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Selected linguistic skills in young deaf children 1972

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SELECTED LINGUISTIC SKILLS IN YOUNG DEAF CHILDREN by PERRY THOROLD LESLIE B.Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 M.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n the Department of Special Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1972 In present ing th i s thes is in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of Special EdWCftt̂ -Qn The Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date Jfrly 14, 1972. DISSERTATION ABSTRACT SELECTED LINGUISTIC SKILLS IN YOUNG DEAF CHILDREN Perry Thorold L e s l i e Ed.D. i n Special Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia July 1972 This investigation examined the performances of f o r t y deaf children on tasks involving singular and p l u r a l simple-active-declarative and corresponding yes/no statements. The task items used be_ as Aux i n both past and non-past tenses. The f o r t y subjects were grouped, according to age, in t o four groups of ten representing s i x , seven, eight, and nine year olds. A model, based on transformational-generative grammar theories, was developed to enable q u a l i t a t i v e analysis of the responses. Analysis of the l i n g u i s t i c performance demonstrated that the young deaf children were rule governed i n responses to the tasks. Many of the l i n g u i s t i c performances examined, were found to p a r a l l e l development of l i n g u i s t i c performances of very young hearing children. Analysis of the data demonstrated that 9 year old deaf children perform- ed s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than 6 year old deaf children on the task items. The task battery included comprehension and production task items. The production-generation items were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i f f i c u l t than the production-completion items. Young deaf children performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i i i . b e tter on singular statement items than they did on p l u r a l statement items. The implications of the study were explored and a r e s u l t i n g delineation of language teaching techniques was recommended for future research. i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1 I I PROBLEM 12 Statement of the Problem 12 Related Research 13 De f i n i t i o n of Terms 16 Rationale . . . . . . 17 Instrumentation 18 I I I METHOD 22 Sampling and Subjects 22 Instruments 22 Scoring 23 Examiners 23 Research Questions . . . 23 Design 24 Experimental Hypotheses 24 Procedure 28 IV RESULTS . 29 Models for Analyzing the Data 29 Results of the Quantitative Analysis 30 Results of the Qualitative Analysis 50 V DISCUSSION 63 Interpretation of Results 63 Implications VI Limitations 73 Page Future Research 74 REFERENCES 76 APPENDICES . . . . . . 82 A Task Battery . . . . . 83 B Demonstrations Items . . . . . 148 C Vocabulary Charts 173 D Standard Administration Procedures 176 E Check L i s t s 182 F Summary of Correct Responses 184 G Summary of Response by Task Level 186 H Summary of Task 3 and 4 Responses f o r Selected Subjects 221 I Summary ANOVA including Examiner as a Factor 227 v i . LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Sources of Var i a t i o n , Error Terms, and Degrees of Freedom f o r ANOVA 27 2 Means and Standard Deviations for Age Levels 32 3 Means and Standard Deviations for Hearing Levels 34 4 Summary of Analysis of Variance 35 5 Summary of Age (A) Contrasts 37 6 Summary of Task (B) Contrasts . 39 7 Summary of Age x Task (AB) Interaction Contrasts 40 8 Summary of Age x Singular/Plural (AC) Contrasts 42 9 Summary of Tense x Transform (DE) Contrasts 44 10 Summary of Task x Tense x Transform (BDE) Contrasts 45 11 Summary of Age x Task x Singular/Plural x Tense x Transform (ABCDE) Contrasts 47 12 Summary of Examiner (X) Contrasts 48 13 Summary of Examiner x Singular/Plural (CX(A)) Contrasts 49 14 Summary of Examiner x Tense (DX(A)) Contrasts 51 v i i . LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Study Design . . . . . 25 2 Study Design (cont.) 26 3 Model of Task S p e c i f i c Rules 31 4 AB Interactions . . . . . 41 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The problems of developing communication i n the deaf have been recognized and recorded as far back as the pre-Christian era when A r i s t o t l e noted a relationship between congenital deafness and dumbness. A r i s t o t l e ... placed strong emphasis on sound as the primary vehicle for conveying thought and therefore as the chief medium for education. A r i s t o t l e presumably believed, therefore, that since the deaf could neither give utterance to speech nor comprehend i t from others, they were r e l a t i v e l y incapable of i n s t r u c t i o n (Davis and Silverman, 1970, p. 375). Here then was an early record of the recognition of the problem of communication. From that time to the present day, educators, philosophers, physicians, engineers, parents, and laymen have struggled to cope with the deaf child's problems of communication. Dr. Richard Silverman very aptly pointed out that "man's struggle toward enlightenment i s slow, f a l t e r i n g , and, i n many instances haphazard" ( I b i d . , p. 375). This has been borne out by developments i n the education of deaf children f o r i t was not u n t i l the middle of the sixteenth century that the deaf were considered educable. At t h i s time Girolamo Cardano stated that the deaf could be taught to comprehend written symbols or combinations of symbols by associating them with the object or picture of the object they were intended to represent ( i b i d . , p. 376). This i s s t i l l one of the standard introduc- tory techniques for language i n s t r u c t i o n . I t was not u n t i l the l a t t e r part of the eighteenth century that public schooling for the deaf became a r e a l i t y . In the 1770's Abbe de l'Epee and Samuel Heinicke founded the f i r s t French and German public schools ( I b i d . , p. 377). These men d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r methodological approach 2. to education of the deaf. De l'Epee was a proponent of a "manual" communication system while Heinicke was f i r m l y convinced that an " o r a l " communication system was best suited to educating deaf children. Over a period of years a growing concern regarding methodology became evident. Considerable research e f f o r t has been expended i n examining the performances of children educated through d i f f e r i n g communication systems (Quigley and F r i s i n a , 1961; Birch and Stuckless, 1965; Montgomery, 1966; Quigley, 1969). I t has been demonstrated that the res u l t s of the d i f f e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodologies, discussed above, were within one month of each other on a grade-score r a t i n g (Birch and Stuckless, 1966). Comparison of r e s u l t s of reading performance l e v e l studies (Annual Survey of Hearing Impaired Children and Youth, 1969; Furth, 1966; Quigley, 1969) revealed that, whether educated o r a l l y or through a simultaneous method of i n s t r u c t i o n deaf children do not develop reading s k i l l s commensurate with t h e i r hearing peers. I t i s probable, then, that concern over i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology may be less important than other considerations i n educating deaf children. A reading study (Furth, 1966) revealed that eighty-eight per cent of the deaf sixteen year olds studied were functioning below a grade f i v e performance l e v e l . These results made i t apparent that education of the deaf, irrespe c t i v e of methodology, has encountered d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the area of reading. One must bear i n mind that the test batteries used were designed for hearing children and purported to measure reading s k i l l s . The tests presupposed language competency. However, deaf children approach a reading test with a very r e s t r i c t e d competency i n language, and therefore results are not necessarily a r e f l e c t i o n of reading s k i l l s per se; rather, they r e f l e c t some combination of reading s k i l l s and language competencies. 3. Hence, Furth's report of deaf children's depressed performance on reading test batteries was a r e f l e c t i o n of both reading s k i l l and language compe- tence deficiencies. I t would seem that a great deal of time and energy has been expended either supporting, decrying, or investigating the e f f i c a c y of a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l methodology. Further, deaf children appear to be deficient i n language competency yet l i t t l e study has been directed toward examination of t h i s variable. The present inves t i g a t i o n , although r e s t r i c t e d to some aspects of the language, attempted to provide some information related to language competency i n deaf children. To imply that the input methodology was the only concern of educators of the deaf would be inaccurate. While the manual-oral discussions contin- ued, many teachers of the deaf have r e a l i z e d the importance of language. Consideration of comparisons between deaf and hearing children l e d teachers and researchers to the conclusions that the deaf c h i l d had a resultant deficiency i n his "experiential background". Several research studies have dealt with the topic of the vocabulary of the deaf c h i l d ( F i t z g e r a l d , 1949; Foy, 1966; Kennedy, 1959; Richardson, 1957). There also have been several papers and programs prepared to a s s i s t the teacher with the guidance of the language ac q u i s i t i o n process. Such programs as the "Barry Five Slate System", and "Wing Symbols", and the "Fitzgerald Key" were the res u l t s of these studies. However, these systems have not served as a complete model for the English language. Although simple statements were generally handled adequately, many complex structures were not re a d i l y described by the models. The approach to developing language i n the deaf c h i l d has been one of presenting the material to the c h i l d and expecting him to "learn" A. correct usage through reference to a classification system. Eric Lenneberg (1967) makes reference to this approach to language and the point he makes i s worthy of consideration: In contrast to the hearing child, who i s simply surrounded by a sea of sentences, well-formed and poorly formed and who builds up his sentence-making s k i l l s without knowing how, the deaf child i s usually immediately introduced to theoretical grammar. In the course of the f i r s t year of language instruction, he i s told that he must speak i n "sentences" and that a proper sentence i s made up of "nouns" and "verbs", that nouns must have "articles", and so on. These theoretical terms are written on the blackboard and also appear i n some of the books that are used i n the lower grades. Thus we have a situation i n which the children are on the one hand quantitatively deprived of a large body of examples, and on the other hand are immediately given a meta-language, a language about the language which they do not yet have. Their own spontaneity of putting out the type of primitive sentences ... apparently the necessary devel- opmental stage that must precede the complete unfolding of grammar i n hearing children, i s restricted by teachers who do not tolerate answers i n "incomplete sentences". The child's flow of communication i s constantly stopped by the teacher's instructions "to complete the sentence", which i s accompanied by a theoretical discussion of how to do this ("verb i s missing", "the ar t i c l e i s not correct", etc.). This mode of instruction raises an important question. Is i t possible to instruct somebody how language works by giving him rules - particularly when he has l i t t l e language as yet? (pp. 322-3). Hearing children do not learn English through such a meta-language. They receive information about the structure of the language by listening to others speaking English. Once they have some ideas, or rules, describing language, they attempt to use them and they make mistakes. For the most part, they are not immediately stopped; generally the rules are reinforced or corrected by parental repetition and expansion of the child's sentence (e.g. child says "Daddy home" and mother says "Yes, Daddy i s home"). In other words, the hearing child has his parents' productions as a model of the language and he has their repetitions or expansions of his productions to correct his ideas of the rules of English structure. 5. The deaf c h i l d , on the other hand, dees not receive a s i m i l a r language input and hence dees not develop l i n g u i s t i c competency commensurate with his hearing peers. In f a c t , he often arrives at school, aged f i v e , with l i t t l e , i f any, vocabulary and an extremely l i m i t e d understanding of English. I t would seem reasonable f o r the teachers to take cn the r o l e of parents and provide adequate models for the c h i l d through whatever medium seems most appropriate. This approach to language development i s f a i r l y common in schools f o r the deaf but i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y developed. A l l too soon the meta-language and corrections mentioned by Lenneberg do appear and the c h i l d i s l o s t i n h i s attempts to sort out the structures of English. In order to improve the approach to language development i t is imperative that the language a c q u i s i t i o n processes of deaf chi l d r e n be more c l e a r l y understood. The information gained from such study i s c e r t a i n to a s s i s t the development of more comprehensive language programs f o r deaf children. Recently, language competency has been reconsidered i n the l i g h t of new models of language a c q u i s i t i o n f o r hearing children (Katz and P o s t a l , 1964-; Chomsky, 1965). Development of new theories of language a c q u i s i t i o n has l e d to a reconsideration of the l i n g u i s t i c competency of deaf chi l d r e n (Lowenbraun, 1969; Schmitt, 1969; Quigley, 1971). Consideration of the works of these and other authors explains, to a degree, why there has been d i f f i c u l t y i n developing e f f e c t i v e materials and programs adapted to the deaf c h i l d ; f o r u n t i l the recent development of Generative theory and Transformational grammar models (T-G grammar theory), there has been no sound comprehensive theory dealing with the language a c q u i s i t i o n process. In order to c l a r i f y some of the concepts of these theories and 6. t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the language of deaf children, a b r i e f summary i s presented below. The writings of Noam Chomsky, Theorist, describe the basic thinking of generative grammar t h e o r i s t s . W. C. Ritchie (1967) gives a b r i e f description of Chomsky's works: In recent years ... Chomsky and his colleagues have ... concen- trated on the construction of formal accounts of the l i n g u i s t i c "knowledge" that a native speaker possesses. ... Chomsky i s attempting ... to account for the native speaker's a b i l i t y to interpret any one of an i n f i n i t e number of "possible" utterances i n ... a language. ... Chomsky has proposed that the study of those influences on behavior which come under the heading of "knowledge" possessed by the organism i s l o g i c a l l y primary and therefore must be carried to a f a i r l y advanced stage before behavior can be studied f r u i t f u l l y . Chomsky's pos i t i o n seems to be that v/e cannot expect success i n the study of "how" an organism "uses" stored information (or knowledge) i n "behaving" u n t i l we have succeeded reason- ably w e l l i n understanding "what" information i t i s that the organism has stored, ( i . e . , what "knowledge" the organism "possesses") ... From these considerations i t follows that knowledge formation or a c q u i s i t i o n (the process of storing information, e.g., about utterances) must take place before ' knowledge "use" (use of information already stored) (pp. 45-47). Chomsky stated that we should not be attempting to explain a child's language through analysis of his productions before we examine his 'know- ledge' of the language. This, one would l o g i c a l l y expect, means that the receptive l e v e l of the language i s a more informative avenue of study, at least i n i t i a l l y . However, Chomsky developed the theory beyond t h i s point. He noted that children can often cope, both receptively and expressively, with language that they had not previously encountered i n t h e i r environment. Of p a r t i c u l a r import was the fact that the c h i l d produced utterances that he had never heard; that i s , he generated sentences that he had not previously encountered. A summary of Chomsky's thought on t h i s phenomenon follows: 7. A consideration of the character of the grammar that i s acquired, the degenerate q u a l i t y and narrowly l i m i t e d extent of the available data, the s t r i k i n g uniformity of the r e s u l t i n g grammar, and...the independence of i n t e l l i g e n c e , motivation, and emotional state, over wide ranges of v a r i a t i o n , leave l i t t l e hope that much of the structure of the language can be learned by an organism i n i t i a l l y uninformed as to i t s general character (Chomsky, 1965, p. 58). Chomsky postulated that children have an innate capacity f o r language ac q u i s i t i o n i n general and that they must learn the rules of t h e i r native language. I t i s through a combination of the innate capacity and the ac- quired knowledge about utterances of the native language ( r e s u l t i n g from reception and judgements regarding grammatical!ty) that a c h i l d eventually reaches a point where he produces utterances of the native language. V/hile t h i s theory i s derived from considerations of hearing children, i t i s assumed, by the researcher, to be equally applicable to deaf children. I f one can assume that a hearing c h i l d i s born with an innate capacity f o r language a c q u i s i t i o n , i t does not seem unreasonable to assume the same of a deaf c h i l d . Further, the hearing c h i l d combines the capacity for language ac q u i s i t i o n with a wealth of auditory input (that i s , models of English) to develop a theory about utterances of English and i t appears l o g i c a l to assume that the deaf c h i l d combines his innate capacity for language acquis- i t i o n with a severely l i m i t e d and distorted input to develop what w e l l may be a theory grossly d i f f e r e n t from that of a hearing c h i l d - f o r whether the information received be o r a l , manual, written, or any combination thereof, i t i s not equal to the amount received by a hearing c h i l d , nor i s the input encountered i n as many dif f e r e n t situations as i s normal f o r a hearing c h i l d . I f the assumptions are true i t would then follow l o g i c a l l y that the deaf ch i l d ' s use of his theory about English would r e s u l t i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s he experiences i n t r y i n g to interpret our models. This problem i s compounded 8. by hearing impairment as the c h i l d does not receive the f u l l utterance c l e a r l y and therefore cannot make the appropriate corrections to his theory. There i s a need f o r information describing deaf children's l i n g u i s t i c competence. Studies attempting to describe children's l i n g u i s t i c competence are l i m i t e d to the study of l i n g u i s t i c performance; that i s , competence must be infe r r e d from performance. I t follows that statements about l i n g u i s - t i c competence r e f l e c t a theory about what a c h i l d knows of language. In order to examine language performances, there must be a grammar - a set of rules - f o r the language being studied. The rules are designed p r i m a r i l y , to demonstrate the relationships within a language. Hence these rules are pr i m a r i l y f o r the teacher and researcher and not f o r the c h i l d . That i s , the c h i l d does not consciously learn the rules i n order to learn the language. As previously mentioned, i t was not u n t i l recent times that a good grammar for English was written. The T-G grammar theories presented by researchers such as Chomsky (op. c i t . ), Katz and Postal (1964), and others have contributed toward the construction of the most comprehensive models of the rules governing the English language. The T-G grammar theory i s not yet a complete explanation of a l l possible utterances i n English but i t i s better than anything available i n the past and i s s t i l l developing. On a very s i m p l i s t i c l e v e l , the basics of the transformation aspects of the theory were explained by Roberts (1968): Grammar i s e s s e n t i a l l y about sentences...at the beginning we must confine our attention to the sentence and i n p a r t i c u l a r to the very simple sentences that form the foundation of the more complicated sentences we generally use. These simple sentences we c a l l "kernel" sentences. ...A sentence that i s not a kernel sentence i s ca l l e d a "transform". Transforms are made by making changes on the structure of kernel sentences, reworking them, or combining them (pp. 9,10,57.). 