  VT-A  5.  VT-VT  6.  VT-VS  7.  VS-A  8.  VS-VT  9.  VS-VS  Sex  .0459  I.Q.  .0293  Vocabulary  Comprehension  Chronological Age  .0940  .0940  .0867  .1618 .1132  .1278 .0726 .0444  .0309  .0305  Total  .1132 .0241  .1519  .1511  .2237  .1541  .1985  .1039  .1039  .0861  .1475  .0319  .0319  Total  .1494  .1361  .4985  .4184  .0241  Percentage  .016  .015  .05  .04  .0026  1.2264 .13  APPENDIX G I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of AVI Tasks and Reading  Measures  APPENDIX fi I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f AVI Tasks and Reading Measures 1  2  3  4  6  5  7  8  9  10  11  .610**  .568**  .612**  .605**  .485**  .625**  .430**  -.307**  -.283*  A-VT  .620**  .668**  .601**  .434**  .44.6**  .416**  .413**-  -.295*  -2.68*  3.  A-VS  -  .587**  .501**  .561**  .547**  .480**  .268*  -.317**  -.337**  4.  VT-A  -  .580**  .476**  .418**  .353**  .354**  -.358**  -.355**  5.  VT-VT  -  .515**  .480**  .487**  .383**  -.354**  -.389**  6.  VT-VS  -  .597**  .539**  •355**  -.359**  -.393**  7.  VS-A  -  .443**  .517**  -.322**  -.314**  8.  VS-VT  -  .424**  -.294*  -.278*  9.  VS-VS  -.105  -.130  10.  Vocabulary  11.  Comprehension  1.  A-A  2.  a  n=93  - .553**  -  -  .834**  * p<.05  *# p < . 0 0 1  

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