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Learner responses to television in distance education : the need for a qualitative approach to research Bullen, Mark 1989

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L E A R N E R RESPONSES TO T E L E V I S I O N  I N DISTANCE EDUCATION:  THE NEED FOR A Q U A L I T A T I V E APPROACH TO R E S E A R C H  by MARK B U L L E N B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia,  1982.  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S (DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY  AND  SPECIAL  EDUCATION)  We a c c e p t  this  thesis  as conforming  to the  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  M a r c h 1989 ©  Mark B u l l e n ,  1989.  required  In  presenting  degree freely  this  at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree  available for  copying  of  department publication  this or of  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and study. scholarly  or for  her  I further  purposes  representatives.  financial gain  the  requirements that  agree  may  be  It  is  shall not  that  the  for  Library  granted  by  Educational Psychology and  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  M a r r h 1fi r  1 QSQ  Special  shall make it  allowed  the that  without  permission.  Department of  advanced  permission for  understood be  an  Education  head  extensive of  my  copying  or  my  written  ii  Abstract Despite and  over  the worldwide growth o f distance  30 y e a r s  about t h e r o l e in  delivering  "What m e d i a  o f m e d i a r e s e a r c h , we k n o w v e r y  and e f f e c t s  addressed that  and s a t i s f a c t i o n ? "  by research.  This  c h a r a c t e r i z e past  model  f o r further  questions  such a s :  within  i n terms o f  or  a medium  student  have n o t been p r o p e r l y  study  examines  and present  approaches  research and o f f e r s  research t o address  about t h e r o l e  media  instruction?"  o r a n y medium o r f o r m a t any o t h e r  little  and other  Questions  s h o u l d be u s e d t o d e l i v e r  have an a d v a n t a g e o v e r achievement  of television  distance education.  "Does t e l e v i s i o n  education  a  unanswered  of television  i n distance  education. The  study  a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e a r e two main reasons  r e s e a r c h has f a i l e d the  t o adequately  use of t e l e v i s i o n  answer q u e s t i o n s  or quasi-experimental  methods, and t h e assumption o f a q u a n t i t a t i v e There i s a l i m i t e d  r e s e a r c h a n d what t h e r e Most r e s e a r c h  methodologically internal  amount o f  validity  b u t much o f t h i s  conception  flaws.  i s classified  as  i s also  weak a n d i s c r i t i c i z e d forecological  research  experimental  i s has methodological  i n distance education  quasi-experimental,  about  i n distance education: the  dominance o f e x p e r i m e n t a l  of knowledge.  why  fortrading o f f  validity.  The  i i i  hypothetico-deductive research  has  conception  p a r a d i g m i n w h i c h most o f  been c o n d u c t e d assumes a q u a n t i t a t i v e  of knowledge which views  essentially  a reproductive  researchers  have examined and  learning  process.  As  i n narrow q u a n t i t a t i v e terms.  difficult  to accomplish  experiments,  so  we  reveal This  little  study  qualitative quantitative The  and  natural  knowledge views learner  actively  knowledge or less  about the  of  results  quality  that  of  The  research  the  subject  qualitative  l e a r n i n g as interprets,  "how  been  not  only  i s b a s e d on that uses  she  both  phenomena  i t occurs  conception  and  the  the  applies  acquires.  much i s l e a r n e d "  in  of  i n which  a d a p t s and or  a  methodologies.  as  a process  but  learning.  approach attempts t o examine of  and  has  learning,  knowledge and  i n f o r m a t i o n he  e m p h a s i s on  This  approach that  qualitative  perspective setting.  with  quantity of  p r o p o s e s an  qualitative  from the  the  There  more on  is "what  learned". The  how  left  conception  result,  in properly controlled  i n c o n c l u s i v e about the  also  is  are  a  as  compared achievement  attitudes  are  the  study  concludes  qualitative  and  and  student  a proposal  that  illustrates  q u a n t i t a t i v e methodologies  combined t o examine the learning  with  processes  and  outcomes  a t t i t u d e s i n a multi-media  can  be  of distance  education  course.  distance  education  further  research.  From t h i s  exploratory  study  issues  w o u l d emerge p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i o n  fo  V  Table  of  Contents  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  ix  Chapter  1  The  I -  Introduction  Problem  1  Purpose  4  Definitions  5  Distance Education Videotaped Research  and  5  Audiotaped  Lectures  Paradigms  7  The  Hypothetico-deductive paradigm  8  The  Qualitative  9  paradigm  Methodologies  10  The  E x p e r i m e n t a l method  10  The  Q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l method  10  Qualitative Conceptions The  r e s e a r c h methods  11  of Knowledge  Quantitative  13  conception  of  knowledge The  13  Qualitative  conception of  knowledge Sources  of Research  14 Literature  15  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Review Chapter  7  I I - Review of R e l a t e d Theory  Theory  16 and  Research  18 18  vi  Introduction Interaction  18 of Media,Cognition  and  Learning  18  Criticism Mental  Skills  o f Salomon's t h e o r y and t h e Media  Criticism The  o f Olson  Concreteness  Motion, Bates'  and Bruner  of Television  Simultaneity,  23 24 27 28  Dimensionality  29  Characteristics of Television  29  Distribution  and  social  characteristics  29  Control  30  Symbolic  characteristics characteristics  Summary & C o n c l u s i o n s  31 33  Research  35  Research  Problems  35  Introduction  35  Inherent  35  problems  Methodological problems  37  Summary  43  Experimental  Research  44  Introduction Live  vs.video  44 in a  setting Instructor  traditional 47  contact  50  vii  Television/video  format  variables  Summary  55  Quasi Experimental Research  56  Introduction  57  Telecourse-face t o face comparison  57  Television  on-campus a n d a t a  distance Classroom  69 instruction using  television  74  Learner responses  to the television  component The R e l a t i v e  75 importance  of distance  e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e components Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  Chapter  51  78 78  Summary  78  Conclusions  80  I I I - A P r o p o s a l f o r a Q u a l i t a t i v e Study  .85  Rationale  85  Purpose  87  Design  90  . S e t t i n g and Context  98  Data C o l l e c t i o n  99  Data A n a l y s i s  105  Reliability  and V a l i d i t y  Credibility  I l l 112  viii  Transferability  113  Dependability  113  Conf i r m a b i l i t y  114  Timetable Summary References  114 115 117  ix Acknowledgements I w i s h t o e x t e n d s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Ron N e u f e l d , a n d my c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s , L e R o i D a n i e l s and H a r o l d R a t z l a f f f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s and above a l l t h e i r p a t i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f my ideas. I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge t h e s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t I r e c e i v e d f r o m my w i f e R o c h e l l e . Without her I would not have been a b l e t o complete t h i s t h e s i s .  Television  i n Distance  Education 1  Chapter  I - Introduction The  Distance accepted  of  and developing  t o higher  students  1982). began  (Holmberg,  f o r a rapidly  1981; N e i l ,  growing  existing  more a n d more  distance education  established:  Quebec  in British Wilson  Peterson's  72 u n i v e r s i t i e s courses  conventional  institutions  i n A l b e r t a , The  Open  & Mehler,  1984).  Catalog  such  been  and T e l e - U n i v e r s i t e i n  1983);  institutions  have  level,  Columbia,  offering  (Hunter,  associations  a t two  w h i l e , on a n o t h e r  Athabasca U n i v e r s i t y  (Burge,  States,  education  and c o l l e g e s have c r e a t e d o r expanded  extension departments,  University  number  1981; D a n i e l e t a l . ,  1970's and has o c c u r r e d  On o n e l e v e l  universities  more  In both  I n Canada, t h e growth o f d i s t a n c e  levels.  and  countries i t i s providing  education  i n the early  three  h a s become a w i d e s p r e a d  method o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g .  developed access  education  Problem  In the United  f o r Independent  over  Study  12,000 d i s t a n c e  and Lewis  lists  education  (1983) h a s l i s t e d  50  as c o l l e g e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l  that also offer  courses  by d i s t a n c e  education. Despite we a r e s t i l l distance  the worldwide growth of d i s t a n c e a t an e x p l o r a t o r y stage  education  research.  There  education,  i n terms o f i s evidence  that  Television  i n Distance  Education 2  learning  a t a d i s t a n c e i s as e f f e c t i v e  effective, learning  i n terms o f student  i n the classroom  learning w i l l  occur  deliver  the instruction  whether  i ti sprint,  (Schramm, distance  "Media r e s e a r c h provided  t o students  1983).  indicates  audio  or video  in  i n post-school education with practical,  (Bates,  As  on  worse, t h e q u a l i t y  Webb,  a result  limitations  political effect,  valid, on t h e b a s i s o f To  research  questioned  1987). o f r e s e a r c h , much o f  i n distance education  t h e i n t u i t i o n o f t h e course  resource  has not  of comparative  o f t h e shortcomings design  helpful.  1984; Chacon-Duque, 1985;  & Hotta,  instructional  level  1974, p. 6 2 ) .  has been s e r i o u s l y  1981b; P r o s s e r ,  Shavelson,  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s " (Campeau,  distance education  tape  B u t on a p r a c t i c a l  dependable g u i d e l i n e s f o rmaking choices  make m a t t e r s  that  at a distance,  r e s e a r c h has n o t been v e r y  decision-makers  instructional  than  w h a t m e d i u m we u s e t o  television,  1977b; Smith, education  achievement,  and research  no m a t t e r  o r more  dictated  designers  i s based  and authors,  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e  considerations of the policy  many o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  makers.  design  In  decisions are  arbitrary  a n d n o t b a s e d on a n y sound t h e o r y  (Campeau,  1974).  or research  Television  i n Distance  Education 3  In  Great  example,  Britain,  television  education.  This  Canada and t h e U n i t e d  i s used h e a v i l y  i s not because  effective  than  equivocal  on t h i s  visible  visibility early  i n distance  i t h a s p r o v e n t o be more  a n y o t h e r medium; t h e r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n point  according t o Gallagher is  States, f o r  and thus  (Schramm, 1 9 7 7 b ) . (1978),  The  i s political.  reason, Television  was u s e d a s a way o f r a i s i n g t h e  of distance education  d a y s when p o l i t i c a l  institutions  and p u b l i c  support  i n their was s e e n a s  necessary. But  distance education  l o n g e r be s e r i o u s l y instruction. critically and  What  non-print expensive,  media  little  i n terms o f student media.  instruction?  achievement  Research,  thus  questions  yet they  certainty  courses  The u s e o f  c a n be  extremely  about t h e learning  What m e d i a  and  and  be format  any o t h e r i n  satisfaction?  f a r , has not been a b l e t o answer n e e d t o b e a n s w e r e d w i t h some  so t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l  student  should  Does a n y medium o r  a medium have an a d v a n t a g e o v e r  terms o f student  of  materials.  i n distance education  used t o d e l i v e r within  now i s t o l o o k  of distance education  use t h e course  of different  no  a s a way o f d e l i v e r i n g  i s important  y e t we know v e r y  effectiveness, attitudes,  questioned  at the design  how s t u d e n t s  has matured and s h o u l d  design  these degree  i n distance  Television  i n Distance  Education 4  education  can  be  research  base.  b a s e d on  a rational  and  theoretical  Purpose This  study  answering  these  fundamental distance study and  i s an  to begin  reassessment of the  begins  t h a t has  in this  field  process  approach to research  examination  and  of  that involves a  been f o l l o w e d thus  with a c r i t i c a l  research  the  questions; a process  education  proposal  attempt  of  concludes  f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h u s i n g an  far.  in The  literature  with a  specific  alternative  approach. Two  aspects  detail:  the  findings  of past  research w i l l  approaches taken  as  they  apply  by  to the  be  r e s e a r c h e r s , and  use  the  research approaches,  clearly:  the  dominance of e x p e r i m e n t a l methodologies;  quantitative  conception  of the  research  consistent three  nor  factors,  methods, the knowledge, results  approach;  the  two  f i n d i n g s i s that they  the  This  factors or  the  lack of meaningful  evidence  one  that  of the  quasiof  a  significance  argues t h a t  these  experimental  and  of  consistent  need f o r a change  i s b a s e d on  out  have been n e i t h e r  study  dominance of the  The  In  stand  assumption  of knowledge.  meaningful.  the  assumption of a q u a n t i t a t i v e conception  and  are  and  in  of t e l e v i s i o n .  examining  experimental  examined  a qualitative  of conception  Television  i n Distance  Education 5  o f knowledge and quantitative The  t h a t uses b o t h q u a l i t a t i v e  research  study  concludes  methodologies. with a proposal f o r f u r t h e r  r e s e a r c h t h a t employs t h i s r e s e a r c h would be processes  and  approach.  The  outcomes o f l e a r n i n g and  the  attitudes video  a c o u r s e manual.  examined i n r e l a t i o n  components o f t h e  student  that consists of  a u d i o t e l e c o n f e r e n c e s and  a s p e c t s would be  proposed  an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y t o examine  i n a d i s t a n c e education course tapes,  and  t o the  These  different  course. Definitions  Distance  Education  Holmberg  ( 1 9 7 7 ) d e f i n e s " d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n " as t h a t  which: c o v e r s t h e v a r i o u s forms o f s t u d y a t a l l l e v e l s w h i c h a r e not under t h e c o n t i n u o u s ,  immediate  s u p e r v i s i o n of t u t o r s present with t h e i r lecture  rooms o r i n t h e same p r e m i s e s  nevertheless, and  tuition  benefit  from  of a t u t o r i a l  because o f the p h y s i c a l the  guidance  definition  is  of  t e a c h i n g methods i n w h i c h  separateness  interactive,  who  o r g a n i z a t i o n (p. 9 ) .  (1975) i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  t e l e m a t h i c t e a c h i n g , "those  teachers,  but  the p l a n n i n g ,  A somewhat s h o r t e r , but more d i r e c t p r o v i d e d by Moore  students  o f l e a r n e r s and  as w e l l as t h e p r e a c t i v e  in  Television  i n Distance  Education 6  phase of t e a c h i n g , mechanical,  i s conducted  or e l e c t r o n i c  Desmond Keegan  through  devices"  (p.  (1980) p r o v i d e s  print, 5).  t h e most  complete  definition: The  main elements of  education - The  of  distance  are:  separation of teacher  distinguishes -the  a definition  - the  use  unite  teacher  learner, which  i t from f a c e - t o - f a c e  i n f l u e n c e o f an  distinguishes  and  educational o r g a n i z a t i o n , which  i t from p r i v a t e  of t e c h n i c a l and  learning;  study;  media, u s u a l l y p r i n t ,  l e a r n e r s and  carry the  to  educational  content; - t h e p r o v i s i o n o f two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n student - the  may  b e n e f i t from or even i n i t i a t e  possibility  social  and  of o c c a s i o n a l meetings  didactic  - the p a r t i c i p a t i o n education radical forms Any the  one  which,  i n an  dialogue; for  both  form  of  and  industrialized  i f accepted,  the  contains the  genus  from  of  other  33)  of these  purposes of t h i s  essentially in  which,  purposes;  separation of distance education  (p.  so t h a t  definitions study  the  distance education  f o r most o f t h e  would s u f f i c e ,  following i s any  learning,  will  form of  there  but  be  for  used:  education  is a physical  Television  i n Distance  Education 7  separation for  of the  traditional  courses other  media or  face to  Videotaped  and  used  term  face  study  recorded  on  video  aids or e d i t i n g  of the  videotapes.  terms and  the  or  telecourses, television  that  "audiotaped to scripted  faculty  or  includes  lecture" or  "ad  libbed"  In g e n e r a l , the to  and  There i s minimal  t o enhance the p r o d u c t i o n  frame g r a p h i c s  is  members i n a s t u d i o  or audiotape.  visual  by  allows  Lectures  to refer  d e l i v e r e d by  full  courses,  This  meetings.  Audiotaped  lectures  used are  learner.  instruction  "videotaped"  in this  the  delivered entirely  occasional  The  and  correspondence  that are  non-print  teacher  only visual  identify  o c c a s i o n a l photograph,  key  slide  or  use  of  value aids  points  or  other  illustrative materials. Research  Paradigms  A paradigm i s a framework used t o c a t e g o r i z e i d e a s , concepts,  events,  underlying a  attributes.  "schematic  relations into in (p.  20) .  Achenbach  share  (1978) d e s c r i b e s  model f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g phenomena and  among t h e m .  which complex  order  i s s u e s - phenomena - w h i c h  It provides  'real world'  t e r m s and  phenomena a r e  t o make t h e m e a s i e r t o g r a s p  and  some i t as the  categories translated  study"  Television  i n Distance  Education 8  Two r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s the  hypothetico-deductive  paradigm. are  t h e research methodologies I n t h e case  paradigm t h i s experimental and  methodologies and  means t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l methods adopted  paradigm,  and  their  from t h e n a t u r a l o f knowledge.  researchers  division  conceptual  who a c c e p t  anthropology  o f knowledge.  However,  between t h e two paradigms A paradigm  system and o f t e n  o n e p a r a d i g m may n o t a c c e p t a l l  of the constructs normally (Achenbach,  sciences In the  a s s o c i a t e d "terms and c a t e g o r i e s " .  only a general  The  or quasi-  i n s o c i o l o g y and  conception  i s not a clear  of  i ti s the qualitative  originating  a qualitative  there  and conceptions  provides  of the hypothetico-deductive  a q u a n t i t a t i v e conception  qualitative  is  paradigm and t h e q u a l i t a t i v e  The " t e r m s a n d c a t e g o r i e s " t h a t e a c h  knowledge.  study:  associated with i t  1 9 7 8 ; F i r e s t o n e , 1 9 8 7 ; Howe,  Hypothetico-deductive  paradigm.  1988). This  i sthe  predominant paradigm i n e d u c a t i o n a l research and a l l o f the  research  it. has  reviewed  i n this  p a p e r was c o n d u c t e d  within  I t has been adopted from t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and been r e f e r r e d  t o as t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l - b o t a n i c a l  experimental  paradigm because of i t s o r i g i n s i n  agricultural  experimental  1972)  or the positivist  research  (Parlett  &  Hamilton,  paradigm because o f i t s  Television  i n Distance  Education 9  philosophical  foundations  (Howe, 1 9 8 8 ) .  paradigm knowledge i s viewed be  objectively  interests, form the  effects  conducted,  and purposes.  i n which  of a particular usually  the  i s either  paradigm  about  from  paradigm.  embody  and i t attempts  t h e o u t s i d e , as a  The q u a l i t a t i v e  r e f e r r e d t o as humanist o r i n t e r p r e t i s t )  n o t an o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y  c o n s t r u c t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s they  According t o  models which  knowledge as s u b j e c t i v e and s o c i a l l y is  encounter.  intentions  and b e l i e f s  of attempting  interpreting cannot  because these  reality  views There  realities  t h e phenomena  be f r e e  o f human  are considered  (Hirschman,  t o e x p l a i n student  paradigm  constructed.  but m u l t i p l e  Observation  of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  outside,  or  objective observer"(p. 12).  The Q u a l i t a t i v e (also  behaviour  i s  experimental  accepted  chains of causality"  to e x p l a i n "student detached,  an experiment  i m p l i e s " r e d u c t i o n i s m and  use o f formal or mechanical  assumptions  deductive  the s c i e n t i f i c  & S t a n l e y , 1963).  (1984) t h i s  i s free of  i s formulated as t o  treatment;  following  (Campbell  Entwistle  that can only  I t uses a  a hypothesis  method; and t h e h y p o t h e s i s rejected  as something  d i s c o v e r e d by o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t  values  of logic  In t h i s  1986).  behaviour  part  Instead  from t h e  i t " i n v o l v e s approaches t o research rooted i n  phenomenology which  d e r i v e from  a direct  exploration of  Television  i n Distance  Education 10  students'  experiences  emphathetic learning  of learning...[it]  understanding  o f what  d e r i v e d from students'  l e a r n i n g means t o them.  12).  origins  I t involves a shift (Entwistle,  of the hypothetico-deductive  understand  not just  a n d a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s who  different  J.K.  cultures  1983; Jacob,  of  1984,  and b o t a n i c a l  paradigm, the  p a r a d i g m d e r i v e s from methods used  sociologists  Smith,  i s involved i n student  In contrast t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l  qualitative  an  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f what  methodology, but of p e r s p e c t i v e " p.  seeks  by  were s e e k i n g  (Bogdan & B i k l e n ,  1987; F e t t e r m a n ,  to  1982;  1988)  Methodologies The E x p e r i m e n t a l associated treatment effects  method.  i s closely  with the hypothetico-deductive  paradigm.  A  i s a p p l i e d under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s ;  a r e measured and t h e r e s u l t s  statistical  procedures  t o determine  The Q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l of the experimental not  T h i s method  have complete  method.  are analyzed  using  significance. This  i s a  variation  method i n which t h e r e s e a r c h e r  control  over  does  a l l v a r i a b l e s o r where  s a m p l e s c a n n o t be drawn r a n d o m l y f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n (Campbell  & Stanley,  1963).  T h i s method  i s used h e a v i l y  in  e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h because o f t h e amorphous  of  l e a r n i n g ( i n c o n t r a s t t o something such  of  corn  or wheat).  