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Selected linguistic skills in young deaf children Leslie, Perry Thorold 1972

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SELECTED LINGUISTIC SKILLS IN YOUNG DEAF CHILDREN by PERRY THOROLD LESLIE B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1967 M.A., University of British Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Department of Special Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1972 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Special EdWCftt^-Qn The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date Jfrly 14, 1972. DISSERTATION ABSTRACT SELECTED LINGUISTIC SKILLS IN YOUNG DEAF CHILDREN Perry Thorold Leslie Ed.D. in Special Education The University of British Columbia July 1972 This investigation examined the performances of forty deaf children on tasks involving singular and plural simple-active-declarative and corresponding yes/no statements. The task items used be_ as Aux in both past and non-past tenses. The forty subjects were grouped, according to age, into four groups of ten representing six, seven, eight, and nine year olds. A model, based on transformational-generative grammar theories, was developed to enable qualitative analysis of the responses. Analysis of the linguistic performance demonstrated that the young deaf children were rule governed in responses to the tasks. Many of the linguistic performances examined, were found to parallel development of linguistic performances of very young hearing children. Analysis of the data demonstrated that 9 year old deaf children perform ed significantly better than 6 year old deaf children on the task items. The task battery included comprehension and production task items. The production-generation items were significantly more difficult than the production-completion items. Young deaf children performed significantly iii. better on singular statement items than they did on plural statement items. The implications of the study were explored and a resulting delineation of language teaching techniques was recommended for future research. iv. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1 II PROBLEM 12 Statement of the Problem 1Related Research 13 Definition of Terms 6 Rationale . ..... 17 Instrumentation 18 III METHOD 22 Sampling and Subjects 2InstrumentsScoring 23 ExaminersResearch Questions ... 23 Design 24 Experimental Hypotheses 2Procedure 8 IV RESULTS . 29 Models for Analyzing the Data 2Results of the Quantitative Analysis 30 Results of the Qualitative Analysis 5V DISCUSSION 63 Interpretation of Results 6Implications VI Limitations 73 Page Future Research 74 REFERENCES 76 APPENDICES ...... 82 A Task Battery ..... 83 B Demonstrations Items ..... 148 C Vocabulary Charts 173 D Standard Administration Procedures 176 E Check Lists 182 F Summary of Correct Responses 184 G Summary of Response by Task Level 186 H Summary of Task 3 and 4 Responses for Selected Subjects 221 I Summary ANOVA including Examiner as a Factor 227 vi. LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Sources of Variation, Error Terms, and Degrees of Freedom for ANOVA 27 2 Means and Standard Deviations for Age Levels 32 3 Means and Standard Deviations for Hearing Levels 34 4 Summary of Analysis of Variance 35 5 Summary of Age (A) Contrasts 7 6 Summary of Task (B) Contrasts . 39 7 Summary of Age x Task (AB) Interaction Contrasts 40 8 Summary of Age x Singular/Plural (AC) Contrasts 42 9 Summary of Tense x Transform (DE) Contrasts 44 10 Summary of Task x Tense x Transform (BDE) Contrasts 45 11 Summary of Age x Task x Singular/Plural x Tense x Transform (ABCDE) Contrasts 47 12 Summary of Examiner (X) Contrasts 8 13 Summary of Examiner x Singular/Plural (CX(A)) Contrasts 49 14 Summary of Examiner x Tense (DX(A)) Contrasts 51 vii. LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Study Design ..... 25 2 Study Design (cont.) 26 3 Model of Task Specific Rules 31 4 AB Interactions ..... 41 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The problems of developing communication in the deaf have been recognized and recorded as far back as the pre-Christian era when Aristotle noted a relationship between congenital deafness and dumbness. Aristotle ... placed strong emphasis on sound as the primary vehicle for conveying thought and therefore as the chief medium for education. Aristotle presumably believed, therefore, that since the deaf could neither give utterance to speech nor comprehend it from others, they were relatively incapable of instruction (Davis and Silverman, 1970, p. 375). Here then was an early record of the recognition of the problem of communication. From that time to the present day, educators, philosophers, physicians, engineers, parents, and laymen have struggled to cope with the deaf child's problems of communication. Dr. Richard Silverman very aptly pointed out that "man's struggle toward enlightenment is slow, faltering, and, in many instances haphazard" (Ibid., p. 375). This has been borne out by developments in the education of deaf children for it was not until the middle of the sixteenth century that the deaf were considered educable. At this time Girolamo Cardano stated that the deaf could be taught to comprehend written symbols or combinations of symbols by associating them with the object or picture of the object they were intended to represent (ibid., p. 376). This is still one of the standard introduc tory techniques for language instruction. It was not until the latter part of the eighteenth century that public schooling for the deaf became a reality. In the 1770's Abbe de l'Epee and Samuel Heinicke founded the first French and German public schools (Ibid., p. 377). These men differed in their methodological approach 2. to education of the deaf. De l'Epee was a proponent of a "manual" communication system while Heinicke was firmly convinced that an "oral" communication system was best suited to educating deaf children. Over a period of years a growing concern regarding methodology became evident. Considerable research effort has been expended in examining the performances of children educated through differing communication systems (Quigley and Frisina, 1961; Birch and Stuckless, 1965; Montgomery, 1966; Quigley, 1969). It has been demonstrated that the results of the differing instructional methodologies, discussed above, were within one month of each other on a grade-score rating (Birch and Stuckless, 1966). Comparison of results of reading performance level studies (Annual Survey of Hearing Impaired Children and Youth, 1969; Furth, 1966; Quigley, 1969) revealed that, whether educated orally or through a simultaneous method of instruction deaf children do not develop reading skills commensurate with their hearing peers. It is probable, then, that concern over instructional methodology may be less important than other considerations in educating deaf children. A reading study (Furth, 1966) revealed that eighty-eight per cent of the deaf sixteen year olds studied were functioning below a grade five performance level. These results made it apparent that education of the deaf, irrespective of methodology, has encountered difficulties in the area of reading. One must bear in mind that the test batteries used were designed for hearing children and purported to measure reading skills. The tests presupposed language competency. However, deaf children approach a reading test with a very restricted competency in language, and therefore results are not necessarily a reflection of reading skills per se; rather, they reflect some combination of reading skills and language competencies. 3. Hence, Furth's report of deaf children's depressed performance on reading test batteries was a reflection of both reading skill and language compe tence deficiencies. It would seem that a great deal of time and energy has been expended either supporting, decrying, or investigating the efficacy of a particular instructional methodology. Further, deaf children appear to be deficient in language competency yet little study has been directed toward examination of this variable. The present investigation, although restricted to some aspects of the language, attempted to provide some information related to language competency in deaf children. To imply that the input methodology was the only concern of educators of the deaf would be inaccurate. While the manual-oral discussions contin ued, many teachers of the deaf have realized the importance of language. Consideration of comparisons between deaf and hearing children led teachers and researchers to the conclusions that the deaf child had a resultant deficiency in his "experiential background". Several research studies have dealt with the topic of the vocabulary of the deaf child (Fitzgerald, 1949; Foy, 1966; Kennedy, 1959; Richardson, 1957). There also have been several papers and programs prepared to assist the teacher with the guidance of the language acquisition process. Such programs as the "Barry Five Slate System", and "Wing Symbols", and the "Fitzgerald Key" were the results of these studies. However, these systems have not served as a complete model for the English language. Although simple statements were generally handled adequately, many complex structures were not readily described by the models. The approach to developing language in the deaf child has been one of presenting the material to the child and expecting him to "learn" A. correct usage through reference to a classification system. Eric Lenneberg (1967) makes reference to this approach to language and the point he makes is worthy of consideration: In contrast to the hearing child, who is simply surrounded by a sea of sentences, well-formed and poorly formed and who builds up his sentence-making skills without knowing how, the deaf child is usually immediately introduced to theoretical grammar. In the course of the first year of language instruction, he is told that he must speak in "sentences" and that a proper sentence is made up of "nouns" and "verbs", that nouns must have "articles", and so on. These theoretical terms are written on the blackboard and also appear in some of the books that are used in the lower grades. Thus we have a situation in which the children are on the one hand quantitatively deprived of a large body of examples, and on the other hand are immediately given a meta-language, a language about the language which they do not yet have. Their own spontaneity of putting out the type of primitive sentences ... apparently the necessary devel opmental stage that must precede the complete unfolding of grammar in hearing children, is restricted by teachers who do not tolerate answers in "incomplete sentences". The child's flow of communication is constantly stopped by the teacher's instructions "to complete the sentence", which is accompanied by a theoretical discussion of how to do this ("verb is missing", "the article is not correct", etc.). This mode of instruction raises an important question. Is it possible to instruct somebody how language works by giving him rules - particularly when he has little language as yet? (pp. 322-3). Hearing children do not learn English through such a meta-language. They receive information about the structure of the language by listening to others speaking English. Once they have some ideas, or rules, describing language, they attempt to use them and they make mistakes. For the most part, they are not immediately stopped; generally the rules are reinforced or corrected by parental repetition and expansion of the child's sentence (e.g. child says "Daddy home" and mother says "Yes, Daddy is home"). In other words, the hearing child has his parents' productions as a model of the language and he has their repetitions or expansions of his productions to correct his ideas of the rules of English structure. 5. The deaf child, on the other hand, dees not receive a similar language input and hence dees not develop linguistic competency commensurate with his hearing peers. In fact, he often arrives at school, aged five, with little, if any, vocabulary and an extremely limited understanding of English. It would seem reasonable for the teachers to take cn the role of parents and provide adequate models for the child through whatever medium seems most appropriate. This approach to language development is fairly common in schools for the deaf but it is not sufficiently developed. All too soon the meta-language and corrections mentioned by Lenneberg do appear and the child is lost in his attempts to sort out the structures of English. In order to improve the approach to language development it is imperative that the language acquisition processes of deaf children be more clearly understood. The information gained from such study is certain to assist the development of more comprehensive language programs for deaf children. Recently, language competency has been reconsidered in the light of new models of language acquisition for hearing children (Katz and Postal, 1964-; Chomsky, 1965). Development of new theories of language acquisition has led to a reconsideration of the linguistic competency of deaf children (Lowenbraun, 1969; Schmitt, 1969; Quigley, 1971). Consideration of the works of these and other authors explains, to a degree, why there has been difficulty in developing effective materials and programs adapted to the deaf child; for until the recent development of Generative theory and Transformational grammar models (T-G grammar theory), there has been no sound comprehensive theory dealing with the language acquisition process. In order to clarify some of the concepts of these theories and 6. their applicability to the language of deaf children, a brief summary is presented below. The writings of Noam Chomsky, Theorist, describe the basic thinking of generative grammar theorists. W. C. Ritchie (1967) gives a brief description of Chomsky's works: In recent years ... Chomsky and his colleagues have ... concen trated on the construction of formal accounts of the linguistic "knowledge" that a native speaker possesses. ... Chomsky is attempting ... to account for the native speaker's ability to interpret any one of an infinite number of "possible" utterances in ... a language. ... Chomsky has proposed that the study of those influences on behavior which come under the heading of "knowledge" possessed by the organism is logically primary and therefore must be carried to a fairly advanced stage before behavior can be studied fruitfully. Chomsky's position seems to be that v/e cannot expect success in the study of "how" an organism "uses" stored information (or knowledge) in "behaving" until we have succeeded reason ably well in understanding "what" information it is that the organism has stored, (i.e., what "knowledge" the organism "possesses") ... From these considerations it follows that knowledge formation or acquisition (the process of storing information, e.g., about utterances) must take place before ' knowledge "use" (use of information already stored) (pp. 45-47). Chomsky stated that we should not be attempting to explain a child's language through analysis of his productions before we examine his 'know ledge' of the language. This, one would logically expect, means that the receptive level of the language is a more informative avenue of study, at least initially. However, Chomsky developed the theory beyond this point. He noted that children can often cope, both receptively and expressively, with language that they had not previously encountered in their environment. Of particular import was the fact that the child produced utterances that he had never heard; that is, he generated sentences that he had not previously encountered. A summary of Chomsky's thought on this phenomenon follows: 7. A consideration of the character of the grammar that is acquired, the degenerate quality and narrowly limited extent of the available data, the striking uniformity of the resulting grammar, and...the independence of intelligence, motivation, and emotional state, over wide ranges of variation, leave little hope that much of the structure of the language can be learned by an organism initially uninformed as to its general character (Chomsky, 1965, p. 58). Chomsky postulated that children have an innate capacity for language acquisition in general and that they must learn the rules of their native language. It is through a combination of the innate capacity and the ac quired knowledge about utterances of the native language (resulting from reception and judgements regarding grammatical!ty) that a child eventually reaches a point where he produces utterances of the native language. V/hile this theory is derived from considerations of hearing children, it is assumed, by the researcher, to be equally applicable to deaf children. If one can assume that a hearing child is born with an innate capacity for language acquisition, it does not seem unreasonable to assume the same of a deaf child. Further, the hearing child combines the capacity for language acquisition with a wealth of auditory input (that is, models of English) to develop a theory about utterances of English and it appears logical to assume that the deaf child combines his innate capacity for language acquis ition with a severely limited and distorted input to develop what well may be a theory grossly different from that of a hearing child-for whether the information received be oral, manual, written, or any combination thereof, it is not equal to the amount received by a hearing child, nor is the input encountered in as many different situations as is normal for a hearing child. If the assumptions are true it would then follow logically that the deaf child's use of his theory about English would result in the difficulties he experiences in trying to interpret our models. This problem is compounded 8. by hearing impairment as the child does not receive the full utterance clearly and therefore cannot make the appropriate corrections to his theory. There is a need for information describing deaf children's linguistic competence. Studies attempting to describe children's linguistic competence are limited to the study of linguistic performance; that is, competence must be inferred from performance. It follows that statements about linguis tic competence reflect a theory about what a child knows of language. In order to examine language performances, there must be a grammar -a set of rules - for the language being studied. The rules are designed primarily, to demonstrate the relationships within a language. Hence these rules are primarily for the teacher and researcher and not for the child. That is, the child does not consciously learn the rules in order to learn the language. As previously mentioned, it was not until recent times that a good grammar for English was written. The T-G grammar theories presented by researchers such as Chomsky (op. cit. ), Katz and Postal (1964), and others have contributed toward the construction of the most comprehensive models of the rules governing the English language. The T-G grammar theory is not yet a complete explanation of all possible utterances in English but it is better than anything available in the past and is still developing. On a very simplistic level, the basics of the transformation aspects of the theory were explained by Roberts (1968): Grammar is essentially about sentences...at the beginning we must confine our attention to the sentence and in particular to the very simple sentences that form the foundation of the more complicated sentences we generally use. These simple sentences we call "kernel" sentences. ...A sentence that is not a kernel sentence is called a "transform". Transforms are made by making changes on the structure of kernel sentences, reworking them, or combining them (pp. 9,10,57.). 