UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Syntactic abilities : the use of the TSA screening test with selected sub-pupulations of hearing-impaired… Anderson, John Lloyd 1979

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SYNTACTIC AB I L I T I E S - The use of the TSA Screening Test with selected sub-populations of hearing-impaired students -by JOHN LLOYD ANDERSON B.Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 B.A., Monash University, 197^ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Special Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979 © John Lloyd Anderson, 1979 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e - i i -A B S T R A C T In t h e S p r i n g o f 1 9 7 8 , t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 1 s 2) o f t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l a r g e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . P e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s a m p l e o f 2 33 p r e l i n g u a l l y h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f - e i g h t a n d n i n e t e e n y e a r s , w h o w e r e e n r o l l e d i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l o r a s c h o o l f o r t h e d e a f . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a s h o w e d t h e t w o f o r m s o f t h e t e s t t o b e p a r a l l e l , p o s s e s s g o o d c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y , a n d h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y f o r a l l n i n e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s a n d t o t a l s c r e e n s c o r e s . R e l i a b i l i t y r e m a i n e d h i g h w h e n r e s u l t s w e r e e x a m i n e d f o r d i f f e r e n t h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s ( < 59 , 6 0 - 8 9 , > 9 0 d B ) . A s t h e s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s i n c r e a s e d f r o m m i l d t o p r o f o u n d , s c o r e s d e c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , b u t t h e r e w a s a m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p o w e r o f t h e s c r e e n s . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e t h e t e s t w a s v a l i d f o r t h e s e v e r e l y a n d p r o f o u n d l y d e a f , i t s u s e w i t h m i l d l y o r m o d e r a t e l y h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i s q u e s -t i o n a b l e . Two w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e s h o w e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a m o n g a g e g r o u p s f o r t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e , c o n j u n c t i o n ; a n d a m o n g h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p s f o r d e t e r m i n e r s , q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n , p r o n o m -i n a l i z a t i o n , r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n . C o r r e l -a t i o n s w e r e m o d e r a t e t o s t r o n g b e t w e e n t h e s c r e e n v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t o f t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s . S u c h c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a common u n d e r l y i n g l a n g u a g e f a c t o r , w h i c h w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g t h e t e s t t o p r o v i d e a n a c c u r a t e m e a s u r e o f s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n i n g may p r e v e n t i t f r o m d i s c r i m i n a t i n g s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s i n i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s . i i i -T A B L E OF CONTENTS P a g e C h a p t e r 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 C h a p t e r 2 : L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w 9 C h a p t e r 3= T h e S t u d y 21 D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s 21 P o p u l a t i o n 22 I n s t r u m e n t 25 P r o c e d u r e 29 C h a p t e r k: T h e R e s u l t s hi A n a l y s i s o f D a t a hi C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s h3 I tern A n a l y s i s 58 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e 6 7 C o r r e l a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s 70 C h a p t e r Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s 86 B i b l i o g r a p h y 91 A p p e n d i x A T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 1 9 5 T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 1 3 ^ A p p e n d i x B S t u d y C o r r e s p o n d e n c e 173 A p p e n d i x C C o r r e l a t i o n a l D a t a f o r t h e M i l d t o M o d e r a t e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (<59 dB ) 183 - i v -L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e P a g e I S u m m a r y o f S t u d e n t P e r f o r m a n c e o n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s H II D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a o n S t u d y P o p u l a t i o n 23 I I I C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s o f A g e a n d H e a r i n g L o s s f o r S t u d y P o p u l a t i o n 2k IV L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n , M e a n Raw S c o r e s a n d R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m s 1 S 2 27 V S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n S t u d y a n d N u m b e r o f S t u d e n t s T e s t e d i n E a c h D i s t r i c t 31 VI T e s t P a c k a g e One 35 V I I D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s - C o l o u r C o d e d 37 V I I I M u l t i p l e S a m p l i n g M a t r i x 39 IX T e s t P a c k a g e Two kO X S u m m a r y o f D a t a A n a l y s i s 42 XI F r e q u e n c y o f D i a g n o s t i c T e s t I terns S a m p l e d i n S c r e e n i n g T e s t 46 X I I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I t e m s i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r N e g a t i o n 47 X I I I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r C o n j u n c t i o n 48 X I V S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r D e t e r m i n e r s kS XV S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 50 XVI S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r V e r b P r o c e s s e s 51 X V I I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 52 - v -L I S T OF T A B L E S ( c o n t ' d ) T a b l e P a g e X V I I I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 5k X I X S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 55 XX S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I t e m s i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r N o m i n a l i z a t i o n 55 XXI S u m m a r y o f I terns b y S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t 56 X X I I M e a n s , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t , F o r m s 1 a n d 2 59 X X I I I C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s a n d T e s t O r d e r f o r T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 1 60 X X I V C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s a n d T e s t O r d e r f o r T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 61 XXV C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n F o r m 1 a n d 2 o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t 6 3 XXVI M e a n s , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s a n d R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 f o r S t u d e n t s i n t h e T h r e e H e a r i n g L o s s C a t e g o r i e s ( < 59 , 6 0 - 8 9 , >90 dB) 6k X X V I I Two Way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e A g e - b y - S e v e r i t y o f H e a r i n g L o s s 6 8 X X V I I I Summary o f S i g n i f i c a n t P a i r w i s e D i f f e r e n c e s A g e a n d S e v e r i t y o f H e a r i n g L o s s 70 X X I X D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s b y S e t a n d P o p u l a t i o n A s s i g n e d t h r o u g h M u l t i p l e S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s 71 XXX C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s , a n d T e s t O r d e r o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 f o r t h e P r o f o u n d H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (>90dB) . . . 73 XXXI C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 2) a n d t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e P r o f o u n d H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (>90 dB ) 7k - v i -L I S T OF T A B L E S ( c o n t ' d ) T a b l e P a g e X X X I I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e P r o f o u n d H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (>90 dB) 75 X X X I I I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s a n d T e s t O r d e r o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 f o r t h e M a r k e d - S e v e r e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB) 77 X X X I V C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 2) a n d t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e M a r k e d - S e v e r e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB) 78 XXXV C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e M a r k e d - S e v e r e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p ( 6 O - 8 9 dB) 79 X X X V I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 2) a n d t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 80 X X X V I I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 81 - v i i -L I S T OF F I G U R E S F i g u r e P a g e 1 S t u d e n t P r o f i l e s (<59 dB) 83 2 S t u d e n t P r o f i l e s ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB ) 8k 3 S t u d e n t P r o f i l e s (>90 dB) 85 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h e c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d s u p p o r t o f t h e many p e o p l e w h o a s s i s t e d i n t h e d e s i g n a n d e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . I am i n d e b t e d t o D r . S t e p h e n Q u i g l e y a n d h i s r e s e a r c h t e a m a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o u s e h i s m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l f o r m ; a n d t o t h e many t e a c h e r s a n d e d u c a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h o a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e s t u d e n t t e s t s . I p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e h e l p a n d g u i d a n c e I r e c e i v e d f r o m my a d v i s o r D r . B r y a n C l a r k e . H i s s u p p o r t , p a t i e n c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t h a v e d o n e much t o m a k e t h i s s t u d y a r e a l i t y . T h a n k s a r e a l s o d u e t o my c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s , D r . P e r r y L e s l i e a n d D r . T o d d R o g e r s , f o r t h e i r a d v i c e a n d h e l p t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o t h a n k D w i g h t H a r l e y f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y c o m p u t e r a n a l y s e s , a n d my w i f e C l a i r e , f o r h e r g e n e r a l s u p p o r t a n d u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s i n t y p i n g t h e many d r a f t s o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t . - 1 -INTRODUCTION M u c h h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e w a y c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e a n d d e v e l o p l a n g u a g e . F o r m o s t o f u s , m a s t e r i n g o u r m o t h e r t o n g u e w a s a n u n c o n -s c i o u s a n d s p o n t a n e o u s f e a t , a n d b y t h e t i m e we e n t e r e d k i n d e r g a r t e n we h a d a c q u i r e d m o s t o f t h e b a s i c g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h . S u c h p a i n l e s s l e a r n i n g i s e v e n m o r e i m p r e s s i v e w h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h a t : " G r a m m a t i c a l s p e e c h d o e s n o t b e g i n b e f o r e 1.5 y e a r s o f a g e ; y e t a s f a r a s we c a n t e l l , a c q u i s i t i o n i s v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e by 3.5 o r k y e a r s " ( M c N e i 1 1 , 1966, p . 1 0 ) . L a n g u a g e m a s t e r y i s m o r e t h a n t h e a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e a s e t o f r u l e s o r l e a r n i n g t o r e a d a n d w r i t e . I t i n c l u d e s t h e p o w e r t o u s e a s y s t e m o f i n t e r r e l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e r i v e d f r o m c o g n i t i v e , s o c i a l a n d p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s ( B l a c k w e l l , e t a l . , 1978 ) . T h e h i g h - l e v e l l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e y o u n g c h i l d d e r i v e s f r o m a p r o c e s s n o t u n l i k e t h a t u s e d by a d u l t s i n r e s e a r c h a n d i s n e i t h e r a u t o m a t i c n o r m e r e l y a f u n c t i o n o f m a t u r a t i o n . In h i s s e a r c h f o r l i n g u i s t i c c o m p e t e n c e , t h e y o u n g c h i l d f o r m u l a t e s h y p o t h e s e s a n d t e s t s t h e m a g a i n s t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . L a n g u a g e p r o d u c t i o n i s p r e c e d e d by u n d e r -s t a n d i n g ( M c C a r t h y , 195*0 a n d i m i t a t i o n ( F r a s e r , e t a l . , 1963; N u r s e S D a y , 1971) - D u r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i t d i s p l a y s d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f w o r d c o m b i n a t i o n s s u c h a s p i v o t a n d o p e n c l a s s w o r d s ( B r a i n e , 1963; B r o w n S B e l l u g i , 1 964 ) , w h e r e p i v o t w o r d s a r e a k i n t o t h e f u n c t i o n w o r d s o f a d u l t s p e e c h ( e . g . a l l g o n e , m y , p r e t t y , h e r e ) a n d o p e n w o r d s r e s e m b l e t h e c o n t e n t ( e . g . b o y , mommy, b a b y , m i l k ) . M a n y e x a m p l e s o f o p e n - o p e n ( b a b y c a r ) a n d p i v o t - o p e n w o r d p a t t e r n s ( a l l g o n e m i l k ) c a n be o b s e r v e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n a n d h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e ( B r o w n & F r a s e r , 1963; - 2 -B r o w n & B e l l u g i , 1 9 & 3 , E r v i n , 1 9 6 4 , M i l l e r & E r v i n , 1 9 6 4 , B r a i n e , 1 9 6 3 ) -B r o w n a n d F r a s e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) d i s c u s s a l a n g u a g e p a t t e r n t h e y c a l l t e l e g r a p h i c s p e e c h b e c a u s e o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e t e c h n i q u e u s e d by a d u l t s w h e n s e n d i n g t e l e g r a m s . H e r e i n t h e y o u n g c h i l d c u t s down h i s s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n by o m i t t i n g a r t i c l e s , p r e p o s i t i o n s a n d a u x i l i a r y v e r b s , ( e . g . h e a r b u s , s e e c a r d a d d y , J o h n m a k e t o w e r ) . B u t " t e l e g r a p h i c s p e e c h " i s m o r e t h a n a p o o r i m i t a t i o n o f a d u l t s p e e c h i n t h a t i t a l s o o m i t s i n f l e c t -i o n s o n v e r b s a n d n o u n s ( e . g . t w o b o o t o r t h e r e g o mommy) a n d o f t e n i n c l u d e s u n g r a m m a t i c a 1 c o m b i n a t i o n s ( e . g . a g a s h e r e ) t h a t a n a d u l t w o u l d s e l d o m u s e i n c o m p o s i n g h i s t e l e g r a m . P a t t e r n s l i k e " t e l e g r a p h i c s p e e c h " a r e g e n e r a t e d f r o m p i v o t a n d o p e n c l a s s w o r d c o m b i n a t i o n s a n d i n d i c a t e a " c h i l d g r a m m a r " t h a t f o r m s p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s t o w a r d s m a s t e r i n g l a n g u a g e a n d f u r t h e r s h o w s t h a t t h e i n f a n t l e a r n e r d o e s n o t m e r e l y a b s o r b l a n g u a g e f r o m h i s e n v i r o n m e n t b u t r a t h e r u s e s t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t t o g a i n u n d e r s t a n d -i n g a n d f o r m u l a t e p a t t e r n s w h i c h he t h e n t e s t s a g a i n s t t h o s e w i t h w h i c h he c o m e s i n t o c o n t a c t . M c N e i l l ( 1 9 6 6 ) sums up l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n by r e g a r d i n g i t a s c o n s i s t i n g o f t w o p a r t s : - a s o u r c e o f h y p o t h e s e s a n d a n a b i l i t y t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s a g a i n s t a d u l t s p e e c h . H e a r i n g i m p a i r m e n t a t o r c l o s e t o t h e t i m e o f b i r t h p l a c e s a m a j o r o b s t a c l e i n t h e way o f l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n b e c a u s e i t d e p r i v e s t h e c h i l d o f u s i n g h i s e n v i r o n m e n t t o a c q u i r e l a n g u a g e " n a t u r a l l y " t h r o u g h t h e e a r a n d m a k e s f o r m a l i n t e r v e n t i o n n e c e s s a r y i f a n y d e g r e e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d p r o f i c i e n c y i s t o be a t t a i n e d . S u c h i m p a i r m e n t i s e v e n a g r e a t e r h a n d i c a p w h e n t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s e s ( M c N e i l l , 1966) , a n d t h e t i m e h e a r i n g d e p r i v a t i o n o c c u r s i s o b v i o u s l y c r i t i c a l w h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n h a v e a c q u i r e d m o s t l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e s by t h e a g e o f f o u r y e a r s . L e n n e b e r g ( 1 9 6 5 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e l a n g u a g e may - 3 -be t r a n s i t o r y , r e a c h i n g a p e a k a r o u n d a g e s t w o t o f o u r y e a r s , a n d d e c l i n i n g t h e r e a f t e r u n t i l i t may e v e n d i s a p p e a r a l t o g e t h e r a s a s p e c i a l c a p a c i t y w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a d o l e s c e n c e . I f t h i s , i n f a c t , i s t r u e , i t s h o u l d g u i d e o u r a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e t o t h e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d a n d be m i r r o r e d i n t h e c u r r i c u l a o f s c h o o l s a n d p r o g r a m s f o r t h e d e a f . T h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n o f how t h e d e a f c h i l d l e a r n s l a n g u a g e h a s h e l d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t e a c h e r s o f t h e d e a f t h r o u g h o u t t h e a g e s . E v e r y e f f o r t h a s b e e n made t o i m p r o v e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t w i l l e n a b l e t h e c h i l d w i t h i m p a i r e d h e a r i n g f r o m a n e a r l y a g e ( i . e . p r e l i n g u a l l y d e a f ) t o d e v e l o p r e c e p t i v e a n d e x p r e s s i v e l a n g u a g e i n a n e f f i c i e n t a n d m e a n i n g f u l w a y . In t h e i r e f f o r t s e d u c a t o r s h a v e p l a c e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i m p o r t a n c e o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e t h o d s a n d f o r a t i m e i t a p p e a r e d t h a t w h e t h e r o n e u s e d s p e e c h o r s i g n s w a s b e c o m i n g m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e u s e o f l a n g u a g e i t s e l f . T o d a y , d e s p i t e i m p r o v e d a u d i t o r y t r a i n e r s a n d a m u l t i t u d e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n m o d e s s u c h a s A u d i t o r y O r a l , V i s u a l O r a l , T o t a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n , R o c h e s t e r M e t h o d , C u e d S p e e c h a n d o t h e r s , t e a c h e r s o f t h e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d c o n t i n u e t o e x p o u n d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t c o n f r o n t t h e i r s t u d e n t s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d p r o d u c i n g l a n g u a g e . S c h m i t t (1966) g i v e s a g o o d a c c o u n t o f t h e v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e t h a t h a v e b e e n u s e d w i t h t h e d e a f . He b e g i n s w i t h t h e r a t h e r p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w h e l d i n a n c i e n t t i m e s t h a t t h e d e a f w e r e u n t e a c h a b l e , a n d t a k e s u s t h r o u g h t h e e a r l y a t t e m p t s o f e d u c a t o r s l i k e P o n c e d e L e o n ( S p a i n , 1 5 20 - 1584 ) , t h e A b b e d e L ' E p e e ( F r a n c e , 1 7 1 2 - 1 7 8 9 ) , a n d S a m u e l H e i n i c k e ( G e r m a n y , 1 7 2 9 - 1 7 9 0 ) . D e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e t h o d s , m o s t o f t h e s e e a r l y t e a c h e r s f a v o u r e d a f o r m a l a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . L ' E p e ' e ' s s i g n i n g s y s t e m w a s d e v e l o p e d n o t o n l y f o r w o r d c o n c e p t s b u t a l s o t o c o y e r i n f l e c t i o n s , a r t i c l e s , t e n s e s a n d o t h e r - k -g r a m m a t i c a l p a r t s o f t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e ( S c h m i t t , 1966 ) . C l e r c ( 1 8 5 1 ) i n h i s a d d r e s s t o t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t r u c t o r s o f t h e D e a f o u t l i n e d S i c a r d ' s ( F r a n c e , 1 7 ^ 2 - 1 8 2 2 ) " t h e o r y o f c i p h e r s " , a d e v i c e c o n s i s t i n g o f f i v e n u m b e r e d c o l u m n s : 1. N o m i n a t i v e C a s e , 2 . V e r b , 3 - O b j e c t i v e c a s e , k. P r e p o s i t i o n , a n d 5 . O b j e c t o f t h e P r e p o s i t i o n . He t h e n w e n t o n t o c o m p l a i n a b o u t t h e d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s i n a b i l i t y t o r e h e a r s e m o r e t h a n 15 t o 20 o f t h e 44 v e r b i n f l e c t i o n s a n d m o d e s e a c h c o n t a i n i n g a f f i r m a t i v e , n e g a t i v e , a n d i n t e r r o g a t i v e f o r m s , a g a i n p o i n t i n g t o t h e r i g i d g r a m m a t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s u s e d a t t h e t i m e ( S c h m i t t , 1 9 6 6 ) . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y t h e r e w a s a m a r k e d t r e n d t o w a r d s a m o r e n a t u r a l a p p r o a c h t o t e a c h i n g l a n g -u a g e t o t h e d e a f , w h i c h c o - i n c i d e d w i t h a s w i n g t o t h e o r a l m e t h o d o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . J o s e p h W a t s o n ( E n g l a n d , I 7 6 5 - I 8 2 9 ) e n c o u r a g e d h i s s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r s e n t e n c e s w i t h o u t l e a r n i n g r u l e s o f s y n t a x a n d S c h m i t t ( 1 9 6 6 ) t e l l s u s t h a t G u i l i o T a r r a ( I t a l y , 1832-1889)> s t a t e d i n h i s w r i t i n g s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a c u t e l y a w a r e o f g r a m m a r , b u t s h o u l d n o t " i n f l i c t i t o n t h e f e e b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u p i l s " . O t h e r n o t a b l e a d v o c a t e s o f t h i s n a t u r a l a p p r o a c h w e r e A l e x a n d e r G r a h a m B e l l w h o u s e d t o y s a n d p l a y a c t i v i t i e s t o d e v e l o p l a n g u a g e i n a f i v e y e a r o l d d e a f b o y ( B e l l , 1883 ) a n d F r i e d r i c h M o r i t z H i l l ( G e r m a n y , 1 8 0 5 - 1 8 7 4 ) w h o e s p o u s e d t h e " m o t h e r m e t h o d " w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o d u p l i c a t e t h e way a h e a r i n g c h i l d l e a r n s l a n g u a g e . S o s t r o n g w e r e H i l l ' s c o n v i c t i o n s a b o u t h i s m e t h o d t h a t h e s t a t e d i f c h i l d r e n a r e m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n l a n g u a g e b y s e e i n g i t s u s e f u l n e s s a n d p r o v i d e d w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e l a n g u a g e w h e n e v e r n e e d e d , t h e d e a f c h i l d ' s e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d g r a d u a l l y a p p r o a c h t h a t o f t h e h e a r i n g c h i l d a s h e p r o -g r e s s e s t h r o u g h s c h o o l ( S c h m i t t , 1 9 6 6 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , H i l l ' s p r e d i c t i o n s h a v e n o t c o m e t r u e a n d t e a c h e r s o f t h e d e a f a r e s t i l l s e a r c h i n g f o r t h a t " b r e a k t h r o u g h " w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o p r o g r e s s o n a p a r w i t h h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s . M a n y l a n g u a g e - 5 -s c h e m e s h a v e b e e n t r i e d a n d g u i d e m a t e r i a l s p u b l i s h e d . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t t h e s e m a t e r i a l s h a v e e m p h a s i z e d s t r u c t u r e a n d o r d e r i n t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e t o t h e d e a f . T h e W i n g S y m b o l s ( 1 8 8 7 ) l a b e l l e d l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e s b y m e a n s o f l e t t e r s a n d n u m b e r s , a n d t h e B a r r y F i v e S l a t e ( 1 8 9 9 ) a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e d e a f c h i l d r e n w i t h a f i x e d v i s i b l e s e n t e n c e s k e l e t o n i n t o w h i c h s i m p l e l a n g u a g e c o u l d be f i t t e d ( S c h m i t t , 1 9 6 6 ) . In 1 920 C r o k e r , J o n e s a n d P r a t t p u b l i s h e d t h e i r w i d e l y - u s e d s e r i e s o f l a n g u a g e p r a c t i c e b o o k s f o r c h i l d r e n . T h e s e b o o k s , s t i l l i n u s e t o d a y , p r o v i d e d s t o r i e s w i t h new v o c a b u l a r y a n d p l e n t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r q u e s t i o n w o r k a n d e x e r c i s e s b a s e d on new l a n g u a g e p r i n c i p l e s . P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t o n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y c a m e w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f " S t r a i g h t L a n g u a g e f o r t h e D e a f " i n w h i c h E d i t h F i t z g e r a l d ( 1 9 2 6 ) d e s c r i b e d a s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n g u i d e w h i c h b e c a m e k n o w n a s " T h e F i t z g e r a l d K e y " . S c h m i t t ( 1 9 6 6 ) d e s c r i b e s i t a s f o l l o w s : T h e K e y i t s e l f c o n s i s t s o f s i x c o l u m n s h e a d e d b y i n t e r r o g a t i v e w o r d s a n d s y m b o l s i n d i c a t i n g p a r t s o f s p e e c h a n d s e n t e n c e f u n c t i o n s : ( l ) s u b j e c t ( W h o ; , W h a t : ) ; ( 2 ) V e r b a n d p r e d i c a t e w o r d s ; (3 ) i n d i r e c t a n d d i r e c t o b j e c t s ( W h a t : , W h o m : ) ; {k) p h r a s e s a n d w o r d s t e l l i n g W h e r e ; ( 5 ) o t h e r p h r a s e s a n d w o r d m o d i f i e r s o f t h e m a i n v e r b ( F o r : , F r o m : , H o w : , How o f t e n : , How m u c h : , e t c . ) ; (6 ) w o r d s a n d p h r a s e s t e l l i n g W h e n : . P h r a s e s a n d d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e s may be f i t t e d i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s i n t h e c o l u m n , a n d t h e u s e o f c o n n e c t i v e s y m b o l s a l l o w s f o r c o m p o u n d s e n t e n c e s . Y o u n g d e a f c h i l d r e n b e g i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t b y c l a s s i f y i n g w o r d s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m o r e b a s i c h e a d i n g s , s u c h a s W h o : , W h a t : , a n d = ( v e r b ) . T h e c h i l d ' s f i r s t f e w y e a r s i n s c h o o l a r e s p e n t " b u i l d i n g t h e K e y " . New l a n g u a g e p a t t e r n s a n d p r i n c i p l e s a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e K e y , a n d i t s e r v e s a s a r e f e r e n c e a n d a s e l f - c o r r e c t i o n d e v i c e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o u s e i n l i v e a n d w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e w o r k . In h e r b o o k , F i t z g e r a l d g i v e s n u m e r o u s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r b u i l d i n g t h e K e y . A l t h o u g h a s e q u e n c e o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t i s i n d i c a t e d , F i t z g e r a l d s t a t e s t h a t t h e a c t u a l o r d e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e s s h o u l d d e p e n d u p o n t h e n e e d s o f t h e c h i l d r e n , ( p . 8 1 ) T h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f ( e . g . , C e n t r a l I n s t i t u t e f o r t h e D e a f , C l a r k e S c h o o l , L e x i n g t o n , a n d S t . J o s e p h ' s ) p r i n t e d t h e i r own l a n g u a g e o u t -l i n e s a n d t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g w o r l d b e g a n t o f o l l o w - 6 -t h e l a n g u a g e p r i n c i p l e s a n d t e a c h f r o m t h e v o c a b u l a r y l i s t s i n t h e h o p e t h a t t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d h o l d t h e k e y t o l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . In 1958, M i l d r e d G r o h t ' s " N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e f o r D e a f C h i l d r e n " p r o v i d e d a " n e w l o o k " a t l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g b a s e d o n D a v i d s o n ' s (1914) v i e w t h a t t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b i s " t o d e v e l o p t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f h e r p u p i l s t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e i t s e l f " . T h i s s y s t e m e m p h a s i z e d t h e v a l u e o f m e a n i n g f u l s i t u a t i o n s o v e r a r t i f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e s a n d d r i l l e x e r c i s e s a n d s t r e s s e d p i c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n s , c o n v e r s a t i o n s a n d i n c i d e n t a l t e a c h i n g a s t h e w a y t o m a k e l a n g u a g e c o m p r e -h e n s i b l e t o t h e d e a f c h i l d . F o r y e a r s , t e a c h e r s o f t h e d e a f d e v e l o p e d t h e i r c u r r i c u l a f r o m o n e o r m o r e o f t h e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d l a n g u a g e s c h e m e s a n d t o d a y many c l a s s e s s t i l l c o m b i n e p a r t s o f G r o h t ' s n a t u r a l a p p r o a c h w i t h t h e m o r e f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e s g i v e n i n t h e F i t z g e r a l d K e y o r C r o k e r , J o n e s a n d P r a t t . I t h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h i n g n e w i n l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e d e a f . S c h m i t t (1966) s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s m o r e e v o l u t i o n a r y t h a n r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n n a t u r e . I d e a s t e n d t o a p p e a r , d i s a p p e a r a n d t h e n r e t u r n a g a i n i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r m . F o r e x a m p l e , S i c a r d ' s c i p h e r s , B a r r y ' s f i v e s l a t e s , a n d t h e F i t z g e r a l d K e y h a v e many e l e m e n t s i n common a s d o t h e p h i l o s o p h i e s o f H i l l ( 1 8 0 5 - 1 8 7 4 ) , G r o h t (1958) a n d v a n U d e n ( 1 9 7 0 ) . H o w e v e r , o n e r a d i c a l b r e a k f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s o f t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e t o d e a f c h i l d r e n c a n b e l i n k e d t o t h e w o r k o f Noam C h o m s k y (1957) a n d t h o s e w h o f o l l o w h i s c o n c e p t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a 1 . g e n e r a t i v e g r a m m a r . T h i s " n e w " g r a m m a r s u g g e s t s t h a t e a c h l a n g u a g e h a s a b a s i c s e n t e n c e p a t t e r n f r o m w h i c h a l l s e n t e n c e s c a n be g e n e r a t e d b y t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e b a s i c s e n t e n c e - t h a t i s , b y r e - a r r a n g i n g s e n t e n c e w o r d o r d e r , c o m b i n i n g s e n t e n -c e s , o r d e l e t i n g w o r d s o r g r o u p s o f w o r d s a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c r u l e s ( S t r e n g , 1972 ) . C h o m s k y a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s c h a l l e n g e t h e v o c a b u l a r y b a s e d - 7 -l a n g u a g e s c h e m e s by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e m e a n i n g a n d p a r t o f s p e e c h a s s i g n e d t o a w o r d i s d e t e r m i n e d b y i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r v o c a b -u l a r y i n a s e n t e n c e . P a u l a M e n y u k ( 1 9 ^ 9 ) e x p a n d s t h i s v i e w w h e n s h e s a y s : " I n a s e n t e n c e t h e S u b j e c t i s t h e N o u n P h r a s e o f t h e s e n t e n c e , O b j e c t i s t h e N o u n P h r a s e o f t h e V e r b P h r a s e a n d t h e P r e d i c a t e i s t h e V e r b P h r a s e : o f t h e s e n t e n c e . To u n d e r s t a n d a n d g e n e r a t e s e n t e n c e s t h e c h i l d m u s t o b s e r v e t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a s e n t e n c e , t h e n d e f i n e t y p e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a n d t h e n o b s e r v e s e l e c t i o n a l c o n -s t r a i n t s o n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e c l a s s e s , " ( p . 2 3 ) . C h o m s k y a l s o i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t w o l e v e l s o f s e n t e n c e f u n c t i o n i n g ; s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e o r t h a t w h i c h i s a c t u a l l y s p o k e n a n d h e a r d , a n d d e e p s t r u c t u r e w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e a c t u a l m e a n i n g o f t h e s e n t e n c e . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e t w o s t r u c t u r e s , a n d t h e s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e i s g e n e r a l l y made u p o f o n e o r m o r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e d e e p s t r u c t u r e ( B l a c k w e l l , e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 , S t r e n g , 1 9 7 2 ) . In o r d e r t o m a s t e r a l a n g u a g e t h e c h i l d m u s t b e a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e e p s t r u c t u r e o r m e a n i n g f r o m w h a t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e a n d s h o w u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s t h a t r e l a t e t h e t w o . P o w e r (1971) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y d e a f c h i l d r e n h a v e w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s by t h e e x a m p l e : " t h e g i r l p u s h e d t h e b o y " . Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , (1976) f u r t h e r s h o w t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n r e l y h e a v i l y o n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e a n d h a v e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y h a n d l i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f a n y c o m p l e x i t y . S u c h f i n d i n g s g i v e s u b s t a n c e t o s t a t e m e n t s by M o o r e s (1978) a n d o t h e r s t h a t a l t h o u g h d e a f c h i l d r e n d o d e v e l o p l a n g u a g e s k i l l s , t h e y u s u a l l y d o n o t a c q u i r e p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h d i a l e c t u s e d by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e h e a r i n g p e r s o n s w i t h whom t h e y c o m e i n t o c o n t a c t . - 8 -Q u i g l e y ' s r e s e a r c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d m o r e f u l l y i n t h e e n s u i n g c h a p t e r s o f t h i s w o r k a s i t p r o v i d e s t h e m o t i v a t i o n , b a c k g r o u n d a n d i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s w i l l d i s c u s s how w e l l p r e l i n g u a l l y h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n v a r i o u s a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s r e c o g n i z e d a n d c o m p r e h e n d e d t h e m a i n s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . I t w i l l a l s o e x a m i n e how e f f e c t i v e l y t h e S c r e e n -i n g T e s t o f t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1978) d e m o n s t r a t e d s y n t a c t i c s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s i n s u c h s t u d e n t s . - 9 -C H A P T E R 2 : L I T E R A T U R E REVIEW T e a c h e r s o f t h e d e a f a r e q u i c k t o e x p l a i n t h a t t h e i r h e a r i n g -i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . We h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n t h a t e d u c a t o r s t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y h a v e t r i e d t o o v e r c o m e t h e p r o b l e m w i t h v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , b u t d e s p i t e t h e many m e t h o d o l o g i e s t h a t h a v e b e e n t r i e d , t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m o f h e l p i n g t h e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d t o m a s t e r l a n g u a g e c o m p e t e n c y r e m a i n s w i t h u s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , m o s t r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e u s e o f l a n g -u a g e by t h e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d b y p s y c h o l o g i s t s who w e r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n l a n g u a g e p e r f o r m a n c e i n a n o n - 1 i n g u i s t i c f o r m . T h a t i s , c o n v e n t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y u s e d t o m e a s u r e l a n g u a g e l e v e l s o r t e s t t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , a n d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n w a s p a i d t o a r e a s o f u n i q u e l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o r t h e v a r i o u s l a n g u a g e s y s t e m s b e i n g u s e d by t e a c h e r s o f t h e d e a f . P a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d , a n d p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e o f d e a f c h i l d r e n , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d o n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r o f d e a f c h i l d r e n i n t e r m s o f t h e i r s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g . H e n c e , we h a v e a n a b u n d a n c e o f l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t i n g t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n f a l l f a r b e h i n d t h e i r h e a r i n g c o u n t e r p a r t s i n t h e l a n g u a g e a r e a ( C o o p e r & R o s e n s t e i n , 1 9 6 6 ) , b u t f e w s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e w a y s t o b r i d g e t h i s g a p a n d e v e n f e w e r r e s e a r c h e r s p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t e s t i n g t h e l a n g u a g e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d c h i l d . Among t h e e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s , c o n d u c t e d b y P i n t n e r , a n d P a t e r s o n ( 1 9 1 6 ) , d e a f e i g h t e e n y e a r o l d s p e r f o r m e d o n a n a v e r a g e l o w e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e h e a r i n g e i g h t y e a r o l d i n t h e a r e a o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . R e a m e r ( 1 9 2 1 ) t e s t e d 2 , 5 0 0 d e a f s u b j e c t s a g e d e i g h t t o o v e r t w e n t y - o n e - l O -o n t h e P i n t n e r E d u c a t i o n a l S u r v e y T e s t w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e a r e a s o f r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y , g r a m m a r , h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , a n d a r i t h m e t i c , a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e d e a f s t u d e n t w a s f i v e y e a r s b e h i n d h i s h e a r i n g c o u n t e r p a r t . U s i n g t h e D u r r e l 1 - S u l 1 i v a n R e a d i n g T e s t , P u g h ( 1 9 4 6 ) t e s t e d 344 d e a f s t u d e n t s who h a d b e e n a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l f r o m b e t w e e n s e v e n a n d t h i r t e e n y e a r s a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r a l l d e a f s u b j e c t s w a s b e l o w t h a t o f s i x t h g r a d e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . M y k l e b u s t ( i 9 6 0 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e o f 120 f i f t e e n y e a r o l d d e a f s t u d e n t s t e s t e d o n t h e C o l u m b i a V o c a b u l a r y T e s t w a s b e l o w t h a t o f t h e h e a r i n g n i n e y e a r o l d s , a n d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g l e v e l s b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s i n c r e a s e d w i t h a g e . M o o r e s (1967) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e u s e o f c l o z e p r o c e d u r e s ( f i l l i n g i n w o r d s d e l e t e d f r o m p a s s a g e s ) t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n m a t c h e d g r o u p s o f t h i r t y -s e v e n d e a f s t u d e n t s ( a v e r a g e a g e 16 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s ) a n d t h i r t y - s e v e n h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s ( a v e r a g e 9 y e a r s 10 m o n t h s ) . T h e M e a n r e a d i n g l e v e l o f t h e d e a f g r o u p o n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t w a s 4 . 7 7 c o m p a r e d w i t h 4 . 8 4 f o r t h e h e a r i n g g r o u p . H o w e v e r , o n t h e c l o z e t a s k t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n w a s s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e d e a f o n p a s s a g e s s e t a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o w e r p e r f o r m a n c e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s r e s u l t e d b o t h f r o m p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d E n g l i s h g r a m m a t i c a l s k i l l s a n d f r o m l i m i t e d v o c a b u l a r y . T h e r e s u l t s l e a d M o o r e s t o c l a i m t h a t s t a n d a r d i s e d r e a d i n g t e s t s t e n d t o g i v e s p u r i o u s l y h i g h e s t i m a t e s o f t h e E n g l i s h s k i l l s o f d e a f s t u d e n t s a n d t h a t t h e l a n g -u a g e g a p b e t w e e n h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d a n d h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s may b e e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . In r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d b y D i F r a n c e s c a ( 1 9 7 2 ) , 1 7 , 0 0 0 d e a f s t u d e n t s a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w e r e t e s t e d o n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f t h e - 11 -S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h e f a m i l i a r l o w p e r f o r m -a n c e l e v e l i n t h e l a n g u a g e a r e a s a n d m o r e o v e r t h a t d e a f s t u d e n t s i m p r o v e d o n a n a v e r a g e o f o n l y 0 . 2 g r a d e l e v e l s p e r y e a r . W i t h s t u d i e s c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h a t h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n a r e s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d i n l a n g u a g e a c h i e v e m e n t o n t e s t s d e s i g n e d f o r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , i t i s n o l o n g e r s u f f i c i e n t t o s i m p l y r e p e a t s u c h r e s e a r c h f o r t h e s a k e o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n . I t i s t i m e t o a s k q u e s t i o n s a b o u t how d e a f c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p l a n g u a g e , a n d t o f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c p r o b l e m s s o t h a t b e t t e r d i a g n o s t i c a n d t e a c h i n g t e c h -n i q u e s may b e d e v e l o p e d w h i c h i n t u r n w i l l l e a d t o i m p r o v e d l a n g u a g e p e r f o r m a n c e . I t w a s p r e c i s e l y t h i s d e s i r e t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e " l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r " w h i c h h a d b e e n h o l d i n g b a c k t h e d e a f f o r s o l o n g , t h a t p r o m p t e d Q u i g l e y a n d a t e a m o f c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s t o l a u n c h a t e n y e a r r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m o n t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) . T h i s p r o g r a m b e g a n i n 1 9 6 8 , a n d a l t h o u g h i t o n l y i n v e s t i g a t e d s y n t a x , t h e a u t h o r s w e r e q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t t h a t o t h e r a r e a s o f l a n g u a g e , e s p e c i a l l y s e m a n t i c s a n d p h o n o l o g y c a n n o t b e i g n o r e d when d e a l i n g w i t h a n a t i v e s p e a k e r ' s k n o w l e d g e o f h i s l a n g u a g e . S y n t a x w a s c h o s e n by t h e I l l i n o i s t e a m b e c a u s e i t i s a m a j o r l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m w i t h h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d c h i l d r e n a n d u n t i l r e c e n t l y , i t h a s b e e n l a r g e l y n e g l e c t e d i n r e s e a r c h ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . D u r i n g t h e t e n y e a r p e r i o d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f g r a m m a t i c a l r u l e s , t h e o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g t h e v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s a n d t h e w a y d e a f c h i l d r e n p r o c e s s E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e s w e r e a l l i n v e s t i g a t e d . N o t o n l y d i d i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m i d e n t i f y s t r u c t u r e s t h a t p r o v e d i f f i c u l t f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n ( P o w e r , 1 9 7 1 , Q u i g l e y a n d P o w e r , 1 9 7 2 , P o w e r a n d Q u i g l e y , 1 9 7 3 , Q u i g l e y , S m i t h a n d W i l b u r , 197**, Q u i g l e y , M o n t a n e l l i a n d W i l b u r , 1 9 7 6 , Q u i g l e y , W i l b u r a n d M o n t a n e l l i , 1 9 7 6 , W i l b u r , M o n t a n e l l i a n d Q u i g l e y , 1976) - 12 -b u t t h e o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y w a s i d e n t i f i e d a n d c o m p a r i s o n s made w i t h t h e w a y h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 976 ) . T h e f i v e a c t u a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 977 ) , w e r e a s f o 1 1 o w s : 1. W h a t i s t h e o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y o f v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n ; i s i t s i m i l a r t o t h e o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y f o r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ; a n d i s i t p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e o r i e s o f t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l g e n e r a t i v e g r a m m a r ? 2 . How w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d a r e t h e s y n t a c t i c r u l e s o f S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f c h i l d r e n a t a g e l e v e l s f r o m 10 t h r o u g h 18 y e a r s ? 3. A r e t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s f o r t h e s e r u l e s i n d e a f c h i l d r e n , a n d , i f s o , how s i m i l a r a r e t h e y t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s f o r h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n ? k. Do d e a f p e r s o n s a c q u i r e t h e s a m e s y n t a c t i c r u l e s a s h e a r i n g p e r s o n s , b u t a t a s l o w e r r a t e , o r d o t h e y a c q u i r e s o m e r u l e s t h a t n e v e r o p e r a t e i n t h e g r a m m a r o f h e a r i n g p e r s o n s ? 5. How d o e s d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s c o m p a r e t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h o s e s t r u c t u r e s i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y u s e ( p . 7 3 ) ? T h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n v o l v e d m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s , p i c t u r e s e q u e n c e s , w r i t t e n s a m p l e s o f d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s w o r k , m o v i n g t o y s a n d f i g u r e s t o r e p r e s e n t t h e r e q u i r e d s t r u c t u r e a n d p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S u b j e c t s w e r e f o r c e d t o . u s e t h e s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e s b e i n g e x a m i n e d b y t h e t e c h n i q u e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a n d a l l d e s i r e d s t r u c t u r e s w e r e i n -c l u d e d i n a t e s t b a t t e r y w h i c h c a m e t o be k n o w n a s t h e R e s e a r c h V e r s i o n o f t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s ( T S A ) . T h e o r i g i n a l TSA i s a b a t t e r y o f 22 t e s t s d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y d e a f p e r s o n s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s j u d g e d t o b e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e m a t u r e u s e o f E n g l i s h . T h e s e s t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d e ; n e g a t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n , d e t e r m i n e r s , q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n , v e r b p r o c e s s e s , p r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n , r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d - 13 -n o m i n a l i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e t e s t was r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e t o a d m i n i s t e r , t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t h e c o m p l i c a t e d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s r e n d e r e d t h e b a t t e r y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r g e n e r a l u s e a s a p r a c t i c a l t e s t a n d k e p t i t a t t h e l e v e l o f a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t . H o w e v e r , i n t h a t r e g a r d i t w a s t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l a r g e n u m b e r o f d e a f s t u d e n t s a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , ( 1 9 7 7 ) d e s c r i b e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h u s : S u b j e c t s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h w e r e 4 5 0 d e a f s t u d e n t s ( 2 5 m a l e s a n d 2 5 f e m a l e s i n e a c h o f n i n e a g e g r o u p s ) r a n g i n g 10 y e a r s , 0 m o n t h s t h r o u g h 18 y e a r s , 11 m o n t h s o f a g e . T h e y w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m 10 r e s i d e n t i a l a n d 6 d a y p r o g r a m s f o r d e a f s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 82% o f t h e s a m p l e s u f f e r e d h e a r i n g i m p a i r m e n t p r i o r t o 12 m o n t h s o f a g e ; S% b e t w e e n 12 a n d 23 m o n t h s ; 6% b e t w e e n 2 4 a n d 3 5 m o n t h s ; a n d d a t a w e r e u n a v a i l a b l e f o r 3 % . T h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t I . Q . f o r t h e g r o u p w a s 1 0 4 . 5 8 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 6 . 5 3 , a n d t h e mean h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d l e v e l w a s 9 4 . 4 2 d B ( I S O ) w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v -i a t i o n o f 7 . 2 9 . T h i s was a s t r a t i f i e d r a n d o m s a m p l e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o u n t r y who w e r e m o s t l y c o n g e n i t a l l y d e a f , f r e e f r o m h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n h e a r i n g -i m p a i r m e n t , a n d b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 10 a n d 19 y e a r s , t h u s e n s u r i n g g e n e r a 1 i z a b i 1 i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s t o a l a r g e s e g m e n t o f t h e d e a f s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . C h i l d r e n w i t h n o r m a l h e a r i n g w e r e a l s o t e s t e d t o s e r v e a s a g e n e r a l c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p a n d t o a i d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e s t r e s u l t s . T h i s g r o u p o f 6 0 c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d 10 m a l e s a n d 10 f e m a l e s a t 8 , 9 , a n d 10 y e a r s o f a g e who a t t e n d e d t h e t h i r d , f o u r t h , a n d f i f t h g r a d e s o f a m i d d l e - c l a s s p u b l i c s c h o o l ( p . 7 4 ) . T a b l e I, a d a p t e d f r o m t h e f i n a l r e p o r t o f t h e I l l i n o i s s t u d y ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) p r o v i d e s a s u m m a r y o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s a t d i f f e r e n t a g e l e v e l s o n t h e v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e r e s e a r c h v e r s i o n o f t h e T S A , a n d c o m p a r e s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h t h a t o f t h e h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y . T h e r e s u l t s s h o w how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s h a n d l e d t h e s e r i e s o f t a s k s w h i c h w e r e u s e d t o e l i c i t s p e c i f i c s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n a c o n t r o l l e d m a n n e r a n d e n a b l e d t h e - 14 -T A B L E I S u m m a r y o f S t u d e n t P e r f o r m a n c e o n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s S t r u c t u r e A v e r a g e a c r o s s a g e s D e a f S t u d e n t s A g e 10 A g e 18 1 n c r e a s e H e a r i n g S t u d e n t s A v e r a g e a c r o s s a g e s N e g a t i on be 79? 60% 86? 26? 92? d o 71 53 82 29 93 h a v e Ik 57 78 21 86 M o d a l s 78 58 87 29 90 M e a n s 76 57 83 26 90 C o n j u n c t i o n C o n j u n c t i o n 12% 56% 86? 30? 92? D e l e t i o n Ik 53 86 27 9^  M e a n s 73 51 86 29 92 Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n w h - Q u e s t i o n s : C o m p r e h e n s i o n 66% kk% 80? 36? 98? y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s C o m p r e h e n s i o n Ik 48 90 42 99 T a g q u e s t i o n s 57 46 63 17 98 M e a n s 66 46 78 32 98 P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i on P e r s o n a l P r o n o u n s 61% 5\% 88? 37? 78? B a c k w a r d P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 70 k3 85 36 3k P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e s 65 42 82 40 98 P o s s e s s i v e P r o n o u n s 48 3k 64 30 99 R e f1 e x i v i z a t i o n 50 21 73 52 80 M e a n s 60 39 78 39 90 V e r b s V e r b A u x i 1 i a r i e s Sk% 52? 71? 19? 81? T e n s e S e q u e n c i n g 63 5k 72 18 78 * M e a n s 58 53 71 18 79 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n I n f i n i t i v e s a n d g e r u n d s 55% 50% 63? 13? 88? R e l a t i v i z a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g 68? 53% 76? 17? 78? Embedd i n g 53 51 59 8 84 R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n r e f e r e n t s 42 27 56 29 82 M e a n s 5k 46 63 18 82 D i s j u n c t i o n a n d A l t e r n a t i o n 36% 22? 59? 37? 84? S o u r c e : A d a p t e d F r o m (_Qu g l e y , e t a l . , 1977, p..761 - 15 -r e s e a r c h t e a m t o r e p o r t t h e f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s : ( i ) d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f d e a f a n d h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s a r e d i f f e r e n c e s o f r a t e r a t h e r t h a n k i n d , ( i i ) m o s t o f t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w e r e n o t w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d e v e n a m o n g t h e 18 y e a r o l d d e a f s t u d e n t s , w h e r e a s t h e h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s h a d m a s t e r e d a l l b u t t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t s t r u c t u r e s b y 10 y e a r s o f a g e . ( i i i ) t h e r e a r e m o r e s i m i l a r i t i e s t o E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s ' l a n g u a g e t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s , t h o u g h d e a f s t u d e n t s d o h a v e some d i s t i n c t s t r u c t u r e s , ( i v ) t h e r e i s a v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t e o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t b e t w e e n d e a f a n d h e a r i n g s t u d e n t s . In o r d e r t o m a k e t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s a p r a c t i c a l t o o l o f m e a s u r e m e n t f o r t e a c h e r s a n d c l i n i c i a n s w o r k i n g w i t h d e a f c h i l d r e n t h e a u t h o r s s e t a b o u t r e v i s i n g t h e t e s t b a t t e r y . T h e s c o r i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t -a t i o n p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h v e r s i o n o f t h e T S A h a d t o b e e l i m i n a t e d . I f t h e r e v i s e d t e s t w a s t o be t r u l y u s e f u l , i t h a d t o be e a s i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , s c o r e d a n d i n t e r p r e t e d b y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d t h e i t e m f o r m a t s c h o s e n f o r t h e t e s t s w o u l d h a v e t o be r e a l i s t i c i n t h e i r d e m a n d s o f r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g f r o m t h e d e a f c h i l d . I t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e f o r m a t w o u l d b e s t m e e t t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . A d e t a i l e d c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f a l l i t e m s o n t h e r e s e a r c h v e r s i o n o f t h e TSA w a s c a r r i e d o u t by a t e a m o f l i n g u i s t s a n d t e a c h e r s o f t h e d e a f . In a d d i t i o n a s t a t i s t i c a l i t e m a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d a n d t h e m o s t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h v e r s i o n o f t h e T S A w e r e s e l e c t e d . L i k e e x a m p l e s w e r e t h e n c o n s t r u c t e d u n t i l 1 2 0 i t e m s w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h o f t h e 2 0 t e s t s c o v e r i n g t h e n i n e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h m a k e u p t h e r e v i s e d - 16 -v e r s i o n o f t h e T S A . A l l i t e m s f o l l o w e d t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e f o r m a t w i t h f o u r c h o i c e s p e r i t e m - o n e c o r r e c t a n d t h r e e d i s t r a c t o r s : -e . g . | | A . T h e p u p p i e s a r e n ' t i n t h e b o x . J J B . N o t t h e p u p p i e s a r e i n t h e b o x . j 1 C . T h e p u p p i e s a r e n o i n t h e b o x . | — D . T h e p u p p i e s n o a r e n ' t i n t h e b o x . I terns ' ' ;on t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e TSA t e s t r e c o g n i t i o n a n d c o m p r e -h e n s i o n o f t h e n i n e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . T h e s t r u c t u r e s s e l e c t e d w e r e t h o s e j u d g e d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r a m a t u r e k n o w l e d g e a n d u s e o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a n d a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o n t h e R e s e a r c h V e r s i o n o f t h e TSA n a m e l y : n e g a t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n , d e t e r m i n e r s , q u e s i o n f o r m a t i o n , v e r b p r o c e s s e s , p r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n , r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d n o m i n a l -i z a t i o n . T h e v o c a b u l a r y w a s v e r y c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d a t a f i r s t g r a d e r e a d i n g l e v e l w i t h some w o r d s a t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r l e v e l . T h e p u r p o s e o f i n c l u d i n g b o t h r e c o g n i t i o n a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n i t e m s i n a l l t e s t s w a s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t n o t o n l y r e c o g n i z e d a g r a m m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e b u t a l s o u n d e r s t o o d t h e m e a n i n g o f a s t i u m u l u s s e n t e n c e . In t h e r e c o g n i t i o n i t e m , t h e s t u d e n t s i m p l y h a d t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h a l t e r n a t i v e h e c o n s i d e r s t o be t h e c o r r e c t o n e : e . g . | | A . M a r y o p e n e d a n w i n d o w s . | [ B . M a r y o p e n e d t h e w i n d o w s . C . M a r y o p e n e d a w i n d o w s . | j D. M a r y o p e n e d a t h e w i n d o w s . In c o m p r e h e n s i o n q u e s t i o n s h o w e v e r , t h e s t u d e n t m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a r n i n g o f a s t i m u l u s s e n t e n c e o r s e n t e n c e s i n o r d e r t o c h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t a l t e r n a t i v e f o m r l i s t e d . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t d u e t o t h e r i g o r o u s c o n t r o l o f - 17 -v o c a b u l a r y a n d c o n t e n t i t e m s t h e s t u d e n t s m u s t c o m p r e h e n d t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r t o m a k e a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . T h r e e t y p e s o f c o m p r e h e n -s i o n q u e s t i o n s a r e a s k e d . F i r s t , t h e s t u d e n t s e l e c t s f r o m t h e f o u r c h o i c e s t h e o n e t h a t b e s t c o n v e y s t h e m e a n i n g o f o n e s t i m u l u s s e n t e n c e . S e c o n d l y , t h e s t u d e n t i s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e s a m e t a s k f o r t w o s t i m u l u s s e n t e n c e s , a n d f i n a l l y , t h e s t u d e n t i s a s k e d t o c h o o s e f r o m f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e w o r d o r p h r a s e t h a t b e s t f i l l s t h e b l a n k i n a s t i m u l u s s e n t e n c e . E x a m p l e s f r o m t h e TSA a r e a s f o l l o w s : T h e d o g o r t h e c a t a t e t h e m e a t . E i t h e r t h e d o g o r t h e c a t a t e t h e m e a t . N e i t h e r t h e d o g n o r t h e c a t a t e t h e m e a t . T h e d o g a n d t h e c a t a t e t h e m e a t . B o t h t h e d o g a n d t h e c a t a t e t h e m e a t . T h e man s a t i n t h e c h a i r . He w a s o l d . T h e man d i d n o t s i t i n t h e c h a i r . T h e man w a s y o u n g . T h e man w a s n o t y o u n g . T h e man w a s n o t o l d . T h e g i r l s a r e p l a y i n g a n d t h e b o y s t o y s . m a k e m a k i n g t o m a k e a r e m a k i n g T h e a u t h o r s a s s u m e t h a t " . . . a s t u d e n t h a s a c q u i r e d a r u l e s y s t e m i f b o t h h i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s a n d h i s a b i l i t y t o m a k e F i r s t E x a m p l e : • A . • " • C-• P-S e c o n d E x a m p l e : • B-• c-• D-T h i r d E x a m p l e : • • • • - 18 -j u d g e m e n t s a r e a d e q u a t e , i f h e g e n e r a l i z e s t o new i n s t a n c e s , a n d i f h e c a n d e t e c t d e v i a n c e s f r o m c o r r e c t f o r m " ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1978 , p . 1 0 ) . T h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e TSA w a s p i l o t t e s t e d w h e n n i n e t e e n o f t h e t e s t s e a c h c o n t a i n i n g 120 i t e m s w e r e p r e p a r e d . T h e t w e n t i e t h t e s t , N o m i n a l i z a t i o n w a s n o t p a r t o f t h e p i l o t r u n o n t h e i n i t i a l s t a n d a r d -i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s b u t a d d e d a f t e r w a r d s . P i l o t t e s t i n g o n 150 s t u d e n t s e n a b l e d t h e r e s e a r c h t e a m t o a n a l y z e a l l i t e m s a n d d a t a a n d s e l e c t t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e f i n a l f o r m s o f t h e t e s t s . In s e l e c t i n g i t e m s , c a r e w a s t a k e n t o e l i m i n a t e t h o s e w h i c h p r o v e d t o be t o o h a r d o r t o o e a s y f o r t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n ( d i f f i c u l t y i n d i c e s b e t w e e n 4 0 - 6 0 % w e r e i n c l u d e d ) , a n d i t w a s d e t e r m i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y f r o m t h e p i l o t t e s t i n g t h a t 70 i t e m s p e r t e s t w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y c o -e f f i c i e n t s a t a r o u n d t h e . 9 5 l e v e l . H e n c e t h e p r o d u c t o f a l l t h i s p i l o t t e s t i n g a n d a n a l y s i s w a s 19 t e s t s o f 70 m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i t e m s a s s e s s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n s k i l l s i n v a r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e TSA w a s t h e n s t a n d a r d i z e d o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 5 0 d e a f s t u d e n t s m e e t i n g t h e s t u d y c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r e s e a r c h v e r s i o n o f t h e t e s t . N o r m a t i v e d a t a a r e p r o v i d e d i n t h e t e s t m a n u a l . ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . A s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y t h e N o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n T e s t w a s a d d e d a f t e r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . T h e a u t h o r s r e p o r t e v i d e n c e o f e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y w i t h a p o i n t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n ( i t e m - t o t a l t e s t ) g r e a t e r t h a n . 4 0 f o r 80% o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e b a t t e r y . H i g h r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ( K R - 2 0 s ) a r e r e p o r t e d f o r a l l 19 t e s t s i n t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d b a t t e r y w i t h f o u r t e e n t e s t s s h o w i n g r e l i a b i l i t i e s a b o v e . 9 5 ; t h e l o w e s t r e l i a b i l i t y ( R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s a n d A d v e r b s ) i s . 93 w h i c h " m u s t s t i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e f o r m a k i n g i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s " ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 , p . 7 6 ) . - 19 -W h i l e t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e T S A ( l a t e r t o b e c a l l e d t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y ) p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d a s s e s s m e n t o f E n g l i s h s y n t a x , i t i s s t i l l a l e n g t h y t e s t c o m p r i s e d o f t w e n t y s u b t e s t s ( n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n w a s a d d e d i n 1 9 7 7 ) e a c h made u p o f s e v e n t y i t e m s . T o t a l t e s t i n g t i m e i s o v e r t e n h o u r s p l u s t i m e n e e d e d f o r s c o r i n g . T h e a u t h o r s r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r a n i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h w i l l p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k a s s e s s -m e n t o f a s t u d e n t ' s g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e o f s y n t a x a n d p r o v i d e a p r o f i l e o f h i s s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o n i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t w a s c o n s t r u c t e d t o m e e t t h a t n e e d . T h i s t e s t h a s t w o p a r a l l e l f o r m s ( F o r m 1 a n d 2 ) e a c h c o n t a i n i n g 1 2 0 i t e m s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e R e v i s e d f o r m o f t h e T S A . I t e m s w e r e c h o s e n f r o m a m o n g t h e 1 4 0 0 t a s k s o f t h e s t a n d a r d -i z e d r e v i s e d f o r m o f t h e T S A ( p l u s t h e n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n t e s t ) b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y f r o m a l i n g u i s t i c , p s y c h o m e t r i c , a n d p e d a g o g i c p o i n t o f v i e w . T h e m e t h o d o f s e l e c t i n g i t e m s w a s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f d e t e r m -i n i n g w h i c h i t e m s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l f o r m s o f t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f t h e TSA - i . e . t h o s e w i t h o p t i m a l d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s a n d h i g h e s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s . T h e 1 2 0 i t e m s a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e " b e s t " i n e a c h t e s t o f t h e r e v i s e d TSA w i t h o n e o r m o r e f r o m e a c h m a j o r i t e m g r o u p i n g w i t h i n a t e s t . T h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t t o t h e b a t t e r y e n a b l e s t e a c h e r s a n d c l i n i c i a n s t o o b t a i n r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y a n d e a s i l y a p r o f i l e s h o w i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l o n t h e v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s r e g a r d e d a s i m p o r t a n t i n m a s t e r y o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . W i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m s 1 a n d 2) t o t h e r e v i s e d f o r m o f t h e T S A ( i n c l u d i n g t h e n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n t e s t ) , t h e f i n a l t e s t b a t t e r y w a s c o m p l e t e d , a n d i s t o d a y k n o w n a s t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a n e x t e n s i o n o f Q u i g l e y ' s r e s e a r c h i n t h a t i t i n v e s t i g a t e s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e TSA - S c r e e n i n g - 20 -T e s t . U n t i l now a l l r e s e a r c h a n d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e T S A m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e 19 t e s t s o f t h e r e v i s e d b a t t e r y a n d c o n c e r n e d o n l y p r o f o u n d l y d e a f s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r s a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h e t e s t w i l l be u s e f u l f o r d i a g n o s t i c a n d n o r m a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f s t u d e n t s w i t h d e g r e e s o f h e a r i n g l o s s l e s s t h a n p r o f o u n d d e a f n e s s ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1978) l i t t l e o r no r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s w o r k i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t i n t e r m s o f i t s v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y , a n d a s a m e a s u r e o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y i n p r e -l i n g u a l l y h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n d i f f e r e n t a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s . T h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t w a s e x a m i n e d f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , p a r a l l e l f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y , a n d i t s a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s m e a s u r e d i n t h e TSA D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y . T h e u s e o f t h e t e s t t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t s w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f h e a r i n g l o s s w a s e x a m i n e d by m e a s u r i n g i t s v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h c o m p r i s e d p r e l i n g u a l l y m i l d t o p r o f o u n d h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 8 a n d 19 y e a r s i n c l u s i v e . T h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s e s t h a t s y n t a c t i c p e r f o r m a n c e i n c r e a s e s w i t h a g e a n d d e c r e a s e s w i t h s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s w e r e t e s t e d by a s k i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a g e o v e r t h e r a n g e o f 8 - 1 9 y e a r s i n c l u s i v e , a n d h e a r i n g l o s s r a n g i n g f r o m a m i l d t o a p r o f o u n d d e g r e e , o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t o f t h e T S A . - 21 C H A P T E R 3 : THE STUDY D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s T h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y v a r i o u s t e r m s w i l l b e u s e d a s d e f i n e d b e l o w : B i - l a t e r a l - H e a r i n g l o s s i n b o t h e a r s . C o n d u c t i v e H e a r i n g L o s s - R e s u l t o f r e d u c e d c o n d u c t i o n o f s o u n d t h r o u g h t h e o u t e r a n d / o r m i d d l e e a r t o t h e i n n e r e a r . T h i s t y p e o f h e a r i n g l o s s i s p r i m a r i l y a m e d i c a l p r o b l e m w h i c h i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , c a n b e c l e a r e d by t r e a t m e n t . D e g r e e o f H e a r i n g L o s s - H e a r i n g l o s s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f a v e r a g e h e a r i n g t h r e s h o l d e x p r e s s e d i n d e c i b e l s ( d B ) a n d i s e q u a l t o t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e p u r e t o n e t h r e s h o l d s o b t a i n e d a t 500, 1 , 0 0 0 , 2 , 0 0 0 Hz f o r t h e b e t t e r e a r u s i n g t h e A m e r i c a n N a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s I n s t i t u t e ( A N S I ) c r i t e r i a . H e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s w i l l b e g r o u p e d a s f o l l o w s : M i l d - M o d e r a t e : l e s s t h a n 59 dB (<59dB) M a r k e d - S e v e r e : 60-89 dB P r o f o u n d : g r e a t e r t h a n 9 0 d B ( > 9 0 d B ) H e a r i n g - l m p a i r m e n t - T h e t e r m d e s c r i b e s t h e l o s s o f h e a r i n g w h i c h may r a n g e f r o m a m i l d t h r o u g h m o d e r a t e , m a r k e d , s e v e r e t o a p r o f o u n d d e g r e e . I t i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s k n o w n a s h a r d o f h e a r i n g a n d d e a f n e s s . M i x e d H e a r i n g L o s s - A c o m b i n e d c o n d u c t i v e a n d s e n s o r i - n e u r a 1 h e a r i n g l o s s . P r e l i n g u a l H e a r i n g - I m p a i r m e n t - A h e a r i n g - i m p a i r m e n t w h i c h e x i s t s a t t h e t i m e o f b i r t h o r b e f o r e 2 y e a r s o f a g e . S e n s o r i - N e u r a l H e a r i n g L o s s - T h i s t y p e o f h e a r i n g l o s s i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s n e r v e d e a f n e s s . T h e t e r m i m p l i e s a h e a r i n g -i m p a i r m e n t d u e t o a b n o r m a l i t y o f t h e s e n s e o r g a n ( c o c h l e a ) , t h e a u d i t o r y n e r v e , o r b o t h . - 22 -P O P U L A T I O N F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t h e s u b j e c t s f o r m a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h m e e t s t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a . A . H a s r e a c h e d t h e 8 t h b u t n o t t h e 20th b i r t h d a y a n d w a s a t t e n d i n g a P u b l i c S c h o o l o r S c h o o l f o r t h e D e a f i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o n J a n u a r y 1, 1978. T h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g a g e g r o u p s w e r e u s e d : 8-10 y e a r s 11-13 y e a r s 14-16 y e a r s 17+ y e a r s B . H a s a b i l a t e r a l s e n s o r i - n e u r a l o r m i x e d h e a r i n g l o s s a n d / o r h a s b e e n f i t t e d w i t h a h e a r i n g a i d . C . H a s h a d t h e h e a r i n g l o s s s i n c e b i r t h o r p r i o r t o t w o y e a r s o f a g e ( i . e . p r e l i n g u a l l y h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d ) . D. I s c a p a b l e o f c o m p l e t i n g a p e n c i l a n d p a p e r t e s t . * E . H a s b e e n j u d g e d b y t h e s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l a s h a v i n g n o d i s a b i l i t y a p a r t f r o m t h e h e a r i n g l o s s w h i c h w o u l d p r e v e n t t e s t c o m p l e t i o n , a n d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r h a s n o r e a s o n t o be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s t u d y . T h e s t u d y c r i t e r i a w e r e r i g o r o u s l y a p p l i e d t o a l l s t u d e n t s w h o w e r e g i v e n t h e S c r e e n i n g a n d D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s o f t h e T S A a s p a r t o f a l a r g e r s t u d y o n S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H e a r i n g - I m p a i r e d S c h o o l - A g e  S t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( C l a r k e , e t a l . , 1977, R o g e r s , e t a l . , 1978), b e i n g c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M a n y o f t h e s e * W h e t h e r a s t u d e n t w a s c a p a b l e o f c o m p l e t i n g a p e n c i l a n d p a p e r t e s t w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y h i s a b i l i t y t o s c o r e a b o v e g u e s s i n g l e v e l s o n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t o f t h e 1973 S t a n f o r d - A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , S p e c i a l E d i t i o n f o r H e a r i n g - I m p a i r e d S t u d e n t s ( S A T - H l ) a d m i n i s t e r e d p r e v i o u s l y a s p a r t o f t h e D e m o g r a p h i c S t u d y o f H e a r i n g - I m p a i r e d S t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . - 23 -s t u d e n t s h a d t o b e d e l e t e d f r o m t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y e i t h e r b e c a u s e t h e i r h e a r i n g - i m p a i r m e n t w a s a c q u i r e d p o s t l i n g u a l l y ( a f t e r 2 y e a r s o f a g e ) o r b e c a u s e t h e a g e o f o n s e t w a s u n k n o w n . In a f e w o t h e r c a s e s s u b j e c t s w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e o f i n s u f f i c i e n t o r u n r e l i a b l e a u d i o m e t r i c d a t a o r b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e t e s t b a t t e r y . T h e f i n a l s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n c o m p r i s e d 2 33 s u b j e c t s a l l o f whom w e r e p r e l i n g u a l l y h e a r i n g -i m p a i r e d a n d met a l l t h e s t u d y c r i t e r i a l i s t e d a b o v e . U s i n g t h e d e m o -g r a p h i c d a t a s t o r e d o n t h e U . B . C . c o m p u t e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s e t o u t i n T a b l e II w a s o b t a i n e d . T A B L E I I D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a o n S t u d y P o p u l a t i o n V a r i a b l e N u m b e r o f S u b j e c t s ( P e r c e n t a g e s ) G e n d e r Commun i c a i o n M e t h o d U s e o f P e r s o n a l H e a r i n g A i d s S c h o o l E n v i r o n m e n t M a l e 105 ( 4 5 ? ) T o t a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n 103 ( S i g n s , F i n g e r s p e l 1 i n g A u d i t i o n , S p e e c h , L i p -r e a d i n g ) Y e s 186 ( 8 0 ? ) F e m a l e 128 ( 5 5 ? ) O r a l 1 3 0 ( 5 6 ? ) ( A u d i t i o n , S p e e c h L i p r e a d i n g ) No 4 7 ( 2 0 ? ) R e g u l a r C l a s s i n a n e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l 96 ( 4 1 ? ) C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g - I m p a i r e d i n a r e g u l a r e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l 73 ( 3 1 ? ) C l a s s f o r H e a r i n g - I m p a i r e d i n s e p a r a t e s c h o o l f o r t h e d e a f 55 ( 2 4 ? ) O t h e r s p e c i a l s c h o o l o r c l a s s ( e . g . c l a s s f o r b e h a v i o u r d i s o r d e r s , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e ) 9 ( k%) - 2k -T h e c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s f o r t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n i s s e t o u t i n T a b 1e 1 1 1 . T A B L E I I 1 C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n o f A g e a n d H e a r i n g L o s s  f o r t h e S t u d y P o p u l a t i o n H e a r i n g L o s s A g e Mi 1 d - M o d e r a t e M a r k e d - S e v e r e P r o f o u n d < 5 9 dB 6 0 - 8 9 dB , ;>90 dB 8 - 1 0 y e a r s 11 16 8 1 1 - 1 3 y e a r s 16 4 0 4 3 1 4 - 1 6 y e a r s 15 2 3 26 17+ 7 10 18 - 25 -INSTRUMENT A . T h e m a i n i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m s 1 a n d 2 ) o f t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s ( T S A ) - E x p e r i m e n t a l E d i t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s a t U r b a n a - C h a m p a g n e , 1 9 7 1 . A s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T w o , t h i s t e s t w a s d e s i g n e d b y Q u i g l e y a n d h i s r e s e a r c h t e a m t o p r o v i d e a q u i c k a n d r e l i a b l e m e a n s o f d e t e r m i n i n g a s t u d e n t ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h : N e g a t i o n C o n j u n c t i o n D e t e r m i n e r s Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n V e r b P r o c e s s e s P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n R e l a t i v i z a t i o n C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n N o m i n a l i z a t i o n E a c h f o r m o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t c o n s i s t s o f 1 2 0 i t e m s c h o s e n f r o m a m o n g t h e 1 4 0 0 i t e m s ( 2 0 t e s t s x 7 0 i t e m s ) o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e v i s e d f o r m o f t h e TSA p l u s t h e n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n t e s t ( T h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y ) . S c r e e n i n g T e s t i t e m s w e r e s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y f r o m a l i n g u i s t i c , p s y c h o m e t r i c a n d p e d a g o g i c p o i n t o f v i e w a n d o n l y t h o s e i t e m s w i t h o p t i m a l d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s a n d h i g h e s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s w e r e c h o s e n . B a s e d o n t h e a b o v e c r i t e r i a F o r m 1 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w a s m a d e u p o f t h e 1 2 0 " b e s t " i t e m s i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y . I tern s t a t i s t i c s ( L o r d a n d N o v i c k , 1 9 6 8 , G u l l i k s e n , 1 9 5 0 ) g a t h e r e d d u r i n g t h e n a t i o n a l - 26 -s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e TSA R e v i s e d B a t t e r y w e r e u s e d t o s e l e c t i t e m s f o r F o r m 2 w h i c h a r e p s y c h o m e t r i c a 1 1 y p a r a l l e l t o t h o s e i n F o r m 1; 8 0 ? o f t h e i t e m p a i r s d i f f e r e d i n d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l by l e s s t h a n . 0 5 ; 8 9 % o f t h e i t e m p a i r s d i f f e r e d i n p o i n t b i s e r i a l by l e s s . 0 5 - T a b l e IV t a k e n f r o m t h e t e s t m a n u a l ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 978 ) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a u t h o r s ' c l a i m t h a t F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a r e c o n t e n t p a r a l l e l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t r u c t u r e t e s t e d a n d t o t h e s u b - c a t e g o r y w i t h i n s t r u c t u r e . T h e t a b l e a l s o s h o w s t h e KR 20 r e l i a b i l i t y o f e a c h t o t a l t e s t i s . 9 8 a n d t h a t t h e i t e m s r e p r e s e n t i n g e a c h o f t h e n i n e s t r u c t u r e s h a v e r e l i a b i l i t i e s n e a r . 8 5 . T h e a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s (mean p e r c e n t c o r r e c t i n t h e n a t i o n a l s a m p l e f o r t h e T S A R e v i s e d B a t t e r y ) f o r t h e 120 i t e m t e s t s a r e 5 3 ? a n d 5k% r e s p e c t i v e l y . B . In o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h e c o n t e n t a n d e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e TSA S c r e e n -i n g T e s t , t h e 1976 E x p e r i m e n t a l E d i t i o n o f t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y ( T S A R e v i s e d B a t t e r y p l u s t h e N o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n T e s t ) w a s u s e d . A s t h e f u l l b a t t e r y t a k e s a b o u t 2 0 h o u r s t o c o m p l e t e , s u b j e c t s w e r e a s k e d t o w r i t e o n l y f o u r d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w h i c h w e r e s e l e c t e d a t r a n d o m u s i n g a m u l t i p l e m a t r i x p r o c e d u r e . T h e TSA D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y i s made u p o f t w e n t y d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w i t h s e v e n t y q u e s t i o n s o n e a c h . T h e T e s t w a s s t a n d a r d i z e d o n 4 5 0 p r e l i n g u a l l y p r o f o u n d d e a f s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g d a y a n d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e a u t h o r s r e p o r t h i g h c o n t e n t a n d e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y a n d a K R - 2 0 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f . 9 5 -A l l i t e m s o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y a r e made up o f m u l t i p l e c h o i c e a n d r i g h t - w r o n g q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e v o c a b u l a r y k e p t a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e g r a d e o n e l e v e l . T h e q u e s t i o n s t e s t s t u d e n t r e c o g n i t i o n ( t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p r e h e n d c o r r e c t - 27 -f o r m s w h e n s e e n ) , a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( t h e a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y s e n t e n c e s t h a t mean t h e s a m e ) . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t k n o w s a s t r u c t u r e i f h e c a n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y r e c o g n i t i o n a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n i t e m s i n d i f f e r e n t s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . T A B L E IV L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n , Mean Raw S c o r e s a n d R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f  S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m s 1 a n d 2 S t r u c t u r e I t e m N u m b e r s i n B o t h S c r e e n i n g T e s t s S c r e e n i ng F o r m 1 Mean Raw S c o r e T e s t R e l . S c r e e n i n g F o r m 2 M e a n Raw S c o r e T e s t R e l . N e g a t i o n 1 ,5,6,7,9,13,15,17, 97 6.6 .85 6.4 .83 C o n j u n c t i o n 62,70,73,78,79,80, 81 ,82,83,99,103 6.8 .84 6.8 . 8 2 D e t e r m i n e r s 2,8,10,11 ,14,16,18, 19,20,25,27,29,31,42 8.3 .85 7.9 .82 Q u e s t i o n Fo rma t i o n 3,22,28,30,40,47,90, 91 ,92,93,94 6.5 .87 6.9 .85 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 12,23,33,57,60,61,84, 85,86,89 5.2 .86 5.4 .85 P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 55,56,58,59,63,64,66, 67,68,72 5.4 .86 5.6 .83 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 65,69,71,74,75,76,77 87,88,101,102,104,106 110,111,115,116,117, 120 9 8.0 .85 8.3 . 8 3 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 21 ,35,38,43,45,46,48,49 50,51,52,53,54,95,96, 98,100,105 8.4 .84 8.8 . 8 0 N o m i n a l i z a t i o n 4,24,26,32,34,36,37,39, 41 ,44,107,108,109,112, 113,114,118,119 8.4 .84 8.8 .80 T o t a l S c r e e n i n g T e s t (120 i t e m s ) 63.6 (53%) S.D.=34.2 S . E . = 4.3 .98 64.9 (5h%) S.D .=32.4 S . E . = 4.4 .98 S o u r c e : ( Q u i g l e y e t a l . , 1978,. p . 1 4) - 28 -F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e 1971 E x p e r i m e n t a l E d i t i o n o f b o t h t h e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y was m o d i f i e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r s . C h a n g e s w e r e made t o t h e t e s t f o r m a t i n o r d e r t o a v o i d u n n e c e s s a r y s u b j e c t e r r o r a n d t o s i m p l i f y d a t a r e c e i p t p r o c e d u r e s . I t i s s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s w e r e made t o t h e l a y o u t o f t h e t e s t s a n d d o n o t a f f e c t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l i n a n y w a y . A l l a n s w e r s w e r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e t e s t b o o k l e t s by m a r k i n g o n e o f t h e f o u r b o x e s b e l o w e a c h i t e m w i t h a n X . T h e b o x e s , s e t h o r i z o n t a l l y , c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e n t e n c e s i n t h e i t e m , a n d w e r e l a b e l l e d A . B . C . D . a s w e r e t h e s e n t e n c e s . e . g . A . T h e f l o w e r i s n o t y e l l o w . B . T h e f l o w e r i s n o y e l l o w . C . T h e f l o w e r n o t i s y e l l o w . D. T h e f l o w e r i s y e l l o w n o . T h i s p r o c e d u r e d i f f e r s f r o m t h e T S A ( R e v i s e d f o r m s u s e d by Q u i g l e y i n h i s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a n d f r o m t h e p u b l i s h e d b o o k l e t s r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d by D o r m a c I n c . ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 978 ) . In t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s v e r s i o n u s e d f o r s t a n d a r d i z i n g t h e TSA ( R e v i s e d ) s u b j e c t s w e r e a s k e d t o m a r k t h e r i g h t a n s w e r o n a s e p a r a t e a n s w e r s h e e t , by s h a d i n g t h e a p p r o p -r i a t e b o x . T h e p u b l i s h e d t e s t s a l s o u s e t h e " s h a d i n g " t e c h n i q u e b u t p l a c e t h e b o x e s v e r t i c a l l y b e s i d e e a c h s e n t e n c e o n a n i t e m , e . g . 1 | A . T h e f l o w e r i s n o t y e l l o w . | 1 B . T h e f l o w e r i s n o y e l l o w . | | C . T h e f l o w e r n o t i s y e l l o w . | | D. T h e f l o w e r i s y e l l o w n o . - 29 -O t h e r c h a n g e s I n v o l v e t h e l a y o u t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . T e s t s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y p l a c e d a l l i n s t r u c t i o n s o n s e p a r a t e p a g e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e s t s w h e r e a s t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t s a n d t h e r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n p l a c e d t h e m a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o r w i t h i n t h e b o d y o f t h e t e s t b e t w e e n i t e m s 5^  & 55, 77 & 78, a n d Sk & 95. PROCEDURE T h i s s t u d y f o r m s p a r t o f H e a r i n g - I m p a i r e d S c h o o l e t a l . , 1977, R o g e r s , e t a l . , 1978), b e i n g c o n d u c t e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e r e s e a r c h t e a m i s c u r r e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g s t u d e n t a t t a i n m e n t a n d l a n g u a g e p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t t h i s w o r k be i n c l u d e d i n i t s s t u d y o f s y n t a c t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . H e n c e t h e mode o f c o n d u c t i n g t h i s s t u d y i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h a t o f t h e l a r g e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . By w a y o f p r o c e d u r e , t h e s t u d y c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t w o p a r t s - t h e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t s a n d t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s . E a c h s t u d e n t w a s g i v e n F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d t h e n f o u r o f t h e 20 TSA D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s w h i c h w e r e r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d a n d a s s i g n e d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e S c r e e n i n g s c o r e s . S t u d e n t d a t a t h a t h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n c o l l e c t e d i n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( C l a r k e , e t a l . , 1977) a n d s t o r e d o n t h e c o m p u t e r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e r e v i e w e d , a n d t h o s e s t u d e n t s who m e t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s i n i t i a l g r o u p w a s f u r t h e r c h e c k e d a g a i n s t t h e a t t a i n m e n t d a t a c o l l e c t e d a s p a r t X o f t h e l a r g e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t a n d s t u d e n t s who f a i l e d t o s c o r e a b o v e g u e s s i n g l e v e l s o n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t o f a l a r g e r s t u d y o n S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - A g e d S t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( C l a r k e , - 3 0 -o f T h e 1 9 7 3 S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t - S p e c i a l E d i t i o n f o r H e a r i n g -I m p a i r e d S t u d e n t s ( S A T - H I ) w e r e d e l e t e d . ( G u e s s i n g s c o r e s f o r t h i s t e s t a r e s e t f r o m 0 - 2 7 o n t h e P r i m a r y S c r e e n a n d 0 - 2 2 o n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c r e e n ) . I t w a s a s s u m e d t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s who c o u l d n o t r e a c h t h e s e m i n i m u m l e v e l s o n t h e a t t a i n m e n t b a t t e r y w o u l d be u n a b l e t o w r i t e t h e p e n c i l a n d p a p e r t e s t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h e r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t s , w h o m e t t h e s t u d y c r i t e r i a a s p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d , w e r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , a n d t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s u b j e c t l i s t s w e r e p r e p a r e d . T h e t w o s c h o o l s f o r t h e d e a f i n t h e P r o v i n c e , J e r i c h o H i l l S c h o o l a n d T h e V a n c o u v e r O r a l C e n t r e f o r D e a f C h i l d r e n , w e r e t r e a t e d a s s e p a r a t e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a s s i g n i n g t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o s u b j e c t l i s t s . On J a n u a r y 3 0 t h . 1978, t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l i s t f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t w a s e n c l o s e d w i t h a l e t t e r s e n t t o e a c h S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a n d t h e P r i n c i p a l s o f t h e t w o S c h o o l s f o r t h e D e a f i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e l e t t e r ( A p p e n d i x B)_, n o t i f i e d t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r P r i n c i p a l o f t h e s t u d y , p r o v i d e d a s y n o p s i s o f r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h o n s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , a n d a s k e d p e r m i s s i o n t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e t e s t s t o s t u d e n t s i n h i s / h e r d i s t -r i c t . I t was- p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e e n c l o s e d l i s t o f s t u d e n t n a m e s w a s ~ d r a w n f r o m d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e 1976-77 s c h o o l y e a r a n d a s s u c h s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d a s t e n t a t i v e . D i s t r i c t s w e r e i n v i t e d t o a d d n a m e s o f new o r t r a n s f e r s t u d e n t s a n d / o r t o d e l e t e t h o s e n a m e s o f s t u d e n t s who s h o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h . . T o f a c i l i t a t e t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t -i o n , e a c h d i s t r i c t w a s a s k e d t o n o m i n a t e a s t u d y c o - o r d i n a t o r , p r e f e r a b l y a t e a c h e r o f t h e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d o r a t e a c h e r i n a r e l a t e d f i e l d o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . - 31 -T A B L E V S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n S t u d y a n d N u m b e r o f S t u d e n t s T e s t e d i n E a c h D i s t r i c t S c h o o l N o . D i s t r i c t Name D i s t r i c t S t u d y C o - o r d i n a t o r ( t i t l e ) TSA S c r e e n s T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 1 F e r n i e I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 3 3 2 C r a n b r o o k I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 4 3 3 K i m b e r 1 e y E l e m e n t a r y S u p e r v i s o r 1 1 4 Wi n d e r m e r e I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 2 2 1 N e l s o n I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 4 4 9 C a s t l e g a r I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 2 2 11 T r a i 1 I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 8 8 12 G r a n d F o r k s C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r 5 5 15 P e n t i c t o n C o - o r d i n a t o r o f S p e c i a l E d u c 3 3 17 P r i n c e t o n P r i n c i p a l - E l e m e n t a r y 1 0 18 G o l d e n C o - o r d i n a t o r o f S p e c i a l E d u c 1 1 21 A r m s t r o n g P r i n c i p a l - E l e m e n t a r y 1 1 22 V e r n o n I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f H - l 7 5 23 C e n t r a l O k a n a g a n I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f H - l 26 24 24 Kami o o p s C o - o r d i n a t o r o f H - l P r o g r a m 22 22 27 C a r i b o o - C h i l c o t i n I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f H - l 7 7 28 Q u e s n e l S p e e c h & H e a r i n g T h e r a p i s t 7 7 30 S o u t h C a r i b o o L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e T e a c h e r 2 2 33 C h i l l i w a c k C o - o r d i n a t o r o f S p e c i a l E d u c 12 12 34 A b b o t s f o r d I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f H - l 7 7 35 L a n g 1ey S p e e c h & H e a r i n g T h e r a p i s t 4 3 36 Su r r e y T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 17 15 - 32 -T A B L E V ( c o n t ' d ) S c h o o l N o . D i s t r i c t Name D i s t r i c t S t u d y C o - o r d i n a t o r TSA ( t i t l e ) S c r e e n s TSA D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 38 R i c h m o n d S u p e r v i s o r o f S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s 7 7 39 V a n c o u v e r C o - o r d i a n t o r o f E v a l . 6 R e s e a r c h 31 31 40 New W e s t m i n s t e r C o - o r d i n a t o r , S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s 5 5 41 Bu r n a b y T e a c h e r o f H - l 34 34 42 M a p l e R i d g e I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f H - l 7 7 43 C o q u i 11 am I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f H - l 15 ]3 44 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C o - o r d i n a t o r o f S p e c i a l E d u c . 10 9 45 W e s t V a n c o u v e r S p e e c h & H e a r i n g T h e r a p i s t 4 4 46 S e c h e1 t T e a c h e r o f H - l 2 2 47 Powe l1 R i v e r T e a c h e r o f H - l 4 4 48 Howe S o u n d C o - o r d i n a t o r o f S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s 3 2 52 P r i n c e R u p e r t I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 8 7 54 . Smi t h e r s S p e e c h & H e a r i n g T h e r a p i s t 3 3 56 N e c h a k o S p e e c h & H e a r i n g T h e r a p i s t 5 5 57 P r i n c e G e o r g e A d m i n . A s s t . I t . T e a c h e r H - l 37 37 59 P e a c e R i v e r S o u t h T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 5 5 60 P e a c e R i v e r N o r t h C o - o r d i n a t o r , S p e c i a l E d u c . 4 4 61 G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 27 24 62 S o o k e I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H-1 38 8 63 S a a n i c h A s s i s t a n t t o D i s t r i c t S u p t . 1 0 65 C o w i c h a n I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H-1 4 4 66 L a k e C o w i c h a n T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 1 1 68 N a n a imo I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H-1 12 12 - 33 -T A B L E V ( c o n t ' d ) S c h o o l N o . D i s t r i c t Name Di s t r i c t . S t u d y C o - o r d i n a t o r ( t i t l e ) TSA S c r e e n s T S A Di a g n o s t i c T e s t s 70 A l b e r n i T e a c h e r o f t h e H -1 h k 71 C o u r t e n a y T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 25 25 72 C a m p b e l 1 Ri v e r T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 3 3 80 K i t i m a t C o - o r d i n a t o r o f S p e c i a l E d . 3 2 88 T e r r a c e I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f H - l 7 7 8 9 S h u s h w a p C o - o r d i n a t o r S p e c i a l P r o g r a m s 2 2 T h e M a p l e s C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r 1 1 J e r i c h o H i l l T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 136 132 V a n c o u v e r O r a l C e n t r e I t i n e r a n t T e a c h e r o f t h e H - l 9 9 T o t a l 5 7 0 547 T a b l e V l i s t s t h e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e who a c t u a l l y a t t e m p t e d t h e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d / o r D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y a s p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r U . B . C . s t u d y . O b v i o u s l y a l l o f t h e s e r e s u l t s c o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e o f m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( e . g . l a c k o f d e m o g r a p h -i c d a t a ) o r i n a b i l i t y t o c o m p l e t e t h e p e n c i l a n d p a p e r t e s t s . A l l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y a n d t h o s e n o t l i s t e d o n t h e a b o v e t a b l e c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e y h a d n o h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s who m e t t h e s t u d y c r i t e r i a . O n c e p e r m i s s i o n t o t e s t was r e c e i v e d f r o m D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d P r i n c i p a l s o f t h e S c h o o l s f o r t h e D e a f , a n d t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n f i n a l l y . 3 4 -i d e n t i f i e d , p r e p a r a t i o n w a s b e g u n o n a s s e m b l i n g T e s t P a c k a g e One t o be s e n t t o t h e s t u d y c o - o r d i n a t o r s f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m s 1 a n d 2 . S t e p s t a k e n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s p a c k a g e w e r e : A) T h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t s , F o r m 1 a n d F o r m 2 w e r e r e v i s e d a n d p r i n t e d s o t h a t a l l q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be a n s w e r e d i n t h e t e s t b o o k l e t a n d a l l e x a m p l e s g i v e n o n s e p a r a t e p a g e s ( p . 2 8 , I n s t r u m e n t S e c t i o n o f t h i s r e p o r t ) . T e s t c o v e r s w e r e c o l o u r c o d e d w i t h F o r m 1 r e c e i v i n g a g o l d c o v e r a n d F o r m 2 , a b l u e o n e . B) T e s t o r d e r w a s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o s u b j e c t s a n d c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d s o t h a t F o r m 1 w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t e q u a l l y a s o f t e n a s F o r m 2 . M e t h o d : ( i ) S u b j e c t s w e r e a s s g i n e d ID n u m b e r s . ( i i ) S u b j e c t s w e r e l i s t e d i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s a n d t r e a t e d i n g r o u p s o f k. ( i i i ) S u b j e c t o n e w a s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d e i t h e r O r d e r 1 ( F o r m 1 f o l l o w e d by F o r m 2) o r O r d e r 2 ( F o r m 2 f o l 1 o w e d by F o r m 1 ) . ( i v ) S u b j e c t t w o w a s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d e i t h e r o r d e r , ( v ) I f s u b j e c t s o n e a n d t w o w e r e a s s i g n e d d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s , s u b j e c t t h r e e w o u l d be a s s i g n e d o r d e r r a n d o m l y , b u t i f s u b j e c t s o n e a n d t w o h a d t h e s a m e o r d e r , s u b j e c t s t h r e e a n d f o u r w o u l d b e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d w i t h t h e o p p o s i t e o r d e r . ( v i ) S u b j e c t f o u r w o u l d r e c e i v e w h a t e v e r o r d e r w a s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t O r d e r 1 a n d O r d e r 2 w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d a n e q u a l n u m b e r o f t i m e s . C) I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t s w e r e p r i n t e d . - 35 -T h e s t e p s w e r e c l e a r l y s e t o u t a n d s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e s t o r d e r . ( A p p e n d i x B.) D) A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r w a s d r a f t e d t o d i s t r i c t s t u d y c o - o r d i n a t o r s . ( A p p e n d i x B) T h i s l e t t e r o u t l i n e d t h e s t u d y d e s i g n , i t s p l a c e i n c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h o n s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , a n d i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d . T e s t i n g d a t e s w e r e s u g g e s t e d w i t h a n e i g h t d a y b r e a k b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d t e s t s t a k e n , a n d a l i s t o f a l l m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d i n T e s t P a c k a g e One w a s i t e m i z e d . F i n a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o l l e c t i n g a n d r e t u r n i n g t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t s i n t h e s t a m p e d s e l f - a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e s p r o v i d e d w e r e s e t o u t . On F e b r u a r y 20th 1978, T e s t P a c k a g e One w a s m a i l e d t o a l l d i s t r i c t s t u d y c o - o r d i n a t o r s . I n s t r u c t i o n s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t s w e r e c o l o u r c o d e d f o r e a s y r e f e r e n c e ( s e e T a b l e V I ) T A B L E VI T e s t P a c k a g e One 1 tern C o l o u r C o d e TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t s F o r m 1 F o r m 2 G o l d B l u e M a t e r i a l C h e c k L i s t G r e e n L i s t o f S t u d e n t s w i t h T e s t O r d e r a s s i g n e d W h i t e A s t a m p e d s e l f -a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e On M a r c h 7 a n d M a r c h 16, 1978, t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y S c h o o l p e r s o n n e l u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r d i s t r i c t - 3 6 -s t u d y c o - o r d i n a t o r s . Due t o l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e e x a c t d a t e s o f t e s t -i n g v a r i e d i n some d i s t r i c t s , b u t t h e e i g h t d a y s e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t i n g d a t e s w a s m a i n t a i n e d . T h e c o n d i t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h i n o n e l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h t e a m o f t h e l a r g e r s t u d y s u p e r v i s e t h e t e s t i n g , a n d t h i s w a s d o n e o n t h e d a t e s s e t o u t a b o v e . I t w a s r e q u e s t e d t h a t a l l c o m p l e t e d t e s t s , s t u d e n t l i s t s , a n d m a t e r i a l s c h e c k l i s t s be r e t u r n e d i n t h e e n v e l o p e s p r o v i d e d b y M a r c h 2 0 t h . F r o m t h a t d a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a r e c e i p t p r o c e d u r e s w e r e e m p l o y e d f o r t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t s : A) A s t e s t s w e r e r e c e i v e d , t h e y w e r e r e c o r d e d o n a m a s t e r l i s t . B) R e t u r n e d S c r e e n s w e r e p r e p a r e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g . i ) C h e c k n a m e , p a g e , e n t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n n u m b e r p r e v i o u s l y a s s i g n e d i n t h e e a r l i e r s t u d y ( a l l ID n u m b e r s t o h a v e 5 d i g i t s - e . g . 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 9 0 8 0 ) i i ) N e x t t o ID n u m b e r ( i n t h e 6 t h a n d 7 t h s p a c e s ) m a r k t h e n u m b e r o f t h e t e s t ( e . g . 01 o r 0 2 ) o n t h e c o d i n g s h e e t s , i i i ) N e x t t o t e s t n u m b e r , m a r k ( . in 8 t h s p a c e ) t e s t o r d e r , ( e . g . 