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Survey of teenage drinking patterns in school district #36 (Surrey), British Columbia Cleathero, Bernard Stuart 1982

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S U R V E Y OF T E E N A G E D R I N K I N G P A T T E R N S I N SCHOOL D I S T R I C T #36 ( S U R R E Y ) , B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A by BERNARD STUART CLEATHERO B.A., York U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILMENT 'OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the above r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 198*2 ©Bernard S t u a r t C l e a t h e r o , 1982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date DE-6 (2/79) A b s t r a c t Many p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s are e x p r e s s i n g concern about the d r i n k i n g h a b i t s o f our teenage p o p u l a t i o n . At the p r e s e n t time t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the amount of d r i n k i n g , f r e q u e n c y of d r i n k i n g and w i t h whom teenagers d r i n k . The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o o b t a i n as much i n f o r m a t i o n as was p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e about the d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s of S u r r e y h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The s t u d y u t i l i z e d the s i n g l e s u r v e y method to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . A random sample o f s t u d e n t s was drawn from 15 J u n i o r Secondary, Secondary and S e n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s w i t h i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t #36 ( S u r r e y ) , B r i t i s h Columbia. 2485 l e t t e r s were sen t out and c o n s e q u e n t l y 1013 s t u d e n t s completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 90.9% o f the s t u d e n t s s u r v e y e d had used a l c o h o l a t some time i n t h e i r l i v e s , w i t h beer b e i n g the most r e g u l a r l y consumed a l c o h o l i c beverage. 27.8% o f s t u d e n t s drank t o the p o i n t of being drunk, 32.4% drank once or t w i c e a month and a f u r t h e r 30.3% e v e r y weekend. P a r e n t s p l a y e d a r o l e i n i n t r o d u c i n g s t u d e n t s t o t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k . They a l s o drank w i t h them and a c t e d as a sour c e of s u p p l y . 70.4% o f s t u d e n t s f e l t t h e i r d r i n k i n g p r a c t i c e s had no e f f e c t on t h e i r l i v e s . C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s demonstrated t h e r e were c e r t a i n d i f f e r -e n t d r i n k i n g p r a c t i c e s among s t u d e n t s when age, sex, type of s c h o o l and demographic area were taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn and s u g g e s t i o n s were mad r e g a r d i n g s o c i e t y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards our teenage p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r a l c o h o l consumption h a b i t s . i v A c knowledgements I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o t h e members o f my t h e s i s committee, namely Dr. H a r o l d R a t z l a f f f o r h i s h e l p w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d o l o g y and Dr. B a r b a r a Holmes f o r h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e a t a l l t i m e s . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o my t h e s i s committee c h a i r m a n , Dr. Ron N e u f e l d , whose e n t h u s i a s m a s s i s t e d g r e a t l y i n b r i n g i n g t h e p r o j e c t t o f r u i t i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k Mr. T e r r y McBurney, A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d a n t o f t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l B o a r d , who g r a n t e d me p e r m i s s i o n t o a p p r o a c h t h e S u r r e y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . T h i s p r o j e c t w o u l d n o t h a v e been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e s u r v e y and t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d . U l t i m a t e l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my w i f e , J e n n y , f o r h e r c o n s i s t e n t h e l p and e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n a l l s t a g e s o f t h i s p r o j e c t . B. S t u a r t C l e a t h e r o V Table of Contents Page A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i 1. THE PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 1 Purpose o f Study . .. 3 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 Comparison of the t h r e e s t u d i e s conducted i n B.C 8 P o s s i b l e comparisons w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s conducted o u t s i d e B.C. m a t e r i a l s 10 Problems r e l a t e d t o the r e l i a b i l i t y o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 11 C o n c l u s i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s based on the B.C. S t u d i e s 14 F a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o a l c o h o l use 16 3. METHODOLOGY 18 Sample S e l e c t i o n s 18 i ) S e l e c t i o n of S c h o o l s 18 i i ) S e l e c t i o n o f Stu d e n t s . . . 19 Consent Procedure 20 D e s c r i p t i o n of the Survey Instrument 20 Data C o l l e c t i o n 22 Data P r e p a r a t i o n 23 Data A n a l y s i s 23 v i Table o f Contents Page 4. RESULTS 24 F r e q u e n c i e s 24 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s 29 Summary of F i n d i n g s 68 5. DISCUSSION 73 C o n c l u s i o n s 79 Weaknesses t o be c o n s i d e r e d 82 P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h 84 R e f e r e n c e s 86 Appendix 1: Survey of Teenage D r i n k i n g P a t t e r n s Appendix 2: L e t t e r t o S e n i o r Secondary P r i n c i p a l s Appendix 3: I n s t r u c t i o n s t o P r i n c i p a l s Appendix 4: L e t t e r o f Consent v i i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e Page 1. F r e q u e n c y o f d r i n k i n g by t y p e o f s c h o o l 30 2. Age o f f i r s t d r i n k by t y p e o f s c h o o l 35 3. Amount o f a l c o h o l consumed by t y p e o f s c h o o l 37 4. E f f e c t o f a l c o h o l by t y p e o f s c h o o l 39 5. F r e q u e n c y o f d r i n k i n g by age 41 6. D r i n k i n g e v e r y weekend by sex and age 43 7. When a l c o h o l l a s t u s e d by age 45 8. Gender by age f o r s u b j e c t s c o nsuming a l c o h o l l a s t week 47 9. Gender by age f o r s u b j e c t s c o nsuming b e e r 49 10. Gender by age f o r s u b j e c t s consuming h a r d l i q u o r 51 11. Age by age o f f i r s t d r i n k 53 12. Age o f f i r s t d r i n k by N o r t h / S o u t h S u r r e y 55 13. Age by g e n d e r f o r drunk o r " h i g h " f e e l i n g 57 14. Age by g e n d e r f o r c u r i o s i t y 59 15. Age by g e n d e r f o r amount consumed 61 16. Amount consumed by age 63 17. Age by g e n d e r f o r t h o s e who d r i n k w i t h f r i e n d s t h e i r own age 65 18. Age by e f f e c t o f a l c o h o l 67 v i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s T a b l e Page 1. Frequency of d r i n k i n g by S e n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s 31 2. Frequency of d r i n k i n g by Secondary s t u d e n t s 32 3. Frequency of d r i n k i n g by J u n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s 33 1 C h a p t e r 1 The P r o b l e m I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a g r o w i n g c o n c e r n i n s o c i e t y t h a t t e e n a g e r s a r e c o nsuming more a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s , more f r e q u e n t l y and a t an e a r l i e r age t h a n h a ve o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n s . Between 1955 and 1976 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n c r e a s e d by 85% f r o m 1,342,000 t o 2,466,608. The M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h A l c o h o l and Drug C o m m i s s i o n (1976) e s t i m a t e d t h e d r i n k i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e t o be 75% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o v e r 15 y e a r s o f age. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1955-76 t h e d r i n k i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C. i n c r e a s e d by 95% f r o m 720,075 t o 1,403,600 ( A l c o h o l & Drug C o m m i s s i o n S t a t i s t i c s , Canada Se B.C. 1 9 5 5-76). A t t h e same t i m e t h e p e r c a p i t a c o n s u m p t i o n r o s e by 75% f r o m 2.14 g a l l o n s t o 3.75 g a l l o n s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h made up 9.3% o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s same p e r i o d h a d 10.9% o f i t s d r i n k i n g p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h consumed 12.2% o f t h e t o t a l amount o f a l c o h o l consumed i n Canada. In 1976 t h e r e were 84,158 c a r a c c i d e n t s i n B.C., o f w h i c h 541 were f a t a l . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t 35% o f t h e n o n - f a t a l and 50% o f t h e f a t a l a c c i d e n t s were a l c o h o l - r e l a t e d w h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t 29,455 n o n - f a t a l and 271 f a t a l a c c i d e n t s were 2 c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e u s e o f a l c o h o l . I n 1973, 15% o f a l l m i n o r c o n v i c t i o n s , n o t i n c l u d i n g a s s a u l t s , i n v o l v e d t h e use o f a l c o h o l . I n 1976 t h e M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h c o n s i d e r e d 11% o f B.C.'s d r i n k e r s were c o n s u m i n g h a z a r d o u s amounts o f a l c o h o l . I t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 89,781 a l c o h o l i c s i n B.C. i n 1976, an i n c r e a s e o f 384% s i n c e 1955. The e s t i m a t e f o r 1979 was 115,035. ( A l c o h o l & Drug C o m m i s s i o n S t a t i s t i c s , Canada & B.C. 1955-76). Smart (1976) b e l i e v e s t h e r e i s good r e a s o n t o be c o n -c e r n e d a b o u t p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o young d r i n k e r s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t o d a y ' s t e e n a g e r s a r e b e i n g r a i s e d i n a s o c i e t y w h i c h i s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g i t s p e r c a p i t a c o n s u m p t i o n o f a l c o h o l and he s e e s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n c o n s u m p t i o n w i l l c r e a t e more p r o b l e m s . H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Canada (1976) f o u n d a l c o h o l t o be t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d d r u g among young p e o p l e . S t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n 1970, 1975, and 1978 on a 10% sample o f V a n c o u v e r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a l s o f o u n d a l c o h o l t o be t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d d r u g among i t s s t u d e n t s . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1970-78 t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s u s i n g a l c o h o l , r o s e f r o m 60.6% t o 78.1%. Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) n o t e d t h a t 14.3% o f V a n c o u v e r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s u s e d a l c o h o l more t h a n once a week. Smart and F e j e r (1974) e s t i m a t e d 73% o f T o r o n t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s h a d u s e d a l c o h o l a t l e a s t once i n t h e s i x months p r i o r t o t h e i r s t u d y . 3 The a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t e e n a g e r s d r i n k f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . C u t l e r and S t o r m (1973) n o t e d t h a t t e e n a g e r s d r a n k when on h o l i d a y , o u t o f c u r i o s i t y , a n d / o r as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f p e e r p r e s s u r e . W e c h s l e r & T h o r n (1973) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who d r a n k and became drunk were o f t e n a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s and were more l i k e l y t o be a n t i - s o c i a l . Donovan and J e s s e r (1976) a l s o f o u n d t h a t d r i n k e r s who h a d d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r o l l i n g t h e amount o f a l c o h o l t h e y consumed were more l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d i n a v a r i e t y o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r s . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y were 1) t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t s t u d e n t s i n S u r r e y J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y and S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were consuming a l c o h o l as e a r l y as t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t e d , 2) t o e x p l o r e any d e m o g r a p h i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p a t t e r n s o f a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n w i t h i n t h e S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , a n d 3) t o i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a t e o f a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n among J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y and S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s s t u d y : 1) A t what age do t e e n a g e r s b e g i n t o d r i n k ? 2) How o f t e n do t e e n a g e r s d r i n k ? 3) How much a l c o h o l do t h e y consume when t h e y d r i n k ? 4) Why do s t u d e n t s d r i n k ? 5) What a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s when s t u d e n t s d r i n k ? 4 In a s i n g l e survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e c e r t a i n f a c t o r s must be i d e n t i f i e d i n o rder t o determine a r e s p o n d e n t ' s involvement or n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t w i th the use of a l c o h o l . F a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g such usage i n c l u d e r a t e of d r i n k i n g , the l a s t t ime a l c o h o l was consumed.and the age of s t u d e n t s a t t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k . The ins t rument of c h o i c e i n i d e n t i f y i n g these f a c t o r s was the A d o l e s c e n t A l c o h o l Involvement S c a l e by Mayer & F i l s t e a d (1980) (see Appendix 1 ) . The con ten t v a l i d i t y o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was v e r i f i e d f o r the Mayer & F i l s t e a d s tudy by a pane l o f e x p e r t s i n c l u d i n g the s t a f f f rom an a l c o h o l t rea tment u n i t and ten p s y c h i a -t r i s t s . A l t h o u g h t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r s tudy g r o u p s , s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s i n S u r r e y were not p r e p a r e d t o a d m i n i s t e r a s i m i l a r t r i a l f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t due t o t ime c o n s t r a i n t s . In an at tempt t o overcome any i n c l i n a t i o n t o p r o v i d e i n a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a l l respondents were randomly s e l e c t e d by s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a n d / o r t e a c h e r s u s i n g a random numbers t a b l e . S e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s were g i v e n l e t t e r s of consent which had t o be s i g n e d by p a r e n t / g u a r d i a n b e f o r e b e i n g a l l o w e d t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In o rder t o o b t a i n a 10% sample from each s c h o o l , a p p r o x i m a t e l y twice as many s tudents were s e l e c t e d as deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r the s t u d y . On a day and t ime chosen by i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n s t o conduct the survey o n l y those s t u d e n t s who had 5 r e t u r n e d the l e t t e r s of p e r m i s s i o n were g i v e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o complete. Reasons f o r the study were e x p l a i n e d and b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l l respondents were asked to read the i n t r o d u c t o r y statement which guaranteed t o t a l anonymity. 