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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Kindergarten screening scores of ESL students 1989

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KINDERGARTEN SCREENING SCORES OF ESL STUDENTS B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Education Psychology and S p e c i a l Education Department U n i v e r s i t y o£ B r i t i s h Columbia We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1989 (35 David Wayne Di c k i n s o n , 1989 By David Wayne D i c k i n s o n MASTER OF ARTS i n In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S f i £ . ^ U M - T=^fc>OC-A,i i Q ^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date QuG- H DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s c o r e s o f c h i l d r e n who l e a r n e d E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( L 2 ) i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h c h i l d r e n who l e a r n e d E n g l i s h a s a f i r s t l a n g u a g e ( L I ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n were a n a l y s e d c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s o f : p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , s c r e e n i n g d a t e , age a t t i m e of s c r e e n i n g and t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s of c h i l d r e n f o r w h i c h E n g l i s h i s t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y s c o r e s o f 79 L I and 79 L2 c h i l d r e n were co m p a r e d t o d e t e r m i n e some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n b o t h g r o u p s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s f o u n d e d upon t h e f a c t t h a t t e s t s i n g e n e r a l , a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d , i n t e r p r e t e d and u s e d f o r p l a c e m e n t d e c i s i o n s , a s i f L2 c h i l d r e n a r e i d e n t i c a l t o L I c h i l d r e n . I n g e n e r a l , v e r y l i t t l e d a t a was a v a i l a b l e a s t o how t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s o f L I c h i l d r e n on t h e s e m e a s u r e s v a r y ; e v e n l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m I n d o - C a n a d i a n o r O r i e n t a l e t h n i c g r o u p s . S t u d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e n d e d k i n d e r g a r t e n i n t h e V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c S c h o o l s y s t e m d u r i n g t h e 1987/1988 s c h o o l y e a r . E x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s t u d y were s t u d e n t s who were r e p e a t i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n , e n r o l l e d i n a F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m , had an unknown p r e s c h o o l h i s t o r y o r p r o v e n h e a r i n g , v i s u a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i i e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . S t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d and m a t c h e d f o r E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y ( L 1 / L 2 ) , s e x and f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s . D a t a u s e d i n t h e s t u d y had b een p r e v i o u s l y c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e 1987/1988 k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g by V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . One way and two f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were u s e d t o t e s t f o r e q u a l means b e t w e e n g r o u p s and P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t C o r r e l a t i o n s were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and s u b t e s t s c o r e s on t h e P e abody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d and t h e R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t f o r L2 s t u d e n t s . Low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o f o u n d b e t w e e n age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g and s c o r e s on t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n f o r L I s t u d e n t s . R e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t : L I s t u d e n t s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t , L2 s t u d e n t s s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n and t h a t s c r e e n i n g d a t e ( S e p t e m b e r v e r s u s J a n u a r y ) d o e s n o t have a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f i m p a c t upon t e s t s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n on t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s , c r o s s c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n e t h n i c g r o u p s s h o u l d be made w i t h c a u t i o n u n t i l c l a r i f i e d by f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 2.1 F i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s L2 a s s e s s m e n t and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 6 2.2 I n h e r e n t f a c t o r s i n t e s t s 7 2.3 F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h T e s t i n g 2.3.1 D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t S c o r e s b e t w e e n E t h n i c G r o u p s . 10 2.3.2 E a r l y S c r e e n i n g 11 2.3.3 P r e s c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e 14 2.4 F a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e L2 p o p u l a t i o n 2.4.1 L e n g t h o f t i m e t o A q u i r e Competency i n E n g l i s h 15 2.4.2 S o c i a l S t y l e 17 2.4.3 F a m i l y a t t i t u d e s a n d I n v o l v e m e n t .. 18 2.4.4 C o n s e q u e n c e s o f L2 A q u i s i t i o n 20 2.4.5 S o c i a l c l a s s 22 2.5 Summary 25 3 METHODOLOGY 27 3.1 P u r p o s e 27 3.2 S u b j e c t s 27 3.3 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 28 3.4 P r o c e d u r e and D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 32 3.5 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 33 3.6 V a r i a b l e s 35 3.7 H y p o t h e s e s 35 3.8 D a t a A n a l y s i s 36 3.8.1 H y p o t h e s e s 1 and 4 36 . 3.8.2 H y p o t h e s i s 2 36 3.8.3 H y p o t h e s i s 3 36 4 RESULTS 37 4.1 R e s u l t s 37 4.2 The Sample 37 4.3 T e s t s o f H y p o t h e s e s 4.3.1 H y p o t h e s i s 1 40 4.3.2 H y p o t h e s i s 2 41 4.3.3 H y p o t h e s i s 3 43 iv 4.3.4 H y p o t h e s i s 4 47 4.4 Summary 49 5 DISCUSSION 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 51 5.3 D i s c u s s i o n 51 5.3.1 P r e s c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e 53 5.3.2 E a r l y and L a t e S c r e e n i n g 56 5.3.3 T e s t S c o r e s L I v e r s u s L2 57 5.3.4 Age and T e s t S c o r e s 60 5.4 E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 62 5.5 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 65 5.6 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h .... 66 REFERENCES 67 v L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. P o p u l a t i o n Sample by D o m i n a n t Home La n g u a g e 38 2. P o p u l a t i o n Sample by Number and Sex 39 3. C o r r e l a t i o n s , S c o r e s t o P r e s c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e , L2 S t u d e n t s . .. 40 4. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r L2 E a r l y / L a t e S c r e e n i n g S c o r e s 42 5. Mean S c o r e s : E a r l y / L a t e S c r e e n e d L2 S t u d e n t s 43 6. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e C o m p a r i n g D a t e o f S c r e e n i n g and L a n g u a g e Group on T e s t S c o r e s 45 7. C e l l Means: S c o r e s L I and L2 S t u d e n t s 46 8. C o r r e l a t i o n s : T e s t S c o r e s S c r e e n i n g Age 48 9. C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n T e s t s f o r L I and L2 S t u d e n t s 48 10. Summary o f S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t F i n d i n g s , 53 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r my f a m i l y ' s support and t o l e r a n c e while completing t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , Dr . Randy Cranston, f o r s h a r i n g h i s e x p e r t i s e and h i s endless enthusiam and p a t i e n c e , and to the other committee members, Dr. Perry L e s l i e and Dr. Margret E a r l y f o r t h e i r guidance and continued i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t . A f i n a l word of thanks to Dr. Todd Rogers f o r h i s generous a s s i s t a n c e with the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures and data a n a l y s i s and to Sharon Reid at the Vancouver School Board f o r her help i n o b t a i n i n g data and i n f o r m a t i o n . v i i CHAPTER ONE I n t r o d u c t i o n A major focus of education i n North America i s the e a r l y d e t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n with l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ; the reason f o r t h i s e a r l y s c r e e n i n g i s the b e l i e f t h a t the e a r l i e r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n the g r e a t e r the p o t e n t i a l f o r remediation (Blachman, 1983; Neisworth & Bagnato, 1986; T o l l e f s o n , Rodriquez, G l a z z a r d , 1982; Ysseldyke, Thurlow, O ' S u l l i v a n & Bursaw, 1986). Another reason o f t e n s t a t e d f o r e a r l y s c r e e n i n g and subsequent remediation i s t h a t secondary emotional problems w i l l develop i f a process of e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and remediation i s not implemented (Dunleavy, Hansen, Szasz & Baade, 1981; Smith & Wilborn, 1977). A number of B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s are responding to these concerns by r e l y i n g upon e a r l y s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s to a s s i s t i n the d e t e c t i o n of l e a r n i n g problems (La T o r r e , Hawkhead, Kawahira & B i l l o w , 1982; O'Connor, 1982; Wedell, 1980). T h i s emphasis on the e a r l y s c r e e n i n g of c h i l d r e n f o r l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s has been c r i t i c i z e d (Judy, 1986; Kraayenoord, 1983). Judy f e e l s t h a t i n order f o r a s c r e e n i n g t e s t to be u s e f u l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l assessment i t should r e f l e c t s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . She f u r t h e r c r i t i c i z e s e a r l y s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s as f a i l i n g to r e f l e c t s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m and q u e s t i o n s whether the d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n and subsequent programs developed from these s c r e e n i n g 1 b a t t e r i e s a c t u a l l y meet the needs of these c h i l d r e n . The use of e a r l y s c r e e n i n g has even been i m p l i c a t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (Hammond, 1986; Lerner, 1976; Wanczycki, 1983). Wanczycki f e e l s t h a t the task of i d e n t i f y i n g a t r i s k c h i l d r e n i s very d i f f i c u l t at best and i s compounded at the pr e s c h o o l and kindergarten l e v e l due to developmental l a g , language and c u l t u r a l background. She b e l i e v e s t h a t i d e n t i f y i n g and l a b e l l i n g a c h i l d at an e a r l y age may lead to the r e a l i z a t i o n of a " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" and qu e s t i o n s i f the b e n e f i t s of e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n outweigh the p o s s i b l e damaging or negative e f f e c t s of such r e c o g n i t i o n . A l s o , the e f f i c a c y of e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n has been questioned. White (1986) b e l i e v e s t h a t the reason why so many questions about the e f f i c a c y of e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r s i s t d e s p i t e hundreds of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i s because of a lack of i n f o r m a t i o n : Contrary t o the c o n c l u s i o n s of many pre v i o u s reviewers and textbook authors, there simply i s not enough i n f o r m a t i o n t o be c o n f i d e n t about the long-term impact of e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n with handicapped c h i l d r e n [disadvantaged and at r i s k ] , and evidence i n support of many of the commonly held p o s i t i o n s about mediating v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . , p a r e n t a l involvement at age of s t a r t ) i s e i t h e r nonexistent or c o n t r a d i c t o r y ( p . 412). S i m i l a r l y , there i s a shortage of i n f o r m a t i o n about the 2 t e s t s and b a t t e r i e s t h e m s e l v e s t h a t a r e u s e d f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g . J u d y ( 1 9 8 6 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t e d u c a t o r s o f t e n p r e f e r s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s w i t h v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y and m o t or s k i l l s c o m p o n e n t s e v e n t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l p r o o f o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n e a r l y s c r e e n i n g has n o t b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d . A d d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n s o f e a r l y s c r e e n i n g a r e t h e a c c u r a c y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e a r l y s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s and v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e r e a s o n s why c h i l d r e n a r e r e f e r r e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l a s s e s s m e n t o r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s . T h u r l o w , O ' S u l l i v a n , and Y s s e l d y k e ( 1 9 8 6 ) s t a t e t h a t t h e t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y o f e a r l y s c r e e n i n g t e s t s - i s q u e s t i o n a b l e and c i t e e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t w h i l e t h e u s e o f newer s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s i s i n c r e a s i n g , o n l y one s i x t h o f e a r l y s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s c u r r e n t l y u s e d have a d e q u a t e v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y o r n o r m i n g . M e i s e l s ( 1 9 8 7 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e f a u l t y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s c r e e n i n g t e s t s u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t s i n t h e i n c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n f o r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f c h i l d r e n f r o m s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s when r e q u i r e d . T h u r l o w e t a l . a l s o f o u n d , i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a f r o m n e a r l y 400 s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n M i n n e s o t a , t h a t no s i n g l e f a c t o r c o n s i s t e n t l y d e t e r m i n e d s c r e e n i n g r e f e r r a l r a t e s ; e a c h d i s t r i c t had i t s own i n t e r n a l r e a s o n s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by t h e e a r l y s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y . 3 A p r o b l e m t h a t i s more r e l e v a n t t o V a n c o u v e r i s t h e p o t e n t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , due t o a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , r a t h e r t h a n a r e a l l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m . A number o f a u t h o r s (Cummins, 1985; Ovando & C o l l i e r , 1985; W i l l i g & G r e e n b e r g , 19 8 6 ) a r e c o n c e r n e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who a r e L 2 a r e b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s s o l e l y b e c a u s e o f a p o o r p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . An a d d i t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y i s a t e n d e n c y f o r E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n ( L 2 ) o f e q u a l a b i l i t y b u t d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s t o o b t a i n d i s s i m i l a r s c o r e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s due t o t h e i r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d . G a r d n e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t e s t s c o r e s o f C a n t o n e s e and P u n j a b i s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s on t h e Kaufman A s s e s s m e n t B a t t e r y f o r C h i l d r e n ( K a u f m a n & K a u f m a n , 1 9 8 3 ) . G a r d n e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s due t o c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may have s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s upon p l a c e m e n t d e c i s i o n s . A number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s may h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t upon t h e t e s t s c o r e s F o r e x a m p l e , w h i l e t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e o r s o c i a l c l a s s upon t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n i s unknown, t h e p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e has b een f o u n d t o c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t ( G l e i t m a n & R o z i n , 1973; Z u c c h e r m a g l i o , P o n t e c o r d o , T o n n u c i & B l a c h o w i c z , 1 9 8 6 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , s o c i a l c l a s s h a s a l s o b e e n f o u n d t o a f f e c t t h e t e s t s c o r e s o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r 4 f i r s t l a n g u a g e . Bloom ( 1 9 6 4 ) and C o leman ( 1 9 7 5 ) f o u n d t h a t a low s o c i a l c l a s s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d s c h o o l s u c c e s s . E v en when E n g l i s h i s n o t a f a c t o r , c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s may r e s u l t i n t e s t s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s . I n a 1985 s t u d y , S h a r p l e y and S t o n e ( 1 9 8 5 ) e x p l o r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s upon t e s t r e s u l t s o f A u s t r a l i a n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n when u s i n g t h e P e abody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d (Dunn & Dunn, 1 9 8 1 ) . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t c a u t i o n was needed i n d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e s when u s i n g A m e r i c a n norms t o i n t e r p r e t t h e t e s t s c o r e s o f c h i l d r e n f r o m c u l t u r e s o t h e r t h a n A m e r i c a n . Much c o n t r o v e r s y r e m a i n s o v e r t h e v a l i d i t y and u l t i m a t e u s e f u l n e s s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g t e s t s due t o a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r i n h e r e n t b i a s e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e s e b i a s e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e e v e n l e s s u n d e r s t o o d w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n L2 c h i l d r e n . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x a m i n e t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n ( O r i e n t a l / I n d o - C a n a d i a n ) a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e v a r i a b l e s o f : p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , s c r e e n i n g d a t e , age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g and t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f c h i l d r e n f o r whom E n g l i s h i s t h e i r F i r s t L a n g u a g e ( L I c h i l d r e n ) . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f L 2 c h i l d r e n ; s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e f a c t o r s t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e L2 p o p u l a t i o n and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h o s e f a c t o r s . 5 CHAPTER TWO R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e One o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g a n d a m a j o r p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , i s t h e u s e o f an E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e b a s e d k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y to a s s e s s t h e l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ( L 2 ) c h i l d r e n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s i s s u e g e n e r a t e s c o n c e r n s i n t h r e e a r e a s . F i r s t , what i s t h e i m p a c t o f f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i n h e r e n t i n s c r e e n i n g t e s t s s u c h a s c u l t u r a l b i a s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e norms? Second, what i s the impact of date of s c r e e n i n g , w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s ? T h i r d , what i s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t L2 s t u d e n t s b r i n g t o t h e t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s u c h a s h a v i n g a f i r s t l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h , age a t s c r e e n i n g , p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and p o s s i b l y b e i n g f r o m a l o w e r s o c i a l e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ? F i n d i n g s o f P r e v i o u s L2 A s s e s s m e n t a nd C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s t e s t i n g a n d s u b s e q u e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f L2 c h i l d r e n has b e e n w e l l d o c u m e n t e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s by t h e o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e t h n i c s t u d e n t s i n A m e r i c a n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ( D u n n , 1968; M e r c e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . Over r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f L2 s t u d e n t s h a s b e e n s i m i l a r l y r e p o r t e d i n Canada by S h a p s p n a nd P u r b b o ( 1 9 8 1 ) , who f o u n d t h a t m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n were o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n n o n - a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s i n t h e T o r o n t o s c h o o l s y s t e m . D e s p i t e e x t e n s i v e l i t i g a t i o n a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f 6 t h e o v e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f L2 s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s , W r i g h t and S a n t a C r u z ( 1 9 8 3 ) f o u n d t h a t e t h n i c / r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s s t i l l were o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p r o g r a m s f o r t h e l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d and m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t " s t r o n g and p e r s i s t e n t f o r c e s must be m i t i g a t i n g a g a i n s t g r e a t e r e t h n i c p a r i t y i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n " ( p . 3 9 4 ) . I n h e r e n t F a c t o r s i n T e s t s T h e r e a r e two p o t e n t i a l f a c t o r s t h a t p o s s i b l y b i a s t e s t s c o r e s and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f L2 c h i l d r e n : c u l t u r a l b i a s w i t h i n t h e b a t t e r y and c u l t u r a l g r o u p s n o t b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e norm p o p u l a t i o n ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . The c u l t u r a l b i a s o f t e s t s c o n t i n u e s t o be v i g o r o u s l y d e b a t e d by v a r i o u s e d u c a t o r s ( Cummins, 1985; F l a u g h t e r , 1978; S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 2 ) The i s s u e s a r o u n d c u l t u r a l l y b i a s e d t e s t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o S a t t l e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) c a n be d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e n orms, t e s t b i a s ( i . e . , t e s t s w i t h norms b a s e d upon m i d d l e c l a s s w h i t e s t u d e n t s and i n h e r e n t A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l b i a s e s ) a n d t h e p o o r t e s t t a k i n g s k i l l s o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s . The f o r m e r two f a c t o r s i n c o n j u c t i o n w i t h a n u n f a m i l i a r i t y o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t f o r m a t , p r o c e d u r e s a nd u n p r o d u c t i v e t e s t s t r a t e g i e s a r e b e l i e v e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t e s t s c o r e s . S a t t l e r ( 1 9 8 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t : 7 Some e t h n i c m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n may f a i l t o c o m prehend o r a c c e p t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e t e s t s i t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r . [ s i c ] They may v i e w i t a s an e n j o y a b l e c h i l d - a d u l t e n c o u n t e r , r a t h e r t h a n a s a t i m e t o a c h i e v e ; o r , i f t h e y r e c o g n i z e t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e y may i g n o r e them. ( p . 5 7 0 ) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h o u g h , t h a t S a t t l e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) a s w e l l a s a number o f o t h e r a u t h o r s ( F l a u g h t e r , 1978; G r e e n , 1 9 7 8 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c r u c i a l a r g u m e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g c u l t u r e b i a s have l i t t l e i f any m e r i t . F l a u g h t e r s t a t e s t h a t a l l t e s t s i n e v i t a b l y w i l l be c u l t u r a l l y b i a s e d b u t s u g g e s t s t h a t e v e n a f t e r t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e b i a s e d i t e m s , t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s do n o t c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The c o n c e r n t h a t n a t i o n a l norms a r e n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n and r e s u l t i n q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d by M e r c e r ( 1 9 7 3 ) and Cummins ( 1 9 8 0 ) . O f t e n , h o w e v e r , t h e norms u s e d t o a s s e s s L2 c h i l d r e n have b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m an e x c l u s i v e l y A n g l o p o p u l a t i o n , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y ( G o t t s , 1 9 8 0 ) . When a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t normed on n a t i v e s p e a k e r s i s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a c u l t u r a l l y / l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n t c h i l d , F i n e ( 1 9 8 8 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t we a r e r e a l l y a s k i n g , "On t h i s t e s t , how c l o s e l y d o e s t h e s t u d e n t r e s e m b l e n a t i v e E n g l i s h - S p e a k i n g 8 students in terms of background, school experience, knowledge and s k i l l s ? " (p. 23). Although a l o t of e f f o r t has gone into creating culture free tests, t h i s e f f o r t has been generally acknowledged as f u t i l e (Ovando & C o l l i e r , 1985). Instead, inherent c u l t u r a l biases have been acknowledged and e f f o r t s have gone towards creating c u l t u r a l l y f a i r tests (Ovando & C o l l i e r , 1985; S a t t l e r , 1982). In order to address the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with the testing of L2 children, i t has been suggested that the use of standardized tests with L2 students be r e s t r i c t e d . The English as a Second Language Resource Book for B r i t i s h Columbia (1981) states that, "There i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n for using the results of standardized tests to assess E.S.L./D. students' a b i l i t i e s unless one i s testing for the withdrawl of E.S.L./D. support" (p. 43). However, Fine (1988) suggests the u t i l i z a t i o n of standardized tests as diagnostic rather than survey instruments. Fine further suggests that standardized tests should be used as a reference for improvement rather than comparing the s k i l l s of L2 students to LI norms. Reschly ( c i t e d in Samuda, 1985), states that there are three s i m p l i s t i c non-solutions to the assessment of L2 children, (a) the banning of IQ tests without addressing the educational f a i l u r e of students, (b) the use of p l u r a l i s t i c norms with conventional tests unrelated to programming and remdediation, and (c) the use of IQ tests as 9 s c r e e n i n g and p l a c e m e n t d e v i c e s w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o d i s p o r t i o n a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m i n o r i t i e s i n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s w i t h r e s u l t a n t i n e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m m i n g . The s u g g e s t i o n o f a number o f a u t h o r s i s t h e u s e o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n when a s s e s s i n g L2 s t u d e n t s ( F i n e , 1988; H i l l i a r d , 1980; Samuda, 1985; R e s c h l y & S a b e r s , 1 9 7 9 ) . Samuda, b e l i e v e s t h a t f o r L 2 s t u d e n t s ( e x c l u d i n g d e m o n s t r a b l y e v i d e n t c a s e s ) , t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ( i . e . , m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d ) s h o u l d be a b a n d o n e d . I n s t e a d s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be l a b e l e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p e r c i e v e d n e eds ( i . e . , E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e ) . Samuda a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o n l y r a t i o n a l p u r p o s e f o r t e s t i n g f o r a l l s t u d e n t s i s t o i m p r o v e i n s t r u c t i o n . F a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h T e s t i n g D i f f e r e n c e s i n T e s t S c o r e s b e t w e e n E t h n i c g r o u p s A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e t h n i c g r o u p s a r e r e d u c e d when m a t c h e d f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , a number o f s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t e s t s c o r e s b e t w e e n v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s . Umansky and Cohen ( 1 9 8 0 ) , f o u n d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n w h i t e and non- w h i t e s ( A m e r i c a n I n d i a n , H i s p a n i c , B l a c k , O r i e n t a l ) on memory t a s k s on t h e M c C a r t h y K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( M c C a r t h y , 1 9 7 2 ) . On t h e Kaufman A s s e s s m e n t B a t t e r y f o r C h i l d r e n ( K - A B C ) ( K a u f m a n & K a u f m a n , 1 9 8 3 ) , C a n t o n e s e s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n were f o u n d t o have s u p e r i o r s p a t i a l s k i l l s 10 a s c ompared t o t h e E n g l i s h and P u n j a b i s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . Samuda ( 1 9 8 4 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t s o m e t i m e s i t i s f o r g o t t e n t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have t h e same m e a n i n g f o r a c h i l d f r o m a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s i n c e a c a d e m i c s k i l l s s u c h a s s p e e d o r i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be s t r e s s e d i n t h a t c u l t u r e . S u p p o r t i n g t h i s v i e w p o i n t i s r e s e a r c h by R a v i n , B a r - T a l , R a v i n & B a r - T a l ( 1 9 8 0 ) t h a t s u g g e s t s t h e c a u s a l p e r c e p t i o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t may v a r y b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . E a r l y S c r e e n i n g A n o t h e r c o n c e r n o f k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g i s w i t h t h e e a r l y s c r e e n i n g o f a v e r a g e b u t l a t e m a t u r i n g s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t on t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e a r l y s c r e e n i n g , t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f s c r e e n i n g a g e . E r i o n ( 1 9 8 7 ) , r e v i e w e d s c h o o l r e c o r d s t o d e t e r m i n e i f any p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y e x i s t e d . C h i l d r e n c l a s s i f i e d a s l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d had e v i d e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t u n d e r a c h i e v e m e n t a n d had a c h i e v e d a l o w s c o r e on t e s t s o f v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . E r i o n d i s c o v e r e d a m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = . 5 3 ) b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n ' s a g e s upon e n t r a n c e i n t o s c h o o l and t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i t y . A number o f a u t h o r s (Hammond, 1986; S h e p a r d & S m i t h 1986; W a n c x y c k i , 1 9 8 3 ) have e x p r e s s e d a c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e m a t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t 11 r e m e d i a t i o n where no d i s a b i l i t y e x i s t s . Wood, P o w e l l and K n i g h t ( 1 9 8 4 ) s u m m a r i z e t h e c o n c e r n s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : C h i l d r e n who a r e m i s l a b e l e d " s p e c i a l n e e d s " s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l y o u n g n e s s r i s k a s c h o o l l i f e o f u n n e c e s s a r y f a i l u r e . P r o f e s s i o n a l s c h a r g e d w i t h a s s e s s m e n t o f c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l e n t r a n c e need a d e e p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l ( s i c ) t o a v o i d t h e l a b e l i n g o f s o many yo u n g c h i l d r e n ( p . 1 1 ) . However , o t h e r a u t h o r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f s c r e e n i n g age a r e m i n i m a l . A s y n t h e s i s o f r e s e a r c h on s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s by S h e p a r d and S m i t h ( 1 9 8 6 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e m a j o r p o i n t t o be made when c o n s i d e r i n g p r a c t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e o l d e s t a n d t h e y o u n g e s t f i r s t g r a d e r s a r e s m a l l , i n t h e o r d e r o f 7 o r 8 p e r c e n t i l e p o i n t s . A s t u d y by May and W e l c h ( 1 9 8 6 ) s i m i l a r i l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f t h e r e i s an age e f f e c t i t i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a n d t e n d s t o d i s a p p e a r i n t h e l a t e r g r a d e s . May and W e l c h c o n c l u d e t h a t : P e r h a p s i t i s t i m e f o r t h e r e a d i n e s s d e b a t e t o become an i s s u e o f m a k i n g t h e s c h o o l r e a d y f o r t h e v a r i e t y o f c h i l d r e n t h a t e x i s t , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o make t h e c h i l d r e n r e a d y f o r t h e s c h o o l by m a n i p u l a t i n g s c h o o l e n t r a n c e age b a s e d on b i r t h d a y , s e x o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l a g e . ( p . 1 0 4 ) 12 F o r L2 c h i l d r e n , t h e e f f e c t s o f a d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e o r c u l t u r e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e v i o u s f a c t o r s r a i s e s f u r t h e r c o n c e r n s a b o u t p r e m a t u r e a s s e s s m e n t . F i n e ( 1 9 8 8 ) s t a t e s t h a t t e s t i n g t h e c u l t u r a l l y / l a n g u a g e d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t t o o e a r l y , "can r e s u l t i n a f r u s t r a t i n g , d i s c o u r a g i n g , e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e c h i l d , o f t e n i m p a c t i n g n e g a t i v e l y on i n t e r e s t , m o t i v a t i o n , c o n f i d e n c e and s e l f - e s t e e m " ( p . 2 3 ) . F i n e f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t i n a p p r o p r i a t e a s s e s s m e n t may r e s u l t i n i n c o r r e c t p l a c e m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t p l a c e m e n t o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s t h a t s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c and l a n g u a g e f a c t o r s ( a s p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d ) , may have upon t h e t e s t s c o r e s o f L2 s t u d e n t s , s c h o o l b o a r d s w i t h L 2 p o p u l a t i o n s u s u a l l y m o d i f y t h e t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t (Samuda, 1 9 8 0 ) o r d e f e r a s s e s s m e n t u n t i l a l a t e r d a t e ( F i n e , 1 9 8 8 ) . S c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s y s t e m w i t h h i g h L2 p o p u l a t i o n s may d e f e r S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g u n t i l J a n u a r y o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c h o o l y e a r . A number o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n O n t a r i o w i t h h i g h L2 p o p u l a t i o n s w i l l p o s t p o n e t e s t i n g f o r an e v e n l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e ( 2 y e a r s ) ( F i n e , 1 9 8 8 ) . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h p o s t p o n i n g t e s t i n g , i s t h a t r e m e d i a t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e t h e s o o n e r i t o c c u r s and t h a t t h e e a r l y a p p r a i s a l o f s p e c i a l n e eds c h i l d r e n i s c r u i c a l ( N e i s w o r t h & B a g n a t o , 1 9 8 6 ) . Cummins ( 1 9 8 0 ) c a u t i o n s t h a t a s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n t o d e l a y i n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f L2 c h i l d r e n i s , 13 " t h a t e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s becomes i m p o s s i b l e " ( p . 