9 . The interpretation of t h i s complex theory i s s i m p l i f i e d and s l i g h t l y dated i n i t s references to kernel sentences; however, one or two b r i e f examples may serve to c l a r i f y the role of transformational grammar i n the study of children's language. Questions that can be answered yes or no are c a l l e d 'yes/no questions'. The transformation that changes a simple-active-declarative (SAD) statement into a yes/no question i s ca l l e d a 'yes/no question transformation', or, more simple, T-yes/no (T_). Given the SAD sentence, "She i s his mother.", Q the question form i s "Is she his mother?". According to Roberts, the rules of the transformation are as follows: NP + tense-be + X , + 2-3-1=4 she + i s + his mother + 2-3-1 =4 tense-be + NP + X + 2-3-3 i s + she + his mother + 2-3-3 The double arrows are markers i n d i c a t i n g "transformation". The numerals represent the changing p i t c h patterns of the voice, '1' indicates a low pi t c h while '3' i s a r e l a t i v e l y high p i t c h . Given the statement "John waited.", the question form i s , "Did John wait?". However, the rules governing t h i s transformation are more complex. The rules are: NP + tense + verbal + 2-3-1=4 John + past + wait + 2-3-l==£ tense + NP + verbal + 2-3-3 past + John + wait + 2-3-3 Note that there i s a f l o a t i n g tense. In English, whenever t h i s happens a special transformation (T-do) becomes obligatory the word 'do' must be 10. added to 'carry' the tense. Hence: past + John + wait + 2-3-3=$ do + past + John + wait + 2-3-3 As 'do + past' i n English becomes 'did', the statement i s "Did John wait?" In the latter example, the rules of the grammar involved a combination of transformations ( T n and T-do) to explain the correct statement. These examples present only the briefest glimpse of the complex way i n which utterances of the English language are organized and related to each other through transformational grammar. Summary While there has been considerable research dealing with the development of communication s k i l l s i n the deaf, most of the emphasis has been on the efficacy of particular methodologies of instruction. As a result of developments i n the f i e l d of lingu i s t i c s , recent research has been directed toward assessment of the linguistic s k i l l s of deaf children. The traditional methods of language instruction i n schools for the deaf have involved the use of a meta-language and the teaching of rules governing correct English language productions. In the light of T-G grammar theories, i t appeared that educators of the deaf child may have been present- ing a set of governing rules that the child was unable to cope with. This approach to language development did not account for the deaf child's grammar - or set of rules - which may have been grossly deviant from the grammar of a hearing person. The use of the T-G grammar theories may provide a means of describing the deaf child's competency with English through an organizational system for examining the set of rules or grammar he i s using. These descriptions of competency are, necessarily, t h e o r e t i c a l because the descriptions are i n f e r r e d from l i n g u i s t i c performance. CHAPTER I I PROBLEM I. Statement of the Problem There i s some information on language performances of deaf children but these early studies are generally directed toward normative (Stuckless and Marks, 1966) or descriptive (Heider and Heider, 1940; Goda, 1964) information. In these types of studies the researchers were hampered by an inadequate theory of the grammar of the English language. The T-G grammar theories provide a more complete and unifying model from which to work. Since 1967 there have been a few T-G grammar studies of deaf children's language s k i l l s . These studies have provided some much needed information concerning l i n g u i s t i c competence as r e f l e c t e d through performance i n written and o r a l sit u a t i o n s . There i s , however, a continuing need for more information describing l i n g u i s t i c competencies of young deaf children. In p a r t i c u l a r there i s a need for more detailed analysis of the comprehension and production of a l i m i t e d number of structures. In order to improve the language teaching techniques there must be more information delineating the operational rules of a deaf child's grammar. One such study (Schmitt, 1969) deals with the generative rules of Kernel, Negative, Passive, and Passive-Negative structures i n 8-17 year old deaf children. There are no studies dealing with the generative rules governing SAD structures and yes/no transforms of younger deaf children aged 6-9 years. I t i s during these early years at school that deaf children develop many language s k i l l s and patterns that they w i l l continue to use throughout t h e i r l i v e s . In view of t h e i r l i m i t e d language input and the seemingly 13. deviant patterns of functioning developed, t h i s i nvestigation attempted to delineate some of the developmental and operational patterns of 6-9 year old deaf children working with SAD structures and yes/no transforms. A l l items were r e s t r i c t e d to the use of be as Aux i n each structure. I t should be noted that the present study dealt with written responses to a structured s i t u a t i o n . The information sampled did not represent a l l of the English language competencies a deaf c h i l d possess. In f a c t , a very r e s t r i c t e d r e f l e c t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c competency resulted from experi- mental conditions. Subjects were taught response patterns for p a r t i c u l a r structures and then asked to transfer t h e i r learning to other structures given some data. The scope of the present study was r e s t r i c t e d to examina- t i o n of comprehension and production of singular and p l u r a l SAD structures and yes/no transforms using be as Aux i n the present and past tenses/ I I . Related Research There have been many studies of deaf children's language s k i l l s . The investigations of deaf children's language s k i l l s have generally been normative or descriptive; i f a n a l y t i c , they were bound by inadequate theories of English grammar. Several recent studies have u t i l i z e d T-G grammar theories i n examining the l i n g u i s t i c performances of deaf children. One study (Stuckless and Marks, 1966) attempted to develop normative data while others endeavored to describe the developmental patterns of language growth (Quigley, 1971; Marshall and Quigley, 1970; Taylor, 1969). These studies gathered important data on developmental processes. However, studies such as those mentioned above must be complemented by analytic studies. Description of the developmental patterns alone i s i n s u f f i c i e n t ; M . there i s also a need f o r information d e t a i l i n g the process whereby the c h i l d a rrives at a p a r t i c u l a r point. The e a r l i e s t study a t t e s t i n g to describe the generative rules used by a deaf c h i l d was done by Cooper (1965). He conducted a study of morphological habits i n an attempt to discover rules governing deaf children's grammar usage, and he thereby established that tests could be conducted with seven year olds through nonaural proce- dures, and that receptive control preceded productive control f o r most morphological patterns. However, the study did not deal with syntax and therefore no information was available as to the development of rules governing s t r u c t u r a l aspects of the English language. In 1967, another study (l.'oores, 1967) involving deaf chil d r e n and t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s was reported. The study was designed to inves- t i g a t e the a b i l i t y of "cloze" procedures to i d e n t i f y and i s o l a t e morpholo- g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , and semantic differences between deaf and hearing groups. This study demonstrated that the hearing children performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the deaf on items studied and stressed the fact that standard measurement devices do.not tap the l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s of deaf children. Once again, however, there was no attempt to describe the rules governing the l i n g u i s t i c performance of the deaf c h i l d . Another cloze procedure study (l.^arshall, 1970) examined the e f f e c t of context on deaf children's performances. I.'arshall found that r e l a t i v e redundancy of l i n g u i s t i c cues s u b s t a n t i a l l y affected cloze performance. These findings were not i n accord with postulaticns f o r hearing children and served, as i n the I.'ocres' study, to emphasize that deaf children's performance i s not predictable on the basis of knowledge of hearing children's performance. L^arshall did not describe rules governing the functioning of the grammar of the deaf c h i l d . 15. In 1969 Lowenbraun attempted to deal with the question of how a deaf c h i l d uses English. She examined the development of syntactic rules i n the o r a l language of deaf children. Of p a r t i c u l a r import to t h i s thesis was the f i r s t section of Lowenbraun's i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Oral responses to picture s t i m u l i were recorded and analysed using a T-G grammar theory. Quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e productions improved with age and did not clo s e l y p a r a l l e l the sequence of s k i l l s taught i n the language program of the school. In general, studies reported above have not dealt with s p e c i f i c constructs of English but have dealt with more global concerns such as how the deaf c h i l d uses English given some r e s t r i c t i n g conditions. Schmitt (1969) examined the competence of deaf children i n a much more r e s t r i c t i v e experiment. A T-G grammar theory guided the exploration of the a b i l i t i e s of 8, 11, 14, and 17 year o l d deaf children to comprehend and produce simple sentences varying on the dimensions of transformation (Kernel, Negative, Passive, Passive-Negative) and time (past, present progressive, future). Q u a l i t a t i v e analysis of r e s u l t s focused on patterns of i n c o r r e c t responses i n an e f f o r t to detect incorrect underlying rules which deaf children might have been using to process sentences. Three rules were discovered which could account for most of the errors made. These were designated: (a) the N?2~NPn Rule, which permits reversal of Noun Phrase 1 and Noun Pnrase 2 i n t r a n s i t i v e verb, reversible sentences; (b) the Passive-Active Rule, which s p e c i f i e s the ignoring of passive transformation markers and permits the processing of passive sentences as actives; and (c) the No Negative Rule, which s p e c i f i e s the ignoring of negative markers and permits the processing of negative sentences as p o s i t i v e s . Schmitt stated that extensions and elaborations of h i s techniques should have implications for language diagnosis and for future study of the language dynamics of deaf children. Extensions and elaborations of Schmitt's techniques were employed i n t h i s study. Schmitt also concluded that the discovery of incorrect underlying rules of syntactic competence had implications for language remediation and i n s t r u c t i o n . Power ( i n progress) i s studying deaf children's a c q u i s i t i o n of the Passive Voice i n an attempt to gain more information about the Passive- Active Rule described by Schmitt. Research techniques being employed are s i m i l a r to Schmitt's techniques. The study deals with 10 to 18 year old deaf children. I I I . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The d e f i n i t i o n s used i n t h i s study are: Pr e - l i n g u a l l y deaf - a mean hearing loss greater than 65&B ISO i n the better ear f o r the frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. with onset of deafness p r i o r to two years of age. ISO - International Organization for Standardization reference zero l e v e l f o r pure-tone audiometers. l i n g u i s t i c competence - "the speaker-hearer's knowledge of his language" (Chomsky, 1965). l i n g u i s t i c performance - the speaker-hearer's "actual use of language i n concrete s i t u a t i o n s " (Chomsky, 1965). knowledge of language - an innate capacity for language acquis i t i o n . knowledge about utterances - a combination of the knowledge of language and l i n g u i s t i c input from the surrounding environment creating a p r i m i t i v e grammar. 17. comprehension - a subject attends to a stimulus sentence and selects a picture which represents the sentence. production - a subject attends to a picture and selects or writes a sentence which represents the picture. IV. Rationale Analyses of the res u l t s of t h i s study were directed toward examining the l i n g u i s t i c competencies of young deaf children. The model for t h i s examination i s based on T-G grammar theory (Chomsky, 1965) which i s assumed to underlie l i n g u i s t i c competence. Previous discussion indicated that competence cannot be d i r e c t l y observed but that observation on tasks involving comprehension and produc- t i o n of language seemed to be an effec t i v e method of i n f e r r i n g the competence. The investigator designed four tasks (see Appendix A) f o r the purposes of c o l l e c t i n g information regarding deaf children's comprehension and production of language. The tasks used for these purposes i n t h i s study were designed to minimize extraneous experimental variables through the following procedures: (a) the tasks were paper and p e n c i l , thereby eliminating oral-aural communication variables, (b) the tasks were constructed on four di f f e r e n t l e v e l s . This enabled the experimenter to examine performances involving di f f e r e n t s k i l l s , thereby gaining information as to competence and rules of operation on dif f e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l tasks. I t must be noted that the divi s i o n s made i n the study were arb i t r a r y and these divisions were not intended to r e f l e c t developmental stages; but, some structure was incorpor- ated enabling data analysis. The results were not treated i n a lock-step 18. stage theory fashion; rather attempts were made to demonstrate how p a r t i - cular deviant generative rules affected performance throughout the tasks of the study, (c) the measurements were completed i n four s i t t i n g s thereby avoiding h i s t o r i c a l variable contamination, (d) the tasks r e s t r i c t e d the investigation to sing u l a r - p l u r a l SAD structures and yes/no transforma- tions over the two tense forms and using be as Aux. The SAD and yes/no transform structures were selected for study as they are two of the most basic grammatical competences (Menyuk, 1969; Schmitt, 1969). Further, there was no developmental and analy t i c information describing the young deaf child's competence with these structures. The past and non-past tense variables were included to determine the effect of tense upon the student's performances. The tasks were further r e s t r i c t e d to tense-be considerations as that verb form has been commonly taught and used i n schools f o r the deaf, and be has a high frequency of occurrence i n many d i f f e r i n g English structures. The tasks have been constructed to f a c i l i t a t e the measurement of competence i n young deaf children. The decision to investigate both comprehension and production s k i l l s was supported by the previously discussed theories presented by Chomsky and others. Of the four tasks discussed below, j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the f i r s t three tasks was supported by the research of Schmitt (1969). V. Instrumentation The demonstration items were designed to teach the c h i l d how to respond to the tasks. The vocabulary and sentence structures used d i f f e r e d 19. from those used i n the task items. (Vocabulary differences may be found i n Appendix C). I t may be noted that the demonstration items (Appendix B) were constructed i n the present i n d e f i n i t e (to use t r a d i t i o n a l grammati- c a l terminology) while the task items (Appendix A) were i n the present progressive. Subjects were taught task response behaviors (Appendix D) for each of the task l e v e l s . That i s , a subject was taught to read a statement and select the corresponding representative picture for task one. S i m i l a r l y , the subject was taught to select a sentence for task two, complete a sentence for task three, and generate a sentence for task four. The subject was taught to respond to tense markers below pictures and i n statements and to statement-question markers; however, he was not taught s i n g u l a r - p l u r a l agreement d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the verb as a l l demon- st r a t i o n items were singular. Details of the administration procedures are included i n Appendix D. The f i r s t task was designated "Comprehension". Comprehension was defined, for purposes of t h i s study, as: ( l ) Subject (S) attended to the stimulus sentence. (2) S selected one of four pictures which corresponded to the sentence. I t was assumed, i f the correct response was made, that the subject was able to extract the intended meaning of the structure and associate t h i s meaning with the appropriate picture ( i n the case of SAD structures) or extract the meaning and associate i t with the picture which would have resulted with the appropriate "yes" response ( i n the case of yes/no transforms). Results of studies indicated that t h i s was the least d i f f i c u l t task (Cooper, 1965; Schmitt, 1969). The second task was the f i r s t of three production tasks. Production, for purposes of t h i s study, was defined i n three ways, dependent upon the task. In the "Production-Selection" task - production was:, ( l ) S attended 20. to a pictured s i t u a t i o n plus tense marker (2) S selected one of four sentences printed below the picture. Only one of the four sentences was the appropriate descriptor while the remaining three sentences served as diagnostic d i s t r a c t o r s . I t was assumed that the c h i l d extracted some meaning from attending to the pictures and that t h i s meaning was encoded. Further, i t was assumed that t h i s encoded meaning was matched with the meaning of one of the four sentences presented below the picture. I t was d i f f i c u l t to assume fix e d order of associations i n t h i s task but i t was l o g i c a l that the procedure followed the sequence outlined above as i t appeared to be the path of least resistance, that i s - i t appeared simplest, methodo- l o g i c a l l y . The t h i r d task - "Production-Completion" - involved another d e f i n i t i o n of production: ( l ) S attended to a picture, tense marker, incomplete sentence frame and a punctuation marker (2) S completed the sentence by selecting and arranging words provided i n the task material. This task then demanded a higher l e v e l of proficiency than the previous tasks (Schmitt, 1969). The subject must have encoded the pictured s i t u a t i o n and then completed the structure to match his previously encoded structure. The fourth task - "Production-Construction" - was more complex than the t h i r d and t h i s necessitated another d e f i n i t i o n of production: ( l ) S attended to a picture, tense marker, and a blank l i n e with a period or question mark at the end of the l i n e , (2) S constructed a sentence. This l a s t task appeared to be the most d i f f i c u l t as the subject was given only a picture and a punctuation marker for d i r e c t i o n . I t was assumed that the c h i l d , again, encoded the pictured s i t u a t i o n and then constructed an appropriate sentence using his own generative rule s . 21. The lat t e r task was expected to be the most d i f f i c u l t experimentally as well as conceptually as past efforts had failed to e l i c i t acceptable responses from subjects up to 14- years of age. It was expected that this barrier would be overcome through the sequencing of the tasks and the demonstration items (Appendices A and B). The task items were not presented according to structural or tense category but rather by task category, a l l other variables being randomly distributed across the tasks. That i s , the sequence of task presentation was: (item l ) Comprehension, (item 2) Production-Selection, (item 3) Production-Completion, (item 4) Production-Construction, (item 5) Compre- hension, ... , with the tense and transformation variables being randomly distributed throughout a l l items. This approach was selected to assist the e l i c i t a t i o n of Production-Construction responses and to avoid practice effect and/or incorrect pattern reproduction throughout one particular task. The organization of the tasks required the presentation of sixty four items. They were administered i n four sittings i n order to avoid subject fatigue. A review of the demonstration items preceded each s i t t i n g of the tasks. CHAPTER I I I METHOD I. Sampling and Subjects The data f o r the study were drawn from students at the Jericho H i l l School f o r the Deaf i n Vancouver. The data were collected from a l l of the Jericho H i l l School students s a t i s f y i n g selection c r i t e r i a . The 10 subjects per age l e v e l were selected according to the following c r i t e r i a : within s i x months of the age designation at the time of task administration; p r e l i n g u a l l y deaf; hearing l e v e l s greater than 65 dB (ISO) i n the better ear (average loss at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz.); no apparent major handicaps other than deafness e.g. mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed. This was confirmed through medical records, teacher and supervisor corroboration. As discussed i n Statement of the Problem, age l e v e l s selected were 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0 years. I I . Instruments The four tasks were designed to r e f l e c t some of the subjects' operational rules f o r the English language. The diagnostic distractors for the f i r s t three tasks (Appendix A) represented l i n g u i s t i c errors t y p i c a l l y made by deaf students. P r i o r to the task administrations, each subject was shown the vocabu- l a r y charts (Appendix C). Each subject also completed the demonstration items (Appendix B) p r i o r to administration of the tasks. Details of the procedure for administration follows i n Procedure. 23. I I I . Scoring For purposes of a quantitative analysis, a l l responses were scored as correct ( l ) or incorrect (0). P a r t i a l l y correct answers were considered i n the content analysis of the data. IV. Examiners Eight trained teachers of the deaf collected the data. A l l examiners were trained together i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n and were a l l able to communicate with deaf children through several media. The examiners received i d e n t i c a l t r a i n i n g i n task, demonstration, and vocabulary administration. Each examiner was observed correctly administering the tasks p r i o r to the experimental s i t u a t i o n . Each examiner noted student responses on check l i s t s (Appendix E) and followed the s p e c i f i c a l l y stated Standard Administra- t i o n Procedures (Appendix D). Each examiner administered the task items to f i v e children from one age l e v e l . Examiners were randomly assigned to age l e v e l s , but because of transportation and timetabling r e s t r i c t i o n s , the students were not randomly assigned to examiners. V. Research Questions 1) Was there a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n performance associated with increasing age? (6 yr. < 7 yr. < 8 yr. < 9 yr.) 2) Was there a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n task d i f f i c u l t y associated with l e v e l s 1 - 4? ( l > 2 > 3 > 4) 3) Was there a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between task performances on singular and p l u r a l Aux items? 24. 4) Was there a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between task performances on past and non-past items? 5) Was there a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between task performances on simple-active-declarative statements and yes/no transforms? 6) Were deaf children using p a r t i c u l a r operational language rules which explained some of t h e i r deviant language productions? VI. Design Each subject was administered four s i t t i n g s of the tasks. The s i t t i n g s involved r e p l i c a t i o n s of task, s i n g u l a r / p l u r a l , tense, transforma- t i o n , and sentence items. The design of the study i s shown i n Figures 1 and 2. Analysis of the results was effected through a f i v e factor with repeated measures analysis of variance design. The le v e l s of the f i v e factors were: (6 yrs. ), A 2 (7 y r s . ) , A^ (8 yrs. ), A^ (9 yrs. ); B 1 (Task l ) , B 2 (Task 2), B 3 (Task 3), B^ (Task 4); C± (Singular), C 2 ( P l u r a l ) ; D 1 (non-past), D 2 (past); and E 1 (SAD), E 2 ( T Q ) . Factors B, C, D, and E were crossed with another, and each was repeated over the four l e v e l s of A. The r e s u l t i n g .sources of v a r i a t i o n , along with t h e i r respective error terms and degrees of freedom, are given i n Table 1. VII. Experimental Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 The average number of correct responses w i l l increase with age. 25. s 3D •> -i •n Z 2 The dog i s s i t t i n g . The bcv i s s i t t i n r . o > CO • • Is the dog jumping? Ts the ~ i r ̂  "'BTj^hin"? 2 V n » The boy was l a u g h i n g . The bov was c r v i n ? . P CO • Was the g i r l d r i n k i n g ? Was the ? i r l s l e e c i n s ? 2\< A S K  The boys are swimming. *TVi<^ ^ o 1 ' * ^ 3 ° e ? "** * 7 , 1 c*" . A S K  Are the boys s i t t i n g ? Are the dogs i u r o i i i e ? A The dogs were w a l k i n g . The g i r l s were d r i n k i n g . P ft-Were the dogs e a t i n g ? ^ g r o the g i r l s s l e e o i n g ? The boy i s s k i p p i n g . The bov i s e a t i n g . C7>tA Is the dog walking? Ts the b o v s w i ^ D i n g ? CO The dog was s l e e p i n g . The doe was e a t i n g . P Was the g i r l running? Was the g i r l walking? • The boys are l a u g h i n g . The bovs are s k i o u i n e . Are the g i r l s s k i p p i n g ? Are the bovs •'umoing? ft IP N The g i r l s were s i t t i n g . The c i r l s were w a l k i n g . 33 £ Were the g i r l s e a t i n g ? Were the boys c l a p p i n g ? v> FIGURE 1 Study Design 26. >3 m 2 : 30 > P. H 3 The g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . The bov i s iumoins. ft Is the boy running? Is the g i r l -iumoine? The boy was s l e e p i n g . The doe was r u n n i n g . o><s> 3 > Was the g i r l swimming? Was the bov f a l l i n g ? ft. The g i r l s are swimming. The boys are f a l l i n g . ? < L N J Are the dogs running? Are the g i r l s c r y i n g ? ft C The dogs were s l e e p i n g . The boys were c r y i n g . o> </> 'Were the boys s l e e p i n g ? Were the e i r l s laughing? The g i r l i s e a t i n g . The g i r l i s f a l l i n g . Is the boy d r i n k i n g ? Is the boy walking? 2.V< The boy was c l a p p i n g . The g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 5' Was the g i r l s i t t i n g ? Was the g i r l c r v i n e ? 5i o i n e Doys are d r i n k i n g . The g i r l s are f a l l i n g . L A Are the g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? Are the bovs running? 