9. The interpretation of this complex theory is simplified and slightly dated in its references to kernel sentences; however, one or two brief examples may serve to clarify the role of transformational grammar in the study of children's language. Questions that can be answered yes or no are called 'yes/no questions'. The transformation that changes a simple-active-declarative (SAD) statement into a yes/no question is called a 'yes/no question transformation', or, more simple, T-yes/no (T_). Given the SAD sentence, "She is his mother.", Q the question form is "Is she his mother?". According to Roberts, the rules of the transformation are as follows: NP + tense-be + X , + 2-3-1=4 she + is + his mother + 2-3-1 =4 tense-be + NP + X + 2-3-3 is + she + his mother + 2-3-3 The double arrows are markers indicating "transformation". The numerals represent the changing pitch patterns of the voice, '1' indicates a low pitch while '3' is a relatively high pitch. Given the statement "John waited.", the question form is, "Did John wait?". However, the rules governing this transformation are more complex. The rules are: NP + tense + verbal + 2-3-1=4 John + past + wait + 2-3-l==£ tense + NP + verbal + 2-3-3 past + John + wait + 2-3-3 Note that there is a floating tense. In English, whenever this happens a special transformation (T-do) becomes obligatory the word 'do' must be 10. added to 'carry' the tense. Hence: past + John + wait + 2-3-3=$ do + past + John + wait + 2-3-3 As 'do + past' in English becomes 'did', the statement is "Did John wait?" In the latter example, the rules of the grammar involved a combination of transformations (Tn and T-do) to explain the correct statement. These examples present only the briefest glimpse of the complex way in which utterances of the English language are organized and related to each other through transformational grammar. Summary While there has been considerable research dealing with the development of communication skills in the deaf, most of the emphasis has been on the efficacy of particular methodologies of instruction. As a result of developments in the field of linguistics, recent research has been directed toward assessment of the linguistic skills of deaf children. The traditional methods of language instruction in schools for the deaf have involved the use of a meta-language and the teaching of rules governing correct English language productions. In the light of T-G grammar theories, it appeared that educators of the deaf child may have been present ing a set of governing rules that the child was unable to cope with. This approach to language development did not account for the deaf child's grammar - or set of rules - which may have been grossly deviant from the grammar of a hearing person. The use of the T-G grammar theories may provide a means of describing the deaf child's competency with English through an organizational system for examining the set of rules or grammar he is using. These descriptions of competency are, necessarily, theoretical because the descriptions are inferred from linguistic performance. CHAPTER II PROBLEM I. Statement of the Problem There is some information on language performances of deaf children but these early studies are generally directed toward normative (Stuckless and Marks, 1966) or descriptive (Heider and Heider, 1940; Goda, 1964) information. In these types of studies the researchers were hampered by an inadequate theory of the grammar of the English language. The T-G grammar theories provide a more complete and unifying model from which to work. Since 1967 there have been a few T-G grammar studies of deaf children's language skills. These studies have provided some much needed information concerning linguistic competence as reflected through performance in written and oral situations. There is, however, a continuing need for more information describing linguistic competencies of young deaf children. In particular there is a need for more detailed analysis of the comprehension and production of a limited number of structures. In order to improve the language teaching techniques there must be more information delineating the operational rules of a deaf child's grammar. One such study (Schmitt, 1969) deals with the generative rules of Kernel, Negative, Passive, and Passive-Negative structures in 8-17 year old deaf children. There are no studies dealing with the generative rules governing SAD structures and yes/no transforms of younger deaf children aged 6-9 years. It is during these early years at school that deaf children develop many language skills and patterns that they will continue to use throughout their lives. In view of their limited language input and the seemingly 13. deviant patterns of functioning developed, this investigation attempted to delineate some of the developmental and operational patterns of 6-9 year old deaf children working with SAD structures and yes/no transforms. All items were restricted to the use of be as Aux in each structure. It should be noted that the present study dealt with written responses to a structured situation. The information sampled did not represent all of the English language competencies a deaf child possess. In fact, a very restricted reflection of linguistic competency resulted from experi mental conditions. Subjects were taught response patterns for particular structures and then asked to transfer their learning to other structures given some data. The scope of the present study was restricted to examina tion of comprehension and production of singular and plural SAD structures and yes/no transforms using be as Aux in the present and past tenses/ II. Related Research There have been many studies of deaf children's language skills. The investigations of deaf children's language skills have generally been normative or descriptive; if analytic, they were bound by inadequate theories of English grammar. Several recent studies have utilized T-G grammar theories in examining the linguistic performances of deaf children. One study (Stuckless and Marks, 1966) attempted to develop normative data while others endeavored to describe the developmental patterns of language growth (Quigley, 1971; Marshall and Quigley, 1970; Taylor, 1969). These studies gathered important data on developmental processes. However, studies such as those mentioned above must be complemented by analytic studies. Description of the developmental patterns alone is insufficient; M. there is also a need for information detailing the process whereby the child arrives at a particular point. The earliest study attesting to describe the generative rules used by a deaf child was done by Cooper (1965). He conducted a study of morphological habits in an attempt to discover rules governing deaf children's grammar usage, and he thereby established that tests could be conducted with seven year olds through nonaural proce dures, and that receptive control preceded productive control for most morphological patterns. However, the study did not deal with syntax and therefore no information was available as to the development of rules governing structural aspects of the English language. In 1967, another study (l.'oores, 1967) involving deaf children and their linguistic abilities was reported. The study was designed to inves tigate the ability of "cloze" procedures to identify and isolate morpholo gical, syntactic, and semantic differences between deaf and hearing groups. This study demonstrated that the hearing children performed significantly better than the deaf on items studied and stressed the fact that standard measurement devices do.not tap the linguistic abilities of deaf children. Once again, however, there was no attempt to describe the rules governing the linguistic performance of the deaf child. Another cloze procedure study (l.^arshall, 1970) examined the effect of context on deaf children's performances. I.'arshall found that relative redundancy of linguistic cues substantially affected cloze performance. These findings were not in accord with postulaticns for hearing children and served, as in the I.'ocres' study, to emphasize that deaf children's performance is not predictable on the basis of knowledge of hearing children's performance. L^arshall did not describe rules governing the functioning of the grammar of the deaf child. 15. In 1969 Lowenbraun attempted to deal with the question of how a deaf child uses English. She examined the development of syntactic rules in the oral language of deaf children. Of particular import to this thesis was the first section of Lowenbraun's investigation. Oral responses to picture stimuli were recorded and analysed using a T-G grammar theory. Quantitative and qualitative productions improved with age and did not closely parallel the sequence of skills taught in the language program of the school. In general, studies reported above have not dealt with specific constructs of English but have dealt with more global concerns such as how the deaf child uses English given some restricting conditions. Schmitt (1969) examined the competence of deaf children in a much more restrictive experiment. A T-G grammar theory guided the exploration of the abilities of 8, 11, 14, and 17 year old deaf children to comprehend and produce simple sentences varying on the dimensions of transformation (Kernel, Negative, Passive, Passive-Negative) and time (past, present progressive, future). Qualitative analysis of results focused on patterns of incorrect responses in an effort to detect incorrect underlying rules which deaf children might have been using to process sentences. Three rules were discovered which could account for most of the errors made. These were designated: (a) the N?2~NPn Rule, which permits reversal of Noun Phrase 1 and Noun Pnrase 2 in transitive verb, reversible sentences; (b) the Passive-Active Rule, which specifies the ignoring of passive transformation markers and permits the processing of passive sentences as actives; and (c) the No Negative Rule, which specifies the ignoring of negative markers and permits the processing of negative sentences as positives. Schmitt stated that extensions and elaborations of his techniques should have implications for language diagnosis and for future study of the language dynamics of deaf children. Extensions and elaborations of Schmitt's techniques were employed in this study. Schmitt also concluded that the discovery of incorrect underlying rules of syntactic competence had implications for language remediation and instruction. Power (in progress) is studying deaf children's acquisition of the Passive Voice in an attempt to gain more information about the Passive-Active Rule described by Schmitt. Research techniques being employed are similar to Schmitt's techniques. The study deals with 10 to 18 year old deaf children. III. Definition of Terms The definitions used in this study are: Pre-lingually deaf - a mean hearing loss greater than 65&B ISO in the better ear for the frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. with onset of deafness prior to two years of age. ISO - International Organization for Standardization reference zero level for pure-tone audiometers. linguistic competence - "the speaker-hearer's knowledge of his language" (Chomsky, 1965). linguistic performance - the speaker-hearer's "actual use of language in concrete situations" (Chomsky, 1965). knowledge of language - an innate capacity for language acquisition. knowledge about utterances - a combination of the knowledge of language and linguistic input from the surrounding environment creating a primitive grammar. 17. comprehension - a subject attends to a stimulus sentence and selects a picture which represents the sentence. production - a subject attends to a picture and selects or writes a sentence which represents the picture. IV. Rationale Analyses of the results of this study were directed toward examining the linguistic competencies of young deaf children. The model for this examination is based on T-G grammar theory (Chomsky, 1965) which is assumed to underlie linguistic competence. Previous discussion indicated that competence cannot be directly observed but that observation on tasks involving comprehension and produc tion of language seemed to be an effective method of inferring the competence. The investigator designed four tasks (see Appendix A) for the purposes of collecting information regarding deaf children's comprehension and production of language. The tasks used for these purposes in this study were designed to minimize extraneous experimental variables through the following procedures: (a) the tasks were paper and pencil, thereby eliminating oral-aural communication variables, (b) the tasks were constructed on four different levels. This enabled the experimenter to examine performances involving different skills, thereby gaining information as to competence and rules of operation on different structural tasks. It must be noted that the divisions made in the study were arbitrary and these divisions were not intended to reflect developmental stages; but, some structure was incorpor ated enabling data analysis. The results were not treated in a lock-step 18. stage theory fashion; rather attempts were made to demonstrate how parti cular deviant generative rules affected performance throughout the tasks of the study, (c) the measurements were completed in four sittings thereby avoiding historical variable contamination, (d) the tasks restricted the investigation to singular-plural SAD structures and yes/no transforma tions over the two tense forms and using be as Aux. The SAD and yes/no transform structures were selected for study as they are two of the most basic grammatical competences (Menyuk, 1969; Schmitt, 1969). Further, there was no developmental and analytic information describing the young deaf child's competence with these structures. The past and non-past tense variables were included to determine the effect of tense upon the student's performances. The tasks were further restricted to tense-be considerations as that verb form has been commonly taught and used in schools for the deaf, and be has a high frequency of occurrence in many differing English structures. The tasks have been constructed to facilitate the measurement of competence in young deaf children. The decision to investigate both comprehension and production skills was supported by the previously discussed theories presented by Chomsky and others. Of the four tasks discussed below, justification for the first three tasks was supported by the research of Schmitt (1969). V. Instrumentation The demonstration items were designed to teach the child how to respond to the tasks. The vocabulary and sentence structures used differed 19. from those used in the task items. (Vocabulary differences may be found in Appendix C). It may be noted that the demonstration items (Appendix B) were constructed in the present indefinite (to use traditional grammati cal terminology) while the task items (Appendix A) were in the present progressive. Subjects were taught task response behaviors (Appendix D) for each of the task levels. That is, a subject was taught to read a statement and select the corresponding representative picture for task one. Similarly, the subject was taught to select a sentence for task two, complete a sentence for task three, and generate a sentence for task four. The subject was taught to respond to tense markers below pictures and in statements and to statement-question markers; however, he was not taught singular-plural agreement differentiation of the verb as all demon stration items were singular. Details of the administration procedures are included in Appendix D. The first task was designated "Comprehension". Comprehension was defined, for purposes of this study, as: (l) Subject (S) attended to the stimulus sentence. (2) S selected one of four pictures which corresponded to the sentence. It was assumed, if the correct response was made, that the subject was able to extract the intended meaning of the structure and associate this meaning with the appropriate picture (in the case of SAD structures) or extract the meaning and associate it with the picture which would have resulted with the appropriate "yes" response (in the case of yes/no transforms). Results of studies indicated that this was the least difficult task (Cooper, 1965; Schmitt, 1969). The second task was the first of three production tasks. Production, for purposes of this study, was defined in three ways, dependent upon the task. In the "Production-Selection" task - production was:, (l) S attended 20. to a pictured situation plus tense marker (2) S selected one of four sentences printed below the picture. Only one of the four sentences was the appropriate descriptor while the remaining three sentences served as diagnostic distractors. It was assumed that the child extracted some meaning from attending to the pictures and that this meaning was encoded. Further, it was assumed that this encoded meaning was matched with the meaning of one of the four sentences presented below the picture. It was difficult to assume fixed order of associations in this task but it was logical that the procedure followed the sequence outlined above as it appeared to be the path of least resistance, that is - it appeared simplest, methodo logically. The third task - "Production-Completion" - involved another definition of production: (l) S attended to a picture, tense marker, incomplete sentence frame and a punctuation marker (2) S completed the sentence by selecting and arranging words provided in the task material. This task then demanded a higher level of proficiency than the previous tasks (Schmitt, 1969). The subject must have encoded the pictured situation and then completed the structure to match his previously encoded structure. The fourth task - "Production-Construction" - was more complex than the third and this necessitated another definition of production: (l) S attended to a picture, tense marker, and a blank line with a period or question mark at the end of the line, (2) S constructed a sentence. This last task appeared to be the most difficult as the subject was given only a picture and a punctuation marker for direction. It was assumed that the child, again, encoded the pictured situation and then constructed an appropriate sentence using his own generative rules. 21. The latter task was expected to be the most difficult experimentally as well as conceptually as past efforts had failed to elicit acceptable responses from subjects up to 14- years of age. It was expected that this barrier would be overcome through the sequencing of the tasks and the demonstration items (Appendices A and B). The task items were not presented according to structural or tense category but rather by task category, all other variables being randomly distributed across the tasks. That is, the sequence of task presentation was: (item l) Comprehension, (item 2) Production-Selection, (item 3) Production-Completion, (item 4) Production-Construction, (item 5) Compre hension, ... , with the tense and transformation variables being randomly distributed throughout all items. This approach was selected to assist the elicitation of Production-Construction responses and to avoid practice effect and/or incorrect pattern reproduction throughout one particular task. The organization of the tasks required the presentation of sixty four items. They were administered in four sittings in order to avoid subject fatigue. A review of the demonstration items preceded each sitting of the tasks. CHAPTER III METHOD I. Sampling and Subjects The data for the study were drawn from students at the Jericho Hill School for the Deaf in Vancouver. The data were collected from all of the Jericho Hill School students satisfying selection criteria. The 10 subjects per age level were selected according to the following criteria: within six months of the age designation at the time of task administration; prelingually deaf; hearing levels greater than 65 dB (ISO) in the better ear (average loss at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz.); no apparent major handicaps other than deafness e.g. mentally retarded or emotionally disturbed. This was confirmed through medical records, teacher and supervisor corroboration. As discussed in Statement of the Problem, age levels selected were 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0 years. II. Instruments The four tasks were designed to reflect some of the subjects' operational rules for the English language. The diagnostic distractors for the first three tasks (Appendix A) represented linguistic errors typically made by deaf students. Prior to the task administrations, each subject was shown the vocabu lary charts (Appendix C). Each subject also completed the demonstration items (Appendix B) prior to administration of the tasks. Details of the procedure for administration follows in Procedure. 23. III. Scoring For purposes of a quantitative analysis, all responses were scored as correct (l) or incorrect (0). Partially correct answers were considered in the content analysis of the data. IV. Examiners Eight trained teachers of the deaf collected the data. All examiners were trained together in the same institution and were all able to communicate with deaf children through several media. The examiners received identical training in task, demonstration, and vocabulary administration. Each examiner was observed correctly administering the tasks prior to the experimental situation. Each examiner noted student responses on check lists (Appendix E) and followed the specifically stated Standard Administra tion Procedures (Appendix D). Each examiner administered the task items to five children from one age level. Examiners were randomly assigned to age levels, but because of transportation and timetabling restrictions, the students were not randomly assigned to examiners. V. Research Questions 1) Was there a significant increase in performance associated with increasing age? (6 yr. < 7 yr. < 8 yr. < 9 yr.) 2) Was there a significant increase in task difficulty associated with levels 1 - 4? (l > 2 > 3 > 4) 3) Was there a significant difference between task performances on singular and plural Aux items? 