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Validation of the WISC-R for grade two French immersion students Neilsen, Barbara Jean 1983

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VALIDATION OF THE WISC-R FOR GRADE TWO FRENCH IMMERSION STUDENTS  by BARBARA JEAN NIELSEN B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1983  c ) B a r b a r a Jean N i e l s e n , 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  B r i t i s h Columbia,  it  freely available  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  understood that for  for extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  g r a n t e d by  the  not  be  of  make  further this  thesis  head o f  representatives. publication  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at  of  for  in partial  It is  this  thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  written  permission.  Department  of  Educational  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 ^  ^  Date  DE-6  (3/81)  December 20,  1983  Psychology and  Columbia  Special  my  Education  ii  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ness of the use of t h e Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d (WISC-R) f o r assessment of French immersion s t u d e n t s whose language of i n s t r u c t i o n a t s c h o o l has been s o l e l y F r e n c h .  To i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s problem,  t h e WISC-R performance of 29 grade two French immersion s t u d e n t s was compared t o t h a t of 29 r e g u l a r ( E n g l i s h ) program p e e r s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t study was based on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e WISC-R has been commonly a d m i n i s t e r e d t o French immersion c h i l d r e n and i n t e r p r e t e d as i f t h i s group of c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i c a l t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n on whom t h e t e s t was s t a n d a r d i z e d .  W h i l e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d  t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia s t u d e n t s a t t a i n h i g h e r WISC-R means and l e s s v a r i a n c e t h a n American s t u d e n t s , no d a t a were a v a i l a b l e t o suggest how the p e r f o r mance of t h i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t group, French immersion s t u d e n t s , compared t o t h a t of s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d a l l f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r f i r s t language, E n g l i s h . A l l s t u d e n t s o b t a i n e d p a r e n t a l consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y , came from homes i n which E n g l i s h was t h e dominant language, and had been c o n t i n u o u s l y e n r o l l e d from k i n d e r g a r t e n through t h e end of grade two i n t h e i r c u r r e n t academic programs.  Groups were matched  f o r gender and  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of t h e head of t h e h o u s e h o l d . A l l t e s t i n g and s c o r i n g were done by graduate s t u d e n t s who had been t r a i n e d and s u p e r v i s e d i n t h e use of t h e WISC-R.  A multivariate  analysis  of v a r i a n c e was used to t e s t the hypotheses of e q u a l means and v a r i a n c e s between the two groups on the 12 s u b t e s t s and the V e r b a l and factors.  Performance  A u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was used to t e s t the hypotheses of e q u a l  F u l l S c a l e means and v a r i a n c e s between groups. Comparative r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c e n t r a l t e n d a n c i e s and v a r i a n c e c o v a r i a n c e s t r u c t u r e f o r b o t h the F r e n c h immersion and the r e g u l a r program g r o u p s , matched f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of p a r e n t s , were e s s e n t i a l l y the same.  Both the immersion and r e g u l a r program groups had V e r b a l , P e r f o r m -  ance and F u l l S c a l e IQs i n Wechsler's H i g h Average c a t e g o r y . R e s u l t s of an a n c i l l a r y a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the 58 c h i l d r e n i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r F u l l S c a l e IQs than d i d a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e B r i t i s h Columbia sample whose mean IQs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than those p u b l i s h e d i n the WISC-R manual. I t was concluded t h a t a l t h o u g h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s i s confounded by p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups, the use of the WISC-R appears not to be disadvantageous to h i g h e r SES French c h i l d r e n whose main language of the home i s E n g l i s h .  immersion  F u r t h e r , i t was  concluded t h a t , f o r B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n , use of the B r i t i s h  Columbia  norms f o r the age groups, 7%, 9h and l l ^ g i s more a p p r o p r i a t e than use of the 1974 Wechsler norms.  Research S u p e r v i s o r : ... Dr. W. T.  Rogers  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  v  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v i i  Chapter I INTRODUCTION  1  Background to the Problem French Immersion Research The Problem II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A l t e r n a t i v e Forms of French Immersion Programs Other S i t u a t i o n - S p e c i f i c I n f l u e n c e s The E f f e c t of the Immersion E x p e r i e n c e on E n g l i s h Language S k i l l s The E f f e c t s of Immersion on C o g n i t i v e and I n t e l l e c t u a l Development The C o q u i t l a m E a r l y French Immersion Program  III  METHODOLOGY  RESULTS  SUMMARY AND  8 11 12 17 24  27 31 34 34 35 38  The Sample Comparative R e s u l t s Ancillary Analysis: V  8  27  The Sample WISC-R Testing S c o r i n g and Data P r e p a r a t i o n Data A n a l y s e s IV  1 2 5  Comparison to B.C. R e s u l t s  CONCLUSIONS  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research  38 39 42 44 45 46 47  REFERENCE NOTES  49  REFERENCES  50  APPENDIX A:  L e t t e r to P a r e n t s and Consent Form  54  APPENDIX B:  V a r i a n c e - C o v a r i a n c e M a t r i c e s and I n i t i a l Group Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s  57  V  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1 Grade Two Enrolment i n the D u a l - T r a c k ( E n g l i s h / French) S c h o o l s 2 SES L e v e l of Household by Language of I n s t r u c t i o n by Gender of Student 3 WISC-R S u b t e s t s 4 Form of R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Computed 5 SES C o m p o s i t i o n of Quasi-Matched Groups 6 Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Quasi-Matched Groups 7 Summary of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Quasi-Matched Groups 8 Comparison of Holmes and N i e l s e n Mean IQ Scores \.  28 31 33 36 39 40 41 42  vi  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 1 L o c a t i o n and E n r o l m e n t o f D u a l - T r a c k Schools i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t  29  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h was p r o v i d e d through a g r a n t from t h e E d u c a t i o n a l Research I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia. was  Additional  support  p r o v i d e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by means o f a Summer  Graduate F e l l o w s h i p which enabled me t o m a i n t a i n f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s t a t u s and c o n s e q u e n t l y complete  t h i s p r o j e c t more q u i c k l y than would have been  possible otherwise. I w i s h t o thank my graduate s t u d e n t c o l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s who l e n t t h e i r ears and made v a l u a b l e comments, p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e p r o p o s a l s t a g e o f my t h e s i s .  I am i n d e b t e d t o P a t P a l u l i s , G a i l  Matiaszow,  B a r b a r a M a l a r c z y k , and M a r g a r e t P o t t e r f o r t h e i r h e l p i n t e s t i n g and d a t a preparation. I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o my b r o t h e r , Robert N i c h o l s o n , and my sons, Dean and D a r i n N i e l s e n , f o r t h e i r encouragement.  To my f r i e n d , Donna Welch,  I w i s h t o express my h e a r t f e l t a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h e r moral support and f o r t h e many hours she spent  typing.  I a l s o w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my r e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. Todd Rogers, f o r s h a r i n g h i s e x p e r t i s e and f o r h i s p a t i e n c e w i t h a nons t a t i s t i c i a n , and t o my committee members: me c l a r i f y "the problem",  Dr. B a r b a r a Holmes who helped  and D r . Robert Roy f o r h i s s t i m u l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s .  A f i n a l word o f a p p r e c i a t i o n goes t o t h e s t u d e n t s , p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s i n t h e C o q u i t l a m s c h o o l d i s t r i c t who c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r time and energy t o t h i s  project.  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Background t o the Problem The number of E a r l y French Immersion programs i n Canada has g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n the p a s t decade.  A l t h o u g h the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s  i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o a t t e n d immersion programs may be more l i m i t e d t h a n they a r e f o r s t u d e n t s i n Quebec and O n t a r i o , the number of programs i s increasing yearly.  D u r i n g the 1976-77 s c h o o l y e a r C o q u i t l a m , V i c t o r i a  and  Vancouver were the o n l y t h r e e d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r i n g E a r l y F r e n c h Immersion.  However, by the 1981-82 s c h o o l y e a r , the program  o f f e r e d i n 21 B r i t i s h Columbia  was  districts.  When c h i l d r e n from t h e e a r l y immersion programs a r e r e f e r r e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l assessment, the d i a g n o s t i c i a n i s f a c e d w i t h the d e c i s i o n as t o which d i a g n o s t i c i n s t r u m e n t s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e .  Tests s p e c i f i c a l l y designed  and v a l i d a t e d f o r use w i t h French immersion s t u d e n t s a r e r a r e , as i n d i c a t e d i n a r e c e n t paper on t e s t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia by Conry, Conry, and D'Oyley (1982). validity  These a u t h o r s p o i n t e d out the need f o r demonstrated  of French Immersion assessment d e v i c e s .  The O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r  S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n (OISE) has r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l t e s t s of r e a d i n g  2  comprehension s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r F r e n c h immersion s t u d e n t s w h i c h , i n a d d i t i o n t o t e s t s d e s i g n e d f o r use w i t h n a t i v e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s , are  c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used by d i a g n o s t i c i a n s .  However, a l t h o u g h psycho-  e d u c a t i o n a l assessment p r o c e d u r e s v a r y , t h e Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r Children-Revised  (WISC-R) i s r o u t i n e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n E n g l i s h t o b o t h  m o n o l i n g u a l ( r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program) and b i l i n g u a l program) s t u d e n t s .  (French immersion  Holmes (1981) compared WISC-R performance of B r i t i s h  Columbia s t u d e n t s t o t h a t of t h e American group and found t h a t t h e B r i t i s h Columbia group had a h i g h e r mean and l e s s v a r i a n c e t h a n W e c h s l e r ' s group. However, no r e s e a r c h i s a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e WISC-R performance of  c h i l d r e n i n French immersion programs i s comparable t o t h a t of e i t h e r  t h e i r r e g u l a r ( E n g l i s h ) program p e e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia o r t h a t of t h e American s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. As t h e WISC-R i s a h i g h l y - v e r b a l t e s t of g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and as F r e n c h immersion s t u d e n t s a r e exposed o n l y t o F r e n c h i n t h e f i r s t  three  y e a r s i n t h e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , i s i t v a l i d t o assume t h a t  their  a c c e s s t o l e a r n e d i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o use and comprehend t h e i r first  language i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t of t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l peers so t h a t  performance on t h e WISC—R w i l l be u n a f f e c t e d ?  French Immersion Research Two major q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e a b o v e - s t a t e d c o n c e r n about WISC-R v a l i d i t y a r i s e i n much of t h e c u r r e n t French immersion r e s e a r c h : (1)  Does immersion i n a second-language e d u c a t i o n a l environment (French) a f f e c t competency i n t h e c h i l d ' s f i r s t  (2)  language  (English)?  What e f f e c t does enrolment i n an e a r l y French immersion program have on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and c o g n i t i v e development  of t h e c h i l d ?  3 F i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e two q u e s t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter I I , but r e s u l t s of c u r r e n t s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e no e n d u r i n g n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of e a r l y French immersion on e i t h e r E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e competency  o r c o g n i t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l development  1972; Genesee, 1978; Swain & L a p k i n , 1981).  (Lambert & Tucker,  I n a d d i t i o n some r e s e a r c h e r s  have r e p o r t e d s u p e r i o r performance of French immersion s t u d e n t s i n b o t h f i r s t - l a n g u a g e s k i l l s and c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y  ( P e a l & Lambert, 1962;  Lambert & T u c k e r , 1972; B a r i k & Swain, 1976a). However, many of t h e s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s have i n v o l v e d o n l y those s t u d e n t s who have coped w i t h and s u r v i v e d t h e F r e n c h immersion experience.  The e f f e c t of French immersion on c h i l d r e n who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g  d i f f i c u l t y i s l e s s c l e a r ; there i s controversy i n the l i t e r a t u r e the  regarding  d e s i r a b i l i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s e c h i l d r e n i n F r e n c h immersion  programs  (Bruck, 1978, 1979; Cummins, 1979a; T r i t e s , 1976; T r i t e s & P r i c e , 1976, 1977 1978, 1980, 1981).  These "problem" c h i l d r e n may be s w i t c h e d t o t h e  r e g u l a r E n g l i s h s e t t i n g e a r l y i n t h e i r academic c a r e e r s and, t h e r e f o r e , would be e x c l u d e d from f o l l o w u p immersion s t u d i e s .  These a r e a l s o t h e  c h i l d r e n who a r e most l i k e l y t o be r e f e r r e d f o r assessment and t o whom t h e WISC—R would be a d m i n i s t e r e d . Two o t h e r r e s e a r c h i s s u e s have been i d e n t i f i e d which c l e a r l y suggest c a u t i o n i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f French immersion r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s :  random  assignment t o groups and f i n d i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l sample (Swain & L a p k i n , 1981). of  S t u d e n t s a r e a s s i g n e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l programs on t h e b a s i s  numerous f a c t o r s which o f t e n o p e r a t e o u t s i d e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system.  These f a c t o r s a r e n o t always r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e and a r e o f t e n  difficult  to  quantify.  R a r e l y can c o n t r o l be e x e r c i s e d through t h e random assignment  of  s t u d e n t s t o e d u c a t i o n a l programs. S i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e immersion  4  program i s o p t i o n a l , p a r e n t s make t h e d e c i s i o n whether o r n o t t o e n r o l t h e i r c h i l d i n t h e French o r t h e E n g l i s h program.  