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Validation of the WISC-R for grade two French immersion students 1983

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VALIDATION OF THE WISC-R FOR GRADE TWO FRENCH IMMERSION STUDENTS by BARBARA JEAN NIELSEN B.A., Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Educational Psychology and S p e c i a l Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1983 c) Barbara Jean N i e l s e n , 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Educational Psychology and Special Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ^ ^ December 20, 1983 Date DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the appropriate- ness of the use of the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children-Revised (WISC-R) f o r assessment of French immersion students whose language of i n s t r u c t i o n at school has been s o l e l y French. To i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s problem, the WISC-R performance of 29 grade two French immersion students was compared to that of 29 r e g u l a r (English) program peers. The r a t i o n a l e f o r the present study was based on the f a c t that the WISC-R has been commonly administered to French immersion c h i l d r e n and i n t e r p r e t e d as i f t h i s group of c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i c a l to the population on whom the t e s t was standardized. While previous research has i n d i c a t e d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia students a t t a i n higher WISC-R means and l e s s variance than American students, no data were a v a i l a b l e to suggest how the p e r f o r - mance of t h i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t group, French immersion students, compared to that of students who received a l l formal education i n t h e i r f i r s t language, E n g l i s h . A l l students obtained p a r e n t a l consent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, came from homes i n which E n g l i s h was the dominant language, and had been continuously e n r o l l e d from ki n d e r g a r t e n through the end of grade two i n t h e i r current academic programs. Groups were matched f o r gender and educational l e v e l of the head of the household. A l l t e s t i n g and s c o r i n g were done by graduate students who had been t r a i n e d and supervised i n the use of the WISC-R. A m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance was used to t e s t the hypotheses of equal means and variances between the two groups on the 12 subtests and the Verbal and Performance f a c t o r s . A u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was used to t e s t the hypotheses of equal F u l l Scale means and variances between groups. Comparative r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the c e n t r a l tendancies and v a r i a n c e - covariance s t r u c t u r e f o r both the French immersion and the r e g u l a r program groups, matched f o r educational l e v e l of parents, were e s s e n t i a l l y the same. Both the immersion and r e g u l a r program groups had V e r b a l , Perform- ance and F u l l Scale IQs i n Wechsler's High Average category. Results of an a n c i l l a r y a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that the 58 c h i l d r e n i n the present study had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher F u l l Scale IQs than did a more re p r e s e n t a t i v e B r i t i s h Columbia sample whose mean IQs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than those published i n the WISC-R manual. I t was concluded that although i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i s con- founded by p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups, the use of the WISC-R appears not to be disadvantageous to higher SES French immersion c h i l d r e n whose main language of the home i s E n g l i s h . Further, i t was concluded t h a t , f o r B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n , use of the B r i t i s h Columbia norms f o r the age groups, 7%, 9h and l l ^ g i s more appropriate than use of the 1974 Wechsler norms. Research Supervisor: ... Dr. W. T. Rogers iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Background to the Problem 1 French Immersion Research 2 The Problem 5 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 Alternative Forms of French Immersion Programs 8 Other S i t u a t i o n - S p e c i f i c Influences 11 The E f f e c t of the Immersion Experience on English Language S k i l l s 12 The E f f e c t s of Immersion on Cognitive and I n t e l l e c t u a l Development 17 The Coquitlam Early French Immersion Program 24 III METHODOLOGY 27 The Sample 27 WISC-R 31 Testing 34 Scoring and Data Preparation 34 Data Analyses 35 IV RESULTS 38 The Sample 38 Comparative Results 39 A n c i l l a r y Analysis: Comparison to B.C. Results 42 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 44 Limitations of the Study 45 Conclusions and Implications for Practice 46 Implications for Further Research 47 REFERENCE NOTES 49 REFERENCES 50 APPENDIX A: Letter to Parents and Consent Form 54 APPENDIX B: Variance-Covariance Matrices and I n i t i a l Group Means and Standard Deviations 57 V LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Grade Two Enrolment i n the Dual-Track ( E n g l i s h / French) Schools 28 2 SES Level of Household by Language of I n s t r u c t i o n by Gender of Student 31 3 WISC-R Subtests 33 4 Form of R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Computed 36 5 SES Composition of Quasi-Matched Groups 39 6 Means, Standard Deviations and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Quasi-Matched Groups 40 7 Summary of A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Quasi-Matched Groups 41 8 Comparison of Holmes and N i e l s e n Mean IQ Scores \ . 42 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 L o c a t i o n and Enrolment of D u a l - T r a c k S c h o o l s i n the C o q u i t l a m School D i s t r i c t 29 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT F i n a n c i a l support f o r t h i s research was provided through a grant from the Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia. A d d i t i o n a l support was provided by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by means of a Summer Graduate Fellowship which enabled me to maintain f u l l - t i m e student status and consequently complete t h i s p r o j e c t more q u i c k l y than would have been p o s s i b l e otherwise. I wish to thank my graduate student colleagues and f r i e n d s who l e n t t h e i r ears and made valu a b l e comments, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the proposal stage of my t h e s i s . I am indebted to Pat P a l u l i s , G a i l Matiaszow, Barbara Malarczyk, and Margaret P o t t e r f o r t h e i r help i n t e s t i n g and data p r e p a r a t i o n . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to my br o t h e r , Robert Nicholson, and my sons, Dean and Darin N i e l s e n , f o r t h e i r encouragement. To my f r i e n d , Donna Welch, I wish to express my h e a r t f e l t a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r her moral support and f o r the many hours she spent t y p i n g . I a l s o wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to my research s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. Todd Rogers, f o r sharing h i s e x p e r t i s e and f o r h i s patience w i t h a non- s t a t i s t i c i a n , and to my committee members: Dr. Barbara Holmes who helped me c l a r i f y "the problem", and Dr. Robert Roy f o r h i s s t i m u l a t i n g questions. A f i n a l word of a p p r e c i a t i o n goes to the students, p r i n c i p a l s and teachers i n the Coquitlam school d i s t r i c t who contributed t h e i r time and energy to t h i s p r o j e c t . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background to the Problem The number of E a r l y French Immersion programs i n Canada has g r e a t l y increased w i t h i n the past decade. Although the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r students i n B r i t i s h Columbia to attend immersion programs may be more l i m i t e d than they are f o r students i n Quebec and Ontario, the number of programs i s i n c r e a s i n g y e a r l y . During the 1976-77 school year Coquitlam, V i c t o r i a and Vancouver were the only three d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r i n g E a r l y French Immersion. However, by the 1981-82 school year, the program was o f f e r e d i n 21 B r i t i s h Columbia d i s t r i c t s . When c h i l d r e n from the e a r l y immersion programs are r e f e r r e d f o r educational assessment, the d i a g n o s t i c i a n i s faced w i t h the d e c i s i o n as to which d i a g n o s t i c instruments are appropriate. Tests s p e c i f i c a l l y designed and v a l i d a t e d f o r use w i t h French immersion students are r a r e , as i n d i c a t e d i n a recent paper on t e s t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia by Conry, Conry, and D'Oyley (1982). These authors pointed out the need f o r demonstrated v a l i d i t y of French Immersion assessment devices. The Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education (OISE) has r e c e n t l y published s e v e r a l t e s t s of reading 2 comprehension s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r French immersion students which, i n a d d i t i o n to t e s t s designed f o r use with n a t i v e French-speaking students, are c u r r e n t l y being used by d i a g n o s t i c i a n s . However, although psycho- edu c a t i o n a l assessment procedures vary, the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children-Revised (WISC-R) i s r o u t i n e l y administered i n E n g l i s h to both monolingual (r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program) and b i l i n g u a l (French immersion program) students. Holmes (1981) compared WISC-R performance of B r i t i s h Columbia students to that of the American group and found that the B r i t i s h Columbia group had a higher mean and l e s s variance than Wechsler's group. However, no research i s a v a i l a b l e to i n d i c a t e that the WISC-R performance of c h i l d r e n i n French immersion programs i s comparable to that of e i t h e r t h e i r r e g u l a r (English) program peers i n B r i t i s h Columbia or that of the American s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. As the WISC-R i s a h i g h l y - v e r b a l t e s t of general i n t e l l i g e n c e and as French immersion students are exposed only to French i n the f i r s t three years i n the formal educational s e t t i n g , i s i t v a l i d to assume that t h e i r access to learned inf o r m a t i o n and t h e i r a b i l i t y to use and comprehend t h e i r f i r s t language i s equivalent to that of t h e i r monolingual peers so that performance on the WISC—R w i l l be unaffected? French Immersion Research Two major questions r e l a t e d to the above-stated concern about WISC-R v a l i d i t y a r i s e i n much of the current French immersion research: (1) Does immersion i n a second-language educational environment (French) a f f e c t competency i n the c h i l d ' s f i r s t language (E n g l i s h ) ? (2) What e f f e c t does enrolment i n an e a r l y French immersion program have on the i n t e l l e c t u a l and c o g n i t i v e development of the c h i l d ? 3 Findings r e l a t e d to these two questions w i l l be discussed i n greater d e t a i l i n Chapter I I , but r e s u l t s of current studies g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e no enduring negative e f f e c t s of e a r l y French immersion on e i t h e r English-language competency or c o g n i t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l development (Lambert & Tucker, 1972; Genesee, 1978; Swain & Lapkin, 1981). In a d d i t i o n some researchers have reported s u p e r i o r performance of French immersion students i n both f i r s t - l a n g u a g e s k i l l s and c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y (Peal & Lambert, 1962; Lambert & Tucker, 1972; B a r i k & Swain, 1976a). However, many of the stu d i e s r e p o r t i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s have involved only those students who have coped w i t h and survived the French immersion experience. The e f f e c t of French immersion on c h i l d r e n who are experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i s l e s s c l e a r ; there i s controversy i n the l i t e r a t u r e regarding the d e s i r a b i l i t y of maintaining these c h i l d r e n i n French immersion programs (Bruck, 1978, 1979; Cummins, 1979a; T r i t e s , 1976; T r i t e s & P r i c e , 1976, 1977 1978, 1980, 1981). These "problem" c h i l d r e n may be switched to the re g u l a r E n g l i s h s e t t i n g e a r l y i n t h e i r academic careers and, t h e r e f o r e , would be excluded from followup immersion s t u d i e s . These are a l s o the c h i l d r e n who are most l i k e l y to be r e f e r r e d f o r assessment and to whom the WISC—R would be administered. Two other research issues have been i d e n t i f i e d which c l e a r l y suggest c a u t i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of French immersion research r e s u l t s : random assignment to groups and f i n d i n g an appropriate c o n t r o l sample (Swain & Lapkin, 1981). Students are assigned to educational programs on the basis of numerous f a c t o r s which o f t e n operate outside the educational system. These f a c t o r s are not always r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e