24. 4) Was there a significant difference between task performances on past and non-past items? 5) Was there a significant difference between task performances on simple-active-declarative statements and yes/no transforms? 6) Were deaf children using particular operational language rules which explained some of their deviant language productions? VI. Design Each subject was administered four sittings of the tasks. The sittings involved replications of task, singular/plural, tense, transforma tion, and sentence items. The design of the study is shown in Figures 1 and 2. Analysis of the results was effected through a five factor with repeated measures analysis of variance design. The levels of the five factors were: (6 yrs. ), A2 (7 yrs.), A^ (8 yrs. ), A^ (9 yrs. ); B1 (Task l), B2 (Task 2), B3 (Task 3), B^ (Task 4); C± (Singular), C2 (Plural); D1 (non-past), D2 (past); and E1 (SAD), E2 (TQ). Factors B, C, D, and E were crossed with another, and each was repeated over the four levels of A. The resulting .sources of variation, along with their respective error terms and degrees of freedom, are given in Table 1. VII. Experimental Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 The average number of correct responses will increase with age. 25. s 3D •> -i •n Z 2 The dog is sitting. The bcv is sittinr . o > CO • • Is the dog jumping? Ts the ~ i r ^ "'BTj^hin"? 2V n » The boy was laughing. The bov was crvin?. P CO • Was the girl drinking? Was the ?irl sleecins? 2\< ASK The boys are swimming. *TVi<^ ^o1'*^ 3 ° e ? "** * 7,1 c*" . ASK Are the boys sitting? Are the dogs iuroiiie? A The dogs were walking. The girls were drinking. P ft-Were the dogs eating? ^gro the girls sleeoing? The boy is skipping. The bov is eating. C7>tA Is the dog walking? Ts the bov swi^Ding ? CO The dog was sleeping. The doe was eating. P Was the girl running? Was the girl walking? • The boys are laughing. The bovs are skiouine. Are the girls skipping? Are the bovs •'umoing? ft IP N The girls were sitting. The cirls were walking. 33 £ Were the girls eating? Were the boys clapping? v> FIGURE 1 Study Design 26. >3 m 2: 30 > P. H 3 The girl is clapping. The bov is iumoins. ft Is the boy running? Is the girl -iumoine? The boy was sleeping. The doe was running. o><s> 3 > Was the girl swimming? Was the bov falling? ft. The girls are swimming. The boys are falling. ? <LNJ Are the dogs running? Are the girls crying? ft C The dogs were sleeping. The boys were crying. o> </> 'Were the boys sleeping? Were the eirls laughing? The girl is eating. The girl is falling. Is the boy drinking? Is the boy walking? 2.V< The boy was clapping. The girl was skipping. 5' Was the girl sitting? Was the girl crvine? 5i o ine Doys are drinking. The girls are falling. LA Are the girls clapping? Are the bovs running? 0 The girls were running. The dogs were sitting. r.ere the boys walking? Were the girls jumping? ^5 8 r FIGURE 2 Study Design (cont.) 27. TABLE 1 Sources of Variation, Error Terms, and Degrees of Freedom for ANOVA Source3, Error Term df Source Error Term di Mean R(A) 1 ACE CER(A) 3 A R(A) 3 BCE BCER(A) 3 B BR( A) 3 ADE DER(A) 3 C CR(A) 1 BDE BDER(A) 3 D DR( A) 1 CDE CDER(A) 1 E ER( A) 1 BCR(A) 108 R(A) 36 BDR(A) 108 AB BR(A) 9 CDR(A) 36 AC CR(A) 3 BER(A) 108 BC BCR(A) 3 CER(A) 36 AD DR(A) 3 DER(A) 36 BD BDR(A) 3 ABCD BCDR(A) 9 CD CDR(A) 1 ABCE BCER(A) 9 AE ER(A) 3 ABDE BDER(A) 9 BE BER(A) 3 ACDE CDER(A) 3 CE CER(A) 1 BCDE BCDER(A) 3 DE DER(A) 1 S( BCDE) SR(ABCDE) 32 BR(A) 108 BCDR(A) 108 CR(A) 36 BCER(A) 108 DR( A) 36 BDER(A) 108 ER(A) 36 CDER(A) 36 ABC BCR(A) 9 ABCDE BCDER(A) 9 ABD BDR(A) 9 AS(BCDE) SR( ABCDE) 96 ACD CDR(A) 3 BCDER(A) 108 BCD BCDR(A) 3 SR( ABCDE) 1152 ABE BER(A) 9 Total: 2560 aMean = grand mean A = age B = task C = singular/plural D = tense E = transformation S = sentences R = replicates 28. Hypothesis 2 The average number of correct responses will decrease with task. (Task 1 > Task 2 > Task 3 > Task 4). Hypothesis 3 There will be a larger average number of correct responses for singular statements than for plural statements. Hypothesis 4 There will be a larger average number of correct responses for past tense statements than there will be for present tense statements. Hypothesis 5 There will be a larger average number of correct responses for simple-active-declarative statements than for yes/no transforms. VTII. Procedure Subjects were selected according to the criteria noted above (Sampling and Subjects). Each subject completed the vocabulary, demonstration, and first sitting of the task items as per Standard Administration Procedures (Appendix D). The following day the same examiner administered the second sitting of the task items, again following instructions in Appendix D. The third and fourth sittings of the tasks were administered by the same examiner as per instructions (Appendix D), on the third and fourth days respectively. In a few instances, a subject completed the third and fourth sittings in one day, however, in each case, the subject was given an appropriate rest between sittings. CHAPTER IV RESULTS I. Models for Analyzing the Data The data were analysed under two separate models. The first model was used to consider the quantitative results and the second model was used to consider the qualitative results. Each model will be discussed below. Quantitative Analysis Responses were scored as correct or incorrect ... 1 or 0 ... and it was therefore necessary to consider the effect of limitations of the number of criterion score values on the validity of using analysis of variance techniques. Hsu and Feldt (1969) investigated some specific problems that are pertinent to this study: 1. ... is the distribution of mean square ratios largely independent of the number of score units? 2. Do analysis of variance techniques, the short scale notwithstanding, have an advantage over the x2-test of independence in detecting differences in central tendency? (p. 516). Their conclusions were as follows: 1. ... With samples of 11 cases or more, no adjustment appears necessary in the tabled values of F needed for signi ficance at the 10 per cent, five per cent and one per cent levels. 2. When considering data with a limited number of score values, analysis of variance techniques have an advantage over the X2-test of independence when the sample size is very small, when the study involves more than one factor, or when the primary interest is in the differences among means rather than the variances of the populations (p. 526), The ANOVA's performed in this study indicated that there were significant differences among levels of factors. In order to determine 30. how profiles differed, - statistical contrasts were performed. Earlier discussion (Chapter III - Experimental Hypotheses) implied that some contrasts were a priori (prediction of direction of differences) while others were a posteiori (unspecified inter-action effects). Some of these contrasts were orthogonal while others were non-orthpgonal. Games (1971) discussed several techniques for performing multiple comparisons of means. His article demonstrated that Bonferroni's t test was the most suitable statistic for the present study. Bonferroni's t test permits orthogonal or non-orthogonal a priori or a posteiori contrasts. Results of the test are conservative. Qualitative Analysis A model, based on T-G grammar theories, was developed for purposes of analysis of the content of task responses. The model was task specific as considerations were made for the unique properties of the be-ir.g verb in singular and plural statements (rules 13-18). The model allowed for a complete description of a subject's performance on task items. The model is presented in Figure 3. II. Results of the Quantitative Analysis Means and standard deviations for age levels. In order to demonstrate that the results were reflective of the age levels designated in the selec tion criteria, means and standard deviations for the four age levels were computed. Results are presented in Table 2. Means and standard deviations for hearing levels. In order to demonstrate that the results were reflective of children with hearing levels designated in the selection criteria, means and standard deviations "cdel of 'iask Specific Rules 31. SAD Kuc V? Au x HP _ no singular plura 1 C tense. no NP + VP Aux + V + ing be + C The + 11 + no /'singular plura1 :ense + no be + past + s be + non-past + s —^ is — be + past + re ^ were be + non-past + re_^ are S . D . : S . D . : SAD T The + N + no + be + C + V + in y/n be + C + the + H + no + \! + ing v Rule 1 _ 2 _ 3 _ 5 6 7 8 9 _ 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 a. signifies V + ing presented together on chart. FIGURE 3 Model of Task Specific Rules TABLE 2 Means and Standard Deviations for Age Levels Age Level Mean (in months) Standard Deviation (in months) A^ - 6 yrs. 74.5 3.9 A2 - 7 yrs. 84.9 3.7 Ay - 8 yrs. 97.7 3.3 A^ - 9 yrs. 107.3 3.7 33. for the four age levels were computed. Results are presented in Table 3. A summary of the analysis of variance is presented in Table A. The main effects for age (A), task (B)\ and singular/plural (C) were significant, and are examined in greater detail below. Age contrasts (A). To determine the sources of variation among levels of the Age factor, Bonferroni t tests were performed. A summary of these contrasts is presented in Table 5. The significant differences were between 7 yr. and 9 yr. levels. The mean for the 7 yr. olds was less than that of the 6 yr. olds, hence the 7 yr. olds and 9 yr. olds were also significantly different. The first experimental hypothesis (Chapter III) indicated an expecta tion that the 6 year old Ss would have a mean significantly smaller than that for 7 year olds, which, in turn, should be significantly smaller than that for 8 year olds. However, a preliminary examination of the results (Appendix F) indicated that the 6 yr. olds' and the 7 yr. olds' means were similar and to contrast them would seem to be pointless. Schmitt's (1969) sampling procedure provided three year mean differences between age groups in order to demonstrate significant changes in perfor mance. On the basis of Schmitt's evidence and the mean differences (Table 5), the investigator selected 6 yr. olds and 9 yr. olds for the third contrast. 1. As assumptions of equal covariances in the pooled variance-covariance matrix were not met, a Greenhouse & Geisser conservative F test was performed for factors B and C (cf(l,36) for booth tests) with the results indicating significant differences at the .01 level. Greenhouse and Geisser F tests for AB and AC interactions (df(3,36) for both tests) indicated significance at the .05 level. 34. TABLE 3 Means and Standard Deviations for Hearing Levels Age Level Mean (in dB) Standard Deviations (in dB) A1 - 6 yrs. 98.0 10.1 A2 - 7 yrs. 100.5 13.8 A^ - 8 yrs. 98.0 12.3 A. - 9 yrs. 95.5 16.9 4 35. TABLE 4 Summary of Analysis of Variance Source df Mean Square F MEANa 1 181.6891 163.8406 Ab 3 7.4838 6.7487 ** BC 3 15.1046 96.7340 ** Cd 1 36.5765 45.0421 ** De 1 .3062 1.7579 Ef 1 .1562E-02 0.0084 R(A)g 36 1.1089 ** 3.7413 AB 9 .5841 AC 3 4.0213 4.9521 ** BC 3 .4463 2.4136 AD 3 . 3072 1.7639 BD 3 .1593 1.1640 CD 1 .9179E-05 0.0001 AE 3 .2588 1.3864 BE 3 .2963 1.8198 CE 1 .7656E-01 0.3297 1.4062 ** DE 1 14.3253 BR(A) 108 .1561 CR(A) 36 .8120 DR(A) 36 .1742 ER( A ) 36 .1867 ABC 9 .1453 0.7858 ABD 9 .2201 1.6078 ACD 3 .2218 1.6739 BCD 3 .5728E-01 0.5574 ABE 9 .8559E-01 0.5256 ACE 3 .4219E-01 0.1817 BCE 3 .1713 1.1850 ADE 3 .2072 2.1116 • BDE 3 .5635 4.2421 ** CDE 1 .5624E-01 0.5424 36. TABLE 4 (cont. ) Source df ?.fean Square F BCR(A) 108 .1849 BDR(A) 108 .1369 CDR(A) 36 .1325 BER(A) 108 .1628 CER(A) 36 .2321 DER(A) 36 .9816E-01 ABCD 9 .1694 1.6481 ABCE 9 .1161 0.8029 ABDE 9 .1548 1.1656 ACDE 3 .6978E-01 0.6730 BCDE 3 .1302 1.0509 S(BCDE )h 32 .1640 1.6294 BCDR(A) 108 .1027 BCER(A) 108 .1446 BDER(A) 108 .1328 CDER(A) 36 .1036 ABCDE 9 .2979 2.4050 AS(BCDE) 96 .1005 0.9982 BCDER(A) 108 .1238 SR(ABCDE) 1152 .1006 * - probability < .05 ** - probability < .01 a - grand mean b - age c - task d - singular/plural e - tense f - transform g - subjects nested within age h - sentences nested within BCDE 37. TABLE 5 Summary of Age (A) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for V. J V1 = 7 yr. vs. 8 yr. = .1141 ¥2 = 8 yr. vs. 9 yr. = .1188 ?3 = 6 yr. vs. 9 yr. = .2203 - .0749 < ¥ £ .3031 - .0702 < Y < .3078 .0313 < Y < -4093* Means 6 yr. = .1890 7 yr. = .1765 8 yr. = .2906 9 yr. = .4093 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 level 38. Task contrasts (B). To determine the source of variation among levels of the Task factor, Bonferroni t tests were performed. A summary of these contrasts is presented in Table 6. The contrasts performed were determined by the second experimental hypothesis (Chapter III). Tasks two, three, and four were demonstrated to be significantly different while tasks one and two were not significantly different. However, it was concluded that tasks one, three and four were significantly different as the mean for task one was larger than the mean for task two. Singular/plural contrasts (C). It was apparent that the subjects had less difficulty with singulars than they had with plurals (504 correct singulars vs. 188 correct plurals). Age x Task contrasts (AB). The age-by-task (AB) interaction was statistically significant (Table 4). Selected contrasts were performed to determine which tasks differentiated between age levels. A summary of the Bonferroni contrasts for AB interactions is presented in Table 7. Task one differentiated between 7, 8, and 9 year age levels. As the cell means for A^B^ was smaller than that of A£B^, it was apparent that task one also differentiated between 6 and 8 year levels. Task three differentiated between 7 and 8 year olds, however, task four differentiated between 8 and 9 year old subjects. The age-by-task interactions are graphed in Figure 4. Age x Singular/plural contrasts (AC). The interaction between age and singular/plural was significant (Table 4). In view of the significant difference in favor of the singular factor, age levels were contrasted within the 'singular' level of the singular/plural factor. A summary of the Bonferroni contrasts for these selected AC interactions is presented in Table 8. 39. TABLE 6 Summary of Task (B) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for f. = Task 1 vs. Task 2 = .0578 4 •\ = Task 2 vs. Task 3 = .2000 ¥6 = Task 3 vs. Task 4 = .0609 - .0022 < V £ .1178 .1400 £ V £ .2600 .0009 < V 4: .1209 Means Task 1 = .4250 Task 2 = .3671 Task 3 = .1671 Task 4 = .1062 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 level TABLE 7 Summary of Age x Task (AB) Interaction Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for ¥. J £ .2609 y7 = A2B^ vs. A3B3 = : .1313 .0017 V *8 = A^B^ vs. A4B3 = = .1125 - .0171 < .2421 A2B^ vs. A3B4 = = .0813 - .0483 < .2109 <J .2609 ** u> = 10 A3B4 vs* A4B4 = ; .1313 .0017 = .1875 ** w = 11 A2B1 vs. A3Bl = .0579 ^ .3171 = .1813 ** A^B1 vs. Vl = .0517 < .3109 Cell Means Bl B2 B3 B4 .2812 .3687 .0687 .0375 A, .2875 .3125 .7500 .0312 A3 .4750 .3687 .2062 .1125 A4 .6562 .4187 . 3187 .2437 ** _ equivalent to significance at . 01 level where: A1 = 6 yrs; A2 = 7 yrs; Aj = 8 yrs; A^ = 9 yrs B1 = Task 1; B2 = Task 2; B^ = Task 3; B 4 : = Task 4 41. .7 .6 --.5 .4 --.3 .1 4-.0 6 yr. (A^ 7 yr. (A^ 8 yr. (A3) 9 yr. (A4) 2 3 TASK (B) FIGURE 4 AB Interactions 42. TABLE 8 Summary of Age x Singular/Plural (AC) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for ¥, = A2C1 vs. A^ = .1500 ^ = A3C1 vs. = .2438 - .0593 ^ V « .3593 .0345 < ¥ £ .4531 Cell Means A^ = .2500 A2C1 = '250° A3C1 A4C1 .4000 .6437 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 level where: A^ = 6 yrs; = 7 yrs; A^ = 8 yrs; A^ = 9 yrs C-. = Singular 43. It was clear that 9-year-olds performed significantly better on singular noun and verb task items than did 8-year-olds. Six and 9 year age levels were significantly different as were 7 and 9 year age levels. In each case the better performance was associated with the nine year age level. Tense x Transform contrast (DE). This contrast was of particular interest as experimental hypotheses three and four (Chapter III) were not supported and selected contrasts of the interaction may explain the lack of significant main effects. Examination of cell means (Table 9) indicated that response patterns for levels of factor D were different (e.g. D^Lj >B-i_E^ and ®2^2 < ^i^i^' TMS pattern may account for non-significance of the hypothesis. A similar pattern was noted for the factor E cell means. However, there was a difference between cell means for 311(1 D2E2" The Bonferroni contrasts is presented in Table 9. Task x Tense X transform contrasts (BDE). The differences between Tasks was highly significant (see Table 4). Because the task factor was so significant, selected contrasts were performed to investigate the contribution of within task variance to the three factor interaction. A summary of the contrasts is presented in Table 10. The contrasts demonstrated that the task factor was responsible for considerable variation within the three factor interaction. Age x Task x Singular/plural x Tense x Transform contrasts (ABCDE). The ABCDE interaction was of little consequence as all significance levels reported above were at the .01 level while this interaction was at the .05 level. However the first three factors were previously demonstrated to be significant, as were several interactions noted above. These results may have been responsible for part of the five factor interaction. In TABLE 9 Summary of Tense x Transform (DE) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for J ¥15 = D1E2 vs' D2E2 = ,0688 ,009° 4 ¥ * *1286 Cell Means D1E1 ,2531 D±E2 = .3015 D2E1 .2781 D2E2 = .2328 ** - Equivalent to significance at .01 level where: = Non-past; D2 = Past E1 = Simple-active-declarative; E2 = Yes/no question 45. TABLE 10 Summary of Task x Tense x Transform (BDE) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for V. 0 .2938 .1698 < ¥ « .4178 ** B2D1E2 VS' B3D1E2 = .1563 Y £ .2803 ** *17 = B2D2E2 vs. B3D2E2 = .0323 < B2D1E1 VS' B3D1E1 = .1063 - .0177 < ¥ < .2303 .2438 Y « .3678 ** Y19 = B2°2E1 VS' B3D2E1 = .1198 < Cell Means D1E1 D1E2 D2E1 D2E2 .4375 .4812 .4437 .3375 .2875 .4562 .3875 .3375 h .1812 .1625 .1437 .1812 .1062 .1062 .1375 .0750 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 level where: B1 = Task 1; B2 = Task 2; B^ = Task 3; B^ = Task 4 = Non-past; D2 = Past E, = Simple-active-declarative; E? = Yes/no question 46. order to investigate this possibility, five contrasts were performed to examine the interaction of age with differing levels of the remaining four factors. A summary of the contrasts is presented in Table 11. The selected contrasts performed did not examine all possible pair-wise contrasts of the five factor interaction and the results, therefore, were not assumed to have isolated the total source of variance within the interaction. Rather, the intent was to demonstrate that the particular significances discussed earlier were, at least partially, responsible for the five factor interaction. Examiner differences. Each examiner administered the tasks to five children from one age level. Hence, examiners were nested under age (X(A)). Use of more than one examiner may have resulted in differences in administration procedures. In order to investigate this possibility, the data were re-analyzed with a sixth factor (examiner) included in the ANOVA. The results of that analysis are presented in Appendix I. Examiner contrasts. There was a clear differentiation of results collected by different examiners. In order to determine the source of variation in this factor, Bonferroni contrasts were performed. As a result of population (Chapter V, p. 65) and cell mean differences (Table 12), contrasts were made between examiners at the A0 (8 yrs.) and A, (9 yrs.) age levels. A summary of the contrasts is presented in Table 12. Examiner x Singular/plural contrasts (CX(A)). The CX(A) interaction was significant at the .01 level (Appendix I). Bonferroni contrasts were utilized to locate the sources of variation. Age levels three and four were selected for the same reasons discussed in the previous subsection (Exaniiner contrasts). A summary of the contrasts is presented in Table 13-47. TABLE 11 Summary of Age x Task x Singular/Plural x Tense x Transform (ABCDE) Estimated Contrast .05 Confidence Interval for ¥. J ¥20 = AjB^OjD^ vs. A^B1C1D1E2 = .4000 .1107 « V 4 .6893 * I21 = A2B1C1D2E2 VS . A^C^E^ .5000 .2107 < ¥ < .7893 * ^22 = A2B3C1D2E2 VS . A.B.C D E = .3500 4 4 1 -L <=- .0607 ¥ < .6393 * *23 = A2B3C1D1E2 VS- A4B3C1D2E2 = '6500 .3607 < ¥ < .9393 * ?24 = A1B1C1D1E2 vs. A4BlClD2E2 = .4500 .1707 < Y1 < .7393 * Cell Means WlVs = .4000 A2B3C1D1E2 = .1000 A4B1C1D1E2 = .7000 A4B3C1D1E2 = .4500 WlD2E2 = .2000 A2B3C1D2E2 = .2000 A4B1C1D2E2 = .8500 A4B3C1D2E2 = .7500 V4W2 = .0500 A4B4C1D1E2 = .5500 - equivalent to significance at .05 level Where: A^ = 6 yrs; A2 = 7 