6 Chapter 2 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Vancouver h igh s c h o o l surveys conducted by Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r i n 1970, 1974 and 1978 found a l c o h o l t o be the most f r e q u e n t l y used drug among i t s s t u d e n t s . Dur ing the p e r i o d 1970-78 the percentage of s t u d e n t s us ing a l c o h o l , based on a 10% sample , rose from 60.6% t o 78.1% o f the s tudent p o p u l a t i o n . The same s tudy a l s o noted more s tudents of a l l age -groups were u s i n g a l c o h o l . In 1974 69.8% s t u d e n t s 14 years o l d and under used the d r u g , and i n 1978 the f i g u r e had i n c r e a s e d to 74.6% S i m i l a r l y 79.4% o f the 15-16 year o l d age group i n 1974 .had used a l c o h o l compared t o 85.7% i n 1978. Comparat ive f i g u r e s f o r the over 16 age group were 84.3% i n 1974 and 92.4% i n 1978. In 1970 9.4% of the s tuden ts were e s t i m a t e d to have used a l c o h o l more than once a week compared w i t h 14.3% i n 1978. An i n c r e a s e can be noted f o r both s e x e s . The use of a l c o h o l to the p o i n t of i n t o x i c a t i o n f o r the p e r i o d 1974-78 appears t o have remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e wi th a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f the sample hav ing been drunk at l e a s t once i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e . C u t l e r and Storm (1973) conducted a s i m i l a r s tudy i n three B . C . c i t i e s namely Laketown, River town and Twintown. T h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was, however, r e s t r i c t e d to s tudents then e n r o l l e d i n grades 11 and 12. They deduced t h a t 8.0% of 7 t h e i r sample never d rank , t h a t 43.1% of t h e i r sample drank o c c a s i o n a l l y and 22.9% drank r e g u l a r l y . It s h o u l d a l s o be noted tha t at l e a s t 15.3% of those i n t e r v i e w e d consumed a l c o h o l more than once a week. The r e s e a r c h e r s were ab le to note a sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the p a t t e r n of consumpt ion , namely tha t 75% of males and 55% o f females i n the sample had used the beverage at some t i m e . Laketown, Twintown and River town are c i t i e s of d i f f e r i n g s i z e s , the r e s p e c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s i n 1971 be ing 9 ,400, 26,188 and 33 ,101 . The p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - d r i n k e r s among 11th & 12th g r a d e r s was lower i n Laketown than i n Twintown or Rivertown (22% - 39% - 36%). S i m i l a r l y the percentage of r e g u l a r d r i n k e r s ( i . e . once a week or more) was the h i g h e s t i n Laketown (29% - 17% - 24%). While t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may be due to sample e r r o r , i t may a l s o beg in to suggest there are demographic d i f f e r e n c e s i n d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . In 1977, K i t c h e n and Robinson s e l e c t e d two s c h o o l s i n North Vancouver , one i n C a p i l a n o and the o ther i n Seymour. The p o p u l a t i o n of the s tudy i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s i n grades 8-11 w i th an age range of 12-18 y e a r s . T h e i r d e c l a r e d i n t e n t i o n was to a s c e r t a i n how many young people drank and how much they consumed. T h e i r t a b u l a t e d r e s u l t s suggest that 91% had e x p e r i e n c e d a l c o h o l by the age o f 15 and 61.6% between the ages 12-14. They were a l s o ab le to deduce tha t 27% of t h e i r sample between 12 and 17 years consumed a l c o h o l once or more t imes a week. 8 Comparison o f the three s t u d i e s conducted i n B . C . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to make any c o n c r e t e s ta tements when comparing the three s t u d i e s . A l l of the s t u d i e s were c o n -ducted at d i f f e r e n t t imes u s i n g d i f f e r e n t methodology and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s . In s p i t e of these d i f f e r e n c e s , the i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l and p r o v i d e s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . In a l l cases t h e i r d e c l a r e d aim was to i n v e s t i g a t e d r i n k i n g h a b i t s i n t h e i r d e s i g n a t e d s tudy a r e a s . A c c o r d i n g to the Nor th Vancouver s tudy 61.6% o f t h e i r s tudy group had consumed a l c o h o l be fore the age o f 12 y e a r s . The Three C i t i e s and Vancouver s t u d i e s suggested tha t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 39.6% and 70.6% of t h e i r groups r e s p e c t i v e l y had consumed a l c o h o l be fore the age of 14. A l l of these f i g u r e s may i n d i c a t e tha t our d r i n k i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s i n f a c t g e t t i n g younger . Because of the l a r g e v a r i a t i o n i n p e r c e n t a g e s , (61.6% f o r North Vancouver , 70.6% f o r Vancouver and 39.6% f o r the Three C i t i e s ) , i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t the onset of d r i n k i n g may be s u b j e c t to r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n . In the Vancouver s c h o o l s 76.8% o f those s t u d e n t s over 17 years were s t i l l u s i n g a l c o h o l , compared w i t h 65% of the Three C i t i e s p o p u l a t i o n . North Vancouver d i d not s u p p l y comparable f i g u r e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , they do i n d i c a t e tha t 94.1% of t h e i r sample had consumed a l c o h o l p r i o r to the s t u d y . 9 The 1978 Vancouver s u r v e y showed 85.1% o f females and 88.0% o f males had used a l c o h o l at some time d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s compared w i t h 55% of females and 75% of males i n the Three C i t i e s s t u d y . Both the Vancouver and Three C i t i e s s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h e r e i s a tendancy f o r s t u d e n t s t o d r i n k t o the p o i n t o f b e i n g drunk. In Vancouver 20.7% o f the 1978 p o p u l a t i o n had been drunk seven or more times i n the p r e c e d i n g s i x months w h i l e 7.4% o f the Three C i t i e s p o p u l a t i o n were drunk at l e a s t once a week. M l the s t u d i e s examined, appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the consumption of a l c o h o l i n c r e a s e s w i t h age and t h a t s t u d e n t s s t a r t t o d r i n k a t an e a r l y age. As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d a l l comparisons must be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . The m e t h o d o l o g i e s used f o r c o l l e c t i n g the data are o n l y s i m i l a r i n t h a t each s t u d y used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e format. Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) surveyed a random 10% of the grade 11 and 12 Vancouver s t u d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were handed o u t , completed and r e t u r n e d i n the presence of the s u r v e y team and not i n f r o n t of any t e a c h e r s . C u t l e r and Storm (1973) a l s o examined s t u d e n t s i n grades 11 and 12. However, t h e i r sample s i z e s d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . The o v e r -a l l sample s i z e was 49% of the s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s e l e c t e d randomly and comprised of 75% from Laketown, 35% from Twintowm and 54% R i v e r t o w n s t u d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r s g i v e no r e ason 10 f o r the sample s i z e s o t h e r than i n c r e a s i n g the Laketown sample because i t was much the s m a l l e r of the t h r e e c i t i e s . The s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were w r i t t e n anonymously but the forms were completed i n f r o n t of t e a c h e r s f a m i l i a r t o the s t u d e n t s . The N o r t h Vancouver s t u d y s h o u l d perhaps be t r e a t e d w i t h the most c a u t i o n . The a u t h o r s g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n as t o how or why the p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d . Grades 8-11 were su r v e y e d and 354 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d . Grade 12 s t u d e n t s were o m i t t e d due t o end of term e x a m i n a t i o n s . I t i s not c l e a r whether s t u d e n t s f i l l e d out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n f r o n t o f t h e i r t e a c h e r s o r o t h e r w i s e . A l l s t u d i e s used s i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c a l methods t o accumu-l a t e t h e i r d a t a , namely f r e q u e n c i e s or p e r c e n t a g e s r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r age or sex. None of the a n a l y s e s was s u b j e c t e d t o any check f o r r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n a l t h o u g h , i n the case of the Three C i t i e s s t u d y by C u t l e r and Storm (1973), t h i s may have been p o s s i b l e . I n s h o r t , i t may be argued t h a t a l l t h r e e s t u d i e s attempted t o f i n d the i n f o r m a t i o n sought i n t h a t they gave some measure of the age and fr e q u e n c y of a l c o h o l use i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . P o s s i b l e comparisons w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s conducted o u t s i d e B.C. Smart and F e j e r (1974) e s t i m a t e d 73% o f Tor o n t o secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s had used a l c o h o l at l e a s t once i n the s i x 11 months p r i o r t o t h e i r s t u d y . Smart, Gray and Bennett (1976) l o o k e d a t two s c h o o l s i n a s m a l l O n t a r i o town which i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s from the town as w e l l as from r u r a l and s e m i - r u r a l s e t t i n g s and determined t h a t 86% o f t h e i r sample had used a l c o h o l a t some time o r a n o t h e r . T h i s compares w i t h 57% i n H a l i f a x and 43% i n M o n t r e a l ( C u t l e r and Storm, 1973). Tenuous as the comparisons may be t h e r e may w e l l be some c r o s s - c o u n t r y s i m i l a r i t i e s . Problems r e l a t e d t o the r e l i a b i l i t y of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . There are a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d when making use o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e format f o r c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Of p a r t i c u l a r concern i s the v a l i d i t y of the answers p r o v i d e d by those s u p p l y i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n . A l s o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e must seek t o p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d , thus i t s h o u l d be as c l e a r , c o n c i s e and as s h o r t as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o reduce p a r t i c i p a n t e r r o r . Smart and B l a i r (1977) conducted such a study t o e s t i m a t e the r e l i a b i l i t y o f a drug use q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was to be used i n O n t a r i o . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e i n g e v a l u a t e d i n c l u d e d q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o : i ) Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as age, sex, e d u c a t i o n , u r b a n / r u r a l r e s i d e n c e and p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n , i i ) Use of the f o l l o w i n g drugs d u r i n g a s t u d e n t ' s l i f e t i m e , d u r i n g the p a s t 12 months and d u r i n g the p a s t 30 days 12 and when used: t o b a c c o , a l c o h o l , c a n n a b i s , amphetamines, o t h e r s t i m u l a n t s , c o c a i n e , e t c . i i i ) Whether t h e s t u d e n t would answer the q u e s t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y i f t h e y had used drugs (e.g. c a n n a b i s , opium, h e r o i n ) i v ) The Eysenck L i e S c a l e (9 i t e m s ) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n c l a s s e s o f 50-60 on two s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s , e i g h t weeks a p a r t . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were g i v e n a name and number, the same on each o c c a s i o n . On r e c e i p t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s t u d e n t s t o r e o f f the names a l l o w i n g o n l y t h e numbers t o be matched l a t e r . Smart and B l a i r (1977) c a l c u l a t e d on an i t e m by i t e m b a s i s t h e pe r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s r e s p o n d i n g i d e n t i c a l l y a c r o s s b o t h t e s t s . S econdly, they l o o k e d a t the r e l i a b i l i t y a c r o s s t h e t e s t i n g s o f s t u d e n t s 1 responses t o the a l c o h o l and drug use items and t o l i e s c a l e i t e m s . The s c a l e s were v a l i d a t e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e drug use s c o r e and l i e s c o r e and s u b j e c t i n g t h e r e s u l t s t o a Pearson's c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t c o mputation a t r<0.001. l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . None o f the s t u d i e s examined by the w r i t e r appear t o have been s u b j e c t e d t o t h i s or any s i m i l a r t e s t . One may t h e r e f o r e argue t h a t any f i n d i n g s made by th e s e s t u d i e s a r e s u s p e c t . However, one must a l s o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the apparent r e l u c t a n c e o f s c h o o l boards i n g e n e r a l t o conduct such s t u d i e s . A t e l e p h o n e s u r v e y o f a l l s c h o o l boards i n the 13 Lower M a i n l a n d found a g r e a t d e a l of r e s i s t a n c e t o a l c o h o l consumption s u r v e y s . One i s t h e r e f o r e f o r c e d t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the l e v e l of c o o p e r a t i o n a r e s e a r c h e r may e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e d u r i n g any i n v e s t i g a t i o n from a s c h o o l board. In s h o r t , w h i l e boards may respond p o s i t i v e l y t o a w e l l d e s i g n e d study they may respond n e g a t i v e l y to m u l t i p l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . E x a m i n a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by C u t l e r and Storm (1973) and Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) were d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the age and f r e q u e n c y o f the d r i n k i n g p o p u l a t i o n a l t h o u g h not the t o t a l amounts consumed. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used by K i t c h e n and Robinson (1977) was not a v a i l a b l e and can not t h e r e f o r e be commented upon. In summary, a l l the s t u d i e s were concerned w i t h c o l l e c t i n g as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e about s t u d e n t d r i n k i n g p r a c t i c e s a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t none of the s t u d i e s were a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n the amount of a l c o h o l consumed by the s t u d e n t s a l t h o u g h i t may be p o s s i b l e i n the case o f C u t l e r and Storm (1973). W h i l e t h e r e w i l l always be some q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the v a l i d i t y of the responses p r o v i d e d by s e l f - a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s the w r i t e r can see no r e ason f o r d i s r e g a r d i n g the r e s u l t s . They s h o u l d be read and i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . 14 C o n c l u s i o n s and I n f e r e n c e s based on the B.C. S t u d i e s . Mayer and F i l s t e a d (1980) suggest t h a t any s e l f - r e p o r t i n g method of c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be s h o r t , t o the p o i n t and not f o r m i d a b l e . The Vancouver s u r v e y , which l o o k e d a t a v a r i e t y of drug uses a l l o w e d one hour f o r s t u d e n t s t o f i l l i n the i n f o r m a t i o n . The a l c o h o l s e c t i o n f o r 1978 i s made up o f 32 q u e s t i o n s on n i n e pages. I t s h o u l d be noted the format i s c l e a r and u n c l u t t e r e d . The study conducted by C u t l e r and Storm (1973) has 91 q u e s t i o n s on f i v e pages. The t y p i n g i s s m a l l and the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of work i s r e q u i r e d t o com-p l e t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The A d o l e s c e n t A l c o h o l Involvement S c a l e d e v i s e d by Mayer and F i l s t e a d i s comprised o f 14 q u e s t i o n s on two pages and i t would appear t o be capable o f g e n e r a t i n g much the same i n f o r m a t i o n sought i n the o t h e r s t u d i e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e v i s e d by C u t l e r and Storm (1973) and Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) u t i l i z e q u e s t i o n s e n q u i r i n g about f r e q u e n c y , drunkenness and the consequences of d r i n k i n g . No e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d as t o why those q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d t o g e t h e r . The answers d e r i v e d from the s t u d i e s have been used t o suggest t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s are d r i n k i n g at a lower age l e v e l and more f r e q u e n t l y . The s t u d i e s l e a v e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an a l c o h o l problem among our s c h o o l age s t u d e n t s . The A d o l e s c e n t A l c o h o l Involvement S c a l e (AAIS) (Mayer and F i l s t e a d , 1980) i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o measure the misuse of a l c o h o l by a d o l e s c e n t s . The a u t h o r s d e f i n e a l c o h o l misuse as "the use of a l c o h o l t o such an e x t e n t t h a t i t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h any one o r any c o m b i n a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e a r e a s of a d o l e s c e n t l i f e : p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and f a m i l y l i v i n g . The AAIS measures a l c o h o l use a g a i n s t d i s r u p t i o n i n any one o f these t h r e e a r e a s . " Mayer and F i l s t e a d (1980) base t h e i r c l a i m f o r v a l i d a t i o n on t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of q u e s t i o n s which are i d e n t i f i e d by a v a r i e t y o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s as being " h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e i n i d e n t i -f y i n g a d o l e s c e n t s who are e x p e r i e n c i n g a l c o h o l problems." The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r a t e d by the s t a f f of an A l c o h o l i s m Treatment U n i t on a s c a l e o f one to f i v e . Q u e s t i o n s r e c e i v i n g a r a t i n g below t h r e e were dropped. Ten p s y c h i a t r i s t s were g i v e n the same i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . They were a l s o t o l d t o i n d i c a t e a t what p o i n t they judged t h a t an a d o l e s c e n t would r e q u i r e i n t e r v e n t i o n based on a l c o h o l misuse. How the s c a l e works i s not c l e a r t o t h i s a u t h o r . F i n a l l y the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d to 178 s u b j e c t s (an e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f 52 and a c o n t r o l group of 126). T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d by g i v i n g the AAIS two weeks a f t e r the f i r s t t e s t i n g . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the c o n t r o l group was 0.89 and between the e x p e r i -mental group 0.91. The tendency t o f a l s i f y i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e a l t w i t h i n f o u r ways by the AAIS: i ) the s e r i o u s n e s s of the t o p i c i s emphasized, i i ) the format i s u n c o m p l i c a t e d and responses are not r u s h e d , i i i ) d i s c r e p e n c i e s i n responses t o q u e s t i o n s 1, 2 and 6 i n d i c a t e i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s of r e s p o n s e s . D i f f e r e n t r e sponses t o q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 as opposed t o the o t h e r t w e l v e g i v e the same i n d i c a t i o n , i v ) the i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o l l e c t e d anonymously, t o i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y of c a n d i d answers. F a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o a l c o h o l use C u t l e r and Storm (1973) sought answers t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o why teenagers d r i n k . 30% s a i d they drank on h o l i d a y s , 32% s a i d they drank due to c u r i o s i t y and 21% i n d i c a t e d i t was s e r v e d a t home. Only 7.3% r e p o r t e d they drank because of peer p r e s s u r e . That i s , they d i d not want to appear d i f f e r e n t . Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) found t h a t 63% of s t u d e n t s used a l c o h o l i n f r o n t of t h e i r p a r e n t s and 59% made use o f a l c o h o l a t p r i v a t e p a r t i e s . K i t c h e n and Robinson (1977) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t 44.6% o f t h e i r sample were g i v e n t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k by p a r e n t s w i t h a f u r t h e r 22.3% bei n g i n i t i a t e d by t h e i r f r i e n d s . Maddox and M c C o l l (1964) r e p o r t e d t h a t 50% o f t h e i r sample drank because they l i k e d i t , 20% wanted t o be i n w i t h the crowd and 20% drank when they wanted t o c e l e b r a t e . 8% o f the sample r e s o r t e d t o d r i n k i n g when they f e l t unhappy. Wechsler and Thorn (1973) concluded t h a t s t u d e n t s who drank and became drunk were o f t e n a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r f a m i -l i e s and were more l i k e l y t o be a n t i - s o c i a l , ( i . e . cheat or be d e l i n q u e n t ) . J e s s e r and J e s s e r (1976) found t h a t problem d r i n k e r s p l a c e d l e s s v a l u e on academic achievement, g r e a t e r v a l u e on independence and on independence r e l a t i v e t o a c h i e v e -ment but had l o w e r achievement e x p e c t a t i o n s than non-problem d r i n k e r s . They a l s o f u r n i s h e d e v i d e n c e t o suggest they were l e s s i n t o l e r a n t t o d e v i a n c e , l e s s r e l i g i o u s l y o r i e n t e d and more concerned w i t h the p o s i t i v e r a t h e r than the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of d r i n k i n g . Problem d r i n k e r s a t t r i b u t e d the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r h a b i t t o be p a r e n t s r a t h e r than f r i e n d s . I t cannot be assumed t h a t t eenagers who consume a l c o h o l w i l l become e i t h e r heavy or problem d r i n k e r s i n l a t e r l i f e . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e are a number of f a c t o r s which g i v e cause f o r c o ncern now and o t h e r s which s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n view o f t h e i r p o s s i b l e l o n g term e f f e c t s . I f t h e r e i s or Is l i k e l y t o be a teenage d r i n k i n g problem then i t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t s o c i e t y be made aware of the s i t u a t i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of such a h a b i t . 18 Chapter 3 Methodology Sample S e l e c t i o n i ) S e l e c t i o n of S c h o o l s . C o n t a c t was made w i t h a l l s c h o o l boards i n the Lower M a i n l a n d , o n l y two o f whom had conducted r e s e a r c h i n t o the d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s of t h e i r s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s . There seemed t o be a g e n e r a l f e e l i n g among s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e may be a need f o r such s t u d i e s none had been done s i n c e most r e s e a r c h d e s i g n s p r e s e n t e d t o the boards had been p o o r l y c o n c e i v e d and developed . For the purpose of t h i s s t u d y the A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r the S u r r e y School Board was approached w i t h a s u r v e y p r o p o s a l . F o l l o w i n g h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s the r e s e a r c h e r made a b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the e i g h t J u n i o r Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s i n the d i s t r i c t . Seven consented t o take p a r t . Secondary and S e n i o r Secondary p r i n c i p a l s were then con-t a c t e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s f i r s t by l e t t e r (see Appendix 2) and then by p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . As a r e s u l t a l l Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s , a l l S e n i o r Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s and seven out of e i g h t J u n i o r Secondary P r i n c i p a l s gave t h e i r consent t o a d m i n i s t e r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The t o t a l number o f s c h o o l s s u r v e y e d was t h e r e f o r e f i f t e e n out of a p o s s i b l e s i x t e e n . 19 i i ) S e l e c t i o n of s t u d e n t s . Survey s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d from the t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , male and female , a t t e n d i n g J u n i o r Secondary, Secondary and S e n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s w i t h i n School D i s t r i c t #36 ( S u r r e y ) . The r e s e a r c h e r attempted t o o b t a i n a random sample o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f the s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the 15 s c h o o l s ( i . e . an a n t i c i p a t e d 1025 r e s p o n s e s ) . To o b t a i n t h i s t a r g e t each s c h o o l was asked t o p r o v i d e a 10% sample from i t s t o t a l s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t . I n o r d e r t o accomodate i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s each s c h o o l was p r o v i d e d w i t h a s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s d e t a i l i n g t h r e e methods of s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n t s (see appendix 3 ) , a random numbers t a b l e , 5% more q u e s t i o n n a i r e s than r e q u i r e d and 250% more l e t t e r s of consent then needed i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n the 10% sampl e. The a d d i t i o n a l l e t t e r s of consent were p r o v i d e d s i n c e i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n l y about 40% of the s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d would r e t u r n the l e t t e r of consent (see Appendix 4 ) . The a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r o v i d e d so t h a t i n the event t h a t more s t u d e n t s than e s t i m a t e d r e t u r n e d the consent form t h e r e would not need t o be a pre d e t e r m i n e d method of e x c l u d i n g c o n s e n t i n g s t u d e n t s . 20 Consent Procedure F o l l o w i n g s tudent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by any one of the d e s i g -nated methods each was g i v e n a l e t t e r of consent to take home. They were reques ted to have t h e i r paren ts s i g n the consent form i f they wished to take p a r t i n the survey and r e t u r n i t w i t h i n three s c h o o l d a y s . Only s t u d e n t s r e t u r n i n g the s i g n e d forms to t h e i r t e a c h e r s were p e r m i t t e d to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (see appendix 1 ) . S tudents were not r e f e r r e d to by name on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e but were asked merely to s t a t e t h e i r age and s e x . D e s c r i p t i o n of the Survey Instrument The A d o l e s c e n t A l c o h o l Involvement S c a l e . The A d o l e s c e n t A l c o h o l Involvement S c a l e was des igned by Mayer and F i l s t e a d as a means of d e t e r m i n i n g a l c o h o l use by young p e o p l e . Mayer and F i l s t e a d .used the s c a l e to s c r e e n p o s s i b l e problem d r i n k e r s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e the s c a l e was u s e d . a s a v e h i c l e to i n v e s t i g a t e teenage d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s i n S u r r e y , B . C . Q u e s t i o n s A and B were concerned wi th how o f t e n and when l a s t , i n d i v i d u a l s consumed a l c o h o l . Both q u e s t i o n s a l lowed f o r a ' n e v e r ' response and both p r o v i d e d f o r s t u d e n t s who drank every day . Q u e s t i o n F sought to determine the a p p r o x i -mate age s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g . I t a l s o c o n t a i n e d a ' n o ' r e s p o n s e . The three q u e s t i o n s were p r i m a r i l y des igned to a s c e r t a i n i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n r e s p o n s e . That i s , n o n - d r i n k e r s s h o u l d answer three q u e s t i o n s o n l y . Q u e s t i o n C a l lowed students to indicate why they started drinking while D provided for a indication of di f f e r e n t types of alcohol that may be consumed. Response 5 was the only section of the questionnaire which received any modification. The response was o r i g i n a l l y phrased "have a substitute for alcohol, paint thinner, sterno, cough medicine, mouth wash, hair tonic etc." "Paint thinner, sterno, cough medicine, mouth wash, hair tonic etc." were dropped at the request of several principals who expressed concern at the 'suggestive' nature of the answer. Questions E, H and J dealt with how students obtained drinks, why they took th e i r f i r s t drink and who they drank with respectively. A l l three questions provide for comparing with parents and friends who may influence students while E and J make further provision for comparing 'brother or s i s t e r ' influence on alcohol consumption. Queston G determined at what time of day students drank and question I established how many drinks were consumed per session. Questions K, L, M and N were intended to provide information on how the individual views his/her relationship with alcohol. S p e c i f i c a l l y question K was concerned with the greatest single e f f e c t alcohol has had on an individual at one time. It in turn i s complemented by L which took a more global look at the eff e c t alcohol has had on respondents. F i n a l l y questions M and N probed students feelings about alcohol, namely how they feel about drinking and how they perceived others f e l t about th e i r drinking. The terms ' d r i n k , ' h i g h ' o r 'drunk,' l o o s e easy f e e l i n g ' and 'moderate h i g h ' were not d e f i n e d on t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Mayer and F i l s t e a d s t a t e t h a t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d be as s i m p l e and u n c l u t t e r e d as p o s s i b l e . I t was t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d not t o i n c r e a s e the wording on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by i n c l u d i n g a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s which i n themselves may have confused some s t u d e n t s The S u r r e y School D i s t r i c t was d i v i d e d i n t o N o r t h and South S u r r e y t o f a c i l i t a t e c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n based on r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n . North S u r r e y was comprised of a l l s c h o o l s i n the G u i l d f o r d , Newton and Wh a l l e y a r e a s . South S u r r e y c o n s t i t u t e d s c h o o l s i n C l o v e r d a l e and White Rock. N o r t h S u r r e y i s an urban a r e a w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l homes and some l i g h t i n d u s t r y whereas South S u r r e y c o n s i s t s of C l o v e r d a l e which i s s e m i - r u r a l w i t h some r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g and White Rock which i s p r i m a r i l y r e s i d e n t i a l . Data C o l l e c t i o n A l l d a t a were c o l l e c t e d i n s t u d e n t s ' home s c h o o l s between May 19th and June 1 s t , 1981. Students completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t h e i r home rooms, i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s or i n one a r e a o f the s c h o o l a s s i g n e d f o r the purpose. Teachers were asked t o s t r e s s the s e r i o u s n e s s of the t o p i c and the need t o s u p p l y a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . Students were guaranteed 23 anonymity from the r e s e a r c h e r i n tha t they d i d not w r i t e t h e i r names on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . It s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, that i n many cases s t u d e n t s f i l l e d out the q u e s t i o n n a e r e s i n f r o n t of t e a c h e r s f a m i l i a r to them. A l t h o u g h i t was not expected to take more than 15 to 20 minutes to answer the q u e s t i o n s , s tuden ts were g i v e n 30 minutes to f i l l out the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were ga thered by the t e a c h e r and r e t u r n e d t o the main o f f i c e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r then c o l l e c t e d the data from the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s , l e a v i n g behind a l l l e t t e r s of p e r m i s s i o n to be r e t a i n e d by schoo l p r i n c i p a l s . Data P r e p a r a t i o n F o l l o w i n g da ta c o l l e c t i o n , a l l i n f o r m a t i o n from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was coded on cod ing sheets by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and one a s s i s t a n t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% o f the coded data were " s p o t - c h e c k e d " f o r cod ing e r r o r s be fore k e y p u n c h i n g . Data A n a l y s i s Data were a n a l y s e d us ing the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( S . P . S . S . ) . A d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s from f r e q u e n c i e s and c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n procedures f o l l o w s . I t shou ld be noted t h a t the c r i t i c a l l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s was s e t at 5% (p<0.05). 24 Chapter 4 Resul t s I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n as c l o s e t o a 10% sample from the t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f 10,250 w i t h i n the S u r r e y Secondary School System 2500 l e t t e r s of consent were d i s t r i b u t e d among the 15 s c h o o l s . 1023 (381 J u n i o r Secondary, 251 Secondary and 381 S e n i o r Secondary) s t u d e n t s r e t u r n e d the s i g n e d consent form and t h e r e f o r e completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Ten q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were not coded s i n c e c r u c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n such as age and sex had been o m i t t e d by the res p o n d e n t . The response r a t e was t h e r e f o r e 9.88% (n = 1013) o f the S u r r e y Secondary School p o p u l a t i o n . An o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the r e s u l t i n g d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . F r e q u e n c i e s A b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c i e s and perce n t a g e s f o r each q u e s t i o n appear i n appendix 1. I n q u e s t i o n A (how o f t e n do you d r i n k ? ) and B (when d i d you have your l a s t d r i n k ? ) 67 o r 6.6% of the t o t a l sample s t a t e d they had never consumed a l c o h o l whereas i n q u e s t i o n F (when d i d you take your f i r s t d r i n k ? ) 76 or 7.5% of respondents made the same d e c l a r a t i o n . The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of s t u d e n t s (32.4%) consumed a l c o h o l once or tw i c e per month. Almost 1/3 (30.3%) r e p o r t e d d r i n k i n g on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ( e v e r y weekend) w h i l e a much s m a l l e r group (5.2%) used 25 a l c o h o l s e v e r a l times per week. In both q u e s t i o n s A and B 12 s t u d e n t s (1.2%) i n d i c a t e d they drank e v e r y day. 14.5% of the sample had imbibed the day b e f o r e they completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . By f a r the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n , 82.6% o f the sample, took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k at or b e f o r e the age o f 15. 18.8% s a i d t hey took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k b e f o r e the age of 10. P a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e s would seem t o p l a y a l a r g e p a r t i n promoting the use of a l c o h o l among s t u d e n t s . 