1 0 9 ) . W h i l e t h e r e i s g e n e r a l s u p p o r t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t i n g t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t e s t s and p o s t p o n e m e n t o f t e s t i n g d a t e s f o r L2 c h i l d r e n , i n t h e p r e s e n t r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , no e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h was d i s c o v e r e d s u p p o r t i n g t h e s e p r a c t i c e s . P r e s c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e W h i l e t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e ( G l e i t m a n , R o z i n , 1973; Z u c c h e r m a g l i o , P o n t e c o r d o , T o n n u c i & B l a c h o w i c z , 1 9 8 6 ) , c o r r e l a t i o n s have b e e n t e n t a t i v e f o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n . I n a 1983 r e v i e w o f d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , C l a r k s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t p r i o r p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , have a g r e a t e r c h a n c e o f b e i n g l a b e l l e d a s i n a t t e n t i v e , i m m a t u r e o r o f l i m i t e d l a n g u a g e c o m p e t e n c e and n o t y e t r e a d y f o r r e a d i n g . She f u r t h e r comments t h a t f o r L2 s t u d e n t s g o i n g d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e home t o k i n d e r g a r t e n , "Such p r o b l e m s c o u l d be m a g n i f i e d a n d e v e n more c o m p l e x f o r a c h i l d f r o m an e t h n i c m i n o r i t y b a c k g r o u n d o r t h e c h i l d f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e " ( p . 1 1 6 ) . I n a s t u d y o f t h e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e on m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , E v a n s ( 1 9 8 5 ) c o m p a r e d t h e a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t a nd s e n t i m e n t o f 44 h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ( w i t h p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e ) t o t h a t o f a 14 c o n t r o l g r o u p . E l e v e n y e a r s had l a p s e d s i n c e t h e s u b j e c t s had a t t e n d e d p r e s c h o o l and t h e y were m a t c h e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p by a g e , s e x , g r a d e and e t h n i c i t y . E v a n s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e , " t y p e o r amount o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e a s d e f i n e d by t h i s s t u d y shows no g e n e r a l c a r r y - o v e r e f f e c t f o r m e a s u r e d s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t and s e n t i m e n t i n t o t h e m i d d i e and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l y e a r s " ( p . 1 9 9 ) . E v a n s s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e have been m i x e d r e s u l t s f r o m s t u d i e s on t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and h y p o t h e s e s t h a t t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g , "... i n t h e a b s e n c e o f p o w e r f u l and s u s t a i n e d f o l l o w - t h r o u g h p r o c e d u r e s " ( p . 2 0 1 ) . F a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e L2 P o p u l a t i o n L e n g t h o f Time t o A g u i r e C o m p e t e n c y i n E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e a b i l i t y has an o b v i o u s i m p a c t upon t h e t e s t r e s u l t s o f L2 c h i l d r e n ( O v a n d o & C o l l i e r , 1985; w i l l i g & G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 8 6 ) . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t L2 s t u d e n t s t a k e s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r b e c o m i n g f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h t o c a t c h up t o t h e i r E n g l i s h a s a F i r s t L a n g u a g e ( L I ) p e e r s ( C o l l i e r , 1987; Cummins, 1980; F i n e , 1 9 8 8 ) . I n a 1980 r e p o r t o f an o n g o i n g s t u d y , Cummins e x a m i n e d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t s o f o v e r 400 i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n . Cummins f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h L2 c h i l d r e n c a n u s u a l l y c o n v e r s e f l u e n t l y i n E n g l i s h w i t h i n two y e a r s , i t t o o k t h o s e who a r r i v e d i n C a nada a t age 6 o r a f t e r b e t w e e n 5 and 6 y e a r s on t h e a v e r a g e t o a p p r o a c h g r a d e norms i n E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y . A more r e c e n t s t u d y by C o l l i e r ( 1 9 8 7 ) a n a l y s e d t h e l e n g t h o f 15 t i m e r e q u i r e d by 1,548 L2 s t u d e n t s ( g r a d e s 4, 6, 8 and 1 1 ) t o become p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h f o r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s . The r e s u l t s o f her s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e r e q u i r e d by c h i l d r e n who e n t e r e d an ESL p r o g r a m t o r e a c h p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h was ( a ) 3 t o 8 y e a r s f o r c h i l d r e n 5 t o 7 y e a r s o f a g e , ( b ) 2 t o 5 y e a r s f o r c h i l d r e n 8 t o 11 y e a r s o f age ( c ) 6 t o 8 y e a r s f o r c h i l d r e n 12 t o 15 y e a r s o f a g e . C o l l i e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t " . Whereas some g r o u p s may r e a c h p r o f i c i e n c y i n some s u b j e c t s i n a s l i t t l e a s 2 y e a r s , i t i s p r o j e c t e d t h a t a t l e a s t 4-8 y e a r s may be r e q u i r e d f o r a l l a g e s o f LEP [ L i m i t e d E n g l i s h P r o f i c i e n c y ] s t u d e n t s t o r e a c h n a t i o n a l g r a d e - l e v e l norms o f n a t i v e s p e a k e r s i n a l l s u b j e c t a r e a s o f l a n g u a g e and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , a s m e a s u r e d on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , ( p . 6 1 7 ) A f a c t o r t h a t may a f f e c t t h e number o f y e a r s t o r e a c h p r o f i c i e n c y i s t h e age t h a t a c h i l d b e g i n s a q u i r i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . I r e t o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) comments t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t i s a c c e l e r a t e d b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f two and s e v e n and i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t p r i o r t o s i x y e a r s o f age most c h i l d r e n h ave n o t a s s i m u l a t e d t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . A h y p o t h e s i s e x p r e s s e d by some a u t h o r s i s t h a t i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a s e c o n d m a j o r l a n g a u g e p r i o r t o t h i s d a t e has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t a c h i l d s c o m p e t e n c e i n e i t h e r l a n g u a g e (Cummins, 1978; I r e t o n , 1 9 8 1; J a k o b o v i t z , a s c i t e d i n V i l k e , 1 9 8 8 ) . F o r t h i s 16 r e a s o n , some a u t h o r s ( H a k u t a & G o u l d , 1987; M c L a u g h l i n , 19 8 6 ) s u p p o r t t h e c o n c e p t t h a t a c h i l d r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s o l e l y i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e , t h r o u g h t h e i n i t i a l g r a d e s o f s c h o o l , u n t i l t h e i r f o r m a l l a n g a u g e s k i l l s a r e s o l i d i f i e d . S o c i a l S t y l e A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e a c q u i s t i o n o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a r e t h e s o c i a l s t y l e o f t h e c h i l d a n d t h e a t t i t u d e / i n t e r a c t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . S t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e more s o c i a l a c h i l d i s w i t h h i s p e e r s t h e more l i k e l y he w i l l a c q u i r e E n g l i s h a t a f a s t e r r a t e ( C h e s t e r f i e l d , B a r r o w s - C h e s t e r f i e l d , H a y e s - L a t i m e r & C h a v e z , 1983; M c G r o a r t y , 1984; S t r o n g , 1 9 8 3 ) . S t r o n g c o n c l u d e d t h a t c h i l d r e n who a c q u i r e d E n g l i s h a t t h e g r e a t e s t s p e e d were more l i k e l y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f p e e r s , were more t a l k a t i v e , r e s p o n s i v e and g r e g a r i o u s t h a n c h i l d r e n who a c q u i r e d l a n g u a g e a t a s l o w e r r a t e . I n a r e v i e w o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e f o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s , M c G r o a r t y s i m i l a r i l y c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g s o c i a l component t o c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e i n s c h o o l s and c i t e s s e v e r a l s t u d i e s w h i c h , "... have shown j u s t how c r i t i c a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n a c h i e v i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g l a n g u a g e c o m p e t e n c e i n and o u t o f s c h o o l " ( p . 2 6 4 ) . An u n d e r l y i n g 17 f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n a b i l i t y o f a L2 c h i l d a r e s t e r e o t y p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e t h n i c g r o u p . H a r i k u t a and G o u l d ( 1 9 8 7 ) , c i t e s t u d i e s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h a t i f n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m c l a s s r o o m s come f r o m g r o u p s t h a t a r e n e g a t i v e l y s t e r e o t y p e d by t h e i r E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p e e r s , t h e n m i n i m a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n b o t h g r o u p s may o c c u r . F a m i l y A t t i t u d e s and I n v o l v e m e n t S e v e r a l f a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s u c h a s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e ( B e r r y m a n , 1983; Cummins 1 9 8 1 ) , t h e v a l u e p l a c e d upon l i t e r a c y and q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f E n g l i s h s p o k e n ( C o n n o r , 1983; W e l l s , 1 9 8 1 ) have a l s o b e e n f o u n d t o a f f e c t t h e r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s k i l l s . B e r r y m a n ( 1 9 8 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t what seems t o be a h a n d i c a p i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e i s t h e a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e o f i m m i g r a n t p a r e n t s t o w a r d t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e and l a n g u a g e . S i m i l a r i l y , Cummins ( 1 9 8 1 ) a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e i s a key d e t e r m i n a n t i n t h e v a r i a t i o n i n a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t shown by g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s : . . . m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n w i l l t e n d t o p e r f o r m w e l l i n s c h o o l when t h e y a r e h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n t h e m a j o r i t y l a n g u a g e and t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . P a r e n t a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o do t h i s i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . H o w e v e r , p a r e n t s w i l l be u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e e n c o u r a g e m e n t when t h e y f e e l 18 h o s t i l e t o w a r d s t h e m a j o r i t y g r o u p and i n s e c u r e a b o u t t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r own c u l t u r e . I n t h e s e c a s e s c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n s c h o o l a s w e l l a s t h e p r o f i c i e n c y t h e y d e v e l o p i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s w i l l t e n d t o r e f l e c t t h e a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ( p . 2 5 ) . The s u c c e s s f u l u s e o f l a n g u a g e i n s o c i e t y i s b e l i e v e d t o be g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e home e n v i r o m e n t and p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t ( G a n g u l y , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n a 1981 s t u d y , W e l l s c o n c l u d e d t h a t s c h o o l s u c c e s s f o r L2 s t u d e n t s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on l i t e r a c y i n t h e home and how p a r e n t s t r a n s m i t t h i s v a l u e t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . G u e b e r t ( 1 9 8 3 ) i d e n t i f i e d 4 a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n : m o ther t o n g u e m a i n t e n a n c e , p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l i t e r a c y , r e l e v a n c e o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , a n d l e v e l s o f p r o f i c i e n c y demanded by t h e s c h o o l . F u r t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a r e , ( a ) t h e m o d e l i n g o f i n c o r r e c t E n g l i s h by p a r e n t s ( G a n g u l y , 1 9 8 5 ) , ( b ) t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f E n g l i s h s p o k e n a t home ( C o n n o r , 1 9 8 3 ) and ( c ) t h e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r i n g d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h ( T a y l o r , 1 9 7 4 ) . W i t h i n t h e L2 p o p u l a t i o n , Cummins ( 1 9 8 4 ) , s t u d i e d a g r o u p o f 428 m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n , g r a d e s one t o e i g h t , who had b e e n r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t w i t h i n a l a r g e C a n a d i a n u r b a n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . 19 A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y ( 5 4 p e r c e n t ) were b o r n o u t s i d e o f C a n a d a . Cummins f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n C a n a d i a n b o r n a nd f o r e i g n b o r n L2 s t u d e n t s ; C a n a d i a n b o r n L2 s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r on a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a n d t h e UIISC-R. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f Cohen and M a n i o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) , t h a t p o o r s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e i s g e n e r a l l y o n l y f o u n d i n t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n i m m i g r a n t s b u t n o t s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a t i o n s o f i m m i g r a n t s . S i m i l a r l y , S h a p s o n a nd P u r b b o ( 1 9 8 1 ) r e p o r t t h a t m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n who were n o t b o r n i n Canada t e n d e d t o be o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n n o n - a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s i n t h e T o r o n t o s c h o o l s y s t e m . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r o b a b l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n b o r n L2 c h i l d a n d t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y do p o i n t t o an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when e v a l u a t i n g t e s t r e s u l t s . C o n s e q u e n c e s o f L2 A g u s i t i o n Cummins ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d t h a t i f L2 c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f i t s q u a l i t y , t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d p r o f i c i e n t enough by t e a c h e r s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o c o mpete w i t h L I p e e r s a c a d e m i c a l l y . M a l d o n a d o - C o l o n ( 1 9 8 6 ) r a i s e s t h e c o n c e r n t h a t t h i s f a u l t y a s s u m p t i o n c a n l e a d t o f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a s s e s s m e n t r e s u l t s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t q u e s t i o n a b l e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p l a c e m e n t s o f l a n g u a g e m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a s s e s s m e n t p e r s o n n e l a r e t r e a t i n g l a n g u a g e m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n a s 20 p a t h o l o g i c a l c a s e s a n d a r e i g n o r i n g t h e i m p a c t o f a d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e b a c k g r o u n d . B u t t l e r (1986) e c h o s t h e s e c o n c e r n s n o t i n g t h a t L2 c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g c l a s s i f i e d a s h a n d i c a p p e d . I n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s two a u t h o r s , Ovando a nd C o l l i e r (1985) r a t i o n a l i z e t h a t u n t i l L2 s t u d e n t s have a r e a s o n a b l e m a s t e r y o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , a l l t e s t s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p u r p o s e w i l l become t e s t s o f E n g l i s h p r o f i c i e n c y . A number o f a u t h o r s a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t L2 s t u d e n t s a r e a t r i s k o f d r o p p i n g o u t o f s c h o o l due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h ( G u e b e r t , 1983; S t e i n b u r g & C h a n , 1984; T i g h e , 1986). I t has a l s o b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t L2 s t u d e n t s may f a i l t o a q u i r e c o m p e t e n c e i n e i t h e r l a n g u a g e ( D o p k e , 1986). I n a 1978 a r t i c l e , Cummins h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p e t e n c e i n a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e i s r e l a t e d t o a c h i l d ' s c o m p e t e n c e i n h i s f i r s t . G u e b e r t (1983), s t a t e s t h a t m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n may n o t be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y b e c a u s e o f t h e m a j o r i t y l a n g u a g e o f t h e s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , G u e b e r t h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n may n o t be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n an a d e q u a t e a b i l i t y l e v e l i n t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e w i t h w h i c h t o d e v e l o p c o n c e p t s i n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( b a l a n c e e f f e c t ) . L a m b e r t and T a y l o r (1984) e x p a n d upon G u e b e r t ' s h y p o t h e s i s by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e s i t u a t i o n s where t h e l e a r n i n g o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e may be a d d i t i v e ( n o l o s s t o t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e ) o r s u b t r a c t i v e 21 ( l o s s t o f i r s t l a n g u a g e ) . An e x a m p l e o f an a d d i t i v e s i t u t a t i o n i s where a m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e , m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e by c h o i c e a s o p p o s e d t o a s u b t r a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n where a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e , low s o c i a l c l a s s c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e