yrs; A^ = 9 yrs h = Task 1; = Task 3; = Task 4 Cl = singular Non-past; D2 = Past E, = Simple-active-declarative; E„ = Yes/no question 48. TABLE 12 Summary of Examiner (X) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for f. J Y26 = *l\ vs< X2A4 = *2188 - .0176 « Y « .4052 .0074 < Y « .4302 Cell Means .1562 *1A3 " .1937 X2A1 = .2218 X2A3 = .3875 *1A2 = .2125 *1A4 = .3000 *2k2 = .1406 ^4 = .5187 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 level where: X^ = Examiner 1; = Examiner 2 A^^ = 6 yrs; A^ = 7 yrs; A^ = 8 yrs; A^ = 9 yrs 49. TABLE 13 Summary of Examiner x Singular/Plural (CX(A)) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .01 Confidence Interval for V, Y27 = X1A3C2 vs. X^C, .4125 ¥28 = W°2 VS* X2A4C1 = *6875 .1407 ^ y < .6843 .4157 « ¥ < .9593 Cell Means X1A3C2 = .1750 XgA^ = .5875 X1A<;C2 = .1437 X2A4C1 = *8:312 ** - equivalent to significance at .01 level where: X^ = Examiner 1; X^ = Examiner 2 A3 = 8 yrs; A^ = 9 yrs C, = Singular; C9 = Plural 50. Examiner x Tense contrasts (DX(A)). The examiner by tense interaction was of lesser significance (.05 alpha level; Appendix I). An attempt was made to locate the source of variance for the interaction through applica tion of Bonferroni's t_ test. Again, age levels A^ (8 yrs.) and A^ (9 yrs.) were investigated. A summary of the contrasts is presented in Table 14-. III. Results of the Qualitative Analysis Detailed analysis of the content of responses for all subjects was considered too large a task for this investigation as the intent was not to describe a complete grammar but to describe some of the operational rules of these children. Consequently, two subjects per age level were selected from the population studied. An attempt was made to select those subjects whose performance was average. That is, their results were neither the best nor the worst of the data collected. Subjects selected were numbers, 5, 6, 16, 19, 24, 30, 33j and 40. A summary of their responses on tasks three and four is presented in Appendix H, while task one and two responses are presented in Appendix G. Each subject's responses will be analysed and reported separately to assure clarity of analysis and reporting. The results of the analyses will be discussed in Chapter V. Subject #5 (Age: 6 yrs. 5 mos.). Task one. One error was noted on singular responses. Subject 5 selected a picture representing a plural noun and past tense markers when the correct response for this particular yes/no transform (#301 - Appendix G) was a picture representing singular noun and past tense markers. All other responses involving singular markers were correct, regardless of tense or transform. TABLE 14 Summary of Examiner x Tense (DX(A)) Contrasts Estimated Contrast .05 Confidence Interval for J ?29 = \kj>2 vs. X2A3D1 = .2500 .1484 < ¥ <? .3516 * y30 = \\\ vs- "tytPz = *2500 . .1484 ^ Y « .3516 * ?31 = vs. X2A^D1 = .1875 .0859 « y < .2891 * Cell Means \kj>2 = .1312 = .5187 X2A3D1 = .3812 W2 = = .3312 XjA^ = .2687 W2 = = .5187 * - equivalent to significance at .05 level where: X^ = Examiner 1; = Examiner 2 A1 = 6 yrs; A^ = 8 yrs; A^ = 9 yrs D, = Non-past; D9 = Past 52. Every plural present res-ponse v/as incorrect. In each instance subject 5 selected the picture representing plural noun and past tense markers. All plural past task items were completed correctly. Task two. A similar pattern to the task one singular responses was noted. All singular statements were selected correctly with the exception of one yes/no transform. In this instance the correct singular past statement was not selected, rather a plural non-past Aux with a singular noun (ll) was selected (#114). When dealing with plurals, subject 5 again experienced difficulties. Of the eight plural items, one was completed correctly (#106). When presented with a plural non-past SAD item, subject 5 selected a statement containing a plural noun and singular past Aux (#110). The remaining six errors were consistent in that a state ment in the correct tense was selected, but the Aux was always singular when it should have been plural. In other 7/ords, the student operated with the tense rule but not the agreement rule (concord). Task three. The first task three item presented (#103) was completed incorrectly. Subject 5 used a past tense Aux for a non-past tense item. Item 411 was correct structurally. A substitution error ('dog' for 'boy') was noted but it was not considered to be of any consequence in this study as the error did not occur more than once. The item was, therefore, considered correct. Singular past SAD items were completed correctly while plural SAD items were completed incorrectly. In every instance a singular Aux was selected for plural statements and two of the four nouns selected were singular. Subject 5 was unable to complete yes/no transforms (Appendix H). 53. Singular yes/no transform items elicited a double SAD statement correspond ing to the pictured situation. Plural yes/no transform items resulted in plural nouns being selected one half of the time with singular Aux selected throughout. Two of the four plural yes/no transforms were left the exception of #103, tenses were used correctly throughout the task. SAD items were generated incorrectly. Two of the four incorrect plural items contained singular nouns and a singular Aux was used in every instance. As in task three, subject 5 was unable to deal with yes/no transforms. All yes/no generations were incorrect. In the case of singular items, a correct corresponding SAD was produced, while plural yes/no items elicited corresponding plural SAD structures with a singular Aux. Tenses were used correctly throughout task four. a beginning of number concepts. She did not attach an inflectional ending to singular nouns and did use the 's' morpheme on all but one plural noun in task four. Subject 5 did not demonstrate knowledge of subject-verb concord in plural situtations as a singluar Aux was consistently selected. The subject was unable to generate or complete a yes/no transform but was able to perform correctly on 3 of 4 singular yes/no questions in both tasks one and two. A summary of Subject 5's operational rules, relative to this study, are as follows: Structural Description (SD) for both SAD and Tn statements Reference to the model of task specific rules (Figure 3) demonstrated that Subject 5 used rules 7 and 9 inconsistently, did not use rules 14, incomplete (No response recorded in one of the spaces provided). With Task four. Singular SAD items were generated correctly and plural Summary. Subject 5 demonstrated mastery of tense markers and 54. 17, 18, and 20 but used all other rules of the model correctly. Subject rf6 (Age: 6 yrs. 3 mos. ). Task one. Two singular items were completed correctly (one SAD and one TQ). All of the six remaining singulars were treated as plurals. Tense usage was inconsistent in SAD structures and consistently past throughout TQ responses. Two plural items were also completed correctly (again, a SAD and a TQ) but the remaining responses were inconsistent in tense and number. Task two. Singular past SAD statements were selected for all singular SAD statements, regardless of tense, while the three errors in singular TQ statements were number errors of concord (i.e. were girl). One plural non-past SAD and two plural past Tn statements were correctly selected but the remaining five selections indicated many concord inconsis tencies (both tense and number). Task three. None of the completions were correct. Subject 6 generally supplied a noun with a plural inflection inconsistently attached. This response pattern was noted throughout SAD and Tn items. It was of interest that Tn items had two blanks in each completion item and the student generally supplied the same noun twice with inconsistencies in plural inflection. Item 415 elicited a V + ing response. Task four. Subject six continued the pattern discussed above, that is supplying N + s for all items. However, it was of interest that in all instances but one a "ing was supplied whenever the stimulus pic^-ture included boys. Summary. Subject 6 generally appeared to function at a one word level on production tasks. Inconsistencies were noted throughout tasks on tense and number (both concord and plural inflections). A general operational rule for subject 6 on tasks 1-4 is noted below: 55. SD for SAD and TQ structures =4N + (s) =}V + ing if N = boy(s) Reference to the model confirmed that rules 6-9 were used inconsistently and there was no evidence of the other rules of the model being used. Subject #16 (Age: 7 yrs. 2 mos.). Task one. Subject 16 selected singular pictures for all singular SAD statements. Three of the four singular pictures selected were marked as non-past tense, hence 3 of 4 responses were correct (2 non-past and 1 past). Singular TQ statements elicited selection of three singular non-past pictures. None of the plural items resulted in correct responses. Three of four plural SAD item responses were singular non-past and three of four plural TQ item responses were plural. Subject 16 selected singular non-past more frequently than plural or past responses. Task two. Two SAD items were correctly selected (l singular and 1 plural) otherwise the selections reflected what appeared to be a random choice of Aux. The TQ items resulted in one correct response (singular non-past) with singular Aux selected in all but one instance. Tense of the Aux was used inconsistently. Task three. Subject 16 did not complete any of the items correctly. In every instance a correct noun was selected; however the plural inflection was used only twice in plural items. A pattern of combining what appeared to be an undefined inflection (was) with the noun was apparent throughout the task. This pattern led to two correct responses in TQ items (singular past) as the 'was' inflection filled the first blank and the noun filled the second thereby completing a TQ statement. Task four. A similar pattern of inflectional 'was' plus noun 56. was noted throughout SAD singular and plural and singular TQ items. There were two unexplained responses (#116 and #104-) where it appeared that V + ing was used. The plural TQ items seemed to confuse the subject as his pattern was broken. A non-past tense inflection appeared once (#108); the order was reversed once (#308); and the inflection was omitted once (#112); another response did not fit any pattern (#304). Summary. Subject 16 generally appeared to be functioning with the rule that; S > was + N + (s) with was as an undefined inflection and 's' selected inconsistently. According to the model the subject was using rules 6-9 inconsistently and demonstrated a partial understanding of rule 3 but there was no evidence of use of other rules. Subject #19 (Age: 7 yrs. 3 mos.). Task one. Four singular SAD items resulted in selection of plural pictures. Tense marker selections were inconsistent. TQ items caused subject 19 to select non-past singular pictures three times resulting in two correct choices. Plural SAD items resulted in selection of three plural pictures but again tense marker selection was inconsistent. Two of the four responses were correct. Plural TQ items elicited three singular and three non-past responses. Tense and number responses were inconsistent throughout the task. Task two. Singular Aux statements were selected for singular SAD items three of four times. Plural Aux statements were selected for plural SAD items. However, tense errors resulted in only 50$ accuracy on SAD items. Tn items resulted in inconsistent selection of singular-plural, past-non-past Aux statements. Only 12 1/2% accuracy was noted for TQ items. Task three. Throughout the task subject 19 supplied either 57. V + ing or N + (s). There did not appear to be any consistency of choice. In T transforms, the first blank was used and the second was not. In one plural TQ item the student used is_ and are in the two blanks. Task four. Subject 19 generally supplied V + ing for all items. Exceptions to this rule were: a plural noun generation for a plural SAD item; no response when the student could not find the desired verb on the chart; and one N + V + ing for a singular T_ item. Summary. Subject 19 was inconsistent in tense and number differ entiations. He generally supplied a noun if the verb was given, otherwise, he generated a verb. He appeared to use the following two rules: SD for SAD and TY/N structures 1. ) v""+ ing, and 2. If given v^"+ ing =^N + (s) + v"~~+ ing The first rule did not correspond to the model of task specific rules; however the second rule appeared to be a crude application of rule 2 of the model. Subject #24 (Age: 7 yrs. 11 mos. ). Task one. Responses for singular SAD and TQ items were in the correct tense in seven of the eight instances and correct number was used for five of the eight items. Plural SAD and Tn items resulted in five correct tenses and one correct number for the eight items. Task two. Responses to singular SAD and TQ items were correct for seven of the eight items with the eighth item incorrect in both tense and number. • Plural SAD and TQ statements selected were in the correct tense seven times but the number of the A.ux was correct only twice in eight responses. Task three. It appeared that subject 24 experienced some task 53. confusion as he interchanged Aux and noun positions in some statements. Singular SAD statements v;ere completed correctly with the exception of the Aux being consistently placed in the wrong position (preceding the noun). Singular T statements were correctly completed. Plural SAD items again vi had the Aux in the wrong position and there was continued difficulty with the number of the Aux. Plural TQ statements were correctly completed with the exception of the number of the Aux. Task four. Singular SAD items again resulted in a TQ response; however it was noted that the verb was omitted in three of the four genera tions. Singular TQ items resulted in generation of one correct response and three corresponding SAD statements and the verb was omitted once. Plural items demonstrated a continued confusion of SAD and TQ responses (one-half were correctly generated) as well as continued difficulty 7,1th the number of the A.ux. The verb was omitted in five of the eight generations, Summary. Subject 24 generally appeared to comprehend singular statements but did not appear to comprehend cr use a plural Aux in SAD or TQ items. There was a confusion of rules for completing or generating SAD and TQ statements. In some instances, task four items (generation) resulted in omission of the verb. Subject 24 appeared to complete the tasks according to the following rules of operation: SD TY/H=£ — + the + M + no + (V + ing) It was apparent that rules 19 and 20 of the model were confused and that rules 14, 17 and 18 were not used in the tasks; otherwise the rules of the model appear to have been utilized. 59. Subject #30 (Age: 8 yrs. 6 mos.). Task one. All singular items were completed correctly and five of the eight plural items were also com pleted correctly. The three plural errors were the result of selection of pictures marked as non-past tense when the statements were past tense. Task two. Seven of the eight singular items were correctly selected. One plural Aux was selected for a singular item. Seven of the eight plural items were incorrect as the result of selection of singular Aux statements. Task three. All singular items were completed correctly and all plural items were incorrect. The errors were the result of singular Aux consistently being used for plural items. Task four. All singular SAD statements were correctly generated and all singular TQ statements were correct with the exception of the determiner. As in previous tasks, the singular Aux was used for plural items. Generation of plural TQ transforms also resulted in omission of the determiner in every question. Summary. Subject 30 generally demonstrated comprehension and production skills in all areas examined with the exceptions of plural Aux, and generation of TQ statements. The student's rules of operation were summarized as follows: SD SAD The + N + no + + N + no + The subject did not use model rules 14, 17 and 18 and he reduced rule 20. Subject #33 (Age: 8 yrs. 8 mos. ). Task one. A tense error was mi? made on one singular response and the other seven responses were correct. Plural past pictures were selected for seven of the eight plural items. This pattern resulted in only three correct responses. Task two. All singular statements were selected correctly. All plural items were incorrect as a result of selection of singular Aux statements. Task three. V/ith one exception, responses had exactly the same pattern as in task two. That is, singular statements were correct and singular Aux was used for plural statements. The only exception was the omission of one plural inflection of a noun for a plural Tn statement. Task four. The generation items followed the same pattern as task three responses, with one exception. The noted difference in perfor mance was that subject 33 generated SAD statements for TQ transforms. Summary. Subject 33 did not generate TQ transforms but did appear to comprehend them. She could also complete a partially provided TQ structure (Task 3). Generally, the student was unable to deal with plural Aux regardless of tense. The operational rule summarizing task performance is as follows: SD for both SAD and T~ structures ' |wasj —— It was noted that the student appeared to be using all of the model with the exception of rules 14, 17, 18, and 20. Subject #40 (Age: 8 yrs. 9 mos.). Task one. All singular items were completed correctly and six of the eight plural items were also completed correctly. The two errors were confusions of tense and number. selected while only two plural items were correct. The singular error was Q Task two. Seven of the eight singular statements were correctly 61. the result of a selection of a plural instead of singular Aux statement. The six plural item errors were the result of selection of singular Aux statements. Task three. All singular items were completed correctly. Three of four plural SAD statements were completed incorrectly as a result of selection of a singular Aux. It was noted that a plural inflection of a noun was omitted in one item. Plural TQ items also utilized a singular Aux in three instances; however the fourth item was completed with a plural Aux in the wrong tense. Task four. There was an apparent confusion of SAD and TQ structures. All singular items were correctly generated except that one TQ statement was generated for a SAD item and vice versa. Seven of eight plural generations used a singular Aux. The eighth item used a plural Aux correctly hut the determiner and plural inflection of the noun were omitted. Summary. Subject 40 generally was able to comprehend and produce singular statements but experienced some difficulty with plural Aux items. It was noted that the plural inflection of the noun was sometimes omitted when the number of the noun and Aux were in conflict. There was a confusion of structural pattern for SAD and Tn statements. There were five items y where plural Aux was used correctly. One of the five items also included a reduction of the structure through the omissions of the determiner and plural inflection of the noun. Subject 40 appeared to operate on the tasks according to the following rules: 62. SD SAD The + N + (no)2 + (be + C)1 + f~+ ing TY/N==7>(be + C)1 + the + N + no + V + ing It was also noted that rules 19 and 20 were confused at times. This was probably a confusion of task response and not necessarily a reflection of the subject's normal performance. 1. It was noted that (be + C) was used inconsistently. Subject 4-0 generally used the singular Aux (rules 13, 15, and 16 of the model) but occasionally he used a plural Aux (rules 14, 17, and 12). 2. Number was used inconsistently - occasionally the plural inflection of noun was omitted if it was in conflict with the number of the Aux. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION I. Interpretation of Results Quantitative Results The purpose of this study was to investigate the six research questions previously stated (p. 23). The results pertaining to the first five questions were considered in this section. Age. The first research question queried the effect of age on perform ance. The main effect for the age factor was significant at the .01 level. Further statistical investigation led to the conclusion that the source of variation was between six and nine year levels (A^ and A^) and seven and nine year levels (A and A,). The first of these findings appeared to 2 4 be in agreement with the Schmitt (1969) results where a three year age difference was used to demonstrate significant differences. However, progress with older children (14 yrs. +) such as those in the Schmitt study is so much slower than that of young children (Annual Survey of Hearing Impaired Children and Youth, 1969) that smaller age ranges were expected to be significantly different. The multiple contrasts of age-by-task interactions revealed that task three (production-completion) differentiated between seven and eight year olds (A2 and A^) while the more difficult task four (production-construction) differentiated between eight and nine year olds (A^ and A^). The decrease in mean performance levels between six and seven year olds (A^ and A^) was considered to be a reflection of the previously discussed lack of language skills common to most young deaf children. Both groups generally 64. were functioning on a one or two word sentence level and were unable to deal with tense, number, and structural considerations. The two groups were, therefore, approximately equal in performance on the tasks. Task. The second research question (p. 23) dealt with the levels of difficulty of the four levels of tasks. Statistical evidence confirmed that the levels of task were significantly different. Bonfefroni contrasts indicated that the sources of variation were significant differences between task levels two and three, and levels three and four with the differences in the predicted direction. There was no significant difference between tasks one and two. This result led the investigator to reconsider the nature of the tasks. In retrospect it seemed that the second task was not a production item in that a stimulus picture and tense marker were observed and the subject then read four sentences and selected the correct one. The requirements of the task were similar to those of the first task-comprehension. In other words, the second task level was inaccurately named and should have been designated a comprehension task. The difference between means for tasks one and two (Table 6) was in the predicted direction but the difference was not statistically significant at the .01 level of significance. As both tasks one and two required attention to picture and sentence items, they were probably reflecting similar compre hension skills. Task two may have been slightly more difficult (Table 6) as particular attention was required of several differing Aux constructions. An increase in skill associated with age was reflected in parts of the tasks. Singular/plural. Results of the ANOVA indicated that the subjects experienced significantly more difficulty with plural than with singular markers. The result was not surprising and would have been of interest 65. only if the opposite results were found. It was interesting to note that the tasks were sensitive to age-associated skill increases (Table 8). These differences were cost apparent at the production level (Appendix F - tasks 3 and 4). Tense and transform. The predictions of significant main effects for tense and transform factors were not supported. The significant interaction of these two factors was investigated. Results of the contrasts indicated that the source of variation was between non-past and past tenses of T_ statements, with non-past tense results being significantly larger. This finding is of interest in light of the language methodology in use in schools for the deaf. The language instructional techniques for young deaf children concentrate on past tense simple-active-declarative structures. It was expected that the language teaching at school would generalize to performance on the tasks. However, the demonstration items concentrate on singular, past-non-past, and SAD-TQ differentiations. It appeared that this emphasis was generalized to the task performances. The relative success •with TQ items indicated that the children could comprehend and produce such structures. The three factor interactions involving task, tense, and transform were demonstrated to be, in part, the result of strong task differentiation (Table 10). The five factor interaction was significant of the .05 level and this result was demonstrated (Table 11) to be, in part, the result of a combination of previously discussed significant main effects and interactions. Examiner. The examiner variable was demonstrated to be significant at the .01 level. Previous discussion (pp. 23-24) indicated that two examiners were randomly assigned to each age level but that students were not randomly assigned to examiner. This procedure resulted in a 66. confounding of factors. Four of the five A^ (8 yr.) students assigned to one examiner and all of the A^ (9 yr.) students assigned to another examiner were above average in their academic and social performances and were placed in off-campus classes. That is, their school program was under the juris diction of the school for the deaf but their classrooms were situated in regular public schools. These children were generally superior to their deaf peers in linguistic skills and were placed in off-campus classes to enable further development of social and academic skills and integration with their hearing peers. The teachers, supervising teacher, principal, and superintendent were interested in comparing the results of these "advanced" children with the results of their peers. Their interest and terminology supports the premise that an exceptional group of children was assigned to these particular examiners. The results of Bonferroni contrasts (Table 12) indicated that significant differences were located within the A^ (9 yr.) level. The significantly better group was composed of children who were in the off-campus classes. The examiner-by-singular/plural and examiner-by-tense tests for interactions indicated both A^ and A^ levels as having examiner differences. V/hile the results of the examiner factor investigation were not easily interpretable due to confounding, it appeared that the population differences associated with examiner were of considerable importance. Qualitative Results Qualitative analyses of the responses attempted to provide an answer to the sixth research question (p. 24). An interpretation of the results of each subject analysis follows: Subject #5. Subject 5 demonstrated a knowledge of the structure of 67. SAD statements but vras unable to cope with statements at the production level (rule 20 of the model). This difficulty vras net apparent at the comprehension level (tasks one and two). The student was unable to deal with plural A.ux statements. That is, the student did not understand that an 're' morpheme must be selected in the presence of a plural noun (rule 14) and that the 're' morpheme combined with tense to produce either were or are (rules 17 and 18). Subject 5 appeared to be using all other rules in the model. Subject #6. Responses to all tasks demonstrated inconsistencies in performance dealing with number and tense. Number inconsistency was noted in both plural inflection of nouns and Aux agreement. It was apparent that subject 6 was functioning at a one word level. There was seme indica tion of an awareness of rules of number for nouns; however, the rules were not consistently utilized and probably not fully understood. If the child portrayed in the stimulus picture vras a boy, subject six supplied a "v" + "ing response. However, the ing inflection can not be credited as it was provided on the vocabulary chart (Appendix C). Kence, the subject generally provided a verb if the subject was a boy. Consideration of the nature of the input of the vocabulary charts led to an interesting explanation of the subject's response pattern. Each picture describing a verb has a boy portraying the action. It appeared that the subject used that information to develop a rule. The oversight (using all boys for verb pictures) served to demonstrate that the form of the linguistic input is crucial to language learning. The production of a noun for a sentence is typical of early productions of young hearing children. This phenomenon was explained by ?.'c"eill (1970): 68. ... the child combined no words until 17 months. It is of considerable interest that most of the words noted above are 'nouns'; those that are not nouns are 'adjectives', i.e. attributes of nouns. 'Verbs' are completely missing ... , the syntactic category of nouns is unique in that it alone appears in every grammatical relation. The richness of nouns in holophrastic speech (production), therefore, possesses an advantage for communication. Because all grammatical relations are implicit, nouns can be used in every available relation without endangering the compre hension of adults. Verbs do not have this Tjroperty (pp. 24 - 25). Subject #16. A consistent response pattern was noted in tasks one and two. Task one responses utilized non-past tense and task two responses employed a singular Aux for most of the items. The production tasks (3 and 4) also reflected a consistency in response pattern. Subject 16 appeared to function according to the rule that a sentence consisted of an undefined inflection (was) plus a noun. The response patterns throughout the four tasks indicated that the student was aware of the exis tence of rules in the language but had not yet been able to successfully define the rules. The one word sentence (noun) pattern was similar to that of the previous subject (#6); however the appearance of the inflection indicated that the subject had progressed beyond that level and was attempt ing to define another operational rule. The use of was was probably a direct reflection on the demonstration items but it served to demonstrate that the subject was aware of further operational rules and willing to attempt to use an ill-defined concept of a rule. McNeill (1970) stated: "children form relationships with ease, but require time to learn the restrictions on relationships" (p. 104). He also pointed out that it is the role of experience to slowly develop these restrictions. Subject 16 was, then, attempting to use a relationship that was probably perceived during the demonstration items. 69. Subject #19. This student was also performing at a basic level in language skills. Tense and number inconsistencies were evident throughout tasks one and two and performance on tasks three and four was generally at the one word level with indications of two word structures emerging. Subject 19 generally produced a verb for task four items. This response was probably task specific, in that it was possible to accurately describe a situation with a verb from the vocabulary chart. In this particular study, the verb did designate the central communication of the situation and the student could replace the one word noun sentence with a verb with a resultant increase in communication of content of the item. However, in task three performances the verb was given and the student then generally provided a noun to complete the statement. This response pattern indicated a partial understanding of sentence structure (i.e. NP + VP). There was also one instance of N + V~""+ "ing generation for the task four items. Subject #24. The student was generally able to cope with sentence structures. There were definite indications that structural differentiations were made between SAD and TQ statements. However, the inconsistency of performance indicated that the rules were not completely established in the student's grammar. Subject 24 did not appear to be using the number rule which requires that an 're' morpheme be used with be^ in the presence of a plural noun. Hence, all performances resulted in production of singular, or 's' morpheme, Aux constructions. This particular rule is specific to the verb to be and it was, therefore, not surprising that the rule vras not yet learned as "the contribution of experience will... be largest in those regions of grammar where general rules apply least." (McNeill, 1970, p. 104) and these young deaf children have.had a very 70. limited linguistic experience. It was also of interest that subject 24 omitted the verb and progressive inflection when required to generate complete structures. This operation was similar to findings reported by Bloom (1970) where " ... the operation of negation within a sentence increased its complexity, and thereby necessitated reduction in the surface structure" and " ... it appeared that reduction was the result of something more than a production limitation on sentence length" (pp. 156 and 165). Task four responses required the use of many operational rules in order to generate correct statements. This increase in task complexity relative to tasks one, two, and three could have been responsible for the reduction of the structure. Subject #30. The results of subject 30's task performances were very similar to those of subject 24-. The student did not use the 're' morpheme rule previously discussed (subject #24) and also had a consistent reduction of structure for TQ statements. There were no omissions in SAD generations but the additional operation of one transformation (TQ) appeared to be related to the omission of the determiner. Hence, a reduction transformation, as proposed by Bloom, appeared to be operative in this student's performances. Subject #33. Subject 33 appeared to be using all but two rules of the model of task specific rules. This student was not using the 're' morpheme rule and was not differentiating between SAD and Tn structures on task four performances. However, it appeared that the subject did have some skill with TQ structures as they were correctly completed (structurally) in tasks one, two and three. Subject #40. This subject demonstrated more skills than any of the others discussed in this section. The student appeared to understand and 71. use the structural differences of SAD and Tn statements as well and there was some correct usage of plural Aux statements. The student did not demonstrate mastery over the 're' morpheme rule but did demonstrate an awareness of the role of that rule. Considerations of concord also appeared to be responsible for the omission of plural inflection on some nouns. This subject appeared to understand all of the rules presented in the model but did not demonstrate performance mastery of those rules. II. Implications Bloom (1970) states that: It is now a basic assumption that the specification of 'what' the child learns ... and 'how* this learning takes place -knowledge of the substance and process of language development -can be a preeminent source of insight into the development of thought and the learning process (p. l). The tasks developed for this study were a means to an end. They were not intended as 'measures' of linguistic competence or performance in the sense of describing complete grammars for the children studied. Rather, the tasks provided an opportunity for collection of some data which would reflect some of the linguistics skills of young deaf children. This was a first attempt to describe the skills demonstrated through structured, paper and pencil tasks. This result was not surprising as McNeill (1970) states that: There is a strong tendency among children to include nothing in the surface structures of sentences that cannot be related to deep structures - i.e., nothing for which there is no transformational derivation known (p. 106). The results of this study demonstrated that the techniques used were useful for collection of data related to Bloom's 'what' and 'how' of language learning. It was apparent that there were developmental 72. differences associated with age and that these changes followed a consistent pattern. It was also demonstrated that some of the children could compre hend statements before they could produce similar structures. Of particular import were the findings that the patterns of performance of the six to nine year old deaf children were not dissimilar to performances of much younger hearing children (interpretation of Results). Very early developmental patterns of one-word sentences, development of plural inflections on nouns, emergence of undefined two word sentences, and one instance of the emergence of the use of plural Aux rules and reduction operation are also found in very young hearing children (Bellugi, 1967; Klima and Bellugi, 1964; Bellugi and Brown, 1964; Brown and Fraser, 1964). The results of the study demonstrated that the children performed consistently throughout the tasks. They, therefore, were rule governed in their performances. The description of a complete model for the tasks enabled the investigator to locate the rules with which particular children were encountering difficulty. In this respect, the tasks combined with the model provided diagnostic information which would be of assistance to teachers. For example, it was apparent that the linguistically more advanced children were experiencing difficulty with the 're' morpheme rule. They did however demonstrate mastery of the plural inflection for nouns. The 're' morpheme rule is unique to the verb to be and this rule is likely to create difficulties. McNeill (1970) pointed out that a great deal of experience would be required to develop mastery over such a specialized rule. The be-ing verb is used frequently in English and yet results of this study indicated that operational rules for its use emerged much later, chronologically, than for hearing children. This slower development has been attributed to a. lack of experience (Furth, 1971). 73. The "lack of experience" explanation is insufficient for educators of the deaf in that the experiential deficit may never be overcome. A highly restricted rule such as the 're' morpheme rule would require an extremely large body of experiences to establish mastery of the rule. An alternative approach to development of mastery over such a restrictive rule has been suggested as an outgrowth of the delineation of the model of rules for the tasks. The procedure will be presented in a following section (IV. Future Research, No. 4). III. Limitations 1) The study examined only a small part of young deaf children's linguistic skills. The results are, therefore, not necessarily representa tive of their complete grammars. 2) Several examiners were used in the study and an examiner difference was demonstrated to be significant. While the reasons for the differences were discussed, the fact remained that results were confounded. Hence generalizability is restricted by constraints of the examiner factor. 3) The population studied was selected from one- school for the deaf. Instructional methodologies and language programs differ from school to school. The results, therefore, are possibly not general among other schools for the deaf in populations of the ages studied. 4) All subjects in the study were pre-lingually deaf but there was no control over the type of language input they received prior to the study. McNeill (1970) pointed out the importance of experience in development of rule governed language performance. The amount of stimulation and input necessarily varied from child to child. Some children were residential students while others lived at home. However, examination of this variable 74. alone is insufficient as there is no standard level of language stimulation or input associated with either situation. Generalizability of results is, therefore, restricted by constraints of the historical factor of linguis tic input. IV. Future Research 1) The task battery should be used with a very large group of 6-9 year old deaf children in order to determine the generalizability of findings. 2) More task batteries are needed to isolate other linguistic skill performances. The results of such studies would provide more information for describing deaf children's grammar and language acquisition processes. 3) More studies to complement the structured - paper and pencil results are needed. Collection of data in unstructured situations utilizing other expressive media (speech or sign) would provide information necessary for description of a deaf child's grammar. 4) Some very specific clinical research is required to develop more detailed and efficient teaching techniques for language instruction. One such technique suggested from the delineation of rules for the model of task specific rules is outlined below. It was apparent that the agreement or concord rules become complex when dealing with the verb to be. It appeared that the students were developing plural inflection of the noun to plural agreement of the Aux. If this Aux agreement rule could be broken down into steps involving only one operation at a time, the student may gain more insight into the opera tional restrictions of the rules involved. A logical beginning (Stage I) for subject-verb agreement would be use 75. of "The girl plays" and "The girls play". It is noted that the s_inflec tion of the verb in the singular statement is moved to the noun in the plural statement. (The + girl + 0 + play + s_ »The + girl + s_ + play + 0). Stage II of the process would involve the use of the be-ing verb as a copulative. In this instance the s morpheme transformation could again be used for the agreement rule. (The + ball + is + green > The + balls_ + are + green). It could very easily be pointed out that the s marker is present in the verb phrase for singulars and in the noun phrase for plurals. The third stage would involve a similar procedure with the distinctions being made in the past tense. (The + boy + was + happy —> The + boys + were + happy). Stage four would involve introduction of be as Aux and the same pattern would be repeated, (non-past =t The + boy + is + laughing —^The + boys + are + laughing, past =^The + boy + was + laughing—» The + boys + were + laughing.) This suggestion for study would provide a wealth of information about the amount and kind of experience necessary to develop mastery over a particular rule. This research would begin to answer some of the questions posed by McNeill (1970): Since the role played by experience is greater with rules that carry more restrictions, we should focus attention on these most restricted cases ... (until this is done) nothing much can be said about even the basic questions. What amount of exposure, for instance, and what kind of material, is necessary to learn restrictions on general rules? (p. 105). REFERENCES Bellugi, U. The acquisition of nagation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, 1967. Bellugi, U. and Brown, R. (Eds. ) The acquisition of language. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1964-, 29, Mo. 92. Birch, J. W., and Stuckless, E. R. The influence of early manual communica tion on the linguistic development of deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 1966, 111, 499-504. Bloom, L. Language development: form and function in emerging grammars. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970. Braine, M. The ontogeny of english phrase structure - the first phase. Language, 1963, 39, 1-13. Brown, R. and Fraser, C. The acquisition of syntax, in The acquisition of language. Monograph of the Society of Research for Child Development, 1964, 29, 43-97. Chomsky, C. The acquisition of syntax in children from 5 to 10. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969. Chomsky, N. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1965. Cohen, S. Redundancy in the written language of the deaf. Predictability of story paraphrases written by deaf and hearing children in CEC research studies on the psycholinguistic behavior of deaf children. Research  Monograph B2, (Eds.) Rosenstein, J. and MacGinitie, V/., 1965. Cooper, R. The development of morphological habits in deaf children. CEC research studies on the psycholinguistic behavior of deaf children. Research Monograph B2, (eds.) Rosenstein, J. and MacGinitie, V/., 1965. 77. Cooper, R. and Rosenstein, J. Language acquisition of deaf children, Volta Review - Language Acquisition Monograph, Volta Bureau, Washington, D.C., 1966. Davis, H. and Silverman, S. R. Hearing and deafness. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. Fitzgerald, M. A. Vocabulary development for acoustically handicapped children. American Annals of the Deaf, 194-9, 94. Flint, R. W., Blea, W., and Miller, J. B. 1965 NDEA institute in linguistics and reading. Volta Review, 1965, 68, 618-626. Foy, R. Teaching reading to hearing impaired junior high school pupils. Volta Review, 1966, 69, 315-316. Furth, H. Linguistic deficiency and thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 1971, 76, 58-72. Furth, H. Research with the deaf. Volta Review, 1966, 68, 34-56. Games, P. Multiple comparisons of means. American Educational Research Journal, 1971, 8 (3), 531-565. Gentile, A. (ed. ) Annual survey of hearing impaired children and youth, academic achievement test performance of hearing impaired students, united states: spring, 1969. Washington, D.C., Office of Demographic Studies, Gallaudet College, 1969. Goda, S. Spoken syntax of normal, deaf, and retarded adolescents. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1964, 3, 401-405. Heider, F. K. and Heider, G. M. A comparison of sentence structure of deaf and hearing children. Psychological Monographs, 1940, 52, No. 1 (Whole No. 232), 42-103. 78. Hsu, T. and Feldt, L. The effect of limitations on the number of criterion score values on the significance level of the F-test. American Educational  Research Journal, 1969, 6, 515-527. Katz, J. J. and Postal, P. M. An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descrip  tions . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964. Kennedy, E. Teaching the deaf child to read. American Annals of the Deaf, 1959, 104. Klima, E. and Bellugi, U. Syntactic regularities in the speech of children, in Psycholinguistic papers. (Eds. ) Lyons and Wales, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1966. Lee, L. Developmental sentence types: a method for comparing normal and deviant syntactic development. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 1966, 31, 311-330. Lenneberg, E. Biological foundations of language. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1967. Lowenbraun, S. An investigation of the syntactic competence of young deaf children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 1969. MacGinitie, W. Ability of deaf children to use different word classes. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1964, 7, 141-150. McNeill, D. The acquisition of language: the study of developmental . psycholinguisties. Mew York: Harper and Row, 1970 McNeill, D. Developmental psycholinguistics, in The genesis of language. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966, (eds.) Smith and Miller. Marshall, Y/. Contextual constraint on deaf and hearing children. American Annals of the Deaf, 1970, 115 (7), 682-689. 79. Marshall, W. and Quigley, S. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of  syntactic structure in the written language of deaf children. Urbana, 111.: Institute for Research on Exceptional Children, 1970. Menyuk, P. Sentences children use. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969. Miller, W. and Ervin, S. The developmental grammar in child language, in Psycholinguistic papers. (Eds.) Lyons and Wales, Edingurgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1966. Montgomery, G. W. Relationship of oral skills to manual communication in profoundly deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf, 1966, 111, 557-565. Moores, D. F. Application of "cloze" procedures to the assessment of psycholinguistic abilities of the deaf. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, 1967. Perry, F. R. The psycholinguistic abilities of deaf children. The Australian Teacher of the Deaf, 1968, 9, Nos. 1 and 3. Power, D. J. Deaf children's acquisition of the passive voice. Doctoral dissertation (in progress), University of Illinois, 1971. Quigley, S. P. Development and description of syntactic structure in the language of deaf children. Progress Report, Project Ho. 232175, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, U.S. Office of Education, March, 1971. Quigley, S. F. The influence of fingerspelling on the development of  language, communication, and educational achievement in deaf children. Institute for Research on Exceptional Children: University of Illinois, 1969. 80. Quigley, S. P., and Frisina, D. R. Institutionalization and psycho-educational development of deaf children. CEC research monograph, series A, No. 3, Council for Exceptional Children, 1961. Restaino, L. V.'ord associations of deaf children. CEC in Research studies on the psycholinguistic behavior of deaf children, CEC Research Monograph B2, (Eds.) Rosenstein, J. and MacGinitie, W., 1965. Richardson, P.C. A reading lesson using the fitzgerald key headings. Volta Review, 1957, 59. Ritchie, V/. C. Some implications of generative grammar for the construction of courses in english as a foreigh language. Language and Language  Learning, 1967, 17, Nos. 1 and 2, 45-69. Roberts, P. Modern grammar. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1968. Schmitt, P. J. Deaf children's comprehension and production of sentence transformations and verb tenses. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, 1969. Smith, F., and Miller., G. A. (Eds.) The genesis of language. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1966. Slobin, D. Early grammatical development in several languages, in The structure and pyschology of language. (Eds. ) Weksel and Bever. New York: Holt Rinehart and \7inston, 1967. Stuckless, E. R. and Marks, C. Assessment of the written language of deaf students, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 1966. Taylor, L. A language analysis of the writing of deaf children. Unpub lished doctoral dissertation, State University of Florida, 1969. Vernon, M. Sociological and psychological factors associated with hearing loss. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, September, 1969. APPENDIX APPENDIX A TASK BATTERY 84. 85. 86. arc I03 87. 9 • -I of 89. • Were "VYve- bovjS yjLtv\p\cu^? lot 90. tao\p is p arc una: ,!Ke sleepL. ^ r j were bovj was lo*7 91. 92. T~Ke boys Were IQJJL^KIT\ TKc bo\|S are Uu^l TKc bov^s was Wu^Vuing 94. were III 95. 96. JLs fhe dog j 1!3 97. 13 ore. ere Ihe. C|irl funning i"Ke C^\r\ fanning : Are i"Ke running Was iKc C|ivl fanning UH 98. .ruiuuncy vs are were US 99. » lit 100. 102. are were was • i ? was the_ running j IS 103. 104. ore i\fow ^05 105. 106. Swimrmno is girls Were J are was irl 3 107. 2o& 108. 2ol 109. Is "iKe \)G\| S WI BTTI inn I *r\ Vs/cre. "i We. bo\| Swimming! i*c -VYve. Swimming ? 110. girls WaS were girl 111. 112. Before Now 2 13 113. ! Tke docj were sleeping-THe Goc^ Was ^leepinc^-~TKe Aoc^ are sleep\T\C^ "The doc^ \s slee^ir\(^ -3/4 114. Before dons is J -n c| Were The — Sleeping are Was 115. 116. Was Ike girl sleeping 3oi Mow 3DZ 118. were j iris are 119. 120. 121. Arc "Hie girls eafir%<j? ere ihe QirSs eaimq? Ts iUe girls eaiiV^? fte girls calinc|? 122. Tunning-bovj Were was are is bo\js 123. 3o8 124. 125. Was "Hie dog walking? —J Xs "the. dog Walking? Are "tke, dog Walking? L_.' Were ~I~?ne docj walking? 3/o 126. was arc /fix!Una. i J bovj bo^s is 311 127. 3IZ 128. 129. 130. was are TL d! were lhe_ Sleeping. fe \S 131. 132. 134. 135. Before 136. 405 137. fob 138. 139. Ho* HO. *f-OJ 141. 142. arc IS -fi - was l jumping- \3ONj5 were bovi 4/( 143. 144. H5. f 'Is the b o\?s clapping? !_ ! Was "ine bogs cWppmg? .re iKc bogs dapping? re tat DO^S Cla^pm^ ( were thf ,.. ;—Swrmrning1- ^ V\/aS are is 147. ¥/4 APPENDIX B DEMONSTRATION ITEMS Now • The car \5 green. • Tke ball is red. • The ball is blue. • The Coat is red. 151. DC IS was The ball- — qreer* Jred DC 152. DD • 153. DE The ball was green. Be-fore Be-fore ft Before • The ball was green. • The car was yeen. • The coat is green. • The ball isyellow. 155. DG The ba\\ 156. DH Be-fore DH 157. DM N ow Is the baH red ? • Yes • No Now • Is the car red? • Is the ball red? • Is the car green? • Is the ball yellow? 159. DO r\rv 160. DP 161. Be-fore - DYes Was the ball Qreen? _ K» J • No Be-fore • Was the ball green? • Is the car green? • Was the hos green? • Is the ball yellow? 163. D5 rvnr 166. DT 1 #-4 Be-fore • TKe ball 'is yellow. • The bos ib green. • The bos was greer*. • The car is green. 167. Ok 168. DL 169. DU Be-fore ia DNo Was the CB IT red < _v l_l Yes 170. DV Now • Is the ball yellow? • Was the bos yellow? • Is the bos yellow? • Is the cam green? 171. OX APPENDIX C VOCABULARY CHARTS 175. APPENDIX D STANDARD ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES 177. Note: All responses requiring a pointing behaviour will be recorded on a check list (Appendix D). Any reference to the examiner "expressing" anything is defined as speech and signing or fingerspelling. Vocabulary for Demonstration Items Each vocabulary item shall be exposed to the subject - one frame at at time. The examiner will point to the picture and then to the printed word below the picture. The examiner will then express the word. The subject will then be asked to say and/or sign or fingerspell the word. This procedure is to be repeated for each of the vocabulary items on the chart. Demonstration Items Item 1 The first of the demonstration items shall be exposed to the subject. The examiner will point to the sentence, "The ball is red.", and ask the subject to "Pick the picture that is the same.". The examiner will than give the subject an unsharpened pencil with an intact eraser for pointing. The subject will be reinforced, "Good Boy!" or other appropriate remark for a correct response. The examiner will then point to and express the word "ball" and the word "red" and to the picture selected saying "same-Good boy". If the response is incorrect, the examiner will point to and express the word "ball" and the word "red" and again ask the subject to "Pick the picture that is the same.". It is expected that the error will be corrected and the examiner will reinforce the reponse appropriately. Once a correct response is made and the words "ball" and "red" have been pointed out, the examiner points to and expresses the word "is" and then expressed "now" - pointing to the word "now" below the picture. The association of "is" and "now" will be repeated once using the same procedure 178. described above. Item 2 The second item will be exposed to the subject. The examiner will point to the picture and the word "now" and ask the subject to "Pick the sentence that is the same.". The subject will be appropriately reinforced for a correct response. The examiner will point to the picture and express the words "ball" and "red" and associate them with the same words in the sentence selected, expressing - "same". If an incorrect choice is made the examiner will point to the picture and express the words "ball" and "red" and then ask the subject to "Pick the sentence that is the same.". The correct response should be made at that time or the examiner may repeat the same procedure. Once the correct response is made, the subject is appropriately reinforced and the words "ball" and "red" are associated with the same words in the sentence, expressing - "same". The examiner then points to and expresses the word "now" (below the picture) and then points to and expresses the word "is" (in the sentence). This association will be repeated once using the same procedure. Item 3 The third item will be exposed to the subject. The examiner will point to the picture and word "now" and then present the subject with a sharpened pencil. The examiner will express "Pick words from here (point ing to the list of words to the right of the sentence) and finish the sentence;". If a correct response is made, the examiner will reinforce the subject appropriately and then re-expose the previous (second) item. The examiner will then point to the picture and tense marker of the second item and associate these with the correct response of the second item, expressing-"The sentence is finished.". The examiner will then return to the third item, point to the picture and the tense marker and associate these with the correct completion, expressing - "The sentence is finished.". If an 179. incorrect response is made on item three, the examiner will re-expose item two and point to the picture and tense marker and associate these with the correct sentence, expressing - "The sentence is finished.". The examiner will then return to item three, leaving item two exposed, and point to the picture and tense marker and express - "Pick words from here (pointing to the list of words to the right of the sentence) and finish the sentence.". The subject may, if necessary, refer to item two to complete the sentence. This procedure may be repeated, if necessary, to enable completion of the task item. Once the correct response is made, the examiner will reinforce the subject appropriately and refer back to item two pointing to the picture, tense marker, and correct sentence, expressing - "The sentence is finished." and repeating this procedure for item three. Item 4 The fourth item will be exposed to the subject. The examiner will point to the picture and the tense marker and express - "Write the sentence.". If a correct response is made, the examiner will reinforce the subject appropriately and refer to the previous item (item three) and follow procedures identical to those outlined above (Item three). If an incorrect response is made, the examiner will re-expose the previous item (item three and follow identical procedures to those outlined for incorrect responses in Item three. The examiner will remove the sharpened pencil. Items 5-8 Similar procedures will be followed as for items 1-4 respectively, with two exceptions: l) the tense marker referred to will be "before". 2) After the tense marker is referred to, the picture will be temporarily covered to avoid concept confusion. The examiner will place a plain white square of tag board over the picture to effect this change. 180. Item 9 Item nine will be exposed to the subject. The examiner will point to the picture stimulus and the tense marker and then to the yes/no transform. The examiner will give the subject the unsharpened pencil with an intact eraser and express - "Pick the right one." referring to the "yes" and "no" selection choices. Responses will be recorded on the check list. The examiner will point to the sentence and the question mark at the end of the statement and express "question". Items 10-12 Identical procedures to those outlined for items 2-4 will be followed with one addition. The review of picture, tense marker, and sentence will be expanded to include the pointing to the question mark at the end of the structure. At that time the examiner will express "question". Items 1,3-16 Identical procedures to those outlined for items 9-12 will be followed. It is to be noted that the tense marker will be different. Items 17-20 Identical procedures to those outlined for items 1-8 will be used dependent upon tense marker. The only exception to this procedure will be that past tense markers will not require that the picture be covered as it is assumed at this point that the concept of the difference between "now" and "before" is established. Items 21-24 Identical procedures to those outlined for items 9-16 will be followed, dependent upon tense marker. As in items 17-20, the past tense marker will not require that the picture be covered. Vocabulary for Task Items Each vocabulary item shall be exposed to the subject - one frame at a time. The examiner will point to the picture and then to the printed word below the picture. The examiner will then express the word and the 181. subject will be asked to say, sign, or fingerspell, and where possible perform the action indicated by the word. This procedure is to be repeated for each of the vocabulary items on the chart. Task Items Sixteen items will be exposed to the child in each sitting. For the first sitting the child will proceed through the Vocabulary for Demonstration Items, Demonstration Items, Vocabulary for Task Items, and the first sixteen task items. Each of the sixteen task items will be presented as a separate unit. That is, the subject will have only one item before him at a time. On the second day the demonstration items will be reviewed with a five second exposure for each of the 2L, items. At that time the examiner will point to the picture, tense marker, sentence, and punctuation marker for each item. The subject will then proceed through the second sitting of sixteen task items. An identical procedure will be followed for the third and fourth sittings. The examiner will have no interaction with the subject during task administrations. The examiner will record all responses on the check lists provided and also note any behaviour considered relevant to the study. APPENDIX E CHECK LISTS 183. Item Response 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 6 1 2 3 7 1 2 3 8 9 1 2 3 10 1 2 3 11 1 2 3 12 13 1 2 3 14 1 2 3 15 1 2 3 16 17 1 2 3 18 1 2 3 19 1 2 3 20 21 1 2 3 22 1 2 3 23 1 2 3 24 o- 1st; • = 2nd; Check List Name: Admin. D, 1, 2, 3, 4 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 4 4 4 5 6 A = 3rd; S£ = 4th APPENDIX F SUMMARY OF CORRECT RESPONSES 185. i c <-•v. - - -— - - -- _ _ 1 - -s -— — — --vj c u f -— -o 4 — - - - -V :* $ — — — - - - - - -i c f.1 •i. — — - - - - — 1 V* *» - — _ — - _ - \ - - -* — _ — — -- - -cl __ — _ _ _ - j - - -- — - - -V > X _ _ — _ _ - ! - - - j _c - — _ _ _ _~ 11. - - i c - - ----- -- -- - ---— — — - -z i - - — — - - -| J _ _ — — - - - --: r -~~ ~ - — — -! * _ — _i > _ _ i - _ : C w c r k * ~ 3. ? -J 3 v» v» ft .5» o o b 0 o o o o <» » o o o O 0 9 0 o 0 o 0 O o a o Q O 0 o « 0 o - •» - -- »* -rt> - k -o to ^0 S a .J-a «. o m Wt - «^ vn cr-~- - ^ •» 1 ^ Ci <Y% ^ (X» ^. »( »J o -o - ^ O —~-<< J « -lr» r» "1 n «d -a 3- Vo f*. * -o r— ». 1" to -6 r- » * p. •n ^ N Q -m In a TJ. QTI lo 3- - •* ^ — r^ \~ <T~ APPENDIX G SUMMARY OF RESPONSE BY TASK LEVEL 187. _ _ — — — ^ — — — ; ^ — — —. .T, ~ _ - - - — 1 - _ -c — l<-' I i i _ ("-! 'c<l -3 f» — =iilr_ 7t ^ 11; 'i 188. .-Tt .f* ,0 ^ Vn C~ 0. j ?J ~. > V.! ^ I.-, Vo ^ > 5? i.-. ^ Co V". "X -( V ;. j T \ SI ^ ^ v > . - ^! ^ i ^2 1 1 1 < > *H «:-« 5*'Q V - - R — - ~r — 11 - - -O _ to _ V) - £\. s y < »•-« vt >-^> -r», . _ - V. H~ !-ojj jo .vj ' ;/. »n V'd q1 -Ik > -eC c r( — _ — ! ."n — — It - - -— </ ^ J v.- <? ,„ - -o V. - - • JO ^» — — ,' r< •V ^ » u < - - • w ... o --_ -- —jt >o lo — i w ^ ! = V/ % «!.