0 The g i r l s were r u n n i n g . The dogs were s i t t i n g . r.ere the boys walking? Were the g i r l s jumping? ^ 5 8 r FIGURE 2 Study Design (cont.) 27. TABLE 1 Sources of Variation, Error Terms, and Degrees of Freedom for ANOVA Source 3 , Error Term df Source Error Term di Mean R(A) 1 ACE CER(A) 3 A R(A) 3 BCE BCER(A) 3 B BR( A) 3 ADE DER(A) 3 C CR(A) 1 BDE BDER(A) 3 D DR( A) 1 CDE CDER(A) 1 E ER( A) 1 BCR(A) 108 R(A) 36 BDR(A) 108 AB BR(A) 9 CDR(A) 36 AC CR(A) 3 BER(A) 108 BC BCR(A) 3 CER(A) 36 AD DR(A) 3 DER(A) 36 BD BDR(A) 3 ABCD BCDR(A) 9 CD CDR(A) 1 ABCE BCER(A) 9 AE ER(A) 3 ABDE BDER(A) 9 BE BER(A) 3 ACDE CDER(A) 3 CE CER(A) 1 BCDE BCDER(A) 3 DE DER(A) 1 S( BCDE) SR(ABCDE) 32 BR(A) 108 BCDR(A) 108 CR(A) 36 BCER(A) 108 DR( A) 36 BDER(A) 108 ER(A) 36 CDER(A) 36 ABC BCR(A) 9 ABCDE BCDER(A) 9 ABD BDR(A) 9 AS(BCDE) SR( ABCDE) 96 ACD CDR(A) 3 BCDER(A) 108 BCD BCDR(A) 3 SR( ABCDE) 1152 ABE BER(A) 9 Total: 2560 aMean = grand mean A = age B = task C = singu l a r / p l u r a l D = tense E = transformation S = sentences R = replicates 28. Hypothesis 2 The average number of correct responses w i l l decrease with task. (Task 1 > Task 2 > Task 3 > Task 4). Hypothesis 3 There w i l l be a larger average number of correct responses for singular statements than for plural statements. Hypothesis 4 There w i l l be a larger average number of correct responses for past tense statements than there w i l l be for present tense statements. Hypothesis 5 There w i l l be a larger average number of correct responses for simple-active-declarative statements than for yes/no transforms. VTII. Procedure Subjects were selected according to the c r i t e r i a noted above (Sampling and Subjects). Each subject completed the vocabulary, demonstration, and f i r s t s i t t i n g of the task items as per Standard Administration Procedures (Appendix D). The following day the same examiner administered the second s i t t i n g of the task items, again following instructions i n Appendix D. The third and fourth sittings of the tasks were administered by the same examiner as per instructions (Appendix D), on the third and fourth days respectively. In a few instances, a subject completed the third and fourth sittings i n one day, however, in each case, the subject was given an appropriate rest between sittings. CHAPTER IV RESULTS I. Models for Analyzing the Data The data were analysed under two separate models. The f i r s t model was used to consider the quantitative results and the second model was used to consider the q u a l i t a t i v e r e s u l t s . Each model w i l l be discussed below. Quantitative Analysis Responses were scored as correct or incorrect ... 1 or 0 ... and i t was therefore necessary to consider the effect of l i m i t a t i o n s of the number of c r i t e r i o n score values on the v a l i d i t y of using analysis of variance techniques. Hsu and Feldt (1969) investigated some s p e c i f i c problems that are pertinent to t h i s study: 1. ... i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of mean square r a t i o s l a r g e l y independent of the number of score units? 2. Do analysis of variance techniques, the short scale notwithstanding, have an advantage over the x 2 - t e s t of independence i n detecting differences i n central tendency? (p. 516). Their conclusions were as follows: 1. ... With samples of 11 cases or more, no adjustment appears necessary i n the tabled values of F needed for s i g n i - ficance at the 10 per cent, f i v e per cent and one per cent l e v e l s . 2. When considering data with a l i m i t e d number of score values, analysis of variance techniques have an advantage over the X 2-test of independence when the sample size i s very small, when the study involves more than one factor, or when the primary i n t e r e s t i s i n the differences among means rather than the variances of the populations (p. 526), The ANOVA's performed i n t h i s study indicated that there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences among le v e l s of factors. In order to determine 30. how p r o f i l e s d i f f e r e d , - s t a t i s t i c a l contrasts were performed. E a r l i e r discussion (Chapter I I I - Experimental Hypotheses) implied that some contrasts were a p r i o r i ( p rediction of d i r e c t i o n of differences) while others were a p o s t e i o r i (unspecified i n t e r - a c t i o n e f f e c t s ) . Some of these contrasts were orthogonal while others were non-orthpgonal. Games (1971) discussed several techniques f o r performing multiple comparisons of means. His a r t i c l e demonstrated that Bonferroni's t test was the most suitable s t a t i s t i c f o r the present study. Bonferroni's t test permits orthogonal or non-orthogonal a p r i o r i or a p o s t e i o r i contrasts. Results of the t e s t are conservative. Q u a l i t a t i v e Analysis A model, based on T-G grammar theories, was developed f o r purposes of analysis of the content of task responses. The model was task s p e c i f i c as considerations were made for the unique properties of the be-ir.g verb i n singular and p l u r a l statements (rules 13-18). The model allowed for a complete description of a subject's performance on task items. The model i s presented i n Figure 3. II. Results of the Quantitative Analysis Means and standard deviations f o r age l e v e l s . In order to demonstrate that the r e s u l t s were r e f l e c t i v e of the age le v e l s designated i n the selec- t i o n c r i t e r i a , means and standard deviations f o r the four age l e v e l s were computed. Results are presented i n Table 2. Means and standard deviations f o r hearing l e v e l s . In order to demonstrate that the r e s u l t s were r e f l e c t i v e of children with hearing l e v e l s designated i n the sel e c t i o n c r i t e r i a , means and standard deviations " c d e l o f 'iask S p e c i f i c R u l e s 31. SAD Kuc V? Au x HP _ no s i n g u l a r p l u r a 1 C t e n s e . no NP + VP Aux + V + i n g be + C The + 11 + no / ' s i n g u l a r p l u r a 1 :ense + no be + p a s t + s be + n o n - p a s t + s —^ i s — be + p a s t + r e ^ were be + n o n - p a s t + r e _ ^ a r e S . D . : S . D . : SAD T The + N + no + be + C + V + i n y/n be + C + t h e + H + no + \ ! + i n g v R u l e 1 _ 2 _ 3 _ 5 6 7 8 9 _ 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 a. s i g n i f i e s V + ing presented together on chart. FIGURE 3 Model of Task S p e c i f i c Rules TABLE 2 Means and Standard Deviations for Age Levels Age Level Mean ( i n months) Standard Deviation ( i n months) A^ - 6 yrs. 74.5 3.9 A 2 - 7 yr s . 84.9 3.7 Ay - 8 yrs. 97.7 3.3 A^ - 9 yrs. 107.3 3.7 33. f o r the four age l e v e l s were computed. Results are presented i n Table 3. A summary of the analysis of variance i s presented i n Table A. The main effects for age (A), task ( B ) \ and s i n g u l a r / p l u r a l (C) were s i g n i f i c a n t , and are examined i n greater d e t a i l below. Age contrasts (A). To determine the sources of v a r i a t i o n among l e v e l s of the Age factor, Bonferroni t tests were performed. A summary of these contrasts i s presented i n Table 5. The s i g n i f i c a n t differences were between 7 yr. and 9 y r . l e v e l s . The mean f o r the 7 y r . olds was l e s s than that of the 6 y r . olds, hence the 7 yr. olds and 9 yr. olds were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The f i r s t experimental hypothesis (Chapter I I I ) indicated an expecta- t i o n that the 6 year old Ss would have a mean s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller than that f o r 7 year olds, which, i n turn, should be s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller than that f o r 8 year olds. However, a preliminary examination of the r e s u l t s (Appendix F) indicated that the 6 y r . olds' and the 7 y r . olds' means were s i m i l a r and to contrast them would seem to be p o i n t l e s s . Schmitt's (1969) sampling procedure provided three year mean differences between age groups i n order to demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n perfor- mance. On the basis of Schmitt's evidence and the mean differences (Table 5), the i n v e s t i g a t o r selected 6 y r . olds and 9 y r . olds f o r the t h i r d contrast. 1. As assumptions of equal covariances i n the pooled variance-covariance matrix were not met, a Greenhouse & Geisser conservative F test was performed for factors B and C ( c f ( l , 3 6 ) f o r booth t e s t s ) with the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .01 l e v e l . Greenhouse and Geisser F tests for AB and AC interactions (df(3,36) f o r both t e s t s ) indicated significance at the .05 l e v e l . 34. TABLE 3 Means and Standard Deviations f o r Hearing Levels Age Level Mean ( i n dB) Standard Deviations ( i n dB) A 1 - 6 yrs. 98.0 10.1 A 2 - 7 yrs. 100.5 13.8 A^ - 8 yrs. 98.0 12.3 A. - 9 yrs. 95.5 16.9 4 35. TABLE 4 Summary of Analysis of Variance Source df Mean Square F MEANa 1 181.6891 163.8406 A b 3 7.4838 6.7487 ** B C 3 15.1046 96.7340 ** C d 1 36.5765 45.0421 ** De 1 .3062 1.7579 E f 1 .1562E-02 0.0084 R ( A ) g 36 1.1089 ** 3.7413 AB 9 .5841 AC 3 4.0213 4.9521 ** BC 3 .4463 2.4136 AD 3 . 3072 1.7639 BD 3 .1593 1.1640 CD 1 .9179E-05 0.0001 AE 3 .2588 1.3864 BE 3 .2963 1.8198 CE 1 .7656E-01 0.3297 1.4062 ** DE 1 14.3253 BR(A) 108 .1561 CR(A) 36 .8120 DR(A) 36 .1742 ER( A ) 36 .1867 ABC 9 .1453 0.7858 ABD 9 .2201 1.6078 ACD 3 .2218 1.6739 BCD 3 .5728E-01 0.5574 ABE 9 .8559E-01 0.5256 ACE 3 .4219E-01 0.1817 BCE 3 .1713 1.1850 ADE 3 .2072 2.1116 • BDE 3 .5635 4.2421 ** CDE 1 .5624E-01 0.5424 36. TABLE 4 (cont. ) Source df ?.fean Square F BCR(A) 108 .1849 BDR(A) 108 .1369 CDR(A) 36 .1325 BER(A) 108 .1628 CER(A) 36 .2321 DER(A) 36 .9816E-01 ABCD 9 .1694 1.6481 ABCE 9 .1161 0.8029 ABDE 9 .1548 1.1656 ACDE 3 .6978E-01 0.6730 BCDE 3 .1302 1.0509 S(BCDE ) h 32 .1640 1.6294 BCDR(A) 108 .1027 BCER(A) 108 .1446 BDER(A) 108 .1328 CDER(A) 36 .1036 ABCDE 9 .2979 2.4050 AS(BCDE) 96 .1005 0.9982 BCDER(A) 108 .1238 SR(ABCDE) 1152 .1006 * - probability < .05 ** - probability < .01 a - grand mean b - age c - task d - singular/plural e - tense f - transform g - subjects nested within age h - sentences nested within BCDE 3 7 . TABLE 5 Summary of Age (A) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for V. J V1 = 7 y r . vs. 8 yr. = .1141 ¥ 2 = 8 yr. vs. 9 yr. = .1188 ? 3 = 6 y r . vs. 9 yr. = .2203 - .0749 < ¥ £ .3031 - .0702 < Y < .3078 .0313 < Y < -4093* Means 6 yr. = .1890 7 yr. = .1765 8 yr. = .2906 9 yr. = .4093 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 l e v e l 38. Task contrasts (B). To determine the source of v a r i a t i o n among le v e l s of the Task factor, Bonferroni t tests were performed. A summary of these contrasts i s presented i n Table 6. The contrasts performed were determined by the second experimental hypothesis (Chapter I I I ) . Tasks two, three, and four were demonstrated to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t while tasks one and two were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . However, i t was concluded that tasks one, three and four were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t as the mean for task one was larger than the mean for task two. Singular/plural contrasts (C). I t was apparent that the subjects had l e s s d i f f i c u l t y with singulars than they had with p l u r a l s (504 correct singulars vs. 188 correct p l u r a l s ) . Age x Task contrasts (AB). The age-by-task (AB) i n t e r a c t i o n was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 4). Selected contrasts were performed to determine which tasks d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between age l e v e l s . A summary of the Bonferroni contrasts for AB interactions i s presented i n Table 7. Task one d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between 7, 8, and 9 year age l e v e l s . As the c e l l means f o r A^B^ was smaller than that of A£B^, i t was apparent that task one also d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between 6 and 8 year l e v e l s . Task three d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between 7 and 8 year olds, however, task four d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between 8 and 9 year old subjects. The age-by-task interactions are graphed i n Figure 4. Age x Singular/plural contrasts (AC). The i n t e r a c t i o n between age and s i n g u l a r / p l u r a l was s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 4). In view of the s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n favor of the singular factor, age l e v e l s were contrasted w i t h i n the 'singular' l e v e l of the si n g u l a r / p l u r a l factor. A summary of the Bonferroni contrasts f o r these selected AC interactions i s presented i n Table 8. 39. TABLE 6 Summary of Task (B) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval f o r f. = Task 1 vs. Task 2 = .0578 4 • \ = Task 2 vs. Task 3 = .2000 ¥ 6 = Task 3 vs. Task 4 = .0609 - .0022 < V £ .1178 .1400 £ V £ .2600 .0009 < V 4: .1209 Means Task 1 = .4250 Task 2 = .3671 Task 3 = .1671 Task 4 = .1062 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 l e v e l TABLE 7 Summary of Age x Task (AB) Interaction Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval f o r ¥. J £ .2609 y 7 = A 2B^ vs. A 3 B 3 = : .1313 .0017 V *8 = A^B^ vs. A 4 B 3 = = .1125 - .0171 < .2421 A 2B^ vs. A 3 B 4 = = .0813 - .0483 < .2109 <J .2609 ** u> = 10 A 3 B 4 v s * A 4 B 4 = ; .1313 .0017 = .1875 ** w = 11 A 2B 1 vs. A 3 B l = .0579 ^ .3171 = .1813 ** A^B 1 vs. V l = .0517 < .3109 C e l l Means B l B2 B 3 B4 .2812 .3687 .0687 .0375 A, .2875 .3125 .7500 .0312 A 3 .4750 .3687 .2062 .1125 A4 .6562 .4187 . 3187 .2437 ** _ equivalent to significance at . 01 l e v e l where: A 1 = 6 yrs; A 2 = 7 yr s ; Aj = 8 yrs ; A^ = 9 yrs B 1 = Task 1; B 2 = Task 2; B^ = Task 3; B 4 : = Task 4 41. .7 .6 -- .5 .4 -- .3 .1 4- . 0 6 yr. ( A ^ 7 yr. ( A ^ 8 yr. (A3) 9 yr. (A 4) 2 3 TASK (B) FIGURE 4 AB Interactions 42. TABLE 8 Summary of Age x Singular/Plural (AC) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval f o r ¥, = A 2C 1 vs. A ^ = .1500 ^ = A 3C 1 vs. = .2438 - .0593 ̂  V « .3593 .0345 < ¥ £ .4531 C e l l Means A ^ = .2500 A 2 C 1 = ' 2 5 0 ° A3 C1 A4 C1 .4000 .6437 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 l e v e l where: A^ = 6 y r s ; = 7 y r s ; A^ = 8 y r s ; A^ = 9 yrs C-. = Singular 4 3 . I t was clear that 9-year-olds performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y better on singular noun and verb task items than did 8-year-olds. Six and 9 year age l e v e l s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t as were 7 and 9 year age l e v e l s . In each case the better performance was associated with the nine year age l e v e l . Tense x Transform contrast (DE). This contrast was of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t as experimental hypotheses three and four (Chapter I I I ) were not supported and selected contrasts of the i n t e r a c t i o n may explain the lack of s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s . Examination of c e l l means (Table 9) indicated that response patterns f o r l e v e l s of factor D were d i f f e r e n t (e.g. D^Lj >B-i_E^ and ®2^2 < ^ i ^ i ^ ' T M S pattern may account f o r non-significance of the hypothesis. A s i m i l a r pattern was noted for the factor E c e l l means. However, there was a difference between c e l l means f o r 3 1 1 ( 1 D2 E2" The Bonferroni contrasts i s presented i n Table 9. Task x Tense X transform contrasts (BDE). The differences between Tasks was highly s i g n i f i c a n t (see Table 4 ) . Because the task factor was so s i g n i f i c a n t , selected contrasts were performed to investigate the contribution of within task variance to the three factor i n t e r a c t i o n . A summary of the contrasts i s presented i n Table 10. The contrasts demonstrated that the task factor was responsible f o r considerable v a r i a t i o n within the three factor i n t e r a c t i o n . Age x Task x Singular/plural x Tense x Transform contrasts (ABCDE). The ABCDE i n t e r a c t i o n was of l i t t l e consequence as a l l significance l e v e l s reported above were at the .01 l e v e l while t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n was at the .05 l e v e l . However the f i r s t three factors were previously demonstrated to be s i g n i f i c a n t , as were several interactions noted above. These r e s u l t s may have been responsible for part of the f i v e factor i n t e r a c t i o n . In TABLE 9 Summary of Tense x Transform (DE) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval f o r J ¥15 = D 1 E 2 v s ' D 2 E 2 = , 0 6 8 8 , 0 0 9 ° 4 ¥ * * 1 2 8 6 C e l l Means D 1 E 1 ,2531 D±E2 = .3015 D 2 E 1 .2781 D 2E 2 = .2328 ** - Equivalent to significance at .01 l e v e l where: = Non-past; D 2 = Past E 1 = Simple-active-declarative; E 2 = Yes/no question 45. TABLE 10 Summary of Task x Tense x Transform (BDE) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for V. 0 .2938 .1698 < ¥ « .4178 ** B 2 D 1 E 2 V S ' B 3 D 1 E 2 = .1563 Y £ .2803 ** *17 = B 2D 2E 2 vs. B 3D 2E 2 = .0323 < B 2 D 1 E 1 V S ' B 3 D 1 E 1 = .1063 - .0177 < ¥ < .2303 .2438 Y « .3678 ** Y19 = B2°2 E1 V S ' B 3 D 2 E 1 = .1198 < C e l l Means D 1 E 1 D 1 E 2 D 2 E 1 D 2E 2 .4375 .4812 .4437 .3375 .2875 .4562 .3875 .3375 h .1812 .1625 .1437 .1812 .1062 .1062 .1375 .0750 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 l e v e l where: B 1 = Task 1; B 2 = Task 2; B^ = Task 3; B^ = Task 4 = Non-past; D 2 = Past E, = Simple-active-declarative; E ? = Yes/no question 46. order to investigate t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , f i v e contrasts were performed to examine the i n t e r a c t i o n of age with d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of the remaining four factors. A summary of the contrasts i s presented i n Table 11. The selected contrasts performed did not examine a l l possible pair-wise contrasts of the f i v e factor i n t e r a c t i o n and the r e s u l t s , therefore, were not assumed to have is o l a t e d the t o t a l source of variance within the i n t e r a c t i o n . Rather, the intent was to demonstrate that the p a r t i c u l a r significances discussed e a r l i e r were, at least p a r t i a l l y , responsible f o r the f i v e factor i n t e r a c t i o n . Examiner differences. Each examiner administered the tasks to f i v e children from one age l e v e l . Hence, examiners were nested under age (X(A)). Use of more than one examiner may have resulted i n differences i n administration procedures. In order to investigate t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , the data were re-analyzed with a s i x t h factor (examiner) included i n the ANOVA. The r e s u l t s of that analysis are presented i n Appendix I. Examiner contrasts. There was a clear d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of r e s u l t s collected by di f f e r e n t examiners. In order to determine the source of v a r i a t i o n i n t h i s factor, Bonferroni contrasts were performed. As a r e s u l t of population (Chapter V, p. 65) and c e l l mean differences (Table 12), contrasts were made between examiners at the A 0 (8 yrs.) and A, (9 yrs.) age l e v e l s . A summary of the contrasts i s presented i n Table 12. Examiner x Singular/plural contrasts (CX(A)). The CX(A) in t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l (Appendix I ) . Bonferroni contrasts were u t i l i z e d to locate the sources of v a r i a t i o n . Age l e v e l s three and four were selected f o r the same reasons discussed i n the previous subsection (Exaniiner contrasts). A summary of the contrasts i s presented i n Table 13- 47. TABLE 11 Summary of Age x Task x Singular/Plural x Tense x Transform (ABCDE) Estimated Contrast .05 Confidence Interval f o r ¥. J ¥20 = A j B ^ O j D ^ vs. A^B 1C 1D 1E 2 = .4000 .1107 « V 4 .6893 * I 2 1 = A 2 B 1 C 1 D 2 E 2 V S . A ^ C ^ E ^ .5000 .2107 < ¥ < .7893 * ^22 = A 2 B 3 C 1 D 2 E 2 V S . A.B.C D E = .3500 4 4 1 -L <=- .0607 ¥ < .6393 * *23 = A 2 B 3 C 1 D 1 E 2 V S - A 4 B 3 C 1 D 2 E 2 = ' 6 5 0 0 .3607 < ¥ < .9393 * ?24 = A 1B 1C 1D 1E 2 vs. A 4 B l C l D 2 E 2 = .4500 .1707 < Y1 < .7393 * C e l l Means W l V s = .4000 A 2 B 3 C 1 D 1 E 2 = .1000 A 4 B 1 C 1 D 1 E 2 = .7000 A 4 B 3 C 1 D 1 E 2 = .4500 W l D 2 E 2 = .2000 A 2 B 3 C 1 D 2 E 2 = .2000 A 4 B 1 C 1 D 2 E 2 = .8500 A 4 B 3 C 1 D 2 E 2 = .7500 V 4 W 2 = .0500 A 4 B 4 C 1 D 1 E 2 = .5500 - equivalent to significance at .05 l e v e l Where: A^ = 6 yrs ; A 2 = 7 yrs ; A^ = 9 yrs h = Task 1; = Task 3; = Task 4 C l = singular Non-past; D 2 = Past E, = Simple-active-declarative; E„ = Yes/no question 48. TABLE 12 Summary of Examiner (X) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval f o r f . J Y26 = * l \ v s < X 2 A 4 = * 2 1 8 8 - .0176 « Y « .4052 .0074 < Y « .4302 C e l l Means .1562 *1 A3 " .1937 X 2 A 1 = .2218 X 2A 3 = .3875 *1 A2 = .2125 *1 A4 = .3000 *2k2 = .1406 ^ 4 = .5187 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 l e v e l where: X^ = Examiner 1; = Examiner 2  ^ = 6 yr s ; A^ = 7 yrs; A^ = 8 yr s ; A^ = 9 yrs 49. TABLE 13 Summary of Examiner x Singular/Plural (CX(A)) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval f o r V, Y 2 7 = X 1A 3C 2 vs. X ^ C , .4125 ¥28 = W°2 V S * X 2 A 4 C 1 = * 6 8 7 5 .1407 ̂  y < .6843 .4157 « ¥ < .9593 C e l l Means X 1A 3C 2 = .1750 X g A ^ = .5875 X 1A < ;C 2 = .1437 X 2 A 4 C 1 = * 8 : 3 1 2 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 l e v e l where: X^ = Examiner 1; X^ = Examiner 2 A 3 = 8 yrs ; A^ = 9 yrs C, = Singular; C 9 = P l u r a l 50. Examiner x Tense contrasts (DX(A)). The examiner by tense i n t e r a c t i o n was of lesser significance (.05 alpha l e v e l ; Appendix I ) . An attempt was made to locate the source of variance f o r the in t e r a c t i o n through applica- t i o n of Bonferroni's t_ t e s t . Again, age le v e l s A^ (8 yrs.) and A^ (9 yrs.) were investigated. A summary of the contrasts i s presented i n Table 14-. I I I . Results of the Qualitative Analysis Detailed analysis of the content of responses f o r a l l subjects was considered too large a task f o r t h i s i n v estigation as the intent was not to describe a complete grammar but to describe some of the operational rules of these children. Consequently, two subjects per age l e v e l were selected from the population studied. An attempt was made to select those subjects whose performance was average. That i s , t h e i r r e s u l t s were neither the best nor the worst of the data collected. Subjects selected were numbers, 5, 6, 16, 19, 24, 30, 33j and 40. A summary of t h e i r responses on tasks three and four i s presented i n Appendix H, while task one and two responses are presented i n Appendix G. Each subject's responses w i l l be analysed and reported separately to assure c l a r i t y of analysis and reporting. The results of the analyses w i l l be discussed i n Chapter V. Subject #5 (Age: 6 yrs. 5 mos.). Task one. One error was noted on singular responses. Subject 5 selected a picture representing a p l u r a l noun and past tense markers when the correct response f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r yes/no transform (#301 - Appendix G) was a picture representing singular noun and past tense markers. A l l other responses involving singular markers were correct, regardless of tense or transform. TABLE 14 Summary of Examiner x Tense (DX(A)) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .05 Confidence Interval f o r J ?29 = \kj>2 vs. X 2A 3D 1 = .2500 .1484 < ¥ <? .3516 * y 3 0 = \\\ v s- "tytPz = *2500 . .1484 ̂  Y « .3516 * ? 