39.3% o f respondents o b t a i n e d t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k from t h i s s o u r c e . C u r r e n t l y 40.3% d r i n k w i t h p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s w h i l e 41.7% have o f t e n o b t a i n e d a l c o h o l from t h i s s o u r c e a t one time or a n o t h e r . C u r i o s i t y (34%) was a l s o a major f a c t o r i n t a k i n g a f i r s t d r i n k a l t h o u g h i t was c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by a d e s i r e t o get e i t h e r h i g h or drunk ( 2 7 % ) . Peer p r e s s u r e would appear t o have p l a y e d l i t t l e p a r t i n i n t r o d u c i n g s t u d e n t s t o t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k . Only 7.9% o f the sample f e l t f r i e n d s encouraged them w h i l e 10.6% s a i d they s t a r t e d i n o r d e r t o be l i k e t h e i r f r i e n d s . By f a r the l a r g e s t group of s t u d e n t s (61.8%) u s u a l l y s t a r t e d t o d r i n k because they l i k e d the t a s t e . W o r r i e s and problems caused 9.6% o f s t u d e n t s t o b e g i n d r i n k i n g and a f u r t h e r 3.5% because they f e l t sad or l o n e l y . 5.4% drank 26 a l o n e , p o s s i b l y as a d e r i v a t i v e of t e n s i o n and/or sadness and 1 o n e l i n e s s . A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s d i d not seem t o be unduly i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r peers i n t a k i n g t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k and s t a r t i n g t o d r i n k , the m a j o r i t y (49.2% ) used t h e i r f r i e n d s as a sour c e of s u p p l y . S i m i l a r l y 60.4% drank w i t h f r i e n d s the same age and 34% w i t h o l d e r f r i e n d s . B r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s a l s o appeared t o have some i n f l u e n c e on d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . I n 14.8% o f cases s i b l i n g s were a s o u r c e o f a l c o h o l and i n 14.6% o f i n c i d e n t s t hey were a l s o d r i n k i n g companions. The d e s i r e t o 'be a d u l t ' would appear t o have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y . Only 1.6% took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k t o ' f e e l a d u l t ' and o n l y 3.3% u s u a l l y s t a r t e d i n o r d e r t o 'be l i k e an a d u l t ' . Only 12.3% o f s t u d e n t s removed l i q u o r from t h e i r homes w i t h o u t p a r e n t s ' knowledge and a f u r t h e r 8.4% o b t a i n e d t h e i r a l c o h o l w i t h some form of f a l s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h not asked f o r i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e 13 s t u d e n t s (0.1%) i n d i c a t e d they o b t a i n e d t h e i r l i q u o r through some form o f b o o t l e g g i n g w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l s . S t u d e n t s consume a v a r i e t y of types of a l c o h o l . 42.3% used b e e r , 41.4% hard l i q u o r and 62.9% mixed d r i n k s . S u r p r i s -i n g l y few, o n l y 3.5%, s a i d they drank wine. 6.7% s a i d they used a s u b s t i t u t e . Some n o n - d r i n k e r s checked t h i s answer, i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s o p t i o n as meaning the use of non a l c o h o l i c s u b s t a n c e s . On the o t h e r hand some d r i n k e r s a l s o checked i t and may t h e r e f o r e use a s u b s t i t u t e such as cough m e d i c i n e . S e v e r a l o t h e r s wrote 'pot' a l o n g s i d e t h e i r answer. The m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s (74%) drank d u r i n g the e v e n i ngs and 15.3% a t some time i n the a f t e r n o o n . Less t h a n 20% drank w i t h meals. 0.9% o f s t u d e n t s awoke d u r i n g the n i g h t t o d r i n k and 0.6% took a d r i n k d u r i n g the morning or when they woke up. The amount of a l c o h o l consumed v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . 33.4% of s t u d e n t s had e i t h e r one or two d r i n k s when they made use of a l c o h o l . 30.6% had t h r e e and upwards. The g r e a t e s t s i n g l e p e r c e n t a g e (27.8%) consumed a l c o h o l u n t i l they were e i t h e r h i g h or drunk. However, t h i s i s not i n i t s e l f i n d i c a -t i v e of q u a n t i t y s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s would r e q u i r e d i f f e r i n g amounts of a l c o h o l t o r e a c h t h i s s t a t e . S t udents were of the o p i n i o n t h a t a l c o h o l a f f e c t s them i n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways. 28.4% o f s t u d e n t s d i d not answer the q u e s t i o n . Of those r e m a i n i n g , 22.4% a c h i e v e d a " l o o s e easy f e e l i n g " w i t h a f u r t h e r 7.7% g e t t i n g m o d e r a t e l y " h i g h " . 15.1% s t a t e d they became drunk i n c o n t r a s t t o the 27.8% i n the q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o q u a n t i t y . However, i f those who became i l l o r passed out are a l s o i n c l u d e d the p e r c e n t a g e of i n d i v i d u a l s who drank, became i l l o r passed out i s 29.1%, a comparable t o t a l . I f the "no r e c a l l " s t u d e n t s are added i n , then 41.3% o f the sample have been i n t o x i c a t e d a t some stage i n t h e i r 1 i v e s . 28 D e s p i t e 41.3% of the sample having been drunk a t some sta g e i n t h e i r l i v e s 70.4% f e l t a l c o h o l has had no e f f e c t on t h e i r l i v e s and 94.7% c o n s i d e r e d i t e i t h e r t o be no problem o r t h a t they had the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r d r i n k i n g . When one c o n s i d e r s 9 4.4% of the sample have consumed a l c o h o l w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t o n l y 5.1% f e l t t h e i r f r i e n d s i n f l u e n c e d them. While 2.1% f e l t bad about t h e i r d r i n k i n g o n l y 0.6% f e l t they needed h e l p and o n l y one (0.1% o f the sample) a d m i t t e d t o h a v i n g had h e l p t o c o n t r o l h i s / h e r d r i n k i n g . By f a r the v a s t m a j o r i t y , 79.7% o f the sample, e i t h e r c o u l d n ' t say how o t h e r s saw t h e i r d r i n k i n g o r f e l t t h a t t h e i r consumption was normal f o r t h e i r age. I f one a c c e p t s the f i g u r e o f 27.8% f o r s t u d e n t s who g e t e i t h e r h i g h o r drunk then i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t o n l y 3.4% f e l t t h a t coming under the i n f l u e n c e of a l c o h o l had i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e i r t a l k i n g t o someone and o n l y 2.6% f e l t i t had p r e v e n t e d them from h a v i n g a good t i m e . 2.8% o f the sample f e l t they consumed s u f f i c i e n t a l c o h o l t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r s c h o o l work. 17.7% of s t u d e n t s have been i n some form of u n f o r t u n a t e predicament as a r e s u l t of t h e i r d r i n k i n g . Of t h o s e , 9.5% got i n t o t r o u b l e a t home, 3,9% were i n a f i g h t or d e s t r o y e d p r o p e r t y and 4.3% were i n v o l v e d w i t h the l a w , had an a c c i d e n t or i n j u r y o r were punished a t s c h o o l . 29 Crosstabulations Frequency of drinking by type of school (Senior Second-ary, Secondary, Junior Secondary). There would appear to be a general trend towards the majority of students drinking on a f a i r l y regular basis, i . e . once or twice a month or every weekend. 33.2% of a l l students consume alcohol once or twice a month and 31.1% reported they use alcohol every weekend (giving a combined total of 64.3%). A higher percentage of Senior Secondary students (71.5%) use alcohol either once or twice a month or every weekend, than do Junior Secondary students (62.1%) or Secondary students (56.6%.) The crosstabulation also suggests Secondary schools are also more l i k e l y to contain more non drinkers (11.5%) than expected, compared with Senior Secondary Schools (4.0%) and Junior Secondary Schools (6.5%) both of which have fewer than expected. This result is further c l a r i f i e d in table 1 and figures 1-3. 30 Table 1 Frequency of drinking by type of school RATE SCHOOL SENIOR SEC SEC JUNIOR SEC COUNT 1 ROW ROW PCT 1 Once/ . Once/ Several TOTAL COL PCT 1 Twice Twice Every Times Every TOT PCT 1 Never 1 A Year Month 1 Weekend A Week Day 15 1 63 129 1 139 27 2 1 375 4.0 1 16.8 1 34.4 1 37.1 7.2 0.5 1 38.0 22.4 1 28.4 39.3 1 45.3 51.9 16.7 1.5 1 6.4 1 13.1 1 14.1 2.7 0.2 28 1 67 1 82 1 56 8 3 1 244 11.5 1 27.5 33.6 1 23.0 3.3 1.2 1 24.7 41.8 1 30.2 1 25.0 1 18.2 15.4 25.0 2.8 1 6.8 8.3 1 5.7 0.8 0.3;-• 24 1 92 1 117 1 112 17 7 1 369 6.5 1 24.9 1 31.7 1 30.4 4.6 1.9 1 37.3 35.8 1 41.4 35.7 1 36.5 32.7 58.3 2.4 1 9.3 1 11.8 1 11.3 1.7 0.7 OLUMN 67 222 328 307 52 12 988 TOTAL 6.8 22.5 33.2 31.1 5.3 1.2 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 38.96005 WITH 10 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0000 F i g u r e 1 F r e q u e n c y o f d r i n k i n g by S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s Number o f r e s p o n d e n t s K e y : ° A c t u a l ^ ° E x p e c t e d u cu u > 2 u o 0) o c o u 0) o V c o 0) at x: rj 4J •H c S O C > <D i - H f O -> £ <U <y -i-i <u >1 F r e q u e n c y o f a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n F i g u r e 2 Frequency o f d r i n k i n g by Secondary s t u d e n t s Frequency o f a l c o h o l consumption F i g u r e 3 Frequency o f d r i n k i n g by J u n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s Frequency o f a l c o h o l consumption 34 Age of f i r s t d r i n k by type of s c h o o l ( S e n i o r Secondary, Secondary, J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y ) . 83.2% of respondents s t a t e d they had consumed a l c o h o l a t some time i n t h e i r l i v e s by the age o f 14 o r 15. There was a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e (87.1%) of J u n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s who had consumed a l c o h o l than i n the o t h e r two s c h o o l c a t e g o r i e s . 85.3% o f Secondary s t u d e n t s and 78.2% o f S e n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d d r i n k i n g b e f o r e the age o f 14 o r 15. Fewer S e n i o r Secondary S c h o o l s t u d e n t s (26.5%) s t a r t e d consuming a l c o h o l between the ages of 10-13 than e i t h e r Secondary S c h o o l s t u d e n t s (45.1%) and J u n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s (48.8%) The c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n suggests t h a t the type o f s c h o o l which s t u d e n t s a t t e n d may not i n f l u e n c e the age they take t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k a p p r e c i a b l y . 18.6% o f S e n i o r Secondary S c h o o l s t u d e n t s , 19.9% o f Secondary S c h o o l s t u d e n t s and 18.6% of J u n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g b e f o r e the age o f 10. 35 Table 2 Age of f i r s t drink by type of school AGE FIRST SCHOOL SENIOR SEC SEC JUNIOR SEC COUNT 1 ROW ROW PCT 1 TOTAL COL PCT 1 Age 10 Before TOT PCT 1 Never 1Recent 1y1 15+ 1 14-15 1 - 13 1 10 14 1 9 1 60 1 126 1 101 1 71 381 3.7 1 2.4 1 15.7 1 33.1 1 26.5 1 18.6 37.9 18.4 1 50.0 1 81.1 1 50.4 1 25.5 1 37.4 1.4 1 0.9 1 6.0 1 12.5 1 10.1 1 7.1 30 1 1 1 5 1 50 1 111 1 49 246 12.2 1 0.4 1 2.0 1 20.3 1 45.1 1 19.9 24.5 39.5 1 5.6 1 6.8 1 20.0 1 28.0 I 25.8 3.0 1 0.1 1 0.5 1 5.0 1 11.1 1 4.9 32 1 3 1 9 1 74 1 184 1 70 377 8.5 1 2.1 1 2.4 1 19.6 1 48.8 1 18.6 37.5 42.1 1 44.4 1 12.2 1 29.6 1 46.5 1 36.8 3.2 1 0.8 1 0.9 1 7.4 1 18.3 1 7.0 OLUMN 76 18 74 250 396 190 1004 TOTAL 7.6 1.8 7.4 24.9 39.4 18.9 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 120.26582 WITH 10 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0000 36 Amount of a l c o h o l consumed by type of s c h o o l ( S e n i o r Secondary, Secondary, J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y ) . The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n , 30.3% o f s t u d e n t s , s t a t e d they drank t o the p o i n t o f b e i n g " h i g h " o r drunk. T h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s was most l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n J u n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s where 37.1% o f respondents s t a t e d they had been " h i g h " o r drunk. The S e n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s were the next most f r e q u e n t w i t h 28.7%, and the Secondary s c h o o l s the l e a s t l i k e l y t o have s t u d e n t s d r i n k i n g t o the p o i n t of drunkenness w i t h 22.2% o f respondents r e a c h i n g t h i s s t a t e . Three t o s i x d r i n k s was the second h i g h e s t c a t e g o r y of consumption. In t h i s i n s t a n c e the S e n i o r Secondary S c h o o l s showed the h i g h e s t tendency (29.2%) t o consume a t t h i s r a t e . 22.2% o f Secondary and 20.0% J u n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s answered i n the same f a s h i o n . Table 3 Amount of alcohol consumed by type of school SCHOOL AMOUNT COUNT 1 ROW PCT 1 ROW COL PCT 1 Sen lor Junlor TOTAL TOT PCT 1 Sec 1 Sec 1 Sec 40 1 57 70 1 167 1 1 24.0 1 34.1 1 41.9 18.0 11.1 1 25.8 20.0 4.3 1 6.1 1 7.5 69 1 50 1 52 1 171 2 1 40.4 1 29.2 30.4 1 18.4 19.2 1 22.6 1 14.9 7.4 1 5.4 5.6 105 1 49 70 1 224 3-6 1 46.9 1 21.9 1 31.3 1 24. 1 29.2 1 22.2 20.0 11.3 1 5.3 7.5 42 1 16 1 28 1 86 6+ 1 48.8 18.6 32.6 1 9.2 11.7 1 7.2 8.0 4.5 1.7 3.0 103 49 130 1 282 HIGH 1 36.5 1 17.4 46.1 1 30.3 OR 1 28.7 22.2 37.1 DRUNK 1 11.1 1 5.3 14.0 COLUMN 359 221 350 930 TOTAL 38.6 23.8 37.6 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 43.46431 WITH 8 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE 38 E f f e c t of a l c o h o l by type of s c h o o l ( S e n i o r Secondary, Secondary, J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y ) . 724 s t u d e n t s answered the q u e s t i o n "What i s the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t you have had from a l c o h o l ? Of these 31.4% s t a t e d they a c h i e v e d a " l o o s e easy f e e l i n g " , 21.1% became drunk, 8.6% passed out and a f u r t h e r 17.1% were unable t o r e c a l l the e v e n t s p r i o r t o the d r i n k i n g e p i s o d e . S e n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were more l i k e l y to become i l l from a l c o h o l consumption. 14.5% of them d i d so compared w i t h 9.4% o f Secondary and 8.6% o f J u n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s . S e n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s (21.0%) were a l s o more u n l i k e l y t o be a b l e t o r e c a l l e vents p r i o r t o a d r i n k i n g bout than were Secondary (13.1%) and J u n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s ( 1 5 . 6 % ) . In c o n s t r a s t 38.7% o f Secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s as opposed t o 25.2% S e n i o r Secondary and 32.9% J u n i o r Secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s drank to the p o i n t of f e e l i n g " l o o s e and easy". 39 Table 4 Effect of alcohol by type of school EFFECT COUNT Was Drinking Heavily & The Next Day Coul dn't ROW PCT 1 Loose Reca11 COL PCT 1 Easy Moderate Became Passed What ROW TOT PCT 1 Feeli ng High 1 Drunk I II I Out 1 Happened 1 TOTAL ' ' 1 73 31 1 58 I 42 25 1 61 1 290 SENIOR SEC 1 25.2 10.7 I 20.0 I 14.5 8.6 1 21.0 1 40.1 1 32.2 40.3 I 37.9 1 51.9 40.3 1 49.2 1 1 _ 1 10.1 4.3 1 8.0 I 5.8 3.5 1 8.4 I 1 1 74 15 I 41 1 18 18 1 25 1 191 SEC 1 38.7 7.9 I 21.5 I 9.4 9.4 1 13.1 1 26.4 1 32.6 19.5 1 26.8 I 22.2 29.0 1 20.2 1 1 i 10.2 2.1 I 5.7 I 2.5 1 2.5 1 3.5 1 1 1 80 31 1 54 I 21 19 1 38 1 243 JUNIOR SEC 1 32.9 12.8 1 22.2 I 8.6 7.8 1 15.6 1 33.6 1 35.2 40.3 1 35.3 I 25.9 1 30.6 1 30.6 1 1 _ | 11 .0 4.3 1 7.5 1 2.9 2.6 1 5.2 1 1 COLUMN 227 77 153 81 62 124 724 TOTAL 31.4 10.6 21.1 11 .2 8.6 17.1 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 19.58800 WITH 10 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0334 40 Frequency of d r i n k i n g by age. The c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of r a t e by age c o n f i r m s the t r e n d r e v e a l e d i n the c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f r a t e by s c h o o l i n t h a t 64.3% o f s t u d e n t s d r i n k e i t h e r once o r t w i c e p e r month o r e v e r y weekend. The s m a l l e s t p e r c e n t a g e of r e g u l a r d r i n k e r s i s i n the 13 and under group where 37.7% r e p o r t e d r e g u l a r use of the s u b s t a n c e . The p e r c e n t a g e s show a st e a d y r i s e w i t h age -50.3% o f 14 y e a r o l d s , 69.5% o f 15 y e a r o l d s , 70.2% o f 16 y e a r o l d s , 74.0% o f 17 y e a r o l d s w i t h the 18 and over age group r e g i s t e r i n g a s l i g h t d e c l i n e t o 66.6% o f r e s p o n d e n t s . 41 Table 5 Frequency of drinking by age RATE AGE (YRS) COUNT ROW ROW PCT 1 Once/ Once/ Several TOTAL COL PCT Twice Twice Every Times Every TOT PCT 1 Never 1 A Year Month 1 Weekend A Week Day 15 1 34 19 1 13 3 1 1 85 DER 17.6 1 40.0 1 22.4 1 15.3 3.5 1.2 1 8.6 22.4 1 15.3 1 5.8 1 4.2 5.8 8.3 1.5 1 3.4 1 1.9 1 1.3 0.3 0.1 22 1 56 1 42 1 44 1 5 2 1 171 14 12.9 1 32.7 24.6 1 25.7 2.9 1.2 1 17.3 32.8 1 25.2 1 12.8 1 14.3 9.6 16.7 2.2 1 5.7 1 4.3 1 4.5 0.5 0.2 10 1 44 80 1 68 8 3 1 213 15 4.7 1 20.7 1 37.6 1 31.9 1 3.8 1.4 1 21.6 14.9 1 19.8 1 24.4 1 22.1 15.4 25.0 1.0 1 4.5 1 8.1 1 6.9 1 0.8 0.3 8 1 45 1 87 1 88 17 4 1 249 16 3.2 1 18.1 1 34.9 1 35.3 6.8 1.6 1 25.2 11.9 1 20.3 1 26.5 1 28.7 32.7 33.3 0.8 1 4.6 1 8.8 1 8.9 1.7 0.4 9 1 27 73 1 67 11 2 1 189 17 4.8 1 14.3 1 38.6 1 35.4 1 5.8 1.1 1 19.1 •13.4 1 12.2 1 22.3 1 21.8 21.2 16.7 0.9 1 2.7 1 7.4 1 6.8 1 1.1 0.2 3 1 16 1 27 1 27 1 8 1 0 1 81 18+ 3.7 1 19.8 1 33.3 1 33.3 9.9 0.0 1 8.2 4.5 1 7.2 1 8.2 1 8.8 1 15.4 0.0 0.3 1 1.6 1 2.7 1 2.7 0.8 0.0 COLUMN 67 222 328 307 52 12 988 TOTAL 6.8 22.5 33.2 31.1 5.3 1.2 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 90.76387 WITH 25 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0000 42 D r i n k i n g e v e r y weekend by gender and age. Age and sex may be a c o n s i d e r a t i o n when d e t e r m i n i n g s t u d e n t s who are most l i k e l y t o d r i n k e v e r y weekend. Of those s t u d e n t s aged 16 y e a r s and under, 58.3% of male and 77.7% of female s t u d e n t s d e c l a r e d they drank e v e r y weekend. I n c o n t r a s t 41.6% o f male s t u d e n t s 17 y e a r s and over compared w i t h 22.3% of female s t u d e n t s s a i d t hey drank e v e r y weekend. 