and are oft e n d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y . Rarely can c o n t r o l be exercised through the random assignment of students to educational programs. Since p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the immersion 4 program i s o p t i o n a l , parents make the d e c i s i o n whether or not to en r o l t h e i r c h i l d i n the French or the E n g l i s h program. Because the parents are re s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n , the uniqueness of the French immersion group comes i n t o question: who are these French Immersion c h i l d r e n and why have t h e i r parents chosen t h i s language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r them? For example, parent surveys suggest d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s which may i n d i c a t e t h a t French immersion c h i l d r e n are b r i g h t e r or more e x t r o v e r t e d , or more v e r b a l , or simply more able to cope than t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers (Swain & Lap k i n , 1981; McEachern, 1980). French immersion parents a l s o report fewer concerns than r e g u l a r program parents about t h e i r c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to cope w i t h an immersion c l a s s . Assignment to language of i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s not random. A l s o , s e l e c t i o n of a c o n t r o l group of students who w i l l be s i m i l a r i n a l l respects except f o r the language of i n s t r u c t i o n i s u n l i k e l y . Consequently, because of d i f f e r e n c e s between the two enrolment groups, one cannot simply i n t e r p r e t research to say that the b i l i n g u a l l y educated students are doing as w e l l as, or b e t t e r , or worse than what they would be doing i f they were schooled i n a re g u l a r E n g l i s h program. Another concern i s the nature of the t e s t s used i n research (Swain & Lapkin, 1981). Tests developed i n the United States may include content which i s u n f a m i l i a r to Canadian c h i l d r e n . While c r e a t i n g a problem f o r a l l assessments, t h i s may be f u r t h e r compounded f o r a group that i s l i n g u i s - t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the group on whom the t e s t was i n i t i a l l y standardized. Further, w h i l e Swain and Lapkin (1981) acknowledge that reference to t e s t norms i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e to the extent that the groups tested d i f f e r from the norming p o p u l a t i o n , they suggest that the use of standardized t e s t s i n research permits comparisons across programs. But, because of the many v a r i a t i o n s i n French immersion programs (discussed i n Chapter I I ) , comparison 5 of t e s t scores across programs appears questionable. In a d d i t i o n to v a r y i n g environmental circumstances, immersion programs d i f f e r i n the timing and i n t e n s i t y of French as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Therefore, French immersion research may be e s s e n t i a l l y community s p e c i f i c . Jacobovits (1972) suggests t h a t because communities vary g r e a t l y , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may not be v a l i d from one community to the next. At t h i s p o i n t , c l a r i f i c a t i o n of two terms i s necessary. In t h i s r eport the term "monolingual" r e f e r s to c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program, and the term " b i l i n g u a l " r e f e r s to students e n r o l l e d i n the French immersion program. " B i l i n g u a l " students are being provided w i t h " s c h o o l i n g " f u l l y or p a r t l y i n a second language w i t h the object of making students p r o f i c i e n t i n the second language (Stern, 1972). However, a l l such b i l i n g u a l programs a l s o have the maintenance of the f i r s t language as an e q u a l l y important goal of the t o t a l program. The Problem Coquitlam i s a predominantly English-speaking community located w i t h i n the greater Vancouver area of B r i t i s h Columbia. This d i s t r i c t pioneered e a r l y French immersion programs i n t h i s province and at the time of t h i s study o f f e r e d a program i n which French was the sole language of i n s t r u c t i o n from k i n d e r g a r t e n through grades one and two. Grade three marked the gradual i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h and by the end of elementary school (grade seven) Language A r t s was taught i n both languages and core subjects i n e i t h e r French or E n g l i s h . Therefore, although at the end of elementary school students were working i n both languages, during the f i r s t three years (K - 2) of elementary school the c h i l d r e n learned to read and w r i t e e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e i r second language. 6 The WISC-R i s c u r r e n t l y being used r o u t i n e l y f o r psycho-educational assessment of E a r l y French Immersion c h i l d r e n i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t , although i t s v a l i d i t y f o r t h i s purpose has not been f o r m a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . Current research using other standardized instruments i n d i c a t e s that c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n French immersion programs g e n e r a l l y do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e i r monolingual peers i n e i t h e r t h e i r f i r s t - l a n g u a g e s k i l l s or t h e i r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y when v a r i a b l e s such as age, gender and environmental f a c t o r s are considered. With the assumption that the WISC-R performance of these b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from th a t of t h e i r monolingual peers, t e s t users administer the t e s t to c h i l d r e n from both language groups and report scores based on the American norms reported i n the t e s t manual. But, as pointed out e a r l i e r , Holmes (1981) found d i f f e r e n c e s between the WISC-R performance of B r i t i s h Columbia students and that of the Wechsler s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. However, no inf o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e as to whether B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n who have received a l l of t h e i r formal education i n French perform the same as t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers on t h i s h i g h l y - v e r b a l English-language t e s t of general i n t e l l i - gence. How appropriate are the inferences which are being made from the WISC-R t e s t r e s u l t s f o r c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n French immersion programs i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t ? To i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s question, the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were t e s t e d : (a) % = M E -> where M i s the 12 x 1 vector of mean scores on the 12 subtests of the WISC-R; F denotes the French immersion sample, and E denotes the re g u l a r (English) sample; and 7 <b> ^ F =^E where ^ i s a 12 x 12 variance-covariance matrix w i t h the variances of the 12 subtests along the p r i n c i p a l diagonal and the covariances among the 12 subtests i n the o f f - d i a g o n a l p o s i t i o n s . The purpose of t h i s study, then, was to compare the WISC-R performance of a group of E a r l y French Immersion students w i t h that of a quasi-matched group of t h e i r r e g u l a r (English) program peers. Students were test e d at the end of t h e i r grade two year, at which time they had been e n r o l l e d continuously i n t h e i r language of i n s t r u c t i o n program f o r about two and one-half school years. One f u l l year of half-day kindergarten i s t r e a t e d as one-half school year. At t h i s p a r t i c u l a r educational l e v e l , the French immersion c h i l d r e n had not been exposed to any formal English-language i n s t r u c t i o n ; nor had the re g u l a r (English) program students been exposed to any formal French-language i n s t r u c t i o n . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The review of the l i t e r a t u r e i s focussed upon two major concerns re l e v a n t to WISC-R performance: the e f f e c t of the French immersion exper- ience on English-language s k i l l s and on i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by v a r i o u s t e s t s of one or more f a c e t s of c o g n i t i v e development. However, because i t i s important to consider the i n f l u e n c e s which l i m i t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of current research r e s u l t s , the review begins f i r s t w i t h an overview of a l t e r n a t i v e forms of French immersion programs, followed by a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s . L i t e r a t u r e regarding the two major concerns i s then reviewed and, f i n a l l y , a review i s presented of French immersion research i n Coquitlam, the d i s t r i c t from which the sample f o r t h i s study was s e l e c t e d . A l t e r n a t i v e Forms of French Immersion Programs There are three cat e g o r i e s of French-as—a-second-language programs a v a i l a b l e i n Canada: core, extended and immersion. In the core program, French i s taught f o r a short period (20 to 40 minutes) once a day. The 9 extended programs include one or two subjects taught i n French i n a d d i t i o n to the core component. The immersion programs are those i n which 50 to 100% of the students' academic content i s taught using French as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . Because of the p a r t i c u l a r focus of t h i s study, subsequent d i s c u s s i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d to the nature and e f f e c t s of immersion programs. Three v a r i a t i o n s of the immersion program are: e a r l y t o t a l immersion, e a r l y p a r t i a l immersion (also r e f e r r e d to as the b i l i n g u a l program), and l a t e French immersion. The three a l t e r n a t i v e s vary not only between forms but also w i t h i n the same form i n the timing and i n t e n s i t y of French as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . In e a r l y French immersion the percentage of time spent i n French i n kind e r g a r t e n and grade one i s 100%. Following grade one, there are s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s among programs, although t h e i r general s t r u c t u r e s are s i m i l a r . For example, i n Ontario a d a i l y period of E n g l i s h language a r t s may be introduced i n grade two or three; at grade f i v e French remains the language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r 60 to 80% of the school day; the percentage of French drops at grade s i x to about 40 to 50%; and i n grades seven and eight h a l f of the curr i c u l u m i s taught i n French and h a l f i n E n g l i s h (Swain & Lapkin, 1981). E n g l i s h i s of f e r e d as e a r l y as grade two i n some d i s t r i c t programs (Lambert & Tucker, 1972) or as l a t e as grades four and f i v e i n others (Genesee, 1982). In some d i s t r i c t s the E n g l i s h p o r t i o n of the program surpasses that of the French p o r t i o n by grade s i x while i n others the French p o r t i o n exceeds or equals the E n g l i s h p o r t i o n throughout the elemen- t a r y grades. Students i n some d i s t r i c t s are of f e r e d course options i n secondary school intended to maintain and enhance t h e i r second-language s k i l l s . Genesee (1982), i n attempting to summarize these v a r i a t i o n s , d escribes the e a r l y immersion program as having three stages: an immersion 10 phase ( p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h to the program), a b i l i n g u a l phase (when both E n g l i s h and French are used i n varying p r o p o r t i o n s ) , and a maintenance phase (when s e l e c t courses are taught i n French at the secondary s c h o o l ) . Swain and Lapkin (1981) report v a r i a t i o n s between e a r l y p a r t i a l immer- s i o n programs. In E l g i n County, Ontario, the program begins at the grade one l e v e l ( f o l l o w i n g a half-day E n g l i s h kindergarten) w i t h the two languages of i n s t r u c t i o n used e q u a l l y throughout the students' elementary s c h o o l i n g . The Ottawa program d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y i n that the program begins w i t h a f u l l - day kindergarten i n which 50% of the school day i s i n French and 50% i n E n g l i s h . Genesee (1982) describes two types of l a t e immersion, a one-year and a two-year o p t i o n . The one-year program begins i n grade seven w i t h 85% of the curriculum taught i n French followed by one or two French courses i n each of grades eight to eleven. In the two-year program, a l l i n s t r u c t i o n (with the exception of E n g l i s h language a r t s ) i s i n French followed by two French courses per year i n grades nine and ten and one course i n grade eleven. In B r i t i s h Columbia, l a t e immersion programs s t a r t i n grade s i x or seven and continue through grade e i g h t . The percentage of time i n which French i s the language of i n s t r u c t i o n v a r i e s among d i s t r i c t s . For example, i n Coquitlam i n s t r u c t i o n i s 100% French, while i n Surrey i t i s 80% and i n Langley i t i s 60% ( P f e i f f e r , 1980). V a r i a b i l i t y i n the s t r u c t u r e of programs i s more pronounced f o r l a t e immersion than f o r e a r l y