3 1 = vs. X 2A^D 1 = .1875 .0859 « y < .2891 * C e l l Means \kj>2 = .1312 = .5187 X 2A 3D 1 = .3812 W2 = = .3312 X j A ^ = .2687 W2 = = .5187 * - equivalent to significance at .05 l e v e l where: X^ = Examiner 1; = Examiner 2 A 1 = 6 yrs; A^ = 8 yrs ; A^ = 9 yrs D, = Non-past; D 9 = Past 52. Every p l u r a l present res-ponse v/as incorrect. In each instance subject 5 selected the picture representing p l u r a l noun and past tense markers. A l l p l u r a l past task items were completed c o r r e c t l y . Task two. A s i m i l a r pattern to the task one singular responses was noted. A l l singular statements were selected c o r r e c t l y with the exception of one yes/no transform. In t h i s instance the correct singular past statement was not selected, rather a p l u r a l non-past Aux with a singular noun (ll) was selected (#114). When dealing with p l u r a l s , subject 5 again experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s . Of the eight p l u r a l items, one was completed c o r r e c t l y (#106). When presented with a p l u r a l non-past SAD item, subject 5 selected a statement containing a p l u r a l noun and singular past Aux (#110). The remaining s i x errors were consistent i n that a state- ment i n the correct tense was selected, but the Aux was always singular when i t should have been p l u r a l . In other 7/ords, the student operated with the tense rule but not the agreement rule (concord). Task three. The f i r s t task three item presented (#103) was completed i n c o r r e c t l y . Subject 5 used a past tense Aux for a non-past tense item. Item 411 was correct s t r u c t u r a l l y . A s u b s t i t u t i o n error ('dog' f o r 'boy') was noted but i t was not considered to be of any consequence i n t h i s study as the error did not occur more than once. The item was, therefore, considered correct. Singular past SAD items were completed c o r r e c t l y while p l u r a l SAD items were completed i n c o r r e c t l y . In every instance a singular Aux was selected for p l u r a l statements and two of the four nouns selected were singular. Subject 5 was unable to complete yes/no transforms (Appendix H). 53. Singular yes/no transform items e l i c i t e d a double SAD statement correspond- ing to the pictured s i t u a t i o n . P l u r a l yes/no transform items resulted i n p l u r a l nouns being selected one ha l f of the time with singular Aux selected throughout. Two of the four p l u r a l yes/no transforms were l e f t the exception of #103, tenses were used correctly throughout the task. SAD items were generated i n c o r r e c t l y . Two of the four incorrect p l u r a l items contained singular nouns and a singular Aux was used i n every instance. As i n task three, subject 5 was unable to deal with yes/no transforms. A l l yes/no generations were incorrect. In the case of singular items, a correct corresponding SAD was produced, while p l u r a l yes/no items e l i c i t e d corresponding p l u r a l SAD structures with a singular Aux. Tenses were used correctly throughout task four. a beginning of number concepts. She did not attach an i n f l e c t i o n a l ending to singular nouns and did use the 's' morpheme on a l l but one p l u r a l noun i n task four. Subject 5 did not demonstrate knowledge of subject-verb concord i n p l u r a l s i t u t a t i o n s as a singluar Aux was consistently selected. The subject was unable to generate or complete a yes/no transform but was able to perform corr e c t l y on 3 of 4 singular yes/no questions i n both tasks one and two. A summary of Subject 5's operational r u l e s , r e l a t i v e to t h i s study, are as follows: Structural Description (SD) for both SAD and T n statements Reference to the model of task s p e c i f i c rules (Figure 3) demonstrated that Subject 5 used rules 7 and 9 inconsistently, did not use rules 14, incomplete (No response recorded i n one of the spaces provided). With Task four. Singular SAD items were generated c o r r e c t l y and p l u r a l Summary. Subject 5 demonstrated mastery of tense markers and 54. 17, 18, and 20 but used a l l other rules of the model cor r e c t l y . Subject rf6 (Age: 6 yrs. 3 mos. ). Task one. Two singular items were completed correctly (one SAD and one TQ). A l l of the s i x remaining singulars were treated as p l u r a l s . Tense usage was inconsistent i n SAD structures and consistently past throughout TQ responses. Two p l u r a l items were also completed correctly (again, a SAD and a TQ) but the remaining responses were inconsistent i n tense and number. Task two. Singular past SAD statements were selected for a l l singular SAD statements, regardless of tense, while the three errors i n singular TQ statements were number errors of concord ( i . e . were g i r l ) . One p l u r a l non-past SAD and two p l u r a l past T n statements were corre c t l y selected but the remaining f i v e selections indicated many concord inconsis- tencies (both tense and number). Task three. None of the completions were correct. Subject 6 generally supplied a noun with a p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n t l y attached. This response pattern was noted throughout SAD and T n items. I t was of int e r e s t that T n items had two blanks i n each completion item and the student generally supplied the same noun twice with inconsistencies i n p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n . Item 415 e l i c i t e d a V + ing response. Task four. Subject s i x continued the pattern discussed above, that i s supplying N + s f o r a l l items. However, i t was of in t e r e s t that i n a l l instances but one a "ing was supplied whenever the stimulus pic^- ture included boys. Summary. Subject 6 generally appeared to function at a one word l e v e l on production tasks. Inconsistencies were noted throughout tasks on tense and number (both concord and p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n s ) . A general operational rule for subject 6 on tasks 1-4 i s noted below: 55. SD for SAD and T Q structures = 4 N + (s) =}V + ing i f N = boy(s) Reference to the model confirmed that rules 6-9 were used inconsistently and there was no evidence of the other rules of the model being used. Subject #16 (Age: 7 yrs. 2 mos.). Task one. Subject 1 6 selected singular pictures f o r a l l singular SAD statements. Three of the four singular pictures selected were marked as non-past tense, hence 3 of 4 responses were correct ( 2 non-past and 1 past). Singular TQ statements e l i c i t e d selection of three singular non-past pictures. None of the p l u r a l items resulted i n correct responses. Three of four p l u r a l SAD item responses were singular non-past and three of four p l u r a l TQ item responses were p l u r a l . Subject 1 6 selected singular non-past more frequently than p l u r a l or past responses. Task two. Two SAD items were correctly selected ( l singular and 1 p l u r a l ) otherwise the selections r e f l e c t e d what appeared to be a random choice of Aux. The TQ items resulted i n one correct response (singular non-past) with singular Aux selected i n a l l but one instance. Tense of the Aux was used inconsistently. Task three. Subject 1 6 did not complete any of the items correctly. In every instance a correct noun was selected; however the p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n was used only twice i n p l u r a l items. A pattern of combining what appeared to be an undefined i n f l e c t i o n (was) with the noun was apparent throughout the task. This pattern l e d to two correct responses i n TQ items (singular past) as the 'was' i n f l e c t i o n f i l l e d the f i r s t blank and the noun f i l l e d the second thereby completing a TQ statement. Task four. A s i m i l a r pattern of i n f l e c t i o n a l 'was' plus noun 56. was noted throughout SAD singular and p l u r a l and singular TQ items. There were two unexplained responses (#116 and #104-) where i t appeared that V + ing was used. The p l u r a l TQ items seemed to confuse the subject as his pattern was broken. A non-past tense i n f l e c t i o n appeared once ( # 1 0 8 ) ; the order was reversed once ( # 3 0 8 ) ; and the i n f l e c t i o n was omitted once ( # 1 1 2 ) ; another response did not f i t any pattern ( # 3 0 4 ) . Summary. Subject 16 generally appeared to be functioning with the rule that; S > was + N + (s) with was as an undefined i n f l e c t i o n and 's' selected inconsistently. According to the model the subject was using rules 6-9 inconsistently and demonstrated a p a r t i a l understanding of rule 3 but there was no evidence of use of other rules . Subject #19 (Age: 7 yrs. 3 mos.). Task one. Four singular SAD items resulted i n selection of p l u r a l pictures. Tense marker selections were inconsistent. TQ items caused subject 19 to select non-past singular pictures three times r e s u l t i n g i n two correct choices. P l u r a l SAD items resulted i n selection of three p l u r a l pictures but again tense marker selection was inconsistent. Two of the four responses were correct. P l u r a l TQ items e l i c i t e d three singular and three non-past responses. Tense and number responses were inconsistent throughout the task. Task two. Singular Aux statements were selected f o r singular SAD items three of four times. P l u r a l Aux statements were selected f o r p l u r a l SAD items. However, tense errors resulted i n only 50$ accuracy on SAD items. T n items resulted i n inconsistent selection of singular- p l u r a l , past-non-past Aux statements. Only 12 1/2% accuracy was noted for TQ items. Task three. Throughout the task subject 19 supplied either 57. V + ing or N + ( s ) . There did not appear to be any consistency of choice. In T transforms, the f i r s t blank was used and the second was not. In one p l u r a l TQ item the student used is_ and are i n the two blanks. Task four. Subject 19 generally supplied V + ing for a l l items. Exceptions to t h i s rule were: a p l u r a l noun generation f o r a p l u r a l SAD item; no response when the student could not f i n d the desired verb on the chart; and one N + V + ing for a singular T_ item. Summary. Subject 19 was inconsistent i n tense and number d i f f e r - entiations. He generally supplied a noun i f the verb was given, otherwise, he generated a verb. He appeared to use the following two r u l e s : SD f o r SAD and TY/N structures 1. ) v""+ ing, and 2. I f given v^"+ ing = ^ N + (s) + v"~~+ ing The f i r s t rule did not correspond to the model of task s p e c i f i c r u l e s ; however the second rule appeared to be a crude application of rule 2 of the model. Subject #24 (Age: 7 yrs. 11 mos. ). Task one. Responses for singular SAD and TQ items were i n the correct tense i n seven of the eight instances and correct number was used for f i v e of the eight items. P l u r a l SAD and T n items resulted i n f i v e correct tenses and one correct number for the eight items. Task two. Responses to singular SAD and TQ items were correct for seven of the eight items with the eighth item incorrect i n both tense and number. • P l u r a l SAD and TQ statements selected were i n the correct tense seven times but the number of the A.ux was correct only twice i n eight responses. Task three. I t appeared that subject 24 experienced some task 53. confusion as he interchanged Aux and noun positions i n some statements. Singular SAD statements v;ere completed corr e c t l y with the exception of the Aux being consistently placed i n the wrong p o s i t i o n (preceding the noun). Singular T statements were correctly completed. P l u r a l SAD items again vi had the Aux i n the wrong po s i t i o n and there was continued d i f f i c u l t y with the number of the Aux. P l u r a l TQ statements were co r r e c t l y completed with the exception of the number of the Aux. Task four. Singular SAD items again resulted i n a TQ response; however i t was noted that the verb was omitted i n three of the four genera- t i o n s . Singular TQ items resulted i n generation of one correct response and three corresponding SAD statements and the verb was omitted once. P l u r a l items demonstrated a continued confusion of SAD and TQ responses (one-half were corre c t l y generated) as w e l l as continued d i f f i c u l t y 7,1th the number of the A.ux. The verb was omitted i n f i v e of the eight generations, Summary. Subject 24 generally appeared to comprehend singular statements but did not appear to comprehend cr use a p l u r a l Aux i n SAD or TQ items. There was a confusion of rules for completing or generating SAD and TQ statements. In some instances, task four items (generation) resulted i n omission of the verb. Subject 24 appeared to complete the tasks according to the following rules of operation: SD TY/H=£ — + the + M + no + (V + ing) I t was apparent that rules 19 and 20 of the model were confused and that rules 14, 17 and 18 were not used i n the tasks; otherwise the rules of the model appear to have been u t i l i z e d . 59. Subject #30 (Age: 8 yrs. 6 mos.). Task one. A l l singular items were completed correctly and f i v e of the eight p l u r a l items were also com- pleted correctly. The three p l u r a l errors were the re s u l t of sel e c t i o n of pictures marked as non-past tense when the statements were past tense. Task two. Seven of the eight singular items were corre c t l y selected. One p l u r a l Aux was selected for a singular item. Seven of the eight p l u r a l items were incorrect as the r e s u l t of selection of singular Aux statements. Task three. A l l singular items were completed cor r e c t l y and a l l p l u r a l items were incorrect. The errors were the r e s u l t of singular Aux consistently being used for p l u r a l items. Task four. A l l singular SAD statements were co r r e c t l y generated and a l l singular TQ statements were correct with the exception of the determiner. As i n previous tasks, the singular Aux was used f o r p l u r a l items. Generation of p l u r a l TQ transforms also resulted i n omission of the determiner i n every question. Summary. Subject 30 generally demonstrated comprehension and production s k i l l s i n a l l areas examined with the exceptions of p l u r a l Aux, and generation of TQ statements. The student's rules of operation were summarized as follows: SD SAD The + N + no + + N + n o + The subject did not use model rules 14, 17 and 18 and he reduced rule 20. Subject #33 (Age: 8 yrs. 8 mos. ). Task one. A tense error was m i ? made on one singular response and the other seven responses were correct. P l u r a l past pictures were selected f o r seven of the eight p l u r a l items. This pattern resulted i n only three correct responses. Task two. A l l singular statements were selected correctly. A l l p l u r a l items were incorrect as a re s u l t of selection of singular Aux statements. Task three. V/ith one exception, responses had exactly the same pattern as i n task two. That i s , singular statements were correct and singular Aux was used f o r p l u r a l statements. The only exception was the omission of one p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of a noun f o r a p l u r a l T n statement. Task four. The generation items followed the same pattern as task three responses, with one exception. The noted difference i n perfor- mance was that subject 33 generated SAD statements for TQ transforms. Summary. Subject 33 did not generate TQ transforms but did appear to comprehend them. She could also complete a p a r t i a l l y provided TQ structure (Task 3). Generally, the student was unable to deal with p l u r a l Aux regardless of tense. The operational rule summarizing task performance i s as follows: SD f o r both SAD and T~ structures ' |wasj — — I t was noted that the student appeared to be using a l l of the model with the exception of rules 14, 17, 18, and 20. Subject #40 (Age: 8 yrs. 9 mos.). Task one. A l l singular items were completed correctly and s i x of the eight p l u r a l items were also completed correctly. The two errors were confusions of tense and number. selected while only two p l u r a l items were correct. The singular error was Q Task two. Seven of the eight singular statements were co r r e c t l y 61. the r e s u l t of a selection of a p l u r a l instead of singular Aux statement. The s i x p l u r a l item errors were the re s u l t of selection of singular Aux statements. Task three. A l l singular items were completed correctly. Three of four p l u r a l SAD statements were completed i n c o r r e c t l y as a r e s u l t of selection of a singular Aux. I t was noted that a p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of a noun was omitted i n one item. P l u r a l TQ items also u t i l i z e d a singular Aux i n three instances; however the fourth item was completed with a p l u r a l Aux i n the wrong tense. Task four. There was an apparent confusion of SAD and TQ structures. A l l singular items were correctly generated except that one TQ statement was generated for a SAD item and vice versa. Seven of eight p l u r a l generations used a singular Aux. The eighth item used a p l u r a l Aux corre c t l y hut the determiner and p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of the noun were omitted. Summary. Subject 40 generally was able to comprehend and produce singular statements but experienced some d i f f i c u l t y with p l u r a l Aux items. I t was noted that the p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of the noun was sometimes omitted when the number of the noun and Aux were i n c o n f l i c t . There was a confusion of s t r u c t u r a l pattern for SAD and T n statements. There were f i v e items y where p l u r a l Aux was used correctly. One of the f i v e items also included a reduction of the structure through the omissions of the determiner and p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of the noun. Subject 40 appeared to operate on the tasks according to the following rul e s : 62. SD SAD The + N + ( n o ) 2 + (be + C ) 1 + f~+ ing TY/N==7>(be + C ) 1 + the + N + no + V + ing I t was also noted that rules 19 and 20 were confused at times. This was probably a confusion of task response and not necessarily a r e f l e c t i o n of the subject's normal performance. 1. I t was noted that (be + C) was used inconsistently. Subject 4-0 generally used the singular Aux (rules 13, 15, and 16 of the model) but occasionally he used a p l u r a l Aux (rules 14, 17, and 12). 2. Number was used inconsistently - occasionally the p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of noun was omitted i f i t was i n c o n f l i c t with the number of the Aux. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION I. Interpretation of Results Quantitative Results The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the s i x research questions previously stated (p. 23). The results pertaining t o the f i r s t f i v e questions were considered i n t h i s section. Age. The f i r s t research question queried the effect of age on perform- ance. The main effect f o r the age factor was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Further s t a t i s t i c a l i n v estigation led to the conclusion that the source of v a r i a t i o n was between s i x and nine year l e v e l s (A^ and A^) and seven and nine year l e v e l s (A and A,). The f i r s t of these findings appeared to 2 4 be i n agreement with the Schmitt (1969) res u l t s where a three year age difference was used to demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t differences. However, progress with older children (14 yrs. +) such as those i n the Schmitt study i s so much slower than that of young children (Annual Survey of Hearing Impaired Children and Youth, 1969) that smaller age ranges were expected to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The multiple contrasts of age-by-task interactions revealed that task three (production-completion) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between seven and eight year olds ( A 2 and A^) while the more d i f f i c u l t task four (production-construction) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between eight and nine year olds (A^ and A^). The decrease i n mean performance le v e l s between s i x and seven year olds (A^ and A^) was considered to be a r e f l e c t i o n of the previously discussed lack of language s k i l l s common to most young deaf children. Both groups generally 64. were functioning on a one or two word sentence le v e l and were unable to deal with tense, number, and structural considerations. The two groups were, therefore, approximately equal i n performance on the tasks. Task. The second research question (p. 23) dealt with the levels of d i f f i c u l t y of the four levels of tasks. S t a t i s t i c a l evidence confirmed that the levels of task were significantly different. Bonfefroni contrasts indicated that the sources of variation were significant differences between task levels two and three, and levels three and four with the differences i n the predicted direction. There was no significant difference between tasks one and two. This result led the investigator to reconsider the nature of the tasks. In retrospect i t seemed that the second task was not a production item i n that a stimulus picture and tense marker were observed and the subject then read four sentences and selected the correct one. The requirements of the task were similar to those of the f i r s t task-comprehension. In other words, the second task l e v e l was inaccurately named and should have been designated a comprehension task. The difference between means for tasks one and two (Table 6) was i n the predicted direction but the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .01 l e v e l of significance. As both tasks one and two required attention to picture and sentence items, they were probably reflecting similar compre- hension s k i l l s . Task two may have been s l i g h t l y more d i f f i c u l t (Table 6) as particular attention was required of several d i f f e r i n g Aux constructions. An increase i n s k i l l associated with age was reflected i n parts of the tasks. Singular/plural. Results of the ANOVA indicated that the subjects experienced significantly more d i f f i c u l t y with plural than with singular markers. The result was not surprising and would have been of interest 65. only i f the opposite results were found. It was interesting to note that the tasks were sensitive to age-associated skill increases (Table 8). These differences were cost apparent at the production level (Appendix F - tasks 3 and 4 ) . Tense and transform. The predictions of significant main effects for tense and transform factors were not supported. The significant interaction of these two factors was investigated. Results of the contrasts indicated that the source of variation was between non-past and past tenses of T_ statements, with non-past tense results being significantly larger. This finding is of interest in light of the language methodology in use in schools for the deaf. The language instructional techniques for young deaf children concentrate on past tense simple-active-declarative structures. It was expected that the language teaching at school would generalize to performance on the tasks. However, the demonstration items concentrate on singular, past-non-past, and SAD-TQ differentiations. It appeared that this emphasis was generalized to the task performances. The relative success •with TQ items indicated that the children could comprehend and produce such structures. The three factor interactions involving task, tense, and transform were demonstrated to be, in part, the result of strong task differentiation (Table 1 0 ) . The five factor interaction was significant of the .05 level and this result was demonstrated (Table 11) to be, in part, the result of a combination of previously discussed significant main effects and interactions. Examiner. The examiner variable was demonstrated to be significant at the .01 level. Previous discussion (pp. 2 3 - 2 4 ) indicated that two examiners were randomly assigned to each age level but that students were not randomly assigned to examiner. This procedure resulted in a 66. confounding of factors. Four of the five   (8 yr.) students assigned to one examiner and all of the   (9 yr.) students assigned to another examiner were above average in their academic and social performances and were placed in off-campus classes. That is, their school program was under the juris- diction of the school for the deaf but their classrooms were situated in regular public schools. These children were generally superior to their deaf peers in linguistic skills and were placed in off-campus classes to enable further development of social and academic skills and integration with their hearing peers. The teachers, supervising teacher, principal, and superintendent were interested in comparing the results of these "advanced" children with the results of their peers. Their interest and terminology supports the premise that an exceptional group of children was assigned to these particular examiners. The results of Bonferroni contrasts (Table 12) indicated that significant differences were located within the   (9 yr.) level. The significantly better group was composed of children who were in the off-campus classes. The examiner-by-singular/plural and examiner-by-tense tests for interactions indicated both   and   levels as having examiner differences. V/hile the results of the examiner factor investigation were not easily interpretable due to confounding, i t appeared that the population differences associated with examiner were of considerable importance. Qualitative Results Qualitative analyses of the responses attempted to provide an answer to the sixth research question (p. 24). An interpretation of the results of each subject analysis follows: Subject #5. Subject 5 demonstrated a knowledge of the structure of 67. SAD statements but vras unable to cope with statements at the production l e v e l ( r u l e 20 of the model). This d i f f i c u l t y vras net apparent at the comprehension l e v e l (tasks one and two). The student was unable to deal with p l u r a l A.ux statements. That i s , the student did not understand that an 're' morpheme must be selected i n the presence of a p l u r a l noun ( r u l e 14) and that the 're' morpheme combined with tense to produce either were or are (rules 17 and 18). Subject 5 appeared to be using a l l other rules i n the model. Subject #6. Responses to a l l tasks demonstrated inconsistencies i n performance dealing with number and tense. Number inconsistency was noted i n both p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of nouns and Aux agreement. I t was apparent that subject 6 was functioning at a one word l e v e l . There was seme i n d i c a - t i o n of an awareness of rules of number f o r nouns; however, the rules were not consistently u t i l i z e d and probably not f u l l y understood. I f the c h i l d portrayed i n the stimulus picture vras a boy, subject s i x supplied a "v" + "ing response. However, the ing i n f l e c t i o n can not be credited as i t was provided on the vocabulary chart (Appendix C). Kence, the subject generally provided a verb i f the subject was a boy. Consideration of the nature of the input of the vocabulary charts led to an i n t e r e s t i n g explanation of the subject's response pattern. Each picture describing a verb has a boy portraying the action. I t appeared that the subject used that information to develop a r u l e . The oversight (using a l l boys for verb pictures) served to demonstrate that the form of the l i n g u i s t i c input i s c r u c i a l to language learning. The production of a noun for a sentence i s t y p i c a l of early productions of young hearing children. This phenomenon was explained by ?.'c"eill (1970): 68. ... the c h i l d combined no words u n t i l 17 months. I t i s of considerable i n t e r e s t that most of the words noted above are 'nouns'; those that are not nouns are 'adjectives', i . e . attributes of nouns. 