1 o r 2 ) i v ) C h e c k t h a t t e s t h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d . D i s c a r d t h o s e t h a t w e r e i n c o m p l e t e . v ) R e c o r d ID i n f o r m a t i o n o n t e s t b o o k l e t s , v i ) R e m o v e ID p a g e a n d f i l e , v i i ) R e m o v e e x a m p l e p a g e s a n d d i s c a r d . C) C o d e a n d K e y p u n c h - O b t a i n C o m p u t e r P r i n t o u t . D) F i l e r a w d a t a b y ID n u m b e r i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r . E) C h e c k s c o r i n g , m a r k i n g o r c o d i n g f o r e r r o r s a n d c o r r e c t i f n e c e s s a r y . ( E r r o r C o u n t = C o d i n g E r r o r s x 1 0 0 m u s t b e l e s s t h a n \% T o t a l C o d e s 1 - 37 -D u r i n g M a r c h t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s w e r e b e g u n t o a s s e m b l e T e s t P a c k a g e Two w h i c h c o n c e r n e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t e s t s f r o m t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y . A ) A l l TSA D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s w e r e r e v i s e d a n d r e p r i n t e d s o t h a t t h e f o r m a t w o u l d b e i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e s c r e e n s , ( i . e . t h e q u e s t i o n s a n s w e r e d i n t h e b o o k l e t a n d e x a m p l e s o n s e p a r a t e p a g e s ) . T A B L E V I 1  D i a g n o s t i c T e s t - C o l o u r C o d e s T e s t N o . S t r u c t u r e C o l o u r C o d e 1 N e g a t i o n L i g h t B l u e 2 C o n j u n c t i o n O r a n g e 3 Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 1 Y e l l o w h Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n II Y e l l o w 5 Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n I I I Y e l l o w 6 D e t e r m i n e r s B u c k s k i n 7 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n 1 B e i g e 8 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n II B e i g e 9 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n I I I Be i g e 10 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n IV B e i g e 11 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 1 G r e e n 12 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 1 1 G r e e n 13 V e r b P r o c e s s e s I 11 G r e e n 14 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n T a n 15 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n T a n 16 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 1 P i n k - 3 8 -T A B L E V I I c o n t ' d T e s t N o . S t r u c t u r e C o l o u r C o d e 17 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 11 P i n k 18 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 111 P i n k 19 D i s j u n c t i o n & A l t e r n a t i o n G o l d ' 2 0 N o m i n a l i z a t i o n W h i t e T e s t o r d e r w a s r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e a c h s t u d e n t u s i n g a m u l t i p l e m a t r i x p r o c e d u r e . T h e p r o j e c t e d r e s u l t o f t h e s a m p l i n g w a s t o h a v e e a c h s u b j e c t t a k e f o u r o f t h e t w e n t y d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s o f t h e TSA w i t h e a c h t e s t s a m p l i n g a d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e a n d a l l p o s s i b l e o r d e r s s a m p l e d . M e t h o d : ( i ) T e s t s w e r e o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t r u c t u r e s . N e g a t i o n 1 C o n j u n c t i o n 2 , 1 9 D e t e r m i n e r s 6 Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 3 , 4 , 5 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 7 , 8 , 9 , 1 0 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 1 6 , 1 7 , 1 8 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 1 4 , 1 5 Nomi n a 1 i z a t i o n 2 0 ( i i ) E a c h o f t h e 2 0 d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f t h e f i v e s e t s s o t h a t e v e r y s e t c o m p r i s e d 4 d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s e a c h m e a s u r i n g a d i f f e r e n t s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e . ( i i i ) A l l p o s s i b l e o r d e r v a r i a t i o n f o r e a c h s e t w e r e l i s t e d . - 3 9 -T a b l e V I I I i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e s u l t i n g m a t r i x . T A B L E VI I I  M u l t i p l e S a m p l i n g M a t r i x S e t 1 1 1 1 1 1 IV V 7 8 9 10 5 O r d e r 1 2 3 4 19 12 14 15 11 13 1 18 17 16 6 2 0 , 1 2 16 6 19 O r d e r 12 14 9 11 13 1 1 18 17 3 4 2 0 7 8 15 10 5 12 14 15 11 13 O r d e r 18 17 16 10 2 0 i i i 7 8 9 6 5 1 i i 1 2 3 4 19 18 17 3 4 2 0 O r d e r 7 8 15 6 5 IV 1 2 16 10 19 12 14 9 11 13 ( i v ) G i v e n s e t a n d o r d e r a l l o c a t i o n , s u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d f i r s t t o s e t a n d t h e n t o o r d e r w i t h i n t h a t s e t a s f o l l o w s : a ) A l l s u b j e c t s w e r e l i s t e d b y ID n u m b e r s i n a s c e n d i n g o r d e r . b) T a k i n g 2 0 s u b j e c t s a t a t i m e a n d u s i n g a t a b l e o f r a n d o m n u m b e r s , e a c h s u b j e c t w a s a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f t h e f i v e s e t s . ( The f i r s t f i v e o f t h e t w e n t y s u b j e c t s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e 5 s e t s , t h e n t h e n e x t 5 u n t i l a l l s u b j e c t s h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d a s e t ) . - ko -c ) A g a i n u s i n g a s e t o f r a n d o m n u m b e r s , e a c h s t u d e n t ( i n b l o c k s o f 2 0 ) w a s a s s i g n e d o n e o f t h e f o u r o r d e r v a r i a t i o n s f o r e a c h s e t . d) S e t a n d O r d e r w e r e m a r k e d o n m a s t e r m a t r i x a s a c h e c k t h a t a l l v a r i a t i o n s w e r e u t i l i z e d . e ) T h e t e s t s t o b e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h s t u d e n t w e r e i d e n t i f i e d ( i ) by s e t a n d ( i i ) b y o r d e r . f ) T h e a p p r o p r i a t e o r d e r w a s l i s t e d o n t h e s t u d e n t l i s t s a n d e a c h t e s t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t ' s name o n t h e t o p r i g h t h a n d c o r n e r w a s m a r k e d . C) I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s w e r e p r i n t e d . A g a i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t s i n t h e a s s i g n e d s e q u e n c e w a s s t r e s s e d . D) S t u d e n t l i s t s w e r e p r e p a r e d f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t a n d a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n w a s r e c o r d e d o n t h e m i n c l u d i n g t e s t o r d e r . On A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 7 8 , T e s t P a c k a g e Two w a s m a i l e d t o a l l d i s t r i c t s t u d y c o - o r d i n a t o r s . T h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t s w e r e c o l o u r c o d e d f o r e a s y r e f e r e n c e . T A B L E IX T e s t P a c k a g e Two 1 tern C o l o u r C o d e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 1 - 2 0 A s s i g n e d C o l o u r s I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g G r e e n D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s L i s t o f S t u d e n t s w i t h T e s t O r a n g e O r d e r S t a m p e d s e l f a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e s -h] -On A p r i l 2 5 , 2 8 a n d May 2 a n d 5 , 1 9 7 8 , t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d b y s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . A s w i t h t h e s c r e e n , l o c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s p r e v e n t e d a l l t e s t s f r o m b e i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d o n t h e s a m e d a y t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e , H o w e v e r , i n a l l t e s t i n g v e n u e s , f o u r d a t e s w e r e a s s i g n e d w i t h a t l e a s t t w o d a y s b e t w e e n e a c h t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A g a i n t h e r e s e a r c h t e a m o f t h e l a r g e r s t u d y w a s r e q u i r e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s i n o n e l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . D a t a r e c e i p t p r o c e d u r e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d f o r t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t s w e r e e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e m o n t h o f J u n e . A l l c o d i n g , s c o r i n g a n d k e y p u n c h -i n g w e r e c h e c k e d a n d a n e r r o r c o u n t o f l e s s t h a n ]% w a s r e c o r d e d f o r b o t h t h e S c r e e n i n g a n d t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s . A l l d a t a f r o m P a r t A ( S c r e e n i n g T e s t s ) a n d P a r t B ( D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s ) w e r e s t o r e d o n c o m p u t e r f i l e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L e t t e r s o f t h a n k s a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n w e r e f o r w a r d e d t o t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , P r i n c i p a l s o f S c h o o l s f o r t h e D e a f , a n d t h e S t u d y C o -o r d i n a t o r s f o r e a c h d i s t r i c t . - kZ -C H A P T E R k: R E S U L T S & D I S C U S S I O N A n a l y s i s o f D a t a : T h e d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d a n d a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s s e t o u t i n T a b l e X . T A B L E X  S u m m a r y o f D a t a A n a l y s i s D e s c r i p t i o n P r o c e d u r e O u t p u t T e s t V a l i d i t y : A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t a n d s a m p l i n g v a l i d i t y o f TSA S c r e e n s 1 a n d 2 . C o n t e n t A n a l y s i s L o g i c a l C o n t e n t V a 1 i d i t y T e s t R e l i a b i 1 i t y : An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s c o r e s o n t h e n i n e s t r u c t -u r e s o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m s 1 a n d 2 ) , a n d o f t h e t e s t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e f o r t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t . I tern A n a 1 y s i s -L a b o r a t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e -s e a r c h T e s t A n a l y s i s P a c k a g e ( L E R T A P ) m a i n t a i n -e d by E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e s C e n t r e ( E R S C ) . C o r r e l a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s S t a s t i c -a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( S P S S ) V e r s i o n 7 - 0 1 ( u n d e r M T S ) . I tern B e h a v i o u r I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y S u b j e c t s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e n i n e s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e TSA s c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m s 1 a n d 2 ) . C o r r e l a t e F o r m s 1 a n d 2 TSA S c r e e n i n g T e s t P a r a l l e i F o r m R e l i a b i 1 i t y . N o t e : A s h i g h p a r a l l e l f o r m r e l i a b i l i t y w a s d e m o n s t r a t e d b e t w e e n F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s w a s c o m p u t e d u s i n g F o r m 2 d a t a o n l y , o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t . T A B L E X ( c o n t ' d ) D e s c r i p t i o n P r o c e d u r e O u t p u t E f f e c t s o f A g e a n d A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e P e r f o r m a n c e H e a r i n g L o s s E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n S t a t i s t i c s by An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f A p p r o a c h . a g e , a n d h e a r i n g w h e t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t MULT 1VAR l o s s a n d a g e x d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r i n h e a r i n g l o s s . t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u b j e c t s i n d i f f e r e n t a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s . T e s t V a l i d i t y C o r r e l a t i o n a 1 Empi r i c a l An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f how A n a l y s i s S t a t i s t i c a l V a l i d i t y o f w e l 1 p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e P a c k a g e f o r t h e F o r m 2 o f t h e 2 0 T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s S o c i a l S c i e n c e s T S A S c r e e n i n g c a n be p r e d i c t e d b y ( S P S S ) V e r s i o n 7 - 0 1 T e s t . s u b j e c t p e r f o r m a n c e o n ( u n d e r MTS) e a c h o f t h e 9 s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t . CONTENT A N A L Y S I S A t e s t ' s v a l i d i t y i s i t s a b i l i t y t o m e a s u r e w h a t i t i s s u p p o s e d t o m e a s u r e . T h e a u t h o r s o f t h e TSA d e s i g n e d t h e i r s c r e e n i n g t e s t t o p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k a s s e s s m e n t o f a s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e o f s y n t a x a n d a p r o f i l e o f h i s s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o n i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . When e x a m i n i n g t h e c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t e s t t h r e e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d : -( a ) D o e s t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t m e a s u r e t h e i n t e n d e d c o n t e n t a r e a ? (b ) How w e l l d o e s t h e a b o v e t e s t s a m p l e t h e c o n t e n t i t w a s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e ? ( c ) I s t h e t e s t v a l i d f o r h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n d i f f e r e n t a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s ? - -T h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s w a s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e r e c o g n i t i o n a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . T h e s e s t r u c t u r e s w e r e c h o s e n f r o m t h e d o m a i n o f E n g l i s h s y n t a x a s d e s c r i b e d by t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l g e n e r a t i v e g r a m m a r . T h e s y n t a c t i c d e v i a n c i e s i n c o r p -o r a t e d i n t o t h e d i s t r a c t o r i t e m s o f t h e t e s t a r e t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e r e s e a r c h v e r s i o n o f t h e T S A a n d t h e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s w h i c h h a d b e e n o b t a i n e d c o n -c u r r e n t l y . H e n c e t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d T S A ( D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s a n d S c r e e n i n g T e s t s ) r e p r e s e n t a c u l m i n a t i o n o f t e n y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h o n l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s c o n s i d e r e d m o s t i m p o r t a n t f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n a n d t h e k i n d o f e r r o r s t h e y m a k e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o u s e t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s ( Q u i g l e y , e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . B e c a u s e d e a f c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h r e a d i n g a n d many d o n o t r e a c h a b o v e a g r a d e f i v e l e v e l by t h e e n d o f t h e i r s c h o o l l i f e ( C o o p e r & R o s e n s t e i n , 1966) , e l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g l e v e l s h a v e b e e n m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e TSA a n d t h e v o c a b u l a r y h a s b e e n s e t a t j u s t a b o v e a G r a d e One s t a n d a r d . I terns h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y s c r e e n e d t o a v o i d b i a s e s o f a s e x i s t o r c u l t u r a l n a t u r e ; a n d i n o r d e r t o m a k e t h e t e s t a c c e p t a b l e t o a s many c h i l d r e n a s p o s s i b l e a f u r t h e r s c r e e n i n g t o o k p l a c e t o r e m o v e w o r d s , p h r a s e s o r e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t may n o t b e f a m i l i a r t o c h i l d r e n w h o s e d i a l e c t s v a r y f r o m t h o s e u s u a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e a l l s u c h s c r e e n i n g t h e T S A c o n t a i n s t h r e e s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s w h i c h a r e c o l l o q u i a l i n n a t u r e a n d a s s u c h a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e i f n o t u n a c c e p t a b l e i n w r i t t e n E n g l i s h . T h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e : -i ) T h e " g o t p a s s i v e " e . g . Tom g o t k i c k e d b y a h o r s e ; - k5 -i i ) Who u s e d a s a n o b j e c t e . g . J o h n h e l p e d t h e g i r l who J i m h i t ; i i i ) P r e p o s i t i o n f r o n t e d r e l a t i v e s e . g . I m e t t h e b o y who y o u w r o t e a l e t t e r t o . Y e t , o v e r a l l , t h e TSA d o e s m e a s u r e t h e d o m a i n o f E n g l i s h s y n t a x . I t s 20 d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s c o v e r n i n e o f t h e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h : n e g a t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g d i s j u n c t i o n a n d a l t e r n a t i o n ) , d e t e r m i n e r s , q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n , v e r b p r o c e s s e s , p r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n , r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n . W h i l e we may a g r e e t h a t t h i s l i s t d o e s n o t c o v e r a l l E n g l i s h s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , i t d o e s i n c l u d e m o s t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r i n s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h , a n d a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n . I f we r e c o g n i z e t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y o f t h e TSA a s a v a l i d t e s t o f t h e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h , we m i g h t e x p e c t g o o d c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y i n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t ; f o r a l l i t e m s i n F o r m s 1 a n d 2 w e r e t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e T S A d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s . A s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e s e i t e m s w e r e j u d g e d t h e b e s t i n e a c h c a t e g o r y f r o m a l i n g u i s t i c , p s y c h o m e t r i c , a n d p e d a g o g i c p o i n t o f v i e w . T a b l e XI i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i t e m s f r o m a l l 20 d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w e r e s a m p l e d t o c o m p i l e t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t a n d T a b l e IV i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ( p a g e 27), i d e n t i f i e s e a c h i t e m i n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t b y s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e . - 46 -T A B L E XI F r e q u e n c y o f D i a g n o s t i c T e s t I terns S a m p l e d i n S c r e e n i n g T e s t S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t S c r e e n i n g T e s t s 1 o r 2 N e g a t i o n N e g a t i o n 9 C o n j u n c t i o n C o n j u n c t i o n 7 D i s j u n c t i o n , A l t e r n a t i o n 4 D e t e r m i n e r s D e t e r m i n e r s Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n A n s w e r E n v i r o n m e n t s 5 W h - w o r d s 3 Y e s / N o Q u e s t i o n s 3 V e r b P r o c e s s e s V e r b S e q u e n c e s 3 M a i n V e r b s , L i n k i n g V e r b s 3 S A u x i 1 i a r i e s P a s s i v e s 4 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n F o r w a r d s B a c k w a r d 3 P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e s S A d v e r b s 2 R e f l e x i v e s 3 P o s s e s s i v e P r o n o u n s 2 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n C o m p r e h e n s i o n 6 R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s 7 E m b e d d i n g 6 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n I n f i n i t i v e s S G e r u n d s 8 T h a t C o m p l e m e n t s 10 Nomi n a 1 i z a t i o n N o m i n a l i z a t i o n 18 120 I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t f r o m a l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , F o r m s 1 & 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a r e p a r a l l e l i n t h a t t h e y b o t h p o s s e s s t h e s a m e n u m b e r o f i t e m s f r o m e a c h d i a g n o s t i c t e s t ( a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s ) a n d i t e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b y s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e i s i d e n t i c a l f o r b o t h f o r m s . In o t h e r w o r d s T a b l e IV a n d XI r e f e r t o d a t a f o r F o r m s 1 o r 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t . In o r d e r t o e x a m i n e how w e l l t h e t e s t s a m p l e s t h e c o n t e n t a r e a i t i s m e a s u r i n g , e a c h s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e T S A a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h i t w a s p r e s e n t e d w a s i n v e s t i g a t e d . A b r e a k d o w n o f t h e s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s T a b l e s X I I — o f b o t h t h e d i a g n o s t i c a n d t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t s X X . i s p r o v i d e d i n T A B L E XI I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r  N e g a t i o n N u m b e r o f terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k D i a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p l e s E n v i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 11 " B e " v e r b s R 1 1 u n c o n t r a c t e d - 1 1 am n o t h a p p y . 8 c o n t r a c t e d 3 2 T h e h o u s e i s n ' t r e d . C 21 u n c o n t r a c t e d 1 1 " D o " s u p p o r t R 6 u n c o n t r a c t e d 1 1 We d i d n o t w a s h t h e c a r . k c o n t r a c t e d 1 1 M o t h e r d o e s n ' t l i k e f i s h . C 3 u n c o n t r a c t e d - -" H a v e " v e r b s R 3 u n c o n t r a c t e d - - 1 h a v e n o t r e a d t h e b o o k . 3 c o n t r a c t e d 1 I . We h a v e n ' t s e e n t h e b o y s . Moda 1 s R 6 u n c o n t r a c t e d - 2 J o e w i l l n o t e a t e g g s . 5 c o n t r a c t e d 2 - B a b y k i t t e n s c a n ' t s e e . T o t a l 70 9 9 R = R e c o g n i t i o n C = C o m p r e h e n s i o n N o t e : T h r o u g h o u t t h e N e g a t i o n T e s t , a l l e x a m p l e s o f " H a v e v e r b s " a r e a c t u a l l y u s i n g " h a v e " a s a n a u x i l i a r y i n t h e p e r f e c t t e n s e , e . g . We h a v e s e e n t h e b o y s . No e x a m p l e s a r e p r o v i d e d w h e r e ' h a v e " i s u s e d a s t h e m a i n v e r b - e . g . I h a v e a c o a t . - 4 8 -T A B L E XI I I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r  C o n j u n c t i o n N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k Di a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p l e E n v i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 1 1 1 . C o n j u n c t i o n c o n j o i n e d s e n t e n c e s R 2 8 3 3 1 h i t t h e b o y S t h e b o y c r i e d . c o n j o i n e d s u b j e c t s R 10 1 1 M o t h e r & Dad w e n t t o t h e f a r m . c o n j o i n e d o b j e c t s R 7 1 1 Tom b o u g h t a h a t a n d c o a t . c o n j o i n e d v e r b s R 10 1 1 Bob o p e n e d a n d c l o s e d t h e d o o r . c o n j o i n e d , v e r b J p h r a s e s C 15 1 1 2 . D i s j u n c t i o n & A l t e r n a t i o n ( i ) D i s j u n c t i o n s u b j e c t / s u b j e c t R 4 - - T h e b o y r a n b u t he d i d n o t f a l l o b j e c t / o b j e c t R 5 - - Tom h u r t B i l l b u t 1 h e l p e d h i m . o b j e c t / s u b j e c t R 6 1 1 We f e d t h e b a b y b u t s h e c r i e d . n o common 1 w o r k e d b u t S u s a n w e n t t o e 1 e m e n t s R 5 - - s l e e p . a d j e c t i v e s R 2 - - B i l l y w a s l o s t b u t n o t s c a r e d . ( J 1 1 A 1 t e r n a t i o n R 4 - - M a r y o r J o e w a s h e d t h e d i s h e s . s u b j e c t s C 2 - 1 o b j e c t s R 4 - - 1 w a i t e d f o r M o t h e r o r F a t h e r . C 2 - -v e r b p h r a s e s R 8 - - Tom j u m p e d o r f e l l i n t o t h e w a t e r . C 3 - -s e n t e n c e s R 4 - - B i l l l o s t t h e w a t c h o r A n n t o o k i t . C 3 1 -a d j e c t i v e s R 2 - - T h e new c h a i r i s b l a c k o r brown e i t h e r / o r R 4 1 1 1 w i l l e i t h e r w a l k o r r i d e t h e C 4 - - b i c y c l e . n e i t h e r / n o r R 4 1 1 N e i t h e r D a v i d n o r S u s a n a t e s u p p e r . C 4 - -T o t a l 1 4 0 1 1 11 R= R e c o g n i t i o n C= C o m p r e h e n s i o n - ks -T A B L E X I V S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r D e t e r m i n e r s N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k D l a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p l e s E n v i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 1 1 C o u n t N o u n s R 13 3 2 We f e d t h e c o w s . M a s s N o u n s R 12 3 3 T h e b o y s a t e t h e m e a l . S e q u e n c i ng R 7 1 1 1 s a w a d o g . T h e d o g w a s b l a c k . O r d e r i n g o f R 13 3 h J o h n h a s a new b l u e c a r . a d j e c t i v e s a n d d e t e r m i n e r s Q u a n t i t a t i v e R 7 1 1 T h e k i t e w a s i n t h e s k y . un i q u e n e s s O m i s s i o n o f R 7 1 1 M o t h e r w a l k e d h o m e . d e t e r m i n e r s P r e d e t e r m i n e r s R 11 2 2 Some o f t h e c a t s w e r e b l a c k . R = R e c o g n i t i o n N o t e : A l t h o u g h d e t e r m i n e r s a r e m e a s u r e d i n d i f f e r e n t s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s , n o t a l l d e t e r m i n e r t y p e s a r e m e a s u r e d i n t h i s t e s t . O u t o f t h e 70 t e s t i t e m s , 2 6 d e t e r m i n e r s a r e t h e d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e ( t h e ) , 2 5 a r e n o n - d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e s ( a , a n , s o m e ) , 11 a r e p r e d e t e r m i n e r s , ( s o m e o f , o n e o f , t h r e e o f , f o u r o f ) , a n d 7 a r e n o n - a p p e a r i n g o r z e r o a r t i c l e s (0). G e n i t i v e s ( m y , y o u , h i s , h e r , i t s , o u r , t h e i r ) a r e t r e a t e d a s p o s s -e s s i v e a d j e c t i v e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e T S A , b u t t h e r e a r e n o i t e m s m e a s u r -i n g t h e d e m o n s t r a t i v e s ( t h e s e , t h o s e , t h i s ) , p r e - a r t i c l e s ( a l l , b o t h , j u s t , o n l y , e v e n ) , o r p o s t - d e t e r m i n e r s , ( j u s t , s e c o n d , f e w , s e v e r a l , l e s s , l e a s t ) w h i c h f o r m p a r t o f t h e E n g l i s h D e t e r m i n e r S y s t e m . - 50 -T A B L E XV S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r  Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k Di a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p l e E n v i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 1 1 A n s w e r E n v i r o n m e n t s Y e s / N o R 7 2 2 Is t h e e l e p h a n t a b i g a n i ma 1? w h - R hi 2 2 W h i c h a r e b i g g e r , c a t s o r k i t t e n s ? T a g R 16 1 1 B o b c a n ' t f i x t h e t o y , c a n h e ? W h - w o r d s who R 8 1 1 Who f o u n d t h e k i t e ? w h e n R 8 1 1 When d i d S u s a n w a l k t o t h e f a r m ? w h e r e R 10 - - W h e r e i s J o e ? why R 8 - - Why w a s Dad a t home? w h a t R 8 1 1 W h a t w i l l 1 f e e d t h e k i t t e n ? w h i c h R 18 - - W h i c h p u p p y c r i e s a l l n i g h t ? how R 10 - - How w i 1 1 t h e y g o t o t h e f a r m ? Y e s / N o L i n k i n g - " b e " R 16 - - A r e y o u t a l l e r t h a n D a d ? - " s e e m , l o o k , R 8 - - Do y o u l i k e i c e - c r e a m ? 1 i k e " A u x i 1 i a r y - " b e " R ]k - - Was t h e g i r l c r y i n g ? - " d o " R 12 1 1 D i d M o t h e r m a k e a c a k e ? - " w o u l d , R 8 1 1 C o u l d A n n r i d e t h e h o r s e ? c o u l d , s h o u 1 d " - " c a n , w i l l , R 12 1 1 C a n y o u r u n ? m a y " T o t a l 2 1 0 11 11 R = R e c o g n i t i o n - 51 -T A B L E XVL S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s S S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r V e r b P r o c e s s e s N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k Di a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p l e s E n v i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 1 1 V e r b S e q u e n c e s P a s t - m a r k e d o n 1 s t v b . C 14 1 1 We c o o k e d l u n c h & J o e w a s h e d t h e d i s h e s . - m a r k e d o n 2 n d v b . C 13 - - Y e s t e r d a y J i m h e l p e d Dad & M a r y h e l p e d M o t h e r . F u t u r e - m a r k e d o n 1 s t v b . C 12 - - Tom w i l l s i t h e r e & 1 w i l l s i t t h e r e . - m a r k e d o n 2 n d v b . C 1 1 1 1 N e x t M o n d a y S u e w i l l c o m e a n d t h e g i r l s w i l l p l a y . P r e s e n t P r o g r e s s i v e - m a r k e d o n 1 s t v b . C 9 1 1 Y o u a r e t a l k i n g & Tom i s d o i n g h i s w o r k . - m a r k e d o n 2 n d v b . C 1 1 - - Tom i s w r i t i n g & J o e i s w a t c h i n g t h e c l o c k . M a i n V e r b s , L i n k i n g S A u x i 1 i a r i e s b e v e r b s R 8 - - 1 am g l a d . h a v e v e r b s R 12 - - 1 h a v e a c o a t . P r e s e n t T e n s e V e r b s p r e s e n t w i t h i n f i n . R 3 - - B i l l y l i k e s t o p l a y i n t h e c a r . h a b i t u a l p r e s e n t R 6 - - We w a s h b e f o r e l u n c h . p r e s e n t p r o g r e s s i v e R 9 1 1 1 am w o r k i n g a t h o m e . p r e s e n t p e r f e c t R 14 - - Y o u h a v e s e e n t h e m i c e . P a s t T e n s e V e r b s R 8 1 1 Y e s t e r d a y t h e d o g a t e m e a t . F u t u r e T e n s e V e r b s R 10 1 1 1 w i l l w a l k t o s c h o o l t o m o r r o w . P a s s i v e V o i c e Non r e v e r s i b l e p a s s i v e s R 11 - - F o o d w a s b r o u g h t b y t h e c a r C 10 - 1 R e v e r s i b l e p a s s i v e s R 15 1 - T h e b o y w a s h i t b y a s t o n e . C 13 2 2 G o t p a s s i v e R 5 - 1 T h e d o g g o t h i t b y a c a r . C 6 1 -A g e n t d e l e t e d p a s s i v e R 6 - - T h e s o l d i e r w a s k i l l e d . C 4 - -T o t a l 2 1 0 10 10 R = R e c o g n i t i o n C = C o m p r e h e n s i o n - 52 -T A B L E XVI I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s S S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k D i a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p 1 e Env i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 1 1 1 . F o r w a r d £ B a c k w a r d P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n B a c k w a r d P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n S u b j e c t i v e C a s e - 3 r d p . s i n g . m a s c . ( h e ) R h — — When h e o p e n e d t h e d o o r , B i l l c a l l e d t h e d o g . - 3 r d p . s i n g . f e r n , ( s h e ) R - -- 3 r d p . s i n g . n e u t e r ( i t ) R k - -- 3 r d p . p l u r a l ( t h e y ) R 12 1 1 P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e C a s e - 3 r d p . s i n g . m a s c . ( h i s ) R k 1 S i n c e h i s f a t h e r w a n t e d t h e c a r B i l l w a l k e d t o s c h o o l . - 3 r d p . s i n g . f e r n , ( h e r ) R h - 1 - 3 r d p . s i n g , n e u t e r ( i t s ) R k - -- 3 r d p . p l u r a l ( t h e i r ) R 12 - -F o r w a r d P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n O b j e c t i v e C a s e - 3 r d p . s i n g . m a s . ( h i m ) R 3 — — When D a v i d t o o k t h e b i c y c l e , S u e h i t h i m . - 3 r d p . s i n g . f e r n , ( h e r ) R 3 - -- 3 r d p . s i n g , n e u t e r ( i t ) R h - -- 3 r d p . p l u r a l ( t h e m ) R 12 1 1 2 . P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n -P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e s - 1 s t p . s i n g . (my) R 12 — - 1 c o u l d n o t w o r k , my l e g w a s b r o k e n . - 2 n d p . s i n g . ( y o u r ) R 9 - -- 3 r d p . s i n g . m a s c . ( h i s ) R 10 1 1 f e r n . ( h e r ) R 10 - -n e u t e r ( i t s ) R 10 - -- 1 s t p . p l u r a l ( o u r ) R 9 - -- 3 r d p . p l u r a l ( t h e i r ) R 10 1 1 R = R e c o g n i t i o n - 53 -T A B L E XVI I ( C o n t ' d ) S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I t e m s  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c D i a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p l e E n v i r o n m e n t T a s k T e s t 1 1 1 3 . P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n -R e f l e x i v e s - 1 s t p . s i n g , ( m y s e l f ) R 9 1 1 Do n o t h e l p . 1 c a n w a s h m y s e l f . - 2 n d p . s i n g . ( y o u r s e l f ) R 7 - -- 3 r d p . s i n g . m a s c . ( h i m s e l f ) R 7 - -f e r n . ( h e r s e l f ) R 12 1 1 n e u t e r ( i t s e l f ) R 11 1 1 - 1 s t p . p l u r a l ( o u r s e l v e s ) R 10 - -- 2 n d p . p i u r a 1 ( y o u r s e l v e s ) R 3 - -- 3 r d p . p l u r a l ( t h e m s e l v e s ) R 11 - -k.Pronomina1ization -P o s s e s s i v e P r o n o u n s - 1 s t p . s i n g . ( m i n e ) R 12 1 1 T h e y a r e m i n e . - 2 n d p . s i n g . ( y o u r s ) R 14 - -- 3 r d p . s i n g . m a s c . ( h i s ) R 11 - -- 3 r d p . s i n g . f e m . ( h e r s ) R 1 1 - -- 1 s t p . p l u r a l ( o u r s ) R 1 1 1 1 - 3 r d p . p l u r a l ( t h e i r s ) R 1 1 - -T o t a l 2 8 0 10 10 R = R e c o g n i t i o n - Sh -T A B L E XVI I I S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r R e l a t i v i z a t i o n N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k D i a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p l e s E n v i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 11 1 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n - C o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b j e c t f i n a l C 12 1 1 Y o u w a t c h e d t h e g i r l w h o swam i n t h e l a k e . s u b j e c t m e d i a l C 1 8 2 2 T h e g i r l w h o w a l k e d w i t h M a r y l i k e d t h e t e a c h e r . o b j e c t f i n a l c 14 1 1 1 c a u g h t t h e b o y w h o Tom c h a s e d . o b j e c t m e d i a l c 14 1 1 T h e g i r l w h o A n n k n e w t o l d s t o r i e s . p r e p , f r o n t e d c 12 1 1 1 f o u n d t h e b o y Dad g a v e t h e money t o . 2 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n - R e l a t e d P r o n o u n s S R e l a t i v e A d v e r b s w h o - a s s u b j e c t R 11 1 1 Y o u c h a s e d t h e g i r l w h o k i c k e d t h e d o g . w h o - a s o b j e c t R 6 — J o h n h e l p e d t h e g i r l w h o J im h i t . w h i c h - a s s u b j e c t R 13 1 1 1 w a s h e d t h e b a l l w h i c h r o l l e d i n t h e m u d . w h i c h - a s o b j e c t R 5 — — Y o u f i x e d t h e d o l l w h i c h M a r y b r o k e . w h o s e R 8 1 1 1 k n e w t h e man w h o s e d o g r a n a w a y . t h a t R 9 1 1 B o b h e l p e d t h e d o g t h a t w a s h u r t e d . w h a t R 5 1 1 1 l i k e d w h a t M o t h e r c o o k e d . w h e r e R 5 1 1 Tom k n e w w h e r e t h e b o y 1 i v e d . w h e n R 8 1 1 J i m r a n a w a y w h e n t h e man c a m e . 3 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n - E m b e d d i n g s u b j e c t f i n a l C 6 1 1 1 k n e w t h e man w h o f e d t h e d o g . s u b j e c t m e d i a l C 13 — T h e g i r l w h o w a s i n b e d r e a d a b o o k . p r e p , f r o n t e d C 17 2 2 1 m e t t h e b o y w h o y o u w r o t e a l e t t e r t o . w h o w i t h p r e d . a d j C 24 2 2 J o h n h a s a s o n w h o i s s m a r t w h o s e C 10 1 1 1 h e l p e d t h e b o y w h o s e s h o e f e l 1 i n t o t h e l a k e . T o t a l 210 19 19 - 5 5 -T A B L E X I X S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I terns  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r  C o m p 1 e m e n t a t i o n N u m b e r o f 1 terns S y n t a c t i c T a s k D i a g n o s t i c S c r e e n s E x a m p 1 e s E n v i r o n m e n t T e s t 1 11 C o m p 1 e m e n t a t i o n 1nf i n i t i v e s R 41 5 5 I t i s f u n t o h e l p . G e r u n d s R 2 9 3 3 1 s a w Dad c o m i n g . C o m p 1 e m e n t a t i o n . T h a t - c o m p 1 e m e n t s o b j e c t R 6 2 2 S u s a n h e a r d t h a t J i m h e l p e d t h e l a d y . C 7 2 2 s u b j e c t R 10 1 1 T h a t t h e g i r l d r o p p e d t h e b a l l s u r p r i s e d t h e b o y . C 9 1 1 e x t r a p o s e d R 12 1 1 I t w a s s a d t h a t t h e a n i m a l s w e r e l o s t . C 5 1 1 t h a t d e l e t e d R 11 1 1 T h e b o y s k n e w t h e d o g w a s l o s t . T o t a l 140 18 18 R = R e c o g n i t i o n C = C o m p r e h e n s i o n T A B L E XX S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t , T a s k a n d N u m b e r o f I t e m s  i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s & S c r e e n i n g T e s t s f o r Nomi n a 1 i z a t i on S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t T a s k N u m b e r o f D i a g n o s t i c T e s t 1 terns S c r e e e n s 1 1 1 E x a m p 1 e s S u b j e c t R 2 2 6 6 T h e l a u g h t e r o f t h e g i r l s u r p r i s e d t h e m a n . C 15 4 4 O b j e c t R 18 4 4 J o h n s a w t h e s t a r t o f t h e r a c e . C 15 4 4 T o t a l 7 0 18 18 R = R e c o g n i t i o n C = C o m p r e h e n s i o n - 56 -T A B L E XXI Summary o f I terns b y S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t s S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e S y n t a c t i c Env i r o n m e n t i n D i a g . T e s t s I t e m N o . i n D i a g . T e s t s S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t S a m p l e d i n S c r e e n 1 o r 2 1 terns i n S c r e e n N e g a t i o n 10 7 0 8 9 C o n j u n c t i o n 23 140 10 1 1 D e t e r m i n e r s 7 7 0 7 14 Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 16 2 1 0 9 1 1 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 2 2 2 1 0 1 1 10 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n 33 2 8 0 1 1 10 Re 1 a t i v i z a t i o n 19 2 1 0 16 19 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 10 140 10 18 Nomi n a 1 i z a t i o n 4 7 0 4 18 T o t a l 144 1 4 0 0 8 6 120 T a b l e XXI p r o v i d e s a s u m m a r y o f how t h e i t e m s o n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t r e p r e s e n t t h e v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s . N e g a t i o n , d e t e r m i n e r s , r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n a p p e a r t o b e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n t e r m s o f n u m b e r o f i t e m s a n d s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . C o n v e r s e l y , c o n j u n c t i o n , q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n , v e r b p r o c e s s e s , a n d p r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n h a v e f e w e r i t e m s i n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t , a n d t h o s e t h a t a r e i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f t h e s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s m e a s u r e d i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i a g n o s t i c t e s t . On j o i n t e x a m i n a t i o n o f F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t i t w a s f o u n d t h a t 5 1 % o f a l l n o m i n a l i z a t i o n i t e m s i n t h e d i a g n o s t i c b a t t e r y w e r e i n c l u d e d w h i l e o n l y IX o f t h e p r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n i t e m s w e r e m e a s u r e d . T a b l e s X I I t o XX f u r t h e r p o i n t t o i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n s a m p l i n g i t e m s f o r t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t . E a c h f o r m s o f t h e S c r e e n c o n t a i n s f i v e i t e m s m e a s u r i n g i n f i n i t i v e s ( e . g . I t i s f u n t o b u i l d a s n o w m a n ) a n d s i x i t e m s m e a s u r i n g t h e u s e o f n o m i n a l I -a t i o n a s t h e s u b j e c t o f a s e n t e n c e ( e . g . T h e l a u g h t e r o f t h e g i r l s u r p r i s e d - 5 7 -t h e m a n ) . Y e t t h e r e a r e n o i t e m s t e s t i n g t h e v e r b s " t o b e " o r " t o h a v e " a s m a i n v e r b s ( e . g . I am h a p p y , o r I h a v e a c o a t ) o r v e r b s w h i c h l i n k a s u b j e c t t o a m o d i f i e r i n t h e p r e d i c a t e ( e . g . A r e y o u t a l l e r t h a n D a d ? ) . T h e a u t h o r s p r o v i d e no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e u n e v e n s a m p l i n g d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f t h e i r s c r e e n i n g . t e s t . I f we w e r e t o a s s u m e t h a t s o m e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e f r e q u e n c y a s t r u c t u r e o c c u r r e d i n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h a t s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e i n t h e u s e o f s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h , we w o u l d c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e u s e o f n o m i n a l i z a t i o n a s a s u b j e c t , n o m i n a l i z a t i o n a s a n o b j e c t , i n f i n i t i v e s , a n d o r d e r i n g o f a d j e c t i v e s a n d d e t e r m i n e r s w e r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r e s t h a n v e r b p r o c e s s e s , q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n , n e g a t i o n , p r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n a n d r e l a t i v i z a t i o n . A m o r e p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n may b e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e s w i t h g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n t a i n e d m o r e i t e m s t h a t m e t t h e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a f r o m a l i n g u i s t i c , p s y c h o m e t r i c a n d p e d a g o g i c p o i n t o f v i e w . T h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e n u m b e r o f i t e m s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e N o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n t e s t p r o b a b l y s t e m s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s t e s t w a s a d d e d t o t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y a f t e r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d a n d s o d a t a o n d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n d i c e s w e r e u n a v a i l a b l e . H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e t h e a n o m a l i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t d o e s s a m p l e e a c h o f t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s m e a s u r e d b y t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y . A l t h o u g h e v e r y e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e h a s n o t b e e n m e a s u r e d b y t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t , t h e a u t h o r s h a v e e n d e a v o u r e d t o p r o v i d e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f e a c h t y p e o f e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n e v e r a s t r u c t u r e w a s b r o k e n down b y g e n d e r , p e r s o n o r n u m b e r , t h a t s t r u c t u r e w a s g e n e r a l l y s a m p l e d i n o n e o f i t s e n v i r o n m e n t s . A s a r u l e , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a n i t e m f r o m o n e s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t f o r F o r m 1 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a n o t h e r i t e m f r o m t h e s a m e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r F o r m 2 o f t h e t e s t . - 5 8 -A l t h o u g h we m i g h t p r e f e r a n e q u a l n u m b e r o f i t e m s i n e a c h s t r u c t u r e o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d a m o r e e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s , i t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e t e s t w a s d e s i g n e d t o b e u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y a n d n o t m e a n t t o p r o v i d e a n i n d e p t h a s s e s s m e n t o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y . H e n c e , a s i t i s a s c r e e n i n g t e s t , a n d a s i t d o e s s a m p l e a l l t h e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s a m p l i n g i s v a l i d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e t e s t . O t h e r a s p e c t s o f t e s t v a l i d i t y w i l l b e a d d r e s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s r e p o r t w h e n t h e q u e s t i o n s o f how w e l l a s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o n e a c h s t r u c t u r e o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w i l l p r e d i c t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t r u c -t u r e i n t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y a n d w h e t h e r t h e t e s t i s v a l i d f o r h e a r i n g -i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n d i f f e r e n t a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s a r e a s k e d . ITEM A N A L Y S I S A n i t e m a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d f o r b o t h f o r m s o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t u s i n g t h e t e s t a n a l y s i s p a c k a g e L E R T A P ( N e l s o n 1 9 7 4 ) . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e i t e m d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s f o r t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p r o p o r -t i o n a l mean r a w s c o r e s o f t h e s e p a r a t e s t r u c t u r e s i n b o t h f o r m s r a n g e d f r o m a h i g h o f . 7 9 8 (80%) i n t h e N e g a t i o n i t e m s i n F o r m 1 t o . 5 2 9 {53%) o n t h e R e l a t i v i z a t i o n i t e m s i n t h e s a m e f o r m . T h e mean d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l a c r o s s a l l i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s w a s . 6 2 8 {63%) o n b o t h f o r m s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y g o o d n o r m a t i v e t e s t i s o n e i n w h i c h m o s t i t e m s a r e a n s w e r e d c o r r e c t l y b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f t h e s a m p l e w i t h a mean p e r c e n t o f b e t w e e n k0% a n d 60% ( Q u i g l e y e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . A s c a n b e s e e n i n T a b l e X X I I m o s t s t r u c t u r e s c a m e i n a t t h e t o p e n d o f t h i s k0~60% r a n g e w i t h i t e m s i n N e g a t i o n a n d D e t e r m i n e r s b e i n g a b o v e t h e o p t i m a l d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o n b o t h f o r m s o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t . - 5 9 -T A B L E XX I I M e a n s , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s a n d R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s  o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t , F o r m s 1 S 2 S y n t a c t i c N o . o f S c r e e n i n g M e a n S t a n d a r d 1 n t e r n a 1 S t r u c t u r e s 1 terns F o r m Raw D e v i a t i o n C o n s i s t e n c y N = 2 3 3 ( H o y t ' s A n o v a ) N = 2 3 3 N e g a t i o n 9 1 7 . 18 ( 7 9 - 8 ) 2.64 • 8 9 2 7 - 0 2 ( 7 8 . 7 ) 2 . 5 0 • 8 5 C o n j u n c t i o n 11 1 6 . 7 3 ( 6 1 . 2 ) 3 . 3 4 . 8 6 2 6 . 7 8 (61. 6 ) 3 . 1 1 . 8 2 D e t e r m i n e r s 14 1 1 0 . 42 ( 7 5 . 2 ) 3 - 3 5 . 8 3 2 9 - 9 4 ( 7 1 . 0 ) 3 . 6 1 .84 Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 11 1 7 - 3 0 ( 6 6 . 4 ) 3.24 . 8 5 2 7 . 5 4 ( 6 8 . 5 ) 3.40 . 8 8 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 1 0 1 5 - 8 5 ( 5 8 . 5 ) 2 . 9 2 . 8 1 2 5 . 6 7 ( 5 6 . 7 ) 3.04 .84 P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 1 0 1 6 . 2 7 ( 6 2 . 7 ) 2 . 4 9 • 7 2 2 6 . 1 0 (61. 0 ) 2 . 6 9 • 7 7 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 1 9 1 1 0 . 0 5 ( 5 2 . 9 ) 4 . 9 0 . 8 7 2 1 0 . 71 ( 5 6 . 4 ) 4 . 8 7 . 8 7 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 1 8 1 11 . 2 5 ( 6 2 . 5 ) 4 . 7 0 • 8 7 2 11 . 2 2 ( 6 2 . 3 ) 4 . 7 9 . 8 7 Nomi n a 1 i z a t i o n 1 8 1 1 0 . 31 ( 5 7 - 6 ) 4 . 7 2 • 9 8 2 1 0 . 3 3 ( 5 7 - 4 ) 4 . 7 0 . 8 7 T o t a l T e s t 1 2 0 1 7 5 - 3 7 ( 6 2 . 8 ) 2 8 . 4 9 • 9 5 * 2 7 5 . 3 6 ( 6 2 . 8 ) 2 9 . 2 0 . 9 6 * " C r o n b a c h ' s Compos i t e A l p h a W i t h t w o e x c e p t i o n s t h e i n t e r n a 1 c o n s i s t e n c y o f e a c h s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e i n F o r m s 1 a n d 2 , c o m p u t e d us i ng H o y t •s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( H o y t 1 9 4 1 ) r a n g e d b e t w e e n . 8 2 a n d . 8 9 . T h e t w o e x c e p t i o n s w e r e P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n - F o r m 1 . 7 2 a n d P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n - F o r m 2 . 7 7 -C o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s X X I I I a n d X X I V i n d i c a t e t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s t r u c t u r e s o n b o t h f o r m s w e r e g e n e r a l l y a b o v e . 7 - 60 -w i t h a r a n g e b e t w e e n .599 ( N e g a t i o n w i t h R e l a t i v i z a t i o n ) a n d .825 ( V e r b P r o c e s s e s w i t h Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n ) o n F o r m 1 a n d b e t w e e n .639 ( N o m i n a l i z a t i o n w i t h N e g a t i o n ) a n d .841 ( C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n ) o n F o r m 2. W h i c h f o r m o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a s u b j e c t t o o k f i r s t a p p e a r e d t o m a k e no d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e r e s u l t s a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e l a c k o f a n y s i g n i f i -c a n t p o i n t - b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n ( t e s t o r d e r ) a n d t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e t e s t i t s e l f . T A B L E XXI I I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s a n d T e s t O r d e r f o r T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 1 (N=233) N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q F . V . P . P r o n . R e l . Comp. Norn. T . T . T . O . N e g . 1 .00 C o n j . 0.67 1 .00 D e t . 0.76 0.77 1 .00 Q . F . 0.76 0.77 0 .81 1 00 V . P . 0.68 0.74 0.78 0 83 1 00 P r o n . 0.69 0.68 0.75 0 75 0 74 1 .00 R e l . 0 . 6 0 0.72 0.73 0 77 0 8 2 0.75 1.00 C o m p . 0.67 0 .71 0.77 0 79 0 76 0.76 0.80 1 .00 Norn. 0.63 0.69 0.77 0 79 0 78 0.74 0 . 8 0 0.78 1 .00 T . T . 0.80 0.85 0 . 8 9 0 91 0 90 0.86 0.90 0 . 9 0 0.89 1 .00 T . O . 0.03 0.06 0.02 0. 04 0. 06 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.04 0 04 1.00 T . T . = T o t a l T e s t T . O . = T e s t O r d e r - 61 -T A B L E X X I V C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s a n d  T e s t O r d e r f o r T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 (N=233) N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q . .F . V . P . P r o n . R e l . Comp. Norn. T . T . T . O . N e g . 1 . 0 0 C o n j . 0 . 6 5 1 . 0 0 D e t . 0 . 75 0 . 7 2 1 . 0 0 Q . F . 0 . 80 o . 7 7 0.82 1 . 0 0 V . P . 0 . 73 0 . 7 7 0.82 0 83 1 . 0 0 P r o n . 0 . 71 0.72 0 . 7 7 0 .76 0 .74 1 . 0 0 R e l . 0 . 65 0.76 0.78 0 .78 0 .83 0 . 7 7 1 . 0 0 C o m p . 0 . 73 0.74 0.83 0 .84 0 .84 0 . 7 7 0 .84 1 . 0 0 Norn. 0 64 0 . 6 9 0.74 0 .78 0 .79 0.71 0 . 8 0 0 • 79 1 . 0 0 T . T . 0 . 81 0.85 0.90 0 • 92 0 • 92 0.86 0 • 9 1 0 • 93 0 . 8 8 1 . 0 0 T . O . 0 . 02 0.07 0 . 0 0 0 .03 - 0 .01 0 . 0 0 - 0 .03 - 0 .04 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 T . T . = T o t a l T e s t T . O . = T e s t O r d e r T h e t e s t a p p e a r e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e t h e b e t t e r s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e o t h e r s . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l s f o r e a c h i t e m o n b o t h f o r m s o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l i t e m s w e r e p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e t o t a l t e s t s c o r e w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n ( i t e m - t o t a l t e s t ) g r e a t e r t h a n .4 f o r 87? a n d 89? o f i t e m s i n F o r m s 1 a n d 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h r o u g h o u t t h e t e s t t h e d i s t r a c t o r s e a c h a t t r a c t e d r e s p o n d e n t s a n d t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s ( P B - T T ) w e r e n e g a t i v e i n m o r e t h a n 95? o f t h e i t e m s i n e a c h f o r m . In s i x c a s e s a n i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r a c t o r a t t r a c t e d a g r e a t e r r e s p o n s e t h a n t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r . T h e - t y p e o f i t e m w h e r e t h i s o c c u r r e d w a s i d e n t i c a l o n b o t h s c r e e n s , a n d i n v o l v e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s : -i ) B a c k w a r d P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n ( i t e m # 7 2 , F o r m s 1 & 2 ) e . g . When m o t h e r b r o u g h t t h e e g g s , J o e made l u n c h . S u b j e c t R e s p o n s e A . h i m N= 8 B . h i s 8 3 (C ) C . J o e ' s 1 3 4 D. h e 8 ( I t e m # 7 2 , F o r m 1) 2 ( o t h e r ) i i ) T h a t C o m p l e m e n t - S u b j e c t ( I t e m # 5 1 , F o r m s 1 & 2 ) e . g . T h e b a b y w a s a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r . N= 9 F o r t h e b a b y w a s a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r . I l l S o t h e b a b y w a s a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r . 3 8 T h a t t h e b a b y w a s a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r . 7 4 (C ) ( I t e m # 5 1 , F o r m 2 ) 1 ( o t h e r ) i i i ) N o m i n a l i z a t i o n - S u b j e c t ( i t e m # 1 0 9 , F o r m 1; I tern # 1 1 3 , F o r m 2 ) e . g . T h e s c r e a m o f t h e c a t s c a r e d t h e d o g . A . T h e c a t s c a r e d t h e d o g . N= 1 2 5 B . T h e s c r e a m s c a r e d t h e d o g . 6 5 (C) C . T h e d o g s c r e a m e d . 5 D. T h e d o g s c a r e d t h e c a t . 3 3 ( I t e m # 1 0 9 , F o r m 1) 5 ( o t h e r ) O n l y o n e e x a m p l e w a s o b s e r v e d w h e r e a d i s t r a c t o r d r e w m o r e o f t h e b e t t e r s u b j e c t s t h a n t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . T h i s o c c u r r e d i n F o r m 1 , I tern # 1 1 3 w h e r e t h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l - t o t a l t e s t w a s 0 . 1 4 f o r t h e d i s t r a c t o r B a n d 0 . 1 1 f o r t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e D w r i t t e n b e l o w . T h e g r o w t h o f t h e p l a n t e x c i t e d t h e c h i l d r e n . A . T h e c h i l d r e n g r e w . B . T h e p l a n t e x c i t e d t h e c h i l d r e n . C . T h e c h i l d r e n e x c i t e d t h e p l a n t . D. T h e g r o w t h e x c i t e d t h e c h i l d r e n . ( S y n t a c t i c E n v i r o n m e n t - N o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n S u b j e c t ) - 63 -P A R A L L E L FORM R E L I A B I L I T Y C o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d f o r b o t h f o r m s o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t u s i n g t h e t e s t a n a l y s i s p a c k a g e S P S S - ' . ( N i e e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) -T a b l e XXV c o n t a i n s t h e P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t M a t r i x o b t a i n e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a n d r e v e a l s t h a t t h e t w o f o r m s a r e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a n r o f .96 f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f p r o n o m i n -a l i z a t i o n {.71), c o n j u n c t i o n ( .78) a n d d e t e r m i n e r s ( . 8 0 ) a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e a b o v e . 84 . T A B L E XXV C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n F o r m s 1 & 2  o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q . .F . V . P . P r o n . R e l . Comp. Norn. T o t a l N e g . .842 . 6 5 6 . 6 9 7 • 755 • 6 9 9 • 6 9 3 . 6 0 8 . 6 9 0 . 612 .766 C o n j . . 6 8 8 • 783 . 6 9 0 .746 • 739 . 7 0 6 • 730 • 734 . 6 9 8 .811 F D e t . • 770 . 7 0 6 .805 . 8 2 0 • 773 . 7 5 4 • . 7 3 9 . 7 8 3 . 7 6 0 . 8 6 0 o r Q_. F . . 7 79 . 7 6 6 . 8 0 2 .868 . 8 1 7 . 7 8 8 . 7 6 8 . 8 1 0 • 7 7 3 . 8 9 2 m V . P . . 6 8 7 • 719 • 791 • 795 . 8 5 7 . 7 6 2 • 792 • 7 9 4 . 7 5 5 . 8 6 9 1 P r o n . . 6 9 2 . 6 7 4 . 7 3 4 . 7 5 6 • 7 1 7 .773 .746 • 7 58 . 7 2 6 . 8 2 2 R e l . . 6 0 9 . 7 2 0 . 7 7 0 . 7 5 7 . 8 0 3 . 7 5 4 .870 . 8 0 9 . 7 8 9 . 8 7 0 C o m p . . 6 6 8 .701 • 751 • 794 • 779 • 7 58 • 7 9 2 . 8 5 4 . 7 6 3 . 9 6 3 Norn. . 6 6 7 . 6 8 9 . 7 2 5 . 7 8 7 • 772 . 7 1 8 . 7 9 8 . 7 7 9 . 8 6 5 . 8 5 9 T o t a l • 794 . 8 0 9 . 8 5 3 . 8 9 2 . 8 8 0 .845 . 8 7 5 .891 . 8 6 2 . 9 6 4 N=233 p < . 0 1 f o r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s B e c a u s e F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a r e s o h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , f u r t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y w i l l b e c a r r i e d o u t o n F o r m 2 o n l y , a n d i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d e q u a l l y a p p l y t o e i t h e r f o r m o f t h e t e s t . - 64 -F u r t h e r i t e m a n a l y s i s , a g a i n u s i n g L E R T A P ( N e l s o n 1974) w a s c a r r i e d o u t o n F o r m 2 o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t f o r t h e t h r e e h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s (<5S d B , 60-89 d B , > 9 0 d B ) . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e i t e m d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s f o r e a c h g r o u p r e v e a l e d t h a t t h o s e w i t h m o r e h e a r i n g f o u n d t h e i t e m s g e n e r a l l y l e s s d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s w i t h a g r e a t e r h e a r i n g l o s s . P e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s f o r t h e s e t h r e e h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p s o n F o r m 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e X X V I . T A B L E XXVI M e a n s , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s a n d R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 f o r S t u d e n t s  i n t h e T h r e e H e a r i n g L o s s C a t e g o r i e s ( < 5 9 , 6 O - 8 9 , - > 9 0 d l ) S y n t a c t i c N o . o f H e a r i ng M e a n S t a n d a r d 1nterna1 S t r u c t u r e 1 terns L o s s G r . Raw {%) D e v i a t i o n C o n s i s t e n c y ( H o y t ' s Anova) N e g a t i o n 9 <59 dB 7-78 (86.4) 1.76 .74 (N=49) 60-89 dB 7-09 (78.8) 2.44 .84 (N=89) ?90 dB 6.72 (74.7) 2.82 .88 (N=95) C o n j u n c t i o n 11 <59 dB 7.63 (69.4) 3-11 .85 (N=49) 60-89 dB 6.76 (61.5) 3.25 .84 (N=89) >90 dB 6.36 (57-8) 2.92 .78 (N=95) D e t e r m i n e r s 14 *59 dB 11.43 (81.6) 3.00 .82 (N=49) 60-89 dB 9-96 (71.1) 3.54 .83 ( N = 8 9 ) >90 dB 9.16 (65.4) 3-75 .84 (N=95) Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 11 <59 dB 9.18 (83.5) 2.43 . 8 2 (N=49) 60-89 dB 7.42 (67.5) 3.54 .89 ( N = 8 9 ) >90 dB 6.80 (61.8) 3.44 .86 (N=95) - 65 -T A B L E XXV I ( c o n t ' d ) S y n t a c t i c N o . o f H e a r i ng M e a n S t a n d a r d 1 n t e r n a1 S t r u c t u r e 1 terns L o s s G r . Raw (%) Dev i a t i o n C o n s i s t e n c y ( H o y t ' s A n o v a ) V e r b P r o c e s s e s 10 <59 dB 6 . 9 2 ( 6 9 . 2 ) 2.43 • 76 (N=49) 60-89 dB 5-51 ( 5 5 . 1 ) 3.07 • 8 3 * (N=89) >90 dB 5.18 (51.8) 3.14 .85 (N=95) P r o n o m i n a1 i z a t i o n 10 <59 dB 7.16 (71.6) 2.41 .76 (N=49) 60-89 dB 6.18 (61.8) 2 . 5 2 • 72 (N=89) >90 dB 5.47 (54.7) 2.83 .78 (N=95) R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 19 <59 dB 13.00 (68.4) 4.66 .88 (N=49) 60-89 dB 10.66 (56.1) 5.07 .88 (N=89) >90 dB 9-57 (50.4) 4.40 .82 (N=95) C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 18 <59 dB 13-71 (76.2) 4.16 .87 (N=49) 60-89 dB 11.29 (62.7) 4.74 .87 ( N = 8 9 ) >90 dB 9 . 8 7 (54.8) 4.66 .85 (N=95) Nomi n a 1 i z a t i o n 18 <59 dB 12.63 (70.2) 4.31 .86 (N=49) 60-89 dB 10.00 (55.6) 4.84 .88 ( N = 8 9 ) >90 dB 9.44 (52.4) 4.40 .84 (N=95) T o t a l T e s t 120 <59 dB 8 9 . 4 5 (74.5) 25.57 .96* (H=kS) 60-89 dB 7 4 . 8 7 (62.4) 29.34 . 9 6 * ( N = 8 9 ) >90 dB 6 8 . 5 7 (57.1) 28.53 . 9 6 * -(N=95) * C r o n b a c h ' s C o m p o s i t e A l p h a - 6 6 -T h e f i r s t g r o u p ( < 5 9 dB ) r a n g e d f r o m a n i t e m d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o f 8 6 . 4 ? i n n e g a t i o n t o 6 8 . 4 ? i n r e l a t i v i z a t i o n . S u c h h i g h mean s c o r e s a n d l o w s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t e s t w a s t o o e a s y f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s w i t h a m i l d t o m o d e r a t e h e a r i n g l o s s . T h e s e c o n d g r o u p 6 0 - 8 9 dB r e v e a l e d d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s f r o m 7 8 . 8 ? i n n e g a t i o n t o 5 5 - 1 ? i n v e r b p r o c e s s e s . T h e mean s c o r e s o f s e v e n o u t o f t h e n i n e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w e r e a b o v e t h e o p t i m a l d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l ( 4 0 - 6 0 ? ) o f a p s y c h o -m e t r i c a l l y g o o d t e s t . G r o u p t h r e e , ( > 9 0 d B ) , s c o r e d b e t w e e n 7 4 - 7 ? i t e m d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l i n n e g a t i o n t o 5 0 . 4 ? i n r e l a t i v i z a t i o n w i t h s c o r e s i n s i x o u t o f t h e n i n e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n o p t i m a l d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l s a n d d i s t r a c t o r i t e m s r e v e a l e d t h a t 4 2 ( 1 1 . 6 ? ) d i s t r a c t o r s d r e w n o s u b j e c t s i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p ( < 5 9 d B ) . T h e s c o r e s o f t h i s g r o u p o n t h r e e i t e m s w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . In i t e m # 3 ( Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n ) 48 s u b j e c t s c h o s e t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e (B) a n d o n l y 1 o u t o f t h e 4 9 s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d a d i s t r a c t o r i t e m . In i t e m #25 ( D e t e r m i n e r s ) , 42 c h o s e t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e (A) a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g s u b j e c t s ( 7 ) c h o s e d i s t r a c t o r i t e m B . In i t e m # 1 1 9 ( N o m i n a l i z a t i o n ) 4 5 c h o s e t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e (A) a n d 3 c h o s e t h e d i s t r a c t o r i t e m ( B ) . T h e d i s t r a c t o r i t e m s g e n e r a l l y w o r k e d w e l l f o r t h e o t h e r t w o g r o u p s w i t h o n l y t w o f a i l i n g t o a t t r a c t s u b j e c t s i n g r o u p t w o ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB) a n d t h r e e i n g r o u p t h r e e ( > 9 0 d B ) . E a c h h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p r e v e a l e d i t e m s w h e r e t h e d i s t r a c t o r d r e w m o r e o f t h e b e t t e r s u b j e c t s t h a n t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . In g r o u p o n e ( < 5 9 dB) i t e m #51 ( C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n ) 4 6 . 9 ? o f s u b j e c t s c h o s e d i s t r a c t o r (A) a n d 3 4 . 7 ? c h o s e t h e c o r r e c t i t e m C . T h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l - t o t a l t e s t w a s 0 . 2 3 f o r t h e d i s t r a c t o r a n d 0 . 0 1 f o r t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . In g r o u p t w o - 6 7 -( 6 0 - 8 9 dB) , i t e m s # 8 3 a n d 71 a r e w o r t h y o f n o t e . T h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l s -t o t a l t e s t f o r t h e s e i t e m s w e r e ; . 2 0 f o r t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e a n d .2k f o r d i s t r a c t o r i t e m D o n i t e m # 8 3 ( C o n j u n c t i o n ) , a n d . 1 1 f o r t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e a n d . 1 3 f o r d i s t r a c t o r i t e m B o n #71 ( R e l a t i v i z a t i o n ) . T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n o c c u r r e d o n i t e m # 1 1 3 ( N o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n ) f o r t h e p r o f o u n d h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p . ( 9 0 d B ) . In t h i s i t e m t h e p o i n t b i s e r i a l o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e w a s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e t o t a l t e s t s c o r e s - 0 . 0 5 , w h i l e t w o d i s t r a c t o r i t e m s (A & B) w e r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . 0 8 a n d . 1 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E A t w o w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m M U L T I V A R ( F i n n 1 9 7 8 ) w a s p e r f o r m e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e b o t h t h e u n i q u e a n d j o i n t e f f e c t s o f a g e ( 8 - 1 0 , 1 1 - 1 3 , 1 4 - 1 6 , 17+ y e a r s ) a n d s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s ( * 5 9 , 6 0 - 8 9 , > 9 0 dB) u p o n s u b j e c t p e r f o r m a n c e i n e a c h l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f f o r m 2 o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t . S c h e f f e ' s m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n p r o c e d u r e w a s a p p l i e d w h e r e v e r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e t e s t o f n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a m o n g g r o u p s o c c u r r e d a t t h e . 0 1 l e v e l . S i n c e t h e c e l l s i z e s w e r e n o t e q u a l , t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e o r d e r e d f o r t h e t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . A n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n a p p r o a c h ( O v e r a l l & S p i e g a l l 1 9 6 9 ) w a s a d o p t e d i n w h i c h a g e a n d s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s e n t e r e d t h e a n a l y s i s a t t h e s a m e l e v e l , f o l l o w e d b y t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n . T h u s t h e e f f e c t s o f a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s w e r e a d j u s t e d f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f e a c h o t h e r w h i l e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w a s a d j u s t e d f o r b o t h m a i n e f f e c t s . T o c o n t r o l f o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a T y p e 1 E r r o r , t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e a d o p t e d w a s a t t h e . 0 1 l e v e l a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n T a b l e X X V I I . In c o m p u t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p a i r w i s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a g e a n d h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p s , t h e - 68 -f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a w a s a d o p t e d t o o b t a i n t h e l i m i t s . F = X"l - X ? c o m p a r e d t o 2.qq F 2 , 221 = 2 x = 9-22 M s w n ^ a n d 2 . q 5 F 2 , 2 1 = 2 x 3 ' 0 0 = 6 - 0 0 A s t h e S c h e f f e t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s i t s e l f c o n s e r v a t i v e , p a i r w i s e d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e .01 a n d .05 l e v e l s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e X X V I I I . R e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s i n a l l s t r u c t u r e s e x c e p t n e g a t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n a n d v e r b p r o c e s s e s . C o n j u n c t i o n w a s t h e o n l y s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h a g e w a s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l a n d n o d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e r e c o r e d e d f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a g e x s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s i n a n y s t r u c t u r e . T a b l e XXVI11 s u m m a r i s e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s f o r a g e a n d s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s . T A B L E XXVI I Two Way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e  A g e - b y - S e v e r i t y o f H e a r i n g L o s s S o u r c e o f V a r i a b i l i t y d f MS F (1) N e g a t i o n A g e (A) 3 .6519 .9642 H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 1.9297 2.8564 A x AHL 6 .1457 .2157 Wi t h i n 221 .676 T o t a l 232 (2) C o n j u n c t i o n A g e (A ) 3 4.0062 8.0285** H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 2.1186 4.2457* A x AHL 6 0.2667 0.5344 W i t h i n 221 0.499 T o t a l 232 (3) D e t e r m i n e r s A g e (A) 3 .487 1.02 H e a r i n g L o s s 2 3.283 6.88** A x A H L 6 .237/ .496 W i t h i n 221 .477 T o t a l 232 - 6 9 -T A B L E XXVI I ( c o n t ' d ) S o u r c e o f V a r i a b i l i t y d f MS F ( 4 ) Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n A g e (A) 3 1 . 4 5 3 2 . 1 9 H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 5 . 8 1 1 8 . 7 3 3 * * A x AHL 6 • 5 1 2 • 7 7 0 W i t h i n 2 2 1 . 6 6 5 T o t a l 2 3 2 ( 5 ) V e r b P r o c e s s e s A g e (A) 3 2.004 3 . 2 7 6 2 H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 2 . 3 9 5 3 . 9 1 5 * A x AHL 6 . 4 0 9 . 6 6 8 Wi t h i n 2 2 1 . 6 1 2 T o t a l 2 3 2 ( 6 ) P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n A g e (A) 3 0 . 9 1 3 2 . 1 3 7 H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 2 . 7 4 4 6 . 4 2 5 * * A x AHL 6 • 5 3 3 1.248 Wi t h i n 2 2 1 . 4 2 7 T o t a l 2 3 2 ( 7 ) R e l a t i v i z a t i o n A g e (A ) 3 1 . 0 0 7 2 . 6 0 9 * H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 3 . 0 5 8 7 . 9 2 1 * * A x AHL 6 . 2 8 7 . 7 4 3 W i t h i n 2 2 1 . 3 8 6 T o t a l 2 3 2 ( 8 ) C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n A g e (A) 3 . 3 6 4 • 9 0 7 H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 4 . 7 2 1 1 1 . 7 6 0 * * A x AHL 6 .248 . 6 1 8 W i t h i n 2 2 1 .401 T o t a l 2 3 2 ( 9 ) N o m i n a l i z a t i o n A g e (A) 3 . 6 2 4 1 . 6 5 9 H e a r i n g L o s s ( A H L ) 2 3 . 4 0 5 9 . 0 5 * A x AHL 6 0 . 1 2 7 • 3 3 7 Wi t h i n 2 2 1 . 3 7 6 T o t a l 2 3 2 * * p <•. 0 1 * p « r . 0 5 - 70 -T A B L E XXVI I I Summary o f S i g n i f i c a n t P a i r w i s e D i f f e r e n c e s  A g e a n d S e v e r i t y o f H e a r i n g L o s s F a c t o r N e g a t i o n C o n j u n c t i o n D e t e r m i n e r s Q u e s t i o n V e r b F o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s e s A g e ( 8 - 1 0 ) 1 4 - 1 6 ) ( 8 - 1 0 ) < ( 1 7 + ) S e v e r i t y ( V 5 9 ) > ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) * ( < 5 9 ) > ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) * o f H e a r i n g L o s s C < - 5 9 ) > ( ? 9 0 ) * * ( < 5 9 ) > ( > 9 0 ) * * , F a c t o r P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n R e l a t i v i z a t i o n C o m p 1 e m e n t a t i o n N o m i n a l i z a t i o n A g e S e v e r i t y o f H e a r i ng L o s s ( < - 5 9 ) > ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) * C * - 5 9 ) > ( ? 9 0 ) * * ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) > ( > 9 0 ) * ' ( ' < 5 9 ) > ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) * ( < 5 9 ) > ( > 9 0 ) * * ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) > ( > 9 0 ) * ( < - 5 9 ) > ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) * * C< - 5 9 ) > ( > 9 0 ) * * ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) > ( > 9 0 ) * ( < - 5 9 ) > ( 6 0 - 8 9 ) * * ( < - 5 9 ) > ( > 9 0 ) * * N o t e : 1 . F o r a n y s t r u c t u r e ( < 5 9 ) ( ? 9 0 ) m e a n s t h a t t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e f o r t h e <5 9 dB h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e ? 9 0 dB g r o u p . 2 . * p < . 0 1 ** p < . 0 5 C O R R E L A T I O N A L A N A L Y S I S E m p i r i c a l o r p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t r e f e r s t o t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h r e s u l t s o n t h a t t e s t a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r . In t h e c a s e o f t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t , we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n how w e l l s t r u c t u r e s c o r e s o n t h a t t e s t r e l a t e t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t t e s t s i n t h e d i a g n o s t i c b a t t e r y . In o t h e r w o r d s how w e l l d o e s a s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e o n t h e n e g a t i o n i t e m s i n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t p r e d i c t h i s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e a n d c o m p r e h e n d n e g a t i o n a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e n e g a t i o n t e s t i n t h e d i a g n o s t i c b a t t e r y . A s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e a l l s u b j e c t s w h o w r o t e t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w e r e g i v e n f o u r d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s . T h e t w e n t y t e s t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o o n e o f f i v e s e t s a n d t h e n s i m i l a r l y a s s i g n e d o n e o f f o u r o r d e r s ( s e e T a b l e V I M ) . S u b j e c t r e s u l t s o n t h o s e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t e s t s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e s u l t s o n F o r m 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t u s i n g t h e S P S S S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( N i e e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . T a b l e X X I X i l l u s t r a t e s w h i c h d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n e a c h s e t , a n d how many s t u d e n t s i n e a c h h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p w r o t e t h e t e s t s . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t f i v e s t u d e n t s w h o w r o t e t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e f o u r d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s o f a n y s e t a n d h e n c e c o u l d n o t b e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . T A B L E X X I X D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s b y S e t a n d P o p u l a t i o n  A s s i g n e d t h r o u g h M u l t i p l e S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s S e t 1 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p 1 ( < 5 9 dB) H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p 2 ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB) H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p 3 ( ? 9 0 dB) N = 3 8 N = 46 N = 6 N = 6 N = 1 9 N = 1 7 N = 1 3 N = 2 3 N = 41 N = 5 2 N = 7 N = 14 N = 18 N = 17 N = 16 N = 21 N = 5 0 N = 15 N = 1 5 N = 2 0 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s ( S c r e e n S t r u c t u r e s ) N e g a t i o n ( N e g . ) P o s s . A d j . ( P r o n o m . ) M a i n V e r b s , L i n k i n g S A u x . ( V . P . ) E m b e d d i ng ( R e l . ) C o n j u n c t i o n ( C o n j . ) R e f l e x i v e s ( P r o n o m . ) , T h a t C o m p l e m e n t ( C o m p . ) R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s S A d v e r b s ( R e l . ) W h - w o r d s ( Q . F . ) P o s s . P r o n o u n s ( P r o n o m . ) I n f i n . & G e r u n d s ( C o m p . ) C o m p r e h 1 n ( R e l . ) A n s w e r E n v i r o n m e n t ( Q . F . ) D e t e r m i n e r s ( D e t . ) F o r w a r d 6 B a c k w a r d P r o n o m . ( P r o n o m . ) V . S e q . i n C o n j . S t r u c . ( V . P . ) Y e s / N o Q u e s t i o n s ( Q . F . ) P a s s i v e V o i c e ( V . P . ) D i s j . & A l t e r n . ( C o n j . ) Nomi n a 1 i z -a t i o n (Norn . ) - 72 -B e c a u s e s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s w a s f o u n d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m o s t s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s , t h e s c o r e s f r o m t h e s c r e e n -i n g t e s t a n d t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d f o r t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p s . T h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e X X I X p r e v e n t e d m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s f r o m b e i n g p e r f o r m e d w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . In f a c t , n u m b e r s i n t h e m i l d t o m o d e r a t e (*5S dB) h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p w e r e t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e d a t a , a n d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l n o t b e r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t e x t . H o w e v e r , t h e t a b l e s f o r t h i s g r o u p h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x C , a s t h e y d o p r o v i d e a p r e l i m i n a r y l o o k a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s . Z e r o o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g t w o g r o u p s a n d t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n a r e p r o v i d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . C a u t i o n s h o u l d b e e x e r c i s e d w h e n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e t a b l e s f o r t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , a s t h e s e r e s u l t s i n c o r p o r a t e t h o s e o f t h e m i l d t o m o d e r a t e h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p . C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r G r o u p 3 , t h e p r o f o u n d ( > 9 0 dB) h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p a r e r e p o r t e d f i r s t i n T a b l e s X X X , XXX I a n d X X X I I a s t h i s g r o u p h a s t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . T a b l e XXX r e v e a l s t h a t c o r -r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s c r e e n i n g t e s t s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e p r o f o u n d l y d e a f s t u d e n t s w e r e a l l a b o v e .61 w i t h a r a n g e b e t w e e n .613 ( N e g a t i o n w i t h R e l a t i v i z a t i o n ) a n d .824 ( V e r b P r o c e s s e s w i t h Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n ) . H i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e t o b e f o u n d a l s o i n T a b l e XXX I w h i c h r e p o r t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f s c r e e n -i n g t e s t s c o r e s w i t h t h o s e o n t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s . In t h i s t a b l e , a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a b o v e .77 w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f s c r e e n v a r i a b l e 8 ( c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n ) a n d d i a g n o s t i c t e s t 18 ( t h a t c o m p l e m e n t s ) w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d a t .686, a n d s c r e e n v a r i a b l e 9 ( n o m i n a l i z a t i o n ) a n d t h e n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n t e s t w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d a t . 