nature  as t h e growth  Use o f t h e q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l  method  T e l e v i s i o n i n Distance  Education 11  u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s t r a d e - o f f s between i n t e r n a l external  validity.  Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h methods. d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t a t i v e methods b u t on  There are  (1968) and  Perry  several  a l l place the  "what i s l e a r n e d " r a t h e r t h a n "how  Becker  and  emphasis  much i s l e a r n e d " .  (1970) f o l l o w e d a  social  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l method i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d student  s o c i a l and  a c a d e m i c l i f e and  e t h i c a l development.  intellectual  In Becker's study,  became p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r s  the  researchers  by a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s  social functions, taking detailed f i e l d  notes  w i t h the s t u d e n t s .  analyses  re-reading t h e i r  n o t e s and  a l s o l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n s among t h e  and  and  discussing t h e i r observations i n v o l v e d r e a d i n g and  and  "Their field-  research  team t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r main c o n c l u s i o n s .  They  i l l u s t r a t e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h r o u g h t h e use  o f comments  made by  students  w h i c h had been s e l e c t e d as t y p i c a l o f a  g e n e r a l l y expressed In P e r r y ' s  view"  ( E n t w i s t l e , 1984,  (1970) s t u d y ,  hundreds of students  open-ended i n t e r v i e w s  were c o n d u c t e d and  then  u s i n g a method s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f B e c k e r Miller & Parlett B e c k e r and  P e r r y and  p.14). with  analyzed  (1968).  (1972) r e f i n e d t h e methods o f d e v e l o p e d what t h e y  "illuminative evaluation".  called  In a d d i t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a n t  o b s e r v a t i o n , they used s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d  interviews  and  Television  in Distance  Education 12  questionnaires. B e c k e r and judges to the  The  Perry,  analysis  but  they  call  1984)  the  "rigorous  Their  interviews  data  with  experiences.  researchers'  of  independent  interpretation  settings  are  or  no  aspect  of  to of  "identify the  of  Natural  the  this  settings  controls.  but  are In  extracts  students rise  i s defined,  from the  method,  The  and  there  the  delimited, which  is  "rigorous" to differences  study.  distinct  interviews  of  consideration  important  to or  i n which  i t s attempt  learn  normal  (Entwistle,  those this  concepts which describe  each category  realistically  r e t a i n elements  takes place.  method r e l a t e s t o  in  Naturalistic  using  i s examined b e f o r e  give  learning  either  manipulation."  learning  differences  their  "They r e s e m b l e  settings  what  semi-structured  settings.  respects, and  developed  in  analysis".(Entwistle,  from  materials.  learning  how  and  takes place  "natural"  ways i n w h i c h  specific  those  learning  experimental  content given  i s derived  control  p.17).  further  qualitative  i n important  experimental 1984,  step  experimental  complex l e a r n i n g studying  phenomenographic t r a d i t i o n  students discussing  The  "naturalistic"  and  the  of  that  common t h e m e s .  S w e d e n h a v e g o n e one  in  similar to  they used a panel  cross-check  Researchers of  are  was  The  categories i n terms  together  of  Television  i n Distance  Education 13  constitute are  i t s meaning.  In this  able t o follow similar  detailed  i n the various studies.  the 'hallmark'  following  and then  Conceptions  o f Knowledge  Quantitative conception  quantitative essentially  conception  research,  o f knowledge views  determining  use.  The  l e a r n i n g as  Testing consists of  whether o r not t h e l e a r n e r can reproduce This view  will  at the beginning  be o c c u r r i n g m a i n l y  "the r e c a l l  of specifics  o f methods and p r o c e s s e s ,  levels of -  and u n i v e r s a l s , t h e  or the recall  of a  s t r u c t u r e o r s e t t i n g . . . The k n o w l e d g e o b j e c t i v e s  e m p h a s i z e most t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s remembering"  (p. 2 0 1 ) .  This  conception  comprehension, but nothing  of  o f knowledge  f o r some l e a r n i n g a t t h e s e c o n d l e v e l  taxonomy,  or  implies that learning  (1956) Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s  Knowledge,  allow  while not  whereby knowledge i s  remember t h e k n o w l e d g e .  pattern,  thus  t o l e a r n e r a n d s t o r e d i n t h e memory  of the learner f o r l a t e r  recall  and c a t e g o r i e s  o f knowledge.  a reproductive process  from teacher  Bloom's  make  t h e methods o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s " 1984, p. 1 7 ) .  passed  researchers  This procedure  of scientific  (Entwistle,  The  procedures  comparisons between t h e concepts  identified carries  way o t h e r  may  o f Bloom's  at the higher  Television  i n Distance  Education 14  levels  of application,  analysis,  synthesis, or  evaluation. The  Qualitative  qualitative  conception  conception  o f knowledge.  o f knowledge, t h e r e  With  a  i s less  e m p h a s i s o n "how much i s l e a r n e d " a n d m o r e o n " w h a t i s learned".  Learning  remembering process actively  b u t one i n w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r  interprets,  information conception the  i s not viewed as a r e p r o d u c t i v e o r  and a p p l i e s t h e knowledge o r  he o r s h e a c q u i r e s . deals  beginning  qualitative  adapts  Where t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e  with educational objectives mainly  levels  o f Bloom's taxonomy, t h e  conception  i s concerned  range o f o b j e c t i v e s from t h e lower taxonomy t o t h e h i g h e r analysis,  level  with the complete levels  of the  objectives of application,  s y n t h e s i s and e v a l u a t i o n .  conception  The  qualitative  expands t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r and  allows  d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g t o be d e t e c t e d  hidden  when q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u r e s o f k n o w l e d g e a r e  applied. et  F o r example,  a l . (cited  undergraduate in  a course  conceptions following along  at  a qualitative  i n Dahlgren, mechanical  study  1984) r e v e a l e d engineering  by  relatively  a motorway  The s t u d e n t s trivial  students  were a s k e d  question:  i n a straight  line  Johansson  that  i n mechanics had two f u n d a m e n t a l l y of force.  that are  enrolled different the  "A c a r i s d r i v e n  at a high  constant  Television  i n Distance  Education 15  speed.  What f o r c e s a c t o n t h e c a r ? " .  (qualitatively)  the students'  By a n a l y z i n g  answers,  Johansson e ta l . ,  found  t h a t most h e l d t h e c o r r e c t N e w t o n i a n c o n c e p t i o n  force  (force i s only  velocity an  or direction)  Aristotelian  involved the  conception  forces determines  force  before  course.  of force  (force i s always  t h e outcome).  who h e l d t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n  the course  tests:  strength of  Furthermore,  conception  concluded  that  "When t h e q u e s t i o n s  by  within  misapprehensions  spuriously satisfactory  technical  jargon"  (Dahlgren,  of  t o penetrate  1)  main  Education search  Literature reviewed  was  obtained  sources:  A computer  Information  are disguised  1984, p. 3 5 ) .  research and l i t e r a t u r e  from three  retained  answers o r c l o a k e d i n  Sources of Research The  after  traditional  b e y o n d what c a n be more o r l e s s u n r e f l e c t i v e l y students'  of  these  asked  a r e a t base q u a n t i t a t i v e o r f a i l  i n memory,  most  also held that conception  would n o t have been d e t e c t e d  quantitative students  proportion held  and t h e r e l a t i v e  The r e s e a r c h e r s  differences  i s a change i n  but a significant  i n p h y s i c a l events  of the students  the  i n v o l v e d when t h e r e  of  search  Center  of Educational  (ERIC),  Current  ( C U E ), and Research  concentrated  Resources  Index t o J o u r n a l s i n  i n Education  on l i t e r a t u r e  that dealt  (RIE) . with  The  Television  i n Distance  Education 16  student  achievement  i n distance education  comparisons of distance education face  instruction  effectiveness, satisfaction, education 2)  and  different  with  student  face  the  achievement  components of  to  and  distance  courses.  A manual search  c a r d and  microfiche  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  for publications dealing with  distance  catalogues libraries  courses  studies that dealt with  i n terms of of  courses,  of the  of the  University  education,  telecourses, educational television,  selection,  instructional  design  and  media  correspondence  education. 3)  P e r s o n a l and  of B r i t i s h  departmental  Columbia,  Guided  files  Independent  Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology Education. from  faculty  The  The  were r e v i e w e d .  1) provide  consisted of  members i n t h e  search  three broad  latter  University  Study;  and  and  Special  literature  obtained  department.  Organization  of the  y i e l d e d over  400  The  at the  literature  Review  titles has  of which about  been o r g a n i z e d  80  into  categories:  Theory:  Several attempts  a theoretical  from t e l e v i s i o n  h a v e b e e n made  f r a m e w o r k t o e x p l a i n how  or video  occurs.  to learning  Television  i n Distance Education 17  2) R e s e a r c h  problems.  Many r e v i e w s  critical  a r e a have been w r i t t e n .  This  of the  research  i n this  study  attempts  t o summarize some o f t h e more f r e q u e n t l y  m e n t i o n e d and r e l e v a n t a r e a s o f c o n c e r n . 3) E x p e r i m e n t a l R e s e a r c h .  D e s p i t e t h e problems  c o n d u c t i n g t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h , some have  investigators  persevered. 4) Q u a s i - E x p e r i m e n t a l  research i n this assignment to  with  field  Research.  i s of this  i s not p o s s i b l e ,  Most o f t h e  n a t u r e where random  and v a r i a b l e s a r e d i f f i c u l t  control. The  a u t h o r was u n a b l e  employed a q u a l i t a t i v e approach  t o f i n d any r e s e a r c h which  methodology o r which a p p e a r e d t o  the research questions with a q u a l i t a t i v e  c o n c e p t i o n o f knowledge. research, t h i s  review w i l l  In t h e absence o f t h i s t y p e o f attempt  t o demonstrate  how  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s c o u l d have been improved  i fa qualitative  approach  had been  f o l l o w e d o r i n c o r p o r a t e d as p a r t o f t h e s t u d y .  Television  i n Distance  Education 18  Chapter  I I - Review o f R e l a t e d Theory and  Research  Theory Introduction Unfortunately, this  field  focuses  instructional affects that  much o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  on t h e t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  television  rather than  o n how  attempts  t o e x p l a i n how  television  can best  be u s e d t o p r e s e n t  trying  learners  to provide  Nonetheless, a conceptual  l e a r n i n g from  Interaction Salomon theory,  lesson material  with their  mental  have been  made  framework t o e x p l a i n t h e p r o c e s s  television. and L e a r n i n g  (1976) h a s p r o v i d e d while  media, has c l e a r  affecting  s e v e r a l attempts  of Media,Cognition  which,  learning.  interact  occurs;  instructional  t o e x p l a i n how i t may b e  a n d how i t may  processes.  of  television  l e a r n i n g o r how l e a r n i n g f r o m t e l e v i s i o n  is,it  without  literature i n  t h e most  i tdeals with  comprehensive  l e a r n i n g from a l l  implications fortelevision  According  or video  t o Salomon, t h e r e a r e t h r e e  major  factors  w h i c h may make a d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g f r o m  media.  These a r e t h e t e c h n o l o g y  content  t r a n s m i t t e d , and t h e symbol systems used by t h e  medium. suggest learning  of transmission, the  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e research that there  i s no s i g n i f i c a n t  when o n l y t h e t e c h n o l o g y  evidence  to  difference i n  i s changed  (Chu &  Television  i n Distance  Education 19  Schramm,  1968).  many o f t h e s e  I n f a c t Salomon  studies  transmission.  of learning  they are studying  This  being  of transmission.  example t o i l l u s t r a t e Children  who  face  read any b e t t e r rather  this  to  the technology of constant  studied  Salomon  a l l  except the  (1976) g i v e s  an  point.  difficulties  o r worse  than projected.  with  reading  i fthe material  do n o t  i s printed  Changing the technology  through which the m a t e r i a l  i s transmitted  t o them  makes no d i f f e r e n c e .  Similarly,  instructional  i s no more e f f e c t i v e t h a n  live (p. As  session  one s i m p l y  a televised  by v i r t u e o f i t s b e i n g  25) f o r content,  "the difference  i n learning  which  contents.make are e i t h e r s e l f - e v i d e n t or  unrelated  t o media"  is  a  televised  different  evident  of  from d i f f e r e n t  i s caused by h o l d i n g  aspects of the presentation technology  i s critical  b e c a u s e he s a y s t h e y p u r p o r t  compare t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s m e d i a , when r e a l l y  (1974)  differences  (Salomon,  a r e when, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  u s e d t o show movement  w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t  1976, p . 2 5 ) .  The  television  o r dynamic processes  or impossible  self-  which  t o convey i n another  medium. According of  t o Salomon  (1976),  i t i s t h e symbol  t h e medium w h i c h makes t h e c r u c i a l  system  difference to  Television  i n Distance Education 20  learning.  Unfortunately  he i s somewhat a m b i g u o u s  what he means b y " s y m b o l terms  "symbol  presentation" analyzing  that  different There analogic, conveyed  t o Salomon,  meaning.  The s y m b o l  employs  symbolic  codes  f o r m a t s o r modes o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . are three basic and i c o n i c .  symbol  systems:  In the d i g i t a l as w r i t t e n  of possible  (Salomon,  1979; B a t e s ,  presentation  visual  narrative  that  have  performed  In the iconic  representations  which  have  e x p e r i e n c e s and meanings  1981a).  The f o r m a t s o r modes o f of the hierarchy.  a r e examples  (a m o v i n g i m a g e o r f i l m  In the analogic  Voice quality,  a r e a t the bottom  Zooming, and c u t t i n g  system meaning i s  i n continuous elements  t h e code i s p i c t o r i a l  a variety  digital,  language, m u s i c a l  and mathematical symbols.  a n d d a n c e a r e some e x a m p l e s .  system);  are the  can t h e n be used i n  r e o r g a n i z e d meaning and form.  system,  i t would  hierarchically  systems  particular  The c o d e s  system meaning i s coded  music  1976, 1979) a n d t h e  t h e s e c o n c e p t s c a n be v i e w e d  by such codes  notation,  (1974,  ( 1 9 8 1 a ) , who r e f e r s  most g e n e r a l and e a c h convey  "modes o f  and "formats" i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . I n  from g e n e r a l t o s p e c i f i c .  to  He s e e m s t o u s e t h e  "symbolic codes",  t h e work o f Salomon  work o f B a t e s appear  systems",  system".  about  of television  code i n t h e i c o n i c  o r d i a l o g u e a r e examples  formats  symbol of formats  Television  i n Distance Education 21  used  i n novels  symbol  (a w r i t t e n  interaction and  between  digital  affect  codes  different  processes,  and  The  formats used  will  affect  o f an o b j e c t  differ  only  i n appearance,  mental  skills  information"  learners  will  (Salomon,  differ  mental  1976,  overtly  mental i n the  verbal  o f i t do  call  i n terms  with  1976,  p.  of t h e i r  upon  individual  26).  not different  Because  mastery  "the c o g n i t i v e  of  effects  the  of  media  differences"  theory,  i t can use  along with a variety This allows  a particular  simulate  h a v e t o be  "Thus a  according to this  a message.  activate  presentation  These  they also  p o w e r f u l because  systems  convey  in a  the  p.26).  Television,  symbol  system and  a picture  (Salomon,  skills,  interact  particularly  the  which are then used t o process the  conveyed  attributes  and  and  the information  be p r o c e s s e d .  description  different  how  four-way  (along with i t s  symbol  mental processes.  i n turn,  presentation  system  is a  the content, the task  of the learner.  accompanying  thus  i n the  (1976), l e a r n i n g  t h e symbol  formats),  abilities  to  code  system).  A c c o r d i n g t o Salomon  codes  language  is a l l three  of codes  i t to call  and  formats  upon  m e n t a l p r o c e s s , as w e l l  and as  a mental p r o c e s s which might o t h e r w i s e  covertly  e x e c u t e d by a  learner.  Television  i n Distance  Education 22  Take f o r i n s t a n c e transformation is  being  The  t h e a c t o f zooming i n .  the link  v i e w and t h e c l o s e up.  covertly overtly  like,  same  split  overtly  supplant  that  process  a medium  He s a y s t h a t t h e s y m b o l i c  between t h e  may a l l o w t h e l e a r n e r t o g e t a w a y  because t h e message r e q u i r e s elaboration  theory,  skill,  then,  than  which i t  codes used by  description  This  the  f o rthe  " a l l o w s " and those  processing,  mental  and  1976, p.27)  "shallower"  and  angles,  screens,  a mental  S a l o m o n makes a d i s t i n c t i o n  skills  television  simulates  Gradual changes o f  o r , i f you wish,  (Salomon,  Finally,  "demands".  link  have t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g  transformation  mental  t h e same  T h e zoom, when u s e d ,  rapid shifts,  f u n c t i o n : they  learner  shot  I n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e zoom,  t h e same p r o c e s s . i n space,  array.  between" t h e l o n g  i s required t o provide  o n h i s own.  rotation the  detail  s i n g l e d out from a wider and r i c h e r  viewer  i s a  b y means o f w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r  zoom p r o v i d e s  the  This  with  a book o r a v e r b a l  (Salomon,  less  197 9 ) .  does n o t suggest t h a t  from v e r b a l  recoding  learning  i s distinct  learning  o r any o t h e r  Instead,  S a l o m o n seems t o be s u g g e s t i n g  critical  aspect  television  learning, observational  "conventional"  theory  of learning.  that the  o f a l l l e a r n i n g i s t h e symbol  systems  Television  i n Distance Education 23  u s e d by t h e medium and convey  t h e message.  greater potential employ these  a greater codes  cultivate interact  Television,  variety  different  o f Salomon's t h e o r y .  says Salomon has  failed  systems  skills  a r e d e v e l o p e d by  are  u s e d by  different  symbol  Salomon f a i l e d  Finally,  to identify  the  But  by w h i c h  Bates' c r i t i c i s m which mental  different  be  activated  media  are not  i f the appropriate  code  and media  are  point.  media-specific,  so a p a r t i c u l a r  o r s u p p l a n t e d by  that  that  skills  skills  may  mental  i t seems  Salomon m a i n t a i n s mental  skill  is  i t s generality,  are employed  or format-specific,  which  different  or which  seems t o m i s s t h e  code-  skills  (1981a)  d e v e l o p e d by which media  but  and  of i t s generality.  media  which media.  systems  Many o f  activate  Bates  to identify  value of a theory i s precisely  self-evident.  and  to  task.  o f Salomon's t h e o r y because  surely which  i t i s able  of symbolic codes.  and t h e  mental  several or format i s  employed. While explain  S a l o m o n h a s made a n a m b i t i o u s a t t e m p t  how  we  learn  a n y t h i n g unique about  from media, learning  to  concludes, offers  information processing  symbol  the  he  formats employed  f o r l e a r n i n g because  with the learner  critical  and  are unique t o t e l e v i s i o n  Criticism  He  the codes  he  has  not  to  revealed  from t e l e v i s i o n .  His  Television  i n Distance  Education 24  theory attempts t h e medium. learning process occur  to explain a l l learning,  According t o h i s theory, i t would  from  television  language  - digital  pictures  - iconic  Thus l e a r n i n g  codes, the  differences  (e.g.,  written  code e t c . ) ,  not i n the a c t u a l  television,  process.  or the classroom  with varying  varying interactions  still  symbolic  b e t w e e n t h e medium,  c o n t e n t , and t h e l e a r n e r .  Mental  Skills  Olson television contend  and t h e Media  and Bruner learning  (1974) h a v e t a k e n similar  that content  television means  (Olson & Bruner,  skills  that  view,  t h e y assume a n d  1974, p. 1 4 9 ) .  k n o w l e d g e c a n be t a u g h t the mental  In t h e i r  skills  to They  and  to learning  from  "instructional  as t o t h e knowledge conveyed,  as t o t h e [mental]  but  t o t h a t o f Salomon.  difference  o r any media.  converge  an approach  i s n o t medium s p e c i f i c ,  t h e r e f o r e makes l i t t l e  or  t h e same  code; music - a n a l o g i c code;  t h e same p r o c e s s  and thus  The  c o d e s o f t h e medium  from p r i n t ,  involve  of learning.  what  seem t h a t  involves fundamentally  as any o t h e r t y p e  i n the symbolic  lecture  no m a t t e r  but diverge  develop"  I n o t h e r words  content  e f f e c t i v e l y b y a n y medium,  required t o understand  k n o w l e d g e c a n be c u l t i v a t e d  and apply  more e f f e c t i v e l y  some m e d i a t h a n o t h e r s . T h i s s e e m s t o c o n t r a d i c t who m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e m e n t a l  skills  called  upon,  by Salomon  Television  i n Distance Education 25  activated, of  o r s u p p l a n t e d depend on t h e c o d e s  t h e medium, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  instance,  a verbal  televised  verbal  codes, this  i t would  referring medium.  different  appear  that  real,  formats - t e l e v i s i o n  has c u t s ,  t e c h n i q u e s which would  enhance  others.  Olson and Bruner that  available  than those required  conveys  i t can t a p s k i l l s  information  requires  t o Salomon's  learning,  demand  depending  that  (1979) "deeper"  television  does n o t r e q u i r e  readily  that  which  that  i n t h a t medium.  assertion  might  has t h e  learning  This  verbal  processing than  on t h e f o r m a t employed  presentation.  mental  which  a r e more  f o r verbal  of literacy  television  so i t i s i d e a l  certain  through a symbolic system  a h i g h degree  l e a r n i n g may  favor  say t e l e v i s i o n  advantage  h a s i t own  zooms, a n d o t h e r  has i n t e r a c t i v i t y  (1974)  specific  and a c l a s s r o o m  h a v e some f o r m a t s i n common, b u t e a c h  whereas a l e c t u r e  and  than  However,  Olson and Bruner a r e  television  skills,  relates  media.  