Because t h e p a r e n t s a r e  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n , t h e uniqueness of t h e French immersion comes i n t o q u e s t i o n :  who a r e t h e s e French Immersion  group  c h i l d r e n and why have  t h e i r p a r e n t s chosen t h i s language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r them?  F o r example,  p a r e n t surveys suggest d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s which may i n d i c a t e t h a t French immersion c h i l d r e n a r e b r i g h t e r o r more e x t r o v e r t e d , o r more v e r b a l , o r s i m p l y more a b l e t o cope than t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers & L a p k i n , 1981; McEachern,  1980).  (Swain  French immersion p a r e n t s a l s o r e p o r t  fewer concerns than r e g u l a r program p a r e n t s about t h e i r c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h an immersion c l a s s . t h e r e f o r e , i s n o t random.  Assignment  t o language of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  A l s o , s e l e c t i o n of a c o n t r o l group of s t u d e n t s  who w i l l be s i m i l a r i n a l l r e s p e c t s except f o r t h e language of i n s t r u c t i o n is unlikely.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , because of d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two enrolment  groups, one cannot s i m p l y i n t e r p r e t r e s e a r c h t o say t h a t t h e b i l i n g u a l l y educated s t u d e n t s a r e d o i n g as w e l l a s , o r b e t t e r , o r worse t h a n what they would be doing i f they were s c h o o l e d i n a r e g u l a r E n g l i s h  program.  Another concern i s t h e n a t u r e of t h e t e s t s used i n r e s e a r c h (Swain & L a p k i n , 1981).  T e s t s developed i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s may i n c l u d e c o n t e n t  which i s u n f a m i l i a r t o Canadian c h i l d r e n .  W h i l e c r e a t i n g a problem f o r a l l  assessments, t h i s may be f u r t h e r compounded f o r a group t h a t i s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e group on whom t h e t e s t was i n i t i a l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d . F u r t h e r , w h i l e Swain and L a p k i n (1981) acknowledge  that reference to test  norms i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e groups t e s t e d d i f f e r from t h e norming p o p u l a t i o n , they suggest t h a t t h e use of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s i n r e s e a r c h p e r m i t s comparisons a c r o s s programs.  B u t , because of t h e many  v a r i a t i o n s i n F r e n c h immersion programs ( d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I ) ,  comparison  5 of  t e s t s c o r e s a c r o s s programs appears q u e s t i o n a b l e .  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , immersion  programs d i f f e r i n the t i m i n g and  i n t e n s i t y of French as the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . r e s e a r c h may  In a d d i t i o n to v a r y i n g  be e s s e n t i a l l y community s p e c i f i c .  T h e r e f o r e , French  immersion  J a c o b o v i t s (1972) suggests  t h a t because communities v a r y g r e a t l y , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may  not be v a l i d  from one community t o the n e x t . At t h i s p o i n t , c l a r i f i c a t i o n of two terms i s n e c e s s a r y .  In t h i s  r e p o r t t h e term " m o n o l i n g u a l " r e f e r s t o c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program, and  the term " b i l i n g u a l " r e f e r s to s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n  t h e French immersion  program.  " B i l i n g u a l " s t u d e n t s are b e i n g p r o v i d e d w i t h  " s c h o o l i n g " f u l l y o r p a r t l y i n a second s t u d e n t s p r o f i c i e n t i n the second  language w i t h the o b j e c t of making  language ( S t e r n , 1972).  However, a l l  such b i l i n g u a l programs a l s o have the maintenance of the f i r s t  language as  an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t g o a l of the t o t a l program.  The  Problem  C o q u i t l a m i s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g community l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a of B r i t i s h Columbia. e a r l y French immersion  This d i s t r i c t  pioneered  programs i n t h i s p r o v i n c e and at the time of t h i s  s t u d y o f f e r e d a program i n which French was  the s o l e language of i n s t r u c t i o n  from k i n d e r g a r t e n through grades one and two.  Grade t h r e e marked the  g r a d u a l i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h and by the end of elementary seven) Language A r t s was  taught i n both languages  e i t h e r French or E n g l i s h .  school  and c o r e s u b j e c t s i n  T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h a t the end of  elementary  s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were working i n both languages, d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r s (K - 2) of elementary e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e i r second  (grade  three  s c h o o l the c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d to read and w r i t e language.  6 The WISC-R i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used r o u t i n e l y f o r p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l assessment of E a r l y French Immersion c h i l d r e n i n t h e C o q u i t l a m S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , a l t h o u g h i t s v a l i d i t y f o r t h i s purpose has n o t been f o r m a l l y investigated.  Current research using other standardized instruments i n d i c a t e s  t h a t c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n F r e n c h immersion programs g e n e r a l l y do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l peers i n e i t h e r t h e i r  first-language  s k i l l s o r t h e i r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y when v a r i a b l e s such as age, gender and environmental factors are considered.  With t h e assumption t h a t t h e WISC-R  performance of t h e s e b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n does n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t of t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l p e e r s , t e s t u s e r s a d m i n i s t e r t h e t e s t t o c h i l d r e n from b o t h language groups and r e p o r t s c o r e s based on t h e American norms r e p o r t e d i n t h e t e s t manual. B u t , as p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , Holmes (1981) found d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e WISC-R performance of B r i t i s h Columbia s t u d e n t s and t h a t of t h e Wechsler s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample.  However, no i n f o r m a t i o n  i s a v a i l a b l e as t o whether B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n who have r e c e i v e d a l l o f t h e i r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n F r e n c h p e r f o r m t h e same as t h e i r  regular  program peers on t h i s h i g h l y - v e r b a l E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e t e s t of g e n e r a l gence.  intelli-  How a p p r o p r i a t e a r e t h e i n f e r e n c e s which a r e b e i n g made from t h e  WISC-R t e s t r e s u l t s f o r c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n French immersion programs i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t ? To i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s q u e s t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were t e s t e d :  (a)  %  = M  E  ->  where M i s t h e 12 x 1 v e c t o r of mean s c o r e s on t h e 12 s u b t e s t s of t h e WISC-R; F denotes t h e F r e n c h immersion sample, and E denotes t h e r e g u l a r ( E n g l i s h ) sample; and  7  <>  ^ F  b  where ^  =^E  i s a 12 x 12 v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e m a t r i x w i t h t h e v a r i a n c e s of  the 12 s u b t e s t s a l o n g t h e p r i n c i p a l d i a g o n a l and t h e c o v a r i a n c e s among t h e 12 s u b t e s t s i n t h e o f f - d i a g o n a l p o s i t i o n s .  The purpose of t h i s s t u d y , t h e n , was t o compare t h e WISC-R performance o f a group of E a r l y French Immersion s t u d e n t s w i t h t h a t of a quasi-matched group of t h e i r r e g u l a r ( E n g l i s h ) program p e e r s .  Students were t e s t e d a t  t h e end of t h e i r grade two y e a r , a t which time they had been e n r o l l e d c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t h e i r language of i n s t r u c t i o n program f o r about two and one-half  s c h o o l y e a r s . One f u l l y e a r of h a l f - d a y k i n d e r g a r t e n i s t r e a t e d as  one-half  school year.  At t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h e French  immersion c h i l d r e n had n o t been exposed t o any f o r m a l  English-language  i n s t r u c t i o n ; n o r had t h e r e g u l a r ( E n g l i s h ) program s t u d e n t s been exposed t o any  f o r m a l French-language  instruction.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  The r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e i s f o c u s s e d upon two major r e l e v a n t to WISC-R performance:  concerns  the e f f e c t of the French immersion  exper-  i e n c e on E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e s k i l l s and on i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by v a r i o u s t e s t s of one o r more f a c e t s of c o g n i t i v e development.  However, because i t  i s i m p o r t a n t to c o n s i d e r the i n f l u e n c e s which l i m i t g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , the r e v i e w b e g i n s f i r s t w i t h an o v e r v i e w of a l t e r n a t i v e forms of French immersion programs, of  situation-specific differences.  f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f  L i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the two  discussion  major  concerns i s t h e n reviewed and, f i n a l l y , a r e v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d of French immersion r e s e a r c h i n C o q u i t l a m , the d i s t r i c t from which the sample f o r t h i s s t u d y was  selected.  A l t e r n a t i v e Forms of French Immersion  Programs  There a r e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of French-as—a-second-language a v a i l a b l e i n Canada:  c o r e , extended and immersion.  French i s t a u g h t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d  programs  In the core  (20 t o 40 minutes) once a day.  program, The  9  extended programs i n c l u d e one o r two s u b j e c t s taught i n French i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o r e component.  The immersion programs a r e t h o s e i n which 50 t o  100% o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' academic c o n t e n t i s taught u s i n g French as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Because of t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y , subsequent  d i s c u s s i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e n a t u r e and e f f e c t s of immersion programs. Three v a r i a t i o n s of t h e immersion program a r e :  e a r l y t o t a l immersion,  e a r l y p a r t i a l immersion ( a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as t h e b i l i n g u a l program), and l a t e French immersion.  The t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e s v a r y n o t o n l y between forms  b u t a l s o w i t h i n t h e same form i n t h e t i m i n g and i n t e n s i t y o f French as t h e medium of i n s t r u c t i o n . I n e a r l y French immersion t h e percentage of time spent i n F r e n c h i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one i s 100%. F o l l o w i n g grade one, t h e r e a r e s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s among programs, a l t h o u g h t h e i r g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e s i m i l a r . F o r example, i n O n t a r i o a d a i l y p e r i o d of E n g l i s h language a r t s may be i n t r o d u c e d i n grade two o r t h r e e ; a t grade f i v e French remains t h e language o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r 60 t o 80% o f t h e s c h o o l day; t h e p e r c e n t a g e of French drops a t grade s i x t o about 40 t o 50%; and i n grades seven and e i g h t h a l f o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i s taught i n F r e n c h and h a l f i n E n g l i s h (Swain & L a p k i n , 1981).  E n g l i s h i s o f f e r e d as e a r l y as grade two i n some d i s t r i c t programs  (Lambert & T u c k e r , 1972) o r as l a t e as grades f o u r and f i v e i n o t h e r s (Genesee, 1982).  I n some d i s t r i c t s t h e E n g l i s h p o r t i o n o f t h e program  s u r p a s s e s t h a t of t h e French p o r t i o n by grade s i x w h i l e i n o t h e r s t h e F r e n c h p o r t i o n exceeds o r e q u a l s t h e E n g l i s h p o r t i o n throughout t h e element a r y grades.  S t u d e n t s i n some d i s t r i c t s a r e o f f e r e d c o u r s e o p t i o n s i n  secondary s c h o o l i n t e n d e d t o m a i n t a i n and enhance t h e i r skills.  second-language  Genesee (1982), i n a t t e m p t i n g t o summarize t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s ,  d e s c r i b e s t h e e a r l y immersion program as h a v i n g t h r e e s t a g e s :  an immersion  10  phase ( p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h t o the program), a b i l i n g u a l phase (when b o t h E n g l i s h and F r e n c h a r e used i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s ) , and a maintenance phase (when s e l e c t c o u r s e s a r e taught i n French a t the secondary school). Swain and L a p k i n (1981) r e p o r t v a r i a t i o n s between e a r l y p a r t i a l immers i o n programs.  I n E l g i n County, O n t a r i o , t h e program b e g i n s a t t h e grade  one l e v e l ( f o l l o w i n g a h a l f - d a y E n g l i s h k i n d e r g a r t e n ) w i t h the two languages of i n s t r u c t i o n used e q u a l l y throughout the s t u d e n t s ' e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . The Ottawa program d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y i n t h a t the program b e g i n s w i t h a f u l l day k i n d e r g a r t e n i n which 50% of the s c h o o l day i s i n French and 50% i n English. Genesee (1982) d e s c r i b e s two t y p e s of l a t e immersion, a one-year and a two-year o p t i o n . the  The one-year program b e g i n s i n grade seven w i t h 85% of  c u r r i c u l u m t a u g h t i n French f o l l o w e d by one or two F r e n c h c o u r s e s i n  each of grades e i g h t t o e l e v e n .  I n the two-year program, a l l i n s t r u c t i o n  ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of E n g l i s h language a r t s ) i s i n French f o l l o w e d by two French c o u r s e s per y e a r i n grades n i n e and t e n and one c o u r s e i n grade eleven.  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, l a t e immersion programs s t a r t i n grade s i x o r  seven and c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h grade e i g h t .  The percentage of time i n which  F r e n c h i s the language of i n s t r u c t i o n v a r i e s among d i s t r i c t s .  For example,  i n C o q u i t l a m i n s t r u c t i o n i s 100% F r e n c h , w h i l e i n S u r r e y i t i s 80% and i n L a n g l e y i t i s 60% ( P f e i f f e r , 1980).  V a r i a b i l i t y i n the s t r u c t u r e of programs  i s more pronounced f o r l a t e immersion t h a n f o r e a r l y immersion (Swain & L a p k i n , 1981); however, f o r the most p a r t the i n t e n s i v e "dose" o f French comes i n the i n i t i a l y e a r or two y e a r s of b o t h programs, w i t h t h e amount of exposure t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n French r e m a i n i n g c o n s t a n t or t a p e r i n g o f f i n subsequent y e a r s .  A l s o , w h i l e p a r e n t s make the d e c i s i o n t o e n r o l l t h e i r  11 c h i l d r e n i n e a r l y immersion, l a t e immersion s t u d e n t s themselves g e n e r a l l y make t h i s d e c i s i o n " w i t h a l i t t l e h e l p from t h e i r f r i e n d s , p a r e n t s , and t e a c h e r s " (Swain & L a p k i n , 1981, p.43). S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have compared s t u d e n t s i n e a r l y immersion programs w i t h s t u d e n t s i n l a t e immersion programs.  