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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Relationship of visual sequential memory to spelling ability of grade four subjects Maitland, Mary Jane 1980

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RELATIONSHIP OF VISUAL SEQUENTIAL MEMORY TO SPELLING ABILITY OF GRADE FOUR SUBJECTS by MARY JANE MAITLAND B.A., Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 B.E'd., A c a d i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1980 0 Mary Jane M a i t l a n d , 1980 In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of $j\0S/J*J?J &/i/jiss>jtjfmJ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P lace Vancouver , Canada V6T 1W5 D E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 I E i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e of the s t u d y was to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory a b i l i t y to s p e l l -i n g a b i l i t y . An e x p e r i m e n t a l sample of 77 n o r m a l g r a d e f o u r s u b j e c t s was u s e d . F o u r c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d ) p r e r e q u i s i t e t e s t s were d e s i g n e d and us e d to e n s u r e i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y of o n l y t h o s e s u b j e c t s w i t h a d e q u a t e d e v e l o p m e n t of p r e r e q u i s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d n e c e s s a r y f o r the s p e l l i n g and memory t e s t s a p p l i e d . The P r e d i c t a b l e Words and U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words s u b t e s t s from t h e L a r s e n - H a m m i l l T e s t of W r i t t e n S p e l l i n g were used to measure s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . V i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory a b i l i t y was measured by two t e s t s r e q u i r i n g r e c a l l of n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h s . The memory t e s t s were s i m i l a r e x c e p t f o r r e s p o n s e mode; one r e q u i r e d o r a l r e c a l l w h i l e t h e o t h e r r e q u i r e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . B o t h t e s t s were f o u n d to have a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .80. The a b i l i t y f o r o r a l r e c a l l of n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory was f o u n d to be p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y to s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r words ( r = .655; p = < .05) as w e l l as p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words ( r = .488; p = < . 0 5 ) . The a b i l i t y f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l of n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory was a l s o f o u n d to be p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a b i l i t y to s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r words (.r = . 588 ; p = < .05) as w e l l as p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words ( r = .524; p== < . 0 5 ) . R e s u l t s i i i s u p p o r t e d the p r o p o s e d h y p o t h e s e s and s u g g e s t v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory f o r v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n as a p o s s i b l e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y u n d e r l y i n g t h e p r o c e s s of s p e l l i n g . loving memory f my father V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i DEDICATION i v L I S T OF TABLES v i i LI S T OF FIGURES i x L I S T OF APPENDICES x CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND RELATED RESEARCH 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h 3 S p e l l i n g and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory . . . 4 N a t u r e of O r t h o g r a p h y 7 P e r f o r m a n c e P r e r e q u i s i t e s 10 V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l S h o r t - T e r m Memory . . . . 12 R e l e v a n t F e a t u r e s of V e r b a l L e a r n i n g . . . . 16 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 21 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s 22 S p e l l i n g 22 V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Short-TermmMemory . . . . 23 R e c a l l 24 P e r f o r m a n c e P r e r e q u i s i t e s 24 M a s t e r y 25 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 25 I I METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS 27 S u b j e c t s 27 M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t s and S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s . 29 Group A d m i n i s t e r e d T e s t s 30 I n d i v i d u a l l y A d m i n i s t e r e d T e s t s 38 P r o c e d u r e 42 Data C o l l e c t i o n 42 D e s i g n and Dat a A n a l y s i s 46 R e s u l t s 47 S u b j e c t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 47 P e r f o r m a n c e on P r e r e q u i s i t e T e s t s 48 T e s t s o f H y p o t h e s e s 50 R e l i a b i l i t y o f V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory T e s t s 54 v i Page CHAPTER I I I SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 57 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 57 L i m i t a t i o n s 60 Recommendations f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY 66 APPENDICES 69 v i i TABLE LIS T OF TABLES Page I I I I I IV VI V I I V I I I IX Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s (SD), S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement ( S E m ) and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s (KR21) f o r 484 Grade F o u r S u b j e c t s on the TWS C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s D e p i c t i n g the R e l a t i o n s h i p between th e TWS and O t h e r T e s t s o f S p e l l i n g Mean'' . (X) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n (SD) and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( S p l i t - H a l f & KR20) f o r Grade Four S u b j e c t s on the O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I I (Form J) . . 32 32 34 Mean •> (X) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n (SD) and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( S p l i t H a l f ; KR20) f o r 10,428 N i n e Y e a r - O l d s and 12,861 Ten Y e a r - O l d s on the O t i s Lennon: E l e m e n t a r y I I (Form J) 34 Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( S D ) , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t ( A l t e r n a t e -Forms) and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s of Measurement ( S E m ) f o r 1,004 Grade Four S u b j e c t s on the O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I I (Forms J & K) . . . 35 Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( S D ) , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( A l t e r n a t e - F o r m s ) and S t a d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement ( S E m ) f o r 613 N i n e Y e a r - O l d s and 956 Ten Y e a r - O l d s on the O t i s L ennon: E l e m e n t a r y I I (Forms J & K) . . C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I I ( G r a d e s 4, 5 and 6) and O t h e r Measures o f M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s . XI C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I I ( G r a d e s 4,5 and 6) and S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t s o f Academic A c h i e v e m e n t . C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I I ( G r a d e s 4, 5 and 6) and E n d - o f - Y e a r C o u r s e Grades Sample Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s (SD) and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement ( S E m ) f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l S u b j e c t s on E x p e r i m e n t a l V a r i a b l e s - (:N = 77): . S u b j e c t E r r o r s on P r e r e q u i s i t e T e s t s (N = 77) 35 36 37 38 48 50 v i i i TABLE Page X I I F r e q u e n c y T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s ( P r e d i c t a b l e Words) and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( O r a l R e c a l l ) 51 X I I I F r e q u e n c y T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s (.Unp'r e d i c t a b l e Words) and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( O r a l R e c a l l ) 52 XIV F r e q u e n c y T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s ( P r e d i c t a b l e Words) and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( W r i t t e n R e c a l l ) 53 XV F r e q u e n c y T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s ( U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words) and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( W r i t t e n R e c a l l ) 54 XVI Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( S D ) , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( H o yt) and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement ( S E m ) f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l S u b j e c t s on V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l (N = 77) 555 i x L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE T I T L E Page 1 F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n (skewness = 0.333) of p r e d i c t a b l e words s p e l l i n g s c o r e s ( t o t a l number o f t e s t i t e m s = 35) . . . . 62 2 F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n (skewness = 0.039) of u n p r e d i c t a b l e words s p e l l i n g s c o r e s ( t o t a l number o f t e s t i t e m s = 25) . . . . 62 3 F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory: w r i t t e n r e c a l l (skewness = 0.317) and o r a l r e c a l l (skewness = 0.360) s c o r e s ( t o t a l number o f t e s t i t e m s = 24) 63 X L I S T OF APPENDICES APPENDIX T I T L E Page A V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory T e s t s . . . . . . 69 1. O r a l R e c a l l : I n s t r u c t i o n s 70 2. O r a l R e c a l l : Response Sheet 71 3. W r i t t e n R e c a l l : I n s t r u c t i o n s . . . . 72 4. W r i t t e n R e c a l l : Response Sheet . . . 73 5. Sample Page o f T e s t S t i m u l i 74 B P e r f o r m a n c e P r e r e q u i s i t e T e s t s 75 1. I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s : I n s t r u c t i o n s . . 76 2. I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s : Response S h e e t . 77 3. Naming L e t t e r s : I n s t r u c t i o n s . . . . 78 4. Naming L e t t e r s : Response Sheet . . . 79 5. W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s : I n s t r u c t i o n s 80 6. W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s : Response Sheet 81 7. R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e q u e n c e s : I n s t r u c t i o n s 82 8. R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e q u e n c e s : Response Sheet 83 C I n f o r m a t i o n to P a r e n t s 84 1. I n f o r m a t i o n a l L e t t e r 85 2. P a r e n t C o n s e n t Form 86 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND RELATED RESEARCH Tn. t r o d u ct'jo ti T e a c h i n g q h l ^ l d r e n t h e t o o l s u b j e c t of s p e l l i n g i s a -m^jor. ob j e c t i v e of tlte s c h o o l s y s t e m . The a d d i t i v e n a t u r e o f s p e l l i n g makes- i n i t i a l a c h i e v e m e n t o r l a c k of a c h i e v e m e n t |>n t h i s s . k i l l a r e a i n f l u e n t i a l t h r o u g h o u t a c h i l d ^s e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . Thus- t h e t e a c h i n g of s p e l l i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y grades> c a r r i e s l o n g l a s t i n g i m p o r t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y we- c a n n o t y e t assume to know t h e most e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s ^ f o r s p e l l i n g as- w e l c a n n o t y e t c l a i m to have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s I t s e l f . The c o m p l e x i t y of the p r o c e s s i n u n d e r s c o r e d by J o h n s o n and M y k l e b u s t ,vs- C19_67X s t a t e m e n t t h a t , " S p e l l i n g r e q u i r e s more a;ud£tory> and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , memory, s e q u e n t i a l i z a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s , and i n t e g r a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t h a n p e r h a p s any o t h e r s k i l l " Cp• 2 3 9 ) . Over t h e p a s t few d e c a d e s , r e s e a r c h e r s have p e r s i s t e d i n a t t e m p t i n g to e l u c i d a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n s p e l l i n g and u n d e r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s . B u t , t h e component f a c t o r s i n l e a r n i n g to s p e l l have n o t been a d e q u a t e l y a s s e s s e d CNewton, 1961 ; K i r c h h e i m e r , 19 7 9 ) . One of t h e most c o m p l e t e t h e o r e t i c a l -models, of s p e l l i n g b e h a v i o r y e t d e v i s e d was- p o s t u l a t e d fry Simon (197 6) , The model i s b a s e d on a c o n t e m p o r a r y and genera,l a p p r o a c h t o human cogh.Jst.fcve l e a r n i n g known a s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , Wfcthfcn t h i s infor-mation-r-2 p r o c e s s i n g framework, s p e l l i n g i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms of t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s a p p l i e d by t h e l e a r n e r i n r e c e i v i n g , s t o r -i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t to t h e t a s k . "Memory emerges as a c o m p l i c a t e d phenomenon i n w h i c h t h e human b e i n g a c t i v e l y s e l e c t s and t r a n s f o r m s t h e i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and p i c e s i t i n a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d s t o r a g e d e v i c e (Marx and Bunch, 1977, p. 2 2 0 ) . B u t , as Simon h e r s e l f p o i n t s o u t , "Too l i t t l e i s known about some of t h e components-'-for example, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s h o r t - t e r m memory and t h e r e l a t i o n of s h o r t - t e r m memory to t h e motor s y s t e m — t o c o n s t r u c t a d e f i n i t i v e m o d e l " (p. 2 7 8 ) . A d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e e x p l o r i n g or c o n f i r m i n g components of t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d r e s u l t i n more a c c u r a t e t h e o r i e s of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y and d i s a b i l i t y from w h i c h more a d e q u a t e t e a c h i n g methods f o r B o t h t h e t y p i c a l and a t y p i c a l l e a r n e r can be d e v e l o p e d , T h e r e f o r e c o n t i n u e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h u n d e r l i e t h e a b i l i t y to s p e l l i s w a r r a n t e d and f u r t h e r m o r e n e c e s s a r y i f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m i s to r e a l i z e i t s o b j e c t i v e w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t e f f i c a c y . As F r i t h C 1 9 7 8 ) a r g u e s , a s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y o f t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s w i l l n o t be a v a i l a b l e u n t i l r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of b o t h t h e o r t h o g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r e of t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f words. F r i t h p i n p o i n t s a c r i t i c a l a s p e c t w h i c h has been a b s e n t from t h e m a j o r i t y of r e s e a r c h on s p e l l i n g ; t h a t i s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e n a t u r e of t h e i n f o r m a -t i o n to be p r o c e s s e d by t h e l e a r n e r d u r i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of s p e l l i n g p r o f i c i e n c y . G r a n t e d a l l t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y have n o t been r e v e a l e d to d a t e but t h e f i e l d o f 3 1 £ngu£-s>t;£e.s> has- a d v a n c e d o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l a n g u a g e S t r u c t u r e Cffanna, H'anna,-, Hodges and R u d o r f , 1 9 6 6 1 , C o n c u r r e n t l y ' , t h e f i e l d p f p s y c h o l o g y has- made ga i n s - i n t h e u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f -v&pB'al l e a r n i n g w h i c h a l s o a p p e a r p e r t i n e n t t o t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s - Q C i n t s c h , 1 9 7 7 ; L i n d s a y and Norman, 19775 ^ a r x a n d - B u n c h , 1-917 71. ^  T h e r e f o r e t h i s s>tudyv e n d e a v o r e d t o a p p r o a c h t h e u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e o f under-r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e - c o r r e l a t e s * t o t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e l i g h t o f r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as l i n g u i s -t i c s a,nd p s y c h o l o g y . As s p e l l i n g i s , t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t r a n s l a t i n g s p o k e n language- i n t o w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , i t d e a l s w i t h t h e r e m e m b e r i n g ftn-d R e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h o s e - v i s u a l s y m b o l s a g r e e d upon as rep*-r e s e n t a t l v e o f t h e s p o k e n w o r d . B a h n a t y n e and W i s h i a r a j o t e (196 9) s.tate i t is> s e l f ^ e v i d e n t t h a t s p e l l i n g i s i n l a r g e p a r t a r o t e memory o r a u t o m a t i z e d p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g t h e r e c a l l e>.| l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s c o n s t i t u t i n g w r i t t e n w o r d s . Thus •memary appears- as a c r i t i c a l c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s - p e l i i n g ; a n d , t h e most o b v i o u s and l o g i c a l memory f a c t o r t o e x a m i n e i n r e l a t i o n t o s p e l l i n g a p p e a r s t o be r e c a l l o f v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e f o c u s e d on r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h s p e l l i n g as i t i s r e l a t e d t o memory f o r ' v i s u a l s t i m u l i , e s p e c i a l l y v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s t i m u l i , x R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h $:h anys area' o f s t u d y a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t e p is> t o o r g a n i z e t h e ; known i n f o r m a t i o n i n a s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n , An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s -must t h e r e f o r e B e g i n w i t h i n a c o n t e x t w h i c h c o n s i d e r s t h e p e r t f n a n c y * and i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of; r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s , . S p e l l i n g and ' V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory Day- and Wed e l l (197 2) s e l e c t e d t h r e e groups- <5f c h i l d r e n between trtel a g e s of e i g h t and t e n upon t h e B a s i s of perform-^ a,nce on tes>ts- o f v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y memory: one w i t h r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s i n a u d i t o r y . s e q u e n t i a l memory and one W i t h e q u a l s t r e n g t h s , i n - v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y memory. P e r f o r m -^nces, on t h e S c f t o n e l l S p e l l i n g T e s t o f I r r e g u l a r Words (1932) fe-j-e t h e n compared. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d Between t h e t h r e e g r o u p s i n s p e l l i n g a c h i e v e m e n t on t h e S' c h o n e l l , NPr d i d t h e groups- d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y - i n v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by t h e E n g l i s h P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y Tes»t. A d j u s t i n g s p e l l i n g s c o r e s By a n a l y s i s o f co- v a r i a n c e f o r V a r i a t i o n s - i n IQ s c o r e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e g r o u p s i n s p e l l i n g . The r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y a r e q u e s t i o n a B l e on t h e B a s i s of measurement i s s u e s . The V i s u a l -Motor S e q u e n c i n g s u b t e s t from t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l v e r s i o n of the XTPA was employed as t h e measure of v i s u a l memory. Not o n l y was t h i s s u b t e s t g i v e n i n i s o l a t i o n and n o t as p a r t of a B a t t e r y as d e s i g n e d But i t was g i v e n to s u B j e c t s who e x c e e d e d t h e n i n e and a h a l f y e a r upper-*-mental-age r a n g e o f t h e t e s t t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e r e l i a B i l i t y - o f o B t a i n e d s c o r e s . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e q u e s t i o n of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y - f o r s u b t e s t s - o f t h e TTPA. The r e s e a r c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s p o i n t t o i n a d e q u a t e n o r m i n g t h e S>tamBak\ R e p r o d u c t i o n de S t r u c t u r s - Rythmiques u s e d as- t h e • \ • - . . . . . . measure o f a u d i t o r y memory, These c o n d i t i o n s p r e c l u d e d 5 knowledge of t h e s i z e o f t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement f o r t h e two ' V a r i a b l e s as- w e l l as t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between th e two m e asures t h u s making i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s u n s ound. Banna ty-ne and W i c h i a r a j o t e ( 1 9 6 9) f o u n d s i m i l a r l y n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s - u s i n g the- r e - v i s e d TTPA 'V i s u air-Mot o r S e q u e n c i n g suB'tes.t, The a B ' i l i t y to s equence g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n s from Memory, w i t h o u t t h e i n v o l v e m e n t of motor -^encoding had a l m o s t no c o r r e l a t i o n Q>~— «0&I w i t h e i g h t y e a r o l d s ^ wrdrttem s p e l l i n g on t h e S^chonell ( i 9 6 0) s t a n d a r d i z e d g r a d e d word s p e l l i n g t e s t s , Tfreyv d i d however f i n d r e c o g n i t i o n of g e o m e t r i c shapes a s -measured By The B"annatyne V i s u o ^ - S p a t i a l Memory T e s t to Be s i g n i f i c a n t l y - r e l a t e d to s - p e l l i n g performavce (j> = , 16 1 and r e p r o d u c t i o n of d e s i g n s - as -measured By The Graham-rKendall Memory-rForT-Desvigns. T e s t even more so ( r = , 3 3 ) . I n t e l l i g e n c e and s p e l l i n g s k i l l s were f o u n d to Be u n r e l a t e d . From t h e s e r e s u l t s , B a n n a t y n e and W i c h i a r a j o t e c o n c l u d e d t h a t the a B i l l t y to rememBer and m o t o r i c a l l y r e p r o d u c e complex u n i t ^ d e s i g n s f o l l o w i n g a B r i e f e x p o s u r e i s c r i t i c a l t o w r i t t e n s p e l l i n g w h i l e v i s u a l s e q u e n c i n g of d e s i g n s has no r e l e v a n c e to w r i t t e n s p e l l i n g . 'Viewing ' u n i t - ^ d e s i g n s x as a n a l o g o u s to i n d i v i d u a l l e t t e r s - or l e t t e r g r o u p s , t h e y r e a s o n e d t h a t , " , . . v i s u a l l y i t i s t h e p a t t e r n - ^ d e s i g n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l u n i t l e t t e r s , or grapheme g r o u p i n g s of l e t t e r s , w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t i n w r i t t e n s p e l l i n g , n o t t h e i r v i s u a l sequence'^ Cp. 1 7 1 , I n t h e same s t u d y , r e s u l t s on t h e s p e l l i n g t e s t were 6 f o u n d to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d C r , 4 0 . 1 with, p e r f o r m -a n c e on t h e So und-r-B l e n d i n g s u b t e s t of t h e IT PA,. A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d between sound b l e n d i n g and p e r f o r m a n c e on The- '<3r- a t t a M r C e r i d a l l ^MemoryvFoiT-Designs- T e s t l e a d to t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t , "sound B l e n d i n g . , . has- i n f t v - . . . . t , ', a consideraB'le- e l e m e n t of t h e m o t o r / k i n e s t h e t i c and -yisuoT.motor a s p e c t s o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , even when t h e s.timuli- a r e p r e s e n t e d o r a l l y ^ (p, H I , From t h i s e v i d e n c e , they- s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s-equenclnggelement i n s p e l l i n g i s i n t r o d u c e d when graphemes or phonemes- a r e t r a n s l a t e d I n t o a p t i c u l emes w i t h i n trte '^neuropsy cho l o g i c a l s p e e c h a r e a s " and i s t h u s d ependent upon vocal-rmotor a c t i v i t y of a s e q u e n t i a l type,. Goyen and M a r t i n C19.77X used a v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory t e s t d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y - f o r t h e i r s t u d y C t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a B l l i t y , 76T w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of g e o m e t r i c shapes p r e s e n t e d i n s e q u e n c e s of I n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y . A w r i t t e n s p e l l i n g t e s t was a l s o d e v i s e d f o r t h e s t u d y ( t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a B l l i t y , 9.7, ; c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h S c h o n e l l ,93) c o n s i s t i n g of 5Q words c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r e n c e and r e g u l a r i t y o f o r t h o g r a p h y . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f 23 v a r i a B l e s i n c l u d i n g s p e l l i n g w o r d - t y p e and s p e l l i n g e r r o r r e s u l t e d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s i x p r i n c i p l e f a c t o r s . V i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory- d i d n o t Iftad s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any o f t h e s i x f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g a v e r B a l r - i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c t o r upon which. 12 of t h e 14 s p e l l i n g v a r i a B l e s showed m o d e r a t e to h i g h loadings*,, A,udito.ry-- sejq-uentlal ^ emo.ryvj' m e a s u r e d B:y\ r e q u i r i n g 7 s u b j e c t s to w r i t e down a u d i t o r i a l l y p r e s e n t e d d i g i t s from memory, had a moderate l o a d i n g on t h i s f a c t o r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , r e s u l t s o f t h e Goyen and M a r t i n s t u d y i n d i c a t e d a c c u r a c y i n s p e l l i n g p e r f o r m a n c e to be a f u n c t i o n o f r e g u l a r i t y o f o r t h o g r a p h y . In a n o t h e r f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c s t u d y , R e i d and Hughes (1974) i d e n t i f i e d a " r e c a l l , r o t e - m e m o r y - f o r - v e r l a l - m a t e r i a l f a c t o r " (p. 22) a t two d i f f e r e n t g r a d e l e v e l s w h i c h showed s p e l l i n g t e s t s c l o s e l y a k i n to b o t h v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y s h o r t - t e r m memory span t a s k s . S p e l l i n g was t e s t e d i n two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ways. On one t e s t s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to w r i t e w o r d s ^ d i c t a t e d i n t h e s t a n d a r d word, w o r d - i n - r s e n t e n c e , word r e p e a t e d f o r m a t . On t h e o t h e r t e s t s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d m e r e l y to r e c o g n i z e m i s s p e l l e d words. The memory v a r i a b l e s w h i c h l o a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t h i s f a c t o r i n c l u d e d two v i s u a l and two a n a l a g o u s a u d i t o r y memory span t a s k s i n v o l v i n g t h e r e p r o d u c -t i o n o f n o n s e n s e words r a n g i n g from t h r e e to e i g h t l e t t e r s i n l e n g t h . The mode of r e s p o n s e was not s p e c i f i e d . No v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y measures of m e a n i n g f u l memory ( a s s o c i a t i v e memory, s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n , s e n t e n c e r e c a l l , c o n s e q u e n c e s ) l o a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the ' r e c a l l , r o t e - m e m o r y - f o r - v e r b a l m a t e r i a l ' f a c t o r . N a t u r e of O r t h o g r a p h y E f f e c t i v e s p e l l i n g s k i l l s must s u r e l y r e q u i r e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o r t h o g r a p h y o r t h e manner i n w h i c h the s p e e c h sounds o f o r a l l a n g u a g e a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e l e t t e r symbols o f w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e t a s k of l e a r n i n g to s p e l l u s i n g the E n g l i s h a l p h a b e t w r i t i n g s y s t e m 8 is . - c o m p l i c a t e d By- t h e f a c t t h a t a, o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ae>>es n o t a l w a y s - e - x i s t b e t w e e n a s o u n d a n d a l e t t e r s y m b o l , A s i n g l e s p e e c h s o u n d o r p h o n e m e may ' b e r e p r e s e n t e d B y a n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s o r g r a p h e m e s : , As - P e t e r Q 9 7 Q . 1 w r o t e , , , E n g l i s h : s p e l l i n g i s - n o t o n l y - i r r e g u l a r B u t u n p r e d i c t a b l e e v e n w h e r e ' r e g u l a r ' x , , . C p . 1 9 1 . A s a r e s u l t , t h e n a t u r e o f E n g l i s h , o r t h o g r a p h y - h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y - B e e n - v i e w e d a s tncQns-is-r. t e n t a n d h a p h a z a r d , Wt i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t r e c e n t r e s e a r c h h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h ; E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y c e r t a i n l y -i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t i t d o e s p o s s e s s s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i s t e n t , p h o n e m e - i - g r a p h e m e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s ' ( r u l e s ) s o t h a t t h e y c a n B e u s e d i n s p e l l i n g d i a g n o s i s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n , ( W a l l a c e a n d L a r s e n , 1 9 7 8 , P , 3 6 5 1 W a l l a c e a n d L a r s e n ( 1 9 7 8 1 m a k e r e f e r e n c e h e r e t o t h e w o r k o f Hra.nna., H a n n a , K o d g e s > a n d R u d o r f ( 1 9 . 6 6 ) w h o a n a l y z e d t h e s o u n d ^ . l e t t e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s i n 2 7 , 0 . 0 0 . c o m m o n l y u s e d E n g l i s h w o r d s a n d c o n c l u d e d t h a t E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y w a s f a i r l y s y s t e m a t i c . T h e o r t h o g r a p h i c r e g u l a r i t i e s o b s e r v e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f phonemeTrgrapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e t h e n u s e d i n p r o g r a m m i n g a c o m p u t e r t o p r o d u c e t h e s p e l l i n g o f t h e 1 7 , 0 0 0 w o r d s w h i c h i t d i d w i t h 49, f 8 p e r c e n t a c c u r a c y . A n a l y z i n g t h e e r r o r s m a d e B y t h e c o m p u t e r , H a n n a , e t a . a l , CI 9 . 6 6 1 £ o u n d t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s r e g a r d i n g a f f i x a t i o n a n d c o m p o u n d i n g w o u l d r e d u c e t r i e e r r o r r a t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y , R e c o g n i t i o n s h o u l d t h e n B e g i v e n t o t h e f a c t t h e E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y p r e s e n t s ' t h e s p e l l e r w i t h a t l e a s t t w o ' t y p e s '• o f t a s k s , T h e f i r s t i s t h e : l e a r n i n g o f w o r d s w h i c h : a r e s o p r e d i c t a B T e o r r e g u l a r t h e y c a n B e s p e l l e d t h r o u g h , s p p l l c a t l o n 9 o f p h o n o l o g i c a l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s Ce. g, h a r d l y , s p e n d , entire.)!. The s e c o n d i s t h e l e a r n i n g of words w h i c h a r e so u n p r e d i c t a b l e or i r r e g u l a r t h e y must be l e a r n e d mainly' By r o t e m e m o r i z a t i o n Ce. g * knew, p e o p l e , campaign)!«ty*Ts i t n o t r e a s o n a b l e to s u s p e c t t h a t e a c h word t y p e might n e c e s s i t a t e a d i f f e r e n t c o m B i n a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e S p e l l i n g p r o c e s s ? " T h i s s t u d y l o o k e d a t t h e r e l a t i o n o f 'Yis-ualMisequential s h o r t-rterm memory to s p e l l i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e and u n p r e d i c t a b l e words , s e p a r a t e l y b e c a u s e i t seemed proB~ably t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s>hortT-term memory to e a c h t y p e o f word c o u l d v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i f f e r e n t a B ' i l i t i e s ; e a c h word-^type a p p e a r s to r e q u i r e , The s p e l l i n g o f r e g u l a r words can a p p a r e n t l y Be p r e d i c t e d from, a f o r m a l or i n t u i t i v e knowledge o f p h o n o l o g i c a l and ' m o r p h o l o g i c a l r u l e s - s t o r e d i n long-rterm memory. R e c a l l of t h e v i s u a l symBols- does n o t a p p e a r n e c e s s a r y . T h i s does not a p p l y f o r the s p e l l i n g of i r r e g u l a r o r u n p r e d i c t a B l e words where p r o d u c t i o n a p p a r e n t l y depends p r i m a r i l y upon l o n g - t e r m memory f o r t h e v i s u a l symBols t h e m s e l v e s . The o r i g i n a l s t o r a g e of t h e s e v i s u a l symBols i n l o n g - t e r m memory would i n t u r n Be dependent upon t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t -term memory p r o c e s s e s . T h e r e f o r e i t c o u l d Be r e a s o n e d t h a t v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l shortr-t&pn) meinory may Be more c r i t i c a l to th e s p e l l i n g of u n p r e d l c t a B l e than p r e d i c t a B l e words* ' F r i t h .'G 578-1. suggests- c o n t r a s t i n g s p e l l i n g e r r o r s i n d i f f e r e n t types* o f words -may* Be a u s e f u l way to t e s t s p e c i f i c 10 h y p o t h e s e s a b o u t u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s o f s p e l l i n g p r o b l e m s , Even t h o u g h t h e f i n a l s p e l l i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on b o t h types- of words may- a p p e a r to h e t h e same k i n d of b e h a v i o r , the- demands made on t h e l e a r n e r b\y e a c h t y p e o f s t i m u l i c o u l d v e r y w e l l d i f f e r , T h e s e proBaBle- d i f f e r e n c e s - s h o u l d be examined i f we are- to g a i n a t h o r o u g h a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s . As N e l s o n and W a r r i n g t o n Q.976I p o i n t o u t , " , , , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f tfjtfr f e a t u r e s * p e c u l i a r to , , , words c o u l d i n d i c a t e w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s a r e e s p e c i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g and r e c a l l , , , v ( p . 332) , Performance- Pr'e :re rq^is-ites> E f f e c t i v e s p e l l i n g c a n n o t Be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t f i r s t t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f f u n d a m e n t a l p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge s u c h as t h e s h a pes of l e t t e r s (Simon, 19176). and t h e p r e s e n c e o f n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g c a p a B i l i t i e s w h i c h encompass a m u l t i t u d e of complex c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s - (Hodges, 1965), S u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h i s - ^ r e a d i n e s s * f o r f o r m a l s p e l l i n g i n s t r u c t i o n p r e s u p p o s e s a d e q u a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a t u s o f c o u r s e . F u n d a m e n t a l p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge f o r s p e l l i n g must i n c l u d e t h e l e t t e r s of t h e a l p h a B e t as t h e s e a r e t h e B u i l d i n g Blocks* of w r i t t e n E n g l i s h CSimon, 1976)_, A c t u a l l y s e v e r a l forms of t h e a l p h a B e t must be i n t e g r a t e d , Simon (19 7 6) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e s one-, t h e names of t h e l e t t e r s as a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ; two, t h e shapes-..of th e l e t t e r s as> v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and; t h r e e , t n - e shapes of l e t t e r s as motor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , The l e a r n e r -must p l a c e t h e members °f e a c h pa. 11 one-*to~one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e with, t h e -members- o f theC other,?, to s u c c e e d a t t h e t a s k of s p e l l i n g , ' F a m i l i a r i t y with, t h e v a r i o u s forms:- of t h e a l p h a b e t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as p r e r e q u i s i t e to. t h e v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s-hort-1erm memory- tasks; u s e d i n t h i s Study-, Xhi e memory t a s k s p r e s e n t s u b j e c t s w i t h E n g l i s h a l p h a b e t i e t t e - r c o n s o n a n t s and r e q u i r e - r e c a l l o f t h e i r v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t o r a t i o n s - t o Be d e m o n s t r a t e d By t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a u d l t o - r y and -motor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , Thus l e t t e r knowledge was r e v i e w e d as p r e r e q u i s i t e - to B o t h memory and s p e l l i n g t a s k s , £>n a review- of s t u d i e s - d e a l i n g w i t h t h e memory a B i l i t i e s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n , H a l l a h a n (1975) p o i n t e d to t h e n e g l e c t o f e n s u r i n g p r e r - e q u i s - i t e knowledge and c o g n i t i v e a B i l i t i e s - as- a f r e q u e n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o B l e m i n memory e x p e r i m e n t s . ffe w r o t e ; Tvt must Be a B . s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h e , , , c h i l d r e n a r e n o t d e f i c i e n t i n dis---c r i m i n a t i n g and r e c o g n i z i n g t h e experimen-*-t a l s t i m u l i . O t h e r w i s e , when one r e q u i r e s c h i l d r e n to remember a u d i t o r y or v i s u a l s t i m u l i , and d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d on t h e memory t a s k may Be due to p e r c e p t u a l r a t h e r t h a n memory i n a d e q u a c i e s C H a l l a h a n , 1975, p. 3 6 ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s s u c h as a t t e n t i o n to and t h e r e c e p t i o n as w e l l as p e r c e p t i o n o f v i s u a l s t i m u l i t h e o r i z e d as a n t e c e d e n t s - to shortx-term v i s u a l memory ( L i n d s a y and Norman, 19771 must a l s o Be c o n s i d e r e d , G u t h r i e Q.9.72) r e a s o n e d t h a t v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory depends on t h r e e o t h e r c o g n i t i v e a B i l i t i e s ; v i s u a l f u s i o n , v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and a l s o c a u t i o n e d t h a t c o n f u s i o n among . ( . ^ . . . . t h e s e v a r i o u s * v i s u a l f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d Be a v o i d e d i n r e s - e a r c h i n g t h e r o l e o f memory i n l e a r n i n g , 12 I f a p e r s o n t s u n a b l e t o p e r c e i v e a g i v e n v i s u a l s t i m u l u s , , t h a t i s i f he i s u n a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e whether- t h e s t i m u l u s i s - p r e s e n t o r a b s e n t i n t h e v i s u a l f i e l d , he w i l l n o t Be a B l e t p remember t h e s t i m u l u s , , L i k e w i s e, i f a, p e r s o n c a n n o t d i s - t i n g u i s l t w h e t h e r two d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i a r e a c t u a l l y - t h e same o r d i f f e r e n t , he w i l l n o t BTe aB;le t o r e t a i n i n memory* e i t h e r • one o f trtei two s t i m u l i ( G u t h r i e , 19172, p, 4 51. Tn an e f f o r t t o e n s u r e t h e p r e s e n c e o f know-ledge and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o p e r f o r m a n c e on B o t h t h e s p e l l i n g t e s t s and v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory t a s k s u s e d i n t h i s -s t u d y , f o u r t e s t s o f l e t t e r k n o w l e d g e w e r e des-igned. The f i r s t r e q u i r e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r a l p h a B e t l e t t e r s g i v e n t h e names o r a u d i t o r y - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s « The s e c o n d t e s t r e q u i r e d a u d i t o r y - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n r e s p o n s e t o i n d i v i d u a l , v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e l e t t e r s . The t h i r d demanded t h e m o t o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of- l e t t e r s g i v e n t h e a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a n d ; t h e f o u r t h and f i n a l t e s t , r e q u i r e d t h a t a u d i t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s Be p r o d u c e d i n r e s p o n s e t o v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s - i