t o the formats which are unique t o a  production  For  e m p l o y t h e same  may b e m o r e a p p a r e n t  For instance,  lecture unique  would  although they involve  because  t h e medium i t s e l f .  d e s c r i p t i o n by a t e a c h e r and a  description  contradiction  or formats  television  by t h e  F o r Olson and Bruner, a h i g h degree  of  literacy  f o r modelling or observational  Television  i n Distance Education 26  learning.  I t can  do  make e x p l i c i t  and  can  course  s h o w w h a t t o do  facilitate  various  ways t h e  Slow motion and  drawings  effect" is  " T e c h n o l o g i c a l media  t h e s e p r o c e s s e s by  critical  or stopped (including  supplant  television  certain  as w e l l  caricatures) 1974,  t o Salomon's view  employed by  such  mental  to  p.  can  highlighting  p o i n t s i n the  action  (Olson & Bruner,  similar  as what n o t  t h e d e c i s i o n s made i n t h e  of the a c t i v i t y .  greatly  as w e l l  performance.  as  descriptions  may  have  148).  this  Once a g a i n  that  some o f t h e  as t h e  zoom, c a n  p r o c e s s e s by  in  this  formats activate  or  showing  transformations. One n o t be  note  assumed t h a t because  television that  o f c a u t i o n s h o u l d be  may  television  i s necessarily A  concluded that  television  watching  understand  the  found  that  an  of  e a s i e r medium f o r t h e  used  (Bates & G a l l a g h e r , 1977).  s t u d e n t s t o use  analyzing  the t e l e v i s i o n i n the p r i n t  learn  i n order to properly  case-study documentaries  the t e l e v i s i o n  Open  students needed t o  skills  encourage  provided  formats  study at the B r i t i s h  University  course  some o f t h e  I t should  a l l o w f o r "shallower" mental p r o c e s s i n g  learner to access.  Science  made h e r e .  in a  The  Social  study  programs were b e i n g u s e d  to  higher level  as  material  material,  skills  using the  such  theory  a p p l y i n g what  they  Television  i n Distance Education 27  learned  i n the p r i n t  programs,  to the situations  generalizing  from the  and  specific  television  programs,  principles  presented i n the p r i n t  evaluating  examining  researchers for  any  the  examples  programs.  a b l e t o use  to  of the course,  "Less than o n e - t h i r d  appeared  the  the  the  However, the  of students,  programme, b o t h u n d e r s t o o d t h e p u r p o s e  programmes and  i n the  as t h e y r e l a t e d  student evaluations  found that  television  the value of  examples p r o v i d e d i n the t e l e v i s i o n in  i n the  of  such  programme  material  i n t h e ways s u g g e s t e d . . . above."  ( B a t e s , 1981a,  p.  Schramm  that  18).  systems coding but  must be system  little  (1977b) a l s o learned.  i n school  o r no  coding systems.  iconic  code which "something  t o everyone  abstraction"  p.  89).  we  Salomon  Criticism critical its  skills  and  regardless  requires  a l s o makes t h i s  of Olson  failure  and  (Schramm,  o f O l s o n and and  to clearly because  he  digital mathematics)  uses  of h i s  ability  1977b,  no  special  Bates  (1974)  distinguish believes  the  that skills .  point.  Bruner.  Bruner's  and  c o n c r e t e , i t can  s h o u l d n o t m i s t a k e n l y assume  from t e l e v i s i o n (1979)  the  and  television  i s densely packed  deal with  learning  t o use  a l l coding  i s provided i n analogic  Because  to  But  learn  us  (e.g., language  instruction  iconic  offer  We  reminds  (1981a)  is  t h e o r y because  between content  some c o n t e n t i s m o r e  of and  Television  i n Distance  Education 28  effectively says  taught  different  subject  o f 'heat'  i n a different  way.  ('form o f e n e r g y  of molecules  "Thus t h e  'knowing' heat  Furthermore,  arising  o f bodies')  dragging himself through i s different"  h e s a y s , how e a s i l y  He  k n o w l e d g e o f t h e same  b y n u m b e r s (110°F), p h y s i c a l l y b y t o u c h  random m o t i o n  of  others.  c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d by words  the h e a t ) , by concept  (a man  some m e d i a t h a n  m e d i a may p r e s e n t  area o r concept  experience hot'),  through  or  ('iti s (feeling  from  symbolically  the desert).  Each  way  ( B a t e s , 1 9 8 1 a , p . 9) . we  learn  d e p e n d s t o some e x t e n t o n t h e c o n t r o l  content  characteristics  t h e medium a n d t h e r e f o r e " l e a r n i n g  from  of  g r o u n d s t o be more  content  effective  would than  seem, o n a p r i o r i  learning  things being equal" criticism valuable of  i n t h e sense at both  Olson  c h o o s i n g t h e medium o f The  Concreteness  major  ability  contribution  Television context  1  and mental  other Bates'  hypothesis i s  skills  importance when  instruction.  of Television  Gagne i n d i s c u s s i o n television's  and B r u n e r s  While  t h a t i t emphasizes t h e  content  i n terms  television,  ( B a t e s , 1981a, p. 1 1 ) .  seems v a l i d ,  looking  from broadcast  print,  of  w i t h Schramm  (1977a),  t o deal with concreteness  identified as i t s  to learning:  can p r o v i d e a concrete and  a g a i n s t which  to learn  names,  meaningful definitions,  Television  i n Distance  Education 29  and  other v e r b a l knowledge.  reminders It  can  of the  provide  cognitive and  new  blood  On that  on  the  2)  a more s p e c i f i c  specific  sense and  concrete  c h o i c e t h a t put  level,  1)  Burns  and  flesh  and  attitudes  f o r showing  p r e s e n t a t i o n s , 3)  skills  Characteristics  of  and  could activate r e q u i r e d of the  of  three  learning:  symbolic.  The  for  three intuitive  These are a l l or  supplant  learner.  Television  social  Salomon and  have begun t o  identifies  illustrating  f i t w i t h Salomon's t h e o r y .  mental  theorized  motion,  T h e s e a l l s e e m t o make  i n which t e l e v i s i o n  criticisms  (1976) has  l e a r n i n g when i t i s u s e d  characteristics.  h a v e made r e f e r e n c e t o B a t e s  affect  provide  problems  14).  purposes:  Distribution  we  how  a p p l i e d t o new  i t can  of  facilitates  concepts.  they  some o f t h e  we  be  of  skills.  Simultaneity, Dimensionality  dimensional  Bates'  can  concrete  intellectual  a b s t r a c t i o n s of values  1 9 7 7 a , p.  simultaneous  areas  provide  illustrations  situations  television  three  concrete  s i t u a t i o n s . . . and  (Schramm, Motion,  components of  strategies  examples of  I t can  Olson  (1981a) o n l y  for his  and  In doing  Bruner.  look at h i s framework characteristics distributional  distributional  Thus f a r  i n w h i c h he ,  of t e l e v i s i o n and  and  so  social,  social  that  control,  and  characteristics  Television  i n Distance  Education 30  have  little  t o do  television, learning is  a  but  and  t o use  and  learning,  learning unique  characteristics.  (1981a) framework  closer  learners  any  broadcast control  They have l i t t l e programs and  when t h e y  the programs.  allow  cannot  continuous  and  this  comes  learning  can  by  the  learning. watch  the producers  stop the broadcast In a d d i t i o n ,  t o re-work  or  the  locked  and  levels  jump i n  go  broadcast easily,  f i x e d pace o f a programme does  for individuals  a  process.  give  they are  accommodate d i f f e r e n t  and  that  feature of  they pace t h e i r  been determined  They cannot  i s not  (1974)  does not  are watching,  back t o a p o i n t they missed.  "The  second  c h o i c e a s t o when t h e y  a pace t h a t has  television  The  television how  this  that  literacy.  i s control,  over  ensure  access  t o l e a r n e r s because i t  to d e a l i n g with the actual  Unlike print,  and  "access" i s  Bruner  r e q u i r e a h i g h degree of  Control  into  This notion of  i s more a c c e s s i b l e  relatively  provide  not  of course  and  Television  It is  i t can  alone w i l l  of Olson  affect  attractive  argues,  t a k e p l a c e , and  from  t h a t t h e y do  t h e power t o be  Thus, Bates  t o the view  does not  argued  learns  m e r i t some m e n t i o n .  although t h i s  will  television  bit  has  to television.  similar  Bates'  do  actually  medium f o r most p e o p l e .  entertaining. to  one  i t c o u l d be  so t h e y  familiar  easy  w i t h how  their  not  of  Television  i n Distance  Education 31  thinking  t o t h e l e v e l which  1981a, p. 4 ) . through gives  learners  be stopped  can  be t a p e d  characteristics.  television. Salomon's  t o Bates'  television,  because the tape broadcasts  convenient  for clarification.  F i n a l l y , Bates characteristics  version:  i n concept  There a r e  what he c a l l s  t o Salomon's  "formats",  gone f u r t h e r  than  i n a particular  Salomon and a c t u a l l y  characteristics  with their  representation"  which  implications.  related  he f e e l s  audio-  or represent  way.  Bates  identified ten  "modes o f  have e d u c a t i o n a l  They a r e p r e s e n t e d  and  are the  The g e n e r a l  allow i t t o present  knowledge o r experiences  the general  o f t e l e v i s i o n which a r e  i d e n t i f i e d by Salomon.  characteristics  with  of  systems used by t e l e v i s i o n , which  same a s t h o s e  deals of  a reworking  discussed earlier.  characteristics  similar  symbol  unlike  eliminated  discretion,  i s essentially  (1976) t h e o r y  audio-visual roughly  the "symbolic" This  aspects  visual  at the learners'  (Bates,  can be  a high degree o f c o n t r o l  a n d segments c a n be r e v i e w e d  what he c a l l s  the  which  them"  f o r l a t e r v i e w i n g a t a more  Symbolic  two  suits  However, t h i s p r o b l e m  t h e use o f videotape,  can  time,  best  i n Table  1.  has  Television  i n Distance  Education 32  Table 1 G e n e r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T e l e v i s i o n a n d Modes o f Representation TV C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Continuous and s e q u e n t i a l  Spatial  Variation  Storage  i n size  (zoom)  and r e c o r d i n g  Editing Dramatization  Aural Symbolism Multi-channel  "Live"  (broadcast  TV o n l y )  Modes o f Representation Movement, animation, slow motion, representation of changes over time Representation of spatial relationships; (combined w i t h camera movement: representation of three dimensions); physical models; g r a p h i c a l representation. Magnification; exploration of detail; attention focussing. Recording of people, places and events; historical archives; a c c e s s i n g new l e a r n i n g resources (people, places) . Selection; reordering; restructuring. Restructuring of events; representing human r e l a t i o n s h i p s Words; n o i s e s ; m u s i c emotive aspects Ambiguity Simultaneous viewing listening; focussing; interpretative I m m e d i a c y ; news a n d current a f f a i r s ; sport.  N o t e : F r o m Some u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e l e v i s i o n a n d some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g a n d l e a r n i n g b y A.W. B a t e s , 1 9 8 1 a , Journal of Educational Television and Other Media, 8 ( 1 ) . The digital,  symbol systems, analogic,  as d i s c u s s e d  and i c o n i c .  Like  earlier,  are  Salomon  (1976),  Television  i n Distance Education 33  Bates  says t h e main d i s t i n c t i o n  other media systems convey p.  i s i t s ability  meaning i n a wide  medium b e c a u s e  variety  o f ways"  " i t can  (Bates,  1981a,  15) .  The has  & Conclusions theoretical  potential  supplanting this,  has that  literature  to facilitate  suggests that  learning,  from t e l e v i s i o n  of the learner.  will  Salomon  p r o v i d e d t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e  by a c t i v a t i n g  mental  These can a c t i v a t e  skills.  Furthermore,  between these codes, abilities  (1974,  1976,  theory.  He  television  requires  critical  abilities  features  Effective  Bruner  (1974), mental  aspect  of learning  interaction  task  medium t o medium.  Bates  1979).  from  F o r Olson and critical  and media  developed w i l l  (1981a)  and  and t h e  i n general.  c o n t e n t c a n be l e a r n e d e f f e c t i v e l y skills  task,  learning  are also the  from t e l e v i s i o n  medium, b u t t h e m e n t a l  suggests  o f t h e s y m b o l i c code t o  (Salomon,  skills  1979)  specific  t h e r e i s an  of the learning  of the learner  They b e l i e v e  or supplant  the matching  of  affects  the content, the learning  of the learner.  or  vary with the  t h e s y m b o l i c code o f t h e medium i s what  learning.  television  s p e c i f i c mental p r o c e s s e s , and because  learning  abilities  the  and  t o combine a l lt h r e e s y m b o l i c  w h i c h makes i t a " r i c h "  Summary  the  between t e l e v i s i o n  from any  vary  from  attempts t o incorporate  Television  i n Distance Education 34  t h e work o f b o t h providing  a broad  characteristics distributional (cited of  provide  that  suggests  and s o c i a l ,  control,  from t e l e v i s i o n  ideas,  from  with  by  television;  and s y m b o l i c .  the c r i t i c a l  concepts  feature  learning  o f motion,  (1976)  t o the extent that i t simultaneous  action,  i n the theory  b y some m e d i a t h a n o t h e r s .  i t can; Olson  and Bruner  (1976) p o s i t i o n  depend on a n d i n t e r a c t medium, t h e a b i l i t i e s activity  this  distributional  (1981a)  (1974) d i s a g r e e .  that both  content and  However, skills  w i t h t h e symbolic codes o f t h e of the learner  explanation of learning  position  appears  more  Bates  and t h e l e a r n i n g  seems t o p r o v i d e t h e most s e n s i b l e  comprehensive  and  concepts.  only area o f disagreement  Salomon's  to  o r complex  b e o v e r w h e t h e r some c o n t e n t c a n b e t a u g h t  says  Gagne  i s t h e medium's a b i l i t y  and p r o c e s s e s , and Burns  i tfacilitates  effectively  If  learning  1977a) s u g g e s t s  three-dimensional  to  affect  c o n c r e t e examples o f a b s t r a c t  concepts,  The  and Bruner  framework w i t h t h r e e g e n e r a l  i n Schramm  learning  deals  Salomon and O l s o n  from  i s combined w i t h Bates'  and s o c i a l  characteristics  "General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and television.  control of  and  television  and  his detailed  of Television  and  M o d e s o f R e p r e s e n t a t i o n " ( T a b l e 1 ) , we h a v e t h e  Television  i n Distance  Education 35  beginning  of a workable theory.  whether i t can  be  supported  by  I t r e m a i n s t o be  seen  empirical research.  Research Research  Problems  Introduction. inherent  The  literature  to conducting  research  p r o b l e m s w i t h much o f t h e 1985).  Several reviews  much o f t h e distance  comparative  education  Richardson, Shavelson,  1981;  conducting 1.  2.  (Stickell, Bates,  the  research  of  The  value  been done  Barbatsis,  following  in  1978;  with  education:  limitations  student's  Chacon-Duque  inherent problems  responses,  for  the  as  they  occur  institution;  instructional  c o n d i t i o n s are  media are  used t o teach  and  of  difficult  strategies  to and  inter-personal contacts  restricted; An  of  1984;  In h i s monograph,  s i n c e a wide v a r i e t y  3.  and  1987).  appraise,  are  problems  (Chacon-Duque,  question the  1963;  in distance  away f r o m t h e  itself  1981b; P r o s s e r ,  There are p r a c t i c a l  observation far  seriously  field  r e s e a r c h t h a t has  problems.  (1985) i d e n t i f i e d  in this  research  Webb & H o t t a ,  Inherent  reveals both  homogeneous e n v i r o n m e n t  lacking,  w h i c h adds c o m p l e x i t y  involved  i n the process  (p.  like  2).  the  campus i s  to the v a r i a b l e s  Television  i n Distance  Education 36  This  list  is indicative  hypothetico-deductive research, one  f o r these  i s conducting  argued that t h i s  of the  paradigm i n distance  three  this  issues are  type  of  preoccupation  quasi-experimental  research  education  the  experimental  This  type  of  variables,  research)  research  subjects to treatment difficult,  i f not  maintaining behaviors  the  null  and  (and to  and  perhaps  perfect  unachievable  goal.  c o n t r o l of a l l  random a s s i g n m e n t  c o n t r o l groups.  impossible, to achieve  This  of may  be  while  of the  events  or  observed.  conducted  however, does not researcher.  an  be  fundamental  research  contextual reality  being  Research  most  requires the  random samples and  education  with experimental  i s the  be  the  It could  because attempting  m e t h o d may  of  only problems i f  research.  problem f a c i n g distance education all  domination  i n the  seek t o arrange  I t does not  hypothesis.  qualitative  Instead  paradigm,  conditions to  suit  n e c e s s a r i l y attempt to r e j e c t i t seeks t o c o n s t r u c t  of n a t u r a l l y  observation  events.  C o n t r o l o f v a r i a b l e s , random a s s i g n m e n t ,  external  and  does not  mean t h a t  earlier,  qualitative  validity  "anything  rigorous conditions.  research  occurring behaviors  are  not  goes". has  as  As  i t s own  crucial.  discussed set  of  a  meaning  from the  internal  the  or  and This  Television  i n Distance  Education 37  Methodological problems.  This predominance  hypothetico-deductive paradigm this  carries  overwhelming  instruction,  results  o f s t u d i e s comparing  i n terms o f student  television-based  f o r what  u n i m p r e s s i v e body o f r e s e a r c h .  finding  effectiveness  significant  and t h e inherent problems  w i t h i ta r e a major reason  t o be a g e n e r a l l y  of the  instruction  achievement  of  with traditional  classroom  f o r i n s t a n c e , has been t h a t t h e r e i s no difference  ( W i l k i n s o n , 1980).  s t u d i e s has been c a l l e d  Wilkinson  The  the  But these  a r e suspect because t h e methodology used  of these  appears  identified  1.  Imprecise  2.  Poor  3.  Faulty  into  the following  definition  i n many  question.  deficiencies:  o f terms  research questions experimental  4. R e s e a r c h external  which  designs  trades o f finternal  validity for  validity.  Richardson  (1981) f o c u s e s  o n some  fundamental  p r o b l e m s o f t h e newer t e c h n o l o g i e s : their  glamor o f t e n prevents people  clearly one  about them.  result  as  thinking  (1980b) p o i n t s o u t ,  i s that developers too rarely  between technology messages,  As C l a r k  from  distinguish  a s a mode o f t r a n s m i s s i o n o f  instructional  a set of specific  o r otherwise, and technology  techniques  employed i nt h e  Television  i n Distance  Education 38  instructional refers  t o those  messages. transmit that  act.  Technologies  technologies  They a r e  simply  instructional  Technologies  hand, are  the  programs,  research-derived  the  teaching-learning process:  instructional  l e a r n e r so  appropriate  message so  information-processing providing of  novelty  This most the  feedback, or  supports  important  Of  the  the  other  principles  s t r a t e g i e s such  task, that  to  designing  i t activates  the  existing  r e i n f o r c i n g and  instruction (197 6)  amounts  (p.11).  contention  that  the  itself,  codes  i n the  symbol systems,  not  and  quasi-experimental  media e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n  (1981b) i d e n t i f i e s  four  studies distance  major  deficiencies: 1) quality  important of  the  v a r i a b l e s were i g n o r e d  media  and  presentation.  experimental  Bates  the  up  as  is  but  for  the  or b u i l d i n g appropriate  Salomon's  which attempt to assess education,  on  s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h make  skills,  humor i n t o  way  v a r i a b l e i n l e a r n i n g from media  technology  formats used  which  same  t h a t he/she attends  instructional  instructional  i n the  instruction,  design  the  transmit  pigeon d e l i v e r s a  the  cueing  of  of  set of  which  transmission  delivery devices  a postman or a c a r r i e r  letter.  of  production.  s u c h as  the  Television  i n Distance  Education 39  2)  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  ignored 3)  such  class  scheduling or viewing  d i f f e r e n c e s between the  control 4)  c o n d i t i o n s were not individual  traditional The and  as  courses  (1980),  his  like  concern  variables  f o r the  and  suggesting  the  of treatment for,  experimental  and  by  problems. qualitative  Bates  only problems research.  for  Wilkinson answer  Only Bates  (1981b)  aspects  some  of  i n v o l v e d comes c l o s e  that perhaps the  and  both  (1985) i m p l i e s t h e  context  and  to tele-  identified  to a large extent  these  times  examined.  problems  Chacon-Duque  eliminating  accounted  were not  methodological  Wilkinson are  quality  d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses  hypothetico-deductive  in  c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a b l e s were  approach  itself  lies in  to  is  inappropriate. Shavelson, state  that the  Webb & H o t t a traditional  ( 1 9 8 7 ) go  the  next  step  randomized experiment  is  appropriate  for evaluating telecourse effectiveness,  "Telecourse  populations typically  traditional  course  as  differ  populations; treatments  courses;  However, S h a v e l s o n deductive propose  and  attrition  e t a l . do  experimental  not  vary  approach i t s e l f .  several modified,  the  (p.  27).  hypothetico-  Instead  quasi-experimental  almost  and  i s normal"  reject  not  from  much w i t h i n t e l e c o u r s e s a s b e t w e e n t e l e -  traditional  and  they  designs.  Television  i n Distance  Education 40  A more f u n d a m e n t a l c r i t i c i s m been  r a i s e d by B a r b a t s i s  total of she  of the research  ( 1 9 7 8 ) who  questions  dominance o f t h e summative model.  instructional  television  research  f o u n d t h a t t h e summative  categories:  comparative  the almost  In her  from  research  has  review  1950 t o  fell  into  1970  four  effectiveness; analyzing  studies  w h i c h examined v a r i a b l e s s u c h as t e a c h e r  training,  opportunity  f o r feedback,  and so on;  utilization  s t u d i e s w h i c h c o m p a r e d one m e t h o d  TV w i t h a n o t h e r ; effect  and b a s i c s t u d i e s which  of production  television. concludes  v a r i a b l e s on  In reviewing  "there  statistically  second viewing  these  provided  studies, Barbatsis  non-significant results" research  results"  (p. 4 0 3 ) .  a priori  a n d depends on e m p i r i c a l and  questions  by  that provide  that  replication,  summative are  hypothesized  statistical formative  o r i e n t e d towards p r o v i d i n g information t o  products  is  done p r i m a r i l y  statistically  Whereas  i s concerned with e f f e c t s  is  ( p . 399)  a t t h e C h i l d r e n ' s T e l e v i s i o n Workshop  research  procedures  at the  l e a r n i n g from  "a p a t t e r n o f c o n s i s t e n t a n d  significant  looked  using  i s a preponderance o f i n c o n s i s t e n t and  By c o n t r a s t t h e f o r m a t i v e researchers  of  or practices.  Summative  s t u d i e s ask  i n an e i t h e r - o r manner.  Either the  r e j e c t e d or accepted.  