F o r example, Bruck, Lambert, &  Tucker (1977) found t h a t e a r l y immersion s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d a much b r o a d e r range o f s c h o l a s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s than d i d t h e s e l f s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s i n the l a t e r immersion program.  Genesee (1982) r e p o r t e d  t h a t t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n French language p r o f i c i e n c y between comparable groups o f e a r l y  total  immersion and two—year l a t e immersion s t u d e n t s when e v a l u a t e d a t t h e end o f grades e i g h t t o e l e v e n . second-language maturity.  He suggested t h a t o l d e r l e a r n e r s may be f a s t e r  l e a r n e r s because o f t h e i r g r e a t e r c o g n i t i v e and/or  linguistic  T h i s m a t u r i t y may account f o r t h e p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s o f l a t e  immersion groups who by v i r t u e o f program s e l e c t i o n have spent l e s s time i n t h e French-language i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g than e a r l y immersion s t u d e n t s ( P f e i f f e r , 1980; Swain & B a r i k , 1981).  Other S i t u a t i o n - S p e c i f i c  Influences  In a d d i t i o n t o the numerous program v a r i a t i o n s , t h e r e a r e a l s o e n v i r o n mental f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s .  One f a c t o r i s the  amount o f exposure t o t h e French language b o t h a t s c h o o l and i n t h e community. Some programs a r e housed i n d u a l — t r a c k s c h o o l s where both French and E n g l i s h a r e o f f e r e d as languages o f i n s t r u c t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e l o c a t e d i n immers i o n " c e n t r e s " where French i s t h e o n l y language o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e school.  Research s u g g e s t s t h a t French-language b e n e f i t s may a c c r u e t o  e a r l y French immersion s t u d e n t s who s t u d y i n " c e n t r e s " ; t h a t i s , i n s c h o o l s  12  where most a c t i v i t i e s  o u t s i d e the c l a s s r o o m occur i n French ( L a p k i n , Andrew,  H a r l e y , Swain and Kamin, 1981).  When comparing  the French competence of  immersion s t u d e n t s i n Canadian c i t i e s where t h e r e i s a h i g h percentage of French s p e a k i n g r e s i d e n t s compared to those i n c i t i e s w i t h a low p e r c e n t a g e of  French s p e a k e r s , Swain (1981) found no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between  groups.  However, program and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s have l e d o t h e r  r e s e a r c h e r s t o suggest t h a t , i n many c a s e s , French immersion r e s e a r c h i s s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c and may  not be g e n e r a l i z a b l e ( J a k o b o v i t s , 1972;  Shapson  & Kaufman, 1978) . In summary, when i n t e r p r e t i n g French immersion r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s , must be aware t h a t t h e r e may  one  be s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s between  t h e groups i n one study and those i n another which l i m i t the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of  the groups.  Some of the v a r i a b l e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d when i n t e r p r e t i n g  research r e s u l t s are:  form of immersion program, E n g l i s h / F r e n c h i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l time r a t i o , t i m i n g of E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e i n t r o d u c t i o n to the program, and t h e language c o m p o s i t i o n of b o t h the s c h o o l and community f o r which sample was  selected.  Immersion s t u d e n t s i n the p r e s e n t study had  the  100%  French i n s t r u c t i o n a t s c h o o l and were e n r o l l e d i n d u a l - t r a c k (French and E n g l i s h ) s c h o o l s i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g community.  The E f f e c t of the Immersion E x p e r i e n c e on E n g l i s h Language S k i l l s The s u b s t a n t i a l amount of French immersion r e s e a r c h completed d u r i n g t h e p a s t decade i s i n p a r t a r e a c t i o n t o the concern of both p a r e n t s and e d u c a t o r s r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s s i b l e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on the development of t h e E n g l i s h language s k i l l s of c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n t h e s e programs.  The  c o n c e r n i s based on the assumption t h a t i f c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t o t a l time i s spent through the medium of E n g l i s h , then E n g l i s h s k i l l s must i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r .  13  Many r e s e a r c h e r s between 1920 and 1960 r e p o r t e d t h a t i n comparison t o u n i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n tended t o p e r f o r m more p o o r l y i n s c h o o l , s c o r e d lower on the v e r b a l p a r t s of IQ t e s t s and had h a n d i c a p s " (Darcy, 1953; P e a l and Lambert, 1962).  "language  However, i n c o n t r a s t t o  t h e s e e a r l i e r " n e g a t i v e " s t u d i e s , many of which were p o o r l y d e s i g n e d , r e c e n t e v a l u a t i o n s from a c r o s s Canada c o n s i s t e n t l y show t h a t a l t h o u g h immersion s t u d e n t s tend t o l a g b e h i n d t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l peers i n E n g l i s h language a r t s u n t i l f o r m a l E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d , they q u i c k l y c a t c h up i n t h e i r l i t e r a c y s k i l l s and may f i v e or s i x .  even s u r p a s s t h e i r peers by grade  A number of l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t elementary  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n whose f i r s t language i s E n g l i s h e x p e r i e n c e no  lasting  s e t b a c k s i n f i r s t - l a n g u a g e competence or academic achievement as a r e s u l t of  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e a r l y immersion programs  i n which a l l or much of t h e i r  s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i s taught v i a a second language (Lambert & Tucker, 1972; Genesee, 1978).  Even i n the double-immersion (French and Hebrew) program  e v a l u a t e d by Genesee and Lambert  (1983) , c h i l d r e n who had  first-language  ( E n g l i s h ) i n s t r u c t i o n postponed u n t i l a t l e a s t grade t h r e e d i d not e v i d e n c e any l o n g - t e r m d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s on f i r s t - l a n g u a g e development by r e a d i n g and s p e l l i n g t e s t s .  as  measured  Cummins (1983) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e i n F r e n c h and achievement i n t h a t language, but t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e  relation-  s h i p between E n g l i s h achievement and i n s t r u c t i o n a l time t h r o u g h E n g l i s h . Lambert and Tucker (1972) compared the l i n g u i s t i c development of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Quebec s t u d e n t s i n a p i l o t French immersion program w i t h t h a t of t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l peers from k i n d e r g a r t e n through grade f o u r . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t immersion c h i l d r e n a c h i e v e d s a t i s f a c t o r y  proficiency  i n the F r e n c h language w i t h o u t d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s e i t h e r t o E n g l i s h language  14  s k i l l s o r t o p r o g r e s s i n o t h e r academic a r e a s .  Students i n t h i s  experi-  mental program were from an u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s a r e a of M o n t r e a l and p a r e n t s were v e r y i n v o l v e d and committed t o t h e program. d'Anglejan of  Lambert, Tucker, and  (1973) r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s f o r a f o l l o w - u p study  these c h i l d r e n i n grade f i v e .  S t a n d a r d i z e d achievement t e s t s c o r e s f o r  b o t h t h e French and E n g l i s h groups averaged  about one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  above t h e p u b l i s h e d mean. Swain and L a p k i n (1981) summarized t e n y e a r s of r e s e a r c h on b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o and concluded t h a t t h e E n g l i s h language s k i l l s of both e a r l y t o t a l and e a r l y p a r t i a l immersion  s t u d e n t s lagged behind those of  t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers p r i o r t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h language arts. did  F o r l a t e immersion  not occur a t a l l .  s t u d e n t s , t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e l a g was s h o r t e r or  A f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h language a r t s t o  t h e c u r r i c u l u m , e a r l y immersion  s t u d e n t s performed  as w e l l a s , o r b e t t e r  t h a n , r e g u l a r program c o n t r o l groups on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s of E n g l i s h language s k i l l s .  I t has been suggested  (Lambert and Tucker, 1972; Cummins,  1979b) t h a t r e p o r t e d advantages i n E n g l i s h e x p e r i e n c e d by e a r l y immersion  s t u d e n t s i n t h e m i d d l e and upper elementary  total  grades can perhaps be  e x p l a i n e d by t h e i r knowledge of two d i f f e r e n t language systems,  a knowledge  which may p e r m i t them t o compare and c o n t r a s t French and E n g l i s h and h e i g h t e n t h e i r o v e r a l l l i n g u i s t i c awareness. B a r i k and Swain (1974, 1975, 1976b) found immersion p r i m a r y grades  c h i l d r e n i n the  i n O n t a r i o t o l a g i n t h e development of E n g l i s h language  l i t e r a c y s k i l l s compared t o t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l p e e r s ; however,  immersion  s t u d e n t s made adequate p r o g r e s s i n mathematics.  group s c o r e d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than the comparison  The immersion  group on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e -  ment T e s t (MAT) A r i t h m e t i c c o m p u t a t i o n a l items but not on v e r b a l A r i t h m e t i c  15 items.  S t u d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y from t h e m i d d l e t o upper-middle s o c i o -  economic c l a s s ; c h i l d r e n w i t h h e a r i n g , p e r c e p t u a l o r r e l a t e d problems were e x c l u d e d from t h e t e s t i n g ; and no i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d r e g a r d i n g dropo u t s from t h e program. Genesee (1978) found t h a t immersion s t u d e n t s i n grades one t o t h r e e performed a t an e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l t o t h a t of t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l peers on t e s t s of v o c a b u l a r y , word a s s o c i a t i o n s , l i s t e n i n g comprehension, and storytelling. Genesee, T u c k e r , and Lambert  (1975) r e p o r t e d t h a t immersion s t u d e n t s  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grades one and two appeared t o i n t e r a c t e f f e c t i v e l y i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and t o be more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e communication needs of l i s t e n e r s t h a n t h e i r r e g u l a r program p e e r s . and were t e s t e d i n E n g l i s h .  A l l c h i l d r e n were n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers  I n t h i s s t u d y , c h i l d r e n were asked t o e x p l a i n  how t o p l a y a game t o two d i f f e r e n t l i s t e n e r s , one b l i n d f o l d e d and one n o t blindfolded.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups i n  terms of how many r u l e s they mentioned t o each l i s t e n e r ; however, t h e immersion s t u d e n t s mentioned more about t h e m a t e r i a l s o f t h e game t o t h e b l i n d f o l d e d v e r s u s t h e s i g h t e d l i s t e n e r t h a n d i d t h e m o n o l i n g u a l group. Kaufman and Shapson  (1975) r e p o r t e d t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia immersion  s t u d e n t s compared t o t h e i r E n g l i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s d i d n o t p e r f o r m as w e l l on t h e r e a d i n g , word knowledge, word a n a l y s i s , and s p e l l i n g MAT s u b t e s t s p r i o r t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h language a r t s i n grade t h r e e .  French immersion  s t u d e n t s i n grades one and two d i d s c o r e w i t h i n t h e average range a c c o r d i n g t o t e s t norms; however, t h e r e g u l a r program s t u d e n t s s c o r e d above average (70 - 80 p e r c e n t i l e r a n g e ) .  The f i n d i n g t h a t t h e immersion s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d  s c o r e s i n t h e average range i n s p i t e of r e c e i v i n g no f o r m a l E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n a t s c h o o l was i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s as e v i d e n c e o f  t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g from t h e French e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g t o an E n g l i s h situation. T h i s t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g from one language t o t h e o t h e r i s e v i d e n t i n t h e r e s u l t s of o t h e r s t u d i e s as w e l l .  Curriculum i n the primary  grades  f o c u s s e s m a i n l y on language a r t s and mathematics; t h e r e f o r e , r e s e a r c h t e s t i n g has c o n c e n t r a t e d on these  areas.  Swain and L a p k i n (1981) r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s f o r 38 s e p a r a t e group a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of s t a n d a r d i z e d mathematics achievement t e s t s i n O n t a r i o f o r s t u d e n t s i n grades one through e i g h t .  At t h e grade t h r e e l e v e l , i t appeared  t h a t i n some cases t h e performance of immersion c h i l d r e n was a t a lower l e v e l than t h a t of t h e i r m o n o l i n g u a l  peers on problem s o l v i n g t a s k s ( r e -  q u i r i n g l i t e r a c y s k i l l s ) ; however, t h e m a j o r i t y of comparisons a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e age range i n d i c a t e d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups.  T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t immersion c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o l e a r n  mathematics i n French and t r a n s f e r t h e knowledge a c q u i r e d i n a French c o n t e x t t o an E n g l i s h c o n t e x t . Reviewing  a decade of r e s e a r c h , Swain and L a p k i n (1981) concluded  that  i n t h e l o n g r u n immersion s t u d e n t s were " a b l e t o m a i n t a i n s t a n d a r d s of achievement c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e o f t h e i r E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d p e e r s "  (p.106),  but t h a t e a r l y i n t h e immersion program t h e i r second language s k i l l s may be " i n s u f f i c i e n t t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l taught to  them i n F r e n c h "  French  (p.106).  However, g i v e n t h e h i g h SES s t a t u s of many  immersion c h i l d r e n ( T r i t e s & P r i c e , 1980), e n v i r o n m e n t a l  p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o develop E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e l e v e l r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of WISC-R t a s k s .  f a c t o r s may  s k i l l s to a  17  The  E f f e c t s of Immersion on C o g n i t i v e  and  I n t e l l e c t u a l Development  E a r l y s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i l i n g u a l i s m and development f r e q u e n t l y and  reported  a n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n between b i l i n g u a l i s m  b o t h v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and  academic s k i l l s .  Many e a r l y  c o n c l u d e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s s u f f e r e d from what was h a n d i c a p " or "mental c o n f u s i o n "  (Darcy, 1953).  t h e s e s t u d i e s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and of the t e s t were not c o n s i d e r e d .  