'Verbs' are completely missing ... , the syntactic category of nouns i s unique i n that i t alone appears i n every grammatical r e l a t i o n . The richness of nouns i n holophrastic speech (production), therefore, possesses an advantage for communication. Because a l l grammatical relations are i m p l i c i t , nouns can be used i n every available r e l a t i o n without endangering the compre- hension of adults. Verbs do not have t h i s Tjroperty (pp. 24 - 25). Subject #16. A consistent response pattern was noted i n tasks one and two. Task one responses u t i l i z e d non-past tense and task two responses employed a singular Aux for most of the items. The production tasks (3 and 4) also r e f l e c t e d a consistency i n response pattern. Subject 16 appeared to function according to the rule that a sentence consisted of an undefined i n f l e c t i o n (was) plus a noun. The response patterns throughout the four tasks indicated that the student was aware of the exis- tence of rules i n the language but had not yet been able to successfully define the rules. The one word sentence (noun) pattern was s i m i l a r to that of the previous subject (#6); however the appearance of the i n f l e c t i o n indicated that the subject had progressed beyond that l e v e l and was attempt- ing to define another operational r u l e . The use of was was probably a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n on the demonstration items but i t served to demonstrate that the subject was aware of further operational rules and w i l l i n g to attempt to use an i l l - d e f i n e d concept of a r u l e . McNeill (1970) stated: "children form relationships with ease, but require time to learn the r e s t r i c t i o n s on relationships" (p. 104). He also pointed out that i t i s the role of experience to slowly develop these r e s t r i c t i o n s . Subject 16 was, then, attempting to use a relationship that was probably perceived during the demonstration items. 69. Subject #19. This student was also performing at a basic l e v e l i n language s k i l l s . Tense and number inconsistencies were evident throughout tasks one and two and performance on tasks three and four was generally at the one word l e v e l with indications of two word structures emerging. Subject 19 generally produced a verb f o r task four items. This response was probably task s p e c i f i c , i n that i t was possible to accurately describe a s i t u a t i o n with a verb from the vocabulary chart. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, the verb did designate the central communication of the s i t u a t i o n and the student could replace the one word noun sentence with a verb with a resultant increase i n communication of content of the item. However, i n task three performances the verb was given and the student then generally provided a noun to complete the statement. This response pattern indicated a p a r t i a l understanding of sentence structure ( i . e . NP + VP). There was also one instance of N + V~""+ "ing generation fo r the task four items. Subject #24. The student was generally able to cope with sentence structures. There were d e f i n i t e indications that s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s were made between SAD and TQ statements. However, the inconsistency of performance indicated that the rules were not completely established i n the student's grammar. Subject 24 did not appear to be using the number rule which requires that an 're' morpheme be used with be^ i n the presence of a p l u r a l noun. Hence, a l l performances resulted i n production of singular, or 's' morpheme, Aux constructions. This p a r t i c u l a r rule i s s p e c i f i c to the verb to be and i t was, therefore, not surprising that the rule vras not yet learned as "the contribution of experience w i l l . . . be largest i n those regions of grammar where general rules apply l e a s t . " (McNeill, 1970, p. 1 0 4 ) and these young deaf children have.had a very 70. l i m i t e d l i n g u i s t i c experience. I t was also of interest that subject 24 omitted the verb and progressive i n f l e c t i o n when required to generate complete structures. This operation was s i m i l a r to findings reported by Bloom ( 1 9 7 0 ) where " ... the operation of negation within a sentence increased i t s complexity, and thereby necessitated reduction i n the surface structure" and " ... i t appeared that reduction was the re s u l t of something more than a production l i m i t a t i o n on sentence length" (pp. 156 and 1 6 5 ) . Task four responses required the use of many operational rules i n order to generate correct statements. This increase i n task complexity r e l a t i v e to tasks one, two, and three could have been responsible f o r the reduction of the structure. Subject #30. The resu l t s of subject 30's task performances were very s i m i l a r to those of subject 24-. The student did not use the 're' morpheme rule previously discussed (subject #24) and also had a consistent reduction of structure f o r TQ statements. There were no omissions i n SAD generations but the additional operation of one transformation (TQ) appeared to be related to the omission of the determiner. Hence, a reduction transformation, as proposed by Bloom, appeared to be operative i n t h i s student's performances. Subject #33. Subject 33 appeared to be using a l l but two rules of the model of task s p e c i f i c rules. This student was not using the 're' morpheme rule and was not d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between SAD and T n structures on task four performances. However, i t appeared that the subject did have some s k i l l with TQ structures as they were correctly completed ( s t r u c t u r a l l y ) i n tasks one, two and three. Subject #40. This subject demonstrated more s k i l l s than any of the others discussed i n t h i s section. The student appeared to understand and 71. use the s t r u c t u r a l differences of SAD and T n statements as w e l l and there was some correct usage of p l u r a l Aux statements. The student did not demonstrate mastery over the 're' morpheme rule but did demonstrate an awareness of the role of that r u l e . Considerations of concord also appeared to be responsible f o r the omission of p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n on some nouns. This subject appeared to understand a l l of the rules presented i n the model but did not demonstrate performance mastery of those rules . I I . Implications Bloom (1970) states that: I t i s now a basic assumption that the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of 'what' the c h i l d learns ... and 'how* t h i s learning takes place - knowledge of the substance and process of language development - can be a preeminent source of insight i n t o the development of thought and the learning process (p. l ) . The tasks developed for t h i s study were a means to an end. They were not intended as 'measures' of l i n g u i s t i c competence or performance i n the sense of describing complete grammars for the children studied. Rather, the tasks provided an opportunity f o r c o l l e c t i o n of some data which would r e f l e c t some of the l i n g u i s t i c s s k i l l s of young deaf children. This was a f i r s t attempt to describe the s k i l l s demonstrated through structured, paper and p e n c i l tasks. This r e s u l t was not surprising as McNeill (1970) states that: There i s a strong tendency among children to include nothing i n the surface structures of sentences that cannot be related to deep structures - i . e . , nothing for which there i s no transformational derivation known (p. 106). The results of t h i s study demonstrated that the techniques used were useful for c o l l e c t i o n of data related to Bloom's 'what' and 'how' of language learning. I t was apparent that there were developmental 72. differences associated with age and that these changes followed a consistent pattern. I t was also demonstrated that some of the children could compre- hend statements before they could produce s i m i l a r structures. Of p a r t i c u l a r import were the findings that the patterns of performance of the s i x to nine year old deaf children were not d i s s i m i l a r to performances of much younger hearing children ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Results). Very early developmental patterns of one-word sentences, development of p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n s on nouns, emergence of undefined two word sentences, and one instance of the emergence of the use of p l u r a l Aux rules and reduction operation are also found i n very young hearing children ( B e l l u g i , 1967; Klima and B e l l u g i , 1964; Be l l u g i and Brown, 1964; Brown and Fraser, 1964). The re s u l t s of the study demonstrated that the children performed consistently throughout the tasks. They, therefore, were rule governed i n t h e i r performances. The description of a complete model for the tasks enabled the investigator to locate the rules with which p a r t i c u l a r children were encountering d i f f i c u l t y . In t h i s respect, the tasks combined with the model provided diagnostic information which would be of assistance to teachers. For example, i t was apparent that the l i n g u i s t i c a l l y more advanced children were experiencing d i f f i c u l t y with the 're' morpheme ru l e . They did however demonstrate mastery of the p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n for nouns. The 're' morpheme rule i s unique to the verb to be and t h i s rule i s l i k e l y to create d i f f i c u l t i e s . McNeill (1970) pointed out that a great deal of experience would be required to develop mastery over such a specialized r u l e . The be-ing verb i s used frequently i n English and yet results of t h i s study indicated that operational rules for i t s use emerged much l a t e r , chronologically, than for hearing children. This slower development has been attributed to a. lack of experience (Furth, 1971). 73. The "lack of experience" explanation i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r educators of the deaf i n that the experiential d e f i c i t may never be overcome. A highly r e s t r i c t e d rule such as the 're' morpheme rule would require an extremely large body of experiences to establish mastery of the rul e . An alternative approach to development of mastery over such a r e s t r i c t i v e rule has been suggested as an outgrowth of the delineation of the model of rules f o r the tasks. The procedure w i l l be presented i n a following section (IV. Future Research, No. 4). I I I . Limitations 1) The study examined only a small part of young deaf children's l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s . The results are, therefore, not necessarily representa- t i v e of t h e i r complete grammars. 2) Several examiners were used i n the study and an examiner difference was demonstrated to be s i g n i f i c a n t . While the reasons for the differences were discussed, the fact remained that results were confounded. Hence g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d by constraints of the examiner factor. 3) The population studied was selected from one- school f o r the deaf. Instructional methodologies and language programs d i f f e r from school to school. The r e s u l t s , therefore, are possibly not general among other schools f o r the deaf i n populations of the ages studied. 4) A l l subjects i n the study were pr e - l i n g u a l l y deaf but there was no control over the type of language input they received p r i o r to the study. McNeill (1970) pointed out the importance of experience i n development of rule governed language performance. The amount of stimulation and input necessarily varied from c h i l d to c h i l d . Some children were r e s i d e n t i a l students while others l i v e d at home. However, examination of t h i s variable 74. alone i s i n s u f f i c i e n t as there i s no standard l e v e l of language stimulation or input associated with either s i t u a t i o n . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s i s , therefore, r e s t r i c t e d by constraints of the h i s t o r i c a l factor of l i n g u i s - t i c input. IV. Future Research 1) The task battery should be used with a very large group of 6-9 year old deaf children i n order to determine the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of findings. 2) More task batteries are needed to i s o l a t e other l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l performances. The re s u l t s of such studies would provide more information for describing deaf children's grammar and language a c q u i s i t i o n processes. 3) More studies to complement the structured - paper and p e n c i l re s u l t s are needed. Collection of data i n unstructured situations u t i l i z i n g other expressive media (speech or sign) would provide information necessary f o r description of a deaf child's grammar. 4) Some very s p e c i f i c c l i n i c a l research i s required to develop more detailed and e f f i c i e n t teaching techniques for language i n s t r u c t i o n . One such technique suggested from the delineation of rules f o r the model of task s p e c i f i c rules i s outlined below. I t was apparent that the agreement or concord rules become complex when dealing with the verb to be. I t appeared that the students were developing p l u r a l i n f l e c t i o n of the noun to p l u r a l agreement of the Aux. I f t h i s Aux agreement rule could be broken down into steps involving only one operation at a time, the student may gain more insig h t i n t o the opera- t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s of the rules involved. A l o g i c a l beginning (Stage I) for subject-verb agreement would be use 75. of "The g i r l plays" and "The g i r l s play". I t i s noted that the s _ i n f l e c - t i o n of the verb i n the singular statement i s moved to the noun i n the p l u r a l statement. (The + g i r l + 0 + play + s_ »The + g i r l + s_ + play + 0). Stage I I of the process would involve the use of the be-ing verb as a copulative. In t h i s instance the s morpheme transformation could again be used for the agreement r u l e . (The + b a l l + i s + green > The + balls_ + are + green). I t could very e a s i l y be pointed out that the s marker i s present i n the verb phrase for singulars and i n the noun phrase for p l u r a l s . The t h i r d stage would involve a s i m i l a r procedure with the d i s t i n c t i o n s being made i n the past tense. (The + boy + was + happy —> The + boys + were + happy). Stage four would involve introduction of be as Aux and the same pattern would be repeated, (non-past = t The + boy + i s + laughing —^The + boys + are + laughing, past =^The + boy + was + laughing—» The + boys + were + laughing.) This suggestion for study would provide a wealth of information about the amount and kind of experience necessary to develop mastery over a p a r t i c u l a r r u l e . This research would begin to answer some of the questions posed by McNeill (1970): Since the role played by experience i s greater with rules that carry more r e s t r i c t i o n s , we should focus attention on these most r e s t r i c t e d cases ... ( u n t i l t h i s i s done) nothing much can be said about even the basic questions. What amount of exposure, for instance, and what kind of material, i s necessary to learn r e s t r i c t i o n s on general rules? (p. 105). REFERENCES B e l l u g i , U. The acqu i s i t i o n of nagation. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, 1967. B e l l u g i , U. and Brown, R. (Eds. ) The ac q u i s i t i o n of language. Monograph of the Society for Research i n Child Development, 1964-, 29, Mo. 92. Birch, J. W., and Stuckless, E. R. The influence of early manual communica- t i o n on the l i n g u i s t i c development of deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 1966, 111, 499-504. Bloom, L. Language development: form and function i n emerging grammars. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970. Braine, M. The ontogeny of english phrase structure - the f i r s t phase. Language, 1963, 39, 1-13. Brown, R. and Fraser, C. The ac q u i s i t i o n of syntax, i n The a c q u i s i t i o n of language. Monograph of the Society of Research for Child Development, 1964, 29, 43-97. Chomsky, C. The acqu i s i t i o n of syntax i n children from 5 to 10. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969. Chomsky, N. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1965. Cohen, S. Redundancy i n the written language of the deaf. P r e d i c t a b i l i t y of story paraphrases written by deaf and hearing children i n CEC research studies on the psycholinguistic behavior of deaf children. Research Monograph B2, (Eds.) Rosenstein, J. and MacGinitie, V/., 1965. Cooper, R. The development of morphological habits i n deaf children. CEC research studies on the psycholinguistic behavior of deaf children. Research Monograph B2, (eds.) Rosenstein, J. and MacGinitie, V/., 1965. 77. Cooper, R. and Rosenstein, J. Language acquisition of deaf children, Volta Review - Language Acquisition Monograph, Volta Bureau, Washington, D.C., 1966. Davis, H. and Silverman, S. R. Hearing and deafness. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. Fitzgerald, M. A. Vocabulary development for acoustically handicapped children. American Annals of the Deaf, 194-9, 94. F l i n t , R. W., Blea, W., and Miller, J. B. 1965 NDEA institute i n linguistics and reading. Volta Review, 1965, 68, 618-626. Foy, R. Teaching reading to hearing impaired junior high school pupils. Volta Review, 1966, 69, 315-316. Furth, H. Linguistic deficiency and thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 1971, 76, 58-72. Furth, H. Research with the deaf. Volta Review, 1966, 68, 34-56. Games, P. Multiple comparisons of means. American Educational Research Journal, 1971, 8 (3), 531-565. Gentile, A. (ed. ) Annual survey of hearing impaired children and youth, academic achievement test performance of hearing impaired students, united states: spring, 1969. Washington, D.C., Office of Demographic Studies, Gallaudet College, 1969. Goda, S. Spoken syntax of normal, deaf, and retarded adolescents. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1964, 3, 401-405. Heider, F. K. and Heider, G. M. A comparison of sentence structure of deaf and hearing children. Psychological Monographs, 1940, 52, No. 1 (Whole No. 232), 42-103. 78. Hsu, T. and Feldt, L. The effect of l i m i t a t i o n s on the number of c r i t e r i o n score values on the significance l e v e l of the F-test. American Educational Research Journal, 1969, 6, 515-527. Katz, J. J. and Postal, P. M. An Integrated Theory of L i n g u i s t i c Descrip- tions . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964. Kennedy, E. Teaching the deaf c h i l d to read. American Annals of the Deaf, 1959, 104. Klima, E. and B e l l u g i , U. Syntactic r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the speech of children, i n Psycholinguistic papers. (Eds. ) Lyons and Wales, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1966. Lee, L. Developmental sentence types: a method for comparing normal and deviant syntactic development. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1966, 31, 311-330. Lenneberg, E. B i o l o g i c a l foundations of language. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1967. Lowenbraun, S. An investigation of the syntactic competence of young deaf children. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia University, 1969. MacGinitie, W. A b i l i t y of deaf children to use di f f e r e n t word classes. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1964, 7, 141-150. McNeill, D. The acqu i s i t i o n of language: the study of developmental . psycholinguisties. Mew York: Harper and Row, 1970 McNeill, D. Developmental psycholinguistics, i n The genesis of language. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966, (eds.) Smith and M i l l e r . Marshall, Y/. Contextual constraint on deaf and hearing children. American Annals of the Deaf, 1970, 115 (7), 682-689. 79. Marshall, W. and Quigley, S. Quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e analysis of syntactic structure i n the written language of deaf children. Urbana, 111.: I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on Exceptional Children, 1970. Menyuk, P. Sentences children use. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969. M i l l e r , W. and Ervin, S. The developmental grammar i n c h i l d language, i n Psycholinguistic papers. (Eds.) Lyons and Wales, Edingurgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1966. Montgomery, G. W. Relationship of o r a l s k i l l s to manual communication i n profoundly deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf, 1966, 111, 557-565. Moores, D. F. Application of "cloze" procedures to the assessment of psycholinguistic a b i l i t i e s of the deaf. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of I l l i n o i s , 1967. Perry, F. R. The psycholinguistic a b i l i t i e s of deaf children. The Australian Teacher of the Deaf, 1968, 9, Nos. 1 and 3. Power, D. J. Deaf children's a c q u i s i t i o n of the passive voice. Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n ( i n progress), University of I l l i n o i s , 1971. Quigley, S. P. Development and description of syntactic structure i n the language of deaf children. Progress Report, Project Ho. 232175, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, U.S. Office of Education, March, 1971. Quigley, S. F. The influence of f i n g e r s p e l l i n g on the development of language, communication, and educational achievement i n deaf children. I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on Exceptional Children: University of I l l i n o i s , 1969. 