•!• •«.--* -c* vo ~i - m - - ft U/. - ^ ,</-•" V/* •. u,<, - - -o «\ r» - - - -1 <•< -1 -< — —! — _ i m ~ < -!-.-'•- <i •» -.^ >.v _ _ _ < < .*v O t Vr. - - - !; - - -± T -J ^ - --ri VI -~o •V O o-- ' -J i ^ | hut -«• — C-j s * .'" J •• ^ > ...» t,r — -- - -A J. _ H i Tl S<1 — -a - :H i-^ — — i a-; i 1 „ I. - _ — T v,-v -- — r<; ; O j i «n - ,o> \ v - ^. r>-^- _ £ ;^ "'A * «1 O u-o — — 3 - -— ' ... ! -"~3 ~ IT -.1 1 i! -1- 1i 3 7 f 7 TASK 3 - PART 1 #103 #411 TASK 3 TASK 3 Singular Singular Present Present SAD SAD was are is i s The clapping, were The j umping. was girls boys are were girl boy 1 The girls clapping. (boys) 2 The was is clapping. The mos j umping. 3 The wha girl clapping. (The is jumping.) 4 The 3 clapping. (boy is) 5 The girl was clapping. The dog is jumping 6 The girl c lapping. The boys j umping. 7 The girl are was clapping. The boy j umping. 8 The girl is clapping. The boys is jumping. 9 The girl clapping. The running jumping. 10 The is girl chair clapping. The is boy Jumping jumping. 11 The girl is clapping. The is boy j umping. 12 The girl was clapping. The si boy j umping. 13 The girl is clapping. The boy is j umping. 14 The was clapping, clapping. The was boy jumping, jumping 15 The is was clapping clapping. The was junping jumping. 16 The girl clapping The was boy j umping. 17 The the girl is clapping. The is boy j umping. 18 The girl clapping clapping. The is boys j umping. 19 The girl c1apping. The boy j umping. 20 The gir is clapping The Jumping jumping. () - pointed to particular words in list. TASK 3 - PART 1 » J 0 3 Mil 1 TASK 3 TASK 3 Singular Singular Present Present SAD SAD w a s arc i s i s The clapping, were The jumping. was girls boys arc were girl boy 21 T ll c clapping clapping. The Jumping jumping. 22 T h e is girl clapping. The boy jumping. 2 3 T h e girl is clapping. The the d o y jumping. 24 T he is girl clapping. The i s boy j umpi ng. 2 5 T he girl is clapping. The boy were jumping. 2 6 T li e was clapping. The is Boy jumped jumping. 27 T li e girl is clapping. The boy is jumping. 28 T li c lina is girls clapping. The a bog jumping. 2 9- T Ii e gil clapping. The is boys jumping. 3 0 T he girl is c1 apping . The boy is jumping. 31 h e girl is c 1 apping . The is boy jumping. 3 2 he wa s girl c1 a pping. The was boy j umping. 3 3 he girl is clapping. The boy is. jumping. 3-1 h c girl is c1 apping. The boy arc j umpi ng. 3 5 h c is girl clapping. The boy jumping. 3 6 h c girl wa s el app i ng. The boy is jumping. 37 he is c1 a p p i ng clapping. The boy is j u m p ing. 3 8 he girl is clapping. The boy is jumping. 3 9 h e girl is clapping. The boy is jumping. 40 'I' he gr.il is c1 a p p i ng . The boy is jumping. () - pointed to particular words in list. h* TASK 3 - PART 1 o // 3 0 7 M07 TASK 3 TASK 3 Singular Singular Present Present Y/N Y/N boy girl were girls the running? was the jumping? was are were i s arc boys i s 1 (is) (were) 2 hoy the running ? momom the jumping? 3 ( the is running ?) wha the Jumping jumping? 4 (boy is) (girls is) 5 Tlic boy is running the boy is running? The girl is jumping the girl is jumping? 6 boys the boy running? girls the girl jumping? 7 Running tlic is boys running? is arc w the were jumping? 8 was running the runn ing ? girl was is the jumping? jumping? 9 Runni ng the running? aawtt the jumping? 10 is the doy running? is the girl jumping? 1 1 boy the is run n i ng ? girl the is jumping? 1 2 boys the boy running? was the girl jumping? 1 3 is the boy running ? is the girl jumping? 14 was boys the running? running ? was girl the jumping? jumping? 15 the is cbog running? the is jumping? 16 was the boy running? was the girl jumping? 17 the is boy running? the is girl jumping? 18 the is boys running? the is girls jumping? 19 Running the runn ing ? girl the jumping? 20 boy the running 1 girls the jumping? () - pointed to particular words in list TASK 3 - PART 1 #307 #407 TASK 3 TASK 3 Singular Singular Present Present Y/N Y/N boy girl were girls the running? was the jumping? was are were i s are boys i s 21 Running the running? Jumping the jumping? 22 Are the boy running ? is the gril jumping? 23 Is the doy running? Is the girl jumping? 24 is the boy running? is the girl j umping ? 25 Is the boy running ? was the girl j umping ? 26 I the run running? Is the girl jumping? 27 Are the boy runn ing ? Is the girl j umping? 28 the the run dog running? Is the a girg jumping? 29 is the boys running? is the girls jumping? 30 Is the boy running Is the girl j umping ? 31 The the is running ? The the w is girl jumping? 32 was the boy running ? Is the girl jumping? 3 3 Is the boy running ? Is the girl jumping? 34 Are the boy running? Are the girl jumping? 35 was the boy running? was the girl j umping? 36 Is the boy running ? Is the girl jumping? 37 was the boy running ? gril the is j umping? 38 Is the boy running ? Is the girl jumping? 39 Is the boys running? Are the girl jumping? 40 Is the boy running ? Is the gril jumping? () - pointed to particular words in list TASK 3 - PAR'I 2 // 3 1 5 II 1 1 5 TASK 3 TASK 3 Si ngular S i n g u 1 a r Past Past SAD SAD was dog arc i s Tlic sleeping, were The running. arc boys was boy dogs i s were 1 (is) (dog) 2 The g o m sleeping. The dog is running. 3 (was) The w h a dog running. 4 (was) The d runn ing. 5 The boy was sleeping. The dog was running. 6 The boy slooping. The dogs running. 7 The is boy si sleeping. The dogs running. 8 The boy sleeping sleeping. The dog was r running. 9 The sleeping sleeping. The dog running. 10 The was doy were sleeping. The was dog running. 1 1 Th e is boy s1eeping The is dogs running. 1 2 'I'll e is boy sleeping. The Dog running. 1 3 The boy was sleeping. The dog was running. 1 4 Tli c was boys sleeping, sleeping. The was running, running. 15 T h e is boy sleeping. The is was running running. 1 6 The was boy sleeping. The Dog running. 1 7 Th e is boy s1 coping. The bog is runn ing. 1 S Tlic is girl sleeping. The dogs was running. 1 9 Th c sleeping sleeping. The dogs running. 20 The was sleeping. The dog running. rH TASK 3 - PART 2 F~-~"- ""• • — II 3 1 5 //115 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i n g u 1 a r Singular Past Past SAD SAD was dog arc i s The sleeping, were The running? arc hoys was boy dogs i s were 2 1 Th c sleeping sleeping. The walking running. 22 The boy sleeping. The arc dog running. 2 3 The the doy is sleeping. The dog is running . 24 The was hoy sleeping. The was bog running . 2 5 T h e h o y was sleeping. The dog was running. in i 1 k 2 6 The hoy M11K cry sleeping. The was running running. 27 T li o hoy was s 1 coping. The was dog running. 28 Tlic a bo g sleeping. The was bog running. 2 9 The is were sleeping. The is running. 50 The boy was sleeping. The dog was running. 51 'I'll c was b o y sleeping. The dog was running. 52 The is 1)oy sleeping. The is dog runni ng . 5 5 The boy was sleep i n g. The dog was running. 51 Th c boy were sleeping. The dog was running. 5 5 The boy sleeping. The dog running. 56 The boy was sleep i n g. The dog was running. 57 Tli c is boy sleeping. The was clog running. 5 8 The boy was sleeping. The dog was running. 5 9 The b o y was sleeping. The dog is running. 40 The b o y was sleeping. The dog was running. TASK 3 - PART 2 MIS // 4 0 3 TASK 3 TASK 3 S i liRii 1 ar Singular Past Past Y/N Y/N girls are were i s the swimming? girl the falling? was was were arc boy i s boys 1 (girl) (was) mo a the swimming? Bobobo the fal1ing? 3 (is) (was) 4 (girl) (is) 5 The girl was swimming the girl was The boy was falling the boy was falling? swimming? 6 Swimming the swimming? boy the boy s falling? 7 15o the folc swimming? is Falling the is is falling? 8 girl was in the swimming swimming? is was the boy falling? 9 s w i m in the swimming? Brda the falling? 10 w a s the girl swimming? was the doy fell falling ? 1 1 girl the is swimming? boy the is fal ling? 12 girl the w a s s w i m in i n g ? is the boy fal ling? 1 3 w a s the girl swimming? was the boy fal 1ing? 1 4 w a s girl the swimming? swimming? was boy the falling? falling? 1 5 the is swimming swimming? the was falling? 1 6 w a s the girl swimming? was the boy fal1ing? 17 the is girl swimming? the is boy falling? 1 8 the is girls swimming? the is boys falling? 19 girl s the swimming? Palling the falling? 2 0 girls the swimming? Falling the fal 1 ing? TASK 3 - PART 2 1(4 15 II 4 0 3 TASK 3 TASK 3 Singular Singular Past Past Y/N Y/N girls arc were i s the swimming? girl the fal1ing? was was were are boy i s boys 2 1 swimming the swimming? Falling the falling? 22 was the girl swimming? were the bo y falling? 2 3 Is tlic gi.,r 1 swimming? Is the doy falling? 2 4 was the girl swimming? was the boy falling? 2 5 was the girl swimming? arc the boy falling? 2 6 Is the the girl swimming Is the boy fal1i ng? 27 was the girl swimming? was the boy fal1ing? 2 8 was the a girl swimming? was the a bog falling? 2 9 is the wirl swimming? is the arc falling? 3 0 was the girl swimming? was the boy fal1ing? 3 1 The the girls s wimm ing? The the boy was falling 3 2 Is the g i r 1 swiinin i ng ? Is the boy fal1ing? 3 3 was the girl swimming? was the boy fal 1ing? 3 4 were the girl swimming? was the boy fa 1 ling? 5 5 was the girl s w i m m i. n g ? was the boy falling? 3 6 was the girl s w1m ming? was the boy fal ling? 57 was the girl swimming? was the boy fal ling? 3.8 was the girl swimming? was the boy fal1ing? 3 9 was the girl swimming? was the boy fal 1 ing? 40 was the gril swimming? was the boy falling? TASK 3 - PART 3 » 2 0 3 »303 TASK 3 TASK 3 Plural P 1 u r a 1 P resent Present Y/N Y/N arc was were were the running? was the crying? girl dogs i. s i s girls dog arc 1 (dog s) (is) 2 ODr the me running? was the crying? 3 wli a the dog running? (is) 4 hog s the dog riinn ing? (was) 5 The dog i s riuiii i ng the running ? The girl is crying the girl is crying? 6 dog the dogs running? girls the girl crying? 7 dog is are the dogs were running? arc girls were the is girl crying? 8 w a s dog the running? was girl the crying? '.) the the running? crying the crying? 10 i s the dog running? is the girl crying? 1 1 dog the i s run iv .i ng? girl the is crying? 1 2 the dogs running g i r1 the i s cry ing ? 13 i s the dogs running? is the girls crying? 14 w a s dogs the running running? was girl the cryings crying? 1 5 the is dogs running? the is girl crying? 1 6 w a s the dog running? war the girl crying? 1 7 i s the dog runni ng? the is girl crying? 18 the is dogs running? the is girls crying? 1 9 doy the running? crying the crying? 2 0 dog the running? wen the crying? ON TASK 3 - PART 3 II 2 0 3 II 30 3 TASK 3 TASK 3 Pi ura1 I' 1 ural Present Present Y/N Y/N are was were were the running ? was tlic crying? girl dogs i s i s girls dog arc 21 Ifas the arc running ? Boys the crying? 22 was the bogs running 1 Is the giril crying? 2 3 Is the was runn ing? Is the gril crying? 2-1 is the dog r u n n i n g ? is the girl crying? 2 5 w a s the dogs run n i n g ? was the girl crying? 2f> Is t li c wa s d o g s run n ing? Is the cry crying? 27 Is t li e dog runn i ng ? ARC the GIRL crying? 2 8 Wra tlic was dog runn ing? was the girl crying? 2 9 is the dog running? is the were crying? 30 Is the d o g s running? Is the girls crying? 3 1 dogs the is runn i ng? The is the girls crying? 5 2 was the hog run n ing? Is the girl crying? 3 3 Is the dog runni ng ? Is the girls cryi ng? 3 4 Is the dog s runn ing? Is the girls crying? 3 5 was tlic dog r ii n n i n g ? was the girls crying? 3 6 was the dog r u n n i n g ? were the girls crying? 3 7 is the dog running? is the girls crying? 3 8 is the clog running ? Is the girls crying? 3 9 is the dog running? Is the girls crying? 4 0 Is the dog ninn i ng . Is the grils crying? j TASK 3 - PART 3 // 2 0 7 "311 TASK 3 TASK 3 1' 1 ura 1 PI lira 1 I' resent Present SAD SAD i s were girls was The swimming, were The falling, arc arc boy was boys girl i. s 1 (girl) (is) 2 The Door sw i mming. The Falll falling. 3 The girl s w i m m ing. (is) 4 The w r e g i rlc swimming . (is) 5 The girls is s w i. m m i n g . The boy is falling. 6 The girl swim in ing. The boy falling. 7 The s w i min ing s w i in in ing. The is boys boy falling. 8 The girl swimming swimming. The [ boy falling falling. y The s w i in m ing s w i in m ing. The tBBrna falling. 10 ' The is girl swimming swimming. The is cloy fell falling. 11 The is girl s w 1 in m ing. The is boy falling. 1 2 The is was g i r1 sw i mm Lng . The was boy fa 11 i ng. 1 3 The g iris i s sw hum i ng . The boys is falling. 1 4 The w a s g iris s w i m in ing . The was boys falling, falling. 1 5 The i s w a s s w i m in lng. The is was fa 11ing. 16 The wa s go i r 1 swim in ing. The was boy falling. 1 7 The is girl s w i in m ing. The is boy falling. 1 8 The g, i r 1 s is s w i m m i n g . The is bays falling. i y The S w i m in i n g s w i m in i n g . The falling falling. 2 0 The girl s s w i in m i n g . The boys falling. TASK 3 - PART 3 // 2 0 7 // 3 1 1 TASK 3 TASK 5 P1ura I Plural I' re sent Present SAD SAD i s were girls was The s w i in m ing . were The falling, are arc boy was boys girl i s 2 1 The s w i in in ing swi m m ing. The Palling falling. 22 The g i r 1 s w i in m i n g . The boy falling. 2 3 The girls is swimming. The cloys is falling. 24 The is girl swimming. The is boy falling. 2 5 Tlic g r i1s were swimming. The boys is falling. 2 6 The was arc swimming. The Is Boy falling. 27 The Is girl swimming. The Are boy failing. 2 8 Tlic was girl swimming. The a r a d o g falling. 2 9 The is s w i m m i n g. The is boy falling. 3 0 The g, iris is swim in ing. The boys is falling. 3 1 The g i r 1 wa s s w i nun ing . The is Palling falling. 3 2 The i s g i r 1 s w i in m ing. The was boy fa 11i ng. 3 5 The girls is s w i m in ing. The boys is falling. 3 4 The girls arc swim in :i n g . The boy arc falling. 3 5 The girls swimming. The hoys falling. 3 6 The girls arc s w i m m i n g. The boys is falling. 3 7 The is girls swi m in ing. The is boys falling. 3 8 The girls was swi mining . The boys is falling. 3 9 The girls arc swi mining . The 1) o y s is falling. 4 0 The gril is swi mm i ng. The boys is falling. TASK 3 - PART 4 II 1 07 1/211 TASK 3 TASK 3 P 1 ura1 Plural Past Past Y/N Y/N boys girls i s was the sleeping? are the laughing?are were i s boy were was girl 1 s 1 c c p in g the nonon sleeping? (girl were) 2 1) I) B R the MTU sleeping? ol the ol laughing? 3 wa s the boy are sleeping? wha the girl laughing? 4 the s sleeping? ars the is laughing? 5 fiic"" b (i y s was sleeping the boy was sleeping? the girls was laughing? 6 boys the s 1 e e p i n g ? girl the girls laughing? 7 w a s boy the were is boys sleeping? girl were the is arc was laughing? 8 boy girl the was sleeping? girl was the laughing? (hoys) girls the laughing? y the syob sleeping? 10 w a s the d o y sleeping? was the girl laughing? l l wa s the boy s1ecpi ng ? girl the is laughing? 1 2 Is the sleeping sleeping? was the sitting laughing? 1 3 w a s the boys s1e e p i ng ? was the girls laughing? 1 4 w a s the sleeping sleeping? was girl the laughing? 1 5 the is sleeping sleeping? the was laughing? 16 w a s the boys sleeping? was the girl laughing? 1 7 1 th c hoy sleeping? is the girl laughing? 18 wa s the boys sleeping? was the is girls laughing? i y is the are sleeping? Laughing the laughing? 20 were the s1ecp i ng ? girls the laughing? g TASK 3 - PART 4 c\j // 1 0 7 112 1 1 •I'ASK 3 TASK 3 Plural Plural Past Past Y/N Y/N b o y s girls i s was the sleeping? arc the laughing? arc were i s boy were w a s girl 2 1 si cci)ing the sleeping? is the arc laughing? (arc) girls 1 a u g h ing' 2 2 A the was hoys sleeping? ara the > 2 3 Is the sleeping sleeping? Is the girl laughing? 2 4 was the boy sleeping? was the girl laughing? 2 5 were the boys sleeping? was the grils laughing' > 2 6 is the sleeping? Is the girl laughing? 27 was the boys sleeping? was the girl laughing? 28 was the bod sleeping? Ionah the girl laughing? 2(.) is the sleeping? is the laughing? 3 0 was the boys sleeping? was the girls laughing? 3 1 boy was the sleeping? The the girl is laughing? 3 2 Is the hoy si ecp i ng ? was the girl 1 a ugh i. ng ? 3 3 was the boys sleeping? was the girls laughing? 3 4 was the boys s lee]) ing? was the girls laughing? 3 5 was the boy sleeping? was the girls laughing? 3 6 were the boy wes sleeping? was the girls laughing? 3 7 boys the is sleeping? was the boy laughing? 3 8 are the boys sleeping? was the girl laughing? 3D Is the boys sleeping? was the girls laughing? > 4 0 Are the boys sleeping? Was the grils laughing? O TASK 3 - PART 4 »215 Will TASK 3 TASK 3 P 1 ii ra 1 Plural Past Past SAD SAD dogs boy i s i s The sleeping, were The crying . arc are was dog were was boys 1 (dog) The n o n n o n o crying. •1 The 0 I)R sleeping. The 01 OB crying. 3 The wha dog sleeping. The wha crying. 4 The were was sleeping. The o crying. 5 The dog was sleeping. The boys was crying. () The dog dog sleeping. The boys crying. 7 The dogs is sleeping. The Boys crying. S The dop, is sleeping. The was boys crying. 9 Tlic Dog sleeping. The crying crying. 10 The was bog were sleeping. The was doy crying crying. 1 1 The is d og s 1 oep i ng. The is lioy crying. 1 2 The was clog sleeping. The crying crying. 1 3 The dog was sleeping. The boys was crying. 1 4 The was sleeping sleeping. The was hoys crying crying. 1 5 The 1 s d o gs sleeping. The is boy crying crying. 1 () The was dogs s 1 eepi ng. The was boy crying. 1 7 The is dog sleeping. The crying. 1 8 The dog was sleeping. The boys was crying. l y The d o g s 1 c c p i n g . The crying crying. 2 0 The d o g sleeping. The boy crying. o CM TASK 3 - PART 4 The II 2 1 5 TASK_3_ Tl ura1 Past SAD sleeping clogs i s were are dog was II 1 1 1 TASK 3  P jural Past SAD The crying boy i s arc was were bovs i he is bo 1 sleeping ['he bog are sleeping. 1'he d o g s is si e oping. I'he was dog sleeping, ['he dog arc sleeping, ['lie is are dog sleeping, ['lie was dog sleeping, ['lie was bogs sleeping, ['he is sleeping, ['he dogs was sleeping. ie boys crying. IC is boys crying. ie boy is crying crying ie was boy crying. ie boys were crying. ic is Boy cryi ng. ic was boys crying. ic is han boy crying. ic is crying. ie boys was crying.  he was dogs sleeping. he was clog si ecp ing . he dogs was sleeping, 'he dogs was sleeping, 'he clog s sleeping, 'he clogs was sleeping. lie is clogs sleeping. he clogs was sleeping. he dogs was sleeping, 'he dogs were sleeping. ie boys was crying ic is boy crying. I c boys was crying I c boys was crying ic is boys crying, ic boys was crying ic was boys crying ic boys was crying ie boys was crying ic boy was crying. o TASK 4 - PART 1 II 3 1 6 M 1 6 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i n g u 1 a r S i n g u 1 a r Pros c ii t Present Y/N Y/N Is the hoy drinking? Is the boy walking? 1 (drinking) (boy walking) 2 OPO ? MOD ? 3 Wha I)r i nk i ng? Wha walking? 4 (drinking) walking? 5 The boy is Drinking? The boy is walked? 6 D r i in k i ng ? walking? 7 is Dr i nk i ng? NOW 8 Dri nk i ng Is ? walking is was? 9 Drinking? walking? 1 0 is the doy Drinking? is the boy walk? 1 ] The is lio y? The is boy? 1 2 The was Dr inking? The is boy walking? I 3 is hoy D r i n k i ng ? is boy wa 1 ki.ng ? 1 4 w a s Drinking? was boy walk i n g ? 1 5 t h e is D r i n k i ng ? Thc is walking? 16 was boy? was hoy? 1 7 the Dri nk i ng is boy? The walking is boy? 1 8 The is 1) r i r i nk g 1 ? The is walking? 19 Drinking ? walking? 2 0 Dr i n k i ng ? Walking? vO O CM TASK 4 - PART 1 II 5 1 6 M 1 6 TASK 4 TASK 4 Singular Singular Ire sent P resent Y/N Y/N Is the boy drinking? Is the boy walking? 21 Drinking? walking? 22 the boy Drinking? the boy walking? 2 3 Is the cloy Drinking? Is the doy walking? 24 is the boy Drinking? the boy is Walking? 25 Is the boy Drinking? Is the boy walking? 2 0 Is Boy Mike Milk? Is Malk Boy? (walk) 27 The boy is Drinking? The boy is walking? 28 The a bog? The a bog? v , 2 9 is were is wort (work) (waik) 3 0 Is boy Drinking? Is boy walking? 3 1 T Ii e i s Drink i n g ? The walking boy is? 3 2 was the boy Drinking? was the boy walking? 3 3 The d o y is D r i. n k i n g ? The boy is walking? 3 4 Are the boy Drinking? Is the 1)oy walking? 3 5 Th c boy D r i nk i ng ? The boy is walking? 3 6 tlie boy is c 1 apping? the boy walking? 3 7 The is boy Drinking? is the boy walking? 3 8 i s the boy D rin k ing ? is the boy walking? 3 9 Is The boy Drinking? Is The boy walking? 4 0 Is the boy d ri nk i ng ? Is the boy walking? TASK 4 - PART 1 II 20A #208 TASK 4 TASK 4 Singular S i n g u 1 a r P resent P resent SAD SAD The girl is eating The girl is falling. 1 (cat ing) (falling) ? mo r ro OOP 3 Wha liat ing. Wha Palling. A N o w Palling. s The gi r1 is Hating. The girl is Palling. 6 G iris Girls 7 liat ing. Palling is. S I s i s Ii a t i n g . Palling. 9 li a t i ng . Ciri 10 is the girl eating. is the girl fell. 1 I The is girl. The is girl. 1 2 Tha The wsa Palling. 1 3 The a p]) 1 e is liat ing . The girl is Palling. 1 4 Wa s liat ing. was Palling. 1 5 The i s liat ing . The is Falling. 1 6 was (joy (girl) was gourl . 