In the formative  research  improve research hypothesis  studies,  Television  i n Distance  Education 41  instead  of manipulating  hypothesis, that  the  accepts  single  out  question.  the  research  conditions to  question  existing  v a r i a b l e s and  those  that are  relevant to the  because the particular  i s posed  the  External validity formative product  body of knowledge  i s not  s t u d i e s are  or p r a c t i c e , i n the  represent in a  context  attempts  to  research  a central  aimed at  not  a  concern  improving  a  contributing to  sense t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l  the  academic  research i s . Barbatsis failed  claims  that the  to produce meaningful  supported  by  1963;  & Schramm, 1968;  Chu  1983) the  many p u b l i s h e d  However, what i s not formative  Children's results  testable  theory,  related  overt  "the basis  Campeau, as  This  1974,  evident the  and  a research  Smith,  i s her  produced  t o emphasis and  response.  activity  extent The  producing  at  with  in  for i t s instructional  value"  of the  a  principle  of elicited  postulates medium i s  (p. 1 0 ) .  of  achievement  to which p r e s e n t a t i o n  potential  the  a  i n programming, manner  testable theory  that  meaningful  The  learning states that gains  J.,  claim  research:  model.  is  (Stickell,  researchers  television  has  view  reviews  of presentational learning along  presentation, an  research  T e l e v i s i o n Workshop has  presentational are  results.  a p p r o a c h u s e d by  in instructional  principle  summative r e s e a r c h  The  that the  Television  i n Distance  Education 42  model i n c l u d e s c a t e g o r i e s of (major program a t t r i b u t e s ) , outcomes), linking  and  specific  variables).  formative  fact  of program design  i s r e a s s u r i n g , but  c o u l d be  t o date  theories,  has  principles  The  p r o b l e m has  and  the  dependent  of  have been s u p p o r t e d they  by  are a l l  studied experimentally  preliminary formative  research  aspects  not of  research.  (viewer  (statements  v a r i a b l e s and  that these  television  research  elements that  dependent v a r i a b l e s  independent  The  instructional  the  principles  independent v a r i a b l e s  The  without  problem  with  been a l a c k of t e s t a b l e l e a r n i n g or  been the  research  quantitative conception  research  models.  methodologies  of  employed  knowledge they  have  assumed. The similar  formative  i n methodology to the  a d v o c a t e d by tradition 1988). on  "a  researchers  (Dahlgren,  Both are direct  learning." data  approach suggested  E n t w i s t l e , 1984;  e x p l o r a t i o n of the  ( E n t w i s t l e , 1984,  approach  phenomenographic  phenomenological  in naturally  Barbatsis i s  qualitative  of the  1984;  by  approaches which  students  1  occurring situations p.  13).  p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between  formative  a p p r o a c h o f B a r b a t s i s and the  phenomenographic  for  However, t h e r e  the  rely  experiences  important  approach of  Marton,  their  are  the  qualitative  researchers.  of  Television  i n Distance  Education 43  Barbatsis'  approach does not r e j e c t  conception  o f knowledge.  is  rooted  i n phenomenology,  examine q u a l i t a t i v e addition,  this  preparatory research  this  i tstill  research  differences i n learning.  research  In  model i s o n l y viewed as  t o experimental  the appropriate  summative r e s e a r c h " qualitative  research.  "Formative  h y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d by  ( B a r b a t s i s , 1978, p. 4 1 2 ) .  not only phenomenological  considered  which  approach o f t h e phenomenographic  qualitative  conception  method  does not attempt t o  c a n be v i e w e d as a method o f i n q u i r y  identifies  is  So w h i l e  the quantitative  i n nature,  The  tradition  b u t i t assumes a  o f knowledge and i t i s not  a preliminary step  i n a larger  experimental  approach. The step  formative  i n the right  preliminary setting likely than  step  direction. t o studying  However,  i f i t i s simply  l e a r n i n g i n an  to yield  results  what r e s e a r c h  interpreting cautious.  has a l r e a d y  I t i s clear,  then,  meaningful  provided. that  the distance education  i n reading  research  I t i s easy and tempting  generalizations education  t h a t a r e any more  t o make  and  one has t o sweeping  about t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i s t a n c e  and about c e r t a i n  a  experimental  from a q u a n t i t a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s not  Summary.  be  approach advocated by B a r b a t s i s i s a  media components based  on  Television  i n Distance  Education 44  the  r e s e a r c h t h a t has  preceding  criticisms  methodological Indeed, that  as  by  controlled  this  does not  and  and  about the all,  i f over  approach taken Experimental  years  of  be  dismissed of  the  draw  education  I t a l s o means  more o p e n  seek the  they minded  answers.  predominantly  r e s e a r c h has  i t i s reasonable  produced  such  t o question whether  the  studies i s appropriate.  Research With  the preceding  i s appropriate to continue the  can  the  m o r e c r e a t i v e i n how  employed t o  experimental  Introduction.  examining  difficult.  i t i s used t o  future research.  i n these  make  limitations  r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s and  30  to  mean t h a t r e s e a r c h a n d  h a v e t o be  the  meagre r e s u l t s ,  it  studies extremely  make d e c i s i o n s i n d i s t a n c e  methodologies  quantitative,  the  when c i r c u m s t a n c e s  recognized before  i n terms of  conceptualize  research.  to achieve  I t s i m p l y means t h e  researchers  After  serious  t h a t have been p r o d u c e d t o date  r e s e a r c h m u s t be  that  results  experimental  conclusions  the  u s i n g a summative r e s e a r c h model  meaningless.  policy  are  as  i t i s quite possible  have been t r y i n g  produce meaningful  as  there  B a r b a t s i s p o i n t s out,  impossible  results  reveal,  But  w e a k n e s s e s i n much o f t h i s  researchers  Certainly  been conducted.  most p r o b l e m a t i c  the and  comments i n m i n d ,  literature least  review  common t y p e  by of  Television  i n Distance  Education 45  research In  i n distance education  the ideal  scientific  are  assigned  and  the experimenter  their  treatments  efficient  way.  with  method  field  an u n n a t u r a l  difficult  In  design  little  i n education  1972; S h a v e l s o n  general,  (Bantock,  1961; P a r l e t t  e t a l . , 1987).  from t h e experimental  and e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y .  researchers  Because t h e v a r i a b l e s causal  a n d we c a n g e n e r a l i z e t h e r e s u l t s degree o f confidence.  t o other  However,  i s viewed as a s t r e n g t h from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  perspective  point  studies i s  we c a n d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t  groups with a higher what  have  use f o r the t r u e  internal  relationships  Both  researchers  the strength of experimental  controlled,  television  c o n d i t i o n s o f t e n e n d up  of view,  are  But  t o employ i n t h e  learning situation.  i s very  1988).  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  a n d some e x p e r i m e n t a l  argued that there  & Hamilton,  observes  method from t h e p h y s i c a l  few m o d i f i c a t i o n s (Fetterman,  i s extremely  experimental  groups  v a r i a b l e s and  when i t i s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  qualitative  and c o n t r o l  By and l a r g e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h has  of distance education  creating  subjects  a n d measurements i n t h e most  t o adopt t h e experimental  sciences  and  manipulates  design,  studies.  The r e s e a r c h e r h a s c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l a n d  schedules  this  experimental  randomly t o treatment  effects.  tried  - experimental  i s seen as a major weakness from t h e  Television  i n Distance  Education 46  qualitative for  perspective.  qualitative differences  explanations  or  "ecological from the  utility  of  the  can  of  l e a r n i n g must  that  be  strict  experimental  t o be  confidence  (Entwistle,  random a s s i g n m e n t and  p.  are  the  validity  such experimental  al.  study  (1986)  which  varied  i t was  strict  well  the  Literacy the  1987,  conditions artificial,  but  can  only  the  be  32).  five  in practice this  are  means v e r y  et  at  assignment  "may  very  drastically  generalized  conditions  sites  findings"  In e f f e c t  under the  In  the  evaluation  p.  of  Shavelson  of  conditions  the  same p o p u l a t i o n because the  value  impose random  treatment  Webb & H o t t a ,  from the  across  Thus t o  also  studies.  ' n a t u r a l ' phenomenon and  studies  Thus  variables  the  implementation  of  experimental  10).  telecourse,  considerably  offered.  this  questioning  generalizability  (Shavelson,  groups  New  c o n t r o l of  distort  limit  The  found that  telecourse  and  of  the  Even q u a n t i t a t i v e ,  researchers  their  in  study e x t e r n a l l y v a l i d  experimental  of  applied. placed  1984,  any  "derived  c o n t r o l of  make i t e c o l o g i c a l l y i n v a l i d .  external  looking  have  i s t h e y must be  little  theory"  are  i n l e a r n i n g argue t h a t  s e t t i n g s to which they are  w h i c h makes t h e can  theories  validity";  Otherwise there  the  R e s e a r c h e r s who  to  these  other  same often  little.  so The  Television  i n Distance  Education 47  experimental specific  s t u d i e s must t h e n  cautions  i n a traditional  conducted  research  their  instruction:  study they  live  attempted  lecture,  live  with previous student  topic  groups.  The t r e a t m e n t  Live  2.  Live videotape.  other  lecture.  This that  research:  - student  eight f i r s t  learning.  year  Psychology  t o each o f t h e f o u r  survey  (parallel  using  to the post-  semantic  differential  c o n s i s t e d o f one l e c t u r e given  on t h e  a c c o r d i n g t o one o f  methods:  1.  lecture  studio-  E a c h g r o u p was g i v e n a p r e - t e s t ,  of c o g n i t i v e dissonance  four  they  learning outside of lecture  were randomly a s s i g n e d  and an a t t i t u d e  scales.  of live  experimental  post-test, a retention test  test)  when  c o n d i t i o n s ; and l a c k o f p r e c i s i o n i n  Three hundred and t h i r t y  experimental  of  two o f t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s  measuring t h e dependent v a r i a b l e  students  videotape,  and videotape  to control  (treatment)  i n distance education  to rectify  identified  inability  the  Sullivan et  c o m p a r i s o n o f f o u r methods o f  produced videotape,  and  setting.  (1979) were a c u t e l y aware o f t h e i n a d e q u a c y  experimental  these  i n mind.  Live vs.video al.  be examined w i t h  lecture.  except  This  the production  words t h i s  i s t h e same a s t h e l i v e c r e w was p r e s e n t .  In  c o n s i s t e d o f t h e group o f students  who  Television  i n Distance  Education 48  attended the l i v e use  l e c t u r e w h i c h was b e i n g  by t h e "videotape 3.  of the live  Videotape of the l i v e  videotaped f o r  l e c t u r e " group.  lecture.  4. S t u d i o - p r o d u c e d v i d e o t a p e w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e d visual  material  The all  such as s l i d e s and f i l m  more  clips.  same i n s t r u c t o r a n d t h e same s c r i p t  was u s e d f o r  groups. The  results indicated that  difference four  i n terms o f student  there  was n o  significant  achievement between t h e  g r o u p s , b u t when t h e t w o l i v e  conditions  combined and compared t o t h e two v i d e o t a p e d the  students  i n the live  conditions  scored  were  conditions, significantly  higher. Student  a t t i t u d e s towards t h e i n s t r u c t o r were  m e a s u r e d on t h r e e integrity, the  live  and i n t e n s i t y .  conditions  terms o f general on  the other Sullivan  controlled  type  evaluation,  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n  t h e i n s t r u c t o r was r a t e d  evaluation,  but there  was n o  e t a l . (1979) c o n c l u d e d t h a t  higher  in  difference  that  their  because they had used such a  experiment.  implicitly,  general  two d i m e n s i o n s .  were i m p r e s s i v e  when t h e y  dimensions:  However, t h e y  external  validity  admit,  the subject  tightly albeit  may b e i n q u e s t i o n  specified the following conditions  of studies:  results  for their  m a t t e r must be n o v e l  but  Television  i n Distance  Education 49  interesting; precisely  (presumably  qualitative prior  k n o w l e d g e must be  class  both  period.  normally  education begins  low;  Clearly,  a r e n o v e l and  these  class  interesting  that  p.  24).  study  has  particular  familiar  be  something  that  a l l subjects students  vary  researcher would  measured p r e c i s e l y  been t o t a l l y  ignored.  but,  ecological The  f o r students  particular  instructional  and  i n the  a experimental h a v e an  real  t o get  validity use  of  are  t o become f a m i l i a r Unless  to a particular  world,  a  is a not.  with i t s  students method i t on  situation  i s u n n a t u r a l and  could  effect  the  students'  It  with  imposing  on  then  of  that  lecture  comfortable  qualities.  f a c e random assignment  instruction  The  argue  (Dahlgren,  f o r many, v i d e o t a p e s  instruction  therefore  distance  subject w i l l  the  videotaped  in  or  p e r i o d , not  Furthermore,  format,  one  of c o n d i t i o n s are  i s not  used t o .  of  design  during the  classroom  qualitative  have t o get  take time  will  types  level  experimental  method o f p r e s e n t a t i o n i s something  s t u d e n t s may  may  the  knowledge cannot  1984, this  and  the  to a l l students,  b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f any considerably,  allow for  testing  Learning  e n d s i n one  measured  subjects' i n i t i a l and  in either  contexts.  and  the  t e a c h i n g and  found  a b l e t o be  t h i s would not  differences);  must p e r m i t  not  i t s a c h i e v e m e n t must be  of them  achievement.  Television  i n Distance  Education 50  Instructor similar,  contact.  although  additional different  Hult  (1980) c o n d u c t e d a  less rigorous,  variable, instructor treatments  were u s e d :  study  w h i c h i n c l u d e d an  contact. live  instruction,  videotaped  instruction  with  no i n s t r u c t o r  videotaped  instruction  with  instructor  In terms o f student indicated three  there  was n o s i g n i f i c a n t  d i dnot receive  significantly  d i f f e r e n c e among t h e  instructor  more n e g a t i v e  videotaped  finding  instruction  combined w i t h can  this  attitudes the contact  also  retain  immediate Hult's Sullivan  the opportunity  (1980) (1979).  study  contact.  Hult  contact  should  so t h a t  be  students  degree o f s t r u c t u r e and  of instructional  an  course  indicates that television or  some i n s t r u c t o r  feedback with  expressed  a t t i t u d e s towards t h e  at the college level  b e n e f i t from t h e high  organization  and  contact.  than t h e two groups which had i n s t r u c t o r suggests that  contact,  achievement, t h e r e s u l t s  groups, but i n terms o f student  group that  Three  television  courses  but  f o r i n t e r a c t i o n and instructor.  was n o t a s r i g o r o u s  as t h a t o f  I t i s n o t c l e a r i f random  assignment  was u s e d a n d l e a r n i n g o u t s i d e  the treatment  was n o t c o n t r o l l e d .  i t sadvantage over t h e  study course  of Sullivan  However,  et a l . i s that  as t h e u n i t o f comparison.  i t used a So w h i l e  situation  complete i t b e may b e  Television  i n Distance  Education 51  criticized its  f r o m an  l a c k of  internal  meaning f o r the experimental by  experimental validity,  qualitative  situation  was  instruction, to  other  thus  of t e l e v i s e d  variables student  there  any  i s the  Danielson an  formats,  in  how  the  presenter  was  and as  three  6 to  types  learner?  were  mode  one  age  such  of  aspect  examined presentation  treatment.  Are  different  of presenters variables  that  They  and  & study  examined  i s , differences  differences in  differences in learner reading a b i l i t y  affect  student  subjects i n this  8 minute t e l e v i s i o n  is  and  experimental  questions.  presented,  and  other  Brown, Brown  variables;  such  which might p o t e n t i a l l y The  as p o s s i b l e  a f f e c t e d by  between these  treatment  characteristics  attitudes.  attitudes  different  of the  content  been  The  of d i f f e r e n t  t o answer these  types,  the  more g e n e r a l i z a b l e  or t e l e v i s i o n  (1975) c o n d u c t e d  instructional  more  particular  variables.  effect  interaction  attempt  "natural"  results  t h a t has  within a video  characteristics  has  T h i s meant s t u d e n t s  format  a c h i e v e m e n t and  television  as  with their  instruction  experimentally  study  of  situations.  Television/video  in  kept  making the  similar  this  researcher because  u s i n g a complete course.  a b l e t o become f a m i l i a r  p e r s p e c t i v e because  as  factors  achievement  experiment  were  segments f o c u s s i n g  and  shown on  Television  i n Distance  Education 52  three  distinct  television  t o p i c s i n accounting..  The  three  segments were v a r i e d a l o n g t h r e e p r e s e n t a t i o n  dimensions: 1. L e a r n e r  involvement-  active/passive  2. P r e s e n t e r  involvement  - a p a r t o f and a p a r t  3. D i r e c t i o n  t o t h e l e a r n e r - cued and not cued.  W i t h i n each p r e s e n t a t i o n type, presenter  types  were used.  three  from.  different  The p r e s e n t e r s  varied  according to their  s e x , age and s t y l e  Some w e r e d e s i g n e d  t o appear  like  professional actors,  t o be more  like  instructors,  others  were meant  varied  according  u s e d humor,  to their  others  level  of presentation.  but  of seriousness.  w e r e much m o r e  formal  Some  and  businesslike. With not  such  surprising  Unfortunately, analyses In  that the results i t i s not clear  involvement,  directions involvement case,  of factors,  a r e somewhat  i f the appropriate  of presentation  presenter  i ti s  ambiguous.  w e r e p e r f o r m e d g i v e n t h e many f a c t o r s  terms o f the three types  learner  the  a complex combination  involvement,  involved.  variables, and  to the'learner, only the presenter revealed significant  student  presenter  a c h i e v e m e n t was was  differences.  significantly  higher  a part of the presentation.  words, t h e students  In t h i s  p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r when t h e  when  In other  Television  i n Distance  Education 53  presenter/instructor instructional describing  was  vignette  the  confounded.  enthusiastic  the by  apparent  and by  important material  are  "A  can  in either  First  The of  more r e s p o n s i v e  to  presentation  y i e l d s negative  But  A  researchers  I n one  case the  of  the  suggest  an that  or  the  one  It is that  the  learner or  the  conclusion  importance of  e f f e c t of presenter the  self-  also  the  while  marked  positively  the  students  about  friendly,  most s i g n i f i c a n t  received  are  conclude  was  same a c t o r  group of  402).  e i t h e r f o r the  perhaps  whole q u e s t i o n  not  two  attitudinal  learner"  presenter  three  knowledgeable  the  the  first  i t i s important  (p.  for  draw  a l l they  p o r t r a y a l i s more  is difficult  the  regard.  bland  same  a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) do  confident adult  the  somewhat  a f f e c t achievement.  to the  f r o m one  party  presentation  r e s u l t s are  in this  confusion  that  presenter. drawn by  an  differences  i n t e r e s t e d i n and  matter:  r e s p o n s e s and  received  the  presentation;  appear  subject  assured  two  t y p e s were not  revealing.  learners  presenters  significant  type,  conclusions  adult  other  However, Brown e t  particularly  that  in  than a t h i r d  The  presenter  each p r e s e n t a t i o n  not  actor  or a t t i t u d e s .  Because the  general  rather  vignette.  v a r i a b l e s p r o d u c e d no achievement  a c t u a l l y an  lowest  r e c e i v i n g the  context types.  rating highest  Television  i n Distance  Education 54  in  another.  that  I t would appear t h i s  the type  interviewee w h i c h he  presenter to other  of presentation varied.  noted,  'he  f i t the part'  message f r o m t h i s type  study  presenter  are c a l l e d  into  of the experimental  were  of the l i m i t a t i o n s  cautioned,  "that  very  short  setting  undetermined"  levels  ability  worth noting, older people likely  with  regard  to  Responses  question  because of the  c o n d i t i o n . Brown e t a l . of t h e i r were  study  obtained  as  generalize to a longer  they  from  i n a one-exposure  adults  situation.  learning  of learner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e s e n t a t i o n  surprisingly,  types  having  watched the short  however, and those  that  with  level  segments.  It is  indicated that ability  were  p a c e w i t h more r e d u n d a n c y b u i l t  Here t o o , however,  and  achievement  the results  weak i n r e a d i n g  the  i s less  age, e d u c a t i o n a l  are r e l a t e d t o student  a slower  programs.  in  Thus t h e  t o complain about the pace of the programs.  preferred the  i n t h e segment  (p. 4 0 2 ) .  Not  after  one  or t o a s e r i e s o f programs i s  presenter  revealing.  results  segments  interaction  different  reading  these  the results  exposure  The  "As  fact  v a r i a b l e s , such as sex o r  uniqueness aware  t o the  i s the need f o r c r e d i b i l i t y .  attractiveness,  Whether  due  received the p o s i t i v e ratings.  overriding  seeing  was  the context  must  more They into be  Television  i n Distance  Education 55  taken  into  account.  minute t e l e v i s i o n over  between the  clearest  quantitative  knowledge and  the  limiting  the  does not  normally  and  ecological occur  was  of the  i t i s clear  not  quantitatively a l . are  be  telecourse  The  face to face student  instruction. degree of  of  example of e x p e r i m e n t a l of a study.  quality  segments are  of student  attitudes  were  by  shortcomings  of  suggesting that  context  rigor  Learning  not  responses assessed  scale questionnaires.  experimental  in quality.  reviewed  terms of  conception  Brown  their their  of a complete  college  program.  q u a n t i t y and  that  qualitative  a w a r e o f some o f t h e  Summary.  studies  their  distinction  assessment procedures  i n the  the  that  i n s i x to eight minute  conclude  8  term.  validity  using Likert  replicated  disadvantage  short  Even student  study because they study  the  and  that the  examined.  6 to  persistence of  example of the  clearest  while details  given,  in  m o t i v a t i o n and  appears t o p l a y i n the i s the  a r e b a s e d on  It i s guite possible that,  l e a r n e r might outweigh  This  et  segments.  