by a more dominant and  investigators  termed a "language  However, i n the m a j o r i t y  student p r o f i c i e n c y i n the  Many s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out  m i n o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n whose f i r s t replaced  cognitive  language ( L I ) was  of  language  with  gradually  being  p r e s t i g i o u s second language ( L 2 ) .  Lambert  (1975) c a l l s t h i s form of b i l i n g u a l i s m " s u b t r a c t i v e " , whereas French immersion c h i l d r e n are g e n e r a l l y  i n an " a d d i t i v e " s i t u a t i o n .  c h i l d r e n b o t h languages have s o c i a l v a l u e and learning situation.  For French immersion  r e s p e c t i n the b i l i n g u a l  Because the b i l i n g u a l s t u d e n t ' s L I i s dominant or  l e a s t p r e s t i g i o u s , i t i s i n no danger of replacement by L2; the e x p e r i e n c e adds a n o t h e r s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t of s k i l l s .  Further,  immersion  language t o the s t u d e n t ' s  M c L a u g h l i n (1978, pp.168-171) p u r p o r t s t h a t  at  repertory  the  i n f e r i o r i t y of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i s a f u n c t i o n of the type of t e s t used: i f non-verbal materials however, i f m a t e r i a l s higher.  are used, no d i f f e r e n c e s between groups are  are v e r b a l , the m o n o l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y  Thus, t o a l a r g e e x t e n t ,  found; score  poor r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s have l e d to r e s u l t s  which i n d i c a t e t h a t b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n o b t a i n  lower IQ s c o r e s than u n i l i n g u a l  children. P e a l and  Lambert (1967) r e v i e w e d s t u d i e s which attempted to determine  whether m o n o l i n g u a l and b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d i n i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by s t a n d a r d i z e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m had  tests.  They found t h a t many r e s e a r c h e r s concluded  a detrimental  e f f e c t on i n t e l l e c t u a l  functioning.  18  The b i l i n g u a l c h i l d was  d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g hampered i n h i s performance  i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i n comparison w i t h the m o n o l i n g u a l c h i l d . i n d i c a t e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m had l i t t l e o r no i n f l u e n c e on  on  Some s t u d i e s  intelligence.  Only two e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s suggested t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m had a f a v o r a b l e e f f e c t on  intelligence.  To i n v e s t i g a t e the i n t e l l e c t u a l consequences of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n , P e a l and Lambert (1967) compared t e n - y e a r - o l d F r e n c h - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l  and  French m o n o l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i n m i d d l e — c l a s s M o n t r e a l s c h o o l s and found the b i l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s t o be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r , t o possess g r e a t e r v e r b a l s k i l l s , t o e x h i b i t g r e a t e r mental f l e x i b i l i t y ,  t o be more f a c i l e a t concept  f o r m a t i o n , and to a c h i e v e h i g h e r grades i n s c h o o l .  B i l i n g u a l students  s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on a l l v e r b a l and most n o n - v e r b a l p a r t s of tests.  On none of the s u b t e s t s d i d the m o n o l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s s c o r e h i g h e r  t h a n the b i l i n g u a l s . group may  However, the method of s e l e c t i o n of the b i l i n g u a l  have l e d t o a sample of c h i l d r e n who were more i n t e l l i g e n t t o  b e g i n w i t h than the m o n o l i n g u a l group; they s e l e c t e d o n l y b i l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s whose E n g l i s h (L2) was i n E n g l i s h and F r e n c h .  e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e i r French ( L I ) as measured by The a u t h o r s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t s i n c e b i l i n g u a l  tests  children  have two symbols f o r every o b j e c t , they c o n c e p t u a l i z e e n v i r o n o m e n t a l e v e n t s i n terms of t h e i r g e n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h o u t r e l i a n c e on l i n g u i s t i c and, t h e r e f o r e , they are more s k i l l e d i n a b s t r a c t concepts and  symbols  relations.  More r e c e n t s t u d i e s have f o c u s s e d on the comparison of F r e n c h - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l students w i t h E n g l i s h monolingual students. Lambert and Tucker  (1972) a d m i n i s t e r e d the Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s  to b o t h b i l i n g u a l and m o n o l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h ) c h i l d r e n i n S t . Lambert, Quebec, at  the b e g i n n i n g of grade one and found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between  groups.  R e t e s t e d a t t h e end of grade one, the p i l o t French group  had  19 s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower s c o r e s t h a n an E n g l i s h c o n t r o l group, w h i l e a l a t e r group o f grade one immersion s t u d e n t s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e i r E n g l i s h peers.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  between groups on t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o f t h e L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e group l i g e n c e t e s t a t t h e end of grade one. or  intel-  No s i g n s of any i n t e l l e c t u a l  deficit  r e t a r d a t i o n were e v i d e n t i n f o l l o w - u p y e a r l y t e s t i n g of t h i s group o f  Montreal  children.  Lambert, T u c k e r , and d ' A n g l e j a n (1973) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t advantages to  b i l i n g u a l s on a s e r i e s of c r e a t i v i t y measures by t h e end of t h e i r p r i m a r y  y e a r s i n t h e S t . Lambert program.  Immersion c h i l d r e n had h i g h e r s c o r e s  t h a n t h e i r r e g u l a r program p e e r s on l e t t e r sequence, rhyming d e f i n i t i o n s , and u n u s u a l uses t e s t s , which a l l r e q u i r e r a p i d i t y and c l e v e r n e s s i n generating novel ideas.  Performance on t h e L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e V e r b a l B a t t e r y ,  which r e q u i r e s a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of E n g l i s h language and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , was e q u i v a l e n t f o r b o t h groups on a l l s u b t e s t s :  concept v o c a b u l a r y ,  concept e x t e n s i o n , and synonyms. Cummins and G u l u t s a n (1974) examined some c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g , among grade s i x b a l a n c e d - b i l i n g u a l and m o n o l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n i n Edmonton.  The b i l i n g u a l group performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y  better  t h a n t h e u n i l i n g u a l group on v e r b a l a b i l i t y and g e n e r a l r e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t s and a l s o on a measure of o r i g i n a l i t y i n t h e v e r b a l t e s t of d i v e r g e n c e . Bruck, Lambert, and Tucker (1974), i n a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y of t h e S t . Lambert p r o j e c t a t grade seven, found t h a t when d i f f e r e n c e s between immers i o n and E n g l i s h - e d u c a t e d s t u d e n t s o c c u r r e d on measures of c o g n i t i v e  flexi-  b i l i t y and d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g , t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r e d t h e immersion students.  No d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s upon academic, l i n g u i s t i c o r c o g n i t i v e  development were r e p o r t e d .  Another f i n d i n g of t h i s study was t h a t when  20 e a r l y immersion s t u d e n t s were compared t o l a t e immersion s t u d e n t s , gence t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e a r l y immersion s t u d e n t s  intelli-  represented  a much b r o a d e r range of s c h o l a s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s than d i d t h e s e l f - s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s i n t h e l a t e r immersion program. B a r i k and Swain (1976a) compared IQ d a t a o b t a i n e d period  over a f i v e - y e a r  (grades K - 4) between F r e n c h immersion and r e g u l a r program c h i l d r e n .  A l t h o u g h y e a r - b y - y e a r r e s u l t s d i d n o t suggest IQ d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two  groups, r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e immersion group  had  a higher  IQ measure over t h e f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d .  I t i s possible that  c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w e r IQs had dropped out of t h e immersion program by grade four.  Considering  grades one t o t h r e e o n l y , t h e two groups d i d n o t s c o r e  d i f f e r e n t l y with respect s p e c i f i c subtest scores  t o e i t h e r t h e o v e r a l l O t i s - L e n n o n IQ s c o r e o r ( c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , analogies,  of v e r b a l d i r e c t i o n s ) when s c o r e s were a d j u s t e d  forinitial  following  IQ and age  differences. Genesee (1978) r e p o r t e d  t h e r e s u l t s of a l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f a  M o n t r e a l F r e n c h immersion program i n c l u d i n g grades one through s i x .  There  was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e grade one group and t h e r e g u l a r program ( E n g l i s h ) group on t h e L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n f a v o r of t h e immersion s t u d e n t s .  A l s o , a t t h e grade one l e v e l  r e s u l t s of t h e Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s  f a v o r t h e immersion group.  By  t h e end of grade t h r e e t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between groups on e i t h e r of t h e s e two i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . Oren (1981) s t u d i e d t h e e f f e c t s o f b i l i n g u a l i s m and m o n o l i n g u a l i s m on t h e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y of p r e - s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n from upper and upper-middle  c l a s s homes t o l a b e l and r e l a b e l o b j e c t s .  Results indicated that early  b i l i n g u a l i s m was advantageous t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h e n o t i o n o f  21  symbols.  C h i l d r e n i n t h i s study had v a r i o u s language  backgrounds.  Feldman and Shen (1971) found t h a t f i v e - y e a r - o l d b i l i n g u a l Head c h i l d r e n l e d a matched group of monolinguals i n t a s k s i n v o l v i n g c o n s t a n c y , naming, and the use of names i n sentences. c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r study performed  Also,  Start  object  bilingual  c o n s i s t e n t l y better i n tasks requiring  non-verbal responses. Ianco-Worrall  (1972) compared A f r i k a a n s - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l s i n South  A f r i c a t o both A f r i k a a n s and E n g l i s h m o n o l i n g u a l s (ages 4-6 t o 7-9 y e a r s ) on the s e p a r a t i o n of word sound to  from word meaning.  A t t e n t i o n to meaning or  sound of words was t e s t e d w i t h a semantic and p h o n e t i c p r e f e r e n c e t e s t ,  a two-choice t e s t  i n which  s i m i l a r i t y between words c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d on  the  b a s i s of shared meaning o r shared a c o u s t i c p r o p e r t i e s .  the  h y p o t h e s i s t h a t b i l i n g u a l i s m l e a d s t o the e a r l i e r r e a l i z a t i o n of the  a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e o f name-object Ben-Zeev  R e s u l t s supported  relationship.  (1977) compared the c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s of two groups of  Hebrew-English b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n , one group t e s t e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the o t h e r group one t e s t e d  i n I s r a e l , w i t h two c o r r e s p o n d i n g monolingual groups,  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s speaking o n l y E n g l i s h and one t e s t e d i n  I s r a e l speaking only Hebrew. was  The age range of the c h i l d r e n i n the sample  5-4 t o 8-6 y e a r s (mean = 7.0 y e a r s ) .  subtests ( S i m i l a r i t i e s , D i g i t  IQ was e s t i m a t e d from f o u r WISC  Span, P i c t u r e Completion, and P i c t u r e A r r a n g e -  ment) and used as a c o n t r o l i n t h e main experiment.  An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  i n d i c a t e d t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between b i l i n g u a l and monol i n g u a l groups f o r t o t a l e s t i m a t e d IQ. on i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s was not r e p o r t e d .  The average IQ was 113.  Performance  M o n o l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s showed  s u p e r i o r performance on the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t ; however, on measures of semantic knowledge, f l e x i b i l i t y  i n semantic r u l e usage, and  non-verbal  system u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e b i l i n g u a l group showed more advanced  p r o c e s s i n g of v e r b a l m a t e r i a l , more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p e r c e p t u a l  distinctions,  more p r o p e n s i t y t o search f o r s t r u c t u r e i n p e r c e p t u a l s i t u a t i o n s , and more capacity to reorganize t h e i r perceptions  i n response t o feedback.  I n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s have been used i n French immersion research mainly  t o d e s c r i b e c h i l d r e n who e i t h e r a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g  i n t h e immersion program o r who have switched program.  difficulty  t o the r e g u l a r E n g l i s h  T r i t e s and P r i c e (1976) found t h a t c h i l d r e n who had d i f f i c u l t y i n  e a r l y French immersion had h i g h WISC IQs and e x c e l l e n t sensory-motor f u n c t i o n s , but performed more p o o r l y on a complex psychomotor problems o l v i n g t a s k than groups of c h i l d r e n who had been diagnosed as h a v i n g primary  reading d i s a b i l i t y , minimal b r a i n d y s f u n c t i o n , primary  d i s t u r b a n c e , o r as b e i n g h y p e r a c t i v e .  emotional  R e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d as e v i d e n c e  o f a m a t u r a t i o n a l l a g i n t h e temporal lobe r e g i o n s of t h e b r a i n which subserve v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l c e n t r e s of t h e c e r e b r a l c o r t e x .  p e r c e p t u a l f u n c t i o n s and c o n t a i n t h e a u d i t o r y The l a g was n o t e v i d e n t a f t e r age n i n e .  T r i t e s and P r i c e (1977) found t h a t c h i l d r e n who t r a n s f e r r e d out of t h e French immersion program had lower v e r b a l IQs and were e x p e r i e n c i n g more academic problems than were c h i l d r e n who remained i n F r e n c h immersion i n s p i t e of r e p o r t e d  difficulties.  T r i t e s and P r i c e (1978, 1980) r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s of a three-phase of r e a d i n e s s f o r F r e n c h immersion. Preschool  and P r i m a r y  study  I n t h e f i r s t phase, t h e Wechsler  S c a l e of I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI), which c o r r e l a t e s .82  w i t h t h e WISC-R F u l l S c a l e IQ (Wechsler,  1974, p.48), was a d m i n i s t e r e d as  p a r t of an e x t e n s i v e b a t t e r y t o randomly s e l e c t e d f o u r - y e a r - o l d Ottawa k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n who were scheduled program f o r f i v e - y e a r - o l d s .  to enter a primary  French immersion  These c h i l d r e n were i n v o l v e d i n f o l l o w - u p  s t u d i e s a t t h e end of f i v e - y e a r - o l d k i n d e r g a r t e n  (phase two) and a t the end  of  grade one (phase t h r e e ) .  