80. Quigley, S. P., and F r i s i n a , D. R. I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and psycho- educational development of deaf children. CEC research monograph, series A, No. 3, Council f o r Exceptional Children, 1961. Restaino, L. V.'ord associations of deaf children. CEC i n Research studies on the psycholinguistic behavior of deaf children, CEC Research Monograph B2, (Eds.) Rosenstein, J. and MacGinitie, W., 1965. Richardson, P.C. A reading lesson using the f i t z g e r a l d key headings. Volta Review, 1957, 59. R i t c h i e , V/. C. Some implications of generative grammar for the construction of courses i n english as a foreigh language. Language and Language Learning, 1967, 17, Nos. 1 and 2, 45-69. Roberts, P. Modern grammar. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1968. Schmitt, P. J. Deaf children's comprehension and production of sentence transformations and verb tenses. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of I l l i n o i s , 1969. Smith, F., and Miller., G. A. (Eds.) The genesis of language. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966. Slobin, D. Early grammatical development i n several languages, i n The structure and pyschology of language. (Eds. ) Weksel and Bever. New York: Holt Rinehart and \7inston, 1967. Stuckless, E. R. and Marks, C. Assessment of the written language of deaf students, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Department of Special Education and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 1966. Taylor, L. A language analysis of the w r i t i n g of deaf children. Unpub- li s h e d doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , State University of F l o r i d a , 1969. Vernon, M. Sociological and psychological factors associated with hearing l o s s . Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, September, 1969. APPENDIX APPENDIX A TASK BATTERY 84. 85. 86. a r c I03 87. 9 • - I o f  89. • W e r e "VYve- bovjS y j L t v\p\cu^? l o t 90. tao\p i s p a r c una: , !Ke sleepL. ^ r j w e r e b o v j w a s lo*7 91. 92. T~Ke boys W e r e I Q J J L ^ K I T \ T K c bo \ |S a r e U u ^ l T K c bov^s w a s Wu^Vuing 94. w e r e III 95. 96. JLs f h e dog j 1!3 97. 13 o r e . e r e I h e . C | i r l f u n n i n g i " K e C^\r\ f a n n i n g : A r e i " K e r u n n i n g W a s i K c C| ivl f a n n i n g U H 98. . r u i u u n c y v s a r e w e r e US 99. » l i t 100.  102. a r e w e r e w a s • i ? w a s t h e _ r u n n i n g j IS 103. 104. o r e i\fow ^ 0 5 105. 106. Swimrmno i s g i r l s W e r e J a r e w a s i r l 3 107. 2o& 108. 2ol 109. I s "iKe \ ) G \ | S W I BTTI inn I *r\ Vs/cre. "i We. b o \ | S w i m m i n g ! i*c -VYve. S w i m m i n g ? 110. girls WaS were girl 111. 112. Before Now 2 13 113. ! T k e docj w e r e s l e e p i n g - T H e G o c ^ Was ^ leepinc^- ~TKe Aoc^ a r e sleep\T\C^ "The doc^ \s slee^ir\(^ - 3 / 4 114. B e f o r e dons i s J - n c | W e r e The — S l e e p i n g a r e W a s 115. 116. W a s I k e g i r l s l e e p i n g 3 o i Mow 3DZ 118. w e r e j i r i s a r e 119. 120. 121. A r c "Hie girls eafir%<j? e r e i h e Q i r S s e a i m q ? Ts i U e g ir ls eaiiV^? fte girls calinc|? 122. Tunning- bovj W e r e w a s a r e i s bo\js 123. 3o8 124. 125. W a s "Hie dog walking? — J Xs "the. d o g Walking? A r e "tke, d o g Walking? L_.' W e r e ~I~?ne docj w a l k i n g ? 3/o 126. w a s a r c /fix!Una. i J bovj b o ^ s is 311 127. 3IZ 128. 129. 130. w a s a r e T L d! w e r e l h e _ S leeping. fe \ S 131. 132.  134. 135. B e f o r e 136. 405 137. f o b 138. 139. Ho* HO. *f-OJ 141. 142. arc IS - f i - w a s l jumping- \ 3 O N j 5 w e r e bovi 4 / ( 143. 144. H5. f ' I s t h e b o\?s c l a p p i n g ? !_ ! W a s "ine bogs cWppmg? .re i K c b o g s d a p p i n g ? r e t a t DO^S C l a ^ p m ^ ( were thf ,.. ;—Swrmrning1- ^ V \ / a S a r e is 147. ¥ / 4 APPENDIX B DEMONSTRATION ITEMS  Now • The car \5 green. • Tke ball is r e d . • The ball is blue. • The Coat is red. 151. DC I S w a s The ball- — qreer* J red D C 152. D D • 153. D E T h e bal l w a s g r e e n . Be-fore B e - f o r e ft Before • T h e b a l l w a s g r e e n . • T h e c a r w a s y e e n . • T h e c o a t i s g r e e n . • T h e b a l l i s y e l l o w . 155. DG The ba\\ 156. DH Be-fore D H 157. D M N o w Is the baH red ? • Yes • No Now • I s t h e c a r r e d ? • I s t h e b a l l r e d ? • I s t h e c a r g r e e n ? • I s t h e b a l l y e l l o w ? 159. DO r \ r v 160. D P 1 6 1 . B e - f o r e - D Y e s W a s the b a l l Qreen? _ K» J • No B e - f o r e • W a s t h e b a l l g r e e n ? • I s t h e c a r g r e e n ? • W a s t h e h o s g r e e n ? • I s t h e b a l l y e l l o w ? 163. D5 rvnr  166. D T 1 #-4 B e - f o r e • T K e ball ' i s y e l l o w . • T h e b o s i b g r e e n . • T h e b o s w a s g r e e r * . • T h e c a r i s g r e e n . 167. Ok 168. DL 169. D U B e - f o r e i a DNo W a s t h e CB IT r e d < _ v l_l Yes 170. DV Now • I s t h e ball y e l l o w ? • Was t h e bos y e l l o w ? • I s t h e bos y e l l o w ? • I s t h e cam g r e e n ? 171. O X  APPENDIX C VOCABULARY CHARTS  175. APPENDIX D STANDARD ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES 177. Note: A l l responses requiring a pointing behaviour w i l l be recorded on a check l i s t (Appendix D). Any reference to the examiner "expressing" anything i s defined as speech and signing or f i n g e r s p e l l i n g . Vocabulary for Demonstration Items Each vocabulary item s h a l l be exposed to the subject - one frame at at time. The examiner w i l l point to the picture and then to the printed word below the picture. The examiner w i l l then express the word. The subject w i l l then be asked to say and/or sign or f i n g e r s p e l l the word. This procedure i s to be repeated for each of the vocabulary items on the chart. Demonstration Items Item 1 The f i r s t of the demonstration items s h a l l be exposed to the subject. The examiner w i l l point to the sentence, "The b a l l i s red.", and ask the subject to "Pick the picture that i s the same.". The examiner w i l l than give the subject an unsharpened p e n c i l with an i n t a c t eraser f o r pointing. The subject w i l l be reinforced, "Good Boy!" or other appropriate remark for a correct response. The examiner w i l l then point to and express the word " b a l l " and the word "red" and to the picture selected saying "same-Good boy". I f the response i s incorrect, the examiner w i l l point to and express the word " b a l l " and the word "red" and again ask the subject to "Pick the picture that i s the same.". I t i s expected that the error w i l l be corrected and the examiner w i l l reinforce the reponse appropriately. Once a correct response i s made and the words " b a l l " and "red" have been pointed out, the examiner points to and expresses the word " i s " and then expressed "now" - pointing to the word "now" below the picture. The association of " i s " and "now" w i l l be repeated once using the same procedure 178. described above. Item 2 The second item w i l l be exposed to the subject. The examiner w i l l point to the picture and the word "now" and ask the subject to "Pick the sentence that i s the same.". The subject w i l l be appropriately reinforced for a correct response. The examiner w i l l point to the picture and express the words " b a l l " and "red" and associate them with the same words i n the sentence selected, expressing - "same". I f an incorrect choice i s made the examiner w i l l point to the picture and express the words " b a l l " and "red" and then ask the subject to "Pick the sentence that i s the same.". The correct response should be made at that time or the examiner may repeat the same procedure. Once the correct response i s made, the subject i s appropriately reinforced and the words " b a l l " and "red" are associated with the same words i n the sentence, expressing - "same". The examiner then points to and expresses the word "now" (below the picture) and then points to and expresses the word " i s " ( i n the sentence). This association w i l l be repeated once using the same procedure. Item 3 The t h i r d item w i l l be exposed to the subject. The examiner w i l l point to the picture and word "now" and then present the subject with a sharpened p e n c i l . The examiner w i l l express "Pick words from here (point- ing to the l i s t of words to the ri g h t of the sentence) and f i n i s h the sentence;". I f a correct response i s made, the examiner w i l l reinforce the subject appropriately and then re-expose the previous (second) item. The examiner w i l l then point to the picture and tense marker of the second item and associate these with the correct response of the second item, expressing- "The sentence i s finished.". The examiner w i l l then return to the t h i r d item, point to the picture and the tense marker and associate these with the correct completion, expressing - "The sentence i s fini s h e d . " . I f an 179. incorrect response i s made on item three, the examiner w i l l re-expose item two and point to the picture and tense marker and associate these with the correct sentence, expressing - "The sentence i s finished.". The examiner w i l l then return to item three, leaving item two exposed, and point to the picture and tense marker and express - "Pick words from here (pointing to the l i s t of words to the r i g h t of the sentence) and f i n i s h the sentence.". The subject may, i f necessary, ref e r to item two to complete the sentence. This procedure may be repeated, i f necessary, to enable completion of the task item. Once the correct response i s made, the examiner w i l l reinforce the subject appropriately and refe r back to item two pointing to the pictu r e , tense marker, and correct sentence, expressing - "The sentence i s fini s h e d . " and repeating t h i s procedure f o r item three. Item 4 The fourth item w i l l be exposed to the subject. The examiner w i l l point to the picture and the tense marker and express - "Write the sentence.". I f a correct response i s made, the examiner w i l l reinforce the subject appropriately and re f e r to the previous item (item three) and follow procedures i d e n t i c a l to those outlined above (Item three). I f an incorrect response i s made, the examiner w i l l re-expose the previous item (item three and follow i d e n t i c a l procedures to those outlined for incorrect responses i n Item three. The examiner w i l l remove the sharpened p e n c i l . Items 5-8 Similar procedures w i l l be followed as for items 1-4 respectively, with two exceptions: l ) the tense marker referred to w i l l be "before". 2) After the tense marker i s referred t o , the picture w i l l be temporarily covered to avoid concept confusion. The examiner w i l l place a p l a i n white square of tag board over the picture to eff e c t t h i s change. 180. Item 9 Item nine w i l l be exposed to the subject. The examiner w i l l point to the picture stimulus and the tense marker and then to the yes/no transform. The examiner w i l l give the subject the unsharpened p e n c i l with an i n t a c t eraser and express - "Pick the r i g h t one." r e f e r r i n g to the "yes" and "no" selection choices. Responses w i l l be recorded on the check l i s t . The examiner w i l l point to the sentence and the question mark at the end of the statement and express "question". Items 10-12 Ide n t i c a l procedures to those outlined for items 2-4 w i l l be followed with one addition. The review of pict u r e , tense marker, and sentence w i l l be expanded to include the pointing to the question mark at the end of the structure. At that time the examiner w i l l express "question". Items 1,3-16 Iden t i c a l procedures to those outlined f o r items 9-12 w i l l be followed. I t i s to be noted that the tense marker w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . Items 17-20 I d e n t i c a l procedures to those outlined f o r items 1-8 w i l l be used dependent upon tense marker. The only exception to t h i s procedure w i l l be that past tense markers w i l l not require that the picture be covered as i t i s assumed at t h i s point that the concept of the difference between "now" and "before" i s established. Items 21-24 I d e n t i c a l procedures to those outlined f o r items 9-16 w i l l be followed, dependent upon tense marker. As i n items 17-20, the past tense marker w i l l not require that the picture be covered. Vocabulary for Task Items Each vocabulary item s h a l l be exposed to the subject - one frame at a time. The examiner w i l l point to the picture and then to the printed word below the picture. The examiner w i l l then express the word and the 181. subject w i l l be asked to say, sign, or f i n g e r s p e l l , and where possible perform the action indicated by the word. This procedure i s to be repeated f o r each of the vocabulary items on the chart. Task Items Sixteen items w i l l be exposed to the c h i l d i n each s i t t i n g . For the f i r s t s i t t i n g the c h i l d w i l l proceed through the Vocabulary f o r Demonstration Items, Demonstration Items, Vocabulary f o r Task Items, and the f i r s t sixteen task items. Each of the sixteen task items w i l l be presented as a separate uni t . That i s , the subject w i l l have only one item before him at a time. On the second day the demonstration items w i l l be reviewed with a f i v e second exposure f o r each of the 2L, items. At that time the examiner w i l l point to the picture, tense marker, sentence, and punctuation marker for each item. The subject w i l l then proceed through the second s i t t i n g of sixteen task items. An i d e n t i c a l procedure w i l l be followed f o r the t h i r d and fourth s i t t i n g s . The examiner w i l l have no i n t e r a c t i o n with the subject during task administrations. The examiner w i l l record a l l responses on the check l i s t s provided and also note any behaviour considered relevant to the study. APPENDIX E CHECK LISTS 183. Item Response 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 9 1 2 3 10 1 2 3 11 1 2 3 12 13 1 2 3 14 1 2 3 15 1 2 3 16 17 1 2 3 18 1 2 3 19 1 2 3 20 21 1 2 3 22 1 2 3 23 1 2 3 24 o - 1st; • = 2nd; Check L i s t Name: Admin. D, 1, 2, 3, 4 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 A = 3rd; S £ = 4th APPENDIX F SUMMARY OF CORRECT RESPONSES 185. i c <- •v. - - - — - - - - _ _ 1 - - s - — — — - -vj c u f -— - o 4 — - - - - V :* $ — — — - - - - - - i c f.1 •i. — — - - - - — 1 V* *» - — _ — - _ - \ - - - * — _ — — - - - - cl _ _ — _ _ _ - j - - - - — - - - V > X _ _ — _ _ - ! - - - j _c - — _ _ _ _~ 11. - - i c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - — — — - - z i - - — — - - - | J _ _ — — - - - - - : r - ~~ ~ - — — - ! * _ — _ i > _ _ i - _ : C w c r k * ~ 3. ? -J 3 v» v» ft .5» o o b 0 o o o o <» » o o o O 0 9 0 o 0 o 0 O o a o Q O 0 o « 0 o - •» - -- »* - rt> - k - o to ̂ 0 S a .J-a «. o m Wt - «̂  vn cr-~- - ^ • » 1 ̂  Ci <Y% ^ (X» ^ . »( »J o - o - ^ O — ~ - << J « - lr» r» "1 n «d -a 3- Vo f*. * -o r— ». 1" to -6 r- » * p. •n ^ N Q - m In a T J . Q T I lo 3- - • * ^ — r^ \~ <T~ APPENDIX G SUMMARY OF RESPONSE BY TASK LEVEL 187. _ _ — — — ^ — — — ; ^ — — — . .T, ~ _ - - - — 1 - _ - c — l<-' I i i _ ("-! 'c<l - 3 f» — =iilr_ 7t ^ 11; ' i 188. .-Tt .f* ,0 ^ V n C~ 0. j ? J ~. > V.! ^ I.-, Vo ^ > 5? i.-. ^ Co V". "X - ( V ;. j T \ SI ^ ^ v > . - ^ ! ^ i ^2 1 1 1 < > * H « : - « 5*'Q V - - R — - ~ r — 11 - - - O _ to _ V) - £\. s y < »•-« v t >-̂> - r » , . _ - V. H~ !- ojj j o .vj ' ;/. »n V ' d q 1 -Ik > - eC c r( — _ — ! ."n — — I t - - - — </ ^ J v . - <? , „ - - o V. - - • JO »̂ — — , t ' r< •V ^ » u < - - • w ... o - - _ - - —jt >o l o — i w ^ ! = V / % «!.•!• •«.- - * - c* vo ~i - m - - ft U / . - ^ ,</-•" V/* •. u,<, - - - o «\ r» - - - - 1 <•< -1 -< — — ! — _ i m ~ < - !-.-'•- <i •» - . ^ >.v _ _ _ < < .*v O t Vr. - - - ! ; - - - ± T -J ^ - - - ri VI - ~o •V O o- - ' -J i ^ | h u t - «• — C - j s * .'" J •• ^ > ...» t , r — - - - -A J. _ H i Tl S<1 — -a - :H i-^ — — i a- ; i 1 „ I. - _ — T v,-v - - — r<; ; O j i «n - ,o> \ v - ^. r>- ^ - _ £ ; ^ "'A * «1 O u- o — — 3 - - — ' . . . ! - " ~ 3 ~ IT -.1 1 i ! - 1 - 1i 3 7 f 7 TASK 3 - PART 1 #103 #411 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i n g u l a r S i n g u l a r Present Present SAD SAD was are i s i s The c l a p p i n g , were The j umping. was g i r l s boys are were g i r l boy 1 The g i r l s c l a p p i n g . (boys) 2 The was i s c l a p p i n g . The mos j umping. 3 The wha g i r l c l a p p i n g . (The i s jumping.) 4 The 3 c l a p p i n g . (boy i s ) 5 The g i r l was c l a p p i n g . The dog i s jumping 6 The g i r l c l a p p i n g . The boys j umping. 7 The g i r l are was c l a p p i n g . The boy j umping. 8 The g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . The boys i s jumping. 9 The g i r l c l a p p i n g . The running jumping. 10 The i s g i r l c h a i r c l a p p i n g . The i s boy Jumping jumping. 11 The g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . The i s boy j umping. 12 The g i r l was c l a p p i n g . The s i boy j umping. 13 The g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . The boy i s j umping. 14 The was c l a p p i n g , c l a p p i n g . The was boy jumping, jumping 15 The i s was c l a p p i n g c l a p p i n g . The was junping jumping. 16 The g i r l c l a p p i n g The was boy j umping. 17 The the g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . The i s boy j umping. 18 The g i r l c l a p p i n g c l a p p i n g . The i s boys j umping. 19 The g i r l c1apping. The boy j umping. 20 The g i r i s c l a p p i n g The Jumping jumping. () - pointed to p a r t i c u l a r words i n l i s t . TASK 3 - PART 1 » J 0 3 M i l 1 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i n g u l a r S i n g u l a r P r e s e n t P r e s e n t SAD SAD w a s a r c i s i s T h e c l a p p i n g , w e r e T h e j u m p i n g . was g i r l s b o y s a r c w e r e g i r l b o y 21 T ll c c l a p p i n g c l a p p i n g . T h e J u m p i n g j u m p i n g . 22 T h e i s g i r l c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y j u m p i n g . 2 3 T h e g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . T h e t h e d o y j u m p i n g . 24 T he i s g i r l c l a p p i n g . T h e i s b o y j u m p i n g . 2 5 T he g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y w e r e j u m p i n g . 2 6 T li e was c l a p p i n g . T he i s B o y j u m p e d j u m p i n g . 27 T li e g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y i s j u m p i n g . 28 T li c l i n a i s g i r l s c l a p p i n g . T h e a b o g j u m p i n g . 2 9- T Ii e g i l c l a p p i n g . T h e i s b o y s j u m p i n g . 3 0 T he g i r l i s c 1 a p p i n g . The b o y i s j u m p i n g . 31 h e g i r l i s c 1 a p p i n g . The i s b o y j u m p i n g . 3 2 he wa s g i r l c1 a p p i n g . The was b o y j u m p i n g . 3 3 he g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y i s . j u m p i n g . 3-1 h c g i r l i s c 1 a p p i n g . The b o y a r c j u m p i n g . 3 5 h c i s g i r l c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y j u m p i n g . 3 6 h c g i r l wa s e l a p p i n g . The b o y i s j u m p i n g . 37 he i s c1 a p p i ng c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y i s j u m p i n g . 3 8 he g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y i s j u m p i n g . 3 9 h e g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . T h e b o y i s j u m p i n g . 40 'I' he g r . i l i s c1 a p p i ng . The b o y i s j u m p i n g . ( ) - p o i n t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r w o r d s i n l i s t . h* TASK 3 - PART 1 o // 3 0 7 M 0 7 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i n g u l a r S i n g u l a r P r e s e n t P r e s e n t Y/N Y/N boy g i r l were g i r l s t h e r u n n i n g ? was t h e j u m p i n g ? was a r e were i s a r c boys i s 1 ( i s ) ( were) 2 hoy t h e r u n n i n g ? momom t h e j u m p i n g ? 3 ( t h e i s r u n n i n g ?) wha t h e J u m p i n g j u m p i n g ? 4 (boy i s ) ( g i r l s i s ) 5 Tli c boy i s r u n n i n g t h e boy i s r u n n i n g ? The g i r l i s j u m p i n g t h e g i r l i s j u m p i n g ? 6 boys t h e boy r u n n i n g ? g i r l s t h e g i r l j u m p i n g ? 7 R u n n i n g t l i c i s boys r u n n i n g ? i s a r c w t h e were j u m p i n g ? 8 was r u n n i n g t h e r u n n i n g ? g i r l was i s t h e j u m p i n g ? j u m p i n g ? 9 Runni ng t h e r u n n i n g ? a a w t t t h e j u m p i n g ? 10 i s t h e doy r u n n i n g ? i s t h e g i r l j u m p i n g ? 1 1 boy t h e i s r u n n i ng ? g i r l t h e i s j u m p i n g ? 1 2 boys t h e boy r u n n i n g ? was t h e g i r l j u m p i n g ? 1 3 i s t h e boy r u n n i n g ? i s t h e g i r l j u m p i n g ? 14 was boys t h e r u n n i n g ? r u n n i n g ? was g i r l t h e j u m p i n g ? j u m p i n g ? 15 t h e i s cbog r u n n i n g ? t h e i s j u m p i n g ? 16 was t h e boy r u n n i n g ? was t h e g i r l j u m p i n g ? 17 t h e i s boy r u n n i n g ? t h e i s g i r l j u m p i n g ? 18 t h e i s boys r u n n i n g ? t h e i s g i r l s j u m p i n g ? 19 R u n n i n g t h e r u n n i n g ? g i r l t h e j u m p i n g ? 20 boy t h e r u n n i n g 1 g i r l s t h e j u m p i n g ? () - p o i n t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r words i n l i s t TASK 3 - PART 1 #307 #407 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i n g u l a r S i n g u l a r Present Present Y/N Y/N boy g i r l were g i r l s the running? was the jumping? was are were i s are boys i s 21 Running the running? Jumping the jumping? 22 Are the boy running ? i s the g r i l jumping? 23 Is the doy running? Is the g i r l jumping? 24 i s the boy running? i s the g i r l j umping ? 25 Is the boy running ? was the g i r l j umping ? 26 I the run running? Is the g i r l jumping? 27 Are the boy runn ing ? Is the g i r l j umping? 28 the the run dog running? Is the a g i r g jumping? 29 i s the boys running? i s the g i r l s jumping? 30 Is the boy running Is the g i r l j umping ? 31 The the i s running ? The the w i s g i r l jumping? 32 was the boy running ? Is the g i r l jumping? 3 3 Is the boy running ? Is the g i r l jumping? 34 Are the boy running? Are the g i r l jumping? 35 was the boy running? was the g i r l j umping? 36 Is the boy running ? Is the g i r l jumping? 37 was the boy running ? g r i l the i s j umping? 38 Is the boy running ? Is the g i r l jumping? 39 Is the boys running? Are the g i r l jumping? 40 Is the boy running ? Is the g r i l jumping? () - pointed to p a r t i c u l a r words i n l i s t TASK 3 - PAR'I 2 // 3 1 5 II 1 1 5 TASK 3 TASK 3 Si ngular S i n g u 1 a r Past Past SAD SAD was dog arc i s Tlic s l e e p i n g , were The running. arc boys was boy dogs i s were 1 ( i s ) (dog) 2 The g o m s l e e p i n g . The dog i s running. 3 (was) The w h a dog running. 4 (was) The d runn ing. 5 The boy was s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. 6 The boy s l o o p i n g . The dogs running. 7 The i s boy s i s l e e p i n g . The dogs running. 8 The boy s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g . The dog was r running. 9 The s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g . The dog running. 10 The was doy were s l e e p i n g . The was dog running. 1 1 Th e i s boy s1eeping The i s dogs running. 1 2 'I'll e i s boy s l e e p i n g . The Dog running. 1 3 The boy was s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. 1 4 Tli c was boys s l e e p i n g , s l e e p i n g . The was running, running. 15 T h e i s boy s l e e p i n g . The i s was running running. 1 6 The was boy s l e e p i n g . The Dog running. 1 7 Th e i s boy s1 coping. The bog i s runn ing. 1 S Tlic is g i r l s l e e p i n g . The dogs was running. 1 9 Th c s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g . The dogs running. 20 The was s l e e p i n g . The dog running. rH TASK 3 - PART 2 F~-~"- " " • • — II 3 1 5 //115 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i n g u 1 a r S i n g u l a r Past Past SAD SAD was dog arc i s The s l e e p i n g , were The running? arc hoys was boy dogs i s were 2 1 Th c s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g . The walking running. 22 The boy s l e e p i n g . The arc dog running. 2 3 The the doy i s s l e e p i n g . The dog i s running . 24 The was hoy s l e e p i n g . The was bog running . 2 5 T h e h o y was s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. in i 1 k 2 6 The hoy M11K cry s l e e p i n g . The was running running. 27 T li o hoy was s 1 coping. The was dog running. 28 Tlic a bo g s l e e p i n g . The was bog running. 