a l o n g e r term,  older age  These r e s u l t s  here  I t would appear  that there  instruction achievement,  Another  instructor  research i s limited  study  i s reason  may than  be  from  both the  to believe  more e f f e c t i v e ,  videotaped  concludes  that a  c o n t a c t combined w i t h  certain  videotaped  in  Television  i n Distance  Education 56  instruction face  to  might provide  face  instruction.  presentation perceived  videotaped  effective alternative to  Finally,  variables, researchers  credibility  instruction  an  of  is crucial  the  to  student  rather than  an  of  have found  presenter  segments i n which the  participant  i n terms  in  videotaped  learning  and  presenter  objective host  that  i s an are  active  more  effective. All given  of  the  None o f  these way  the  attitudes  i n which the  studies  qualitative from using  conclusions  must be  research  differences  were a l s o a p p r o a c h e d  unrepresentative  and and  have meant t h a t would not  there  at are  control  of  apparent. such  the  still  experimental  normally  serious  of  real  choose.  studies.  subjects  into  experimental  little  can  studies  are  perspective,  often be  may  treatments  shortcomings because  very  often  learning  Even i f the  e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s was In b r i e f ,  result  Student  s i t u a t i o n s were  were f o r c e d  f r o m an  possible  from a q u a n t i t a t i v e  random a s s i g n m e n t o f  students  strictly  conducted.  might  d i f f e r e n t media f o r i n s t r u c t i o n .  unnatural  looked  been  in learning that  The  they  has  caution  reviewed attempted to probe  perspective.  situations  viewed with  proper  absent  learned  or from  not  Television  i n Distance  Education 57  Quasi  Experimental  Research  Introduction. in  the f i e l d  television problems,  of distance education  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g research  have c o n c e n t r a t e d  not  the  often  to suit  these  little  researchers  quasi-experimental  the experimental  c a n n o t be  environment that  completely  The  experimenter  of the quasi-experimental  i s  studies are  the lack of experimental about t h e i r  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f a c t  just  does  a more n a t u r a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .  control  internal  t h a t t h e s t u d i e s have  i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s makes t h e m a p p l i c a b l e t o the experimental condition. t o face comparison.  of quasi-experimental  be t h a t w h i c h a t t e m p t s terms of student equivalent  on  i s very  Instead  the experimenter.  serious questions  Telecourse-face type  In view of  I t means, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  or task  more numerous,  conducted  more t h a n  over  1963).  the results  raises  validity.  efforts  control  forced t o accept  certainly  been  their  & Stanley,  manipulated  While  instructional  that there  i n the f i e l d .  learning situation  thus  and  research  These a r e s t u d i e s i n which t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r  have complete  (Campbell  i n conducting  have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d .  experimental  studies.  Problems inherent  research  t o compare  achievement,  on-campus c o u r s e s .  The most  in this  field  prevalent appears t o  the effectiveness, i n  of complete t e l e c o u r s e s The  degree  with  Television  i n Distance  Education 58  of q u a n t i t a t i v e  experimental  Some s t u d i e s a r e m e r e l y virtually while  quality  tests  come much c l o s e r  experiment.  None a t t e m p t  of learning  to a true  t o examine and/or compare t h e situations.  ( 1 9 8 3 ) made a d i r e c t  comparison course  t h e t e l e c o u r s e v e r s i o n o f t h e same c o u r s e .  and  student  achievement they  personality  was u s e d  instruments  were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o b o t h  measure achievement, given  three  significant  the students  40-question difference  tests.  test  significantly  was n o t a s g r e a t . significantly  instructor  a n d t h e same  groups.  i n both  were  indicate  h i g h e r dropout  a  group.  w i t h age as t h e c o v a r i a t e The a d j u s t e d means  different,  The s t u d y  although  the spread  also revealed a rate i n the telecourse  group which  may h a v e h a d a n e f f e c t  achievement  s c o r e b e c a u s e some o f t h e w e a k e r  may h a v e d r o p p e d o u t .  To  groups  The r e s u l t s  s c o r e as t h e c r i t e r i o n .  were s t i l l  attitudes  i n favor of the television  A o n e - w a y ANCOVA was p e r f o r m e d and  T h e same  versions o f the course  and  In addition  examined student  characteristics.  f o rboth  with  controlled  between an on-campus i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y  to  marks  of significance applied,  i n t h e two  Mount a n d W a l t e r s  varies considerably.  t a b u l a t i o n s of student  no s t a t i s t i c a l  others  rigor  on t h e g r o u p  The p e r s o n a l i t y  tests  mean  students also  Television  i n Distance  Education 59  revealed  significant  group being  classed  conscientious,  differences as more  with  the  telecourse  "happy-go-lucky",  trusting, astute,  c o n t r o l l e d and  less  apprehensive. It  appears  a l o t of e f f o r t  was  asking  a somewhat o b v i o u s g u e s t i o n :  Do  levels  have any  achievement? in  this  levels study  are l e f t  know t h a t  the  i t seems e s s e n t i a l t h a t  d e l i v e r y methods.  s o we  with  is a statistical  rate  i n the telecourse  began a t a higher quite  level.  p l a u s i b l e because  older,  and  personality  ,according  was  possible  initial  ability of  the  of  n o t done i n t h i s  inconclusive results.  have no  way  drop-out  or i f the telecourse  This  latter  t o the survey,  group  explanation  the telecourse  than  of knowing i f  to the higher  group  was  seems much  of a d i f f e r e n t  type.  From a q u a l i t a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , merits.  not  group performed b e t t e r  e r r o r due group  in  achievement  rather  o n - c a m p u s g r o u p , b u t we  was  not ability  i f the purpose  This  the telecourse  this  initial  random a s s i g n m e n t  i s t o u n c o v e r t h e e f f e c t s on  study,  w a s t e d by  differences  c o n t r o l l e d i n some way  different  We  e f f e c t on g r o u p  Because  study, be  that  Like  most o f t h e s t u d i e s  experimental  category,  telecourses  as a b a s i s  i t uses  this i n the  complete  o f comparison and  s t u d y has  some  quasicourses i t does  and not  Television  i n Distance  Education 60  i m p o s e r a n d o m a s s i g n m e n t on preserves  the  a p p e a r s no learning,  ecological  attempt  students.  validity,  but  i s made t o a s s e s s  administering  a 40  learn  are  not  item test  i s not  an  quality  Details  provided, to gain  accepted  This  because i t  the  i t i s rather meaningless.  assessment procedures  students  the  of  of the  but  insight  into  qualitative  how  research  practice. A three-year campus c o u r s e s district had  survey  i n the  i n Texas  higher  However, t h e r e  assessment procedures student  design a  great  study,  deal of  the  such  as  While  level  semester were s i m p l y  These e i g h t courses  may  of  any  different  instruments.  rate  whether or  students  of  Tinn, the  not  from a g u a l i t a t i v e  h a v e t o be  significance, control  over and  viewed  have been taught  by  with  were  there  is  confounding different  grade d i s t r i b u t i o n s  compared i n e i g h t  or  experimental  proportion tests  instructors,  The  College  (Agler &  In terms of the results  t h a t t h e r e was  measurement one  approached  the  on-campus  enough d e t a i l s  t o determine  caution.  used t o determine  variables  not  perspective.  of the  indication  success  are  a c h i e v e m e n t was  quantitative  equivalent  D a l l a s County Community  revealed that the  a significantly  1976).  o f t e l e c o u r s e and  from  courses. eight  no  Television  i n Distance Education 61  different and  instructors  rating Agler  rigorous  e x a m i n a t i o n o f one  Writing  f o r a Reason.  d e s i g n was  an  telecourse  introductory  employed  i n student writing  s t u d e n t s were not  telecourse group  was  i n one  and  campus g r o u p s ,  selected done;  was  size  o f t h e t r e a t m e n t and  them r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  same  course,  semester  control to assess  and  attitudes  of the semester. assigned to  the  a random sample I t i s not  have been an control  of the larger  While  from  clear  each why  attempt t o reduce groups group  while  the  keeping  from which  they  drawn. Student  by  English  for analysis.  i t may  i n the  performance  randomly  this  were  procedures  more  A pre-test/post-test  from t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e end the  testing  (197 6) c o n d u c t e d a q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  district,  changes  different  methods.  college  group  using  c o m p o s i t i o n s f r o m t h e two  4 independent  judges  groups  i n the following  areas:  1.  content  2.  organization  of the entire  paper  3.  organization  of individual  paragraphs  4.  s p e l l i n g and  5.  diction  6.  sentences  7.  holistic  mechanics  usage  or o v e r a l l  quality.  were  rated  Television  i n Distance  Education 62  The favor  r e s u l t s revealed  of  the  telecourse  organization individual of  the  of  the  significant  In the  distributions two  groups,  studies,  the  It  significant meaningful that  a  versus  these  relegate  than that;  or  at  them t o the  these are  and  that  points  i n the  differences. factors  way  i n terms of i f we  stop  s u c h as  o u t w e i g h any  of  between  the  grade  the  other  and  was  ambivalent.  familiar But  measurable of  "no  they  are  learning.  may  i s more another  several  significant  quite  and  with  quite  achievement than  find  view not  It is  t a k e measurements at  motivation  more  i f approached  d e l i v e r i n g a course  i t i s also  inherent  group  r e s u l t s support the  student  c o u r s e we But  the  t r y i n g t o measure i s  l e a s t not  one  and  telecourse  d i f f e r e n c e s " category.  that  effective  most o f  no  30%.  q u a n t i t a t i v e conception  possible  final  f o r the  were  telecourse  r e s u l t s a p p e a r somewhat  p e r h a p s w h a t we  measurable  rate  of  overall quality  significantly  i n keeping with  - 52%  i s easy to  between the  differ  or  areas there  In a d d i t i o n , the  drop-out  first  four  in  areas:  organization  holistic  other  d i d not  and  much h i g h e r At  and  differences  on-campus g r o u p .  differences  group i n three  e n t i r e paper,  paragraphs,  paper.  significant  likely  persistence  disadvantages of  the  that  other  might mode o f  the  Television  i n Distance  Education 63  c o u r s e and end  up  with  English the of  same.  and  If this  the  delivery. of  e f f e c t s of  underlying  that  questions  achievement I f we  qualitative completely asking student  shift  need t o  we  are  asking.  i n the  the  of  or  that  look out  course  reconsider  variable that  "How  d e l i v e r y a f f e c t the w r i t i n g process?".  significantly  way  the  Simply reveal of  Furthermore,  method of  the  the  effectiveness  question.  we  much  accurately  k n o w l e d g e , we  ask  so  accurately  the  not  the  a r e a s and  two  i t  needs t o  from a q u a n t i t a t i v e to  a c h i e v e m e n t ? " we  differ  organization  i t points to  in  individual  out  d i f f e r e n t type of  approach the not  i s not  conception  "Does t h i s  method of  case,  l e v e l s may  differences  this  o v e r a l l q u a l i t y of  d e l i v e r y i f they e x i s t .  examined.  the  i n other  may  did poorly  d i f f e r e n t methods of  It also points  methods of be  or  of  methods i n o r d e r  comparing achievement the  case of  composition,  organization  i s indeed the  research  i n the  versions  grade d i s t r i b u t i o n s that  r e f i n e our  pinpoint  two  c a m p u s s t u d e n t s who  holistic  final  i n the  So,  have worked h a r d e r  with  need t o  type  the  e n t i r e paper,  p a p e r , may up  students  p a r t i c u l a r areas of  paragraphs,  end  end  s i m i l a r scores.  course,  three the  i n the  may be  a  derive  a  Instead  of  delivery affect  does t h i s i n which  or  students  Achievement  because these are  that  levels  often  may  Television  i n Distance  Education 64  measured i n q u a n t i t a t i v e methods o f d e l i v e r y w o u l d be  reflected  students' Of  areas  departure  structured students  they  seen  with  differences  this  strict  i n the go  their  judges is a  and  clear  f a r enough i n p u r s u i n g a r i g o r o u s of the  student  writing.  groups t o probe t h e i r attitude and  Semiwith  the  the  way  writing  towards  the  course  whether t h i s  had  any  and  quantitatively  their  and  effect  on  how  writing.  at Saddleback  of telecourses  i s a s t u d y by College.  campus s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d  in Political  and  Unfortunately,  q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l comparisons  telecourse  comes  qualitative  i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d have been conducted  (1983) c o n d u c t e d  three aspects  The  Smith,  A l l  in  Science, Psychology,  S c i e n c e were i n c l u d e d .  evaluate  i n the  assessment  other studies.  e q u i v a l e n t on-campus c o u r s e s  Marine  which  probably  type of  quantitative  o f t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e  courses  one  of f o u r independent  analysis  approached  rigorous  J.  the  delivered  One  different  of writing  f o r assessing student progress  i n both  processes, was  in qualitative  use  study d i d not  qualitative  it  the process  studies reviewed,  The  from  techniques the  perhaps  to attempting t o assess t h i s  difference. seven  affect  but  writing.  a l l the  closest  terms,  introductory Music  s t u d y was  and  designed  of the t e l e c o u r s e program,  to  Television  i n Distance  Education 65  student  retention,  student  satisfaction.  the  on-campus  Outlines course and  (drop-out),  and t e l e c o u r s e  inspected  a common t e s t  administered  questions,  there  a n d mean s c o r e s this  levels  using  were  education  i n the telecourse  course  telecourse campus  design and indicated that of learning that  compared t o t h e p a r a l l e l  I n terms o f student  satisfaction,  with  t h e course  r a t e f o r t h e t e l e c o u r s e g r o u p was  t h a n t h e campus While  weighted  quantitative rigor, the  was n o d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a m o u n t  drop-out  with  computed.  The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e  courses.  using  Student  a questionnaire  b o t h g r o u p s were g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d the  and  d i s a p p o i n t i n g i f one i s l o o k i n g f o r  i n distance  on-campus  identical  were t e s t e d  w h i c h were g i v e n  considerable  a r e somewhat  took place  campus  were  of significance.  Likert-scale  delivery.  course.  f o r each course  achievement  was e v a l u a t e d  guidance  and i t s p a r a l l e l  both  as a p r e and p o s t - t e s t .  satisfaction  results  taught  o f each  t o ensure that they  ANCOVA a t t h e .05 l e v e l  Despite  versions  was d e v e l o p e d  The c o m p a r a t i v e  values,  achievement, and  T h e same i n s t r u c t o r  o f each t e l e c o u r s e  were  student  and  higher  group.  i t i s r e a s s u r i n g t o have e v i d e n c e delivery i s at least  delivery, this  study  as e f f e c t i v e  does n o t p r o v i d e  that as onany i n s i g h t  Television  i n Distance  Education 66  into  t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t needs answering:  does  o r a n y medium have any i n h e r e n t a d v a n t a g e student  achievement over  answer t h e q u e s t i o n Smith,  i n terms of  a n y o t h e r medium?  c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e s t u d y  Indeed, i t  d i d not r e a l l y t r yt o  i t s e e m s i t was i n t e n d e d  J . (1983) s a y s ,  television  "The c o m p a r i s o n  to.  As  i n educational  achievement between t h e t e l e c o u r s e s and t h e p a r a l l e l oncampus c o u r s e s types  of courses  what f o r m a t s was a s k e d , not  was i n t e n d e d  to provide  but simply  (p. 2 5 ) .  the study  from a q u a l i t a t i v e  i t would have been  students'  understanding  issues  i n the different  evidence  students  that  key concepts.  price,  interesting  levels  was  For  t o probe the and  versions of the courses.  different  understandings  understanding  of  There  courses, o f some o f  university  o f t h e concept  of  found  that they  h a d "two d i s t i n c t  contrasting conceptions"  (p. 3 0 ) .  He d i d n o t  this  (1984)  perspective  o f some o f t h e c o n c e p t s  I n a 1978 s t u d y  students'  Dahlgren  results.  i n some u n d e r g r a d u a t e a r t s  have very  economics  at  question  t h e way t o a n s w e r i t .  instance,  and  The  comparing achievement  may h a v e p r o v i d e d m o r e m e a n i n g f u l  the  on what  s h o u l d be o f f e r e d v i a t e l e v i s i o n , a n d  s h o u l d be e m p l o y e d "  Approaching  is  guidance  c o n c l u s i o n by comparing achievement  r a t h e r he a s k e d  a very  simple  q u e s t i o n : Why  arrive  levels, does a bun  Television  i n Distance  Education 67  cost  a b o u t one  student  responses  "categories the  bun"  B.  was  price  (p. 3 0 ) .  He  "A.  The  subject  a n a l y z i n g the  price  a conception  answers  "as  of  in  system  consumers i n the market"  dependent, i t is  between producers  (p. 3 0 ) .  The  category  f o r these  answers s t a t e t h a t the p r i c e  t h e p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s and various  c o n s t i t u e n t s , whether they  services" versions  (p. 3 0 ) . of the  qualitative may  reasonable  Comparing the  same c o u r s e  understanding  be  i n terms of  of  Clagett  (1983)  distributions students  i n her  of  the or different  their  some o f t h e m a j o r  h a v e r e v e a l e d some i n t e r e s t i n g  (1983) a s k e d  on  in  concepts  differences that question that  telecredit  between  surveyed  the  "telecredit"  197 6 a n d  students  had  Smith,  study. final  and  grade  r e g u l a r on-campus  a t P r i n c e George's Community C o l l e g e i n  Maryland,  of  depicts  products  students  would have p r o v i d e d answers t o the J.  profits  and  B  a n s w e r s r e v e a l e d "a more o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d c o n c e p t i o n price,  the  category  o f a commodity i s unknown u n t i l  to a bargaining situation  on  demand f o r  (true) value  that the  of price  two  i s dependent  s u p p l y o f and  i s equal to the  concluded  that the p r i c e  After  a b l e t o group them i n t o  of outcome":  The  represent  in  he  crown?  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  buns.  A  (Swedish)  1982  a lower  and pass  found  that  r a t e - 69%  Largo,  the versus  Television  i n Distance  Education 68  7 9%.  However the  telecredit C's.  The  because  survey  students  were more l i k e l y  significance  i t does not  also revealed that  of these  i n a business  campus day  and  calculated  differently  post-test  groups.  on  telecourse  the  clear  error,  controls. student  groups. and  scores No  what,  so  few  or  were  was  showed t h a t  the  higher  controls,  however, The  simple  than  cause  i f any,  as as  (1983) c o m p a r e d a l l o f t h e i n Chicago's  TV  the  was  third-  College with  i n terms of  The  some c o u r s e s  the  achievement.  lacking.  It is  v a r i a b l e s were c o n t r o l l e d  m a r k i n g method.  ambiguous, w i t h  of  populations.  quantitative rigor  and  two  s o m e t h i n g more c o m p l e x s u c h two  or  ANOVA  significantly  s o m e t h i n g as  on-campus c o u r s e s the  and  an  on-  were  pre-  there  i s rather meaningless.  & Chausow  instructor  equally  student  control,  scores  With  telecourse results  Once a g a i n ,  but  two  lack of  d i f f e r e n c e s of the  equivalent  i s questionable  (1983) c o m p a r e d  were c o n d u c t e d  student  result  Zigerell  as  i n the  d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be  year  and  telecourse with equivalent  groups performed  statistical  not  this  the  kind of  inherent  & Hite  courses,  on-campus g r o u p s .  this  results  A's  demographic d i f f e r e n c e s between the  Despite  conducted  the  evening  observations  significant  to earn  a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e were any  Donsky, Vaughn, Burke achievement  the  results  are  f a v o r i n g the  such  Television  i n Distance  Education 69  telecourse campus  student  favoring the  student.  Television  on-campus a n d a t a d i s t a n c e .  (1976) c o n d u c t e d the  achievement and o t h e r s  a quasi-experimental  Brown  study  t o compare  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of telecourses with equivalent on-  campus c o u r s e s addition  at the University  of Mid-America.  In  t o comparing t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e two  d e l i v e r y methods, Brown a l s o t r i e d effectiveness  of including  t o determine  the telecourse  the  television  p r o g r a m s i n t h e on-campus v e r s i o n o f t h e c o u r s e . course  used  Accounting. one  f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n was There were a c t u a l l y  t a k i n g the course  Introductory  four treatment  by d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n ,  campus, one on-campus b u t u s i n g t h e d i s t a n c e materials, education  materials without  groups r e c e i v e d a textbook, 30-minute audio  learner  tapes  i n "a l i g h t , interaction."  provided a brief  the t e l e v i s i o n  one o n education  programs.  g r o u p a n d two o f t h e campus study  guide,  which presented dramatic  format  sixteen  journalistic  overview  15-to-  accounting designed f o r  a n d 16 n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s  The d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  o f each  which lesson.  g r o u p a n d one o f t h e campus  groups u s i n g the d i s t a n c e education watched  groups,  a n d one on-campus u s i n g t h e d i s t a n c e  The d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  problems  The  15, 3 0 - m i n u t e t e l e v i s i o n  materials also  programs which  provided  Television  i n Distance  Education 70  "exemplars o f key accounting of v i s u a l i z a t i o n other  on-campus  techniques  concepts such  through  a  variety  as v i g n e t t e s . "  The  group u s i n g t h e d i s t a n c e  education  materials  d i d not receive the t e l e v i s i o n  programs.  