n a s e r i a l f o r m a t . O n l y s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t i n g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y on t h e s e f o u r t e s t s were I n c l u d e d as s u B j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y , V I s u a 1 S e q u e n t l a 1 S h o r t-rTerm M'em'o r y The human memory- sy-s-tem p l a y s a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n o u r f u n c t i o n i n g , A H a c t i v i t y - ; i n c l u d i n g s p o k e n and w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e r-eq-u i r a-s>. th^r g u i d a n c e of/ a, memory s y s t e m ( L i n d s a y and Norman, 1 9 7 7 ) , E e c a u s e t h e I n f o r m a t i o n i n s K o r t - t e r m ^memory- i s - t r a n s i e n t r a t h e r t h a n p e r m a n e n t , f a i l u r e t o r e t a i n 13 t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o r r e c t l y f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of, s h o r t - t e r m memory r e d u c e s to f a i l u r e to encode t h e m a t e r i a l p r o p e r l y i n a more permanent f a s h i o n f o r use i n the l o n g - t e r m (Marx and Bunch, 1977). The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g to s p e l l a r e o b v i o u s . I f ; d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g of a word, the number and s equence o f l e t t e r s c a n n o t be r e t a i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n s h o r t - t e r m memory, c h a n c e s a r e t h a t t h e word w i l l n o t be p r o c e s s e d p r o p e r l y i n t o a more permanent memory. W i t h o u t a c o m p l e t e permanent memory f o r t h e number and s e q u e n c e o f l e t t e r s , c o r r e c t r e p r o d u c t i o n on a s p e l l i n g t a s k would be impo s s i b l e . A l t h o u g h many models o f memory have been p o s t u l a t e d ; no s i n g l e and g e n e r a l l y - a c c e p t e d u n i f i e d t h e o r y e x i s t s t o d a y . I t i s n ot t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y to g a t h e r e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f any p a r t i c u l a r model o f human memory t h e r e f o r e , t h e v i e w of memory a t t a i n e d h e r e i s i n d e p e n d e n t of any one t h e o r e t i c a l m o del. I t i s however c o n g r u e n t w i t h K i n t s c h ' s (1977) d e c l a r a -t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y one memory sys t e m t h a t f u n c t i o n s as a whole. W i t h i n t h i s s y s t e m , " . . . t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u u m o f e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e memory t r a c e r a n g i n g from i t s i n i t i a l p e r -c e p t u a l p r o c e s s i n g and i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s to i t s i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a p e r s o n ' s knowledge s t r u c t u r e " (p. 1 6 5 ) . Such a v i e w s t a n d s a p a r t f r o m o r ; p e r h a p s i t would be b e t t e r to s a y , i n t h e m i d s t o f any s p e c i f i c model c l a i m i n g to p o s t u l a t e the s t r u c t u r e s and/or p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l memory s y s t e m . And s u c h a p e r s p e c t i v e has been a d o p t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of ~ t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework--14 One t h i n g i s c e r t a i n , , ,: w h a t e v e r t h e m o d a l i t y - of t h e t a s k , t h e r e seems-to Be a s p e c i a l s t a t u s - f o r t h e memory of t h e s t i m u l u s items- most r e c e n t l y p r e s e n t e d and f o r t h e a c t i o n s most r e c e n t l y - p e r f o r m e d . T h i s s p e c i a l s t a t u s * is> what v e have c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s short-cterm memory, and i t p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e nor-mal p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s - of humans- ^Lindsay- and Norman, 19177, p, 330}., So r a t h e r t h a n u s i n g t h e term s h o r t - t e r m memory i n any s p e - c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l s e n s e , i t has Been a p p l i e d h e r e o n l y i n an ope:ra.ti-onal or p r o c e d u r a l s e n s e to d e n o t e t h e use of a -Hj'enjor-'yv t e s t i n v o l v i n g a s h o r t r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l measured i n s e c o n d s , S h o r t T t e r m -memory r e t a i n s - i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y c a t e g o r i z e d By p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n -mechanisms and f u n c t i o n s ? t o m a i n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n needed t e m p o r a r i l y f o r a few s e c o n d s ; p e r h a p s a few m i n u t e s ; o r , to m a i n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n B e i n g o r g a n i z e d f o r permanent r e t e n t i o n C L i n d s a y and Norman, 1977), The phenomenon o f s h o r t - r t e r m memory i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r i m a r i l y By a s h o r t d u r a t i o n of memory t r a c e s when memory c o n t e n t i s n o t a c t i v e l y r e h e a r s e d and by a v e r y s m a l l c a p a c i t y f o r i n f o r m a t i o n C K i n t s c h , 19-77; L i n d s a y and Norman, 1977 ; and, Marx and Bunch, 19.7 7)., Brown (19.58)1 as w e l l as P e t e r s o n and P e t e r s o n (1959) d e m o n s t r a t e d a r a p i d l o s s °f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m shortr-ter-m memory a f t e r o n l y B r i e f r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l s , A l o n g w i t h i n d i c a t i n g t h e t r a n s i e n t nature- o f short^te.r'm. memory, f r o t h e x p e r i m e n t s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e s - i g n i - f y i n g t h a t r a p i d decay of memory o c c u r s w?hen r e h e a r s a l of i n f o r m a t i o n ' i s p r e s e n t e d , W/ithlout r e h e a r s a l , 15 i n f o r m a t i o n i.s n o t c o n t i n u a l l y r e i n s t a t e d i n t o memory and a p p a r e n t l y under t h i s c o n d i t i o n c a n n o t be m a i n t a i n e d Beyond t h e B r i e f d u r a t i o n which! i s - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s h o r t - t e r m memory- ( K i n t s c h , 191771, 1-n a d d i t i o n to a v e r y B r i e f l i f e , s h o r t r - t e r m memory has-a r e s t r i c t e d c a p a c i t y - l i m i t i n g r e t e n t i o n to a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e i a s t f i v e o r s i x item's, o f m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d ( L i n d s a y and Norman, 19177)3, This> l i m i t a t i o n a p p e a r s to Be p r i m a r i l y i n thie; numBer o f i t e m s t h a t c a n Be- h e l d i n memory-. M i l l e r (1956) p.B'served tha,t t l t e c a p a c i t y - of, s-horttterm memory spans a r a n g e pf f i v e to n i n e items- and a l s o p o i n t e d to the f a c t t h a t t h e n a t u r e of items- may v a r y w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g c a p a c i t y - . T h e r e f o r e , thle s e v e n plus- or minus two items- i n s h o r t - r t e r m memory may Be s i n g l e l e t t e r s , d i g i t s , l i n e s - or words. By g r o u p i n g s u c h i s o l a t e d items- i n t o l a r g e r u n i t s ; f o r example g r o u p i n g l e t t e r s to. f>rm a word, more of t h e o r i g i n a l i t e m s a r e r e t a i n e d B e c a u se thte numBer of words rememBered i s about th e same as t h e numBer of i s o l a t e d , s i n g l e l e t t e r s , rememBered, M i l l e r Q-956) termed t h i s - p r o c e s s " c h u n k i n g ^ , Thus t h e span of s h o r t - t e r m memory is- a b out s e v e n p l u s or minus two chunks and i s q u i t e i n d e p e n -d e n t of t h e n a t u r e of i t e m s as w e l l as t h e s i z e of t h e s e chulhks, ( K i n t s c h , 1 97 7-L, J u s t as- r e h e a r s e l seems tp c o u n t e r a c t t h e tendency- t c I p s e i n f o r m a t i o n r a p i d l y , trie qfrunking prpceas- a,p,p.ear.s> tp o f f s e t t h e s e v e r e - c a p a c i t y - r e s t r i c t i o n s By- i n c r e a s i n g trte amount o f £-nfor<ma,t fcpn c o n t a i n e d ' i u each; s t e r e d u n i t .Qfa,Rx and ^Bunchy 1977, p t 212X1, L i n d s a y and Norman Q 97 7J.' c a u t i o n e d t h a t t h e type- o f memory "• \ " ' ' X I 1 I , -• ' ' ' - .' "S' v-te ;s-t B~e s e l e e t e - d with: c a r e to e n s u r e i t examines- t h o s e a s p e c t s 16 of t h e memory' s y s t e m d e s i g n a t e d , A, s e r i a l r e c a l l t a s k was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s ; of t h i s - s-tudy- as- h e i n g -most a n a l a g r . ous- t o tri e t a s k of s p e l l i n g and a l s o a w e l l v e s t a h l i s h e d f o r m a t f o r e x a m i n i n g s-hortT-ter»m •memory., I;n l i g h t of t h e s h o r t d u r a t i o n of t r a c e p e r s i s t e n c e i n s h o r t?-term memory, s u b j e c t s were- r e q u i r e d to r e c a l l t h e c o n s o n a n t s e r i a l s , from t h e V i s u a l S% :qsuential 'Memory T e s t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g e x p o s u r e . C o n s i d e r -a t i o n of a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y i n s h o r tr-term memory r e s u l t e d i n no more than s>even items-; i, e . , , s i n g l e : c o n s o n a n t s , b e i n g e x p o s e d a t a n y one t i m e . As- s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , l i t t l e i s known about how s l i o r t -t erm memory r e l a t e s to t h e motor s y s t e m CSimon, 19.761, T h e r e <may he unf o r s e e a b l e and s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n s on measures of V i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory a t t r i b u t a b l e o n l y to d i f f e r e n c e s i n mode of s u b j e c t r e s p o n s e , Such d i f f e r e n c e s would of c o u r s e i n f l u e n c e t h e d e g r e e o f any r e l a t i o n s h i p f o u n d hetween memory and s p e l l i n g and must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e t h e two p o s s i b l e forms of motor r e s p o n s e ; o r a l and w r i t t e n , were b o t h used as a means f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g r e c a l l of I n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g h e l d i n s h o r t - t e r m memory. R e v e l a n t Fe a t ures of V e r b a l L e a r n i n g The d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s - s t u d y was- n o t o n l y to a d o p t an a p p r o p r i a t e method f o r t e s t i n g s-hor t-r-term memory w h i c h r e c o g n i z e d the- p r i n j a p y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ^ of t h e phenomenon but a l s o one which: s^muitane.0usly r e c o g n i z e d r e l e v a n t and g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d f e a t u r e s * of ve-rtral l e a r n i n g , i i • •;• , ' v ' One- p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t f e a t u r e f o u n d i n s t u d i e s o f 17 memory f o r v e r b a l I n f o r m a t i o n I s what i s sometimes termed " p h o n e t i c encoding",, The term r e f e r s to t h e f a c t t h a t whether-t h e i n p u t m o d a l i t y i s v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y - , i n f o r m a t i o n peq-uiping t h e u s e of l a n g u a g e ( e . g , : l e t t e r s - , words,-, pp s e n t e n oe s -) i s o f t e n tra,ns>l,aite:d i n t o a p h o n e t i c code and i t i s -t h i s p h o n e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t i s r e t a i n e d i n memory ..CKintscR,: 1977) . I n d i s c u s s i n g r e c a l l o f v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n from s h o r t -term .memory-, L i n d s a y - and Nor-man Q.-9.7 7)1 make a number of p e r t i n ^ e nt p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e e n c o d i n g of v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s i n t o a p h o n e t i c e q u i v a l e n t . F i r s t l y , when v i s u a l i n p u t is-, a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s of p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i p n and n o t y e t p r o c e s s e d i n s-hort-rterm memory-, v i s u a l e r r o r s t e n d to o c c u r . Once p r o c e s s e d i n t o s h o r t - t e r m memory, e r r o r s o c c u r amongst: l e t t e r s t h a t sound a l i k e r a t h e r t h a n l o o k a l i k e . I t I s t h e s e c o n f u s i o n s between s i m i l a r a u d l t o r y r r . v o c a l r e p r e s e n t -a t i o n s - r a t h e r t h a n between s i m i l a r v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h a t is- c i t e d as e v i d e n c e f o r t h e p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g o r r e c o d i n g of v i s u a l l y ' p r e s e n t e d s t i m u l i ! ( S h a n k w e i l e r and L i b e r m a n , 19:7 51, Secondly-, L i n d s a y - and Nopman, Ci 9.7 71 q u e s t i o n whether t h e s e c o n f u s i o n s - o c c u r between t h e sound of t h e sppken l e t t e r names and a r e t h e r e f o r e o f an a c p u s t i c n a t u r e ; o r , whether c o n f u s i o n s a r e o f an a r t i c u l a t c r y - n a t u r e r e s u l t i n g f r o m a s i m i l a r i t y - i n the? seq-ueace p.f .mus?.ele patter-ns- p e q u i p e d tp s-p.eak: tFte l e t t e r - nam/es-, Examining t h e s e q u e n c i n g e l e m e n t i n s p e l l i n g , F a n n a t y n e and W i c h i a r a j o t e (1969) r e c o g n i z e d the r o l e 18 o f p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g and s u g g e s t e d i t t o he a r t i c . u l a t o r y £n n a t u r e , , , ,, s p e l l i n g i s - v e r y much more d e t e r m i n e d B"y t h e v o c a l - p j n o t o r s e q u e n c i n g p a t t e r n s , o f m u l t i p l e - a r t i c u l a t o r y soundv-hlrending t h a n By- t fire-' Ky.t^a^tX <^ ep a t- £a J, t f .eq.-u e n'c i n g s -m em'o r y f o r l e t t e r s - , I n .other words-, t h e s e q u e n c i n g e l e m e n t o f s p e l l i n g ( i . e . , w r i t i n g down t h e c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e o f l e t t e r s h a p e s ) Is-p r i m a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d By t h e s e q u e n c e o f a r t i c u l e m e s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t o r s p e e c h a r e a s t h a n i t i s on r e m e m B e r i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e q u e n c e o f u n i t - r d e s l g n s Cp, 161. B a n n a t y n e and W i c h a r a j o t e 0.9-6 9.) a l s o c i t e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e v e r y i n i t i a l s t a g e s - o f memory f o r v i s u a l s t i m u l i i n s p e l l i n g , i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n is> r e t a i n e d m o m e n t a r i l y i n a v i s u a l f o r m a t w h i l e t h e p r o c e s s o f p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n i s a p p l i e d . They c o n c l u d e d , , , , a -memory f o r u n i t d e s i g n s i s i m p o r t a n t and . , « t h e a B i l i t y t o rememBer ( r e l a t i v e l y ! c o m p l e x u n i t r d e s i g n s d u r i n g a B r i e f e x p o s u r e i s c r u c i a l . T h e r e f o r e , v i s u a l l y i t i s t h e p a t t e r m - d e s i g n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l \ u n i t l e t e r s . . . w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t i n w r i t t e n s p e l l i n g ( p . 1 7 ) . The f o u r t h p r e r e q u i s i t e t e s t d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s s t u d y t i t l e d ; R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e q u e n c e s , r e q u i r e d s u B j e c t s t o r e a d l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s a n a l o g o u s t o t h o s e a p p e a r i n g on t h e s e r i a l r e c a l l t a s k u s e d t o m e a s u r e v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t r - t e r m memory. I t s - p u r p o s e was-, t o e l i m i n a t e f r o m a n a l y s i s - v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l and p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g e r r o r s - w h i c h c o u l d o c c u r i n p r o c e s s i n g t h e v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d s-.e-rials- o f u n r e l a t e d c o n s o n a n t l e t t e r s - - o n the- memory t a s i k ^ P r e s u m a B l y ? t h o s e s u b j e c t s , a h i e t o c o r r e c t l y I d e n t i f y and a r t i c u l a t e t h e l e t t e r 19 s e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d on t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e t a s k were a b l e to c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e p a t t e r n d e s i g n and c a r r y o ut p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g w i t h o u t c o n f u s i o n t h r o u g h o u t b o t h l e a r n i n g to s p e l l and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e memory t a s k s . I n a d d i t i o n to c i t i n g e x t e n s i v e e v i d e n c e f o r the p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g o f v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n , S h a n k w e i l e r and L i b e r m a n (1975) as w e l l as L i n d s a y and Norman (1977) p o i n t e d to somewhat l e s s c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t some n o n v e r b a l s t i m u l i s u c h as p i c t u r e s and g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s may be s i m i l a r l y encoded and s t o r e d p h o n e t i c a l l y i n s h o r t - t e r m memory. Thus i t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g i s p r e s e n t In t h e p r o c e s s i n g of s p e l l i n g words but s t i l l q u e s t i o n a b l e whether p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g and r e c a l l of v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s . I t was t h e r e f o r e r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e s h o r t - t e r m memory t a s k used i n s e e k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the p r o c e s s of s p e l l i n g s h o u l d c o n t a i n v i s u a l and v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n such as l e t t e r s w h i c h a r e l i k e l y to be encoded i n t o t h e memory s y s t e m as m i g h t a s p e l l i n g . word r a t h e r t h a n n o n v e r b a l , v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s w h i c h may n o t . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e ; deduced from s e l e c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e s t u d i e s ( B r o o k s , 1968), t h a t v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s and v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e r e t a i n e d or h e l d i n memory s e p a r a t e l y . K i n t s c h (1977) p o i n t s to n e u r o l o g i c a l , n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d a t a i n d i c a t i n g the i n d e p e n d e n c e of im a g e r y and v e r b a l components i n memory. What 20 t h i s means i n terms c f memory' s t r u c t u r i n g or p r o c e s s i n g i s n o t known But i t does imply- t h a t e a c h t y p e of s t i m u l i may Be d e a l t w>ith d i f f e r e n t l y . I f s o , to use a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a v e r - B a l , - v i s u a l t y p e of s t i m u l i s u c h as p r i n t e d c o n s o n a n t l e t t e r s . - may Be t o t a l l y - i r r e l e v a n t to t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s . A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s - t h e e v i d e n c e ; summarized By S i c k e n .