5 3 5 - A g a i n w i t h t h e a b o v e t w o e x c e p t i o n s , t h e s c r e e n -i n g t e s t s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h l y w i t h d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w h i c h m e a s u r e d t h e s a m e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e . - 7 3 -T A B L E XXX C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s , a n d T e s t O r d e r  o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 f o r t h e P r o f o u n d H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (>90 dB ) N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q .F. V . P . P r o n . R e l . Comp. Norn. T . T . T . O . n 9 5 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 x 6.72 6 : 3 6 9.16 6.80 5.18 5-47 9-57 9-87 9-44 68.57 (Prop)(.747) (.578)(.654)(.618)(.518)(.547)(.504)(.548)(.524)(.571) SD 2 .82 2 9 2 3 . 7 5 3 .44 3 .14 2.83 4.40 4 .66 4 40 28.53 N e g . ( .88) C o n j . 0 • 69 ( 78) D e t . 0 .69 0 .71 ( .84) Q .F. 0 .80 0 77 0 . 7 9 ( .86) V . P . 0 .71 0 79 0 ,80 0 . 8 2 ( .85) P r o n . 0 .74 0 70 0 .77 0 .74 0 .76 (.78) R e l . 0 . 6 1 0 72 0 .75 0 • 75 0 .82 0.75 (.82) C o m p . 0 • 70 0 72 0 .82 0 .79 0 . 8 0 0.75 0 .81 ( . 8 5 ) Norn. 0 .62 0 68 0 .74 0 .78 0 • 77 0.69 0.76 0 .74 ( .84) T . T . 0 . 8 1 0 85 0 .90 0 • 9 1 0 • 9 2 0.86 0 . 8 9 0 • 91 0 .87 (.96)* T . O . - 0 .03 0. 10 0 00 0 0 8 0 0 6 -0.05 0.00 0 00 0. 02 0.02 1 N o t e : ( ) r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e s c o m p u t e d u s i n g H o y t ' s A n o v a . ( )•'' r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e u s i n g C r o n b a c h ' s Compos i t e A l p h a . T A B L E XXXI C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 2) a n d t h e TSA D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e P r o f o u n d H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (>90 dB) D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 n 13 23 20 21 17 21 20 22 13 20 13 23 17 21 16 2 3 1 3 24 17 20 X(p ) • 69 • 69 .61 .57 .66 .58 .67 • 65 • 52 • 55 • 51 .61 • 75 • 49 .64 .47 • 35 .43 .63 .61 SD(p) • 31 .23 .24 .27 .23 .26 • 25 .29 .24 • 32 . 2 9 . 2 6 .25 . 2 8 .21 . 1 9 • 30 .22 .24 . 2 5 N e g . EH .78 .57 .72 .74 • 75 .63 • 76 • 74 .75 .59 .81 • 93* .78 .63 .60 .45 .54 .75 .46 C o n j . • 70 .84 .78 • 71 .71 • 71 • 72 .68 .81 .64 • 69 • 75 .76 .86* • 50 .75 .78 .68 • 71 .54 D e t . .68 .86 .61 ra • 8 7 .90* .86 .81 • 69 • 69 .58 .84 .83 • 75 • 72 • 79 .65 .70 .73 • 31 Q . F . .78 .84 .57 • 79 . 8 2 .88 .89 .82 .84 .84 .61 . 8 2 . 9 1 * .83 .62 .76 • 71 .69 .80 .54 V . P . .75 • 8 3 • 71 .83 .86 .85 . 8 0 . 8 2 .90* • 8 9 .88 • 77 .84 .84 • 59 .82 .83 .61 .84 .57 P r o n . .76 • 67 • 70 .82 .73 .89* .69 . 8 9 * . 8 9 * • 77 .78 • 79 .88 . 8 0 .77 .68 .77 .68 .76 • 31 R e l . • 72 . 8 0 • 79 . 7 8 .77 . 8 0 • 7 2 .75 • 95* .78 . 8 0 .85 .76 . 8 2 .81 . 8 2 • 8 9 . 7 0 • 77 • 52 C o m p . • 74 . 8 7 .75 .86 .90* .87 .78 .78 .88 .88 • 75 .85 .76 • 7 2 • 67 • 7 8 .86 • 7 0 .84| .40 Norn. .47 .88* .48 .74 .81 . 8 2 • 74 .74 .74 .60 • 67 .85 .74 . 8 2 • 55 . 8 0 • 7 8 .66 .66 P5*l * - s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n | | - D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e S c r e e n S t r u c t u r e ( a r e a s w h e r e t h e s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d b e a n t i c i p a t e d ) D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s : - 1 N e g a t i o n 8 V e r b S e q u e n c e i n 14 F o r w a r d S B a c k w a r d 18 T h a t - C o m p l e m e n t s 2 C o n j u n c t i o n C o n j o i n e d S t r u c t u r e s P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 19 I n f i n i t i v e s & 3 D i s j u n c t i o n & 9 M a i n V e r b s , L i n k i n g 15 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n - G e r u n d s A l t e r n a t i o n V e r b s & A u x i l i a r i e s C o m p r e h e n s i o n 20 N o m i n a l i z a t i o n 4 D e t e r m i n e r s 10 P a s s i v e V o i c e 16 R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s 5 W h - w o r d s 11 P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e s S A d v e r b s 6 A n s w e r 12 R e f l e x i v e s 17 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n -E n v i r o n m e n t s 13 P o s s e s s i v e P r o n o u n s E m b e d d i n g 7 Y e s / N o Q u e s t i o n s T A B L E XXX I I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e T S A D i a g n o s i t i c T e s t s f o r t h e P r o f o u n d H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p ( > 9 0 dB) D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ]k 15 16 17 18 19 20 n 13 23 20 21 16 21 20 21 13 20 13 23 16 21 16 23 13 23 16 20 X ( p ) . 6 9 . 6 9 .61 • 5 7 . 6 6 . 5 8 • 67 .6k . 5 2 • 5 5 • 51 . 6 1 • 75 . 4 9 .6k . 4 7 . 3 5 . 4 4 . 6 2 . 6 1 S D ( p ) • 31 . 2 3 . 2 4 . 2 7 .2k . 2 6 . 2 5 . 2 9 .2k • 32 . 2 9 . 2 6 • 2 5 . 2 8 .21 . 1 9 • 30 . 2 3 . 2 5 . 2 5 1 1 . 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 3 1 . 0 0 4 1 . 0 0 5 1 . 0 0 6 . 9 6 1 . 0 0 7 . 6 6 1 . 0 0 8 . 9 0 . 9 4 1 . 0 0 9 . 8 0 1 . 0 0 1 0 . 6 8 . 7 5 1 . 0 0 11 . 6 0 . 7 8 1 . 0 0 12 . 8 8 1 . 0 0 1 3 . 8 7 1 . 0 0 14 . 8 2 . 8 2 . 8 5 1 . 0 0 15 . 7 4 ' . 7 5 1 . 0 0 1 6 . 8 2 . 8 4 l . o o 1 7 . 4 3 . 8 2 . 7 8 1 . 0 0 1 8 - 7 4 . 7 9 . 8 2 1 . 0 0 19 . 8 3 . 8 0 . 6 5 1 . 0 0 2 0 1 5 4 . 5 8 JKL - 7 6 -W h e r e we m i g h t e x p e c t t h e s e h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s c r e e n v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e e q u i v a l e n t d i a g n o s t i c t e s t , o f t e n t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d w i t h d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s . F o r e x a m p l e , n e g a t i o n o n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e n e g a t i o n d i a g n o s t i c t e s t a t . 8 7 4 b u t w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s t e s t a t . 9 2 6 . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s a y t o o much a b o u t t h e s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s a t t h i s t i m e h o w e v e r , a s a l l c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s o h i g h , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s i s s m a l l f o r e a c h g r o u p i n t h i s s t u d y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s u c h o v e r a l l m o d e r a t e t o s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t a common u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r may b e p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s . I f a s u b j e c t d o e s w e l l o n o n e s t r u c t u r e h e w i l l p r o b a b l y d o w e l l o n a l l s t r u c t u r e s , b u t a l o w p e r f o r m a n c e i n o n e a r e a w i l l g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e a l o w p e r f o r m a n c e o v e r a l l . T a b l e X X X I I r e p o r t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t w h e r e v e r d a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e a n d a g a i n t h i s h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n p a t t e r n c a n b e n o t e d . T a b l e s X X X I I I , X X X I V a n d XXXV p r o v i d e s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n a s t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s t a b l e s f o r s u b j e c t s i n t h e m o d e r a t e t o s e v e r e h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r y ( 6 0 - 8 9 d B ) . A g a i n c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e m o d e r a t e t o s t r o n g w i t h i n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t i t s e l f , ( T a b l e X X X I I I ) a n d b e t w e e n t h e t e s t a n d t h e d i a g n o s t i c b a t t e r y ( T a b l e X X X I V ) . S y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many c a s e s w h e n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s s t r o n g -e s t b e t w e e n a s t r u c t u r e a n d a d i a g n o s t i c t e s t w h i c h m e a s u r e s a d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e . T h e s t r u c t u r e , V e r b P r o c e s s e s , f o r e x a m p l e , c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t m e a s u r i n g t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o c o m p r e h e n d a n d r e c o g n i z e y e s / n o q u e s t i o n f o r m s a t t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h l e v e l o f . 9 2 9 w h i l e i t c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t e s t s m e a s u r i n g a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e v e r b s e q u e n c e s i n c o n j o i n e d s t r u c t u r e s ; a n d m a i n v e r b s , l i n k i n g v e r b s a n d a u x i l i a r i e s a t . 7 2 6 a n d . 7 7 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o r r e l a t i o n s r e m a i n h i g h i n T a b l e s XXXV w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l m a t r i x o f t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s t h e m s e l v e s . - 77 -T A B L E XXXI I I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s a n d T e s t O r d e r  o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 f o r t h e M a r k e d - S e v e r e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB ) N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q . F . V . P . P r o n . R e l . Comp. Norn. T . T . T . O . n 89 89 89 89 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 89 X ( P r o p . ) ( 7-09 .788)( 6.76 -615)( 9.96 7.42 .711)(.675)( 5-51 -551)( 6.18 10.66 11 .29 10.00 74.87 .618)(.561)(.627)(.556)(.624) SD 2.44 3 - 2 5 3.54 3.54 3.07 2.52 5-07 4.74 4.84 29.34 N e g . (.84) C o n j . 0.63 (.84) D e t . 0.82 0.71 (.83) Q . F . 0 . 8 0 0.72 0.82 (.89) V . P . 0.74 0.74 0.81 0.81 (.83) P r o n . 0.65 0.72 0.74 0.75 0.69 (.72) R e l . 0.67 0.75 0.77 0.77 0.81 0.76 (.88) C o m p . 0.76 0.72 0.81 0.86 0.84 0.73 0.82 ( . 8 7 ) Norn. 0.63 0.68 0.72 0.76 0.76 0.71 0.79 0.81 (.88) T . T . 0 . 8 2 0.84 0.90 0 . 9 2 0 .91 0.84 0.91 0.93 0.88 ( . 9 6 ) -A. T . O . 0.02 0.07 0.01 -0.02 -0.10 0.02 -0.07 -0.09 -0.07 -0.04 1 .00 N o t e : ( ) r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e s c o m p u t e d u s i n g H o y t ' s A n o v a . ( ) * r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e u s i n g C r o n b a c h ' s Compos i t e A l p h a . T A B L E X X X I V C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 2 ) a n d  t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e M a r k e d - S e v e r e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB ) D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 \k 15 16 17 18 19 20 n 20 17 17 17 18 17 17 17 20 15 19 17 18 17 18 17 19 17 18 17 X ( p ) .68 .68 .61 .78 .78 .70 .62 .75 .59 .50 .56 .68 .78 • 70 .65 .57 .ko .56 .66 .61 SD(p) .27 . 2 5 .27 . 1 9 .21 .22 • 33 .24 .2k • 2 9 .26 .26 .20 .2k .21 .26 .30 .32 .18 .27 N e g . . 8 0 . 7 4 . 7 7 . 7 3 C o n j . .8k . 7 1 . • 8 5 . 6 2 • 9 1 D e t . • 91 . 8 2 . 8 6 . 8 1 . 7 9 Q . F . . 9 0 . 7 6 . 8 3 • 8 3 • 91 V . P . . 6 7 . 6 7 • 91 • 7 2 • 91 P r o n . • 6 9 .64 . 8 0 . 7 1 . 7 5 R e l . . 7 3 . 7 6 .81 .84 . 6 8 C o m p . . 7 0 .81 . 8 7 . 6 5 . 8 7 Norn. . 6 7 . 7 7 • 71 . 5 0 • 7 0 .75 . 8 1 .76 .66 .74 .73 . 9 2 .84 . 8 2 . 8 6 . 9 4 * . 8 8 • 70 .85 .84 .87 . 7 9 . 9 3 * 1 - 7 3 - 7 7 . 8 2 . 7 5 . 7 4 . 8 0 . 9 2 * . 7 6 . 8 1 . 8 8 . 8 0 . 8 6 . 7 4 . 7 8 . 7 3 - 7 8 . 6 2 . 8 3 • 7 4 . 3 9 • 7 2 . 5 6 . 8 2 . 5 6 . 8 9 . 5 6 T92| . 4 7 .78 • 74 . 8 0 . 8 8 .'71 . 6 0 .84 . 6 7 . 8 3 • 7 3 •65 -59 -67 .64 . 7 3 . 5 2 .84 . 3 5 . 6 6 . 3 8 . 8 3 . 8 1 • 7 7 .64 .65 . 7 3 . 6 9 .63 .69 .77 .67 [ 8 2 . 8 2 .71 • 5 8 .54 . 6 6 . 6 1 . 6 2 . 8 1 • 7 0 . 8 0 . 8 2 . 8 7 . 9 2 . 8 2 . 6 9 1.81 .87 • 7 3 .64 . 8 5 . 8 7 5 2 .84* . 6 9 78 . 8 1 .77 67 .93* .79 7 8 . 9 2 . 7 8 8 3 . 8 7 .91 83* .64 . 8 3 90) .91 .81 88 1.91* . 8 9 .65 .67 .74 • 79 .87 • 72 .63 .87 . 9 0 . 9 1 * .84 . 8 3 * - s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s : 1 f I - D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e S c r e e n S t r u c t u r e ( a r e a s w h e r e t h e s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d ) 1 N e g a t i o n 2 C o n j u n c t i o n 3 D i s j u n c t i o n S A l t e r n a t i o n 4 D e t e r m i n e r s 5 W h - w o r d s 6 . A n s w e r E n v i r o n m e n t s 7 Y e s / N o Q u e s t i o n s 8 V e r b S e q u e n c e i n C o n j o i n e d S t r u c t u r e s 9 M a i n V e r b s , L i n k i n g V e r b s S A u x i 1 i a r i e s 10 P a s s i v e V o i c e 11 P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e s 12 R e f l e x i v e s 13 P o s s e s s i v e P r o n o u n s 17 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n -14 F o r w a r d s B a c k w a r d E m b e d d i n g P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 15 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n -C o m p r e h e n s i o n 16 R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s & A d v e r b s 1 8 T h a t - C o m p l e m e n t s 19 I n f i n i t i v e s & G e r u n d s 2 0 N o m i n a l i z a t i o n TABLE XXXV C o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e TSA D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e M a r k e d - S e v e r e H e a r i n g Loss Group ( 6 0 - 8 9 dB) D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 8 19 2 0 D 19 17 15 1 7 1 8 1 7 15 17 19 15 19 17 18 1 7 1 8 1 7 19 1 7 1 8 15 X( P ) . 6 8 . - 6 8 . 5 7 . 7 8 . 7 8 . 6 9 . 5 8 . 7 5 . 5 9 - 5 0 . 5 6 . 6 8 . 7 8 . 7 0 . 6 5 . 5 7 . 4 0 . 5 6 . 6 6 . 5 6 SD(p) . 2 8 . 2 5 . 2 7 . 1 9 - 2 1 . 2 2 . 3 2 . 2 4 . 2 5 . 2 9 - 2 6 . 2 6 . 2 0 . 2 4 . 2 1 . 2 6 . 3 0 . 3 2 . 1 8 . 2 6 1 1 . 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 3 1 . 0 0 4 1 . 0 0 5 1 . 0 0 6 . 8 9 1 . 0 0 7 . 8 1 1 . 0 0 8 . 8 6 . 8 2 1 . 0 0 9 . 8 6 1 . 0 0 10 . 8 3 . 9 2 1 . 0 0 11 . 6 5 . 5 0 1 . 0 0 1 2 . 7 9 1 . 0 0 13 . 7 4 1 . 0 0 14 . 7 1 . 8 2 . 6 7 1 . 0 0 15 . 6 4 . 6 8 1 . 0 0 16 . 7 5 . 9 2 1 . 0 0 1 7 . 6 6 . 7 8 . 4 9 1 . 0 0 1 8 . 7 8 . 8 7 . 9 4 1 . 0 0 19 . 7 7 . 7 2 . 8 6 1 . 0 0 2 0 .00 . 7 8 . 7 3 L O O T A B L E XXXVI C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 2)  a n d t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 5 16 1 7 18 19 2 0 n 3 9 46 5 2 5 2 42 5 2 5 3 5 3 3 9 51 3 8 46 42 5 2 41 46 3 8 4 7 42 5 3 X(p ) • 7 2 • 7 0 .66 . 6 8 . 7 6 .66 . 6 8 • 7 2 . 6 0 . 5 7 . 5 5 .66 . 7 7 . 6 2 . 6 7 . 5 4 .42 . 5 3 . 6 8 . 6 5 SD(p) . 2 8 .24 . 2 5 . 2 6 . 2 3 . 2 5 . 2 7 . 2 6 .24 . 2 9 . 2 6 . 2 6 . 2 1 . 2 8 . 2 1 .24 . 2 9 . 2 9 . 2 1 . 2 5 D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q . F . V . P . P r o n . R e l . C o m p . Norn. 8 5 - . 7 8 .73 1-77 .81 .83 .85 .83 .74 .76 .99* .69 .74 .76 .72 .84 .63 . 8 0 .69 .77 .68 780] .74 .71 .78 |__] .82 .76 .84 |_85_ . 7 7 . 7 4 .90* . 7 5 . 7 8 7 4 . 7 5 . 8 5 . 8 2 .88 .90* .85 . 8 3 . 8 5 . 8 1 . 8 5 . 8 7 | _ 8 _ . 7 8 . 8 0 . 7 4 . 8 6 . 7 3 . 8 5 . 8 3 . 8 5 . 6 8 . 8 7 . 7 6 .81 . 8 5 . 8 5 . 8 8 * . 8 7 . 8 3 . 8 0 . 6 8 . 7 2 . 7 0 . 8 2 . 7 8 . 7 5 .73 -72 .46 .79 -78 .81* .69 .59 -72 .74 . 8 0 .74 .56 .81 .73 .87 .85 -57 .85 .84 .84 , 8 9 * | .58 .76 .76 . 8 0 .72 1 . 6 6 . 8 9 . 7 4 . 6 1 . 8 3 . 8 3 . 5 1 . 8 1 . 6 8 . 4 7 11 - 7 6 . 7 8 . 8 5 . 8 0 .67 • 70 • 71 • 77 .77 .81 .84 .84 J o .86 • 79 • 79 • 59 .68 • 50 .63 • 73 .61 .64 • 76 .78 .70 .70 .66 • 69 .77 • 70 • 72 .77 .62 .63 .82 .77 .76 .78 • 72 • 74 . 8 0 . 8 2 • 71 .85 .76 • 71 .69 • 75 .66 .75 .58 .81 .85 .90*| . 8 0 .75 .68 • 70 .83 .87 .79 .85 • 71 .64 .81 . 8 3 * .75 .74 .74 * - s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n D i a g n o s t i c T e s t : | |- D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e S c r e e n S t r u c t u r e ( a r e a s w h e r e t h e s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d b e a n t i c i p a t e d ) 1 N e g a t i o n 2 C o n j u n c t i o n 3 D i s j u n c t i o n S A l t e r n a t i o n 4 D e t e r m i n e r s 5 W h - w o r d s 6 A n s w e r E n v i r o n m e n t s 7 Y e s / N o Q u e s t i o n s 8 V e r b S e q u e n c e s i n C o n j o i n e d S t r u c t u r e s 9 M a i n V e r b s , L i n k i n g V e r b s S A u x i 1 i a r i e s 10 P a s s i v e V o i c e 11 P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e s 12 R e f l e x i v e s 13 P o s s e s s i v e P r o n o u n s 17 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 14 F o r w a r d £ B a c k w a r d P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n 15 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n -C o m p r e h e n s i o n 16 R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s & A d v e r b s E m b e d d i ng 18 T h a t - C o m p l e m e n t s 19 I n f i n i t i v e s S G e r u n d s 20 Nomi n a 1 i z a t i o n T A B L E XXXVI I C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e TSA D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 5 16 17 18 19 20 n 38 46 50 52 41 52 50 52 38 50 38 46 41 52 41 46 38 46 41 50 X(p) • 72 • 70 .65 .68 .76 .66 .67 • 71 . 6 0 • 57 .55 .66 ,77 .62 .67 .53 .42 .53 .68 .63 SD(p) . 2 8 .25 .26 • 23 .25 .27 .26 .25 . 2 9 .26 .26 .26 .21 . 2 8 .21 .24 . 2 9 .29 .21 .24 1 1 . 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 3 1 . 0 0 4 1 . 0 0 5 1 . 0 0 6 .93 1 . 0 0 7 1 . 0 0 8 .89 .91 1 . 0 0 9 .84 1 . 0 0 10 .81 1 . 0 0 11 .59 1 . 0 0 12 .84 1 . 0 0 13 .76 1 . 0 0 14 .84 .87 . 8 2 1 . 0 0 15 .69 1 . 0 0 16 .79 . 8 8 .70 1 . 0 0 17 . 5 9 . 8 0 .61 1 . 0 0 18 . 7 6 .84 . 9 1 1 . 0 0 19 . 8 0 . 7 3 - 7 7 1 . 0 0 2 0 . 7 3 . 6 9 . K 0 0 - 8 2 -F i n a l l y t h e p a t t e r n o f h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s c o n t i n u e s i n T a b l e X X X V I a n d X X X V I I w h i c h p r o v i d e d a t a o n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h e m a t r i x f o r c o r r e l -a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t i t s e l f w a s r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r i n T a b l e X X I V , w h e r e m o s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e a b o v e .1. T a b l e s X X X V I a n d X X X V I I a g a i n i n d i c a t e m o d e r a t e t o s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s l e n d i n g s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e may b e o n e common f a c t o r u n d e r l y i n g a l l t e s t s . W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e n u m b e r s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e s m a l l , t h e h i g h i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s t r u c t u r e s , s c r e e n a n d d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s , a n d t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s t h e m s e l v e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t a n d w a r r a n t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e t e s t o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y d o e s p r o -v i d e a d i a g n o s t i c f u n c t i o n o r w h e t h e r i t m e r e l y g i v e s a g l o b a l i n d i c a t i o n o f w h e t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t i s p r o f i c i e n t o r l a c k i n g i n t h e a r e a o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y . In o t h e r w o r d s , w i l l t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t p r o v i d e a m e a n i n g f u l p r o f i l e o f a s t u d e n t ' s s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y b y p o i n t i n g o u t h i s s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o n t h e n i n e s t r u c t u r e s t e s t e d , o r w i l l i t m e r e l y i n d i c a t e t h e s t u d e n t ' s g e n e r a l l e v e l o f s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n i n g ? F i g u r e s 1 , 2 a n d 3 p r o v i d e p r o f i l e s f o r 5 s t u d e n t s i n e a c h o f t h e h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s . S t u d e n t s w e r e r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d u s i n g a t a b l e o f r a n d o m n u m b e r s a n d t h e i r s c o r e s w e r e c h a n g e d t o s t a n d a r d s c o r e s w i t h a mean o f 5 0 a n d a S . D . o f 1 0 . I n d i c a t i o n s f r o m t h e s e p r o f i l e s a r e t h a t f o r a l l h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p s , s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o s c o r e a r o u n d t h e s a m e l e v e l a c r o s s t h e n i n e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s . S u c h a s c o r i n g p a t t e r n r e s u l t s i n a f a i r l y f l a t p r o f i l e w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f l u c t u a t i o n s may b e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e a n d c o m p r e h e n d t h e s t r u c t u r e b e i n g t e s t e d . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e p r o f i l e s a g a i n p o s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t w i l l p r o v i d e d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n o n a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y - 8 3 -t o h a n d l e p a r t i c l u l a r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o r m e r e l y p r o v i d e t h e t e a c h e r w i t h a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s l e v e l o f s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n i n g . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o e x p l o r e t h i s q u e s t i o n , a s t h e n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y d o e s n o t p e r m i t t h e n e c e s s a r y a n a l y s i s . F I G U R E 1 S t u d e n t P r o f i l e s ( < 5 9 dB) in 1_ O o i n 100 9 0 8 0 70 6 0 5 0 4 0 30 2 0 10 0 S t u d e n t 2 • • 4 o 0 5 * « 2 3 ^ 5 6 S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s 10 1 N e g a t i o n 6 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n 2 C o n j u n c t i o n 7 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 3 D e t e r m i n e r s 8 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n k Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 9 Nomi n a 1 i z a t i o n 5 V e r b P r o c e s s e s - 8k -1 N e g a t i o n 2 C o n j u n c t i o n 3 D e t e r m i n e r s k Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 5 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 6 P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 7 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 8 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 9 Nomi n a l i z a t i o n - 85 -1 N e g a t i o n 2 C o n j u n c t i o n 3 D e t e r m i n e r s h Q u e s t i o n F o r m a t i o n 5 V e r b P r o c e s s e s 6 P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n 7 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n 8 C o m p l e m e n t a t i o n 9 N o m i n a l i z a t i o n - 8 6 -SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION In t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t o f t h e T e s t S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s ( F o r m s 1 a n d 2 ) , a n d f o u r r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d t e s t s o f t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 2 3 3 p r e l i n g u a l l y h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S u b j e c t s w e r e a g e d b e t w e e n e i g h t a n d n i n e t e e n y e a r s a n d t h e i r s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s r a n g e d f r o m a m i l d t o a p r o f o u n d d e g r e e . One p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t , w h i l e t h e o t h e r e x p l o r e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a g e a n d / o r s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s a f f e c t e d a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e a n d c o m p r e h e n d t h e m a i n s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . B o t h F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w e r e s c o r e d a n d a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e t e s t a n a l y s i s p a c k a g e , L E R T A P ( N e l s o n 1 9 7 4 ) . R e s u l t s o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s s h o w e d t h a t m e a s u r e s o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( H o y t ' s A n o v a ) r a n g e d f r o m . 8 2 t o . 8 9 f o r t h e n i n e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h m a k e up t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d . 9 5 a n d . 9 6 ( C r o n b a c h ' s C o m p o s i t e A l p h a ) f o r t h e t o t a l t e s t o n F o r m s 1 a n d 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . S u c h h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s s u p p o r t Q u i g l e y ' s c l a i m t h a t t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t i s a h i g h l y r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r m e a s u r i n g s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e q u i v a l e n t f o r m s r e l i a b i l i t y r e v e a l e d t h a t F o r m s 1 a n d 2 o f t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t w e r e c o n t e n t p a r a l l e l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t r u c t u r e t e s t e d a n d t h e l i n g u i s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n t h a t s t r u c t u r e . A l l b e t w e e n f o r m c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e h i g h a n d t e s t o r d e r w a s n o t n o t e d t o m a k e a n y d i f f e r e n c e t o p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s . T h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t m e a s u r e d a l l t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y . T h e s e s t r u c t u r e s w e r e s e l e c t e d b e c a s u s e t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e n i n e b a s i c s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h : - v i z n e g a t i o n , c o n j u n c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g d i s j u n c t i o n a n d a l t e r n a t i o n ) , d e t e r m i n e r s , q u e s t i o n - 87 -f o r m a t i o n , v e r b p r o c e s s e s , p r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n , r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t -a t i o n , a n d n o m i n a l i z a t i o n . W h i l e t h e n i n e s t r u c t u r e s w e r e n o t s a m p l e d w i t h t h e same f r e q u e n c y o r i n a l l e n v i r o n m e n t s c o v e r e d i n t h e d i a g n o s t i c b a t t e r y , a s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s w a s i n c l u d e d t o p r o v i d e g o o d c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y f o r a s c r e e n i n g t e s t . I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e i t e m a n a l y s i s d a t a r e v e a l e d a mean i t e m d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l o f 63% a c r o s s b o t h s c r e e n i n g t e s t f o r m s f o r t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , a n d l e v e l s o f 75, 63 a n d 57 p e r c e n t f o r t h e m i l d - m o d e r a t e , (<59 d B ) , m a r k e d -s e v e r e , (60-89 d B ) , a n d p r o f o u n d (>90 d B ) c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e d a t a s h o w a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s a s t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e h e a r i n g l o s s i n c r e a s e s . W h i l e t h e mean i t e m d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l f o r t h e p r o f o u n d g r o u p (57%) c o m p a r e s f a v o u r a b l y w i t h Q u i g l e y ' s f i g u r e o f 5h% f o r a s i m i l a r A m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n , t h e l e v e l s o f t h e m i l d - m o d e r a t e , a n d m a r k e d -s e v e r e c a t e g o r i e s a r e h i g h e r i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e t e s t i s e a s i e r f o r s u b j e c t s w i t h l e s s e r d e g r e e s o f h e a r i n g l o s s . F o r a l l s u b j e c t s , some s t r u c t u r e s l i k e n e g a t i o n a n d d e t e r m i n e r s w e r e o b v i o u s l y e a s i e r t h a n o t h e r s l i k e v e r b p r o c e s s e s a n d r e l a t i v i z a t i o n . H o w e v e r , d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s f o r s u b j e c t s w i t h m o r e h e a r i n g w e r e c o n s i s t e n t l y b e l o w r e c o g n i z e d o p t i m a l l e v e l s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e t e s t may n o t be s u i t a b l e f o r t h e h a r d o f h e a r i n g o r t h o s e w i t h l e s s s e v e r e h e a r i n g l o s s e s . T h e s e v e r i t y o f a s u b j e c t ' s h e a r i n g l o s s a l s o h a d a m a r k e d e f f e c t o n t h e p o w e r o f t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t t o d i s c r i m i n a t e t h e b e t t e r s t u d e n t s f r o m t h o s e w h o w e r e h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l . A l t h o u g h t h e p o i n t -b i s e r i a l s ( i t e m - t o t a l t e s t ) f o r t h e t h r e e h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s , w e r e p o s i t i v e i n a l l c a s e s e x c e p t o n e , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d a s t h e h e a r i n g l o s s i n c r e a s e d , a n d t h e d i s t r a c t o r i t e m s d i d n o t p e r f o r m n e a r l y a s w e l l f o r t h e m i l d - m o d e r a t e c a t e g o r y a s t h e y d i d f o r t h o s e s u b j e c t s w i t h g r e a t e r h e a r i n g l o s s e s . A g a i n t h i s d e c l i n e i n t h e t e s t ' s p o w e r t o d i s c r i m i n a t e f o r - 8 8 -s u b j e c t s w i t h l e s s s e v e r e h e a r i n g l o s s e s l e a d s u s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t w h i l e t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t h a s b o t h g o o d c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o f o u n d a n d p r o b a b l y t h e s e v e r e l y d e a f s t u d e n t s , i t s u s e w i t h t h e m i l d t o m o d e r a t e l y h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s m a y b e q u e s t i o n a b l e a n d a n y r e s u l t s f r o m s u c h t e s t i n g s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d c a u t i o u s l y . M o r e o v e r , t h e t e s t w a s n o t f o u n d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e among t h e v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s f o r a n y o f t h e h e a r i n g l o s s g r o u p s i n t h e s t u d y . T h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t w e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d may h a v e o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h c h a n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h a n y d i f f e r e n t i a l v a l i d i t y t h a t t h e t e s t may h a v e , a n d f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s a r e a i s r e c o m m e n d e d . T h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s e s t h a t a g e a n d s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s w o u l d p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s o f s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e a n d c o m p r e h e n d t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s m e a s u r e d i n t h e T S A w e r e o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t e d b y t h e d a t a i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . ' T h e r e s u l t s o f a t w o w a y a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e s h o w e d t h a t a g e w a s s i g n i f r i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l f o r c o n j u n c t i o n o n l y , w h e r e a s t h e s e v e r i t y o f h e a r i n g l o s s made a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r d e t e r m i n e r s , q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n , p r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n , r e l a t i v i z a t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h p e r f o r m a n c e d o e s i m p r o v e w i t h a g e , t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e h e a r i n g l o s s h a s a m u c h g r e a t e r e f f e c t o n t h e s t u d e n t ' s s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y ; a n d t h a t many s e v e r e o r p r o f o u n d l y d e a f s t u d e n t s w i l l h a v e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f s t a n d a r d E n g l i s h , e v e n by t h e t i m e t h e y h a v e f i n i s h e d t h e i r f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g . M o r e -o v e r , t h e a b s e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t a c r o s s t h e a g e r a n g e o f t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o l e a r n l a n g u a g e may be t r a n s i t o r y , r e a c h i n g i t s p e a k i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s a n d d e c l i n i n g t h e r e a f t e r . A s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a l s o d e p e n d s h e a v i l y o n a g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s y n t a x , t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n p e r f o r m a n c e a c r o s s - 89 -t h e h e a r i n g l o s s r a n g e p o i n t s t o t h e h a n d i c a p a n a u d i t o r y i m p a i r m e n t a t b i r t h o r w i t h i n t h e f i r s t t w o y e a r s o f l i f e p r e s e n t s t o t h e c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d s t r e s s e s t h e n e e d f o r e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s f o r s u c h c h i l d r e n . T h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t was d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e a s t u d e n t ' s g e n e r a l l e v e l o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y a n d t o p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i d e n r t i f y i n g l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s on w h i c h a s t u d e n t i s i n g r e a t e s t n e e d o f h e l p . In o r d e r t o d o t h i s , t h e t e s t m u s t a d e q u a t e l y p r e d i c t a s t u d e n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s o n t h e D i a g n o s t i c B a t t e r y , a n d t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o n t h e s c r e e n s h o u l d c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w h i c h m e a s u r e t h e same s t r u c t u r e a l b e i t i n d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t s . H e n c e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t e x h i b i t e d s u c h e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y , f o u r d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t a n d t h e i r r e s u l t s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s c o r e s f r o m t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t . A l l t e s t s a n d s u b j e c t s w e r e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d u s i n g a m u l t i p l e m a t r i x p r o c e d u r e . T h e r e s u l t s r e -v e a l e d m o d e r a t e t o s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r a l l s t r u c t u r e s b e t w e e n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t a n d t h e d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s . N o t o n l y d i d t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o n t h e s c r e e n c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s , b u t a l s o w i t h m o s t o t h e r t e s t s i n t h e b a t t e r y . In many i n s t a n c e s t h e h i g h -e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n a s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e a n d a s u p p o s e d l y u n r e l a t e d t e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e e x p e c t e d c o r r e l a t i o n w a s h i g h i n a l l c a s e s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t a common l a n g u a g e f a c t o r may be p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e T e s t o f S y n t a c t i c A b i l i t i e s . ' S u c h a f a c t o r w o u l d u n d e r l y a l l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e T S A a n d w h i l e a l l o w i n g t h e t e s t t o d e t e r m i n e a s t u d e n t ' s g e n e r a l l e v e l o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t y , i t w o u l d l i m i t o r p r e v e n t i t f r o m p r o v i d i n g t h e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d e d t o i n d i c a t e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s a c r o s s t h e v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s . In o r d e r t o e x p l o r e t h e a b o v e h y p o t h e s i s , f i v e s t u d e n t s w e r e r a n d o m l y - 9 0 -s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h o f t h e h e a r i n g l o s s c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e i r s c o r e s o n t h e n i n e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e s c r e e n i n g t e s t w e r e p l o t t e d . T h e r e s u l t i n g p r o f i l e s t e n d e d t o be f l a t w i t h o n l y m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s t r u c t u r e s g i v i n g s u p p o r t t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t a common u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r may be p r e s e n t . H o w e v e r , d e f i n i t i v e d a t a o n t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l h a v e t o a w a i t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a s n u m b e r s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d n o t p e r m i t t h e r e q u i r e d r e g r e s s i o n a n d f a c t o r a n a l y s e s . O t h e r a r e a s w o r t h y o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n m e t h o d o r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g o n a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g -n i z e a n d c o m p r e h e n d t h e m a i n s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a s t u d e n t ' s r e a d i n g l e v e l a n d h i s p e r f o r m a n c e o n t h e T S A . H o w e v e r , t h e T S A i s m o r e t h a n a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t . A s w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g a much n e e d e d t e s t o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t i e s i t s e r v e s a s a n e x c e l -l e n t t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e t o t h e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h . T e a c h e r s w o u l d d o w e l l t o c o n c e n t r a t e o n how t h e s t u d e n t r e s p o n d s t o t h e t e s t i t e m s r a t h e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l s c o r e o b t a i n e d . K n o w i n g t h a t a s t u d e n t i s w e a k i n a c e r t a i n a r e a i s o n e t h i n g , b u t i t i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o k n o w w h e r e he i s h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y a n d w h a t c a n be d o n e t o h e l p h i m . T h e d i s t r a c t o r i t e m s o f t h e T S A a p p e a r t o be d e s i g n e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t c a r e f u l e x a m i n i a t i o n o f i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s may n o t o n l y d e t e r m i n e w h a t t h e s t u d e n t d o e s n ' t k n o w b u t w h a t r u l e s h e i s a p p l y i n g a n d why t h e m i s t a k e s a r e b e i n g m a d e . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f how t h e s e d i s t r a c t o r s a f f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e may u n c o v e r a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e w a y h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s t a c k l e s y n t a x , a n d p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h e i r s t u d e n t s may b e h a v i n g w i t h t h e m a j o r s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h . - 9 i -B i b 1 i o g r a p h y B e l l , A . G . " U p o n a m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e t o a v e r y y o u n g c o n g e n i t a l l y d e a f c h i l d . " A m e r i c a n A n n a l s o f t h e D e a f , 1883, _§_, 124-139. B l a c k w e l l , P . M . , E n g e n , E . , F i s c h g r u n d , J . E . , Z a r c a d o o l a s , C . S e n t e n c e s  a n d o t h e r s y s t e m s - A l a n g u a g e a n d l e a r n i n g c u r r i c u l u m f o r  h e a r i n g - i mpa i r e d c h i l d r e n . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : T h e A l e x a n d e r B e l l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e D e a f , I n c . , 1978. B r a i n e , M . " T h e o n t o g e n y o f E n g l i s h p h r a s e s t r u c t u r e : T h e f i r s t p h a s e . " L a n g u a g e , 1963, 39_, 1-13. B r o w n , R. S B e l l u g i , U . " T h r e e p r o c e s s e s i n t h e c h i l d ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y n t a x . " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 1964, 3_4, 1 3 3 - 1 5 1 . B r o w n , R. S F r a s e r , C . " T h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y n t a x . " i n C . N . C o f e r £ B . C . M u s g r a v e , ( E d s . ) , V e r b a l B e h a v i o u r a n d L e a r n i n g , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1963. C l a r k e , B . R . , L e s l i e , P . T . , R o g e r s , W . T . , B o o t h , J . A . , £ H o r v a t h , A . S e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d s c h o o l a g e d  s t u d e n t s : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976-77- V a n c o u v e r , B . C . : T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977. C h o m s k y , N . S y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s . T h e H a g u e : M o u t o n , 1957. C o o p e r , R . L . £ R o s e n s t e i n , J . " L a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . " T h e V o l t a R e v i e w , 1966, 68_, 45~56. C r o k e r , G . W . , J o n e s , M . K . , £ P r a t t , M . E . L a n g u a g e s t o r i e s a n d d r i l l s . B o o k s 1, 11, 11, I V . M a n u a l s . B r a t t l e b o r o , V e r m o n t : T h e V e r m o n t P r i n t i n g C o m p a n y , 1920, 1922, 1928. D a v i d s o n , S . G . " M e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h l a n g u a g e s t u d y . " A m e r i c a n  A n n a l s o f t h e D e a f , 1914, 5_9, 113-117-D i F r a n c e s c a , S . A c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t r e s u l t s o f a n a t i o n a l t e s t i n g  p r o g r a m f o r h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s , U n i t e d S t a t e s , S p r i n g  1971 • W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : G a l l a u d e t C o l l e g e , O f f i c e o f D e m o g r a p h i c S t u d i e s , 1972. E r v i n , S . " I m i t a t i o n a n d s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e i n c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e . " i n New D i r e c t i o n s i n t h e S t u d y o f L a n g u a g e . E . L e n n e b e r g ( E d . ) , C a m b r i d g e : M . l . T . P r e s s , 1964. F i n n , J . D . M u 1 t i v a r i a n c e : U n i v a r i a t e a n d m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , c o - v a r i a n c e , r e g r e s s i o n a n d r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s . A F o r t r a m IV P r o g r a m , V e r s i o n V I , S e p t e m b e r 1977, ( R e l e a s e 2, O c t o b e r 1978) F i n n , J . D . A g e n e r a l m o d e l f o r m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1974. - 9 2 -F i t z g e r a l d , E . S t r a i g h t l a n g u a g e f o r t h e d e a f . S t a u n t o n , V a . : T h e M c C l u r e Company*,' I n c . , 1 9 2 9 ; W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : T h e V o l t a B u r e a u , 1 9 4 9 . F r a s e r , C , B e l l u g i , U . S B r o w n , R . " C o n t r o l o f g r a m m a r i n i m i t a t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f V e r b a l L e a r n i n g a n d  V e r b a l B e h a v i o r , 1 9 6 3 , 2_, 1 2 1 - 1 3 5 . G r o h t , M . A . N a t u r a l l a n g u a g e f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . 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A p p l i c a t i o n s o f ' c l o z e ' p r o c e d u r e s t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s o f t h e d e a f . U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1 9 6 7 -M o o r e s , D . F . E d u c a t i n g t h e d e a f - p s y c h o l o g y p r i n c i p l e s a n d p r a c t i c e s . B o s t o n ; H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 7 8 . M y k l e b u s t , H . R . T h e p s y c h o l o g y o f d e a f n e s s . New Y o r k , G r u n e & S t r a t t o n , I 9 6 0 . N e l s o n , L . R . G u i d e t o L E R T A P u s e a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D u n e d i n , New Z e a l a n d : U n i v e r s i t y o f O t a g o , 1 9 7 4 . N i e , N . H . , H u l l . , . C . H . , J e n k i n s , J . G . , S t e i n b r e n n e r , K . S B e n t . D . H . S P S S S t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e f o r t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 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" D e a f c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e p a s s i v e v o i c e . " J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h £ H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 1973, J_6_, ( 0 5-11. P u g h , G . S . " S u m m a r i e s f r o m a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s i l e n t r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s o f a c o u s t i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . " A m e r i c a n A n n . D e a f . 1946. 9J_, 331-349. Q u i g l e y , S . P . , M o n t a n e l l i , D . S . £ W i l b u r , R . B . " S o m e a s p e c t s o f t h e v e r b a l s y s t e m i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f  S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , S e p t e m b e r , 1976, Vo1. 1 9 , N o . 3, 536-550. ~~ Q u i g l e y , S . P . £ P o w e r , D . J . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s y n t a t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n  t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h o n E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1 9 7 2 . Q u i g l e y , S . P . , S m i t h , N . L . £ W i l b u r , R . B . " C o m p r e h e n s i o n o f r e l a t i v i z e d s e n t e n c e s b y d e a f s t u d e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h £ H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 1975, J_7, 325"34l. Q u i g l e y , S . P . , W i l b u r , R . B . £ M o n t a n e l l i , D . S . " C o m p l e m e n t s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g  R e s e a r c h , S e p t e m b e r 1976, V o l . 19, N o . 3. Q u i g l e y , S . P . , W i l b u r , R . B . , P o w e r , D . J . , M o n t a n e l l i , D a l e S . , £ S t e i n k a m p , M a r j o r i e W. S y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . I n s t i t u t e o f C h i l d B e h a v i o r a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r i s t y o f I l l i n o i s , F e b r u a r y 1976. Q u i g l e y , S . P . , W i l b u r , R . B . £ M o n t a n e l l i , D . S . " Q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g  R e s e a r c h , 1974, 17, 325-341. Q u i g l e y , S . P . , P o w e r , D . J . £ S t e i n k a m p , M.W. " T h e l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e o f d e a f c h i l d r e n . " T h e V o l t a R e v i e w , 1977, 79. 73-84.. Q u i g l e y , S . P . , S t e i n k a m p , M . W . , P o w e r , D . J . £ J o n e s , B . W . T e s t o f s y n t a c t i c a b i l i t i e s - G u i d e t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , O r e g o n , D o r m a c I n c . , 1978. - 3k -R e a m e r , J . C . M e n t a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e d e a f , P s y c h o l o g y M o n o g r . , 1921, 29_, N o . 3. R o g e r s , W . T . , L e s l i e , P . T . , C l a r k e , B . R . , B o o t h , J . A . , £ H o r v a t h , S . " A c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d s t u d e n t s : c o m p a r i s o n a m o n g s e l e c t e d s u b p o p u l a t i o n s . " B . C . J o u r n a l  o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , 1978, 2, (3), 183-213-R u s s e l l , W . K . , Q u i g l e y , S . P . & P o w e r , D . J . L i n g u i s t i c s a n d d e a f c h i l d r e n ; T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s y n t a x a n d i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , T h e A l e x a n d e r G r a h a m B e l l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e D e a f , 1976. S c h m i t t , P . J . " L a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e d e a f . " V o l t a R e v i e w , 1966, 68, 73-94. S t e i n k a m p , M.W. £ Q u i g l e y , S . P . " A s s e s s i n g d e a f c h i l d r e n ' s w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . " T h e V o l t a R e v i e w , 1977, 79_, 10-18. S t r e n g , A . H . S y n t a x , s p e e c h a n d h e a r i n g . New Y o r k : G r u n e a n d S t a t t o n , 1972. S t r e n g , A . H . , K r e t s c h m e r , R . R . ( J r . ) , £ K r e t s c h m e r , L . W . L a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g a n d d e a f n e s s : T h e o r y , a p p l i c a t i o n , a n d c l a s s r o o m  m a n a g e m e n t . New Y o r k : G r u n e a n d S t a t t o n , 1 9 7 8 . v a n U d e n , A . A w o r l d o f l a n g u a g e f o r d e a f c h i l d r e n , P a r t 1, B a s i c  p r i n c i p l e s . R o t t e r d a m U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970. W i l b u r , R . B . , Q u i g l e y , S . P . £ M o n t a n e l l i , D . S . " C o n j o i n e d s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f  S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 1975, J_8, 319~335-W i l b u r , R . B . , M o n t a n e l l i , D . S . £ Q u i g l e y , S . P . " P r o n o m i n a 1 i z a t i o n . i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f d e a f s t u d e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , M a r c h 1976, V o l . 19, N o . 1, 120-140. - 9 5 -A P P E N D I X A TEST OF SYNTACTIC ABILITIES SCREENING TEST FORM 1 University of I l l i n o i s at Urbana-Champaign Experimental Edition NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR REPRODUCTION IN ANY FORM Special permission granted by Dr. Stephen Quigley for exclusive use i n the Demographic Study of Hearing Impaired Students i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. (c) 1971 BY THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS - 9 6 ' TEST OF SYNTACTIC ABILITIES SCREENING TEST FORM 1 Name: Date of B i r t h : School: School D i s t r i c t : Date of Test: - 9 7 -You w i l l read groups o f s e n t e n c e s . Only one of the sentenc i s r i g h t . You choose the r i g h t s e n t e n c e . Example 1. You choose one: A. The f l o w e r B . The f l o w e r C. The f l o w e r D. The f l o w e r A. i s the r i g h t s e n t e n c e : The f l o w e r i s not y e l l o w . [~A~i i s marked w i t h an X l i k e t h i s : - 9 8 -Example 2. You choose one: A. The g i r l h e l p the t e a c h e r tomorrow. B. The g i r l w i l l h e l p i n g the t e a c h e r tomorrow. C. The g i r l w i l l h e l p the t e a c h e r tomorrow. D. The g i r l h e l p e d the t e a c h e r tomorrow. f B l C. i s the r i g h t sentence: The g i r l w i l l h e l p the t e a c h e r tomorrow. You mark [c] w i t h an X : - 99 -Example 3. You choose one: A. Tom f i n i s h e d to e a t i n g . B. Tom f i n i s h e d e a t i n g . C. Tom f i n i s h e d to a t e . D. Tom f i n i s h e d e a t . [xi m fci [Fi B. i s the r i g h t s e n t e n c e : Tom f i n i s h e d e a t i n g . You mark _BJ w i t h an X 0 S @ E In t h i s book a r e more s e n t e n c e s . Read the sentences c a r e f u l l y . Choose the r i g h t s e ntence. Mark, the r i g h t answer w i t h an X i n your b o o k l e t . I f you do not know, guess. S T O P A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. - 100 -The puppies aren't i n the box. Not the puppies are i n the box. The puppies are no i n the box. The puppies no aren't in the box. We stopped boat. We stopped an boat. We stopped the boat. We stopped a the boat. S E E ® S E E © A. Who gave you a ball? B. Gave you a b a l l who? C. Who Jim gave you a ball? D. Who you gave a ball? D LD LD LD A. The laughter of the g i r l surprise the man. B. The laughter the g i r l surprised the man. C. The laughter to the g i r l surprised the man. D. The laughter of the g i r l surprised the man. LD LD LD A. Not Mother was at home, B. Mother was at home no. C. Mother wasn't at home. D. Mother was no at home. S LD D LD - 101 -A. The boys not are feeding the animals. B. The boys aren't feeding the animals. C. The boys are feeding the animals not. D. The boys no are feeding the animals. A. I didn't go. B. Not I did go. C. I not did go. D. I not go. 8. A. B i l l y colored a picture. An picture was red. B. B i l l y colored a picture. A picture was red. C. B i l l y colored a picture. The picture was red. D. B i l l y colored a picture. Picture was red. d] A. Baby kittens can't see. B. Baby kittens not see. C. Baby kittens not can see. D. Baby kittens can no see. 10. A. We fed an cows. B. We fed the cows. C. We fed a cows. D. We fed the a cows. ]D HD E - 1 0 2 11. A. The k i t e was i n sky. B. The k i t e was i n the sky. C. The k i t e was in a the sky. D. The k i t e was i n a sky. LD 12. A. I w i l l finished the work after lunch. B. I finishes the work after lunch. C. I w i l l f i n i s h i n g the work after lunch. D. I w i l l f i n i s h the work after lunch. LD 13. A. The g i r l s not walk in the rain. B. The g i r l s would walk i n the rain no. C. The g i r l s wouldn't walk i n the rain. D. The g i r l s not would walk i n the ra i n . 14. A. Tom saw a big black dog. B. Tom saw an big black dog C. Tom saw big a black dog. D. Tom saw a big black dogs A. Not the dog has seen the food. B. The dog not has seen the food. C. The dog hasn't seen the food. D. The dog did has not seen the food. A LD LD LD - 103 -16. A. A big car went up the h i l l . B. Big a car went up the h i l l . C. An big car went up the h i l l . D. A big cars went up the h i l l . 17. A. The grass does look no green. B. The grass does not look green. C. Not the grass does look green. D. The grass not look green. 18. A. The dog has a black t a i l . B. The dog has black a t a i l . C. The dog has a black t a i l s . D. The dog has an black t a i l . 19. A. Father was going a home. B. Father was going an home. C. Father was going home. D. Father was going the home. s E D 20. A. The boys ate a the meat. B. The boys ate the meat. C. The boys ate the an meat, D. The boys ate a meat. - 104 -21. A. David watched the elephant eat. B. David watched the elephant to eat. C. David watched the elephant ate. D. David watched the elephant to eating. 22. A. Did Mother make a cake? B. Do Mother make a cake? C. Mother make a cake? D. Did Mother can make a cake? 23. A. The boy to school l a s t Monday. B. The boy walks to school l a s t Monday. C. The boy i s walked to school l a s t Monday. D. The boy walked to school l a s t Monday. A 24. A. Mary heard to the roar of the l i o n . B. Mary hearing the roar of the l i o n . C. Mary heard the roar of the l i o n . D. Mary heard the roar the l i o n . 25. A. I ate orange. B. I ate a orange. C. I ate an orange. D. I ate an the orange. - 105 " 26. A. The crash of the t r a i n scare the people. B. The crash to the t r a i n scared the people C. The crash the t r a i n scared the people. D. The crash of the t r a i n scared the people "A BO 27. A. The g i r l s some of brought flowers. B. Some of the g i r l s brought flowers. C. Some the g i r l s brought flowers. D. Some of the g i r l brought flowers. 28. A. When you plant the flowers? B. Did you plant the flowers when? C. Wben you planted the flowers? D. When did you plant the flowers? 29. A. The children have some of money. B. The children have an money. C. The children have some money. D. The children have a money. 30. A. What did John see? B. What did John saw? C. What John see? D. What John did see? - 106 -31. A. Cathy wanted some of help. B. Cathy wanted some a help. C. Cathy wanted an help. D. Cathy wanted some help. 32. A. Anne knew the driver the car. B. Anne knew the driver of the car. C. Anne knew to the driver of the car, D. Anne knowing the driver of the car. 33. A. The g i r l s coloring pictures. B. The g i r l s are color pictures. C. The g i r l s are colored pictures. D. The g i r l s are coloring pictures. u LD 34. A. The growth to the g i r l surprised her mother. B. The growth of the g i r l surprised her mother, C. The growth of the g i r l surprise her mother. D. The growth the g i r l surprised her mother. 35. A. John knew for the lady loved ice cream. B. John knew to the lady loved ice cream. C. John knew that the lady loved ice cream. D. John knowing that the lady loved ice cream. LD LD - 1 0 7 -36. A. The crying of the kitten was sad. B. The crying the kitten was sad. C. The crying to the kitten was sad. D. The crying of the kitten sad. 37. A. B i l l heard to the screaming of the g i r l . B. B i l l hearing the screaming of the g i r l . C. B i l l heard the screaming the g i r l . D. B i l l heard the screaming of the g i r l . LI] 38. A. Mother knows for Anne opened the window. B. Mother knows to Anne opened the window. C. Mother knows that Anne opened the window. D. Mother knowing that Anne opened the window. 0 39. A. The building of the house slow. B. The building of the house was slow. C. The building to the house was slow. D. The building the house was slow. AO. A. Could Anne ride the horse? B. Could Anne rode the horse? C. Did Anne could ride the horse? D. Am Anne could ride the horse? - 1 0 8 -41. A. John watched the f i x i n g of the car. B. John watched the f i x i n g the car. C. John watching the f i x i n g of the car. D. John watched to the f i x i n g of the car. 42. A. Five the children went home. B. The children fi v e of went home. C. Five of children went home. D. Five of the children went home. 43. 44. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. Father knew for Bob caught a f i s h . Father knew to Bob caught a f i s h . Father knew Bob caught a f i s h . Father knowing that Bob caught a f i s h . The s e l l i n g the car was d i f f i c u l t . The s e l l i n g to the car was d i f f i c u l t . The s e l l i n g of the car d i f f i c u l t . The s e l l i n g of the car was d i f f i c u l t . LU 45. A. I t was sad that the cows were hungry. B. The cows were hungry was sad. C. That was sad the cows were hungry. D. The cows were hungry was sad. E - 109 -46. A. The children ran home to eat. B. The children ran home eat. C. The children ran home to ate. D. The children ran home to eating. 0 D 47. A. Can you can run? B. Can you run? C. Do you can run? D. Are you can run? ® 48. A. The man saw Tom to walked. B. The man saw Tom to walk. C. The man saw Tom walking. D. The man saw Tom to walking. 49. A. I showed the l i t t l e boy how to jump. B. I showed the l i t t l e boy how jumping. C. I showed the l i t t l e boy how to jumped. D. I showed the l i t t l e boy how to jumping. 50. A. The boys are good at to reading. B. The boys are good at to read. C. The boys are good at reading. D. The boys are good at read. - n o -51. A. The g i r l dropped the b a l l surprised the boy. B. So the g i r l dropped the b a l l surprised the boy. C. For the g i r l dropped the b a l l surprised the boy. D. That the g i r l dropped the b a l l surprised the boy. 52. A. I t i s fun to helped. B. It i s fun to help. C. It i s fun help. D. I t i s fun to helping. 53. A. Dad went shopping. B. Dad went to shopped. C. Dad went shop. D. Dad went to shopping. 0 54. A. Dad forgot make the f i r e . B. Dad forgot to made the f i r e . C. Dad forgot to make the f i r e . D. Dad forgot to making the f i r e . Be c a r e f u l . These a r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of s e n t e n c e s . You choose the r i g h t word to make a good se n t e n c e . Example: Tom brought the f l o w e r s to Anne. They a r e You choo.se one: A. B. C. D. t h e i r our h e r s mine 0 0 0 C. i s the r i g h t word: Tom brought the f l o w e r s to Anne. They a r e h e r s . |~C~| i s marked w i t h an X l i k e t h i s : 12 -55. Because wanted to help, the children washed the windows, A. they B. the children C. their D. them LH H 56. B i l l said, "She made the cake by A. himself B. sheself C. her D. herself LI] 57. The k i t t e n i s playing and the mother cat A. sleep B. i s sleeping C. sleeping D. was sleep 58. Father bought the puppies for me. A. theirs B. yours C. hers D. mine The animals are 113 -59. Mother made the dresses for us. A. ours B. their C. your D. mine They are 60. Next Saturday you A. w i l l made B. w i l l make C. w i l l making D. make the f i r e and the boys w i l l cook dinner, 61. We cooked lunch and Susan A. washing B. are wash C. wash D. washed the dishes. 62. We fed the baby A. but B. with C. either D. or she cried. LH - 114 63. Bob said, "I w i l l cut the meat by A. myself B. himself C. yourself D. meself LD oh. Father made a f i r e , A. i t B. i t s e l f C. themselves D. him The dog burned 65. We knew the children A. when B. where C. whose D. who bought the flowers, 66. The g i r l s pushed B i l l . They hurt arm. A. him B. his C. her D. their We moved to a farm. A. t h e i r B. i t C. t h e i r s D. yours - 1 1 5 -The ch i l d r e n l i k e d Since the boys were sick, Susan took food A. her B. the boys C. themselves D. them You found Dad wanted. A. what B. where C. when D. which I w i l l walk or r i d e the b i c y c l e . A. both B. neither C. but D. either - 116 -71. I wanted the puppy A. whose B. where C. that D. when had a white t a i l . LD H 72, When A. him B. his C. Joe's D. he mo ther brought the eggs, Joe made lunch. A B C 73. David nor Susan ate supper. A. B. C. D. Either But Both Neither 74, Tom knew _ A. what B. whose C. where D. which the boy liv e d , E QT 75. Susan rode the horse A. whose B. when C. where D. which 1 1 7 jumped the fence. H DO GO LL 76. Dad came home Mary took the car, A. B. C. D. When Whose Who Where 77. You saw a bunny A. where B. that C. who D. whose t a i l was black. / - 1 1 8 -Be careful. These are different kinds of sentences. You choose another right way of saying the sentences. Example: The g i r l s made lunch. The boys washed the dishes. You choose one: A. The g i r l s made lunch and the boys washed the dishes, B. The g i r l s made lunch the boys washed the dishes. C. The g i r l s and boys made lunch. D. The g i r l s made lunch and washed the dishes. x i nn [C A. i s the right sentence: The g i r l s made lunch and the boys washed the dishes, A i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : B C D 1 1 9 78. Tom opened the window. Mother called the boys. A. Tom opened the window Mother called the boys. B. Tom opened the window and the boys. C. Tom opened the window and Mother called the boys. D. Tom and Mother called the boys. ITJ [U [c] 79. Mother went to the farm. Dad went to the farm. A. Mother went to the farm and Dad. B. Mother and Dad went to the farm. C. Mother went to the farm Dad went to the farm. D. Mother Dad went to the farm. 80. Tom bought a hat. Tom bought a coat. A. Tom bought a hat bought a coat. B. Tom bought a hat Tom bought a coat, C. Tom bought a hat a coat. D. Tom bought a hat and a coat. 81. We worked i n school. We played in school. A. We worked i n school we played in school. B. We worked and played i n school. C. We worked we played in school. D. We worked in school played in school. - 120 -82. The g i r l s bought an old car. The boys washed the car. A. The g i r l s bought an old car the boys washed the car. B. The g i r l s bought an old car and the boys washed the car. C. The g i r l s bought washed the car. D. The g i r l s bought an old car and the boys washed. E ® 0 . QD 83. Dad kissed the baby. The baby laughed. A. Dad kissed the baby the baby laughed. B. Dad kissed the baby and the baby laughed C. Dad kissed the baby laughed. D. Dad kissed the baby and laughed. T S3 84. The b a l l h i t Mary. A. Mary h i t by the b a l l . B. Mary h i t the b a l l . C. Mary was h i t by the b a l l , D. Mary was h i t the b a l l . D 85. The horses got fed by the g i r l s . A. The horses fed the g i r l s . B. The g i r l s fed the horses. C. The horses fed by the g i r l s . D. The g i r l s got fed by the horses, - 121 -86. The man was watched by a policeman. A. The man was watch by a policeman. B. A policeman was watched by the man. C. The man watched a policeman. D. A policeman watched the man. LH m no 87. Bob talked with the g i r l . The g i r l ' s horse jumped the fence. A. Bob talked with the g i r l horse jumped the fence. B. Bob talked with the g i r l ' s horse jumped the fence. C. Bob talked with the g i r l whose horse jumped the fence. D. Bob talked with the g i r l who her horse jumped the fence. 1 0 Hi 88. Mary saw the boys. The boys made a b i r d house. A. Mary saw who made a b i r d house the boys. B. Mary saw the boys made a b i r d house. C. Mary saw who the boys made a bi r d house. D. Mary saw the boys who made a bi r d house. S LI 89. The truck was pulled by a car. A. The truck pulled a car. B. A car pulled the truck. C. The truck was pulled a car. D. A car was pulled by the truck. - 1 2 2 -Be careful. These are different kinds of sentences. You choose the right answer. Example: What did the boys play? You choose one: A. yesterday B. fo o t b a l l C. played D. a b a l l T B. i s the right word: f o o t b a l l . ~B~] i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : A 90. Do birds make nests? A. eggs B. i n trees C. Birds make nests. D. Yes, they do. 1 2 3 A B C D 91. Is the elephant a big animal? A. i n the zoo B. big animal C. The elephant i s b i g . D. yes 92. How far can B i l l h i t the b a l l ? A. not very f ar B. He h i t the b a l l . C. a baseball D. Yes, he can h i t i t . ® 93. What does the word " l i t t l e " mean? A. l i t t l e c h i l d B. not big C. The baby i s . D. small dog - 124 Anne l i k e s ice cream, doesn't she? A. doesn't l i k e B. pink ice cream C. Yes, she does. D. doesn't - 1 2 5 -Be careful. These are different kinds of sentences. You decide what the sentences t e l l us. Example: The boy who talked to Dad rode the black ho What does the sentence t e l l us? You choose one: A. Dad rode the black horse. B. The boy talked to Dad. C. The boy talked to the black horse. D. Dad talked to the black horse. T B. i s the right sentence: The boy talked to Dad. B i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : A - 126 -95. The boy knows that the woman loves children. A. The boy loves the woman. B. The woman loves children. C. The boy knows children. D. The boy loves children. m 96. It scared Linda that the dogs hurt the boy. A. The dogs hurt the boy. B. Linda scared the dogs. C. The boy scared Linda. D. Linda hurt the boy. 97. Father planted the flowers. His hands were not clean. A. Father did not plant the flowers. B. His hands were d i r t y . C. His hands were not d i r t y . D. His hands were clean. B 98. The man learned a box f e l l on the g i r l . A. The man learned the g i r l . B. The g i r l f e l l on a box. C. The man learned a box. D. A box f e l l on the g i r l . - 1 2 7 -99. John listened to the teacher and finished the work A. John finished the work. B. John and the teacher finished the work. C. The teacher listened to John. D. The teacher finished the work. A B 100. The teacher learned that Tom chased Sally. A. The teacher chased Sal l y . B. Tom chased S a l l y . C. The teacher learned Tom. D. Sally chased Tom. 101. We watched the g i r l s who played baseball. A. We played baseball. B. The g i r l s watched baseball. C. We played with the g i r l s . D. The g i r l s played baseball. 102. You called the women who Mother knew. A. You knew the women. B. Mother called the women. C. The women called Mother. D. Mother knew the women. - 1 2 8 -103. Jim lo s t the book or Tom took i t . A. Either Jim lo s t the book or Tom took i t . B. Jim did not lose the book but Tom took i t . C. Tom took the book and Jim did not lose i t , D. Jim lo s t the book and Tom did not take i t . LU 104. I found the boy Dad gave the money to, A. I found the money. B . The boy gave the money. C . Dad gave the money. D. I found Dad. 0 105. That the elephant ate the flowers surprised Father A. The elephant ate the flowers. B. The elephant ate Father. C. Father surprised the elephant. D. The flowers surprised Father. T l (~B 0 106. The boys who worked with Dad li k e d airplanes A. Dad worked with airplanes. B. The boys l i k e d Dad. C. Dad li k e d airplanes. D. The boys worked with Dad. A" 129 107. The crying of the g i r l surprised the teacher A. The teacher c r i e d . B. The teacher surprised the g i r l . C. The crying surprised the teacher. D. The g i r l surprised the teacher. T 108. Bob watched the running of the boy. A. Bob watched the boy's running. B. The boy watched Bob. C. The running watched Bob. D. The running watched the boy. 109. The scream of the cat scared the dog A. The cat scared the dog. B. The scream scared the dog. C. The dog screamed. D. The dog scared the cat. 110. The men who the policeman chased had a blue car. A. The men chased the policeman. B. The men had a blue car. C. The policeman had a blue car. D. The men chased a blue car. 130 111. The g i r l s , who were beautiful, bought new dresses. A. The beautiful g i r l s bought new dresses. B. The beautiful g i r l s were bought new dresses. C. The g i r l s were beautiful bought new dresses. D. The g i r l s who the g i r l s were beautiful bought new dresses. 112. The g i r l heard the ringing of the bell, A. The ringing heard the b e l l . B. The ringing heard the g i r l . C. The g i r l heard the bell's ringing. D. The bell heard the g i r l . 0 113. The growth of the plant excited the children A. The children grew. B. The plant excited the children. C. The children excited the plant. D. The growth excited the children. A HO 114. The teacher heard the laughter of the student. A. The teacher laughed. B. The laughter heard the teacher. C. The teacher heard the student's laughter. D. The student heard the teacher. a 0 [U 115. - 131 -I watched the chi l d r e n who were s i c k . A. I watched the c h i l d r e n s i c k . B. I watched the ch i l d r e n were s i c k . C. I watched the ch i l d r e n who the chi l d r e n were s i c k . D. I watched the si c k c h i l d r e n . LI] 116. The l i t t l e g i r l s who ate with Cathy loved ice cream. A. Cathy ate i c e cream. B. The l i t t l e g i r l s loved Cathy. C. Cathy loved ice cream. D. The l i t t l e g i r l s ate with Cathy. B H] 117. Anne waited for the g i r l . B i l l gave the b i c y c l e to the g i r l . A. Anne waited for the g i r l who B i l l gave the b i c y c l e to the g i r l . B. Anne waited for who B i l l gave the b i c y c l e to the g i r l . C. Anne waited for the g i r l who B i l l gave the b i c y c l e to. D. Anne waited for the g i r l who B i l l gave the b i c y c l e to her. 118. The crash of the car scared B i l l . A. B i l l scared the car. B. The crash scared B i l l . C. B i l l crashed the car. D. The car scared B i l l . - 132 -119. Bob knew the d r i v e r o f the c a r . A. The d r i v e r knew Bob. B. Bob drove the c a r . C. Bob knew the c a r ' s d r i v e r . D. The c a r knew Bob. 120. You wait e d f o r the boys. You sent a l e t t e r to the boys. A. You wa i t e d f o r the boys to whom you sent a l e t t e r to them. B. You waited f o r the boys to whom you sent a l e t t e r . C. You w a i t e d f o r whom you sent a l e t t e r to the boys. D. You waited f o r the boys to whom you sent a l e t t e r to the boys. A GD [U LDJ [ A l i n - 1 3 3 -- 134 -TEST OF SYNTACTIC ABILITIES SCREENING TEST FORM 2 University of I l l i n o i s at Urbana-Champaign Experimental Edition NOT FOR PUBLICATION OR REPRODUCTION IN ANY FORM Special permission granted by Dr. Stephen Quigley for exclusive use i n the Demographic Study of Hearing Impaired Students i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. (c) 1971 BY THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS - 135 -TEST OF SYNTACTIC ABILITIES SCREENING TEST FORM 2 Name: Date of B i r t h : School: School D i s t r i c t : Date of Test: - 136 -You w i l l read groups of sentences. Only one of the sentences r i g h t . You choose the right sentence. J Example 1. You choose one: A. One the g i r l s found a baby bi r d . B. One of the g i r l s found a baby bird, C. The g i r l s one of found a baby bird. D. One of g i r l s found a baby bi r d . [A] _ ] _ o B. i s the right sentence: One of the g i r l s found a baby bird, B i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : k_ _^ [ c ] - 137 -Example 2 . You choose one: A. Mary l i k e s for to read. B. Mary l i k e s to reading. C. Mary l i k e s read. D. Mary l i k e s to read. D. i s the right sentence: Mary l i k e s to read. A You mark [DJ with an X B LH - 1 3 8 -Example 3. You choose one: A. Jim have a new car. B. Jim has a new car. C. Jim a new car. D. Jim i s a new car. 3 E LU B. i s the right sentence: Jim has a new car. You mark pT] with an X '• In t h i s book are more sentences. Read the sentences c a r e f u l l y . Choose the right sentence. Mark the right answer with an X i n your booklet. If you do not know, guess. S T O P - 139 -1. A. The kittens weren't i n the box. B. The kittens not were i n the box. C. The kittens weren't not i n the box. D. Not the kittens were i n the box. S [ u _ _ _ _ 2 . A. The cat had an k i t t e n s . B. The cat had a kitt e n s . C. The cat had some ki t t e n s . D. The cat had the a kittens. A B C D A. Who the boy found the kite? B. Who found the kite? C. Who he found the kite? D. Found who the kite? A. The scream of the l i o n scared the children. B. The scream the l i o n scared the children. C. The scream to the l i o n scared the children. D. The scream of the l i o n scare the children. 5 . A. Not the elephant i s a small animal. B. The elephant i s not a small animal. C. The elephant i s a small animal no. D. The elephant not i s a small animal. - 140 6 . A. Mary was making not the dress. B. Mary not was making the dress. C. Mary wasn't making the dress. D. Mary did was not making the dress, A ] IT] LD A. We don't walk to school. B. We not walk to school. C. We not do walk to school, D. We do no walk to school. LD 8. A. Mother made a cake. v B. Mother made a cake. C. Mother made a cake. D. Mother made a cake. An the cake was white. A cake was white. A the cake was white. The cake was white. LD LD 9. A. The l i t t l e boy no can not write, B. Not the l i t t l e boy can write. C. The l i t t l e boy not can write. D. The l i t t l e boy can not write. LD 10. A. The l i t t l e g i r l s played. B. L i t t l e the g i r l s played. C. A l i t t l e g i r l s played. D. The some l i t t l e g i r l s played, D LD LD LD 141 -11. A. Mother looked at a the moon. B. Mother looked at moon. C. Mother looked at a moon. D. Mother looked at the moon. a E LH LI 12. A. The baby w i l l s i t at the table next Sunday. B. The baby at the table next Sunday. C. The baby s i t at the table next Sunday. D. The baby w i l l sat at the table next Sunday. [Al B C] 13. A. The boy would not read the story. B. The boy not read the story. C. The boy no would read the story. D. The boy would no read the story. 