immersion (Swain & Lapkin, 1981); however, f o r the most part the i n t e n s i v e "dose" of French comes i n the i n i t i a l year or two years of both programs, with the amount of exposure to i n s t r u c t i o n i n French remaining constant or tape r i n g o f f i n subsequent years. A l s o , w h i l e parents make the d e c i s i o n to e n r o l l t h e i r 11 c h i l d r e n i n e a r l y immersion, l a t e immersion students themselves g e n e r a l l y make t h i s d e c i s i o n "with a l i t t l e help from t h e i r f r i e n d s , parents, and teachers" (Swain & Lapkin, 1981, p.43). Several researchers have compared students i n e a r l y immersion programs w i t h students i n l a t e immersion programs. For example, Bruck, Lambert, & Tucker (1977) found that e a r l y immersion students represented a much broader range of s c h o l a s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s than d i d the s e l f - s e l e c t e d students i n the l a t e r immersion program. Genesee (1982) reported that there are r e l a t i v e l y few s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n French language p r o f i c i e n c y between comparable groups of e a r l y t o t a l immersion and two—year l a t e immersion students when evaluated at the end of grades ei g h t to eleven. He suggested that older l e a r n e r s may be f a s t e r second-language learners because of t h e i r greater c o g n i t i v e and/or l i n g u i s t i c m a t u r i t y . This maturity may account f o r the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s of l a t e immersion groups who by v i r t u e of program s e l e c t i o n have spent l e s s time i n the French-language i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g than e a r l y immersion students ( P f e i f f e r , 1980; Swain & B a r i k , 1981). Other S i t u a t i o n - S p e c i f i c Influences In a d d i t i o n to the numerous program v a r i a t i o n s , there are a l s o e n v i r o n - mental f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e research r e s u l t s . One f a c t o r i s the amount of exposure to the French language both at school and i n the community. Some programs are housed i n d u a l — t r a c k schools where both French and E n g l i s h are o f f e r e d as languages of i n s t r u c t i o n , while others are located i n immer- s i o n " c e n t r e s " where French i s the only language of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the school. Research suggests that French-language b e n e f i t s may accrue to e a r l y French immersion students who study i n "centres"; that i s , i n schools 12 where most a c t i v i t i e s o utside the classroom occur i n French (Lapkin, Andrew, Harley, Swain and Kamin, 1981). When comparing the French competence of immersion students i n Canadian c i t i e s where there i s a high percentage of French speaking r e s i d e n t s compared to those i n c i t i e s with a low percentage of French speakers, Swain (1981) found no appreciable d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. However, program and environmental d i f f e r e n c e s have led other researchers to suggest t h a t , i n many cases, French immersion research i s s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c and may not be g e n e r a l i z a b l e (Jakobovits, 1972; Shapson & Kaufman, 1978) . In summary, when i n t e r p r e t i n g French immersion research r e s u l t s , one must be aware that there may be s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n one study and those i n another which l i m i t the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the groups. Some of the v a r i a b l e s to be considered when i n t e r p r e t i n g research r e s u l t s are: form of immersion program, English/French i n s t r u c - t i o n a l time r a t i o , t i m i n g of English-language i n t r o d u c t i o n to the program, and the language composition of both the school and community f o r which the sample was s e l e c t e d . Immersion students i n the present study had 100% French i n s t r u c t i o n at school and were e n r o l l e d i n d u a l - t r a c k (French and English) schools i n a predominantly English-speaking community. The E f f e c t of the Immersion Experience on E n g l i s h Language S k i l l s The s u b s t a n t i a l amount of French immersion research completed during the past decade i s i n part a r e a c t i o n to the concern of both parents and educators regarding the p o s s i b l e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on the development of the E n g l i s h language s k i l l s of c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n these programs. The concern i s based on the assumption that i f considerably l e s s t o t a l time i s spent through the medium of E n g l i s h , then E n g l i s h s k i l l s must i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r . 13 Many researchers between 1920 and 1960 reported that i n comparison to u n i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n tended to perform more poorly i n s c h o o l , scored lower on the v e r b a l p a r t s of IQ t e s t s and had "language handicaps" (Darcy, 1953; Peal and Lambert, 1962). However, i n contrast to these e a r l i e r "negative" s t u d i e s , many of which were poorly designed, recent evaluations from across Canada c o n s i s t e n t l y show that although immersion students tend to l a g behind t h e i r monolingual peers i n E n g l i s h language a r t s u n t i l formal E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i s introduced, they q u i c k l y catch up i n t h e i r l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and may even surpass t h e i r peers by grade f i v e or s i x . A number of l o n g i t u d i n a l studies i n d i c a t e that elementary school c h i l d r e n whose f i r s t language i s E n g l i s h experience no l a s t i n g setbacks i n f i r s t - l a n g u a g e competence or academic achievement as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e a r l y immersion programs i n which a l l or much of t h e i r school c u r r i c u l u m i s taught v i a a second language (Lambert & Tucker, 1972; Genesee, 1978). Even i n the double-immersion (French and Hebrew) program evaluated by Genesee and Lambert (1983) , c h i l d r e n who had f i r s t - l a n g u a g e (English) i n s t r u c t i o n postponed u n t i l at l e a s t grade three d i d not evidence any long-term det r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on f i r s t - l a n g u a g e development as measured by reading and s p e l l i n g t e s t s . Cummins (1983) suggests that there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i n French and achievement i n that language, but that there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n - ship between E n g l i s h achievement and i n s t r u c t i o n a l time through E n g l i s h . Lambert and Tucker (1972) compared the l i n g u i s t i c development of English-speaking Quebec students i n a p i l o t French immersion program w i t h that of t h e i r monolingual peers from kindergarten through grade four. R e sults i n d i c a t e d that immersion c h i l d r e n achieved s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o f i c i e n c y i n the French language without d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s e i t h e r to E n g l i s h language 14 s k i l l s or to progress i n other academic areas. Students i n t h i s e x p e r i - mental program were from an upper-middle-class area of Montreal and parents were very i n v o l v e d and committed to the program. Lambert, Tucker, and d'Anglejan (1973) reported s i m i l a r p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s f o r a follow-up study of these c h i l d r e n i n grade f i v e . Standardized achievement t e s t scores f o r both the French and E n g l i s h groups averaged about one standard d e v i a t i o n above the published mean. Swain and Lapkin (1981) summarized ten years of research on b i l i n g u a l education i n Ontario and concluded that the E n g l i s h language s k i l l s of both e a r l y t o t a l and e a r l y p a r t i a l immersion students lagged behind those of t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h language a r t s . For l a t e immersion students, the d u r a t i o n of the lag was sho r t e r or did not occur at a l l . A f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h language a r t s to the curriculum, e a r l y immersion students performed as w e l l as, or b e t t e r than, r e g u l a r program c o n t r o l groups on standardized t e s t s of E n g l i s h language s k i l l s . I t has been suggested (Lambert and Tucker, 1972; Cummins, 1979b) that reported advantages i n E n g l i s h experienced by e a r l y t o t a l immersion students i n the middle and upper elementary grades can perhaps be explained by t h e i r knowledge of two d i f f e r e n t language systems, a knowledge which may permit them to compare and contrast French and E n g l i s h and heighten t h e i r o v e r a l l l i n g u i s t i c awareness. B a r i k and Swain (1974, 1975, 1976b) found immersion c h i l d r e n i n the primary grades i n Ontario to lag i n the development of E n g l i s h language l i t e r a c y s k i l l s compared to t h e i r monolingual peers; however, immersion students made adequate progress i n mathematics. The immersion group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the comparison group on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achieve- ment Test (MAT) A r i t h m e t i c computational items but not on v e r b a l A r i t h m e t i c 15 items. Students were g e n e r a l l y from the middle to upper-middle s o c i o - economic c l a s s ; c h i l d r e n w i t h hearing, perceptual or r e l a t e d problems were excluded from the t e s t i n g ; and no in f o r m a t i o n was provided regarding drop- outs from the program. Genesee (1978) found that immersion students i n grades one to three performed at an equivalent l e v e l to that of t h e i r monolingual peers on t e s t s of vocabulary, word a s s o c i a t i o n s , l i s t e n i n g comprehension, and s t o r y t e l l i n g . Genesee, Tucker, and Lambert (1975) reported that immersion students i n k i ndergarten and grades one and two appeared to i n t e r a c t e f f e c t i v e l y i n conversation and to be more s e n s i t i v e to the communication needs of l i s t e n e r s than t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers. A l l c h i l d r e n were n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers and were tested i n E n g l i s h . In t h i s study, c h i l d r e n were asked to e x p l a i n how to play a game to two d i f f e r e n t l i s t e n e r s , one b l i n d f o l d e d and one not b l i n d f o l d e d . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n terms of how many r u l e s they mentioned to each l i s t e n e r ; however, the immersion students mentioned more about the m a t e r i a l s of the game to the b l i n d f o l d e d versus the sighted l i s t e n e r than d i d the monolingual group. Kaufman and Shapson (1975) reported that B r i t i s h Columbia immersion students compared to t h e i r E n g l i s h counterparts d i d not perform as w e l l on the reading, word knowledge, word a n a l y s i s , and s p e l l i n g MAT subtests p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h language a r t s i n grade three. French immersion students i n grades one and two d i d score w i t h i n the average range according to t e s t norms; however, the r e g u l a r program students scored above average (70 - 80 p e r c e n t i l e range). The f i n d i n g that the immersion students achieved scores i n the average range i n s p i t e of r e c e i v i n g no formal English-language i n s t r u c t i o n at school was i n t e r p r e t e d by the researchers as evidence of t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g from the French educational s e t t i n g to an E n g l i s h s i t u a t i o n . This t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g from one language to the other i s evident i n the r e s u l t s of other s t u d i e s as w e l l . Curriculum i n the primary grades focusses mainly on language a r t s and mathematics; t h e r e f o r e , research t e s t i n g has concentrated on these areas. Swain and Lapkin (1981) reported r e s u l t s f o r 38 separate group admini- s t r a t i o n s of standardized mathematics achievement t e s t s i n Ontario f o r students i n grades one through e i g h t . At the grade three l e v e l , i t appeared t h a t i n some cases the performance of immersion c h i l d r e n was at a lower l e v e l than that of t h e i r monolingual peers on problem s o l v i n g tasks ( r e - q u i r i n g l i t e r a c y s k i l l s ) ; however, the ma j o r i t y of comparisons across the e n t i r e age range i n d i c a t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. This f i n d i n g suggests that immersion c h i l d r e n were able to l e a r n mathematics i n French and t r a n s f e r the knowledge acquired i n a French context to an E n g l i s h context. Reviewing a decade of research, Swain and Lapkin (1981) concluded that i n the long run immersion students were "able to maintain standards of achievement c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those of t h e i r English-educated peers" (p.106), but that e a r l y i n the immersion program t h e i r second language s k i l l s may be " i n s u f f i c i e n t to deal w i t h the com p l e x i t i e s of the subject m a t e r i a l taught to them i n French" (p.106). However, given the high SES st a t u s of many French immersion c h i l d r e n ( T r i t e s & P r i c e , 1980), environmental f a c t o r s may provide s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s to develop English-language s k i l l s to a l e v e l r e q uired f o r the complexities of WISC-R ta s k s . 