on-campus  groups u s i n g the d i s t a n c e education  also  had access  with  fellow  distance  t o a classroom  students  education  and  and  materials  interaction  w h i c h were n o t a v a i l a b l e  to the  group.  The r e g u l a r on-campus interaction  teacher  Both  with their  t h e same t e x t b o o k ,  group had r e g u l a r  instructor  lectures,  and f e l l o w  but not the other  students  distance  education materials. T h e same c r i t e r i o n learner that  achievement  this  study  perspective. consisted tests  28-30  students  were asked  w h i c h were g i v e n  attitudes  towards the  evaluation at  levels  students  students  had s l i g h t l y  course.  between the on-  using the distance education  the distance education  education  courses,  and a t t h e end o f t h e  A comparison o f achievement  and  during the  t o complete a course  end o f each u n i t  campus s t u d e n t s  achievement  equally-weighted multiple-choice  items  To a s s e s s  indicate  l e a r n i n g from a q u a n t i t a t i v e  The m e a s u r e m e n t o f s t u d e n t  course.  the  were u s e d t o measure  i n a l l f o u r groups and they  approached  of three  with  tests  materials  showed t h a t  higher  grades.  distance Student  Television  i n Distance  Education 71  evaluations  revealed that the  group r a t e d the and  their  they  course  interest  r a t e d i t as  use  of the  had  any  15  lower  campus d i s t a n c e  i n terms of o v e r a l l  i n i t than  e a s i e r than  television  significant  the the  on  the  two  levels  between the  group u s i n g t e l e v i s i o n  addition,  the use  the  were not  student  of t e l e v i s i o n  d i d not  to  The  have  groups.  significantly  course  and  off-campus group.  programs appears not  effect  appeal  off-campus group  Achievement  In  education  and  different  the  group  not.  e v a l u a t i o n s showed  make t h e  course  any  that more  appealing. A  final  comparison  on-campus s t u d e n t s materials  and  difference  appeal  using the  those  campus c o u r s e .  on  The  enrolled results  i n appeal.  made b e t w e e n  distance i n the  traditional  s h o w e d no  the  on-  significant comparison  achievement between  on-campus g r o u p and  the  education  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no  made i n t e r m s o f a s t u d e n t regular  was  distance  is  the  education  group. The  study  distance for  be and  t h a t drop-out  education group which  support,  education  found  encouragement and  student  done w i l l  never  because be  done  was  may  higher  for  the  p o i n t out  the  need  pacing  "a c o u r s e (at l e a s t  t h a t e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e and  f o r the  which by  has  some  encouragement  distance forever to enrollees), is  Television  i n Distance  Education 72  necessary to  complete  (p.  a course  most  with the  significant use  of the  component p r e s e n t s other on  components,  achievement  appealing. is  within  levels  Brown  timelines"  which not  nor  study  i s also presented  have a s i g n i f i c a n t  will  i t make t h e  cannot  be  justified  i n terms of  whether t h i s  finding  campus s t u d e n t s that  may  distance  education  find  television  the Brown  how  lend  not  was  itself  well  to the  visual  the t e l e v i s i o n  the  used  course.  settings  redundancy"  i t s positive  effect  and  student  interaction  television  component;  do  perhaps they  not  and  that redundancy  important  in this  observation  course.  because the  The  students  programs a v e r y  may  role.  about  In h i s o p i n i o n course  medium; a c c o u n t i n g  topic.  finding  g e n e r a l i z a b l e because  programs f i l l  used e f f e c t i v e l y  particularly rate  students  (197 6) m a k e s a n  television was  w o u l d be  f o r the  more  However i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e  have i n s t r u c t o r  substitute  a  effect  that i f this  "supportive or  achievement or a t t i t u d e s .  to  in  course  generalizable to other distance education in a  has  c o m p o n e n t : when s u c h  (1976) c o n c l u d e d  role  of  television  i t will  using television  it  reasonable  conclusion of the  content  then  on  of e n r o l l e e s are  25) . The  do  i f a respectable percentage  did  i s not  also did  important  not a not  component  Television  i n Distance  Education 73  While t h i s  s t u d y p r o v i d e s some i n t e r e s t i n g  i t s major weakness  lies  unnatural situation:  i n the f a c t  results,  t h a t i t examines an  c o m p a r i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and  appeal  of distance education students using a distance education  course  w i t h campus s t u d e n t s u s i n g t h e same  course m a t e r i a l s .  As t h e s t u d y  r e v e a l e d , t h e s e a r e two  different  populations with d i f f e r e n t motivations f o r  studying,  different  constitutes student  g o a l s and d i f f e r e n t  v i e w s as t o what  a good o r a p p e a l i n g c o u r s e .  would not n o r m a l l y t a k e a c o u r s e  distance education materials. c o m p a r i s o n would be between  The  that involved  A more v a l i d  distance education  are a l s o q u e s t i o n a b l e because the  s t u d e n t s were n o t u s e d i n t h e  The c o n c e p t  o f t h e t e l e c o u r s e was  t o meet t h e needs o f t h e s t u d e n t s not have a c c e s s t o s t u d e n t It  i s quite possible,  assumed  i n the  i n regards t o the value of the  component  comparison.  useful  course.  The f i n d i n g s television  and  the d i s t a n c e education  s t u d e n t s and t h e on-campus s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d r e g u l a r campus  on-campus  by c o u r s e  component  does  education  student.  designed  a t a d i s t a n c e who  and i n s t r u c t o r  do  interaction.  and i n d e e d i t has u s u a l l y  been  designers, that the t e l e v i s i o n  p l a y an i m p o r t a n t  role  f o r the d i s t a n c e  It i s unfortunate that t h i s  study  Television  i n Distance  Education 74  did  not  but  instead If  take the  the  opportunity to test  looked at a less s t u d y had  that  meaningful  been approached  comparison.  from  perspective,  in addition  distinctions  i n students' understanding,  probed  more d e e p l y t h e  component. but  The  findings  incomplete.  been  The  f o l l o w e d up  their  t o examining  appeal  in this  a  i t c o u l d have  television  with interviews with students  as  groups d i f f e r e d .  student  Students  of the  Unfortunately, the nature  with a very one-dimensional  of the  about  they watched the programs  i f the television-watching behavior  picture  interesting  measures c o u l d have  r e a c t i o n s t o the t e l e v i s i o n programs.  l e a v e s us  qualitative  qualitative  regard are  quantitative  c o u l d have been observed see  of the  assumption,  reaction  and  to the  to  different  of the  study  incomplete  television  programs. Classroom West  instruction  (1986) c a r r i e d  effectiveness instruction classes.  o f an  system  The  sites  which  Math,  shorthand,  had  used  to offer  cable  a  live  Spanish  school  originating  instructor  and  &  the  secondary  instruction  Robinson  television  c o n s i s t e d o f an  received the  system.  a study t o measure  interactive  system  classroom which  using this  out  using television.  and by  Chemistry  several  remote  television. were  delivered  Television  i n Distance  Education 75  The  main purpose of the  teaching  or  delivery  system.  year  of the  that  the  of the  took  system  the  attitudes  fear  favorable.  feared the of the  has that  as  students  technology of t h e i r  responses  students  course  courses  indicated  at  be remote  the  interactive  well  as  students  manner.  in this  were r a i s e d by had  Student  manner  the biggest  j o b s , and  second  at the  using the as  this  i n the  Students  almost  media  to the  television  i n f o r m a t i o n on i n the  and  delivery on.  how  were  concerns the a  teachers  general  He  of distance  It is this  employ  of  to  only information that begins  component o f the  some o f t h e University  of  distance  the  data  course  makers.  to  The  education  type  guidance  examined l e a r n e r responses  o f f e r e d by  component.  to best  distance education policy  (1975) p r o v i d e s t h e  television  of  appear t o  w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e most u s e f u l  gap.  use  results  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  a l r e a d y been touched  designers  that  learning. well  the  i f  technology.  of d e t a i l e d  different  The  Interestingly,  loss  t o determine  conducted  d i d not  towards t a k i n g the  Learner lack  system  performed  course  about u s i n g t h i s who  was  project.  s c h o o l and  was  a f f e c t e d by  study  were a c h i e v i n g as  television  also  year  teaching or  originating  who  was  The  five  use  affecting sites  learning  study  Brown to  f i l l  the education  Mid-America.  Television  i n Distance  Education 76  Four  courses  Accounting course, these  were s t u d i e d : I n t r o d u c t o r y  I , Consumer E x p e r i e n c e s ,  Making  courses  I t Count. were not  used  Instead vignettes, story visual  techniques  were employed. instructional  lectures  (p.  In addition,  rather and  than  an  a l l the  just  lines,  This decision television are  computer programs  to broadcast animation  was  use  of  television  "prior that  effective"  i s u s e d as  medium i n t h e  other  television  b a s e d on  particularly  a  principal  U.M.A. t e l e c o u r s e s  t e l e c o u r s e s are multi-media  packages.  most d i s t a n c e t e a c h i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , t e l e v i s i o n limited  role.  usually  print  The 1.  main  The  The  learner 4.  of t h i s  consider the  to very broadcast  study  instruction  were as  television  television  television  Learners  plays  a  is  follows:  programs t o  be  helpful.  pacing  study  medium o f  For  1984).  findings  important 3.  principal  (Bates,  Learners  helpful 2.  The  in  lectures.  and  research indicating  not  adjunct  a  television  t o make e f f e c t i v e  televised 10).  The  and  Psychology,  component  served  an  function. component  than  other  respond  programs where t h e i r  i s less  in  components.  positively role  important  to  television  i s p e r c e i v e d as  presenting  Television  i n Distance  Education 77  material  clearly  related  to explicit  course  objectives. 5.  Learners  television 6.  respond  n e g a t i v e l y to the aspects  p e r c e i v e d as  Learners  course way  i s presented  material  that  be  policy  Its role  used d i f f e r e n t l y Brown's  confirm appeal  affected  study  (1975,  must be other  of S e l l  1976)  Introductory  Psychology  an  indicate  carefully and  part  designed i t must  tends  i n terms of factors  will  i n another  responses  not  be  content  to  role an  distance  of Mid-America.  the t e l e v i s i o n  student  confirm  with regard to the  o f f e r e d by  to  component.  (1976) a l s o t e n d t o  education at the U n i v e r s i t y  course  important  earlier  evaluated student  students c r i t i c i z e d  for  component p r e s e n t s  course  the  components.  These two  findings  Sell  data  explicit  reviewed  television  television.  that  manner f r o m  components.  i t must be  a l r e a d y been p r e s e n t e d  findings  i n the  In g e n e r a l they  findings both  achievement.  when t h e  has  Brown's  from  some o f t h e s e and  The  (1976)  i n other  component can be  course package, but  integrated.  which  in a different  makers.  television  importance  provide significant  the t e l e v i s i o n  of the and  and  with  of clear  i s covered  These f i n d i n g s designers  entertainment.  seem more s a t i s f i e d  p r o g r a m s when m a t e r i a l  of  He  programs  found for  of  Television  i n Distance  Education 78  their  lack of overlap  with  w a n t e d more s u b s t a n c e ties  the text material.  i n t h e p r o g r a m s a n d more d i r e c t  to the text material.  (1975,  1976) and S e l l  T a k i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f Brown  (1976) t o g e t h e r  s t u d e n t s want  the television  material  i s explicitly  clearly The  that  integrated with Relative  components.  is  course  Generally, print  important. the  television  fourth  District,  have  1983; Purdy, students  t h e heavy investment  1978). rate the  - a s t h e most  of  resources,  third or  importance.  Taken a t face  value,  field  c a n be u s e d t o s u p p o r t  Those  i n favor  many s t u d i e s  of distance  education  can also  i n this  j u s t about any p o s i t i o n .  cause.  provides  find  the research  education  t o support t h e i r  distance  instruction  course  Conclusions  Summary.  that  place  consistent.(Dallas  programs a r e u s u a l l y r a t e d  i n overall  Summary a n d  education  - study guide and textbooks  Despite  course  students  and evaluations  i n a multimedia telecourse,  material  education  of a distance  many s t u d i e s  College  new  components.  importance that  examined and t h e r e s u l t s a r e f a i r l y C o u n t y Community  that  r e l a t e d t o t h e course and i s  importance o f distance  components  something that  i tappears  programs t o p r e s e n t  the other  The r e l a t i v e  on t h e v a r i o u s  They  studies  can c e r t a i n l y T h o s e who  an i n f e r i o r t o support  find  believe  quality of their  Television  i n Distance  Education 79  position. attempts  B u t i f one l o o k s a t a l l o f t h e r e s e a r c h a n d t o d r a w some o v e r a l l  difficult that  t o support  c a n be s a i d  c o n c l u s i o n s , i t w o u l d be  any p o s i t i o n .  with certainty  appear t o be any s i g n i f i c a n t  About t h e o n l y  i s that there  and a t t i t u d e s  instruction  a n d on-campus i n s t r u c t i o n  are higher  even t h i s research and  result suffers  between d i s t a n c e  i n distance education  education  and that  drop-out  courses.  But  i s q u e s t i o n a b l e b e c a u s e much o f t h e from s e r i o u s methodological  a l l o f i t has been conducted  perspective  does n o t  d i f f e r e n c e i n student  achievement  rates  thing  using experimental  problems  from a q u a n t i t a t i v e  or  quasi-experimental  methods. The  few i m p o r t a n t  here provide  findings i n the research  some i n s i g h t  appears t h a t students  on t h e u s e s o f t e l e v i s i o n .  prefer their  television  programs t o present  explicitly  related  material that i s  t o the course.  t o be a n e e d f o r i n t e r a c t i o n  one  study  They a r e n o t p l e a s e d  the value  served  a redundancy r o l e .  prefer  television  There a l s o  appears  with the instructor i n  to the instructional questioned  It  instructional  when i t a p p e a r s t o b e e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  addition  reviewed  television  programs and  of television  Students  i fi t only  a l s o appear t o  programs i n which t h e p r e s e n t e r i s  Television  i n Distance  Education 80  actually  an  a c t o r i n the  v i g n e t t e s r a t h e r than a  third  p a r t y d e s c r i b i n g them. Conclusions. that few  has  Despite  vast  been c o n d u c t e d i n t h i s  meaningful r e s u l t s .  t h e most i m p o r t a n t there  the  i s no  For  amount o f  field,  there  research are o n l y  the purposes of t h i s  conclusion that  c o n c l u s i v e evidence  can be  t h a t one  a  study,  drawn i s t h a t particular  method o f d e l i v e r y o r medium i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r i n terms o f s t u d e n t  a c h i e v e m e n t and  the  o f s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y and  research  question,  and  examine t h e different it.  But  case.  was  i f at l e a s t  qualitative  media, t h e r e as has  and  some o f i t a t t e m p t e d  would be  ecological The course  little  often trades  this  to  this  research,  in  pursuing  i s not  the  experimental  but  There i s i t also  off internal  validity  to deal with  specifics  lacks for  validity.  research delivery.  need t o p r o v e t h e  also f a i l s We  seem t o s t i l l  value  be  I t has  a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d  education  i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d as  to education  c a u g h t up  of d i s t a n c e education  general.  access  point  i s i s o f t e n flawed.  much more q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l q u a l i t y and  on  d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g from  a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d ,  what t h e r e  I f much o f  focused  T h e r e i s a l i m i t e d amount o f t r u l y  research  in  completion.  out  that  a means o f  of  with  the  in distance providing  t o m i l l i o n s of people a l l over  the  Television  i n Distance  Education 81  world. that  Even  i f i t c o u l d be  distance education  demonstrated c o n c l u s i v e l y  students  highly  as  on-campus s t u d e n t s ,  effect  that distance education  would outweigh t h i s be  necessary  delivery.  to prove the  has  value  More i m p o r t a n t education  can  did  some r e s u l t s  i s the  be  not  on  higher  of t h i s  area,  in  It almost  aspect  of distance  i s suggested  a reproductive process.  researchers  have f o c u s e d  achievement  and  difficult  are also few  s o we  are  this left  i n c o n c l u s i v e about the reveal nothing  deal with  this  for this  is  the  l e a r n i n g as Consequently,  exclusively  on  comparing  i t has  been  in properly with results  q u a n t i t y of  about the  quality  extremely  controlled t h a t not  learning, of  c o n t r o l have imposed such  only but  learning.  s t u d i e s t h a t approached p e r f e c t i o n i n terms  experimental  review  i n narrow q u a n t i t a t i v e terms.  demonstrated,  t o accomplish  experiments,  almost  attitudes has  this  how  T h i s p a r a d i g m assumes a q u a n t i t a t i v e  essentially  review  out  hypothetico-deductive  of knowledge which views  this  of  general  t h a t a major reason  conception  As  longer  education.  t o t a l adherence to the  research paradigm.  no  find  While  r e s e a r c h e r s have f a i l e d t o adequately important  education  method  need t o  as  democratizing  I t should  improved.  in this  achieve  s u r e l y the  disadvantage.  distance find  do  strict  The  of  conditions  Television  i n Distance  Education 82  on  the  learning  extremely  u n n a t u r a l and  ecological It in  the  seems t h e n  thus  that conducting t h i s  The  similar  On  the  internally  perspectives  from  from  learned" to (1972) and  one  t h a t measures  less  g e n e r a l i z a b l e i t becomes  "how As  conditions. experiment,  much h a s  Parlett  (1961) o b s e r v e d ,  shift  just  been Hamilton  because  research paradigm i s no  &  the  the  works f o r  reason  t o assume i t  f o r human b e h a v i o r b e c a u s e human b e h a v i o r i s Students,  treatments  they  just  argued,  as  Research,  this  t o the q u a l i t a t i v e  paradigm  "that the  then,  will  n e e d s t o be  college  validity or  react  within  the  to  different  shifted  paradigm.  explanations of student  o n l y have e c o l o g i c a l  not  plants react to  fertilizers.  university,  the  i t becomes.  inanimate matter,  purposeful.  ensure  the experiment,  that of the observer to that of  Bantock  suitable  research  "no-win"  controlled the  "what i s l e a r n e d " .  and  different  a  of  the need f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t o  "agricultural-botanical"  is  less  less  valid  T h i s p o i n t s out  learner,  the  type  groups of l e a r n e r s i n d i s s i m i l a r  o t h e r hand, the  less  i s almost  more c o n t r o l l e d  i t becomes and  to  are  have q u e s t i o n a b l e  q u a n t i t a t i v e paradigm  natural  plants  involved that they  validity.  situation.  the  situations  This  from will  learning  not  real  s c h o o l context, but  also  enable  Television  i n Distance  Education 83  the  r e s e a r c h e r t o make a n  which does  justice  experiences" As it and  how  different  qualitative  subject no  1984,  p.  audiotape  d i f f e r e n c e s i n how  examination  launched  students  particular the  different  media o r methods o f d e l i v e r y  affect  students'  students again who  are  quality best  without be.  their  i n the of  the  that  unreasonable  examine and  subject matter.  qualitatively course  subject.  whether  course,  Highly  achieving  from  and  a  These d i f f e r e n c e s i n quality  of  student  examined from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the pre-conceived  notions  conducted  i n the  o f what t h e  an  the  subject  different  is  of  might have  with enthusiasm  the  More  towards  quality  to question  perception of the  l e a r n i n g and  Research  quality  Even i f t h e r e  n e v e r want t o d e a l w i t h t h e  clearly  finish  interest  are  who  print,  react to  quantity or  i t i s not  or the  as  makes of i f  attitudes  courses.  learning,  instructor,  such  etc. affect  paid t o student  difference in either  on  review  media i n d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n .  n e e d s t o be  own  17).  methods of d e l i v e r y  and  students'  research, this  S t u d i e s n e e d t o be  areas  of the f i n d i n g s  of the  i s a n e e d f o r an  from d i f f e r e n t  attention  totality  of the  television,  learning.  learn  focus  that there  videotape, of  (Entwistle,  f o r the  clear  to the  interpretation  matter  students deep the attitudes learner  outcomes  may  hypothetico-deductive  Television  i n Distance  Education 84  paradigm has not p r o v i d e d because the experimental with it  t o be  which does  asked.  questions  usually  and because  o f knowledge  of questions  to these  methodology  i t makes i t d i f f i c u l t  a conception  types  answers  associated  i t carries not permit  with these  Television  i n Distance Education 85  Chapter  I I I - A Proposal for a Qualitative  Study  Rationale The few  r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e and  meaningful  practitioners is  results in their  suggested that  overwhelming  that  can h e l p d i s t a n c e  selection  a major  predominance  methods. was  The  gaining 1986); in  author d i d not  and  acceptance  education.(Bogdan Rist,  fact,  Rist  the  1982; argues  view  dissolving  process  quantitative  study  r e s e a r c h methods.  Burgess,  increasing  & Biklen,  M i n n i s , 1985; that  the  because  that  (Filstead,  1984);  awareness  1982;  i t is (Hirschman, of  i t s value  LeCompte &  Fetterman,  "hegemony" o f  1970;  Goetz,  1988).  In  the  i n education research i s  of i t s i n a b i l i t y  to  address  of e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the p o i n t  of the  learner.  supports that inability  i n the  t o r e s e a r c h i s employed  hypothetico-deductive paradigm quickly  It  i s the  i n the f i e l d of marketing  t h e r e i s an  1982;  from a  anthropology  & A t k i n s o n , 1983;  and  for this  find a single  using qualitative  i n sociology  Hammersley  of media.  