43 Table 6 Drinking every weekend by gender and age SEX COUNT I ROW PCT ROW COL PCT TOTAL TOT PCT Male 1 Fema1e 1 5 1 8 1 13 13 AND UNDER 38.5 1 61.5 1 4.2 3.8 1 4.6 1 1.6 1 2.6 1 13 1 31 1 44 14 29.5 1 70.5 1 14.3 9.8 1 17.7 I 4.2 1 10.1 1 24 1 44 1 68 15 35.3 1 64.7 1 22. 1 18.2 1 25.1 1 7.8 1 14.3 1 35 1 53 1 88 16 39.8 1 60.2 1 28.7 26.5 1 30.3 1 11.4 1 17.3 1 17 39 1 28 1 67 58.2 1 41.8 1 21.8 29.5 1 16.0 1 12.7 1 9.1 1 16 1 1 1 1 27 18+ 59.3 1 40.7 1 8.8 12.1 1 6.3 1 5.2 1 3.6 1 COLUMN 132 175 307 TOTAL 43.0 57.0 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 14.61594 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0121 44 When a l c o h o l l a s t used by age. In many r e s p e c t s q u e s t i o n A i s s i m i l a r t o q u e s t i o n B and f o r i t s p a r t i t h e l p s t o demonstrate the f r e q u e n c y of s t u d e n t d r i n k i n g . 40% o f a l l res p o n d e n t s s a i d they had used a l c o h o l d u r i n g the week p r i o r t o t h e i r b e i n g sampled. There would appear to be a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n among these s t u d e n t s who had consumed a l c o h o l w i t h s t u d e n t s consuming more r e g u l a r l y as they grow o l d e r . In the week p r i o r t o the study fewer 13 y e a r o l d s (24.4%) and 14 y e a r o l d s (33.9%) had used a l c o h o l than had 15 y e a r o l d s ( 4 2 . 9 % ) , 16 y e a r o l d s ( 4 0 . 5 % ) , 17 y e a r o l d s (48.7%) and s t u d e n t s 18 y e a r s and over ( 4 0 . 2 % ) . 45 Table 7 When alcohol last used by age WHEN LAST COUNT AGE (YRS) 6 Months ROW PCT Not For To Severa1 COL PCT Over A 1 Year Weeks Last Yester-TOT PCT Never 1 Year 1 Ago 1 Ago 1 Week 1 day 1 Today 15 1 9 1 13 1 25 1 21 1 2 1 1 UNDER 17.4 1 10.5 1 15.1 1 29.1 24.4 1 2.3 1 1.2 22.4 1 18.4 1 11.4 1 11.7 1 5.2 1 1.4 1 8.3 1.5 1 0.9 1 1.3 1 2.5 2.1 1 0.2 1 0.1 22 1 17 1 24 1 34 59 1 16 1 2 14 12.6 1 9.8 1 13.8 1 19.5 1 33.9 1 9.2 1 1.1 32.8 1 34.7 1 21.1 1 16.0 14.7 1 10.9 I 16.7 2.2 1 1.7 1 2.4 1 3.4 1 5.9 1 1.6 1 0.2 10 1 9 1 22 1 53 1 94 1 27 1 4 15 4.6 1 4. 1 1 10.0 1 24.2 1 42.9 1 12.3 1 1.8 14.9 1 18.4 1 19.3 1 24.9 1 23.4 1 18.4 1 33.3 1.0 1 0.9 1 2.2 1 5.3 9.4 1 2.7 1 0.4 8 1 7 1 25 1 58 1 102 1 47 1 5 16 3.2 1 2.8 1 9.9 1 23.0 1 40.5 1 18.7 1 2.0 11.9 1 14.3 1 21.9 1 27.2 25.4 1 32.0 1 41.7 0.8 1 0.7 1 2.5 1 5.8 1 10.2 1 4.7 1 0.5 9 1 3 1 20 1 26 1 93 1 40 1 0 17 4.7 1 1.6 1 10.5 1 13.6 48.7 1 20.9 1 0.0 13.4 1 6.1 1 17.5 1 12.2 1 23.1 1 27.2 1 0.0 0.9 1 0.3 1 2.0 1 2.6 1 9.3 1 4.0 1 0.0 3 1 4 1 10 1 17 33 1 15 1 0 18+ 3.7 1 4.9 1 12.2 1 20.7 1 40.2 1 18.3 1 0.0 4.5 1 8.2 1 8.8 1 8.0 1 8.2 1 10.2 1 0.0 0.3 1 0.4 1 1.0 1 1.7 1 3.3 1 1.5 1 0.0 COLUMN 67 49 114 213 402 147 12 TOTAL 6.7 4.9 11.4 21.2 40.0 14.6 1.2 ROW TOTAL 1004 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 103.74153 WITH 30 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0000 46 Gender by age f o r s u b j e c t s consuming a l c o h o l l a s t week. 40 2 s t u d e n t s had consumed a l c o h o l d u r i n g the week p r i o r t o the s u r v e y . The age and sex p a t t e r n f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r t r e n d t o those s t u d e n t s who consume a l c o h o l e v e r y weekend. Females between the ages of 13 and 16 y e a r s were found t o be more l i k e l y t o have consumed a l c o h o l i n the week p r i o r t o the s t u d y t h a n boys of the same age, 74.2% and 60.0% r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o n v e r s e l y a f t e r the age o f 17 a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f boys (39.0%) t h a n g i r l s (25.8%) had used a l c o h o l the p r e v i o u s week. 47 Table 8 Gander by age for subjects consuming alcohol last week SEX COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT AGE (YRS) 13 AND UNDER 14 15 16 17 18+ COLUMN TOTAL ROW TOTAL 1 Male 1 Fema1e 1 10 1 11 21 1 47.6 1 52.4 5.2 1 5.9 1 4.7 1 2.5 1 2.7 1 22 1 37 59 1 37.3 1 62.7 14.7 1 13.0 1 15.9 1 5.5 1 9.2 1 31 1 63 94 1 33.0 1 67.0 23.4 1 18.3 1 27.0 1 7.7 1 15.4 1 40 1 62 102 1 39.2 1 60.8 25.4 1 23.7 1 26.6 1 10.0 1 17.9 1 45 1 48 93 1 48.4 1 51.6 23. 1 1 26.6 1 20.6 1 11.2 1 1 1.9 1 21 1 12 33 1 63.6 1 36.4 8.2 1 12.4 1 5.2 1 5.2 1 3.0 169 233 402 42.0 58.0 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 12.17064 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0325 48 Gender by age f o r s u b j e c t s consuming beer. The consumption of beer i s r e l a t e d to both age and sex. Of the students who d r i n k beer female students 16 years and under were more l i k e l y to consume beer than male students ( i . e . 79.6% of females as opposed to 67.1% of males). However, a f t e r the age of 16 the r o l e s are r e v e r s e d . 33% of males drank beer i n c o n t r a s t to 20.3% of females. 49 Table 9 Gender by age for subjects consuming beer SEX COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT AGE (YRS) 13 AND UNDER 14 15 16 17 18+ COLUMN TOTAL Male 19 44.2 6.0 3.0 47 42.0 14.8 7.4 67 46.5 21.1 10.5 80 47.6 25.2 12.6 72 60.0 22.6 11.3 33 66.0 10.4 5.2 318 49.9 FemaIe 24 55.8 7.5 3.8 65 58.0 20.4 10.2 77 53.5 24.1 12.1 88 52.4 27.6 13.8 48 40.0 15.0 7.5 17 34.0 5.3 2.7 319 50.1 ROW TOTAL 43 6.8 112 17.6 144 22.6 168 26.4 120 18.8 50 7.8 637 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 14.46812 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0129 50 Gender by age f o r s u b j e c t s consuming hard l i q u o r . As was the case w i t h beer the l i k e l i h o o d o f consuming hard l i q u o r seems t o be l i n k e d t o age and sex. 80.5% o f female s t u d e n t s under 17 i n d i c a t e d they used hard l i q u o r i n comparison w i t h 62.7% o f males. From the age of 17 and over 37.4% o f males s a i d they used hard l i q u o r i n c o n t r a s t t o 19.4% of f e m a l e s . 51 Table 10 Gender by age for subjects consuming heard liquor SEX COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT AGE (YRS) 13 AND UNDER 14 15 16 17 18+ COLUMN TOTAL ROW TOTAL 1 Male 1 Fema 1 e 1 1 8 1 10 18 1 44.4 1 55.6 1 6. 1 1 5.6 1 6.5 1 2.7 1 3.4 1 1 14 1 26 1 40 1 35.0 1 65.0 13.5 1 9.9 1 16.9 1 1 4.7 1 8.8 1 26 1 39 65 1 40.0 1 60.0 1 22.0 1 18.3 1 25.3 1 8.8 1 13.2 1 41 1 49 90 1 45.6 1 54.4 30.4 1 28.9 1 31.8 1 13.9 1 16.6 1 40 1 21 61 1 65.6 1 34.4 20.6 1 28.2 1 13.6 1 13.5 1 7.1 1 13 1 9 22 I 59.1 1 40.9 7.4 I 9.2 1 5.8 1 4.4 1 3.0 142 154 296 48.0 52.0 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 13.31403 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0206 52 Age by age o f f i r s t d r i n k . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d 83.2% o f s t u d e n t s who responded t o t h i s q u e s t i o n had consumed a l c o h o l b e f o r e the age of 14 o r 15. The m a j o r i t y of a l l s t u d e n t s i n each age group s t a r t e d b e f o r e the age o f 14-15. The g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e of s t u d e n t s (64.3%) began usng a l c o h o l between the ages o f 10 and 15. As age i n c r e a s e s then so does the l i k e l i h o o d of a s t u d e n t h a v i n g consumed l i q u o r . W h i l e 19.3% of those s t u d e n t s 13 and under had not used a l c o h o l o n l y 2.4% o f those 18 and over had not made use of i t . Table 11 Age by age of f i r s t drink 53 AGE FIRST COUNT ROW PCT AGE (YRS) ROW TOTAL COL PCT 1 14 Before TOT PCT 1 Never IRecently1 15+ 1 or 15 10-13 1 10 1 17 1 3 1 0 1 1 1 48 1 19 1 88 UNDER 1 19.3 1 3.4 1 0.0 1 1.1 1 54.5 1 21.6 1 8.8 22.4 1 16.7 1 0.0 1 0.4 1 12.1 1 10.0 1 1.7 1 0.3 1 0.0 1 0.1 1 4.8 1 1.9 1 23 1 2 1 0 1 24 1 95 1 31 1 175 14 1 13.1 1 1 . 1 1 0.0 1 13.7 1 54.3 1 17.7 1 17.4 30.3 1 11.1 1 0.0 1 9.6 1 24.0 1 16.3 1 2.3 1 0.2 1 0.0 1 2.4 1 9.5 1 3.1 1 14 1 4 1 3 1 52 1 98 1 44 1 215 15 1 6.5 1 1.9 1 1.4 1 24.2 1 45.6 1 20.5 1 21.4 18.4 1 22.2 1 4.1 1 20.8 1 24.7 1 23.2 1 1.4 1 0.4 1 0.3 1 5.2 1 9.8 1 4.4 1 11 1 2 1 24 1 81 1 93 1 41 1 252 16 1 4.4 1 0.8 1 9.5 1 32.1 1 36.9 1 16.3 1 25.1 14.5 1 11.1 1 32.4 1 32.4 1 23.5 1 21.6 1 1.1 1 0.2 1 2.4 1 8.1 1 9.3 1 4.1 1 9 1 3 1 27 1 70 1 47 1 36 1 192 17 1 4.7 1 1.6 1 14.1 1 36.5 1 24.5 1 18.8 1 19.1 11.8 1 16.7 1 36.5 1 28.0 1 11.9 1 18.9 1 0.9 1 0.3 1 2.7 1 7.0 1 4.7 1 3.6 1 2 1 4 1 20 1 22 1 15 1 19 1 82 18+ 1 2.4 1 4.9 1 24.4 1 26.8 1 18.3 1 23.2 1 8.2 2.6 1 22.2 1 27.0 1 8.8 1 3.8 1 10.0 1 0.2 1 0.4 1 2.0 1 2.2 1 1.5 1 1.0 1 COLUMN 76 18 74 250 396 190 1004 TOTAL 7.6 1.8 7.4 24.9 39.4 18.9 100.0 CHI SQUARE = .199.22768 WITH 25 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0 54 Age of f i r s t d r i n k by North/South S u r r e y . 83.1% o f s t u d e n t s i n N o r t h S u r r e y and 83.5% i n South S u r r e y d e c l a r e d t hey had consumed a l c o h o l between the ages of 10 and 15. However, t h e r e i s some reason t o b e l i e v e t h e r e may be s l i g h t r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n those age ranges. In the N o r t h of S u r r e y , 37.4%, fewer than e x p e c t e d , s t a r t e d consuming a l c o h o l between the ages o f 10-13 as opposed t o the South where 44.1%, more than e x p e c t e d , s t a t e d they s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g between these ages. C o n v e r s e l y more 14-15 y e a r o l d s than e x p e c t e d (26.7%) i n the N o r t h o f S u r r e y , as opposed t o 20.7%, fewer 14-15 y e a r o l d s than e x p e c t e d i n the South of S u r r e y , s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g i n t h i s age range. 55 Table 12 Age of f i r s t drink by North/South Surrey AGE FIRST SCHOOL NORTH SOUTH COUNT 1 ROW ROW PCT 1 TOTAL COL PCT 1 Age 10 Before TOT PCT 1 Never 1Recently 1 15+ 1 14-15 1 - 13 1 10 52 1 8 1 59 1 188 1 264 1 134 705 7.4 1 1.1 1 8.4 1 26.7 1 37.4 1 19.0 70.2 68.4 1 44.4 1 79.7 1 75.2 1 66.7 1 70.5 5.2 1 0.8 1 5.9 1 18.7 1 26.3 1 13.3 24 1 10 1 15 1 62 1 132 1 56 299 8.0 1 3.3 1 5.0 1 20.7 1 44.1 1 18.7 29.8 31.6 1 55.6 1 20.3 1 24.8 1 33.3 1 29.5 2.4 1 1.0 1 1.5 1 6.2 1 13.1 1 5.6 COLUMN 76 18 74 250 396 190 1004 TOTAL 7.6 1.8 7.4 24.9 39.4 18.9 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 14.40082 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0133 56 Age by gender f o r drunk o r h i g h f e e l i n g . Sex and age can be s a i d t o p l a y some p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g when a s t u d e n t i s most l i k e l y t o d r i n k t o the p o i n t of being " h i g h " o r drunk. More g i r l s would appear t o take t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k i n o r d e r t o g e t drunk sooner than boys and reduce t h e i r tendancy e a r l i e r than boys. 20.4% o f 14 y e a r o l d g i r l s s t a t e d they had been drunk. The g i r l s peak at the age of 15 (27%) and t h e r e a f t e r b e g i n t o d e c l i n e . Up t o the age o f 14 boys are l e s s i n c l i n e d t o get drunk on t h e i r f i r s t o c c a s i o n than g i r l s , 13.9% vs 29.2%. From the age o f 15 the r a t e r i s e s from 24.8% t o a peak of 29.2% a t 16 y e a r s of age and then begins t o d e c l i n e . However, a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f boys i n the 17 and over age group (32.1%) t h a n g i r l s (19.7%) became drunk or " h i g h " on the o c c a s i o n o f t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k . 57 Table 13 Age by gender for drunk or high feeling SEX COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT AGE (YRS) 13 AND UNDER 14 15 16 17 18+ COLUMN TOTAL ROW TOTAL 1 Male I Fema1e 1 6 1 12 18 1 33.3 1 66.7 6.6 1 4.4 1 8.8 1 2.2 1 4.4 1 13 1 28 41 I 31.7 1 68.3 15.0 I 9.5 1 20.4 1 4.7 1 10.2 1 34 1 37 71 1 47.9 1 52.1 1 25.9 1 24.8 1 27.0 1 12.4 1 13.5 1 40 1 33 73 1 54.8 1 45.2 26.6 1 29.2 1 24.1 1 14.6 1 12.0 1 31 I 21 52 1 59.6 1 40.4 19.0 1 22.6 1 15.3 1 11.3 1 7.7 1 13 1 6 19 1 68.4 1 31.6 6.9 1 9.5 1 4.4 1 4.7 1 2.2 137 137 274 50.0 50.0 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 12.78782 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0255 58 Age by gender f o r c u r i o s i t y . Between the ages o f 13 and 15 y e a r s c u r i o s i t y as a reason f o r t a k i n g a f i r s t d r i n k d i f f e r s l i t t l e between the s e x e s . Of those who responded 44.3% o f males and 45.1% of females s a i d they took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k out of c u r i o s i t y . The ages 16 and 17 show a marked c o n t r a s t . 44.9% o f males and 35.1% of females i n t h i s age b r a c k e t took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k from c u r i o s i t y . I n the case of 16 y e a r o l d s t u d e n t s 31.3% of females compared w i t h 20.1% o f males took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k out of c u r i o s i t y , whereas 24.8% o f 17 y e a r o l d male s t u d e n t s and 13.8% of female s t u d e n t s took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k f o r the same r e a s o n . 59 Table 14 Age by gender for curiosity SEX COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT AGE (YRS) 13 AND UNDER 14 15 16 17 18+ COLUMN TOTAL Male 11 37.9 7.4 3.2 26 50.0 17.4 7.6 29 39.7 19.5 8.4 30 33.0 20.1 8.7 37 57.8 24.8 10.8 16 45.7 10.7 4.7 149 43.3 Fema I e 18 62.1 9.2 5.2 26 50.0 13.3 7.6 44 60.3 22.6 12.8 61 67.0 31.3 17.7 27 42.2 13.8 7.8 19 54.3 9.7 5.5 195 56.7 ROW TOTAL 29 8.4 52 15.1 73 21.2 91 26.5 64 18.6 35 10.2 344 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 11.20106 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0475 60 Age by gender f o r amount consumed. The c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n on age and sex by amount c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y w i t h the r e a s o n g i v e n f o r t a k i n g the f i r s t d r i n k . Females show a tendency t o d r i n k t o the p o i n t of b e i n g drunk a t an e a r l i e r age than boys. However, fewer of them do so from the age of 17 and up. 11.7% o f 13 and 14 year o l d boys as opposed t o 26.1% o f 13 and 14 y e a r o l d g i r l s drank t o the p o i n t of b e i n g drunk. For the age range 17 t o 18+ y e a r s the g r o u p i n g s are almost r e v e r s e d . 34.6% o f males and 17.1% o f females drank t o the p o i n t of b e i n g drunk. The ages 14-16 y e a r s seem t o be the most c r i t i c a l f o r f e m a l e s . 76.7% drank t o the p o i n t o f b e i n g drunk whereas 78.7% o f males between 15-17 y e a r s of age drank t o the p o i n t of b e i n g drunk. 61 Table 15 Age by gender for amount consumed SEX COUNT ROW PCT COL PCT TOT PCT AGE (YRS) 13 AND UNDER 14 15 16 17 18+ COLUMN TOTAL Male Fema I e 1 4 9 1 13 1 30.8 1 69.2 1 4.6 1 2.9 6.2 1 1 1.4 3.2 1 1 12 1 29 1 41 1 29.3 70.7 1 14.5 1 8.8 1 19.9 1 1 4.3 10.3 1 1 37 45 1 82 1 45.1 54.9 1 29. 1 1 27.2 30.8 1 1 13.1 16.0 1 1 36 38 1 74 1 48.6 51.4 1 26.2 1 26.5 26.0 1 1 12.8 13.5 1 1 34 19 1 53 1 64.2 35.8 1 18.8 1 25.0 13.0 1 1 12.1 6.7 1 1 13 6 1 19 1 68.4 31.6 I 6.7 1 9.6 4.1 1 1 4.6 2.1 1 136 146 282 48.2 51.8 100.0 ROW TOTAL CHI SQUARE = 16.29651 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0060 62 Amount consumed by age. The c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f amount drunk by age i n d i c a t e s t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l t r e n d f o r d r i n k i n g t o i n c r e a s e w i t h amount as age i n c r e a s e s up t o the age of 18. 69.1% o f 15 y e a r o l d s , 70.3% o f 16 y e a r o l d s and 71.7% o f 17 y e a r o l d s d r i n k a minimum o f t h r e e d r i n k s and c o n t i n u e u n t i l they become e i t h e r " h i g h " o r drunk. 63 Table 16 Amount consumed by age AGE (YRS) AMOUNT COUNT 1 ROW ROW PCT 1 TOTAL COL PCT 1 13 & TOT PCT 1 Under 1 14 15 16 17 18+ 26 46 36 24 23 12 1 167 1 1 15.6 27.5 21.6 1 14.4 1 13.8 7.2 1 18.0 36.1 29.7 17.6 9.9 12.8 15.6 2.8 4.9 3.9 2.6 2.5 1.3 15 37 27 48 28 16 1 171 2 1 8.8 21.6 15.8 28.1 16.4 9.4 1 18.4 20.8 23.9 13.2 19.8 15.6 20.8 1.6 4.0 2.9 5.2 3.0 1.7 13 24 47 60 57 23 1 224 3-6 1 5.8 10.7 21.0 26.8 25.4 10.3 1 24. 1 18.1 15.5 23.0 24.8 31.7 29.9 1.4 2.6 5.1 6.5 6.1 2.5 5 7 12 36 19 7 1 86 6+ 1 5.8 8.1 14.0 41.9 22. 1 8.1 1 9.2 6.9 4.5 5.9 14.9 10.6 9.1 0.5 0.8 1.3 3.9 2.0 0.8 13 41 82 74 53 19 1 282 )RUNK 1 4.6 14.5 29.1 26.2 18.8 6.7 1 30.3 18.1 26.5 40.2 30.6 29.4 24.7 1.4 4.4 8.8 8.0 5.7 2.0 COLUMN 72 155 204 242 ' 180 77 930 TOTAL 7.7 16.7 21.9 26.0 19.4 8.3 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 82.14154 WITH 20 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0000 64 Age by gender f o r those who d r i n k w i t h f r i e n d s t h e i r own  age. Of s t u d e n t s who d r i n k w i t h f r i e n d s t h e i r own age 16 y e a r o l d s are the most l i k e l y age group t o d r i n k amongst themselves (28.1% of r e s p o n d e n t s ) . 15 y e a r o l d s (22.9%) and 17 year o l d s (21.1%) a l s o seem more i n c l i n e d t o d r i n k w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t h e i r own age. The group l e a s t l i k e l y t o d r i n k w i t h s t u d e n t s t h e i r own age are the 13 y e a r o l d s w i t h o n l y 5.9% d r i n k i n g w i t h people the same age. 65 Table 17 Age by gender for those who drink with friends their own age SEX COUNT 1 ROW PCT 1 ROW COL PCT 1 TOTAL TOT PCT Male Fema 1 e 1 14 22 1 36 13 AND UNDER 1 38.9 61.1 1 5.9 5.1 6.6 1 2.3 3.6 1 26 52 1 78 14 33.3 66.7 1 12.7 9.4 15.5 1 4.2 8.5 1 59 81 1 140 15 42.1 57.9 1 22.9 21.3 24.2 1 9.6 13.2 1 76 96 1 172 16 44.2 55.8 1 28.1 27.4 28.7 1 12.4 1 15.7 1 17 69 1 60 1 129 53.5 46.5 1 21.1 24.9 1 17.9 1 11.3 9.8 1 33 24 1 57 18+ 57.9 1 42. 