-G19J2-I, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a - v a r i e t y of s e m a n t i c and n o n r s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s - or a t t r i B u t e s - a r e used to encode a word, ^Vowels- were n o t i n c l u d e d i n the; t e s t s t i m u l i i n an e f f o r t to e l i m i n a t e s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s B e c a u s e even n o n s e n s e s y l l a B l e s -rtave Been shown to carry- some, meaning f u l n e s s C K i n t s c h , 19.77)., S e m a n t i c o r m e a n i n g f u l f e a t u r e s were e l i m i n a t e d as much as p o s - s i B l e B'ecause i t was assumed t h a t t h e s e f e a t u r e s - a r e p r o c e s s e d i n terms- of c o n c e p t u a l l y s i m i l a r i t e m s i n l o n g - t e r m memory QMarx and Bunch, 1977X; and t h e r e f o r e i n terms of what and how w e l l u n s p e c i f i a B l e i n f o r m a t i o n has Been l e a r n e d i n the p a s t (Lindsay- and Norman, 197 7X. {Farnham-Diggcry and Simon 0-92751. r e a s o n e d t h a t i n p r e s e n t i n g a n o n s e n s e word, any I n f o r m a t i o n employed tp s p e l l i t must Be h e l d i n s h o r t - t e r m memory d u r i n g t h e t a s k B e c a u s e no f a m i l i a r c l u e i s a v a i l a B l e f o r r e f e r e n c e t c long-rterm mempry. T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d to measure s h o r t r - t e r m memory' f o r v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d v e r B a l i n f o r m a t i o n . By e O i i m i t a t i n g s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s f r o m t e s t s t i m u l i , h o p e f u l l y i n a d v e r t e n t .measurement of l p n g r t e r m memory f a c t o r s - were a v o i d e d , Research": r e s u l t s ? r e l a t i n g v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory te t-hre aBrillty to s p e l l a p p e a r to Be u n c l e a r and i n c o n c l u s i v e , 21 S t u d i e s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e v a r y g r e a t l y i n t h e t y p e s o f memory t a s k s employed, i n t h e age-rgrade l e v e l s of s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d and i n t h e t e a t s u s e d to e v a l u a t e s p e l l i n g p e r f o r m -a n c e . i t i s t f t e r e f o r e . v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w i t h a,ny. ass-uredness. w h i c h a s p e c t or a s p e c t s o f t h e memory s y s t e m -have what d e g r e e of r e l e v a n c e to w h i c h a s p e c t or a s p e c t s o f t h e s p e l l i n g p r o c e s s , 'Further c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h e d e g r e e and n a t u r e of a n y r e l a t e d n e s s a p p e a r s n e c e s s a r y and i s t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y , St'atement^ ofr^ 'rhe P r o b l e m From t h e f o r e g o i n g i t was c o n s i d e r e d of v a l u e t o f u r t h e r examine t h e r e l e v a n c e of memory f o r v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l i n f o r m a -t i o n to s p e l l i n g , . The p r o p o s e d method o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n was to c a l c u l a t e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between two measures o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t r - t e r m memory and s p e l l i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on t e s t s , o f p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e words and p h o n e t i c a l l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e words. The p r o b l e m c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1 , I s a b i l i t y i n t h e s p e l l i n g o f p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r words and p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y to o r a l l y r e c a l l n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l shortr-ter-m -memory? 2, Is. a h i l i t y i n t h e s p e l l i n g o f p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r words a,nd p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y to r e c a l l , i n w r i t i n g , non-meaningful l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o,f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t r - t e r m memory. 22 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms gipell;ihg F o r tfte: p u r p o s e s of' t h i s study, t h e term s p e l l i n g c a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g meanings? 1, Trie f o r m i n g of p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r or p r e d i c t a b l e w o r d s from l e t t e r s , i n w r i t t e n f o r m , a c c o r d i n g to a c c e p t e d u s a g e , p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e w ords r e f e r s to t h o s e i n c l u d e d on t h e ^ P r e d i c t a B r l e W*>rds^ s n b t e s t o f *^The LarsenT-.ffammiH w'Test o f W r i t t e n S p e l l i n g (TWS)" ( L a r s e n and H a m m i l l , 19.76). They p e - c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e h i g h l y r e g u l a r n a t u r e o f t h e i r S p e l l i n g ; By c o m p l e t e c o n f o r m i t y to f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i c a b l e r u l e s o f o r t h o g r a p h y ; and, By t h e f a c t t h e y c an be a c c u r a t e l y s p e l l e d w i t h o u t r e l i a n c e on p r e v i o u s l e a r n i n g . A b i l i t y t o s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e words i s t o Be d e t e r m i n e d By t h e nuroBer o f c o r r e c t l y and i n c o r r e c t l y c o m p l e t e d i t e m s on t h e ^ P r e d i c t a , h i e : Words*'- s u h t e s t y 2 V T h e f o r m i n g of p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r or u n p r e d i c t a B l e words f r o m l e t t e r s ; i n w r i t t e n f o r m , a c c o r d i n g to a c c e p t e d u s a g e , P h o n e t i c a l l y u n p r e d i c t a B l e words r e f e r s to t h o s e I n c l u d e d on the. " U n p r e d i c t a B l e Words'' s u b t e s t o f I'The L a r s e n -H a m m ill T e s t of W r i t t e n S p e l l i n g : TWS" ( L a r s e n and Ham-mill, 19 7 6.) . They a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d By t h e h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r n a t u r e of t h e i r s p e l l i n g ; By a l a c k of c o n f o r m i t y to f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i c a b l e r u l e s o f o r t h o g r a p h y ; and, By t h e f a c t t h e y c a n n o t B?e* l e a r n e d w i t h o u t r e l ^ n c e on •me-mory^ A b i l i t y to s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e words i-S> to Be- d e t e r m i n e d By t h e ' / " \- . i /.v - ^ , " s " ' . " " \ " . y\ ' > , ' • " number o f c o r r e c t l y and i n c o r r e c t l y complet ed i t e m s on t h e 23 " U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words"' S u b t e s t , 3, , T l i e f o r m i n g of. both, p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e words and p h o n e t i c a l l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e words f r o m l e t t e r s - ; i n w r i t t e n ^orm, a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e p t e d u s a g e . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n r e f e r s-to o/ver-all s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y to be d e t e r m i n e d By c o m b i n i n g performances- on t h e " " P r e d i c t a B T e Words-"' s u B t e s t and t h e ^ U n p r e d i c t a B T e Words-"' s u b t e s t of "The Lars-e tt'T.8a-m.fl» i l 1.1 !$%s$<:4. f' Written S p e l l i n g ; TWS" ( L a r s e n and H a m m i i l , 197 6) t h e r e B y showing t h e numBer o f c o r r e c t l y and i n c o r r e c t l y c o m p l e t e d items- on t h e t o t a l t e s t , / V i s u a l ' S e q u e n t i a l ^KoVtVTte"igm' Memory V i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory was u s e d to d e n o t e i m m e d i a t e r e c a l l o f n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d i n a p r i n t e d f o r m a t , N o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s r e f e r s to a m o d i f i e d f o r m o f t h e 24 l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s I n c l u d e d i n t h e " - V i s u a l A t t e n t i o n Span f o r L e t t e r s " s u b t e s t of t h e " D e t r o i t T e s t s of L e a r n i n g A p t i t u d e " (Baker and L e l a n d , 1 9 6 7 ) . They a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d By a v a r i a t i o n i n s e r i a l l e n g t h f r o m two l e t t e r s - up to a maximum o f s e v e n l e t t e r s i n e a c h s e r i a l r e s u l t i n g i n n o n m e a n i n g f u l or n o n s e n s e words; and, By t h e f a c t t h e y c a n n o t Be l e a r n e d w i t h o u t r e l i a n c e on memory. V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l memory a b i l i t y i s to Be d e t e r m i n e d By t h e number o f c o r r e c t l y a,nd i n c o r r e c t l y r e c a l l e d i t e m s on t h i s m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the. " - V i s u a l A t t e n t i o n span f o r L e t t e r s " s u b t e s t (see A p p e n d i x A)... 24 R e c a l l R e c a l l ; o r remembering, r e f e r s t o an a c t i v i t y v i e w e d as i n d i c a t i v e of memory, Two s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a r e t o Be c a r r i e d o u t : l v v e r b a l r e p r o d u c t i o n 1 of; a l e t t e r s e r i a l f o l l o w i n g visual p r e s e n t a t i o n ; and, 2y w r i t t e n r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a l e t t e r s e r i a l f o l l o w i n g v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . P e r f o r m a n c e P r e r e q u 1 s i t e s The term p e r f o r m a n c e p r e r e q u i s i t e s was meant to encompass t h o s e f a c t o r s s u g g e s t e d By l o g i c , t h e o r y and e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e as n e c e s s a r y a n t e c e d e n t s t o s u c c e s s on t a s k s r e q u i r i n g r e c a l l o f v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d l e t t e r s e r i a l s . D e m o n s t r a t e d m a s t e r y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r f o r m a n c e p r e r e q u i s i t e s was r e q u i r e d B e f o r e a s u B j e c t was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y : 1. a B i l i t y t o v i s u a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e and i d e n t i f y ( i • e . : c i r c l e ) , p r i n t e d , l o w e r c a s e , E n g l i s h a l p h a B e t l e t t e r s g i v e n l e t t e r names v e r B a l l y ( s e e I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s ; A p p e n d i x B ) . 2. a B i l i t y to name l o w e r c a s e , E n g l i s h a l p h a B e t l e t t e r s p r e s e n t e d i n p r i n t ( s e e Naming L e t t e r s ; A p p e n d i x B ) . 3. a B i l i t y to w r i t e l o w e r c a s e , E n g l i s h a l p h a B e t l e t t e r s f rom d i c t a t i o n ( s e e W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s ; A p p e n d i x B). , 4. a B i l i t y to r e a d a l o u d p r i n t e d , n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s c o n s i s t i n g o f l o w e r cas>e, E n g l i s h " a l p h a B e t l e t t e r s and B e i n g of two t o s e v e n l e t t e r s - i n l e n g t h : Csee R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e q u e n c e s ; •7. Appendix B")_, 25 M a s t e r y The term m a s t e r y was us e d h e r e to mean a p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h no more t h a n two e r r o r s on t h o s e t a s k s d e s i g n e d to measure t h e d e s i g n a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e p r e r e q u i s i t e s . R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s Q u e s t i o n 1_ Is a b i l i t y i n t h e s p e l l i n g of p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r words and p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y t o o r a l l y r e c a l l n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory? H y p o t h e s i s _1_ The a b i l i t y t o o r a l l y r e c a l l n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y t o s p e l l , l . A p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r words and l . B p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words. Q u e s t i o n 1_ I s a b i l i t y i n t h e s p e l l i n g of p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r and p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y to r e c a l l , i n w r i t i n g , n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory? H y p o t h e s i s 1_ The a b i l i t y to r e c a l l , i n w r i t i n g , n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the a b i l i t y 26 t o s p e l l l . A p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r words and l . B p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r words. The b a s i c p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d c o r r e l a t i n g t h e i n d e p e n -dent v a r i a b l e measures of o r a l and w r i t t e n v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory r e c a l l w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e measures of p r e d i c t a b l e word and u n p r e d i c t a b l e word s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y w h i c h t h e y were h y p o t h e s i z e d to p r e d i c t . Each h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s t u d y t o o k t h e f o l l o w i n g form ( C h a p t e r I I ) i n an e n d e a v o r to o b t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n a l e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f the a b o v e - s t a t e d h y p o t h e s e s . CHAPTER IT 27 -METHOD 0 L © G Y AND RESULTS Subj e c t s S u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y were drawn from t h e p o p u l a t i o n of f o u r t h - g r a d e r s i n t h e L a d n e r and Tsawwassen a r e a s o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #37 ( D e l t a l by a p r o c e d u r e of r a n d o m - c l u s t e r s a m p l i n g . The r e s i d e n t s of D e l t a , B.C. a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h r e e main r e g i o n s ; two o f w h i c h a r e L a d n e r and Tsawwassen, D e s p i t e t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c s e p a r a t i o n t h e s e r e g i o n s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r s u b u r b e n n a t u r e and m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The b a s i c s a m p l i n g u n i t c h o s e n was t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . S i m p l e random s a m p l i n g w i t h t h e s t u d e n t as t h e b a s i c s a m p l i n g u n i t would have been most d e s i r a b l e . B u t , t h i s s t u d y r e q u i r e d r e s u l t s from a s p e c i f i c group a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t — a t e s t w h i c h was n o t p a r t o f t h e d i s t r i c t - w i d e t e s t i n g programme and f o r w h i c h no r e s u l t s were a v a i l a b l e . The p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t s , i n terms of money, time and s c h o o l d i s r u p t i o n s , i n v o l v e d w i t h o b t a i n i n g group t e s t r e s u l t s on a few s t u d e n t s from e a c h of a l a r g e number of s c h o o l s p r e v e n t e d use of t h e s t u d e n t as t h e b a s i c s a m p l i n g u n i t . C h o o s i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m as t h e b a s i c s a m p l i n g u n i t a l s o p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s . The m a j o r i t y of s c h o o l s had a t l e a s t one " s p l i t ' - c l a s s of g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s ; and, s t u d e n t s had a p p a r e n t l y been s e l e c t e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o r a s s i g n m e n t to t h e s e c l a s s e s . T h e r e f o r e , s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s from o n l y " c o m p l e t e " g r a d e f o u r c l a s s e s w i t h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s 28 a s s i g n e d to " s p l i t " c l a s s e s would have r e s u l t e d i n a d e v i a n t sample o f t h e o v e r a l l g r a d e f o u r p o p u l a t i o n . S t r a t i f i e d random s a m p l i n g u s i n g " c o m p l e t e " or " s p l i t " c l a s s r o o m s as t h e v a r i a b l e f o r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n would have e l i m i n a t e d t h e p r o b l e m o f " m e a n i n g f u l " g r o u p i n g s but s t i l l p r e s e n t e d t h e p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d c o n c e r n of t h e s t u d e n t as t h e b a s i c s a m p l i n g u n i t . The b a s i c s a m p l i n g u n i t f i n a l l y c h o s e n was t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . By d o i n g s o , a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e g r a d e f o u r p o p u l a t i o n were r e p r e s e n t e d and i n t a c t c l u s t e r s of s t u d e n t s made a v a i l a b l e f o r e f f i c i e n t group a s s e s s m e n t . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f one e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l f r o m t h e L a d n e r a r e a and two e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s f r o m t h e Tsawwassen a r e a was s o u g h t . Names of a l l f i v e e l e m e n -t a r y s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e L a d n e r a r e a were w r i t t e n on s e p a r a t e s l i p s of p a p e r and p l a c e d i n a bowl from w h i c h t h e y were drawn at random. T h i s p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d u s i n g t h e names of a l l e i g h t s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e Tsawwassen a r e a . O r d e r o f e a c h draw was r e c o r d e d and became t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h s c h o o l s were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . I n v i t a t i o n s to p a r t i c i p a t e were a c c e p t e d by t h e second-drawn s c h o o l f r o m th e L a d n e r a r e a and t h e t h i r d - and f i f t h - d r a w n s c h o o l s from th e Tsawwassen a r e a . The r e s u l t i n g sample o f 115 s t u d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 37 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were a v a i l a b l e f o r n e a r l y a l l c h i l d r e n as a r e s u l t of group t e s t i n g w i t h t h e O t i s - L e n n o n M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t C O t i s & Lennon, 1969) i n S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r o f 19.78, I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by s c h o o l s t a f f as p a r t of t h e d i s t r i c t wide t e s t i n g programme. S p e l l i n g 29 a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s were o b t a i n e d f o r a l l c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h group t e s t i n g w i t h The L a r s e n H a mmill T e s t o f W r i t t e n S p e l l i n g (TWS) ( L a r s e n & H a m m i l l , 1976) i n June o f 1979. S p e l l i n g t e s t s were p r o v i d e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e i n v e s t i -g a t o r . to a l l g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s a t t h e t h r e e s c h o o l s i n -v o l v e d . O n l y t h o s e s t u d e n t s m e e t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y : , no known l e a r n i n g d e f i c i t s , , no known n e u r o l o g i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , . no known e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , . h e a r i n g and v i s i o n w i t h i n n o r m a l l i m i t s , . no f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e h a n d i c a p . . i n a t t e n d a n c e f o r b o t h i n t e l l i g e n c e and s p e l l i n g schxevement t e s t s . . p a r e n t / g u a r d i a n c o n s e n t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i r t y - e i g h t of t h e 115 c h i l d r e n were t h u s e x c l u d e d l e a v i n g a sample o f 77 s t u d e n t s e l i g i b l e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . E a c h of t h e s e r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t s was t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y on f o u r measures o f l e t t e r knowledge i n c l u d i n g L e t t e r I d e n t i f i c a -t i o n ; L e t t e r Naming; L e t t e r W r i t i n g and R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e q u e n c e s . No s t u d e n t s were e l i m i n a t e d b e c a u s e of i n s u f f i c i e n t l e t t e r k nowledge. T h e r e f o r e t h e s t u d y sample r e m a i n e d a t 77 s u b j e c t s . M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t s and S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s M e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s used may be c a t e g o r i z e d as g r o u p — 30 a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s and i n d i v i d u a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s , G r o u p - A d m i n i s t e r e d T e s t s (a) The L a r s e n - H a m m i l l T e s t of W r i t t e n S p e l l i n g (TWS) The TWS assesses c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s one t h r o u g h e i g h t on a b i l i t y i n w r i t t e n s p e l l i n g . Words to be s p e l l e d a r e d i c t a t e d by an e x a m i n e r who must say a word i n i s o l a t i o n ; use t h e word i n a p r e s c r i b e d s e n t e n c e ; t h e n , say t h e word i n i s o l a t i o n once a g a i n . O t t o , McMenemy and S m i t h (1973) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i c t a t e d r - w o r d t e s t i s more d i f f i c u l t t h a n o t h e r f o r m a t s , b ut p r o b a b l y more v a l i d i n l i g h t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t y p i c a l l y d e s i r e d from a s p e l l i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t . The t e s t i s u n i q u e i n i t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f words i n t o p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r o r ' ' p r e d i c t a b l e ' 1 words and p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r or " u n p r e d i c t a b l e " words. C r i t e r i a f o r word c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were b a s e d upon r e s u l t s of t h e Hanna, Hanna, Hodges and R u d o r f (1966) s t u d y w h i c h i d e n t i f i e d 2 , 0 0 0 - p l u s r u l e s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e phoneme-grapheme r e l a t i o n s h i p s of E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y and t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i n t h e a c t u a l s p e l l i n g o f more t h a n 17,0.0.0 words. The c r i t e r i o n t h a t was u s e d i n s e l e c t i n g t h e p r e d i c t a b l e words was t h a t t h e r u l e g o v e r n i n g t h e i r s p e l l i n g would a p p l y a t l e a s t n 5 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e tim e ( e . g . , when h e a r i n g a l o n g - a sound / a / i n t h e m e d i a l p o s i t i o n of a o n e - s y l l a b l e word, t h e v o w e l s h a l l be s p e l l e d a and a s i l e n t e w i l l o c c u r i n t h e f i n a l p o s i t i o n 87 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e , as i n t h e word made). The u n p r e d i c t a b l e words c o u l d n o t be s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y i n t h e Hanna s t u d y even when a p p l y i n g a l l of the 2 ,0<QQ-plus r u l e s C L a r s e n & H a m m i l l , 1976, p. 1 2 ) . 