1 7 the liat i ng is the Falling is girl. 18 I s T h e g i r 12 a t i n g . the girl F a11i n g. 1 <J li a t i ng . Falling. 20 Ii a t i n g . Girl o TASK 4 - PART 1 CM // 2 0 4 #208 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i nguJ a r S i n g n 1 a r 1' resent P resent SAD SAD Tlic girl is eating. The girl is falling. 2 ] li a t i n g . Falling. 2 2 t Ii e li a t ing girls. the girl Falling. 2 3 The liat i ng girl. The girl Falling. 2 4 is The girl. i s Thc girl. 2 5 Is the gril li a t i n g . Is the gril Falling. 26 Wa s The ate. The jump. 27 Is the girl Fating. Is the girl Falling. 2 8 The we s li a t i ng . The bnu girl. 2 9 is li a t i n g . is p 3 0 The girl is Eating. The girl is Falling. 3 1 ill) , Girl was. Falling was. 3 2 was the girl eating. The is girl falling. 3 3 T he girl is cat i n g. Thc girl is falling. 3 4 The g i r1 is eating. The girl is falling. 3 5 Th e girl li a t i ng . The girl Falling. 3 6 The g i r1 eating. the girl is falling. 57 is the girl eating. The is girl Falling. 3 8 the girl is foe-1 . the girl was fell. 3 9 The girl is eating. The girl is falling. 4 0 The gril is eating. The gril is falling. £ TASK 4 - PART 2 r // 3 l 2 // 2 1 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 Si ngu 1 a r Singular Past Past SAD SAD The boy was clapping. The girl was skipping. 1 (clappi ng) (skipping) 2 no 1 o 1 olklo 3 (c 1 a p p i n g) wha skipping. 4 (clapping) skpping. 5 The boy was Clapping. The girl was skipping. 6 c 1 a p p i n g . skipping. 7 c 1 appi ng. skipping. 8 c1 appi ng was . skipping. 9 c1apping. skipping. 1 0 was the doy clapping. was the girl skipping. 1 1 The is boy. The is girl. 1 2 'I'llc is clapping. The is skipping . 1 3 T he boys sitting. The girl was skipping. 1 4 was c 1 app.i ng . was skipping. 1 5 Tlie is c 1 a ppi ng . The is skipping. 1 6 wa s boy. was girl. 1 7 The clapping is boy. the gril skipping. 18 T h e i s c. 1 a p p i n g . The is girl was skipping. 1 D CI appi. ng. SKipping. 2 0 c 1 o p p i n g . skipping. d £ TASK 4 - PART 2 // 3 1 2 "212 TASK 4 TASK 4 Singular Singular Past P a s t SAD SAD The boy was clapping. The girl was skipping. 2 1 c 1 a pping. skipping. 2 2 t li e boy clapping. the girl skipping. 2 3 The the doy is clapping. I s girl s k i ]) p i n g . 2 4 was the boy clapping. was The girl 2 5 The boy was c lapping. The gril was skipping. , (walk),,. , , Is was skipping. 2 6 Is Malk^ 'Milk Boy. 27 The boy was clapping. was the girl skipping. 2 8 Thc a bog . Is olnuri girl. 2 9 is boy i s 3 0 The boy was clapping. The girl was skipping. 3 1 Tli e wa s clapping. The is girl swimming. 3 2 Is The boy !•'a 1 ling. The is girl sk ipp i.ng . 3 3 The boy was clapping. The girl was skipping. 3 4 The boy was c1 a pping . The girl was s ki ppi ng. 3 5 The boy c1apping . The girl S K ip pIn g. 3 6 t iie boy was c 1 a ppi ng . the girl was skipping. 3 7 The was boy c1ppi ng. w a s the girl skipping. 3 8 The boy was capping. The girl was s k i p pi n g . 3 9 The boy was clapping. The girl was Ski pping . 40 The boy was clapping. Was the gril skipping. TASK 4 - PART 2 «4 04 // 1 0 4 TASK 4 TASK 4 S i nj',ulur S i n g u 1 a r Past Past Y/N Y/N Was the girl sitting? Was the girl crying? 1 (ski ppi ng) crying? 2 Boyd? d o y o B 3 Wha 1) r ink i ng? Wha Girl? 4 (clapping) 0 ? 5 the girl was sitting? The girl was crying? 6 G i r 1 s ? Girls? 7 is Be fo re ? me crying? 8 girl was is? girl was crying? 9 .Bu rda? Before? 1 0 was the girl sitting? the was girl crying? ] 1 i'lie is g i r 1 ? The girl is crying? 1 2 Tlic is sitting? The crying? 1 3 was girl sitting? was the girl crying? 1 4 wa s s i 11 i ng ? was crying? 1 5 The is Girl? The crying? 16 was goll (girl)? crying? 1 7 The ski 11])ping is girl? The girl is crying? 1 8 The is girl? was crying? 1 9 NR girl crying? 2 0 G i r 1 ? Girl? ™ TASK 4 - PART 2 CM MO 4 Ill 0 4 TASK 4 TASK 4 Singular S i ngu I ar 1' a s t. Past Y/N Y/N Was tlic girl sitting? Was tlic girl crying? 2 1 s i 11 i n g ? crying? 22 the g ri1 sitting? the is girl crying? 2 3 I s tlic girl sitting? Is crying girl? 24 the girl was sitting? the was girl? 25 were the girl sitting? The girl was crying? 2 6 is Boy? The 27 Was the girl sitting? Was the girl crying? 2S the a girl? The is girl? 21) i s are Before 3 0 w a s girl s i 11 i n g ? was girl crying? 3 1 The sitting was? w a s c r y :i n g ? 3 2 I s the girl sitting? was the crying? 3 3 The g i r 1 was s i. 11 i ng ? The girl was crying? 34 were the girl sitting? The girl was crying? 3 5 The g i r1 is sitting? was the girl crying? 36 The girl was sitting? The girl was crying? 37 w a s the gril sitting? The was crying? 3 8 was the girl sitting? The girl was crying? 3 9 wa s the girl sitting? Was the girl crying? 4 0 wa s the girl sitting? The gril was crying? rH TASK 4 - PART .3 // 3 0 4 // 1 0 8 TASK 4 TASK 4 PIura1 Plural Present Present Y/N Y/N Are the girls clapping? Arc the boys running? 1 (c1apping) n o n n o u n 2 B ro BMOOM 3 w ha clapping? wha Jumping? 4 (clapping) S The girls is Clapping? The bays is running? 6 (li r 1 s ? Running? 7 1) r i n k i Ag is? 1 0 8 8 (11 a i n g i s was? was is boy Running? y C 1 a(l(li ng Walking? 1 0 is the girl clapping? is the doy Running? I l The is girl? The is boy? 1 2 The wa s clapping? The Running? 1 3 is g i r1s sitting? is The boys running? 1 4 wa s c 1 a p]) i ng ? was R un n i n g ? 1 5 The is c 1 apping? The is Jumping? 1 6 t h o g o d Is boy? 1 7 The clapping is girl? the boy Running? 1 8 The is girls clapping? Running ? 19 Clapping. Running? 2 0 Boy? Boy? rH CM TASK 4 - PART 3 II 3 0 4 II 1 0 8 TASK 4 TASK 4 Plural PIura1 Present P resent Y/N Y/N Arc the girls clapping? Arc the boys running? 2 1 C 1 a p p i. n g ? Running? 22 the gril c 1 a p pi n g ? the is boys running? 2 3 Is the girl clapping? was boy running? 2 4 the is girl Clapping? the is boy? 2 3 Is the girls clapping? were the boys running? 2 0 I s was Girl? The is Running? 27 ARIi till; GIRL CLAPPING? Is the boys Running? 28 The lauaul girl? Is The ran? 2 9 i s were? is? 3 0 Is girls Clapping? Is boys running? 3 1 The is Girls s i 11 i n g? boy R un n i n g ? 3 2 was the girl clapping? was the boy running? 5 3 The giris is clapping? The boys is Running? 34 Is the girls clapping? was The boys running? 3 5 The giris Clapping ? Was The doy? 3 0 the gi r 1 s is c1 apping? The Boys is running? 37 is the girls clapping? boys the is Running? 3 8 Is the girls clapping? the boy was the Running? 3 i) Is the girls clapping? Is the boys running? 4 0 I s t h e gri 1 s clap p ing? Arc boy running? «X TASK 4 - PART 3 r-l 112 16 II A 1 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 P1ura 1 P Jural 1'resent Present SAD SAD Tlic boys are drinking. The girls are falling. 1 (drinking) (clapping) 2 doDo T0V0 3 wh a I) r i n k i ng . w h a F ailing. 4 Drink ig B o y s. (falling) 5 The boy is Drinking. The girl is Palling. 6 1) r i. n k i ng . Girls. 7 Drinking is Lorraine. NOW 8 boy Is Dr i nk ing. girl is was Palling. 9 Drinking . B B r r a a 1 0 is tlic doy Drinking. is the girl fell. 1 1 Th e is boy. The is girl. 12 The i s I)r i nking . The pi r1 Pal 1ing. 1 3 The boys is sitting. The girl is fal1ing. 1 4 wa s D r i n k i ng . was Fa 1 ] i.ng . 1 5 Thc i s 1) r i. nk i ng . The i s Pa 11ing. 1 6 wa s boy. was goul boy. 1 7 Th c boy 1) r i nk i ng . The is girl. 1 S The is Dr i nking The is gr1s. 19 I) r i n k i n g . Falling . 2 0 1) r 1 nk i ng . Girls . TASK 4 - PART 3 vO // 2 1 6 M I 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 Plural Plural Present Present SAL) SAD The boys arc drinking. The girls arc falling. 2 1 1) r inking. Falling. 2 2 the boy Arc Drinking. t h c gril Palling. 2 5 Tiic doys is Drinking. The the girls Palling. 24 is the boy. The girl is Falling. 2 5 were the boys drinking. The girls is Falling. 2 6 Is is Milk Boy. Is the Boy Girl. 27 Is the boy Drinking. The girl is Falling. 28 Is was boy. Is girls. 2 9 i s is byoic 3 0 The hoys is Drinking. The girls is Falling. 3 1 Th c is Drinking Boys. The Falling is. 5 2 The is boy Dri nk ing. The was filling. 3 3 The boys is D r 1n k ing. The girls is falling. 3 4 The boys is Drinking. The girl is fal1ing. 3 5 The boys Dri nk i ng. The girls Falling. 36 The boys drinking. the girls is falling. 3 7 The is boy Drinking. The girls is falling. 5 8 the boy was Drinking. The girls is falling. 39 The boys is drinking. The girl is falling. 40 Tli e boy was D r i n k i n g . The grils is falling. 5 TASK 4 - PART 4 « 1 1 6 /  4 0 8 TASK 4 TASK 4 P 1 urn 1 PIura1 Past Past SAD SAD The girls were running. The dogs were sitting. 1 bonononono (dogs) 2 ADhbB 0j ood lm 7i wha runn ing. wha Dog. 4 A (dogs) 5 The girls was running. The dogs was . 6 Girls Dogs 7 Boys Be fore 8 girl was running. dog is was sittin 1) G i r 1 DOAS 1 0 Was girl Running. was the hogs. 1 1 Th e i s g i r1 The is dag. 1 2 The Ru mi 1 ng . The dogs sitting. 1 3 The girls was running. The clogs was three. 1 4 The was Girl Running. was Dogs. 1 5 The i s Jumping. The was boys . 1 6 s k p 1 1 n g . was Dogs . 1 7 The g ir1 Running. The Dogs is three. J 8 was Runn i ng. The is Dogs . 19 R u n n i n g . Dogs . 20 Girls. Dogs . 00 r| TASK 4 - PART 4 // 1 1 6 MOS TASK 4 TASK 4 P 1 u r a 1 Plural Past Prist SAD SAD The girls were running. The dogs were sitting. 2 1 Runni ng . Dogs . 22 the ars girls running. the bog Dogs. 2 5 Is girl is Running. The the dog. 24 Wa s t lie girl. the dog was. 2 5 The girls were running. The dogs was sitting. 2 6 I'lle was girl. I s the dogs. 27 was the girl Running. The dog was sitting. 28 The is girl. was bogs. 2 9 B e To re is grils. 30 The girls was running. The dogs was sitting. 3 1 Running gi r1s . The Dogs was. 3 2 The was girl Running. The is Dogs sitting. 3 3 The girls was Running. The dogs was sitting. 3 4 The girl was running. The dog was sitting. 3 5 The g i r1s is J umping . The dogs is sitting. 3 6 The girls was running. The dogs sitting. 3 7 The was Girls Running. Was the dog sitting. 3 8 the girl .lumping. the dog was sitting. 3 9 The girl was running. The dogs was sitting. 40 Was the grils running. The dog was sitting. TASK 4 - PART 4 // 3 0 8 // 1 ] 2 TASK 4 TASK 4 Plural Plural Past Past Y/N Y/N Were the boys walking? Were the girls jumping? 1 (walking) Bononono? 2 crying ? oh 1 o 3 (w a 1 king) wha running? 4 (walking) Jumping? 5 The boys was walking? The girls was jumping? 6 Boy? Girls? 7 B o y s is? Jumping? 8 walking is was? was girl is ? 9 walking? Girls? 10 w a s the cloy walking? was the girl Jumping? 1 1 The is boy? The is girl? I 2 The is walking,? The Jumpi ng ? 1 3 wa s boy s walk i ng ? was the girls Jumping? 1 4 w a s wa1k i ng ? The was Girl? 1 5 The i s wa 1 king? The is Girl? 1 (> boy w a s ? gop 1 7 The walking is boy? the Runn i n g ? 1 8 The is walk i ng ? was Jumping? 19 Wa 1 k i ng? Jump i ng? 20 Boys •? Girls? TASK 4 - PART 4 // 3 0 8 /' 1 1 2 TASK 4 TASK <1 PI lira 1 Plural Past P a s t Y/N Y/N Wore tlic boys walking? Were the girls jumping? 2 1 W a 1 k i n g ? Palling? 22 t h c boy walk i ng ? the is girls jumping? 2 3 Is the cloys walking? Is girl Jumping? 24 was the boy walking? was the girl? 2 5 was the boys walking? Arc the girls jumping? 2 6 1 s Malk (walk)? The is girl? 27 The boy was walking? Was the girl Jumping? 2 8 the wake Dog? Is girl? 2'.) is boyy? Before 30 wa s boys walking? was girls Jumping? 3 1 the wa s wa1k i ng ? Girl .Jumping? 3 2 was the boy walking? was the girl J um p ing? 3 3 The cloys was walking? The girl was Jumping? 3 4 were the boys walking? was the girls jumping? 3 5 the boys wa1k i ng ? The girls? 3 6 the boys was walking? The girls was jumping? 3 7 was the boys walking? The was Girls j urnp ing? 3 8 was the boys walking? the girl was Jumping? 39 Was the boys walking? Was the girl jumping? 4 0 The boy was walking? Was the grils jumping? APPENDIX H SUMMARY OF TASK 3 AND 4 RESPONSES FOR SELECTED SUBJECTS ( ) - indicates subject pointed to that particular word 222. Correct Model 103 33 The girl is clapping. : 411 34 The boy is jumping. 307 35 Is the boy running? 407 36 Is the girl jumping? T 315 37 The boy was sleeping. 115 38 The dog was running. A 415 39 Was the girl swimming? S 403 40 Was the boy falling? K 207 41 The girls are swimming. 311 42 The boys are falling. 3 203 43 Are the dogs running? 303 44 Are the girls crying? 215 45 The dogs were sleeping. 111 46 The boys were crying. 107 47 Were the boys sleeping? 211 48 Were the girls laughing? 204 49 The girl is eating. 208 50 The girl is falling. 316 51 Is the boy drinking? T 416 52 Is the boy walking? A 312 53 The boy was clapping. S 212 54 The girl was skipping. K 404 55 Was the girl sitting? 104 56 Was the girl crying? 4 216 57 The boys are drinking. 412 58 The girls are falling. 304 59 Are the girls clapping? 108 60 Are the boys running? 116 61 The girls were running. 408 62 The dogs were sitting. 308 63 Were the boys walking? 112 64 Were the girls jumping? 223. 103 411 307 407 315 115 415 S403 K 207 311 203 303 215 111 107 211 53 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 4 2 4 3 44 45 46 47 48 #5 The girl was clapping. The dog is jumping. the boy is running the boy is running? The girl is jumping the girl is jumping? The boy was sleeping. The dog was running. The girl was swimming the girl was swimming? The boy was falling the boy was falling? The girls is swimming. The boy is falling. The dog is running the running? The girl is crying the girl is crying? The dog was sleeping. The boys was crying. The boys was sleeping the boy was sleeping? the girls was laughing? _#6 The girl clapping. The boys jumping. boys the boy running? girls the girl jumping? The boy sleeping. The dogs running, swimming the swimming? boys the boy falling? The girl swimming. The boy falling. dog the dogs running? girls the girl crying? The dog dog sleeping. The boys crying. boys the sleeping? girl the girls laughing? 204 49 The girl is Eating. Girls . 208 50 The girl is Falling. Girls . 316 51 The boy is Drinking? Drimking? 416 52 The boy is walked? Walking? 312 5 3 The boy was Clapping. c1app ing. 212 54 The girl was skipping. skipping . 404 55 the girl was sitting? Girls? 104 56 The girl was crying? Girls? 216 57 The boy is Drinking. Drinking . 412 58 The girl is Falling. Girls. 304 59 The girls is clapping? Girls? 108 60 The bays is running? Running ? 116 61 The girls was running. Girls . 408 62 The dogs was Dogs . 308 63 The boys was walking? Boy? 112 64 The girls was jumping? Girls? 224. #16 #19 103 33 The girl clapping. The girl clapping. 411 34 The was boy j urn p. ing. The boy j umping. 307 35 Was the boy running? Running the running? 407 36 Was the girl jumping? girl the jumping. 315 37 The was boy sleeping. The sleeping sleeping. T 115 38 The Dog running. The dogs running. 415 39 Was the girl swimming? girls the swimming? A 403 40 Was the boy falling? Falling the falling? S 207 41 The was goirl swimming. The Swimming swimming. K 311 42 The was boy falling. The Falling falling. 203 43 Was the dog running? doy the running? 3 303 44 War the girl crying? crying the crying? 215 45 The was dogs sleeping. The dog sleeping. 111 46 The was boy crying. The crying crying. 107 47 Was the boys sleeping? is the are sleeping? 211 48 Was the girl laughing? Laughing the laughing? 204 49 Was goul (girl) Eating. 208 50 Was gour1 . Falling. 316 51 Was boy? Drinking? T 416 52 Was boy? Walking ? 312 53 Was boy. C1app ing. A 212 54 Was girl'. Skipping. S 404 55 Was goll? (girl) NR. (couldn't find vb.) K 104 56 crying? girl crying? 216 57 Was boy. Drinking. 4 412 58 Was goul boy. Falling. 304 59 tho god . C1app ing ? 108 60 Is boy? Runn ing ? 116 61 s kp1Ing Running. 408 62 Was Dogs Dogs . 308 63 boy was? Walking? 112 64 gor Jumping ? 225. #24 #30 103 33 The is girl clapping. The girl is clapping. 411 34 The is boy jumping. The boy is jumping. 307 35 is the boy running? Is the boy running? 407 36 is the girl jumping? Is the girl jumping? T 315 37 The was boy sleeping. The boy was sleeping. 115 38 The was bog running. The dog was running. A 415 39 Was the girl swimming? Was the girl swimming? S 403 40 Was the boy falling? was the boy falling? K 207 41 The is girl swimming. The girls is swimming. 311 42 The is boy falling. The boys is falling. 3 203 43 is the dog running? Is the dogs running? 303 44 is the girl crying? Is the girls crying? 215 45 The was dog sleeping. The dogs was sleeping. 111 46 The was boy crying. The boys was crying. 107 47 Was the boy sleeping? was the boys sleeping? 211 48 Was the girl laughing? was the girls laughing? 204 49 is The girl. The girl is Eating. 208 50 is The girl The girl is Falling. 316 51 is the boy Drinking? Is boy Drinking? T 416 52 the boy is Walking? Is boy Walking? 312 53 was the boy clapping. The boy was clapping. A 212 54 was The gir1. The girl was skipping. S 404 55 the girl was sitting? was girl sitting? K 104 56 the was girl? was girl crying? 216 57 is the boy. the boys is Drinking. 4 412 58 the girl is Falling. The girls is Falling. 304 59 the is girl Clapping? Is girls Clapping? 108 60 the is boy? Is boys running? 116 61 was the girl. The girls was running. 408 62 the dog was The dogs was sitting. 308 63 was the boy walking? was boys walking? 112 64 was the girl? was girls Jumping? 226. #33 #40 103 33 The girl is cl app ing. The gril is clapping. 411 34 The boy is j umping. The boy is jumping. 307 35 Is the boy running? Is the boy running? 407 36 Is the girl jumping? Is the gril jumping? 315 37 The boy was sleeping. The boy was sleeping. 115 38 The dog was running. The dog was running. 415 39 Was the girl swimming? Was the gril swimming? 403 40 Was the boy falling? Was the boy falling? 207 41 The girls is swimming. The gril is swimming. 311 42 The boys is fal1ing. The boys is falling. 203 43 Is the dog running? Is the dog running? 303 44 Is the girls crying? Is the grils crying? 215 45 The dogs was sleeping. The dogs were sleeping. 111 46 The boys was crying. The boy was crying. 107 47 Was the boys sleeping? Are the boys sleeping? 211 48 Was the girls laughing? was the grils laughing? 204 49 The girl is eating. The gril is eating. 208 50 The girl is falling. The gril is falling. 316 51 The doy is Drinking? Is the boy Drinking? 416 52 The boy is walking? Is the boy walking? 312 53 The boy was clapping. The boy was clapping. 212 54 The girl was skiping. Was the gril skipping. 404 55 The girl was sitting? Was the girl sitting? 104 56 The girl was crying? The gril was crying? 216 57 The boys is Drinking. The boy was drinking. 412 58 The girls is falling. The grils is falling. 304 59 The girls is clapping? Is the grils clapping? 108 60 The boys is Running? Are boy running? 116 61 The girls was Running. Was the grils running. 408 62 The dogs was sitting. The dog was sitting. 308 63 The doys was walking? The boy was walking? 112 64 The girl was Jumping? Was the grils jumping? APPENDIX I SUMMARY ANOVA INCLUDING EXAMINER AS A FACTOR Summary of Analysis of Variance 228. Source df I'.fean Square Error Term F MEANa 1 181.6891 R(AX) 234.9711 Ab 3 7.4838 R(AX) 9.6786 ## BC 3 15.1046- BR(AX) 98.1129 #* cd 1 36.5765 CR(AX) 60.8242 ** De 1 .3062 DR(AX) 2.0992 Ef 1 .1562E-02 ER(AX) 0.0081 X(A)g 4 3.7945 R(AX) 4.9073 ** AB 9 .5841 BR(AX) 3.7947 AC 3 4.0213 CR(AX) 6.6872 BC 3 .4463 BCR(AX) 2.5315 AD 3 .3072 DR(AX) 2.1063 BD 3 .1593 BDR(AX) 1.2436 CD 1 .9179E-05 CDR(AX) 0.0001 AE 3 .2588 ER(AX) 1.3347 BE 3 .2963 BER(AX) 1.7988 CE 1 .7956E-01 CER(AX) 0.3051 DE 1 1.406 DER(AX) 16.1822 R(AX)h 32 .7732 BX(A) 12 .1736 BR(AX) 1.1282 CX(A) 4 2.4976 CR(AX) 4.1534 DX(A) 4 .4007 DR(AX) 2.7471 EX(A) 4 .1289 ER(AX) 0.6647 ABC 9 .1453 BCR(AX) 0.8242 ABD 9 .2201 BDR(AX) 1.7178 ACD 3 .2218 CDR(AX) 1.5290 BCD 3 .5728E-01 BCDR(AX) 0.5518 ABE 9 .8559E-01 BER(AX) 0.5196 ACE 3 .4219E-01 CER(AX) 0.1681 BCE 3 .1713 BCER(AX) 1.2621 ADE 3 .2072 DER(AX) 2.3854 BDE 3 .5635 BDER(AX) 4.0714 CDE 1 .5624E-01 CDER(AX) 0.5023 BR(AX) 96 .1539 CR(AX) 32 .6013 DR(AX) 32 .1458 ER(AX) 32 .1939 BCX(A) 12 .2538 BCR(AX) 1.4399 BDX(A) 12 . 2070 BDR(AX) 1.6154 CDX(A) 4 .3203E-01 CDR(AX) 0.2207 EEX(A) 12 .1476 BER(AX) 0.8963 CEX(A) 4 .8203E-01 CER(AX) 0.3269 DEX(A) 4 .1882 DER(AX) 2.1667 Summary of Analysis of Variance (cont.) 229. Source df Mean Square Error Term F ABCD 9 .1694 BCDR(AX) 1.6317 ABCE 9 .1161 BCER(AX) 0.8552 ABDE 9 .1548 BDER(AX) 1.1187 ACDE 3 .6978E-01 CDER(AX) 0.6239 BCDE S(BCDE)1 3 .1302 BCDER(AX) 1.0873 32 .1640 SR(AXBCDE) 1.6044 BCR(AX) 96 .1763 BDR(AX) 96 .1281 CDR(AX) 32 .1451 BER(AX) 96 .1647 CER(AX) 32 .2509 DER(AX) 32 .8690E-01 BCDX(A) 12 .9455E-01 BCDR(AX) 0.9108 BCEX(A) 12 .2153 BCER(AX) 1.5865 BDEX(A) 12 .8826E-01 BDER(AX) 0.6377 CDEX(A) 4 .3824E-01 CDER(AX) 0.3419 ABCDE 9 .2979 BCDER(AX) 2.4881 AS(BCDE) 96 .1005 SR(AXBCDE) 0.9829 BCDR(AX) 96 .1038 BCER(AX) 96 .1357 BDER(AX) 96 .1384 CDER(AX) 32 .1118 BCDEX(A) 12 .1569 BCDER(AX) 1.3102 SX( ABCDE) 128 .8824E-01 SR(AXBCDE) 0.8630 BCDER(AX) 96 .1197 SR(AXBCDE) 1024 .1022 = probability < .05 ** = probability < .01 a = grand mean b = age c = task d = singular/plural e tense f = transform g = examiner nested under age h = subjects nested under examiner and age i sentences nested under BCDE 

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