1 9.3 11.9 7.2 1 5.4 1 3.9 COLUMN 277 335 612 TOTAL 45.3 54.7 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 12.89521 WITH 5 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0244 66 Age by e f f e c t of a l c o h o l . The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of s t u d e n t s (31.3%) s t a t e d they drank t o the p o i n t of h a v i n g a " l o o s e easy f e e l i n g " . Of those s t u d e n t s 63.8% o f them were i n the 14-16 y e a r o l d age range. 21.1% of s t u d e n t s a l s o r e p o r t e d d r i n k i n g u n t i l they were drunk and i n t h i s i n s t a n c e 64.1% of those respondents were i n the 14-16 y e a r o l d group. Table 18 Age by effect of alcohol 67 EFFECT COUNT ROW PCT AGE (YRS) ROW TOTAL COL PCT 1 Loose Moderate Passed No TOT PCT 1 & Easy 1 High 1 Drunk II 1 1 Out Reca11 26 1 5 1 17 3 1 0 3 1 54 UNDER 1 48.1 1 9.3 1 31.5 5.6 1 0.0 1 5.6 1 7.4 11.5 1 6.4 1 11.1 3.7 1 0.0 1 2.4 3.6 1 0.7 1 2.3 0.4 1 0.0 1 0.4 50 1 10 1 24 9 1 8 1 11 1 112 14 1 44.6 1 8.9 1 21.4 8.0 1 7.1 1 9.8 1 15.4 22.0 1 12.8 1 15.7 11.1 1 12.9 1 8.9 6.9 1 1.4 1 3.3 1.2 1 1.1 1.5 43 1 23 1 30 16 1 17 27 1 156 15 1 27.6 1 14.7 1 19.2 10.3 1 10.9 1 17.3 1 21.5 18.9 1 29.5 1 19.6 19.8 1 27.4 21.8 5.9 1 3.2 1 4.1 2.2 1 2.3 1 3.7 52 1 14 1 44 23 1 19 1 34 1 186 16 1 28.0 1 7.5 1 23.7 12.4 1 10.2 18.3 1 25.7 22.9 1 17.9 1 28.8 28.4 1 30.6 1 27.4 7.2 1 1.9 1 6.1 3.2 1 2.6 1 4.7 34 1 17 1 30 23 1 13 1 32 1 149 17 1 22.8 1 11.4 1 20.1 15.4 1 8.7 1 21.5 1 20.6 15.0 1 21.8 1 19.6 28.4 1 21.0 25.8 4.7 1 2.3 1 4.1 3.2 1 1.8 1 4.4 22 1 9 1 8 7 1 5 1 17 1 68 18+ I 32.4 1 13.2 1 11.8 10.3 1 7.4 1 25.0 1 9.4 9.7 1 11.5 1 5.2 8.6 1 8.1 1 13.7 3.0 1 1.2 1 1.1 1.0 1 0.7 1 2.3 COLUMN 227 78 153 81 62 124 725 TOTAL 31.3 10.8 21.1 11.2 8.6 17.1 100.0 CHI SQUARE = 51.47964 WITH 25 DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGNIFICANCE = 0.0014 6 8 Summary o f F i n d i n g s 93.4% o f the s t u d e n t s sampled i n S u r r e y have used a l c o h o l a t some time d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s . The g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y (62.7%) i n d i c a t e they are r e g u l a r d r i n k e r s , t h a t i s , they d r i n k once o r t w i c e a month or e v e r y weekend. 1.2% of the sample (12) s t a t e d they drank everyday which would mean by i n f e r e n c e , t h a t t h e r e are as many as 120 s t u d e n t s i n the S u r r e y S c h o o l System who d r i n k e v e r y day. A l t h o u g h the l a r g e s t m a j o r i t y (63.8%) s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g between the ages o f 10 and 15 y e a r s , one i n f i v e (18.8%) had e x p e r i e n c e d a l c o h o l b e f o r e the age of 10. P a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e s seem t o have the s t r o n g e s t i n i t i a l e f f e c t on s t u d e n t s ' d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . The l a r g e s t m a j o r i t y (39.3%) took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k because p a r e n t s o f f e r e d , 40.3% d r i n k w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s and 41.7% o b t a i n a l c o h o l i c beverages from t h e i r p a r e n t s . S t u d e n t s seem t o d i s c o u n t peer i n f l u e n c e as a reason f o r s t a r t i n g t o d r i n k ; o n l y 7.9% s a i d they took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k t o be l i k e t h e i r f r i e n d s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y o n l y 5.1% s a i d f r i e n d s i n f l u e n c e d them. N e v e r t h e l e s s 60.4% d r i n k w i t h f r i e n d s t h e i r own age and 34.0% w i t h o l d e r f r i e n d s which s u g g e s t s peer p r e s s u r e may p l a y a g r e a t e r p a r t i n c o n t i n u e d d r i n k i n g p r a c t i c e s than s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e . The most common reason f o r s t u d e n t s who had consumed l i q u o r t o s t a r t d r i n k i n g was because they l i k e d the t a s t e ( 6 1 . 8 % ) . Beer was the most commonly drunk beverage (62.9%) f o l l o w e d by wine (42.3%) and mixed d r i n k s ( 4 1 . 4 % ) . When they drank most s t u d e n t s (74.0%) drank at n i g h t . 19.2% drank w i t h meals. A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n (27.8%) drank t o the p o i n t of bei n g " h i g h " or drunk and a f u r t h e r 22.1% consumed between t h r e e and s i x d r i n k s a t a s e s s i o n . However 33.4% drank s p a r i n g l y , t h a t i s e i t h e r one or two d r i n k s at a ti m e . S t u d e n t s would appear t o b e l i e v e a l c o h o l has l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e i r l i v e s . 70.4% f e l t i t had no e f f e c t on t h e i r l i v e s and 94.7% d i d not see a l c o h o l as b e i n g a problem or f e l t t hey had i t under c o n t r o l . When asked how o t h e r s p e r c e i v e d t h e i r d r i n k i n g h a b i t s 79.7% c o u l d n ' t say or f e l t they were c o n s i d e r e d normal d r i n k e r s f o r t h e i r age. Age and sex would appear t o p l a y r o l e s i n s t u d e n t d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . Between the ages o f 15 and 17 the pe r c e n t a g e s of s t u d e n t s u s i n g a l c o h o l once or t w i c e per month or e v e r y weekend r i s e s from 69.5% t o 74.0%. I n the age range 13-16 y e a r s , females (77.7%) are more l i k e l y t o d r i n k e v e r y weekend than males ( 5 8 . 3 % ) . C o n v e r s e l y , more male s t u d e n t s over the ages of 17 (41.6%) d r i n k e v e r y weekend than female s t u d e n t s (32.3%) of the same age. Of the beverages consumed beer and hard l i q u o r are s u b j e c t t o sex and age v a r i a t i o n s . Up t o the age o f 16 females are more l i k e l y t o d r i n k beer (79.6%) and hard l i q u o r 70 (80.5%) than males, 67.1% and 62.7% r e s p e c t i v e l y . From the age of 17 males are more l i k e l y t o d r i n k beer (33.0%) and hard l i q u o r (37.4%) than f e m a l e s , 20.3% and 19.4% r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l t h o u g h the g r e a t e s t percentage of s t u d e n t s (83.2%) have consumed a l c o h o l b e f o r e the age o f 14 o r 15 t h e r e are u n d e r l y i n g v a r i a t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d be noted. Whereas the p e r c e n t a g e s o f s t u d e n t s s t a r t i n g t o d r i n k under the age of 10 are v e r y s i m i l a r f o r each s c h o o l type i t would appear t h a t more s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g between the age of 10-13 i n the J u n i o r Secondary (48.8%) and Secondary School (45.1%) than i n the S e n i o r Secondary S c h o o l s ( 2 6 . 5 % ) . There may a l s o be some v a r i a t i o n due t o l o c a t i o n . I n N o r t h S u r r e y fewer s t u d e n t s than expected (37.4%) s t a r t e d consuming a l c o h o l between the ages of 10 and 13. 26.7% o f s t u d e n t s , more than e x p e c t e d i n No r t h S u r r e y and 20.7%, fewer than e x p e c t e d i n South S u r r e y , s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g i n the 14-15 age range. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y as age i n c r e a s e s so the percentage of n o n - d r i n k e r s d e c r e a s e s . 19.3% of s t u d e n t s 13 ye a r s and under had not had a d r i n k compared w i t h 2.4% o f s t u d e n t s 18 y e a r s and o v e r . C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of sex and age i n f e r t h a t g i r l s up t o the age o f 14 y e a r s are more l i k e l y t o take t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k t o get " h i g h " o r drunk than boys (29.2% vs 13.9%) and boys over 17 are more l i k e l y t o f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n than are g i r l s (32.1% vs 19.7%). 71 These f i n d i n g s are s i m i l a r t o those r e l a t i n g t o s t u d e n t s who consume a l c o h o l t o the p o i n t of be i n g " h i g h " o r drunk. 11.7% o f males 14 and under as opposed t o 26.1% of females consume a l c o h o l t o the p o i n t of b e i n g " h i g h " o r drunk. The t r e n d i s a g a i n r e v e a l e d i n the 17 and over age group w i t h 34.6% o f males and 17% o f females d r i n k i n g t o the p o i n t of b e i n g drunk. C u r i o s i t y not o n l y p l a y e d a major r o l e i n why s t u d e n t s took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k but was a l s o s u b j e c t to age and sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Sex and age has l i t t l e e f f e c t on c u r i o s i t y as a reason between the ages 13-15 o r 18 and o v e r . But 16 y e a r o l d males are l e s s l i k e l y t o take t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k from c u r i o s i t y than females w h i l e the r e v e r s e i s t r u e i n the 17 y e a r o l d c a t e g o r y . 13 y e a r o l d s t u d e n t s are most l i k e l y t o consume o n l y one d r i n k when they d r i n k whereas 15 y e a r o l d s t u d e n t s are the most l i k e l y t o d r i n k t o the p o i n t of be i n g e i t h e r " h i g h " o r drunk. The type o f s c h o o l would a l s o seem to p l a y a r o l e i n the l e v e l o f d r i n k i n g . For example, 37.1% o f J u n i o r Secondary p u p i l s as opposed t o 22.2% o f Secondary S c h o o l s t u d e n t s and 28.7% o f S e n i o r Secondary s t u d e n t s d r i n k t o the p o i n t of b e i n g " h i g h " o r drunk. Between the ages of 15 and 17 y e a r s s t u d e n t s are more l i k e l y t o d r i n k w i t h f r i e n d s t h e i r own age (72.1%) w i t h 16 y e a r o l d s (28.1%) b e i n g the most l i k e l y t o i n d u l g e i n t h i s p r a c t i c e . Of the s t u d e n t s who responded to the q u e s t i o n 'What i s the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t you have had from a l c o h o l ? ' 31.3% s a i d t h ey had a c h i e v e d a " l o o s e easy f e e l i n g " and 21.1% have been drunk. 13 and 14 y e a r o l d s t u d e n t s were most l i k e l y t o become " l o o s e and easy" (48.1% and 44.6% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and 13 y e a r o l d s t u d e n t s were a l s o most l i k e l y to.become drunk ( 3 1 . 5 % ) . Though drunkenness i s l o w e s t among the 18 and over age group they are a l s o the group most l i k e l y t o d r i n k t o the p o i n t t h a t t h e y are unable t o r e c a l l e v e n ts d u r i n g the d r i n k i n g e p i s o d e ( 1 1 . 8 % ) . Chapter 5 D i s c u s s i o n I n common w i t h a l l the a v a i l a b l e s t u d i e s the v a s t m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s , 93.4%, have used a l c o h o l a t some stage d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s i s i n keep i n g w i t h C u t l e r and Storm's (1973) 92.1% and K i t c h e n and Robinson's (1977) 91.0%. On the o t h e r hand Macurdy & H o l l a n d e r ' s (1978) f i g u r e was o n l y 78.1%. I t i s perhaps worth n o t i n g t h a t these f i g u r e s are g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r than f o r o t h e r p a r t s of Canada. Smart and F e j e r (1974) noted 73% i n Toronto whereas C u t l e r and Storm (1973) noted 43% i n M o n t r e a l . R e s u l t s are s i m i l a r t o those of Smart, Gray and Bennett (1976) who e s t i m a t e d 86% o f O n t a r i o s t u d e n t s had used a l c o h o l at l e a s t once i n t h e i r l i v e s . C u t l e r and Storm (1973) found c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes and t h e i r use of a l c o h o l . 25% o f males and 45% o f females had never used a l c o h o l or made v e r y i n f r e q u e n t use of i t . T h i s compares w i t h 88.0% o f males and 85.1% o f females i n the stu d y by Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978). The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y are much more c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the l a t t e r and s u g g e s t s 93% of males and 92% of females have used a l c o h o l a t some tim e . Comparisons r e g a r d i n g f r e q u e n c i e s o f d r i n k i n g e p i s o d e s are d i f f i c u l t t o make. Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978), K i t c h e n and Robinson (1977) and C u t l e r and Storm (1973) a l l g i v e f i g u r e s f o r s t u d e n t s who d r i n k once a week or more, namely 14.3%, 27% and 15.3% r e s p e c t i v e l y . In S u r r e y 5.1% of s t u d e n t s d r i n k s e v e r a l times a week w i t h a f u r t h e r 30.3% d r i n k i n g e v e r y weekend. There i s s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t t e e n a g e r s are s t a r t i n g t o d r i n k e a r l i e r . K i t c h e n and Robinson (1977) found 91% of t h e i r sample had used a l c o h o l by the age of 15 and 61.6% o f those between the ages o f 12 and 14 had s t a r t e d d r i n k i n g b e f o r e the -age of 12. Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) noted 70.6% o f t h e i r sample had used a l c o h o l b e f o r e the age o f 14. C u t l e r and Storm (1973) r e p o r t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y fewer a t 39.6%. T h i s study tends t o s u p p o r t the e a r l i e r d r i n k i n g t h e o r y a l t h o u g h t h e r e are some r e s e r v a t i o n s on the p a r t o f the w r i t e r . The p e r c e n t a g e of s t u d e n t s s t a r t i n g to consume l i q u o r b e f o r e the age of 10 remained q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t through the age group 13 and under t o 18 p l u s . Indeed a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f 18 p l u s s t u d e n t s (23.2%) r e p o r t e d d r i n k i n g b e f o r e the age of 10 than d i d any o t h e r group; n o n e t h e l e s s the range was 16.3% t o 23.2%. The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e which may s u p p o r t the e a r l i e r d r i n k i n g argument i s i n the 13 t o 15 y e a r age group. 54.5% o f 13 y e a r o l d s , 54.3% o f 14 y e a r o l d s and 45.6% o f 15 y e a r o l d s s t a t e d they took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k between the ages o f 10 and 13. In c o n t r a s t o n l y 18.3% o f the 18 and over age group s t a r t e d between the ages o f 10-13 and 24.4% of them d i d not take t h e i r 75 f i r s t d r i n k u n t i l t h ey were o v e r 15 y e a r s of age. Thus, one may suggest t h a t more s t u d e n t s i n S u r r e y between the ages of 12 and 15 have t a k e n t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k between the age o f 10 and 13 than d i d those s t u d e n t s 16 y e a r s and o v e r . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y l e n d credence t o the argument t h a t p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n promoting teenage d r i n k i n g . 39.3% of s t u d e n t s took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k because p a r e n t s o f f e r e d , 41.7% o b t a i n t h e i r a l c o h o l from p a r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s and 40.3% of s t u d e n t s say they d r i n k w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s . These f i g u r e s are most c o n s i s t e n t w i t h K i t c h e n and Robinson (1977) who found 44.6% o b t a i n e d a l c o h o l from t h e i r p a r e n t s a l t h o u g h they are l o w e r than Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) and C u t l e r and Storm (1973) who s a i d 63% and 56.1% r e s p e c t i v e l y of s t u d e n t s drank w i t h p a r e n t s or r e l a t i ves . The m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s (74%) drank a t n i g h t and 19.2% took a l c o h o l w i t h t h e i r f o o d . 15.3% s t a r t e d t o d r i n k i n the a f t e r n o o n . 0.6% and 0.9% drank i n the morning or d u r i n g the n i g h t . T h i s combined t o t a l o f 1.5% suggests t h a t the 1.2% of s t u d e n t s who say they d r i n k e i t h e r e v e r y day or have drunk to-day i s r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e . In the o p i n i o n of t h i s w r i t e r , a d v e r t i s i n g p l a y s a major p a r t i n our l i v e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t u r n the pages of any p o p u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n w i t h o u t f i n d i n g a t l e a s t one a d v e r t i s e m e n t e n c o u r a g i n g the use of a l c o h o l i n some shape or form and f o r a m u l t i t u d e of r e a s o n s . 76 I t s h o u l d not t h e r e f o r e be s u p r i s i n g t h a t c u r i o s i t y p l a y s a r o l e i n why s t u d e n t s take t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k s . 34% o f the S u r r e y s t u d e n t s took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k f o r t h i s r e a s o n . C u t l e r and Storm (1973) r e p o r t e d 32% o f t h e i r sample gave the same re a s o n . S t u d e n t s would appear t o have d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o l e peer p r e s s u r e p l a y s on t h e i r d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . Only 10.6% o f respondents s t a t e d they s t a r t d r i n k i n g because o f peer p r e s s u r e and 5.1% c o n s i d e r e d f r i e n d s i n f l u -enced them. T h i s compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h the f i g u r e found by C u t l e r and Storm (197 3) namely 7.3%. 7.9% s a i d they took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k because f r i e n d s o f f e r e d . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o the 22.3% r e p o r t e d by K i t c h e n and Robinson (1977) and the 20% by Maddox and M c C o l l (1964). R e g a r d l e s s o f how few c l a i m t h a t they took t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k e i t h e r because a f r i e n d o f f e r e d o r t o be l i k e t h e i r f r i e n d s , f r i e n d s undoubtably i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t d r i n k i n g p a t -t e r n s . 