14. A. John has an new blue car, B. John has car a new blue. C. John has a new blue car. D. John has new a blue car. m 15. A. The g i r l s did had not found the puppy. B. Not the g i r l s had found the puppy. C. The g i r l s not had found the puppy. D. The g i r l s hadn't found the puppy. m 0 [5] \kZ -16. A. Mother has a big black pans. B. Mother has an big black pan. C. Mother has big a black pan. D. Mother has a big black pan. 17. A. You seem t i r e d not. B. You not seem t i r e d . C. You do not seem t i r e d , D. You seem no t i r e d . 18. A. The man has an brown coat. B. The man has a brown coat. C. The man has a brown coats, D. The man has brown a coat. [ B l 19. A. Mother walked a home. B. Mother walked home. C. Mother walked the home. D. Mother walked an home. 20. A. The dog has some of food. B. The dog has an food. C. The dog has a food. D. The dog has some food. S E E D 21. 22, A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. - 143 " Tom watched the men to work. Tom watched the men work. Tom watched the men to working. Tom watched the men worked. You do the problems? Did you do the problems? You done the problems? Did do you the problems? |T| [B] [C] IJO S . DO 0 [H 23. A. I i n the park l a s t Sunday. B. I s i t in the park l a s t Sunday. C. I am sat i n the park l a s t Sunday. D. I sat i n the park l a s t Sunday. [ D l 24. A. The boy heard to the laughter of the g i r l . B. The boy hearing the laughter of the g i r l . C. The boy heard the laughter of the g i r l . D. The boy heard the laughter the g i r l . [ A l O H 25. A. John found the kittens. B. John found a kitt e n s . C. John found a the kittens. D. John found an kitt e n s . ® [ D l - }kk -26. A. The work of the men surprise the woman. B. The work to the men surprised the woman. C. The work the men surprised the woman. D. The work of the men surprised the woman. E f B l lei __ 27. A. Some of the cats were black. B. Some of the cat were black. C. Cats the some of were black. D. Some the cats were black. u B 28. A. When did Susan walk to the farm? B. Susan walk to the farm when? C. When to the farm did Susan walk? D. When Susan walked to the farm? B B E B 29. A. Bob found a water. B. Bob found some water. C. Bob found some of water, D. Bob found some a water. B B B B 30. A. What w i l l I feed the kitten? B. What w i l l I feed the k i t t e n milk? C. What w i l l I fed the kitten? D. What the k i t t e n w i l l I feed? B B B - 145 -31. A. Mother made some a bread, B. Mother made a bread. C. Mother made some bread. D. Mother made an bread. LH 32. A. John saw the start the race. B. John saw the start of the race. C. John saw to the start of the race. D. John seeing the start of the race. 33. A. The woman i s cooking dinner. B. The woman cook dinner. C. The woman i s cooked dinner. D. The woman has cooking dinner. 34. A. The growth to the tomatoes surprised the farmer. B. The growth of the tomatoes surprised the farmer. C. The growth of the tomatoes surprise the farmer. D. The growth the tomatoes surprised the farmer. 35. A. Susan heard to Jim helped the lady. B. Susan hearing that Jim helped the lady. C. Susan heard that Jim helped the lady. D. Susan heard for Jim helped the lady. D - 146 -36. A. The chasing of the dog was funny. B. The chasing the dog was funny. C. The chasing to the dog was funny. D. The chasing of the dog funny. LU 37. A. Mary enjoyed to the swimming of the g i r l s , B. Mary enjoying the swimming of the g i r l s . C. Mary enjoyed the swimming the g i r l s . D. Mary enjoyed the swimming of the g i r l s . 0 38. A. The man said to David won the game. B. The man said that David won the game. C. The man saying that David won the game. D. The man said for David won the game. 39. A. The beginning of the race ex c i t i n g . B. The beginning of the race was exciting, C. The beginning to the race was exciting, D. The beginning the race was exci t i n g . A ] 0 0 0 40. A. Should you should go to bed? B. Did you should go to bed? C. Should you went to bed? D. Should you go to bed? LH - 147 -41. A. B i l l enjoyed the showing of the animals. B. B i l l enjoyed the showing the animals. C. B i l l enjoying the showing of the animals. D. B i l l enjoyed to the showing of the animals. E S 42. A. The cows some of were sick. B. Some of the cows were sick. C. Some the cows were sick. D. Some of the cow were sick. S E E L ! 43. A. The boys knew for the dog was l o s t . B. The boys knew to the dog was l o s t . C. The boys knew the dog was l o s t . D. The boys knowing that the dog was l o s t , U E E 44. A. The f i n i s h i n g the work was easy. B. The fi n i s h i n g to the work was easy. C. The f i n i s h i n g of the work easy. D. The f i n i s h i n g of the work was easy. E 45. A. I t was sad that the animals were l o s t , B. The animals was sad were l o s t . C. That was sad the animals were l o s t . D. The animals were lo s t was sad. 1 4 8 46. A. The teacher t o l d me where to s i t . B. The teacher t o l d me where s i t t i n g . C. The teacher t o l d me where s i t . D. The teacher t o l d me where to s i t t i n g . S E E S 47. A. W i l l Mary go? B. Is Mary w i l l go? C. W i l l Mary went? D. W i l l Mary w i l l go? 0 0 0 0 48. A. I saw Dad to came. B. I saw Dad to coming. C. I saw Dad to come. D. I saw Dad coming. 49. A. I ran to the park to played. B. I ran to the park for to play C. I ran to the park to play. D. I ran to the park to playing. A B C D 50. A. The man was good at to s p e l l . B. The man was good at s p e l l i n g . C. The man was good at s p e l l . C. The man was good at to s p e l l i n g . 0 0 0 0 - 149 -51. A. The baby was a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r . B. For the baby was a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r . C. So the baby was a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r . D. That the baby was a s l e e p s u r p r i s e d F a t h e r , s 52. A. Mary l o v e s f l y to the a i r p l a n e . B. Mary l o v e s to f l y i n g the a i r p l a n e . C. Mary l o v e s to f l y the a i r p l a n e . D. Mary l o v e s t o f l e w the a i r p l a n e . s 53. A. The g i r l s went to f i s h e d . B. The g i r l s went f i s h . C. The g i r l s went f o r to f i s h . D. The g i r l s went f i s h i n g . 54. A. Mother wanted Anne to p i c k i n g the f l o w e r s . B. Mother wanted Anne to p i c k the f l o w e r s . C. Mother wanted Anne p i c k the f l o w e r s . D. Mother wanted Anne to p i c k e d the f l o w e r s . - 150 -Be careful. These are different kinds of sentences You choose the right word to make a good sentence. Example: Dad's s h i r t i s red. i s blue. You choose one: A. Yours B. Your C. Our D. Ours T A. i s the right word: Yours [A] i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : 55. While - 151 " waited, the boys told s t o r i e s . A. their B them C. they D. the boys 56. Dad said, "She made the bird house by A. himself B. sheself C. her D. herself LH 57. Bob i s f l y i n g a k i t e and Anne A. f l y B. was f l y C. i s f l y i n g D. f l i e s a toy airplane. 58. Mother cooked the eggs for me. They are . A. mine B. her C. theirs D. ours - 152 59. Dad planted the seeds for us. The flowers are . A. him B. her C. ours D. us 6 0 . Dad the cake and B i l l w i l l buy the ice cream. A. buy B. w i l l buying C. w i l l buy D. w i l l buys H _ _] 61. Jim worked and B i l l A. play B. playing C. played D. are play 6 2 . Cathy called the horses A. with B. but C. either D. or they ran away. - 153 -63. The glasses were broken. I cut A. i t B. themselves C. myself D. me 64. The g i r l s went to school, A. i t B. yourself C. themselves D. i t s e l f The puppy played by 65. You thanked the teachers A. who B. when C. what D. where helped Tom. 66. The l i t t l e boy was l o s t . The g i r l s told mother. A. him B. her C. his D. them - ]5h -67. Susan and Tom made the ic e cream. friends made the cake. A. Theirs B. Her C. Him D. Their 68. When the g i r l s came home, B i l l came to see A. themselves B. the g i r l s C. him D. them LAJ E E 69. I l i k e d _ A. which B. what C. who D. whose Mother cooked, E 70. Mother or Anne made the dress. A. Both B. With C. Neither D. Either B E E 71. You kept the kittens A. that B. whose C. when D. where - 1 5 5 -had black feet. T | Q_l [C] |D_ 72. After A. she B. Anne's C. her D. hers mo ther cooked lunch, Anne washed the pans. ID 73. John nor Mary came to the party. A. B. C. D. Neither Either Both But A} S 0 74, We saw A. that B. where C. which D. what Cathy put the k i t e . QD 0 01 - 156 -75. The c h i l d r e n found t h e b a l l A. which B. when C. what D. whose went i n t o the l a k e . a a n] I D 76. The g i r l s made d i n n e r A. which B. when C. tha t D. whose Dad came home. 77. We help e d the g i r l A. t h a t B. who C. whose D. what l e g was broken. LU iT) D IT] - 1 5 7 -Be careful. These are different kinds of sentences. You choose another right way of saying the sentences. Example: The bus stopped. B i l l went to school. You choose one: A. The bus stopped B i l l went to school. B. The bus stopped and B i l l went to school. C. The bus and B i l l went to school. D. The bus stopped and went to school. m B. i s the right sentence: The bus stopped and B i l l went to school B i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : - 1 5 8 -78. Dad opened the door. Mother saw a man. A. Dad opened the door Mother saw a man. B. Dad opened the door saw a man. C. Dad opened the door and Mother saw a man. D. Dad opened the door and man. a S E E 79. The man walked into the house. The woman walked into the house. A. The man and woman walked into the house. B. The man walked into the house and the woman walked. C. The man walked into the house the woman walked into the house. D. The man woman walked into the house. H iJJ E E 80. The boys made a table. The boys made ch a i r s . A. The boys made a table made chairs. B. The boys made a table c h a i r s . C. The boys made a table the boys made chairs, D. The boys made a table and chai r s . !D 81. Bob opened the door. Bob closed the door. A. Bob opened closed the door. B. Bob opened the door Bob closed the door. C. Bob opened and closed the door. D. Bob opened Bob closed the door. a IT1 rbi - 159 -82. The g i r l s fed the pets. The boys washed the pets. A. The g i r l s fed the pets and the boys washed them. B. The g i r l s fed and washed the pets. C. The g i r l s fed the boys washed the pets. D. The g i r l s fed the pets the boys washed them. E E E 83. I h i t the boy. The boy cried. A. I h i t the boy the boy cried. B. I h i t the boy cried. C. I h i t the boy and the boy cried. D. I h i t the boy and cr i e d . E E E E 84. A horse kicked Anne. A. Anne got kicked a horse. B. Anne kicked by a horse. C. Anne got kick by a horse. D. Anne got kicked by a horse. 85. Susan was thrown by a horse. A. A horse threw Susan. B. Susan was throw by a horse. C. A horse was thrown by Susan. D. Susan thrown by a horse. / - 160 -86. The cows were chased by a dog. A. The cows chased a dog. B. A dog was chased by the cows. C. The cows were chased a dog. D. A dog chased the cows. 3 S @ _y 87. We talked with the g i r l . The g i r l ' s dog chased cars. A. We talked with the g i r l ' s dog chased cars. B. We talked with the g i r l who her dog chased cars. C. We talked with the g i r l whose dog chased cars. D. We talked with the g i r l dog chased cars. 0 B 0 88. The puppies played with the g i r l . The g i r l wore a red dress. A. The puppies played with the g i r l who wore a red dress. B. The puppies played with who wore a red dress the g i r l . C. The puppies played with who the g i r l wore a red dress. D. The puppies played with the g i r l who the g i r l wore a red dress, 0 IH 0 0 89. The t r a i n was h i t by a car. A. A car was h i t by the t r a i n . B. The t r a i n was h i t a car. C. A car h i t the t r a i n . D. The t r a i n h i t a car. 0 0 0 - 161 -Be careful. These are different kinds of sentences. You choose the right answer. Example: What color i s the grass? You choose one: A. B. C. D. green color trees grass A. i s the right word: green ~K\ i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : ^ [jTj [c[ - 1 6 2 -90. Should she go w i t h Mother? A. Yes, she s h o u l d . B. Mother s h o u l d go. C. i f she i s good D. Yes, she d i d . 91. Could B i l l keep the pet? A. Yes, he d i d . B. Yes, he c o u l d . C. He w i l l buy the p e t . D. B i l l keep the p e t . 92. How l o n g d i d the boys p l a y b a l l ? A. The boys p l a y e d f o o t b a l l . B. a l l day C. f o o t b a l l D. w i t h a bat 93. Which a r e b i g g e r , c a t s o r k i t t e n s ? A. c a t s B. baby C. Cats a r e s m a l l . D. They a r e b i g g e r . E Bob can't f i x the toy, can he? A. can't f i x B. can C. No, he can't. D. a toy truck. - 164 -Be c a r e f u l . These are d i f f e r e n t kinds of sentences You decide what the sentences t e l l us. Example: Dad l i k e d the g i r l who thanked Joe. What does the sentence t e l l us? You choose one: A. Joe thanked the g i r l . B. Dad thanked Joe. C. The g i r l thanked Joe. D. Dad l i k e d Joe. T C. i s the righ t sentence: The g i r l thanked Joe. ~C~| i s marked with an X l i k e t h i s : \~K_ - 165 -95. B i l l knew that the chi l d r e n l i k e d cats. A. The cats l i k e d c h i l d r e n . B. B i l l l i k e d cats. C. The ch i l d r e n l i k e d cats. D. B i l l knew the cats. 96. I t surprised the g i r l s that the cats were chasing the dogs. A. The g i r l s were chasing the dogs. B. The dogs surprised the g i r l s . C. The cats were chasing the dogs. D. The dogs were chasing the cats. S E E S 97. Cathy loves the d o l l . I t i s not new. A. The d o l l i s not old. B. The d o l l i s o l d . C. The d o l l i s new. D. Cathy does not love the d o l l . E E E t l 98. John knew the car h i t the policeman. A. The policeman h i t John. B. John knew the car. C. The car h i t the policeman. D. John h i t the policeman. E E E E - 166 -9 9 . B i l l thanked the teacher and went home. A. B i l l went home. B. The teacher went home. C. The teacher thanked B i l l . D. B i l l and the teacher went home. 100. The g i r l knew that the boy burned the cake. A. The boy burned the cake. B. The g i r l knew the cake. C. The boy knew the g i r l . ' D. The g i r l burned the cake. 101. Tom lik e d the man who started the boat, A. Tom started the boat. B. Tom l i k e d the boat. C. The man li k e d the boat. D. The man started the boat. 102. You saw the g i r l s who Jim li k e d , A. Jim saw the g i r l s . B. You saw Jim. C. Jim li k e d the g i r l s . D. You l i k e d the g i r l s . - 1 6 7 -103. Anne or Mother made the dress. A. Anne and Mother made the dress. B. E i t h e r Anne or Mother made the dress. C. Both Anne and Mother made the dress. D. Neither Anne nor Mother made the dress, H no B E 104. B i l l held the baby who Cathy gave the toy to. A. B i l l held Cathy. B. B i l l held the toy. C. The baby gave the toy. D. Cathy gave the toy to the baby. B E 105. That B i l l y was chasing birds surprised Mary. A. B i l l y was chasing b i r d s . B. Mary was chasing b i r d s . C. Mary surprised B i l l y . D. The birds surprised Mary. A 106. The boys who made the f i r e for Mother brought the lunch. A. The boys made the lunch. B. Mother made the lunch. C. Mother brought the lunch. D. The boys made the f i r e . B E E - 1 6 8 -107. The s e l l i n g of the dog disappointed David, A. David sold the dog. B. David disappointed the dog. C. The s e l l i n g disapppointed David. D. The dog disappointed David. 108. Susan enjoyed the running of the animal. A. Susan enjoyed the animal's running. B. The animal enjoyed Susan. C. The running enjoyed Susan. D. The running enjoyed the animal. 109. The crash of the boats scared the children. A. The boats scared the children. B. The crash scared the children. C. The children crashed. D. The children scared the boat. 110. The boy who Mary watched threw the b a l l . A. Mary watched the b a l l . B. The boy threw the b a l l . C. Mary threw the b a l l . D. The boy watched Mary. E DO E - 169 -111. The babies, who were t i r e d , slept on the bed. A. The ti r e d babies were slept on the bed. B. The ti r e d babies slept on the bed. C. The babies were t i r e d slept on the bed. D. The babies who the babies were t i r e d slept on the bed The boy heard the screaming of the woman. A. The boy heard the woman' s screaming. B. The woman heard the boy. C. The screaming heard the woman. D. The screaming heard the boy. 113. The work of the g i r l surprised Father. A. Father worked. B. The g i r l surprised Father. C. Father surprised the g i r l . D. The work surprised Father. 114. Anne watched the marriage of her friend. A. Anne married. B. The marriage watched Anne. C. Anne watched her friend's marriage. D. Her friend watched Anne. - 170 -115. We picked the boys who were l i t t l e . A. We picked the boys l i t t l e . B . We picked the boys were l i t t l e . C. We picked the boys who the boys were l i t t l e . D. We picked the l i t t l e boys. 116. The man who bought the cow from Father wore a brown coat A. Father wore a brown coat. B . The man bought a brown coat. C. Father bought a brown coat. D. The man bought the cow. [T| [B! |~C~ 117. The boys knew the man The teacher gave the money to the man. A. The boys knew the man who the teacher gave the money to • B . The boys knew the man who the teacher gave the money to the man. C . The boys knew the man who the teacher gave the money to him. D. The boys knew who the teacher gave the money to the man • A B C D 118. The discussion of the party disappointed Susan. A. Susan disappointed the party. B . The discussion disappointed Susan. C. Susan discussed the party. D. The party disappointed Susan. 171 119. John watched the growth of the plant, A. The growth knew John. B. John grew the plant. C. John watched the plant's growth. D. The plant watched John. LU 120. I saw the children. The man talked to the children. A. I saw the children to whom the man talked. B. I saw the children to whom the man talked to them. C. I saw whom the man talked to the children. D. I saw the children to whom the man talked to the children. B D - 172 -- 1 7 3 -A P P E N D I X B " T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L V A N C O U V E R , B . C . , C A N A D A V 6 T 1 W 5 F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N January 30, 1978 Demographic Study of Hearing Impaired Children i n B r i t i s h Columbia To D i s t r i c t Superintendents and Superintendents of School P r i n c i p a l s : Jericho H i l l School for the Deaf Vancouver Oral Centre Dear Sir/Madam: Phase I of the Demographic Study of Hearing-Impaired Students i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been completed. The report i s presently being printed by the Ministry of Education and w i l l be ci r c u l a t e d throughout the Province i n the very near future. The attainment data for phase I I have been collected; the analysis and report w i l l be completed by the end of March. Individual test r e s u l t s requested by teachers w i l l be sent at that time. In phase I I I , recently funded by the Ministry of Education, we are investigating syntactic developments i n the language of .hearing-impaired students i n the province. Once again we tr u s t we can count on your continued support i n order to c o l l e c t these data. A clear understanding of the language of hearing-impaired children, along with r e l i a b l e methods for i t s improvement, can be possible only with a detailed study of i t s syntactic structure. The most recent attempts toward t h i s goal have been made by a research team under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. Stephen Quigley at the In s t i t u t e for Child Behavior, University of I l l i n o i s . Tests of Syntactic A b i l i t y were constructed by the I l l i n o i s team using a transformational generative grammar framework. Our research project has permission to use Quigley's test instruments and we hope to obtain data from a l l students i n B.C. who have a sensori-neural hearing loss and/or have been f i t t e d with a hearing aid and who are capable of completing a pencil and paper t e s t . Last year, as part of phase I I , we used the Stanford Achieve-ment Test for the Hearing Impaired to c o l l e c t attainment data on students throughout the province. Based on the r e s u l t s of these tests we are able to determine which students i n your d i s t r i c t may qualify for this current research. These names are l i s t e d on the attached sheet. In asking your permission to test these students we have to point out that our records are a year old. We would be pleased to learn of any transfers or of other hearing-impaired students whom you f e e l may qual i f y for the study. Please add names where necessary to the attached l i s t of pupils and return - 1 7 5 -T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L V A N C O U V E R , B . C . , C A N A D A V 6 T 1 W 5 F A C U L T Y O F E D U C A T I O N February 20th, 1978 DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY OF HEARING IMPAIRED STUDENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA To A l l Coordinators of Phase I I I - Testing of Syntactic A b i l i t i e s . Dear We are pleased to learn that you have been nominated by your superintendent to act as coordinator f o r t h i s part of the study and we know we can count on your support to c o l l e c t test r e s u l t s . The Test of Syntactic A b i l i t i e s we are examining was constructed for use with hearing impaired students a f t e r years of research by Dr. Stephen Quigley and his associates at the I n s t i t u t e for Chi l d Behavior, Un i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s . The f u l l battery consists of 20 domain t e s t s , each designed to measure a p a r t i c u l a r facet of syntactic a b i l i t y . Recently, two forms of a Screening Test have been added to the battery. We w i l l be the f i r s t to use these Screening Test forms. We are hopeful that we may gain not only data on the development of synta c t i c a b i l i t i e s but also more in s i g h t into methods of diagnosis, remediation and curriculum develop-ment i n the area of language. We f e e l i t i s not p r a c t i c a l to administer the complete battery of 20 domain tests and the two forms of the Screening Test to a l l students. Therefore, we have developed a design which w i l l enable us to determine the diagnostic v a l i d i t y of the Screen Tests while keeping the administration time to a minimum. Our design c a l l s for each student to be tested with: a) Two forms of the Screening Test. b) Four of the 20 domain t e s t s . These w i l l be preselected, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the Screening scores, f o r each student using a modified matrix sampling technique. D e t a i l s w i l l follow i n a further mailing. In t h i s mailing we have enclosed two forms of the Screening Test (Form 1 -Gold; and Form 2 - Blue) for each student whose name has been returned by your d i s t r i c t . These students w i l l have a sensory-neural loss and/or have been f i t t e d with a hearing a id and should be able to read and be capable of completing a p e n c i l and paper t e s t . In addition we have enclosed a Materials Check L i s t (Green), L i s t of Students (White), Instructions for Administering the Screening Tests (Pink), and a stamped self-addressed envelope. Would you please begin with the Materials Check-l i s t and determine i f a l l of the materials have been properly sent to you? - 177 -INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE SCREENING TESTS Introduction Thank you in advance for your cooperation i n administering the Test of Syntactic A b i l i t i e s and the accompanying forms of the Screening Tests. These tests were developed by Dr. Stephen Quigley and his associates at the Inst i t u t e for Child Behavior, University of I l l i n o i s . They have been designed to describe the l e v e l of attainment along various dimensions of syntactic a b i l i t y . The test administration w i l l take place i n two major stages. In the f i r s t stage, both forms of the Screening Test w i l l be administered. In the second stage, to be conducted i n A p r i l , domain tests selected from the f u l l Test of Syntactic A b i l i t i e s w i l l be included. We w i l l provide further d e t a i l s describing the second stage toward the end of March. Your d i s t r i c t coordinator has provided you with the materials necessary to administer the two forms of the Screening Tests. Please follow the instructions which are presented below. By doing so, we w i l l be better able to determine the v a l i d i t y of the Screening Tests, which are being used for the f i r s t time. To assure anonymity of your students, only province-wide results w i l l be published and shared with a l l participants. Again, thank you for your invaluable assistance. Step 1. Read a l l the instructions before the students begin the i r tests. Step 2. You w i l l note that there are two forms of the Screening Test - Form 1 (Gold), and Form 2 (Blue). The order of testing each student has been specified for you — some of your students have been assigned Form 1 f i r s t , Form 2 second, while others have been assigned Form 2 followed by Form 1. Please be sure to keep the order assigned to each student. (If you are not sure of the order for each student, please check with your d i s t r i c t coordinator for t h i s study). Step 3. Set your testing dates eight days apart. We suggest MARCH 7 and MARCH 16. Step 4. Become familiar with both forms of the Screening Test. You w i l l find examples on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th pages, and on pages numbered 12, 19, 23, and 26. The examples are the same i n both forms of the Screening Test. The test i t s e l f begins on the f i r s t numbered page. Step 5. Method of Communication. The same method of communication which i s ord i n a r i l y used i n the classroom should be used i n the administration of the Screening Tests. In communicating the directions and assist i n g students to complete the examples, f e e l free to demonstrate, explain, re-phrase r 1 7 8 " and i n general do whatever i s necessary to ensure that the students  understand what i s expected of them on the test. I t i s expected that each form w i l l take approximately one hour to complete. However there i s no time l i m i t — l e t each student take as much time as he/she needs. Step 6. On the day of the testing, give to each student his/her form for that  day. Then have the students turn to the f i r s t page and ask them to print their name, date of b i r t h , school, school d i s t r i c t , and the date. Step 7. After the students have provided the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n data, ask them to turn to the next page. Work through Example 1 with them. Turn the page and ask the students to complete Example 2. Check to see that each student has correctly completed the second example. Complete Example 3 i n the same way. Step 8. When you f e e l that the students understand what i s to be done, ask them to turn to "Page 1" and begin the test. Step 9. Watch the students to be sure that when they reach pages 12, 19, 23, and 26 they understand the examples. Some individual assistance with these examples may be required; please provide this assistance as necessary. Step 10. Collect the test booklet after the student has completed his/her test. Be sure that the student feels he/she i s finished. Step 11. Repeat Steps 6 to 10 on the second testing date. Step 12. Return the completed Screening Tests and a l l materials to your D i s t r i c t Coordinator after the second testing day. THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION AND ASSISTANCE - 180 r INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE DOMAIN TESTS Thank you for your help and cooperation i n administering the Screens of the Test of Syntactic A b i l i t i e s . Data from these tests are currently being processed and fed into the computer at UBC. The f i n a l stage i s now ready to commence. Four domain tests from Quigley's f u l l test battery have been randomly selected for each student. Your d i s t r i c t co-ordinator has provided you with the materials necessary to administer these tests. Please follow the instructions which are presented below. By doing so we w i l l be further able to determine the v a l i d i t y of the Screening Test. To assure anonymity of the students, only province-wide results w i l l be published and shared with a l l participants. Again we thank you for your invaluable assistance. Step 1. Please read a l l the i n s t r u c t i o n s before the students begin t h e i r t e s t s . . Step 2. You w i l l note that there are four test booklets f o r each student. Each booklet has been randomly assigned and bears the student's name on the top r i g h t hand corner. The colour of the cover r e l a t e s to groups of syntactic structures and each student should have four d i f f e r e n t colours. It i s most important that each student completes h i s four assigned tests i n the order s p e c i f i e d ( i f you are not sure of the order i n which tests are to be administered, please check with the study co-ordinator i n your d i s t r i c t ) . Step 3. Set your t e s t i n g dates at l e a s t two days apart. We suggest A p r i l 25, 28, May 2 and 5. Please note: Should a student be absent or unable to take the tests on the suggested or scheduled dates, please administer at your e a r l i e s t convenience. Step 4. Become f a m i l i a r with the format of the Domain Tests. You w i l l f i n d examples on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th pages. The t e s t i t s e l f begins on the f i r s t numbered page. - 181 -Step 5. Method of Communication. The same method of communication which i s ord i n a r i l y used i n the classroom should be used i n the administration of the Domain Tests. In communicating the directions and assis t i n g students to complete the examples, f e e l free to demonstrate, explain, re-phrase and i n general do whatever i s necessary to ensure that the  students understand what i s expected of them on the test. I t i s expected that each form w i l l take approximately one hour to complete. However there i s no time l i m i t — l e t each student take as much time as he/she needs. Do not hesitate to allow a break during testing should t h i s be necessary. Please note that the Domain Tests consist of 70 items as compared to 120 on the screens. Step 6. On the day of the testing, give to each student the assigned form for  that day. Then have the students turn to the f i r s t page and ask them to print t h e i r name, date of b i r t h , school, school d i s t r i c t , and the date of test. Step 7. / Please check that the students have provided the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n data, l and then ask them to turn to the next page. Work through Example 1 with them. Turn the page and ask the students to complete Example 2. Check to see that each student has correctly completed the second example. Complete Example 3 i n the same way. 'Step 8. When you f e e l that the students understand what i s to be done, ask them to turn to "Page 1" and begin the test. Step 9. Collect the test booklet after the student has completed his/her test. Be sure that the student feels he/she i s finished. Check that the  student has completed each page. Step 10. Repeat Steps 6 to 9 oh each testing date. Step 11. Return a l l completed Tests to your D i s t r i c t Co-ordinator after the fourth testing day. THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION AND ASSISTANCE - 182 -T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 2075 W E S B R O O K M A L L V A N C O U V E R , B . C . . C A N A D A . V 6 T 1 W 5 FACULTY OF EDUCATION re: Demographic Study of Hearing Impaired Students i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In our attempt to investigate the syntactic a b i l i t i e s f o r a l l hearing impaired students i n B r i t i s h Columbia we have made great inroads into your busy schedules and those of a l l personnel i n the school d i s t r i c t who assisted you i n c o l l e c t i n g these data. Would you please accept the sincere thanks of the research team at U.B.C. and convey a warm message of gratitude to each of the persons concerned? . It i s our sincere hope that the analysis of the r e s u l t s may lead to the introduction of learning sequences based on these Syntactic A b i l i t y Tests into the language programming for hearing impaired students. Please know that i f there i s any improvement i n our future language curriculum.then the c r e d i t belongs mainly to the f i e l d personnel who worked so d i l i g e n t l y c o l l e c t i n g the data for us. Yours sin c e r e l y , B.R. Clarke, Ph.D. Professor of Special Education - 183 -A P P E N D I X C C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , T o t a l S c o r e s a n d T e s t O r d e r o n t h e T S A S c r e e n i n g T e s t F o r m 2 f o r t h e M i l d - M o d e r a t e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p ( < 5 9 dB) N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q . F . V . P . P r o n . R e l . Comp. Norn. T . T . T . O . n 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9 X 7.78 7-63 11.43 9.18 6 . 9 2 7.16 13-00 13.71 12.63 89-45 ( P r o p ) (.864)(.694)(.816) ( .835) ( . 6 9 2 ) ( .716)(.684)(.762)(.702)(.745) SD 1.76 3.11 3.00 2.43 2.43 2.41 4.66 4.16 4.31 25-57 N e g . (.74) C o n j . 0.63 (.85) D e t . 0.75 0.72 (.82) Q . F . 0.77 0 . 7 8 0 . 8 0 ( . 8 2 ) V . P . 0 . 7 9 0.80 0.83 0.84 (.76) P r o n . 0.71 0.78 0.76 0 . 8 2 0.76 (.76) R e l . 0 . 6 9 0 . 8 2 0.80 0 .81 0.84 0 . 7 9 (.88) C o m p . 0.73 0.81 0.83 0 . 8 7 0.88 0.85 0.86 (.87) Norn. 0.73 0.68 0.72 0 . 7 9 0.86 0.73 0 . 8 2 0.80 (.86) T . T . 0.82 0.87 0 . 8 9 0 . 9 2 0 . 9 4 0.88 0 . 9 4 0 . 9 5 0 . 8 9 ( . 9 6 ) * T . O . 0.26 0 . 0 9 0.07 0 . 1 3 0.12 0.18 0.06 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 8 0.12 1 .00 N o t e : ( ) r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e s c o m p u t e d u s i n g H o y t ' s A n o v a . ( ) * r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y m e a s u r e u s i n g C r o n b a c h ' s Compos i t e A l p h a . A P P E N D I X C C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e S c r e e n i n g T e s t ( F o r m 2) a n d t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e M i l d - M o d e r a t e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (<59 dB) D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s 1 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 n 6 X(p ) . 9 2 SD(p) .11 6 .80 15 79 . 2 8 . 2 0 14 7 •73 .95 14 .73 27 .05 .27 16 76 .22 14 .77 .23 6 .82 .11 16 .66 .21 6 .64 6 .81 17 .21 7 .82 • 13 14 .73 . 2 8 7 .80 .18 6 72 24 6 .64 6 .82 7 .83 18 .25 .16 16 .73 .21 N e g . C o n j . D e t . Q . F . V . P . P r o n . R e l . C o m p . Nom. 75 j . 8 7 -81 50 1776 784 ,84 .89 .93 • 79 ,88 .86 .85 .19 .99* .83 L88J .98 . 4 5 - 9 7 .89 .89 [60 790" •95 . 9 9 * - 93 .89 . 8 8 . 1 2 . 9 9 * . 8 2 . 92 . 4 5 . 50 . 6 3 .89 . 9 4 * . 6 8 . 4 7 . 9 4 . 92 . 93 - 4 5 . 8 3 . 6 0 . 8 8 . 8 6 . 8 0 .87 .87 • 91 • 90 .88 • 76 .80 . 82 786 • 90 .80 . 83 • 92 . 87 • 90 . 9 2 . 8 5 • 91 .52 .65 • 32 .66 88 .91 • 91 • 93 • 9 0 . 9 1 * .23 .60 .63 .79 .63 • 73 • 6 5 .82 782 .68 • 73 • 77 .80 -.61 • 95 .40 . 82 .80 • 93 -30 • 9 2 • 97* .76 .33 . 58 • 54 .81 • 93* • 74 .84 .66 .69 .79 .28 • 97 .60 • 91 • 93 • 99* .64 • 99* • 91 .86 • 33 • 94 • 31 .84 .65 . 9 8 * .36 .97 .41 .88 • 29 .94 • 59 • 90 • 96 • 97 .37 .98 .87 • 91 • 33 • 93 • 58 .84 .45 • 96 . 11 • 97 .22 .77 .17 • 70 • 58 • 9 2 .85 • 78 .74 .69 • 63 .93 • 35 • 94 • 59 .87 .47 • 97* .63 • 9 6 .60 .91 .01 .67 .66 .89 .74 • 72 .16 .67 .77 CD » - s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n D i a g n o s t i c T e s t : D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e S c r e e n S t r u c t u r e ( a r e a s w h e r e t h e s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d b e a n t i c i p a t e d ) 1 N e g a t i o n 2 C o n j u n c t i o n 3 D i s j u n c t i o n S A l t e r n a t i o n 4 D e t e r m i n e r s 5 W h - w o r d s 6 A n s w e r E n v i r o n m e n t s 10 11 12 Y e s / N o Q u e s t i o n s V e r b S e q u e n c e s i n C o n j o i n e d S t r u c t u r e s M a i n V e r b s , L i n k i n g V e r b s & A u x i 1 i a r i e s P a s s i v e V o i c e P o s s e s s i v e A d j e c t i v e s R e f l e x i v e s 13 P o s s e s s i v e P r o n o u n s 14 F o r w a r d & B a c k w a r d P r o n o m i n a l i z a t i o n 15 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n -C o m p r e h e n s i o n 16 R e l a t i v e P r o n o u n s & A d v e r b s 17 R e l a t i v i z a t i o n -E m b e d d i ng 18 T h a t - C o m p l e m e n t s 19 I n f i n i t i v e s & G e r u n d s 20 N o m i n a l i z a t i o n A P P E N D I X C C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e T S A D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s f o r t h e M i l d - M o d e r a t e H e a r i n g L o s s G r o u p (<59 dB)  D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 8 19 20 n 6 6 15 14 7 14 15 14 6 15 6 6 7 14 7 6 6 6 7 15 X(p ) • 9 2 . 8 0 . 7 9 . 7 3 • 95 . 7 5 . 7 5 . 7 7 . 8 2 . 6 6 . 6 4 .81 . . 8 2 . 7 3 . 8 0 • 72 . 6 4 . 8 2 . 8 3 . 7 4 SD(p) . 10 . 2 8 . 2 0 . 2 7 . 0 5 . 2 6 . 2 3 . 2 3 .11 . 2 2 . 1 7 .21 . 1 3 . 2 8 . 1 8 . 2 4 . 1 8 . 2 5 . 1 6 .21 1 1 . 0 0 2 1 . 0 0 3 1 . 0 0 4 1 . 0 0 5 1 . 0 0 6 . 9 6 1 . 0 0 7 . 9 5 1 . 0 0 8 . 9 5 - 9 7 1 . 0 0 9 . 9 5 1 . 0 0 10 . 8 6 . 7 7 1 . 0 0 11 - . 3 9 - . 1 9 1 . 0 0 12 . 9 5 1 . 0 0 13 . 5 8 1 . 0 0 14 . 9 4 . 9 7 . 9 5 1 . 0 0 15 . 9 4 . 5 8 1 . 0 0 16 . 9 7 . 9 7 K.OO 17 - 1 9 . 3 4 . 3 8 1 . 0 0 18 . 9 9 . 9 9 - 9 9 1 . 0 0 19 . 9 4 . 4 2 . 8 9 . 1 . 0 0 20 . 9 0 . 8 7 86 L 0 0 

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