31 I n a d d i t i o n t o m e e t i n g one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e above c r i t e r i o n , e a c h word i n c l u d e d on t h e t e s t had t o a p p e a r i n t e n commonly used b a s a l s p e l l i n g s e r i e s . N o r m a t i v e d a t a was b a s e d upon th e p e r f o r m a n c e o f 4,544 c h i l d r e n r e s i d e n t a c r o s s 22 A m e r i c a n s t a t e s . One t h o u s a n d s i x h u n d r e d and e i g h t y were t e s t e d i n g r a d e s 4 t h r o u g h 6. C h a r a c t - e r i s t & c s s o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample a r e p r e s e n t e d i n terms of g e n e r a l g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , s e x , u r b a n or r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , s o c i a l s t a t u s , g r a d e l e v e l and age. T h r e e t y p e s of n o r m a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a r e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e P r e d i c t a b l e Words S u b t e s t ; t h e U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words S u b t e s t and t h e T o t a l T e s t : s p e l l i n g age C S A l , g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t (GE) and s p e l l i n g q u o t i e n t CSQl. The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of t h e TWS compares v e r y f a v o r a b l y to t h a t of o t h e r s p e l l i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s CShores & Yee, 191731, The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary o f e v i d e n c e f o r t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y as r e p o r t e d i n t h e t e s t manual C L a r s e n & H a m m i l l , 1976).. In o r d e r to e s t i m a t e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y or r e l i a b i l i t y , t h e R u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n F o r m u l a 21 was a p p l i e d . The r e s u l t a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r g r a d e f o u r o n l y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I a l o n g w i t h t h e means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , and s t a n d a r d e r r o r s of measurement. -.Ail of t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s - a r e p o s i t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . 32 T a b l e I Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( S D ), S t a n d a r d E r r o r s of Measurement (SEm) and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s (KR21) f o r 484 Grade F o u r S u b j e c t s on t h e TWS. T o t a l _ R e l i a b i l i t y T e s t P o s s i b l e X SD C o e f f i c i e n t SEm P r e d i c t a b l e Words: 35 23.5 6.2 .82 2.6 U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words: 25 8.9 5.8 .86 2.2 T o t a l : 60 32,4 11,6 .89 3/8 C o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y * o f t h e TWS was e s t i m a t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g i t w i t h f o u r o t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s o f g e n e r a l s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . A l l t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to 63 f o u r t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s r o o m s . The r e s u l t a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s were as f o l l o w s ( T a b l e I T ) . . A l l t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e p o s i t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , ; •Cable IT C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s D e p i c t i n g t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p Between t h e TWS and O t h e r T e s t s o f S p e l l i n g C r i t e r i o n P r e d i c t a b l e U n p r e d i c t a b l e T e s t s Words Words T o t a l A n a l y s i s o f R e a d i n g D i f f i c u l t y .83 .92 .90 Wide Range A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s .86 .76 .84 C a l i f o r n i a A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t .76 ,80 .80 SRA A c h i e v e m e n t S e r i e s .63 ,71 .69 3,3-(b) O t i s - L e n n o n M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t : E l e m e n t a r y I I L e v e l (Form J) The O t i s - L e n n o n s e r i e s of g r o u p - a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s was c o n s t r u c t e d as a measure of " g e n e r a l m e n t a l a b i l i t y or s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e " ( O t i s & Lennon, 1968, p. 4 ) . T e s t r e s u l t s a r e to be c o n s i d e r e d as r e f l e c t i n g " t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a s o n a b s t r a c t l y w i t h a wide s a m p l i n g of v e r b a l , n u m e r i c a l , s y m b o l i c , and f i g u r a l s t i m u l i w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r s u c c e s s i n a c a d e m i c work and i n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f v o c a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r s where emphasis i s p l a c e d upon the m a n i p u l a t i o n of i d e a s ex-p r e s s e d i n v e r b a l and s y m b o l i c f o r m " ( O t i s & Lennon, 1968, p. 1 8 ) . A l t h o u g h not w i t h o u t c r i t i c i s m , t h e O t i s - L e n n o n has been c i t e d as "an o u t s t a n d i n g t e s t of i t s k i n d " ( B u r o s , 7 t h Y e a r b o o k , p. 6 9 3 ) . N o r m a t i v e d a t a f o r t h e e n t i r e s e r i e s was b a s e d upon a p p r o x -i m a t e l y 200,000 p u p i l s drawn from 50 A m e r i c a n s t a t e s . An e s t -i m a t e d 12,000 p u p i l s p e r g r a d e were t e s t e d i n g r a d e s 1-12. The c a r e and p l a n n i n g g i v e n i n c h o o s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s y s t e m i s e v i d e n t i n a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of p r o c e d u r e s used f o r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . S c o r e s may be e x p r e s s e d as d e v i a t i o n I.Q.'s as w e l l as age and g r a d e p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s and s t a n i n e s . E v i d e n c e f o r r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e O t i s - L e n n o n s e r i e s i s s u b -s t a n t i a l . I n e s t i m a t i n g t h e t e s t s ' i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , b o t h t h e s p l i t - h a l f t e c h n i q u e and K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n p r o c e d u r e were employed. O n l y t h e d a t a a p p l i c a b l e t o g r a d e f o u r ( T a b l e I I I ) and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g age l e v e l s ( T a b l e IV) a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . 34 T a b l e I I I Mean CX). , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n (SD) and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s C S p l i t - H a l f & KR 20) f o r Grade F o u r S u b j e c t s on t h e O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I T (Form J) Raw S c o r e R e l i a b i l i t y " C o e f f i c i e n t s X SD S p l i t H a l f KR20 34.05 14.25 .94 .93 T a b l e TV Mean CXI, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n (SD) and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( S p l i t - H a l f ; KR20) f o r 10,428 N i n e Y e a r - O l d s and 12,861 Ten Y e a r - O l d s on t h e O t i s -L ennon: E l e m e n t a r y IT (Form J ) . Age Raw S c o r e R e l i a b i l i t y C oef f i c i e n t s X SD S p l i t - H a l f KR20 9 37 .15 14 . 22 .94 .93 10 43.21 16.64 .96 .95 A measure of i n s t r u m e n t s t a b i l i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y was o b t a i n e d by c a l c u l a t i n g a l t e r n a t e - f o r m s r e l i a b i l i t y . Form J and Form K o f t h e t e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d o r d e r o v e r a p e r i o d o f two weeks. D a t a p e r t i n e n t t o . g r a d e f o u r ( T a b l e V i and ages n i n e and t e n ( T a b l e VI) f o l l o w , 35 T a b l e V Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s (SD), , R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t ( A l t e r n a t e s Forms) and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement (SEm) f o r 1,004 Grade Four S u b j e c t s on t h e O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I I (Forms J & K) R e l i a b i l i t y Kaw- "a'core Raw b c o r e C o e f f i c i e n t SEm ^ P o i n t i n X SD r Raw S c o r e Form J Form K Form J Form K Form J Form K 41.08 40.56 15.87 16,37 .89 5.3 5.4 T a b l e VI Means ( X ) , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ( S D), R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s ( A l t e r n a t e -Forms) and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s of Measurement (SEm) f o r 613 N i n e Y e a r - O l d s and 956 Ten Y e a r - O l d s on t h e O t i s L ennon: E l e m e n t a r y I I (FormhsJ & K) R e l i a b i l i t y Age Raw S c o r e Raw S c o r e C o e f f i c i e n t SEm P o i n t s t i n X SD r DIQ Form J Form K Form J Form K Form J Form K 9 43.51 43.09 14.82 15.53 .86 6.0 6.0 10 47.66 47.77 16.75 17.47 ,92 4.5 4.5 A c o m p a r i s o n of s c o r e s o b t a i n e d o v e r one y e a r on Form J f o r 154 s t u d e n t s , g r a d e s 4 and 5, p r o v i d e d a s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .91. Abundant d a t a a r e p r o v i d e d i n s u p p o r t of t e s t v a l i d i t y . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e O t i s : L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y IT L e v e l and f i v e o t h e r m e asures of m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s a r e r e p o r t e d as e v i d e n c e o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . V a l i d y C o e f f i c i e n t s a r e 36 i n T a b l e V I I . D a t a f o r g r a d e f o u r has been shown where a v a i l a b l e . T a b l e V I I C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O t i s - L e n n o n ; E l e m e n t a r y I T ( G r a d e s 4,5 and 6) and O t h e r M e a s u r e s o f M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s T e s t Grade N r C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n t a l M a t u r i t y : 6 463 Language .79 Non-Language .64 T o t a l .80 L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s : 4 25 -Verbal .85 N o n v e r b a l .74 T o t a l .84 S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t s : 4 81 V e r b a l .71 Q u a n t i t a t i v e .52 T o t a l .72 Ohio S u r v e y T e s t : A p t i t u d e S e c t i o n : 5 340 V e r b a l .76 M a t h e m a t i c s .71 T o t a l .81 SRA P r i m a r y M e n t a l A b i l i t i e s : 5 273 V e r b a l M e a n i n g .85 Number F a c i l i t y .72 S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s .46 R e a s o n i n g .73 P e r c e p t u a l Speed .56 T o t a l .86 S c o r e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t and t e a c h e r g r a d e s i n v a r i o u s a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e O t i s r L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y IT L e v e l and r e s u l t a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s p r e s e n t e d as i n d i c a t i v e o f c r i t e r i o n -r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y . V a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e shown i n T a b l e s VITt; and IX f o r g r a d e f o u r where a v a i l a b l e ; o t h e r w i s e , f o r g r a d e f i v e o r s i x . 37 T a b l e V I I I C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y T I (G r a d e s 4,5 and 6) and S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t s o f Academic A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s o f Academic A c h i e v e m e n t Grade N r C a l i f o r n i a A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s ; 6 467 •Heading V o c a b u l a r y .79 R, e a d i n g C omp r ehen s i o n .80 A r i t h m e t i c R e a s o n i n g .77 A r i t h m e t i c f u n d a m e n t a l s .66 M e c h a n i c s o f E n g l i s h .76 S p e l l i n g .65 Ohio S u r v e y T e s t : A c h i e v e m e n t S e c t i o n : 5 340 R e a d i n g .76 E n g l i s h E x p r e s s i o n .76 M a t h e m a t i c s .77 M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s : 4 325 Word Knowledge .73 Word D i s c r i m i n a t i o n .70 R e a d i n g .78 S p e l l i n g .61 Language .76 A r t h m e t i c C o m p u t a t i o n .61 A r i t h m e t i c P r o b l e m S o l v i n g .74 S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t : 5 619 Word M e a n i n g .77 P a r a g r a p h Meaning .78 S p e l l i n g .62 Language .78 A r i t h m e t i c C o m p u t a t i o n .60 A r i t h m e t i c C o n c e p t s .73 A r i t h m e t i c A p p l i c a t i o n s .75 S o c i a l S t u d i e s .74 S c i e n c e .75 S e q u e n t i a l T e s t s of E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s : 4 81 M a t h e m a t i c s .63 S c i e n c e •71 S o c i a l S t u d i e s .74 R e a d i n g .69 W r i t i n g .63 38 T a b l e IX C o r r e l a t i o n s Between O t i s - L e n n o n : E l e m e n t a r y I I ( G r a d e s 4,5 and 6) and E n d - o f - Y e a r C o u r s e Grades N r S-cRool Grade C o u r s e Small, West: & r - n , Average SES 4 R e a d i n g 82 .56 Language 92 .61 S p e l l i n g 94 .57 A r i t h m e t i c 90 .48 H i s t o r y 47 .64 Geography 44 /69 S c i e n c e 44 .62 'fledfcum , E a s t e r n High' SES 4 R e a d i n g 225 .75 S p e l l i n g .61 A r i t R m e t i c .60 Language .67 S c i e n c e .71 S o c i a l S t u d i e s . 70 ;^ndi^'lduall , y v A'dmi :ni^t'e:red T e s t s Ca)I T e s t s of P e r f o r m a n c e P r e r e q u i s i t e s F o u r t a s k s were d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s s t u d y as a measure of l e t t e r k n o w l e dge. TRe f i r s t , I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s , examined r e c o g n i t i o n o f p r i n t e d , l o w e r c a s e E n g l i s R a l p R a b e t l e t t e r s . EacR of t h e a l p R a b e t l e t t e r s was p r e s e n t e d as one i n a s e r i e s o f f i v e p r i n t e d , u n r e l a t e d and u n r e p e a t e d l e t t e r s t R e r e b y ; c r e a t i n g 26 t e s t i t e m s . S u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d to c i r c l e one l e t t e r i n eacR o f tRe 26, i t e m s , TRe l e t t e r to be c i r c l e d i n e a c h l e t t e r s e r i e s was p r e s e n t e d v e r b a l l y by t h e e x a m i n e r . L e t t e r s - to be i d e n t i f i e d were n o t a r r a n g e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . I n t h e s e c o n d t a s k , Naming L e t t e r s , s u b j e c t s were r e q u e s t e d to r e a d a n o n a l p R a b e t i z e d l i s t wRicR i n c l u d e d a l l 26 l o w e r c a s e , E n g l i s R a l p R a b e t l e t t e r s . R e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d by tRe e x a m i n e r on a s e p a r a t e t e s t p r o t o c o l as eacR l e t t e r was named. 3 9 The t h i r d t a s k ; W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s - , r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s to w r i t e e a c h o f t h e 26 l o w e r c a s e , E n g l i s h a l p h a b e t l e t t e r s f r o m d i c t a t i o n . A g a i n l e t t e r s were p r e s e n t e d i n a n o n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . The f i n a l and f o u r t h t a s k ; R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e q u e n c e s , as>ked s u b j e c t s , to r e a d nonmeaningf u l , p r i n t e d , l o w e r c a s e , E n g l i s h a l p h a b e t l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s r a n g i n g i n l e n g t h f r o m a minimum of two to a maximum of s e v e n l e t t e r s . A l l 26 l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a h e t were employed i n g e n e r a t i n g t h e s e q u e n c e s . R e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d By t h e examiner on a s e p a r a t e t e s t p r o t o c o l a s t h e l e t t e r s of e a c h s e q u e n c e were names. Responses e a r n e d c r e d i t o n l y when a l l l e t t e r s were named c o r r e c t l y and r e a d i n t h e p r e s e n t e d o r d e r . T h e s e measures were d e s i g n e d as c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e t e s t s f o r use i n t h i s - s t u d y . The s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n s e t f o r t h e g r a d e f o u r s u b j e c t s was: no more t h a n two e r r o r s on any one o f t h e f o u r measures o f l e t t e r k nowledge. T e s t i t e m s on a l l measures were s c o r e d e i t h e r c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t e a r n i n g c r e d i t s of 1 o r 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . .A copy o f s t i m u l i ! and r e s p o n s e s h e e t s f o r a l l f o u r t a s k s i s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x B v, (B) V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory The two v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory t a s k s employed i n t h i s s t u d y were B o t h a d a p t a t i o n s o f S u B t e s t 16 f r o m t h e D e t r o i t T e s t s o f L e a r n i n g A p t i t u d e C R e v i s e d , 1967) e n t i t l e d V i s u a l A t t e n t i o n Span f o r L e t t e r s , The o r i g i n a l t e s t was- i n t e n d e d f o r use as one of a 40 mimimum o f n i n e s u b t e s t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . A l l c o n s o n a n t s b u t no v o w e l s were u s e d i n composing t h e 24 n o n m e a n i n g f u l , l o w e r c a s e , E n g l i s h a l p h a b e t l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s w h i c h make up the s u b t e s t . L e t t e r s e q u e n c e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v a r i a t i o n i n s e r i a l l e t t e r s w i t h f o u r i t e m s of two l e t t e r s ; f o u r i t e m s of t h r e e l e t t e r s ; f o u r i t e m s of f o u r l e t t e r s ; f o u r i t e m s of f i v e l e t t e r s ; f o u r i t e m s of s i x l e t t e r s ; and, f o r i t e m s o f s e v e n l e t t e r s . I n o t h e r words, t h e r e a r e s i x sets o f l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s w i t h f o u r t r i a l s i n e a c h s e t . i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t , l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s a r e to be p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y , one a t a t i m e . E x p o s u r e t i m e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e l e n g t h of a seq u e n c e w i t h one s e c o n d a l l o t t e d f o r e a c h l e t t e r . The examinee i s ex-p e c t e d to o r a l l y r e p r o d u c e e a c h s e q u e n c e i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r v i e w i n g w h i l e t h e exa m i n e r i s e x p e c t e d to r e c o r d r e s p o n s e s dn an a c c o m p a n y i n g t e s t p r o t o c o l . As l o n g as an examinee i s s u c c e s s f u l , o n l y t h e f i r s t t r i a l of e a c h s e t i s to be p r e s e n t e d . Upon f a i l u r e of t h e f i r s t t r i a l o f a s e t , t h e u n t r i e d t h r e e t r i a l s o f t h e p r