o u t o f n e c e s s i t y . The i n i t i a l f i n d i n g s o f t h e l a s t s t a g e o f a t h r e e s t a g e l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y by V i l k e ( 1 9 8 8 ) , f a i l e d t o f i n d e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f a " b a l a n c e e f f e c t " , t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o a c h i l d ' s n a i t v e l a n g u a g e , a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o r i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I n her s t u d y , g r a d e two c h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d i n E n g l i s h f o r two p e r i o d s e a c h week. When t h i s g r o u p ( 8 0 s t u d e n t s ) was r e - e x a m i n e d i n t h e f i n a l y e a r o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l , no " b a l a n c e e f f e c t " was o b s e r v e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e however t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s were s u r r o u n d e d by t h e l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e o f t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y and were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 y e a r s o l d . I n summary t h e r e i s g e n e r a l s u p p o r t by a number o f a u t h o r s (Cummins, 1978; G u e b e r t , 1983; H a r i k u t a & G o u l d , 1987; L a m b e r t & T a y l o r ) , f o r t h e c o n c e p t t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t c h i l d r e n a t t a i n c o m p e t e n c y i n t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 y e a r s o f a g e ) , p r i o r t o m a j o r i n t e r f e r e n c e f r o m a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . S o c i a l C l a s s Low s o c i a l c l a s s has b e e n f o u n d t o i m p a c t n e g a t i v e l y on t h e t e s t s c o r e s o f L I c h i l d r e n w h i l e f o r L2 c h i l d r e n t h e r e 22 i s a l a c k o f d a t a o f t h e a f f e c t s o f s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( G a n g u l y , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n g e n e r a l f o r L I c h i l d r e n , r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s c o r r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t ( C o l e m a n , 1975; C o n n o r , 1983; M i l l s , 1983; N a f s t a d , 1 9 8 2 ) . G l o b e r s o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) f o u n d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e b e l i e f t h a t low s o c i a l c l a s s c h i l d r e n l a g b e h i n d h i g h e r s o c i a l c l a s s c h i l d r e n a c a d e m i c a l l y . He f e e l s t h i s l a g i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f c u l t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n a l b e i t t h e i r c o g n i t i v e p o t e n t i a l s a r e t h e same. W a l k e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) f o u n d t h a t low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h i l d r e n were i n c l i n e d t o a c t i m p u l s i v e l y on a c h i e v e m e n t and i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s and t h i s f a c t o r c o u p l e d w i t h a p o o r e n v i r o m e n t a l b a c k g r o u n d t e n d s t o l o w e r t h e i r s c o r e s . A f u r t h e r v a r i a b l e t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o d e p r e s s e d t e s t s c o r e s i s t h e t e n d e n c y o f low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h i l d r e n t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t o c o m m u n i c a t e u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s . A 1974 s t u d y by P o z n e r a nd S a l t z ( c i t e d i n N a f s t a d 1 9 8 2 ) , u s i n g games w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f r o m low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a m i l i e s , f o u n d t h a t t h e y were more o f t e n s a t i s f i e d when o n l y some o f t h e r u l e s had b e e n e x p l a i n e d t o them and had d i f f i c u l t y e x p l a i n i n g t h e r u l e s t o o t h e r c h i l d r e n . N a f s t a d ( 1 9 8 2 ) s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s have d i f f e r e n t b u t e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , however s i n c e t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a d o p t s t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n p a t t e r n o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , c h i l d r e n f r o m 23 l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s a r e a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e . N a f s t a d f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s a r e a b l e t o p r o d u c e t h e f o r m a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e s c h o o l s , t h e y " a r e d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s o f s i t u a t i o n s c a l l i n g f o r an e l a b o r a t e d c o d e " ( P . 1 3 6 ) . I n a s t u d y o f m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f 48 e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n ( a g e s 4 t o 5 1/2 y e a r s ) , Z i g l e r , A b e l s o n and S e i t z ( 1 9 7 3 ) f o u n d t h a t d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n were more a p p r e h e n s i v e t o w a r d s t h e t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n t h a n a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n and a s a r e s u l t r e c e i v e d l o w e r a b i l i t y s c o r e s . L e i t z ( 1 9 7 2 ) i n a s t u d y c o m p a r i n g t h e p e r c e p t u a l motor a b i l i t i e s o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d and a d v a n t a g e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n c o n c l u d e d t h a t on i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t u a l motor t e s t s a d v a n t a g e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n d i s a d v a n t a g e d k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . F o r L2 t h e r e i s a " g r e a t p a u c i t y " ( G a n g u l y , 1 9 8 5 ) o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i m p a c t o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s s i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . One o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f G a n g u l y ' s s t u d y was, " t h a t t h e r e i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a s m e a s u r e d h e r e and t h e a q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s i n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e " ( p . 1 2 5 ) . J e n s e n ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e v e r b a l t e s t s c o r e s f o r w h i t e and e t h n i c g r o u p s was m a r k e d l y r e d u c e d 24 when t h e g r o u p s were r o u g h l y e q u a t e d f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . More r e c e n t s t u d i e s ( C o h e n & M a n i o n , 1983; P h i l i p s , 1 9 8 6 ) a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n t e s t s c o r e s f o r L I and L2 c h i l d r e n i s g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d when m a t c h e d f o r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s . Summary I n summary, t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g o f L2 s t u d e n t s o f t e n s u p p o r t s o p p o s i n g v i e w s i n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e . I t seems t h a t k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a s an e s s e n t i a l s t r a t e g y f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e a b i l i t y l e v e l of c h i l d r e n , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l d a t a s u p p o r t i n g e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h e r e i s a l s o c o n t r o v e r s i a l e v i d e n c e t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t e a r l y a s s e s s m e n t i n k i n d e r g a r t e n may u l t i m a t e l y c r e a t e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c h i l d r e n who a r e m e r e l y l a g g i n g i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . F o r L2 s t u d e n t s , a number o f f a c t o r s s u c h a s c u l t u r e b i a s , p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , d a t e o f s c r e e n i n g a n d age a t t i m e o f a s s e s s m e n t a l l have an u n d e t e r m i n e d e f f e c t on t e s t r e s u l t s . As Samuda ( 1 9 8 5 ) s u g g e s t s , t h e r e a s o n f o r p o o r t e s t s c o r e s by L2 s t u d e n t s i s , "compounded by s u c h a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s a s l a n g u a g e , c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s , v a l u e s , and s e l f - c o n c e p t " ( p . 5 4 ) . A t t e m p t s t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s by a l t e r i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d a t e o r p r o c e d u r e s p r o d u c e s u n c e r t a i n r e s u l t s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e s t s c o r e s f o r L2 c h i l d r e n . P e r h a p s 25 the reason f o r opposing views i n r e s e a r c h i s that we s t i l l know very l i t t l e about the process of l e a r n i n g a second language ( V i l k e , 1988) and have only vague notions about the language demands pl a c e d on students by the school and how language p r o f i c i e n t a c h i l d needs to be to succeed i n school (McGroarty, 1984). The f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l o u t l i n e the purpose and methodology of the present study. 26 CHAPTER THREE M e t h o d o l o g y T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . F i r s t t h e p u r p o s e f o r t h e s t u d y i s s t a t e d , f o l l o w e d by i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b j e c t s , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , v a r i a b l e s and h y p o t h e s e s a r e t h e n o u t l i n e d . F i n a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n on d a t a a n a l y s i s and i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d . P u r p o s e T h r o u g h t h e g a t h e r i n g o f d a t a f r o m s e l e c t e d V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y has a d d r e s s e d some o f t h e c o n c e r n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s c r e e n i n g o f L2 c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . D a t a g a t h e r e d have p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n ( O r i e n t a l / I n d o - C a n a d i a n ) and t h e v a r i a b l e s o f : p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , s c r e e n i n g d a t e , age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g and t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f c h i l d r e n f o r whom E n g l i s h i s t h e i r F i r s t L a n g u a g e ( L I c h i l d r e n ) . S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were k i n d e r g a r t e n s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s y s t e m f o r t h e 1987/1988 s c h o o l y e a r . T hese s t u d e n t s were f r o m t h e t h r e e m a j o r c u l t u r a l g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s y s t e m : I n d o C a n a d i a n , O r i e n t a l and A n g l o . S u b j e c t s were d e s i g n a t e d a s L2 i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i f t h e p r e d o m i n a n t home l a n g u a g e was n o t E n g l i s h . F i n a n c i a l s t a t u s o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 27 d e t e r m i n e d by u s i n g d a t a f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n C e n s u s T r a c t S u r v e y ( 1 9 8 6 ) . E v e r y f i v e y e a r s S t a t i s t i c s Canada u n d e r t a k e s a s u r v e y o f e a c h h o u s e h o l d i n C a n a d a . T h e s e d a t a a r e t h e n a n a l y z e d and c o m p i l e d i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n C e n s u s T r a c t S u r v e y . S u b j e c t s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s t u d y were t h o s e s t u d e n t s who were n o t e n t e r i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , t h o s e who had an unknown p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , t h o s e who were e n r o l l e d i n a F r e n c h i m m e r s i o n k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o g r a m and t h o s e who had p r o v e n h e a r i n g , v i s u a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l o r e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n E v e r y k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t i n V a n c o u v e r i s c u r r e n t l y t e s t e d w i t h a m o d i f i c a t i o n ( V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , 1 9 8 5 ) o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y ( S a t z & F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . The F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y i s a k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y composed o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : t h e P e abody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d ( P P V T - R ) (Dunn & Dunn, 1 9 8 1 ) , t h e R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t , t h e B e e r y D e v e l o p m e n t a l T e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ( V M I ) ( B e e r y , 1 9 6 7 ) , A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n and F i n g e r L o c a l i z a t i o n . The P e abody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d i s a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e c e p t i v e ( h e a r i n g ) v o c a b u l a r y a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n o r a d u l t s . On t h i s m e a s ure t h e s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o p o i n t t o t h e d r a w i n g t h a t b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s e a c h v o c a b u l a r y w o r d . F o r t h e R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t , a c h i l d i s a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y a 28 g e o m e t r i c s t i m u l u s among a g r o u p o f f o u r d e s i g n s . The B e e r y D e v e l o p m e n t a l T e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n m e a s u r e s v i s u a l - m o t o r a b i l i t y by a s k i n g t h e c h i l d t o d u p l i c a t e a s e t o f 24 i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t d e s i g n s u s i n g p e n c i l and p a p e r . On t h e A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n measure a c h i l d i s r e q u i r e d t o r e c i t e t h e a l p h a b e t a s a c c u r a t e l y a s p o s s i b l e . F o r t h e F i n g e r L o c a l i z a t i o n m easure a c h i l d i s a s k e d t o t a p o u t a s e r i e s o f i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t p a t t e r n s w i t h e a c h f i n g e r . The F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y was d e v e l o p e d f r o m a l a r g e s c a l e s t u d y , t h e F l o r i d a L o n g i t u d i n a l P r o j e c t , i n t o t h e f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e ( G a t e s , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h i s b a t t e r y was d e s i g n e d t o p r e d i c t t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d w o u l d m a n i f e s t l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , a t t h e end o f g r a d e 2 ( S a t z & F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . The s t r e n g t h o f t h e b a t t e r y i s d e p e n d e n t upon two f a c t o r s : t h e i n c l u s i o n o f two normed t e s t s , t h e PPVT-R and t h e VMI ( G o t t s , 1 9 8 0 ) , and t h e u s e o f a l o n g i t u d i n a l d e s i g n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e b a t t e r y ( G a t e s , 1 9 8 4 ) . I n an a t t e m p t t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r b i a s i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f L2 s t u d e n t s a number o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have a d o p t e d a m o d i f i e d a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e . Samuda ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 2 % o f a l l s c h o o l b o a r d s i n O n t a r i o m o d i f i e d t e s t s when e v a l u a t i n g L2 s t u d e n t s . V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s have an o v e r a l l L2 p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 48 p e r c e n t ( V . S . 3 . , 1 9 8 2 ) . Those s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r w i t h a 29 l a r g e L2 p o p u l a t i o n u s u a l l y have a l a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g d a t e . G o t t s ( 1 9 7 5 ) i n h i s r e v i e w o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y , f o u n d i t more a c c u r a t e a t a s s e s s i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s who had known t h e c h i l d r e n f o r a y e a r . G o t t s ' o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e b a t t e r y was t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e d a p r o m i s i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y t h a t was o n l y p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d . He a l s o f e l t t h a t i t was much e a s i e r t o u s e by p a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t h a n o t h e r e l a b o r a t e b a t t e r i e s . W h i t e , B a t i n i , S a t z and F r i e l ( 1 9 7 9 ) , i n a t h r e e y e a r f o l l o w up o f A u s t r a l i a n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n u s i n g t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y , f o u n d t h a t 75 p e r c e n t o f c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g a h i g h r i s k o f r e a d i n g f a i l u r e by t h e s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , showed symptoms o f r e a d i n g f a i l u r e i n g r a d e t h r e e . N o t e a b l y , t h e s a m p l e was drawn f r o m a p o p u l a t i o n o f w h i c h 30 p e r c e n t were L2 c h i l d r e n and i n c l u d e d some c h i l d r e n who c o u l d n o t s p e a k o r u n d e r s t a n d E n g l i s h . F l e t c h e r and S a t z ( 1 9 8 2 ) , i n a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f t h e F l o r i d a L o n g i t u d i n a l P r o j e c t , f o u n d t h a t s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l a s s e s s m e n t t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y had a c c u r a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d 77 p e r c e n t o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . I n a c r o s s v a l i d a t i o n s t u d y o f F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y r e s u l t s , w i t h i n t h e V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c S c h o o l S y s t e m , L a t o r r e ( 1 9 8 5 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e b a t t e r y a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t e d 81 p e r c e n t o f r e a d e r s t h a t 30 w o u l d be b e l o w a v e r a g e by t h e end o f g r a d e o ne. L a t o r r e a l s o f o u n d t h a t w h i l e t h e b a t t e r y p r e d i c t e d a l m o s t a l l o f t h e L2 c h i l d r e n who became p o o r r e a d e r s ( 9 0 . 