in  s p i t e of B r i g h t - N o r m a l t o S u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , 25 of the i n i t i a l  sample  However, the sample d i f f e r e d  of 200 s t u d e n t s had dropped out of the immersion program by phase  three.  Phase t h r e e groups d i f f e r e d  significantly  i n terms of IQ as i n i t i a l l y  measured by the WPPSI i n f o u r — y e a r - o l d k i n d e r g a r t e n . still  i n French programs  higher F u l l dropped  C h i l d r e n who were  d u r i n g phase three of the study had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  S c a l e s c o r e s than c h i l d r e n i n the E n g l i s h program who had  out of immersion o r had never been e n r o l l e d i n i t (even though  p a r e n t s had expressed i n t e n t t o e n r o l them). s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher F u l l i n French immersion.  and background  In a d d i t i o n , dropouts had  S c a l e s c o r e s than the c h i l d r e n who had never been  A l l groups had h i g h IQ s c o r e s ; a l l c h i l d r e n came from  upper-middle to l o w e r - u p p e r - c l a s s homes.  which  each year because,  I n f o r m a t i o n about the b i o g r a p h i c a l  i n f o r m a t i o n of 1000 f o u r - y e a r - o l d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n from  the sample was s e l e c t e d  i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g French  immersion tended to come from h i g h e r SES and more advantaged homes, attended p r e s c h o o l more f r e q u e n t l y , were read t o a t home more f r e q u e n t l y , and had p o s i t i v e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s towards the French language. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e completed by both French Immersion language (EL) p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d may have s t a r t e d 1980).  (FI) and E n g l i s h  t h a t c h i l d r e n i n French immersion  programs  s c h o o l w i t h some u n d e f i n a b l e c o g n i t i v e advantages  F i f t e e n p e r c e n t of the F I p a r e n t s f e l t  t h e i r c h i l d r e n would  (McEachern, need  p a r e n t a l help t o succeed i n French immersion; i n c o n t r a s t , 46% o f the EL parents f e l t  t h a t way.  F o r t y p e r c e n t of the EL p a r e n t s f e l t  would have g r e a t e r adjustment problems  children  i n s c h o o l than r e g u l a r s t u d e n t s ,  whereas only 2% of the F I p a r e n t s responded t h a t way. the  their  In a d d i t i o n , 94% of  FI p a r e n t s d i d not f e e l t h a t French immersion was too d i f f i c u l t f o r  24  t h e i r c h i l d r e n , w h i l e o n l y 63% of the EL p a r e n t s shared t h i s In summary, the l i t e r a t u r e suggests  t h a t w h i l e French  feeling.  immersion  may  l e a d to c o g n i t i v e advantages i n the long run, t h i s does not appear to be the case i n the e a r l y stages of the program. g e n e r a l l y appears  The  grades.  Coquitlam E a r l y French Immersion Program  Coquitlam program s t a r t e d  the language of i n s t r u c t i o n was i n grades  one through  the e a r l y t o t a l  seven.  i n 1968  80% French  as a b i l i n g u a l program i n which i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and 50%  The b i l i n g u a l program was  the medium of French.  offered  e a r l y French  seven).  During  immersion and  two  In a d d i t i o n , a secondary  s t u d e n t s were immersed f o r one language  French  The number of s c h o o l s  the 1982-83 s c h o o l y e a r , f i v e offered  schools  l a t e immersion (grades s i x  s c h o o l program was  semester i n French  a v a i l a b l e i n which  (except f o r E n g l i s h  arts).  The Coquitlam  immersion program has been the focus of a  longitudinal  study of the e f f e c t s of immersion on s t u d e n t s ' E n g l i s h language s k i l l s their proficiency & Day,  1982).  i n the French  language (Shapson & Kaufman, 1978;  T h i s study f o l l o w e d the p r o g r e s s of two French  c o h o r t s compared to a c o n t r o l group of r e g u l a r program p e e r s . e x p e r i e n c e of the two received  by  t h i s o p t i o n i n c r e a s e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the demand f o r e d u c a t i o n  through  and  French  r e p l a c e d i n 1973  immersion model i n which students r e c e i v e d 100%  i n s t r u c t i o n from k i n d e r g a r t e n through grade two. offering  performance  to be e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t of r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program peers  d u r i n g the primary  The  However, t e s t  cohorts d i f f e r e d  i n the i n i t i a l  20% E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , 100%  i n grade one  and  20% E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i n grade two,  grades; French  and  Shapson  immersion The  immersion  cohort I instruction  w h i l e cohort I I  25  r e c e i v e d no E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l grade t h r e e .  T h e r e a f t e r , the programs  were s i m i l a r f o r both c o h o r t s w i t h 75% French i n s t r u c t i o n time i n grade t h r e e and 50% i n grades f o u r through s i x . As a measure of g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h e Canadian C o g n i t i v e Test  (CCAT) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  study.  a t the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t year of the  The M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement  measure of E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . (literacy skills  Test  (MAT) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  s k i l l s was i n c l u d e d .  No measure o f  A l l t e s t s used  administered.  CCAT s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t  c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between  French and E n g l i s h groups a t the b e g i n n i n g of the study. at  as a  S e v e r a l measures of French achievement  and a u r a l comprehension) were a d m i n i s t e r e d .  E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e o r a l communication were group  Abilities  Scores o b t a i n e d  t h a t time were used as c o v a r i a t e s i n a l l subsequent a n a l y s e s of a c h i e v e -  ment t e s t  scores.  As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , e v a l u a t i o n d u r i n g the primary grades (Shapson & Kaufman, 197 8)  i n d i c a t e d t h a t French immersion s t u d e n t s  lagged behind t h e i r monolingual peers on t e s t s of E n g l i s h l i t e r a c y  skills  at  the end of grades one and two.  of  s p e l l i n g ) was apparent a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of E n g l i s h language a r t s  in  grade t h r e e .  of  grade f o u r a t which time the immersion c h i l d r e n no l o n g e r showed any of  the  No evidence of the l a g (with the e x c e p t i o n  E n g l i s h language s k i l l s were monitored o n l y u n t i l  the end  l a g s which were e v i d e n t i n t h e e a r l y grades (Shapson & Day, 1982).  Mathematics achievement was e q u i v a l e n t f o r a l l groups at the grades one and two l e v e l s , In  so was not e v a l u a t e d i n l a t e r grades.  summary, e v i d e n c e from a l o n g i t u d i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the C o q u i t l a m  e a r l y immersion program showed t h a t French immersion s t u d e n t s , compared to t h e i r r e g u l a r program p e e r s , were e q u i v a l e n t i n mathematics  achievement,  and were e q u i v a l e n t t i o n of E n g l i s h  i n E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a f t e r the  language a r t s i n grade t h r e e .  indicate either s t a b i l i t y  No evidence was  of IQ s c o r e s a c r o s s grade l e v e l s nor  i n E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e o r a l communication  i n a testing situation.  introduc-  a v a i l a b l e to proficiency  27  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY  The purpose of  of t h e p r e s e n t study was t o compare the WISC-R  performance  a group of grade two French immersion students w i t h that of a group of  t h e i r peers e n r o l l e d  i n the r e g u l a r program.  B r i e f l y , t h e procedure  f o l l o w e d was to a d m i n i s t e r the WISC-R t o each of the s t u d e n t s , then t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a i n terms of c e n t r a l tendancy  and v a r i a n c e — c o v a r i a n c e  structure. A complete First,  sampling  d e s c r i p t i o n of the methodology i s presented i n t h i s procedures  chapter.  and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample a r e o u t l i n e d ,  f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e measuring  i n s t r u m e n t , the WISC-R.  the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d .  Next,  F i n a l l y , t h e data  analyses are presented.  The The  Sample  sample f o r t h i s study was s e l e c t e d from grade two c l a s s e s at the  f i v e Coquitlam s c h o o l s which o f f e r e d e a r l y French immersion programs.  The  f i v e s c h o o l s , a l l of which were d u a l - t r a c k (each o f f e r e d both immersion and  r e g u l a r E n g l i s h programs), were g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l o c a t e d throughout  the  s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o serve each of the areas w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t , as shown i n F i g u r e 1.  The grade two enrolments  are shown i n T a b l e 1.  Table 1 Grade Two Enrolment i n the D u a l - T r a c k ( E n g l i s h / F r e n c h ) Schools 1982-83  School  French  Alderson Glenayre Hillcrest Irvine Kilmer  Total  English  26 23 47 17 23  26 13 15 40 30  136  124  F i v e boys and f i v e g i r l s were randomly s e l e c t e d from the French immersion c l a s s e s i n each of the f i v e s c h o o l s . were randomly s e l e c t e d the f i v e s c h o o l s .  T h i r t y g i r l s and 30 boys  from combined grade two r e g u l a r program c l a s s e s i n  Both the l i t e r a t u r e  p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s suggested  review and i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  t h a t the average  SES l e v e l of French  immersion s t u d e n t s was h i g h e r than t h a t of the E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s ; t h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r to match the two groups f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of p a r e n t , a g r e a t e r number of E n g l i s h (n = 60) than French  students  (n = 50) was  initially  selected. L e t t e r s i n f o r m i n g p a r e n t s of the purpose and nature of the study were sent home w i t h the s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s a l o n g w i t h forms r e q u e s t i n g both p a r e n t a l consent  f o r student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study and background  Figure 1  Dual-Track  L o c a t i o n and Enrolment of Schools i n the Coquitlam School  10 leiciHfi*  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Irvine Killmer Hillcrest Alderson Glenayre  (425) (440) (475) (417) (319)  District  30  information.  Copies of these forms a r e p r o v i d e d i n Appendix A.  I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d on these forms p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g the f i n a l  sample f o r t h i s study.  The s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were:  (1)  E n g l i s h was the main language spoken i n the home;  (2)  Enrolment i n the c u r r e n t language of i n s t r u c t i o n had been from k i n d e r g a r t e n through  (3)  continuous  t o the time of t e s t i n g ; and  P a r e n t a l consent had been o b t a i n e d f o r t h e c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  study.  Of the 110 l e t t e r s sent home, 103 were r e t u r n e d .  Four of the seven  students  f o r whom l e t t e r s were not r e t u r n e d e i t h e r had moved or were to move p r i o r t o the t e s t i n g p e r i o d .  Four p a r e n t s d i d not p r o v i d e consent  p a t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the study.  for partici-  Two students were absent  from  s c h o o l on t e s t i n g d a t e s , f i v e were from homes i n which a language other than E n g l i s h was the main language, enrolled  and s i x had not been c o n t i n u o u s l y  i n e i t h e r language of i n s t r u c t i o n .  E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of p a r e n t  was not p r o v i d e d f o r an a d d i t i o n a l two s t u d e n t s .  Consequently,  the r e s u l t i n g  sample s i z e s were 39 f o r the b i l i n g u a l group and 45 f o r the monolingual group. P a r e n t s were asked  t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on a socio-economic  the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of the head of household, income e a r n e r found  (see parent consent  variable:  d e f i n e d as the major  form, Appendix A ) .  Thorndike  (1951)  t h i s v a r i a b l e to c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e .  d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s SES v a r i a b l e i n the i n i t i a l T a b l e 2.  Students  The  samples i s presented i n  i n the immersion group were l a t e r matched f o r t h i s  v a r i a b l e w i t h s t u d e n t s i n the r e g u l a r ( E n g l i s h ) program, and two q u a s i matched groups of 29 were o b t a i n e d  (see T a b l e 5, Chapter I V ) .  31  Table 2 SES L e v e l of Household by Language of I n s t r u c t i o n by Gender of Student  SES  Level  Language of I n s t r u c t i o n  I  French  1  5  3  11  1  2  8  8  English  2  10  7  5  3  6  8  4  Note:  Male II I I I IV  Female II I I I IV  I  Based on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from parent-consent C a t e g o r i e s f o r head of household I II III IV  forms.  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l were:  Less than h i g h s c h o o l completion High s c h o o l completion Post-secondary, no degree U n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e degree  WISC-R The Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - Revised f r e q u e n t l y used  i n Canadian s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  main instruments a d m i n i s t e r e d Coquitlam,  the d i s t r i c t  (Note  1 ) . I t i s one of the  d u r i n g p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l assessments i n  i n which t h i s study was conducted.  b e i n g t h e most w i d e l y used  (WISC-R) i s  individual intelligence test  In a d d i t i o n to  (Mercer, 1979;  Hopkins & S t a n l e y , 1981), i t has served as the c r i t e r i o n t e s t a g a i n s t which o t h e r measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e have been v a l i d a t e d  (Bersoff,  1980).  The WISC-R i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t of " g l o b a l "  intelli-  gence which Wechsler (1974) c o n c e i v e s of as a " m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l and m u l t i faceted  entity  r a t h e r than an independent,  uniquely-defined t r a i t "  The WISC-R covers an age range from 6-0 t o 16-11 years and c o n s i s t s  (p.5).  32  of 12 s u b t e s t s  (see T a b l e 3 ) .  S i x subtests are c l a s s i f i e d  as measuring  v e r b a l measures and s i x as performance ( o r non-verbal) measures. the l a t t e r s i x s u b t e s t s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d as non-verbal  Although  measures, a good  command of the E n g l i s h language i s r e q u i r e d i n order t o comprehend and perform  the tasks s i n c e d i r e c t i o n s are given i n E n g l i s h .  Scaled  scores  from 10 s u b t e s t s a r e combined t o y i e l d t h r e e summary IQ s c o r e s each with a mean of 100 and standard IQ, and the F u l l  d e v i a t i o n of 15:  S c a l e IQ.  The remaining  t h e V e r b a l IQ, the Performance two s u b t e s t s , D i g i t  Mazes, a r e used as supplementary t e s t s both  to r e p l a c e i n v a l i d  r e g u l a r s u b t e s t s and t o g a i n f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s have means of 10 and standard  Span and r e s u l t s on  Scaled s c o r e s f o r d e v i a t i o n s of t h r e e .  The WISC-R was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 2200 white and non-white American c h i l d r e n of ages 6-6 t o 16-6. stratified  by sex,  The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n group was f u r t h e r  r a c e , geographic  region, occupation  h o l d , and u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e a c c o r d i n g The  reliabilities  i n t h e manual a r e h i g h standard  to 1970 census i n f o r m a t i o n .  