e c e e d i n g s e t a r e p r e s e n t e d . Then t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e t r i a l s - o f t h e n e x t h i g h e r s e t a r e g i v e n , f o l l o w e d b y t h e f o u r t r i a l s o f e a c h r e m a i n i n g s e t u n t i l f o u r s u c c e s s i v e f a i l u r e s a r e o b t a i n e d . At t h i s p o i n t , t e s t i n g i s to be d i s c o n t i n u e d . S c o r e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e number of s e q u e n c e s e x a c t l y r e p r o d u c e d and can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a m e n t a l age. The two v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory t a s k s d e v e l o p e d f o r 41 t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) b o t h employed the 24 n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s from t h e " V i s u a l A t t e n t i o n Span f o r L e t t e r s " s u b t e s t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f i t e m number t h r e e . Item number t h r e e o r i g i n a l l y r e a d " t v " ; and as t h e sequence t v now c a r r i e s a common meaning, t h e s e l e t t e r s were t r a n s p o s e d t o r e a d " v t " ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . On b o t h t a s k s t h e l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s were p r e s e n t e d v i s u a l l y , one a t a t i m e , w i t h one s e c o n d o f v i e w i n g t i m e a l l o w e d f o r e a c h l e t t e r of the s e q u e n c e . On t h e t a s k t i t l e d " V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: O r a l R e s p o n s e " , s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to d e m o n s t r a t e r e c a l l by r e p r o d u c i n g each l e t t e r s e q uence o r a l l y i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r v i e w i n g t h e s t i m u l u s . R e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d by t h e ex a m i n e r on c o r r e s p o n d i n g answer s h e e t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . On the o t h e r t a s k t i t l e d " V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e s p o n s e " , s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d to d e m o n s t r a t e r e c a l l by r e p r o d u c i n g each l e t t e r s equence i n w r i t i n g i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r v i e w i n g t h e s t i m u l u s . Here r e s p o n s e s were w r i t t e n by s u b j e c t s on c o r r e s p o n d i n g answer s h e e t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . On b o t h t a s k s ; as i n t h e f o r m a t o f t h e o r i g i n a l s u b t e s t , o n l y t h e f i r s t t r i a l o f e a c h s e t o f l e t t e r s e q u e n c e s was p r e s e n t e d as l o n g as examinees were s u c c e s s f u l . Upon f a i l u r e o f t h e f i r s t t r i a l of a s e t , t h e u n t r i e d t h r e e t r i a l s o f the p r e c e e d i n g s e t were p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w e d by t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e t r i a l s o f the n e x t h i g h e r B e t . The f o u r t r i a l s of each and e v e r y r e m a i n i n g s e t were t h e n p r e s e n t e d . I n t h i s manner, s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d a s c o r e of c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t on a l l t e s t i t e m s . An i t e m was marked as c o r r e c t and a s s i g n e d a c r e d i t o f one o n l y i f t h e sequence was r e p r o d u c e d e x a c t l y . Thus t h e maximum 42 p o s s i b l e s-cora on. each. task, was- 24 p o i n t s , The two v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory t a s k s were p r e s e n t e d i n s u c c e s s i o n to a l l s u b j e c t s t h e r e b y r e q u i r i n g c o u n t e r -b a l a n c e d p r e s e n t a t i o n to e l i m i n a t e a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d fry randomly* a s s i g n i n g s u b j e c t s t o one o f two t e s t i n g c o n d i t l o n s r r o n e p r e s e n t i n g - V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: Qpa,l l i e - c a l l f o l l o w e d b y ' V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l and tfte o t h e r p r e s e n t i n g V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l f o l l o w e d b y V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: O r a l R e e a i l , A,s> both: tasks* were d e v e l o p e d e x p r e s s l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , e v i d e n c e f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t s i s - c o n f i n e d to t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e s t u d y . P r o c e d u r e Data; C o l l e c t i o n 'Under d i r e c t i o n from t h e O f f i c e of t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r -i n t e n d e n t of S c h o o l s , i n v i t a t i o n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y were e x t e n d e d to r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n t h e L a d n e r and Tsawwassen a r e a s o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #37 C D e l t a ) u n t i l t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f one s c h o o l i n t h e L a d n e r a r e a and two s c h o o l s i n t h e Tsawwassen a r e a was o b t a i n e d . At t h i s t i m e of i n i t i a l c o n t a c t , p r i n c i p a l s were a d v i s e d as to t h e p u r p o s e and n a t u r e of t h e s t u d y ; g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s to be f o l l o w e d ; and, t h e a p p r o x i m a t e amount o f t i m e and a s s i s t a n c e t h a t would be r e q u i r e d o f t h e s c h o o l . Names o f t h e t h r e e s c h o o l s c h o o s i n g 43 to p a r t i c i p a t e were s u b m i t t e d with, an " A p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e P i l o t i n g o f M a t e r i a l s or f o r t h e C o n d u c t i n g of R e s e a r c h i n D e l t a " to t h e O f f i c e of t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of S c h o o l s , A p p r o v a l f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e s t u d y was o b t a i n e d from t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and; s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , o f f i c i a l n o t i c a t i o n of a p p r o v a l f o r t h e s t u d y was s e n t from t h e S c h o o l B o a r d O f f i c e t o t h e p r i n c i p a l s of t h o s e s c h o o l s whose names a p p e a r e d pn t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e c o n d u c t i n g of r e s e a r c h , A v i s i t was t h e n made by- t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r to e a c h of t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s . D u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s , p r i n c i p a l s r e c e i v e d a p a ckage o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g : 1) a l i s t of group and i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s to be a d m i n i s t e r e d ; 2) t h e p r o p o s e d t e s t i n g s c h e d u l e w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d to c a r r y out b o t h ggoup and i n d i v i d u a l t t e s t i n g ; 3), a l i s t o f d a t a r e q u i r e d from s c h o o l r e c o r d s w i t h an o u t l i n e of p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o l l e c t i o n o f t h i s d a t a ; and 4) i n f o r m a t i o n a l l e t t e r s w i t h a t t a c h e d c o n s e n t forms C s e e A p p e n d i x C)_ to be d i s t r i b u t e d to p a r e n t s or g u a r d i a n s of a l l g r a d e 4 s t u d e n t s and c o l l e c t e d p r i o r to i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g and g a t h e r i n g o f d a t a from s c h o o l r e c o r d s . T e s t i n g was begun t h e f i r s t week of J u n e , 1979, and c o m p l e t e d by t h e t h i r d week of t h e month. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t two days o f d a t a c o l l e c t i n g t h e group s p e l l i n g t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r to a l l s t u d e n t s i n a l l g r a d e 4 c l a s s e s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y . A s s e s s m e n t of s p e l l i n g a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h t h e Larsenr.Ha'mmill T e s t of W r i t t e n 44 S p e l l i n g (.TWSl s e r v e d a d u a l p u r p o s e . I t n o t o n l y e n s u r e d t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d d a t a would Be a v a i l a b l e on t h o s e s t u d e n t s e v e n t u a l l y s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y ; b u t , i t a l s o p r o v i d e d a measure w h i c h c o u l d Be u s e d By t h e s c h o o l s i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r g r a d e f o u r s p e l l i n g p r o g r a m . The group t e s t i n g was- t h u s c o n s i d e r e d a s p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l p r o g r a m . T h i s B e i n g s o , p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t was n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r p a r t i c i - r -p a t i n g i n t h i s - p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y and a l l s t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d to t a k e t h e s p e l l i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t . T e s t r e s u l t s - were n o t , however, used i n d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o o l grades-,, T e s t p r o t o c o l s Became s c h o o l p r o p e r t y and r e m a i n e d i n t h e hands o f s c h o o l s t a f f w h i l e a copy o f t e s t r e s u l t s was r e t a i n e d f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e s t r e s u l t s to s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s was a f u n c t i o n a s s i g n e d to t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r so t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d Be v i e w e d i n t h e c o n t e x t of h i s o r h e r o v e r a l l a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e . To t h i s end, t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l e x p l a i n i n g t h e p u r p o s e of t h e t o t a l t e s t , i t s s u b t e s t s and t h e meaning of s t a n d a r d s c o r e s . E a c h o f t h e 115 g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s was a s s i g n e d an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number. P a r e n t c o n s e n t forms were c o l l e c t e d f r o m t e a c h e r s a l o n g w i t h a l i s t o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t meet the s p e c i f i e d c r i t e r i a r e g a r d i n g f r e e d o m from h a n d i c a p s . R e s u l t s o f d i s t r i c t group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g , w h i c h had t a k e n p l a c e t h e p r e v i o u s f a l l , were o b t a i n e d from r e c o r d s a t t h e S c h o o l B o a r d O f f i c e , E l i m i n a t i o n of t h o s e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n to t a k e p a r t i n t h e s t u d y , t h o s e s t u d e n t s w i t h 45 h a n d i c a p s , and, t h o s e s t u d e n t s f o r whom no I.Q, s c o r e had been r e c o r d e d r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l o f 77 s t u d e n t s e l i g i b l e to c o n t i n u e i n t h e s t u d y . The r e m a i n d e r o f t e s t i n g t i m e was d e v o t e d to i n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t o f s u b j e c t s * v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory s k i l l s and l e t t e r k nowledge. P r i o r to b e i n g seen i n d i v i d u a l l y t h e 77 s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d r a n d o m l y to one o f two t e s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s - . I n c o n d i t i o n I , V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: O r a l R e c a l l was- p r e s e n t e d f i r s t ? t h e n , V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l , f o l l o w e d b y t h e f o u r measures o f l e t t e r k n o w l e d ge. I n c o n d i t i o n I I t h e memory t a s k s were r e v e r s e d w i t h V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l p r e c e e d i n g V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: O r a l R e c a l l w h i c h was t h e n f o l l o w e d by t h e f o u r measures o f l e t t e r k n o w l e dge. L e t t e r knowledge t a s k s were p r e s e n t e d i n t h e same o r d e r i n b o t h c o n d i t i o n s w i t h I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s f i r s t ; Naming L e t t e r s s e c o n d ; W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s t h i r d ; and, R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e quences f o u r t h . Memory t a s k s were g i v e n a t t h e o n s e t of e a c h t e s t i n g s e s s i o n i n an e f f o r t to e n s u r e maximum a t t e n d i n g and minimum f a t i g u e f o r t h e s e l e n g t h i e r and more d i f f i c u l t t a s k s . L e t t e r knowledge t a s k s were p r e s e n t e d i n what was p e r c e i v e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r to be t h e a s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a r e c o g n i t i o n t a s k p r e c e e d i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l y more demanding t a s k s r e q u i r i n g t o t a l r e c a l l . I n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 m i n u t e s e a c h and were c o n d u c t e d o u t s i d e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d a r e a s of t h e s c h o o l s By t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and a s s i s t a n t . B o t h 46 e x a m i n e r s t e s t e d s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d t o b o t h c o n d i t i o n s . The e x a m i n e r s d i d know w h i c h s u b j e c t s were g o o d , a v e r a g e o r p o o r s p e l l e r s p r i o r t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s . A l l s c o r i n g was- c a r r i e d o u t and d o u b l e c h e c k e d b y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and a s s i s t a n t a f t e r t e s t i n g had b e e n c o m p l e t e d . D e s i g n and D a t a A n a l y s i s T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e t h e e x t e n t o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n s p e l l i n g a B i l i t y and v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory a b i l i t y and t h u s f a l l s i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . The m a j o r o B j e c t i v e was t o g a i n e v i d e n c e f o r t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e l e v a n c y o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory t o s p e l l i n g o f B o t h p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a B l e and p h o n e t i c a l l y u n p r e d i c t -a b l e w o r d s . The s t u d y i s u n i q u e i n i t s d i v i s i o n o f s p e l l i n g s t i m u l i i n t o p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a B l e and u n p r e d i c t a B l e w o r d s . Two m e a s u r e s o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory were u s e d . The g r a d u a t e d m e a s u r e m e n t s o f s p e l l i n g and v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory were r e d u c e d t o t h e d i c h o t o m i e s o f h i g h and l o w and t h e t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t c h o s e n t o i n d e x t h e e x t e n t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The u n d e r l y i n g s c a l e was c o n s i d e r e d as o r d i n a l a l t h o u g h q u a s i - i n t e r v a l i n n a t u r e and t h e t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a i n o r d e r t o a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e a l w i t h numerous t i e d r a n k s on B o t h t h e s p e l l i n g and memory t e s t s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d B e t w e e n s p e l l i n g a c h i e v e m e n t on p r e d i c t a B l e w o r d s and e a c h m e a s u r e o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory a s w e l l as s p e l l i n g a c h i e v e m e n t on u n p r e d i c t a B l e w o r d s and e a c h o f t h e two m e a s u r e s o f v i s u a l s?equ en i i a 1 m em o r y« 47 Further s t a t i s t i c a l analysis included obtaining Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y estimates for both measures of memory using the Lertap program CNelson, 1974). Results Subj ect Characteristics Thre study sample, included a t o t a l of 77 grade four a Students, The average chronological age of the sample was 120., 0.5 months with a standard deviation of 4.55 and a standard error of measurement of .52. DIQ scores, as measured by the Otis Lennon Mental A b i l i t y Test, had a mean of 10.4,0.7 with a standard deviation of 15.71 and a standard error of measurement of 1.79.. Overall sp e l l i n g achievement o of the sample, as assessed by The Larsen-Hammill Test of Written Spelling (TWS), was at a mean grade of 6.46 with a standard deviation of 1,83 and a standard error of measurement of .21. Spelling achievement on the Predictable Words subtest was at a mean grade of 6.89 with a standard deviation of 1.87 and a standard error of measurement of ,21 while a mean grade of 6,13 with a standard deviation of 1.93 and a standard error of measurement of .22 was achieved on the Unpredictable Words subtest. The mean score obtained by the sample on the measure of v i s u a l sequential memory requiring oral r e c a l l was 16,43 having a standard deviation of 3,19 and a standard error of measurement of ,36, The mean score obtained on the measure of v i s u a l sequential memory requiring written r e c a l l was 15,40 having a standard deviation of 3,27 and a standard error of 48 measurement o f ,37. A c o m p i l a t i o n o f sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a p p e a r s i n T a b l e X. T a b l e X Sample Means (X) , S t a n d a r d - D e v i a t i o n s (SD) and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement CCSE m) f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l S u b j e c t s on E x p e r i m e n t a l V a r i a B l e s G % 7 7 ) X S D SEm C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age (months). 120.05 4,55 .52 DXQ ( O t i s - L e n n o n l 104.07 15.71 1.79 S p e l l i n g Craw- s c o r e s ) : P r e d i c t a B l e Words 29.43 3.64 .42 U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words 14.43 5.28 .60 T o t a l T e s t 43.86 8.39 .96 S p e l l i n g Cgrade s c o r e s ) : P r e d i c t a b l e Words 6.89 1.87 .21 U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words 6.13 1.93 .22 T o t a l T e s t 6.46 1S83 ,'21 ' V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: O r a l R e c a l l Craw s c o r e s ) . 16 . 43 3 . 