9 % ) i t a l s o t e n d e d t o o v e r - c l a s s i f y L2 c h i l d r e n i n t o r i s k g r o u p s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s , i n a 1984 t e s t r e v i e w , G a t e s c r i t c i z e s t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e b a t t e r y . He r e p o r t s t h a t t h e 1970 s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y was p e r f o r m e d on a s a m p l e o f 497 p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i d d l e and u p p e r c l a s s m a l e s f r o m one c o u n t y i n F l o r i d a . S i m i l a r l y G o t t s ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n , R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and F i n g e r L o c a l i z a t i o n s u b t e s t s c a n n o t be v i e w e d a s a d e q u a t e l y normed due t o t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e number o f w h i t e m a l e s f r o m a h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d . G o t t s t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e t h r e e m e a s u r e s i s in q u e s t i o n . B o t h a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t t o u s e t h e b a t t e r y e x t e n s i v e l o c a l v a l i d a t i o n o r r e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . A number o f c o n c e r n s e x i s t w i t h t h e PPVT-R i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s c o r r e l a t i o n t o i n t e l l i g e n c e , a c h i e v e m e n t and u s a g e w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s . A l t h o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d w i t h t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y d i r e c t u s e r s t o c o n v e r t PPVT-R s t a n d a r d s c o r e s i n t o PPVT d e v i a t i o n I.Q. s c o r e s ( S a l t z & F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 2 ) , a number o f a u t h o r s c a u t i o n a g a i n s t i t s u s e a s an i n t e l l e c t u a l s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e ( A l p a t e r & H a n d a l , 1986; B r a c k e n & P r a s s e , 1983; C a r v a j a l , Mcvey, 31 S e l l e r s , W e y l a n d & McKnab, 1 9 8 7 ) . The PPVT-R has b e e n f o u n d t o have o n l y a m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r p r e d i c t o r s o f a c h i e v e m e n t ( B r e e n , 1983; N a g l i e r i & P f e i f f e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r s t u d i e s have c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t t h e u s e o f t h e PPVT-R w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s ( S a t t l e r & A l t e s , 1984; S h a r p l e y 8< S t o n e , 1 9 8 5 ) . S a t t l e r ( 1982) f o u n d t h e PPVT-R t o be h i g h l y c u l t u r a l l y l o a d e d b e c a u s e t h e s t i m u l i p i c t u r e s c a l l f o r c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o meet p r e v i o u s c r i t i c i s m s and d e v e l o p an a c c u r a t e and r e l i a b l e m easure o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r k i n d e r g a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y has been m o d i f i e d f o r u s e i n V a n c o u v e r by t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a V a n c o u v e r w e i g h t i n g f o r m u l a and t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e F i n g e r L o c a l i z a t i o n T e s t f r o m t h e b a t t e r y ( V . S . B . , 1 9 8 5 ) . A c o n s e q u e n c e o f L a t o r r e ' s 1985 s t u d y o f V a n c o u v e r k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s c o r e s on t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e p a r a t e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s f o r L I and L2 k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s . The d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e b a t t e r y a r e r e c a l c u l a t e d e v e r y two y e a r s and t h e i n d i v i d u a l w e i g h t s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e a d j u s t e d a t t h i s t i m e t o r e s u l t i n a s e t o f d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s w h i c h have a c c e p t a b l e r a t e s o f t r u e p o s i t i v e s a n d f a l s e p o s i t i v e s ( V S B , 1 9 8 6 ) . P r o c e d u r e and D a t a C o l l e c t i o n Of t h e 77 p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r , 10 s c h o o l s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d (5 f r o m a low f i n a n c i a l 32 s t a t u s a r e a and 5 f r o m a medium o r h i g h f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s a r e a ) . From e a c h s c h o o l up t o 20 L2 and 20 L I s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d i n t o a s a m p l e o f O r i e n t a l / I n d o C a n a d i a n and A n g l o g r o u p s o f e q u a l s i z e and s e x . A l t e r n a t e e t h n i c i t i e s were e x c l u d e d i n o r d e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e two l a r g e s t L2 g r o u p s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l s y s t e m ( V . S . 3 . , 1 9 8 2 ) . U s i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e a g r o u p o f one h u n d r e d and f i f t y - e i g h t s t u d e n t s f o r m e d t h e s a m p l e f o r t h i s s t u d y . D a t a r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s t u d y had p r e v i o u s l y been c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e 1987/1988 k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g by V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n d a t a were c o l l a t e d i n t o a c o m p u t e r d a t a f i l e by V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e A b i l i t y : The a b i l i t y l e v e l o f a c h i l d t o c o m m u n i c a t e o r a l l y i n E n g l i s h a s c o m p a r e d t o h i s L I p e e r s . E t h n i c G r o u p : A c u l t u r a l g r o u p o f p e o p l e w i t h common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l a n g u a g e o r c u s t o m s . F i n a n c i a l s t a t u s : Low f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s r e f e r s t o a f a m i l y income l e s s t h a n 20,000 d o l l a r s p e r y e a r a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e 1986 C a n a d i a n C e n s u s T r a c t . Medium o r h i g h f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s r e f e r s t o i n c o m e s o v e r t h i s l e v e l . F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y : A k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y c o n t a i n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : t h e B e e r y T e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ( B e e r y , 1 9 6 7 ) , 33 R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , P e a body P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d (Dunn & Dunn, 1 9 8 1 ) , A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n , F i n g e r L o c a l i z a t i o n . I n d o C a n a d i a n : A p e r s o n o f E a s t I n d i a n a n c e s t r y and c u l t u r e . K i n d e r g a r t e n : F i r s t l e v e l o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l f o r t h e s c h o o l y e a r p r e c e e d i n g g r a d e o n e . A d m i s s i o n r e q u i r e s a minimum age o f f i v e y e a r s on o r b e f o r e December 31 o f t h e e n r o l l m e n t y e a r . L l : C h i l d r e n whose f i r s t l a n g u a g e o r home l a n g u a g e i s E n g l i s h . L 2 : C h i l d r e n whose f i r s t l a n g u a g e o r home l a n g u a g e i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m E n g l i s h . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d o m i n a n t l a n g u a g e s p o k e n a t home, a s s t a t e d on t h e p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w f o r m f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g ( V S B , 1 9 8 5 ) . The t e r m s L2 and m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e w i l l be u s e d s y n o n y m o u s l y . O r i e n t a l : a p e r s o n o f C h i n e s e , J a p a n e s e o r V i e t n a m e s e a n c e s t r y and c u l t u r e . P r e s c h o o l : A l i c e n s e d o r u n l i c e n s e d c e n t r e p r o v i d i n g e n r o l l m e n t f o r c h i l d r e n t o o yo u n g t o a t t e n d k i n d e r g a r t e n . I n t h i s s t u d y p r e s c h o o l and d a y c a r e w i l l be u s e d s y n o n y m o u s l y . 3 4 Var i a b l e s The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e : 1. p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . 2. d a t e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g . 3 . age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g . 4. e t h n i c i t y ( O r i e n t a l , I n d o C a n a d i a n , A n g l o ) 5. E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e a b i l i t y . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s on t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y . H y p o t h e s e s 1. T h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L2 s t u d e n t s and p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . 2. T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s o f L2 s t u d e n t s who a r e s c r e e n e d e a r l y ( S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r ) and L2 s t u d e n t s who a r e s c r e e n e d l a t e ( J a n u a r y ) . 3. T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L2 s t u d e n t s and t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L I s t u d e n t s s c r e e n e d a t t h e same t i m e . 4. T h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g and t h e s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L 2 / L I s t u d e n t s . 3 5 D a t a A n a l y s i s H y p o t h e s e s 1 and 4 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f any r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e f i r s t and f o u r t h h y p o t h e s e s was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s a s p r o v i d e d by t h e SPSSX s u b p r o g r a m ( N i e , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r & B e n t , 1 9 8 6 ) . F o r t h e s e a n a l y s e s t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was u s e d . H y p o t h e s i s 2 A one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c o m p u t e d on t h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s u s i n g t h e SPSSX ONEWAY s u b p r o g r a m ( N i e e t a l . , 1 9 8 6 ) . On t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a more s t r i n g e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e (.01) was u t i l i z e d i n d a t a a n a l y s i s t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e e f f e c t o f u n e q u a l c e l l n u m b e r s. H y p o t h e s i s 3 A two f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was c o m p u t e d on t h i s h y p o t h e s i s u s i n g t h e SPSSX ANOVA s u b p r o g r a m ( N i e e t a l . , 1 9 8 6 ) . On t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a more s t r i n g e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e (.01) was u t i l i z e d i n d a t a a n a l y s i s t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e e f f e c t o f u n e q u a l c e l l numbers. 36 CHAPTER 4 R e s u l t s T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i n a l s a m p l e o f s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r a r e d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f o u r h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The S ample The F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y s c o r e s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g V a n c o u v e r P u b l i c S c h o o l s d u r i n g t h e 1987/1988 s c h o o l y e a r f o r m e d t h e s a m p l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The s a m p l e was composed o f c h i l d r e n f r o m one o f t h r e e g e n e r a l e t h n i c g r o u p s , A n g l o - S a x o n , I n d o - C a n a d i a n and O r i e n t a l , f o r w h i c h E n g l i s h i s e i t h e r a s e c o n d o r f i r s t l a n g u a g e . A b r e a k d o w n o f t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e 1. A t o t a l o f 10 s c h o o l s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e 77 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . F i v e s c h o o l s f r o m c a t c h m e n t a r e a s h a v i n g y e a r l y f a m i l y i n c o m e s o v e r 20,000 d o l l a r s and f i v e s c h o o l s h a v i n g y e a r l y f a m i l y i n c o m e s u n d e r 20,000 d o l l a r s were p o o l e d . T h i s p r o c e s s r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l o f 441 s t u d e n t s b e i n g s e l e c t e d i n t o a s t r a t a f r o m w h i c h t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y was d r a w n . S t u d e n t s who s p o k e E n g l i s h a s t h e i r f i r s t l a n g u a g e ( L I ) were m a t c h e d w i t h s t u d e n t s who s p o k e E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( L 2 ) i n e a c h c a t c h m e n t a r e a . A l l c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y had b e e n p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d by 3 7 t h e i r k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s a s h a v i n g E n g l i s h a s a f i r s t o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . T a b l e 1 P o p u l a t i o n Sample by Do m i n a n t Home La n g u a g e a b Home Language n % C a n t o n e s e 46 29 . 1 % C h i nese 4 2.5% E n g l i s h 79 50 .0% H i n d i 4 2 .5% J a p a n e s e 3 1 .9% M a n d a r i n 3 1 .9% P u n j a b i 13 8 .2% V i e t n a m e s e 6 3 .8% N o t e . E t h n i c g r o u p s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e e t h n i c i t i e s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n ( 1 9 8 7 / 1 9 8 8 ) . a Number o f s t u d e n t s b P e r c e n t a g e o f s a m p l e , d o e s n o t t o t a l 100% due t o r o u n d i n g One h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y - e i g h t o f t h e 441 r a n d o m l y s a m p l e d s t u d e n t s , ( 7 9 L I s t u d e n t s a n d 79 L2 s t u d e n t s ) met t h e c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y : t h e y were n o t e n r o l l e d i n F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s , t h e y had n o t r e p e a t e d k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d t h e i r p r e s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e was d o c u m e n t e d . F l o r d i a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y s c o r e s f r o m e a c h r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s t u d e n t were p o o l e d i n t o t h e s a m p l e u s e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The mai n h y p o t h e s e s were t h e n a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e s e p o o l e d s c o r e s . T h i s s a m p l e was composed o f 76 m a l e s and 82 f e m a l e s and r e p r e s e n t s 38 a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r p e r c e n t o f V a n c o u v e r ' s 3,949 k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m . The a v e r a g e age o f t h e s a m p l e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 y e a r s , 5 m o n t h s . The s a m p l e a s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 2, i s skewed t o w a r d s l o w e r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s due t o t h e h i g h e r number o f L I and L2 s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e 5 s c h o o l c a t c h m e n t a r e a s w i t h a low f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s ; A p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 p e r c e n t ( n = 1 1 8 ) o f t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n i s f r o m a s c h o o l c a t c h m e n t a r e a w i t h a low f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s ( m e d i a n income l e s s t h a n 20,000 d o l l a r s ) . T a b l e 2 P o p u l a t i o n S ample by Number and Sex a S c h o o l M a l e F e m a l e b n c % 1 6 6 12 7.6 2 18 20 38 24 .0 3 10 14 24 15.2 4 18 4 22 13 .9 5 10 12 22 13 .9 6 2 0 2 1.3 7 2 4 6 3 .8 8 4 10 14 8.9 9 4 6 10 6 .3 10 2 6 8 5.1 N o t e . E t h n i c g r o u p s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e e t h n i c i t i e s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n ( 1 9 8 7 / 1 9 8 8 ) . a S c h o o l s 1 t o 5 r e p r e s e n t c h i l d r e n f r o m low f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s f a m i l i e s ( m e d i a n y e a r l y i ncome < 2 0 , 0 0 0 ) and s c h o o l s 6 t o 10 r e p r e s e n t c h i l d r e n f r o m medium o r h i g h f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s f a m i l i e s ( m e d i a n y e a r l y i n c o m e > 2 0 , 0 0 0 ) . b Number o f s t u d e n t s c May n o t t o t a l 1 0 0 % due t o r o u n d i n g o f f 39 T e s t s o f H y p o t h e s e s H y p o t h e s i s 1 There is no correlation between the kindergarten screening scores of L2 students and preschool experience. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a n a l y s e d . u s i n g P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t s a m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h e t e s t m e a s u r e s i n t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d a p p e a r by c h a n c e i s l e s s t h a n .05. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ( T a b l e 3 ) i n d i c a t e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y t e s t s c o r e s t o p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . T a b l e 3. a C o r r e l a t i o n s , T e s t M e a s u r e s t o P r e s c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e M s .d . r A-R 20 .29 8 .72 .05 PPVT-R 28 .88 18 .72 .24* R-D 10 .99 3 .14 .22* VMI 10 .27 3 .08 .05 N o t e . A-R = A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n ; PPVT-R = P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , Form L; R-D = R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; VMI = T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n a N = 79 * P< .05 T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and t e s t s c o r e s on 40 the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and the Recognition-Discrimination Test. This indicates that L 2 children with preschool experience may score s l i g h t l y higher on these measures. Correlations for the remaining two measures, Alphabet Recitation Test and Test of Visual-Motor Integration, indicate no systematic relationship between preschool experience and test scores. This suggests that for L 2 children, preschool experience does not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon Alphabet Recitation or Visual-Motor Integration test scores. Hypothesis 2 There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the scores of L2 students who are screened early (September- October ) and those L2 students who are screened l a t e (January). Test data for t h i s hypothesis were analysed separately by means of independent one way analyses of variance. The null hypothesis i s accepted. The probability that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between test means would appear by chance i s greater than .01. Table 4 summarizes the results of a one way analyses of variance of Fl o r i d a Kindergarten Screening Battery test scores for L 2 students who are screened early and screened l a t e . 