2 9 The i s were s l e e p i n g . The i s running. 50 The boy was s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. 51 'I'll c was b o y s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. 52 The i s 1)oy s l e e p i n g . The i s dog runni ng . 5 5 The boy was sleep i n g. The dog was running. 51 Th c boy were s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. 5 5 The boy s l e e p i n g . The dog running. 56 The boy was sleep i n g. The dog was running. 57 Tli c i s boy s l e e p i n g . The was clog running. 5 8 The boy was s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. 5 9 The b o y was s l e e p i n g . The dog i s running. 40 The b o y was s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. TASK 3 - PART 2 M I S // 4 0 3 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i l i R i i 1 a r S i n g u l a r P a s t P a s t Y/N Y/N g i r l s a r e w e r e i s t h e s w i m m i n g ? g i r l t h e f a l l i n g ? was was w e r e a r c b o y i s b o y s 1 ( g i r l ) ( w a s ) mo a t h e s w i m m i n g ? B o b o b o t h e f a l 1 i n g ? 3 ( i s ) ( w a s ) 4 ( g i r l ) ( i s ) 5 T h e g i r l was s w i m m i n g t h e g i r l was T h e b o y was f a l l i n g t h e b o y was f a l l i n g ? s w i m m i n g ? 6 S w i m m i n g t h e s w i m m i n g ? b o y t h e b o y s f a l l i n g ? 7 15o t h e f o l c s w i m m i n g ? i s F a l l i n g t h e i s i s f a l l i n g ? 8 g i r l was i n t h e s w i m m i n g s w i m m i n g ? i s was t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? 9 s w i m in t h e s w i m m i n g ? B r d a t h e f a l l i n g ? 10 w a s t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e d o y f e l l f a l l i n g ? 1 1 g i r l t h e i s s w i m m i n g ? b o y t h e i s f a l l i n g ? 12 g i r l t h e w a s s w i m in i n g ? i s t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? 1 3 w a s t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 1 4 w a s g i r l t h e s w i m m i n g ? s w i m m i n g ? was b o y t h e f a l l i n g ? f a l l i n g ? 1 5 t h e i s s w i m m i n g s w i m m i n g ? t h e was f a l l i n g ? 1 6 w a s t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 17 t h e i s g i r l s w i m m i n g ? t h e i s b o y f a l l i n g ? 1 8 t h e i s g i r l s s w i m m i n g ? t h e i s b o y s f a l l i n g ? 19 g i r l s t h e s w i m m i n g ? P a l l i n g t h e f a l l i n g ? 2 0 g i r l s t h e s w i m m i n g ? F a l l i n g t h e f a l 1 i n g ? TASK 3 - PART 2 1(4 15 II 4 0 3 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i n g u l a r S i n g u l a r P a s t P a s t Y/N Y/N g i r l s a r c w e r e i s t h e s w i m m i n g ? g i r l t h e f a l 1 i n g ? was was w e r e a r e b o y i s b o y s 2 1 s w i m m i n g t h e s w i m m i n g ? F a l l i n g t h e f a l l i n g ? 22 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? w e r e t h e bo y f a l l i n g ? 2 3 I s t l i c gi.,r 1 s w i m m i n g ? I s t h e d o y f a l l i n g ? 2 4 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? 2 5 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? a r c t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? 2 6 I s t h e t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g I s t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 27 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 2 8 was t h e a g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e a b o g f a l l i n g ? 2 9 i s t h e w i r l s w i m m i n g ? i s t h e a r c f a l l i n g ? 3 0 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 3 1 T h e t h e g i r l s s wimm i n g ? The t h e b o y was f a l l i n g 3 2 I s t h e g i r 1 swiinin i ng ? I s t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 3 3 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 3 4 w e r e t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a 1 l i n g ? 5 5 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i. n g ? was t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? 3 6 was t h e g i r l s w1m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? 57 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? 3.8 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 3 9 was t h e g i r l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l 1 i n g ? 40 was t h e g r i l s w i m m i n g ? was t h e b o y f a l l i n g ? TASK 3 - PART 3 » 2 0 3 »303 TASK 3 TASK 3 P l u r a l P 1 u r a 1 P resent Present Y/N Y/N arc was were were the running? was the crying? g i r l dogs i. s i s g i r l s dog arc 1 (dog s) ( i s ) 2 ODr the me running? was the crying? 3 wli a the dog running? ( i s ) 4 hog s the dog riinn ing? (was) 5 The dog i s riuiii i ng the running ? The g i r l i s c r y i n g the g i r l i s c r y i n g ? 6 dog the dogs running? g i r l s the g i r l crying? 7 dog is are the dogs were running? arc g i r l s were the i s g i r l c rying? 8 w a s dog the running? was g i r l the crying? '.) the the running? c r y i n g the crying? 10 i s the dog running? i s the g i r l c r y i n g ? 1 1 dog the i s run iv .i ng? g i r l the i s crying? 1 2 the dogs running g i r1 the i s cry ing ? 13 i s the dogs running? i s the g i r l s crying? 14 w a s dogs the running running? was g i r l the cryings crying? 1 5 the i s dogs running? the i s g i r l crying? 1 6 w a s the dog running? war the g i r l crying? 1 7 i s the dog runni ng? the i s g i r l c rying? 18 the i s dogs running? the i s g i r l s c rying? 1 9 doy the running? c r y i n g the crying? 2 0 dog the running? wen the crying? ON TASK 3 - PART 3 II 2 0 3 II 30 3 TASK 3 TASK 3 P i u r a 1 I' 1 u r a l P r e s e n t P r e s e n t Y/N Y/N a r e was w e r e w e r e t h e r u n n i n g ? was t l i c c r y i n g ? g i r l d o g s i s i s g i r l s d o g a r c 21 Ifas t h e a r c r u n n i n g ? B o y s t h e c r y i n g ? 22 was t h e b o g s r u n n i n g 1 I s t h e g i r i l c r y i n g ? 2 3 I s t h e was r u n n i n g ? I s t h e g r i l c r y i n g ? 2-1 i s t h e d o g r u n n i n g ? i s t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 2 5 w a s t h e d o g s r u n n i n g ? was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 2f> I s t li c wa s d o g s r u n n i n g ? I s t h e c r y c r y i n g ? 27 I s t li e d o g r u n n i ng ? ARC t h e G I R L c r y i n g ? 2 8 Wra t l i c was d o g r u n n i n g ? was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 2 9 i s t h e d o g r u n n i n g ? i s t h e w e r e c r y i n g ? 30 I s t h e d o g s r u n n i n g ? I s t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 3 1 d o g s t h e i s r u n n i n g ? The i s t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 5 2 was t h e h o g r u n n i n g ? I s t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 3 3 I s t h e d o g r u n n i ng ? I s t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 3 4 I s t h e d o g s r u n n i n g ? I s t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 3 5 was t l i c d o g r ii n n i n g ? was t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 3 6 was t h e d o g r u n n i n g ? w e r e t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 3 7 i s t h e d o g r u n n i n g ? i s t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 3 8 i s t h e clog r u n n i n g ? I s t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 3 9 i s t h e d o g r u n n i n g ? I s t h e g i r l s c r y i n g ? 4 0 I s t h e d o g n i n n i ng . I s t h e g r i l s c r y i n g ? j TASK 3 - PART 3 // 2 0 7 "311 TASK 3 TASK 3 1' 1 u r a 1 PI l i r a 1 I' r e s e n t P r e s e n t SAD SAD i s w e r e g i r l s was Th e s w i m m i n g , w e r e T h e f a l l i n g , a r c a r c b o y was b o y s g i r l i. s 1 ( g i r l ) ( i s ) 2 T h e D o o r sw i m m i n g . The F a l l l f a l l i n g . 3 The g i r l s w i m m i n g . ( i s ) 4 T h e w r e g i rlc s w i m m i n g . ( i s ) 5 The g i r l s i s s w i. m m i n g . T h e b o y i s f a l l i n g . 6 T h e g i r l s w i m in i n g . T h e b o y f a l l i n g . 7 The s w i min i n g s w i in in i n g . T h e i s b o y s b o y f a l l i n g . 8 The g i r l s w i m m i n g s w i m m i n g . T h e [ b o y f a l l i n g f a l l i n g . y T h e s w i in m i n g s w i in m i n g . T h e t B B r n a f a l l i n g . 10 ' The i s g i r l s w i m m i n g s w i m m i n g . T h e i s cloy f e l l f a l l i n g . 11 T h e i s g i r l s w 1 in m i n g . The i s b o y f a l l i n g . 1 2 The i s was g i r 1 sw i mm Lng . The was b o y f a 11 i n g . 1 3 The g i r i s i s sw hum i ng . The b o y s i s f a l l i n g . 1 4 Th e w a s g i r i s s w i m in i n g . Th e was b o y s f a l l i n g , f a l l i n g . 1 5 Th e i s w a s s w i m in l n g . The i s was f a 1 1 i n g . 16 T h e wa s go i r 1 s w i m in i n g . T h e was b o y f a l l i n g . 1 7 The i s g i r l s w i in m i n g . T h e i s b o y f a l l i n g . 1 8 Th e g, i r 1 s i s s w i m m i n g . The i s b a y s f a l l i n g . i y T h e S w i m in i n g s w i m in i n g . T h e f a l l i n g f a l l i n g . 2 0 Th e g i r l s s w i in m i n g . The b o y s f a l l i n g . TASK 3 - PART 3 // 2 0 7 // 3 1 1 TASK 3 TASK 5 P 1 u r a I P l u r a l I' r e s e n t P r e s e n t SAD SAD i s w e r e g i r l s was Th e s w i in m i n g . w e r e T h e f a l l i n g , a r e a r c b o y was b o y s g i r l i s 2 1 T h e s w i in in i n g s w i m m i n g . T h e P a l l i n g f a l l i n g . 22 T h e g i r 1 s w i in m i n g . T h e b o y f a l l i n g . 2 3 T h e g i r l s i s s w i m m i n g . T h e cl o y s i s f a l l i n g . 24 T h e i s g i r l s w i m m i n g . T h e i s b o y f a l l i n g . 2 5 T l i c g r i 1 s w e r e s w i m m i n g . T h e b o y s i s f a l l i n g . 2 6 T h e was a r c s w i m m i n g . T h e I s Boy f a l l i n g . 27 T h e I s g i r l s w i m m i n g . T h e A r e b o y f a i l i n g . 2 8 T l i c was g i r l s w i m m i n g . T h e a r a d o g f a l l i n g . 2 9 T h e i s s w i m m i n g. The i s b o y f a l l i n g . 3 0 T h e g, i r i s i s s w i m in i n g . T h e b o y s i s f a l l i n g . 3 1 T h e g i r 1 wa s s w i nun i n g . The i s P a l l i n g f a l l i n g . 3 2 Th e i s g i r 1 s w i in m i n g . T h e was b o y f a 1 1 i n g . 3 5 The g i r l s i s s w i m in i n g . T h e b o y s i s f a l l i n g . 3 4 T h e g i r l s a r c s w i m in :i n g . T h e b o y a r c f a l l i n g . 3 5 T h e g i r l s s w i m m i n g . T h e h o y s f a l l i n g . 3 6 T h e g i r l s a r c s w i m m i n g. The b o y s i s f a l l i n g . 3 7 Th e i s g i r l s s w i m in i n g . T h e i s b o y s f a l l i n g . 3 8 T h e g i r l s was s w i mining . T h e b o y s i s f a l l i n g . 3 9 T h e g i r l s a r c s w i mining . Th e 1) o y s i s f a l l i n g . 4 0 Th e g r i l i s s w i mm i n g . The b o y s i s f a l l i n g . TASK 3 - PART 4 II 1 07 1/211 TASK 3 TASK 3 P 1 u r a 1 P l u r a l P a s t P a s t Y / N Y/N b o y s g i r l s i s was t h e s l e e p i n g ? a r e t h e l a u g h i n g ? a r e w e r e i s b o y w e r e was g i r l 1 s 1 c c p i n g t h e n o n o n s l e e p i n g ? ( g i r l w e r e ) 2 1) I) B R t h e MTU s l e e p i n g ? o l t h e o l l a u g h i n g ? 3 wa s t h e b o y a r e s l e e p i n g ? wha t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 4 t h e s s l e e p i n g ? a r s t h e i s l a u g h i n g ? 5 f i i c " " b (i y s was s l e e p i n g t h e b o y was s l e e p i n g ? t h e g i r l s was l a u g h i n g ? 6 b o y s t h e s 1 e e p i n g ? g i r l t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? 7 w a s b o y t h e w e r e i s b o y s s l e e p i n g ? g i r l w e r e t h e i s a r c was l a u g h i n g ? 8 b o y g i r l t h e was s l e e p i n g ? g i r l was t h e l a u g h i n g ? ( h o y s ) g i r l s t h e l a u g h i n g ? y t h e s y o b s l e e p i n g ? 10 w a s t h e d o y s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? l l wa s t h e b o y s 1 e c p i ng ? g i r l t h e i s l a u g h i n g ? 1 2 Is t h e s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g ? was t h e s i t t i n g l a u g h i n g ? 1 3 w a s t h e b o y s s 1 e e p i ng ? was t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? 1 4 w a s t h e s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g ? was g i r l t h e l a u g h i n g ? 1 5 t h e i s s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g ? t h e was l a u g h i n g ? 16 w a s t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 1 7 1 t h c h o y s l e e p i n g ? i s t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 18 wa s t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e i s g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? i y i s t h e a r e s l e e p i n g ? L a u g h i n g t h e l a u g h i n g ? 20 w e r e t h e s 1 e c p i ng ? g i r l s t h e l a u g h i n g ? g TASK 3 - PART 4 c\j // 1 0 7 112 1 1 •I'ASK 3 TASK 3 P l u r a l P l u r a l P a s t P a s t Y/N Y/N b o y s g i r l s i s was t h e s l e e p i n g ? a r c t h e l a u g h i n g ? a r c w e r e i s b o y w e r e w a s g i r l 2 1 s i c c i ) i n g t h e s l e e p i n g ? i s t h e a r c l a u g h i n g ? ( a r c ) g i r l s 1 a u g h i n g ' 2 2 A t h e was h o y s s l e e p i n g ? a r a t h e > 2 3 I s t h e s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g ? I s t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 2 4 was t h e b o y s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 2 5 w e r e t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g r i l s l a u g h i n g ' > 2 6 i s t h e s l e e p i n g ? I s t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 27 was t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 28 was t h e b o d s l e e p i n g ? I o n a h t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 2(.) i s t h e s l e e p i n g ? i s t h e l a u g h i n g ? 3 0 was t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? 3 1 b o y was t h e s l e e p i n g ? T h e t h e g i r l i s l a u g h i n g ? 3 2 I s t h e h o y s i e c p i ng ? was t h e g i r l 1 a u g h i. ng ? 3 3 was t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? 3 4 was t h e b o y s s l e e ] ) i n g ? was t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? 3 5 was t h e b o y s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? 3 6 w e r e t h e b o y wes s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? 3 7 b o y s t h e i s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e b o y l a u g h i n g ? 3 8 a r e t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l l a u g h i n g ? 3D I s t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? was t h e g i r l s l a u g h i n g ? > 4 0 A r e t h e b o y s s l e e p i n g ? Was t h e g r i l s l a u g h i n g ? O TASK 3 - PART 4 »215 W i l l T ASK 3 TASK 3 P 1 ii r a 1 P l u r a l P a s t P a s t SAD SAD d o g s b o y i s i s T h e s l e e p i n g , w e r e T h e c r y i n g . a r c a r e was d o g w e r e was b o y s 1 ( d o g ) The n o n n o n o c r y i n g . •1 T h e 0 I)R s l e e p i n g . The 01 OB c r y i n g . 3 T h e wha d o g s l e e p i n g . The wha c r y i n g . 4 Th e w e r e was s l e e p i n g . The o c r y i n g . 5 T h e d o g was s l e e p i n g . T h e b o y s was c r y i n g . () T h e d o g d o g s l e e p i n g . The b o y s c r y i n g . 7 T h e d o g s i s s l e e p i n g . T h e B o y s c r y i n g . S T h e dop, i s s l e e p i n g . T h e was b o y s c r y i n g . 9 T l i c Dog s l e e p i n g . T h e c r y i n g c r y i n g . 10 T h e was b o g w e r e s l e e p i n g . The was d o y c r y i n g c r y i n g . 1 1 The i s d og s 1 o e p i n g . The i s l i o y c r y i n g . 1 2 T h e was clog s l e e p i n g . The c r y i n g c r y i n g . 1 3 The d o g was s l e e p i n g . The b o y s was c r y i n g . 1 4 T h e was s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g . The was h o y s c r y i n g c r y i n g . 1 5 The 1 s d o gs s l e e p i n g . T h e i s b o y c r y i n g c r y i n g . 1 () T h e was d o g s s 1 e e p i n g . The was b o y c r y i n g . 1 7 T h e i s d o g s l e e p i n g . The c r y i n g . 1 8 The d o g was s l e e p i n g . The b o y s was c r y i n g . l y The d o g s 1 c c p i n g . The c r y i n g c r y i n g . 2 0 T h e d o g s l e e p i n g . The b o y c r y i n g . o CM TASK 3 - PART 4 The II 2 1 5 TASK_3_ T l ura1 Past SAD s l e e p i n g clogs i s were are dog was II 1 1 1 TASK 3 P j u r a l Past SAD The c r y i n g boy i s arc was were bovs i he i s bo 1 s l e e p i n g ['he bog are s l e e p i n g . 1'he d o g s is s i e oping. I'he was dog s l e e p i n g , ['he dog arc s l e e p i n g , ['lie is are dog s l e e p i n g , ['lie was dog s l e e p i n g , ['lie was bogs s l e e p i n g , ['he is s l e e p i n g , ['he dogs was s l e e p i n g . ie boys c r y i n g . I C i s boys c r y i n g . ie boy i s c r y i n g c r y i n g ie was boy c r y i n g . ie boys were c r y i n g . ic i s Boy c r y i ng. ic was boys c r y i n g . ic i s han boy c r y i n g . ic i s c r y i n g . ie boys was c r y i n g . he was dogs s l e e p i n g . he was clog si ecp ing . he dogs was s l e e p i n g , 'he dogs was s l e e p i n g , 'he clog s s l e e p i n g , 'he clogs was s l e e p i n g . lie i s clogs s l e e p i n g . he clogs was s l e e p i n g . he dogs was s l e e p i n g , 'he dogs were s l e e p i n g . ie boys was c r y i n g ic i s boy c r y i n g . I c boys was c r y i n g I c boys was c r y i n g ic i s boys c r y i n g , ic boys was c r y i n g ic was boys c r y i n g ic boys was c r y i n g ie boys was c r y i n g ic boy was c r y i n g . o TASK 4 - PART 1 II 3 1 6 M 1 6 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n g u 1 a r S i n g u 1 a r Pros c ii t Present Y/N Y/N Is the hoy d r i n k i n g ? Is the boy walking? 1 (dr i n k i n g ) (boy walking) 2 OPO ? MOD ? 3 Wha I)r i nk i ng? Wha walking? 4 (d r i n k i n g ) walking? 5 The boy is Drinking? The boy i s walked? 6 D r i in k i ng ? walking? 7 is Dr i nk i ng? NOW 8 Dri nk i ng Is ? walking i s was? 9 Drinking? walking? 1 0 is the doy Drinking? i s the boy walk? 1 ] The is lio y? The i s boy? 1 2 The was Dr inking? The i s boy walking? I 3 is hoy D r i n k i ng ? i s boy wa 1 ki.ng ? 1 4 w a s Drinking? was boy walk i n g ? 1 5 t h e is D r i n k i ng ? Thc i s walking? 16 was boy? was hoy? 1 7 the Dri nk i ng i s boy? The walking i s boy? 1 8 The i s 1) r i r i nk g 1 ? The i s walking? 19 Drinking ? walking? 2 0 Dr i n k i ng ? Walking? vO O CM TASK 4 - PART 1 II 5 1 6 M 1 6 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n g u l a r S i n g u l a r I r e s e n t P r e s e n t Y/N Y/N I s t h e b o y d r i n k i n g ? I s t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 21 D r i n k i n g ? w a l k i n g ? 22 t h e b o y D r i n k i n g ? t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 2 3 Is t h e cloy D r i n k i n g ? I s t h e d o y w a l k i n g ? 24 i s t h e b o y D r i n k i n g ? t h e b o y i s W a l k i n g ? 25 I s t h e b o y D r i n k i n g ? I s t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 2 0 I s B o y M i k e M i l k ? I s M a l k B o y ? ( w a l k ) 27 The b o y i s D r i n k i n g ? T h e b o y i s w a l k i n g ? 28 T h e a b o g ? The a b o g ? v , 2 9 i s w e r e i s wort ( w o r k ) ( w a i k ) 3 0 I s b o y D r i n k i n g ? I s b o y w a l k i n g ? 3 1 T Ii e i s D r i n k i n g ? T h e w a l k i n g b o y i s ? 3 2 was t h e b o y D r i n k i n g ? was t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 3 3 The d o y i s D r i. n k i n g ? T h e b o y i s w a l k i n g ? 3 4 A r e t h e b o y D r i n k i n g ? I s t h e 1)oy w a l k i n g ? 3 5 Th c b o y D r i nk i ng ? The b o y i s w a l k i n g ? 3 6 t l i e b o y i s c 1 a p p i n g ? t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 3 7 The i s b o y D r i n k i n g ? i s t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 3 8 i s t h e b o y D r i n k i n g ? i s t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 3 9 I s T h e b o y D r i n k i n g ? I s T h e b o y w a l k i n g ? 4 0 I s t h e b o y d r i nk i ng ? I s t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? TASK 4 - PART 1 II 20A #208 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n g u l a r S i n g u 1 a r P r e s e n t P r e s e n t SAD SAD Th e g i r l i s e a t i n g The g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 1 ( c a t i n g ) ( f a l l i n g ) ? mo r r o OOP 3 Wha l i a t i n g . Wha P a l l i n g . A N o w P a l l i n g . s T h e g i r 1 i s H a t i n g . T h e g i r l i s P a l l i n g . 6 G i r i s G i r l s 7 l i a t i n g . P a l l i n g i s . S I s i s Ii a t i n g . P a l l i n g . 9 li a t i ng . C i r i 10 i s t h e g i r l e a t i n g . i s t h e g i r l f e l l . 1 I Th e i s g i r l . T h e i s g i r l . 1 2 T h a T h e wsa P a l l i n g . 1 3 The a p]) 1 e i s l i a t i n g . The g i r l i s P a l l i n g . 1 4 Wa s l i a t i n g . was P a l l i n g . 1 5 The i s l i a t i n g . The i s F a l l i n g . 1 6 was (joy ( g i r l ) was g o u r l . 1 7 t h e l i a t i ng i s t h e F a l l i n g i s g i r l . 18 I s T h e g i r 12 a t i n g . t h e g i r l F a 1 1 i n g. 1 <J li a t i ng . F a l l i n g . 20 Ii a t i n g . G i r l o TASK 4 - PART 1 CM // 2 0 4 #208 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n g u J a r S i n g n 1 a r 1' r e s e n t P r e s e n t SAD SAD T l i c g i r l i s e a t i n g . T h e g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 2 ] li a t i n g . F a l l i n g . 2 2 t Ii e li a t i n g g i r l s . t h e g i r l F a l l i n g . 2 3 Th e l i a t i ng g i r l . T h e g i r l F a l l i n g . 2 4 i s The g i r l . i s T h c g i r l . 2 5 I s t h e g r i l li a t i n g . I s t h e g r i l F a l l i n g . 26 Wa s T h e a t e . The j u m p . 27 I s t h e g i r l F a t i n g . I s t h e g i r l F a l l i n g . 2 8 T h e we s li a t i ng . T h e b n u g i r l . 2 9 i s li a t i n g . i s p 3 0 The g i r l i s E a t i n g . T h e g i r l i s F a l l i n g . 3 1 ill) , G i r l w a s . F a l l i n g w a s . 3 2 was t h e g i r l e a t i n g . T he i s g i r l f a l l i n g . 3 3 T he g i r l i s c a t i n g. T h c g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 3 4 The g i r1 i s e a t i n g . T he g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 3 5 Th e g i r l li a t i ng . The g i r l F a l l i n g . 3 6 Th e g i r1 e a t i n g . t h e g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 57 i s t h e g i r l e a t i n g . The i s g i r l F a l l i n g . 3 8 t h e g i r l i s foe-1 . t h e g i r l was f e l l . 3 9 Th e g i r l i s e a t i n g . T h e g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 4 0 The g r i l i s e a t i n g . T h e g r i l i s f a l l i n g . £ TASK 4 - PART 2 r // 3 l 2 // 2 1 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 Si n g u 1 a r S i n g u l a r P a s t P a s t SAD SAD Th e b o y was c l a p p i n g . T h e g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 1 ( c l a p p i ng) ( s k i p p i n g ) 2 no 1 o 1 o l k l o 3 ( c 1 a p p i n g) wha s k i p p i n g . 4 ( c l a p p i n g ) s k p p i n g . 5 The b o y was C l a p p i n g . The g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 6 c 1 a p p i n g . s k i p p i n g . 7 c 1 a p p i n g . s k i p p i n g . 8 c1 a p p i ng was . s k i p p i n g . 9 c 1 a p p i n g . s k i p p i n g . 1 0 was t h e d o y c l a p p i n g . was t h e g i r l s k i p p i n g . 1 1 T h e i s b o y . The i s g i r l . 1 2 'I'llc i s c l a p p i n g . T h e i s s k i p p i n g . 1 3 T he b o y s s i t t i n g . T h e g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 1 4 was c 1 app.i ng . was s k i p p i n g . 1 5 T l i e i s c 1 a p p i ng . The i s s k i p p i n g . 1 6 wa s b o y . was g i r l . 1 7 Th e c l a p p i n g i s b o y . t h e g r i l s k i p p i n g . 18 T h e i s c. 1 a p p i n g . The i s g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 1 D CI a p p i . n g . S K i p p i n g . 2 0 c 1 o p p i n g . s k i p p i n g . d £ TASK 4 - PART 2 // 3 1 2 "212 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n g u l a r S i n g u l a r P a s t P a s t SAD SAD T h e b o y was c l a p p i n g . The g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 2 1 c 1 a p p i n g . s k i p p i n g . 2 2 t li e b o y c l a p p i n g . t h e g i r l s k i p p i n g . 2 3 The t h e d o y i s c l a p p i n g . I s g i r l s k i ]) p i n g . 2 4 was t h e b o y c l a p p i n g . was The g i r l 2 5 T h e b o y was c l a p p i n g . T h e g r i l was s k i p p i n g . , ( w a l k ) , , . , , I s was s k i p p i n g . 2 6 I s M a l k ^ ' M i l k B o y . 27 The b o y was c l a p p i n g . was t h e g i r l s k i p p i n g . 2 8 T h c a b o g . I s o l n u r i g i r l . 