of t h e V e r b a l , Performance and F u l l (average  Scales  reported  of .94, .90 and .96, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , w i t h a  e r r o r of measurement f o r t h e F u l l S c a l e of about t h r e e IQ p o i n t s .  Average s u b t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y has  of head of house-  adequate v a l i d i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .70 t o .86.  ( S a l v i a & Ysseldyke,  1981; S a t t l e r , 1982).  The WISC-R Comparison  of the WISC-R w i t h a v a r i e t y of a b i l i t y and achievement t e s t s and s c h o o l grades has r e s u l t e d i n median c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging  from t h e upper .30s to  low .80s. Holmes (1981) found  t h a t f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of B r i t i s h  c h i l d r e n , 7%, 9% and 11% y e a r s  of age, the means were h i g h e r and l e s s  v a r i a b l e than Wechsler's sample. f o r t h e present Coquitlam  Columbia  Based on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , WISC-R s c o r e s  sample were expected  t o be more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  33  Table 3 WISC-R  1.  Subtests  I n f o r m a t i o n - measures the wealth  of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n acquired as  a r e s u l t of n a t i v e a b i l i t y  and e a r l y c u l t u r a l  experience.  2.  S i m i l a r i t i e s - measures v e r b a l concept  formation.  3.  A r i t h m e t i c - measures numerical  4.  Vocabulary  5.  Comprehension - measures s o c i a l judgment: the a b i l i t y t o use f a c t s i n p e r t i n e n t , meaningful and e m o t i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e manner.  6.  P i c t u r e Completion - measures the a b i l i t y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e from n o n - e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l s .  7.  P i c t u r e Arrangement - measures non-verbal r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y ; a l s o may be viewed as a measure of p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y ; i . e . , the a b i l i t y t o comprehend and s i z e up a t o t a l situation.  8.  B l o c k Design  9.  Object Assembly - measures p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a b i l i t y .  10.  Coding - measures v i s u a l - m o t o r c o o r d i n a t i o n , speed of mental o p e r a t i o n , and s h o r t - t e r m memory.  reasoning  ability.  - measures a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g language development, l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , and fund of i n f o r m a t i o n .  - measures v i s u a l - m o t o r organization.  essential  c o o r d i n a t i o n and p e r c e p t u a l  Supplementary s u b t e s t s : 11.  D i g i t Span - measures s h o r t - t e r m memory and a t t e n t i o n .  12.  Mazes - measures p l a n n i n g a b i l i t y  and p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  ( S a t t l e r , 1982, pp.188-189)  Holmes's r e s u l t s than w i t h t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e American s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample.  Testing All  12 WISC-R s u b t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  the t o t a l  sample f o l l o w i n g the procedures  (Wechsler,  1974).  t o each of t h e 84 c h i l d r e n i n  d e s c r i b e d i n the t e s t manual  A l l t e s t i n g was done by f o u r female L e v e l C t e s t e r s  (Cronbach, 1970) who had been t r a i n e d and s u p e r v i s e d i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  s c o r i n g of t h e WISC-R.  T e s t i n g took p l a c e i n the a p p r o p r i a t e  d u r i n g t h e r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l day i n t h e p e r i o d between A p r i l 20,  1983.  Each a d m i n i s t r a t i o n took approximately  contacted  i n advance to arrange  tration.  A student  parent  required  Schools  were  adminis-  code number, language of i n s t r u c t i o n , gender, and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of each student  variables.  18 and May  time and a p p r o p r i a t e space f o r t e s t  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l were r e c o r d e d  allowed  90 minutes.  schools  on each t e s t p r o t o c a l .  T h i s procedure  i n terms of the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  B i r t h d a t e s were a l s o recorded  because t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  f o r r e f e r e n c e t o a p p r o p r i a t e norms and f o r d e s c r i p t i v e sample  information.  Subject  anonymity was guaranteed by the absence of student  names on t e s t p r o t o c a l s .  S c o r i n g and Data P r e p a r a t i o n Completed p r o t o c a l s were scored by the r e s p e c t i v e t e s t e r s f o l l o w i n g the d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n i n the t e s t manual (Wechsler,  1974).  Second p a r t y  v e r i f i c a t i o n f o r 50% of t h e t e s t p r o t o c a l s r e v e a l e d a .005 s c o r i n g e r r o r rate. and  Using  the Wechsler norms, s c a l e d s c o r e s f o r each of the 12 s u b t e s t s  t h r e e sums of s c a l e d s c o r e s  obtained  f o r each c h i l d .  ( V e r b a l , Performance and F u l l  The V e r b a l Score  S c a l e ) were  and Performance Score  a r e the  sums of the v e r b a l s u b t e s t s c a l e d s c o r e s f i v e performance s u b t e s t s s c a l e d scores The  F u l l S c a l e Score  and Mazes).  Internal consistency s u b t e s t s except  the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s  coefficients for a l l  (odd/even) u s i n g the S t a t i s t i c a l  correla-  Package  (SPSS), then c o r r e c t i n g f o r l e n g t h u s i n g t h e The s p l i t - h a l f  technique  was not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  to be a combined s c o r e f o r two independent t e s t s and Coding i s a Some of the s u b t e s t s have v a r i a b l e b a s a l l e v e l s below which  a r e scored as c o r r e c t although  questioning.  they a r e not i n f a c t  To avoid a r t i f i c i a l l y i n f l a t i n g  i n c l u d i n g these  calculated  i n coding.  Span o r Coding because the s c a l e d s c o r e f o r D i g i t Span i s  speeded t e s t .  by  Span  Analyses  (split-half) reliability  totals  Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a . either Digit  No e r r o r s were found  D i g i t Span and Coding were obtained by c a l c u l a t i n g  t i o n s between s p l i t - h a l f  items  (excluding D i g i t  The data were then coded w i t h 20% random v e r i f i c a t i o n and  Data  considered  ( e x c l u d i n g Mazes), r e s p e c t i v e l y .  i s the sum of a l l s u b t e s t scores  keypunched w i t h 100% v e r i f i c a t i o n .  for  ( e x c l u d i n g D i g i t Span) and the  items,  total  on t h e b a s i s of items  i n c l u d e d i n the  internal consistency  "odd" s c o r e and t o t a l a c t u a l l y presented;  estimates  "even" s c o r e were t h a t i s , a l l items  w i t h i n the b a s a l t o c e i l i n g  range (see T a b l e 4 ) . T h i s was not necessary  for  Assembly because f o r these  S i m i l a r i t i e s and Object  item i s f i x e d The  s u b t e s t s the b a s a l  a t item #1 f o r a l l ages.  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the IQ S c a l e s were obtained  the r e l i a b i l i t y  of a composite group of t e s t s  from the formula f o r  ( G u i l d f o r d , 1954, p.393).  These a r e based on s u b t e s t combinations e x c l u d i n g Coding and D i g i t To  Span.  t e s t t h e e a r l i e r s t a t e d hypotheses t h a t the mean performances of  the French  and E n g l i s h groups a r e i d e n t i c a l and the v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e  Table 4 Form of R e l i a b i l i t y  Score  C o e f f i c i e n t Computed  Reliability Coefficient  Components  Information  split-half  (odd v s . even i t e m s ) , Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  basal  Similarities  split-half  (odd v s . even i t e m s ) , Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  item #1 t o c e i l i n g  Arithmetic  split-half  (odd v s . even items), Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  basal  item to c e i l i n g  item  Vocabulary  split-half  (odd v s . even i t e m s ) , Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  basal  item to c e i l i n g  item  Comprehension  split-half  (odd v s . even i t e m s ) ,  Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  basal  i t e m to c e i l i n g  item  P i c t u r e Completion  split-half  (odd v s . even items),  Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  basal  item to c e i l i n g  item  P i c t u r e Arrangement  split-half  (odd v s . even items),  Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  basal  i t e m to c e i l i n g item  B l o c k Design  split-half  (odd vs. even items),  Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  basal  item to c e i l i n g  Object  split-half  (#1 .& #4 vs. #2 & #3) , Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  all  Mazes  split-half  (odd v s . even items),  basal  V e r b a l IQ  reliability  of .a composite group of t e s t s ( G u i l f o r d , 1954)  5 verbal tests  Performance IQ  reliability  of a composite group of t e s t s ( G u i l f o r d , 1954)  5 performance t e s t s  Full  reliability  of a composite group of t e s t s ( G u i l f o r d , 1954)  10 t e s t s  Assembly  S c a l e IQ  Spearman-Brown c o r r e c t i o n  item to c e i l i n g  item  item  item  items item to c e i l i n g  item  ON  37  s t r u c t u r e s are i d e n t i c a l , 1971) were performed:  two m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s of v a r i a n c e (Tatsuoka,  the f i r s t  f o r the 12 s u b t e s t s , and the second f o r  the V e r b a l and Performance IQ s c o r e s .  Lastly, a third  analysis,  i n n a t u r e , was performed to t e s t the e q u a l i t y of the mean F u l l s c o r e s and e q u a l i t y of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a r i a n c e s . s i g n i f i c a n c e was used i n a l l t h r e e a n a l y s e s . were performed u s i n g the computer All  univariate  S c a l e IQ  The .05 l e v e l of  The n e c e s s a r y computations  program OWMAR ( H a k s t i a n & Bay, Note 2 ) .  computations were performed on an AMDAHL 470/V8 computer maintained  by the Computing  C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  CHAPTER IV RESULTS  In t h i s chapter a d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i n a l sample of students i s presented,  f o l l o w e d by the r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s e s d e s c r i b e d i n the  previous chapter.  L a s t l y , an a n c i l l a r y a n a l y s i s i s presented  performance of a group of s e v e n - y e a r - o l d B.C. s t u d e n t s  i n which the  (Holmes, 1981) was  compared t o t h e performance of the combined groups i n the p r e s e n t  The  Sample  E i g h t y — f o u r of the 110 randomly sampled students monolingual)  study.  (39 b i l i n g u a l and 45  conformed to the t h r e e c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s  investigation  E n g l i s h was the main language of the home; they had been e n r o l l e d c o n t i n u o u s l y from k i n d e r g a r t e n through i n s t r u c t i o n ; and p a r e n t a l consent p a t i o n i n the study.  grade two i n t h e i r c u r r e n t language of had been obtained f o r the c h i l d ' s  When s t u d e n t s from  t h e i r r e g u l a r ( E n g l i s h ) program peers major income earner obtained.  the French  partici-  group were matched w i t h  f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the f a m i l y ' s  (see T a b l e 5 ) , two quasi-matched groups of 29 were  Students were s e l e c t e d f o r these groups a c c o r d i n g to t h e order  Table 5 SES Composition of Quasi-Matched  Language of Instruction  I  French  1  5  English  1  5  Note:  Based  Males II III  Groups  Females II III  IV  I  IV  3  5  1  2  8  4  3  5  1  2  8  4  on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from p a r e n t - c o n s e n t forms.  C a t e g o r i e s f o r head of household e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l were: I  Less than h i g h s c h o o l completion  II III IV  High s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n P o s t - s e c o n d a r y , no degree U n i v e r s i t y or c o l l e g e degree  i n which they were randomly was  composed of 14 males and 15 f e m a l e s .  s t u d e n t s was was  s e l e c t e d f o r the i n i t i a l  sample was  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  skewed towards h i g h e r SES.  t h a t the percentage of B r i t i s h Columbians I I - 27%, I I I - 20%, IV - 24%. study were:  The average age of  immersion  I - 7%,  I I - 24%,  Census  that  data (1971) i n d i c a t e d  i n each c a t e g o r y was:  I - 29%,  I I I - 38%, IV - 31%.  both groups are i n the High Average  Results  (Bright) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  IQ s c o r e s f o r (Wechsler,  V e r b a l , Performance and F u l l S c a l e IQs f o r French  c h i l d r e n were 110,  group  shown i n T a b l e 5 i n d i c a t e s  Means and Standard d e v i a t i o n s are presented i n T a b l e 6.  p.26).  group  In c o n t r a s t , percentages i n the p r e s e n t  Comparative  1974,  Each  7 y e a r s , 10 months; the average age f o r the comparison  7 y e a r s , 11 months.  this  groups.  immersion  115 and 114, r e s p e c t i v e l y compared to 110, 114 and  113  f o r the E n g l i s h  group.  Table 6 Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s and R e l i a b i l i t y C o o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Quasi-Matched Groups  French Immersion Group  Verbal  Regular Program Group  Mean  s.d.  r  Mean  s.d.  r  11.24 11.31 11.72 12.21 11.72 10.86  2.55 2.90 2.66 2.85 3.23 2.31  .64 .55 .57 .82 .72  11.48 12.14 10.79 12.59 11.14 10.55  2.56 2.48 2.31 2.60 2.89 2.13  .88 .62 .63 .67 .71  12.00 11.90 13.31 12.45 10.41 12.69  2.65 3.36 3.71 2.56 3.39 2.49  .77 .72 .86 .32  1.87 3.14 2.01 2.63 2.99 2.75  .77 .64 .17 .61  .49  11.83 12.72 13.21 11.55 10.69 13.59  .73  12.28 11.18 11.64  .87 .77 .87  109.52 113.72 112.69  11.71 10.18 10.29  .89 .67 .87  Subtests  Information Similarities Arithmetic Vocabulary Comprehension D i g i t Span  *  *  Performance S u b t e s t s P i c t u r e Completion P i c t u r e Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Coding Mazes Sums of S c a l e d V e r b a l IQ Performance IQ F u l l S c a l e IQ  *  A  Scores 109.69 115.14 113.55  The s p l i t - h a l f technique f o r computing r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s was not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e i t h e r D i g i t Span or Coding because the s c a l e d s c o r e f o r D i g i t Span i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a combined s c o r e f o r two independent t e s t s and Coding i s a speeded t e s t .  Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r t o t a l groups p r i o r to SES c a t i o n are presented i n Appendix B.  stratifi-  41 o  To t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s of equal c e n t r a l tendency, computed.  To t e s t  t e s t was used.  was  the homogeneity of v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e , the B a r t l e t t - B o x  The r e s u l t s of these a n a l y s e s are r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 7.  shown, t h r e e s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s were performed:  As  f o r the 12 s u b t e s t s ;  f o r the V e r b a l and Performance IQ; and f o r the F u l l The  Hotelling's T  S c a l e IQ.  r e s u l t s shown i n d i c a t e t h a t the c e n t r a l t e n d e n c i e s and v a r i a n c e -  c o v a r i a n c e s t r u c t u r e s of both the French s t u d e n t s performed  immersion and the r e g u l a r program  e s s e n t i a l l y the same a t the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  No d i f f e r e n c e s were found between mean s c o r e s and between the v a r i a n c e covariance matrices. disadvantageous  T h e r e f o r e , the use of the WISC-R appears  t o h i g h e r SES s t u d e n t s a t t h i s  not to be  l e v e l of the French  immersion  program.  