41 T a b l e 4 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r L 2 E a r l y / L a t e S c r e e n i n g S c o r e s S u b t e s t S o u r c e SS_ d f MS F p_ B e t w e e n 1.11 1 l . l l 0.01 .90 A-R W i t h i n 5857.02 75 78.09 T o t a l 5858.13 76 T e s t s f o r H o m o g e n e i t y o f V a r i a n c e : C o c h r a n s C = .54, p > .05 B a r t l e t t - B o x F = .24, p >.05 Between 9.31 1 9.31 0.03 .8729 PPVT-R W i t h i n 27097.91 75 361.31 T o t a l 27107.22 76 T e s t s f o r H o m o g e n e i t y o f V a r i a n c e : C o c h r a n s C = .53, p_ > .05 B a r t l e t t - B o x F = .18, £ >.05 B e t w e e n 55.92 1 55.92 6.02* .0164 R-D W i t h i n 695.87 75 9.27 T o t a l 751.79 76 T e s t s f o r H o m o g e n e i t y o f V a r i a n c e : C o c h r a n s C = .56, p_ > .05 B a r t l e t t - B o x F = .72, _> > .05 B e t w e e n 6.26 1 6.26 0.72 .4000 VMI W i t h i n 655.20 75 8.74 T o t a l 661.45 76 T e s t s f o r H o m o g e n e i t y o f V a r i a n c e : C o c h r a n s C = .57, p_ > .05 B a r t l e t t - 8 o x F = .61, p >.05 N o t e . A-R = A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n ; PPVT-R = P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , Form L; VMI = T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ; R - D = R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . *p<.05 T a b l e 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t none o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y s u b t e s t s were s u p p o r t e d a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T a b l e 5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e mean t e s t s c o r e s f o r L2 s t u d e n t s who a r e s c r e e n e d e a r l y a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who a r e s c r e e n e d l a t e . 42 Table 5. Mean S c o r e s : E a r l y / L a t e Screened L2 S t u d e n t s E a r l y L a t e A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n PPVT-R VMI 20.40 11 .67 28 .95 10 .42 20 .16 9 .94 28 .25 9 .84 Note. A-R = A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n ; PPVT-R = Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , Form L; VMI = Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ; R - D = R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . S i n c e unequal c e l l numbers i n d i c a t e d a p o s s i b i l i t y of h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f c e l l v a r i a n c e s , a t e s t of t h i s f a c t o r was made u s i n g Cocrhan's C and B a r t l e t t ' s Box F. In a l l c a s e s t h e degree o f h e t e r o g e n e i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t . H y p o t h e s i s 3 There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between kindergarten screening scores of L2 students and LI students screened at the same time. In o r d e r t o determine i f a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s between k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s o f L I and L2 s t u d e n t s s c r e e n e d a t the same t i m e , t e s t d a t a f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g a two f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e as p r o v i d e d by the SPSSX subprogram ( N i e e t . a l , 1975) a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was o r i g i n a l l y chosen t h e .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was adopted t o c o n t r o l f o r unequal c e l l s i z e s . 43 The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t e s t means w o u l d a p p e a r by c h a n c e i s l e s s t h a n .01. The f o l l o w i n g d a t a i n T a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e a two f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e s t s c o r e s on t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y . 44 Table 6 A n a l y s i s of Variance Comparing Date of Screening and Language Group on Test Scores Subtest Source SS df MS F a Scrm (A) 11 .26 1 11 .26 0 .19 .662 Flang (B) 197 .60 1 197 .601 3 .37 .069 A * B 23 .58 1 23 .58 0 .40 .527 Remainder 8926 .97 152 58 .73 T o t a l 9156 .22 155 59 .07 a Scrm (A) 110.80 1 110.80 0.34 .560 b Flang (B) 42955.29 1 42955.29 132.56**.000 PPVT-R A * B 38.84 1 38.84 0.12 .730 Remainder 49254.26 152 324.04 T o t a l 92576.97 155 597.27 a Scrm (A) K 23.11 1 23 .11 3 .15 .078 D Flang (B) 2.28 1 2 .28 0 .31 .578 A * B 33 .28 1 33 .28 4 .53* .035 Remainder 1116 .82 152 7 .35 T o t a l 1174 155 7 .58 a Scrm (A) u 4 .91 1 4 .91 0 .56 .456 D Flang (B) 62 .89 1 62 .89 7 .16** .008 A * B 1 .74 1 1 .74 0 .20 .657 Remainder 1334.34 152 8 .78 T o t a l 1402 .69 155 9 .05 Note. A-R = Alphabet R e c i t a t i o n ; PPVT-R = Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t - R e v i s e d , Form L; R-D = R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; VMI = Test o f Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n ; N = 156 a b Scrm = s c r e e n i n g month; Flang = LI or L2 * = p_ < .05 ** = p_ < .01 45 As T a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e s , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n L I and L2 s t u d e n t s was f o u n d on b o t h t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d ( F = 1 3 2 . 5 6 , p_ = 0.000) and t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ( F = 7.16, p_ = . 0 0 8 ) . The p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t s a m p l e d i f f e r e n c e w o u l d a p p e a r by c h a n c e on b o t h m e a s u r e s i s l e s s t h a n .01. A l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , an a n a l y s i s o f R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e s some i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s c r e e n i n g month and v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . C e l l means ( T a b l e 7 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r b o t h e a r l y and l a t e s c r e e n i n g , L I s t u d e n t s s c o r e h i g h e r t h a n L2 s t u d e n t s on t h e Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , b u t s c o r e b e l o w L2 s t u d e n t s on t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . T a b l e 7 C e l l Means: T e s t S c o r e s L I and L2 S t u d e n t s S u b t e s t E a r l y S c r e e n i n g L a t e S c r e e n i n g L I L2 L I L2 A-R 22.02 20.40 23.37 20.16 PPVT-R 62.98. 28.96 60.23 28.25 R-D 10.67 11.67 10.83 9.94 VMI 8.98 10.42 8.83 9.84 N o t e . A-R = A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n ; PPVT-R = P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , Form L; R-D = R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; VMI = T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n 46 Hypothesis 4 There i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between age at time of screening and the screening scores of L2 / LI students. In order to determine i f a relationship existed between age at time of screening and screening scores, test data for t h i s hypothsis were analysed using Pearson Product-Moment correlations as provided by the SPSSX subprogram (Nie et. al , 1986) at the .05 level of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The null hypothesis i s rejected. The probability that a s i g n i f i c a n t sample correlation for the above test measures would appear by chance i s less than .05. The results of t h i s analysis are presented in Table 8. These res u l t s indicate a low postive c o r r e l a t i o n between test scores on the VMI (r = 0.23, p_ = 0.045) and age at time of screening for LI students. Correlations between age at time of screening and other tests on the F l o r i d a Kindergarten Screening Battery for LI students were not s i g n i f i c a n t . No s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were found between age at time of screening and test measures on the F l o r i d a Kindergarten Screening Battery for L2 students. A post hoc analysis of the data for t h i s hypothesis also indicates several positive correlations at the .01 level of s i g n i f i c a n c e , between tests on the F l o r i d a Kindergarten Screening Battery for both groups (see Table 9). For LI students a l l tests had s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e 47 c o r r e l a t i o n s between each other . For L2 students there were few s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e s t s . Table 8 C o r r e l a t i o n s : Test Scores to Screening Age LI students L2 students M s_ .d. r M s .d. r A-R 22 .53 6 .31 .04 20 .29 8 .72 .18 R-D 10 .73 2 .32 - .04 10 .98 3 .14 - .05 PPVT-R 61 .94 16 .90 .13 28 .88 18 .72 .18 VMI 8 .92 2 .95 .23* 10 .27 3 .09 .08 Note. A-R = Alphabet R e c i t a t i o n ; PPVT-R = Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t - R e v i s e d , Form L; R-D = R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; VMI = Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n a N - 158 Table 9 C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Tests f o r LI and L2 Students Subtest A LI Students L2 Students -R PPVT-R R-D VMI A-R PPVT-R R-D VMI A-R 1 .0 .3** .4** .4** 1 .0 . 3** .1 PPVT-R .3** 1 .0 .4** .5** .3** 1 .0 .2 .1 R-D .4** .4** 1 .0 .5** .3** .2 1 .0 . 5** VMI .4** .5** . 5** 1 .0 .1 .1 .5** 1 .0 Note. A-R = Alphabet R e c i t a t i o n ; PPVT-R = Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t - R e v i s e d , Form L; R-D = R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; VMI = Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n ** p < .01 48 Summary One hundred and f i f t y - e i g h t kindergarten students from one of three general e t h n i c groups and two f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s l e v e l s formed the sample f o r the present study. Students who spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language were matched with students who spoke E n g l i s h as a second language by sex and f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s . The f i r s t and f o u r t h hypotheses were analysed u s i n g Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . An a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t hypothesis i n d i c a t e d low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between preschool experience and t e s t s cores on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test-Revised (r=.24) and the R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Test (r=.22). An a n a l y s i s of hypothesis number four found a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between age at time of s c r e e n i n g and t e s t s c o r e s on the Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n f o r LI s t u d e n t s . Data f o r the second hypothesis were analysed using independent one way analyses of v a r i a n c e . T h i s hypothesis was not supported at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The t h i r d hypothesis was analysed using a two f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was adopted to c o n t r o l f o r unequal c e l l s i z e s . An a n a l y s i s of data f o r t h i s hypothesis found that at both e a r l y and l a t e s c r e e n i n g dates, LI students scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than L2 students on the Peabody 49 P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test-Revised but below L 2 students on t h e Test of V i s u a l Motor I n t e g r a t i o n . 50 CHAPTER 5 D i s c u s s i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a d d r e s s c o n c e r n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s c r e e n i n g o f L2 c h i l d r e n by c o m p a r i n g t h e s c o r e s o f L2 v e r s u s L I s t u d e n t s on t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y . The p r e s e n t s t u d y e x a m i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f : p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , s c r e e n i n g d a t e , L I s t u d e n t s and age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g f o r O r i e n t a l and I n d o C a n a d i a n L2 s t u d e n t s . I n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y were f o u r s u b t e s t s o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y ( A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n , P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t and T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ) . The s a m p l e s i z e was composed o f 158 k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s who had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n s c r e e n e d u s i n g t h e f o u r s u b t e s t s o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y . D a t a f o r t h e f i r s t a n d f o u r t h h y p o t h e s e s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g P e a r s o n P r o d u c t - M o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s a s p r o v i d e d by t h e SPSSX s u b p r o g r a m ( N i e e t . a l , 1 9 8 6 ) a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . D a t a f o r t h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g i n d e p e n d e n t one way a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e a s p r o v i d e d by t h e SPSSX s u b p r o g r a m a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . D a t a f o r t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g a two f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e a s p r o v i d e d by t h e SPSSX s u b p r o g r a m a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 51 A number o f c o n f o u n d i n g f a c t o r s may have s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . F i n a n c i a l s t a t u s a p p e a r s t o have been a m a j o r f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t e s t s c o r e s a t b o t h s c r e e n i n g d a t e s . D i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e s w i t h i n t h e e t h n i c g r o u p s o f t h e s t u d y may have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f i n d i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t i m e s p a n b e t w e e n s c r e e n i n g d a t e s p e r m i t t e d t e a c h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h may have f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s . The c o m b i n e d e f f e c t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s may have a l t e r e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f i n d i n g s . A summary o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 10. T h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s : a ) a d i s c u s s i o n b a s e d on t h e l i m i t e d s a m p l e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e s t u d y , w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e b ) l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y and c ) some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e . 52 T a b l e 10 Summary o f S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t F i n d i n g s A-R PPVT-R R-D VMI H y p o t h e s i s 1 . L2 P r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e r=0.24 r=0 .22 H y p o t h e s i s 2. L2 E a r l y / L a t e s c r e e n i n g a H y p o t h e s i s 3. L I v e r s u s L 2 , same s c r e e n i n g d a t e F=132 a F=7 .16 H y p o t h e s i s 4. r=0 .23 L I a n d L 2 , t e s t age N o t e . a = s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05, h y p o t h e s i s a t .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e D i s c u s s i o n The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o a d d r e s s some o f t h e c o n c e r n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s c r e e n i n g o f L2 c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s o f : p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , s c r e e n i n g d a t e , L I s t u d e n t s and age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g f o r O r i e n t a l and I n d o C a n a d i a n L2 s t u d e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n b r i e f l y r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m e a c h h y p o t h e s i s . A number o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o c o n s i s t e n t l y d e t e r m i n e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y on v a r i o u s t e s t m e a s u r e s . W h i l e p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e has b e e n f o u n d t o P r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . 53 c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t ( G l e i t m a n & R o z i n , 1973; Z u c c h e r m a g l i o , P o n t e c o r d o , T o n n u c i & B l a c h o w i c z , 1 9 8 6 ) , i t a l s o has been f o u n d t o have non- s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s ( S i l v a & B r a d s h a w , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n h i s r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , E v a n s ( 1 9 8 5 ) c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e i s a h i s t o r y o f m i x e d r e s u l t s f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s u n d e r s c o r e t h e need f o r more s t u d y . I n h i s 1985 s t u d y o f t h e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , E v a n s a l s o c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e a r e no m a i n l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r L2 c h i l d r e n p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e d o e s have a l o w p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s c o r e s on t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d a n d t h e R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f o r L I c h i l d r e n w h i c h a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e d o e s c o r r e l a t e t o a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t ( G l e i t m a n , R o z i n , 1973; Z u c c h e r m a g l i o , P o n t e c o r d o , T o n n u c i & B l a c h o w i c z , 1 9 8 6 ) . The d a t a f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e d o e s r e s u l t i n a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n E n g l i s h r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be a c o n s e q u e n c e o f L2 c h i l d r e n c o m i n g f r o m medium o r h i g h f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s f a m i l i e s , s i n c e o f t h e 79 L2 c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y w i t h p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 2 % were f r o m l o w e r 54 f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s f a m i l i e s . Hence any e f f e c t t h a t c h i l d r e n f r o m medium o f h i g h e r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s w o u l d have upon i n c r e a s e d E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y w o u l d be m i n i m i z e d by t h e l a r g e r l o w e r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s p o p u l a t i o n . As b o t h c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e l o w , t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e upon L2 c h i l d r e n i s m i n i m a l . T h e s e low c o r r e l a t i o n s may be a c o n s e q u e n c e o f f a c t o r s s u c h a s g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and e x p o s u r e t o v i s u a l c r a f t s ( e . g . , d r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g ) , d u r i n g t h e t i m e s p e n t i n p r e s c h o o l . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e a c c r u e a number o f b e n e f i t s and s k i l l s i n o t h e r a r e a s n o t m e a s u r e d by t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y e . g . , s o c i a l s k i l l s . I n a d d i t i o n , c h i l d r e n w i t h p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e w i l l l i k e l y be more f a m i l i a r w i t h a s c h o o l e n v i r o m e n t w h i c h w i l l a l s o t e n d t o d e c r e a s e t h e i r a n x i e t y d u r i n g t e s t i n g . I n summary, f o r L2 c h i l d r e n p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e d o e s have a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t e s t s c o r e s on t h e P e a b ody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d and t h e R e c o g n i t i o n D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T e s t ( r = . 2 4 and r=.22 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . I n a d d i t i o n , p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e d o e s n o t have s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s t o t h e A l p h a b e t - R e c i t a t i o n ( r j = . 0 5 ) and T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ( r = . 0 5 ) t e s t s c o r e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t g e n e r a l l y f o r L2 c h i l d r e n , p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e r e s u l t s i n a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n t h e o v e r a l l s c o r e on t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y . A l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l l y 55 s i g n i f i c a n t t h e p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e upon t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y a p p e a r s t o be m i n i m a l . C a u t i o n s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be e x e r c i s e d i n c r e a t i n g i n a c c u r a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g b e t w e e n L2 s t u d e n t s w i t h and w i t h o u t p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . E a r l y and l a t e s c r e e n i n g , L2 s t u d e n t s . W h i l e some a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t e s t s o r t h e p o s t p o n e m e n t o f t h e s c r e e n i n g d a t e when t e s t i n g L2 s t u d e n t s ( C o l l i e r , 1987; Cummins, 1980; F i n e , 1988; M a l d o n a d o - C o l o n , 1 9 8 6 ) , no s t a t i s t i c a l r e s e a r c h was d i s c o v e r e d s u p p o r t i n g t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g o r d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t h y p o t h e s i s . F o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y was d e t e c t e d b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n who were s c r e e n e d on d i f f e r e n t d a t e s ( e a r l y / l a t e ) . T h i s i n i t i a l l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d a t e o f s c r e e n i n g d o e s n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t upon t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y s c o r e s o f L2 s t u d e n t s . H owever, two f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n b o t h g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n on s u b t e s t s o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y may e x i s t : ( a ) t h e mean R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n s c o r e s o f t h e e a r l y s c r e e n e d g r o u p o f L2 c h i l d r e n a r e h i g h e r ( d e s p i t e l e s s t i m e ) , and ( b ) t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n b o t h g r o u p s a p p r o a c h e d 56 s i g n i f i c a n c e (pj=.016) a t t h e .01 l e v e l . S e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a i l u r e t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s u c h a s t h e p o s s i b l i t y o f l a t e s c r e e n e d s t u d e n t s ( J a n u a r y ) b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e e x t r a t i m e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r m o n t h s ) , t o a c q u i r e s k i l l s o r r e c e i v e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n ( E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e a s s i s t a n c e , S p e e c h a nd L a n g u a g e t h e r a p y , e t c . ) . P r e s u m a b l y , b o t h i n f o r m a l a n d f o r m a l i n t e r v e n t i o n by t e a c h e r s p r i o r t o l a t e s c r e e n i n g , s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e s t h e E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e a b i l i t y o f L2 s t u d e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h o s e c h i l d r e n who were s c r e e n e d l a t e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 3 % v e r s u s 5% o f t h o s e s c r e e n e d e a r l y ) a l s o b e n e f i t e d f r o m p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t d e s p i t e t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f e x t r a t i m e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 months due t o l a t e s c r e e n i n g d a t e ) t o i n c r e a s e r e c o g n i t i o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a b i l i t y a n d g r e a t e r s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e , L2 c h i l d r e n who a r e s c r e e n e d l a t e a r e b e h i n d L2 c h i l d r e n who a r e s c r e e n e d e a r l y i n r e c o g n i t i o n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . S i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n who a r e s c r e e n e d e a r l y a r e a l s o f r o m m i d d l e o r u p p e r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s f a m i l i e s , t h i s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t c a r e s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d when c o m p a r i n g t h e R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n s c o r e s b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n f r o m l o w e r and m i d d l e / u p p e r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s f a m i l i e s . L I v e r s u s L2 s c o r e s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n L I and L2 c h i l d r e n i s m a r k e d l y r e d u c e d when t h e g r o u p s a r e 57 matched f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( C o h e n & M a n i o n , 1983; J e n s e n , 1980; P h i l i p s , 1 9 8 6 ) . However, s t u d i e s have a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t e v e n when m a t c h e d f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e s t s c o r e s e x i s t b e t w e e n v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s ( A l t e p e t e r & H a n d a l , 1983; Umansky & C o h e n , 1980; G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h e same t h i n g t o d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s (Samuda, 1 9 8 4 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u p p o r t p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e s t s c o r e s b e t w e e n e t h n i c g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s f r o m a two f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f Pe a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d s c o r e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y o f L I s t u d e n t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f L2 s t u d e n t s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was r e f l e c t e d a t b o t h e a r l y and l a t e s c r e e n i n g d a t e s ( s e e T a b l e 6, C h a p t e r 4 ) . A p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e h i g h e r s c o r e s o f LI s t u d e n t s i s t h e i r h i g h e r E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d number o f y e a r s o f e x p o s u r e l i s t e n i n g t o t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . S u b s e q u e n t l y i t a p p e a r s t h a t L2 k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n l a g b e h i n d t h e i r L I p e e r s i n r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y and may a l s o l a g i n o t h e r a r e a s o f E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t s f r o m an a n a l y s i s o f t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t L2 c h i l d r e n s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n L I c h i l d r e n . Mean s c o r e s on t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 7 ) i n d i c a t e 58 t h a t a t b o t h e a r l y and l a t e s c r e e n i n g d a t e s L2 c h i l d r e n s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n L I c h i l d r e n . The h i g h e r s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i r v i s u a l - m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n s k i l l s a r e a d v a n c e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e L I g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n . As a number o f a u t h o r s ( G a r d n e r , 1986; Samuda, 1984; S h a r p l e y and S t o n e , 1 9 8 5 ) c o n t e n d t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may r e s u l t i n d i f f e r i n g t e s t s c o r e s i n d e p e n d e n t o f l a n g u a g e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s may have had a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t upon L2 c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s on t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . On a r e l a t e d m e a s u r e (K-ABC ) ( K a u f m a n & K a u f m a n , 1 9 8 3 ) , G a r d n e r ( 1 9 8 6 ) , f o u n d t h a t C a n t o n e s e s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n had s u p e r i o r s p a t i a l s k i l l s a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e E n g l i s h and P u n j a b i s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f L2 c h i l d r e n were o f O r i e n t a l e t h n i c i t y ( T a b l e 1 ) . P o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r L2 c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g h i g h e r on t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n may be t h e s i z e and g r e a t e r v i s u a l demands o f t h e C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s y s t e m ( h e n c e g r e a t e r r e p e t i t i o n and p r a c t i c e e f f e c t ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o r a t t i t u d e s may have i n f l u e n c e d t e s t b e h a v i o r and b e n e f i t e d s t u d e n t s on t h i s m e a s u r e . The i n t e r a c t i o n ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ) b e t w e e n s c r e e n i n g month and l a n g u a g e on R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s c o r e s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s u l t s n o t e d u n d e r h y p o t h e s i s t w o . A n a l y s i s o f h y p o t h e s i s number two i n d i c a t e d 59 J a s i g n i f i c a n t (F = 6.02) amount of variance between the test scores of L2 students who are screened early versus those who are screened l a t e . Age and t est scores. While some researchers suggest that there i s an effect between chronological age and d i f f i c u l t y in school (Erion, 1987), and subsequently express concern about the premature labeling of immature children (Hammond, 1986; Wancxycki , 1983), other authors suggest that the ef f e c t of chronological age i s minimal (May & Welch, 1986; Shepard & Smith 1986). While the results of the present study generally support research that suggests the effect of chronological age i s minimal, results also p a r t i a l l y support the findings of Erion (1987) which indicated a positive correlation between chronological age and scores on the Test of Visual Motor Integration. The screening scores of LI students on the Test of Visual Motor Integration are the only test scores that have a s i g n i f i c a n t but low corr e l a t i o n to age at time of screening. The low s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.23) suggests age at time of screening has only a small impact upon the test scores of LI students. Therefore, i t would appear that the effect of a student's age at the time of screening (September/October versus January screening) for LI students on the Florida Kindergarten Screening Battery i s minimal. The absence of a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n for L2 students on 60 t h i s m e a s u r e , may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e v i s u a l - m o t o r s k i l l s o f L2 s t u d e n t s a r e n o t d e v e l o p i n g a s r a p i d l y a s L I s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t e s t s w i t h i n t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y and t e s t s c o r e s f o r L I and L2 c h i l d r e n ( s e e T a b l e 8). F o r L I s t u d e n t s , s c o r e s on any one t e s t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d t o s c o r e s on t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e m e a s u r e s . F o r e x a m p l e , s c o r e s on t h e Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y t o s c o r e s on t h e A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n m e a s u r e , R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n m e a sure and t h e t e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . H o wever, f o r L2 s t u d e n t s s c o r e s on t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , do n o t have s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s t o s c o r e s on e i t h e r t h e R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n m e asure o r t h e t e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . F o r L2 s t u d e n t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t ( a ) Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d t o A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n , ( b ) T e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n t o R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and ( c ) A l p h a b e t R e c i t a t i o n t o R e c o g n i t i o n D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I f s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h d e t e r m i n e s c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s u b t e s t s c o r e s on t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y f o r L2 s t u d e n t s , t h e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n L I and L2 s t u d e n t s p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t s t h e d e v e l o p i n g a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e by L2 s t u d e n t s . 61 E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e has a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n t o t h e s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n , t h i s i n c r e a s e may be due t o f a c t o r s t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s k i l l s m e a s u r e d by t h e s e t e s t s ( e . g . , a n x i e t y ) , t h e r e f o r e t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f L2 c h i l d r e n w i t h p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d n o t be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h o s e w i t h o u t p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . I f s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h w i t h L2 s t u d e n t s d e t e r m i n e s a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t t h e n t h e f a c t t h a t s c o r e s on t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y do n o t c o r r e l a t e more s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s a number o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , ( a ) t h a t t h e s k i l l s m e a s u r e d by t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y a r e n o t t a u g h t or t a u g h t i n s u f f i c e n t l y i n p r e s c h o o l , ( b ) t h a t L2 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n do n o t b e n e f i t f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s e s k i l l s a t t h i s a g e , ( c ) t h a t L2 p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t most f r o m a l t e r n a t e l e a r n i n g s u c h a s i n f o r m a l p l a y o r m a t e r n a l i n t e r a c t i o n o r d ) t h e p r e s e n c e o f f a c t o r s t h a t n e g a t e t h e b e n e f i t s o f p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e f o r L2 c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , i n t e r f e r e w i t h c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , l a n g u a g e f o r m a t i o n ) . I f one o f t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s was d e t e r m i n e d by s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h t h e n i n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be a l t e r e d t o b e n e f i t L2 l e a r n i n g . Why p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e d i d n o t have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t upon t h e t e s t s c o r e s o f L2 c h i d r e n m e r i t s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 62 I f f u r t h e r s t u d i e s s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s c r e e n i n g d a t e d o e s n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t upon t e s t s c o r e s , t h e n L2 k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s c o u l d be s c r e e n e d a t e i t h e r s c r e e n i n g d a t e ( l a t e / e a r l y ) , and c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s i n e i t h e r g r o u p ( l a t e / e a r l y ) c o u l d be d i r e c t l y made. S i n c e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e R e c o g n i t i o n - D i s c r i m i n a t i o n t e s t s c o r e s b e t w e e n L 2 s t u d e n t s and b e t w e e n L2 and L I s t u d e n t s may d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e n c r o s s c o m p a r i s o n s f o r t h i s m e a sure s h o u l d be made w i t h c a u t i o n u n t i l c l a r i f i e d by s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e r e a s o n s why t h e r e f a i l e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s c r e e n i n g d a t e s d e s p i t e a d d i t i o n a l t i m e and p o s s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n may u l t i m a t e l y have i m p o r t a n t c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f L2 s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g s c o r e s f o r L I and L2 c h i l d r e n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y s k i l l s o f L2 c h i l d r e n have n o t r e a c h e d p a r i t y w i t h L I c h i l d r e n a t e i t h e r s c r e e n i n g d a t e . T h i s i m p l i e s t h e need f o r c o n t i n u e d i n c l u s i o n o f L2 s t u d e n t s i n l a n g u a g e s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s ( E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e , e t c . ) . The s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s o f L2 c h i l d r e n a t b o t h e a r l y and l a t e s c r e e n i n g on t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n a g r e e s w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d have h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r L2 c h i l d r e n on v i s u a l - m o t o r t a s k s s u c h a s 63 d r a w i n g . T h e s e r e s u l t s a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t i n g f o r m u l a s s h o u l d be u s e d f o r L I and L2 s t u d e n t s on t h e Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t and t h e T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t c h r o n o l o g i c a l age a t t i m e o f s c r e e n i n g has no p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e upon s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y f o r e i t h e r L I o r L2 s t u d e n t s . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p (L1/L2), t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n s t u d e n t s who a r e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y y o u n g e r c a n be c o m p a r e d t o t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s o f o l d e r p e e r s . I t a l s o g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n (L1/L2), o n c e c h i l d r e n have e n t e r e d k i n d e r g a r t e n , c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e a q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s a s m e a s u r e d by t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y . As v e r y l i t t l e k i n d e r g a r t e n r e s e a r c h e x i s t s f o r L2 s t u d e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r , t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l add t o t h e body o f e x i s t i n g k n o w l e d g e o f k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g . By i d e n t i f y i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e a r l y and l a t e k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g o r b e t w e e n L2 and L I s c o r e s t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t p l a c e m e n t p r o c e s s i s i n c r e a s e d . M o r e o v e r , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may a s s i s t i n t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f f i n a n c i a l and human r e s o u r c e s . U l t i m a t e l y , b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a d a p t i n g t o t h e C a n a d i a n l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r e , L2 s t u d e n t s may d e v e l o p 6 4 l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n L I s t u d e n t s . K n o w l e d g e o f how e t h n i c g r o u p s p e r f o r m d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m t h e w h i t e m i d d l e c l a s s norm on a k i n d e r g a r t e n s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y b e n e f i t s b o t h a s s e s s m e n t and i n s t r u c t i o n . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y As V a n c o u v e r has a u n i q u e g r o u p i n g o f e t h n i c i t i e s t h a t a r e i n c o n t i n u a l f l u x , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s t o d i f f e r e n t g r a d e l e v e l s , s c h o o l y e a r s , e d u c a t i o n a l o r com m u n i t y s e t t i n g s s h o u l d n o t be made w i t h o u t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e t h e c u r r i c u l u m and l a n g u a g e o f t h e p r e s c h o o l s t h e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d e d may v a r y and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s u c h as l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , s p e e c h and l a n g u a g e t h e r a p y i s unknown r e s u l t s s h o u l d n o t be g e n e r a l i z e d t o g r o u p s o f k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n o t h e r a c a d e m i c y e a r s . S i n c e t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d more t h a n one e t h n i c i t y ( I n d o C a n a d i a n , O r i e n t a l and A n g l o ) c o m p a r i s o n s c a n n o t be made b e t w e e n v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y i n c l u d e d t h e t h r e e l a r g e s t e t h n i c g r o u p s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i t e x c l u d e d o t h e r e t h n i c i t i e s ( I t a l i a n , S p a n i s h e t c . ) and o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s ( F r e n c h I m m e r s i o n , e t c . ) . These o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s may have had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon t h e r e s u l t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e o f t h e s t u d y may n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . 6 5 Implications for Further Research Since the results of t h i s study are limited to kindergarten children enrolled during the 1987/1988 school year , there i s a need for further research with L2 students at other grade levels over a period of time. The rate t h a t L 2 students attain visual motor and language s k i l l s may vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y at higher grade levels and may not p a r a l l e l the rate that LI students at t a i n these s k i l l s . Research i s needed to determine what s p e c i f i c factors within Preschool and Kindergarten programs are the most benefical in improving the English language a b i l i t y of L2 children. For example, would L2 children who attend preschools that use their native language score d i f f e r e n t l y from children who attend English language preschools, or does the number of years of attendance improve scores? What instructional or remedial methods are the most appropriate? The effect that f i n a n c i a l status and individual ethnicity has upon test scores of L2 children needs to be more closely determined. S p e c i f i c a l l y , why do L2 children score higher than LI children at both screening dates on the Test of Visual-Motor Integration and what eff e c t does f i n a n c i a l status have upon the Recognition-Discrimination test scores of L2 children? F i n a l l y , there i s a need for research with L2 children who are experiencing learning problems and with L2 children who are in special programs. 66 R e f e r e n c e s A l t e p e t e r , T. , & Handa1 , P. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Use o f t h e PPVT-R f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s c r e e n i n g w i t h s c h o o l a g e d c h i l d r e n " - A c a u t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c P s y c h o l o g y , 4 ( 2 ), 195 -198 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) . E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e / D i a l e c t r e s o u r c e book f o r K-12. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . B l a c h m a n , B. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A r e we a s s e s s i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s c r i t i c a l i n e a r l y r e a d i n g ? A n n a l s o f D y s l e x i a , 3 3 , 9 1 - 1 0 9 . B l o o m , B. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . S t a b i l i t y and c h a n g e i n human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . New Y o r k : W i l e y and S o n s B e e r y , K . ( 1 9 6 7 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a l T e s t o f V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . C h i c a g o : F o l l e t t . B r e e n , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s b e t w e e n t h e PPVT-R and t h e W o o d c o c k - J o h n s o n a c h i e v e m e n t c l u s t e r s c o r e s f o r n o n r e f e r r e d r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 2 0 ( 3 ) , 2 9 5 - 2 9 7 . B u t t l e r , K. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . L a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h an p r a c t i c e : A m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . 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M e t h o d s and r e s u l t s i n t h e IEA s t u d i e s o f e f f e c t s o f s c h o o l i n l e a r n i n g . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 4 5 ( 3 ) , 355-386 . C o l l i e r , V. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Age and R a t e o f . A c q u i s i t i o n o f S e c o n d L a n g u a g e f o r A c a d e m i c P u r p o s e s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 1 ( 4 ) , 6 1 7 - 6 4 1 . 67 C o n n o r , U . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P r e d i c t o r s o f s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . J o u r n a l o f M u l t i l i n g u a l a n d M u l t i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , 4 ( 4 ) , 2 7 1 - 2 8 7 . C u m m i n s , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t o f i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n : L o g i c o r i n t u i t i o n ? J o u r n a l o f M u l t i l i n g u a l a n d M u l t i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 ( 2 ) , 9 7 - 1 1 1 . C u m m i n s , J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . B i l i n g u a l i s m a n d m i n o r i t y l a n g u a g e c h i l d r e n . T o r o n t o : O I S E P r e s s . C u m m i n s , J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . B i l i n g u a l i s m a n d s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n : I s s u e s i n a s s e s s m e n t a n d p e d a g o g y . A v o n : M u 1 1 i 1 i n g u a 1 M a t t e r s . C u m m i n s , J . & S w a i n , M . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . L a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y a n d a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . ( p p . 1 3 8 - 2 2 3 ) . New Y o r k : Longman. D u n l e a v y , R . , H a n s e n , J . , S z a s z , C . B a a d e , L . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . E a r l y k i n d e r g a r t e n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c a l l y n o t - r e a d y c h i l d r e n b y u s e o f h u m a n f i g u r e d r a w i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l s c o r e . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1 8 ( 1 ) , 3 5 - 3 8 D u n n , L . ( 1 9 6 8 ) . S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e m i l d l y r e t a r d e d - i s m u c h o f i t j u s t i f i a b l e ? E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 3 5 , 5 - 2 2 . D u n n , L . & D u n n , L . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d . C i r c l e P i n e s , M N : A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e . E r i o n , J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e , i m m a t u r i t y a n d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 1 ( 1 ) , 2 - 7 . E v a n s , E . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . L o n g i t u d i n a l f o l l o w - u p a s s e s s m e n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e f o r l o w i n c o m e m i n o r i t y g r o u p c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 7 8 ( 4 ) , 1 9 7 - 2 0 2 . F i n e , J . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . 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A s s e s s i n g t h e a b i l i t i e s o f a m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s w i t h i n a m u l t i e t h n i c m i l l i e u . I n R . J . Samuda, J.W. B e r r y & M. L a f e r r i e r e ( E d s . ) , Mu 11 i c u 11 ur a 1 i srn i n Canada S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e s ( p p . 353-367 ) . T o r o n t o : A l l y n and B a c o n . Samuda, R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . R a c i s m & t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f m i n o r i t i e s : I m p l i c a t i o n s , c o n s e q u e n c e s , a l t e r n a t i v e s . I n t e r c u l t u r a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . S a t z , P., & F l e t c h e r J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . M a n u a l f o r t h e F l o r i d a K i n d e r g a r t e n S c r e e n i n g B a t t e r y . O d e s a , F L : P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s e s s m e n t R e s o u r c e s . S a t t l e r , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . A s s e s s m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s ( 2 n d e d . ). 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P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 2 2 ( 9 ) , 383 - 386. S h e p a r d , L., S m i t h , M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . S y n t h e s i s o f r e s e a r c h on s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s a n d k i n d e r g a r t e n r e t e n t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 4 4 ( 7 ), 78-85 . 72 S i l v a , P. & B r a d s h a w , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Some f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i n t e l l i g e n c e a t age o f s c h o o l e n t r y . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 5 0 , 10-15. S m i t h , D., & W i l b o r n , B. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S p e c i f i c p r e d i c t o r s o f l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . A c a d e m i c T h e r a p y , 12,(4), 4 7 1 - 4 7 7 . S t r o n g , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S o c i a l s t y l e s a n d t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n o f S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g k i n d e r g a r t n e r s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 1 7 ( 3 ) , 2 4 1 - 2 5 8 . T a y l o r , F. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . R a c e , s c h o o l a n d co m m u n i t y : A s t u d y o f r e s e a r c h and l i t e r a t u r e . S l o u g h : NFER T o l l e f s o n , N., R o d r i q u e z , R., & G l a z z a r d , P. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . ' P r e d i c t i n g r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n b o y s and g i r l s . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 22( 1 ) . 3 4 - 3 9 . T h u r l o w , M., O ' S u l l i v a n , P., Y s s e l d y k e , J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . E a r l y s c r e e n i n g f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n : How a c c u r a t e ? E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 4 4 ( 3 ) , 9 3 - 9 5 . T i g h e , V. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . O l d i s s u e s and h e l p f u l h i n t s : C o n t e n t a r e a r e a d i n g f o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . R e a d i n g I m p r o v e m e n t , 2 3 ( 4 ) , 2 9 3 - 2 9 8 . Umanasky, W. & C o h e n , L. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Race and s e x d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e M c C a r t h y S c r e e n i n g T e s t . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 17, 40 0 - 4 0 4 . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . P r o c e d u r e f o r c h a n g i n g t h e w e i g h t s ( e v e r y two y e a r s ) . D e t e r m i n i n g t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e d i s t r i c t e l e m e n t a r y a s s e s s m e n t p r o g r a m ' s k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . R e s o u r c e g u i d e f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y a s s e s s m e n t p r o g r a m . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S u r v e y o f p u p i l s f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . V i l k e , M. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . Some p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f e a r l y s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . J o u r n a l o f M u l t i l i n g u a l and M u l t i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , 9 ( 1 & 2 ) , 1 1 5 - 1 2 8 . 73 W a l k e r , W. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . I n t e r a c t i o n a l e f f e c t s o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and c o g n i t i v e tempo on WISC-R p e r f o r m a n c e . Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n C o u n s e l i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 8 ( 2 ) . W a n c x y c k i , W. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The k i n d e r g a r t e n e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n component o f B i l l 8 2 . S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a , 5 7 ( 1 ) , 2 5 - 2 9 . W e d e l l , K . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A s s e s s i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n n e e d s . B . C . J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 7, 3 4 5 - 3 5 0 . W e l l s , G. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Some a n t e c e d e n t s o f e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y o f E d u c a t i o n , 2, 181 - 2 0 0 . W h i t e , R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . E f f i c a c y o f e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n . The J o u r n a l o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 ( 4 ) , 401 - 4 1 5 . W h i t e , M., B a t i n i , P., S a t z , P. & F r i e l J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f a s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y f o r c h i l d r e n ' a t r i s k ' f o r r e a d i n g f a i l u r e . The B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 9 , 132-137. Wood, C , P o w e l l , M., K n i g h t , R. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P r e d i c t i n g s c h o o l r e a d i n e s s : The v a l i d i t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l a g e . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1 7 ( 1 ) , 8 -11. W r i g h t , P. & S a n t a C r u z , R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n C a l i f o r n i a . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y Q u a r t e r l y , 6 ( 4 ), 387-394 . Y s s e l d y k e , J . , T h u r l o w , M. , O ' S u l l i v a n , P., & B u r s a w , R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . C u r r e n t s c r e e n i n g a n d d i a g n o s t i c p r a c t i c e s i n a s t a t e o f f e r i n g f r e e p r e s c h o o l s c r e e n i n g s i n c e 1977: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e f i e l d . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l A s s e s s m e n t , 4 ( 3 ) , 1 9 1 - 2 0 1 . Z i g l e r , E., A b e l s o n , W., S e i t z , V. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . M o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n on t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 4 4 , 2 9 4 - 3 0 3 . Z u c c h e r m a g l i o , C., P o n t e c o r d o , C., T o n u c c i , F., & B l a c h o w i c z , C. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . L i t e r a c y and l i n g u i s t i c a w a r e n e s s : A s t u d y o f I t a l i a n f i r s t g r a d e s t u d e n t s . R e a d i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 7, 1 1 - 2 5 . 74

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