2 9 i s b o y i s 3 0 Th e b o y was c l a p p i n g . T h e g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 3 1 T l i e wa s c l a p p i n g . T h e i s g i r l s w i m m i n g . 3 2 I s T h e b o y !•'a 1 l i n g . T h e i s g i r l sk i p p i.ng . 3 3 The b o y was c l a p p i n g . T h e g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 3 4 The b o y was c1 a p p i n g . The g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 3 5 Th e b o y c 1 a p p i n g . The g i r l S K i p p I n g. 3 6 t i i e b o y was c 1 a p p i ng . t h e g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 3 7 T h e was b o y c 1 p p i n g . w a s t h e g i r l s k i p p i n g . 3 8 T h e b o y was c a p p i n g . T h e g i r l was s k i p p i n g . 3 9 Th e b o y was c l a p p i n g . T h e g i r l was S k i p p i n g . 40 T h e b o y was c l a p p i n g . Was t h e g r i l s k i p p i n g . TASK 4 - PART 2 «4 04 // 1 0 4 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n j ' , u l u r S i n g u 1 a r P a s t P a s t Y / N Y / N Was t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? Was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 1 ( s k i p p i n g) c r y i n g ? 2 B o y d ? d o y o B 3 Wha 1) r i n k i n g ? Wha G i r l ? 4 ( c l a p p i n g ) 0 ? 5 t h e g i r l was s i t t i n g ? T h e g i r l was c r y i n g ? 6 G i r 1 s ? G i r l s ? 7 i s Be fo r e ? me c r y i n g ? 8 g i r l was i s ? g i r l was c r y i n g ? 9 .Bu r d a ? B e f o r e ? 1 0 was t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? t h e was g i r l c r y i n g ? ] 1 i ' l i e i s g i r 1 ? The g i r l i s c r y i n g ? 1 2 T l i c i s s i t t i n g ? T h e c r y i n g ? 1 3 was g i r l s i t t i n g ? was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 1 4 wa s s i 11 i ng ? was c r y i n g ? 1 5 The i s G i r l ? The c r y i n g ? 16 was g o l l ( g i r l ) ? c r y i n g ? 1 7 The s k i 1 1 ] ) p i n g i s g i r l ? The g i r l i s c r y i n g ? 1 8 T h e i s g i r l ? was c r y i n g ? 1 9 NR g i r l c r y i n g ? 2 0 G i r 1 ? G i r l ? ™ TASK 4 - PART 2 CM M O 4 I l l 0 4 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n g u l a r S i n g u I a r 1' a s t. P a s t Y/N Y/N Was t l i c g i r l s i t t i n g ? Was t l i c g i r l c r y i n g ? 2 1 s i 11 i n g ? c r y i n g ? 22 t h e g r i 1 s i t t i n g ? t h e i s g i r l c r y i n g ? 2 3 I s t l i c g i r l s i t t i n g ? I s c r y i n g g i r l ? 24 t h e g i r l was s i t t i n g ? t h e was g i r l ? 25 w e r e t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? T h e g i r l was c r y i n g ? 2 6 i s B o y ? T h e 27 Was t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? Was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 2S t h e a g i r l ? T h e i s g i r l ? 21) i s a r e B e f o r e 3 0 w a s g i r l s i 11 i n g ? was g i r l c r y i n g ? 3 1 T h e s i t t i n g w a s ? w a s c r y :i n g ? 3 2 I s t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? was t h e c r y i n g ? 3 3 T h e g i r 1 was s i. 11 i ng ? T h e g i r l was c r y i n g ? 34 w e r e t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? T h e g i r l was c r y i n g ? 3 5 T h e g i r1 i s s i t t i n g ? was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 36 T h e g i r l was s i t t i n g ? T h e g i r l was c r y i n g ? 37 w a s t h e g r i l s i t t i n g ? T h e was c r y i n g ? 3 8 was t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? T h e g i r l was c r y i n g ? 3 9 wa s t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? Was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? 4 0 wa s t h e g i r l s i t t i n g ? T h e g r i l was c r y i n g ? rH TASK 4 - PART .3 // 3 0 4 // 1 0 8 TASK 4 TASK 4 P I u r a 1 P l u r a l P r e s e n t P r e s e n t Y/N Y/N Ar e t h e g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? A r c t h e boys r u n n i n g ? 1 ( c 1 a p p i n g ) n o n n o u n 2 B ro BMOOM 3 w ha c l a p p i n g ? wha J u m p i n g ? 4 ( c l a p p i n g ) S The g i r l s i s C l a p p i n g ? The bays i s r u n n i n g ? 6 (li r 1 s ? R u n n i n g ? 7 1) r i n k i Ag i s ? 1 0 8 8 (11 a i n g i s was? was i s boy R u n n i n g ? y C 1 a ( l ( l i ng W a l k i n g ? 1 0 i s t h e g i r l c l a p p i n g ? i s t h e doy R u n n i n g ? I l The i s g i r l ? The i s boy? 1 2 The wa s c l a p p i n g ? The R u n n i n g ? 1 3 i s g i r 1 s s i t t i n g ? i s The boys r u n n i n g ? 1 4 wa s c 1 a p]) i ng ? was R un n i n g ? 1 5 The i s c 1 a p p i n g ? The i s J u m p i n g ? 1 6 t h o g o d I s boy? 1 7 The c l a p p i n g i s g i r l ? t h e boy R u n n i n g ? 1 8 The i s g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? R u n n i n g ? 1 9 C l a p p i n g . R u n n i n g ? 2 0 Boy? Boy? rH CM TASK 4 - PART 3 II 3 0 4 II 1 0 8 TASK 4 TASK 4 P l u r a l P I u r a 1 P r e s e n t P r e s e n t Y/N Y/N A r c t h e g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? A r c t h e b o y s r u n n i n g ? 2 1 C 1 a p p i. n g ? R u n n i n g ? 22 t h e g r i l c 1 a p p i n g ? t h e i s b o y s r u n n i n g ? 2 3 I s t h e g i r l c l a p p i n g ? was b o y r u n n i n g ? 2 4 t h e i s g i r l C l a p p i n g ? t h e i s b o y ? 2 3 I s t h e g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? w e r e t h e b o y s r u n n i n g ? 2 0 I s was G i r l ? T h e i s R u n n i n g ? 27 ARIi t i l l ; G I R L C L A P P I N G ? I s t h e b o y s R u n n i n g ? 28 The l a u a u l g i r l ? I s T h e r a n ? 2 9 i s w e r e ? i s ? 3 0 I s g i r l s C l a p p i n g ? I s b o y s r u n n i n g ? 3 1 T h e i s G i r l s s i 11 i n g? b o y R un n i n g ? 3 2 was t h e g i r l c l a p p i n g ? was t h e b o y r u n n i n g ? 5 3 T h e g i r i s i s c l a p p i n g ? T h e b o y s i s R u n n i n g ? 34 I s t h e g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? was T h e b o y s r u n n i n g ? 3 5 The g i r i s C l a p p i n g ? Was The d o y ? 3 0 t h e g i r 1 s i s c1 a p p i n g ? T h e B o y s i s r u n n i n g ? 37 i s t h e g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? b o y s t h e i s R u n n i n g ? 3 8 I s t h e g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? t h e b o y was t h e R u n n i n g ? 3 i) I s t h e g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? I s t h e b o y s r u n n i n g ? 4 0 I s t h e g r i 1 s c l a p p i n g ? A r c b o y r u n n i n g ? «X TASK 4 - PART 3 r-l 112 16 II A 1 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 P 1 u r a 1 P J u r a l 1 ' r e s e n t P r e s e n t SAD SAD T l i c b o y s a r e d r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l s a r e f a l l i n g . 1 ( d r i n k i n g ) ( c l a p p i n g ) 2 doDo T 0 V 0 3 wh a I) r i n k i ng . w h a F a i l i n g . 4 D r i n k i g B o y s. ( f a l l i n g ) 5 The b o y i s D r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l i s P a l l i n g . 6 1) r i. n k i ng . G i r l s . 7 D r i n k i n g i s L o r r a i n e . NOW 8 b o y I s Dr i nk i n g . g i r l i s was P a l l i n g . 9 D r i n k i n g . B B r r a a 1 0 i s t l i c d o y D r i n k i n g . i s t h e g i r l f e l l . 1 1 Th e i s b o y . The i s g i r l . 12 The i s I)r i n k i n g . T h e p i r 1 P a l 1 i n g . 1 3 The b o y s i s s i t t i n g . T h e g i r l i s f a l 1 i n g . 1 4 wa s D r i n k i ng . was Fa 1 ] i.ng . 1 5 T h c i s 1) r i. nk i ng . The i s Pa 1 1 i n g . 1 6 wa s b o y . was g o u l b o y . 1 7 Th c b o y 1) r i nk i ng . T h e i s g i r l . 1 S The i s D r i n k i n g The i s g r 1 s . 19 I) r i n k i n g . F a l l i n g . 2 0 1) r 1 nk i ng . G i r l s . TASK 4 - PART 3 vO // 2 1 6 M I 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 P l u r a l P l u r a l P r e s e n t P r e s e n t SAL) SAD T h e b o y s a r c d r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l s a r c f a l l i n g . 2 1 1) r i n k i n g . F a l l i n g . 2 2 t h e b o y A r c D r i n k i n g . t h c g r i l P a l l i n g . 2 5 T i i c d o y s i s D r i n k i n g . T h e t h e g i r l s P a l l i n g . 24 i s t h e b o y . T h e g i r l i s F a l l i n g . 2 5 w e r e t h e b o y s d r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l s i s F a l l i n g . 2 6 I s i s M i l k B o y . I s t h e B o y G i r l . 27 I s t h e b o y D r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l i s F a l l i n g . 28 I s was b o y . I s g i r l s . 2 9 i s i s b y o i c 3 0 The h o y s i s D r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l s i s F a l l i n g . 3 1 Th c i s D r i n k i n g B o y s . T h e F a l l i n g i s . 5 2 The i s b o y D r i nk i n g . The was f i l l i n g . 3 3 T h e b o y s i s D r 1n k i n g . T h e g i r l s i s f a l l i n g . 3 4 The b o y s i s D r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l i s f a l 1 i n g . 3 5 The b o y s D r i nk i n g . T h e g i r l s F a l l i n g . 36 T h e b o y s d r i n k i n g . t h e g i r l s i s f a l l i n g . 3 7 The i s b o y D r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l s i s f a l l i n g . 5 8 t h e b o y was D r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l s i s f a l l i n g . 39 T h e b o y s i s d r i n k i n g . T h e g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 40 T l i e b o y was D r i n k i n g . T h e g r i l s i s f a l l i n g . 5 TASK 4 - PART 4 « 1 1 6 /  4 0 8 TASK 4 TASK 4 P 1 urn 1 PIura1 Past Past SAD SAD The g i r l s were running. The dogs were s i t t i n g . 1 bonononono (dogs) 2 ADhbB 0j ood lm 7i wha runn ing. wha Dog. 4 A (dogs) 5 The g i r l s was running. The dogs was . 6 G i r l s Dogs 7 Boys Be fore 8 g i r l was running. dog i s was s i t t i n 1) G i r 1 DOAS 1 0 Was g i r l Running. was the hogs. 1 1 Th e i s g i r1 The i s dag. 1 2 The Ru mi 1 ng . The dogs s i t t i n g . 1 3 The g i r l s was running. The clogs was three. 1 4 The was G i r l Running. was Dogs. 1 5 The i s Jumping. The was boys . 1 6 s k p 1 1 n g . was Dogs . 1 7 The g ir1 Running. The Dogs i s three. J 8 was Runn i ng. The i s Dogs . 19 R u n n i n g . Dogs . 20 G i r l s . Dogs . 00 r| TASK 4 - PART 4 // 1 1 6 M O S TASK 4 TASK 4 P 1 u r a 1 P l u r a l P a s t P r i s t SAD SAD The g i r l s w e r e r u n n i n g . T h e d o g s w e r e s i t t i n g . 2 1 R u n n i ng . Dogs . 22 t h e a r s g i r l s r u n n i n g . t h e b o g D o g s . 2 5 I s g i r l i s R u n n i n g . The t h e d o g . 24 Wa s t l i e g i r l . t h e d o g w a s . 2 5 The g i r l s w e r e r u n n i n g . T h e d o g s was s i t t i n g . 2 6 I'lle was g i r l . I s t h e d o g s . 27 was t h e g i r l R u n n i n g . T h e d o g was s i t t i n g . 28 T h e i s g i r l . was b o g s . 2 9 B e To r e i s g r i l s . 30 T h e g i r l s was r u n n i n g . T h e d o g s was s i t t i n g . 3 1 R u n n i n g g i r 1 s . The Dogs w a s . 3 2 The was g i r l R u n n i n g . T h e i s Dogs s i t t i n g . 3 3 The g i r l s was R u n n i n g . T h e d o g s was s i t t i n g . 3 4 The g i r l was r u n n i n g . T h e d o g was s i t t i n g . 3 5 T h e g i r 1 s i s J u m p i n g . T h e d o g s i s s i t t i n g . 3 6 T h e g i r l s was r u n n i n g . T h e d o g s s i t t i n g . 3 7 T h e was G i r l s R u n n i n g . Was t h e d o g s i t t i n g . 3 8 t h e g i r l . l u m p i n g . t h e d o g was s i t t i n g . 3 9 T h e g i r l was r u n n i n g . T h e d o g s was s i t t i n g . 40 Was t h e g r i l s r u n n i n g . T h e d o g was s i t t i n g . TASK 4 - PART 4 // 3 0 8 // 1 ] 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 P l u r a l P l u r a l P a s t P a s t Y/N Y/N Were t h e b o y s w a l k i n g ? Were t h e g i r l s j u m p i n g ? 1 ( w a l k i n g ) B o n o n o n o ? 2 c r y i n g ? oh 1 o 3 (w a 1 k i n g ) wha r u n n i n g ? 4 ( w a l k i n g ) J u m p i n g ? 5 T h e b o y s was w a l k i n g ? T h e g i r l s was j u m p i n g ? 6 B o y ? G i r l s ? 7 B o y s i s ? J u m p i n g ? 8 w a l k i n g i s w a s ? was g i r l i s ? 9 w a l k i n g ? G i r l s ? 10 w a s t h e cloy w a l k i n g ? was t h e g i r l J u m p i n g ? 1 1 Th e i s b o y ? T h e i s g i r l ? I 2 T h e i s w a l k i n g , ? The J u m p i ng ? 1 3 wa s b o y s w a l k i ng ? was t h e g i r l s J u m p i n g ? 1 4 w a s wa1k i ng ? The was G i r l ? 1 5 T h e i s wa 1 k i n g ? The i s G i r l ? 1 (> b o y w a s ? g o p 1 7 T h e w a l k i n g i s b o y ? t h e Runn i n g ? 1 8 T h e i s w a l k i ng ? was J u m p i n g ? 19 Wa 1 k i n g ? Jump i ng? 20 B o y s •? G i r l s ? TASK 4 - PART 4 // 3 0 8 /' 1 1 2 TASK 4 TASK <1 P I l i r a 1 P l u r a l P a s t P a s t Y/N Y/N Wore t l i c b o y s w a l k i n g ? Were t h e g i r l s j u m p i n g ? 2 1 W a 1 k i n g ? P a l l i n g ? 22 t h c b o y w a l k i ng ? t h e i s g i r l s j u m p i n g ? 2 3 I s t h e c l o y s w a l k i n g ? I s g i r l J u m p i n g ? 24 was t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? was t h e g i r l ? 2 5 was t h e b o y s w a l k i n g ? A r c t h e g i r l s j u m p i n g ? 2 6 1 s M a l k ( w a l k ) ? T h e i s g i r l ? 27 The b o y was w a l k i n g ? Was t h e g i r l J u m p i n g ? 2 8 t h e w a k e Dog? I s g i r l ? 2'.) i s b o y y ? B e f o r e 30 wa s b o y s w a l k i n g ? was g i r l s J u m p i n g ? 3 1 t h e wa s wa 1k i ng ? G i r l .Jumping? 3 2 was t h e b o y w a l k i n g ? was t h e g i r l J um p i n g ? 3 3 The c l o y s was w a l k i n g ? T h e g i r l was J u m p i n g ? 3 4 w e r e t h e b o y s w a l k i n g ? was t h e g i r l s j u m p i n g ? 3 5 t h e b o y s wa 1k i ng ? The g i r l s ? 3 6 t h e b o y s was w a l k i n g ? T h e g i r l s was j u m p i n g ? 3 7 was t h e b o y s w a l k i n g ? T h e was G i r l s j urnp i n g ? 3 8 was t h e b o y s w a l k i n g ? t h e g i r l was J u m p i n g ? 39 Was t h e b o y s w a l k i n g ? Was t h e g i r l j u m p i n g ? 4 0 The b o y was w a l k i n g ? Was t h e g r i l s j u m p i n g ? APPENDIX H SUMMARY OF TASK 3 AND 4 RESPONSES FOR SELECTED SUBJECTS ( ) - indicates subject pointed to that p a r t i c u l a r word 222. C o r r e c t Model 103 33 The g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . : 411 34 The boy i s jumping. 307 35 Is the boy running? 407 36 Is the g i r l jumping? T 315 37 The boy was s l e e p i n g . 115 38 The dog was running. A 415 39 Was the g i r l swimming? S 403 40 Was the boy f a l l i n g ? K 207 41 The g i r l s are swimming. 311 42 The boys are f a l l i n g . 3 203 43 Are the dogs running? 303 44 Are the g i r l s c r y i n g ? 215 45 The dogs were s l e e p i n g . 111 46 The boys were c r y i n g . 107 47 Were the boys s l e e p i n g ? 211 48 Were the g i r l s laughing? 204 49 The g i r l i s e a t i n g . 208 50 The g i r l i s f a l l i n g . 316 51 Is the boy d r i n k i n g ? T 416 52 Is the boy walking? A 312 53 The boy was c l a p p i n g . S 212 54 The g i r l was s k i p p i n g . K 404 55 Was the g i r l s i t t i n g ? 104 56 Was the g i r l c r y i n g ? 4 216 57 The boys are d r i n k i n g . 412 58 The g i r l s are f a l l i n g . 304 59 Are the g i r l s c l a p p i n g ? 108 60 Are the boys running? 116 61 The g i r l s were running. 408 62 The dogs were s i t t i n g . 308 63 Were the boys walking? 112 64 Were the g i r l s jumping? 223. 103 411 307 407 315 115 415 S403 K 207 311 203 303 215 111 107 211 53 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 4 2 4 3 44 45 46 47 48 #5 The g i r l was c l a p p i n g . The dog i s jumping. the boy i s running the boy i s running? The g i r l i s jumping the g i r l i s jumping? The boy was s l e e p i n g . The dog was running. The g i r l was swimming the g i r l was swimming? The boy was f a l l i n g the boy was f a l l i n g ? The g i r l s i s swimming. The boy i s f a l l i n g . The dog i s running the running? The g i r l i s c r y i n g the g i r l i s c r y i n g ? The dog was s l e e p i n g . The boys was c r y i n g . The boys was s l e e p i n g the boy was s l e e p i n g ? the g i r l s was laughing? _#6 The g i r l c l a p p i n g . The boys jumping. boys the boy running? g i r l s the g i r l jumping? The boy s l e e p i n g . The dogs running, swimming the swimming? boys the boy f a l l i n g ? The g i r l swimming. The boy f a l l i n g . dog the dogs running? g i r l s the g i r l c r y i n g ? The dog dog s l e e p i n g . The boys c r y i n g . boys the s l e e p i n g ? g i r l the g i r l s laughing? 204 49 The g i r l i s E a t i n g . G i r l s . 208 50 The g i r l i s F a l l i n g . G i r l s . 316 51 The boy i s Drinking? Drimking? 416 52 The boy i s walked? Walking? 312 5 3 The boy was C l a p p i n g . c1app i n g . 212 54 The g i r l was s k i p p i n g . s k i p p i n g . 404 55 the g i r l was s i t t i n g ? G i r l s ? 104 56 The g i r l was c r y i n g ? G i r l s ? 216 57 The boy i s D r i n k i n g . D r i n k i n g . 412 58 The g i r l i s F a l l i n g . G i r l s . 304 59 The g i r l s i s c l a p p i n g ? G i r l s ? 108 60 The bays i s running? Running ? 116 61 The g i r l s was running. G i r l s . 408 62 The dogs was Dogs . 308 63 The boys was walking? Boy? 112 64 The g i r l s was jumping? G i r l s ? 224. #16 #19 103 33 The g i r l c l a p p i n g . The g i r l c l a p p i n g . 411 34 The was boy j urn p. i n g . The boy j umping. 307 35 Was the boy running? Running the running? 407 36 Was the g i r l jumping? g i r l the jumping. 315 37 The was boy s l e e p i n g . The s l e e p i n g s l e e p i n g . T 115 38 The Dog running. The dogs running. 415 39 Was the g i r l swimming? g i r l s the swimming? A 403 40 Was the boy f a l l i n g ? F a l l i n g the f a l l i n g ? S 207 41 The was g o i r l swimming. The Swimming swimming. K 311 42 The was boy f a l l i n g . The F a l l i n g f a l l i n g . 203 43 Was the dog running? doy the running? 3 303 44 War the g i r l c r y i n g ? c r y i n g the c r y i n g ? 215 45 The was dogs s l e e p i n g . The dog s l e e p i n g . 111 46 The was boy c r y i n g . The c r y i n g c r y i n g . 107 47 Was the boys s l e e p i n g ? i s the are s l e e p i n g ? 211 48 Was the g i r l laughing? Laughing the laughing? 204 49 Was goul ( g i r l ) E a t i n g . 208 50 Was gour1 . F a l l i n g . 316 51 Was boy? Drinki n g ? T 416 52 Was boy? Walking ? 312 53 Was boy. C1app i n g . A 212 54 Was g i r l ' . S k i p p i n g . S 404 55 Was g o l l ? ( g i r l ) NR. (co u l d n ' t f i n d vb.) K 104 56 c r y i n g ? g i r l c r y i n g ? 216 57 Was boy. D r i n k i n g . 4 412 58 Was goul boy. F a l l i n g . 304 59 tho god . C1app ing ? 108 60 Is boy? Runn ing ? 116 61 s kp1Ing Running. 408 62 Was Dogs Dogs . 308 63 boy was? Walking? 112 64 gor Jumping ? 225. #24 #30 103 33 The i s g i r l c l a p p i n g . The g i r l i s c l a p p i n g . 411 34 The i s boy jumping. The boy i s jumping. 307 35 i s the boy running? Is the boy running? 407 36 i s the g i r l jumping? Is the g i r l jumping? T 315 37 The was boy s l e e p i n g . The boy was s l e e p i n g . 115 38 The was bog running. The dog was running. A 415 39 Was the g i r l swimming? Was the g i r l swimming? S 403 40 Was the boy f a l l i n g ? was the boy f a l l i n g ? K 207 41 The i s g i r l swimming. The g i r l s i s swimming. 311 42 The i s boy f a l l i n g . The boys i s f a l l i n g . 3 203 43 i s the dog running? Is the dogs running? 303 44 i s the g i r l c r y i n g ? Is the g i r l s c r y i n g ? 215 45 The was dog s l e e p i n g . The dogs was s l e e p i n g . 111 46 The was boy c r y i n g . The boys was c r y i n g . 107 47 Was the boy s l e e p i n g ? was the boys s l e e p i n g ? 211 48 Was the g i r l laughing? was the g i r l s laughing? 204 49 i s The g i r l . The g i r l i s E a t i n g . 208 50 i s The g i r l The g i r l i s F a l l i n g . 316 51 i s the boy Drinki n g ? Is boy Drinki n g ? T 416 52 the boy i s Walking? Is boy Walking? 312 53 was the boy c l a p p i n g . The boy was c l a p p i n g . A 212 54 was The g i r 1 . The g i r l was s k i p p i n g . S 404 55 the g i r l was s i t t i n g ? was g i r l s i t t i n g ? K 104 56 the was g i r l ? was g i r l c r y i n g ? 216 57 i s the boy. the boys i s D r i n k i n g . 4 412 58 the g i r l i s F a l l i n g . The g i r l s i s F a l l i n g . 304 59 the i s g i r l Clapping? Is g i r l s Clapping? 108 60 the i s boy? Is boys running? 116 61 was the g i r l . The g i r l s was running. 408 62 the dog was The dogs was s i t t i n g . 308 63 was the boy walking? was boys walking? 112 64 was the g i r l ? was g i r l s Jumping? 226. #33 #40 103 33 The g i r l i s c l app i n g . The g r i l i s c l a p p i n g . 411 34 The boy i s j umping. The boy i s jumping. 307 35 Is the boy running? Is the boy running? 407 36 Is the g i r l jumping? Is the g r i l jumping? 315 37 The boy was s l e e p i n g . The boy was s l e e p i n g . 115 38 The dog was running. The dog was running. 415 39 Was the g i r l swimming? Was the g r i l swimming? 403 40 Was the boy f a l l i n g ? Was the boy f a l l i n g ? 207 41 The g i r l s i s swimming. The g r i l i s swimming. 311 42 The boys i s f a l 1 i n g . The boys i s f a l l i n g . 203 43 Is the dog running? Is the dog running? 303 44 Is the g i r l s c r y i n g ? Is the g r i l s c r y i n g ? 215 45 The dogs was s l e e p i n g . The dogs were s l e e p i n g . 111 46 The boys was c r y i n g . The boy was c r y i n g . 107 47 Was the boys s l e e p i n g ? Are the boys s l e e p i n g ? 211 48 Was the g i r l s laughing? was the g r i l s laughing? 204 49 The g i r l i s e a t i n g . The g r i l i s e a t i n g . 208 50 The g i r l i s f a l l i n g . The g r i l i s f a l l i n g . 316 51 The doy i s Dr i n k i n g ? Is the boy Drink i n g ? 416 52 The boy i s walking? Is the boy walking? 312 53 The boy was c l a p p i n g . The boy was c l a p p i n g . 212 54 The g i r l was s k i p i n g . Was the g r i l s k i p p i n g . 404 55 The g i r l was s i t t i n g ? Was the g i r l s i t t i n g ? 104 56 The g i r l was c r y i n g ? The g r i l was c r y i n g ? 216 57 The boys i s D r i n k i n g . The boy was d r i n k i n g . 412 58 The g i r l s i s f a l l i n g . The g r i l s i s f a l l i n g . 304 59 The g i r l s i s c l a p p i n g ? Is the g r i l s c l a p p i n g ? 108 60 The boys i s Running? Are boy running? 116 61 The g i r l s was Running. Was the g r i l s running. 408 62 The dogs was s i t t i n g . The dog was s i t t i n g . 308 63 The doys was walking? The boy was walking? 112 64 The g i r l was Jumping? Was the g r i l s jumping? APPENDIX I SUMMARY ANOVA INCLUDING EXAMINER AS A FACTOR Summary of Analysis of Variance 228. Source df I'.fean Square Error Term F MEANa 1 181.6891 R(AX) 234.9711 A b 3 7.4838 R(AX) 9.6786 ## B C 3 15.1046- BR(AX) 98.1129 #* c d 1 36.5765 CR(AX) 60.8242 ** De 1 .3062 DR(AX) 2.0992 E f 1 .1562E-02 ER(AX) 0.0081 X(A) g 4 3.7945 R(AX) 4.9073 ** AB 9 .5841 BR(AX) 3.7947 AC 3 4.0213 CR(AX) 6.6872 BC 3 .4463 BCR(AX) 2.5315 AD 3 .3072 DR(AX) 2.1063 BD 3 .1593 BDR(AX) 1.2436 CD 1 .9179E-05 CDR(AX) 0.0001 AE 3 .2588 ER(AX) 1.3347 BE 3 .2963 BER(AX) 1.7988 CE 1 .7956E-01 CER(AX) 0.3051 DE 1 1.406 DER(AX) 16.1822 R(AX) h 32 .7732 BX(A) 12 .1736 BR(AX) 1.1282 CX(A) 4 2.4976 CR(AX) 4.1534 DX(A) 4 .4007 DR(AX) 2.7471 EX(A) 4 .1289 ER(AX) 0.6647 ABC 9 .1453 BCR(AX) 0.8242 ABD 9 .2201 BDR(AX) 1.7178 ACD 3 .2218 CDR(AX) 1.5290 BCD 3 .5728E-01 BCDR(AX) 0.5518 ABE 9 .8559E-01 BER(AX) 0.5196 ACE 3 .4219E-01 CER(AX) 0.1681 BCE 3 .1713 BCER(AX) 1.2621 ADE 3 .2072 DER(AX) 2.3854 BDE 3 .5635 BDER(AX) 4.0714 CDE 1 .5624E-01 CDER(AX) 0.5023 BR(AX) 96 .1539 CR(AX) 32 .6013 DR(AX) 32 .1458 ER(AX) 32 .1939 BCX(A) 12 .2538 BCR(AX) 1.4399 BDX(A) 12 . 2070 BDR(AX) 1.6154 CDX(A) 4 .3203E-01 CDR(AX) 0.2207 EEX(A) 12 .1476 BER(AX) 0.8963 CEX(A) 4 .8203E-01 CER(AX) 0.3269 DEX(A) 4 .1882 DER(AX) 2.1667 Summary of Analysis of Variance (cont.) 229. Source df Mean Square Error Term F ABCD 9 .1694 BCDR(AX) 1.6317 ABCE 9 .1161 BCER(AX) 0.8552 ABDE 9 .1548 BDER(AX) 1.1187 ACDE 3 .6978E-01 CDER(AX) 0.6239 BCDE S(BCDE) 1 3 .1302 BCDER(AX) 1.0873 32 .1640 SR(AXBCDE) 1.6044 BCR(AX) 96 .1763 BDR(AX) 96 .1281 CDR(AX) 32 .1451 BER(AX) 96 .1647 CER(AX) 32 .2509 DER(AX) 32 .8690E-01 BCDX(A) 12 .9455E-01 BCDR(AX) 0.9108 BCEX(A) 12 .2153 BCER(AX) 1.5865 BDEX(A) 12 .8826E-01 BDER(AX) 0.6377 CDEX(A) 4 .3824E-01 CDER(AX) 0.3419 ABCDE 9 .2979 BCDER(AX) 2.4881 AS(BCDE) 96 .1005 SR(AXBCDE) 0.9829 BCDR(AX) 96 .1038 BCER(AX) 96 .1357 BDER(AX) 96 .1384 CDER(AX) 32 .1118 BCDEX(A) 12 .1569 BCDER(AX) 1.3102 SX( ABCDE) 128 .8824E-01 SR(AXBCDE) 0.8630 BCDER(AX) 96 .1197 SR(AXBCDE) 1024 .1022 = p r o b a b i l i t y < .05 ** = p r o b a b i l i t y < .01 a = grand mean b = age c = task d = s i n g u l a r / p l u r a l e tense f = transform g = examiner nested under age h = subjects nested under examiner and age i sentences nested under BCDE

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