17 The E f f e c t s of Immersion on C o g n i t i v e and I n t e l l e c t u a l Development E a r l y s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i l i n g u a l i s m and c o g n i t i v e development f r e q u e n t l y reported a negative a s s o c i a t i o n between b i l i n g u a l i s m and both v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and academic s k i l l s . Many e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded that b i l i n g u a l students suf f e r e d from what was termed a "language handicap" or "mental confusion" (Darcy, 1953). However, i n the m a j o r i t y of these s t u d i e s socio-economic status and student p r o f i c i e n c y i n the language of the t e s t were not considered. Many st u d i e s were c a r r i e d out w i t h minority-language c h i l d r e n whose f i r s t language (LI) was g r a d u a l l y being replaced by a more dominant and p r e s t i g i o u s second language (L2). Lambert (1975) c a l l s t h i s form of b i l i n g u a l i s m " s u b t r a c t i v e " , whereas French immersion c h i l d r e n are g e n e r a l l y i n an " a d d i t i v e " s i t u a t i o n . For French immersion c h i l d r e n both languages have s o c i a l value and respect i n the b i l i n g u a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Because the b i l i n g u a l student's L I i s dominant or at l e a s t p r e s t i g i o u s , i t i s i n no danger of replacement by L2; the immersion experience adds another s o c i a l l y r elevant language to the student's repertory of s k i l l s . Further, McLaughlin (1978, pp.168-171) purports that the i n f e r i o r i t y of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i s a f u n c t i o n of the type of t e s t used: i f non-verbal m a t e r i a l s are used, no d i f f e r e n c e s between groups are found; however, i f m a t e r i a l s are v e r b a l , the monolingual c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y score h i g h e r . Thus, t o a large extent, poor research designs have l e d to r e s u l t s which i n d i c a t e that b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n o b t a i n lower IQ scores than u n i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n . Peal and Lambert (1967) reviewed studies which attempted to determine whether monolingual and b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d i n i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by standardized t e s t s . They found that many researchers concluded that b i l i n g u a l i s m had a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . 18 The b i l i n g u a l c h i l d was described as being hampered i n h i s performance on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i n comparison w i t h the monolingual c h i l d . Some studies i n d i c a t e d that b i l i n g u a l i s m had l i t t l e or no i n f l u e n c e on i n t e l l i g e n c e . Only two e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s suggested that b i l i n g u a l i s m had a favorable e f f e c t on i n t e l l i g e n c e . To i n v e s t i g a t e the i n t e l l e c t u a l consequences of b i l i n g u a l education, Peal and Lambert (1967) compared ten-year-old French-English b i l i n g u a l and French monolingual c h i l d r e n i n middle—class Montreal schools and found the b i l i n g u a l students to be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r , to possess greater v e r b a l s k i l l s , to e x h i b i t greater mental f l e x i b i l i t y , to be more f a c i l e at concept formation, and to achieve higher grades i n school. B i l i n g u a l students scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on a l l v e r b a l and most non-verbal p a r t s of t e s t s . On none of the subtests d i d the monolingual students score higher than the b i l i n g u a l s . However, the method of s e l e c t i o n of the b i l i n g u a l group may have led to a sample of c h i l d r e n who were more i n t e l l i g e n t to begin w i t h than the monolingual group; they se l e c t e d only b i l i n g u a l students whose E n g l i s h (L2) was equivalent to t h e i r French (LI) as measured by t e s t s i n E n g l i s h and French. The authors speculated that since b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n have two symbols f o r every o b j e c t , they conceptualize environomental events i n terms of t h e i r general p r o p e r t i e s without r e l i a n c e on l i n g u i s t i c symbols and, t h e r e f o r e , they are more s k i l l e d i n a b s t r a c t concepts and r e l a t i o n s . More recent s t u d i e s have focussed on the comparison of French-English b i l i n g u a l students w i t h E n g l i s h monolingual students. Lambert and Tucker (1972) administered the Raven's Progressive Matrices to both b i l i n g u a l and monolingual (English) c h i l d r e n i n St. Lambert, Quebec, at the beginning of grade one and found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. Retested at the end of grade one, the p i l o t French group had 19 s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores than an E n g l i s h c o n t r o l group, while a l a t e r group of grade one immersion students d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e i r E n g l i s h peers. In a d d i t i o n , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on the t o t a l scores of the Lorge-Thorndike group i n t e l - l i g e n c e t e s t at the end of grade one. No signs of any i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i t or r e t a r d a t i o n were evident i n follow-up y e a r l y t e s t i n g of t h i s group of Montreal c h i l d r e n . Lambert, Tucker, and d'Anglejan (1973) reported s i g n i f i c a n t advantages to b i l i n g u a l s on a s e r i e s of c r e a t i v i t y measures by the end of t h e i r primary years i n the S t . Lambert program. Immersion c h i l d r e n had higher scores than t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers on l e t t e r sequence, rhyming d e f i n i t i o n s , and unusual uses t e s t s , which a l l r e q u i r e r a p i d i t y and cleverness i n generating novel i d e a s . Performance on the Lorge-Thorndike Verbal B a t t e r y , which re q u i r e s a b a s i c understanding of E n g l i s h language and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , was equivalent f o r both groups on a l l s ubtests: concept vocabulary, concept extension, and synonyms. Cummins and Gulutsan (1974) examined some c o g n i t i v e aspects, i n p a r t i c u l a r divergent t h i n k i n g , among grade s i x b a l a n c e d - b i l i n g u a l and monolingual c h i l d r e n i n Edmonton. The b i l i n g u a l group performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the u n i l i n g u a l group on v e r b a l a b i l i t y and general reasoning subtests and a l s o on a measure of o r i g i n a l i t y i n the v e r b a l t e s t of divergence. Bruck, Lambert, and Tucker (1974), i n a follow-up study of the St. Lambert p r o j e c t at grade seven, found that when d i f f e r e n c e s between immer- s i o n and English-educated students occurred on measures of c o g n i t i v e f l e x i - b i l i t y and divergent t h i n k i n g , they c o n s i s t e n t l y favored the immersion students. No detri m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon academic, l i n g u i s t i c or c o g n i t i v e development were reported. Another f i n d i n g of t h i s study was th a t when 20 e a r l y immersion students were compared to l a t e immersion students, i n t e l l i - gence t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the e a r l y immersion students represented a much broader range of s c h o l a s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s than d i d the s e l f - s e l e c t e d students i n the l a t e r immersion program. B a r i k and Swain (1976a) compared IQ data obtained over a f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d (grades K - 4) between French immersion and re g u l a r program c h i l d r e n . Although year-by-year r e s u l t s d i d not suggest IQ d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups, repeated measures a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that the immersion group had a higher IQ measure over the f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d . I t i s p o s s i b l e that c h i l d r e n w i t h lower IQs had dropped out of the immersion program by grade f o u r . Considering grades one to three only, the two groups d i d not score d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h respect to e i t h e r the o v e r a l l Otis-Lennon IQ score or s p e c i f i c subtest scores ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , analogies, f o l l o w i n g of v e r b a l d i r e c t i o n s ) when scores were adjusted f o r i n i t i a l IQ and age d i f f e r e n c e s . Genesee (1978) reported the r e s u l t s of a l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of a Montreal French immersion program i n c l u d i n g grades one through s i x . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the grade one group and the r e g u l a r program (English) group on the Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l l i g e n c e Test i n favor of the immersion students. A l s o , at the grade one l e v e l r e s u l t s of the Raven's Pro g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s favor the immersion group. By the end of grade three there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on e i t h e r of these two i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Oren (1981) stud i e d the e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m and monolingualism on the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y of pre-school c h i l d r e n from upper and upper-middle c l a s s homes to l a b e l and r e l a b e l o b j e c t s . Results i n d i c a t e d that e a r l y b i l i n g u a l i s m was advantageous to the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the notio n of 21 symbols. Children i n t h i s study had various language backgrounds. Feldman and Shen (1971) found that five-year-old b i l i n g u a l Head Start c h i l d r e n led a matched group of monolinguals i n tasks involving object constancy, naming, and the use of names i n sentences. Also, b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r study performed consistently better i n tasks requiring non-verbal responses. Ianco-Worrall (1972) compared Afrikaans-English b i l i n g u a l s i n South A f r i c a to both Afrikaans and English monolinguals (ages 4-6 to 7-9 years) on the separation of word sound from word meaning. Attention to meaning or to sound of words was tested with a semantic and phonetic preference t e s t , a two-choice test i n which s i m i l a r i t y between words could be interpreted on the basis of shared meaning or shared acoustic properties. Results supported the hypothesis that b i l i n g u a l i s m leads to the e a r l i e r r e a l i z a t i o n of the a r b i t r a r y nature of name-object r e l a t i o n s h i p . Ben-Zeev (1977) compared the cognitive strategies of two groups of Hebrew-English b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , one group tested i n the United States and the other group i n I s r a e l , with two corresponding monolingual groups, one tested i n the United States speaking only English and one tested i n I s r a e l speaking only Hebrew. The age range of the chil d r e n i n the sample was 5-4 to 8-6 years (mean = 7.0 years). IQ was estimated from four WISC subtests ( S i m i l a r i t i e s , D i g i t Span, Pi c t u r e Completion, and Picture Arrange- ment) and used as a control i n the main experiment. An analysis of variance indicated there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between b i l i n g u a l and mono- l i n g u a l groups f o r t o t a l estimated IQ. The average IQ was 113. Performance on i n d i v i d u a l subtests was not reported. Monolingual students showed superior performance on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; however, on measures of semantic knowledge, f l e x i b i l i t y i n semantic rule usage, and non-verbal system understanding the b i l i n g u a l group showed more advanced processing of v e r b a l m a t e r i a l , more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g perceptual d i s t i n c t i o n s , more propensity to search f o r s t r u c t u r e i n perceptual s i t u a t i o n s , and more capa c i t y to reorganize t h e i r perceptions i n response to feedback. I n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s have been used i n French immersion research mainly to describe c h i l d r e n who e i t h e r are experiencing d i f f i c u l t y i n the immersion program or who have switched to the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program. T r i t e s and P r i c e (1976) found that c h i l d r e n who had d i f f i c u l t y i n e a r l y French immersion had high WISC IQs and e x c e l l e n t sensory-motor f u n c t i o n s , but performed more poorly on a complex psychomotor problem- s o l v i n g task than groups of c h i l d r e n who had been diagnosed as having primary reading d i s a b i l i t y , minimal b r a i n d y s f u n c t i o n , primary emotional disturbance, or as being h y p e r a c t i v e . Results were i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence of a mat u r a t i o n a l l a g i n the temporal lobe regions of the b r a i n which subserve v e r b a l and non-verbal perceptual functions and contain the auditory centres of the c e r e b r a l c o r t e x . The lag was not evident a f t e r age nine. T r i t e s and P r i c e (1977) found that c h i l d r e n who t r a n s f e r r e d out of the French immersion program had lower v e r b a l IQs and were experiencing more academic problems than were c h i l d r e n who remained i n French immersion i n s p i t e of reported d i f f i c u l t i e s . T r i t e s and P r i c e (1978, 1980) reported r e s u l t s of a three-phase study of readiness f o r French immersion. In the f i r s t phase, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI), which c o r r e l a t e s .82 w i t h the WISC-R F u l l Scale IQ (Wechsler, 1974, p.48), was administered as part of an extensive b a t t e r y to randomly s e l e c t e d f o u r - y e a r - o l d Ottawa kindergarten c h i l d r e n who were scheduled to enter a primary French immersion program f o r f i v e - y e a r - o l d s . These c h i l d r e n were involved i n follow-up studies at the end of five-year-old kindergarten (phase two) and at the end of grade one (phase three). However, the sample d i f f e r e d each year because, i n s p ite of Bright-Normal to Superior i n t e l l i g e n c e , 25 of the i n i t i a l sample of 200 students had dropped out of the immersion program by phase three. Phase three groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms of IQ as i n i t i a l l y measured by the WPPSI i n four—year-old kindergarten. Children who were s t i l l i n French programs during phase three of the study had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher F u l l Scale scores than ch i l d r e n i n the English program who had dropped out of immersion or had never been enrolled i n i t (even though parents had expressed intent to enrol them). In addition, dropouts had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher F u l l Scale scores than the ch i l d r e n who had never been i n French immersion. A l l groups had high IQ scores; a l l children came from upper-middle to lower-upper-class homes. Information about the biographical and background information of 1000 four-year-old kindergarten c h i l d r e n from which the sample was selected indicated that children entering French immersion tended to come from higher SES and more advantaged homes, attended preschool more frequently, were read to at home more frequently, and had p o s i t i v e parental attitudes towards the French language. A questionnaire completed by both French Immersion (FI) and English language (EL) parents indicated that children i n French immersion programs may have started school with some undefinable cognitive advantages (McEachern, 1980). F i f t e e n percent of the FI parents f e l t t h e i r c h i l d r e n would need parental help to succeed i n French immersion; i n contrast, 46% of the EL parents f e l t that way. Forty percent of the EL parents f e l t t h e i r c h i l d r e n would have greater adjustment problems i n school than regular students, whereas only 2% of the FI parents responded that way. In addition, 94% of the FI parents did not f e e l that French immersion was too d i f f i c u l t f o r 24 t h e i r c h i l d r e n , while only 63% of the EL parents shared t h i s f e e l i n g . In summary, the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that while French immersion may lead to cognitive advantages i n the long run, t h i s does not appear to be the case i n the early stages of the program. However, test performance generally appears to be equivalent to that of regular English program peers during the primary grades. The Coquitlam Early French Immersion Program The Coquitlam program started i n 1968 as a b i l i n g u a l program i n which the language of i n s t r u c t i o n was 80% French i n kindergarten and 50% French i n grades one through seven. The b i l i n g u a l program was replaced i n 1973 by the early t o t a l immersion model i n which students received 100% French i n s t r u c t i o n from kindergarten through grade two. The number of schools o f f e r i n g t h i s option increased simultaneously with the demand for education through the medium of French. During the 1982-83 school year, f i v e schools offered early French immersion and two offered late immersion (grades s i x and seven). In addition, a secondary school program was available i n which students were immersed for one semester i n French (except for English language a r t s ) . The Coquitlam immersion program has been the focus of a lon g i t u d i n a l study of the e f f e c t s of immersion on students' English language s k i l l s and t h e i r p r o f i c i e n c y i n the French language (Shapson & Kaufman, 1978; Shapson & Day, 1982). This study followed the progress of two French immersion cohorts compared to a control group of regular program peers. The immersion experience of the two cohorts d i f f e r e d i n the i n i t i a l grades; cohort I received 20% English i n s t r u c t i o n i n kindergarten, 100% French i n s t r u c t i o n i n grade one and 20% English i n s t r u c t i o n i n grade two, while cohort II 25 received no English i n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l grade three. Thereafter, the programs were s i m i l a r for both cohorts with 75% French i n s t r u c t i o n time i n grade three and 50% i n grades four through s i x . As a measure of general i n t e l l i g e n c e , the Canadian Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Test (CCAT) was administered at the beginning of the f i r s t year of the study. The Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT) was administered as a measure of English l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . Several measures of French achievement ( l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and aural comprehension) were administered. No measure of English-language o r a l communication s k i l l s was included. A l l tests used were group administered. CCAT scores indicated no s i g n i f i c a n t cognitive differences between French and English groups at the beginning of the study. Scores obtained at that time were used as covariates i n a l l subsequent analyses of achieve- ment test scores. As discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, evaluation during the primary grades (Shapson & Kaufman, 197 8) indicated that French immersion students lagged behind t h e i r monolingual peers on tests of English l i t e r a c y s k i l l s at the end of grades one and two. No evidence of the lag (with the exception of s p e l l i n g ) was apparent a f t e r the introduction of English language arts i n grade three. English language s k i l l s were monitored only u n t i l the end of grade four at which time the immersion children no longer showed any of the lags which were evident i n the early grades (Shapson & Day, 1982). Mathematics achievement was equivalent f o r a l l groups at the grades one and two l e v e l s , so was not evaluated i n l a t e r grades. In summary, evidence from a l o n g i t u d i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Coquitlam early immersion program showed that French immersion students, compared to t h e i r regular program peers, were equivalent i n mathematics achievement, and were equivalent i n English-language l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a f t e r the introduc- t i o n of English language arts i n grade three. No evidence was av a i l a b l e to i n d i c a t e e i t h e r s t a b i l i t y of IQ scores across grade l e v e l s nor p r o f i c i e n c y i n English-language o r a l communication i n a testing s i t u a t i o n . 27 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY The purpose of the present study was to compare the WISC-R performance of a group of grade two French immersion students with that of a group of t h e i r peers enrolled i n the regular program. B r i e f l y , the procedure followed was to administer the WISC-R to each of the students, then to analyse the data i n terms of central tendancy and variance—covariance structure. A complete de s c r i p t i o n of the methodology i s presented i n t h i s chapter. F i r s t , sampling procedures and a de s c r i p t i o n of the sample are outlined, followed by a de s c r i p t i o n of the measuring instrument, the WISC-R. Next, the data c o l l e c t i o n and preparation are described. F i n a l l y , the data analyses are presented. The Sample The sample f o r t h i s study was selected from grade two classes at the f i v e Coquitlam schools which offered early French immersion programs. The f i v e schools, a l l of which were dual-track (each offered both immersion and regular English programs), were geographically located throughout the school d i s t r i c t to serve each of the areas within the d i s t r i c t , as shown i n Figure 1. The grade two enrolments are shown i n Table 1. Table 1 Grade Two Enrolment i n the Dual-Track (English/French) Schools 1982-83 School French English Alderson 26 26 Glenayre 23 13 H i l l c r e s t 47 15 Irvine 17 40 Kilmer 23 30 Total 136 124 Five boys and f i v e g i r l s were randomly selected from the French immersion classes i n each of the f i v e schools. Thirty g i r l s and 30 boys were randomly selected from combined grade two regular program classes i n the f i v e schools. Both the l i t e r a t u r e review and informal interviews with p r i n c i p a l s and teachers suggested that the average SES l e v e l of French immersion students was higher than that of the English students; therefore, i n order to match the two groups f or educational l e v e l of parent, a greater number of English (n = 60) than French students (n = 50) was i n i t i a l l y selected. Letters informing parents of the purpose and nature of the study were sent home with the selected students along with forms requesting both parental consent f o r student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study and background Figure 1 Location and Enrolment of Dual-Track Schools i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t 10 leiciHfi* 1. Irvine (425) 2. Killmer (440) 3. H i l l c r e s t (475) 4. Alderson (417) 5. Glenayre (319) 30 information. Copies of these forms are provided i n Appendix A. Information obtained on these forms provided the basis for se l e c t i n g the f i n a l sample f o r t h i s study. The s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were: (1) English was the main language spoken i n the home; (2) Enrolment i n the current language of i n s t r u c t i o n had been continuous from kindergarten through to the time of te s t i n g ; and (3) Parental consent had been obtained for the ch i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. Of the 110 l e t t e r s sent home, 103 were returned. Four of the seven students f o r whom l e t t e r s were not returned either had moved or were to move p r i o r to the tes t i n g period. Four parents did not provide consent for p a r t i c i - pation of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the study. Two students were absent from school on testing dates, f i v e were from homes i n which a language other than English was the main language, and si x had not been continuously enrolled i n either language of i n s t r u c t i o n . Educational l e v e l of parent was not provided f o r an addit i o n a l two students. Consequently, the r e s u l t i n g sample sizes were 39 for the b i l i n g u a l group and 45 for the monolingual group. Parents were asked to provide information on a socio-economic v a r i a b l e : the l e v e l of education of the head of household, defined as the major income earner (see parent consent form, Appendix A). Thorndike (1951) found t h i s v a r i a b l e to correlate highly with children's i n t e l l i g e n c e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s SES v a r i a b l e i n the i n i t i a l samples i s presented i n Table 2. Students i n the immersion group were l a t e r matched for t h i s v a r i a b l e with students i n the regular (English) program, and two quasi- matched groups of 29 were obtained (see Table 5, Chapter IV). 31 Table 2 SES Level of Household by Language of Instruction by Gender of Student SES Level Language Male Female of I n s t r u c t i o n I II III IV I II III IV French 1 5 3 11 1 2 8 8 English 2 10 7 5 3 6 8 4 Note: Based on information obtained from parent-consent forms. Categories for head of household educational l e v e l were: I Less than high school completion II High school completion III Post-secondary, no degree IV University or college degree WISC-R The Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) i s frequently used i n Canadian school d i s t r i c t s (Note 1). It i s one of the main instruments administered during psycho-educational assessments i n Coquitlam, the d i s t r i c t i n which t h i s study was conducted. In addition to being the most widely used i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e test (Mercer, 1979; Hopkins & Stanley, 1981), i t has served as the c r i t e r i o n test against which other measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e have been validated (Bersoff, 1980). The WISC-R i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y administered test of " g l o b a l " i n t e l l i - gence which Wechsler (1974) conceives of as a "multidimensional and multi- faceted entity rather than an independent, uniquely-defined t r a i t " (p.5). The WISC-R covers an age range from 6-0 to 16-11 years and consists 32 of 12 subtests (see Table 3). Six subtests are c l a s s i f i e d as measuring verbal measures and s i x as performance (or non-verbal) measures. Although the l a t t e r six subtests are categorized as non-verbal measures, a good command of the English language i s required i n order to comprehend and perform the tasks since d i r e c t i o n s are given i n English. Scaled scores from 10 subtests are combined to y i e l d three summary IQ scores each with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15: the Verbal IQ, the Performance IQ, and the F u l l Scale IQ. The remaining two subtests, D i g i t Span and Mazes, are used as supplementary tests both to replace i n v a l i d r e s u l t s on regular subtests and to gain further information. Scaled scores for i n d i v i d u a l subtests have means of 10 and standard deviations of three. The WISC-R was standardized on 2200 white and non-white American c h i l d r e n of ages 6-6 to 16-6. The standardization group was further s t r a t i f i e d by sex, race, geographic region, occupation of head of house- hold, and urban-rural residence according to 1970 census information. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the Verbal, Performance and F u l l Scales reported i n the manual are high (average of .94, .90 and .96, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , with a standard error of measurement f or the F u l l Scale of about three IQ points. Average subtest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .70 to .86. The WISC-R has adequate v a l i d i t y (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 1981; S a t t l e r , 1982). Comparison of the WISC-R with a va r i e t y of a b i l i t y and achievement tests and school grades has resulted i n median c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging from the upper .30s to low .80s. Holmes (1981) found that for representative samples of B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n , 7%, 9% and 11% years of age, the means were higher and less v a r i a b l e than Wechsler's sample. Based on t h i s information, WISC-R scores for the present Coquitlam sample were expected to be more consistent with 33 Table 3 WISC-R Subtests 1. Information - measures the wealth of available information acquired as a r e s u l t of native a b i l i t y and early c u l t u r a l experience. 2. S i m i l a r i t i e s - measures verbal concept formation. 3. Arithmetic - measures numerical reasoning a b i l i t y . 4. Vocabulary - measures a v a r i e t y of functions, including language development, learning a b i l i t y , and fund of information. 5. Comprehension - measures s o c i a l judgment: the a b i l i t y to use facts i n pertinent, meaningful and emotionally appropriate manner. 6. Picture Completion - measures the a b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e e s s e n t i a l from non-essential d e t a i l s . 7. Picture Arrangement - measures non-verbal reasoning a b i l i t y ; also may be viewed as a measure of planning a b i l i t y ; i . e . , the a b i l i t y to comprehend and size up a t o t a l s i t u a t i o n . 8. Block Design - measures visual-motor coordination and perceptual organization. 9. Object Assembly - measures perceptual organization a b i l i t y . 10. Coding - measures visual-motor coordination, speed of mental operation, and short-term memory. Supplementary subtests: 11. D i g i t Span - measures short-term memory and attention. 12. Mazes - measures planning a b i l i t y and perceptual organization. ( S a t t l e r , 1982, pp.188-189) Holmes's r e s u l t s than with the r e s u l t s f or the American standardization sample. Testing A l l 12 WISC-R subtests were administered to each of the 84 chi l d r e n i n the t o t a l sample following the procedures described i n the test manual (Wechsler, 1974). A l l testing was done by four female Level C testers (Cronbach, 1970) who had been trained and supervised i n the administration and scoring of the WISC-R. Testing took place i n the appropriate schools during the regular i n s t r u c t i o n a l day i n the period between A p r i l 18 and May 20, 1983. Each administration took approximately 90 minutes. Schools were contacted i n advance to arrange time and appropriate space for test adminis- t r a t i o n . A student code number, language of i n s t r u c t i o n , gender, and parent educational l e v e l were recorded on each test protocal. This procedure allowed i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of each student i n terms of the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . Birthdates were also recorded because t h i s information was required for reference to appropriate norms and for d e s c r i p t i v e sample information. Subject anonymity was guaranteed by the absence of student names on test protocals. Scoring and Data Preparation Completed protocals were scored by the respective testers following the d i r e c t i o n s given i n the test manual (Wechsler, 1974). Second party v e r i f i c a t i o n f o r 50% of the test protocals revealed a .005 scoring error rate. Using the Wechsler norms, scaled scores for each of the 12 subtests and three sums of scaled scores (Verbal, Performance and F u l l Scale) were obtained for each c h i l d . The Verbal Score and Performance Score are the sums of the verbal subtest scaled scores (excluding D i g i t Span) and the f i v e performance subtests scaled scores (excluding Mazes), re s p e c t i v e l y . The F u l l Scale Score i s the sum of a l l subtest scores (excluding D i g i t Span and Mazes). The data were then coded with 20% random v e r i f i c a t i o n and keypunched with 100% v e r i f i c a t i o n . No errors were found i n coding. Data Analyses Internal consistency ( s p l i t - h a l f ) r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for a l l subtests except D i g i t Span and Coding were obtained by c a l c u l a t i n g c o r r e l a - tions between s p l i t - h a l f t o t a l s (odd/even) using the S t a t i s t i c a l Package fo r the Social Sciences (SPSS), then correcting for length using the Spearman-Brown formula. The s p l i t - h a l f technique was not appropriate for eit h e r D i g i t Span or Coding because the scaled score for D i g i t Span i s considered to be a combined score for two independent tests and Coding i s a speeded t e s t . Some of the subtests have v a r i a b l e basal l e v e l s below which items are scored as correct although they are not i n fact included i n the questioning. To avoid a r t i f i c i a l l y i n f l a t i n g i n t e r n a l consistency estimates by including these items, t o t a l "odd" score and t o t a l "even" score were calculated on the basis of items a c t u a l l y presented; that i s , a l l items within the basal to c e i l i n g range (see Table 4). This was not necessary fo r S i m i l a r i t i e s and Object Assembly because for these subtests the basal item i s fixed at item #1 for a l l ages. The c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the IQ Scales were obtained from the formula for the r e l i a b i l i t y of a composite group of tests (Guildford, 1954, p.393). These are based on subtest combinations excluding Coding and D i g i t Span. To test the e a r l i e r stated hypotheses that the mean performances of the French and English groups are i d e n t i c a l and the variance-covariance Table 4 Form of R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Computed Score R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Components Information s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown correction basal item to c e i l i n g item S i m i l a r i t i e s s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown correction item #1 to c e i l i n g item Arithmetic s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown correction basal item to c e i l i n g item Vocabulary s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown cor r e c t i o n basal item to c e i l i n g item Comprehension s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown correction basal item to c e i l i n g item P i c t u r e Completion s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown correction basal item to c e i l i n g item P i c t u r e Arrangement s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown cor r e c t i o n basal item to c e i l i n g item Block Design s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown correction basal item to c e i l i n g item Object Assembly s p l i t - h a l f (#1 . & #4 vs. #2 & #3) , Spearman-Brown correction a l l items Mazes s p l i t - h a l f (odd vs. even items), Spearman-Brown correction basal item to c e i l i n g item Verbal IQ r e l i a b i l i t y of . a composite group of tests (Guilford, 1954) 5 verbal tests Performance IQ r e l i a b i l i t y of a composite group of tests ( G u i l f o r d , 1954) 5 performance tests F u l l Scale IQ r e l i a b i l i t y of a composite group of tests (Guilford, 1954) 10 tests ON 37 structures are i d e n t i c a l , two multivariate analyses of variance (Tatsuoka, 1971) were performed: the f i r s t for the 12 subtests, and the second for the Verbal and Performance IQ scores. L a s t l y , a t h i r d analysis, univariate i n nature, was performed to test the equality of the mean F u l l Scale IQ scores and equality of the corresponding variances. The .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was used i n a l l three analyses. The necessary computations were performed using the computer program OWMAR (Hakstian & Bay, Note 2). A l l computations were performed on an AMDAHL 470/V8 computer maintained by the Computing Centre, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER IV RESULTS In t h i s chapter a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i n a l sample of students i s presented, followed by the r e s u l t s of the data analyses described i n the previous chapter. L a s t l y , an a n c i l l a r y analysis i s presented i n which the performance of a group of seven-year-old B.C. students (Holmes, 1981) was compared to the performance of the combined groups i n the present study. The Sample Eighty—four of the 110 randomly sampled students (39 b i l i n g u a l and 45 monolingual) conformed to the three c r i t e r i a required for t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n English was the main language of the home; they had been enrolled contin- uously from kindergarten through grade two i n t h e i r current language of i n s t r u c t i o n ; and parental consent had been obtained for the c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i - pation i n the study. When students from the French group were matched with t h e i r regular (English) program peers for educational l e v e l of the family's major income earner (see Table 5), two quasi-matched groups of 29 were obtained. Students were selected for these groups according to the order Table 5 SES Composition of Quasi-Matched Groups Language of Males Females Instruction I II III IV I II III IV French 1 5 3 5 1 2 8 4 English 1 5 3 5 1 2 8 4 Note: Based on information obtained from parent-consent forms. Categories for head of household educational l e v e l were: I Less than high school completion II High school completion III Post-secondary, no degree IV University or college degree i n which they were randomly selected f o r the i n i t i a l groups. Each group was composed of 14 males and 15 females. The average age of immersion students was 7 years, 10 months; the average age for the comparison group was 7 years, 11 months. The d i s t r i b u t i o n shown i n Table 5 indicates that t h i s sample was skewed towards higher SES. Census data (1971) indicated that the percentage of B r i t i s h Columbians i n each category was: I - 29%, II - 27%, III - 20%, IV - 24%. In contrast, percentages i n the present study were: I - 7%, II - 24%, III - 38%, IV - 31%. Comparative Results Means and Standard deviations are presented i n Table 6. IQ scores for both groups are i n the High Average (Bright) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Wechsler, 1974, p.26). Verbal, Performance and F u l l Scale IQs for French immersion c h i l d r e n were 110, 115 and 114, r e s p e c t i v e l y compared to 110, 114 and 113 for the English group. Table 6 Means, Standard Deviations and R e l i a b i l i t y C o o e f f i c i e n t s for Quasi-Matched Groups French Immersion Group Regular Program Group Mean s.d. r Mean s.d. r Verbal Subtests Information 11.24 2.55 .64 11.48 2.56 .88 S i m i l a r i t i e s 11.31 2.90 .55 12.14 2.48 .62 Arithmetic 11.72 2.66 .57 10.79 2.31 .63 Vocabulary 12.21 2.85 .82 12.59 2.60 .67 Comprehension 11.72 3.23 .72 11.14 2.89 .71 D i g i t Span 10.86 2.31 * 10.55 2.13 * Performance Subtests Picture Completion 12.00 2.65 .77 11.83 1.87 .77 Picture Arrangement 11.90 3.36 .72 12.72 3.14 .64 Block Design 13.31 3.71 .86 13.21 2.01 .17 Object Assembly 12.45 2.56 .32 11.55 2.63 .61 Coding 10.41 3.39 * 10.69 2.99 A Mazes 12.69 2.49 .49 13.59 2.75 .73 Sums of Scaled Scores Verbal IQ 109.69 12.28 .87 109.52 11.71 .89 Performance IQ 115.14 11.18 .77 113.72 10.18 .67 F u l l Scale IQ 113.55 11.64 .87 112.69 10.29 .87 The s p l i t - h a l f technique for computing r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s was not appropriate for either D i g i t Span or Coding because the scaled score for D i g i t Span i s considered to be a combined score for two independent tests and Coding i s a speeded t e s t . Means and standard deviations for t o t a l groups p r i o r to SES s t r a t i f i - c a t ion are presented i n Appendix B. 41 o To t e s t the hypothesis of equal ce n t r a l tendency, Hotelling's T was computed. To test the homogeneity of variance-covariance, the Bartlett-Box te s t was used. The re s u l t s of these analyses are