19 .36 W r i t t e n R e c a l l Craw s c o r e s ) 15.40 3,27 .37 P e r f o r m a n c e on P r e r e q u i s i t e T e s t s A l l of t h e 77 g r a d e 4 s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d m a s t e r y o f the p e r f o r m a n c e p r e r e q u i s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d n e c e s s a r y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y By s u c c e s s f u l l y m e e t i n g t h e c r i t e r i o n o f no more t h a n two e r r o r s on e a c h o f t h e f o u r i n d i v i d u a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s of l e t t e r knowledge i n c l u d i n g : C l ) I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s ; ( C2I Naming L e t t e r s ; Q3\ W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s ; and, (4) R e a d i n g L e t t e r S e q u e n c e s . On t h e 26 i t e m s o f t h e I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s t e s t , 72 out of t h e 77 s u b j e c t s made a p e r f e c t s c o r e w h i l e f i v e o f t h e 77 s u B j e c t s made o n l y one e r r o r t h u s e a c h o B t a i n i n g a s c o r e o f 25, 4 9 T h e r e f o r e t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e was 26 and t h e l o w e s t s c o r e was 25. The sample mean on t h e I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s t e s t was 25.94 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .25. S i m i l a r l y on t h e 26 i t e m s o f t h e Naming L e t t e r s t e s t , 72 out of t h e 77 s u b j e c t s - o b t a i n e d t h e maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e of 26 w h i l e 5 o f t h e 77 s u B j e c t s made one e r r o r r e s u l t i n g i n e a c h o f t h e f i v e o B t a i n i n g a s c o r e of 25. The h i g h e s t s c o r e was t h e r e f o r e 26 and t h e l o w e s t 25. The sample mean on t h e Naming L e t t e r s t e s t was 25.94 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .25. On t h e 26 i t e m s o f t h e W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s t e s t , 70- put of t h e 77 s u B j e c t s - made a p e r f e c t s c e r e w h i l e s e v e n out o f t h e 7 7 s u B j e c t s committed cne e r r o r r e s u l t i n g i n e a c h e f t h e s e v e n o B t a i n i n g s c o r e s c f 25. The h i g h e s t s c o r e o B t a i n e d was t h e r e f o r e 26 and t h e l o w e s t 25. The sample mean on t h e W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s t e s t was 25.91 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .29. On t h e 18 i t e m s o f t h e R e a d i n g L e t t e r Sequences t e s t , 42 of 77 s u B j e c t s o B t a i n e d t h e maximum p o s s i B l e s c o r e of 18. The number o f s u B j e c t s o B t a i n i n g a s c o r e o f 17 as t h e r e s u l t of one e r r o r was 22 w h i l e t h e numBer of s u B j e c t s o B t a i n i n g a s c o r e of 16 as t h e r e s u l t o f two e r r o r s was 13. T h e r e f o r e t h e h i g h e s t o B t a i n e d s c o r e was 18 and t h e l o w e s t was 16. The sample mean on t h e R e a d i n g L e t t e r Sequences t e s t was 17.38 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e f ,76. A summary pf e r r o r s made By t h e s t u d y sample e f 77 g r a d e f o u r suB j e c t s , on t h e f o u r p r e r e q u i s i t e t e s t s i s * p r e s e n t e d i n 50 T a b l e X I . T a b l e XI S u b j e c t E r r o r a on P r e r e q u i s i t e T e s t s CN=77)_ Tes-t ' ^ , ^° e r r o r I e r r o r 2 e r r o r s I d e n t i f y i n g L e t t e r s 72 5 0 Naming L e t t e r s 7 2 5 0 W r i t i n g Lower Case L e t t e r s 70 7 0 R e a d i n g L e t t e r S equences 42 22 13 T e s t s of H y p o t h e s e s Q u e s t i o n one a d d r e s s e d t h e n a t u r e of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p Between a b i l i t y i n s p e l l i n g of p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r as w e l l as> i r r e g u l a r words and t h e a b i l i t y to o r a l l y r e c a l l n o n -m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory. C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e t e t r a c h o r i c i c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e measure f o r s p e l l i n g o f p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e words and t h e measure of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory r e q u i r i n g o r a l r e c a l l r e s u l t e d i n a c o e f f i c i e n t of ,655 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond t h e .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e ( T a b l e X I I ) . C a l c u l a t i o n of a t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e measure f o r s p e l l i n g o f p h o n e t i c a l l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e words and t h e measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory r e q u i r i n g o r a l r e c a l l r e s u l t e d i n a c o e f f i c i e n t of .488 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e ( T a b l e X I I I ) . H y p o t h e s i s 1-A. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y f o r o r a l r e c a l l o f n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s - on a measure of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t r - t e r m memory would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y to s p e l l . 51 p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r or p r e d i c t a b l e words. The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d ( T a b l e X I I ) s u p p o r t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The nu'unb h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t t h e ,05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . H y p o t h e s l s : T-r-B. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y f o r o r a l r e c a l l of n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - r t e r m memory would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a,nd p o s i t i v e l y , r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y to s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y R e g u l a r or p r e d i c t a b l e words. The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d ( T a b l e X I I I ) s u p p o r t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . T h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t t h e ,05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i -c a n c e . T a b l e X I T 'Frequency T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n * Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s ( P r e d i c t a b l e W ords! and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( O r a l R e c a l l ) O r a l " R e c a l l CO' -O: O' CD % ctf V <rf< 13 CO U H i g h Low id,-80 4t-W. ; 28 ; ' 10 '' . 38 it -o . 11 ' • 3 9 39 38 77 * r t = .655 p < .05 52 1 T a b l e X l I T F r e q u e n c y T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n * Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s ( U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words) and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( O r a l R e c a l l ) O r a l R e c a l l to •o u o CO 4J O •H T3 tU CX C & 60 o 26 13 3 91 Low 13 25 38 3 9 38 77 * r t = ,488 p = <! ,05 Q u e s t i o n two a d d r e s s e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a B i l i t y to s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r as w e l l as i r r e g u l a r words and t h e a B i l i t y to r e c a l l , i n w r i t i n g , n o n -m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l short-rter-m memory, C a l c u l a t i o n o f a t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n Between t h e measure f o r s p e l l i n g o f p h o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a B l e words and t h e measure f o r v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory, r e q u i r i n g w r i t t e n r e c a l l , r e s u l t e d i n a c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,588 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e Beyond t h e ,05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e ( T a B l e XTVX.« C a l c u l a t i o n of t h e t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e measure f o r s p e l l i n g o f p h o n e t i c a l l y u n p r e d i c t a B l e words and th e measure f o r v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory, r e q u i r i n g w r i t t e n r e c a 1 1 , r e s u l t e d i n a c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,524 w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e Beyond t h e ,0.5. l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e ( T a B l e X V I. 5 3 H y p o t h e s i s 2-A. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f non-meaningful l e t t e r s e r i a l s - on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t e r-term memory- would Be s i g n i f i c a n t l y - and p o s i t i v e l y - r e l a t e d to t h e a B i l i t y to s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y - r e g u l a r or- p r e d i c t a B l e words. The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d (TaBTe X I V l s u p p o r t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s - and l e d to t h e r e j e c t i o n of t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a t th e \Q5 l e v e l o f s t a t i - s t l c s - 1 s i g n i f i c a n c e . • H y p o t h e s i s N2yB-, I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the a B i l i t y f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l of n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f vlsua.1 s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory would Be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a,nd p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e a B i l i t y to s p e l l p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r or u n p r e d i c t a b l e words. The s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d ( T a B l e XVI s u p p o r t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s and l e d to t h e r e j e c t i o n of t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a t t h e , 0 . 5 l e v e l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T a b l e XTV 'Frequency- T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n * Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s ( P r e d i c t a B l e Words! and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( W r i t t e n R e c a l l ) W r i t t e n R e c a l l or xs o & 0) r-f Ctf * J CJ 4i-T f a) P H i g h Low 60 ' in : 26 1 2 rr ; 3 8 Low- 12 27 . 3 9 3 8 3 9 77 * r = . 5 5 8 p = < , 0 5 54 T a b l e XV Frequency- T a b u l a t i o n and C o r r e l a t i o n * Between S p e l l i n g S c o r e s ( U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words! and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory S c o r e s ( W r i t t e n R e c a l l ! W r i t t e n R e c a l l 0 J Y T i -ft-O' & id MX ar 4t i-C &: id o f •a a 4t? &L x>- :&> Qi' W-H i g h . Low 26 '• ; - 13 -;•- 12 26 -38 39 p = .05 3 9 38 77 R e l i a b i l i t y of V1sua1 S e q u e n t i a l Memory T e s t s As- b o t h forms of t h e v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m m e m o r y ' t e s t used were u n i q u e to t h i s s t u d y ^ i i f e t w a s n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e measures w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s f o r t h e s t u d y . The L e r t a p p rogram ( N e l s o n , 1974) was t h e r e f o r e a p p l i e d r e s u l t i n g i n t h e Hoy-t e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r e a c h measure. I n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d i i r e a t o b o t h forms o f t h e memory t e s t i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 16. 55 T a b l e XVT Means v(X^v S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s ' (SD) , R e l i a b i l i t y ' C o e f f i c i e n t s (Hoyt) and S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f Measurement (SE^I f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l S u b j e c t s on V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory! O r a l R e c a l l and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l C.N" = 771, T o t a l _ R e l i a b i l i t y T e s t P o s s i b l e X SD C o e f f i c i e n t S E m  S c o r e  V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: O r a l R e c a l l 24 16,35 3.23 .80 1.41 V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l 24 15.48 3.26 .80 1.42 T e s t r e s u l t s on t h e 24-<-itemed V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: O r a l R e c a l l t e s t were o b t a i n e d f o r t h e 77 g r a d e f o u r s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . P e r f o r m a n c e r a n g e d from a h i g h e s t s c o r e of 24 to a l o w e s t s c o r e o f 11 r e s u l t i n g i n a mean o f 16,35 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 3,23, The Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f i n t e r n a l -c o n s i s t e n c y or r e l i a b i l i t y was a s a t i s f a c t o r y .80 w i t h a s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f measurement o f 1.41, T e s t r e s u l t s on t h e 24T-itemed V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l t e s t were a l s o o b t a i n e d on a l l 77 of t h e g r a d e f o u r s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y . P e r f o r m a n c e on t h i s t e s t r a n g e d from a h i g h e s t s c o r e of 23 t o a l o w e s t s c o r e o f 7 r e s u l t i n g i n a mean of 15.48 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 3.26. The Hoyt e s t i m a t e o f r e l i a b i l i t y was- a g a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y .80 w i t h a s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement of 1,42, The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l 'Mejnory? O r a l R e c a l l t e s t and t h e V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n 56 R e c a l l t e s t was a p o s i t i v e and m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g ,534 s u g g e s t -i n g t h e t e s t s , do n o t n e c e s > s a r i l y measure t h e same a p t i t u d e . T h i s f i n d i n g l e n d s some s u p p o r t t o t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y d e s i g n where i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t a v a r i a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e made on t h e -memory t a s k s c o u l d r e s u l t i n p e r f o r m a n c e varia---t i o n s a t t r i h u t a h l e t o t h e manner i n w h i c h s u B j e c t s were peq-uired t o r e s p o n d and t h e r e f o r e r e s p o n s e mode had t o Be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . A l t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t h i s may Be t h e c a s e , Broth f o r m s of t h e memory t e s t were p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to s i p e l l l n g p e r f o r m a n c e , CHAPTER, H I 5 7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s TRe purpose: o f t h i s - s t u d y was to i n v e s t i g a t e tRe r e l a t l p n s R i p o f - v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory a b i l i t i e s t o s>p,eliiri;g a b i l i t y a s r e f l e c t e d By m e a s u r e s o f p R o n e t i c a l l y p r e d i c t a b l e and u n p r e d i c t a B l e words a t t h e f o u r t R g r a d e l e v e l s TRe aim was to l e a r n more aBout tRe p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g t o s p e l l tRrougR l e a r n i n g more aBout tRe p o s s i B l e u n d e r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e c o r r e l a t e s of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , A pr imary c o n c e r n was- t-o a v o i d tRe c o n f o u n d i n g of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l sRertTter-m memory and s p e l l i n g measurement w i t h p o s s i b l e s e n s o r y , p e r c e p t u a l or e n c o d i n g d e f i c i t s , as w e l l a s , l a c k o f knowledge c o n s i d e r e d p r e r e q u i s i t e to p e r f o r m a n c e on t R e measurement t a s k s . To t R i s end, f o u r c r i t e r i o n -r e f e r e n c e d p r e r e q u i s i t e t e s t s o f l e t t e r knowledge were d e s i g n e d and used to e n s u r e t R a t s u B j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n tRe s t u d y ; I L showed no s e n s o r y , p e r c e p t u a l or p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s ' r e l e v a n t t o tRe t y p e o f s t i m u l i p r e s e n t e d on the s p e l l i n g and memory t e s t s ; namely, l e t t e r s and 2) showed no d e f i c i e n c i e s i n u s i n g t h e a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l and motor r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of l e t t e r s t R e r e B y e l i m i n a t i n g l a c k o f l e t t e r k nowledge as an i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r on p e r f o r m a n c e . C a r e was- t a k e n to c h o o s e v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s R o r t - t e r m memory t e s t s - wRieR a p p e a r e d to measure o n l y t h o s e a s p e c t s o f memory- s p e c i f l e d and a,V0,id. u s e of s t i m u l i on tRe-ine-mopy measurements wRicR were- n o t c o m p a r a b l e i n n a t u r e t e tRe v i s u a l 58 i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e d d u r i n g t r i e s p e l l i n g C i , e ^ l e t t e r ' s e r i a l s ! . The a s s u m p t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h a t d i f f er.ent ;f orms o f v i s u a , ! i n f o>matlonsmay fre 'processed d i f f e r e n t l y - i n s h o r t-r.term memory, A t t e n t i o n was- a l s o f o c u s e d on t h e p o t e n t i a l v a r i a t i o n s i n p e r f o r m a n c e due to / V a r i a t i o n s * i n -mode o f r e s p o n s e r e q u i r e d by a memory t e s t . T h e r e f o r e two .measupes^ of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r tr-term /memory were u s e d d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n mode of r e s p o n s e ; one r e q u i r i n g o r a l r e c a l l and t h e o t h e r r e q u i r i n g w r i t t e n r e c a l l . S i m i l a r l y , p o t e n t i a l - v a r i a t i o n s i n s u b j e c t b e h a v i o r due- to v a r i a t i o n s - i n t h e words p r e s e n t e d on the s p e l l i n g tests-, were c o n s i d e r e d , Two measures of s p e l l i n g were used to; t a k e t h i s - p o s s i b i l i t y - i n t o a c c o u n t : one p r e s e n t i n g p h o n e t S i - c a l l y ^ r e g u l a r or p r e d i c t a b l e words and t h e o t h e r p h o n e t i c a l l y i r r e g u l a r o r u n p r e d i c t a b l e words, S t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t i n g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d l e v e l o f m a s t e r y on t h e f o u r p e r f o r m a n c e p r e r e q u i s i t e t a s k s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l sample of 77 s u b j e c t s . P e r f o r m a n c e s on t h e V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l t e s t s were r a n k e d a s were pe r f o r m a n c e s - on t h e P r e d i c t a b l e Word and U n p r e d i c t a b l e Word s u b t e s t s °f Ehe Larsen-rHammill T e s t of W r i t t e n S p e l l i n g (TWS), The median o f e a c h d i s t r i b u t i o n of t e s t s c o r e s was i d e n t i f i e d and us e d to d i c h o t o m i z e p e r f o r m a n c e s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s of h i g h and low, The t r e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was t h e n c a l c u l a t e d between e a c h s e t of memory- s c o r e s and e a c h s e t o.f s p e l l i n g s c o r e s , The- two .measures of v-i^suai s e q u e n t i a l s*ho,rt-^term memory 59 r e q u i r i n g r e c a l l of n o n m e a n i n g f u l c o n s o n a n t s e r i a l s were p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the two s p e l l i n g measures of p r e d i c t a b l e and u n p r e d i c t a b l e words. A l l c o r r e l a -t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n z e r o a t the .05 l e v e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n s r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t s who p e r f o r m e d w e l l on b o t h s p e l l i n g s u b t e s t s a l s o p e r f o r m e d w e l l on t h e two v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory t e s t s while, s t u d e n t s who p e r f o r m e d p o o r l y on the s p e l l i n g t e s t s a l s o p e r f o r m e d p o o r l y on the memory t e s t s . These f i n d i n g s l e n t s u p p o r t to t h e two r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s p osed i n t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t l y , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the a b i l i t y f o r o r a l r e c a l l o f n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y to s p e l l b o t h p h o n e t i c a l l y r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r w ords. W i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .655 (p<.05) f o u n d between o r a l r e c a l l and s p e l l i n g of p r e d i c t a b l e words; and, one o f .488 (p<.05) f o u n d between o r a l r e c a l l and s p e l l i n g of u n p r e d i c t a b l e words, t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e d . S e c o n d l y , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f n o n m e a n i n g f u l l e t t e r s e r i a l s on a measure o f v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e a b i l i t y to s p e l l b o t h p h o n e t i -c a l l y r e g u l a r and i r r e g u l a r words. W i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s -i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of .588 (p<.05) f o u n d between w r i t t e n r e c a l l and s p e l l i n g of p r e d i c t a b l e words; and one of .524 (p<.05) f o u n d between w r i t t e n r e c a l l and s p e l l i n g of. un-p r e d i c t a b l e words, t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a l s o s u p p o r t e d . 