of research conducted  q u a l i t a t i v e approach  regularly  use  education  using experimental or quasi-experimental  conducted The  and  reason  hypothetico-deductive paradigm perspective  r e s e a r c h has r e v e a l e d  v i e w and  The  research reviewed  suggests another  of the experimental approach  here  reason: to  relate  the  of  Television  in Distance  Education 86  outcomes t o of  process.  R e s e a r c h has  d i f f e r e n t media v a r i a b l e s  (with  l i m i t e d success),  relate  that  achievement to the  process the  learn. one  To  that  found Two  looks  subjects'  i n the  To  at  the  point  more r e a s o n s a r e approach:  differences  in learning  Marton,  than deductive 1970;  Wilson,  One in  this  of  change  the  requires  entire context view.  by  of  an  learning  That approach  the  logic 1977)  offered  i n support of to  (Dahlgren,  1988); and  is  i t s use  of  pencil tests  using  Entwistle,  inductive  ( F i l s t e a d , 1970;  Glaser  rather &  Strauss,  .  been the  research  superficiality  Virtually  a l l of  employing m u l t i p l e  of  reviewed the  them were  choice  or  Research which uses q u a l i t a t i v e  methods t o  learning  concepts  differences  has  revealed  i n student  i n d i f f e r e n t subject  paper  short  answer questions. analyze  the  reveal qualitative  1984;  major shortcomings of  s t u d y has  qualitative  in  learners  environment  its ability  achievement measures. and  learner a  u n d e r s t a n d how  to  q u a l i t a t i v e methodologies.  qualitative  1984;  of  requires  b e e n made  readily afforded  their learning  approach that from the  that  i s not  experimental approach. with  do  effect  achievement  a t t e m p t has  perspective,  interact  student  no  engages i n t o  but  on  examined the  important  understanding of  areas that  were  not  key  Television  i n Distance  Education 87  r e v e a l e d by t r a d i t i o n a l  quantitative  achievement.  1984; E n t w i s t l e ,  (Dahlgren,  tests of 1984;  Marton,  1988). The in  final  i t s use o f i n d u c t i v e r a t h e r than  (Filstead, In  advantage o f t h e q u a l i t a t i v e  t h e hypothetico-deductive paradigm, hypotheses  are manipulated test  i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l  be, and secondly,  this  preoccupation  important Wilson,  1977; B u r g e s s ,  interrelated  generate  hypotheses,  1984).  i n an  world  attempt  assumes  that  variables  researchers  argue,  h y p o t h e s i s may  result  These  criticisms  collected develop  unobservable  of the qualitative i n the natural setting to t h e o r i e s and, i d e a l l y ,  t h e o r i e s i n t h e same s e t t i n g .  empirical  variables  or ignored.(Dalton,  and sometimes  The i n d u c t i v e l o g i c  results  1977) .  a t a d i s t a n c e ) w h e r e t h e r e a r e many  uses data  process  reasoning  r e l e v a n t t o t h e study o f l e a r n i n g (and  approach  these  qualitative  being missed  more s o t o l e a r n i n g  factors.  of a l l this  with a specific  events  are p a r t i c u l a r l y  complex,  setting  know i n a d v a n c e what t h e c r i t i c a l  will  1964;  First  lies  theories are  a r e f o r m u l a t e d and then  the hypotheses.  researchers  in  deductive  1970; G l a s e r & S t r a u s s , 1970; W i l s o n ,  developed,  to  approach  This  cyclical  i n t h e o r i e s t h a t a r e "grounded" (Glaser & Strauss,  1970) .  test  i n the  Television  i n Distance  Education 88  Purpose The  purpose of the proposed  examine and learning  use  distance education  Introduction  of video taped  this  study,  offered so  describe the processes  i n the  Teachers:  few  look  but  to  Legal  lectures  o n l y one First,  meaningful  results  and  course,  w o u l d be  one  Two  approach setting  i n the  phenomena.  aspects  To  education  study  of video tapes  the  complete  achieve  student  of  are produced  clear  what  to  to video tapes  or  qualitative  i t s relationship  from  this  the  other  goal.  Thus p r o c e s s  course:  student  examinations.  interaction,  examined as course  course  the  and  the  context  outcomes,  of  and  they  manual,  i n s t r u c t o r - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n by to  of  Therefore,  and  other  inter-related  examined i n the  them, w o u l d be  to  (video tapes)  exploratory i n nature  w o u l d be  a l l components of t h e  tapes,  The  foci  has  goals of the  aspect  delivery  course.  affecting  of  one  w o u l d be  use  factors  context  isolate  would not  proposed  of the  research to date  of the  497)  i s t o examine a phenomenon i n i t s n a t u r a l and  distance  one  for  reasons  t h a t i t i s not  of  Law  (Law  f o r i n terms of l e a r n e r responses Second,  to  outcomes  Process.  o f many.  for this.  television.  to  s t u d y w o u l d be  relate  audio  telephone,  assignments  and  Television  i n Distance  Education 89  Examining the processes would  involve  and outcomes o f  learning  seeking answers t o t h e f o l l o w i n g  questions: 1.  How d o t h e s t u d e n t s  components; t h a t use  to learn  i s what methods o r s t r a t e g i e s  3. this  they  use d i f f e r e n t approaches f o r  components?  What a r e s t u d e n t s '  goals  and motives  f o r taking  course? 4. I s t h e r e  motives  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between these  and t h e i r  course  and i t s i n d i v i d u a l  6. How w e l l examination  attitudes  do s t u d e n t s  achieve  b a s e d on a s s i g n m e n t  scores?  learning  reveal  concepts  i n the course?  understanding qualitative determined  of key  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t u d e n t s '  analysis,  as r e v e a l e d by a  and t h e i r achievement,  by assignment  understanding  of students'  about t h e i r understanding  o f key concepts,  9. I s t h e r e  towards t h e  components?  7. What d o e s a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s  8. I s t h e r e  goals and  approach?  5. What a r e t h e s t u d e n t s '  and  do  from each o f t h e components?  2. Do t h e s t u d e n t s different  approach each o f t h e  and examination  as  scores?  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t u d e n t s '  o f key concepts,  as r e v e a l e d by a  Television  i n Distance  Education 90  qualitative  analysis,  engaged i n by 10. goals  the  qualitative As  this  wide-ranging net, in  of  of l e a r n i n g  f o r t a k i n g the key  concepts  course  as  and  students' their  r e v e a l e d by  a  analysis? list  of questions  study.  direction  more d e t a i l  appropriate  processes  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  motives  understanding  the  students?  Is there  and  and  I t i s hoped t h a t by  w o u l d be at  reveals, this  provided  a later  qualitative  date  and  w o u l d be  casting a  to pursue  using the  some  a  wide  aspects  most  quantitative  methodologies.  Design The fields,  qualitative  i n many d i f f e r e n t  research questions Despite part,  a p p r o a c h has  this  researchers  approach:  area  collection  i s one  vary:  research design.  the  fundamentals of  and  I.  The  areas  They w i l l  the  and i t s  analysis. and  be  of  most  However  opinions  o f agreement have  a d i s c u s s i o n of the  approaches to research design chosen.  data  range  1988).  f o r the  where i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  i n Chapter  f o l l o w e d by  approach  Fetterman,  of a p p l i c a t i o n ,  a g r e e on  there  here  1987,  t o a wide  i t s epistemological foundations,  methods f o r d a t a  discussed  ways, and  (Jacob,  diversity  been a p p l i e d i n d i v e r s e  reviewed  been  briefly  different  with a rationale  for  the  Television  i n Distance  Education 91  At  the  heart  philosophy that  an  of  knowledge.  1982;  u n d e r s t a n d how must the  be  and  1983;  people  people  this  b a s i c data  study  gathering  approach are  only  no  standard  on  the  the  therefore  from the  two  these  properly  researcher of  where t h e  interviewing  can  be  researcher  or  question.  (Jacob,  .  semi-structured  completely  There  is  i t depends  the study  and  complete  sets himself 1987)  the  observation  where  to  in-  In  used.  apart  from  In-depth  highly structured with  determined questions; only  observation,  group under  its activities,  group under study  the  techniques;  from complete p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a l l of  starting  reality  perspective  example, p a r t i c i p a n t  takes  questions  To  the  in  w o u l d be  b e c o m e s a member o f t h e  the  instead  documentary a n a l y s i s .  using  For  techniques  researcher  observer,  view  relative  1988).  reality,  participant  first  method o f  situation.  part  and  knowledge and  Fetterman,  construct  i n t e r v i e w i n g , and  range  positivist  constructing i t .  qualitative depth  the  discovered  are  seek t o u n d e r s t a n d events  The  can  can  constructed Smith,  approach i s i t s  It rejects  that, to a large extent,  socially  (Rist,  qualitative  objective truth  maintains are  of the  with  preguiding  open-ended w i t h  only  a  Television  i n Distance  Education 92  Data a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s c l a s s i f y i n g scheme t h a t a l l o w s themes, c o n c e p t s h y p o t h e s e s t o emerge. to  accomplish  this,  a r g u e t h a t any attributes:  Researchers  data  and  scheme s h o u l d  eventually  use  different  be  have the  articulated  (i.e.,  general  to the  specific);  logically  the  categories are  exhaustive  and  and  i t s h o u l d be  adapted to the concepts,  from t h i s  classification  to  "test"  these  is  found  the  methods  and  hypotheses.  hypotheses are  moves  correct  mutually  s t r u c t u r e of  guide  from  (i.e.,  exclusive); the  hypotheses that  will  (1971)  following  the  The  a  however L a z a r s f e l d & B a r t o n  i t should  situation.  into  emerge  further observations  If disconfirming r e v i s e d and  evidence  the process  is  repeated. As  this  process  research are they  are  concurrent and  matter  how  data and  determine  the  well-planned  the  stages  in  qualitative  d e f i n e d and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ;  a n a l y s i s and  iterative  fieldwork begins, be  clearly  h i g h l y interdependent  collection,  other  not  indicates,  and  integrated.  hypothesizing  procedures direction the  research  are  that drive  of the  Data  each  research.  i s , once  No  the  many m i n o r o r m a j o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s  may  necessary. In  proceed  a sense q u a l i t a t i v e  researchers  once r e s e a r c h b e g i n s ,  but  they  a g r e e on cannot  how  agree  to on  Television  i n Distance  Education 93  how  t o get  started;  necessary? process  The  it',  As  apparently.  before  given they  takes  let  planning.  on the  process,  research  (1983) p u t  data,  admit the  of  just  that If  the  judgment and  i t i s easy  research  "orthodox"  do  reported  than  need t o suspend  o f p l a n n i n g and most  'anyone can  have  inductive nature  the  i t , "At  f i e l d w o r k . " (p. 2 7 ) .  emerge f r o m t h e  a lack  The  their  is  haphazard  more r e s e a r c h a d v i c e  set out  However, even t h e researchers  u n p l a n n e d and  I n d e e d some a u t h o r s  little  hypotheses  rationalize  an  qualitative  i s deceptively simple:  to heart  qualitative  of the  much r e s e a r c h d e s i g n  Hammersley & A t k i n s o n  blush...[it]  being  one  nature  seems t o beg  approach. first  t h a t i s , how  to  to  design.  qualitative  n e e d f o r some p r e - f i e l d w o r k  disagreement  i s over  the  extent  of  this  planning. At  one  extreme there  qualitative a  general  of the  topic  or  problem or  i s s u e and  some i n i t i a l  made.  (Bogdan & B i k l e n ,  argue t h a t the  who  suggest  with nothing  t h a t an  explicit  formulation of hypotheses  until  field 1982;  w i t h an  preconceived  ideas  that more  Hirschman,  should  1986).  open mind and or t h e o r e t i c a l  than  statement  o b s e r v a t i o n s have  r e s e a r c h e r must a p p r o a c h t h e  investigation  imposing  those  research should begin  begin  under  are  not  been They  phenomenon  without constructs  on  Television  i n Distance  Education 94  the  situation.  Furthermore they  the point o f q u a l i t a t i v e  research  from s u b j e c t ' s p o i n t view, what t o l o o k field  foruntil  explicit  that  t h e r e s e a r c h must  hypotheses,  the researcher w i l l  this (1983)  r e s e a r c h c a n be u s e d t o t e s t  admit t h i s  beginning  in  respect  validity.  to test  suggest theory  these  qualitative which  would  hypotheses.  They  s a y t h a t what w o u l d be  would be g a i n e d  research  theoretically formulated  (1971) m a i n t a i n  derived categories of data This  researchers  with a  theoretical  hypotheses.  are situated  most  somewhere i n  They do n o t b e l i e v e i n s t a t i n g  believe i n having  clear,  need t o be  These two extremes a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n s ; qualitative  that i f  implies that, at the very  r e s e a r c h would have t o b e g i n i fnot e x p l i c i t  lost  i n terms o f e c o l o g i c a l  i s not exploratory, then  i n advance.  framework,  they  suggest  as a p o s s i b l e approach.  L a z a r s f e l d & Barton  qualitative  between.  i nthe  w o u l d n o t be e a s y b e c a u s e o f t h e i n a b i l i t y t o  v a r i a b l e s but they  least,  researchers  with explicit  control this  time  be s t a t e d i n a d v a n c e a n d  be d e s i g n e d  some a c c e p t  necessitate  n o t know  observer.  h y p o t h e s e s must  Hammersley & A t k i n s o n  because  i s t o look at things  few, i f any, q u a l i t a t i v e  that  that  he o r s h e h a s s p e n t  as a p a r t i c i p a n t  While  suggest  hypotheses but  a c l e a r p l a n and an awareness o f  Television  i n Distance  Education 95  the  conceptual  involved.  Dalton  hypotheses: easily  color"  t o ingenious  Good t r a i n i n g  with  Malinowski  casting evidence,  worthless. into  as i n Goethe's  defence  on t h e n a t u r e  o f t h e need  preconceived  and acquaintance  t o prove  burdened  s e t s o u t on an  certain  hypotheses,  h i s views  constantly  them o f f u n g r u d g i n g l y needless  with i t s  with being  i d e a s " . I f a man  under t h e pressure  t o s a y h i s work w i l l  be  B u t t h e more p r o b l e m s he b r i n g s w i t h h i m t h e more he i s i n t h e h a b i t o f  h i s theories according to facts,  seeing  facts  better  he i s e q u i p p e d  ideas  limits  problems":  determined  the field,  moulding  them  i n Hammersley &  between  he i s i n c a p a b l e o f c h a n g i n g  and of  (cited  i s not i d e n t i c a l  "preconceived  one more  b u t empty t h e o r i z i n g i n  i n theory,  results  expedition, if  often  counterarguments,  and "foreshadowed  stating  o r , on h a v i n g  freight  1983) makes an e l o q u e n t  latest  a statement,  findings,  p l a n n i n g by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  ideas  be  against  t o Newton's s u p e r i o r h y p o t h e s i s (p. 5 4 ) .  Atkinson, for  o n c e made s u c h  r e s e a r c h and b r i l l i a n t  opposition of  "Having  o u t , one's e m o t i o n a l  creativity  i s s u e s t h a t may  (1964) makes t h e c a s e  overlooks negative  pointed  long  and t h e o r e t i c a l  i n their  and o f  b e a r i n g upon t h e o r y , t h e f o r t h e work.  Preconceived  a r e p e r n i c i o u s i n any s c i e n t i f i c  work, b u t  Television  i n Distance  Education 96  foreshadowed problems are scientific revealed (p.  thinker,  to the  and  t h e m a i n endowment o f  these  observer  by  problems are  a  first  this theoretical  studies  29) .  Burgess n e e d t o be  (1984)  suggests  addressed  there  in this  are  "middle  f i v e aspects  that  ground"  research  theoretical  concepts  design: 1.  a broad  that  are  within  indication  t o be  used; t h a t  an  indication  to  be  addressed  likely an  and  t o be  and  the  a r e t o be  generated.  kinds  of questions  that  kinds  of data  are  that  need  o f how  the  data  will  be  analyzed  reported. a clear  to  be  indication  u s e d and  the  of the  way  other  research  c o l l e c t i o n and  with  s u f f i c i e n t time  This  "middle  suggested  f o r the  field  methods t h a t  i n which these  a research timetable to  f o r the  First  framework  needed.  complemented by  the  of the  indication  4.  5.  i s a basic  which research questions  2.  3.  of the  be  strategies.  indicate  analysis  may  a time  of data  budget  together  for report writing  (p.  37).  ground" approach to research design proposed  of a l l , despite  study  for three  of the  is  reasons.  its specificity, i t still  underlying philosophy  are  qualitative  respects  approach  Television  i n Distance  Education 97  which  i s t o e x a m i n e t h e phenomenon f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  of t h e s u b j e c t and n o t t o impose t h e p r e c o n c e i v e d and  categories of the researcher.  approach recognizes  advance  I t i s more h o n e s t t o a d m i t  i n t h e form o f a broad  of general  questions  they  suspended o r m o d i f i e d  i ft h e f i e l d  necessary.  this  middle  provides  The f i n a l  focus.  In theory  no p r e c o n c e p t i o n s ,  I f this  ignored,  i s that i t  i t sounds l a u d a b l e t o with a completely  but i n practice  open  decisions  a n d what n o t t o  w e r e n o t d o n e we c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y  By h a v i n g  the proposed  study,  this  interviews.  t o which  framework o u r  are at least  p u r e whim o r c h a n c e .  b e c a u s e most o f t h e d a t a  b a s e d on  I n t h e case  i sparticularly  of  important  w o u l d be g a t h e r e d  via  in-depth  Even a t t h e open-ended extreme o f t h e  interview technique researcher  a general  a b o u t what t o o b s e r v e  something besides  mind  we a r e a l w a y s  make s e n s e o f t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g a m o u n t o f d a t a we a r e e x p o s e d .  make  i n favor of adopting  m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s about what t o o b s e r v e observe.  helpful  observations  approach t o research design  approach an i n v e s t i g a t i o n and  more  c a n be more e a s i l y  reason  them  framework and i n terms  and i t i s probably  because once a d m i t t e d  that  this  that i ti s impossible t o completely  ignore preconceptions. in  Secondly,  views  (not proposed  must b e g i n  f o rt h i s  with a pre-determined  study), the question.  Television  i n Distance  Education 98  Of  course,  no  it  does not  collection  matter  adapted  along the  (1984) p r o v i d e s a f i r m  i n the  future  direction  Setting Law course  field  and  Context  for  Teachers:  designed  lines  Introduction  courses  law,  the  lectures;  by  which  to  different  consists  and  civil  and  well-  Burgess to begin  data  which  determine  the  Legal  Process  of  f o u r , one  origins  and  manual,  eight  f o u r 30-50 m i n u t e hour  law  and  i n Canada.  of a student  lectures,  Law  the  p h i l o s o p h i e s of law  of  is a  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law  deals with the  application  minute video taped taped  Thus a  with a background i n  course  The  course  suggested  their  investigation.  of  The  theory;  33-34).  should ultimately  criminal,  t h e making and  "experimental  unpredictable events  constitutional,  meanings of  the  a theory that explains pp.  the  It is  to provide high school teachers  Law-related  Canada.  features of  While  1982,  of the  design,  data  needs o f  f o u n d a t i o n on  however the  unfold  the  data t o match a  hope t o f i n d  study  collection,  research  unique  t o meet t h e  (LeCompte & G o e t z ,  planned  the  is its flexibility.  hope t o f i n d  ethnographers  and  of the  under i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  researchers  data"  One  approach  constantly being situation  detailed  preclude modifications after begins.  qualitative  how  audio  30-50  audio  Television  i n Distance  Education 99  teleconferences. and  a final  into the  12  Assessment  examination.  lessons.  course  journals,  audio  taped  and  lectures  teleconferences  of the  also  group  taped  students  their Data  and  manual.  hours  of the  are  The  tutor  lectures.  students  individually  engage i n t h e  are by  week. distance education s i x or  b a s i s t o w a t c h and  The  concepts  somewhat  T h i s means t h a t g r o u p s o f a weekly  an  i s s u e s and  sense they  course  audio  students  for more  discuss  a l s o meet i n  the  the  audio teleconferences.  other  learning  activities  on  own. Collection  Several used  video  to give students  same g r o u p s t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e The  and  The  course  i s o f f e r e d by  s t u d e n t s meet on video  The  law  by  i n the  t o a f a c e - t o - f a c e seminar.  study.  divided  synthesize  In t h i s  course  essays  s e r v e t o summarize and  able t o consult the  The  s e l e c t e d from  t o d i s c u s s some o f t h e  phone a t c e r t a i n  4 short  manual i s  newspapers.  are designed  course.  analogous  course  readings  books and  the various readings  opportunity  The  of  Each c o n t a i n s a commentary w r i t t e n  author  other  consists  in this  observation, interview.  qualitative study.  data  collection  They i n c l u d e  methods would  participant  s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s , and In a d d i t i o n ,  quantitative  records  a  group such  as  be  Television  i n Distance  Education 100  examination nature  and  assignment  activities  take place p r i v a t e l y .  most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d d a t a semi-structured  The  time  collection  impractical.  consuming t o conduct  consuming t o analyze. random sample o f interviews. study  50%  the  Therefore of the  Students  and  the  m e t h o d w o u l d be  the  observation  This type and  of i n t e r v i e w i n g  e v e n more  time  i t i s proposed  s t u d e n t s be  w o u l d be  the  Therefore  i n t e r v i e w because d i r e c t  w o u l d u s u a l l y be  the  used.  o f d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n means t h a t most o f  learning  is  s c o r e s w o u l d be  asked  s a m p l e w o u l d be  used  that  for  a  the  to volunteer for  s e l e c t e d from  those  volunteering. Of  the  10  four would  involve data  seven would collection four  research questions  i n v o l v e the techniques  questions w i l l 1.  How  do  the  identified  collection analysis  and  the  earlier, remaining  of that data.  The  r e q u i r e d t o answer those  now  be  students  first  discussed. approach  each of  the  components; t h a t i s , what methods o r s t r a t e g i e s use  the  to learn  from  With  exception of the  the  video tapes  teleconferences, semi-structured conducted  at the  each of the  and  group meetings t o  collection  interviews.  do  they  components.?  