reported i n Table 7. As shown, three separate analyses were performed: for the 12 subtests; for the Verbal and Performance IQ; and for the F u l l Scale IQ. The r e s u l t s shown indicate that the central tendencies and variance- covariance structures of both the French immersion and the regular program students performed e s s e n t i a l l y the same at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . No differences were found between mean scores and between the variance- covariance matrices. Therefore, the use of the WISC-R appears not to be disadvantageous to higher SES students at t h i s l e v e l of the French immersion program. Table 7 Summary of Analysis of Variance Quasi-Matched Groups Test F P I 12 WISC-R Subtests Bartlett-Box Homogeneity of Variance-Covariance Hotelling's T f o r Two Groups .95 .70 nsd nsd II Verbal IQ and Performance IQ Bartlett-Box Homogeneity of Variance-Covariance Hot e l l i n g ' s T f o r Two Groups .22 .13 nsd nsd III F u l l Scale IQ Homogeneity of Variance Student's t for Two Groups 1.28 .30 nsd nsd Note : M u l t i v a r i a t e analysis for I and I I ; univariate I I I ; .05 Level of Significance adopted for t h i s analysis study. for A n c i l l a r y Analysis A comparison of Holmes' (1981) data with r e s u l t s of the present study i s presented i n Table 8. Both Holmes' group of 7% year-old B r i t i s h Columbia ch i l d r e n and the combined matched groups i n t h i s study had higher Verbal, Performance and F u l l Scale IQ means than those reported i n the WISC-R manual (means = 100). Results of these two studies suggest that use of the American norms for B r i t i s h Columbia ch i l d r e n may lead to u n r e a l i s t i c expec- tations of performance compared with other B r i t i s h Columbia chi l d r e n . For example, c h i l d r e n with F u l l Scale IQs of 100 (using Wechsler norms) are expected to perform academically i n the middle of the average range of same-age peers. However, Holmes' and Nielsen's r e s u l t s both suggest that a more r e a l i s t i c expectation might be performance i n the lower end of the average range. Table 8 Comparison of Holmes and Nielsen Mean IQ Scores a b Holmes Nielsen Mean s.d. Mean s.d. t Verbal IQ 106.08 (13.79) 109.60 (12.00) 1.65 Performance IQ 109.92 (13.11) 114.43 (10.69) 2.26* F u l l Scale IQ 108.16 (12.35) 113.12 (10.99) 2.58* a N = 115 k N = 58 (combined matched groups) * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 Level. T-tests were performed to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of differences between group means. Results indicate that the present sample (Nielsen) had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean Performance and F u l l Scale IQs than Holmes' group. Holmes' sample more accurately represented the B r i t i s h Columbia SES d i s t r i b u t i o n , whereas the Nielsen sample consisted of a greater percentage of higher SES c h i l d r e n . The c o r r e l a t i o n between SES and academic p o t e n t i a l probably accounts for the differences between Holmes' and Nielsen's group means. 44 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The WISC-R performance of 29 grade two children enrolled i n an early French immersion program i n Coquitlam, B r i t i s h Columbia, was compared to that of 29 of t h e i r regular English program peers. A l l students came from homes in which English was the main language and a l l had been enrolled continuously since kindergarten i n the current language of i n s t r u c t i o n . Groups were matched for educational l e v e l of the head of the household defined as the major income earner. Parents of 20 of the 29 students i n each group reported an educational l e v e l beyond high school graduation. The test was administered i n English at the end of the students' grade two year, at which time French immersion children had been exposed to no formal English-language i n s t r u c t i o n at school. Analysis of the 12 subtests and three IQ scores revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n central tendency or variance-covariance structure between the two groups. For both the immersion and the regular program groups, means were higher than those reported i n the WISC-R manual, and there was generally less variance i n scores. Verbal, Performance and F u l l Scale IQ 45 scores f o r both groups were i n the category which Wechsler describes as High Average. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study While the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these r e s u l t s are encouraging because they i n d i c a t e that the immersion experience has not had a detri m e n t a l e f f e c t on c o g n i t i v e development, there are some r e s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t , the study was l i m i t e d to a small group of French immersion c h i l d r e n (N=29) at only one grade l e v e l , a l l of whom attended d u a l - t r a c k schools and came from p r i m a r i l y English-speaking homes i n a predominantly English-speaking community. Therefore, while French was the sol e language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r these c h i l d r e n , they appeared to have many o p p o r t u n i t i e s to develop and p r a c t i c e t h e i r f i r s t language, E n g l i s h . I t was not evident from consent-form i n f o r - mation whether or not other languages were spoken i n the home and i n which s i t u a t i o n s . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of r e s u l t s to d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s or to d i f f e r e n t educational or community s e t t i n g s should not be made without f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Second, while the study r e l a y s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about the WISC-R performance of French immersion c h i l d r e n to educators and parents, any comparison to regu l a r program peers i s l i m i t e d because i t i s not c l e a r whether the French immersion and r e g u l a r program groups were equivalent when they s t a r t e d school. Very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e as to how parents chose the language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n these d u a l - t r a c k schools; however, informa t i o n obtained through inte r v i e w s w i t h p r i n c i p a l s , teachers and parents suggested that c h i l d r e n with any obvious or suspected problems were not encouraged to e n r o l l i n e a r l y immersion programs. Therefore, c h i l d r e n who f o r many reasons might experience problems 46 i n school were most l i k e l y enrolled i n the regular program. Consequently, because of possible i n i t i a l differences between French immersion and regular program groups, current r e s u l t s cannot be interpreted as in d i c a t i n g how immersion ch i l d r e n would perform i f they had been enrolled continuously i n the regular program; rather, r e s u l t s only describe WISC-R performance compared to that of t h e i r "matched" English-instructed peers. F i n a l l y , the study included only students who had been continuously enrolled i n t h e i r current language of i n s t r u c t i o n . Therefore, only those students who had survived the i n i t i a l immersion experience and remained i n the program were tested. Five of the 60 randomly selected regular program students were "dropouts" from French immersion and, therefore, were not tested. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The r e s u l t s of t h i s study ind i c a t e that the WISC-R ce n t r a l tendancies and variance-covariance structure are e s s e n t i a l l y the same for the French immersion and regular program quasi—matched groups. Therefore, use of the WISC-R does not appear to be disadvantageous for use with higher SES French immersion ch i l d r e n whose main language of the home i s English. However, r e s u l t s cannot be interpreted as an i n d i c a t i o n of how French immersion c h i l d r e n would have performed had they been enrolled i n the regular (English) program. The high means for both the French and the regular program groups are more consistent with Holmes' r e s u l t s than with those reported i n the WISC-R manual f o r the American standardization group. Therefore, reference to B r i t i s h Columbia norms f o r chil d r e n aged 7%, 9%, and 11% appears to be appropriate for determining more r e a l i s t i c expectations. 47 Results of t h i s study suggest that although a l l formal education has been i n French, immersion students are able to communicate at a l e v e l equivalent to that of t h e i r regular program peers i n t h i s English-language t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . This finding i s consistent with the developmental interdependence hypothesis which proposes that the development of s k i l l s i n a second language i s a function of the l e v e l of the c h i l d ' s f i r s t language competence at the time when intensive exposure to the second language begins (Cummins, 1978b). The children who are successful i n French immersion programs (that i s , they remain i n them) appear to have adequately developed expressive English—language s k i l l s . The f i r s t language of middle—class, majority-language ch i l d r e n i n early immersion programs i s probably reinforced both inside and outside the home. Consequently, i t i s developed to a s u f f i c i e n t l y high l e v e l that i t i s la r g e l y unaffected by intensive exposure to a second language. At the grade two i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l there i s no evidence of any cognitive advantage (as measured by the WISC-R) as a r e s u l t of the immersion experience. Cummins (1983) proposes that the cognitive and academic e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m are mediated by the l e v e l s of competence which b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n a t t a i n i n both t h e i r f i r s t and second languages. It appears that a f t e r three years of t o t a l French immersion these ch i l d r e n have reached a threshold l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c competence which enables them to avoid cogni- t i v e disadvantages, but does not yet allow the cognitive advantages which r e s u l t s of l o n g i t u d i n a l studies have indicated. Implications for Further Research Because the r e s u l t s of t h i s study are limited to only one grade l e v e l , there i s a need for further WISC-R research with children at other age l e v e l s . While c h i l d r e n at the grade two l e v e l show no signs of any cognitive disadvantages as a r e s u l t of t h e i r immersion experience, t h i s may not be the case f or children i n kindergarten and grade one who are not as advanced i n t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c development. In addition, c h i l d r e n beyond the grade two l e v e l may have reached a l i n g u i s t i c threshold which would enable them to derive cognitive advantages from t h e i r b i l i n g u a l experience. Comparisons of French immersion with regular program students using other individually—administered cognitive measures i s also needed. The Kaufman ABC could be used to explore Verbal and Performance differences. Ideally, a pre- and post-test design comparing French immersion students to a control group of t h e i r regular program peers would more accurately portray the e f f e c t s of immersion programs on i n t e l l e c t u a l develop- ment as measured by i n d i v i d u a l l y administered t e s t s . It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to follow the s t a b i l i t y of IQ scores across grade l e v e l s from the beginning of t h e i r formal schooling through the duration of the immersion program, compared to that of regular program students. Research i s needed to determine i f the performance of a group of lower SES French immersion ch i l d r e n would d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that of the French immersion group i n the present study. F i n a l l y , there i s a need for well- c o n t r o l l e d studies of children i n French immersion programs who are experiencing learning problems, and of those who have switched to the regular program. 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Journal of the National Association for B i l i n g u a l Education, 1977, 1(3), 33-48. Cronback, L. J . Essentials of psychological testing (3rd ed.). N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1970. Conry, J . , Conry, R., & D'Oyley, V. Testing i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Emphasis, trends, and c o n f l i c t s i n the 1980s. The School Guidance Worker, 1982, 37(4), 43-50. Cummins, J. The cognitive development of children i n immersion programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34(5), 855-883. (a) Cummins, J. Educational implications of mother tongue maintenance i n minority- language groups. Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34(3), 395-416. (b) 51 Cummins, J . Should the c h i l d who i s experiencing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n early French immersion be switched to the regular English program? A r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of T r i t e s ' data. Canadian Modern Language Review, 1979, 36, 139-143. (a) Cummins, J . L i n g u i s t i c interdependence and the educational development of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n . Review of Educational Research, 1979, 49, 222-251. (b) Cummins, J . Bi l i n g u a l i s m and cognitive functioning. In S. M. Shapson, V. D'Oyley, & A. Lloyd (Eds.), B i l i n g u a l i s m and mu l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canadian education. Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1982. Cummins, J . Language p r o f i c i e n c y , b i l i t e r a c y and French immersion. Canadian Journal of Education, 1983, 8(2), 117-137. Cummins, J . , & Gulutsan, M. B i l i n g u a l education and cognition. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 1974, 29(3), 259-269. Darcy, N. T. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m upon the measurement of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1953, 82, 21-57. Feldman, C , & Shen, M. Some language-related advantages of b i l i n g u a l f i v e - year-olds. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1971, 118, 235-244. Genesee, F. A lo n g i t u d i n a l evaluation of an early immersion school program. Canadian Journal of Education, 1978, 3_, 31-50. Genesee, F. French immersion programs. In S. M. Shapson, V. D'Oyley, & A. Lloyd (Eds.), B i l i n g u a l i s m and mu l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canadian education. Centre for the Study of Curriculum and Instruction, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1982, 25-38. Genesee, F., & Lambert, W. E. T r i l i n g u a l education for majority-language c h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development, 1983, 54_> 105-114. Genesee, F., Tucker, G. R., & Lambert, W. E. Communication s k i l l s of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n . Child Development, 1975, _46, 1010-1014. Guildford, J . P. Psychometric methods. N.Y. : McGraw-Hill, 1954. Holmes, B. J . Individually-administered i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s : An a p p l i c a t i o n of anchor test norming and equating procedures i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Doctor of Education the s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. Hopkins, K. D., & Stanley, J . C. Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation (6th ed.). New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1981. Ianco-Worrall, A. Bi l i n g u a l i s m and cognitive development. Child Development, 1972, 43, 1390-1400. Jakobovits, L. A. The dilemma of b i l i n g u a l education. In M. Swain (Ed.). B i l i n g u a l schooling. Kaufman, D., & Shapson, S. Longitudinal evaluation of a French immersion program i n Coquitlam school d i s t r i c t : Report of year two. Simon Fraser University, Canada, 1975. Lambert, W. E. Culture and language as factors i n learning and education. In A. Wolfgang (Ed.), Education of immigrant students. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education, 1975. Lambert, W. E. Cognitive and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l consequences of b i l i n g u a l i s m . Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34(3), 537-547. Lambert, W. E., & Tucker, G. R. The b i l i n g u a l education of children: The St. Lambert experiment. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1972. Lambert, W. E., Tucker, G. R., & d'Anglejan, A. Cognitive and a t t i t u d i n a l consequences of b i l i n g u a l schooling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1973, 65(2), 149-159. Lapkin, S., Andrew, C. M., Harley, B., Swain, M., & Kamin, J . The immersion centre and the dual-track schools: A study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between school environment and achievement i n a French immersion program. Canadian Journal of Education, 1981, 6_, 68-90. McEachern, W. Parental decision for French immersion: A look at some inf l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . Canadian Modern Language Review, 1980, 3_6_, 238-246. McLaughlin, B. Second-language a c q u i s i t i o n i n childhood. H i l l s d a l e , New Jersey: LEA Publishers, 1978. Mercer, J . R. SOMPA Technical manual. N.Y.: Psychological Corporation, 1979 Oren, D. L. Cognitive advantages of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n related to l a b e l i n g a b i l i t y . Journal of Educational Research, 1981, 74(3), 163-169. Peal, E., & Lambert, W. E. The r e l a t i o n of b i l i n g u a l i s m to i n t e l l i g e n c e . Psychological Monographs, 1967, 7_6, (27, Whole No. 546). P f e i f f e r , M. G. Evaluation of Grade 6 - 7 b i l i n g u a l programme. Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B.C., Report No. 80:20, 1980. S a l v i a , Y., & Ysseldyke, J . E. Assessment i n s p e c i a l and remedial education. Boston, N.Y.: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1978. S a t t l e r , J . M. Assessment of children's i n t e l l i g e n c e (2nd ed.). Boston, N.Y. A l l y n & Bacon, 1982. Shapson, W. M., & Day, E. M. A l o n g i t u d i n a l evaluation of an early immersion program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Journal of M u l t i l i n g u a l and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Development, 3(1), 1982. Shapson, S. M., & Kaufman, D. Overview of elementary French programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Issues and research. Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34(3), 586-603. 53 Stern, H. H. In M. Swain (Ed.), B i l i n g u a l schooling. Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies in Education, 1972. Swain, M. French immersion: Early, l a t e , or p a r t i a l ? Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34, 577-585. Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. B i l i n g u a l education i n Ontario: A decade of research. Ministry of Education, Ontario, 1981. Tatsuoka, M. M., M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s : Techniques for educational and psychological research. Toronto: Wiley & Sons, 1971. Thorndike, R. L. Community variables as predictors of i n t e l l i g e n c e and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1951, 42, 321-338. T r i t e s , R. L. Children with learning d i f f i c u l t i e s i n primary French immersion. Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 33_, 193-216. T r i t e s , R. L. Primary French immersion: D i s a b i l i t i e s and p r e d i c t i o n of success. Review and Evaluation B u l l e t i n s , 1981, 2(5). T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s found i n association with French immersion programming. Toronto: Min i s t r y of Education, Ontario, 1976. T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s found i n association with French immersion programming: A cross v a l i d a t i o n . Toronto: Ministry of Education, Ontario, 1977. T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. S p e c i f i c learning d i s a b i l i t y i n primary French immersion. Interchange, 1978-79, 9_, 73-85. T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. Assessment of readiness for primary French immersion: Grade one follow-up assessment. Toronto: Min i s t r y of Education, Ontario, 1980. Wechsler, D. Manual for the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale for Children-Revised. N.Y.: Psychological Corporation, 1974. APPENDIX A LETTER TO PARENTS AND CONSENT FORM Dear Parents: School has agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a research project involving the use of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e tests i n Early French Immersion schools. The project requires the cooperation of 60 chil d r e n i n the Coquitlam school d i s t r i c t to take a test which i s frequently used i n our schools. This p a r t i c u l a r test was prepared for children i n the United States whose language of i n s t r u c t i o n was English. It has been checked for i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to three age groups of B.C. school c h i l d r e n enrolled i n English-language programs. The research project i s being undertaken as a master's thesis i n the d i v i s i o n of Educational Psychology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. It has been endorsed by the supervisor of curriculum and assessment for t h i s d i s t r i c t , Mr. T. Wheeler, and by the p r i n c i p a l of your school. F i n a n c i a l support f o r the project was provided through a grant from the Educational Research I n s t i t u t e of B.C. 's name was randomly drawn as a possible p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s research. If you and your c h i l d agree to p a r t i c i p a t e , w i l l be asked to take part i n one testing session, approximately 75 minutes long. The testing w i l l be done i n d i v i d u a l l y by a trained graduate student i n the school. This type of te s t i n g i s common pract i c e i n schools and i s usually experienced as i n t e r e s t i n g and enjoyable by the children involved. The r e s u l t s of the tests w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l : your c h i l d ' s name w i l l not appear on the test forms. No i n d i v i d u a l test r e s u l t s w i l l be released. The purpose i s not to check any one c h i l d ' s performance, but to determine i f the French Immersion chi l d r e n score s i m i l a r l y to American and B.C. c h i l d r e n enrolled i n English-language programs. If they do not, adjustments w i l l be made i n the future so that the test i s more accurately interpreted for French Immersion c h i l d r e n . Project r e s u l t s w i l l provide useful information to a l l professionals involved i n the area of educational assessment. I wish to emphasize that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary and that withdrawal from the project at any time w i l l not jeopardize your c h i l d ' s class standing. I would, however, greatly appreciate your agreement to a s s i s t i n th i s research. Please complete the Parent Consent Form and return i t to the school as soon as possible. v. Thank you. Feel free to contact me for any further information at Sincerely, Barbara Nielsen 56 PARENT CONSENT FORM I consent to 's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the testing research study at school. I am aware that t h i s w i l l involve a t e s t i n g session of approximately one hour and f i f t e e n minutes duration. I understand that c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of test r e s u l t s w i l l be maintained and that no i n d i v i d u a l scores w i l l be released. I also understand that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s project i s voluntary and may be terminated at any time. signature Your assistance i n providing the following information would be very h e l p f u l i n making t h i s a meaningful study: 1. What i s the main language spoken i n your home? 2. Would you please c i r c l e the number i n front of the category below which best describes the completed l e v e l of education of the head of your household (that i s , the major wage-earner i n the family). I Less than high school completion II High school completion III Post—secondary, no degree IV University or college degree 3. Has your c h i l d been enrolled i n the regular English program continuously from Kindergarten through to the present time? Yes No 4. Has your c h i l d been enrolled i n the French Immersion program continuously from Kindergarten through to the present time? Yes No 5. Why did you choose t h i s language program f o r your child? I am unwilling to have involved i n the te s t i n g research study. Signature 57 APPENDIX B VARIANCE-COVARIANCE MATRICES AND INITIAL GROUP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS Table Al Means and Standard Deviations of I n i t i a l Groups b c French Immersion Regular Program Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Verbal Subtests Information 11.18 2.77 11.42 2.53 S i m i l a r i t i e s 11.41 3.02 12 .09 2.68 Arithmetic 11.64 2.62 10.38 2.30 Vocabulary 12.33 2.80 12.11 2.74 Comprehension 11.80 3.12 10.87 2.79 D i g i t Span 10.74 2.48 10.56 2.64 Performance Subtests Picture Completion 11 .90 2.95 11.27 2.44 Pict u r e Arrangement 12.23 3.54 12.53 3.31 Block Design 13.49 3.53 12.58 2.38 Object Assembly 12.31 2.81 11.42 2.45 Coding 10.87 3.29 10 .69 3.20 Mazes 12.74 2.49 13.04 2.95 Sums of Scaled Scores Verbal IQ 109.92 12.70 107.93 12.22 Performance IQ 115.92 12.77 111.58 12.26 F u l l Scale IQ 114.00 11.99 110.67 11.67 a P r i o r to matching students i n the two groups for educational l e v e l of head of household. b N = 39 ° N = 45 Table A2 Variance - Covariance Matrix French Immersion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Information 6.48 2. S i m i l a r i t i e s 3. Arithmetic 4. Vocabulary 5. Comprehension 6. D i g i t Span 7. Picture Completion 8. Picture Arrangement 9. Block Design 10. Object Assembly 11. Coding 12. Mazes 4.32 8.44 2.07 1.48 7.06 3.56 4.25 1.20 8.10 3.82 2.98 1.78 4.34 10.42 1.11 1.97 1.96 1.35 2.42 5.34 1.54 2.04 1.82 2.43 -0.39 1.21 7.00 -1.12 0.78 -0.71 -0.48 -1.07 -1.44 -2.04 11.31 3.57 1.26 3.23 -0.28 -0.38 3.26 3.21 -2.22 13.79 2.46 1.03 3.56 -0.02 1.84 0.78 2.75 0.05 3.89 6.54 4.36 2.90 0.48 -0.80 2.30 0.74 0.00 -0.42 3.47 3.56 11.47 0.29 0.74 0.70 0.53 -1.20 2.06 1.18 -1.07 3.74 -0.18 -1.51 6.22 Table A3 Variance - Covariance Matrix English Program 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1. Information 6.54 2. S i m i l a r i t i e s 2.47 6.12 3. Arithmetic 3.07 1.42 5.31 4. Vocabulary 3.64 1.77 2.70 6.75 5. Comprehension 4.07 2.73 1.46 5.88 8.34 6. D i g i t Span 3.58 2.14 2.30 3.24 3.81 4.54 7. Picture Completion -0.38 0.17 -0.75 -0.50 0.92 -0.26 3.50 8. Picture Arrangement 0.03 0.79 0.48 0.10-0.14-0.66 1.06 9.85 9. Block Design 0.93 2.11 2.37 1.59 1.54 0.81 0.14 0.63 4.03 10. Object Assembly 1.87 0.67 1.30 1.84 2.74 0.68 0.17 1.01 1.99 6.90 11. Coding 0.73 0.65 -1.10 -0.38 1.19 1.25 1.48 0.30 -0.47 2.11 8.94 12. Mazes 0.99 2.13 1.16 1.18 0.52 0.84 -0.25 -2.12 1.37 -0.83 -2.24 7.54

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