49.2% s t a t e d they o b t a i n e d a l c o h o l from t h e i r f r i e n d s and 60.4% s a i d they drank w i t h f r i e n d s t h e i r own age. I t i s pe r h a p s , t h e r e f o r e , unwise to d i s r e g a r d the s u b t l e t i e s t h a t p e er p r e s s u r e may p l a c e on s t u d e n t s . Few i n d i v i d u a l s are w i l l i n g t o concede t h a t o t h e r s may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . In t h i s s t u d y 46.7% of s t u d e n t s f e l t they c o u l d c o n t r o l t h e i r d r i n k i n g and impose s e l f d etermined l i m i t s and 48.0% c o n s i d e r e d a l c o h o l no problem a t a l l . S o c i e t y as a whole, not j u s t immediate p e e r s , must bear some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r teenage d r i n k i n g . Of the 1013 s t u d e n t s who completed t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1005 were under the l e g a l d r i n k i n g age i n B r i t i s h Columbia and y e t 79.7% a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v e o t h e r s see them as normal d r i n k e r s f o r t h e i r age. One i s t h e r e f o r e f o r c e d t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l condones teenage consumption of a l c o h o l . I f a d u l t s tend t o d i s r e g a r d the hazards or even endorse the consumption o f a l c o h o l i t i s not unduly s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t e e n a g e r s f a i l t o c o n s i d e r peer p r e s s u r e as a major i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r . d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . 61.8% o f the S u r r e y sample who drank d i d so because they l i k e d the t a s t e . T h i s i s h i g h e r than the f i g u r e s found by Maddox and M c C o l l (1964) who r e p o r t e d 50% o f t h e i r sample drank f o r the same r e a s o n . Perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g l y beer was the most p o p u l a r d r i n k w i t h 62.9% of those who drank u s i n g i t f o l l o w e d by wine at 42.3%, mixed d r i n k s a t 41.4% and hard l i q u o r at 29.2%. In comparison Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) found the number of s t u d e n t s who drank beer t o equal 53.2%, wine 50.5% and hard l i q u o r 51.4%. 6.7% of the S u r r e y sample s t a t e d they used a s u b s t i t u t e . S e v e r a l i n d i c a t e d t h i s s u b s t i t u t e was pot whereas o t h e r s d i d not e l a b o r a t e . The a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g ests a d i s t u r b i n g l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of s t u d e n t s d r i n k t o the p o i n t they c o n c e i v e as b e i n g i n t o x i c a t e d . Macurdy and H o l l a n d e r (1978) found at 78 l e a s t 50% had been drunk once, and 20.7% seven or more times i n the s i x months p r e c e d i n g the s t u d y . C u t l e r and Storm (1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t 54.7% o f t h e i r sample had been drunk, 53.4% had become i l l and 32.1% passed ou t . The p r e s e n t data s u g g e s t s t h a t the s i t u a t i o n i n S u r r e y i s not q u i t e as s e r i o u s but i n the o p i n i o n of t h i s w r i t e r , i t i s d i s t u r b i n g . 27.8% o f r e spondents s t a t e d they consume a l c o h o l t o the p o i n t of g e t t i n g drunk a l t h o u g h o n l y 15.1% c o n s i d e r e d t hey had been drunk when asked "what i s the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t a l c o h o l has had on you?" 8.0% s t a t e d they had been i l l , 6.1% s a i d they had passed o u t , and 12.2% had no r e c o l l e c t i o n of the e v e nts l e a d i n g up t o t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . In s h o r t , at l e a s t 41.4% have o v e r - i n d u l g e d t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r l i q u o r , an a l a r m i n g s t a t i s t i c when one c o n s i d e r s o n l y e i g h t o f the sample are l e g a l l y o l d enough t o d r i n k i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. C o n s i d e r a t i o n must a l s o be g i v e n t o the f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s f e e l a l c o h o l has l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e i r l i v e s . 70.4% s a i d l i q u o r has had no e f f e c t on t h e i r l i v e s , 41,3% o f s t u d e n t s s a i d they had e i t h e r been drunk, passed o u t , become i l l or d i d not r e c a l l e v e n ts p r i o r t o t h e i r d r i n k i n g and y e t o n l y 3.4% s a i d a l c o h o l had i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e i r t a l k i n g t o someone and 2.6% t h a t they had been p r e v e n t e d from h a v i n g a good t i m e . 26.3% have been i l l , passed out or had no r e c a l l , 2.8% c o n s i d e r e d a l c o h o l had i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e i r s c h o o l work and 9.5% have been i n t r o u b l e at home. 8.2% of the s t u d e n t s 79 have been i n a f i g h t , d e s t r o y e d p r o p e r t y had an a c c i d e n t , i n j u r y , been a r r e s t e d or punished at s c h o o l because of d r i n k i n g . Put an o t h e r way we c o u l d e xpect t o f i n d t h a t n e a r l y 800 S u r r e y s t u d e n t s have s u f f e r e d s e r i o u s consequences due to the i n f l u e n c e of a l c o h o l . 2.8% of respondents e i t h e r f e l t bad about t h e i r d r i n k i n g , thought they needed h e l p or have had h e l p a l t h o u g h 3.5% of those who s t a r t e d t o d r i n k d i d so because they were sad or l o n e l y and 5.4% drank a l o n e . Maddox and M c C o l l (1964) found 8% of t h e i r sample drank when they were unhappy. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a d u l t s become alarmed about the use of a l c o h o l among teenagers w i t h h i n d s i g h t and m a t u r i t y . Teenagers on the o t h e r hand do not appear t o f e e l the same way. As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d 48.0% of s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r e d a l c o h o l p r e s e n t e d no problem t o them and a f u r t h e r 46.7% f e l t t hey had i t under c o n t r o l g i v i n g a combined percentage of 94.7%. By the same token 79.7% o f respondents e i t h e r c o u l d n ' t say o r f e l t o t h e r s r e g a r d e d t h e i r d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s as normal. C o n c l u s i o n s One i s f o r c e d t o c o n s i d e r young p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e towards a l c o h o l i n l i g h t of a number of f a c t o r s . I n Canada both F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments r a i s e l a r g e amounts of revenue from the s a l e o f a l c o h o l , a p o l i c y which must b r i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n the c u r r e n t a n t i - d r i n k i n g campaign being sponsored by the government o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 80 Can an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t c o n t r o l s and promotes a l l l i q u o r o u t l e t s i n a p r o v i n c e be ex p e c t e d t o pursue a w h o l e - h e a r t e d campaign about the e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l on i t s consumers? M a n u f a c t u r e r s and a d v e r t i s e r s must a l s o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r more o v e r t a d v e r t i s i n g campaigns which may be i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the growing number of teenage d r i n k e r s . A l t h o u g h f a v o u r a b l e l i f e s t y l e a d v e r t i s i n g o f a l c o h o l i s c u r r e n t l y banned from our T.V. s c r e e n s many a l c o h o l m a n u f a c t u r e r s c u r r e n t l y endorse h i g h p r o f i l e s p o r t s . As l o n g as our youth are encouraged t o a s s o c i a t e s p o r t s and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s w i t h the consumption of a l c o h o l then we are u n l i k e l y t o break what seems t o be a growing t r e n d . S o c i e t y t o o must be pr e p a r e d t o make some c o n c e s s i o n . A l c o h o l p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , p r o motion and r e t a i l i n g i s a m u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r b u s i n e s s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e a l o n e . Any major r e d u c t i o n i n the d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s of B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t s would a f f e c t the p r o s p e r i t y of t h i s p r o v i n c e . W i l l those whose jobs seem t h r e a t e n e d g i v e t h e i r s u p p o r t t o a d r i v e t o reduce a l c o h o l consumption even i f such a campaign was de s i g n e d o n l y t o i n f l u e n c e t e e n a g e r s ? I t seems we must make a s t a r t w i t h p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . S e v e r a l p r i n c i p a l s commented t h a t p a r e n t s e x p r e s s e d r e l i e f t h a t t h e i r sons o r daughte r s o n l y used a l c o h o l and not d r u g s , t h i s d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the medical p r o f e s s i o n c o n s i d e r s a l c o h o l t o be a drug. I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t h a t the 81 g e n e r a l p u b l i c be made aware t h a t a l c o h o l i s a drug and as such i s h i g h l y a d d i c t i v e . S c h o o l s do t e a c h some of the a s p e c t s o f a l c o h o l misuse. The w r i t e r ' s own s c h o o l has c l a s s e s on the s u b j e c t . However, the t o p i c o f the c l a s s e s i s c a t e g o r i z e d as drugs and a l c o h o l and not under the s i n g l e n o t a t i o n o f 'drugs'. C l e a r l y what-e v e r we are d o i n g to educate s t u d e n t s about a l c o h o l i s not s u f f i c i e n t . P erhaps, as some s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d on t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a d u l t s are too n e g a t i v e about the e f f e c t s a l c o h o l has on us as i n d i v i d u a l s . As e d u c a t o r s we presumably attempt t o demonstrate how t h i s s h o u l d be done by a c c e n t u a t i n g the p o s i t i v e and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , denying the n e g a t i v e o f any p a r t i c u l a r c o ncept. A c o n t r o v e r s i a l r e p o r t was r e p o r t e d i n the P r o v i n c e newspaper on November 19, 1980. Dr. B i l l S aunders, d i r e c t o r o f an a l c o h o l study c e n t r e i n Glasgow, S c o t l a n d , observed t h a t t e e n a g e r s c o u l d not l e a r n t o d r i n k o v e r n i g h t once r e a c h i n g t h e i r e i g h t e e n t h b i r t h d a y , the l e g a l d r i n k i n g age i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. He recommended t h a t c h i l d r e n of 12 and o ver be g i v e n one or two g l a s s e s of d i l u t e d wine w i t h d i n n e r . He a l s o argued t h a t y o u n g s t e r s who become i n t o x i c a t e d do so because they have not been ed u c a t e d , i n " s a f e d r i n k i n g " . The a u t h o r i s not s u g g e s t i n g t h a t ' d r i n k i n g be t aught i n s c h o o l s but i f we are t o c o n t i n u e t o l i v e w i t h a l c o h o l as i t seems we must, then i n f o r m a t i o n on the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of why people d r i n k must be demonstrated w i t h as much 82 candour as the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s . At p r e s e n t teenagers see a d u l t s i n the h y p o c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n of condemning something many of them c l e a r l y e n j o y . I f they were more a b l e t o p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e and l u c i d i n f o r m a t i o n t e e n a g e r s would be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o judge f o r themselves some of the i n h e r e n t dangers of a l c o h o l consumption. Weaknesses t o be c o n s i d e r e d In an i d e a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y the sample s h o u l d be t r u l y random. In t h i s i n s t a n c e s i n c e n e a r l y a l l the respond-e n t s were minors such a p a t t e r n was not p o s s i b l e . W h i l e the i n i t i a l sample was randomly s e l e c t e d i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t o n l y those s t u d e n t s who r e t u r n e d the p e r m i s s i o n s l i p s were p e r m i t t e d t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S t u d e n t s were guaranteed t o t a l anonymity by the r e s e a r c h e r and t h i s was honoured throughout the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s u r v e y . However, f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s and time con-s t r a i n t s p r e v e n t e d the r e s e a r c h e r from h i r i n g anonymous survey a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . For p r a c t i c a l reasons t e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t e r e d and c o l l e c t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be noted the r e s e a r c h e r s t r e s s e d t h a t they s h o u l d r e s p e c t the c o n f i -d e n t i a l i t y o f s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s . S i m i l a r l y , under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s , a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s h o u l d have been completed on the same day and a t the same tim e . Again due t o the l a r g e number of s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d and t h e i r d i f f e r i n g time t a b l e s t h i s was not p o s s i b l e . 83 The survey i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f seems t o have performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a l t h o u g h some minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n the event t h a t i t i s used a g a i n : 1. Q u e s t i o n D 'What do you d r i n k 1 the l a s t response i s 'have a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a l c o h o l ' . T h i s i s too vague and g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n what the s u b s t i t u t e i s . The su r v e y would b e n e f i t from s t u d e n t s naming the s u b s t i t u t e . 2. Q u e s t i o n E 'How do you get your d r i n k s ' would b e n e f i t from a l a s t response s t a t i n g ' o t h e r , p l e a s e s t a t e 1 . Ten s t u d e n t s i n s e r t e d they bought l i q u o r from " b o o t l e g g e r s " i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . 3. Q u e s t i o n F. In a s u r v e y of t h i s s i z e the response " r e c e n t l y " i s almost redundant. The q u e s t i o n would a l s o b e n e f i t from s t a t i n g each age r a t h e r than g r o u p i n g ages 10-13, 14 o r 15 and 15+. 4. Q u e s t i o n I 'How much do s t u d e n t s d r i n k ? ' The responses a v a i l a b l e do not g i v e an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of amounts consumed e.g. how much i s one d r i n k ? N e v e r t h e l e s s s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s and q u a n t i t i e s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l e t h i s i s not c o n s i d e r e d a major problem. 5. Q u e s t i o n K. T h i s q u e s t i o n would b e n e f i t from a f i r s t r e s p o nse of 'none or no e f f e c t ' . 28.4% o f the sample f a i l e d t o respond t o t h i s q u e s t i o n and t h e r e f o r e presumably c o n s i d e r e d a l c o h o l had not a f f e c t e d them i n any way. 84 One group of s t u d e n t s a t t a c h e d the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c i s m s t o t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : 1. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e assumes most s t u d e n t s d r i n k and d r i n k h e a v i l y . 2. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e appears to be p e r s u a s i v e f o r s t u d e n t s t o be a l c o h o l i c s . 3. There i s no mention of m i x i n g a l c o h o l and d r u g s . 4. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e assumes d r i n k i n g i s n e g a t i v e . 5. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e makes you t h i n k p a r e n t s i n f l u e n c e s t u d e n t s ' d r i n k i n g . 6. The l a s t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s are 'sad'. 7. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e f a i l s t o d e a l w i t h a t t i t u d e s towards a l c o h o l . There s h o u l d have been more open q u e s t i o n s to a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o make i n d i v i d u a l comments. The r e s e a r c h e r would argue t h a t any q u e s t i o n n a i r e on the use o f a l c o h o l c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g p e r s u a s i v e towards d r i n k i n g . In t h i s i n s t a n c e n o n - d r i n k e r s need o n l y check t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y any q u e s t i o n n a i r e which emphasized d r i n k i n g as a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r c o u l d e q u a l l y be open t o c r i t i c i s m . F i n a l l y the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used as a means of c o l l e c t i n g q u a n t i f i a b l e d a t a . A l l o w i n g open r e s p o n s e s from s t u d e n t s would have made t a b u l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e . P o s s i b i l i t i e s For F u t u r e Research The study has attempted t o f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e the i n f o r -85 m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on teenage d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . C u r r e n t l y t o o l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s to make any f i r m p r o g n o s i s as t o the d r i n k i n g h a b i t s o f B r i t i s h Columbian or Canadian s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs t o be conducted not o n l y on the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia but throughout the p r o v i n c e and p o s s i b l y a c r o s s Canada. Such s u r v e y s would be i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r demographic v a r i a t i o n s between p r o v i n c e s , c i t i e s and r u r a l a r e a s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s may a l s o want to c o n s i d e r h i g h , medium and low income f a m i l i e s and one or two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . There a l s o e x i s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g a s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o the p a r e n t s , p a r e n t or g u a r d i a n s of those s t u d e n t s who agree to take p a r t i n l a t e r r e s e a r c h and e s t a b l i s h i n g p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t u d e n t s and p a t e r n a l d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . S t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g any of the above q u e s t i o n s would go some way t o p r o v i d i n g more d a t a i n an area which a t the moment i s s u r p r i s i n g l y s h o r t of i n f o r m a t i v e s t a t i s t i c s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s the r e s e a r c h e r i s p r e p a r e d to argue t h a t s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e has been f u r n i s h e d by t h i s paper to c o n c l u d e t h a t a l c o h o l p l a y s a major r o l e i n the l i f e s t y l e o f a v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of our s t u d e n t s . From these f i g u r e s a l o n e i t i s perhaps a d v i s a b l e t o make s t u d e n t s and p a r t i -c u l a r l y p a r e n t s aware of the p o s s i b l e s h o r t and l o n g term s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s o f a l c o h o l use. 86 Re f e r e n c e s C u t l e r , R. and Storm, T. D r i n k i n g p r a c t i c e s i n t h r e e B.C. c i t i e s : S t udent s u r v e y . Vancouver, A l c o h o l i s m F o u n d a t i o n o f B.C., 1973. H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada. A l c o h o l problems i n Canada: A  summary of c u r r e n t knowledge. Research Bureau, Non-M e d i c a l Use o f Drugs D i r e c t o r a t e , H e a l t h P r o t e c t i o n B r a nch, 1976. J e s s e r , R., B o u t o u r l i n e - Y o u n g , H., Young, E.B., and T e s i , G. P e r c e i v e d o p p o r t u n i t y , a l i e n a t i o n and d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o u r among I t a l i a n and American y o u t h . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1970, 15, 215-222. J e s s e r , R. and J e s s e r , S.L. A d o l e s c e n t development and the ons e t o f d r i n k i n g . J o u r n a l o f S t u d i e s on A l c o h o l , 1976, 36, 27-51. K i t c h e n , B. and Ro b i n s o n , P. A l c o h o l Use by No r t h Vancouver  Y o u t h . Vancouver, U n i t e d Way of G r e a t e r Vancouver, 1977. Macurdy, J . and H o l l a n d e r , S. A l c o h o l and drug use among  Vancouver Secondary S c h o o l s t u d e n t s , 1970-1974-1978. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , A l c o h o l and Drug Commission, B.C., 1978. Maddox, G.L. and M c C o l l , B.C. D r i n k i n g among t e e n a g e r s . New Br u n s w i c k , Rutgers Centre o f A l c o h o l s t u d i e s , 1964. Mayer, J.E. and F i l s t e a d , W. Ad o l e s c e n c e and a l c o h o l . Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1980. 87 Ministry of Health, Alcohol and Drug Commission. Alcohol and  drug s t a t i s t i c s for Canada and B.C.; 1955-1976. Canada, 1976. Smart, R.G. and Fejer, A. Trends in drug use among Metropolitan Toronto high school students. Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, 1974. Smart, R.G. The new drinkers. Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, 1976. Smart, R.G., Gray, G. and Bennett, C. Predictors of drinking and signs of heavy drinking among high school students. Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, 1976. Smart, R.G. and Gray, G. Parental and peer influences as correlates of problem drinking among high school students. Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, 1977. Smart, R.G. and B l a i r , N. Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y of a high school drug use questionnaire. Toronto, Addiction Research Foundation, 1977. United Press International. "Start them early - on the bott l e . " Province, November 19, 1980, p. A8. Wechsler, H. and Thorn, D. Teenage drinking, drug use and so c i a l correlates. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alchohol, 1973, 34, 1220-1227. Appendix 1 Survey of Teenage D r i n k i n g P a t t e r n s There would appear t o be a growing concern i n s o c i e t y t h a t t e e n a g e r s are consuming more a l c o h o l i c beverages, more f r e q u e n t l y and a t an e a r l i e r age than have o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n s . T h i s s u r v e y i s p a r t of a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t b e i n g conducted a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. S u r r e y secondary s c h o o l s have been s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s u r v e y which has been d e s i g n e d to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about teenage d r i n k i n g h a b i t s (e.g. age, f r e q u e n c y , amount and time o f day a l c o h o l i s used.) St u d e n t s have been s e l e c t e d randomly t o answer t h i s s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e which s h o u l d take no more than 10-15 minutes to complete. In o r d e r t o guarantee the anonymity of s t u d e n t s do not w r i t e your name. Mark o n l y y o ur age and sex, then s e l e c t the answer(s) t o each q u e s t i o n and check (v) the box(es) p r o v i d e d . A l l s t u d e n t s are f r e e t o withdraw a t any time or t o r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n s . I f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s completed i t w i l l be assumed t h a t consent t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s survey has been g i v e n . Com-p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a r i e s w i l l then be c o l l e c t e d by the t e a c h e r . Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . Survey of Teenage D r i n k i n g P a t t e r n s Age Sex Male y e a r s Femal e A. How o f t e n do you d r i n k ? 25 [ 2 . 5%] no answer 67 [ 6 . 6%] never 2 2 2 [ 2 1 . 9%] once or t w i c e a y e a r 3 2 8 [ 3 2 . 4%] once or t w i c e a month 3 0 7 [ 3 0 . 3%] e v e r y weekend 5 2 [ 5 . 1%] s e v e r a l times a week 1 2 [ 1 . 2%] e v e r y day ( 1 0 1 3 ) . When d i d you have your l a s t d r i n k ? 9 [ o . 9%] no answer 67 [ 6 . 6%] never drank 49 [ 4 . 8%] not f o r over a y e a r 1 1 4 [ 1 1 . 3%] between s i x months and one y e a r ago 2 1 3 [ 2 1 . 0%] s e v e r a l weeks ago 4 0 2 [ 3 9 . 7%] l a s t week 1 4 7 [ 1 4 . 5%] y e s t e r d a y 1 2 [ 1 . 2%] t o d a y ( 1 0 1 3 ) C. I u s u a l l y s t a r t t o d r i n k because: r e s p o n s e s . ) ( o p t i o n o f m u l t i p l e 1 1 5 [ 1 1 . 2%] no answer 6 2 6 [ 6 1 . 8%] I l i k e the t a s t e 1 0 7 [ 1 0 . 6%] t o be l i k e my f r i e n d s 33 [ 3 . 3%] t o f e e l l i k e an a d u l t 97 [ 9 . 6%] I f e e l n ervous, t e n s e , f u l l o f w o r r i e s or problems 3 5 [ 3 . 5%] I f e e l s a d , l o n e l y , s o r r y f o r m y s e l f ( 1 0 1 3 ) D. What do you d r i n k ? ( o p t i o n of m u l t i p l e r e s p o n s e s . ) 4 2 9 6 3 7 4 1 9 2 9 6 68 ( 1 8 4 9 ) [ 4 2 . 3 % ] wine [ 6 2 . 9 % ] beer [ 4 1 . 4 % ] mixed d r i n k s [ 2 9 . 2 % ] hard l i q u o r [ 6 . 7%] have a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a l c o h o l Ro - 2 -E . How do you get your d r i n k s ? ( o p t i o n of m u l t i p l e response) 4 2 2 [ 4 1 . 7 % ] s u p e r v i s e d by parents or r e l a t i v e s 1 5 0 [ 1 4 . 8 % ] from b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s 1 2 5 [ 1 2 . 3 % ] f rom home wi thout p a r e n t s ' knowledge 498 [ 4 9 . 2 % ] from f r i e n d s 85 [ 8.4%] buy i t w i th f a l s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( 1 2 8 0 ) When d i d you take your f i r s t d r i n k ? 9 [ o. 9%] no answer 76 [ 7. 5%] never 18 [ 1. 8%] r e c e n t l y 74 [ 7. 3%] a f t e r age 15 250 [ 2 4 . 7%] at ages 14 o r 15 3 9 6 [ 3 9 . 1%] between ages 1 0 - 1 3 1 9 0 [ 1 8 . 8%] before age 10 ( 1 0 1 3 ) G. What time of the day do you u s u a l l y d r i n k ? ( o p t i o n of m u l t i p l e response) 1 9 5 [ 1 9 . 2 % ] w i th meals 750 [ 7 4 . 0 % ] a t n i g h t 1 5 5 [ 1 5 . 3 % ] a f t e r n o o n s 6 [ 0.6%] mos t ly i n the morning or when I f i r s t wake up 9 [ 0.9%] I o f t e n get up d u r i n g the n i g h t and d r i n k ( 1 1 1 5 ) H. Why d i d you take your f i r s t d r i n k ? ( o p t i o n of m u l t i p l e response) 344 [ 3 4 . 0 % ] c u r i o s i t y 398 [ 3 9 . 3 % ] p a r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s o f f e r e d 80 [ 7.9%] f r i e n d s encouraged me 16 [ 1.6%] to f e e l more l i k e an a d u l t 2 7 4 [ 2 7 . 0 % ] t o get drunk or " h i g h " ( 1 1 1 2 ) I. How much do you d r i n k when you do d r i n k ? 82 [ 8.1%] no answer 1 6 7 [ 1 6 . 5 % ] one d r i n k 1 7 1 [ 1 6 . 9 % ] two d r i n k s 224 [ 2 2 . 1 % ] 3-6 d r i n k s 86 [ 8.5%] 6 or more d r i n k s 2 8 2 [ 2 7 . 8 % ] u n t i l I get " h i g h " or drunk ( 1 0 1 2 ) J. Who do you drink with? (option of multiple response) 408 [40.3%] parents or r e l a t i v e s 148 [14.6%] with brothers or s i s t e r s 612 [60.4%] with friends own age 344 [34.0%] with older friends 55 [ 5.4%] alone (1567) K. What is the greatest e f f e c t you have had from alcohol? 288 [28.4%] no answer 227 [22.4%] loose easy feeling 78 [ 7.7%] moderate "high" 153 [15.1%] drunk 81 [ 8.0%] became i l l 62 [ 6.1%] passed out 124 [12.2ft] was drinking heavily and the next day didn't r e c a l l what happened (1063) L. What are the greatest effects drinking has had on your l i f e , (option of multiple response) 26 [ 2. 5%] no answer 713 [70. 4%] none, no e f f e c t 34 [ 3. 4%] has interfered with talking to someone 26 [ 2. 6%] has prevented me from having a good time 28 [ 2. 8%] has interfered with my school work 6 [ o . 6%] have l o s t friends because of drinking 96 [ 9. 5%] has got me into trouble at home 40 [ 3. 9%] was in a fight or destroyed peoperty 44 [ 4. 3%] has resulted in an accident, an injury, arrest or being punished at school for drinking (1013) M. How do you feel about your drinking? 486 [48 .'0ft] no problem at a l l 473 [46 . 7ft] I can control i t and set l i m i t s on myself 52 [ 5 .1%] I can control myself but by friends influence me 22 [ 2 .1%] I often feel bad about my drinking 6 [ o . 6%] I need help to control myself 1 [ o .1%] I have had professional help to control my drinking (1040) N. How do o t h e r s see you? ( o p t i o n o f m u l t i p l e response) 170 [17.7%] no answer 8 07 [79.7%] c a n ' t say or a normal d r i n k e r f o r my age 14 [ 1.4%] when I d r i n k I tend t o n e g l e c t my f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s 19 [ 1.9%] my f a m i l y or f r i e n d s a d v i s e me t o cut down or c o n t r o l my d r i n k i n g 1 [ 0.1%] my f r i e n d s or f a m i l y t e l l me t o get h e l p f o r my d r i n k i n g 2 [ 0.2%] my f a m i l y or f r i e n d s have a l r e a d y arranged h e l p f o r my d r i n k i n g (843) R e p r i n t e d by p e r m i s s i o n of J . E . Mayer and W. F i l s t e a d , c o p y r i g h t 1980. q s Appendix 2 L e t t e r t o S e n i o r Secondary P r i n c i p a l s Dear- - - - - - - -I am c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n a Master o f A r t s program and I have r e c e n t l y approached the D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d a n t , Mr. McBurney, w i t h a r e q u e s t t o conduct a r e s e a r c h s t u d y i n S u r r e y as p a r t of my degree r e q u i r e m e n t s . The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about the d r i n k i n g h a b i t s of our teenage p o p u l a t i o n . There would appear t o be a growing concern i n s o c i e t y t h a t teenagers are consuming more a l c o h o l i c beverages, more f r e q u e n t l y and a t an e a r l i e r age than have o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e f o r e , the survey w i l l f o c u s on the age of d r i n k e r s , the f r e q u e n c y , amount and the time of day a l c o h o l i s used. I t w i l l a l s o seek t o determine why t e e n a g e r s take t h e i r f i r s t d r i n k , who they d r i n k w i t h and what, i f any, e f f e c t s the teenage p o p u l a t i o n t h i n k a l c o h o l has on them. In agreement w i t h Mr. McBurney"s i n s t r u c t i o n s I f i r s t c o n t a c t e d the j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s s u r v e y and e i g h t o f them have agreed t o take p a r t . I am now w r i t i n g t o ask f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s e n i o r secondary s c h o o l s and hope t h a t you w i l l f i n d t h i s p r o j e c t o f i n t e r e s t . A copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a random s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i s e n c l o s e d . I s h a l l make p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h you by t e l e p h o n e over the next few days t o g i v e you f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . Yours f a i t h f u l l y , B. S t u a r t C l e a t h e r o (Teacher, White Rock J u n i o r Secondary) Appendix 3 I n s t r u c t i o n s t o P r i n c i p a l s Dear P r i n c i p a l , P l e a s e f i n d e n c l o s e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the s e l e c t i o n of s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n the survey of teenage d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . I would l i k e t o sample a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f your t o t a l s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t and l e a v e you t o determine your most c o n v e n i e n t method o f s e l e c t i o n from the f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s : i ) Should you w i s h t o choose random home-rooms which c o n t a i n mixed grade 8,9 and 10 s t u d e n t s , as i n most j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s , p l e a s e s e l e c t the c l a s s r o o m number by s t a r t i n g randomly a t any p o i n t on the s u p p l i e d random numbers t a b l e . C l assroom numeration w i l l determine the number of numerals you r e q u i r e . i i ) Should you wi s h t o s e l e c t from home-rooms t h a t are graded then use the same random numbers t a b l e t o s e l e c t the r e q u i r e d number of s t u d e n t s from the r e g i s t e r u n t i l the d e s i r e d quota of s t u d e n t s i s o b t a i n e d from each c l a s s r o o m . i i i ) S c h o o l s randomly s e l e c t i n g from each grade may use the t a b l e t o s e l e c t the a p p r o p r i a t e number of s t u d e n t s from each grade. P l e a s e g i v e the s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t s the c o v e r i n g l e t t e r t o tak e home t o t h e i r p a r e n t s t h r e e days b e f o r e the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s are t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d . Thank you a g a i n f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . In the event t h a t you have any f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e t e l e p h o n e me at^ home or a t White Rock J u n i o r Secondary Yours f a i t h f u l l y , B. S t u a r t C l e a t h e r o . 95" Appendix 4 L e t t e r of Consent Dear P a r e n t ( s ) , T h i s s c h o o l has agreed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a su r v e y of the use of a l c o h o l among j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , which i s b e i n g conducted i n S u r r e y by a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia E d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t f o r a Master o f A r t s t h e s i s . The sample from the s c h o o l e q u a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y ten per cent o f the t o t a l s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t and through random s e l e c t i o n y o u r son/daughter w i l l be asked t o complete a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e about teenage d r i n k i n g h a b i t s . The r e s e a r c h e r w i l l a t no time be aware of s t u d e n t names or be i n a p o s i t i o n t o match q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s , thus g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e i r anonymity. In o r d e r t h a t your son/daughter may take p a r t i n t h i s s u r v e y p l e a s e r e t u r n the form below d u r i n g the next t h r e e days. P l e a s e note t h a t s h o u l d you or your son/daughter not wi s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s u r v e y , your d e c i s i o n w i l l be honoured and the r e f u s a l w i l l i n no way a f f e c t the s t u d e n t ' s s c h o o l r e c o r d . Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . Student Name I do/do not agree t o my son/daughter t a k i n g p a r t i n the su r v e y on the use o f a l c o h o l among j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . P a r e n t ' s S i g n a t u r e 

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