6,0 R e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h o s e o b t a i n e d i n the R e i d and Hughes (1974) s t u d y w h e r e i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f v i s u a l l y - p r e s e n t e d n o n s e n s e words on a measure of memory span was f o u n d to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to p e r f o r m a n c e s on v a r i o u s measures o f s p e l l i n g . S t u d i e s w h i c h f o u n d no s i g n i f i -c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory and s p e l l i n g when memory was measured u s i n g n o n v e r b a l v i s u a l s e q u e n c e s o f g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n s (Day and W e d e l l , 1972; Ban n a t y n e and W i c h i a r a j o t e , 1969; Goyen and M a r t i n , 1977) were n o t s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . From t h e few d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s on v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory and s p e l l i n g , t h e r e a p p e a r s to be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n a r i s i n g between t h e r e s u l t s of r e s e a r c h u s i n g v e r b a l v s . n o n v e r b a l s t i m u l i as a measure o f memory. The s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n a r e p r o c e s s e d a t v a r y -i n g p o i n t s i n t h e o v e r a l l memory s y s t e m or v i a d i f f e r i n g p r o c e s s e s ( L i n d s a y and Norman, 1977; K i n t s c h , (1977) may o f f e r some d e g r e e of e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t - t e r m memory f o r v e r b a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n n o t be d i s c o u n t e d as a p o s s i b l e u n d e r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e c o r r e l a t e of s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y . L i m i t a t i o n s L i m i t a t i o n s were imposed on t h e s t u d y by an u n a n t i c i p a t e d l a c k o f c e i l i n g on t h e two measures o f s p e l l i n g and t h e two measures o f memory used i n t h e s t u d y . The r e s u l t a n t l a c k of s p r e a d i n s c o r e s a p p e a r s to have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the numerous 61 t i e d - r a n k s on a l l f o u r m e a s u r e d , T h i s c o n d i t i o n s u g g e s t e d a p o s s i b l e s k e w n e s s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e s t s c o r e s , Frequency- d i s t r i b u t i o n s w e r e p l o t t e d f o r t h e s c o r e s - o b t a i n e d on t h e P r e d i c t a b l e Words- and t h e U n p r e d i c t a b l e Words S p e l l i n g t e s t s * as w e l l as- t h e V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory-: O r a l R e c a l l and V i s u a l S e q u e n t i a l Memory: W r i t t e n R e c a l l memory t e s t s and r. . a^re p r e s e n t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y i n F i g u r e s - 1,2,3 and 4. As w e l l , a a m e a s u r e o f s k e w n e s s was c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e s c o r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s ' and a r e i n d i c a t e d on t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s . A s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e f r e q u e n c y p o l y g o n s and r e v e a l e d by t h e m e a s u r e s o f s k e w n e s s , o n l y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c o r e s on the- P r e d i c t a b l e : Words- s p e l l i n g t e s t was n e g a t i v e l y skewed ...GrxQ. ,33 3)1$ ^ n o t i t e r ' w o r d s , s-kewed i n t h e d i r e c t i o n one w o u l d a n t i c i p a t e g i v e n a s e r i o u s - l i m i t a t i o n on t h e s p r e a d of s c o r e s b y a l a c k of t e s t c e l l i n g . When a d i s t r i b u t i o n i s n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d and h a v i n g no s k e w n e s s t h e v a l u e o b t a i n e d on a m e a s u r e o f s k e w n e s s w i l l be z e r o . V a l u e s of s k e w n e s s w i l l g e n e r a l l y r a n g e b e t w e e n -3 and +3 a c c o r d i n g t o G l a s s and S t a n l e y (19.70 .1, G i v e n t h a t t h e -values- o f s k e w n e s s f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s on e a c h of t h e t e s t s c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s , z e r o (-0.333; 0.039; 0.360; 0.317) t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f n o r m a l i t y u n d e r l y i n g t h e t e t r a c h o r i c c o r r e l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e been v i o l a t e d . The l a c k o f n o r m a l i t y o b s e r v e d i n t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s d i d n o t t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r t o j e o p a r d i z e t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e e s t i m a t e s of r e l a t i o n -s-hip b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , l a c k o f t e s t c e i l i n g s o n t h e measures- o f s p e l l i n g and memory remains- a s i t u a t i o n t o T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i i r 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 S c o r e F i g u r e 1. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n (skewness = -0.333) of p r e d i c t a b l e words s p e l l i n g s c o r e s ( t o t a l number of t e s t i t e m s = 3 5 ) . S c o r e F i g u r e 2. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n (skewness = 0.039) of u n p r e d i c t a b l e words s p e l l i n g s c o r e s ( t o t a l number of t e s t i t e m s = 2 5 ) . 63 w r i t t e n r e c a l l -o r a l r e c a l l o C a) 3 a" a) ft T — I — i — i — i 1 — i — i 1 — i — i — r 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 S c o r e F i g u r e '3. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s of v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory: w r i t t e n r e c a l l (skewness = 0.317) and o r a l r e c a l l (skewness = 0.360) s c o r e s ( t o t a l number of t e s t i t e m s = 2 4 ) . 64 be r e c t i f i e d I n f u t u r e use o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s : , v v "• Re co mm end a t i'o n s 'for" 'Future' R^^ar-ch: ]>n f u t u r e , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y c o u l d Be r e p e a t e d w-itR: tRe f a c t o r s - of i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d/or age c o n t r o l l e d t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g tRe pos-s-ifrle e f f e c t s - of t h e s e v a r i a B l e s and e s t a f r l i s R i n g wRetR'er v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l s h o r t r - t e r m memory and s p e l l i n g and r e l a t e d a p a r t f r o m any- j o i n t c o r r e l a t i o n t R e y may Rave w i t R I n t e l l i g e n c e and age. I t i s p o s s i B l e t R a t \ S ; p . e l l i n g a b i l i t y and s R o r t - r t e r n memory- a r e n o t t r u l y a s s o c i a t e d but o n l y a p p e a r to B'e a s s o c i a t e d B e c a u s e o f m u t u a l c o r r e l a t i o n witR; a n o t h e r f a c t o r or f a c t o r s , TRe r e v i s i o n of frotR s p e l l i n g and memory t e s t s to promote a more n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s as- w e l l as t e s t C e i l i n g s seems a d v i s a b l e , A r e v i s i o n of tRe memory tasks- s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t R i s s t u d y and t R a t i s tRe pRonemic o r a c o u s t i c s i m i l a r i t y Between tRe l e t t e r s on eacR o f tRe i t e m s on tRe t e s t Csee sample page, A p p e n d i x A - 5 ) . As C o n r a d and H u l l Q.9164I d e m o n s t r a t e d , a u d i t o r y - v o c a l s i m i l a r i t y Between unspoken v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d s e t s of l e t t e r s a f f e c t s p e r f o r m a n c e on s R o r t T - t e r m memory r e c a l l t a s k s . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f e r r o r s made on tRe memory t e s t s used i n t R i s s t u d y may Rave r e v e a l e d r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r r o r r a t e s f o r items, c o n t a i n i n g p R o n e t i c a H y s i m i l a r l e t t e r s and; i f -#ucR were t R e c a s e , tRos-e t e s t i t e m s may r e q u i r e a l t e r a t i o n . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g tRe memory m e a s u r e m e n t s wRicR c o u l d b e a d d r e s s e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s - wRetRer or not p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e r e c a l l t a s k r e q u i r i n g an o r a l r e s p o n s e d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from p e r f o r m a n c e r e q u i r i n g w r i t t e n r e c a l l , A c 1 o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e s u b j e c t s who made one or two e r r o r s on t h e R e a d i n g L e t t e r Sequences p r e r e q u i s i t e t e s t may ..ha/ye r e v e a l e d c o r r e s - p o n d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s on t h e memory and S p e l l i n g t e s t , I f s u c h were the c a s e , t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r m a s t e r y on t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e t e s t s would have to be made more I x ' • S t r i n g e n t . 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY B a k e r , ff.J, and L e l a n d , B. D e t r o i t t e s t s of l e a r n i n g a p t i t u d e . 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N e l s o n , H.E, and W a r r i n g t o n , E.K, D e v e l o p m e n t a l s p e l l i n g r e t a r d a t i o n , I n R,M, K n i g h t s and D . J . B a k k e r ( E d s , ) , The n e u r o p s y c h o l o g y of' l e a r n i n g ' d i s o r d e r s : t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o ache s>« B a l t i m o r e : U n i v e r s i t y P a r k P r e s s , 1976 . N e l s o n , L.R, G u i d e to L e r t a p Use and I n t e r p r e t a ' t l o n , D u n e d i n , New Z e a l a n d : Department o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Otago , 1974 . Newton, B,M. A s t u d y o f c e r t a i n f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to a c h i e v e m e n t i n s p e l l i n g , Al'b'er t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1961 , 7_, 20.2r-208. 68 O t i s , A r t h u r , S. and Lennon, R, T , O t i s r - L e n n o n M e n t a l A b i l i t y  T;est: .Manual To r A dm i n 1 s t r a t i'o n ( f o r m s 'J* K) , New- Y o r k : H a r c o u r t B r a c e J o v a n o v l c t i , Lnc,,. 196 8 \ O t t o , W\ , Mc'Menemy, • R.;A«. and S m i t h , R .J, - C o r r e c t i v e and  R e m e d i a l -Teaching. Bos-ton: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1973. P e t e r s , M. R. Success- i n s p e l l i n g . " Monographs' i n E d u c a t i o n Cambridge I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1970 Peterson, L.R., and P e t e r s o n , M.J. S h o r t - t e r m r e t e n t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a 1 P s y c h o l o g y , 1959, ^8_, 193^198. Refcd, N, A« and Hughes, D.C. A f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s of t h e PAT: r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t s - . New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n  S t u d i e s , 2 , 18-30. S f r a n k w e i i e r , D. and L i b e r m a n , I.Y. E x p l o r i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s between r e a d i n g and s p e e c h . I n K n i g h t s , R.M. and B a k k e r , D,J, (Eds,1, The N e u r o - p s y c h o l o g y o f L e a r n i n g D i s o r d e r s , B a l t i m o r e : " ^ U n i v e r s i t y P a r k P r e s s , 1976. Sbopes-, J,H, and Yee, A« S p e l l i n g .Achievement t e s t s : What i s a v a i l a b l e and needed? J'o'urna 1 of S p e c i a 1 E d u c a t i o n , 1973, _7, 3 0.1T.310, Simon, D.P. S p e l l i n g - — a t a s k a n a l y s i s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S c i e n c e , 1976, 5_, 277-302 . W a l l a c e , G. arid L a r s e n , S.C, E d u c a t i o n a l A s s e s s m e n t of  L e a r n I n g P r o b l e m s : . t e s t i n g f o r t e a c h i n g . B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . , 1978. W i c k e n s , D.D. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f word e n c o d i n g . I n M e l t o n , A.W~. and M a r t i n , E. (.Eds.), C o d i n g P r o c e s s e s i n Human  Memory, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: W i n s t o n , 1972. 69 APPENDIX A VISUAL SEQUENTIAL MEMORY TESTS 7© VISUAL ATTENTION SPAN FOR LETTERS - ORAL RECALL DIRECTIONS: I h a v e some s h e e t s h e r e . E a c h s h e e t h a s some l e t t e r s on i t . I am g o i n g t o show y o u a s h e e t f o r a few s e c o n d s and a f t e r I t a k e i t away, I want y o u t o t e l l me. t h e l e t t e r s e x a c t l y a s t h e y w e r e on t h e s h e e t . Do y o u u n d e r s t a n d ? Now - l o o k . PROCEDURE: E x p o s e e a c h s h e e t one s e c o n d f o r e a c h l e t t e r on i t . Be s u r e t h e c h i l d c a n n o t s e e them b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e e x p o s u r e , and t h a t he c a n n o t s e e them on t h e s t u d e n t ' s r e c o r d s h e e t . I n g e n e r a l , g i v e o n l y t h e f i r s t t r i a l o f a s e t a s l o n g as t h e c h i l d s u c c e e d s r e a d i l y - s u c h a s c q , bmr, g z f s , e t c . As s o o n a s he f a i l s one o f t h e f i r s t t r i a l s o f a s e t , d r o p b a c k t o t h e p r e c e e d i n g s e t and c o m p l e t e - t h e o t h e r t h r e e t r i a l s o f t h a t s e t . Then g i v e , t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e t r i a l s o f t h e n e x t h i g h e r s e t , c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h e f o u r t r i a l s o f e a c h s e t u n t i l a l l h i g h e r s e q u e n c e s h a v e b e e n a t t e m p t e d . R e c o r d t h e p u p i l ' s e x a c t r e s p o n s e on t h e s t u d e n t r e c o r d s h e e t . VISUAL ATTENTION SPAN FOR LETTERS - ORAL.. RECALL STUDENT'S NAME: SCHOOL: DATE: 1. c q: 13. z t b r c: 2. x p: 14. q 1 d n r: • 3. v t : 15. y f p q g: 4. k x: 16. z a g f j : 5. b m r: 17. b v n.y g b: 6. d n v: 18. h x m j w d: 7 ' h b d : 19. •w z s b x v: 8. mew: 1 p c 1 s n: 9 - g z f s: 2 1 - . , , m z r f b s k: 1 0 \ J p y c : 22. v q s j d c h : 1 1 • q v 1 t: d b x c h q n: 12. . p m k t: 24. b d s v k p h: VISUAL ATTENTION SPAN FOR LETTERS - TOITTEN RECALL DIRECTIONS: I have some sheets here. Each sheet has some l e t t e r s on i t . I am going t o show you a. sheet f o r a few seconds and a f t e r  I take i t away, I want you t o w r i t e the l e t t e r s e x a c t l y as they were on the sheet, beginning w i t h number one. Do you understand ? Now - look. PROCEDURE: Expose each sheet one second f o r each l e t t e r on i t . Be sure the c h i l d cannot see them before o r a f t e r the exposure. In general, give only the f i r s t t r i a l of a set as long as the c h i l d succeeds r e a d i l y - such.as cq, bmr, g z f s , e t c . As soon as he f a i l s one of the f i r s t t r i a l s of a s e t , drop back t o the pre-ceeding set and complete the other three t r i a l s o f that s e t . Then give the remaining three t r i a l s of the next higher s e t , c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the f o u r t r i a l s of each set u n t i l a l l higher sequences have been attempted. Have the p u p i l r ecord responses beside the corresponding number on the student record sheet. 73 VISUAL ATTENTION SPAN FOR LETTERS: W T T E N RECALL STUDENT'S NAME: SCHOOL: .1. 13. 2. 14. • 3. 15. 4. 16. 5. 17. 6. 18. 7. 19. 8. 20. '9. 21. 10. 22. 11. 23. . 12. 24. 74 1 D v n y (Sample of test s t i m u l i i from Visual Sequential Memory Tests, item 17) 75 APPENDIX B PERFORMANCE PREREQUISITE TESTS I D E N T I F Y I N G L E T T E R S 76 DIRECTICNS: Put a circle around the "s" in number one. Circle "e" in number two... 1. o © y b m 14. d © g P q 2. » r a f m © 15. g b d q © 3. s m o z 16. b d P © g 4. g P q h © 17. q P © g b 5. © t f 1 h 18. 0 m n u o 6. k 1 © f t 19. o a e © c 7. m f s © e 20. h ® 1 t k 8. © t b k h 21. t e j 1 0 9. o © . e c g 22. g P y © i 10. a r e o © 23. m © u d P 11. n u 0 r m 24. © n V w m 1 2 . k i g © y 2 5 . c d a e 0 1 3 . 0 V u c h 2 6 . w y 0 n u NAMING LETTERS 78 DIRECTIONS: Name a l l the letters, beginning with number one. 1. p 14. 3 -2. x 15. f 16. n 4 - . 17. a 5. i 18. h 6- p . 7- t 20. 8. m . 21. b 9. ! 22. d 10. z 23. 1 11. e 24. g 12. w 25. q 13. r 26. STUDENT: NAMING LETTERS 79 SCHOOL: SCORE: 1. 14. 15. 16. n 4. 17. a 5. 18. h 6 . 19. 7- t 20. u 8. m 21. 9. k 22. d 10. z 23. i 11. 24. 12. w 25. 13. 26. 80 WRITING LOWER CASE LETTERS DIRECTIONS:• I am going t o name the l e t t e r s o f the alphabet, but not i n o r d e r . You are t o w r i t e each l e t t e r I say i n s m a l l l e t t e r s . Ready ? Number one: "u"... 1. u 14. n 2. o 15. f 3. X 16. e 4. V 17. h 5. a 18. d 6. b 19. m 7. t 20. k 8. c 21. z 9. 1 22. 3 10. r 23. y 11. i 24. w 12. s 25. g 13. P 26. q WRITING LOWER CASE LbTl 'KHS 81 STUDENT: SCHOOL: - S C 0 R E : 1. 14. 2. 15. 3. • 16. 4. 17. 5. 18. 6. 19. 7. 20. 8. 21. 9. 22. 10. 23. 11. 24. 12. 25. 13. 26. READING LETTER SEQUENCES DIRECTIONS: Put your finger on number one. Name a l l the l e t t e r s i n the exact order they appear. Now put your fi n g e r on number two... 1. c h 10. r p e n z 2. v k 11. u b g s v 3. s c 12. d f h j n 4. j d m 13. y r m 1 v a 5. n x w 14. h w d j n f 6. r h p '15. g k r v c y 7. u f i a 16. b q e m p x i 8. t 1 o q 17. c t k o i s g a 9. x u r c 18. d f z u s p m 83 R E A D I N G LETTER SEQUENCES STUDENT: SCHOOL: SCORE: c h 10. r p e n z 2- v k 11 u b g s v s c Y 2 " d f h j n 4 - j d m ^ i j r m . l v a ' 5 i n x w 14'- h w d j n f 6. r h p 15. • g k r v c . y 7. u f i a 16. . . b q e m p x x 8 " t 1 o q 17. c t k o x s g a 9. x u r c d f z u s p m 84 APPENDIX C PARENTAL INFORMATIONAL LETTER AND CONSENT FORM 85 , 1979 Dear Parent or Guardian: Approval has been granted by School D i s t r i c t #37 (Delta) t o c a r r y out a study r e l a t e d t o the teaching o f s p e l l i n g a t the grade 4 l e v e l as a master's t h e s i s f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Your c h i l d ' s p r i n c i p a l and classroom teacher have been informed as t o the nature of t h i s study and have k i n d l y o f f e r e d t h e i r co-operation. Purpose of the study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a b i l i t y t o s p e l l and the a b i l i t y t o remember a s e r i e s of p r i n t e d symbols. Greater understanding of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s can h o p e f u l l y be used i n determining more e f f e c t i v e methods of teaching s p e l l i n g . C o l l e c t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g information i s proposed: (1) a measure o f l e t t e r knowledge from i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g (2) a measure of memory f o r l e t t e r sequences from i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g (3) a measure of s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y from school records (4) a measure of s p e l l i n g achievement from c l a s s t e s t i n g . Please note t h a t a l l grade 4 students w i l l be given a s p e l l i n g t e s t by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r . The t e s t w i l l be given as part of the school's e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s s p e l l i n g program. T h i s study w i l l use r e s u l t s on only those students w i t h permission t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Not a l l students w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g . Those chosen w i l l spend approximately 30 minutes out of the classroom. Information c o l l e c t e d w i l l not be used i n any other study, nor w i l l i t be used t o determine students' grades. With i n t e n t t o enhance understanding of your c h i l d ' s educational needs, data gathered w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e t o teachers. Otherwise, a l l information w i l l be destroyed upon com-p l e t i o n of t h i s study. Your w r i t t e n permission i s necessary before i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g , or use of data from school records may take place. Parents/guardians reserve the r i g h t t o withdraw t h e i r c h i l d from the study at any time. Withdrawal w i l l not p r e j u d i c e a c h i l d ' s educational standing. Please complete the attached "Parent Consent Form", i n d i c a t i n g whether you do or do not approve your c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Forms are t o be returned t o the classroom teacher. Your c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study would be g r a t e f u l l y appre-c i a t e d and h o p e f u l l y o f mutual b e n e f i t . Any i n q u i r i e s are welcome at Thanking you, I am, S i n c e r e l y , Jane M a i t l a n d Master's Candidate ( S p e c i a l Education) The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 86 PARENT CONSENT FORM I have been advised i n writing of the educational research to be carried out in my child's classroom by investigator: Jane Maitlan, and do /do not give consent for p a r t i c i p a t i o n by my c h i l d : (Student's Name) I understand I may withdraw my c h i l d at any time with-out prejudicing his/her class standing. (Signature of Parent/Legal Guardian) (Date) 

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