take part i n the  data  data  here  watch  audio would i n v o l v e  These i n t e r v i e w s would  conclusion of the  course  and  would  be be  Television  i n Distance  Education 101  b a s e d on t h e methodology u s e d by r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d the phenomenographic t r a d i t i o n Marton, elicit task; the  1988).  The q u e s t i o n s a s k e d  how t h e s t u d e n t s f o r example,  video tapes,  w o u l d be a s k e d Describe  (Marton  & S a l jo,  1984;  are designed t o  tackled the particular  reading t h e course  listening  questions  in  manual,  t o the audio  learning watching  tapes.  Students  such a s :  how y o u w e n t a b o u t r e a d i n g y o u r  lesson  material? Did and  you s t a r t  continue  another  reading through  approach  returning  at the beginning  t o read  such  with the objectives  t o t h e end o r d i d you use  as skimming through  and then  i n detail?  What w e r e y o u f o c u s s i n g o n when y o u d i d y o u r readings  (or listened  t o the audio  Was t h e r e a n y t h i n g manual  (video tapes,  problems Did  tapes  etc.)?  i n the design of the course  audio  tapes  etc.)  that  caused  f o r you? y o u do t h e l e a r n i n g  activities  i n the order  prescribed? All detailed area  questions  asked  i n advance.  of investigation  i n each i n t e r v i e w would n o t be  However i n i t i a l  questions  w o u l d be d e t a i l e d  q u e s t i o n s would be determined  f o r each  and f o l l o w - u p  by t h e responses  given.  Television  i n Distance  Education 102  Some d a t a through take  the  place  audio four  w o u l d be  use  collected  of p a r t i c i p a n t  at the  video  audio  considerable  investment  w o u l d be  o n l y way  the  because a c t i v i t i e s the  limit  topic these  several  minimum.  This  the  or  the  audio  by  vary  was  found  being  so the  be  i t i s not  depending possible to  that  after  gathered. kept  felt  investigator  observations  interact  participant record of  to  a  or  that would  w i t h and  w o u l d be use  observation, the a l l the  relevant to the  s h o u l d be  data  may  t e l e c o n f e r e n c e s , each other  should  this  be  beneficial.  students  This  the  study  that  I t w o u l d be  i f i t was  i n nature  the  be  i t is felt  sociological  how  to  at  involve a  would not  purpose of the  written  would  w o u l d be  The  In  this  investigator  participation  necessary  While  interactions  new  study  anthropological thorough  a l l eight video  of time,  observations  by  would  I t i s proposed that a l l  under d i s c u s s i o n .  Participation  This  of obtaining representative data  and  s e s s i o n s no  question  group meetings and  t e l e c o n f e r e n c e s and observed.  first  observation.  t e l e c o n f e r e n c e meetings.  g r o u p m e e t i n g s be  on  study  for this  be  kept  as  concrete  t o a low  as  level  and  video the  under  that are  tapes,  keeps  perceived  investigation.  p o s s i b l e and (Jacob,  study  tutor.  investigator  activities  questions  the  to  inferences  1987).  a  Television  i n Distance Education 103  2.  What a r e t h e s t u d e n t s ' g o a l s a n d m o t i v e s f o r  taking this  course?  Semi-structured well.  interviews  These i n t e r v i e w s  would  pre-determined questions,  would  be used h e r e as  also begin with  several  but f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n s would  be  determined by t h e responses.  be  conducted at the beginning of the course a f t e r the  first  These i n t e r v i e w s  lesson.  3.  What a r e t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s  course and i t s i n d i v i d u a l Data  forthis  structured extent  q u e s t i o n w o u l d be c o l l e c t e d  interviews,  group  from p a r t i c i p a n t  meetings,  observation.  interviews  conclusion  o f t h e course and would  would  and a f l e x i b l e  One m e e t i n g  The  with  f o l l o w t h e same several pre-arranged  with  each group  meeting  emergence o f i d e a s and i s s u e s t h a t  meetings  interviews  towards feedback  Some r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e  t h e dynamic o f t h e group  individual  limited  semi-  e n d o f t h e c o u r s e a s a means o f a c q u i r i n g  that  in  and t o a  semi-  follow-up procedure.  w o u l d be h e l d  from a l l of the students.  from  be c o n d u c t e d a t t h e  format as t h e o t h e r i n t e r v i e w s questions  towards t h e  components?  structured  the  would  results  may t h e n p r o v i d e " r i c h e r "  i nthe  do n o t a l w a y s  (Walker, 1985).  The  feedback  found  appear  group  from t h e  Television  i n Distance  Education 104  students  while allowing f o r confirmation of the data  gathered  from  t h e subsequent i n t e r v i e w s .  Some d a t a may b e g a t h e r e d observation  of the video  study  teleconference meetings. inferences  from  and  do s t u d e n t s  examination Final 5.  achieve  grades  w o u l d be  learning  r e v e a l about t h e i r  concepts  i n the course.  involves  conducting  students  about t h e i r  used.  analysis  of students'  understanding  of Marton  of key  the data  (1988)  which  semi-structured interviews with understanding  o f t h e key  of t h e s u b j e c t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  q u e s t i o n s o f law such  What i s t h e r o l e  o f judges,  concepts  In t h e case  t h e i n t e r v i e w s would d e a l w i t h general  philosophical  law?  b a s e d on a s s i g n m e n t  T h i s w o u l d be done u s i n g t h e  phenomenographic approach  and  of the students.  question deals with analysis,  must a l s o be c o l l e c t e d .  study  drawing  scores?  course  this  i nthe  group and audio  behavior  What d o e s a q u a l i t a t i v e  While  guestion  This would r e q u i r e  the observed  4. How w e l l  forthis  theoretical  a s : Who  legislators,  What i s t h e p u r p o s e o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n ?  etc.  of this  makes lawyers?  Open  q u e s t i o n s a r e used t h a t a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t s t o frame their  responses  f o r them.  i n a f a s h i o n t h a t i s most  The i n t e r v i e w s b e g i n  appropriate  with set questions, but  Television  i n Distance  Education 105  the  course  "discover  of the  i n t e r v i e w may  vary.  The  the  different  ways t h a t p e o p l e  conceptualize  a certain  phenomenon"  p.  198).  the  i s to  experience  (Marton,  T h e s e i n t e r v i e w s w o u l d a l s o be  c o n c l u s i o n of the  purpose  or  1988,  conducted  at  course.  Data A n a l y s i s In q u a l i t a t i v e analysis nature out  data  direct  data  study,  would not  steps.  qualitative  allows the  researcher to  t o pursue  For p r a c t i c a l  analysis.  The  l e a d s , and reasons,  significant  subjects live  of the province.  I f an  data  analysis  collected.  might  emerge f r o m  interviews  An  an  no  data a n a l y s i s  might prove  useful  of  revealed difficult the  the  been  study  d a t a has would  "test"  analysis  of the  f o r the  study  t h a t most o f  would not  informal analysis  re-  different  w o u l d be  need t o  ongoing  this  analysis  after  because the  t h e r e w o u l d be  However, ongoing completely.  performed  sharpen  even  i n many  i t i s expected  Furthermore,  exploratory, that  w o u l d be  This  advantage  ongoing  a need f o r f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s they Therefore,  the  researchers often carry  analysis  study,  data  D e p e n d i n g on  concurrently.  able to take  to arrange.  and  collection  study. be  distinct  collection  and  of the  the  ongoing  two  analysis  focus  parts  not  of the  ongoing the  are  research, data  be  be  hypotheses  of the ruled  data. out  transcripts  direction  of  of  Television  i n Distance  Education 106  subsequent  interviews.  that  be  could  informal  diary  of  The  and  reactions formal  the  the data  research  and  A key  be  not  sorted  However t h i s  questions this  study,  of  the  into vary  qualitative refinement  of  this  of  interview  this  data.  to the  i n the  studying  understanding of  the  scheme i s  Ideally,  extent  that  advance.  a n a l y s i s would begin  identified  student  1982).  pre-determined  or  goals key  ten  motives;  concepts.  classification  strategies  c o u r s e and  and  with  research  learning  each component; a t t i t u d e s t o t h e components;  separate  scheme f o r t h e feature  will  the  approaches t o  t r a n s c r i p t s of  involves  have been d e t a i l e d i n  broad categories  various  the  emerge  This  keeping a  analysis  a classification data.  interviews.  (Bogdan & B i k l e n ,  should  questions: for  data  emerge out  Therefore,in the  to  categories  categories.  concepts might  reading  logs  qualitative  observational  that  consists of  observation  development of and  and  r a i s e d i n subsequent  analysis  interviews  Issues  its and  Further  scheme w o u l d d e p e n d  data. The  process of  scheme i s an  constructing  iterative  individual  interviews  categories  and  all  interviews  classification  procedure whereby quotes are  then the are  the  sorted  into  q u o t e s and  pooled to  the  from  appropriate categories  form categories  that  from cut  on  Television  i n Distance  Education 107  across  a l l interviews.  descriptive  superficial  the  specification and  the  such  core  comparatively  analysis  arriving  finally  be  to collapse further" Marton  by  included. articulated  The  (i.e.,  logically  exhaustive  and  correct  mutually  a  exclusive)  a  researcher set  or 1984,  dialectical  categories i s while  general to  (i.e.,  with  at a smaller  scheme s h o u l d  moves f r o m t h e  specific);  between  which quotes w i l l  classification  use,  Starting  quotes together  e v o l v i n g meaning determines  means  intention  may  even  difficult  this  the  expressing  (Dahlgren,  (1988) c a l l s  b r i n g i n g the  "the  This  categories the  because the meaning of the  developed  1971) .  are  same c a t e g o r y .  these,  c a t e g o r i e s t h a t may  as  studied with the  l a r g e number o f  gradually refine  24-26).  such  o f what words o r examples t h e y  to the  other  and  category.  students  these  unimportant  integrating  show a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n  impossible  the  e l e m e n t s w h i c h make up  what t h e  answers belonging  into  examples and  similarities  p r o t o c o l s h a v e t o be  w h i c h may  pp.  and  s t r u c t u r e of a given  irrespective  of  terminology,  important  of the  of understanding  will  as  characteristics,  generalizing  that  responses  categories involves reducing  dissimilarities  content  S o r t i n g the  the  this  be  a l s o be  be  the  categories  (Lazarsfeld  &  are  Barton,  Television  i n Distance  Education 108  The  s m a l l amount o f d a t a  observation  of the audio  from  t h e group meeting  t e l e c o n f e r e n c e s and video  s e s s i o n s w o u l d a l s o be u s e d t o d e v e l o p categories  t h a t emerge from  Once t h e d a t a quantitative tabulation  would be performed  the  relationship  course 2.  student  and confirm the  the interview data.  w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d .  and c a l c u l a t i o n  Tau  1.  study  have been s o r t e d and c l a s s i f i e d ,  analyses  and  two  A cross-  o f t h e Goodman a n d K r u s k a l ' s  t o determine  the significance of  between t h e f o l l o w i n g  variables:  goals and m o t i v a t i o n f o r t a k i n g t h e  and t h e i r  approach  to learning.  Approach t o l e a r n i n g  and q u a l i t a t i v e  outcomes o f  learning. 3.  Goals  qualitative The  i n questions  because that  are scaled nominally.  Goodman  i t i s n o t a f f e c t e d by sample s i z e  understanding  of analysis computed  the  grades  and  would be a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h t h e  of variance.  f o r each  i n t h e way  test i s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p between course  qualitative  be  because t h e  o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e v a r i a b l e s  t h e c h i square The  use  w o u l d be u s e d h e r e  K r u s k a l ' s Tau w o u l d be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e  significance  and  understanding.  cross tabulation  variables and  and m o t i v a t i o n f o r t a k i n g t h e course  Mean c o u r s e  "qualitative  grades  understanding"  would  Television  i n Distance  Education 109  category  a n d a n ANOVA a n d F t e s t w o u l d b e p e r f o r m e d  determine these  the significance of the difference  means.  differences identify  which  determine  pairs  whether o r not t h e r e  interval nominal  because scale  scale  multiple  "qualitative To  significantly would be t o  i sa relationship  grades  and a  of these  a r e measured on an  and because i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d  comparisons  between s e v e r a l  on a there  would  categories of  understanding".  below a l o n g w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n o f  would be answered t h r o u g h  How d o t h e s t u d e n t s  t o learn  from  approach  data  analysis.  each o f t h e  i s what methods o r s t r a t e g i e s  do t h e y  each o f t h e components?  Do t h e s t u d e n t s  different  taking  f o r analysis  and q u a l i t a t i v e understanding  components; t h a t  3.  between  of learning.  course  are repeated  they  2.  to  summarize, t h e t e n r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d  earlier  1.  analysis  ANOVA i s p r o p o s e d  variables  use  o f means w e r e  r e s u l t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l assessment procedures  The  how  revealed significant  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s a n a l y s i s  qualitative  be  between  a Newman-Keuls t e s t w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d  different.  the  I f the F test  to  use d i f f e r e n t approaches f o r  components?  What a r e s t u d e n t s ' g o a l s a n d m o t i v a t i o n s f o r this  course?  Television  i n Distance  Education 110  These t h r e e q u e s t i o n s w o u l d be a n s w e r e d b y classifying that  i n t e r v i e w data  cut across  descriptive  into  descriptive  i n t e r v i e w s and then  categories  examining  these  categories f o rthe freguencies of the  applicable categories. 4. I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e motivation Cross  and t h e i r tabulation  goals and  approach? and c a l c u l a t i o n  o f Goodman a n d  K r u s k a l s Tau.. 1  5. course  What a r e t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and i t s i n d i v i d u a l  Classification earlier  components?  of i n t e r v i e w data  and examination  towards the  as d e s c r i b e d  f o r frequencies of appropriate  categories. 6. How w e l l and  examination  do s t u d e n t s  achieve  scores?  Means o f f i n a l  course  grades  7. What d o e s a q u a l i t a t i v e learning  r e v e a l about t h e i r  concepts  i n the course?  Classification categories  b a s e d on a s s i g n m e n t  analysis  into  used.  of students'  understanding  o f responses  as d e s c r i b e d  w o u l d be  of key  descriptive  earlier.  8. I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t s ' understanding,  as r e v e a l e d by a q u a l i t a t i v e  analysis,  Television  i n Distance  Education 111  and  their  achievement,  examination  by assignment and  scores?  Analysis if  as determined  of variance, F test,  a n d Newman-Keuls  test  necessary. 9. I s t h e r e  understanding qualitative  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t u d e n t s '  o f key concepts,  analysis,  as r e v e a l e d by a  and t h e processes  of learning  engaged i n by t h e students? Cross  t a b u l a t i o n and c a l c u l a t i o n  o f Goodman a n d  K r u s k a l ' s Tau. 10. goals  Is there  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s t u d e n t s '  and m o t i v a t i o n f o r t a k i n g t h e course  understanding qualitative Cross  o f key concepts  and t h e i r  as r e v e a l e d by a  analysis?  t a b u l a t i o n and c a l c u l a t i o n  o f Goodman a n d  K r u s k a l ' s Tau. Reliability The  and V a l i d i t y  importance  attached  reliability  and v a l i d i t y  qualitative  researchers.  irrelevant qualitative honestly  to this  t o the constructs of  v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y among Some d i s m i s s t h e m a s  approach,  claiming that the  researcher's only goal  reflect  phenomenon u n d e r  i s t o a c c u r a t e l y and  the subjective interpretation investigation.  LeCompte a n d Goetz  (1982),  largely  Others,  have attempted  such  of the as  t o present  Television  i n Distance  Education 112  strategies the  that  allow  reliability  and  qualitative  validity  admitting  that there  are  attempting  to apply  these  research.  The  problem  developed to evaluate research.  They are  underlying  the  a  this  proposed  systematic,  study  realities  accomplished descriptive and  an  will  are  criteria  epistemology  no  to their in this  be  applies  o b s e r v a t i o n a l data  that  These  are  and  assumption in  ensuring  satisfaction.  categories  of  described.  subjects  by  of  their application  positivist  d e p e n d s on  study  out  research.  dependability  longer  of the  replicative  f o u n d a way  and  that  be  a l t e r n a t i v e set  now  Because the  credibility  represented  qualitative  c o m p a r a t i v e and  These c r i t e r i a  objective reality  multiple  with  positivist  (1986) has  presenting  Credibility.  research,  while  o b j e c t i v e knowledge can  transferability,  confirmability.  one  the  enhance  of q u a n t i t a t i v e  for evaluating qualitative  credibility,  to the  results  b a s e d on  Hirschman  dilemma by  criteria  research  constructs to  i s that these  to  q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h w h i c h assumes  through  observation.  of t h e i r  serious problems  the  g e n e r a l i z e d form of  achieved  researchers  have This  presenting  qualitative that  the  been would the  emerge f r o m t h e  dealing with  of  student  be  final interview attitudes,  Television  i n Distance  Education 113  a p p r o a c h e s and  outcomes t o t h e  students  themselves  for  their reaction. Transferability. on  can  a post-hoc b a s i s because  specifics  of the  generated,  but  which the  first  context  a l s o the  specifics  must c o n s t r u c t an  o n l y way  the  interpretation  "one  be  i n which the  of the  study,  transferability  concern  The  would have wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y ,  "How  d o e s one  dependable recorded" in  this  dividing  This  know t h e  and  study  by  the  data  investigator qualitative  using  245).  a two  gathering  would perform  one  i t with  a  nature  major  conclusions  rather to  that  provide  refined future studies.  researcher  ( H i r s c h m a n , p.  be  seeks t o answer the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  to  particular  would not  but  to  exploratory  to reach  was  Hence,  contexts"  Because of the  f o r more d e t a i l e d  it.  i n other  of t h i s  Dependability.  a  of  comparing  245).  direction  second context,  of  the  However,  i s by  ( H i r s c h m a n , p.  i s not  only  context  applied.  interpretation  assessed  determined  interpretation  of the  i s t o be  constructed  purpose  o n l y be  must know n o t  transferability  can  interpretations  really  specifics  interpretation  comprehend the  the  This  question,  i s rendering  phenomenon This  being  w o u l d be  person  research  roughly  in half.  h i s or her  own  a  dealt team  with  and  Each  preliminary  analysis in addition to analyzing  each  Television  i n Distance  Education 114  others the  data.  data  final  analyses  w o u l d be p e r f o r m e d  Another by  The  t o accomplish  to a limited with and  data data  gathered  This  investigation  relating  be  used  data  o f group  meetings  the researcher i s  gathered.  conclusions  qualitative  data  by P a r l e t t  of  science.  under  depends on t h e c o n c l u s i o n s This  to specific  as i n E n t w i s t l e ' s  supporting  a study  b u t may  immersed i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  would  being involve  quotes or  (1984) d e s c r i p t i o n  analysis"  w o u l d be f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w  in  be  in positivist  o f t h e phenomenon  by t h e data  observations  their  would  i s analogous t o concepts  research,  and deeply  Thus c o n f i r m a b i l i t y supportable  study,  observation  and o b j e c t i v i t y  in qualitative  "rigorous  in this  This  i n t h e group i n t e r v i e w .  assumed t o be a p a r t  clearly  of data.  through  Confirmability.  However  jointly.  d e g r e e b y c o m p a r i n g some i n t e r v i e w  gathered  neutrality  of  strategy for dealing with dependability i s  using m u l t i p l e sources  difficult  and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of  described earlier.  of the conclusions  and  by o u t s i d e a u d i t o r s , a method & Hamilton  This  used  (1972).  Timetable It  i s expected  complete t h i s data  that  study.  collection;  18 m o n t h s w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o  S i x months w o u l d be r e q u i r e d f o r  s i x months  f o r data  analysis;  and s i x  Television  i n Distance  Education 115  months f o r w r i t i n g collection the  data  the report.  would take place  collection  data  on s t u d e n t  and  group meeting  the  i n t e r v i e w data, which collected  until  i n the last  t h r e e months o f  p e r i o d because d u r i n g t h e course  only the i n t e r v i e w data  be  Most o f t h e d a t a  goals  and o b s e r v a t i o n  c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d .  The r e s t o f  i s most o f t h e d a t a ,  the course  i s completed  could not  i n the fourth  month. Summary It  i s hoped t h a t by u s i n g t h i s  t o examine t h e process tentative  learn  distance  education.  some i n s i g h t  and outcomes o f l e a r n i n g ,  from  different  w o u l d be g a i n e d  from  audio  teleconferences.  video taped  as a f i r s t  how a n d w h a t course  learning  w o u l d be  study  i s only  i n the process  from  of  different  the students' perspective.  would be measured by i t s a b i l i t y  enough d i r e c t i o n  students  about t h e d i f f e r e n t  exploratory step  t o understand  that  manuals and  However, t h i s  e d u c a t i o n modes f r o m  success  i t i s hoped  Equally important  r e a c t i o n s t o and f e e l i n g s  attempting  Its  into  lectures,  components o f t h e c o u r s e .  distance  some  methods o f d e l i v e r y i n  In particular,  learn  proposed  approach  c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e d r a w n a b o u t how a n d w h a t  students  student  qualitative  t o provide  t o allow researchers t o begin t o  e x a m i n e more s p e c i f i c  q u e s t i o n s , such  a s how t o u t i l i z e  Television  i n Distance  Education 116  videotapes  and  are  t o produce meaningful  likely  o t h e r media, u s i n g r e s e a r c h methods results.  that  Television  i n Distance  Education 117  References A c h e n b a c h , T.M. 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