Table 7 Summary of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Quasi-Matched Groups  F  Test I  12 WISC-R  Subtests  B a r t l e t t - B o x Homogeneity of V a r i a n c e - C o v a r i a n c e H o t e l l i n g ' s T f o r Two Groups II  .95 .70  nsd nsd  .22 .13  nsd nsd  1.28 .30  nsd nsd  V e r b a l IQ and Performance IQ B a r t l e t t - B o x Homogeneity of V a r i a n c e - C o v a r i a n c e H o t e l l i n g ' s T f o r Two Groups  III  P  F u l l S c a l e IQ Homogeneity of V a r i a n c e Student's t f o r Two Groups  Note :  M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s f o r I and I I ; u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s f o r I I I ; .05 L e v e l of S i g n i f i c a n c e adopted f o r t h i s study.  Ancillary  Analysis  A comparison of Holmes' (1981) data w i t h r e s u l t s of the present study i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 8.  Both Holmes' group of 7% y e a r - o l d B r i t i s h  c h i l d r e n and the combined  matched  Performance and F u l l  Columbia  groups i n t h i s study had h i g h e r V e r b a l ,  S c a l e IQ means than those r e p o r t e d i n the WISC-R  manual (means = 100).  R e s u l t s of these two s t u d i e s suggest t h a t use of the  American norms f o r B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n may t a t i o n s of performance compared  l e a d to u n r e a l i s t i c  expec-  w i t h o t h e r B r i t i s h Columbia c h i l d r e n .  example,  c h i l d r e n with F u l l  expected  to perform a c a d e m i c a l l y i n the middle of the average range of  same-age p e e r s . more r e a l i s t i c  S c a l e IQs of 100  For  ( u s i n g Wechsler norms) a r e  However, Holmes' and N i e l s e n ' s r e s u l t s both suggest t h a t a  e x p e c t a t i o n might be performance i n the lower end of the  average range.  Table 8 Comparison of Holmes and N i e l s e n Mean IQ Scores  a Holmes Mean s.d.  b Nielsen Mean s.d.  t  V e r b a l IQ  106.08  (13.79)  109.60  (12.00)  1.65  Performance IQ  109.92  (13.11)  114.43  (10.69)  2.26*  Full  108.16  (12.35)  113.12  (10.99)  2.58*  S c a l e IQ  a  N = 115  k N = 58 (combined matched * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05  groups)  Level.  T - t e s t s were performed to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s between group means. had  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the present  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean Performance and F u l l  group.  Holmes' sample more a c c u r a t e l y represented  sample ( N i e l s e n )  S c a l e IQs than Holmes' the B r i t i s h Columbia SES  d i s t r i b u t i o n , whereas the N i e l s e n sample c o n s i s t e d of a g r e a t e r percentage of h i g h e r SES c h i l d r e n . probably means.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between SES and academic p o t e n t i a l  accounts f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s between Holmes' and N i e l s e n ' s group  44  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  The WISC-R performance of 29 grade two c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n an e a r l y French  immersion program i n Coquitlam,  B r i t i s h Columbia, was compared t o  t h a t of 29 of t h e i r r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program p e e r s .  A l l students  came from  homes i n which E n g l i s h was the main language and a l l had been e n r o l l e d continuously since kindergarten  i n the c u r r e n t language of i n s t r u c t i o n .  Groups were matched f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the head of the household d e f i n e d as the major income e a r n e r .  Parents  of 20 of the 29 students i n  each group r e p o r t e d an e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l beyond h i g h s c h o o l The  t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d  y e a r , a t which time French English-language  graduation.  i n E n g l i s h a t the end of the s t u d e n t s ' grade two immersion c h i l d r e n had been exposed t o no formal  i n s t r u c t i o n at school.  A n a l y s i s of the 12 s u b t e s t s and three IQ s c o r e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n central the two groups. means were h i g h e r  tendency o r v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e  F o r both  s t r u c t u r e between  the immersion and the r e g u l a r program groups,  than those r e p o r t e d i n the WISC-R manual, and there was  generally less variance i n scores.  V e r b a l , Performance and F u l l  S c a l e IQ  45  s c o r e s f o r b o t h groups were i n t h e c a t e g o r y which Wechsler d e s c r i b e s as H i g h Average.  L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study W h i l e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of these r e s u l t s a r e e n c o u r a g i n g because they i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e immersion e x p e r i e n c e has not had a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on c o g n i t i v e development, t h e r e a r e some r e s e r v a t i o n s .  F i r s t , t h e study was  l i m i t e d t o a s m a l l group of French immersion c h i l d r e n (N=29) a t o n l y one grade l e v e l , a l l of whom a t t e n d e d d u a l - t r a c k s c h o o l s and came from p r i m a r i l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g homes i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g community. T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e French was t h e s o l e language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e s e c h i l d r e n , t h e y appeared t o have many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o develop and p r a c t i c e t h e i r f i r s t language, E n g l i s h .  I t was n o t e v i d e n t from c o n s e n t - f o r m i n f o r -  m a t i o n whether o r n o t o t h e r languages were spoken i n t h e home and i n which situations.  G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of r e s u l t s t o d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s o r t o  d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o r community s e t t i n g s s h o u l d not be made w i t h o u t further investigation.  Second, w h i l e t h e study r e l a y s u s e f u l  information  about t h e WISC-R performance of French immersion c h i l d r e n t o e d u c a t o r s and p a r e n t s , any comparison t o r e g u l a r program peers i s l i m i t e d because i t i s n o t c l e a r whether t h e French immersion and r e g u l a r program groups were e q u i v a l e n t when they s t a r t e d s c h o o l .  Very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e  as t o how p a r e n t s chose t h e language of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e d u a l - t r a c k s c h o o l s ; however, i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s suggested t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h any obvious o r s u s p e c t e d problems were not encouraged t o e n r o l l i n e a r l y immersion programs.  T h e r e f o r e , c h i l d r e n who f o r many reasons might e x p e r i e n c e problems  46  i n s c h o o l were most l i k e l y  e n r o l l e d i n t h e r e g u l a r program.  because of p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l program groups, c u r r e n t  Consequently,  d i f f e r e n c e s between French immersion and r e g u l a r  r e s u l t s cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i n g how  immersion c h i l d r e n would perform i f they had been e n r o l l e d c o n t i n u o u s l y i n the r e g u l a r program; r a t h e r , r e s u l t s only d e s c r i b e WISC-R performance compared to t h a t of t h e i r "matched" E n g l i s h - i n s t r u c t e d p e e r s . Finally, enrolled  the study i n c l u d e d  i n t h e i r current  o n l y students who had been  language of i n s t r u c t i o n .  continuously  Therefore,  only  those  s t u d e n t s who had s u r v i v e d  the i n i t i a l  immersion e x p e r i e n c e and remained i n  the program were t e s t e d .  F i v e of the 60 randomly s e l e c t e d r e g u l a r program  s t u d e n t s were " d r o p o u t s " from French immersion and, t h e r e f o r e , were n o t tested.  Conclusions The and  and I m p l i c a t i o n s  for Practice  r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t the WISC-R c e n t r a l t e n d a n c i e s  variance-covariance  s t r u c t u r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y the same f o r the French  immersion and r e g u l a r program quasi—matched groups.  Therefore,  WISC-R does n o t appear to be disadvantageous f o r use w i t h h i g h e r immersion c h i l d r e n whose main language of t h e home i s E n g l i s h . r e s u l t s cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of how French  use of the SES French However,  immersion  c h i l d r e n would have performed had they been e n r o l l e d i n t h e r e g u l a r  (English)  program. The  h i g h means f o r both the French and the r e g u l a r program groups a r e  more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Holmes' r e s u l t s than w i t h those r e p o r t e d manual f o r t h e American s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n British  group.  Therefore,  i n the WISC-R  reference to  Columbia norms f o r c h i l d r e n aged 7%, 9%, and 11% appears t o be  appropriate  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g more r e a l i s t i c  expectations.  47 R e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest t h a t a l t h o u g h a l l formal e d u c a t i o n has been i n F r e n c h , immersion s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o communicate at a l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t of t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers i n t h i s E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e testing  situation.  This finding  i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the developmental  i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e h y p o t h e s i s which proposes t h a t the development  of s k i l l s  a second language i s a f u n c t i o n of the l e v e l of the c h i l d ' s f i r s t competence at the time when i n t e n s i v e exposure to the second begins  (Cummins, 1978b).  programs  The c h i l d r e n who  are s u c c e s s f u l  The f i r s t  both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the home. s u f f i c i e n t l y high l e v e l a second  i n French  immersion  i s probably r e i n f o r c e d  Consequently, i t i s developed to a  t h a t i t i s l a r g e l y u n a f f e c t e d by i n t e n s i v e  exposure  language.  the grade two i n s t r u c t i o n a l  c o g n i t i v e advantage experience. of  language  language of m i d d l e — c l a s s ,  m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n i n e a r l y immersion programs  At  language  ( t h a t i s , they remain i n them) appear to have a d e q u a t e l y developed  expressive English—language s k i l l s .  to  in  l e v e l t h e r e i s no evidence of any  (as measured by the WISC-R) as a r e s u l t of the  immersion  Cummins (1983) proposes t h a t the c o g n i t i v e and academic  b i l i n g u a l i s m are mediated by the l e v e l s of competence which  c h i l d r e n a t t a i n i n both t h e i r f i r s t  and second languages.  effects  bilingual  I t appears t h a t  a f t e r t h r e e years of t o t a l French immersion these c h i l d r e n have reached a threshold  l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c competence which enables them to avoid  t i v e d i s a d v a n t a g e s , but does not y e t a l l o w the c o g n i t i v e advantages  cogniwhich  r e s u l t s of l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d .  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research Because level,  the r e s u l t s of t h i s study are l i m i t e d  there i s a need  to only one  grade  f o r f u r t h e r WISC-R r e s e a r c h w i t h c h i l d r e n a t other  age l e v e l s .  While c h i l d r e n a t the grade two l e v e l show no s i g n s of any  c o g n i t i v e d i s a d v a n t a g e s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r immersion e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s may n o t be the case f o r c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one who a r e not as advanced  i n t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c development.  In a d d i t i o n , c h i l d r e n beyond the  grade two l e v e l may have reached a l i n g u i s t i c  t h r e s h o l d which would enable  them to d e r i v e c o g n i t i v e advantages from t h e i r b i l i n g u a l e x p e r i e n c e . Comparisons  of French immersion w i t h r e g u l a r program s t u d e n t s u s i n g  other individually—administered  c o g n i t i v e measures  i s a l s o needed.  Kaufman ABC c o u l d be used to e x p l o r e V e r b a l and Performance  The  differences.  I d e a l l y , a p r e - and p o s t - t e s t d e s i g n comparing French immersion s t u d e n t s t o a c o n t r o l group of t h e i r r e g u l a r program peers would more a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y the e f f e c t s of immersion programs ment as measured  by i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d  t o f o l l o w the s t a b i l i t y  tests.  on i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g  of IQ s c o r e s a c r o s s grade l e v e l s from the b e g i n n i n g  of t h e i r formal s c h o o l i n g through the d u r a t i o n of the immersion compared  to t h a t of r e g u l a r program  Research i s needed  program,  students.  to determine i f the performance of a group of lower  SES French immersion c h i l d r e n would d i f f e r  significantly  from t h a t of the  French immersion group i n the p r e s e n t study. Finally,  t h e r e i s a need f o r w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d  s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n i n  French immersion programs who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g l e a r n i n g problems, and of those who have switched t o the r e g u l a r  program.  REFERENCE NOTES  P e r s o n a l communication w i t h e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l from O n t a r i o , Manitoba, Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia r e g a r d i n g use of the WISC-R i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l systems of these p r o v i n c e s . H a k s t i a n , R., & Bay, K. One-Way M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e . F i v e pages mimeo. Undated.  50  REFERENCES  B a r i k , H. C , grades:  & Swain, M. E n g l i s h - F r e n c h b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n i n the e a r l y The E l g i n study. Modern Language J o u r n a l , 1974, 5 8 ( 8 ) , 392-403.  B a r i k , H. C , & Swain, M. Three-year e v a l u a t i o n of a l a r g e s c a l e e a r l y grade French immersion program: The Ottawa study. Language L e a r n i n g , 1975, 25, 1-30. B a r i k , H. C , & Swain, M. A l o n g i t u d i n a l study of b i l i n g u a l and c o g n i t i v e development. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of Psychology, 1976, 11, 251-263. (a) B a r i k , H. C , & Swain, M. Primary-grade French immersion i n a u n i l i n g u a l English-Canadian s e t t i n g : The Toronto study through grade 2. Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 1976, 1_, 33-42. (b) Ben-Zeev, S. The i n f l u e n c e of b i l i n g u a l i s m on c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g y and development. C h i l d Development, 1977, 48_, 1009-1018. B e r s o f f , D. N. P.v.Riles: 1980, 9_, 112-122.  Legal Perspective.  cognitive  School Psychology Review,  Bruck, M. The s u i t a b i l i t y of e a r l y French immersion programs f o r the language disabled c h i l d . Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 1978, 3_, 51-72. Bruck, M. Problems i n e a r l y French immersion programs. In B. Mlacak and E. I s a b e l l e ( E d s . ) , So You Want Your C h i l d to L e a r n F r e n c h ! Ottawa: Canadian P a r e n t s f o r F r e n c h , 1979, 42-47. Bruck, M., Lambert, W. E., & Tucker, G. R. B i l i n g u a l s c h o o l i n g through the elementary g r a d e s : The S t . Lambert p r o j e c t a t grade seven. Language L e a r n i n g , 1974, 24, 183-204. Bruck, M., Lambert, W. E., & Tucker, G. R. A l t e r n a t i v e forms of immersion f o r second language t e a c h i n g . J o u r n a l of the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r B i l i n g u a l E d u c a t i o n , 1977, 1 ( 3 ) , 33-48. Cronback, L. J . E s s e n t i a l s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g Harper & Row, 1970.  (3rd e d . ) .  N.Y.:  Conry, J . , Conry, R., & D'Oyley, V. T e s t i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Emphasis, t r e n d s , and c o n f l i c t s i n the 1980s. The School Guidance Worker, 1982, 37(4), 43-50. Cummins, J . The c o g n i t i v e development of c h i l d r e n i n immersion programs. Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34(5), 855-883. (a) Cummins, J . E d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of mother tongue maintenance i n m i n o r i t y language groups. Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34(3), 395-416. (b)  51  Cummins, J . Should the c h i l d who i s e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e a r l y French immersion be switched t o t h e r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program? A r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of T r i t e s ' d a t a . Canadian Modern Language Review, 1979, 36, 139-143. (a) Cummins, J . L i n g u i s t i c interdependence and the e d u c a t i o n a l development of bilingual children. Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1979, 49, 222-251. (b) Cummins, J . B i l i n g u a l i s m and c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . In S. M. Shapson, V. D'Oyley, & A. L l o y d ( E d s . ) , B i l i n g u a l i s m and m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n . Centre f o r the Study o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1982. Cummins, J . Journal  Language p r o f i c i e n c y , b i l i t e r a c y and French immersion. of E d u c a t i o n , 1983, 8 ( 2 ) , 117-137.  Cummins, J . , & G u l u t s a n , M. B i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n and c o g n i t i o n . of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1974, 29(3), 259-269.  Canadian  Alberta  Journal  Darcy, N. T. A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on the e f f e c t s of b i l i n g u a l i s m upon the measurement of i n t e l l i g e n c e . J o u r n a l of G e n e t i c Psychology, 1953, 82, 21-57. Feldman, C , & Shen, M. year-olds. Journal  Some l a n g u a g e - r e l a t e d advantages of b i l i n g u a l f i v e of G e n e t i c Psychology, 1971, 118, 235-244.  Genesee, F. A l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of an e a r l y immersion school Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 1978, 3_, 31-50.  program.  Genesee, F. French immersion programs. In S. M. Shapson, V. D'Oyley, & A. L l o y d ( E d s . ) , B i l i n g u a l i s m and m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n . Centre f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, 1982, 25-38. Genesee, F., & Lambert, W. E. T r i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n f o r m a j o r i t y - l a n g u a g e children. C h i l d Development, 1983, 54_> 105-114. Genesee, F., Tucker, G. R., & Lambert, W. E. Communication s k i l l s of b i l i n g u a l children. C h i l d Development, 1975, _46, 1010-1014. Guildford,  J . P.  Psychometric methods.  N.Y. :  McGraw-Hill, 1954.  Holmes, B. J . I n d i v i d u a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s : An a p p l i c a t i o n of anchor t e s t norming and equating procedures i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Doctor of E d u c a t i o n t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981. Hopkins, K. D., & S t a n l e y , J . C. E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n ( 6 t h e d . ) . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1981. I a n c o - W o r r a l l , A. B i l i n g u a l i s m and c o g n i t i v e 1972, 43, 1390-1400.  development.  J a k o b o v i t s , L. A. The dilemma of b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n . B i l i n g u a l schooling.  C h i l d Development,  In M. Swain  (Ed.).  Kaufman, D., & Shapson, S. L o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of a French program i n Coquitlam s c h o o l d i s t r i c t : Report of year two. U n i v e r s i t y , Canada, 1975.  immersion Simon F r a s e r  Lambert, W. E. C u l t u r e and language as f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g and e d u c a t i o n . In A. Wolfgang (Ed.), E d u c a t i o n of immigrant s t u d e n t s . Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education, 1975. Lambert, W. E. C o g n i t i v e and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l consequences of b i l i n g u a l i s m . Canadian Modern Language Review, 1978, 34(3), 537-547. Lambert, W. E., & Tucker, G. R. The b i l i n g u a l e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n : S t . Lambert experiment. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1972.  The  Lambert, W. E., Tucker, G. R., & d'Anglejan, A. C o g n i t i v e and a t t i t u d i n a l consequences of b i l i n g u a l s c h o o l i n g . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1973, 65(2), 149-159. L a p k i n , S., Andrew, C. M., H a r l e y , B., Swain, M., & Kamin, J . The immersion c e n t r e and the d u a l - t r a c k s c h o o l s : A study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c h o o l environment and achievement i n a French immersion program. Canadian J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , 1981, 6_, 68-90. McEachern, W. P a r e n t a l d e c i s i o n f o r French immersion: A look at some i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . Canadian Modern Language Review, 1980, 3_6_, 238-246. M c L a u g h l i n , B. Second-language a c q u i s i t i o n i n c h i l d h o o d . Jersey: LEA P u b l i s h e r s , 1978. Mercer, J . R.  SOMPA T e c h n i c a l manual.  N.Y.:  Hillsdale,  New  Psychological Corporation,  1979  Oren, D. L. C o g n i t i v e advantages of b i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n r e l a t e d to l a b e l i n g ability. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 1981, 74(3), 163-169. P e a l , E., & Lambert, W. E. The r e l a t i o n of b i l i n g u a l i s m to i n t e l l i g e n c e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Monographs, 1967, 7_6, (27, Whole No. 546). P f e i f f e r , M. G. E v a l u a t i o n of Grade 6 - 7 b i l i n g u a l programme. Research I n s t i t u t e of B.C., Report No. 80:20, 1980. S a l v i a , Y., & Y s s e l d y k e , J . E. Assessment i n s p e c i a l and Boston, N.Y.: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1978. S a t t l e r , J . M. Assessment of c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e A l l y n & Bacon, 1982.  (2nd  Educational  remedial  ed.).  education.  Boston,  N.Y.  Shapson, W. M., & Day, E. M. A l o n g i t u d i n a l e v a l u a t i o n of an e a r l y immersion program i n B r i t i s h Columbia. J o u r n a l of M u l t i l i n g u a l and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Development, 3 ( 1 ) , 1982. Shapson, S. M., & Kaufman, D. B r i t i s h Columbia: Issues 1978, 34(3), 586-603.  Overview of elementary French programs i n and r e s e a r c h . Canadian Modern Language Review,  53  S t e r n , H. H. In M. Swain ( E d . ) , B i l i n g u a l s c h o o l i n g . I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1972. Swain, M. French immersion: E a r l y , l a t e , or p a r t i a l ? Language Review, 1978, 34, 577-585.  Toronto:  Ontario  Canadian Modern  Swain, M., & L a p k i n , S. B i l i n g u a l education i n Ontario: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o , 1981.  A decade of r e s e a r c h .  Tatsuoka, M. M., M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s : Techniques f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . Toronto: Wiley & Sons, 1971. Thorndike, R. L. Community v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s of i n t e l l i g e n c e and academic achievement. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1951, 42, 321-338. T r i t e s , R. L. C h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n primary French Canadian Modern Language Review, 1976, 33_, 193-216.  immersion.  T r i t e s , R. L. Primary French immersion: D i s a b i l i t i e s and p r e d i c t i o n of s u c c e s s . Review and E v a l u a t i o n B u l l e t i n s , 1981, 2 ( 5 ) . T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. L e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h French immersion programming. Toronto: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o , 1976. T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. L e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h French immersion programming: A c r o s s v a l i d a t i o n . Toronto: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o , 1977. T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. Specific learning d i s a b i l i t y immersion. Interchange, 1978-79, 9_, 73-85.  i n primary  French  T r i t e s , R. L., & P r i c e , M. A. Assessment of r e a d i n e s s f o r primary French immersion: Grade one f o l l o w - u p assessment. Toronto: M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , O n t a r i o , 1980. Wechsler, D. Manual f o r the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d . N.Y.: P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1974.  APPENDIX A  L E T T E R TO PARENTS AND  CONSENT  FORM  Dear P a r e n t s : School has agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g the use of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i n E a r l y French Immersion s c h o o l s . The p r o j e c t r e q u i r e s the c o o p e r a t i o n of 60 c h i l d r e n i n the Coquitlam school d i s t r i c t t o take a t e s t which i s f r e q u e n t l y used i n our s c h o o l s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e s t was prepared f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s whose language of i n s t r u c t i o n was E n g l i s h . I t has been checked f o r i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h r e e age groups of B.C. s c h o o l c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e programs. The r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s b e i n g undertaken as a master's t h e s i s i n the d i v i s i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t has been endorsed by the s u p e r v i s o r of c u r r i c u l u m and assessment f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t , Mr. T. Wheeler, and by the p r i n c i p a l of your s c h o o l . F i n a n c i a l support f o r the p r o j e c t was p r o v i d e d through a grant from the E d u c a t i o n a l Research I n s t i t u t e of B.C. 's name was randomly drawn as a p o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s research. I f you and your c h i l d agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e , w i l l be asked t o take p a r t i n one t e s t i n g s e s s i o n , approximately 75 minutes long. The t e s t i n g w i l l be done i n d i v i d u a l l y by a t r a i n e d graduate student i n the s c h o o l . T h i s type of t e s t i n g i s common p r a c t i c e i n s c h o o l s and i s u s u a l l y experienced as i n t e r e s t i n g and e n j o y a b l e by the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . The r e s u l t s of the t e s t s w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l : your c h i l d ' s name w i l l not appear on the t e s t forms. No i n d i v i d u a l t e s t r e s u l t s w i l l be released. The purpose i s not t o check any one c h i l d ' s performance, but to determine i f the French Immersion c h i l d r e n s c o r e s i m i l a r l y to American and B.C. c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e programs. I f they do n o t , adjustments w i l l be made i n the f u t u r e so that t h e t e s t i s more a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r French Immersion c h i l d r e n . Project r e s u l t s w i l l provide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n to a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n the area of e d u c a t i o n a l assessment. I wish to emphasize t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v o l u n t a r y and that withdrawal from t h e p r o j e c t a t any time w i l l not j e o p a r d i z e your c h i l d ' s c l a s s s t a n d i n g . I would, however, g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e your agreement t o a s s i s t i n t h i s research. P l e a s e complete t h e Parent Consent Form and r e t u r n as p o s s i b l e .  i t t o t h e school  as soon v.  Thank you.  F e e l f r e e to contact  me f o r any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a t Sincerely,  Barbara  Nielsen  56  PARENT CONSENT FORM  I consent to 's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t e s t i n g r e s e a r c h study at s c h o o l . I am aware t h a t t h i s w i l l i n v o l v e a t e s t i n g s e s s i o n of approximately one hour and f i f t e e n minutes d u r a t i o n . I understand t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of t e s t r e s u l t s w i l l be maintained and t h a t no i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s w i l l be r e l e a s e d . I a l s o understand t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t i s v o l u n t a r y and may be terminated a t any time.  signature  Your a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o v i d i n g the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n would be v e r y h e l p f u l i n making t h i s a meaningful study: 1.  What i s the main language  2.  Would you p l e a s e c i r c l e the number i n f r o n t of the category below which b e s t d e s c r i b e s the completed l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of the head of your household ( t h a t i s , the major wage-earner i n the f a m i l y ) .  3.  spoken i n your home?  I  Less than h i g h s c h o o l completion  II  High s c h o o l completion  III  Post—secondary, no degree  IV  University or college  Has your c h i l d been e n r o l l e d i n t h e r e g u l a r E n g l i s h program c o n t i n u o u s l y from K i n d e r g a r t e n through t o the p r e s e n t time? Yes  4.  No  Has your c h i l d been e n r o l l e d i n t h e French Immersion program c o n t i n u o u s l y from K i n d e r g a r t e n through t o the p r e s e n t time? Yes  5.  degree  Why d i d you choose  No  t h i s language  program f o r your c h i l d ?  I am u n w i l l i n g to have r e s e a r c h study.  involved  Signature  i n the t e s t i n g  57  APPENDIX B  VARIANCE-COVARIANCE MATRICES AND INITIAL GROUP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS  Table A l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of I n i t i a l Groups  French Immersion  Verbal  b  Regular  Program  c  Mean  s.d.  Mean  s.d.  11.18 11.41 11.64 12.33 11.80 10.74  2.77 3.02 2.62 2.80 3.12 2.48  11.42 12.09 10.38 12.11 10.87 10.56  2.53 2.68 2.30 2.74 2.79 2.64  11.90 12.23 13.49 12.31 10.87 12.74  2.95 3.54 3.53 2.81 3.29 2.49  11.27 12.53 12.58 11.42 10.69 13.04  2.44 3.31 2.38 2.45 3.20 2.95  109.92 115.92 114.00  12.70 12.77 11.99  107.93 111.58 110.67  12.22 12.26 11.67  Subtests  Information Similarities Arithmetic Vocabulary Comprehension D i g i t Span Performance S u b t e s t s P i c t u r e Completion P i c t u r e Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Coding Mazes Sums of S c a l e d V e r b a l IQ Performance IQ F u l l S c a l e IQ  Scores  a  P r i o r t o matching students i n the two groups f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of head of household.  b  N = 39  °  N = 45  Table A2 V a r i a n c e - Covariance M a t r i x French  1  2  3  Immersion  4  5  6  7  1.  Information  6.48  2.  Similarities  4.32  8.44  3.  Arithmetic  2.07  1.48  7.06  4.  Vocabulary  3.56  4.25  1.20  8.10  5.  Comprehension  3.82  2.98  1.78  4.34  10.42  6.  Digit  1.11  1.97  1.96  1.35  2.42  5.34  7.  Picture  1.54  2.04  1.82  2.43 -0.39  1.21  8.  P i c t u r e Arrangement  9.  Block  10.  Object  11.  Coding  12.  Mazes  Span Completion  Design Assembly  -1.12  0.78 -0.71 -0.48 -1.07 -1.44  8  9  10  11  12  7.00 -2.04  11.31  3.57  1.26  3.23 -0.28 -0.38  3.26  3.21 -2.22  13.79  2.46  1.03  3.56 -0.02  1.84  0.78  2.75  0.05  3.89  4.36  2.90  0.48 -0.80  2.30  0.74  0.00 -0.42  3.47  3.56  11.47  0.29  0.74  0.70  0.53 -1.20  2.06  1.18 -1.07  3.74 -0.18  -1.51  6.54  6.22  Table A3 V a r i a n c e - Covariance English  1  2  3  Matrix  Program  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  1.  Information  6.54  2.  Similarities  2.47  6.12  3.  Arithmetic  3.07  1.42  5.31  4.  Vocabulary  3.64  1.77  2.70  6.75  5.  Comprehension  4.07  2.73  1.46  5.88  8.34  6.  Digit  3.58  2.14  2.30  3.24  3.81  7.  P i c t u r e Completion  8.  P i c t u r e Arrangement  0.03  0.79  0.48  0.10-0.14-0.66  1.06  9.85  9.  Block Design  0.93  2.11  2.37  1.59  1.54  0.81  0.14  0.63  4.03  10.  Object Assembly  1.87  0.67  1.30  1.84  2.74  0.68  0.17  1.01  1.99  6.90  11.  Coding  0.73  0.65 -1.10 -0.38  1.19  1.25  1.48  0.30 -0.47  2.11  12.  Mazes  0.99  2.13  0.52  0.84 -0.25 -2.12  Span  -0.38  0.17 -0.75 -0.50  1.16  1.18  11  12  4.54  0.92 -0.26  3.50  8.94  1.37 -0.83 -2.24  7.54  

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